|Banawali; ornaments and weights; Bisht, 1982, Pl. 10.17|
cf. Mitchener, John, 1978a: 14-15 cf. Kosambi, D.D., 1941b: 53; loc.cit., Possehl, G.L., 1996, p. 75
|Terracotta and shell objects in 15 sites in Bahawalpur province; Beads: 2,6,12,21; shell bangle: 8,9; red bangles: 13 to 18 (17 and 18 are conjoined); grey bangle: 19; fragment of red bracelet: 20; Mughal, R.M., 1997, Pl. 64.|
|Stone, copper, carnelian and faience objects in 15 sites in Bahawalpur province; Chert blades: 1 to 9; copper spearhead: 10; copper implement: 12; pieces of bangle, biconvex and incised: 15 and 17; piece of wide bracelet incised on external surface and ridged: 18; copper flat axe: 19; Mughal, R.M., 1997, Pl. 63.|
|Kalibangan; copper implements; Agrawala, R.C. and Vijay Kumar, 1982, Pl. 11.12|
|Bronze axe-adze, blade-axe and mirror (After Mackay, Indus Civilization,1935, Pl. N.)|
|Jar No. 277 and contents of the
jar, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXI). cf. Pl. CXXIV, 27 and 28 showing the copper jar No.
277 which contained a hundred objects.
Copper jar No. 277 contained these objects; the figure also shows a marble macehead no. 573 (After Vats, Pl. CXXIII) Thirteen blade-axes with or without shoulders (Nos. 1-13), eight long and narrow axes (Nos. 14-21), two double-axes (Nos. 22 and 23), eleven daggers with tapering sides (Nos. 24-32 and 64-64), one mace-head (No.33), thirteen spear-heads and flaying knives (Nos. 35-47), one lance-head (No.66), one arrow-head (No.63), one chopper (No.67), two saws (Nos. 61 and 62), ten chisels with or without shanks (Nos. 49-58)J, two cast bars for making chisels (Nos. 59 and 60), and a flat strip (No.48).
Copper and bronze weapons, implements and utensils (After Vats, Pl. CXXII). No. 24 carinated copper jar; No.32 shallow inverted dish; No. 26 round copper vase 6 in. dia; No.30 deep cup with flared mouth; No. 31 saucer with slightly incurved rim; No.29 ring-stand for jar. No.13 adze; No.19 adze inscribed with three faint pictograms; 5.15 in. long, 2.15 in. broad at the cutting edge; No.18 lower part of a broken axe. No. 17 razor.
|Copper, bronze, silver and gold objects, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXV). Nos. 65-77 spear-heads. Nos. 15-18 and 22-24 chisels. Nos. 28-31, 52 and 62-64 knives and sickles; Nos. 38 and 58 scrapers; Nos. 46 and 47 razors. Nos. 40-42 and 44 bronze gouges (to hollow out, groove or rib wood, bone, ivory and stone) No.39 nail-parer; No.1 a bunch of three bronze instruments held together by their looped or interlaced ends; the right hand tool is a double-edged knife (4.4 in.) and the left hand one a piercing rod (5.3in.); the middle one is a pincers (5.2 in.) all three are a surgical or toilet set. No.32 cobbler's awl(?) Nos. 37 and 45 needles; Nos. 25-27 pins; Nos. 33,34 and 36 antimony rods. No.8 a fish-hook. Nos. 13 and 14 arrow-heads. No.53 silver vase. No.57 a hasp (typical Indian kund.i) made of round copper bar.|
|Copper and bronze ornaments, utensils, implements, weapons, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXIV). A stilus (No.19), a beam of a weighing scale (No.14), a semi-oval, hollow terminal (No.20), five solid bangles (Nos. 1,2,3,5 and 7), a rod intended to be fashioned into a solid bangle (No.4), three hollow bangles (Nos.11-13), two flattened leaves to be made into hollow bangles (Nos. 8 and 9; Nos. 6 and 10), four thick rectangular copper pieces (Nos. 15-18), a thin bowl with tapering sides (No.23), two large folded sheets of copper (Nos. 24 and 25), two thick broken pieces bearing prominent hammer marks (Nos. 21), a lump of lollingite (used to extract arsenic used for hardening the cutting edges of tools instead of the tin alloy). No.29 is an oval copper mirror. No.44 a copper hook. Nos. 42 and 43 caste bronze latches (?)|
|Miniature jar fitted with a cork-like, hollow, baked clay stopper; containing microbeads mixed with fine ash; the jar was buried under a house floor at Zekda (23.53N and 71.26E), Banaskanta District, Gujarat (Hegde, K.T.M. et al, 1982, Pl. 21.2.|
|Gold jewellery, Mohenjodaro
(After Marshall, Pl. CXLVIII).
The jewellery was found in a silver vase. The large necklace is made up of barrel-shaped beads of a translucent, light-green jade. Each jade bead is separated from its neighbours on either side by five disc-shaped gold beads, 0.4 in. dia made by soldering two cap-like pieces together. Seven pendants of agate-jasper are suspended by means of a thick gold wire. The pendants are separated one from another by a small cylindrical bead of steatite capped at each end with gold. The smaller necklace (No. 7) inside the large one is made up of small globular gold beads, all of which are cast. The spacers were made by soldering two of these beads together, and it is probable that the beads were originally strung into a bracelet of two rows. The two bangles (Nos. 1 and 4) were each made of thin sheet gold wrapped over a core (dia. 3 in.) No.2 is a conical gold cap (1.3 in. high) beaten out from a plate of gold; it is perhaps a hair ornament.
|Silver vase, Mohenjodaro (After Marshall, Pl. CXLVIII). The silver vase contained gold jewellery.|
|Jewellery, Mohenjodaro (After Marshall, Pl. CXLIX). No.3 is a gold bracelet. (Other bracelets are made of blue glazed faience or a vitrified clay, dark brown or black on the surface, sometimes with very minute inscriptions). The gold spacers found with these beads show that they were originally threaded in six rows with semi-circular terminals of gold. The small beads were cast and the spacers cut out of sheet metal. No.4 below this bracelet is made of minute gold beads, globular and cylindrical in shape, interspaced with tiny globular beads of steatite, perhaps of original blue glaze. The small cylindrical pendants on the necklace are made of gold and glaze; the loops of thin gold ribbon wire. No.5 is of beads of various coloured stones, such as riband-jasper and carnelian, alternating with small gold beads; some beads are capped with gold. No. 6 is a string made of gold and glazed steatite cylindrical beads in five rows held by eight five-holed spacers. No. 7 is of flat gold beads, beads of onyx, green felspar and turquoise matrix and small globular beads. Nos. 1 and 2 are dome-shaped caps of the pendants with small gold loops inside. (After Marshall, Pl. CXLIX).|
|From inside out: No.1: A
necklace of very fine beads of jade, jasper, carnelian, chalcedony and agate. The first
bead is of gold; No. 2: beads of jasper, carnelian, agate, lapis-lazuli and six of silver;
No.3: stones of diverse materials, colours and shapes including two cleverly cut onyx
eye-beads; No.4: extraordinary variety in shape, markings and colour. A long flat bead,
oval in section was a favourite shape. This necklace also includes several skilfully cut
'cat's eye' onyx beads. (After Marshall, Pl. CL). Silver was used more freely than gold at
Mohenjodaro. Maybe, silver was extracted from sulphide or chloride form, mixed with metals
such as lead or copper. Gold used in Mohenjodaro, resembles electrum.
|At a are specimens of fillets consisting of thin bands of beaten gold with holes for cords at their endsThe long carnelian beads of the necklace or girdle are 4.85 in. in length by 0.4 in. dia. The shorter beads are 3.25 in. in length. These beads are of a bright translucent red colour. They were bored from both ends, the holes averaging 0.17 in. dia. At each of the necklace or girdle there is a semi-circular terminal of hollow bronze like a flattened cup. The globular beads at each end of the stone ones are of bronze. Nos. 7, 8 and 11 are gold studs, 1.2 in. dia. apparently intended for the ears. Nos. 3-5 and 12-14 are gold needles. A number of bead-caps made of gold, coppery-red to pale yellow in colour are above No.9 which is a turquoise bead capped with gold. (After Marshall, Pl. CLI).|
|Jewellery, Mohenjodaro. No. 13 shows waste pieces of metal, probably the hoard of a goldsmith. (After Marshall, Pl. CLII).|
|Beads: terracotta, shell, ivory,
copper, silver, gold, steatite, Harappa and Ur (After Vats, Pl. CXXXIV).
Beads: steatite disc, painted steatite, faience: black, yellow, white, variegated, blue or green (After Vats, Pl. CXXXIII).
Beads: natural steatite, burnt steatite (After Vats, Pl. CXXXII).
Beads: agate, carnelian, jasper, chert, chalcedony, milky quartz, etched carnelian, limestone, stalagmite, marble, calcite, hornblende, serpentine, deorite, lapis and jadeite (After Vats, Pl. CXXXI).
Miscellaneous beads, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXVIII).
|Long barrel-cylinder beads from the Royal Graves of Ur; Akkadian Period (ca. 2250-1894 B.C.); 'a' is of dark green stone; bead 'b' is carnelian and 6.4 cm. long; bead 'c' is carnelian; Chakrabarti, D.K. 1982, Pl. 24.2. (UPenn Museum: 30-12-566 and 567; 32-40-227)|
Mohenjodaro, wearing jewellery (cf. Allchin, 1982, Fig. 8.14)
Jewellery from House 2, Trench IV, Mound F, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXXVII).
Personal ornaments, unguent vases and inlay objects, Harappa (After Vats, Pl. CXXXVIII and CXXXIX).