Hindu-Muslim riots: A Survey

By: Ms Zenab Banu
Appendix IV, Page 175-193
Historical Survey of some major communal riots.

Year             Place           Immediate Cause
1713 AD       Ahmedabad          Opposition to solemnise the holi
                                 festival on the one side and the
                                 cow slaughter on the other side
                                 between the neighbors of the two
                                 opposite communities.
1719-20      Kashmir             Vendetta of a Muslim gentleman of
                                 position against the Hindus
1729         Delhi               The murder of a Mussalman by a
                                 Hindu for reason not known
Dec.1782     Sylhet, Assam       The Muslims (having 2/3 majority)
                                 demanded the Hindus the discontin-
                                 uance of their religious ceremonies
                                 during the Muharram. Hindus refused
                                 to comply with this and petitioned
                                 Jinday (Officer Incharge of the Distt)
                                 for redressal.
Sept.1786   Balpur & other       Muslim committed armed attack on the
            places in Berar      Hindus who were busy in their prayers.
1809        Banaras              The attempted construction of a
                                 building by Hindus on the Veutrog
                                 construction ground between the
                                 Mosque (built by Aurangzeb) and the
                                 present temple of Bisheshwas.
1840        Moradabad            (no cause was given)
1851        Bombay               Publication of some thing undesirable
                                 against prophet Mohammed by a Parsi
                                 in Gujrati paper.
1857        Moradabad, Bijnaur   (After mutiny, no cause given)
1871        Bareilly             Moharram and Ramnavami festivals
                                 fall on the same day.
1874        Bombay               A book in Gujrati published by a RH
                                 Jalbhoy "Great Prophets of the World"
1873-84     Mopala riots         Intense provocation given to the
            near Calicut         Mopalas by the action of Raman who
                                 married a Muslim woman and soon after
                                 marriage reverted to Hinduism.
Oct.1886   Etawah & Delhi        The simultaneous occurrence of two
                                 religious festivals, Ramlila of
                                 Hindus and Moharram of Muslims.

1887       Bareilly              Moharram and Ramnavami festivals.
1889       Delhi                 Conversion of a Hindu to Islam
1890       Aligarh               Obstruction of places of worship --
                                 A pot of flesh was thrown at night
                                 in a mosque then beef was hung into
                                 two Hindu wells.
May1891   Calcutta               Friction between the parties over the
                                 building of a mosque
1891      Polaked in Salur       Religious Hindu procession attacked
          district.              by Muslims.
July 1892 Prabhaspatan           Moharram festival
Aug1893   Bombay-2               Muslims gathered an impression that they
                                 needed special protection and that the
                                 European system of administration tended
                                 to increase the influence of the Hindus
                                 at their expense.
Sept1893 Kolaba dist.               --do--
1893     Ballia in UP            A reaction to the cow protection movement
1894     Madras                  Vidaya Dasnisday-Muslim pelted the idol
                                 and the processionists with cow dung.
Feb1894  Yeola in Nasik          Obstruction of Moharram (Tazia) by Hindus
July1895 Porbundar               Muslim procession passing through
                                 Hindu quarter.
1895     Dhulia                  Ganpati procession attacked by Muslims
1907     Morghat                 Partition of Bengal
1907     Memonsingh              The reasons were partly the growing
                                 irritation of the Muslims with the
                                 Swadeshi agitation and the boycott of
                                 European goods, engineered by the Hindus
1910    Peshawar                 Holi and Muslim festival Bara Wafat were
                                 on the same day.
1912    Ayodhya, Faizabad        Over the sacrifice of cows by the
                                 Muslims on the occasion of Bakri Id.
1913    Nellore                  Construction and demolition of a mosque
1913    Kanpur                   Muslim's resentment over the demolition
                                 of a lavatory attached to a mosque in
                                 connection with Municipal improvements.
1916    Patna                    On Bakri-Id Hindu mob tried to prevent
                                 Muslims for performance of sacrifice.
1918    Gaya & Shahabad          Hindus terrorised the Muslims and
                                 prevented them from performing the
1921    Malegaon                 Indian Council's Act of 1919
1921    Bangalore                Resentment of non-coperation movement
1922    Multan                       --do--
1923    Amritsar, Lahore,        All over India 15-20 severe riots took
        Saharanpur in UP         place due to Shudhi movement originated
                                 by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
1924    Allahabad, Calcutta,     Id festival and growing influence of
        and many other cities    Shidhi movement
1925    Calcutta                  (no reason given)
1926    Calcutta                  Music before the mosque
1926    Delhi, Patna, Rawal-      Deep-rooted hatred and animosity
        pindi, Allahabad, Dacca   engineered the riots with a minor
Jan.1927    Paluakhali and       A quarrel between two persons of
            Poonabalia           of opposite communities.
Feb, 1927   Larkana, Lahore          ---do---
June 1927   Dinapur, Multan      Suspicion and deep rooted hatred
            Bettiah, Comila       engineered the riot.
Sept.1927   Nagpur               Muslim procession molesting a
                                 Hindu passerby
Sept.1927   Ahmedabad            Muslim prayer in Mosque and Hindu
                                 song in temple coming into conflict.
Sept.1927   Dehradoon            Ram Lila procession
Nov.1927    Delhi                The procession of a Muslim dead body
                                 who killed a Hindu Mahant
1928        Bangalore, Surat,    Bakri-Id
            Nasik, Hydrabad
1929        Bombay               Some labour dispute engineered riot
1930        Dacca                In reaction of civil disobedience movement
1931        Banaras                    ---do---
1932        Bombay                     ---do---
1932        Alwar                      ---do---
1933        Alwar                      ---do---
1933        Calcutta                   ---do---
1934        Bharanga                   ---do---
1935        Hazaribagh            Ram Navami and Moharram on the same day
1935        Firozabad             Burnt a house with 11 persons including
                                  3 children i continuance of above chain
1935        Champaran                  ---do---
1935        Shikandarabad             ---do---
1935        Lahore                out of some old vendetta
1935        Dudhial               Lahore reaction
1936        Poona-Khanapur          ---do---
1936        Jamalpur              Music before a mosque by Hindu wedding
1936        Byculla               Temple-Mosque dispute
1937        UP                    Cattle fair
1939        Asansole              Demolition of a holy book Ramayana
                                  by an opposite communty person
1939        Delhi                 Quarrel between two persons
1939        Gawanpore             An attack by Muslims on Hindu
                                  marriage party
1939        #of dists. in UP      Holi festival
             and Calcutta
1939        Gaya                  Music before a mosque
1939        Kanpur                Processionists attacked by opposite
                                  community persons.
1939        Meerut                Reaction to it.
1939        Sindh                   ---do---
1939        Sukkar                  ---do---
1941        Calcutta              Occasion of Moharram
1941        Ahmedabad             Muslims set fire to Maneckchowk bazaar,
                                  Predominance of Hindus
1946       Ahmedabad, Calcutta,   Muslim league gave a call for liberation
           Bombay, Noakhali,      week
           Patna, Dacca, et al
1948       Udaipur                Quarrelling between two groups
                                  belonging to two opposite communities
1949       Secundrabad, Hydrabad, Started round Tonga which was
           Saharanpur, Hambal     suspected to be carrying beef through
                                  a Hindu locality.
1949       Akola                  Slaughter of a cow in a Muslim household
1950       Calcutta, Delhi        Hindu militant group RSS tried to
           Pilibhit, ALigarh      frustrate Indian Muslims to leave
           Dhubri, Bombay, et al  India
1951       Mangrol                    ---do---
1952       Banaras                 Hindus tried to carry out repairs to a
                                   place of worship of theirs adjacent to
                                   a mosque sanctioned by the city
1953       Viramgaom               Holi festival
1953       Bhopal                  Stone throwing by some miscreants at a
                                   procession taken by the Hindu Mahasabha
                                   to protest against cow slaughter
1953       Gauhati                 Angry crowed tried to prevent a
                                   Muslim family from sacrificing cow
1953       Ahmedabad, Nasik,       Ganapati festival and Moharram
           Poona, Sangli...        coincide
1953       Ahmedabad                 ---do---
sept.1953   Poona                   Arson bid in Poona
1953      Sholapur                  Ganpati immersion day playing music
                                    before a mosque.
1953       Jamnagar                 A boy stabbing a cow near a hotel
1954       Ghaziabad                Slaughter of a stolen cow
1954       Aligarh                  Over the price of a melon between a
                                    hawker and a customer
1954       Nizamabad                Some persons hoisted the Pakistani flag
                                    on the statue of Mahatma Gandhi.
1954       Mathura                  Some persons broke the idol of Krishna
                                    which was installed for worship in a
                                    temple near Idghah mosque.
1954       Gulbarga, Mannila,       Pakistani flag was hoisted over a
           Fatehpur.                temple of Ganesh.

1956       Bhopal                   Holi festival - Muslims threw bones
                                    in the Holi fire and an idol in a
                                    temple was defiled.
1956      Sholapur                  Rival claims to a shrine made by the
                                    two communities.
1956      Many parts of UP          A publication of the Bhartiya Vidya
                                    Bhavan alleging insulting reference
                                    on prophet Mohammed.
1956      Jabalpur                  Forcibly closing down of shops in
                                    protest against damage to an idol
                                    of Ganapati.
1956      Khamgaon                  Attack on a Ganapati procession
                                    before a mosque by a crowd
1957      Hazaribagh                A clash between students in
                                    Moharram procession
1958     Belgaun                    A procession of Hindus with music
                                    before a mosque
1958     Dulhia                     Unauthorised cow slaughter
1958     Yeola                      Muslims objecting a procession
                                    of Ganpati Idol.
1958     Bagalkot                   A procession of RSS was stoned near
                                    Panka mosque
1959     Lucknow                    Sprinkling of clour on Muslim on
                                    Holi festival by a Hindu
1959    Bhopal                          ----do----

1959      Sitamashi            Spreading of a rumour that a cow
                               was slaughtered
1960      Hubli                Idol of Maruti disfigured by someone
1960      Firozabad            Ramlila procession
1960      Saharanpur           Ramlila procession
1961      Jabalpur, Sangore    Effort to molest a Hindu girl
          Narsinghpur, Damoh
1961      Palanpur             Discovery of animal bones in the palace
                               of worship
1961      Many cities in UP    Aligarh University hostel boy when
                               misbehaved with hostel girl
1961      Bhopal               Meeting of Jana Sangh Dist. Committee
1961      Vidisha, Bhopal      Hindu procession being disturbed by Muslims
1962      Sikundra             Slaughter of a cow
1962      Malda in WB          A week's agitation against the publication
                               of a picture of Mohammed
1962      Agra                 A quarrel between two persons belonging to
                               opposite communities
1962      Mandsaur             A dispute over a business transaction
1962      Bareilly             Throwing of stones on a procession of
                               Hindus passing through Muslim residential area
1962      Ratanagiri           Ganpati procession attacked by Muslims
1963      Junagarh             Criminal assault by two Muslim youths on
                               a Hindu girl
1963      Islampur             Muslim participants of Moharram procession
                               attacked by the police with lathi
1963      Akola                Ganpati idol was attacked by stones
1963      Nadia, Calcutta      Hair of Mohammed from Hazratbal mosque
                                were stolen
1963      Srinagar                  ---do---
1964      Bihar, Orissa         Train carrying refugees of East Pakistan
1965      Udaipur               Scuffle between the two neighbors of
                                opposite community
1966      Udaipur               Scuffle between the two wrestlers of
                                two communities
1967      Ranchi                Brick batting on the Urdu agitators'
1967      Srinagar              Religious conversion and marriage of a
                                girl of the Pandi community to a
                                Muslim youth
1968      Meerut                A conference organised by the Jamaat-e-
                                Islami in a college and a procession
                                crossed by Jan Sangh
1968      Karimganj             Scuffle between two boys of opposite
                                community on a cow of a Muslim
1968      Vizhinjam             Clash between Muslims and Christians
                                when Muslims embarked on aggressive
                                violent acts against catholics
1968      Allahabad             Holy reveller threw water color on a
                                Muslim who pulled out a pistol
1968      Auditanda             Ramnavmi procession
1968      Manglore              Muslims had assaulted a Hindu fisherman
1968      Aurangabad            A Muslim backery servant's attack on a
                                cow with a knife
1968      Nagpur                Scuffle between a Muslim barber and a
                                Neo Buddha
1968      Parbhani              A Hindu college student stabbed by one
                                Muslim Rikshaw puller
1968      Mabajogi              Scuffle among students
1968      Pupri                 Durga procession passed through a Muslim
                                inhabited area
1968      Gumdum                A Hindu procession
1968      Cuttack               Music in front of mosque
1968      Veeranal              News of a death of a Muslim in his house
1969      Kendrapa              Music near a mosque
1969      Calcutta              Muslim demonstration before the office
                                of the 'Statesman'
1969      Anjar                 A clash between two persons of opposite
1969      Hubli                 Muslims objected to throwing of colored
                                water on them on Holi
1969      Mau in UP             Beating of a Hindu boy by Muslim boys
1969      Anjar                 An armed mob of Muslims attacked Hindus
1969      Gujarat               Mutual suspician and animosity between
                                two communities
1969      Ahmedabad             Atack on Jaganath tmple by Muslims
1969      Other cities in Guj.  Repurcussions of above
1970      Chaibasa              Ram Navmi procession
1970      Bhiwandi and other    Beginning with a quarrel between two
          parts of Maharashtra  persons of opposite communities
1972      Tonk                  Bakri Id
1972      Banaras               Bakri Id
1973      Delhi                 Two groups of miscreants clashed at Bara
                                Hindu Rao area
1974      Jugeshwari            Anti-Muslim feeling injected by Shiv Sena
                                workers in the minds of general people
1974      Delhi                 Quarreling of two persons belonging to
                                two opposite communities.
1975      Jogeshwari            Militant action of Shiv Sena volunteers
1977      Chittorgarh           Id Festival
1977      Banaras               Durga procession