1.Counting; marking: aka mark (Si.); an:ka curved line, mark, sign (R.); mark, brand (Pali); o~_kh mark (K.); a~_k mark, spot (H.); digit (Ku.Aw.G.Konkan.i); mark, sign (M.); an:gu numerical figure, mark (S.); an:g (L.P.); a~_ko notch (G.)(CDIAL 100). akkam a numerical figure (?Ma. ?< eka (Skt.); ekat. (ekac-) to count (kat..- to tie); eku.t. (eku.c-) to count (ku.t.- to make to join, gather); ekmu.r. (ek.muc-) to count (Ko.); ekm (obl. ekt-) counting, taking account of something; km (obl. kt-) arithmetic, account, figures (To.); ekkam the unit of numeration, first place in ciphering (Tu.); ekkamu a unit, the place of units, a multiplication table (Te.) (DEDR 769). One: e_ka one (RV.Pali.); e_kaka single (Pali); eka, ika one (As'.); eka, ega (NiDoc.); e_ga, egga (Pkt.); e_a, iga, igga (Pkt.); a one, a; ac one (Ash.); ew (Kt.); ew (Wg.); ipu_n (Pr.); e_, i_ one, alone (Pr.); i one (Kho.); e_ one, a (Tor.); yeut.a_ one (N.); et.a_ (A.); e one, only (Or.); ekka, ikka one (Pkt.); ak, yek (Gypsy); ek, eka (D..); ek (Dm.); i_k (Tir.); ye_kat.ik single (Pas'.); yek one (Shum.); yekat.uk single (Shum.); yak, yok one (Gaw.); ek (Kal.); ak, akh one, a; a dand one tooth (Bshk.); e_k one (Tor. Kand.); ak (Mai.); yak, ek (Sv.); a_k one (Phal.); a_ a (Phal.); e_k one (Sh.); ekh alone (Sh.); ye_ku (OK.); akh (with obl. cases, e.g. akis, from oku only one, single); ik, yakh, akh, ikk (K.); eku one; heko unique (S.); hekk, hikk (L.); ikk one (P.); ikka_, hekka_, hikka_ single; ik (P.); ak, yak, ekk (WPah.); ek (Ku.N.A.B.); eka one (Or.); eka_ alone (Or.); ek (Mth.); ego (Bhoj.); e_k (Aw.); ek one; ikka_ alone (H.); ek, eko (G.); ek (M.); eka one (Si.)(CDIAL 2462). ekata together, assembled (Or.); e_katra in one place (Ya_j.); ekkatta id. (Pkt.); ikattar being together or on one side (P.) (CDIAL 2468). ekatu united; ekatuva aggregate, total (Si.); e_katva oneness, unity (Ka_tyS'r.)(CDIAL 2470). yeut.a_ one (N.); e_kavr.t simple (AV.)(CDIAL 2477). okut, okti one thing; ok one (Pa.); ukut., okut. one woman or thing (Ga.); o_ko_, o_ko_re_ one each (Go.); onghon once (Kur.); okka together (Ta.Ma.); oka one (adj.), single; oka~d.u, oko~d.u one man (Te.); okata, okati, okatuka, okate one woman; okat.i, okot.i one thing (Te.); okkon one man (Kol.Nk.); or..gu, oggu, orgu assemblage (Ka.); oggad.a oneness, concord (Tu.); orukka for each (Ta.)(DEDR 990). ae_va one (Av.); ew one (Kt.Wg.)(CDIAL 2525). aikya oneness (MBh.); yeka oneness, unanimity, ace (K.); eko figure one, unanimity (S.); e_ka_ union (L.); ekka_ unity, union, agreement (P.); eka_ (N.Aw.H.); ekko (G.); eka_ (M.)(CDIAL 2533). yek pa_ut.i adv. at one day, once; yekats phara at once; yek one; yeklo an individual (Kon.lex.) or adj. form of the numeral one added to nouns, e.g. orpottu one tie; or kenni one side of the head (Tu.lex.) Only son: e_kkalla alone (Pkt.); ikalla id. (L.)(CDIAL 2506); iklautta_ only begotten, only son (P.); eklauta_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 2507). Image: single line: e_ka_vali, e_ka_val.i, ekka_val.i a single line (Ka.); a single string of pearls (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. di_pa_val.i a row of lamps or lights (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Mark, brand; counting: a~ka_r mark, spot (H.); a~ga_ran.u to sketch out before engraving or painting (S.)(CDIAL 101). an:kita marked, branded (Pali); am.kia (Pkt.); a~ki_ numbered, marked (M.)(CDIAL 106). kan.akku account, calculation, arithmetic, account book, manner, way (Ta.); account, computation, manner, way (Ma.); kan.akkan- accountant (Ta.); kan.akkan id. (Ma.); kan:k calculation, records (government), historical account (Ko.); kon:k calculation, arithmetic (To.)(DBIA 69). [kan. + akkam = counting on the (12) joints of the fingers; cf. gana-kay wrist (Go.); kan.u-k-kai (Ta.); kan.u knuckle (Ta.)(DEDR 1160).] gan.aka astrologer (VS.); gan.aya, gan.iya id. (Pkt.); gan.i~_u (G.)(CDIAL 3989). gan.ana counting (Pa_n..As'.Si.); gan.ana_ (MBh.Pali); gan.an.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3992). gan.ayati counts (MBh.); gan.e_ti counts, takes notice of (Pali); gan.i_yati is counted (As'.); gan.e_i, gan.ai counts (Pkt.); gan. to count, read (Ash.Wg.Pas'.); gan.an. (L.); gan.n.o~_ (WPah.); gan.n.o (K.); gan.an.u (S.); gannu (N.); gan.iba (A.); gan.a_ to count (B.); gan.iba_ (Or.); ganab (Mth.Aw.); ganal (Bhoj.); gan.vu~ (G.); gan.vu~ (G.); gan.n.e~ (M.); gan.inava_ (Si.); gen, gin (Gy.); gi~r (Bashg.); gin.an. (L.); gin.n.a_ (P.); ginab (Bi.); ginna_ (H.)(CDIAL 3993). gan.ita counted (MBh.); gan.iya (Pkt.); gin.uva_ (OSi.)(CDIAL 3996). ganna counting (Pkt.); ga_u (S.)(CDIAL 4120). grand counting (K.); ganti (N.); ganti_ (H.)(CDIAL 4234).

463.Soap-pod: ci_-kka_y, ci_ya-kkka_y, cikai-kka_y soap-pod wattle, acacia concinna (Pata_rtta. 721)(Ta.lex.) ci_kka-kka_yi, ci_ya-kka_yi mimosa abstergens (the fruit serves for cleansing the hair after bathing)(Ma.); si.x acacia dealbata and melanoxylon (two Australian species, much planted in the Nilgiris)(To.); si_ge a climbing prickly shrub, the pods of which are used like soap for washing the hair, etc., acacia concinna (the soap-nut tree is often called si_ge, but not correctly; it is an.t.ava_l.a etc. (Ka.); si_g, si_ge-ka_yi pods of mimosa abstergens reduced to fine powder and used as soap for cleansing, soap-nut (Tu.); si_-ka_ya acacia concinna; ci_kire_nu (Te.); ci_kire_n.i a certain medicinal tree, the leaves of which are ground and used as a soap (Te.); si_ko soap-nut tree; si_li mra_nu id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2607a). Acacia concinna: ban-ritha (B.); shika (M.); ritha (H.); saptala (Skt.); shikai (Ta.); shikaya (Te.); pods: aperitif, expectorant, emetic; leaves: cathartic, in biliousness; saponin; tropical jungles throughout India, especially in the Deccan (GIMP, p.2). According to Kirtikar and Basu, the soft parts of the dried berries of acacia concinna contain 5 percent saponin... used by Indians for washing the head. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.362). an.t.ava_l.a, an.t.aral.e, an.t.a_l.a, an.t.va_l.a, antaral.e, antuva_l.a, arat.a_l.a, arad.a_l.a, arit.a_l.a, arut.a_l.a, arit.a_l.a, arita_l.a, aris.t.a soap-nut tree, sapindus trifoliatus; phe_nila, nidigdhike, kan.t.aka_rike, ba_rhata, spr.ti, ks.udre (Ka.); an.t.aral.eka_yiburugu lather made of the soap-nut (Ka.lex.) aris.t.a soap-nut tree (Ya_j.); aris.t.aka (Mn.); arit.t.ha, arit.t.haka (Pali); arit.t.ha a partic. kind of tree; rit.t.ha soap-nut (Pkt.); hari_t.t.ha_, hari_t.ha_, re_t.ha_ (L.); ri_t.t.ha_, ri_t.ha_, ret.ha_ soap-nut tree, sapindus detergens (P.); rit.ho the tree; rit.h the berry (Ku.); rit.t.ho, rit.ho sapindus mukerossi (N.); ha_it.ha_ soap-nut (A.); rit.ha_ (B.Or.); it.ha_phal.a (Or.); harit.h, rit.t.hi_ (Mth.); ri_t.ha_ (Bhoj.); the tree sapindus detergens or saponaria, its berry (H.); ri_t.h, ari_t.ho, ari_t.hi_ the tree sapindus saponaria; ri_t.h, ari_t.hu~ its berry (G.); rit.ha_, rit.hi_ soap-nut (M.); rit.i the Upas tree, antiaris innoxia (Si.)(CDIAL 610). a_ri_t.ho the tree sapindus saponaria (S.)(CDIAL 1320). arit.am, ari_t.am < aris.t.a black hellebore, kat.ukuro_kan.i (Malai.; Pata_rtta. 991)(Ta.lex.) cf. kat.uro_kin.i christmas rose, herb, helleforus niger; kat.uro_n.i (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

74.Red-flowering tree: a_gha_t.a the plant achyranthes aspera; a_ghat.t.aka a red-flowering achyranthes (Skt.); apa_ma_rga (AV.); aggha_d.a, aggha_d.aga achyranthes aspera (Pkt.); agha_r.a_, aga_r.a_ (said to cure snake-bite)(H.); a_gha_r.o, agher.o, a~gher.o (G.); a_gha_d.a, agha_d., aghed.a_, a_gd.a_ (M.); a_gha_d.o (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 1056). kat.ala_t.i achyranthes aspera (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 1119). agha_d.a_, aghed.a_ achranthis aspera (M.); a_gha_d.o, a_ghed.o (G.); agha_d.a (H.); aggha_d.a (OM.); a_gha_t.a (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 296).

502.Mushroom: al.a~be~, al.abhe~ mushroom, toadstool, agaricus campestris (M.); a_lam.ba a sort of mushroom growing in the Rains (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1365). a_mpi, ampi common mushroom (Ta.); al.a_mbu a variety of mushroom (Ma.); an.abe, an.ambe, al.ambe, a_l.ambe mushroom (Ka.); la_mbu, na_mbu mushroom, toadstool, fungus (Tu.); alambu, al.ambu mushroom (Tu.); armbi id. (Kor.)(DEDR 300).

260.Ageratum conyzoides: appa-kkot.i a common weed, ageratum conyzoides (kot.i = creeper)(Ta.); appa a common weed, ageratum; ceanothus caerulea (Ma.)(DEDR 154).

291.Image: alligator: ambu-kira_ta an alligator; ambu-kan.t.aka the short-nosed alligator; ambu-ki_s'a, ambu-ku_rma a porpoise (Ka.lex.)

459.Image: amazement: aral., aral.a, aralu amazement, perplexity (Ka.); aral.u to be amazed (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

131.Image: anvil: at.aikal anvil (Kampara_. Pa_ca. 33); stone base (Ci. Ci. Para. Pa_cara_. Mar-u. 11)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ad.igal, da_d.auntso anvil (Kon.lex.) adgan.i, addagan.i an anvil, especially one of goldsmiths (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.ai prop, slight support (Ta.); at.a-kkallu anvil of goldsmiths (Ma.); ar. gal small anvil (Ko.); ad.e, ad.a, ad.i the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article on which they happen to operate upon, a support; ad.egal, ad.agallu, ad.igallu anvil (Ka.); at.t. a support, stand (Tu.); d.a_-kali, d.a_-kallu, da_-kali, da_-gali, da_yi anvil (Te.)(DEDR 86). ad.d.i_ iron rest for supporting tools in turning (L.); ad.a_v the wooden beam supporting a log when being sawn (K.); ad.an.u to build (S.); ad.d.o support for a log being sawn (WPah.); a_r.o support, bolt of a door (Ku.); ad.aya prop, stopper (Si.)(CDIAL 188). at.ai-kur-at.u anvil (Pin..)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: tongs: at.ai-kur-at.u tongs (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

199.Chervil: Anthriscus cerefolium: atrila (Indian Bazaars); diuretic, stomachic; essential oil, glucoid apiin; an annual herb native of Europe, suited to the higher elevations of the tropic (GIMP, p.21). Anthriscus cerefolium : [(Modern Egyptian Arabic (probably) baqdu_nis afrangi (French parsley)]. "The umbelliferous chervil is native to the Middle East. In France it is a much-flavoured culinary herb, and in Scandinavia a soup is made from it. In medicine t is taken internally to cleanse the blood, or it is applied as a soothing poultice and as skin lotion. Evidence of the herb in Egypt is scarce, but it certainly was part of the ancient flora, for a basket of its seeds was included in the burial equipment of Tutankhamum (1567-1320 BC)."(Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.75).

303.Image: awl: arara an awl (Skt.lex.) ara, arna a file (Ka.); ara (Tu.Ta.Ma.) (Ka.lex.) Grinding, polishing, sharpening: aram file, rasp (Ta.); ara_vu (ara_vi-), ira_vu (ira_vi-) to file, polish, rub, grate (Ta.); aram file (Ma.); ira_vuka, ra_kuka to file (Ma.); arm (obl. art-) file (Ko.); ara, arna id. (Ka.); ara id. (Tu.)(DEDR 228). To roughen a millstone: ra_hn.a_ to roughen a millstone (P.); ra_har.n.a_ to perfect, mature, excite, bake (bread)(P.); ra_hna_ to roughen a millstone (H.)(CDIAL 10701). ragar.n.a_ to rub (P.); ragar.n.o (Ku.); ragar.anu to rub, work overtime (N.); ragar.a_na to rub (B.); ragad.n.e~ to rub (M.)(CDIAL 10588). ra_ga (ra_gi-) to be rubbed, worn by friction, be chafed; n. friction, abrasion, attrition (Kui); ra_pka ( < ra_k-p-; ra_kt-) to cause to rub together, wear by friction (Kui); re_sa to rub, chafe; n. act of rubbing (Kui); ra_ca tuh'nai/mlekh'nai to rub (Kuwi); ra_k- to rub (Kuwi); arO- (arOy-) to sharpen (To.); ari to grind on a slab (Ka.); ara- (arap-, arat-) to grind with roller stone, mix up in a paste in preparing curry spices (Kod..); arad.uni to rub (Tu.); ra_yu to be rubbed (Te.); ra_cu, r-a_cu to rub, grind, smear (Te.); ra_p-a_d.u to rub against each other (Te.); ra_pid.i, ra_pu rubbing, friction, filing (Te.); ra_-pod.i filings (Te.); a_ku-ra_yi file (a_ku leaf, filament)(Te.); araippu grinding, pulverizing (Ta.); ragulu, ravulu to be kindled, take fire, burn, flame (Te..); ra~_ju id., (smoke) comes out as an indication of the forming of fire, grieve (Te.); aravaralu, ar-avar-alu bits, fragments (Te.); aravud.u a bit, fragmment (Te.); ra_k to rub teeth, wash (Kol.); ra_y to rub (Go.); ra_spis to plate (metals)(Kond.a)(DEDR 228). ar-ai rock, ledge, grinding stone (Ta.); ar flat rock (Ko.); ar- id. (To.); ar-e stone, rock, slab; ra_yi stone (Ka.); r-a_yi, ra_yi (stem r-a_-, ra_-) stone, rock; r-appa a small stone (Te.)(DEDR 321). ora testing on a touchstone (Te.); ora-gallu touchstone (Te.); oochana carpenter's plane (Go.); ru_ga to be smooth (Kui); ru_sa to crush, grind (Kui); ura--kallu, uravu-kallu touchstone (Ma.); orj to rub (Ko.); uj to rub, file, sharpen (Ko.); urai test on the touchstone; n. rubbing, friction, attrition; fineness of gold or silver as tested on the touchstone (Ta.); urai-kal touchstone (Ta.); urekka polish, grind, assay metal (Ma.); ore-gal touchstone (Ka.); ore-kallu id. (Tu.); orakalu, vorakala touchstone (M.)(DEDR 665). Image: turner's point for hollowing with: rachi_ turner's point for hollowing with (S.); racch tools, implements (L.); racch that part of loom to which web is attached and along which shuttle plays (P.); rachu treddles of a loom, fish net, vessel or utensil for holding or cooking food etc. (S.); ra_ch instrument, implement, apparatus, weaver's toothed instrument (H.); ra_c tools, implements, furniture, materials (G.); rathya pertaining to a chariot (RV.); collection of chariots (Pa_n..); chariot with its team or equipment (RV.); rathaka_ra chariot-builder, carpenter (Skt.); rahaa_ra id. (Pkt.); radhe'aro shoemaker (Dhp.)(CDIAL 10607). re~ples tongs (Lith.); rapas (demon of) injury (RV.)(CDIAL 10607). Barber's case of tools: richa_han., raccha_n.i_, richa_hn.i_ barber's case of tools (L.); racha_n.i_ (P.)(CDIAL 10608). ram.pa knife (Pkt.); rambo chisel, grass-scraper; rambi_ small chisel (S.); ramba_ spud, chisel (L.); ramma~_ hoe (L.); ramba_ hoe, flat trowel; rambi_ small grass-scraper, cobbler's knife (P.); ra_mpa a scratch; ra_mpi mason's plane, wooden trowel or scraper (Or.); ra~_pi_, ra_pi_ leather-scraper (Bi.); ra~_pi_ (H.); ra~_p, ra~_pr.i_ hoe, weeding plough; ra~_pi_ cobbler's tool (G.); ra~_pa_, ra~_pi_ chisel (M.); ra~_bho chisel (N.); ra~_bho, ra_bho digging tool (G.)(CDIAL 10629). rampai, rappai scrapes (Pkt.); ra_mpiba_ to scratch (Or.); ram.phai scrapes (Pkt.); ra~_pvu~ to set (plants) in a row (G.); ram.bhai scrapes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10630). Image: granule; little lump: rayu~_ pl. rice pounded to small pieces (S.); rava_ small bit of gold or crystal etc. (P.); rawa_ grain (of sand, dust etc.), filing, little lump (H.); ravo granule, particle of gold or silver etc., granulous wheaten flour (G.); rava_, ravka_ grain, little lump (M.)(CDIAL 10642).

399.Banana: aran.t.i, ara~_t.i, arat.i, anan.t.i, ana~_t.i, an.t.i plantain tree, banana tree (Te.); arti, art.i banana (Go.)(DEDR 205).

150.Bark: atal. bark, marappat.t.ai (ve_n:kai-y-atal. : Tailava.); skin (Perumpa_n.. 151); atal.pun-ai-y-aran.am glove used in warfare (Cilap. 14,170)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) sa_l, sa_li bark (of trees)(Kon.lex.) cf. chal bark of tree (Santali.lex.) cf. ca_likan- a caste of weavers (Ta.)(DEDR 2475).

275.Commander: amaram command of one thousand soldiers (Ta.lex.) camara-ke_cari a great warrior, as lion in battle (S.I.I. v. 233); camaran:kam a battle-field, arena; camara-pun:kavan- lit., bull in battle; camaram battle, fight (Cilap. 26,238); camari Durga_, as the goddess of war; camar war, battle, fight; camarttal to fight, make war (Vina_yakapu. 74,249)(Ta.lex.) amare_s'vara name of a place in Kashmir (Skt.); omburhe_r name of a village, 4 miles north of S'ri_nagar (K.)(CDIAL 557). cf. amar ~~ samara war, battle; field of battle (Pu. Ve. 8,5); rage, fury, crisis, as of a disease, violence or paroxysm, as of fever; amarttal to be at strife (Kur-al., 1084); amar wall round a fort; amarkkal.am field of battle (Iraku. Tikku. 172) confused noise, stir, bustle, as at a marriage feast; amar-kot.uttal to fight, wage war against (Upate_caka_, Cu_ra_ti. 22); amarttan- (< a-samartha) incapable person; amarakka_ran- military retainer of a chief; commander of a thousand foot-soldiers; amarakam field of battle (Kur-al., 814); amara_r foes, as not agreeing (Tacaiva_. 8); amarar foes, enemies; immortals, de_vas < amara (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) amitra enemy (RV.); amitta (Pali.Pkt.); amitro~ (Kt.); amitra (Kal.)(CDIAL 566). sam.ha_r bringing together (MBh.); destruction (Mn.); abridgement (Pali); destruction (Pkt.); sam.gha_ra id. (Pkt.); sa~gha_r (P.N.H.); san.a_r ruin, slaughter (N.); sam.gha_rau destruction (OG.)(CDIAL 13063). sam.ha_rayati draws together (RV.); annihilates (Up.); a-sam.ha_riya indestructible (Pali); sam.gha_ria struck, killed (Pkt.); sa~gha_rn.a_ to destroy (P.); sam.gha_rai kills (OAw.); sa~ha_rn.a_, sa~gha_rna_ to destroy, kill (H.); sa~ha_rn.e~ to destroy (M.)(CDIAL 13064). amaro_r immortals (Tiruppu. 518); amarpati Indra, as lord of gods; amararpati Svarga, as the abode of gods; amara_pati < amara_vati name of Indra's capital (Ci_vaka. 2335); amara_paran.an- warrior, one who regards warfare as his decoration (Nan-. Cirappup.); amari Durga_, as a war goddess; ambrosia, as food of gods (Ce_tupu. Katturu. 28); amariyo_n- warrior (Kantapu. Ka_vala_. 15); amarulakam Svarga (Tiv. Periyati. 2,2,10); amare_can- Indra (Kantapu. Teyva. 19); Jupiter, as preceptor of gods (Vita_n-a. Kun.a_. 37)(Ta.lex.) amara immortal (S'Br.Pali.Pkt.); a god (MBh.); muru a god, immortal (Si.)(CDIAL 556). amr.ta immortal; nectar (RV.); mata (Pali.NiDoc.); amaya, amiya, amuya nectar (Pkt.); ama_va (Si.); amiya_ very sweet (A.); amia sweet (Or.); ami_ nectar (G.)(CDIAL 571). amara undying, immortal; a god (Ka.lex.) amarar immortals, de_vas, va_n-o_r (Tol. Po. 146); cf. amaram land or revenue granted in ancient times by a chief to his retainers for military service (I.M.P.Ct. 344); amaramu id. (Te.); amaram command of one thousand foot-soldiers (Ta.)(W.); hence, amarar may be such military servicemen granted land (Ta.lex.)

60.Euphonic augment: akku part. an euphonic augment; oru ca_riyai (Tol. Er..ut. 119)(Ta.lex.) akku, akkum. it will become; it becomes; it is; its meanings are to be taken from agu = to become manifest (Ka.lex.) agu to become (Ka.); agu, avu (Te.); agu a very rare form of a_gu (Ka.lex.) a_gu to become manifest (Ka.lex.) cf. a_ka adverbial suffix; a_kku to effect, make (Ta.)(DEDR 333). ika, acika, arika permissive or causative affix: senikaime let him go; send him (Mu.); a_kka to cause (Ta.)(Mu.lex.) have, ve adv. indeed (Pali.lex.) an:ga part. vocative, just,only, also, indeed (RV. i.118.3; RV. x.129.7)(Vedic.lex.) hoti become, be (Pali.lex.) Öbhu_ become (Skt.); boiki to become, ho_nu to be (Sh.); bik, bo_m 1 sg. pres. to become; hoi, oi 3 sg. pret. (< abhavat)(Kho.); ba_r 3 sg.pres. subj. (bhava_ti) (Kho.); bowun to become; bho_n.o_ (K.); huan.u to be (S.); ho- to become, be; (h)a~ 1 sg. pres., (h)e_ 3 sg., (h)in 3 pl. (L.); hon.a_ to be; haun.a_, hunda_ pres. part. (P.); hu_, huwant 1 sg. pres. (Bshk.); ho_ 2 sg. imper. be, become (Tor.); ho_-, hu_ (Mai.); h-, hinu 3 sg. pres. (Phal.); bhava origin, birth (Ya_j.); bhavati becomes, is (RV.); bhavati, ho_ti (Pali); bhavati, bhoti, hoti (As'.); bhavati, hoati, huati, uhati (NiDoc.); bhavadi, bhodi (Dhp.); bhavai, bhavae_ is got; ho_i is; huai (Pkt.); hom 1 sg., uv-, ov-, ho_r he is; ho_ri it is possible (Gypsy); huina, ho- to become, be (D..); bo_m I am (Ash.); b-, 2 sg. imper. bu_ to become (Wg.); bum 1 sg. fut., bi_m 1 sg. pres. (Dm.); ha_m, i_m, yam (Pas'.); bo- to become (Shum.); wo_-, au wo_n 1 sg. pres. (< bhavant) (Wot..); b-, bo_ 2 sg. imper., bima 1 sg. fut. (Gaw.); ha_w- to become; him 1 sg. pres. (Kal.); bho_n.u_ to become; bho_n., bhu_n.a_, hu_n.a_ (WPah.); hun.o to be (Ku.); hunu, ho 3 sg. pres. (negative hoina)(N.); ha_ba (A.); haoya_ (B.); heba_ (Or.); hoeb (Bi.Mth.); hoi 3 sg. may be (Aw.); hona_ (H.); hoi (OMarw.); hu_i 3 sg. pres. (OG.); hovu~ (G.); hon.e~ (M.); venava_ (Si.); bhavant pres. part. (Skt.); bhavanta, honta (Pali); hom.ta (Pkt.); genitive affix -hondu, -sondu ( < -as hondu)(K.)(CDIAL 9416). ho~d existence (P.); ho~t wealth (H.)(CDIAL 9419). bhavita been (Skt.); bhavia (Pkt.); bhayo, bhyo (Ku.); bhayo (N.); bhaeu (OAw.); bhaya_ (Brj.); bhayo (as interj. 'enough!')(G.); bhaila (Pkt.); bhel he became (Mth.); bhayal finished (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 9420).

417.Image: beauty: ari beauty; arivai woman between the age of 20 and 25, woman, lady (Ta.); aruva fine woman (Ma.); aragin.i a neat or tidy woman (?Tu.)(DEDR 217).

453.Mountain ebony: a_r, a_rcci, a_rtti, a_tti common mountain ebony, bauhinia racemosa (Ta.); a_lu ebony (Skt.); kuda_ra, kuda_la, kudda_la mountain ebony (Skt.); ka_t.arti (Tu.); ka_t.t.a-a_tti mountain ebony; a_ ebony (Ta.); ka_t.arti bauhinia tomentosa (Tu.)(DEDR 372). Bauhinia racemosa: svetakanchan (Skt.); kachnal (H.); banraj (B.); wanurajah (M.); kosundra (P.); arikka (Ta.); pachare (Te.); kotapuli (Ma.); gum: used medicinally; decoction of leaves: in headache and malaria; bark: astringent, in diarrhoea and dysentery; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p. 35). a_r common mountain ebony (Tol. Er..ut. 363); axle-tree (Ja_n-a_. 7,15)(Ta.lex.)

21.Images: symmetry, beauty: an:kam symmetry, beauty (Ta.); an:gu beauty (Te.)(DEDR 30).

58.Image: beads: ha_s (pl. -ku) necklace, beads (Pe.); ha_c (pl. -ke) id. (Mand..)(DEDR 2434). Beads: akku-vat.am string of shell beads for the neck or waist (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,7,2); akku rudra_ks.a bead (Tiruva_n-aik. Ko_ccen..); chank bead or ring (Tirukko_. 376); akku cowry (Can.. Aka.)(T.E.D.)

154.Ball of pulp: atal.ai ball made of the pulp of tamarind fruit (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

42.Axle: aks.a axle (RV.); akkha axle (Pali); akha axle-tree (Or.); akhaut axle of grain-husker (Bi.); akhauta_ axle of brick-crusher (Bi.); a~_k axle (G.); a_s, a~_s axle (M.); a~_s axis (G.); a~_kh axle (G.); aka axle (Si.)(CDIAL 21). Image: wheel; axle: aks.a a wheel; the axle of a wheel (Ka.Skt.); akka, accu id. (Ka.); a car, cart (Ka.); aks.a_gra the end of an axle; a linch-pin; an.i id. (Ka.lex.) accu, acca the state of being firmly pressed, firmness; accu-go_lu a pin inserted in a mill-stone to turn (Ka.lex.) acca_n.i linch-pin (urul. perun te_rkkacca_n.i yan-n-a_r ut.aittu : Kur-al., 667)(Ta.); accu axle (Kur-al., 667); axle-bolt; central pin or handle of a mill-stone; support, basis (Val.l.uvama_. 21); accuruva_n.i < acu + uruvu + (five + tighten, penetrate + pin) central bolt of a car; acculakkai < aks.a + ulakkai axle of a well-sweep (Ta.lex.)

106.Axe: asu axe (Gutob.); suron (Parengi.); enjum-en (Sora.); ar.isia big axe (Juang.)(Sora.lex.) sigi to cut deeply with axe (Santali.lex.) asi sword (RV.); sword, large knife (Pali); sword (Pkt.); asiya sickle (Pkt.); asi_, assi_ sword (H.)(CDIAL 969). paras'u axe (RV. i.127.3); pelexus (Gk.); paras'u-pha_n.t.a the decoction which has been heated by a heated blade of an axe (Kaus'. xxxvi.27); paras'u-pala_s'a the blade of an axe (Kaus'. xlvii.25); paras'u-mant having an axe (RV. viii.73.17)(Vedic.lex.) [Is this a cmpd. of paras' 'more' and am.s'a 'a tiny part or share'?]

36.Image: syllable inserted in the combination of words: a_gamam augment, letter or syllable inserted in the combination of two words or two parts of a word (Vi_raco_. Canti. 13)(Ta.lex.)

180.Image: to solicit, request: ad.ugu to ask, question, beg, solicit, request, demand (Te.); ad.- to ask, request (Pa.); ja_pa (ja_t-) to request a favour, beg, ask, borrow, pray; n. request, entreaty, act of begging (Kui);[For *t. : j]; al.avu to inquire after one's health (Ta.); nat.t.u begging, beggarly (Tu.); nat.t.a_ a loan, lending (Tu.)(DEDR 81). aroj, arja arji to request (Santali.lex.) arj < arz (Arabic) a petition, request; arj maru_j request, petition (P.lex.)

295.Image: arrow: ampu arrow (Ci_vaka. 2286); id. (Ma.); ambu id. (Te.Ka.Tu.); ampu bamboo; ampu-k-kat.t.u sheaf of arrows; ampu-k-kutai pointed end of an arrow; ampu-k-kuppi, ampu-k-kur..aiccu arrow-head; ampu-k-ku_t.u quiver (Ta.lex.) ambu an arrow (Ka.); ampe, ambaka, ambu (Te.); aye to send; to let go, leave (Ma.); acai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) ampu arrow; appu-kkat.t.u a sheaf of arrows (Ta.); ampu arrow, porcupine quill (Ma.); amb, am arrow, flensing knife (Ko.); ob id. (To.); ambu arrow (Ka.); ambi id. (Kod..); ambu id. (Tu.); ambige hunter (Tu.); ambu, ambakamu, ammu, ampa- (in cpds.) arrow; ampar-a pl. arrows; ampaka~_d.u archer (Te.); amb arrow (Pa.Ga.); am (Kond.a.Pe.); pl. apku id. (Pe.); amb pl. apke id. (Mand..); a_mbu pl. a_pka id., arrowhead; ambu (short a) arrow (Kui); ambu_ pl. apka arrowhead; ambu pl. apka arrow (Kuwi); ambu bow (sic)(Kuwi)(DEDR 178).

35.To come: aga_t has come (RV.); aii, hai pret. of gi_k to come (Kho.)(CDIAL 51). cf. ya_ta gone (RV. )(CDIAL 10451). e_ku to go, pass (Na_lat.i, 15)(Ta.); e_gu id. (Te.); e_ku to walk (Pin..)(Ta.); e_hu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) a_gama coming near; arrival; approach; a_gantu coming, arriving (Ka.lex.) a_gamana arrival (MBh.Pali); a_aman.a (Pkt.); agamam.nam.mi (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 1046). a_gacchati comes to (RV.Pali); agachati (NiDoc.); a_gacchai, a_acchai (Pkt.); a_c to come (Kt.); ac (Bashg.); a_c (Wg.); to come, go (P.Dm.); oce came (Shum.); antar-achn.u to enter; ech- to come (WPah.); ac (L.); a_s' to come; as' to go (WPah.)(CDIAL 1044). a_ga_t came (Skt.); hai (Kho.)(CDIAL 1047a). a_gata arrived (RV.); a_gaya, a_aa, a_ya, a_a (Pkt.); a_gata (Pali); agata (1st sg. agademi, 3rd pl. agatam.ti) (NiDoc.); a_iya (Ap.); alo he came; a_ra (Gypsy); aya came (Kt.); gyem I came (Dm.); wu_ he came (Tir.); a_yo (Gaw.); a_o (Tor.); a_los I came (Sh.); a_s, 3rd sg. a_v, a_o (K.); a_yo (S.); a_ea_ (L.); a_ia_ (P.); a_, auwo (WPah.); a_yo (Ku.N.); a_ya_ (Aw.H.); a_i_yo (OMarw.); agata (Si. Bra_hmi_ inscr.); a_ in the present (Si.); a_ila came (B.); ayalahu~ I came (OMth.); a_la_ (M.)(CDIAL 1045). ye to come; past a_ilo; pa_u to arrive; eya come [Lat. cia] used in animated appeals; za_ to come up, e.g. plants come up (Kon.lex.)

134.Areca nut: at.aikka_y areca nut (Ta_yu. Cacci. 11); at.akka (Ma.); ad.aka_ya (Te.); ad.ake (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ad.ake, ad.a, ad.ike areca, the areca palm, areca catechu and its nut, khapura, poga, kramuka, kaungu; ad.akele areca nut and betel leaf; ad.ake-han:gu an obligation of the worth of an areca nut, the least obligation (Ka.lex.)

278.Mattress: amal.i bed, mattress (Ta.); bed (Ma.)(DEDR 165).

436.Bellows: ar.an:ga pl. ar.an:gel bellows (Pa.); ar.n:ga pl. ar.n. id. (Go.)(DEDR 275).

412.Image: to seize; to begin: arambh beginning, effort (P.); a_ra~bh beginning (G.M.); aram.baya, ram.baya (Si.); a_ram.bhai begins (Pkt.); a_rambhn.a_, arambhn.a_ (P.); a_ra~bhn.e~ (M.); a_ra~bhan. beginning (M.); a_rambh beginning (S'Br.); rabhate_ lays hold of (RV.); begins (S'Br.); a_rmbhana seizing (AitBr.); beginning (S'Br.); a_rambha effort (Palki); a_ram.bha beginning (Pkt.); a_ra~bhu (S.); a_rambh, a_ram.bhai (OG.)(CDIAL 1307). a_rampittal to begin, enter upon, undertake (Ja_n-ava_. Pun.n.i. 33)(Ta.lex.) a_rabhate_ seizes (RV.); undertakes, begins (S'Br.); a_rabdha begun (AitBr.); a_rabhya having begun (Skt.); a_rabhati undertakes, begins, sacrifices (i.e. takes and kills)(Pali)(CDIAL 1305).

414.Image: to strike, slap: ar-e to strike, slap, beat; n. a slap, stroke (Ka.); ar-ai to slap, beat; areccal a blow (Ta.); ar-a a blow; ar-ayuka to beat hard, beat drums (Ma.)(DEDR 320).

49.Image: bullock with carries the scavenger's muck: aha_li_ bullock which carries the scavenger's muck (L.); a_hal manure (L.)(CDIAL 1055). cf. pakka_l.i an ox of burden (Ta.lex.) ahali_ the price paid to a shepherd for tethering his sheep or goats in a field during the night in order to manure it. The usual rate per night is one pau ( = 1/4 seer) of wheat per score of sheep or goats; a village scavenger; aha_li_ the bullock which carries the scavenger's muck; ahal manure (P.lex.)

69.Bull; cow; cattle: a_, a_n- female of ox, sambur and buffalo (Tol. Po. 615); bull (Tiruvil.ai. Naripari.19); a_vu female of the ox, sambur and buffalo (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: kine: a_kal., a_kal.a, a_kal.u the plural of a_ cow: cows, kine; a cow (Ka.lex.) a_yan- herdsman; fem. a_ytti (Ta.); a_, a_n cow (Ma.); a_kal., a_kal.a a cow (Ka.); a_yi, a_cci fem. cowherd (Ma.); a.v cow (Ko.); -of suffix in some names of female buffaloes (To.); a_ (pl. a_kal), a_vu cow; a_vu (old pl. a_lu) cow (Te.); atta (pl.) cattle (Kod..); ambi cowdung (Tu.); a~_-do_ka the shape of a cow's tail, a tapering form; a~_basi cow; a~_-bo_tu bull; modavu milch cow (Te.); a_nga gat.anju a herdsman (Kui); o_y cow (Kur.); yu cow, ox (Malt.)(DEDR 334). Herdsmen who are traders: ahi_r, ahiran., ahirn.i_ herdsman, a caste of S'u_dras in Khandesh who are traders (M.); a_bhi_ra name of a people (MBh.); herdsman (Mn.); a_bhi_ri_ (Skt.); a_bhi_ra, a_hi_ra, ahira, a_he_ra (Pkt.); ahi_r a partic. low caste (Ku.); a_hir, a_hi_ri cowherd (B.); a_hira, a_hiri (Or.); ahi_r (Bi.); ahir (Bhoj.Aw.); ahi_r, ahi_ran, ahi_rni_ (H.); a_hi_r, a_hi_rn.i_ pastoral tribe in Kathiavad, herdsman; a_hirr.a~_ pl. herdsmen (spoken of affectionately or contemptuously)(G.); a_yiru forest hunter (K.)(CDIAL 1232). a_pi_ram street of herdsmen (Cu_t.a_.); a_pi_ra-valli < + palli_ village of herdsmen (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) a_bhi_ra a cowherd; maha_s'u_dra, kud.iyokkaliga;a_bhi_rapalli a station of herdsmen; a_bhi_ri a cowherd's wife (Ka.lex.) Hamlet of cowherds: a_yarpa_t.i hamlet of cowherds (Tiv. Na_yc. 14,2); a_yan- man of the cowherd caste, herdsman (Tol. Po. 21); a_yan id. (Ma.); a_yam herd of cows (Cilap. 17, Uraippa_t.t.umat.ai, 5); a_y the cowherd caste (Ci_vaka. 426); a_yappa_t.i hamlet inhabited by the cowherd caste; a_ykkut.i id. (Ta.lex.) ajar.u flock of goats (S.); eiyur., aiyyar. flock of sheep or goats (L.); ayyar. (P.)(CDIAL 146). ajjar. flock of goats (L.P.); ijjar. (P.); a_jar.i_ shepherd (L.); a_jr.i_ (P.)(CDIAL 163). a_jaka flock of sheep (Skt.)(CDIAL 1089). ajapa_la goatherd (VS.Pali); ayava_la (Pkt.); wa_l shepherd (Gaw.); wal-moc (Kal.); eiya_l shepherd, goatherd (L.); aya_l flock of sheep or goats; aya_li_, ya_li_ shepherd, goatherd (P.); eva_l.iyo shepherd (Marw.)(CDIAL 151). aiwa_ra_ shed for sheep, goats or cattle in jungle (H.)(CDIAL 154). yu_tha flock, band (RV.); yu_thaka (BhP.); yu_tha flock, herd (Pali); ju_ha band, troop (Pkt.); collection (OAw.); ju_h troop (H.); juha_na_ to collect in one place (H.); ju_th crowd of people (WPah.); yuta crowd, herd (Si.)(CDIAL 10516). cf. yu_kam < vyu_ha arrangement or disposition of the forces for fighting, military array; yu_tam battalion, troop (Ta.lex.) ju_i place, station, lay or den of animal (S.); yu_ti in: gavyu_ti movement, place of movement (Skt.); bahiryu_ti placed outside (Skt.)(CDIAL 10515). a_yvai sleeping place (Ta.lex.) a_y name of a liberal chief, one of seven kat.ai-val.l.alkal. (Cir-upa_n.. 99); a_yva_ to bring good luck (Ta.lex.)

252.Elder brother: an.n.an-, an.n.a_cci elder brother; an.n.a_r id. (hon. pl.); an.n.a_ elder brother, father; an.n.a_ttai elder brother (sometimes in contempt); an.n.a_r..vi elder brother or cousin; an.n.i elder brother's wife (Ta.); an.n.an, an.n.a_cci elder brother (Ma.); an. elder brother or male parallel cousin (Ko.); on., on.on. id. (To.); an.n.a, an.a elder brother; respectful address to an older male, affectionate mode of addressing boys; an.n.i affectionate mode of addressing females (Ka.); an.n.e elder brother or male parallel cousin; tamman.e younger brother (Kod..); an.n.e elder brother, maternal uncle, an elderly man (Tu.); anna elder brother; termination of names of men (Te.); anna_k elder brother (Kol.); tanna_l elder brother; tanhar.a_l id. (respectful); tanna_, tanna_l, tannor, tannal id.; anna_l id. (Go.); ana (pl. anen/anar) id.; father's father; anasi elder brother (with reference to 3rd person)(Kond.a); an.n.i_ (Pkt.)(DEDR 131). an.n.u a woman (Ka.); annu id. (Te.)(DEDR 132).

322.Good luck: aya good luck; aya, ayya a respectful way of addressing (Ka.); aye (Te.); aya, aiya (Ta.); aya_ a compellation of respect amongs the lin:ga_yata people (M.); ayno_ru, aygal.u, ayna_r a respectful mode of addressing; ayi, ai a vocative particle implying kindness of address (Ka.Skt.); aye_ a vocative particle expressing surprise, recollection, fatigue, fear, passion (Ka.Skt.); aye_, ayi (especially with regard to females)(Ka.); ayyayyo_, ayyayye_ alas! (Ka.Ma.Ta.Te.); compassion: ah! alas! karun.e (Ka.); aysale_, aysale well done! bravo! noble! (Ka.); aiti_ bravo! (M.)(Ka.lex.) aiyo_ an exclamation of wonder; an exclamation of pity, concern (Ci_vaka. 2622, Urai.); an exclamation expressive of poignant grief (Kantapu. Acure_n. 7)(Ta.lex.) aiya exc. of wonder; exc. of pity, concern; aiyako_ exc. of pity, sorrow; ai wonder, astonishment; aiy-en-al uttering ai expressive of wonder, of distress or mental suffering, of assent; aiyaiyo_ exc. of pity or grief; aiyo_ excl. of wonder; excl. of pity, concern; exc. of poignant grief (Ta.); ayya_ interj. of derision; ayyo_, ayyayyo_ interj. of pain, grief (Ma.); aya. exc. of surprise or grief; aya. ava. excl. of grief (Ko.); eya. exc. of surprise (To.); ayyo_, ayyayyo_, ayyayye_ interj. expr. grief; interj. expr. astonishment; interj. expr. compassion (Ka.); ayyo_, ayyayyo_ interj. of grief, annoyance, pain (Tu.); ayyo, ayyo_, ayyayyo_, ayyayo_, ayayo_ interj. denoting sorrow, lamentation, pity, pain, etc. (Te.); a_ige, a_igo, a_igo_na, a_ike, a_iko, a_iko_na interj. indicating annoyance, impatience, or disgust (Kui); i_yaliyo_, i_yalesa alas! (Kuwi); ayo_, ayo_ ge exc. of pain or surprise (Kur.); aya, ayyi, ayyu O my! (wonder, joy, woe); ay(y)oke, ay(y)okaboke alas! (Malt.); aye exc. of surprise, recollection, fear (esp. used in dramas)(Skt.)(DEDR 196b).

325.Not born: ayan-, acan- < a-ja Brahma_ as not born (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) aja Brahma_; aja-gija Brahma_ and persons like him (Ka.lex.)

510.Image: bowstring: alka bow-string (Pa.); alliya, alle bow-string (Te)(DEDR 259).

476.Olibanum: cf. a_ne-be_la the gum olibanum tree, boswellia serrata, gajabhaks.ye, suvahe; a_nelo_l.isara a kind of aloes (Ka.); a_neo_l.i sara (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) a_lu_kam bael, vilvam (Mu_. A.); cf. ma_lu_ra (Skt.); allu_ram id. (Malai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

464.Tiger-stopper: i_kai sp. of mimosa; tiger-stopper (Mysore thorn, caesalpinia sepiaria); i_kkai tiger-stopper; sp. of stinking swallow-wort (pentatropis microphylla); i_n:ku sp. of sensitive-tree; tiger-stopper; i_n:kai sp. of sensitive-tree, mimosa rubicaulis; sp. of stinking swallow-wort; i_yai tiger-stopper; sp. of sensitive-tree (Ta.); i_n.n.a mimosa intsia, the bark of which is used in bathing; ica, i_ca, i_a acacia intsia (Ma.); i_n.tu tiger-stopper; in.t.u eight-pinnate soap-pod, acacia instsia caesia; sensitive-plant, mimosa; mimosa rubicaulis; tiger-stopper; in.t.ai eight-pinnate soap-pod; trichotomous-flowering smooth jasmine; tiger-stopper; sp. of sensitive-tree; thorny caper (Ta.); an.t.arike, an.t.irike acacia intsia (Ka.); si_r.i a bush, the leaves of which are used as soap (Kuwi); s'ikeka_i_ a plant, also the pod of it, mimosa abstergens (M.)(DEDR 2607b and 2607c). an.t.arike, an.t.irike a prickly climbing shrub, acacia intsia (Ka.lex.) cf. an.t.ava_l.a, an.t.aral.e, an.t.a_l.a, an.t.va_l.a, antaral.e, antuva_l.a, arat.a_l.a, arad.a_l.a, arit.a_l.a, arita_l.a, aris.t.a the soap-nut tree, sapindus trifoliatus, sapindus detergens; its nuts are used e.g. also in washing woollen cloth; cf. pi_taphe_na (Ka.lex.) sega janum mimosa rubicaulis; kondro janum acacia intsia (Santali.lex.) ot kondro cassia mimossoides (Santali.lex.) Mimosa rubicaulis: shiah-kanta (H.B.); huziru (M.); khinkari (Garhwal); kattusinikka (Ma.); arlu (P.); ingai (Ta.); undra (Te.); leaves: in form of infusion prescribed in piles; bruised and applied to burns; root: in powder form, given when from weakness the patient vomits the food; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.167). Acacia intsia = acasia caesia: aila (H.); kondrojanum (Santali); chilari (M.); karijindu (Ta.); kodakorinda (Te.); flowers: used by Santal women in deranged courses; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract from the Chenab eastwards ascending to 4,000 ft. and found throughout India (GIMP, p.2).

186.Pulse: a_d.haki a kind of pulse, cajanus indicus, tuvari (Ka.); togari (M.) (Ka.lex.)

221.Carallia brachiata: andipuna_ru-nmara an evergreen tree, carallia integerrima (Ka.); an.d.in.a_ru, an.d.ipun.a_ru carallia integerrima (Tu.)(DEDR 128). Carallia brachiata = carallia integerrima: kierpa (B.); panasi (M.); varanga (Ma.); karalli (Te.); kanthekera (A.); fruits: used in the treatment of contagious ulcers; bark: for itch; habitat: eastern Himalayas, Assam, Bengal, Burma, S. India, Andamans (GIMP, p.50).

94.Celery: ajamoda_ apium graveolens (Car. Su. 4.6,45); di_pyaka id. (Car.Ci. 5.69,71, 6.27,38). Apium graveolens: celery seed; epich (Ger.); ache celeri (Fr.); part used: the dried ripe fruit; habitat: southern Europe... celery fruit was shipped from British India also... Uses: stimulant and condiment; as a flavouring agent in salads, soups, sauces, tomato juice, pickles, and in the manufacture of celery salt... which is a mixture of finely ground celery fruit and free-running sodium chloride (tabel salt). (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 621-623). Apium graveolens. (Ancient Egyptian m3tt; Coptic mit; Greek teginon; Modern Egyptian Arabic karafs). "Celery grows wild in Africa, Europe and Americas... It was once used as a slimming herb. Celery grows in Egyptian gardens today as it did in pharaonic times, at least towards the end of the New Kingdom (c. 1000 BC). Garlands have been found on mummies from this period, where celery leaves alternated with petals of nymphae caerulea. The plant is frequently mentioned in Egyptian texts. Dioscorides gave the Egyptian name as mith, which through Coptic has been identified with ancient Egyptian m3tt. This is easily confused with the name for parsley, which is called 'mountain celery' (apium petroselinum) ... Celery was used to... stimulate appetite... as a remedy to treat the teeth... a remedy to cool the uterus... as a contraceptive after fumigation with emmer seeds... a large dose of the related apium petroselinum was once thought to be capable of causing abortion (Prospero Alpini)... it was used in a remedy proven good for burns 'in the days of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Amenophis III (f1567-1320 BC).'... a remedy to stop blood in the eye... a remedy for the temples... for a painful stomach." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., pp.76-77). Apium graveolens: ajamoda (Skt.); ajmud (H.); chanu (B.); randhuni (B.); ajmod (South India); root: given in anasarca and colic, alterative, diuretic; seeds: stimulant, cordial, tonic, an antiseptic, used in bronchitis and for liver and spleen diseases; essential oil, glucoid, apiin; habitat: foot of the NW Himalayas and outlying hills in the Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. (GIMP, pp.21-22). Apium petroselinum = petroselinum crispum = petroselinum sativum = carum petroselinum (English parsley); frequently cultivated in India (GIMP, p.189). Apium petroselinum: (Ancient Egyptian m3tt h3st; Coptic gat or ceginh; Greek teginon; Modern Egyptian Arabic baqdu_nis). "The essential oil (of parsley) stimulates the appetite and regulates menstruation... (as mountain celery) it occurs in a few medical prescriptions (in Egyptian texts) for pain in the stomach or to 'contract the urine'." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.78).

128.Chin: at.avari chin (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 69). kha_d.ki, kha_d.ke chin (Kon.lex.) bador sat.ok projecting chin (Santali.lex.)

384.Image: chequered board: aran:ku place or board chequered with squares for gambling (Kur-al., 401); chequered lines traced on the ground for playing pa_n.t.i (Ta.)(T.E.D.)

360.Chest: aragdi, a_rgli chest of body (Kol.); aragli id. (Nk.); argil id. (Nk.Ga.); arayul, aril, aru_li, ariyul id.; ar.i_l udder (Go.)(DEDR 200).

413.To climb: argna_ (argyas) to climb, mount an animal, rise (as sun, moon, stars), rise in pitch (as a drum), get puffed up, (eyes) are turned up before death; (argas) to make climb, lift, haul up, take upon one's shoulders, lay a burden on, begin, raise, increase; argta'a_na_, arga'a_na_ to make climb, lift up, etc. (Kur.); arge to climb; argtre to lift, raise (Malt.); arumbu to climb (Tu.)(DEDR 231). a_ruhat ascends (RV.); a_ru_d.ha- (MBh.Pkt.); a_ruhati (Pali); a_ruhai (Pkt.); climbs up (OG.); a_ru_l.ha (Pali); a_ru_d.hn.e~, a_rud.hn.e~ to ascend (OM.)(CDIAL 1326). a_ru_d.hi ascent (Skt.); a_ru_d.hiya mounted (Pkt.); aru_r.i_ heap of dirt (S.); aru_r.i_ heap of refuse, dunghill (L.P.)(CDIAL 1328). a_ro_ha ascent, rider (R.); growth, rider (Pali); height, breast, rider (Pkt.); a_ro_haga riding (Pkt.); a_ro_haka rising (Skt.); arohag'a saddle (NiDoc.); aror. brave, heroic (H.); aror.o, aror.u~ tender shoot of a tree, cotton-pod growing on last year's stalk (G.)(CDIAL 1333).a_ro_han.a ascending (S'Br.); adj. arising (Ma_rkP.); ascent (Pali); a_ruhan.a sitting above (Pkt.); auri_ni a stick on which a load is supported when coming downhill (Kho.); arohan mounting, riding (H.); arun.u risen, ascended (Si.)(CDIAL 1334). a_ro_hati mounts (RV.); a_ro_hyati raises (RV.); a_ro_hai climbs, sits on (Pkt.); aurik, awerik to mount, ride (Kho.); a_rohiba_ (Or.); arohna_ (H.); aray having ascended (Si.inscr.); a_ro_pe_ti makes ascend (Pali); aropayata 3rd sg. imperf. mid. raised (KharI.); a_ro_he_i makes mount (Pkt.); aureik to cause to mount (Kho.); aravay having caused to be transcribed (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 1335). ruh grow, rise (Skt.); growth, sprouting (RV.); s'iro_ruh hair (Skt.)(CDIAL 10795). ruhti mounts, grows (MBh.); -ruhat aor. inj. (RV.); ruhai grows (Pkt.); ruik to grow (of crops, nails, etc.); ru_hati grows, heals (of wound)(Pali); ru_hana_ to mount, rise, climb (H.)(CDIAL 10796). ruyhati grows (Pali); rujjhai grows, is born (Pkt.); rujhn.e~, rujn.e~ to sprout, grow (M.)(CDIAL 10797). ru_d.hi rise, increase (Skt.); ru_l.hi growth, custom (Pali); ru_r.i dunghill (L.); heap of manure outside village (P.); ruri_ heap of threshed rice (P.); ru_r.hi_ growth (H.); ru_d.h prevalence (M.); rur.(h)i plague (N.)(CDIAL 10802).

413.To climb: argna_ (argyas) to climb, mount an animal, rise (as sun, moon, stars), rise in pitch (as a drum), get puffed up, (eyes) are turned up before death; (argas) to make climb, lift, haul up, take upon one's shoulders, lay a burden on, begin, raise, increase; argta'a_na_, arga'a_na_ to make climb, lift up, etc. (Kur.); arge to climb; argtre to lift, raise (Malt.); arumbu to climb (Tu.)(DEDR 231). a_ruhat ascends (RV.); a_ru_d.ha- (MBh.Pkt.); a_ruhati (Pali); a_ruhai (Pkt.); climbs up (OG.); a_ru_l.ha (Pali); a_ru_d.hn.e~, a_rud.hn.e~ to ascend (OM.)(CDIAL 1326). a_ru_d.hi ascent (Skt.); a_ru_d.hiya mounted (Pkt.); aru_r.i_ heap of dirt (S.); aru_r.i_ heap of refuse, dunghill (L.P.)(CDIAL 1328). a_ro_ha ascent, rider (R.); growth, rider (Pali); height, breast, rider (Pkt.); a_ro_haga riding (Pkt.); a_ro_haka rising (Skt.); arohag'a saddle (NiDoc.); aror. brave, heroic (H.); aror.o, aror.u~ tender shoot of a tree, cotton-pod growing on last year's stalk (G.)(CDIAL 1333).a_ro_han.a ascending (S'Br.); adj. arising (Ma_rkP.); ascent (Pali); a_ruhan.a sitting above (Pkt.); auri_ni a stick on which a load is supported when coming downhill (Kho.); arohan mounting, riding (H.); arun.u risen, ascended (Si.)(CDIAL 1334). a_ro_hati mounts (RV.); a_ro_hyati raises (RV.); a_ro_hai climbs, sits on (Pkt.); aurik, awerik to mount, ride (Kho.); a_rohiba_ (Or.); arohna_ (H.); aray having ascended (Si.inscr.); a_ro_pe_ti makes ascend (Pali); aropayata 3rd sg. imperf. mid. raised (KharI.); a_ro_he_i makes mount (Pkt.); aureik to cause to mount (Kho.); aravay having caused to be transcribed (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 1335). ruh grow, rise (Skt.); growth, sprouting (RV.); s'iro_ruh hair (Skt.)(CDIAL 10795). ruhti mounts, grows (MBh.); -ruhat aor. inj. (RV.); ruhai grows (Pkt.); ruik to grow (of crops, nails, etc.); ru_hati grows, heals (of wound)(Pali); ru_hana_ to mount, rise, climb (H.)(CDIAL 10796). ruyhati grows (Pali); rujjhai grows, is born (Pkt.); rujhn.e~, rujn.e~ to sprout, grow (M.)(CDIAL 10797). ru_d.hi rise, increase (Skt.); ru_l.hi growth, custom (Pali); ru_r.i dunghill (L.); heap of manure outside village (P.); ruri_ heap of threshed rice (P.); ru_r.hi_ growth (H.); ru_d.h prevalence (M.); rur.(h)i plague (N.)(CDIAL 10802).

237.Image: neck; jaw; joint of jaws: an.a jaw, hinder part of jaw (Ma.); an.a-ppallu grinder, double tooth (Ma.); an.al jaw, hinder part of mouth (Ma.); chin, side of the upper jaw, neck, throat, windpipe, beard, dewlap (Ta.); under part of the mouth, the mouth (Ka.); an.ar, an.ari side of the upper jaw (Ta.); an.a_r neck (Ta.); an.n.a_t.i cheekbone (Ma.); an.n.i inside of the cheek, joint of jaws (Ma.); an:g lower cheek (Ko.); an:g val molar teeth (Ko.); ol. molar tooth (To.)(DEDR 114). hanu jaw (RV.Pali.B.); cheek-bone (A.); hanu_ jaw (TS.H.); hanuka_ (VarBr.S.Pali); han.u chin (Pkt.); jaw (Konkan.i); han.uya_ jaw (Pkt.); hunu, unu chin (Kho.); han.u~_, han.n.h molar teeth (L.); han.e_ha~_ jaws (L.); hanua_ disease of the tongue in cattle (Bi.Mth.); han.u_, han.vat.i_, han.vat.l.i_ chin (M.); anu jaw (Si.)(CDIAL 13966). Image: jaw: alaku, alavu jaw, mandibles, bird's beak (Ta.); upper portion of the jaw bone (Ma.); halaku the lower part of the cheek (Ka.)(DEDR 239). Image: throat; jaw: argali throat (Dm.); hargal (Gaw.); orgol jaw (Pas'.)(CDIAL 629).

111.To ride on shoulder: anj- to climb (Ga.Go.); to ride on shoulder (Go.); anjih- to take on the shoulder (Go.)(DEDR 56). coga, coghe to climb up into or on (Santali.lex.)

92.Caterpillar: assgla_r.a_ a caterpillar found on the sa_l-tree leaves (its contact causes swelling and fever)(Kur.); assgalo a caterpillar the touch of whose hair causes painful irritation (Malt.)(DEDR 52).

183.Seed of fruit: an.t.i-kkot.t.ai cashew-nut (Ta.); an.t.i kernel, stone of mango, etc., nut, scrotum (Ma.); ma.nge a.n.d.i mango stone (Kod..); an.d.i kernel of mangoes, etc. (Tu.); at.hu_ mango stone (Kur.); at.i stone or seed of a fruit (Malt.); an.t.hi kernel (Pkt.)(DEDR 126). as.t.i kernel of fruit (BhP.); as.t.hi kernel (Skt.); asthi kernel of fruit (Sus'r.); a~_t.hi_ ke rot.i_ bread of crushed mango stones (Bi.); at.t.hi, at.t.hika stone of fruit (Pali); at.t.hi (Pkt.); o~t.u (K.); a~_t.hi (B.Or.); a~_t.i (B.); a~_t.hi_ kernel of pip of fruit (H.Bhoj.); a_t.hi_, at.hi_ (M.); at.aya fruit stone, seed (Si.); a~t.hal, at.helo stone of fruit, nut (Ku.); a~_t.hi_l., a~_t.hal., a~_t.holi_ seed stone esp. of jackfruit (M.)(CDIAL 955).

465.Canarium strictum: Distribution: Konkan, W. Ghats of N. Kanara and of Madras Presidency in evergreen forests, upto about 5,000 ft. The gum is used with gingely oil in rheumatic pains. Bengal: kala dammar; Bombay: dhup, gugul; Canarese: halemaddu, karedupa, mandadupa, pandu, raladupa; English: black dammar tree; Gujarat: kala dammar; Hindi: kala dammar; Kadir: kungiliam, tubam, viraka; Malayalam: karuttukungiliam, kungiliam, kunturukkapayam, pantam, telli; Marathi: dhup, raldhup; Sanskrit: mandadhupa, raladhupa; Tamil: attam, karungundurukkam, karunkungiliyam, karuppudamar, karuppukkungiliyam, kundurukkam, kungiliam, kukkil kungulam; Telugu: nallarojanamu. Canarium bengalense: Distribution: Assam, Sylhet. The leaves and bark are used externally for rheumatic swellings. Assam: bisjang, dhuna; Garo: tekreng; Lepcha: narockpa; Nepal: goguldhup. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 531-533). har, harra_, har.r.ai_, harla_, hard.a_ green myrobalan (H.); hird.a_ (M.); hari_r hari_r. (S.); harad. hari_d. (P.); hari_taki_ (Skt.)(Bloch, p.415).

191.Image: camel: attiri camel; mule (Cilap. 6,119); cf. atya (Ta.lex.)

186.Pulse: a_d.haki a kind of pulse, cajanus indicus, tuvari (Ka.); togari (M.) (Ka.lex.)

79.To buy; image: to grasp: assi_na_, as- to buy (Go.); as- to take, buy (Go.); as- (-t-) to catch, hold, grasp (Kond.a); ah- (ast-) to seize, take hold of (Pe.); ah- (-t-) to seize, catch (Mand..); ahpa (aht-) to hold, seize, take, accept, capture, contain; n. grasp, acceptance, capture, seizure (Kui); assali to hold, catch; ah'nai to seize, hold; ah- (ast-) to seize, take hold of (Kuwi)(DEDR 51). attu (atti-) to reach (Ta.); andu to meet with or suffer, reach, get at, obtain, be within reach (Ka.); andu to reach at, take with the hand, obtain, gain, suffer, feel, be within reach; to hand in, hand over (Te.); and- (andit/ant-) to reach, be within reach (Kond.a)(DEDR 149).

129.Image: water-course: ad.a watercourse (S.); ad.d., pl. ad.d.a_ small irrigation channel (L.); ad.d.a_ perch for birds (P.); ar.inu to stop, halt (N.); a~_r screen (A.); ar.a~eb to restrain (Mth.); a_r.na_ to cause to stop (H.); ad.vu~ to stop (G.); ad.n.e~ to be stopped (M.)(CDIAL 188). to_d. channel (Kon.lex.) at.aikal stone placed at the entrance of a sluice to prevent water from flowing (W.)(Ta.); at.ai-ttal to shut, close (Pur-ana_. 151); at.ekka (Ma.); at.ai to obstruct, block, as a passage (Kur-al., 38); to stop up, as a hole (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: embankment: an.t.a bund, ridge of field (Ma.); an.t.ai field bund, ridge of a field (Ta.); an.ai embankment, dam, ridge for retaining water in a field, bank of river or sea (Ta.); an.a dam (Ma.); an. water channel brought to village from stream; e.t- an. edge of bank or stream or tank (Ko.); ony edge of swamp (To.); an.e dam, dike (Ka.); an.d.a bank or edge of river (Kod..); ana bank or dam (Te.)(DEDR 122). ad.d.akat.t.a a dam or bank, embankment (Te.); ad.d.akat.t.e a dam (Tu.); at.appan a stopper, cork (Ma.)(DEDR 83). cf. od.u bank of river (Kuwi.Kond.a)(DEDR 965). ar.e to dam (Santali.lex.)

314.Image: castrated young ox: a_rye the ox or he buffalo which is castrated in its tender age (Tu.lex.)

115.Bone: at.t.e bone (Tu.lex.) asthan bone (RV. i.84.13); asthanvant bony (RV. i.164.4); asthi produced in the bones (RV. i.23.4)(Vedic.lex.) a_d., ha_d.a bone (Kon.lex.) cf. had. bone; had.a god.a bones of dead animals (Santali.lex.) cf. had.d.a bone (Skt.Pkt.)(CDIAL 13952).

40.Images: small bolt or pin to fasten a door; gate: arari_ leaf of a door (Skt.); arari door-leaf, door (Pkt.); aral wooden bolt of door attached to the frame (P.); arali_ id., pin a bullock's yoke (P.)(CDIAL 605). argal.a, argala, argar..e, aggar..ike, argar..ike, agan.i, agar..i, agur..i bolt or bar to fasten a door (Ka.); argal.amu wooden bolt, bar or pin for fastening a door, etc., impediment, obstruction (Te.); argoli crossbar, rail (Kui)(DEDR App.9). argala bolt (Skt.); irgala (Pa_n.); argalika_ small bolt (Skt.); sa_rgad.a barred (S'Br.); aggal.a, aggal.a_ cross-bar of a door, bolt (Pali); aggala, aggala_ (Pkt.); a_glo, a_gliya_ (Ku.); a_glo (N.); a_gar., a_gor. mat-door, hurdle (B.); a_gar.a gate (Or.); a_gul.a obstacle; a_gul.a_ small iron keeper-ring (Or.); a_gar, agri_, a_gal wooden bar of door (Bi.); a_gari (OAw.); a_gal, aggal (H.); a_gl.o, a_gl.i_, a_gl.i_o (G.); a_gol., agol., a_ghol. (M.); agal.u (Konkan.i); agul.a, agula (Si.); agd.a_ tie connecting yoke and pole of cart (M.); agla_na to restrain, watch (B.); agul.iba_ to lie in wait for (Or.)(CDIAL 629). For -ghol. in a_ghol. (M.) cf.: Knot; clasp: kun.ike, kul.ike knot, loop, clasp, link (Ka.); kur..aiccu, kur..aicci, kul.accu, kul.acu joint of the body, noose, loop, knot (Ta.); klo_lu hasp; kor.lu door-fastening (Kuwi)(DEDR 1824). cf. elkune elbow (Lith.)(CDIAL 603).

289.Stern of a boat: amaram stern of a vessel, oar used to steer a boat (Ta.); stern of a vessel, elephant's hind part, abaft (Ma.); amaramu stern of a boat (Te.)(DEDR 163). apara posterior (RV.); other, next (Pali); avara latter, other (Pkt.); avara hinder, western (Si.); aparam. further, besides (Pali)(CDIAL 434). cf. ama_r, amma_r ships cable < amarva (Port.)

290.Boat: ambu water (Skt.) ambi boat (Ka.); ambiga_re boatman (Tu.)(DEDR 177). ampi suspended water-shovel (Ta.); ambiga, ambaga, ambuga, ambiga_r-a man who rows a boat, boatman (Ka.); ambi_, ambekari_ boatman (M.)(DEDR 177). ampa_pa_t.t.u a rower's song (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Raft; float; small boat; ship: ampi small boat (parimuka vampiyun. karimuka vampiyum : Cilap. 13,176); ambi id. (Ka.); ampi raft, float (Kalit. 103,37); ship (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ampu < ambu water; sea (Tiruppu. 32)(Ta.lex.)

244.Boat; ship: ya_n-a-pa_ttiram boat (Ta.); ya_na-pa_tram a ship, boat; ya_na-bhan:ga a shipwreck (Skt.lex.) ya_n-am vessel, ship, raft; conveyance, vehicle, carriage (Iraku. Tikkuvi. 10); palanquin, litter (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 20); ya_tan-am boat; raft (Ta.); cf. ya_na (Skt.); cf. ya_n.ar carpenters (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ya_na-kara a carpenter (Skt.lex.) ya_ta-ca_mpati Varun.a; ya_tapati sea; Varun.a; ya_n-ai-muka-v-o_t.t.am boat with an elephant-shaped prow (Cilap. 13,176, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ya_das any (large) aquatic animal, a sea-monster; ya_das-pati the ocean; Varun.a; ya_t.u a fluid, water (Skt.lex.)

19.Image: mimic conflict: an:kam battle, fight (Ta.); fight, battle, duel, challenge (Ma.); an:ka fight, war (Ka.); fight, war, cock-fight (Tu.); an:kaka~_d.u a quarrelsome man (Te.); an:ka fight, mimic war or conflict (Skt.)(DEDR 29).

119.Contents of a box; detailed account of lands: at.akkam cost price (Ta.); contents as of a box, enclosures, as of a letter; treasure trove (Ta.); at.ai price (Pin..)(Ta.); king's share of the produce of the land, whether one-sixth or one-tenth or otherwise (W.)(Ta.); at.aikkuttakai revenue from grain as farmed out by government (J.); at.ai-c-ci_t.t.u receipt for payment of tithe or tax (J.)(Ta.); at.an:ku to be comprised, included (Ci. Ci. Al.avai. 1)(Ta.); at.an:ka adv. wholly, entirely (I_t.u, 8,9,4); at.an:kavum adv. id. (Periyapu. Tiruna_vuk. 359); at.an:kalum id. (Tiruvil.ai. Tirunakaran:kan.. 13); at.akkam-pan.n.u-tal to pack, stow away (Ta.); at.ai-ttal to put in, pack, secure (Ta_yu. Col. 1)(Ta.); at.ai delivering, conveying (Kalit. 115,18); deposit, that which has been accepted for safe keeping (I_t.u, 5,10,5); at.aikkalam deposit (Ka_cippu Tiruner-i. 53); at.ai-kol.l.u-tal to accept a deposit for safe keeping (I_t.u, 5,10,5)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.ikkar..acu-per-u-tal to be highly valued (I_t.u, 1,4,1)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.an:kal submitting, being included; abiding place (Periyapu. E_yarko_n-. 59); contract work; detailed account showing lands cultivated and the nature of the cultivation in a village; examination of the cultivation of village lands; at.an:kala_mis.am estimate of the produce of a piece of land for a year (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) at.t.na_ to be filled up, be contained in (P.); a_t.n.o to fill up with earth and stones; at.a_n.o to contain, hold (Ku.); at.a_unu to be contained, fit into (N.); a~_t.na_, a~t.na_, at.na_, a_t.na_ to be contained (H.)(CDIAL 178). a_dha_ran.a supporting (Nir.); a_ha_ran.a adj. (Pkt.); a_rn.i_ iron tripod to hold a pot; a_rn.iyo wooden tripod (G.)(CDIAL 1166).

264.Disorder: abad.a, avud.a, abad.ajabad.a confusedly mashing, crushing; a mangled and messes mass (Ka.); avad.acivad.a (M.); abandara, abandare (Tadbhava of abandha) disorder, confusion, irregularity, uselessness, waste (Ka.); abandara (Te.); avantarai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) aba_d.u, aban.d.u futile, answering no valuable purpose; tare in weighing, e.g. the weight of the bottle in which a merchant has to fill the oil required by the buyer (Ka.); aba_d.a-manus.ya a man of monstrous circumference (Ka.); abad.a-dho_bad.a clumsy, mis-shapen (M.)(Ka.lex.) avantarai disorder, confusion (Ko_yilo. 42); avattam < a-baddha nonsense, falsehood (Te_va_. 996,10)(Ta.lex.)

204.Image: birth: a_t.u to be born; ma_cai ma_kkat.an- man-n-ava n-a_t.alin- (Ci_vaka. 911)(Ta.lex.) a.t. (a.c-) to give birth to (child)(Ko.)(DEDR 347).

455.Colosanthes indica: ara_t.aki_ name of a plant (AV. iv.37.6); arat.va made of the Arat.u tree; name of a man (RV. viii.46.27); arad.u, arat.u the tree colosanthes indica (AV. xx.131.15)(Vedic.lex.)

389.Blanket: ra_r.i blanket (N.)(CDIAL 10698).

68.To collect, to gather: a_y, a_, a_yi, a_yu to collect, to gather; to select, to cull (Ka.Tu.Ta.M.); a_y, a_yi collecting (Ka.); a_ya gain, profit, income, revenue; receipt; corn given by the well-to-do villagers to the hereditary servants of the village as their established fees of office; a_ya-kat.t.u a fixed amount of money; a_ya-ga_r-a a clever man; a hereditary village servant (Ka.); a_ya-ga_d.u (Te.); such servants are e.g. gavud.a, s'a_nabho_ga, jo_yhisa, patta_ri, kamma_r-a, bad.agi, na_yinda (Ka.lex.)

167.Image: bottom of a coconut shell: at.ikkayil bottom piece of a coconut shell with the kernel, dist. fr. kan:kayil (J.); at.i-c-cirat.t.ai thick half or bottom of a coconut shell, used as a vessel, dist. fr. kan.cirat.t.ai (J.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

32.Image: cockroach: akkal.e cockroach (Ka.); ekkale, ekkalu id. (Tu.); hakkal.a id. (Kor.)(DEDR 22). zarlo, zarlea_ cockroach (Kon.lex.) capr.a, capr.i cockroach (Santali.lex.) pa_cca_ cockroach (Na_mati_pa. 266); pa_ccai id. (Ta.lex.) cf. ci_kuru-va_yi cockroach (Ka.)(DEDR 2606). telapa_yika_ cockroach (Pali.lex.)

447.Conveying: a_ra, ha_ra taking, conveying; seizing; carrying away or off; removing; retaining; offering (Ka.); ha_raka taking; bringing; conveying; seizing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) man.d.a-ha_raka a distiller and seller of spirits; man.d.a the scum which forms on the surface of any liquid; ferment; gruel; the spirituous part of wine etc., spirituous liquor (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

78.Carding cotton; downy cotton of calotropis gigantea: arka the plant calotropis gigantea (S'Br.)[cf. alarka (Sus'r.); ala_ka (Car.); alakkha (Pali)] akkha (Pali.Pkt.);; aku calotropis procera (S.); akk, ak (L.); akk a particular plant with an acrid milky juice (P.); a~_k c. gigantea (Ku.); a_k c. acia (Marw.); a particular tree or shrub (G.); a_kr.o a particular tree or shrub (G.); aka the tree asclepias gigantea (Si.)(CDIAL 625). arkaparn.a leaf of c. gigantea (S'Br.); a_kan swallow-wort (A.); a_kand (B.); a_kanda c.gigantea (Or.); akwan (Bhoj.); ekwan a particular plant (Bhoj.); akwan, akwand, akund, akkand c. gigantea (H.)--(final -d in B.Or.H. unexplained.)(CDIAL 626) cf. -d.- in: e_kud.u picking (Te.)(DEDR 765). aka_w the plant asclepias gigantea (H.)(CDIAL 627). erukku calotropis gigantea (Ta.); erikku id. (Ma.); ekke, ekka, erke, yakka gigantic swallow-wort or manure leaf (Ka.); ekkamale, ekkama_le id. (Tu.); arka (Skt.)(DEDR 814). e_ku roll of cleaned cotton prepared for the spindle (Te.); e_kud.u picking, beating, or cleaning cotton (Te.); ec- (-c-) to card cotton; intens. ecka- (Pe.); ekkuni to gin (Tu.); ekku, yakku to divide, separate, dress cotton, cotton wool (Ka.); ek-ku (ek-ki-) to pull with fingers (as cotton), scrutinize (Ta.); ekkuka to card cotton (Ma.); e_kku carding cotton (Ma.)(DEDR 765). { Kraemer, H. 'Materia Medica of Ceylon', American Journal of Pharmacy, 66 (1894) pp.530-539 reports that the fibre from the inner bark of calotropis gigantea was formerly used in the manufacture of cloth for the princes and nobles [cf. ekkat.iga a superior, noble, or great man (Ka.); ekkad.i id. (Te.)(DEDR 768)], and that the hairs of the seeds are said to have been made into thread in Borneo. Gun-powder charcoal is made from the young branches. [cf. Quisumbing, E., Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, 1978, p.745: reporting Tsiang, Y., 'An enumeration of the Asclepiadaceous plants collected by Tsai and Wang from Yunan in 1933-1936' Sunyatsenia 4 (1939) pp.95-131: "the stems of calotropis gigantea yield a strong fiber, durable under water, used for making fishing nets, halters, lines and ropes. The floss on the seeds is used for stuffing mattresses; the acrid, milky juice, mixed with salt, is used to remove hair from hides; the root is a good teeth cleaner, and the wood is utilized in making charcoal and gunpowder."] Calotropis gigantea is distributed throughout India, Ceylon, Malay Islands and South China . Some etyma: ashur (Arabic); akanda, akra, mandara, rui (Bombay); erukkalai, urkkovi (Ceylon); kadrati (Gond); waduri (Java); khark (Persian); akhauna (Santal); muduwara, vara, varagaha (Sinhalese). [Kirtikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D., Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol.III, 2nd edn. 1933, p. 1607]}.

434.To wear: arpiya_ (< arpiya a_-) to put on, wear (coat)(Pe.); arpa to put on (coat, on another), fix (load on carrying-yoke)(Pe.); a_r to wear, put on; to gird, wear (Ta.); a_rppu tie, bondage (Ta.); a_ruka to put on (as clothes or jewels)(Ma.); arkalu a knot, tie (Tu.); a_nu to put on, wear (with -n- < -r-); ara to put on (hat, shirt, spectacles)(Kond.a)(DEDR 369). cf. (i)ravikkai tight-fitting bodice (Ta.)(DEDR 5163). a_r- to become full (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,10,5); a_rtsu (Te.); a_r (Ka.Ma.); a_rkuni (Tu.) to shout; to wear, put on; to experience; a_rvur-r-a_r neca mar..iya : Kalit.. 42,13); to bind, tie, gird; pa_mpon-r-a_rttu (Te_va_. 16,11)(Ta.lex.) Armour: r-avake, r-avike armour, quilted jacket, bodice (Ka.); ravake bodice (Tu.); r-avika a sort of bodice (Te.); iravikkai, ravikkai tight-fitting bodice, jacket, corset (Ta.)(DEDR 5163). Garment: ar-a, ar-ave, ar-ive, ar-uve cloth (Ka.); ar-uvai cloth, garment (Ta.)(virinu_lar-uvaiyar : Patir-r-up. 34,3)(Ta.lex.); ar-ai curtain (Ta.); ar-a rag (Te.); arve a cloth, old rag (Tu.)(DEDR 318). Cotton: erukku yarcum, madar, calotropis gigantea (Tan.ikaippu. Kal.avu. 274); erikku id. (Ma.); prob. arka (Ta.lex.) rui_ calotropis gigantea (M.)[which yields a downy kind of cotton] (CDIAL 10798). {Possibly, ar-uvai cloth, garment (Ta.)(DEDR 318); and ruwa_ cotton wool (Ku.)(CDIAL 10798) are traceable to calotropis gigantea, rui_ < erukku.} ruwa_ cotton wool (Ku.); ru_-a cotton [ < *ru_ca = rumcai (Pkt.) cards cotton? (CDIAL 10836)}; r.u_ to fall out, off (leaves, hair)(Mand..Kuwi); r.uha (r.uhi-) to lose the skin by peeling; r.uhpa (r.uht) to take the skin off by burning (Kui); r.u_c to strip off (fibres from bark, etc.)(Kuwi); or.ok, or.ok bark of tree (Kur.); or.ku bark, husk, peel, scale (Malt.); ul.ik to flay (Kod..); or. id. (Go.)(DEDR 757). ru_a carded cotton (Pkt.); rai_ (S.); ru~ (L.); ru~_ cotton wool (P.); cotton (WPah.); ru_i_ cotton wool (P.); carded cotton (OAw.H.) ru_i~_ cotton wool (P.); ruwo cotton (N.); rua_ cotton (Or.); rui cleaned cotton (Or.); ru_ cotton wool (Mth.); carded cotton (G.M.); rui_ id. (M.); ruvo id. (G.)(CDIAL 10798). oroz to dress (somebody)(Pas'.); a_racita put on (of ornaments)(Skt.)(CDIAL 1300). Weavers, cloth dealers: ar-uvaiyar weavers, cloth dealers (van.n.a var-uvaiyar val.antikar.. mar-ukum : Man.i.28, 53)(Ta.lex.)

499.Variety of cotton: alattam variety of cotton, cem-parutti (Ta.lex.); ya_vam lac; brazil cotton; ya_vakam brazil cotton < ya_va ; cem-pacu brazil cotton, gossypium barbadense acuminatum; cotton coloured with lac-dye (ko_kila-k-kan. cem-pacu : Cilap. 14,187, Urai); cem-pacu-k-kur..ampu paste prepared from red cotton, used to dye women's feet (Man.i. 6,110, Urai); cem-parutti (Ta.); kembatti (Ka.); cembarutti (Ma.) a kind of superior cotton used in making sacred thread (tilaka mulo_-t-tira cemparutti-p-pu_ : Cilap. 14,187, Urai); brazil cotton; a variety of cotton, gossypium arboreum (Ta.lex.) a_la silk-cotton tree (Tu.)(DEDR 495). cem-pat.atti woman of the fisherman caste; cem-pat.avan- fisherman(Ta.lex.) cem-pat.a_m red cloth (Ta.lex.)

169.A country: an.t.a-na_t.u a sub-division of the Pa_n.d.ya kingdom (I.M.P. ii,62)(Ta.lex.) Nearness; neighbourhood; association; refuge: at.uppam nearness (Ma.); at.a shelter, refuge (Ma.); ad.a association, assistance, help (Kui); at.u near, at a short distance (Kui); d.agre, dagira, daggire near (Kuwi); daggara nearness (Te.); at.ge, at.gi near, close (Malt.); at.ipat.i neighbourhood (Malt.)(DEDR 79). an.t.ai nearness, vicinity (Ta.); an.aya neighbourhood, vicinity (Ma.); an.d.a side (Kod..)(DEDR 120). ad.e pase, ad.e t.ola neighbourhood; ar.osi par.osi, ad.epaserenko neighbours (Santali.lex.) a_ro in the neighbourhood; s'eza_ri one living close to another (Kon.lex.) a_ha_n.a refuge (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1163). an.ai support, prop, protection, hlp; an.tai support (Ta.); an.a support, pillow (Ma.); an.a.r by the help of (Ko.); an.d.e support, prop (Ka.); an.d.a support (Te.)(DEDR 123). a_ta_ram support, stay, prop (Ce_tupu. Kanta.86); ground, basis; body, as the abode of the soul (Ta.lex.) Side: an.t.u to approach, take refuge in; an.t.ai nearness, vicinity (Ta.); an.t.a nearness, proximity; an.t.uka, an.n.uka, an.puka to approach (Ma.); an.d.- to be in same place with (Ko.); an.t.u to come or be in contact with; an.d.isu to go near, approach, resort to, come or go to for protection; an.d.u going near, an approach, a resort; an.d.e nearness, approach, side of anything (Ka.); an.d.a side (Kod..); nearness, support, protection, patronage (Te.); andali to aid (Kuwi)(DEDR 120). antika near, nearness; antikam, antike_ in the presence of (RV.); antika near; antike_ adv. (Pali); am.tiya near (Pkt.); i_t now (Wg.); iti_ (Pr.); ande here (Pas'.); ata near (Si.)(CDIAL 377). ante_va_sin pupil who dwells near his master (S'Br.Pali); ante_va_sika pupil (Pali); am.te_va_si (As'.Pkt.); atavasiya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 378). cf. semant. ajho protection, refuge (S.); a_jho confidence (G.)(CDIAL 277). ajjha_vaa teacher (Pkt.); ajjha_yaka Brahman student of the Veda (Pali); jha_ a caste of Maithili Brahmans (N.H.); adhya_paka teacher (Mn.); -adhya_ya (at end of cmpd.)'reader'(Pa_n..)(CDIAL 278). adhya_ya_ reading (Pa_n..); time given to reading (Mn.)(CDIAL 279). adhya_ste_ stays, dwells in (RV.); ajjha_sate_ sits upon (Pali); ajjha_sia established (Pkt.); ajjhun. to sit (L.); ajjhakun. to stop, wait (L.); ajhakn.a_ to stop (P.)(CDIAL 280). adhyante_na adv. close to (S'Br.); jhandai, jhannai almost, generally (N.)(CDIAL 276).

362.To creep: Ösr.p to creep, crawl, glide gently; sarpati, srupta id.; sarpa snake (RV.)(CDIAL 13271); utsarpati creep out (AV.); us.upik to slide (Kho.)(CDIAL 1875). sam.sarpati creeps along (VS.); sam.sappati id. (Pali); sam.sappia creeping (Pkt.); sa_sapn.e~ to grope along, to feel for (M.)(CDIAL 13034). visarpin creeping (MBh.); visarpan.a creeping (Pali); visappana spreading; visappi spreads (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11990). nih.sarpati steals away (S'rS.); nis.pat.n.e~ to slip aside (M.)(CDIAL 7124).

437.Weep: ar..u (-v-, -t-) to cry, weep, lament; ar..ai (-pp-, -tt-) to call, cry out, summon; n. crying, weeping; ar..ukun.i tearful person, one who is always crying; ar..ukai pathetic sentiment; ar..un:ku (ar..un:ki-) to weep; ar..un:kal loud noise, uproar (Ta.); ar..uka to weep, cry; ar..aykkuka to shout, cry out (Ma.); ag- (ar.t-) to weep, cry; agl, akl act of lamenting; ar.g- (ar.gy-) (cattle) bellow in protest at ill-treatment (Ko.); or.- (or.y-) (child) weeps (To.); ar.., ar..u, (ar..t-, att-) to weep, cry; ar.., ar..u, ar..a, ar..ke, arke, akke weeping, lamenting; ar..asu, ar..isu to make to cry; ar..uvike crying; ar..ukul.i an easily crying or fretful person (Ka.); arpini to weep, cry; arpa_t.a lamentation; arpele one easily moved to tears, a fretful person; leppuni to call, invite; leppu, la_vu a cry (Tu.); e_d.upu weeping, crying, lamentation; e_d.ucu to cry, weep, lament, shed tears (Te.); ar- (art-) (tiger) roars, to weep, (crow) caws, (peacock) screams (Kol.); ar- to weep, cry (Nk.); al- to weep; caus. alup- (Nk.); ar. to weep, cry (of various animals) (Pa.Ga. Go.Pe.); ar.up- (ar.ut-) to make to cry (Ga.); ar.tip- (ar.tit-) to cause to weep or cry (Pa.); a_d.- to weep (Ga.); a_d.- (a_t.-) to weep; to cry like an animal (Ga.); ar-, a_r.a_na_ to weep, cry; caus. ad.usa_na_, ar.ah- (Go.); ar.ba to weep, cry (Kond.a); ar.- (ar.t-) to weep, cry (of animals); intens. ar.ba-; caus. r.at-; intens. of caus. r.atpa- (Pe.); r.i_ to cry (Mand..); r.i_va (r.i_t) to weep, cry, lament, howl, utter a sound (bark, song of birds etc.); n. weeping, wailing, lament, cry; r.i_ka to weep, cry (Kui); ri_ali to cry; li_nai to weep; r.i_- (-t-) to cry; r.i_t- (-h-) to make cry (Kuwi); a_li to weep (OM.)(DEDR 282). cf. ala_ speech, cry (L.)(CDIAL 1373). Tear: as'ru tear (RV.); assu, assuka (Pali); assu, a_su, am.su, am.suya (Pkt.); s'va, asva, asfa, yasva, avs, pl. avsa (Gypsy); us'tru_ (Dm.); airi_k (Pas'.); as'ru_ (Kho.); airik (Shum.); assun (Bshk.); a~_s.u, pl. a~_s.e (Sh.); os'u, pl. as'i (K.); haja (S.); haj(h), pl. haj(h)u~_ (L.); haj (P.); ijh (P.); a_s'u (WPah.); a~_su tear (Ku.N:G.); a~_su_ (Aw.H.); a~_jhu_ (P.); asu~_, a_su_ (M.); as pl. (Si.); acu_ (Kt.); ucil (Pr.); us.uk (Wg.); istru_ (Ash.); a_stru (Kal.); athru_ (L.); atthru_ (P.); atthar (P.); anthru, a~_thru (WPah.); en:khru, e_khu, e~_khu, a_khu (WPah.)(CDIAL 919). Weep: rhi_nt wept (Par.); runik tear (Kurd.); run.n.a adj. and n. weeping (Pali.Pkt.); runna_ pret. of rovan. weep (L.); runnan. to cry (L.)(CDIAL 10771). ruta made to resound (AV.); cry, roar (Ka_tyS'r.); ruvatha bellow (Skt.); ruta noise, cry (Pali); rua (Pkt.); ruru korik to make a noise with the feet, (the sky) to thunder (Kho.)(CDIAL 10772). rud cry, weep (Skt.); rudana weeping (Skt.); ru(v)an.a weeping (Pkt.); ryu_wan (K.); ruan.u (S.); ruan.o tearful (S.); run.a_ weeping (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 10773). ro_da weeping (AV.); lo_ta, lo_ca tears (Skt.); roya, roi weeping (Sh.); roi_ weeping, scream (Ku.); ruwa_-ba_si lamentation (N.); lo tears (A.); roya_ weeping (B.); loya, lua tear (Or.); roa_-ra_t. lamentation (H.)(CDIAL 10839). virudati weeps (BhP.); viruai weeps (Pkt.); wer, wir (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11863). ro_dati, ro_diti howls, weeps (MBh.); rudanti (RV.); rudati weeps (S.ad.vBr.); ro_dati weeps (Pali); ro_yai, ro_ai, ro_vai (Pkt.); rov, erov, 3 sg. ro_ar (Gypsy); roiki, ro_nu (Sh.); rovan., roun., ron (L.); ron.a_, ro_na_ (P.); ron.u_ (WPah.); ru_n.o, caus. ro_un.o (Ku.); runu, pret. royo (N.); roya_ (B.); roeb (Mth.); roi (OAw.); rona_ (H.); roi (OMarw.); rovu~ (G.); rudati weeps (A_past.); ro_dana weeping (Pali); ro_an.a, ro_van.a (Pkt.); ro_n.a_ (L.); ron., ron.i_ adj. looking like crying (P.); royan., ron.u~ weeping (G.)(CDIAL 10841). rujja weeping (Pkt.); roj, rojr.a_ (H.)(CDIAL 10843). a_ruta crying (R.); --Extension with -d.a-: aru_r.i_ long-drawn howl of dog or jackal (L.)(CDIAL 1323). arar-r-al twang of the string of a lute; arar-r-u-tal to lament, cry, weep aloud, bewail (Pu. Ve. 11, Pen.pa_r-. 9); to pour out one's troubles in lamentation (Tol. Po. 260, Urai.); to shout with excitement; to sound, tinkle (Kantapu. Mutan-a_t.. 22); arar-r-u lamentation, expressing one's woes in many words (Cilap. 29); a secondary melody-type of the kurici class (Ta.lex.) Scream: rat. to scream; to howl, roar, yell, etc. (Skt.); rat.ati cries, yells (Skt.); screams (Pali); rad.ai calls out (Pkt.); rar.an.u (S.); rar.an. to grunt (of camel)(L.); rar.iba_ to shout (Or.); rar.vu~ to weep (G.); rad.n.e~, lad.n.e~ (M.); rad.ta_ (Konkan.i);--Extension -kk-: rar.kan.u to eat noisily (S.); rar.ko cry (S.); ---d.-: rar.r.an. to cry out (L.); rat.na_ to cry out, repeat (H.); roa_-ra_t. lamentation (H. metathesis in t.arra_na_ to scream?)(CDIAL 10590). rat. scream; rat.ana shouting (Skt.); rad.an.a crying (Pkt.); rad.n.e~ crying, weeping (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10591). rad.iya screaming (Pkt.); rar.i scream (whence rar.yo bawler)(S.); rar. grunt or groan of camel (L.); rar.i amorous quarrel (N.); scream (Or.); rara shout (H.); rad.i_ losing one's temper (M.)(CDIAL 10592). upahvayate_ shouts to (RV.); upa_rudati (Skt.); orad.n.e~, varad.n.e~ to shout (M.)(CDIAL 2211). ura_r.i loud cry (Or.); orad., varad., ord.a_, vard.a_ shouting (M.)(CDIAL 2216). ran.a noise (Skt.); ran.ak-ka_ra noise (Pkt.); ran.a id. (Pkt.); ran.akna_ to in a shrill voice (P.); ran:ko tinkling (G.)(CDIAL 10595). a_rat.a crying out (Pa_n..); a_rat.i noise (Skt.); a_rd.a_, ard.a_ loud bawling (M.); a_rad., arad. id. (M.)(CDIAL 1301). a_rad.ai cries out (Pkt.); arar.a_un.a_ to roar (P.); ar.a_un.a_ to make a great noise (P.); arar.a_na_, ar.r.a_na_ to scream out (H.); arar.vu~, ara_u~, arr.a_vu~ to bawl (G.); a_rad.n.e~, arad.n.e~ to cry out, bellow (M.)(CDIAL 1302). a_ra_va cry (MBh.); noise (Pali.Pkt.); a_ra_u scream, noise (A.)(CDIAL 1319). ravati roars, howls (JaimBr.); rauti (Naigh.); ruvati (RV.); ravati shouts (Pali); rauna_ to make a noise (H.); luik to bray, bellow, low, roar, howl (Kho.); ravan.a noise (Skt.)(CDIAL 10644). Uproar: irai to sound, roar (as the sea), rumble (as a crowd), wamble (as th ebowels), whiz (as birds when flying); to cry out (as in anger), hiss (as a snake), pant, breathe hard; n. sound, roar, splash (as of a running river); iraiccal sound, noise, clamour; iraippu buzzing, din, wheezing, asthma; iran:ku to weep, cry, roar, sound (as ya_r..); irat.t.u to sound; make to sound, beat (as drum); iriyal weeping; irumu to cough; irumal cough (Ta.); irekka to pant, snore, bluster, roar as sea; iraccal, ireppu noise (as of sea, bowels), hum, buzz; irampuka to bluster, be loud; irampal roar of the sea, difficulty of breathing; irumal cough; eraccil din, bustle; erappu buzzing, din, wheezing; erampam din, bustle, great noise (Ma.); rampa clamour, vociferation; rambu calmour, noise; rambha sounding, roaring, bellowing, lowing, making a noise (Ka.); rampa hubbub (Kod..); ramb(h)a_ru_t.i, ramba_rot.i, rambha_t.a clamour, outcry (Tu.); r-ampu, rampu noise, uproar, disturbance, squabble, wrangle, scandal; r-ampil(l)u, rampilu to make an uproar (Te.); rampam uproar, commotion (Kol.); ran ban disorder (Pa.){Echo word}; rambh, ramb to sound; rambha_ sounding, roaring, lowing (Skt.)(DEDR 489). rambhate_ bellows (BhP.); rambhan.u to low, bellow (S.); rambhn.a_, rammhana_ to low (P.); ra_mnu id. (N.); ra_mn.o to bellow (Ku.); ra~_bhna_ to bellow, low, roar; ramha_na_ to low (H.)(CDIAL 10634). Image: crying out: ra_van.a crying out (Skt.); ra_yan a calling out (B.); ra_yan.a (Or.)(CDIAL 10717). ra_yan.a making a noise (Skt.); ra_yan.a (Or.)(CDIAL 10712). ra_i makes a noise (Pkt.); ra_yati barks at (RV.); ray- to bark (Dm.); zay (Pas'.); ra_y (Kal.); rayik (Kho.); ra_iba_ to make a noise, call (Or.)(CDIAL 10714). reni dog (Kho.)(CDIAL 10713). ra_va shriek, yell (MBh.); shout (Pali.Pkt.); ra_ya (Pkt.); ra_o noise, scream (A.); ra_ shout, sound, word (B.); sob (at end of infant's crying), croak, caw (Or.); ra_a_ (Or.); ra_v cry for redress (G.); rav, rava, ra_ noise (Si.)(CDIAL 10716). ra_vayati makes roar or scream (A_s'vS'r.); ra_ve_i shouts (Pkt.); ra_iba_ to make a noise, call (Or.); ra_wana_ to make cry or weep (H.)(CDIAL 10718). ra_vin.i_ adj. bellowing (R.); ra_vin screaming (MBh.); ra_uni screaming woman or girl (A.); ravan.a noise (Skt)(CDIAL 10719). rava roar, cry (esp. of animals)(RV.); roar, shout (Pali); ro_ song (Bshk.); rua recitation of a long prayer (Or.); rava song (OG.); rav noise (G.); ro_la noise, quarrel (Pkt.); rla_ noise; ro_la_, raola_ (L.); raula_ (P.); raul, raula_, raur noise, uproar (H.); rol.o tumult (Marw.); rol., rol.o noise (G.)(CDIAL 10641). ravati roars, howls (JaimBr.); rauti (Naigh.); ruvati (RV.); ravati shouts (Pali); rauna_ to make a noise (H.); luik to bray, bellow, low, roar, howl (Kho.)(CDIAL 10644). ravan.a making noise (Pkt.); rn.a_ clapper of bell (L.); raun.a_ (P.); rn.a_ clapper of bell, small bell on neck of cow or goat (L.); rain.a_ clapper (P.)(CDIAL 10619). rapati talks, chatters (RV.); chatters, whispers (Pali); ravai speaks; rave_i calls (Pkt.); reik, imper. rawe to speak, call, name, read (Kho.); rayoiki (Sh.)(CDIAL 10620). ra_rapat talk (SV.); va_vadat(RV.)(CDIAL 10620; Add.) a_rpparavam roar, shout (Tiruva_ca. 7,12); a_rppari-ttal to shout, roar, resound (Maccapu. Tiripuraniruma_n.ava. 14)(Ta.lex.) a_rtsu (Te.); a_r (Ka.Ma.); a_rkuni (Tu.) to shout (Ta.lex.) ar-ai to speak, sound; n. sound, word, reply (Ta.); ar-acu, ar-icu, ar-ucu, arcu to cry out aloud, clamour, scream; racce crying alout, noisy and abusive clamour (Ka.); areduni to low (Tu.); ajike speech (Kor.); ar-acu to cry or cry out, shout, clamour, shriek, bark, bray, crow, bellow; ar-apu a cry, shriek, yell, shout, clamour; r-an:ke roar, cry; r-antu noise; rajju useless talk; vb. to be talkative, prattle; n. boast (Te.); raz- (rast-) to say, speak, talk nonsense (Kol.); arap- to crow (Nk.); arg- (cow) to bellow (Ga.); ra_n(g-) to abuse (Go.); r.aspa (r.ast-) to ring, make a reverberating sound (Kui)(DEDR 319). rasati yells (S'Br.); praises (Naigh.); calls out (Pali); rasai (Pkt.); res- to low (Kt.); rayoiki (1 sg. ra_m) to say, speak, read; razo_nu to tell (Sh.); ras cry out (Skt.)(CDIAL 10652). ra_sa din, uproar (Skt.); ra_sabha ass (RV.); ra_s, ra_sa_ noise, uproar, affray (H.); ra_sau (Brj.)(CDIAL 10725). virasati cries out (Skt.); virasam.ta screaming (Pkt.); virasn.e~ to be touched in a tender or sore spot (M.)(CDIAL 11850). reni dog (Kho.)(CDIAL 10713). a_r to sound (as bell, etc.)(Pa.); to cry aloud (Ka.); a_r (-pp-, -tt-) to shout, roar, bellow; slander, vilify (Ta.); a_rppu shout, noise, cry, roaring (Ma.); loud, tumultuous noise, laughter, joy; a_rava_ram loud noise, shouting, roaring, bustle; a_rava_ri (-pp-, -tt-) to roar, shout; a_ri (-pp-, -tt-) to sound; a_rppa_t.am uproar, loud, cry, boisterous behaviour; arar-r-u (arar-r-i-) to lament, cry, bewail, shout with excitement, sound; n. lamentation; arar-r-al twang of the string of a lute (Ta.); a_rkkuka (a_rttu) to cry aloud, roar, shout; a_rppikka to make to shout (Ma.); a_rava_ram clamorous multitude (Ma.); a.r (a.t-) to call (Ko.); o.s.f- (o.s.t-) to dance (of Todas; really, to shout c.hau hau while dancing); a.for.- (a.fot.-) to talk (in general, to one another, a language)(To.); a_r (a_rd-), a_rcu, a_cu to cry aloud (Ka.); a_rad.i publicity, report, infamy, scandal; a_rava_ra a great outcry, bawling; a_rbu, a_rpu, a_rubu, a_ruha, a_rba_t.a, a_rbat.a crying aloug etc.; a_rbat.isu, arbisu to cry aloud, roar: arbu crying; abbara, abbaran.e a loud cry, noise, sound; abbarisu to cry aloud, whoop, bark, howl (Ka.); ara- (arap-, arand-) to make loud hoarse noise, moo (Kod..); a_rkuni to cry out, shout; a_rbat.a, arbhat.a, a_rbhat.e fearful noise, uproar, a joyful cry, triumph; araba_yi, arabai violent clamour, crying aloud, lamentation; arat.uni to make a grating noise, interrupt, blab; ara-gin.i a talking parrot; abbara, abbaran. sound, noise, cry (Tu.); a_rcu, a_rucu to cry aloud, shout, roar (Te.); a_rpu a cry (Te.); a_rbhat.amu, a_rbhat.i cry, roar, yell, uproar (Te.); a_r- to sound (as bell etc.)(Pa.); arg- to bellow (Ga.); a_rpa to shout, howl (Kond.a); to call (Kui); a_rnai id. (Kuwi); a_rpinai to call (Kuwi); a_rh'nai to invite (Kuwi); ra_t.- to cry out; ra_t.u din, noise, uproar (Kuwi); a_rn.e~ to utter its cry, crow (like cock)(M.)(DEDR 367). a_ra_va cry, sound, noise; arodana crying, lamenting (Pali.lex. from a_ + rud, pp. a_run.n.a weeping, crying.) ra_d.i shouting (S.); ra_r.i, ra_r.o shouting (S.); ra_r., ra_d.h shouting (cf. rat.hati s (Skt.)(CDIAL 10697). rava roar, cry (esp. of animals)(RV.); roar, shout (Pali); ro_ song (Bshk.); rua recitation of a long prayer (Or.); rava song (OG.); rav noise (G.); ro_la noise, quarrel (Pkt.); rla_, ro_la_, raola_ noise (L.); raula_ (P.); raul, raula_, raur noise, uproar (H.); rol.o tumult (Marw.); noise (G.); rol. noise (G.)(CDIAL 10641). hambha_rava lowing (MBh.); hamba_rava (Skt.); hamba_rar.i lowing; hamba_riba_, hamba_l.iba_, hama_l.iba_ to low (Or.); ha~_bard.a_ lowing; ha~ba~_rn.e~, ha~_barn.e~ to low (M.); hambha_ lowing (MBh.); me_gha-rava thunderbolt (MBh.)(CDIAL 13974). rambh bellow; rambha lowing, roaring; rambha_ lowing (Skt.); ramba flock(s)(K.); rambha lowing of cows (S.); rom herd of cows (Kal.); herd (of cows, goats, sheep), covey (of birds)(Kho.); romo flock, herd (Yid.)(CDIAL 10632). a_ra~bhal.n.e~ to roar, bawl (M.); a_ra~_bho volley of musketry (S.)(CDIAL 1308). a_rava cry, howl (R.); -- Extension with -la-: a_rol.i_, arol.i_, a_rli_, arli_ loud call, bawl (M.)(CDIAL 1309). a_ravi_ti, a_rauti, a_ruvati shouts, cries out (RV.); a_ravn.e~, a_rn.e~ to utter its cry (esp. of a cock)(M.); a_ravn.i_ cock-crowing (M.)(CDIAL 1310). alar-al loud cry, great sound; alar-u-tal to vociferate, roar (Ci_vaka. 2195)(Ta.); alar-u (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) alar-r-u-tal to talk unceasingly and irregularly (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,3,10)(Ta.lex.) a_rava_ra a great outcry, bawling (Ka.); a_r to cry aloud (Ka.Te.Tu.Ta.); a_ru, a_l, a_lu id. (Ka.); a_ra_va sound; cry, scream (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

460.Curcuma Longa: haridra_ curcuma longa (Car. Su. 2.5, 4.3, 13); haridre, haridra_ = aricana turmeric, curcuma longa (Ka.lex.) haridru a kind of turmeric, curcuma aromatica (Ka.lex.) haridra_ curcuma longa [cf. arican-am turmeric (Ta.); arcn saffron (i.e. turmeric)(Ko.); arsn saffron, yellow (To.); arisina, arisin.a, arasina, arasin.a, arsin.a turmeric, curcuma longa (Ka.)(DEDR 220); cf. macal. turmeric, curcuma longa (Ta.)(DEDR 4635); ga~t., sasan. curcuma longa (Santali.lex.)]; "Acafram da Terra... is a medicine and article of commerce which is taken much to Arabia and Persia... The Canarese call this plant alad (turmeric, the rhizome of curcuma longa, called in Sanskrit haridra, i.e. yellow wood; in Hidustani, haldi and haled; in Tamil manjal; in Malay, kunhet; in Persian and Hebrew, karkum. The word 'turmeric' is a corruption of the French terre merite)... in Malayalim, more correctly majjale. The name in Malay is cunhet, in Persian darzard, which means a yellow stick. In Arabic it is habet... does not grow in Persia, Arabia or Turkey, but that all comes from India... Avicenna calls it calidunium or caletfium... The Arabs, like the Indians, call it aled, and the name is corrupted by Avicenna into caletfium..." (G. De Orta, pp. 162-165). Curcuma longa. Turmeric. Part used: the prepared rhizome. Habitat. Southern Asia and East Indies. Turmeric is grown extensively in China, India, Cochin China and Java from rhizome cuttings. Uses: turmeric is a stimulant, coloring agent and condiment. It is an ingredient of many curry powders and prepared mustards and pickles. Turmeric paper is prepared from the tincture and used as a test for boric acid, borates, and alkalies. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 229-231). Curcuma longa = curcuma domestica: haridra (Skt.); haldi (H.B.); halada (G.); manjal (Ta.); pasupu (Te.); decoction of rhizomes used in purulent conjuctivitis; curcuma aromatica: vana-haridra (Skt.); jangli haldi (H.); banhalud (B.); ran hald (M.); kastur-manjal (Ta.Te.); rhizome externally applied in combination with astringents, bitters and aromatics to bruises and sprains; cultivated chiefly in Bengal and Travancore (GIMP, p.85). karcu_ra curcuma zedoaria (Car. Su. 27.155). Turmeric: sasan. turmeric and the plant, curcuma longa which yields it; sasan. dak yellow, colour of turmeric; ga~t. branching roots of turmeric; balplare sunum sasan:ko ojok jona at a marriage they anoint themselves with oil and turmeric; sasan. bed.a a place mentioned in Santal traditions; sasan. d.ora a cord fastened round the loins of a child at narta. It is dyed yellow with turmeric; sasan. rit dhiri a stone for grinding tuemeric (Santali.lex.) s'asya corn, grain; the fruit or produce of any plant or tree; sasya id. (Ka.lex.)

376.Image: curved, crooked: ara_la curved, crooked, spreading like the spokes of a wheel; a bent or crooked arm; ara_la-ke_s'i_ a woman with curled hair; ara_la-paks.man having curved eyelashes (Skt.lex.) ar-al wave, ripple (Tiva_.); curl (Perumpa_n.. 162, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

423.Consignable; present sent to a friend at a distance: arp(i)ya consignable (Skt.); arpita fixed (RV.); entrusted (Ya_j.); appita applied (Pali); appiya given (Pkt.); a_pium (OG.); apa security, bail (Si.); a_pai_ deposit, present sent to a friend at a distance (M.)(CDIAL 685). arpayati causes to move (AV.); puts in or on (RV.); delivers up (Ya_j.); appe_ti fits in (Pali); appe_i hands over (Pkt.); a_pab to deposit, place (Mth.); a_pvu~ to give, pay (G.); caus. appa_ve_i (Pkt.); apa_vvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 684). ar. to cross (Pa.); ar.ip to make to cross (Pa.); ahka_na_ to cross, pass over; ahk gar.m on the other side (Go.)(DEDR 289). Consignment: samrpan.a act of placing on (S'Br.); delivers over (Skt.); samappan.a handing over (Pkt.); so~pa~r.~ present (Ku.); so~pan. a consignment (G.)(CDIAL 13191). smarpayati throws at (AV.); fixes in (S'Br.); delivers over (Skt.); samappe_ti hands over (Pali); samappe_i (Pkt.); sau~pan.u (S.); sau~pan. (L.); saumpn.a_ (P.); sau~pn.o (Ku.); su~pnu (N.); xa~piba (A.); sa~pa_ (B.); sampiba_ (Or.); sapab (Mth.); sau~pal (Bhoj.); sau~pab (Aw.); sau~pna_ (H.); sopai (OMarw.); so~pvu~, sa~_pvu~ (G.); so~pn.e~, sopn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 13192). camarppan.am dedication, votive offering (Ta.lex.) arppan.am dedication (Ja_n-ava_. Aruccu. 16); arppitam that which is offered (Pirapo_ta. 18,25)(Ta.lex.)

165.Deity: at.ikal. deity (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,3,1); sages, ascetics; a term of respect used with the names of sages, ascetics, male or female (Cilap.); seniors, elders; spiritual preceptor (kantapu. Vi_ra. Caya. 21); queen, lady (Co_r..avami. 102)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

107.Marvellous work: acurar a class of demons at war with the gods, prob. da_nava_s as dist. fr. daityas (Tiva_.); cf. da_n to cut, divide; to make straight (Skt.lex.); ?stha_na: ta_n-a-ma_n-am dignity and honour attached to status or office (T.A.S. iv,153); i.e. ?those who apportion (produce, land etc.); acur a class of demons (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 67); acura-kiruttiyam marvellous work, herculean labour, as of demons; acuram acquirement of a bride by the successful performance of some valiant deed enjoined by her father, as the seizing of a wild bull (Tol. Po. 93, Urai.)(Ta.lex.); hence, asurar may refer to those who perform marvellous work or artisans, in general. a_sre n. pl. water-demon (M.); acchar (H.); asara deity (Si.); acchara_ (Pali.Pkt.); apsaras (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 302). sura, sora a god, a deity (Skt.Ka.); sura-pen. an apsara woman; asura a demon, S'ukra's pupil; asura-bali an offering to demons; asuri a female demon (Ka.lex.) hahar.a to marvel (Santali.lex.) aja_pa_tso marvellous (Kon.lex.)

424.Giving: arpan.am giving, offering; restoration, delivery, giving back (Skt.lex.) arpisu t offer, to deliver, to consign, to bestow; arpan.a offering, delivering, consigning (Ka.lex.)

352.Deceit: ayir (-pp-, -tt-) to suspect; n. doubt, suspicion; ayirppu doubt, suspicion; aiyam doubt, uncertainty, scepticism (Ta.); ayyam doubt (Ma.); eyb id., suspicion; naccu, nasa doubt (Ka.); asr-asr ne to hesitate (Ka.)(DEDR 190). e_mam bewilderment, perplexity; e_mal confusion of mind; e_ma_r (-pp-, -tt-) to be confused, bewildered; e_ma_r-u (e_ma_r-i-) to be beguiled, inveigled; e_ma_r-r-u (e_ma_r-r-i-) to hoodwink, deceive; e_ma_r-r-am state of being defrauded, deceit, confusion of mind; e_ma_l.i simpleton, fool; e_mur-u (e_mur-uv-, e_mur-r--) to be perplexed, bewildered (Ta.); e_mal confusion of mind, bewilderment; e_ma_r-i a cheat; e_ma_r-r-am deceit, fraud; e_ma_r-r-uka to hoodwink, deceive; e_ma_l.i beggar, silly man (Ma.); e.ma.r- (e.ma.ry-) to gasp (from sudden fright, shock, while dying); e.ma.n- (e.ma.nd-) to be cheated; be dazed by being caught suddenly in wrong-doing; e.ma.t (e.ma.ty-) to cheat; e.ma.tl tricks (Ko.); e.mo.t- (e.mo.ty-) to deceive (To.); ve_ma_r-u to be careless, fall a prey to deceit (Ka.); e_mar-u, e_ma_r-u to be forgetful, be deceived, err; e_mar-incu, e_mar-ucu, e_ma_rcu to make one forget, deceive, take by surprise (Te.)(DEDR 898).

235.Deceit: an.a_ppu (an.a_ppi-) to deceive; an.a_ppi a deceitful woman (Ta.); an.appu deceit, trickery, fraud (Ma.)(DEDR 115).

340.Image: masquerade dance: ayir-pen.t.u a masquerade dance (Cilap. 3,13, At.iya_rk. Urai.)(TED).

376.Image: curved, crooked: ara_la curved, crooked, spreading like the spokes of a wheel; a bent or crooked arm; ara_la-ke_s'i_ a woman with curled hair; ara_la-paks.man having curved eyelashes (Skt.lex.) ar-al wave, ripple (Tiva_.); curl (Perumpa_n.. 162, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

132.Image: creeper: ad.ke-bi_r..ubal.l.i a woody climber, climbing and rooting on the stems of trees, pothos scandens (Ka.); ad.ike-bu_ru, arke-bu_ru a kind of creeper, pothos scandens (Tu.)(DEDR 90). [cf. ba_ru betel leaf (B.< Austro-as.)(CDIAL 9213). ba_rui caste of betel-growers (B.)(CDIAL 9214).] aten combretum decandrum a gregarious scandent shrub, the twigs of which are used to make baskets; at.kir smilax ovalifolia a common jungle climbing plant (Santali.lex.) at.appan.-kot.i hare-leaf, ipomoea biloba, a creeper; at.ampu id. (L.)(Ta.); at.ampu id. (Ma.); at.umpu hare-leaf (Kalit. 132); ad.umbu id. (Ka.Tu.); at.umbu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) an.t.arike a prickly climbing shrub, acacia intsia (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

361.Image: interlacing: aril interlacing as of bamboo stalks growing together, low jungle, thicket, dense bush, bamboo (Ta.); aralu, allu to spread (as a creeper), creep (Te.); all- to spread as a creeper (Ga.)(DEDR 207). Creep; crawl: ir..ayuka to trail, creep, crawl (as infants); ir..a-ja_ti reptiles; ir..accal creeping; e_yuka to creep (Ma.); de~_ku, de~_kuru, d.e~_ to creep or slide along the ground on posteriors (Te.)(DEDR 508). u.nj- to move along by jerks, (child) moves over ground on bottom by jerking along (Ko.); u_z- (-it-) to crawl or creep (child, ants, snake etc.); u_s ki- to move on posteriors (as children)(Kond.a); u_s- (-it-) to slide, roll (Kuwi)(DEDR 736). u_r (-v-, -nt-) to move slowly, creep (as an infant), crawl (as a snake), circulate (as blood), extend over surface (as spots on the skin), flow (as juice from the sugar-cane); (-pp-, -tt-) to suck; u_ral creeping thing, eruptive patch on the skin (Ta.); u_ruka (u_rnn-) to creep (as snake); (u_ri-) to glide down, slip, crawl; u_ran snake, reptile; u_ral sensation of something creeping on the body, itching sensation (Ma.); u_r-, u_r-- (-it-) to crawl on knees, as infants (Kond.a)(DEDR 749). niran.n.uka to drag the tail or feet along the ground, creep, crawl; nirakkuka to push, shove; nirakkam, niran.n.al crawling on the ground (Ma.); nerumu to move on posteriors (Te.)(DEDR 3749).

255.Image: crack: a_n.e a crack; a_n.e-bid.u to crack or burst (Ka.M.); a_n.isu to crack or burst under the influence of the sun's heat, especially wood (Ka.M.); cf. a_n.i, an.n.e-kal a hailstone (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

160.Image: split; splinter: at.aruka to burst, crack, slit off, fly open; at.ar a splinter; at.arcca splitting, a crack; at.arttuka, at.attuka to split, tear off, open (an oyster)(Ma.); ad.aruni to crack (Tu.)(DEDR 66). Image: broken grain: adru broken grain (Malt.); adar the waste of pounded rice, broken grains (Kur.)(DEDR 134). at.ar-tal to fashion, mould by beating (Pur-ana_. 29)(Ta.lex.) Image: to pound in mortar; to harrow: at.ar-ttal to press down (Te_va_. 509,8)(Ta.lex.) dancu, d.ancu to pound, beat, clean grain in a mortar (Te.); dangu, d.angu to be pounded or cleaned (as rice, etc.); dampu to pound, beat, clean grain in a mortar (Te.); at.ukulu rice wetted, parched and flattened, beaten rice (Te.); at.t. to strike (Pa.); ma_va at.t. to harrow (Pa.); pot.kul at.t. to snap fingers, to clap hands (Pa.); d.ak- (-t-) to beat, strike, beat (as a drum); d.as- (-t-) to pound (as paddy or any raw grain)(Kond.a); d.a_mba (d.a_mbi-) to pound, crush by pounding (Kui); d.amb- (-it-) to be broken; d.ap (-h-) to break (Kuwi)(DEDR 77).

487.Image: claw of a crab: al.a the claw of a crab; al.a-chinno kakkat.ako; the nails (of finger or toe); al.a-chinna ?one whose nails are cut off (Pali.lex.) 487.Image: claw of a crab: al.a the claw of a crab; al.a-chinno kakkat.ako; the nails (of finger or toe); al.a-chinna ?one whose nails are cut off (Pali.lex.) Image: crab: alavan- crab (Ci_vaka. 516); male crab (Pin..); cancer of the zodiac (Ta.lex.) Image: forceps of an insect: a_l sting or forceps of an insect (B.); a_la source of pain (OG.); a_l.aka thorn, sting, dart (Pali); a_la poison (RV.); discharge of poisonous matter from venomous animals (Sus'r.); a_la_kta smeared with poison (RV.)(CDIAL 1352). Image: clamp: al. clamp, iron band to hold parts together (Pin..); block connecting the spring with the axle; alaku-p-pu_t.t.u locking the mouth by a wire running through the cheeks, in fulfilment of a vow (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: seizing: a_lambha seizing; a_labha taking hold, touching (Ka.lex.) alaku, alavu jaw, mandibles, bird's beak (Ta.); upper portion of the jawbone (Ma.); halaku the lower part of the cheek (Ka.)(DEDR 239).

43.Centre of a potter's wheel: akha_r small lump of clay placed in the centre of a potter's wheel (H.); aks.a_ka_ra shaped like a die (Skt.)(CDIAL 40).

357.Image: dice: a_yam dice (Tiva_.); cast of dice in a game (Kalit. 136,5); gambling (Kur-al., 939)(Ta.lex.)

56.Image: die: aks.a, akka, accu (Tadbhava of aks.a) a die for playing with; akka-da_ya, akka-da_l.a a die at play (Ka.); the tree beleric myrobalan, terminalia belerica the seed of which is used as a die; cf. ta_r-e ; aks.a-da_ma a string of rudra_ks.a beads (Ka.); aks.ade_vi a gamester; aks.adhu_rta id. (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: dice: aks.a a die for gambling (RV.); akkha a die, small weight (Pali); accha a die [cf. accu mould (Ta.)]; akkha a die (Pkt.); aka dice (OSi.); k a measure of weight (OSi.); aks.a the tree elaeocarpus ganitrus (Sus'r.); its seed(of which rosaries were made and which were used for dice)(Skt.); a_kh the tree croton oblongifolius (N.); aka the tree terminalia belerica and its seeds (which are used for rosaries and a measure of weight)(OSi.)(CDIAL 22). aks.ama_la_ string of rosary beads (Skt.); aks.ama_lin name of S'iva (MBh.); akkhama_la_ rosary (Pkt.); akmala id. (Si.)(CDIAL 35). *aks.ada_ruka a partic. tree (Skt.); as.kro_ pine (Dm.); acha_ru id. (Phal.)(CDIAL 30). cf. semantic link with 'gambling' and 'eye. a_yam dice; cast of dice in a game; gambling (Kur-al.,939)(Ta.lex.) cf. luck fortune good or ill; good fortune. prob. origin as a gambling term--Low German luk, Middle High German gelucke, formed on ge- Y- + a base of unknown origin; the Low German word was adopted in Icelandic, Old Swedish lukka etc. Hence lu.cky (ODEE). Good sign: lakkhi_ good fortune, wealth (Pali); laks.mi good sign, fortune (RV.)(CDIAL 10890). [whence laks.a 1000,000 (Ya_j.); prize (MBh.); lakkha (Pali.Pkt.); lak (Sh.); lach (K.); lakhu (S.); lakh (L.); lakkh (P.WPah.) la_kh (Ku.N.A.B.H.Marw.); la_kh (Mth.Aw.G.M.); la_kha (Or.); na_kha (Or.)(CDIAL 10881).[cf. Concordant semantic structures: no_kkal a look (Ma.); no_kkam aim, intention, indication, sign (Ta.); view, eye (Ma.)(DEDR 3794). laks.a mark, sign (MBh.); aim (Skt.); laks.ya aim (Skt.); lakkha mark, target, stake in gambling (Pkt.); la_kha, na_kha aim,distinguishing mark (Or.); la_s mark made by cautery (M.); lak-a sign, object, end (Si.)(CDIAL 10881)].

20.Desire: an:gla.pm desire, liking (Ko.); an:kala_y (-pp-, -tt-) to be envious, covet, grieve (Ta.); an:gal to grieve, be afflicted (Ka.); an:galappu, an:gala_pa covetousness; an:gu greed; an:gid.ipini to be greedy, covetous; an:gipuni to wish, be greedy of; an:gele a greedy person, glutton (Tu.)(DEDR 31).

473.Image: crab: a_ru a crab (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

281.Unclean: amE purification after childbirth (Ka.); am ceremonial impurity or defilement in case of birth (Tu.); emsna_ to allow (oneself or one's food) to be defiled by someone of a different caste; emsrna_ to touch, come in contact with, defile (by touch, unlawful relations etc.)(Kur.)(DEDR 171). cf. musuru unclean (Ka.lex.)

392.First distilled, strong; soma: a_rga_ pl. thanks (religious); a_rga_ di give thanks or glorify god (Kon.lex.) a_gani first distilled, strong (A.); a_grayan.i_ oblation of first fruits (Ka_tyS'r.); a_grayan.a the first soma libation at the agn.is.t.oma sacrifice (VS.); agran.i_ti the first offering (RV.)(CDIAL 1052). Offering; valuable: argha an offering of various ingredients (rice, flowers, water etc., or of water only) to gods or venerable men; arghya valuable; venerable; an offering of various ingredients to gods or venerable men; argal.a greatness, eminence (Ka.lex.) agghiya respectful oblation to a guest, column of honour decked with garlands, etc. (Pali.); valuable (Pali.Pkt.); adorned (Pkt.); ga_ festoon work, bouquet (Si.); arghya valuable; deserving respectful reception (as a guest)(Pa_rGr..); agha respectful offering (KharI.); a_ghu, a_gha guest (OG.); gi precious (Si.); aggha valuable (Pkt.)(CDIAL 633). argh respectful reception of guest (S'Br.); value, price (Mn.); aggha price (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 630). Valuable: agghan., agha_van. to fetch a good price (L.); aganava_, aginava_ to be worth (Si.); rghati is worth (Pali); aggha_pe_ti values, appraises (Pali); agghai is worth, is fit (Pkt.); aghan.u to be sold, be profitable; agha_ijan.u to be sold (Si.)(CDIAL 632). Price; cheap: aggha respectful offering (KharI.); aghu market price (S.); aggh (L.); a_ghi_ interest in kind on seed-corn (Bi.Mth.); a_gh price (H.); aga (Si.)(CDIAL 630). a_kiro risen in price, dear (S.); a_kra_ high priced (B.); costly, urgent (Or.); akra_ costly (H.); a_kru~ costly, difficult, hot-tempered (G.)(CDIAL 1014). agghan.a price, in cmpd. -agghanaka having the value of (Pali); agana_ precious (Si.)(CDIAL 631). arghya used at a reception for a respectful guest; water offered at such reception (A_s'vGr..); aggha valuable (Pali)(CDIAL 633). argha, agga price, cost, worth (Ka.lex.) cf. agguva cheap price (Te.lex.) akkam an ancient coin = 1/12 ka_cu (S.I.I. ii,123)(Ta.lex.) Rare, precious: arukku to regard as precious; n. scarceness (Ta.); to make scare, reduce (Ta.); arukka_n.i rareness, preciousness (Ta.); arun:ku, anuntal, aruvam rareness (Ta.); aru rare, unusual (Ma.); ark- (arky-) to use up extravagantly (Ko.); aradu, aridu, arudu that is impossible, wonderful (Ka.); arudu rare, scarce, excellent; n. rarity, marvel, surprise (Te.); aridi rare, uncommon, wonder (Te.)(DEDR 221). cf. adbhuta wonderful (Skt.lex.) cf. ar-pputam wonderful (Ta.lex.) arukku (arukki-) to show disinclination in a bargain (Maccapu. Can:kira_. 11); arukka_n.i reluctance to accommodate, closeness in a bargain (Ta.); ark- (arky-) (father) refuses to repay daughter's bride-price (Ko.)(DEDR 223). rhati is worth, is able, deserves (RV.); arahati deserves (Pali); layun to be worth (so much in the market)(K.)(CDIAL 691). rhant deserving (RV.); worthy (Skt.); arahanta Buddhist mendicant (Pali); arahatan.a (KharI.); araham.ta, ariham.ta (Pkt.); rahat, ra_t honoured, saint (Si.)(CDIAL 692). Cheap: cf. argha price, value (Mn.)(CDIAL 630). srogu, sogu cheap (K.); cf. drogu dear (K.)(CDIAL 13911). drogun to become dear (K.); dra_g famine (Sh.); high price, famine (K.); dra_gaz (Kal.); draganz (Kho.); derganj (Werch.); dragu dear (Slav.)(CDIAL 6426). agga, hagga (Tadbhava of argha) worth, value, price; proper price, the cheapness of commodities; cheapness; cheap (Ka.); agguve (Te.); agga (Tu.); cheapness, worthlessness (Ka.Tu.); aggadava a lewd or mean man; agga pa_d.u a cheap manner, cheapness; agga_l.u a low man (Ka.lex.)

22.Dowry: an:gu, han:gu obligation (Tu.lex.) an:kaman.i dowry in the form of jewels, clothes, furniture, vessels etc. which a married girl takes with her to her new home (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 37, Vya_.); id. (Ka.); an:kam a petty cess (T.A.S. iii,266); an:kaman.i-k-ku_t.ai a basket of presents to a bride; an:kaman.ippan.am dowry money (S.I.I. vi,152)(T.E.D.) an:ka-man.i < an:ga + dowry which a married girl takes with her, ci_tan-am (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 37, Vya_. 121); an:gaman.i id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) an:ga-man.i a present given in a girl's marriage, or in her first pregnancy after her marriage (Ka.lex.) an:ka-k-kal.ari < an:ka + honours to liberal donors, in a temple (Ta.lex.) cf. a_yerma_n, a_verma_n money given by the parents of the bride to the parents of the bridegroom, pledge of marriage (Kon.lex.) cf. a_ndan. dower (native paraphernalia) (Kon.lex.) an:g laga_un.a to unite or join (as in marriage)(P.); an:g san:g relationship, kin (P.lex.) ahe_ra donation, gift (M.)(Ka.lex.) an:ganai woman (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. aran.a nuptial present (Ka.lex.)

29.Interjection of doubt: a_ho_ interjection of question or doubt (S'Br.)(CDIAL 1548). a_ interj. expr. pity, regret; wonder, admiration; contempt (Ta.); a_ ah! (Ma.); ah. interj. expr. astonishment or admiration, (also akh) contempt or unconcern; a_, a_h. interj. of surprise or pain (Ka.); ah, aha ah! eh! (Tu.)(DEDR 332). ha_ alas! (MBh.); haha_ (Skt.); ha_ exclamation of sorrow or pain (Pali.Pkt.K.S.); id. (Ku.N.A.B.); id. (Or.H.M.); ha~_ (G.)(CDIAL 14049). Wonder:{Echo word} akkat.a excl. of wonder (Ta.); ak(k)at.a, ak(k)at.akat.a_, kat.akat.a_ interj. expr. pain, sorrow, distress, envy, displeasure, wonder, surprise (Ka.); ak(k)at.a_, akat.akat.a alas! what a pity!; akkat.ika(mu) pity, mercy, compassion; kat.(t.)a_ alas! (Te.); a_h- kas.t.am, ha_ kas.t.am, kas.t.am alas! (Skt.); a_kat.t.a id.; akkat.a (Ap.)(DEDR App.1). akkaja, ar..kaja wonder, surprise; a wonderful thing (Ka.); akkajamu wonder, surprise, astonishment; akkaja pad.u to wonder (Te.); akajaka a_va to be dumbfounded, confounded, confused through fear and awe (Kui)(DEDR 20). aduhu to be perplexed, suffer doubt, become suspicious (Ka.); adangi surprise, astonishment, wonder, fear; adj. surprising, wonderful; a. a_va to be surprised, astonished, wonder at, fear; adlangi bewildered (Kui); addajakka aiyali to be surprised; a. ki_ali to surprise (Kuwi)(DEDR 139). amparakka to be confounded, perplexed; amparappu perplexity (Ma.); amberpu hurry (Ka.); ambarappu hurry, confusion, perplexity (Tu.)(DEDR 172). cf. par-apar-a (-pp-, -tt-) to hasten, hurry; par-ati overhastiness, over-anxiety; par-appan- hasty person; par-appu flying, haste, anxiety (Ta.); pa_runi to run, fly, escape (Tu.)(DEDR 4020). akan.u to be bothered (S.); akkan. to be vexed (L.); akkn.a_ (P.); aka_ foolish, bewildered (Or.); akabaka nonsense; akabakin.o to be puzzled (Ku.); akabakka, akamakka perplexed (N.)(CDIAL 15). ubbega anxiety; sa_pekkha anxious (Pali.lex.)

387.Door: arari_ leaf of a door (Skt.); arari door-leaf, door (Pkt.)(CDIAL 605). a_ri door; cf. arari (Ta.lex.) arari the leaf or panel of a door; kava_t.a, kada (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

224.Image: wild dog: an.d.ikam a wild dog, cyon dukhunensis; a red wild dog, canis dukhenensis = canis primaerus (Ca_mpacivam Pil.l.ai Akara_ti)(Pin..)(T.E.D.; Ta.lex.)

105.Image: dog: acur..am dog (Tiruppu. 132); cf. asura dog (Te.)(Ta.lex.) sun.e dog (Kon.lex.)

301.Disgrace: ayas'as disgraced (S'Br.); infamy (R.); ayasa disgrace (Pkt.); infamy (Si.)(CDIAL 588). yas'as splendour, renown (RV.); yasas fame, success (Pali); yas'o, yaso (As'.); jasa (Pkt.); jas' curative influence; jas respect (WPah.); jas fame (Ku.N.); jasa praise, credit (Or.); jas fame (Mth.Aw.H.G.); success (M.); yasa, yaha honour; adj. good, beautiful; yehen adv. well, prosperously (Si.)(CDIAL 10443). yas'asvin famous (AV.); yasassin famous (Pali)(CDIAL 10443a). niryas'aska inglorious (MBh.); nijassi_ inglorious, infamous (H.)(CDIAL 7381). ayasa disgrace; ayasakara disgraceful (Pali.lex.) occiyam amorous speech, contempt; occiya-col to speak libidinously (Ta.); occiya, occi, occaya, occeya disgrace, opprobrium, impropriety, a lewd expression, contempt (Ka.); occemu disgrace, indignity, insult (Te.)(DEDR 942). occi, oci woman's breast (nursery) (Ta.); on:gu teat, pap (Ka.)(DEDR 943). oci (-v-, -nt-) to be coy, bashful; occi, oci (-pp-, -tt-) to feel abashed, be shy; occam bashfulness, shyness (Ta.); occam id. (Ma.)(DEDR 939).

281.Unclean: amE purification after childbirth (Ka.); am ceremonial impurity or defilement in case of birth (Tu.); emsna_ to allow (oneself or one's food) to be defiled by someone of a different caste; emsrna_ to touch, come in contact with, defile (by touch, unlawful relations etc.)(Kur.)(DEDR 171). cf. musuru unclean (Ka.lex.)

170.To dye: addu to dip, dye, print with colours; to blot (Te.); adap to blot (Ga.); addincu to get or have dyed; addakamu dying with colour, chintz-printing (Te.); ar..du, addu, ajju, eddu to dye, dip, immerse; sink in a fluid; addike, adduge immersion (Ka.); arduni to wash or bleach clothes (Tu.); aj to dip into liquid, dunk (Ko.); ar..uttu strong texture, full of dregs (Ma.); closeness of texture as of cloth (Ta.); ar..untuka to be immersed, plunge (Ma.); ar..untu to be immersed (Ta.)(DEDR 285). bud.ai to dip; bud.a_p dip (Kon.lex.) t.ub to dip head (Santali.lex.) To be absorbed; to be deep: astha_gha very deep (Jain.Skt.); attha_ha (Pkt.); atha_hu bottomless (S.); atha_h deep, unfordable (P.); atha_ excessive (Ku.); bottomless (N.); a_tha_uni out of one's depth (A.); atha_h unfathomable, bottomless (Mth.H.G.)(CDIAL 980). atthaggha deep (Pkt.); atha_g, atha_k bottomless (G.); atha~_g, atha_k (M.)(CDIAL 981). cf.stha_gha base, bottom, ford, shallow (Skt.)(CDIAL 13748). a_r.. to sink, be absorbed, be deep (Ta.); to sink in a fluid, immerse (Ka.); a_r..a, a_r..du id. (Ka.); a_r..ttuka, a_ttuka to sink, immerse (Ma.); a_r..va_r one who is deep in meditation on the Supreme Being, the ten Vais.n.ava canonized saints (Ta.); a_r..uva_r title of the twelve Vis.n.u saints (Ma.); a_d.uva_ralu, a_d.uva_l.l.u the Vaishnava saints (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 396). a_ga_l.a strong, rough (Pali); a_ga_d.ha strong, very deep (Pkt.); a_r.a_hu prodigious; a deep hole in a river where the water rushes in violently; prodigy (S.)(CDIAL 1047). atha, athan, athan thar deep, great, very enormously, unfathomable, bottomless; athan maran. hathi manaetaea he has an enormously large elephant; athah dak very deep water (unfathomable) (Santali.lex.)

28.Image: a small drum: a_kul.i a kind of small drum (Maturaik. 606)(Ta.lex.); id. (Ma.); a_kati id. (Ma.)(DEDR 337). cf. a_ku_l. agitated (M.); a_kula confused, entangled (Pali)(CDIAL 1012). Image: tangled; confusion: akkili-p-pikkili confusion, confusion of mind (Ta.){Echo word}; akkul.isu to fear, finch, withdraw (Ka.); akkilipad.u to be confused, bewildered (Te.)(DEDR 25). a_ul.a_-ba_ul.a_ dishevelled, confused (Or.); a_kula confused (MBh.); filled with, crowded (R.)[cf. vya_kula, sam.kula 'confused'(Skt.)]; a_kula, a_kulaka confused, entangled (Pali); a_ula (Pkt.); a_ul tangled; a_uliba to derange; a_uliya_ tangled (A.); a_ula (MB.);[cf. va_gura net or trap for animals (MBh.)(CDIAL 11469)]; elo dishevelled; a_lua_ila, ela_la let loose (of the hair)(B.); avul perplexed, full; avula confusion (Si.); akkula confused (Pali); ukal-ta_kul great anxiety (Ku.); a_kul.a, a_kul.a_, ka_ul.a_ perplexed, astonished (Or.); a_kla_ peevish; a_kli_ agitation; akula_na_, ukla_na_ to be confused, be restless (H.); a_kula bewildered (OG.); a_kl.u~ bewildering; akl.a_vu~ to be perplexed (G.); a_ku_l. agitated (M.)(CDIAL 1012). a_kulam confusion, agitation, flurry (Tirukko_. 12); pomp, idle sound (Kur-al., 34); grief, sorrow (Kantapu. Kuma_rapuri. 48); a_kulittal to be distressed (Kampara_. Pirama_t. 193)(Ta.lex.) avalam suffering, pain; avali to be flurried; a_vala_ti complaint (Ta.); vexation, grumbling (Ma.); ha_val.i trouble (Ka.Tu.); a_vali trouble; a_vad.i id., danger (Te.); avale_nging to become confused, feel embarrassed (Br.)(DEDR 265). an:gal, am.r..al, am.yal, ar..al, an:gala_cike crying from grief; an:gala_cisu to cause to lament; an:gala_cu to cry from grief; to grieve or sorrow (Ka.); an:kala_y (Ta.Ma.); an:gala_rcu (Te.); an:gala_pu lamentation, grief; an:gala_rpu (Te.); an:kala_yppu (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

378.To drop: ra_lu to fall or drop down (of leaves, tears etc.); ra_l(u)cu, ra_l(u)pu to cause to fall or drop down, knock off or down; ra_l(u)pu falling or dropping down, causing to fall or drop down (Te.); ra_l- (ra_t.-) to fall; ra_p- to fell (Kol.); ra_l- (ra_t..-) to fall out; ra_lp- to make to fall out (Nk.); ar-, arra_na_ to fall; caus. arhutta_na_, arahta_na_, arsahta_na_, arih-/arh-, arah-, arusa_na_ to cause to fall; ra_l- to fall (Go.); ar- id.; arap- to fell, make to fall (Kond.a); ar- (-t-) to fall; ve_r.a arbond. setting of the sun, west; rat- (-t-) to let fall, drop; motion ratka-; intens. ratpa- (Pe.); re- (-t-) to fall, descend, (sun) to set; ret- to let fall, drop (Mand..); ri_ali, ri_'nai, ri_- to fall (Kuwi)(DEDR 233).

208.Drugs: a_t.u~carakku mineral substances which evaporate on the fire, as mercury, sulphur (R.); drugs (W.)(Ta.); atakam < agada (metath.) medicine, medicament (Ci_vaka. 403)(Ta.lex.)

126.Dry: at.t.a dried, dry (Ka.Skt.); at.t.u the state of being free from fluidity; at.t.uppu salt produced by evaporation; sea-salt (Ka.); at.t.isu to cause to evaporate by boiling or the agency of natural heat (Ka.); at.t.u to evaporate on account of artificial or natural heat, to become dry (Ka.); at.an.e_m. to waste or dry up, as the body, a well; to wear and waste through teasing or tormenting (M.); cf. at.a weariness (Ka.); at.a-at.a, at.a_pha_t.a vehement efforts, toil, pains; the state of exhaustion, that of being harassed etc. (M.)(Ka.lex.) at.t.-uppu salt produced by evaporation (Ka.); id. (Tailava. Taila. 129)(Ta.lex.) at.u_ dried, dry (Skt.lex.) at.t.-uppu salt produced by evaporation (Ta.); at.t.u to evaporate, dry up; at.t.isu to cause to evaporate by boiling; at.t.-uppu salt produced by evaporation; an.t.arisu to evaporate, as water by boiling (Ka.); ad.ugan.t.u to dry up, become exhausted; at.t.-uppu a kind of salt (Te.); at.t.a dried, dry; at.t.ai becomes dry (Pkt.); at.n.e~ (M.)(DEDR 76).

15.Image: drain: an:kan.am drain, sewer (Na_lat.i. 175)(Ta.lex.)

181.Image: drum: antari a kind of drum (Cilap. 3,27, At.iya_rk. Urai.); antari id. (Ma.)(T.E.D.)

188.Eight: et.t.u eight (Ta.Ma.); en.-patu eighty (Ta.Ma.); et. eight (Ko.); em bat eighty (Ko.); ot. eight; pu.t. eighteen (To.); en.t.u eight; en.bar eight persons; en.-pattu, em-battu eighty (Ka.); et.t.i eight; et.t.ane eithth; em-badi eighty; et.-nu.ri 800 (Kod..); en.ma, en.uma eight; en.pa eighty (Tu.); enimidi eight; enaman.d.ru eight persons; enu-badi, enubodi eighty; enaman(n)u_r-u 800 (Te.); enumadi_, enumidi_, enumdi eight; enma_ter, enma_t.ar eight persons (Kol.); ar.mur, ar.mul, armur, yermud eight; enmi_di_, tenmidi id.; ar.muhk eight each (Go.)(DEDR 784). iral, irel, iril short form of the cardinal numeral, iralia eight; iral-hor.o, irel-hor.o, iril-hor.o to be eight people doing a certain work; iralia, irelia, irilia cardinal numeral eight; to make eight specimens of something; iralialeka, irelialeka, irilia leka approximative numeral, about eight, some eight; iralsa, irelsa, irilsa proportional numeral, adv. eight times (Mu.lex.) iral eight; adhuli eight anna piece; gel iral eighteen; iral gel, asi eighty (Santali.lex.) [Note the prefix ir- in Mu. and Santali etyma; this may connote 'two' consistent with the dual in as.t.au eight (Skt.)] u_r-et.t.u committee of eight members of the village assembly (u_r); taxes payable for the expenses of the committee (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) e_t.h eight (K.); as.t.a, as.t.au eight (RV.); at.t.ha (Pali.Pkt.); at.ha (NiDoc.); os.t. (D..); o_s.t. (Ash.); us.t., wus.t. (Kt.); o_s.t., wo_s.t. (Wg.); a_ste_ (Pr.); as.t. (Dm.); a_xt (Tir.); a_s.t.a, axt. (Pas'.); a_s.t. (Shum.); o_s.t. (Gaw.); as.t. (Kal.); os.t. (Kho.); ac. (Bshk.); a_t.h (Tor.Kand.Mai.Savi.N. A.Mth.Bhoj.Aw. H.Marw. G.M.); as.t. (Phal.); a~_s. (Sh.); ot.h, a_ht. (K.); at.ha (S.); at.t.h, at.h (L.); at.t.h (P.WPah.); a_t. (B.); a_t.ha (Or.); at.a (Si.)(CDIAL 941). at.hyo eight above (used as a prefix to 100's)(S.)(CDIAL 947). as.t.aka consisting of eight parts (S'Br.); a whole consisting of eight parts (S'vetUp.); at.t.haka an octad (Pali); at.ho the figure 8 (S.); a_t.ha_ (P.); at.t.ha_ aggregate of 8 (H.); a_t.ho the eighth year of a century (G.)(CDIAL 933). at.avaka, at.o_ka the eighth day after new or full moon (Si.)(CDIAL 934). ot.ho_g an eighth share, esp. of land (L.)(CDIAL 936). as.t.ama eighth (RV.); as.t.amaka (Ya_j.); at.t.hama, at.t.hamaka eighth (Pali); at.hama (NiDoc.); at.t.hama (Pkt.); ait.hyumu (K.); at.ho~ (S.); a_t.hva~_ (L.); at.t.ho~ (P.); at.t.hau~ (WPah.); a_t.hau~ (N.); a_t.hava eighth (OAw.); a_t.hwa~_ (H.); a_t.havu (OMarw.); a_t.hmu~ (G.); a_t.hva_, at.hva_ (M.); a_t.hvo (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 937).

391.Brim; edge; near:{Echo word} aruku nearness, vicinity, border (Ta.); arukar, arukal nearness; aruvu to approach (Ta.); aru, aruvu brim, edge, margin; ariku border, edge, brink, neighbourhood; arikattu, arike_, arikil near; arika-var..i way close by (Ma.); aragu, arigu, arugu vicinity, border, edge, margin (Ka.); aru, arugu brim, edge, margin, border (Tu.); arugu to go, pass (of time), come, proceed, walk, approach; ar-u nearness; ar-uta(n), aruta(n) near, close by; arudencu to come, go (Te.); araluk waia_na_ to follow persistently, closely (Go.); arbar-parbar neighbours (Kur.)(DEDR 222). a_ra- pronominal stem in a_ra_t from a distance (RV.); near (Gaut.); immediately (Skt.); a_re_ at a distance (Skt.); a_ra_, a_raka_ far off (Pali); a_ra, a_rilla early, ancient; a_ra_, a_rao_, a_re_n.a before, early, near (Pkt.); o_r on the far side; o_ruku foreign; a_ra-poru from one end to the other; ar-war from that side and this; ryumu-pryumu scattered here and there (K.); a_ro-pa_ri through to the other side (S.); a_r-pa_r through and through (H.G.M.); ara_ near (Or.); a_ra_, aura_ that one (Gypsy); ro, re, pl. ri that (Sh.); ara that one (Si.)(CDIAL 1295).

114.Edge; skirt; cloth; edge of a cloth: an-su selvage, edge of a cloth (Ta.); oc edge, bank of river, border of thicket (To.); acu edge, brim, boundary, bank, shore, selvage, border, skirt (Ka.); ancu skirt, border or selvage of cloth, edge (of sword, etc.), shore, brim (Te.); acala edge or border of garment (Skt.)(DEDR 57). ams'u filament, esp. of soma plant (S'Br.); amsu thread (Pali); sunbeam (Pkt.) a~_h fibre of a plant (A.); a~_su id. (OB.); a~_s fibre of tree or stringy fruit, nap of cloth (B.); fibre, pith (Or.); am.su thread (Pa.); a~_h fibre of a plant (A.); a~_su fibrous layer at root of coconut branches, edge or prickles of leaves (Or.); a~_is' fibre (B.); a~hiya_ fibrous (A.)(CDIAL 4). am.cala hem of a garment (Pkt.); anzolu border of a cloak, shawl, veil (K.); a~_cal fold of a woman's dress (Ku.); border of a garment, small wrap (N.); hem of a garment (B.); border of cloak, etc. (H.); a~_sal border of garment (A.); a~_sala_ a single cloth (A.); a~_cla_ hem of a garment of a goddess (B.); acal.a part of cloth worn over the shoulder, outskirt, district (Or.); acal.a_ embroidered end of a woman's dress (Or.); a~_car, a~cri_ border of a sa_r.i_ (B.); a~_cara woman's body cloth, veil (OMth.); a~_car woman's skirt (Bhoj.); breast (Aw.); a~_cal. udder, teat (G.); a~_cu_l. udder (M.); a~_cl.i_, acl.i_ unwoven threads, fringe (M.); asala_, ahala_ border, margin, environs (Si.); a~cilo cloth for straining (S.); acala_ hem (P.); acal. (M.)(CDIAL 168). am.suya cloth (Pkt.); a~_hu coloured thread (A.); a~_suya_ fibrous, stringy (B.); a~sua_ (Or.)(CDIAL 5). a_cu armour, coat of mail, kavacam (Ta.lex.) a_cu hilt (Ta.); handle of a sword (Ka.)(DEDR 342).

109.To resound, echo: a_spa (a_st-) to reply, resound, echo; n. an answer, echo (Kui); a_h'nai (a_st-) to resound; a_stanasi a listener; a_h- (a_st-) to speak up to, give answers; a_spa-gat.asi one who speaks up to, responds; a~_spa gro'li echo; a_spi-(-t-) to call one at a distance by shouting (Kuwi)(DEDR 344). anurasa, anurasitam echo, reverberation; anurasita sounding, echoing, accompanied in sound (Skt.lex.)

457.A division of the earth: arivarut.am < hari-vars.a one of nine divisions of the earth, (ampuviyi n-catamuta le_man:ka_r-u marivarut.am: Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 37), i.e. a region where gold spans daily, the ocean and the sky (Ta.lex.)

86.Image: swan: a_s, a_sa_ duck (Kon.lex.) ajam < ham.sa swan (Tiva_.); ham.sa mantra, ajapa_mantiram (Ka_cippu. Tiruve_ka. 28)(Ta.lex.) ham.sa goose (RV.); ham.saka (Skt.); ham.sa goose (Pali.As'.Pkt.); hanza (Sh.); unzu, anzi (K.); haju (S.); ha~_s duck (N.); ha~_h duck, goose (A.); ha~_s (B.); swan (Or.); duck, goose, swan (H.); goose (G.M.); ha_m.si_ (OG.); a~_s drake (Konkan.i); has goose, flamingo, swan; hasa f. (Si.); as signet ring of Sinhalese kings bearing figure of a goose (Si.); hasin inst. sg. (OSi.); ha~s goose (P.); hou~s swan (WPah.)(CDIAL 13937). kalaham.sa a species of goose (MBh.); kalaham.saka (Skt.Pkt.); kalahas a species of swan with red beak and feet (Si.)(CDIAL 2923). ham.se, ace, pam.se, ham.sa a goose, a gander, a swan, a flamingo, a duck (Ka.lex.) Image: caret: ham.sapa_da a mark (+) which shows that something omitted in the line is inserted at the top, at present represented also by a caret (^)(Ka.lex.)

477.Image: elephant: alliyan- (Ta.Ma.) stray elephant separated from the fold; alliyam (prob. ali) Kr.s.n.a's dance when he broke the tusk of the elephant that was set on him by Kamsa, one of 11 ku_ttu (Cilap. 6,48)(Ta.lex.) allian female elephant (Ma.)(DEDR 258). Image: elephant: *a_l elephant? [alakam elephant pepper climber, a_n-aittippili (Malai.)(Ta.lex.)] vya_la vicious elephant (Skt.)(CDIAL 12212). vya_laka a vicious or wicked elephant (Skt.lex.) al-a_yya epithet o Inda (to be gone to)(RV. ix.67.30)(Vedic.lex.) alliyan- stray elephant separated from the fold (W.)(Ta.lex.) a_la_na the post to which an elephant is tied (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) a_lai elephant stable or stall (kalir-u ce_rn talkiya var..un:ka la_lai : Pur-ana_. 220,3)(Ta.lex.) alli-p-pa_vai puppets used to exhibit alliyam dance (Pur-ana_. 33); ali-p-pe_t.u a dance of Kr.s.n.a (Ta.lex.) aira_van.a Indra's male elephant (Skt.Ka.); regent of the east quarter; one of the chiefs of the serpent race (Ka.); aira_vata Indra's male elephant (Skt.); the elephant of the east quarter (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ayira_van.am Indra's elephant (Pin..); elephant of Kaila_sa, said to have 2,000 tusks, vehicle of S'iva, kayila_yattil ul.l.a oru ya_n-ai (Te_va_. 713, 1; i_ra_yiramarup pe_yntut.ar-r-at tayan:kuntir-alayira_van.am : Tan.ikaippu. Kal.avu. 92); state elephant (Ci_vaka. 30,46); aira_van.an- Indra; aira_van.am state elephant forming a special feature of the paraphernalia of royalty (Ta.); ayira_n.i consort of Indra (Na_lat.i, 381); ayira_vatam Indra's elephant; aira_vatam Indra's elephant, said to be in the eastern quarter according to mythology, one of as.t.a-tik-kajam (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) ya_l.i < vya_l.a a mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks (Kur-icip. 252); id. (Ka.); elephant (Aka. Ni.); ya_l.i-ya_n-ai id; ya_l.i-y-u_rti Ka_l.i as riding on a ya_l.i (Aric. Pu. Pa_yi. 9)(Ta.lex.) Synonym: pun.d.ari_ka the elephant of the south-east quarter, indhre_bha, ayira_vata; an elephant of one of the eight quarters (Ka.lex.) To dangle; to move: e_lu to hang, to dangle (Ka.); ve_lu, vre_lu (Te.); e_la_d.u to swing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) elugu to shake (Ka.lex.) alai-ttal to move, shake (Tiruvil.ai. Par..iya. 8)(Ta.); alaivu moving, shaking, waving (Ja_n-ava_. Vaira_k. 88)(Ta.); alavu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) al.l.a_t.i-t-tal.l.a_t.i redupl. unsteady swaying to and fro (Ta.lex.) ale that moves to and fro: a wave, a billow; ale to move about, to move to and fro, to shake, to dangle (Ka.); alai (Ta.); allu, agal, alla_t.a moving about; alla_d.isu to cause to be agitated or moved; to shake, to move about, to cause to swing or vibrate, to rock (Ka.); alugu, alaku, ?elugu to be agitated or unsteady, to move about, to shake; to he shaky or loose (Ka.); anajju to shake (Ma.); alan:gu, alun:gu to be in motion; to be weary (Ta.); alukisu to shake (Ka.); alasu, alacu to shake or agitate in water as a cloth, vegetables etc. (for cleansing); allaga_riga a washerman; agasa, at.t.aga_liga id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) alacutal to shake, be agitated (Man.i. 9,7); to rinse (Ta.); alacu (Te.); alasu (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) alambu to shake in or wash with, water (Ka.Tu.); alamu (Ta.Te.)(Ka.lex.) a_lambana hanging from down; a_lo_d.ana mixing, blending; stirring, shaking, agitating; a_lo_la trembling slightly, rolling as an eye; (Ka.); olahu swinging to and fro; a swing; ole, one to swing, to wave, to shake, to tremble; to move; to move in a swinging manner, i.e. to move with artificial appearance or show; to shake (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) {The possible transformation of a_l.- a_n-- might have been influenced by the use of the common affixes: a_ne a common affix for the third person singular masculine of the present that is used in modern times (Ka.lex.); a_l.u, ahal.u the femine of a_nu, e.g. banda_l.u, bad.ida_l.u, idda_l.u; a_nu, ahanu a common affix for the third person singular masculine of the present, conveying the meaning of uncertainty or mere possibility (Ka.lex.) To connote a male elephant e.g., aira_vata, *a_l- a_ne is a possibility}. Image: rope, elephant: a_la_na post to tie an elephant to (Mr.cch.); tethering rope for an elephant (Skt.); a_l.a_na, a_la_na elephant post (Pali); a_la_n.a, a_n.a_la bond, rope or post for tying an elephant (Pkt.); a_la_n elephant post (B.); ala_n post or rope for tying an elephant (Hi.); alana elephant post (Si.); alun.a post to which an animal, esp. elephant, is tied (Si.)(CDIAL 1372). a_la_van.a rope for binding (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1377). a_da_na fettering (AV.)(CDIAL 1148).

363.Image: pebbles used for counters: aralai stone broken for roads; ari pebbles or gems or pieces of metal put into women's anklets to make them tinkle; aril gravel, small sharp pebble (Ta.); arl jackstraws, pebbles used for counters (To.)(DEDR 209). cf. paral pebble, seed, stone of fruit (Ta.)(DEDR 2959). Lines in the white of the eye: ari lines in the white of the eye; alari id. (Ta.); ari a disease of the eye (Ka.)(DEDR 218). alaku number, calculation, cowries (as signs of number in reckoning)(Ta.); alu cowrie (Kod..)(DEDR 238).

485.Contrary; misfortune: ali_ka unpleasing (AV.); untrue (MBh.); a little (Skt.)[semant. 'lie' and 'little': cf. co_t. lie (Sh.) ~~ chot.o small (N.)]; alika contrary, false; lie (Pali); ali_ya, aliya useless, untrue; lie (Pkt.); ali a little (N.); al.ia_ untidy, unswept, rubbish, knotty question (Or.); ali_ misfortune (H.); ali_h untrue (H.); el.e idly, uselessly, in vain (G.)(CDIAL 718). allatu or, if not, or else, an adversative conjunction (Ci_vaka. 1745); except as (Tacaiva_. 129); allate_l if not (Kantapu. Mo_n-. 10); allatu_um besides, moreover (Kampara_. Pin.ivi_t.. 22); allal affliction, distress, evil, misfortune, privation (Kur-al., 787); id. (Ma.Ka.); allari id. (Te.); allavai sin, evil (Kur-al., 164); uselessness, fruitlessness; alla_ distress (Paripa_. 6,99); alla_ta adj. which is not, other than, different from (Ce_tupu. Kat.avu. 13); what are not, are different; alla_mal except, besides; without; alla_l prep. except, besides (Kur-al.. 197)(Ta.lex.) avila difficult (Pkt.); auro ill dispositioned (S.); auri_ difficulty, calamity (S.); avl.u~ contrary, obstinate (G.); avalo contrary, perverse, unpropitious (S.)(CDIAL 819).

262.Father: appa, appaya father (Pkt.); a_p address by lower classes for father, grandfather, or old man; a_pat.i father (A.); a_po father (used by shepherds)(G.); a_pa_ term of respect for an elder or of endearment for a son or junior (M.); apa_ elder sister (Or.); a_pa_ id., term of address to an older woman (H.)(CDIAL 500). cf. ba_p father; a_p 3 pl. term of respect for elders (H.lex.) appan-, appu father; term of endearment used to little children or inferiors; appacci father; appa_ttai elder sister; appi mistress of house; elder sister (Ta.); appi mistress of house; elder sister (Ta.); appan father; appu affectionate appellation of boys (Ma.); appa father; frequently added to the proper names of men as a term of common respect; used endearingly to children by their elders; apa father; appu affectionate appellation of boys (Ka.); app father (Kod..); appa, appe` affix of respect added to proper names of men; app mother; appa a mode of calling a mother (Tu.); appa father; mother; elder sister; frequently added to names of men as a term of common respect (Te.); appa father's sister (Kol.); appo/appok (pl. appokul.) wife's younger brother (Nk.); a_po_r.a_l father; maipo_ my father; mi_-a_po_ thy father; tape, tappe, ta_pe father; tappe (his, her) father (Go.); aposi father (with reference to 3rd person)(Kond.a); a_po (pl. a_poru) boy, son; a_pi girl, wife (Kui); appa grandmother (Kuwi)(DEDR 156).

339.Image; eye: ne_tra eye (Kaus'.); netta eye (Pali); n.etta (Pkt.); neta (Si.)(CDIAL 7587). svaks.a handsome-eyed (MBh.) X sune_tra: sun.akkha_ handsome-eyed (P.)(CDIAL 13513). najari, nanjari blind of one eye (Mu.); nazar (Arabic. Oraon. Sadani) (Mu.lex.) cf. nayana eye (MBh.Pali); nen. (G.)(CDIAL 6968). cf. nwi.t. a sight (To.); no_d.u to look, look on, look at, view, behold, look after (Ka.); no_t.a sight, view, vision, aim (Tu.)(DEDR 3794). Image: big eye: net.un:kan. far-sighted eye; long squares in braiding olas; net.un:kan.-vir..u-tal to form big eyes, in braiding olas; net.un:kan.-pa_rvai, net.umpa_rvai capacity to see a long distance (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: dice: netta, letta dice, gambling (Ka.); nettamu gambling; nettam-a_d.u to play at dice, gamble; netta-palaka dice-board (Te.)(DEDR 3742). cf. netra- dice (Skt. acc. to Kittel in Ka. lex.) netta-p-palakai dice-board (Kalit. 94, Urai.); nettapalage id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) netta, letta (Tadbhava of ne_tra : S'abdaman.idarpan.a, 1872, p. 345); the eye; an eye; that which has an eye, eyes or numbers; a die; a cowry used in gaming; gambling; nettadasa_ri a piece used at a kind of backgammon (or at chess, or at draughts); a die; nettada halihe = netta valage; nettada ha_san:gi a die; nettada_t.a playing at backgammon etc.; nettavalage, nettapalage a checkered board (or cloth) used in playing with dice; nettava_d.u to play at backgammon etc. (Ka.); nettiga a gambler; nettigarapisa, nettigarahisa the keeper of a gaming-house (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

302.Image: protrusion of eye-lid; eye disease: ayri a disease of the eye in which the vessels of the lower lid swell much and protrude (Ka.); aviri a certain slight disease that attacks the pupil of the eye (Te.); ahira_, ahe_ra_ a disease of the eye (M.); arma, arama a disease of the eye (Ka.Skt.); ari id. (Ka.); red streaks in the white of the eye (Ta.Te.); akki erysipelas (Ma.Ta.); alaji_ inflammation of the eye (Skt.); ari-gan.n.u an eye afflicted with the ari (Ka.); a_li an inflammation of the eye (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

53.Image: woman with large eyes: a_yata-aks.i, a_yata-ambaki a woman with large eyes; ambaki she who has eyes (at the end of compositions); a_yata extended, long, large (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ampakam < ambaka eye (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) a_yatta_r female companions, female attendants of a lady (Tiruvil.ai. Tiruman.a. 8); a_yam female attendants of a lady (Tirukko_. 7)(Ta.lex.) a_yatam < a_-yata length (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

247.To extinguish: an.ai (-v-, -nt-) to be extinguished; (-pp-, -tt-) to quench, extinguish; an.an:ku (an.an:ki-) to die, be slain (Ta.); an.ayuka to go out (as light); an.aykkuka to extinguish, put out (Ma.); an.e to be extinguished or quenched (Ka.)(DEDR 121).

332.Image: erectness: cf. net.ramu erectness, steepness; erect, vertical, steep, precipitous; nit.ra, nit.ramu (Te.); nit.t.a erect (Te.)(DEDR 3739).

451.Eleusine coracana: eri eleusine coracana (Kod..); ira_ki (Ta.); ra_gi, r-a_yi (Ma.); ra.yi (Ir.); erxy (To.); ra_gi (Ka.Tu.Te.); ra_ga_, ra_gi_ id. (Skt.)(DEDR 812).

375.Image: elephant: ara_la an elephant in rut (Skt.lex.)

317.Image: elephant: cf. ayir- in ayir-kkat.u goad for elephants (Ta.lex.) cf. aira_van.a Indra's elephant; aira_vata id.; an excellent elephant; the elephant presiding over the east (Skt.lex.) Goad for elephants: ayirkkat.u goad for elephants (Cinta_. Ni. 220); ayir-kat.u id. (TED).

174.Image: elephant: a_ta_, a_tini elephant (Si.); hostu (K.)(Bloch, p.415). cf. a_t.t.u to shake (Ta.lex.) atti < hastin elephant; atti-ku_t.am elephant stables (Yaco_tara. 2,21); attiyu_r < hastin + little Conjeevaram which has a Vis.n.u shrine (Ya_p. Vi. 93, Pak. 351)(Ta.lex.) cattiri elephant; cf. adri mountain (Ta.lex.)

410.Elbow: aratni elbow, corner, cubit (RV.); aratnika (Ya_j.); ratni (A_s'vS'r.); ratani cubit (Pali); arayan.i, rayan.i (Pkt.); ruyana (Si.); ulna (Lat.)(CDIAL 603). or.in., u~_ri_ elbow (Ash.); are~ (Kt.); awro_, a~ja (Wg.); wuze (Pr.); irika elbow (S.); arak, arka~, irk, a_ruk (L.); arak (P.)(CDIAL 603). cf. an old k as in elkune (Lith.)(CDIAL 603). aratni a cubit of the middle length, from the elbow to the tip of the little finger, mor..a, kis.ku, hasta (Ka.lex.) rat.t.o arm (Kon.lex.)

262.Father: appa, appaya father (Pkt.); a_p address by lower classes for father, grandfather, or old man; a_pat.i father (A.); a_po father (used by shepherds)(G.); a_pa_ term of respect for an elder or of endearment for a son or junior (M.); apa_ elder sister (Or.); a_pa_ id., term of address to an older woman (H.)(CDIAL 500). cf. ba_p father; a_p 3 pl. term of respect for elders (H.lex.) appan-, appu father; term of endearment used to little children or inferiors; appacci father; appa_ttai elder sister; appi mistress of house; elder sister (Ta.); appi mistress of house; elder sister (Ta.); appan father; appu affectionate appellation of boys (Ma.); appa father; frequently added to the proper names of men as a term of common respect; used endearingly to children by their elders; apa father; appu affectionate appellation of boys (Ka.); app father (Kod..); appa, appe` affix of respect added to proper names of men; app mother; appa a mode of calling a mother (Tu.); appa father; mother; elder sister; frequently added to names of men as a term of common respect (Te.); appa father's sister (Kol.); appo/appok (pl. appokul.) wife's younger brother (Nk.); a_po_r.a_l father; maipo_ my father; mi_-a_po_ thy father; tape, tappe, ta_pe father; tappe (his, her) father (Go.); aposi father (with reference to 3rd person)(Kond.a); a_po (pl. a_poru) boy, son; a_pi girl, wife (Kui); appa grandmother (Kuwi)(DEDR 156).

113.Fear: aege exclamation of fear; asasm usum without fear (Santali.lex.) aju to fear, to feel anxiety; to be afraid of; al.ar-u id. (Ka.); id. (Te.Tu.); acu (Ta.); ajisu to frighten; ajike fear (Ka.); aju-buruka a coward; aju-kul.i a male or female coward (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. s'an:k doubt, fear (Skt.); s'an:ka_ fear, distrust (S'Br.); san:ka_ fear, suspicion (Pali)(CDIAL 12258).

401.Image: lattice, fence: al.i lattice, fence (Ta.Ma.); crib for straw, ma_t.t.ukka_t.i; al.ippa_yccu-tal to construct a lattice (Ta.lex.) cf. ar..i lattice (Ta.); bars of bamboo, lattice (Ma.)(DEDR 279).

189.Fare for ferrying: a_ta_ra fare for ferrying (Skt.); a_tara id. (Skt.); crossing a river (Skt.); a_ta_r fare for being ferried (B.); a_tar id. (B.); a_tara id. (Or.)(CDIAL 1125).

189.Fare for ferrying: a_ta_ra fare for ferrying (Skt.); a_tara id. (Skt.); crossing a river (Skt.); a_ta_r fare for being ferried (B.); a_tar id. (B.); a_tara id. (Or.)(CDIAL 1125).

356.Festival: ayam < aya festival (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

249.Red-wooded fig tree: ya_n-ai, a_n-ai red-wooded fig tree; Synonym: atti country fig, ficus glomerata (Ta.); atti id. (Te.Ka.Ma.Kod..); arti (Tu.); aty (Ko.); oty (To.)(DEDR 144).

374.Image: pipal: aracu pipal (Ta.); caran.am pipal (Ta.lex.) aral.i, aral.e, arase, arise, al.ali, al.l.e the tree ficus religiosa; aral.i-yele, aral.ele a fig leaf; an ornament of that form to cover the privities of young children (Ka.lex.) ra_n.a a leaf (Skt.lex.) aracu ficus religiosa, pipal (Ta.Ma.); arase (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Synonyms: (Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol.III, p.2319): hesar, hissa, pipar (Kolami); jari, pipro, pipul (G.); doguri (Las Bela); tepelhesu (Mundari); hesak (Santali); attasa (Tu.); osto, usto, oshwottho, pippolo (Or.)[cf. jari in G. form concordant with kujara_can-am pipal (Ta.)] arai a tree, prob. pipal (Tolk.); aracu pipal, ficus religiosa (Ta.); aracu, aras'u id. (Ma.); arase (Ka.); ra_vi id. (Ka.Te.); ra.vi id. (Kol.); ra_yi (Kond.a)(DEDR 202). arn.i the piece of wood used for kindling fire by attrition (RV.); the plant premna spinosa the wood of which, like that of ficus religiosa, is so used (Skt.); wood for kindling by attrition (Pali); the tree whose wood is so used (Pkt.); tinder-stick, flint for kindling (Or.); arni_ the tree whose wood is used for kindling by attrition (Or.); rin.i drill for kindling (Si.)(CDIAL 599). cf. kura_l dim, tawny colour (Ta.); brown (Ma.)(DEDR 1776). as'vattha the tree ficus religiosa (AV. < Non-Aryan and unconnected with as'va horse); assattha (Pali.Pkt.); a_sattha, assottha, am.sottha, a_sottha (Pkt.); a~_hat (A.); a_sath (B.); asath, asud (B.); asatu, asat.u, ahat.u the tree ficus tsiela (urticaceae)(Si.)(CDIAL 922). araca_n-am pipal; {cf. kuja place overgrown with plants or creepers, arbour (MBh.); hollow, glen, dell (Pali); ku~jr.a_ caste of vegetable sellers (H.); ku~jr.o vegetable seller, gardener (G.)(CDIAL 3226). Country fig: atti country fig, ficus glomerata (Ta.Te.); f. racemosa (Ma.Ka.); sp. fig (Kod..); arti f. racemosa (Tu.); ata, atam, atavam, atavu id. (Ta.); attin.n.a, accin.n.a green figs of plantains (Ma.); aty f. religiosa (Ko.); oty sp. fig (To.); at.t.ikka_, attikka_ (Si.)(DEDR 144). a_s'vattha belonging to ficus religiosa; its fruit; a_s'vatthi_ (Pa_n..); ?a_sati acanthodium hirtum(the seeds of which are used in medicine)(S.)(CDIAL 1470). Pipal tinder-stick: aran.i pieces of pipal or mesquit wood, used for kindling the sacred fire by attrition; aran.iyin-pur-a-t-tan-alen-a (Pa_rata.Campava.7); to fortify, defend; to adorn (Ta.lex.) aran.i the piece of wood used for kindling fire by attrition (RV.); the plant Premna spinosa the wood of which, like that of Ficus religiosa, is so used (Skt.); flint for kindling, tinder-stick (Or.); wood for kindling by attrition (Pali.Pkt.); rin.i drill for kindling (Si.)(CDIAL 599). Images: pipal and mountain; pile of pots: araca_n.i [aracu + prob. a_n.i spike, point (M. < ani_ka point, edge (RV.); army (Skt.)] branch of the pipal tree; marriage platform, containing a pipal branch; queen; araca_n.i-me_t.ai marriage platform, on which is planted a pipal branch; araca_n.i-k-ka_l pipal branch placed with those of other trees between posts, round which the bridegroom and bride pass in the marriage ceremony; araca_n.i-p-pa_n-ai (Ta.); aire_ni (Te.) large painted earthen pots placed one above another on the marriage platform and often containing bits of gold in water or grain, at.ukku-p-pa_n-ai (Ta.lex.) a_n. mountain, mountain-slope (Kho.)(CDIAL 1110). Mason's trowel: aracilai-k-karan.t.i mason's trowel (shaped like a pipal leaf); karan.t.i spoon or ladle made of metal (Ta.lex.); garit.e, gan.t.e spoon, ladle (Te.); garti spoon (Kol.)(DEDR 1267).

439.Image: fire: a_ral fire (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 376).

168.Fitting: ad.aru to be fit or proper (Te.); at.- to be able (Kond.a); at.ye to be fit, be enough (Malt.); at.u to be fit, becoming, deserving (Ta.); at.ukka to beseem, be proportionate to (Ma.); at.avu regular custom, dexterity (Ma.); ad.agu the state of being fit, agreeableness, beauty (Ka.); ad.avu suitableness, proper way, the state of being sufficient (Ka.); at.t.u fitting, being becoming, or proper (Ka.); ed.i to be able to do (Ka.); at.aivu fitness, propriety; an.t.u to fit (Ta.); a_d.a (a_d.i) to be fitting, suitable, handsome; to suit, fit; pl. action a_t.ka (a_t.ki) (Kui); at.ye to be fit (Malt.)(DEDR 78). ad.ar, ad.aru to be united with or to be joined to, to join (Ka.); at.ar to be close etc.; a crowding together, narrowness, a being straitened (Ta.); ad.al closing with (Ma.); ad.arcu to bring together, to set in readiness, to prepare (Ka.); ad.arincu to make, to perform (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ad.a to be fitting, proper, be suitable, excellent, good; to suit, fit, agree (Kui); at.ai to collect, compact (Ta.); at.ar hem in, to press around (Ta.)(DEDR 84). a~_t.a_ to be contained, close tightly (B.); at.a_unu to be contained, fit into (N.); a_t.iba to tighten (A.); a~_t.a_ closely fitted, insufficient (B.); a_t.na_, at.a_na_ to fit into, join (H.); a_t.wa_na_, a~t.hwa_na_ cram in (H.)(CDIAL 178). Support: an.ai support, prop, protection (Ta.); an.t.ai support (Ta.); an.a support (Ma.); an.a.r by the help of (Ko.); an.d.e support, prop (Ka.); an.d.a support (Te.)(DEDR 123). an.ai a yoke of oxen, with an ordinal number prefixed, as o_ran.ai, i_ran.ai (Ta.lex.) khat.ao to fit; ha~r.o~p to fit into (Santali.lex.) an.ai to join, put close to, as earth to a tree; to tie, fasten, as animals (kat.t.utal); to tie up in a bunch; to produce (Ta.lex.); an.a yoke, pair (Ma.); an.ayam vicinity, neighbourhood (Ma.); on.c ferrule on stick or pounder (To.); an.i joining, fitness, order (Ka.); an.t.u to come or be in contact with (Ka.); an.epuni to come in contact, press (Tu.); an.t.incu to unite, join (Te.); an.d.a nearness, support, protection, patronage (Te.)(DEDR 120); nan.mai, nan.i nearness, proximity (Ta.)(DEDR 3588).

71.Flax: agase (Tadbhava of atasi) common flax, linum usitatissimum; avasi, avise id.; agasegey a field of flax; agaseya ka_r..i linseed; atasi id.; agaseya hin.d.i the oil-cake of linseed; agaseya hu_ the flower of flax; atasi bengal s'an.a used as hemp, crotalaria juncea (Ka.lex.) cf. agase-na_ru linum usitatissimum (Tu.)(DEDR 3). cf. khoma, umma_ flax; khomamaya flaxen (Pali.lex.) cikno, t.isi, t.isia linum usitatissimum (Santali.lex.) {Linum usitatissimum (Ancient Egyptian mhy; Coptic seeds eypa maze; Modern Egyptian Arabic: plant kitta_n; seeds bizr el-kitta_n) 72.'This well-known annual is cultivated for its stems, which are used in the manufacture of linen, and for its seeds, which produce linseed oil... It is also employed as a lamp oil... Flax was grown from a very early date in Egypt, as finds of the fibres show. The earliest record of linseed oil dates from the Ptolemaic period, but the oil was undoubtedly in use much earlier as a cooking and lamp oil... Leaves of flax, cyperus grass, a liquid and an unidentified ingredient were made into a suppository to treat swelling at the anus (haemorrhoids?) and "heat" in the belly was eased with a preparation containing capsules of the tips of flax... A bandage for the nails of the fingers or toes was made of ochre, linseed, an unidentified part of the sycamore fig, honey and oil or fat.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.116)}. Linum usitatissimum: flaxseed; flachssamen (Ger.); semence de lin (Fr.); part used: the dried ripe seed; habitat: unknown; it is cultivated chiefly in the temperate regions of the eastern and westerin hemispheres; flax is grown for its seed and fiber in nearly all countries within the temperate zones as well as in some ropical regions including Indial; uses: demulcent, emollient and laxative; source of linseed oil; boiled linseed oil is used in the paint industry. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy,Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 483-485).

31.Food; image: trough: aha_r food (P.Ku.); a_ha_ra taking food, food (MBh.); food (Pali.Pkt.); aha_ru (S.); a_ha_ro, a_ro meal (of animals, esp. birds)(N.); a_ha_r food (B.); a_ha_ra food, meal (esp. the feeding of its young by a bird)(Or.); aha_r meal (H.); a_ha_r, ha_r, a_r food eaten at one sitting (G.); a_ha_r food (M.); ahara (Si.); a_ha_ri_, a_ri_, a_riyo glutton (G.)(CDIAL 1544). a_ha_v trough, pail (RV.); a_hu trough of water at a well for watering cattle (S.)(CDIAL 1546). a_vut.aiya_l. receptacle representing divine energy, wherein the Lin:ga is placed (Ci. Ci. 1,69, Nirampa.) (Ta.lex.) a_rhi trough, tray, water-clock (N.)(CDIAL 1106). tagar. a trough (Santali.lex.) a_ha_rayati procures (S'Br.); eats (MBh.); a_ha_re_ti eats, feeds (Pali); a_ha_re_i eats (Pkt.); a_ha_rn.e~, aha_rn.e~ to lie torpid from overeating (M.)(CDIAL 1545). a_ha_ra taking food, food (MBh.); food (Pali.Pkt.); aha_ru (S.); aha_r (P.Ku.); a_ha_ro, a_ro meal (of animals, esp. birds)(N.)(CDIAL 1544). To eat, drink: a_r to become full, spread over, be satisfied, eat, drink; n. fullness, completeness; a_rttu to fill, complete, feed; a_rvu fullness, abundance, eating and drinking; a_ra fully, abundantly; aruntu to eat, drink, experience; aruttu to feed, cause to experience; ari to feed, browse, eat away (Ta.); a_ruka chiefly the inf. a_ra richly, satisfactorily (Ma.); a_r to be united, abound, be filled, teem; a_ra to the full of; a_ru fullness, abundance; to be full of, fully (Ka.); a_runi to distend, grow stout; a_run.e contentment, satisfaction (Tu.); a_ru to become full, be satisfied; a_ra fully, thoroughly; a_nu to eat, drink (Te.)(DEDR 368).

488.Image: fish: alan:ku an armadillo; a kind of fish (tarpon or ox-eye herring)(Tu.lex.)

489.Greasy: aleji, al.eji grease, sticky substance, turbidity; mad.eji po_no_l.u aleji tappandu wherever mad.eji fish moves, turbidity will not be missed. (Tu.lex.)

438.Image: thorny-backed eel, fish: a_ral brownish or greenish sand-eel, rhynchobdella aculeata (Ta.); eel, clitoria ternatea (Ma.); a_ro_n id. (Ma.); a_ra_l id., rich brown throny-backed eel, mastacembalus armatus (Ta.); a_rolu-mi_nu a kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 375).

345.Mackerel, fish: acarai, acalai loach, sandy colour, cobitis thermalis; ayilai a kind of fish (Ta.); ayala a fish, mackerel, scomber (Ma.); aila, ayila a fish; ayira a kind of small fish, loach (Ma.)(DEDR 191). hako fish, cyprinus denticulatus (Santali.lex.) Image: fish: acce a kind of fish (Ka.lex.) Image: fish: ayil to eat (Tiruvil.ai. Uk. Ve_lval.ai. 60); ayilai a fish as edible (ayilai tur..anta vampul.i : Akana_. 60); ayin-i < ayil food (Malaipat.u. 467); ayirai loach, sandy colour, cobitio thermalis, noymmi_n- (Ain:kur-u. 164)(Ta.lex.)

152.Image: fish: at.al a kind of fish; at.alai a marine fish (Ta.); at.ava a kind of marine fish (Ma.); ad.ami_nu a kind of fish; ad.a_vu id. (Tu.)(DEDR 68). ati-y-araiyan- chief of fishermen (Tiruva_lava_. 22,9)(Ta.); ati the valaiya caste (Tiruva_lava_. 22,18)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

409.Image: filter: ravan.aka a filter (BHSkt.); rain channel on block of sugar mill through which juice thrown up flows back (Bi.); ren.i_ first watering before sowing, ingot of gold or silver (P.); ren. cement for metallic objects (G.)(CDIAL 10639). rona_ granule, filing, bit (H.)(CDIAL 10643). ravate_ breaks (Skt.); aor. ra_vis.am (RV.); rewe to eat grain (Kt.); -zu_- (Pr.); zuw-, ju_y- (Pas'.)(CDIAL 10645). Churning: ravaya churning stick (Pkt.); rai_ churn (Ku.); churning stick (H.); ravai_, ravai_yo (G.); ravi_ (M.); raur.o churn made of bamboo; raur.i_ churn, churning stick (Ku.)(CDIAL 10618).

308.Image: filter: arpn.e a kind of filter; arpi- to filter (Ka.); aripuni to sift, strain, filter; aripe sieve, colander, strainer (Tu.)(DEDR 213). parisra_van.a straining vessel, filter (Skt.); parisravati trickles (RV.); parissa_vana water-strainer (Pali); perahana (Si.)(CDIAL 7898). parisrava flow, stream (MBh.); parisra_va efflux (Sus'r.); parisrave, parisave, palisave stream (As'.); parissava stream of events (Pkt.); parasa_ urine (Or.); prasra_va (Skt.); parisutta overflowing (Pali)(CDIAL 7897). savana pressing of soma (RV.); any rite (Ya_j.); Ösu press out (Skt.)(CDIAL 13289). saumya, so_mya term of respectful address (Br.A_rUp.); auspicious (R.); saumya gentle and placid (Mn.); somma gentle, agreeable (Pali); somma, so_ma (Pkt.); soma mild, gentle (OG.); som adj. soft, tender; som, somu mildness, smoothness (Si.)(CDIAL 13620). saumanasa cheerfulness (AV.); saumanasya (Sus'r.); so_manassa happiness (Pali); somnas glad; somnasa contentment (Si.)(CDIAL 13619).

168.Fitting: ad.aru to be fit or proper (Te.); at.- to be able (Kond.a); at.ye to be fit, be enough (Malt.); at.u to be fit, becoming, deserving (Ta.); at.ukka to beseem, be proportionate to (Ma.); at.avu regular custom, dexterity (Ma.); ad.agu the state of being fit, agreeableness, beauty (Ka.); ad.avu suitableness, proper way, the state of being sufficient (Ka.); at.t.u fitting, being becoming, or proper (Ka.); ed.i to be able to do (Ka.); at.aivu fitness, propriety; an.t.u to fit (Ta.); a_d.a (a_d.i) to be fitting, suitable, handsome; to suit, fit; pl. action a_t.ka (a_t.ki) (Kui); at.ye to be fit (Malt.)(DEDR 78). ad.ar, ad.aru to be united with or to be joined to, to join (Ka.); at.ar to be close etc.; a crowding together, narrowness, a being straitened (Ta.); ad.al closing with (Ma.); ad.arcu to bring together, to set in readiness, to prepare (Ka.); ad.arincu to make, to perform (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ad.a to be fitting, proper, be suitable, excellent, good; to suit, fit, agree (Kui); at.ai to collect, compact (Ta.); at.ar hem in, to press around (Ta.)(DEDR 84). a~_t.a_ to be contained, close tightly (B.); at.a_unu to be contained, fit into (N.); a_t.iba to tighten (A.); a~_t.a_ closely fitted, insufficient (B.); a_t.na_, at.a_na_ to fit into, join (H.); a_t.wa_na_, a~t.hwa_na_ cram in (H.)(CDIAL 178). Support: an.ai support, prop, protection (Ta.); an.t.ai support (Ta.); an.a support (Ma.); an.a.r by the help of (Ko.); an.d.e support, prop (Ka.); an.d.a support (Te.)(DEDR 123). an.ai a yoke of oxen, with an ordinal number prefixed, as o_ran.ai, i_ran.ai (Ta.lex.) khat.ao to fit; ha~r.o~p to fit into (Santali.lex.) an.ai to join, put close to, as earth to a tree; to tie, fasten, as animals (kat.t.utal); to tie up in a bunch; to produce (Ta.lex.); an.a yoke, pair (Ma.); an.ayam vicinity, neighbourhood (Ma.); on.c ferrule on stick or pounder (To.); an.i joining, fitness, order (Ka.); an.t.u to come or be in contact with (Ka.); an.epuni to come in contact, press (Tu.); an.t.incu to unite, join (Te.); an.d.a nearness, support, protection, patronage (Te.)(DEDR 120); nan.mai, nan.i nearness, proximity (Ta.)(DEDR 3588).

71.Flax: agase (Tadbhava of atasi) common flax, linum usitatissimum; avasi, avise id.; agasegey a field of flax; agaseya ka_r..i linseed; atasi id.; agaseya hin.d.i the oil-cake of linseed; agaseya hu_ the flower of flax; atasi bengal s'an.a used as hemp, crotalaria juncea (Ka.lex.) cf. agase-na_ru linum usitatissimum (Tu.)(DEDR 3). cf. khoma, umma_ flax; khomamaya flaxen (Pali.lex.) cikno, t.isi, t.isia linum usitatissimum (Santali.lex.) {Linum usitatissimum (Ancient Egyptian mhy; Coptic seeds eypa maze; Modern Egyptian Arabic: plant kitta_n; seeds bizr el-kitta_n) 72.'This well-known annual is cultivated for its stems, which are used in the manufacture of linen, and for its seeds, which produce linseed oil... It is also employed as a lamp oil... Flax was grown from a very early date in Egypt, as finds of the fibres show. The earliest record of linseed oil dates from the Ptolemaic period, but the oil was undoubtedly in use much earlier as a cooking and lamp oil... Leaves of flax, cyperus grass, a liquid and an unidentified ingredient were made into a suppository to treat swelling at the anus (haemorrhoids?) and "heat" in the belly was eased with a preparation containing capsules of the tips of flax... A bandage for the nails of the fingers or toes was made of ochre, linseed, an unidentified part of the sycamore fig, honey and oil or fat.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.116)}. Linum usitatissimum: flaxseed; flachssamen (Ger.); semence de lin (Fr.); part used: the dried ripe seed; habitat: unknown; it is cultivated chiefly in the temperate regions of the eastern and westerin hemispheres; flax is grown for its seed and fiber in nearly all countries within the temperate zones as well as in some ropical regions including Indial; uses: demulcent, emollient and laxative; source of linseed oil; boiled linseed oil is used in the paint industry. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy,Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 483-485).

31.Food; image: trough: aha_r food (P.Ku.); a_ha_ra taking food, food (MBh.); food (Pali.Pkt.); aha_ru (S.); a_ha_ro, a_ro meal (of animals, esp. birds)(N.); a_ha_r food (B.); a_ha_ra food, meal (esp. the feeding of its young by a bird)(Or.); aha_r meal (H.); a_ha_r, ha_r, a_r food eaten at one sitting (G.); a_ha_r food (M.); ahara (Si.); a_ha_ri_, a_ri_, a_riyo glutton (G.)(CDIAL 1544). a_ha_v trough, pail (RV.); a_hu trough of water at a well for watering cattle (S.)(CDIAL 1546). a_vut.aiya_l. receptacle representing divine energy, wherein the Lin:ga is placed (Ci. Ci. 1,69, Nirampa.) (Ta.lex.) a_rhi trough, tray, water-clock (N.)(CDIAL 1106). tagar. a trough (Santali.lex.) a_ha_rayati procures (S'Br.); eats (MBh.); a_ha_re_ti eats, feeds (Pali); a_ha_re_i eats (Pkt.); a_ha_rn.e~, aha_rn.e~ to lie torpid from overeating (M.)(CDIAL 1545). a_ha_ra taking food, food (MBh.); food (Pali.Pkt.); aha_ru (S.); aha_r (P.Ku.); a_ha_ro, a_ro meal (of animals, esp. birds)(N.)(CDIAL 1544). To eat, drink: a_r to become full, spread over, be satisfied, eat, drink; n. fullness, completeness; a_rttu to fill, complete, feed; a_rvu fullness, abundance, eating and drinking; a_ra fully, abundantly; aruntu to eat, drink, experience; aruttu to feed, cause to experience; ari to feed, browse, eat away (Ta.); a_ruka chiefly the inf. a_ra richly, satisfactorily (Ma.); a_r to be united, abound, be filled, teem; a_ra to the full of; a_ru fullness, abundance; to be full of, fully (Ka.); a_runi to distend, grow stout; a_run.e contentment, satisfaction (Tu.); a_ru to become full, be satisfied; a_ra fully, thoroughly; a_nu to eat, drink (Te.)(DEDR 368).

256.Food: anna eaten; food; boiled rice (Skt.Ka.); annar.n.a one's allotment to eat rice in the present birth; the obligation (upon one person to afford a maintenance (to another)(Ka.M.); anna-va_t.ike a shed for cooking rice; anna-s'a_nti feeding the hungry (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

257.Bread; food: appam, a_ppam round cake of rice flour and sugar fried in ghee, thin cake, wafer, bread (Ta.); fried cake, wafer, bread (Ma.); appacci sweetmeat (nursery)(Ta.); ap gal clay plate with 7 or 9 pits, about 3 inches across, for frying cake called pit.a.r. (made of wheat flour and solution of jaggery, and apparently the Ko. equivalent of Ta. appam)(Ko.); appa rice cake (Ka.); a kind of cake fried or baked (Tu.); appacci a cake (term used by children)(Ka.); appamu a kind of sweet cake; appaci, appacci a cake (Te.); appa_ children's food (Br.)(DEDR 155). apu_pa cake of flour (RV.); cake (Pali); pu_pa a kind of cake (MBh.); pu_pala_ a sweet cake fried with ghee or oil (Skt.); pupu cake, bread, pudding (Savara.Mu.); pu_va cake (Pali); apu_va, apu_ya (Pkt.); au bread (Ash.Kal.Shum.); bread, food (Pas'.); wu_w (Kt.); a~_w, o_w (Wg.); a_u (Nin..); awu_ (Dm.); ou (Shum.); avasa food (RV.); pu_pa, pu_va cake (Pali); pu_vika cake-seller (Pali); pu_va, pu_viga_ (Pkt.); puwa_ cake of meal with ghee (Ku.); poi cake (Ku.); puwa_ (N.); pua_ (B.Or.); pu_a_ wheat flour and molasses cooked in ghee or oil (Bi.); pu_ (Mth.); cake made of flour and sugar and fried in ghee (H.); pua_ id. (H.); cake (Bhoj.Aw.); puva_ cake (M.); puva (Si.); pu_r.a_, pu_r.i_ batter cake (P.); pu_r.i_ a kind of cake or sweetmeat (Mth.H.); pu_ri_ wheaten dough for making cakes (Mth.); pu_r.a_ = pu_a_ (H.); pur.i_ cake (G.); pu_(v)ala, pu_(v)alia_, po_alaya a kind of cake (Pkt.); poli, poi cake (Ku.); pu_l.i sweet cake fried in ghee (Or.)(CDIAL 491). aboi~ flour (Pas'.); a_piya fit for cakes (Pa_n..); apu_pi_ya meal (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 492). buvva, bu_va boiled rice (in children's language); ba_pu boiled rice (in the language of children)(Ka.lex) buvva food, rice (Te.)(DEDR 4311). Confectioner's shop: poiya a confectioner's shop where preparations like khajjaga [kha_ja_ (H.)] were sold (Jain.Skt.) cf. apu_pa cake of flour (RV. iii.52.7); apu_pavant accompanied by a cake (RV. iii.52.1); apu_pahita covered with a cake (AV. viii.3.68)(Vedic.lex. CDIAL 491). appam round cake of rice flour and sugar fried in ghee (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,4,5); id. (Ma.); appamu (Te.); appa (Ka.Tu.); appamutu bread or cake offering (S.I.I. iii,150); appa-va_n.ikar sweetmeat-sellers (Cilap. 5,24, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

293.Water in which rice has been cooked; gruel: ambali, ambakal.a, ambila, ambuli, amli pap or porridge made of jo_l.a, rice, or ra_gi, with buttermilk (also tamarind) generally added (Ka.); ambuli pap or gruel of ra_gi or rice (Tu.); ambali, ambakal.amu porridge, pap (Te.); amba cooked rice (Kol.); am.ba_l food (Kol.); vallamba_ rice (val rice)(Kol.); ambal boiled rice (Nk.); ambil gruel, pe_j (Go.); ambeli porridge prepared with d.e_ra (eleusina coracana)(Kond.a); ambeli porridge prepared with ra_gi flour (Kuwi); ampali porridge, esp. of ra_gi (Ta.<Te.); amalai boiled rice (Ta.); obely watery mess of rice, ra_gi, etc.(To.); amr.i_, amd.i_, ambr.i_ water in which rice has been cooked (Kur.); a_bi_l gruel (M.)(DEDR 174). a_yam.bila a kind of austerity (Pkt.); a~_bel religious vow observed by Jains to take no food containing fatty substances (G.)(CDIAL 1070). cf. amla sour (Mn.); amba-kajika sour congee (Pali); am.ba sour; whey (Pkt.); a~_b sour (G.)(CDIAL 579).

293.Water in which rice has been cooked; gruel: ambali, ambakal.a, ambila, ambuli, amli pap or porridge made of jo_l.a, rice, or ra_gi, with buttermilk (also tamarind) generally added (Ka.); ambuli pap or gruel of ra_gi or rice (Tu.); ambali, ambakal.amu porridge, pap (Te.); amba cooked rice (Kol.); am.ba_l food (Kol.); vallamba_ rice (val rice)(Kol.); ambal boiled rice (Nk.); ambil gruel, pe_j (Go.); ambeli porridge prepared with d.e_ra (eleusina coracana)(Kond.a); ambeli porridge prepared with ra_gi flour (Kuwi); ampali porridge, esp. of ra_gi (Ta.<Te.); amalai boiled rice (Ta.); obely watery mess of rice, ra_gi, etc.(To.); amr.i_, amd.i_, ambr.i_ water in which rice has been cooked (Kur.); a_bi_l gruel (M.)(DEDR 174). a_yam.bila a kind of austerity (Pkt.); a~_bel religious vow observed by Jains to take no food containing fatty substances (G.)(CDIAL 1070). cf. amla sour (Mn.); amba-kajika sour congee (Pali); am.ba sour; whey (Pkt.); a~_b sour (G.)(CDIAL 579).

242.Broth: a_n.am broth, soup, vegetable relish in soup (Ta.); broth, soup (Ma.)(DEDR 352).

294.Sour meal: a_mi_ni a kind of large, sour mango (Ka.); a_mra the mango tree, mangifera indica and its fruit (Ka.Skt.); a_mla, a_mlike the tamarind tree, tamarindus indica (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_m.b type of vinegar obtained by covering in the evening a piece of cloth over flowing plants of cicer arietinum (M.); a_m.b (G.); am.bat (H.); a_mbul (Si.); amba (Pkt.); a_mla (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 302). amla sour, acid (Mn.); acidity, vinegar, wood sorrel; n. sour curds (Sus'r.); a_mla sourness (Skt.); ambila sour (Pali); amba-kajika sour congee (Pali); am.ba sour, n. whey (Pkt.); am.bila sour, sour juice (Pkt.); ambala_ acid (P.); amlu a palatable sour meal (WPah.); amilo sour, acid (Ku.N.); a_mbal sour, acid, acidity (B.); a_mbil.a a sour substance (Or.); a_mbil.a_ sour (Or.); a_mil acidity, conserve of dried mango chips (Mth.); a~_b sour (G.); an acid obtained by spreading in the evening a cloth over flowering plants of cicer arietinum (M.); a~_b id. (M.)[cf. kat.alai Bengal gram, cicer arietinum (Ta.); kat.ala (Ma.); kacl (kat.alai *kar.ly *kar.yl kacl)(?Ko.); kad.ale (Ka.Tu.Kod..); kad.le (Ka.)(DEDR 1120)]; a~ba_vu~, aml.a_vu~ (teeth) to be set on edge (G.); a_bn.e~ to become sour (M.); ambul sour (Si.); a~bu_s sourish (M.); a_mso sour (Konkan.i); ambat sour (H.); a~_bat., a~bat. (M.); a~_bat.a (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 579). a~bol.i_ flour soured by exposure to air and then slightly parched on a griddle (M.)(CDIAL 582). a_mbara, a_mbra (Tadbhava of a_mra or amla) pepper water to which tamarind is added in due proportion (Ka.lex.) Yeast: amlat.t.u yeast (WPah.); a~_bate~ soured flour (M.); a_mt.i_ a sour dish of gram flour boiled with tamarind (G.); a~bat.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 584). amri a sour-tasting herb (WPah.); amli_ wood sorrel, oxalis corniculata (Skt.)(CDIAL 585). a_mbil.iti_ a wild herb, oxalis monadelpha (Or.); amlapattra the plant oxalis and others (Skt.); a~boti_, a~bati_ oxalis corniculata (H.); a~boti_ (M.)(CDIAL 581). [cf. pul.c various oxalis species (Ko.); oxalis corniculata (To.)(DEDR 4326).] a_mla_ tamarind tree (Skt.); am.biliya_ tamarind tree and fruit (Pkt.); ambli_, imli_, immli_ tamarind (P.); amili (N.); imli_ (Bi.Bhoj.H.); i~bili (OAw.); amli_ (H.); a~_bli_ (G.M.); a_mli_ (G.); ambilla generic name of antidesma (Si.); a_mir.i_ tamarind (S.)(CDIAL 1280). a~_bli_yo, a~_bi_lo tamarind seed (G.)(CDIAL 1282). pul.i tamarind, curry containing tamarind (Ta.); tamarind, acid (Ma.Tu.); pul.y tamarind (To.); pul.ije tamarind (Kod..); puli sour, acid; pulusu, pulupu juice of tamarinds; sour,l acid; pulupa an acid dish made of various edible roots; pun.d.i, pun.t.i sorrel (a sour vegetable)(Te.); pulle sour; puliy (teeth) are on edge (Kol.); pulla sour preparation of vegetables (Go.); pula sour soup, boiled tamarind water (Kond.a); pulla sour; pulla ma_rnu tamarind tree (Kuwi)(DEDR 4322).

408.Decoction: rabba_ inspissated decoction (Pkt.); raba gruel of any grain (S.); ra_b treacle, molasses (P.H.); fermented and sour boiled rice and water (Or.); boiled down and unstrained sugarcane juice (Bi.); ra_wa_ (Bi.); raw sugarcane juice (Mth.); molasses (Bhoj.Aw.); inspissated juice (H.); gruel of sugar and flour with water (G.); sugarcane juice (M.); ra_buru meal mixed with buttermilk (K.); rabr.i_ broken curds (L.); milk and sugar (P.H.); ra_bhr.i_ inspissated milk (Ku.); ra_bhr.o inspissated juice (Ku.); ra_bar.i sweetmeat of sugar and cream (N.); ra_bar.i, ra_bir.i inspissated milk (Or.); ra_br.i_ meal mixed with buttermilk (H.); milk and sugar (G.); ra_bd.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 10623). ra_dh pus extracted from a boil or sore (P.)(CDIAL 10706). cf. drava liquid (Skt.)(CDIAL).

141.Forest; roaming: at.avi_ forest (R.Pali); at.avi (As'.); ad.avi_ (Pkt.); il.u forest (Si.); la_v (Si.)(CDIAL 177). at.avi forest, jungle (Cilap. 14,54) (Ta.lex.) at.avi, ad.avi, ad.ivi, ad.ive a wood, a forest, a jungle (Ka.lex.) at.an.aka roaming about, wild (Pali); at.avi_ forest, woods; inhabitant of the forest, man of the woods, wild tribe (Pali)(Pali.lex.) at.uk jhar.uk dense, thick, as a jungle with undergrowth; at.ut. bir dense, primeval forest (Santali.lex.)

192.Bellows: attiri forge, bellows (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) bha_to blow the bellows; sidi bellows (Kon.); id. (Tu.)(Kon.lex.)

110.Forgetful: asoru forgetfully (K.); asmarat forgetting (La_t.y.)(CDIAL 987). [cf. mo_dhrna_ to forget (Kur.)(DEDR 5137)]. cf. smr. remember (Skt.); smara remembrance (AV.); sara memory (Pali); sumara, sara the god of love (Pkt.); sor memory, recollection (K.)(CDIAL 13861). smarati remembers (ChUp.)(CDIAL 13863). ayarci, ayarti forgetfulness, faintness (Ta.); as'ati forgetfulness, drowsiness; ayarcca fatigue, forgetfulness; ayarti, ayarppu forgetfulness, discord (Ma.); ajak idleness (Tu.); asurusuru an onom. word to express weariness (Te.)(DEDR 39). asadi the bodily feeling of repugnance, surfeit, satiety, nausea, disgust; cf. Lat. satis; Dutch zat zadigen; H. a swa_d relish; Sadani. ansai jaek; a-p-asadi to be disgusted with each other; a-n-asadi the extent of disgust; asadi bain to feign disgust; asadioleka adv. unto satiety, so as to get disgusted (Mu.lex.) visar, isar, visra_i to forget; visar, isar, isari forgetfulness (Kon.lex.) Faintness, madness: atrun. faint (Santali.lex.) ayartal to become weary, to faint (Tiruva_ca. 32,9); to lose consciousness, as in fainting, sleep, or drunkenness (Ku_rmapu. Tiripura. 28)(Ta.lex.) acar to become faint, drowsy (Ta.); acaivu weariness; aar to be lazy, slothful; n. mental distress, disease; ayarvu forgetfulness; aya_ langour, faintness; aya_vu to be distressed (Ma.); ayarkka to swoon, feel estranged (Ma.); asur to feel disgusted; n. fatigue, faitness; asurusuru exhaustion; ayil, aylu bewilderment, madness; a_sar- to be weary; fatigue, langour (Ka.); a_saru thirst (Tu.); anjali-gunjali fatigued, tired (Te.)(DEDR 39). Consciousness: curan.ai, coran.ai sensitiveness, consciousness (Ira_mana_ma. Uyut. 33); intelligence, sense (Ta.lex.) smaran.a remembering (R.); memory (BhP.); saran.a memory (Pali); samaran.a, sumaran.a, saran.a (Pkt.); xo~waran remembrance, recollection; xo~warni memorandum, horoscope (A.)(CDIAL 13862). smarati longs for, loves (AV.); sumarati, sarati remembers (Pali); samarai, sumarai, sarai (Pkt.); sarun, sorun (K.); xo~wariba (A.); sour (MB.); sumarab, sumirab (Mth.); sam.varai (OAw.); sa~warna_, sau~rna_ (H.); samaranava_, pret. samal.a_ (Si.); sara_pe_ti reminds (Pali); sumara_vai (Pkt.); xo~wara_iba (A.); s'er-, s'erav- to warn, advise; s'arav- (Gypsy); bharai, bhalai remembers (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13863). samaramo_ha infatuation of love (Skt.); maroh love, tenderness; marohi_ affectionate (H.)(CDIAL 13864). cf. marul. bewilderment of mind, confusion (Ta.Ma.Ka.); marul (Te.); marul. intoxication, madness; delusion, illusion (Kur-al., 199)(Ta.lex.) sa_ran.a_ reminding, remonstrating with (Pali); sma_rayati causes to remember (MBh.); sma_ran.a counting (MBh.); sa_re_i reminds (Pkt.); sa_ran.u to remember (S.); izmarm I count (Kal.); is'mre_ik (Kho.); cf. s'uma_r (Pers.)(CDIAL 13865). smr.ta remembered (A_s'vGr..); sata mindful (Pali); mua-, sua- remembered (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13867). smr.ti remembrance (TA_r.); sati memory, lucidity of mind (Pali); samii-, sai-, sui- (Pkt.); svadi (Dhp.); svati (Khot.); sai_, say (M.); si (Si.); sihi-ya memory, alertness (Si.)(CDIAL 13868).

55.Image: forked stick: a_yakka_l forked stick on which a palanquin or the vehicle of an idol may rest when carried in procession through the streets (Ta.lex.)

158.A man belonging to the fort: ad.an:ga_yta a man belonging to a fort; kot.t.aval.a, kur-umba (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ad.an:gu hiding; a place of hiding or of refuge: a fort (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Palace: at.t.aha_sa-sthali_ a place or country full of palaces (Skt.); at.t.a high, lofty; an apartment on the roof or upper story, a garret; a turret, a buttress, tower; at.t.aka an apartment on the roof of a house; a palace; at.t.a_la, at.t.a_laka an apartment on the roof, an upper story; a palace; at.t.a_lika_ a palace, a lofty mansion; at.t.a_lika_-ka_ra a mason, a bricklayer (one who builds royal mansions); at.t.a_lika_-bandha a kind of base or foundation in architecture (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) at.t.a_n.i watchtower on a fort (Ira_mana_. Cun. 3); at.t.a_lai id. (Tiruva_lava_. 26,10); raised covered platform for watching a garden, a field, a sheep-fold or a village (J.); at.ai-ko_t.t.ai besieged fort (Ta.); at.aimatir-pat.u-tal to be besieged (Patir-r-up. 16, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

26.Fragrance: agal.u, agaru fragrance (Ka.); agaru, agal.u red sandal-wood (Te.); agal.a sun.t.i = agal.u a wild plant, zingiber zerumbet; agul.u a climbing plantpossessing various medicinal properties, clypea hernandifolia, pa_t.he, ambas.t.he, pa_pace_li, rase (Ka.lex.) agil = aguru, agilu fragrance; agilili having no fragrance; agilivan. a ripe fruit without fragrance; agilu, agil fragrant substances; fragrance; kalla hu_vina dhu_pa (benzoin); agilugandha = agarugandha the fragrance of the dark species of agallochum or aloe wood, aquilaria agallocha; the tree which yields bdellium, amyris agallocha (Ka.lex.) Commiphora agallocha = balsamodendron roxburghii = amyris commiphora: 'A small crooked tree with many spreading and drooping crooked branches, the short lateral branchlets often ending in thorny points... Distribution: Assam, Sylhet, E. Bengal; the gum resin is used in the same ways and for the same purposes as that of commiphora mukul; Bengal: gugala; Bombay: gugal, mhaishabola; Canarese: agaru, agilu, guggala; English: Indian bdellium; Gujarat: gugal; Sanskrit: agari; Saora: guggilu, kaushika; Sind: gugar; Tamil: attam, kukkula, kungiliyam, kungulu; Telugu: agaru, bodanki, guggilamu, mahisakshi; Uriya: ogoru. Commiphora stocksiana = balsamodendron pubescens: Distribution: Sind, Baluchistan; the gum obtained from this tree may be used in the form of ointment for cleansing and stimulating bad ulcers. It is a favourite application in Delhi sores, combined with sulphur, catechu and borax. Baluchistan: bai, bayi; Las Bela: gugar; Marathi: bayisagugul; Tamil: malaikiluvai. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 525-529). Aloe wood; eagle-wood: agaru fragrant aloe-tree and wood, aquilaria agallocha (Skt.); aguru (R.); agalu, aggalu, akalu a partic. ointment (Pali); agaru, agaluya, agaru(a) aloe-tree and wood (Pkt.); agara-ka_th sandal-wood (K.); agaru aloe (S.); agar (P.N.); agaru (A.B.); agaru_ (Or.); agar, agur (H.); agar, agru aloe or sandal-wood (G.); agar aloe (M.); ayal, agil [Si. < akil (Ta.)](CDIAL 49). cf. akil aloe wood (Ma.)(DEDR 13). akil eagle-wood, aquilaria agallocha; a fragrant resin called agar obtained from the trunk and branches ofagle-wood (Ta.); aghalim (Heb.) aquilla (Latin); aguila (Port.); aguila (Spanish); eagle-wood, agila, agalloch (English); agaru (Skt.); agaluya, agara (Pkt.); ("ya_n-aiven. ko_t.um akilin- kuppaiyum ": Cilap. 25,37)(Ta.); kun-r-akkur-avar present this to the king, ce_ran- cen:kut.t.uvan-; ("kut.amalaip pir-anta kor..umpah- r-a_ram" : Cilap. 10,106): this is interpreted by the editor (At.iya_rkku nalla_r) as ta_ram-cantan-am akil etcetera; (kun.ticai marun:kir- ka_raki r-ur-antu : Cilap. 4,36): this is interpreted by the editor as giving up akil etcetera incense articles obtained from the east (Ta.); akil-vakai different varieties of eagle-wood, the chief of them being: aruman.avan-, takko_li, kid.a_ravan- and ka_rakil (Cilap. 14,108, Urai.)[aruman.am is an island on the eastern sea; kid.a_ravan- ?from kat.a_ram, ka_r..akam = Burma or Sumatra (Ta.); akil-vir-aku blocks of eagle-wood used in olden days by women of noble families as fuel for kindling fire, to warm themselves during winter (Cilap. 14, 98-101); akir-kat.t.ai, akilan:kat.t.ai, akir-kur-at.u id.; akir--ku_t.t.u a fragrant mixture of akil, kar-pu_ram, ka_cukkat.t.i, te_n-, e_lam (untucan tan-an:karp pu_ramut.a n-eri ka_cu cente_ n-antave_ lan:ka l.en-pa vakir-ku_t.t.u : Cu_t.a_. 12,36);[it is notable that the phrase used is: vakir--ku_t.t.u, indicating that vakil might have been transformed to akil, dropping the v- intial consonant]; akir-ca_ntam eagle-wood made into paste (Cilap. 13,115); akin-ey id.; akir--pukai fragrant fumes ofburning eagle-wood; akil-ur-uppu eagle-wood as one of the six ingredients of a mixed fragrant fumigant; the six ingredients are: ayir, te_n-, picin-, paccilai, cantan-am, akil: sugar-candy, honey, resin, patchouli, sandal and eagle-wood (ne_rkat.t.i cente_ n-iriya_cam paccilai a_ra makilur-uppo_ t.a_r-u : Cilap. 5,14, Urai.); of these six, akil and ayir seem to be pre-eminent: (irun:ka_ r..akilot.u vel.l.ayirpukaippa : Net.unal. 56)(TED, pp. 61-62). Bdellium: agaru, agal.u, agal.i, agil, agilu, aguru, agul.u the balsam tree which yields bdellium, amyris agallocha; the dark species of agallochum; agilu-gandha a kind of yellow fragrant wood; a name of various darkish fragrant substances; s'ri_gandha the wood of two kinds of trees, furnishing the aloe wood or agallochum, the one growing in Silhet, aquilaria agallochum, the other in Cochin-china, aloexylon agallochum (Ka.lex.) cf. aguru, agaru, canda_l.a the dark species of agallochum; the fragrant aloe wood and tree, aquilaria agallocha; the tree which yields bdellium, amyris agallocha (Ka.lex.) cf. akil eagle-wood, aquillaria agallocha, the drug agar obtained from the tree (Ta.)(DEDR 13). loha synonym of aguru (Car. Su. 24,23.18). Aquilaria agallocha: agaru (Skt.B.); hindiagara (M.); agar (H.Ta.); agru (Te.); wood: stimulant, carminative, aphrodisiac, astringent; essential oil; habitat: E.Himalayas, Bhutan, parts of Bengal and particularly in Assam on the hill forests of Khasia, Garo, Naga, Cachar and Sylhet (GIMP, p.22). guggulu, guggulu, guggal.a, guggil.a, guggula, guggul.a, gurgul.a id.; a large timber tree, yielding frankincense or olibanum, boswellia serrata or glabra; the tree amyris agallochum; morunga hyperanthera; guggul.aka_yaka the profession of a religious mendicant carrying burning bdellium from door to door begging alms (Ka.lex.) guggal, guggul a kind of gum, amyris commiphora used for incense; guggal hoja_na_ to be wasted, to be destroyed, to be used up, to be finished; to be melted (Punjabi.lex.) cf. akil (in cpds. akir..-) eagle-wood, aquilaria agallocha (Ta.)(DEDR 13). gugul bdellium (Santali.lex.) cf. akalu amyris agallocha (Pali)(CDIAL 49). [cf. agil the balsam tree which yields bdellium, amyris agallocha (Ka.)(DEDR 13). aguru aquilaria agallocha (Car. Ci.3.267; used in fevers requiring heat)]. (cf. Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., 1989, pp.54-58; p. 81). 'Commiphor mukul: Arabic. alaftan, moql, moqlearzaqi, mukulearabi; Sind, Bengal, Deccan, Gujarat, Hindi, Marathi gugal, guggul, mukul, ranghanturb; Persian, boejahudan; Sanskrit, kaushika, kunti, guggulu, mahishaksha; Tamil, gukkal, gukkulu, maishakshi; Telugu, gugul, mahisaksh, maisakhsi... commiphoragallocha: Canarese, agaru, agilu, guggala; Gujarat, gugal; Sanskrit, agaru; Saora, guggilu, kaushika; Sind, gugar; Tamil, attam, kukkula, kungiliyam, kungulu; Telugu, agaru, bodanki, guggilamu, mahisakshi; Uriya, ogoru... commiphora stocksiana: Baluchistan, bai, bayi; Las Bela, gugar; Marathi, bayisagugul; Tamil, malaikiluvai.'(Indian Medicinal Plants, pp.525-529). gugul bdellium (Santali.lex.) salga boswellia serrata (Santali.lex.) "Linaloes... (Aquilaria agallocha, growing in Tennasserim, and on islands near Mergui, and in the vallyes of Assam and Silhet.) Dioscorides calls it agaloc, and says that it comes from India and Arabia and that it is sometimes used for incense. The true linaloes is only found in these parts of India, and land referred to by Dioscorides may be traced to Arabia for... all the merchandize of that land goes by Gida, or Torso, or Ormuz to Cairo, Alexandria and Aleppo, and so to many other lands... It grows in India (beyond the Ganges)... Alcomari and Sief are Cape Comorin and Ceylon... these countries have a kind of linaloes which we call aguila brava. And with this aguila brava the Baneans (banias, drug merchants) are burnt when they die... They call it agalugem and haud in Arabic and the Guzeratis, and Deccanis ud which is nearly the Arabic. In Malay garro, and the very fine kind calambac. (The names by which eagle-wood or 'aloes-wood' is known in India are: Sanskrit, agaru, meaning 'without weight'; Arabic, ayalugi; Persian, ayalurchi; Hindustani, agar; Telugu, krishna-agaru; and Malay,kalamba.)" (G. De Orta, pp. 251-263). Agaru is heavy, soft, greasy, smells far and long, burns slowly, gives out continuous smoke while burning, is of uniform smell, absorbs heat and is so adhesive to the skin as not removable by rubbing (Artha. 81). It was well-stocked in the Mauryan treasury for making perfume, incense etc. Aloe-wood is a large ever-green tree of Sylhet and Tenassarim (Moti Chandra, op. cit. p.85). Balsamodendron agallocha or mukul. guggulu (Skt.B.H.)... Indian bdellium is obtained by making incisions in the tree, through which the gum resin exudes... recently exuded guggulu is moist, viscid, fragrant and of a golden colour.. yogaraja guggulu is a favourite preparation... given in rheumatic affections... (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 133-137). Scented: a_ghra_n.a smelling, smelling at, mu_su, va_sisu; a_ghra_n.ita, a_ghra_ta smelled, scented; a_ghra_n.isu to smell at, to smell (Ka.lex.) a_kkira_n.am act of smelling; nose (Cu_t.a_); a medicinal snuff intended to dispel humours from the head (Ta.lex.) a_ghra_ta smelt, scented (Sus'r.); aggha_ia smelt (Pkt.); ga_ festoon work, bouquet (Si.)(CDIAL 1061). a_ghra_payati causes to smell (Ka_tyS'r.); a_ghra_ta smelt at, satiated (Skt.); a_ghra_n.a act of smelling (Gaut.); satiety, satiated (Skt.); aggha_am.ta smelling; pass. aggha_ijjai, agghavai fills; aggha_d.ai (Pkt.); agrm I become tired (Kal.); agha_n.o, aghi_n.o to be full, be sated (Ku.); agha_unu to feed to the full (N.); agha_ijiba_ to be sated (Or.); agha_eb to satiate, disgust (Mth.); agha_i is satisfied (OAw.); agha_na_, a~gha_na_ to be full (H.); aggha_n.a satisfied (Pkt.); agha_na_ satiated, rich (H.)(CDIAL 1062). ghra_n.a smelling (S'Br.); smell (S'a_n:khGr..); nose (ChUp.); ghra_n.a_ nose (VarBr.S.); gha_na sense of smell, nose (Pali); gha_n.a nose (Pkt.); gru~ mucus of nose (Kal.); grho_n. stinking (Phal.); grho_n.u rotten (Phal.); gha_n. stink (G.M.); gha_n.i (OM.); gha_n.i, ga_n.i stink (Konkan.i); ghra_ smell (Skt.)(CDIAL 4531). ka_n- smell, odour (Maturaik. 337); ka_n-am fragrance, scent, odour (Tiva_.); ka_n-al scent, odour (Paripa_. 16,17)(Ta.lex.) akil < agaru eagle-wood, aquilaria agallocha (Ta.); akil (Ma.); ahalim (Heb.); agallochon (Gr.); akil the drug agar, obtained from the trunk and branches of eagle-wood when they become gorged with a dark resinous aromatic juice, one of six tu_pa-varkkam (Ci_vaka. 534); blinding-tree; chittagong wood, chickrassia tabularis (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Incense: Metath. ariya_cam aromatic, fragrant substance (Cilap. 5,14, Arum.) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) cf. nirya_sa (Skt.lex.) cf. ayir an imported white fragrant substance for burning (Cilap. 4,36)(Ta.lex.) ayir name of an imported white fragrant substance for burning (kut.aticai marun:kin- vel.l.ayir tan-n-ot.u : Cilap. 4,35); the bark of white acacia, acacia leucophloea, vel.ve_lampat.t.ai (Ca_. Aka.); ayir-ppat.t.ai id.; ayiram candied sugar (Mu_. A.)(T.E.D.). cf.: ajara_ aloe perfoliata, argyreia speciosa (Skt.); aja_gara eclipta or verbesina prostrata (Skt.); adara name of a medicinal plant (Si.)(CDIAL 153). ma_rkava eclipta prostrata (Skt.); ma_ka_ the shrub verbesina scandens, eclips prostrata (M.)(CDIAL 10070). cf. elu_a_, elwa_ aloe perfoliata (P.)(CDIAL 2523).

324.Incense: ayir an imported white fragrant substance for burning (kut.aticai marun:kin- vel.l.ayir : Cilap. 4,36)(Ta.lex.)

24.Image: in front; at first; top: agra point (Skt.); acros topmost, outermost (Gk.); acro highest, topmost, terminal, tipped with; at the point or extremity of (E.)(T.E.D.) agra top, summit (RV.); front (Mn.); agga top, front, point (Pali.Pkt.); agor end, corner, point (Gypsy); hage_ni on the front side (D..); agu, ago front, fore part (S.); aggar, agga_ front, privities (P.); a_go, a_gho front part, future, offspring (Ku.); a_g top, front (A.); front (B.); a_ga (Or.); a_ga_ front, forehead (H.); a_go front (OMarw.); front of a coat (G.); a_ga_ id. (M.); aga top (Si.); aguva area in front of the door of a house (Si.); agre_, agre_n.a in front (S'Br.); agge_ after (Pali); in front, at first (Pkt.); agre_na, age_na (As'.); agre_ in front (KharI.); a_ger in front of, before; vegur forward; agre_ at the end (Gypsy); hagi in front (D..); agi lagun to go forward (K.); age in front (S.); agge (L.P.); aggar further, at first; agar (WPah.); aghi (N.); a_g ba_riba to go forward; a_ge at first (A.); a_ge formerly (B.H.G.); a_ga, a_ge before (Or.); a_gai (OMth.OAw.OG.); a_gi, a_gai (OMarw.); agga_do_ (Pkt.); a_ga~_ in front (Bhoj.); aga_v (M.)(CDIAL 68). agrima being in front (RV.); aggima first (Pkt.); agyo~ (S.); aggio~ (P.); eggri~o~, eggru~, pl. eggria~ frontal (WPah.)(CDIAL 92). agya_r.i_ front part of the head above the forehead, forepart of any interval (S.)(CDIAL 93). agre_gu_ going in front (VS.); agre_ga_ (TBr.); agre_ga (RV.); agraga leading (R.); aguo guide (S.); agwa_ha_ (P.); agwa_ (Ku.); aguwa_ (N.); forerunner (A.); a_gu front (B.); agua_ leader (Or.Bhoj.); aguwa_, agwa (H.); aguwo, agwo (G.)(CDIAL 94). agre_tvan, agre_tvari going in front (AV.); aget doing a thing prematurely; ageta_, agetre premature (P.)(CDIAL 95). aggupat.t.ha_ka chief servitor (Pali); aguvat.a_, akvat.a_ (Si.)(CDIAL 96). agrya foremost, topmost (S'Br.); agriya (RV.); first fruits (RV.); agga topmost, best (Pali); being in front, former (Pkt.); ogu first (K.); a_g frontal (A.); a_ga_ga foremost, frontal (B.Or.); aga first, best (Si.); a_giya_ projecting (A.); agya_ foremost (M.); a_g first fruits of the rice harvest (A.); agero being a little in front (S.); agere a little forward (L.)(CDIAL 97). agwan interest in kind on seed-corn (? payment in first-fruits)(Bi.)(CDIAL 98). akkiram four mouthfuls of food given in alms (Ku_rmapu.Nittiya kan-.17); akkiraca_lai feeding-house for Bra_hmans (Insc.Ta.); akkiraka_ram Bra_hman village street (Ta.lex.) Image: van carrying the banner: a_kkam van of an army carrying the banner (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

207.Image: furrow: at.i-cca_l first furrow in ploughing (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

311.Image: furrow: akkad.i, akkad.e a furrow for growing especially different kinds of pulse between two furrows of the main crop (Ka.lex.)

41.Image: gate: agase, agise, aguse the outer large gate of a town, fort or village (Ka.); aga_si a chunammed and uncovered terrace (M.) (Ka.lex.) cf. ba_gilu door (Ka.lex.)

298.Aromatic oil of winter-green berry: a.mir. gir.v gaultheria fragrantissima, winter-green (bright blue, edible berries)(Ko.); e.mir id. (To.)(DEDR 361). Gaultheria fragrantissima: machino (N.); kalomba (Lepcha); oil from leaves: aromatic, stimulant, carminative, used in rheumatism, neuralgia, as flavouring agent and antiseptic; habitat: from Nepal to Bhutan at 6,000 to 8,000 ft., Khasia Hills, W. Ghats, the Nilgiris, Pulneys and Travancore, above 5,000 ft. (GIMP, p.124). Gaultheria oil (oleum gaultheriae): methyl salicylate; oil of teaberry, oil of checkerberry, natural oil of winter-green; wintergrunol (Ger.); essence de gaultheria (Fr.); botanical origin: gaultheria procumbens; part used: the volatile oil obtained by distillation from the leaves of plants; commercially, the oil is produced by chopping up the green leaves or plants, moistening with water and placing these in the retort of a copper sill or improvised charred oak barrel with a perforated bottom where the moistened material is covered with water... and macerated overnight. The perforated bottom fits tightly over a water-filled kettle, and the upper end of the barrel is connected by means of a copper helmet with a spiral condenser. In the morning a fire is built beneath the retort and distillation proceeds. The heavy oil is collected in flasks and the aqueous distillate transferred to the sill for a second charge... Uses: oil of wintergreen as well as oil of sweet birch and synthetic methyl salicylate are used as stimulant, rubefacient, antirheumatic and flavouring agents. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 643-645). {Note the occurrence of pots with perforated bottoms in Indus civilization and possible use in distillation retorts.}

318.To join: aydu, ayde to go to; to join, to become united with; to reach, to obtain; to be meet or fit; to go (Ka.); eydu to get, obtain = at.ai (Ta.Ma.); ayde, ayide so that it reaches; so that it is fit; exceedingly, greatly, much, further; completely; becomingly, well; aya going, moving (Ka.lex.)

215.Gifts for marriage: at.t.umbali, at.t.umbar..i, at.t.umbari gifts from relations or friends to the bride and bridegroom at the time of marriage; or..ivar..i (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. umpal.am land granted rent-free for the performance of services (Ta.); umbal.amu (Te.); umbal.i (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Relationship: at.t.u relationship (Ka.); an.t.u id. (Te.); at.u to come into contact, come nigh; to beseem, to be fit or proper, to be proportionate to (Ta.Ma.); ad.uttava a relation (Ta.Ma.); at.t.at.t.i intimate love (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) an-pu love, affection (Ta.); anbu to be fond of, connected with (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

326.To give, present: a_yaj to honour, worship (the gods); to give, present, furnish, supply; to consecrate, ordain, dedicate; a_yaji performing sacrifices from all sides; procuring, granting (Vedic); a_ya_ga a gift given at a sacrifice (Skt.lex.) a_chan.u to offer, present (S.); ach to bring (Pas'.)(CDIAL 1284). wac to bring (Pas'.); upayacchati lays hold of, takes (RV.)(CDIAL 2206).

338.Bond; grant of property; pressed, written; tied: net puri applied to presents brought by invited guests to a marriage; net puri nan.d.i liquor brought by an invited guest to marriage (Santali) (Santali.lex.) niyata fastened (RV.); controlled (Mn.); devoted to (MBh.Pali); n.iaya bound by a vow (Pkt.); nyu~, nyo a good wife (Sh.); niyate he granted (OSi.)(CDIAL 7249). For semant. puri = attachment, in net puri (Santali), cf.: puri (-v-, -nt-) to desire; (-pp-, -tt-) to cause to desire; n. desire; purivu desire, love, attachment (Ta.); pura-pural-a_d.u to be eager or desirous (Te.)(DEDR 4287). Basket: purug (obl. purg-) basket (Kol.); burki a small kind of basket (Ga.); burka, burki id. (Ga.)(DEDR 4289). Image: tiger: burkal, burka_(l), burka_l, burrkal tiger (Go.); burka id. (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 4298).

398.Gift, present: arma_yis.i, parama_yis.i, aruma_i, parama_si a gift or gifts or rare and striking value (Ka.H.Te.)(Ka.lex.) arumanta adj. < arum-mai + maruntu + anna rare, precious (Te_va_. 1090,7); arumantan-n-a (Te_va_. 1214,21); arumai rareness (Ka.); aru (Te.); arudu (Ka.); arumai-man.am ceremony among kon:gu ve_l.a_l.as whereby a married couple, after one of their children has been married, become arumai-kka_ran- and arumai-kka_ri (E.T.)(Ta.lex.) al.i gift, present (Tiva_.); civility, politeness (Kur-al., 390, Urai.); al.i-ttal to give, bestow (Pin..); to be gracious, to show favour (Cir-upa_n.. 210)(Ta.lex.) cf. aruvu a loan of grain etc., purchase or sale on credit (Te.); appu loan, debt (Ta.); loan (Te.); ar.vu_, aruwu loan (Kuwi)(DEDR 216). cf. arukku (arukki-) to show disinclination in a bargain (Ta.); ark- (arky-) (father) refuses to repay daughter's bride-price (Ko.)(DEDR 223).

44.Image: curve in the human figure above the hip: an:ka a curve in the human figure above the hip, where infants are carried (hence often equivalent to the lap); the thigh (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. on:g- (on:kt-) to carry (child) on hip (Kol.)(DEDR 935). Image: hooked instrument: agura crooked (Gypsy); an:kura hooked (Skt.); akri upper part of arm (Kt.); akle top of shoulder (Ash.); akra peg (Wg.); uku shoulder (Pr.); a~_kora_ crooked, bent (A.)(CDIAL 109). an:kus'a hook, driver's hook (RV.); an:kusa hook, elephant goad; an:kusaka id. (Pali); am.kusa, am.kusaya (Pkt.); an:gus elephant goad (P.); an:kuse hook (N.); a~_kuhi long stick with a hook (A.); a~_kus, a~_ksi (B.); a_n:kusa, a_n:kusi elephant goad, hooked stick, tendril of creeper (Or.); a~_kus elephant goad; a~kusa_ fringe-maker's iron hook with ring (Bi.Mth. Bhoj.); a~kusi_ hook (Bhoj.); a~_kusa goad (OAw.); a~_kus (H.); a~kus'i_ hooked stick (M.); akussa elephant goad (Si.)(CDIAL 111). an:kus'am hooked instrument, esp. elephant goad (Kantapu. Vit.aipe. 37)(Ta.lex.) van:ki curved ornament worn by women on the upper arm; on:kiya, on:ke hook or peg fixed in a wall (Te.); vakonjee an elephant goad (Go.); uggi, oggi hook (Tu.); on:ki hook (Ka.); van:ki id. (Ka.); van:ki a kind of iron hook or curved instrument (Ta.)(DEDR 5210). Hook: an:kus, banak a hook (Santali.lex.) Image: hooked pole: anku- in cmpd. 'hook' (Av.)(CDIAL 107). an:kut.a instrument for moving the bolt or bar of a door (Skt.); am.kud.aga peg (Pkt.); a~_kuri-bag heron with a long hooked beak (A.)(CDIAL 108). an:gur.o hooked pole for picking fruit (S.); a~_kur. handle of a hoe (Ku.); a_n:kur.a_ long pole with a hook (Or.); an:kur.a_, an:kura_ iron poker for smith's fire (Bi.); a~kur.a_, a~kura_ fringe-maker's hook and ring (Bi.); a~_kuri_ iron hook in the construction of a cart (Bi.); a~kora_, o~kra_ iron poker (Mth.); Image: hook for taking out glass out of crucible: akuri_, ukri_ hook for taking out glass out of crucible (Mth.)(CDIAL 108). [cf. an:ga_ra glowing charcoal (RV.)(CDIAL 125)]. van:ki a kind or iron hook or curved instrument (Ta.); hook (Ka.); on:ki id. (Ka.); oggi, uggi handle, hook (Tu.); on:kiya, on:ke hook or peg fixed in a wall (Te.); vakonjee an elephant goad (Go.)(DEDR 5210). an:ka hook (RV.Pali); an:kha sickle (Dm.); a_n:gu (Phal.); a~_khi_ pole with hook and netting for gathering mangos (M.); a~_kr.a_ hook, tendril (B.H.); a~_kr.i_ hook (G.); a~kor.i_ hook at end of a long stick for picking fruit (G.); a~kd.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 100). a~ga_si_ gear for raising a Persian wheel off the ground (L.)(CDIAL 105).

229.Image: goad: ya_tam < ya_ta elephant-goad (Ta.lex.) ya_tanam torment, acute pain; ya_tu_ a weapon (Skt.lex.)

258.Fine gold: aparaji fine refined gold (Ka.Te.); aparaci (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. rajita shining (Skt.lex.) cf. appat.a pure, unmixed (Ka.Te.); apot.a (Konkan.i)(Ka.lex.) appat.t.am that which is unmixed, pure (Ta.); appat.amu (Te.) (Ta.lex.) apphut.a, apphuta (Skt. a-spha_rita pp. of sphar, phurati; phut.a) untouched, unpervaded, not penetrated (Pali.lex.) phud.a_ real, true (OM.); phud.a open, clear (Pkt.); sphut.a clear in meaning (R.)(CDIAL 13841). apu_ta impure (Vedic.lex.) sphut.ayati makes clear (Skt.)(CDIAL 13843a).

87.Goods and chattels: ajaba_bu goods and chattels, furniture, tools, apparatus, baggage, things (Ka.M.H.); asba_bu (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

448.Merchandise: ya_r, vya_r, vya_ra_ small things to be sold, merchandise; vya_pa_r saleable articles, trade; vya_pa_ri merchant; vya_pa_ra_tso mercantile (Kon.lex.)

217.Image: ready to gore: atan. to set the head as a horned animal when about to gore or butt; rogen lagite atan.edina he sets his head to butt me; atan. to receive, take, hold out the hand to receive anything; to spread out to receive; inak romal atan. akatan I have spread out my handkerchief (to receive it) (Santali.lex.) ha_nd. to gore (stab with horns)(Kon.lex.)

366.Image: to gore: ara_ttu-tal to butt, hit against (Can.. Aka.); to file, grate (Can.. Aka.)(T.E.D.)

300.Bitter gourd: a_t.t.a bitter gourd (Ma.); a_vad.e a bitter acute-angled cucumber (Ka.); a_vad.a, a_mad.a-ka_ya, amad.a-ka_ya id. (Te.)(DEDR 389).

82.Guard: accul.a_yta, accul.a_yla an attendant, a guard, a servant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Priest: acca_va_kan- < accha_va_ka priest, officiating at some sacrifices as a co-adjutor of ho_tr. (Ta.lex.) cf. ojha a medicine man, a charm doctor, an exorcist, a diviner (Santali.lex.)

381.Half: arake, arake, ar-ake the half; the state of being half, incomplete or too little (Ka.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) ar half (Tor.); ar. half-full (Bshk.); ar.-di_ noon; ar.hi_ half (Mai.); ardha half; a half (RV.); ad.d.ha, ad.d.haka, addha (Pali); ad.ha (As'.); ardha, ad.ha, adha (NiDoc.); ad.d.ha, addha (Pkt.); ad.d.a half-full (Tir.); ad.d.(h)a_, ar.o (Pas'.); ar.a (Shum.); adhe half (Gaw.Kal.); adhek small (Kal.); a_d.u half-full (Phal.); ad. half (K.); od.u adj. (K.); adhu m. and adj. (S.); addh, addha_ (L.P.); addhu_, addo, addu, addha_ (WPah.); a_d, a_dho (Ku.); a_dha_ subst. and adj. (N.A.); a_dh, a_d, a_dha_ (B.); a_r.a half, slightly (Or.); adha_ (Or.); a_dha_ (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.M.); a_dh (Mth.); a_dho (Marw.); a_do (Konkan.i); ad.a half; ad.u wanting, imperfect (Si.); in mod. cmpds.: ad- (Ku.); adh- (N.); a_d- (A.); a_r. (B.); adha- (Or.); a_dh-, ad-, ar.- (in ar.ka_ one half ruka_)(H.); adh-, ad- (G.); ad-, a_d-, ad.- half, small (G.); ad.a (Si.)(CDIAL 644). ardhakr.ta half-done (Skt.); ad.a_l.a, adal.a half-done; ad.al.aya_, ad.le one half of a nut from which the kernel is only partly scraped out (Si.)(CDIAL 647). ad.hu~_n.o 1 1/2 times greater; adhu~_n.i adding 1 1/2 (S.)(CDIAL 648). arai half (Ta.); ara id. (Ma.Ka.); ar id. (Ko.To.); are id., a little (Ka.); arake state of being half, incomplete or too little; arame state of being a moiety or a little; arebar a few (Ka.); are half; arake, areke half-filled; ara_l.u a person doing half a day's work (Tu.); ara half, a moiety, incomplete, not full; ar-a half, a moiety (Te.); ar half, in: ar so_la a measure (Nk.)(DEDR 229). ad.m two-anna piece (Ko.); ad.d.a two annas and four pays, seven dud.d.us (Ka.); ad.d.uga two-anna piece, half of a fanam (Te.)(DEDR 104). Half the crop as rent: ardhika measuring half (Ya_j.); forming half of (Mn.); receiving half the crop (Skt.); ardhin forming a half (TS.); receiving a half (Mn.); adhiya_ half the crop paid as rent (Ku.); equal partnership (N.); a_dhi half share of the produce of land let to another (A.); adhiya_ method of thus dividing the crop (Bi.); a_dhya_, adhiya_, adhya_ (H.)(CDIAL 682). a_rdhika sharing half; one who ploughs in return for half share of the crop (Mn.); adhiya_ proprietor of a half-share (Bi.)(CDIAL 1345). addhya_ra_ the arrangement by which profits of agriculture or stockbreeding are shared between land-lord and labourer (P.); adhiya~_r co-partner (N.); a_dhiya_r one who cultivates in return for half the crop (A.); adhia_ri keeping a goat or calf with a half share of profit to the owner (Or.); adhiya_r cultivator who receives a half-share (H.); adhiya_ri_ this system (H.); adhiya_ru~ keeping cattle in return for half the calves; adhiya_ri_ forced labour (G.)(CDIAL 1346). at.iya_n- cultivator of low caste, who assists in cultivating land on condition of receiving a portion of the crop (Ta.); slave, servant, devotee, as of a deity (Ta.); at.iya_n id. (Ma.); at.iyuram ancestral property; crop of a year reserved for subsistence during the following year (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

184.Hammer: as'tera_ hammer (Dm.); aster.o_ (Pas'.); hathor.a_ (L.); hathaur.a_ (P.H.); hathaur.o (Ku.); hothro (N.); ha_thuri (A.); ha_tur.i (B.); ha_tur.a_ (Or.); hathaura_ (Bi.); hathaur (Bhoj.); hathor.o, athor.o (G.); hatod.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 14028). hatthiya_ra weapon (Pkt.); hathia_ru (S.); hathia_r tool, weapon, penis (P.); hatiya_r weapon, tool (N.); tool (A.); hathiya_r tool, weapon (H.Mth.); tool (G.); ha_tya_r, ha_ter (M.); hathi_a_ra weapon (OG.)(CDIAL 14027). attari, hattad.i, hattari, hattri a carpenter's plane (Ka.lex.) Tool; weapon: hataur.i hammer (Santali.lex.) hatiar an instrument, implement, arms, also draught cattle, oxen, buffaloes. etc.; hatiarge ban.ukkotina I have no plough-cattle (Santali.lex.) attira-te_var weapon-god taken round the streets during festivals (Tiruva_n-aik. Tiruvir..a_. 11)(Ta.lex.)

201.Handful: hastaka a measure of length (Skt.); hatthaka handful (Pali); hattha_ handle (L.); hatthi_ handle of spinning wheel (WPah.); ha_to handle of handmill (N.); ha_ta_ handle (B.); handful (M.); hata_ handle, ladle (Or.); ha_tha_ instrument for throwing up water (Bhoj.); hattha_ handle (H.); ha_tho handle, landmark (G.); atta branch, twig (Si.)(CDIAL 14025).

390.Heart of a tree: arat.t.ha hard, stiff (of leather)(N.); arat.uva_ heart or hard part of a tree (Si.)(CDIAL 1303).

163.Harrow: at.arttippalakai thick plank (J.)(Ta.lex.) atar.a_gom, atar.gom, ar.agom an agricultural implement used partly for the same purposes as the European harrow, but very different in shape and construction because it is so rudimentary. It is a rough piece of wood about 5 ft. long, 3 1/2 in. high and 2 1/2 in. thick. Two square holes are chiselled through it pretty close to each other more or less in the middle. Into these the forked ends of a shaft, about 7 ft. long are inserted and fixed. This shaft is called atar.gomd.and.a. To it the oxen are yoked. All attachments are the same as those of the plough. The atar.gom is used for three distinct purposes: (1) It is used as clod-crusher and leveller when the ground has been ploughed for sowing... (2) Fields into which paddy has been sown and not transplanted, must, after some time be ploughed up in order to destroy the weeds which have sprung up with the young rice plants...Immediately after this ploughing the atar.gom is passed over the field to level it again and bury the weeds which are thereby killed... (3) Fields into which rice is about to be transplanted, are reploughed, when they are under water. Immediately after this ploughing, which is also intended to uproot the weeds of the field, the atar.gom is passed over it to bury and destroy the uprooted weeds and to level the muddy field in immediate preparation for the planting; atar.agom-o of clods, to be crushed; of fields, to be levelled; of seeds, to be buried; atar.agom-lo_m, atar.agomte lo_m to pass with the clod-crusher over a so-called antar, i.e. a part of the field already ploughed (cf. Pl. XIV.2) (Mu.lex.)

143.Image: hawk: a_d.e_lu night hawk, screech owl; turdus ginginianus (Ka.); night hawk (Te.); a_d.elu id. (Te.); a_n.t.alai fabulous bird of prey with a head like a man's (Ta.); a_t.i, a_ti t. ginginianus (Skt.); le_r. hawk (Kond.a); kite (Pe.); r.e_l id. (Pe.); le_r.u hawk (Kuwi); le_d.u kite (Kuwi)(DEDR 349). Image: raven: an.t.an:ka_kkai Indian raven, a big jet black jungle crow, corvus mactorhyncus (Ta.); an.t.anka_kka (Ma.)(T.E.D.)

145.Image: fore-part of the head: a_dale the fore-part of the head; front; facing, fronting (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

176.Foot: ad.d.i_ heel (L.P.); ad.d.a_ heel of shoe (H.); ad.iya foot, footstep (Si.); ar.i heel (Marw.); ed. heel (P.); er.i (N.B.Or.); er.i_ (Bhoj.); er. spur; er.i_ heel (H.); ed. urging with the heel (M.); er.i spur; er.i_ heel (G.)(CDIAL 191). id.i the heel (Santali.lex.) Image: ankle: avd.u ankle of an animal (Ka.); abad.u, avad.u hoof (Tu.)(DEDR 262). latta_, lattia_ blow with the heel (Pkt.); late_di_ni blow, kick of a horse; lats- to kick (Gypsy); lath, dat. lati kick (K.); lata foot, leg, kick (S.); latt, pl. latta_ leg (hip to foot), kick; lat (L.); latt leg (P.); la_t foot (WPah.); kick (Ku.N.B.H.G.M.); na_t, na_ti (B.); la_ta, la_ti, na_ta (Or.); la_ta (OAw.OMarw.); lata_run to trample on (K.); lata_rnu to spurn (N.); lata_rn.a_ (H.); latya_unu to kick (N.); latiya_na_ (H.); ler.i heel, spur, blow with the heel (Or.); la_th, la_thi kick (A.B.); la_th (M.); latha_u kicking (H.)(CDIAL 10931). lata_ndi_ foot-end of a bed (L.)(CDIAL 10932). Foot; below: at.i foot, footprint, base, bottom, source (Ta.); sole of foot, footstep, measure of foot, bottom, base (Ma.); at.imai slavery, servitude, slave, servant, devotee (Ta.); at.ima slavery, slave, feudal dependency (Ma.); ar.y foot (measure); ac place below (Ko.); or.y foot (To.); ad.i foot, measure of foot, step, pace, base, bottom, under; ad.ime slavery (Ka.); ad.i place below, down (Kod..); bottom, base (Tu.); ka_r ad.i footsole, footstep; ad.i kai palm of the hand (Tu.); ad.ugu foot, footstep, footprint, step, pace, measure of a foot, botto, basis; ad.ime slavery, slave, bondman; ad.i-gar-r-a sandal, wooden shoe (Te.); ad.ugu footstep (Ga.); ad.i beneath; ad.it below; ad.ita lower; ar.ke below; ad.ita, ad.na lower; ad.(d.)i below, low; ad.i_ down; ar.gi underneath; ar.gita lower (Go.); ad.gi below, underneath; ad.giR(i) that which is underneath; ad.giRan.d. from below, from the bottom (Kond.a)(DEDR 72). aho, auh, af down (Kho.); adhah. below, under (RV.); adho_ (Pali) aho_, ahe_, adham., aha (Pali); adhama lowest, worst (RV.)(CDIAL 246). het.t.ha_ below (Pali); het.t.hato_ from below (Pali); adhasta_t underneath (RV.); ahatta_ (Skt.); het.t.ha_, hit.t.ha below (Pkt.); het.hi, het.ho~ below (S.); het.h (L.P.); het.t.h (WPah.); her.mei~ (WPah.); he~t. (M.); het.ha~_ (Bhoj.); het.ha (OAw.); het.h (H.); het.he (G.); het. (M.); yat.a (Si.); het.hu bottom (S.); het.ha_ inferior (P.H.); het.t.hima (Pali.Pkt.); het.t.hilla lower (Pkt.); het.hla_ (L.P.)(CDIAL 248).

228.Herd of cattle: a_t.u the genus of which the sheep and the goat are species (Net.unal. 160)(Ta.); a_d .u (Ka.Ma.); e_d.u (Tu.); a_t.u-ma_t.u flocks and herds, sheep and cattle (Ta.); a_d.u-ma_d.u (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ad.ar herd of cows (Kond.a); ad.er id. (Pe.); at.ai to collect, gather; at.aicu to crowd, get close together (Ta.); ad.ar to amass (as clouds)(Ka.); at.t.u state of being crowded or thronged; at.t.ul.i a crowd, multitude (Ka.)(DEDR 84). at.a_i enclosure for cattle (Or.)(CDIAL 179). Image: goat: cf. ya_t.u goat, sheep (Ta.)(DEDR 5152). ya_tam, ya_tavam < ya_dava stock of cattle; ya_tavar < ya_dava persons of the cowherd caste; ya_tavan- Kr.s.n.a (Periyapu. Tirumalai. 14)(Ta.lex.)

66.Herpes: akki herpes (Ta.); inflamed pimples (Ma.); erysipelas (Te.); agni- (Skt.)(DEDR 26). agro a sore mouth; the thrush, coatingin the tongue (Tu.lex.)

296.Sorel plant: kudrum the name given to several fibre-yielding plants; arak kudrum the Indian sorel, hibiscus sabdariffa; dare kudrum hibiscus cannabinus (Santali.lex.) Hibiscus sabdariffa (rosselle) 'Source of red beverage known as jamaica in Mexico (said to contain citric acid and salts, serving as diuretic). Calyx called "karkade" in Switzerland, a name not too different from the Arabic. Karkade is used in jams, jellies, sauces and wines. In the tropics the fleshy calyces are used fresh for making roselle wine, jelly, syrup, gelatin, refreshing beverages, pudding, and cakes... Tender leaves and stalks are eaten as salad... The fibre strands, up to 1.5 m. long, are used for cordage and as a substitute for jute in the manufacture of burlap.' (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p.228). Hibiscus cannabinus: gongura (Te.); patsan (H.); nali (Skt.); mestapat (B.); ambari (M.); pulichai (Ta.); juice of flowers: with sugar and black pepper in biliousness with acidity; seeds: aphrodisiac, fattening, as external application to pains and bruises; leaves: purgative; seeds contain fatty oil like arachis oil; generally cultivated; apparently a native of Africa (GIMP, p.133).

125.Image: to hide: ad.agisu, ad.an:gisu, an.agisu to cause to hide or to be withdrawn from sight; to conceal, to hide; ad.agisuha the act of concealing or hiding; ad.agu, ad.an:gu, ad.igu, an.agu, an.un:gu to conceal one's self, to hide; to disappear or vanish (Ka.Te.); ad.an:gur..uca_t.a a peculiar kind of blindman's buff, hide-and-seek; d.an:gur..ucu- id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ad., ad.on to hide (Santali.lex.)

237.Image: neck; jaw; joint of jaws: an.a jaw, hinder part of jaw (Ma.); an.a-ppallu grinder, double tooth (Ma.); an.al jaw, hinder part of mouth (Ma.); chin, side of the upper jaw, neck, throat, windpipe, beard, dewlap (Ta.); under part of the mouth, the mouth (Ka.); an.ar, an.ari side of the upper jaw (Ta.); an.a_r neck (Ta.); an.n.a_t.i cheekbone (Ma.); an.n.i inside of the cheek, joint of jaws (Ma.); an:g lower cheek (Ko.); an:g val molar teeth (Ko.); ol. molar tooth (To.)(DEDR 114). hanu jaw (RV.Pali.B.); cheek-bone (A.); hanu_ jaw (TS.H.); hanuka_ (VarBr.S.Pali); han.u chin (Pkt.); jaw (Konkan.i); han.uya_ jaw (Pkt.); hunu, unu chin (Kho.); han.u~_, han.n.h molar teeth (L.); han.e_ha~_ jaws (L.); hanua_ disease of the tongue in cattle (Bi.Mth.); han.u_, han.vat.i_, han.vat.l.i_ chin (M.); anu jaw (Si.)(CDIAL 13966). Image: jaw: alaku, alavu jaw, mandibles, bird's beak (Ta.); upper portion of the jaw bone (Ma.); halaku the lower part of the cheek (Ka.)(DEDR 239). Image: throat; jaw: argali throat (Dm.); hargal (Gaw.); orgol jaw (Pas'.)(CDIAL 629).

64.Image: mountain: age_ndra a principal mountain. any one of the seven mountains; age_ndraje Pa_rvati_ (Ka.) aga < a-ga not going, not moving; a tree; a mountain (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

135.Image: mountain-range: at.ukkam range as of mountains, row (Patir-r-up. 55,18); pile, tier; mountain slope (Pur-ana_. 168); middle of a mountain slope (Pur-ana_. 2); lesser mountain adjacent to a greater one (Tirumuru. 42)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.ukkal series (Kantapu. Avaipuku. 35); mountain, as stratified (Malaipat.u. 19); at.ukku pile, tier (Ta_yu. Te_co_. 7)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); ad.uku (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: mountain: attiri mountain (Iraku. Tikkuvi. 263); attiram < adri mountain (Ta.lex.) adri a stone; a mountain (Skt.Ka.); adri-tat.a the slope of a mountain; table-land (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Gold: a_t.akam < ha_t.aka one of four kinds of pon-, reputed to be of a greenish hue, and likened to the wings of a parrot (Cilap. 14,201); gold (Te_va_. 538,1); ore (Pin..) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) ha_t.aka gold (Pali)(Gothic. gulp = English gold) (Pali.lex.) ha_t.aka-giri Me_ru (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_t.akan- Hiran.ya-kas'ipu (Ta.lex.) at.t.a-kiri the eight chief mountain ranges in jambu_-dvi_pa (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) A perfume: hat.t.avila_sini a sort of perfume (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

155.Cliff: at.a_l high hill (Pr.); at.ala_ rock (Pas'.)(CDIAL 185). at. ditch, ravine; perpendicular cliff (Ko.); ot. cliff (To.) [< hat.t.u (Badaga)](DEDR 101). at.t.a high (Skt.); at. rock (Pas'.); a_t.i high bank, prominence (A.)(CDIAL 180). vorto, vod. lofty (Kon.lex.) hut.hut.u lofty (Santali.lex.) cf. ha_t.akagiri Me_ru mountain (Ka.lex.)

334.Image: loin, waist: nit.t.elu hip, loin, waist (Tu.); not.t.i buttocks (Ka.)(DEDR 3785).

320.Image: exit hole: ain. exit hole in the bottom of an earthen grain bin (P.)(CDIAL 586).

496.Image: hooked pole; weaver's staff; weaver's stay to adjust a warp: alakku a pole with an iron hook to pluck fruits or leaves (Tj.)(Ta.); alaku weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warp (Ta.); lath, splint, palm or bamboo leaf, weaver's staff (Ma.)(DEDR 237). alaku also connotes: 1. blade of a weapon [alakku-p-po_r stack of weapons (Ta.lex.)]; 2. standard of measurement (DEDR 237-238). There are three semantic categories [weapon or tool; weavers' equipment and products; mensuration.] Image: splinter; tablet: laha_ slip of wood used as ticket in distributing food (Si.); laha invitation tablet, label (Si.); xala_ pin (of bamboo or wood or iron)(A.); sala_ thin stick or bamboo, pin, spit (B.)(CDIAL 12349). s'alya arrow, javelin (RV.)(CDIAL 12352). Strip of bamboo: s'ala_ka_ any small stake or stick (S'Br.); sala_ka_ twig, peg, thin bar, blade of grass, arrow (Pali); sala_ya_, sila_ga_ twig, splinter (Pkt.); sula wood (Kal.); salay spike (K.); sara_i_ thin stick (S.); sala_i_ pin (in spinning yarn)(L.); short stick, coarse needle (Bi.); needle, probe, bodkin (H.); sal.a_i_ need in shuttle, spindle (P.)(CDIAL 12349). Image: strips of bamboo: vle_ka a thin strip of bamboo (Kui); le_kin strips of bamboo (Pe.)(DEDR 5557).

365.Image: having curved, high horns: ara_d.a having high horns; crooked (TS. v.6.21); ara_d.yau divyau (S'Br. iv. 4.5.5)(Vedic.lex.) ara_la curved, crooked (R.); ara_d.a, ara_d.i_ having high horns (MaitrS.); ara_d.ya (TS.)[Kuiper PMWS 13 < *ala_d.a- < Mu.]; al.a_ra curved (Pali); aral. not straight or true (of a post or beam); arl.i_, a_rl.i_ reversed hairs on the body of a horse (M.); rl.i bent (< ard.iya)(Si.)(CDIAL 607). ara_la bent, crooked, curved (Ka.Skt.lex.) ara_la spreading like the spokes of a wheel, curved, crooked; ara_lah- a bent or crooked arm; ara_la-ke_s'i_ a woman with curled hair; ara_la-paks.man having curved eyelashes (Skt.lex.) ara_l.am < ara_l.a gesture with one hand in which the thumb and the forefinger are fully bent while the rest are held upright and slightly bent (Cilap. 3,18, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Perverse: arail perverse, obstinate; ar.yal refusing to go (a horse), perverse (Punjabi.lex.) Perverse; awkward: at.t.a_tut.t.i, at.t.a_tus.t.i, at.t.a_tus.t.am, at.a_tut.i perversity, abusive language (Ta.); ad.d.atid.d.a, ad.d.atid.d.i, ad.d.a_did.d.i, ad.d.a_dud.d.i awkwardness, perverseness, impropriety; awkwardly, etc. (Ka.); ad.d.a_d.d.d.i awkward, clumsy, topsy-turvy (Tu.); forward, perverse; ad.d.adid.d.am zigzag (Te.)(DEDR 94). cf. ad.d.a crosswise (Ka.); at.t.am cross direction (Ta.)(DEDR 83).

416.Cellar: aram cellar, underground room; cave (Can.. Aka.)(T.E.D.) aran:kam room; inner room (Ta.); aran:ka-vi_t.u inner room, regarded as secure (Ta.)(T.E.D.) Room: ar-ai room, apartment, chamber, cell, drawer, compartment, square on a chessboard (Ta.); ar-a partition, room, magazine, treasury (Ma.); ade inner room, small room (Tu.); ar-a, ar-r-a room, chamber, partition or division (Te.); arra_ part of the room; arra a room; ahpi room of a house (Go.)(DEDR 322). apavaraka inner apartment (Skt.); o_varaka (Pali); o_araya, o_ariya_ small room (Pkt.); ord.o principal room; ord.i_ closet (G.); ovri_, ori_, or apartments under portico or arcade of enclosing wall of a temple for pilgrims and devotees; ovra_, oyra_, ora_ cook room (M.)[cf. vaira_, oyra_, ora_ the portion of rice, etc., taken out for the day's food (M.)(CDIAL 527)]; uvvaria small room (Pkt.); obro undermost story in a house for keeping cattle in (WPah.); obri_ small house or chamber (H.)(CDIAL 450). ?cf. uppa_r-a bricklayer, stonemason, plasterer (Ka.)(DEDR 628). House: a_ra (cf. a_ga_ra (Skt.) a dwelling place (Ka.); cf. ki_ra_ra, ki_la_ra (cf. ks.i_ra_ga_ra milk-house, dairy), kot.t.a_ra (granary or warehouse), gu_d.a_ra (tent), daval.a_ra (cf. dhavala_ga_ra a house whitened with chunam or stucco, a palace), de_va_ra (the dwelling of the gods or of an idol; heaven; a temple), bi_d.a_ra (a halting or dwelling-place, a house), bhan.d.a_ra (store-house)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ar-u (ar-uv-, ar-r--/ar-unt-) to abide, dwell; ar-ai place of encampment, camp (Ta.); ar-uppu to keep, preserve, secure (Te.)(DEDR 317). cf. har protect; hare0ra- care (Av.); sa_rtra asylum, abode (Skt.); sattra id. (Skt.); sa_tri_ den (WPah.)(CDIAL 13363). cf. harmiya large house (RV.)(CDIAL 13998).

34.House: a_ga_ra house (A's'vGr..Mn.Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 52). < akam inside, house, place (Ta.); inside, house, room (Ma.); akna room of a house (Go.); akakka_r.. heart of a tree (Ta.)(DEDR 7). khar, ghar, kher house (Gypsy); ghara, gharaga house (Pkt.); ghara, gharaka house (BHSk.ii,220.Pali); gaha (As'.); go_r, obl. garas (D..); gara, ghar, gar, gharo_ (K.); gharu (S.); kar (WPah.); ghara_ cell, drawer (B.); niche, groove (Or.); house (Bi.Mth.); little hole or cavity (M.); ghara house (Or.Konkan.i); ghaur (Mth.); gara house (Si.); ghar (L.P.WPah.Ku.N.A.B.Bi.Aw.Mth.H.Marw.G.M.)(CDIAL 4428). ghara_mi house or hut builder (B.); ghara_mi_ thatcher (H.); ghur.a_mi_ thatcher, lattice-maker (P.); gr.hakartr. house builder (R.)(CDIAL 4429). Ruined place: ghar.eri place where a house has stood, ruin (N.)(CDIAL 4430). gharva~d site of a razed or ruined house (M.)(CDIAL 4437). ghart.ha_n. site of a ruined house (M.)(CDIAL 4439). Inner Room: garbhagr.ha, garbhage_ha inner sleeping room (MBh.); gabbhahara inner room (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4056). garbha_ga_ra inner chamber (Skt.); grabhagara, gabha_ga_ra, gabha_ga_la inner apartment (As'.); gabha_ro inmost sanctuary of a temple (G.); ga_bha_r, ga_bha_ra_ (M.)(CDIAL 4060). ga_bra_t. lintel-wood (B.)(CDIAL 4061). Door; family: gharava_ra house-door (Pkt.); gharba_ru family (S.); gharba_r (P.N.H.G.); gharda_r (M.); gharba_ri_ married (S.P.N.Bi.H.G.); gharb(h)a_ri_ (M.)(CDIAL 4433). gharasta householder (As'.); gharattha (Pkt.); gharat, garat, garti_ respectable woman (M.); gharti, ghartini emancipated slave (N.)(CDIAL 4438). gharava_ro husband (S.); gharwa_la_ house-holder, husband (H.)(CDIAL 4435). ghara_n.o made or reared at home, of good family; parentage (S.); Race: ghara_n.a_ family, good family (P.); family, race (M.): ghara_n good birth (N.); ghara_na_ family, house-hold, race (H.); ghara_n.e~ family, race (M.)(CDIAL 4441). gharin.i_ house-holder's wife (Skt.Pkt.OB.); gharan.i_ (Pali); ghari good housewife (K.); wife (K.); gharini_, gharni_ mistress of a house (A.); gharni (B.); gharni_ wife (Bhoj.H.); gharini, gharani_ (OAw.); gharn.i_ mistress of a house (G.); gharan. (M.); girin.iya_ wife, woman (Si.)(CDIAL 4442). gr.hin.i_ mistress of a house, wife (Skt.); gihin householder (Pali); gihi (Pkt.); gihiya_ (Si.); gihin.i_ wife (Pali); grahuu (K.); gren, ge_n wife (Sh.); ghaini mistress of a house (A.); gahani_, ga_ni_ woman (Si.)(CDIAL 4245). House: gi_bu house, abode (Ka.); gi_mu house (Te.); giha (Pkt.) < gr.ha-(Skt.)(DEDR 1611). gamba mud building (S.); ga_br.i_ filling of a hole (G.); ga_b, ga_p rubble for filling in a wall, strong foundation stone of a wall (N.)(CDIAL 4023). iru to exit, remain (Ta.)(DEDR 480); imbu a halting or resting place, home, room (Ka.Tu.); imba width, breadth (Ka.)(DEDR 467).] gi_h (WPah.); giha, aha (Pkt.); gr.ha house (RV.); gaha (Pali.KharI.Si.) (CDIAL 4240). House-holder: gihavai, gahavai householder (Pkt.); gr.hapati (RV.); gahapati (Pali); gapati (OSi.); gahaviya (Si.)(CDIAL 4242). ghewa_ri_ patch of land adjoining house (Bi.); gr.hava_t.i_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 4243). gihitha householder (As'.); grihasta (NiDoc.); gihattha (Pkt.); gahat.t.ha householder (Pali); gr.hastha id. (Gaut.); grahatha (As'.); ghare_th husband (WPah.); ghaita_ (Or.); gat.aya_ unmarried son still living in father's house (Si.); gryu_stu farmer (K.); gristu id. (Sh.)(CDIAL 4244). House: ge_ha house (VS.Pali.Pkt.); ge_dha (Pali); ge_ (Wg.Nin:g.); gi_ (K.); gi_h (WPah.); geya (Si.)(CDIAL 4251). ge_hini_ housewife (Skt.); ge_hin.i_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4253). ge_hadva_ra house-door (Pali); gedara a house with its premises, home (Si.)(CDIAL 4252). gharvan. house-tax (M.)(CDIAL 4434). a_ge, a_ga in, into (Ka.); akam inside; abode, house (Ta.Ma.); payambu a pit (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) or.ak house; to build house; dolan or.ak brick house; or.ak duar house and possessions (Santali.lex.) Lair; mine: a_khara hole or lair of an animal (RV.); a_khar, a_kar hole or den of an animal (H.)(CDIAL 1034). a_raya mine (Si.); a_gara, a_yagara mine (Pkt.); a_kara accumulation, plenty, mine (R.); mine (Pali)(CDIAL 1000). akam inside, house, place (Ta.); house, room, inside, abode (Ma.); akatta_n master of the house; akatta_l. mistress of the house (Ma.); akatta_n- householder; o_r-akatti husband's brother's wife (i.e. she who is in one and the same house with oneself)(Ta.); o_ragitti, va_ragitti id. (Ka.); akan.i inside, interior; akampu inside; akal inner part of town or village; aka_, aka_yi inside of house, room (Ma.); akna (pl. -n) room of a house (Go.)(DEDR 7). Inside; house: a_gvu~, a~ga_u one's own (G.)(CDIAL 114). akam inside, house, place (Ta.); house, room, inside, abode (Ma.); akatta_n master of the house; akatta_l. mistress of the house (Ma.); akatta_n- householder; o_r-akatti husband's brother's wife (i.e. she who is in one and the same house with oneself)(Ta.); o_ragitti, va_ragitti id. (Ka.); akan.i inside, interior; akampu inside; akal inner part of town or village; aka_, aka_yi inside of house, room (Ma.); akna (pl. -n) room of a house (Go.)(DEDR 7). House; refuge; stay: agha_ra house (A_s'v.Gr..); a_ga_ra (Mn.Pali.Pkt.); a_ga_raka (Pali); aga_ra, ga_ra (Pkt.)(CDIAL 52). {Echo word} akam + ar-a inside + room; cf. akam agricultural tract (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) akam house (Ta.)(DEDR 7). a_karam source, seat, above, storehouse (Ta.lex.) aga_ra house or hut, usually implying the comforts of living at home as opp. to anaga_ra homelessness or the state of a homeless wanderer (mendicant); a_ga_ra is a doublet of aga_ra since the former is a familiar occurrence; perhaps the long a_ is simply a contraction of the short a at the end of the first part of the cpd. with the short a at the beginning of aga_ra : e.g.a_gantuka_ga_ra reception hall for strangers or guests; ittha_ga_ra lady's bower; ku_t.a_ga_ra a house with a peaked roof, or with gables; -kot.t.ha_ga_ra storehouse, granary; -tin.a_ga_ra a house covered with grass; -bhusa_ga_ra threshing shed, barn; -santha_ga_ra a council hall; -sua_ga_ra an uninhabited shed; solitude; aga_raka a small house, a cottage; aga_rika adj. having a house, in: ekaga_rika, dvaga_rika etc.; a householder, layman; aga_rika_ a housewife; also a_ga_rika; aga_rin one who has or inhabits a house, a householder; aga_rini_ a housewife; aga_riya = aga_rika a layman; usually in neg. anaga_riya_ the homeless state (= anaga_ran) as opp. to aga_ra in formula aga_rasma_ anaga_riyan pabbajita (gone out from the house into the homeless state) (Pali.lex.) agyaga_ra, agya_ga_ra house in which fire is kept (Pali); agiya_ri_ small fire-temple (G.)(CDIAL 67). a_ha_ra refuge, stay (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1165). a_ga_raka, a_ga_rika belonging to the house, viz., (1) having control over the house, keeping, surveying, in cpds. kot.t.ha_ga_raka possessor or keeper of a storehouse; bandhana_ga_raka prison-keeper; bhan.d.a_ga_raka keeper of wares, treasurer; (2) being in the house, sharing (the house), companion (BHSk.Pali.lex.) agiha- < agr.ha (Pali); gr.ha house (RV.); gaha (Pali.KharI.); giha, gaha (Pkt.); gaha (Si.); gi_ (K.); gi_h (WPah.)(CDIAL 4240). Foodgrain store: kot.t.ha_gara food-grain store (Jain.Skt.) Precious stone store: bhan.d.a_ga_ra a treasury of precious stones (Jain.Skt.) agraha_ra akkiraka_ram Bra_hman village or street (M.M.); akkira_ram id. (Ta.); a_ka_racamitai < a-gha_ra + samidh two pipal twigs dipped in ghee and placed one at the north-east and the other at the south-east corner of the gr.hya sacred fire (Ci_vaka. 2464, Urai)(Ta.lex.) House: agva_r.a_ the space in front of a house (P.); agua_r, agua_ra_ (Bi.); agwa_r.a_ (H.); agva_r.u~ (G.)(CDIAL 80). Allotted village: akkiraka_ram Bra_hman village or street; village formerly allotted to Bra_hmans at a favourable assessment or rent free; akkira_ram Bra_hman street (Tan-ippa_.); akkiraca_lai feeding-house for Bra_hmans (Insc.); akkiraca_laippur-am endowment in the shape of land to provide a feeding-house for Bra_hmans (Insc.)(Ta.lex.) aku-ta_r < haq-da_r (U.) holder of a right, one in whom any property, perquisite or privilege is vested (Ta.lex.)

269.House: a_m house < akam (Ta.lex.) amarvu abode (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,7,8); amartal to be engaged, settled, as a house; to become established, as in work; to do, perform (Kantapu. Mutan-a_t.. 60); to get close to (Tirukko_. 372); to abide, remain, be seated (Kantapu. Kat.avu. 12)(Ta.lex.) am at home, in the house (RV.); ama_ (Pali); ama~_ house (Ash.); ama_ in the house (Ash.); house (Wg.); amo_ house (Kt.); umu_ (Pr.); a_ma (Shum.); a_ma, a_mu_ (Gaw.)(CDIAL 560). Neighbour: ama_ together with; near (Ka.Skt.); ama_tya one who is near (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ama_va_sy neighbourhood (AV.); amoas.i_ neighbour (Ash.); amu_wes' (Wg.)(CDIAL 563). ama_tya inmate of the same house (RV.); minister of a king (Mn.); amacca minister (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 561). amaiccan- minister; prime minister; friend of the prime minister; amaicciyal duties of a minister (Kantapu. Avaipuku. 114)(Ta.); qualifications of a minister (Kur-al..); amaiccu minister (Kur-al., 631)(Ta.); office and functions of a minister (Kur-al., 64, Ati. Avata_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. samartha appropriate (A_s'v.S'r.); capable (MBh.); samattha capable (Pali.Pkt.); samata capable, clever (Si.)(CDIAL 13189).

146.Image: a hunting animal: at.t.ul.i a hunting-animal (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

61.Ox's hump: akku ox's hump (Ta.)(T.E.D.)

348.Straight: ayar, ayar ayar straight, applied mainly to implements which should be more or less curved; ayar ayargepe benao akata, bape liwet akata you have made it straight, you have not given it a curve (Santali.lex.) cf. ajirda karba very hard iron (Tu.)(DEDR 192). cf.ayil javelin, lance (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 193).

358.Warlike preparation, equipment: a_yattam warlike preparation, equipment (Kampara_. Kumpaka. 77)(Ta.lex.) a_yata, a_yatta fitness, proper way, readiness (Ka.); a_yatta readiness (Tu.); a_yitamu, a_yittamu readiness, preparation; ready (Te.)(DEDR 366). a_yatta resting on, depending on, being at the disposition of (MBh.); depending on, ready (Pali); dependent (Pkt.); a_yatate_ arrives at, adheres to (RV.); a_itta dependent (Pkt.); a_yatu~, a_itu~ ready to hand, ready made, free, gratis (G.); a_yata_ ready to hand (M.); a_yate~, a_yati_ raw materials ready for cooking; a_yatol.a_ ready made (M.); ayat, ayati, ayiti belonging to (Si.)(CDIAL 1286). cf. a_yudha weapon (RV.)(CDIAL 1291).

393.Image: projecting border of a jewel: arat.a_ (Ta.) < arad.a_ (Te.) projecting border of a jewel (Ta.lex.); the raised rim of a jewel (T.E.D.) cf. aran. protection; defence; fort, fortress, castle; fort-wall, rampart; compound wall as of a temple; fortified place (Ta.); id. (Ma.); arun.i (Ka.); aran.am hedge, enclosure (Kantapu. Acura. Acurarya_. 37); id. (Ma.); aran.i the fold of mucous membrane at the vaginal entrance, hymen (Ca_mpacivam Pil.l.ai Akara_ti) (Ta.)(T.E.D.) Image: wooden tripod: a_dha_ran.a supporting (Nir.); a_ha_ran.a adj. (Pkt.); a_rn.i_ iron tripod to hold a pot (G.); a_rn.iyo wooden tripod (G.)(CDIAL 1166). cf. akal small earthen pot having a wide mouth (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 9). akaipu rising, elevation (Ta.)(DEDR 15). Image: raised manger: a_huru, a_huro raised manger for cattle to eat from (S.); ahri_ round vat for dissolving saltpetre from saline earth (Bi.)(CDIAL 1165). Images: vessel; ring; support; tripod: a_hra_, a_ra_, a_ha_ra_ ring of grass placed under a pitcher (M.); a_dha_ra support, substratum (AV.); vessel (Ya_j.); dike, dam (Skt.); basin at the foot of a tree, pond (Skt.); basis, support, stool for alm's bowl (Pali); a_dha_raka substratum (Sus'r.); stool, stand (Pali); aha_r planks which run from end to end in a boat (Bi.)(CDIAL 1165). Elevation: akaippu rising, elevation; akai to burn (Kalit. 139,26); akaittal to rise; to cut into pieces; to break (Malaipat.u. 429); akai component part (Ci_vaka. 2694); akaippu moving with intervals of stopping (Tol. Po. 541)(Ta.lex.) a_kku to elevate, bring prosperity to (Kur-al., 264); a_kku-p-purai covered place for cooking temporarily put up for an occasion (Ta.lex.) an.d.u bottom of a vessel (Ka.)(DEDR 129). Image: brim, edge: aruku edge, border (Ta.); ariku border, edge (Te.); aru, aruvu brim, edge (Ma.); aragu, arigu, arugu border, edge (Ka.); aru, arugu border, edge (Tu.)(DEDR 222). cf. cerngl corner of a cloak or piece of cloth (Ko.); seran:gu the end or edge of a female's garment (Tu.); cer-a_gu hem, end or corner of a garment or cloth (Te.); cen:gu skirt, border, edge (of a cloth)(Te.)(DEDR 2796). cf. xerrna_ (xirryas) to introduce lengthwise by gradual pushing, insert, stick into or behind (Kur.); qere to thrust in, tuck in (Malt.); ceruku (ceruki-) to insert, slide into (Ta.)(DEDR 2778). Edge; mountain: dha_ra_ sharp edge, rim, blade (RV.); edge of mountain (Skt.); edge of weapon (Pali.Pkt.); chura-dhara knife-blade (NiDoc.); da_ mountain, pass (Ash.Wg.Kt.); do_ (Pr.); dr hill (Dm.); dha_r (Pas'.); da_r (Shum.Nin..Wot..); d'a_r (Gaw.); dha_r (Gaw.); daha_r ridge of hill (Kho.); dha_re_ (Sv.); da_r ridge of hill (Sh.); da_r edge or point of weapon or tool (K.); dha_r hill (K.); dha_ra edge of weapon or tool (S.); dha_r edge (L.); edge of weapon, ridge of mountain; hill (P.); hill (WPah.); dha_ra (WPah.); dha_r edge, ridge, summit of hill; dha_ri edge, mouth (of mill)(Ku.); dha_r edge, blade of knife, cliff (N.); dha_rilo sharp (N.); dha_r edge of weapon, blade (A.); dhara_iba to sharpen (A.); dha_r edge, sharpness of a blade (B.); dha_ri edge, edge of mud veranda (B.); dha_ra blade (Or.); dha_r edge or point of ploughshare (H.)(CDIAL 6793). cf. da_ru wood (Skt.) cf. dhar.i_ coloured edge of cloth (S.)(CDIAL 6708). dha_r edge of tool, brink (G.M.); dhar.i edge (Or.); dhad. brink, edge (esp. of a raised place)(M.); dhad.i_ border of cloth (M.)(CDIAL 6708).

430.A tool used by gold-beaters: ar.el a tool used by gold-beaters; an instrument through which wire is drawn (P.lex.)

440.Usufructuary mortgage: a_rava_ro an usufructuary mortgage (Tu.lex.) a_rava_ra a mortgage of landed property with possession (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) e_r-va_ram share of produce allowed for the team and agricultural implements used in cultivating the land (W.)(Ta.lex.) hara_i custom by which tenant lends landlord his plough and bullocks for two days each year (Bi.)(CDIAL 14004). gen., gen.i usufruct (Kon.lex.)

96.Indigo: ajara, ajura a low under-shrub, perhaps indigo aspalathoides (Ka.); avari, avuri (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ajara-ni_li, ajura-ni_li a low under-brush, perhaps indigo[fera] aspalathoides = I. tinctoria Linn.(Ka.); ajara a kind of moss (?Tu.)(DEDR 44). aviri, avuri indigo plant, indigofera tinctoria (Ta.); amari, avari id. (Ma.); aviri id. (Te.)(DEDR 269). cf. ni_lini the indigo shrub (Ka.lex.) an.aru moss, lichen, mould, green stuff on stagnant water (Tu.)(DEDR 96). aks.a blue vitriol (Skt.); axsae_na dark-coloured (Avestan); axs'in blue (Yiddish); oc.h, oc. blue, green (Kho.); oc.o_nu blue-grey (of eyes), dark grey (of horse) (Kho.) (CDIAL 24). azure lapis lazuli; bright or clear blue colour; asur (Old French); azur (Old Spanish.Rumanian); azzuro, azzuolo (Italian); azzurum, azolum (Mediaeval Latin); allazward (Arabic); la_zhward, la_jward lapis lazuli, blue (Persian)(ODEE). acar-u dandruff, scurf; scab in sheep and goats (Ta.); agaru, hagaru, adaru, aduru dandruff (Ka.)(DEDR 42).[Poss. use to treat dandruff.]

316.Consort of Indra: ayira_n.i < ayira_van.i consort of ayira_van.an-, owner of aira_van.a; Indra_n.i_, Indra's consort (Na_lat.i, 381)(Ta.lex.)

265.Inferior: apa bad, inferior, unworthy; as first member of Tatpurus.a or Bahuvri_hi cmpds. (Skt.lex.) avantan- worthless man (Kampara_. Mantarai. 55); avam vanity, nothingness, uselessness (Tirukko_. 100, Urai.); evil (Kur-al., 266); avattam evil, calamity (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,3,9); avattam that which is useless, vain (Te_va_. 120,6)(Ta.lex.)

198.Image: insect: antu a small grey-winged insect found in stored paddy (Ta.); andi, andihur..a a small grey and winged insect that infests grain, tinea oryzella (Ka.)(DEDR 150).

273.Image: insect: amba_re a kind of insect existing in dry wood; amba_r-un.n.i a tick infesting cattle; ambuka_ra a kind of troublesome insect in the dust, esp. where people and cattle used to halt (Ka.); amba_ra-pin.uju a tick which infests animals (Te.)(DEDR 176).

385.Island: aran:kam island formed by a river or rivers, ait (Cilap. 10,156); S'ri_ran:kam (Tiv. Periyati. 5,7,1); school for practice of arms; gambling house; wrestling arena (Ta.)(T.E.D.)

395.Itch: ari (-pp-,-tt-) to have an acute itching sensation; arippu itching (Ta.); arikka to itch (Ma.); ayr- (arc-) (mouth) burns; arl fever (Ko.); ary- (arc-) (woman) desires sexual intercourse (To.)(DEDR 214). ir..ai (-v-, -nt-) to associate very intimately, have tender emotions (as in love), be together (as husband and wife), copulate (as snakes)(Ta.); ir.- (it.y-) to have sexual intercourse with (Ko.); el.asu to desire, long for, take pleasure in; den:gu sexual union (Ka.); de_gu to copulate with (Te.); den:g- (den:kt-) to have sexual intercourse with (Kol.)(DEDR 507). cf. in.ai to unite (Ta.)(DEDR 457).

38.Image: overcoat; long jacket; coat of mail: an:gga a coat reaching down to the knees, an upper garment, a long tunic worn alike by the Hindus and Muhammadans of the N.W.P.; the former tie it on the right, and the latter on the left side of the breast (P.lex.) an:ga_ m. long garment reaching to the knees (P.); en:ga_ m. (A.); an:ga_ m. (Or.Bi.H.); a~_ga_ m. (Aw.); an:gika_ f. woman's bodice (Skt.)[an:gya belonging to the limbs (RV.)]; an:gi_ bodice (P.); an.iyo (Ku.); an:gi (Or.); a~giya_ (Bi.); a~_gi_ (Mth.H.); small coat presented to the bridegroom by his mother's father (G.); a~giyo bodice (G.); an:gi (Konkan.i); an:giya (Si.).-- A larger garment is denoted by masculine formations; a_n.ar. upper garment (Ku.); a_n.r.o woman's bodice (Ku.); a~_gr.i_ overcoat (G.);--with -lla-: a~_gli_, a~_glu~ baby's coat (G.)(CDIAL 114)[< an:ga limb (RV.); body (Mn.)] an:garaks.an.i_ coat of mail (Skt.); am.garakkha, am.garaga protecting the body (Pkt.); a~grakho upper garment (S.); a_n.ra_kha_ (B.); an:garakha_ (Or.); a~garkha_ (Bi.H.); a~garkhu~ (G.); a~_garkha_, a~garkha_, a~_gra_kha_ (M.); X antari_ya- an inner garment (Skt.): andrakkha_ (L.)(CDIAL 120; CDIAL 132). an:ki long jacket; an:kiyin-ai yan:kume_ yan.intavaru ma_n-a_r : Iraku. Te_nu. 28); an:kam bed, couch (Tirup. 125)(Ta.lex.)

364.Wild jack: ara_ntal tender wild jack (i.e. tree or fruit)(Ta.); a_rantal id. (Ma.)(DEDR 208).

483.To mix, blend; to fit pieces into one another; tacking: al.a to mingle, blend (Ta.); al.i (-v-, -nt-) to mix, mingle (Ta.); al.ai to be mixed, mingled; to mix up, mingle (Ta.); al.ayuka to mix up, mingle (Ma.); al.a, al.avu, al.avi joining, contact, contiguity, nearness (Ka.); al.avuni to mix (Tu.); alamuni to mix with the hand (Tu.); la_yu to approach (Te.); alamu to seize, lay hold of, take; mix with, be one with (Te.); lap- (-t-) to join two pieces together, fit one into or on another (Kond.a); lab- (lapt-) to fit into (Pe.); lap- (-t-) to insert, fit into (Pe.); halling to seize, hold, buy, overtake, detect, tack together (a tear); get caught, stick (Br.)(DEDR 296). a_lagati adheres (Skt.); alondu, alnzu hanging down (K.); a_l- to put on (shoes)(Pas'.); alavanava_ to affix (Si.)(CDIAL 1354). ala_sin.o to stick to, take refuge (Ku.)(CDIAL 1379). a_li_yate_ comes close to (MBh.); crouches, stoops (Skt.); alli_yati sticks to (Pali); alli_ya_pe_ti brings to; a_layati clings to (Pali); a_li_i is attached to; alli_ai, alli_i, allii enters, unites; alliya_ve_i brings near; allivai hands over (Pkt.); a_l- to get up (Pas'.)(CDIAL 1387). cf. alarka a fabulous animal (MBh.)(CDIAL 705). Haste; to be joined: alavalai hasty action (Man.i. 17,51); alavan (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) alarti hastens towards (RV.); ara_ryate_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 10640). Image: to join: ral.an. to be joined, be mixed, fall into (of river into sea)(L.); rala_un.a_ to mix, join (P.); ral.vu~ to acquire, earn (G.); ralun to be mixed with (K.); ralan.u (S.); ralle unitedly (L.); ra_ln.o to join, mix (e.g. rice with lentils)(Ku.); ra_lna_ to mix, bruise (H.); ralna_ to be mixed or pounded together (H.); ra_ln.o to throw, put down (Marw.)(CDIAL 10640). Mixing: rala_, rala_u mixture, alloy, mingling of some foreign substance; rala_u one who joins with or connives at; rala_un. to mingle, to mix, to join, to unite; rala_wan to join, to unite. When used with bi_ja_ sugarcane cuttings, it means the plant; ralmil, ralma_n.i_ uniting (Punjabi.lex.) Attachment, desire: a_laya attachment, desire (Pali); a_l. longing for; a_l.i_ importunate begging (M.); liya wish, desire (Si.)(CDIAL 1366). al.i to be attached (Ta.); love, affection (Ma.); al.inta_r loving persons; al.iyan- one who has great love, gracious benefactor, one who deserves protection (Ta.); alikkuka to grant, bestow, protect; al.iyan one who is kind and affectionate (Ma.); ayl. mog twin children (Ko.); al.ipu, al.upu to be addicted to, long for; hankering after, desire, love; al.aviga friend (Ka.); la~_cu to long for, desire (Te.)(DEDR 301).

238.Joint: a.n.y joint of body (Ko.)(DEDR App.10). cf. an.n.i inside of the cheek, joint of jaws (Ma.)(DEDR 114). an.i to join with (Patir-r-up. 81,20)(Ta.lex.) in.ai to join (Ta.)(DEDR 457). To interlace; join: an.an:ku to interlace in growing together, as bamboos; to be joined, united; an.attal to be joined, united; to lift the head (Ta.lex.) an.asu that holds firmly together, a ferrule; a throng (Ka.); handle, hilt (Tu.); ana~gu to mix or mingle freely (Te.); an.ai to come in contact with, copulate with; to embrace, tie, fasten (as animals), tie up in a bunch (Ta.)(DEDR 120). nan.n.u to be attached to, united with, adhere (Ta.); nanucu to like, be fond of; nanuvu agreeableness (Te.)(DEDR 3588). an.aippu embrace; an.aittal to embrace, hold, clasp in the arms; to join, put close to, as earth to a tree; to tie up in a bunch; to produce (Ta.lex.)

263.Image: cracking the joints: apphot.ita (pp. of apphot.eti) having snapped one's fingers or clapped one's hands; apphot.eti (a_ + sphut.) to snap the fingers or clap the hands (as sign of pleasure) (Pali.lex.) sphut.ana cracking of joints (Car.)(CDIAL 13843).

380.Image: standing broad jump: a.r (a.ry) to do broad jump, jump (Ko.); kup-o.ry a standing broad jump (kup a jump)(To.)(DEDR 373).

187.Malabar-nut: a_t.a_to_t.ai Malabar-nut, justicia adhatoda (Ta.); a_t.alo_t.akam j. adhatoda or bivalvis (Ma.); a_d.aso_ge, a_d.uso_ge j. adhatoda (Ka.); a_d.alo_d.u id. (Tu.); a_d.so_ge a plant whose leaves are so bitter that even goats avoid it (Tu.); ad.d.asaramu a medicinal shrub, adhatoda vasica (Te.); a_t.aru_s.a, at.aru_s.a j. adhatoda (Skt.)(DEDR 346). at.arus.a the shrub justicia adhatoda (Skt.); at.aru_s.aka id. (Sus'r.); aru_s, arus, ar.u_sa_ justicia adhatoda and ganderussa (H.); arr.u_si_, ar.usi_ a partic. medicinal plant; ar.uso a partic. tree (G.); ad.ul.sa_, ad.ol.sa_ the plant justicia adhatoda and ganderussa (M.)(CDIAL 176).

193.To kill: at.t. to kill (Skt.lex.) atakan- strong powerful person (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,1,9); cf. hataka; atam < hata destruction, ruin (Ja_n-ava_. Vi_mapa_. 16); atavai vile person; atavu-tal to kill (Tiruppu. 278); to attack (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,89); at.ar-ttal to kill (Kalla_. 56); at.ar troubling, oppressing (Man.i. 13,40); at.alai trouble, distress (Te_va_. 1197,6); battle; at.al killing, murdering (Kantapu. Mu_va_yi. 70); war, conflict; victory, success (Tol. Po. 628); an.t.ar foes, enemies (Patir-r-up. 88,9); a_t.al fight, battle; victory (Ta.lex.) ne~t, kat.a kat.i to kill (Santali.lex.) ad.ra bad (Pa.); ad.rai id. (Go.); ad.ra very bad (Go.); ad.re, ad.rene useless, empty, idle; adv. without sense or reason, without benefit, without shelter or food, idly, in vain (Kui); ad.avu bad, mischievous; bad person (Kol.); ad.ra bad (Halbi)(DEDR 107).

329.Kinsman: a_ti agnate (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 27); relations; distant kinsman, one who does not participate in the oblations of food or water offered to deceased ancestors (Ta.lex.) ja_ti kinsman (RV.); a_ti kinsman (Pali. As'.NiDoc. KharI.); a_tika kinsman (As'.); na_tikye nom. sg., atika kinsman (As'.); ati (NiDoc.KharI.); atiga, nadiga (KharI.); n.a_i (Pkt.); izna_ri sort (Kho.); na_ related (OSi.); na_ya_ relative (Si.); na~_na_ female cousin (Si.)(CDIAL 5276). na_to acquaintance (Ku.); na_to relationship (N.); na_ta_-gota_ relatives (N.); na_t relative (Aw.); kinsman (H.); kinship, alliance (H.); na_ta_ (H.); na_tara relationship, betrothal (OG.); na_tra_ pl. kin (OG.); na_tru~ widow's relationship as mistress; na_tu~, na_to kinship (G.); na_te~ (M.); na_to (S.); na_ta_ (L.); na_tta_ id., relative (P.); na_to wife's brother; ne_tt.u young relative (WPah.); a_taka kinsman (Pali)(CDIAL 5279). nat.t.lia_n.i wife's brother's wife (WPah.)(CDIAL 5280). a_tighara paternal home (Pali); na_yer, la_ihar, la_ihor wife's father's house (B.); naihar, nahira_ (Bi.); naihar, nehra_ (Mth.); naihar (Bhoj.Aw.H.)(CDIAL 5278). na_ti relation (Tiruvil.ai. Payakara. 41); protector ; na_tiyan- lord, master (Te_va_. 508,1)(Ta.lex.) Sister-in-law: na_ttan-a_r, na_tti, na_ttu_n. husband's sister (Ta.); na_ttu_n id., brother's wife (Ma.); na.tu.n.y sister-in-law, female cross-cousin (woman speaking in all cases)(Ko.); na_dani, na_dini, na_duni husband's sister, brother's wife; husband's younger sister, wife's sister, younger brother's wife (Ka.); andil, tantil elder brother's wife (Pa.); na_nr-a wife's younger sister (Kond.a); na_njar. id. (Mand..); nanjo sister-in-law (Kwi); na_nja younger sister-in-law (Kui); na_sgo elder brother's wife (Kur.)(DEDR 3644). nana_ndr. husband's sister (RV.); nanandr., nanda_, nandini_ (Skt.); nanandar (Pali); n.an.am.da_ husband's younger sister (Pkt.); nana_nikyem my brother's wife (Shum.); nin.un husband's sister (S.); nina_n. husband's brother's wife, husband's sister (L.); nina_n. his sister (L.); nana_n., nan.ad his sister (P.); nan.a_nu_ his younger sister (P.); nana~d his sister (Ku.); nan.ad (WPah.); nanda (N.); nandi (A.); nanad (B.); nan.a(n)da (Or.); nan(a)di_ husband's sister (Mth.); nana(n)d, nanadi_, nanadiya_, nandi_ husband's sister (H.); nanadini_ husband's or wife's sister (H.); nan.ad husband's sister (Marw.); nan.am.dara (OG.); nan.a~d, nan.al, nan.di_ his younger sister (G.); nan.a~d, nan.ad, nan.doli_, nan.duli_ his sister (M.); nan.ada (Konkan.i); na(n)di_, nanda_ father's sister, wife's mother (Si.)(CDIAL 6946).

335.Messenger; relative; invitation to a feast: ne~d.ra invitation to a feast (S.); ne_ndar subscription to a wedding feast; ne~_dra_ (S.); neudra_, ne~da_ invitation, contribution by guests to defray expenses; ni~_dra_ invitation to wedding feast; ne~deror. relative so invited (P.); nyo~_da_ invitation (WPah.); nyu_to (Ku.); niu~to, nimto invitation (esp. to a meal)(Ku.); niu~ta_, neuta_ invitation, family feast (Or.); ne~wta_, newta_ invitation to wedding (Bi.); neot, nawat (Mth.); neota_ (Bhoj.); nevata (OAw.); nyo~ta, neuta_, nauta_ (H.); notru~ (G.); notiro (S.)(CDIAL 7233). nendor, nindur, nete, nesa of this side, of this neighbourhood (Mu.lex.) nouro, nourea_ bridegroom (Kon.lex.) neota an invitation to a betrothal or marriage feast (Mu. H. Sadani) (Mu.lex.) nimantraka inviter (MBh.); nimantaka inviter (Pali); nen.d.ro messenger carrying invitation to wedding feast (S.)(CDIAL 7234). nimantrayate_ invites (A_s'vGr..); nimante_ti invites (Pali); n.imam.te_i (Pkt.); nyu_tan.o (Ku.); nimtya_unu (N.); newatna_, nyotna_, nau~tna_, nautna_, notna_ (H.); nihum.tri_ta_ m. pl. pres. part. pass. (OG.); notarvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 7235). ne~ota to invite as to a marriage, feast etc.; jel daka jomko ne~ota akadina they have invited me to partake of meat and rice (Santali) (Santali.lex.) Newly wed: navavarika_ newly wed (Skt.); navra_, naura_ bridegroom, young man of age to marry; navri_ bride (esp. before puberty)(M.)(CDIAL 7013). nar.ha jor.ha relatives by marriage, a wife's or husband's relatives; nar.jor. to marry, relationship by marriage (Santali) (Santali.lex.) Husband's sister's son: cf. nanotar, nanu_ttar husband's sister's son (P.)(CDIAL 6948). nana_dr.pati husband's sister's husband (Skt.); nina_n.vaia_ (L.); na_doi_, na_doi_a_, na_doya_ (P.); nan.doi (WPah.); nanda_i (B.); nan.andei (Or.); nandoi_ (H.); nan.doi_ (G.M.); nan.adya_, nan.a~da_ (M.)(CDIAL 6947). na_na_ndra husband's sister's son (Pa_n..gan.a); na_n.a_t.ru (S.)(CDIAL 7054). Relative: a_ti relative (Pali.lex.) ja_tiru one who knows (Ci. Ci. 8,22); ja_t.pu assemblage, crowd (Ka_cippu. Tar..uvak. 279)(Ta.lex.) nata temporary relationship, to assume relationship for the purpose of addressing each other; thus a younger man addresses an older man as uncle etc.; nata suta relationship; natat era wives of brothers; natea the relationship between wives of brothers or cousins; nathi habit, custom, usage; cf. sagai relationship, kinship (Santali) (Santali.lex.) Village: cf. nattam town, village (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_t.. Pil.l.ait. 45); residential portion of a village; portion of a village inhabited by the non-brahmins, opp. to akkiraka_ram (C.G.); land reserved as house-sites (Ta.inscr.); place, site (Ta.); nattattan-a_r a sangam poet, author of Cir-upa_r-r-uppat.ai, one of Pattu-p-pa_t.t.u (Ta.); nattan.-ko_yil village temple (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 15, Vya_. 61)(Ta.lex.)

470.Image: curved line of loops: a_r..i curved line of loops drawn on sand by a woman to divine whether her husband will return in safety, the sum of which, if even, indicating the safe return and, if odd, failure to return (Ain. Aim. 43)(Ta.lex.)

495.To reckon: alakit.utal to reckon, compute, measure, estimate; alaku number, calculation (Tiva_.); measure, quantity (Pin..); standard of measurement (Na_lat.i. 22); cowries, small shells, as signs of number in reckoning (Tiva_.); berries of mimusops elengi, makir..am vitai (Tiva_.; Tiv. Iyar-. 1,49); a lakh of areca-nuts (Api. Cin.); alaku-kar..ittal to subtract, deduct a number in reckoning with seeds (W.); alaku-kat.t.u-tal to settle accounts (W.); alaku-nilai result of a computation in addition, or multiplication (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: cowry: alaku cowries (as signs of number in reckoning), number, calculation (Ta.); alu cowrie (?Kod..Mercara)(DEDR 238). [cf. kale_i, kalai counts (Pkt.); kalyoiki, kali_am to count, consider (Sh.); kal.iba_ to count (Or.); kalayati counts, thinks (Skt.); ka_layati counts, tells over (MBh.)(CDIAL 2918). kala_ a small part (RV.Pali.Pkt.); kala small amount, digit, division of time (Si.)(CDIAL 2926). kali the losing die with one dot (AV.)(CDIAL 2933)]. Scratch: le_khana act of scratching (Pali); lehni_, nehni_ scraper used by tin-man (Bi.)(CDIAL 11103). le_kha_ scratch, line (Pali); le_ha_ line (Pkt.); leya line, row (Si.)(CDIAL 11107). li_kka_ track, line (Skt.); li_ka line, streak (S.); li_k line, crack in soil (L.); lik line, track, rut (B.)(CDIAL 11070). li_ha_ line (Pkt.); li_ha (S.); li_ line, rut (P.); line (G.)(CDIAL 11107). Accounts; writing: le_khya to be written (Skt.); writing (MBh.); document (Ya_j.); lekha document (NiDoc.); writings (OMarw.); lekkha, likkha accounts (Pkt.); lyukhu, likha id. (K.); lekho account (S.Ku.N.); lekha_ id. (L.A.Bi.H.); letter, drawing (B.); written (Or.); nekha_ written (Or.); lekh document, opinion, destiny (Ku.); account (A.M.); lekhaum calculation (OG.); lekhu~ account (G.); lekhiba_, nekhiba_ to write (Or.); leku_sa to count (Tor.); lekhu_m I count, I divide (Phal.)(CDIAL 11108).

511.Hoop or net suspended from the shoulder: ar-uvai net or hoop suspended from the shoulder, to_l.ilit.um ur-i (cuvan-me_ lar-uvaiyum : Cilap. 10,98)(Ta.lex.)

506.Kubera's residence: alake, alaka_, alaka_pura Kubera's residence (Ka.lex.) al.akai Kubera's city (Uttarara_. Varai. 1); al.akai-y-a_l.i Kube_ra, ruler of Alaka_ (Tiva_.); al.ake_can- Kube_ra, lord of Alaka_ (Ta_yu. Paripu_. 10); al.aka_puri city of Kube_ra (Pa_rata. Man.ima_n-. 15); al.aka_tipan- Kube_ra, the lord of Alaka_ (Uttarara_. Varaiyet.u. 26)(Ta.lex.) alku-tal to be permanent (Kur-al., 333, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Evening bazaar: alkunar inhabitants (alkunar po_kiya vu_ro_ ran-n-ar : Kalit. 23); allam.ka_t.i evening bazaar, opp. to na_l.am.ka_t.i; alku night; afternoon (alku nir..ar-po_ lakan-r-akan r-o_t.ume_ : Na_lat.i. 166)(Ta.lex.) allu darkness, night (Ma.)(DEDR 235). Image: light: a_lo_kam light (Cit. Marapu. Kan.. 10)(Ta.lex.) alku night (A_ca_rak. 30); afternoon (Na_lat.i. 166); allan:ka_t.i evening bazaar, opp. to na_l.an:ka_t.i (Maturaik. 544); al night (Ta.Ma.); evening (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

288.Levy; unpaid labour: adaku, amuku, amiku, amucu to press; to squeeze (Ka.lex.) amaci, amici forced labour, unpaid labour (Ta.); amanji, aminji, amiji unpaid labour, drudgery (Te.)(DEDR 159). -amaji : a_l.-amaji a levy; explained as 'workmen pressed into service without wages' (Ta.)(SII. 12.IEG.) a_r.r.u-k-ka_l-amaji unpaid labour to keep the channel from the river in good repair (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)

372.Vermilion; red; lac or lac dye: arakku ?< rakta vermilion (Kalit. 13); redness (Ta.lex.) lac.hi_a red (Kal.); lac.ha red (Dm.); la_kkha_ red, brown, black (of cattle)(L.); red, brown, black (P.); la_kha_ red (L.); la_khu~ red mark on the skin (G.); la_khe~ (M.)(CDIAL 11003). rakta coloured, dyed (S'Br.); red (Skt.); ratta dyed, red (Pali); red; red colour; rattaga red (Pkt.); rataga red (NiDoc.); rat blood (Gypsy); rutusta red (Ash.); rot (D..); jate, zate, z.ata (Wg.); jata (Gmb.); rato red and pp. of racan.u to be dyed (S.); ratta_ red (L.); dyed, red (P.); red woollen yarn (P.); ra_tu red, crimson (WPah.); ra_t red (Ku.); ra_to (N.); ra_ta_ (A.OAw.M.); dyed, red (H.); ra_tul red (A.); ra_tula (MB.OMth.); rata_ (Or.); ra_tna_ to dye (H.); ra_tu_ red (G.); ratu red colour, red (Si.); rat, rai red (Md.)(CDIAL 10539). cf. red red of the colour of blood, glowing coal. A widespread IE. colour-name. Old Frisian ra_d, Old Saxon ro_d, Old High German ro_t, Old Norse raudr, Greek ereúthein redden, Latin ruber, Skt. rudhiras red, rudhiram blood, Lithuanian rudas (ODEE). Lac; red dye from lac: arakku lac, sealing-wax, shellac, or resin melted with turpentine (Ta.); gumlac, sealing-wax (Ma.); aragu id. (Ka.); araku, aragu id. (Tu.); arakkam shellac (Ta.); la_ks.a_ lac (MBh.); lac, red dye (Mn.); a particular plant (AV.); ra_ks.a_ (Skt.)(DEDR 199). alakta a particular red substance, prob. lac or lac dye (R.)[Forms with a_ suggest poss. origin from or contamina-tion with a_rakta. cf. rakta_ lac (Sus'r.) and la_ks.a which may derive from *raks.a < IE. *reg-s- in Persian raxs bright.] alattaka, lalattaka lac dye (Pali); alatta, alattaya (Pkt.); arto red dye from lac, yellow dye from safflower (S.); a_lattaya lac (Pali); olutu (dat. alatis) lac dye, lac (K.); alta_ red and yellow powder thrown at Holi time (P.); lac dye (H.); a_lata_ lac dye (A.); a_lta_ lac (B.); lac dye (H.); al.ata_ lac dye (Or.); alata_ lac (OMth.); al.to lac dye (G.); al.ta_, al.i_ta_, a_l.ita_, alita_ id. (M.); latu lac (Si.); alata_va id. (Si.)(CDIAL 695). [cf. pu_, pu_vatti, pu_vam lac tree, schleichera trijuga (Ta.)(DEDR 4348).] la_ks.a a particular plant (AV.); lac, red dye (Mn.); lochik gum exuding from a tree (Kho.); lac.a_ sealing-wax (Sh.); la_ch lac dye (K.); la_kha lac (S.); la_kh (Bhoj.Bi.Mth.H.G.M.); la_kha_ lac dye, lac (Pali); la_ lac (A.B.H.); lac dye (Si.); la_ha_ (B.Or.); sealing wax (N.); na_ha_ lac (Or.); la_h (Bi.Mth.H.)(CDIAL 11002). lakhera_ one who gathers gum-lac (P.); lahera_, laheri_ lac-bangle maker (Bi.); lakhera_, lahera_ (H.); lakhera_ varnisher (M.); laka_ri_ id. (M.)(CDIAL 11001). la_ks.ika dyed with lac (Skt.); la_kha_ lac dye (H.); la_khi_ dyed with lac (S.); red (L.); coloured like sealing wax (G.); having the colour of lac (M.); la_khu~ red mark on the skin (G.)(CDIAL 11003) whence laks.an.a line (S'Br.); mark (Mn.); lakkhane marking of animals (Pkt.); lakkhan. sign, token (P.)(CDIAL 10882). alta_ colour of lac (M.); alita_ red laquer paint (M.); alto lac (G.); alta_ (H.); olutu (K.); alakta lac (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 297).

76.Ladle: akappai, a_ppai ladle, large spoon with long handle, usually of coco-nut shell (Ta.); akappa, akappa_n, a_ppa ladle (Ma.); agape, a_pe, ha_pe scoop or ladle, made of coco-nut shell or of wood (Ka.); agapa, abaka ladle, spoon, scoop made of coco-nut shell (Te.)(DEDR 6). cf. ulun:ka ladle (Pali.lex.) cf. had.appha, had.appa vessel (Pkt.); harpe wooden vessel for ghee (N.)(CDIAL 13948).

330.Sacred vessel: pran.i_ta_ sacrifical vessel (Skt.); pran.i_tah- holy water (S'Br.); pran.i_tapran.ayana vessel in which holy water is fetched (S'Br.); pan.yu~ a spoon to stir rice-water with (Ku.); paniu~, puniu~ ladle to stir rice with (N.); pal.i_ ladle, dipper; pal.o large ladle (G.)(CDIAL 8533). pran.i_ta led forward, offered (RV.); excellent (esp. of food)(BHSkt.); pan.i_ta brought out, excellent (Pali); pan.i_ya, pan.ia famous, beautiful (Pkt.); pin.i sweet, pleasant (Si.)(CDIAL 8523). nit.t.a pleasure, pleasant (Tu.); nit. to become sweet (Kond.a); nit.ni, (non-masc.) nit.nat sweet (Kond.a)(DEDR 3667).

222.Image: one deficient in any of the limbs: andake, andage one deficient in any of the limbs (Tu.lex.) thont.o lame (Kon.lex.) dhakuc bakuc lame; kad.ak, kod.ok to be lame (Santali.lex.) Image: mutilated: adavu the state of being mutilated, maimed or deformed (Ka.); adhama, po_gan.d.a, mukku, mu_r..a (Ka.); adhu_ weak, deformed (M.)(Ka.lex.) hid.d.a dwarf (Pkt.); hun.d.a blockhead (Skt.); hud.u id. (S.); hu_r. senseless, foolish (H.); hu_d. impetuous, headlong (M.); hum.d.a misshapen (Pkt.); hu_d.a_, hun.d.a_ wanting in horns etc. (H.); hu~d.a_ crumple-horned; hu~d.a_ bail blockhead (M.)(CDIAL 14087). et.t.an- boor, fool (Ta.); ed.d.u, hed.d.u stupidity, foolishness; a stupid thing or person; ed.d.a, hed.d.a a dull, stupid man; fem. ed.d.ati, hed.d.ati; ed.d.atana, ed.d.utana, hed.d.atana stupidity; ed.ega a good-for-nothing fellow; fem. ed.ati (Ka.); hed.d. stupid (Kod..); hed.d.u, hed.d.a dull, stupid; hed.d.e a stupid man; fem. hed.d.i; ed.avat.t.u, ed.evat.t.u dull, stupid; e_d.e a blockhead (Tu.); ed.d.aya, ed.d.e, ed.d.e~d.u an ignorant man, boor, fool; ed.d.etanamu stupidity (Te.)(DEDR 792).

429.Deed of agreement: ar-umur-i deed of agreement (Pdk. Insc. 940)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); ar-uti-mur-i receipt for full payment of dues or debts (S.I.I. iii,40); ar-uti-cca_tan-am deed of transfer (Ta.); ar-utikkarai system of land tenure in which all lands once held by a village community jointly, were distributed amongst the members permanently, each member receiving a definite share which became his absolute property thereafter, and for the rent of which he alone is responsible, dis. fr. pas'un:karai (C.G.); ar-utikkal.a-nat.ai annual account for the income from paddy; ar-utikkirayam absolute or final sale; ar-uti (restricted) possession, ownership (Kalla_. 18,10); unconditioned lease; finality as in a sale (Tiruva_lava_. 46,32)(T.E.D.)

3.Biggest flat land of a man's holdings: a.ka biggest flat land of a man's holdings (Kod..); a.k swamp; a.(k) ka.r. swampy land (Ko.)(DEDR 336). akam agricultural tract (Ci_vaka. 1613); place (Ta.lex.) akan.i agricultural tract (Ta.)(DEDR 7); marutanilam; paddy-field (Aricamaya. Kulace_. 8)(Ta.lex.) akavai within a certain limit (Ta.)(DEDR 7). Wide: iskal. spacious; ja_go space (Kon.lex.) ja_ge place, dwelling, station (Tu.lex.) ca_kai < ja_ga_ (U.) residence, halting-place (Ta.lex.)ja_ga_ a place; a spot; a room (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) vis'a_la spacious, broad (TS.); visa_la wide, spread out, big (Pali.Pkt.); spacious (OG.); bisa_lo large wide basket for drying tea in (Ku.); bahal wide, broad (A.); vasal large (Si.); visal, visula (Si.)(CDIAL 11936). viyal greatness (Patir-r-up. 33,5); width, expansion, extension, vastness (Tol. Col. 354); abundance (Cilap. 5,7, Urai); viyam extensiveness, height (Ta.); extension (Ma.); viyalul. wide, open space (Patir-r-up. 56,1); viyan- greatness, vastness, excellence; ve_n- excess (Ta.); ve_yi, veyi, veyyi (pl. ve_lu) a thousand (Te.); weeya high (DEDR 5404). viyakkam greatness; viyalit.am the wide world (Tirukko_. 277); breadth; viyan- greatness; vastness (Ta.lex.) biyapiba to spread, extend (A.)(CDIAL 11835). vipula wide, extensive (Pa_rGr..); vipulaka (Skt.); vipula wide (Pali); viula (Pkt.); bilo, bild.o broad; billo wide, flat (WPah.)(CDIAL 11798). Broad: akaliya broad, wide (Ta.); akali-ttal to broaden out, extend, widen; to enlarge (Te_va_. 2,161,1); akalikkuka (Ma.); akalicu (Ka.); akalincu (Te.)(T.E.D.) akat.t.u-tal to open wide (Paca. Tirumuka. 876); akar-r-uka, akattuka (Ma.); agalisu (Ka.); agalimpu (Te.)(T.E.D.) agal, akalu, agalu, agal., agulu, allu, al.l.u, pp. agaldu to be spacious, extensive or broad; to separate from, to go away from; to go to a distance (Ka.); agalu, pagulu to go to pieces (Te.); agala, agalu, agal.a, an:gala, an:galu expansion, largeness (Ka.); aghal.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) akalam uncultivated land; earth; akalit.am earth as a wide place (Te_va_. 3,324,9); akalul. broad street; town, village; country; earth (T.E.D.) akal to spread, extend; akalam, avalam width, extent, expanse; akalul. width, expanse, earth, town, village, country (Ta.); akaluka to become extended (Ma.); agal to be spacious, extensive (Ka.); agunti vastness (Ka.); agare to spread, increase; agatre to spread, distribute (Malt.); akavu to become long, lengthen out; a_lam breadth; a_n-r-a wide; a_n-r-al extension, width (Ta.); akar-r-uka to extend; akalam breadth, distance; a_lam breadth (Ma.); agalm (obl.agalt) width (Ko.); ox in be broad; ox et.(ox et.y) to make broad (To.)[er-y to throw, cut, string, charge with horns (To.)(DEDR 859)]; agala space, width, extension; agalcu to spread out (Ka.); agapuni to separate, extend; agela breadth; agelu to go apart, widen (Tu.)(DEDR 8). akal to increase, develop, grow, progress (Kur-al.. 170); to spread, widen, extend (Pur-ana_. 3,16)(Ta.lex.) ad.eyl.m, ad.i-l.m breadth, broad (Ko.); ad.d.agela breadth, diameter (i.e. ad.d.a + agela )(Te.)(DEDR 103).

271.Land granted for military service: amaram land or revenue granted in ancient times by a chief to his retainers for military service (I.M.P. Ct. 344); amaramu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) jamba_ra affair, business (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 2345). cf. ampa_ram < amba_r (U.) heap of paddy or other grain on the threshing floor (Tiv. Tiruvirut. 58, Vya_. Arum.); granary; ampalavari tax paid by village officers in the Ramnad zemindary to keep up their claim to official emoluments; ampalam village revenue office; headman of a village; ampar name of a village of historical importance in Tanjore district (Ta.lex.) ampalaka_ran- headman of a village; a title of the Kal.l.ars and Valaiyars (Ta.lex.) ambala an open shed or hall where public affairs are discussed (Ka.Kod..Ma.); ampalam (Ta.); ambila (Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

321.Land: ayan- < 'ain (U.) circar or government lands; ayan-jama_ < 'ain + amount of government demand on land; ayan--jama_panti annual settlement of land revenue (Ta.); ayan--ti_rvai tax on land; ayan--taram original classification of lands in the Madras provinces at the time of survey according to their kinds or qualities; ayil-va_r < 'ain-wa_r (U.) lands assessed subsequent to the first settlement by the British (G.Sm.D.I. ii,28) (Ta.lex.)

164.Landless: ad.a_n.i unremunerated and forced labour or service, used of men and beasts (Ka.); a foreigner (Ka.); ad.a_n.a the people of a village not employed in cultivation, the villagers who have no lands assigned them in payment of service; ad.a_n.i_ja_ta a person viewed as rude and barbarous (M.); ad.a_n.i inexpert, clumsy (H.M.)(Ka.lex.)

138.Image: outcry; laughter: at.t.a_sa, at.t.aha_sa a loud laughter or outcry; pomp, parade, ostentation (Ka.); at.a_sa (M.)(Ka.lex.) at.t.aha_sa (Pkt.Skt.); a_t.a_h loud call, scream (A.)(CDIAL 184). at.t.aka_cam loud laughter (Pirapo_ta. 18,74); pomp, parade, ostentation; a_rpa_t.t.am (Ta.lex.) at.t.aha_sa very loud laughter; at.t.aha_sitam a loud or boisterous laughter, a horse-laugh, cachinnation, usually of S'iva; at.t.aha_sin name of S'iva; one who laughs very loudly (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) at.t.a_n-am names of certain shrines of S'iva (Te_va_. 1170,3); vi_rat.t.am, vi_rat.t.a_n-am id. (Te_va_. 1222,2); a kind of dance (W.)(Ta.); at.t.avi_rat.t.am eight places celebrated as the scenes of S'iva's exploits: kan.t.iyu_r, kat.avu_r, atikai, var..uvu_r, par-iyalu_r, ko_valu_r, kur-ukkai, vir-kut.i (Ta.lex.) athaur.i excessively, immoderately; at.hela numerous, plentiful (Santali.lex.) Excess: at.utte_r-u excess (I_t.u, 3,8,9)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.t.a to transgress, to go beyond (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) atire_ka surplus (S'Br.); redundant (Pali); atire_kata_ surplus (Pali); aire_ya (Pkt.); ayira_ above, more than (Si.)(CDIAL 212). ti beyond, over (RV.); di, da also (Ash.); di (Kt.); di_, de_ (Pr.); di (Kho.Pas'.)(CDIAL 200). atan-am excess (Ta.); adanamu exceeding, much, great, excessive, too much (Te.)(DEDR 136). atimahant very great (Pali); imahat very large (Si.)(CDIAL 209). tirikta excessive (AV.); left apart (R.); atiritta left over (Pali); airitta (Pkt.); ayirit (OSi.); itiri, ituru surplus (Si.)(CDIAL 211). For semant. 'excess' cf. a_yiram < sahasra a thousand (Ta.lex.)

411.Law, duty: ar-am moral or religious duty, virtue, dharma, Yama; ar-avan- one who is virtuous, god, Buddha, ascetic, etc.; ar-avi virtue, that which is holy, female ascetic; ar-aviya virtuous; ar-aviya_n- virtuous man; ar-an- sacrificier (Ta.); ar-am law, dharma (Ma.); ar-a, ar-u virtue, charity, alms, law, dharma, Yama (Ka.)(DEDR 311). aram friend (Pas'.); dmi righteous (Si.); dharmin pious, just (Gaut.); dhammika righteous (Pali); dharmiyas-a title of a king (NiDoc.); dhammi, dhammia righteous (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6762). dharma what is established, law, duty, right (AV.); dharman (RV.); dhamma (Pali); dhrama, dham.ma (As'.); dhama employment in the royal administration (NiDoc.); dharma, dhama (DhP.); dhamma (Pkt.); dha_ma religious conduct (OB.); ka_mdha_m work, business (H.); dama religion (OSi.); daham (Si.)(CDIAL 6753). dharman support, prop, established order (RV.); lye_mi_ roof (Shum.); dra_mi_ (Kal.); dha_m big cross beam supporting a platform (A.)(CDIAL 6757). dharman supporter (RV.)(CDIAL 6758). dhama~_h, dhama~_ Hindu ceremony on the 13th day after birth when capa_ti_s and si_ra_ are distributed to relatives (P.)(CDIAL 6761). dharmis.t.ha very righteous (Mn.); dhammit.t.ha very righteous (Pkt.); dmt.u, damit.u kind (Si.); dharmya customary (Mn.); endowed with qualities (Kat.Up.); a customary donation (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 6763).

337.Leader: netu leader; netutta leadership; neti to lead; pp. ni_ta; pat.i-neti lead back (Pali.lex.) Öni_ lead (Skt.); ni_ti conduct (Mn.Pali); nitiyam. (As'.); n.i_i, n.itti (Pkt.); niya law (Si.)(CDIAL 7546). nis'a_l. school; nis'a_l.iyo schoolboy, student (G.)(CDIAL 7547). ni_yate_ is led, is taken (RV.); ni_yati, niyyati is led away (Pali); niyati (NiDoc.); nijan.u to be carried away (S.)(CDIAL 7551).

63.Image: leaf: age, agi (what has grown or germinated): a seedling; a shoot from the root of a plant or tree; a sprout, an:kura; especially seedlings of rice, tobacco, pepper, ready for being transplanted (Ka.); agge (Tu.); age kat.t.u to raise seedlings in pots etc.; age bid.u to sow seed for raising seedlings; age ma_d.u to raise seedlings; age poy, age voy to get shoots (Ka.lex.) a_ku leaf (Ka.Kond.a.Kui.Kuwi); young rice not yet transplanted, young sprouts of corn, any filament (Ka.); leaf, petal; seedlings of paddy for transplantation (Te.); a_kupacan green (Ga.); a_ki_, a_k leaf (Go.); a_ki leaf (Pe.Mand..); akku_ (Kuwi)(DEDR 335). atxa_ leaf, blade (Kur.); atge leaf, palm of the hand (Malt.); atgen ere to divine by looking at a leaf (Malt.); atgo a diviner (Malt.)(DEDR 141).

133.Image: leaf; pipal; fig: atxa_ leaf (Kur.); tge leaf (Malt.); tgen re to divine by looking at a leaf (Malt.)(DEDR 141). Image: woody tendon: at.aviyan- woody tendon at the fold of a palmyra leaf on the opposite side from the rib; broom made of these woody tendons (Ta.lex.) at.ar flower petal (Ci_vaka. 179); at.aku greens, edible leaves (Maturaik. 531); a_ku id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)Image: sprout: at.ai greens (Pin..)(Ta.); sprout (Perumpa_n.. 278)(Ta.lex.) atar.. petal (Kalit. 101,4); cf. dala; atti country fig, ficus glomerata (Ta.Te.Ka.Ma.); arti id. (Tu.); atam country fig; ata country fig (Tol. Er..ut. 203, Urai.); atavu country fig (Kalla_. 95,18); atti-k-kal. toddy from the root of the country fig; attiru pipal (Ta.lex.) ad.aru twig; ad.iri small and thin branch of a tree; ad.eri small branches (Ka.); ad.aru twig (Tu.)(DEDR 67). cf. arti ficus racemosa (Tu.)(DEDR 144). Image: betel leaf: at.a betel, leaf (Ma.); at.ai leaf, betel leaf, greens (Ta.); d.a_ga, d.a_ya edible green vegetables (Pkt.)(DEDR 59). ada adj. (to ad, cf. adeti) eating; kit.t.ha_da eating corn; adana eating, food; a_diya adj. grd. of admi, ad edible, eatable (Pali); cf. a_dya (Skt.)(Pali.lex.) at.appam betel pouch (Ta.Ma.); ad.pa id. (Ka.); ad.apamu id. (Te.); had.app(h)a (Pkt.) small case for holding ornaments, betel (Pkt.); had.apu preparation of betel, attendant (OM.)(DEDR 64). at.aippai betel pouch (Ta.); at.akka, at.ekka id. (Ma.); ar.ky id. (Ko.); ad.ky id. (To.); ad.agartti scissors for cutting areca-nut (Ka.); ad.apa, ad.apakatte lady in waiting, who carries her mistress's betel-nut pouch (Te.); ad.apaka~_d.u servant who carries his master's betel-nut pouch (Te.)(DEDR 88). had.appha, had.appa vessel (Pkt.); harpiyo deep wooden vessel (Ku.); harpe wooden vessel for ghee (N.); harpha_ wooden hut to keep cut grass and chaff (H.); har.pho a chest (G.); had.pa_ a chest (M.)(CDIAL 13948). a_rhi trough, tray, water-clock (N.); a_d.haga a measure = 4 prasthas (Pkt.); ar.ha_ a measure of capacity (Or.)(CDIAL 1106). a_d.haka a measure of grain = 4 prasthas (Skt.). a_d.hiyo merchant who has a large godown of cotton (G.)(CDIAL 1108).

47.Image: to leap over: akal to pass beyond, cross, leap over (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

140.Image: leaping; wandering: at.am < ata wandering, intercourse (W.)(Ta.lex.) at.i-tavvutal to jump over, as an exercise of boys (W.)(Ta.lex.) athol roaming, unsteady, unsettled; atit to leave home and family as a wandering jogi or fakir; an ascetic, a devotee; atit jugi an ascetic who has left house and home; atkir to run away with, to steal (Santali.lex.) a_t.i_kanam the leaping motion of a calf; a_t.ika, a_t.ikya able to wander, being on a voyage or journey; a_t.iki_ a woman fit to go out (Skt.); at.a wandering; a night-roamer; at.anam wandering, roaming; at.a_ the habit of roaming about (as a religious mendicant); at.ya_, at.a_t.ya_ (Skt.); at. to wander or roam about; roam over (Skt.); at.h to go (Skt.lex.) at.a roaming, wandering; nagna_t.a a man who wanders about naked: a Bauddha or Jaina religious mendicant (Ka.); at.ana wandering about; nis'a_t.ana an owl; paryat.ana roaming, wandering or roving about (Ka.Skt.); at.a_t.ye roaming (Ka.); at.avi-cara a wood-roamer: a sportsman; at.avi a wood, a forest, a jungle; at.e, at.a_ roaming (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_t.a going, going after: in kanya_t.a, ks.apa_t.a (Vedic.lex.) at.at.a (prob. to at. roam about) name of a certain purgatory or Niraya (BHSkt.) (Pali. lex.) To drive away; to despatch: at.t.u, an.t.u to keep close to, to follow, to run after; to pursue, to chase, to drive; to drive away; to send, people or things (Ka.); an-uppu (Ta.); anupu to send (Te.); at.ya_d.u to pursue, to chase about (Ka.); at.t.u pursuing, sending (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) e.d- (e.dy-) to drive away (Ko.); edg- id. (Kol.Nk.)(DEDR 893). ha~_d.na_ to wander; ha~d.a_na_ to drive away (H.); ha~_d.vu~ to walk (G.); handn.a_ to trudge on foot (P.); hat.un to move out of the way, fall back, become lean (K.); hat.an.u to move back or out of the way (S.); hat.an. (L.); hat.n.a_ id., to turn (P.); to turn (WPah.); ha_t.n.u to be off, return (WPah.); hat.n.o to get out of the way (Ku.); hat.nu to withdraw (N.); hat.iba to get out of the way (A.); hat.a_ (B.); hat.iba_ to retreat (Or.); hat.na_ (H.); hat.n.e~ (M.); hat.ha_ to move out of the way (Mth.); hat.hvu~ (G.); hanina to go about, proceed (D..); han.d.n.a_ to walk (P.); han.d.an. to flow; ha~_d.n.o~_ to walk; ha~_d. a walk (B.); ha~_t.a_ to walk (B.); ha_n.t.iba_ to travel (Or.); han.d.hn.a_ to walk (P.); han.t.hn.u_, han.hn.a_, han.t.ha_ pret. (WPah.)(CDIAL 13943). o_t.t.u-tal to cause to run; to drive, propel (Kantapu. Val.l.i. 136); to drive away, put to flight; o_t.t.u running (Par..a. 163); defeat, fleeing (Kur-al., 775)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_t.uka to run (Ma.); o_t.ikka, o_t.tuka to drive, chase (Ma.); o.r.- (o.c-) to run (Ko.); wi.t-- (wi.t-y-) to drive calf from udder by hitting it under the chin (To.); o_d.u to run, flee; o_d.isu to cause to run, drive away; o_d.ike, o_d.uvike running; o_d.ukul.i a runner (Ka.); o_d.uni to run (Tu.); o_d.u to run, be defeated (Te.); pl. action d.uska (d.uski-); d.uspa (d.ust-) to cause to start forth, drive out of cover; n. driving of game or enemy (Kui)(DEDR 1041). One who drives away: o_hat.t.a gone away; one who drives away (Pkt.); ohat.a_ far away (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 469). cf. pahat.na_ to run behind someone in order to drive away (H.)(CDIAL 8899). cf. po_kai departure (Ta.); po_kad.a, po_ku going, conduct (Te.); po_kkan wanderer (Ma.)(DEDR 4572).

171.Image: to pounce upon: ad.ar to pounce upon, rush at (as dogs, etc., do)(Ka.)(DEDR 77). ota to pounce on and press down (Santali.lex.) a_tudati strikes against (RV.); a_ujiba_ to lean against; caus. a_uja_iba_ (Or.)(CDIAL 1128). a_thur.an.u to trip, stumble (S.); a_thar.vu~, athar.vu~ to come into collision with; athr.a_vu~ to be tired (G.); a_thad.n.e~ to catch with a jerk (M.)(CDIAL 1510). cf. thu_no butting (S.)(CDIAL 13701). Ötud strike (Skt.); tudati strikes, pierces, hurts (RV.); id.(Pali); tuae_ hurts (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5856). avatunna pushed off (Car.); ojna_ to stop (H.)(CDIAL 778).

446.Jump: ha_r-ike jumping, a jump etc. (Ka.); ha_r-u, a_r-u, pa_r-u to jump; to run; to run or go away (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. a.r- (a.ry-) to do broad jump, jump (Ko.); kup-o.ry a standing broad jump (kup a jump)(To.)(DEDR 373).

243.Leash; notch: an. leash for dogs, running knot; notch, indentation cut in a stick (Ta.lex.)

254.Lender: an.ika one living off lending money; one learning the Veda from his son (Satya_s.a_d.ha-S'rautasu_tra xxvi.5)(Vedic.lex.)

45.Image: lever: an:ke lever; Synonym: sonne, sanne lever (Ka.lex.)

227.Image: cover of an earthen pot: atiri a cover of an earthen waterpot, i.e. a small earthen plate shaped so as to be pretty deep, and to sit well on the mouth of the vessel. Its outer rim is pretty thick and rounded off lip-like to give it the required strength. This has given rise to the reproach, atirilekam lacoakana, thou hast got lips like a chatti cover (cf. Pl.XXIV.13) (Mu.lex.) ad.na_ (ad.cas/ ad.d.as) to furnish (a drum) with skin, cover it with leather, (birds or bees) construct a nest or honeycomb (Kur.)(DEDR 83). Image: plug: da_mp to plug, to shut (Kon.lex.) tubet to plug (Santali.lex.) at.aippa_n- plug, stopper, cork (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.aippu plug (Ta.); at.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to shut, close, block (as a passage), stop up, put in, pack, lock, fasten, imprison, conceal; at.aiccu (at.aicci-) to shut, close; at.aippu shutting, closing, fence, obstruction, plug (Ta.); at.t.i obstacle (Ta.); at.a a lock; at.ayuka to be shut, shut up, be enclosed; at.avu stoppage, block; at.ekka to shut, block up, lock; to be shut; at.eppu, at.appu obstruction, whatever covers or closes a hole, stopper; at.appam, at.appan a stopper, a cork; at.eppikka to cause to lock or shut (Ma.); ar.v- (ar.d-) to become blocked by an obstacle; (ar.t-) (door) shuts; to shut (door, hole), shut up (cattle)(Ko.)(DEDR 83). ad.apa, had.apa a small bag used as a pouch for areca nut and betel leaves and by barbers as a dressing case (Ka.); ad.appa (Te.Tu.Ma.); at.aippa, at.aippai, acambi (Ta.); ad.apaval.a a man who carries his master's betel-nut pouch; a barber, had.apa_l.i (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) That upon which another thing is put: het. adv. below (M.G.P.); het.h (H.); het.hi (S.); hem.t. (B.); yat.a below (Si.); het.t.ha_ (Pkt.); hes.t.a_ hes.t.ha_ (BHSkt.); ad-hasta_t (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 416). ad.ikil, ad.akil that upon which another thing is put; ad.akilva_su a mattress or mat on which a covering is put (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ad.acu, ad.uku, an.aku, an.un:ku, atuku, adaku to pack or pack up, close; to stuff in; to shut as the mouth (Ka.); ad.acu, ad.acu (Te.); at.ai, at.aicu (Ta.); ad.acu to stuff into, as food into the mouth (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) For semant. 'below' cf. ar.y foot (measure); ac place below; acgar.place beneath an object (Ko.); ad.i bottom (Ka.Tu.); place below down (Kod..); ad.gi below, underneath (Kond.a); ad.giRan.d. from below, from the bottom; ad.giR() that which is underneath (Kond.a); at.i bottom, base (Ma.)(DEDR 72).

89.Lightness: {Echo word} ajja, ajju (a light substance), the dry filaments of the ekke and ha_le capsules (Ka.); accam, ar-r-am thinness, lightness (Ta.); ajju-gujju the state of being thin and small; ajju-gujju pra_ya the age of corporeal debility; ajju-gujju muduka an imbecile old man (Ka.); ajjanu ha_r-usu to cause such filaments to fly about, as children do (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7.Image: a line: an:ka a line, a stroke; an:ke a staff given for support's sake, a_nike (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Image: a line; curve: a~_s a line (A.)(CDIAL 165). a~_san drawing a line (A.); a~_can rope used in a bedstead (Or.); acana bending (Nir.)(CDIAL 167). a~_sor scratch (A.); aca curve (Skt.)[ro_ma_ca thrill of the hair](CDIAL 165). am.cai drags, ploughs, draws a line (Pkt.); a~_siba to draw a line (A.); a~_os furrow (A.); aciba_ to draw, bend a bow (Or.); a_cati bends, curves (AV.)(CDIAL 166).

383.Image: lion: arima_ lion (Na_lat.i, 198)(Ta.)(T.E.D.) ari-e_r.i Durga_, as riding on a lion (Ta.lex.)

100.Distilled spirit: a_sava juice, molasses spirit (MBh.); intoxicating spirit (Pali.Pkt.); a_suno_ti presses out (RV.); a_sav distilled spirit (G.)(CDIAL 1488). a_srava foam on boiling rice (Skt.)(CDIAL 1534). a_sava distilling; decoction (Ka.); spirituous liquor (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_su to press out soma juice, distil (Vedic)(Skt.lex.)

333.Image: to look at: cf. nit.t.isu to look at, look at much (Ka.); ne_t.u to seek, look out for (Ta.)(DEDR 3766).

81.Comb-like instrument: accu comb-like frame in a loom through which the warp threads are passed and by which they are pressed or battened together; accu-p-palakai weaver's bar; accu-p-pu_t.t.i-ir..uttal to pass the thread through the loom (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) accu a weaver's reed (Ka.Ta.Ma.Te.); acci (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) accu weaver's reed instrument for pressing down the threads of the woof (Ta.lex.)

307.Love, affection: akkar-u, akkar-a, akkar-ai, akkasa, ar..kar affection, love; akkarverasu to be possessed of love; akkasa-ga_r-a a loving man; akkasa-ga_r-al.u a loving woman (Ka.lex.) arti fondness (Tu.); ariti love, affection; aruvamu eagerness, foneness; (inscr.) arma fondness; armili id., affection, desire; narmili love, affection, desire (Te.); a_rvam affection, love, desire, hankering, devotion; a_rvalan- lover; a_rvu desire (Ta.); a_ro_mal darling; pleasantly, happily; a_rti greed (Ma.); arume, arame love, affection, a kiss, a fickle or libidinous state of being; abbara desire, craving; abbarisu to desire (Ka.)(DEDR 381). arulu tenderness, affection, fondness (Te.); arul. grand, bestow (Ta.); grace, favour (Ma.); arul.uka to grant (Ma.)(DEDR 227). Nuptial present: aran.a a nuptial present (Ka.); aran.amu a gift of money to a daughter and son-in-law at the time of marriage (Te.)(DEDR 203). arb extreme happiness (at getting a good meal, finding money, escaping death etc.)(Ko.); good life (with nothing to do but eat)(To.); abbu to be acquired, gained, come into one's enjoyment, possession, or reach (Te.); abbinai to prosper (Kuwi)(DEDR 232). ar..uvam greatness, abundance, excellence, expanse (Ta.); al.umba excess, greatness, excellence, further etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 287). Damsel adorned with ornaments; marriage badge: a_yerma_n, a_yerma_na, a_verma_n money given by the parents of the bride to the parents of the bridegroom, pledge of marriage (Kon.lex.) a_vara on account of; because of; i_red.ta_vara e_n.u badkye I was saved on account of you (Tu.lex.) ja~t pledge, property made over to a creditor till such time as the revenue shall have paid off the debt, security; jaituk a gift to a bride by her father; jor.a jaituk a pair of heifers given to a bride by her father; jaituk tok a pestle brought by a bride from her father's house (Santali.lex.) za_min, za_mine security (Kon.lex.) za_min, za_minda_r security (Tu.); vadimonium, vas, vadis (Lat.) (Kon.lex.) avatamsaka an ear-ornament, an ornament in general; avatamsa a garland, an ear-ring; an ornament worn on the head, crest; anything that serves as an ornament, 'decked with'; avatamsita having a garland, crested; decked, adorned (Skt.lex.) ayito, a_yito ornament (Tu.lex.) jaega place, land, farm; to place, to give land to, to give a girl in marriage, to retire for the night; jaeawadean I gave him land; bhale jaega kana it is a good piece of land; neshon jaegakaea ma~i do we will give our daughter in marriage this year; jae jinis goods and chattels, cold weather crops; jaejat moveable or immovable property given in pledge or mortgage; mit ara~r. kad.an jaejat akatkina I have pledged a yoke of buffaloes; jaejatko udukakoa they point out what is given in pledge; jae jupatin edible jungle products such as leaves, fruits, roots, nuts, gums, etc.; jaga place, land, farm; jagesar large in area as a field; jagir, jaigir a rent-free tenure, given in return for services etc.; jaigire jomeda he enjoys rent free land (Santali.lex.) For semant. jinis 'chattels' cf.: anbhogtso jinsa_, anbhogtso jinos manner of holding tenure (Kon.lex.) [jinos manner; jinsa_ various, of all kinds (Kon.lex.) tin-cu < jinis (U.) kind, sort, grade (Tailava. Taila. 22); tin-icu-va_ri according to kind (Ta.); dinusva_ra (Tu.)(Ta.lex.)] cf. jagat men and animals (RV.); the world (Pali)(CDIAL 5078). sa_gol.iga_r cultivator (Kon.lex.) a_ndan., a_ndan.a_ a box given to a bride; native paraphernalia (Kon.lex.) aioiki to ask for a girl as a wife for one's son (Sh.); a_ya_cate_ supplicates (R.); a_ya_cita prayer (R.); a_ya_cati requests (Pali); a_ya_yai claims (Pkt.); ayadinava_ to beg, ask for (Si.); ayadi petition (Si.)(CDIAL 1287). ya_cate_ asks for (RV.); pp. ya_cita (Mn.); ya_cati asks for Pali); ja_ai (Pkt.); yadinava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 10447). ya_cna_ asking (TS.); ya_cya_ (S'Br.); ya_ca (AV.); ya_cya (MBh.); ja~_ca proof (S.); ja~_c, ja_c test; ja_c search (L.); guessing (P.); ja~_c proof (P.); begging (Ku.); trial (N.); minute examination; jaca_ offering (Or.); ja_c, ja~_c examination (H.); ja_cu~ begging (G.)(CDIAL 10448). ya_cyate_ is asked (MBh.); ja_can.u to beg for (S.); jaca_un.a_ to cause to be examined; jacn.a_ to be tested (P.); ja_cvu~ to beg for (G.)(CDIAL 10449). a_yir..ai woman, lady, damsel, literally one adorned with choice adornments (Man.i. Pati. 67) a_yi mother (Tiruppu. 156); a term of respect affixed to a woman's name, e.g.: cin-n-a_yi, pon-n-a_yi; a_y mother (Ja_n-a_. 35,10); ya_y mother (Pur-ana_. 159); a_y beauty (Kalit. 46,4); a_y-tal to be or become beautiful (Ci_vaka. 2395) (Ta.lex.) ayin-i-ni_r water mixed with boiled rice, saffron and lime, waved before the married couple, or at the close of an auspicious ceremony (Kampara_. Mitilai. 51); ayin-i food (Malaipat.u. 467)(Ta.lex.) aiyal. remarkable, wonderful woman (Ain:kur-u. 255); ayan-mai < ayal-mai absence of kinship, non-relationship (Tol. Po. 147, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ayan--man.am < aja ( = praja_-pati) + a form of Hindu marriage (ayan--man. mor..i : Cilap. 24, Pa_t.t.umat.ai, Kayilainan-. Arum.)(Ta.lex.) pira_ca_pattiyam < pra_ja_-patya a form of marriage whih consists in the gift of a girl by her father to the bridegroom without receiving bride-price from him; a form of marriage which consists in the gift of a girl with property or other valuables worth double the bride-price received (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.); a form of marriage which consists in the gift of a girl to a proper person of her maternal uncle's or paternal aunt's family, when proposal is made (Ir-ai. 1, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) aiyai < a_rya_ Pa_rvati_, Durga_, Ka_l.i_, wife of one's guru, daughter (Pin..); female ascetic (Cu_t.a_.); mistress (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) pra_ja_patya relating to praja_pati; a kind of marriage in which the father gives his daughter to the bridegroom without receiving a present from him, but with the conviction that the two will live faithfully together; a mode of penance; a particular sacrifice; procreative power (Ka.lex.) parja_ pati_ a name given to Brahma; God as the creator or nourisher; a lord, a king; parja_ pat a title given to potters (P.lex.) praja_pati the lord presiding over creation; an epithet of Brahma_; an epithet of the ten lords of creatd beings first created by Brahma_; an epithet of Vis'vakarman, the architect of gods; a son-in-law; an epithet of Vis.n.u; a father, a progenitor (Skt.lex.) praja_pati lord of creatures; lord of the people: Brahma_; ten personagges or ancient r.s.is first created by Brahma_: Mari_ci,Atri, An:gi_ras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Prace_tas, Vasis.t.h, Bhr.gu and Na_rada; a king; the penis (Ka.lex.) aitu < aim-mai that which is beautiful (Man.i. 10,2); that which is wonderful (Tol. Col. 385, Urai.);; aiya inst. voc. case of aiyan-, an exclamation of wonder (Tiruvil.ai. Vitai. 23); ai wondeer, astonishment (Tol. Col. 385); beauty (Pin..); slenderness (Cir-upa_n.. 13); minuteness, subtleness (Tiruva_ca. 3,45); lord, master (Kur-al, 771); husband (Kur-un. 27); father (Ci_ka_l.at. Pu. Na_n-muka. 124)(Ta.lex.) ayde, ayire a woman whose husband is living; suva_sini, so_va_sin.i, pativatni; nit.t.ayde a woman of many years whose husband is still living; a woman who is going to live many years with her husband; muttayde an elderly (or young), respectable woman whose husband is alive (Ka.Te.); ayde-tana, ayduvetana the state of a woman whose husband is alive (Ka.); muttayde-tana id. (Ka.lex.) ayarda_l.i, ayrada_l.i marriage badge; ayire, ayar, ayra, ayre, ayduve, ayde (Tadbhava of acira_) a wife whose husband is alive; ayira-juvai = nava vadhu_ = acira yuvati_ (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_yu, a_y life, duration of life; a_yura_ro_gya long life and health, or exemption from sickness through life; a_yus.ya lifetime (Ka.); a_yus life; age, duration of life (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

397.Image: grace: arul. (arul.i-) to be gracious to, favour, speak graciously, command, grant, bestow; n. grace, mercy, favour, benevolence, good deeds, order, command; arul.ai liberality, generosity, munificence; arul.o_n- gracious person (Ta.); arul. grace, favour, deigning, command; arul.uka to deign, vouchsafe, grant, command (Ma.); arl. voice of god spoken through diviner (Ko.); arulu tenderness, affection, fondness (Te.)(DEDR 227). cf. a_rvam affection, devotion (Ta.)(DEDR 381). cf. aran.a a nuptial present (Ka.)(DEDR 203). ar..ivu tenderness, love (Ma.); akm affection (Ko.); arkyn passionate woman (To.); ar..ipu desire, affection; ar..ugu, ar..kar to love; ar..ti, arti love, desire, a pleasant object; ar..kar, akkar-e, akkar-a, akkar-u, akkasa love, affection (Ka.); arkame strong desire, eagerness; akkare affection, fondness (Tu.); akkar-a desire (Te.); arti amusement, fun, curiosity, fondness (Tu.)(DEDR 281). ur..uval love (Ta.); ur..ugu, ur..igu, ur..gu to be attached to, be fond of, love; ur..ugu erotic sentiments; ur..ge attachment, love (Ka.); or.pa (or.t-) to pine for, lust after; n. desire, lust (Kui)(DEDR 691). eri (-pp-, -tt-) to take pity, have compassion; er-r-u (er-r-i-) to feel compassion (Ta.); kon. el- (et--) to long for (person, -k); mu.n el- (et--) to like; mu.net- affection, love (only recorded as woman's name)(To.); er-aka, er-uka love, goodwill (Ka.)(DEDR 862).

279.Lowing: amba_, ambe_, ambya_, am.ha_ the cry of cow or calf (Ka.); amba, amba_, ambe_, ambo bellowing, lowing, a cry, noise (Tu.); ambe_ onom. word to represent the lowing of cows and calves; ambha the lowing of a cow (Te.); amar-uka to low (Ma.); hambha_ lowing or bellowing of cattle (Skt.)(DEDR 175).

388.Image: twang of a lute: arar-r-al twang of the string of a lute; aravam bow-string which twangs when plucked (Ta.)(T.E.D.)

232.Male; male tree: a_t.u_-u man, human male (Tol. Col. 2); a_t.u_-u-v-ar-i-col word ending in the masc. term: n- (Tol. Col. 5); a_t.u_-u-k-kun.am masculine qualities, which are four, viz., ar-ivu, nir-ai, o_rppu, kat.aippit.i (Pin..); a_n.-pan-ai male palmyra (Tol. Po. 558, Urai.); a_n. male; manliness (Ja_n-a_. 17,7)(Ta.); id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.); class of trees whose interior is hard, solid, suitable for timber; a_n.-maram (Pin..); id. (a_n.-mara-k-kil.avi : Tol. Er..ut. 304); cf. kil.avi word, term (Ta.); a_n.an- manly person (Civataru. Cuvarkkanaraka. 222); a_n.a_r-u west-ward flowing rivers, as Skt. masc. nada, opp. to pen.n.a_r-u (I_t.u, 4,4, Pra.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_t.i_kara a bull (Skt.lex.) and.ren (pl. and.ran) male, man (Pe.Mand..); and.ra a male animal or bird; male (Kui); an.d.ra_ male (said only of animals)(Kur.); an.d.ya_ fierce, unmanageable (of bulls, bullocks, and male buffaloes), haughty, overbearing (of men)(Kur.); and.ya a bull (Malt.); end.ka young male pig (Pa.); an.d.i_ra male (Skt.); an.d.ira_ id. (Or.)(DEDR App.7). a_niru uncastrated (S.); a_nur (L.); a_n.d.u_ uncastrated (P.); a~_d.u (Ku.); a~_r.u (N.); a~_d.u_ (H.); a~_r.ua_ bull-calf (B.); an.d.i penis (Or.); a_n.da testicles (AV.); egg (RV.); vanro, arno testicle, egg (Gypsy)(CDIAL 1111). a_t.u_u man, human male, a_l. (Tol. Col. 2)(Ta.lex.) a_l. man, husband (Ta.); a person, able person, servant, slave (Ma.); servant, soldier, messenger, a grown person in general (Ka.); male; manliness, bravery (Ka.); a_l adult male, husband, servant, mankind (Kur.); a_l.u person, labourer, messenger (Tu.); a_l.iyan husband (Ta.); al-urqe to grow up to maturity (Malt.); a.l.i servant (Kod..); a.l. man (Ko.)(DEDR 399). Shepherds: an.t.ar shepherds (Ta.Ma.); in.t.ar id. (Ta.)(DEDR 125). cf. an.t.u-tal to take refuge in, retire for shelter; an.t.ai-y-ayal neighbourhood (Ta.lex.) an.t.ar herdsmen, cowherds, shepherds (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,1,5); an.t.alar foes, enemies (Yaco_tara. 1,25); an.t.a_r id. (Kantapu. Cin:ka. 470)(Ta.lex.) Master: a_n.t.a_r (hon. pl.) owner, master, lord; devas, gods (Ta.); an.t.ar celestials (Cu_t.a_.); antarar a class of demigods as being in the intermediate space; cf. antaram interior space (Patir-r-up. 51); temple (Pin..); but, cf. antar-ve_ti inside of the sacrificial ground (Ka_cippu. Antaru. 22); district between the Gan:ga_ and Yamuna_ rivers (Ko_yir-pu. Iran.iya. 107)(Ta.lex.); hence, antarar may be inhabitants of this area (Ta.lex.) Image: chief: a_n.t.ai master, lord, landlord, used by low castes in reference to their feudal chief or to one of a superior caste (Ta.lex.) Liberal chief: an.t.iran- one of the last seven liberal chiefs in South Indian history (a_a yan.t.ira n-at.upo_ran.n.al : Pur-ana_. 129,5); male, human being; clever or capable man; man (Cinta_. Ni. 114); an.t.i_ran- hero, warrior; man (Ta.); an.t.i_ran.t.u, an.t.i_rat.u (Te.); antirar the Andhras (Perunto. 783); a_ndhra (Skt.); antiran- hunter (Cinta_. Ni. 160); andhra (Skt.)(T.E.D.) antarai a title of Paravas (T.A.S. iv,179)(T.E.D.)

251.Male tree: a_n.mara a male tree (Ka.Ta.Ma.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Synonym: a_n.-maram class of trees whose interior is hard, solid, suitable for timber (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) ul.vayiramul.l.a-maram i.e. that a tree which yields gum-resin (Kar..akattamir.. Akara_ti, Madras, 1991).

250.Male: a_n. male (Ka.Ta.Ma.Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

67.Manner: an:ga way, manner, mode (Ka.); an:gu, han:gu manner, way (Te.)(DEDR 27). ajja time or circumstance favourable for the purpose, opportunity (Ka.); opportunity (Te.)(DEDR 53).

8.Image: marked: an:ka marked (RV. i.162.13; TS. iv.6.9.1) (Vedic.lex.) an:ke (Tadbhava of an:ka) a numerical figure; an account, san:khe, lekka; an:kya fit to be marked or counted (Ka.lex.) an:kana marking, stamping, branding, ciphering; an:ka a numerical figure, cipher (san:khe); a mark, a sign; a mark branded on an animal; a spot, fault; an:ka-gan.ita arithmetic (Ka.M.); an:ka-va_tu a beautiful word; a cipher-word; an:kita marked; numbered; a mark or sign; a word (Ka.lex.) an:ka-ca_tan-am sign, mark (W.)(Ta.lex.) Document: agha_t. a document (on stone, metal plate, or paper) recording a permanent gift, esp. of land (G.)(CDIAL 99). Image: striking: a_gha_t.a touching; striking; a_gha_ta striking, beating; a blow (Ka.lex.)

23.Bazaar, market: an:ka_r.i, an:ka_r.i market (Nk.); an:kot. (Pa.); an:kan.iya (Si.); an:ka_t.i bazaar, bazaar street (Cilap. 14,179); daily market (Ta.); an.n.a_t.i shop, bazaar (Ma.); an:ka_t.i shop, stall (Ka.Te.Go.); an:kat.i (Tu.Ir.); okot.i (To.); an:kat.i (Kol.); na_l.an:ka_t.i day market (Cilap. 5,63); allan:ka_t.i evening market (Maturaik. 544; 365, Nac. Urai.); ammu-tal fixing; barter (Ta.); an:ka_t.ikku_li tax collected from stalls put up in the bazaar (I.M.P.Tj. 119); an:ka_t.i-ku_r-u-tal to cry out the names of goods for sale in order to attract buyers; an:ka_t.i-p-pan.t.am article sold in the market; article available in the market (Tiv. Tirunet.un. 16, Vya_.); that which is easily obtained; an:ka_t.ippa_t.t.am an ancient tax on stalls put up in the bazaar (Ta.inscr.)(T.E.D.) hat., hat.ia a moveable market; hat. bat. to buy at market; hat.ok to go to market; hat.wek seller at market; hat.bajar market and bazaar (Santali.lex.) an:ka_t.i-pa_rittal to build castles in the air (Cam.Aka.)(Ta.lex.) an:gad.i-bi_di a market-street, a market; an:gad.i-ci_t.i a note to a shopkeeper; an:gad.i-mane a house with a shop; an:gad.i-mal.ige a prolongation of the front roof of a shop, a sort of verandah in front of a shop; an:gad.i-mu_like a shop drug; an:gad.iyava a shop-keeper; an:gad.i-vya_pa_ra shop-trade; an:gad.i-saraku the goods of a shop; an:gad.i-sa_la a shop-debt; an:gad.i haccu to open a shop (Ka.); an:gad.i-ka_r-a a shop-keeper (Ka.lex.) a_n:gad., a_n:gad.i shop; a_n:gad. dovor keep (put) a shop; a_n:gad.ka_r shopkeeper (Konkan.i.lex.) cf. hat.t.a market, fair (Skt.); shop, bazar (Pkt.); at.h, at.as market (K.); ha_t.h (K.H.); ha_t. market, bazar (N.A.); shop (WPah.); shop, market (B.); market (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); market, shop (H.G.M.)(CDIAL 13944). cf. hat.wa_n.i_ shopkeeper (WPah.)(CDIAL 13946).

147.Market: at.t.ul.i a crowd, a throng, a multitude; a confused mass (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ca_tam multitude, crowd (an-r-u ca_ta-t- talakaika l.a_t.ave_ : Pa_rata. Patin-a_n-ka_m. 153)(Ta.lex.) Image: tumult: atal.i noise, tumult (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_ta_l.i noise, bustle, roar (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Tirukkur-r-a_. 24)(Ta.); atul.i (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) a_ta_l.i noise, bustle, uproar (Ma.)(DEDR 357). atal.i noise, tumult (Ta.Ma.); atala, attala tumult (Ka.); atalakutalamu disorderly confusion, disturbance; adavadalu confusion (Te.)(DEDR 135). sante, santi (Tadbhava of sam.stha_) an assemblage, a mass, a crowd, etc; a gathering of buyers and sellers, a (weekly or annual) fair or market (Ka.); cande (Ma.); cantai (Ta.); a market-place, hat.t.a, baja_ra; sante nere a market to convene or assemble (Ka.lex.) Market; exchange; barter:{Echo word}: adala_, adalu, adalubadalu, adala_-badala_ interchanging or exchanging (Ka.); adala_ the first or foremost of a series (M.); adala_-badala (H.)(Ka.lex.) at.i-ka_cu tax collected from stalls in markets (I.M.P.Sm. 91)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.u_ a market-place, market; a palace, a palatial building (Skt.lex.) sa_t.i barter, exchange (Ka.); sa_t.a_, sa_t.i (Te.); sa_t.t.i (Ma.); cat.t.a (M.H.); sa_t.i-vya_pa_ra bartered merchandise (Ka.lex.) cf. kat.ai shop, bazaar, market (Ta.); kat.a market (Ma.)(DEDR 1142). hat.t.i a petty market or fair (Ka.Skt.); hat.t.i-ka_r-a a herdsman;; hat.t.a, at.t.a a market, a movable market (Ka.); at.t.avila_sini, hat.t.a-vila_sini dallying in market-places: a wanton woman, a prostitute (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) hat.wa_n.i_ shopkeeper (WPah.)(CDIAL 13946). hat.t.a market, fair; hat.t.i_ petty market (Skt.); hat.t.a shop, bazar (Pkt.); hat.t.i_, hat.t.iga_ little shop (Pkt.); heti shop (Kho.); ha_t.i (Sh.); at.h, at.as market; ha_t.h (H.); hat.u shop; hat.i_ small shop (S.); hat.t., hat.t.i_ (L.); hat.t. shop; hat.t.a_ collection of shops (P.); hat.i_ shop; ha_t. (WPah.); market, bazar (N.A.); shop, market (B.); market (Bi.Bhoj.Mth.); market, shop (H.G.M.); ha_t.i_ row of residential houses attached to a school or religious foundation (A.); ha_t.a, ha_t.a_ market (Or.); hat.ia_ (Mth.); ha_t.a (OAw.); ha_t.i (OMarw.)(CDIAL 13944). Collection, heap; market; caravan: at.t.u to put; putting, placing (Ka.); at.t.u-kur..i name of a game in which cowries or tamarind stones are put from hole to hole on a wooden board; at.t.ugur..i-man.e the board for that play (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) sa~_t.ha_ collection, heap (M.); satth place where men and cattle assemble, brotherhood (L.); place where men and cattle assemble before village-gate, council of five (P.); sathu assembly, caravan (S.); satho heap, store (S.); sam.stha assembly (RV.); standing together (MBh.); sam.stha_ completion (TS.); established order (MBh.); sam.tha existing (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13049). Property: santaka belonging to (Skt.); id., being in the power of (Pali); -sam.da- in cmpds. 'belonging to' (NiDoc.); -st(e) gen. suffix (Kt.); -san affix denoting enduring state with verb or adjective; -sa~_ gen. suffix of nouns (Dm.); -sondu gen. suffix (K.)[ <-shondu < pres. part. bhavati]; -sando gen. suffix (S.); sanda_ pres. part. (P.); -hando gen. suffix (Marw.); sa~_ta_, sa_ta_ being (M.); sataka belonging to (OSi. Bra_hmi_; 10th cent. A.D.); satu (OSi.); santaka property (Pali); sam.da in: sarvasam.dena with all my property (NiDoc.); sa~ta cattle (Dm.)[cf. canta shandy, fair, market (Ma.); sante (Ka.Tu.); cantai (Ta.); bazaar; multitude, herd, flock, swarm (Pirapulin:k. Kokki. 6); cantai-k-ka_ran- marketeer (Ta.); cantakka_ran id. (Ma.); cantai-mutal market-fees collected from traders at shandy (I.M.P. Cg. 689); cantaivilai market-price (Ta.); cantavila id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)]; sanda_ wealth (L.); chattels (P.)(CDIAL 13127). sa_dhana goods (R.); sa_han.a means (Pkt.); xa_han property (A.)(CDIAL 13334). sa_ma_n chattel (Kon.lex.)

9.Image: carpenter's tool for marking; centre-bit for boring holes: an:kana marking (Nir.); branding (Mit.com.); am.kan.a marking, branding (Pkt.); a~_kan. estimate, opinion (Ku.); a~_kn.u~ carpenter's tool for marking (G.)(CDIAL 102). an:ke_ti marks, brands (Pa.); an:kayati id. (MBh.); an:gn.a_ to examine, estimate (P.); a~_kn.o to mark, estimate (Ku.); a~_ka_ to mark, draw (B.); a_n:kiba_ to brand (Or.); a~_kna_ to mark, appraise (H.); a~_kvu~ (G.); a~_khn.e~, a~_kn.e~, a~kn.e~ to mark, trace (M.)(CDIAL 104). a_grasta bored, perforated (Vedic.lex.) a_kkar < auger (Eng.) centre-bit, tool for boring holes (Ta.lex.) a_grantham adv. twining round (AitBr.); aga_thn.e~ to weave closely (OM.)(CDIAL 1051). aira_ circular mat to put under a waterpot (Or.)(CDIAL 1060). a~ga_ran.u to sketch out before engraving or painting (S.); a~ka_r mark, spot (H.)(CDIAL 101). Image: to chisel, to split: acc- to split, saw; acca_na_ to cut off (hand, foot, etc.)(Go.); asye to chisel (Malt.); haccu, heccu to cut in pieces; hacci to divide (vegetables and fruits)(DEDR 46). o~kh mark (K.); an:g granulation of a healing wound (K.); an:gu mark (S.); an:ka mark, sign (R.); mark, brand (Pali); am.ka ()Pkt.); an:g mark (L.P.); a~_k mole on skin, digit (Ku.); mark (A.B.); digit (Bhoj.Aw.); mark, spot (H.); digit (G.); a~_ko notch (G.); a~_k mark, sign (M.); digit (Konkan.i); aka mark (Si.)(CDIAL 100). an:kana adj. marking (Nir.); branding (Mit. com.); am.kan.a marking, branding (Pkt.)(CDIAL 102). aka_r mark, spot (H.)(CDIAL 101). am.kia marked, branded (Pkt.); an:kita (Skt.Pali); ac bend (Skt.); a~ki_ numbered, marked (M.)(CDIAL 106). Image: scar: an:kitam < an:kita sign (Kantapu. Intirapuri. 37); scar (Iraku. Ya_kap. 103)(Ta.lex.) an:ka_ram < an:ga_ra sectarian charcoal mark on the forehead by Ma_dhva bra_mans (Pirapo_ta. 11,17)(Ta.lex.) Image: three strings suspended on a carrying pole: From Öan:k 'hook, notch': tryan:gat.a, tryan:kat.a three strings suspended from either end of a carrying pole (Skt.); t.ran:gar.u, t.ran:gir.i_ network case or bag for carrying things in (S.); tran:gar. a large meshed net for carrying straw etc. on a camel (L.); ta~_gad. a beast's load of empty oil or ghee vessels (M.); ta_n.r.a_, ta_mr.a_ to store up (B.); ta~_gad.n.e~ to tie by the legs (M.) [If < -an:ka- Skt.B.M. forms with -n:g- are loans from NW.] (CDIAL 6085). Image: notch: an. notch, indentation cut in a stick (R.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.)

309.Betrothal; women; coquetry: mangar wants, wishes, loves (Gypsy); ma_n.n.o to ask for, ask in marriage (Ku.); man:genda_ betrothed man (L.); ma_gna_, ma~_gna_ to demand, ask in marriage (H.)(CDIAL 10074). cf. man:kai woman (Ta.lex.) ma~ge_tur bride or bridegroom elect (L.)(CDIAL 10075). ma_n.in.o betrothal (S.); man:gn.a~_ (L.); man:gn.i_ (P.); ma~_gn.i_ asking in marriage (Ku.); man:gni_ betrothal (Mth.Bi.H.)(CDIAL 10073). ma~_g grain asked for at harvest time (Ku.); ma_gu~ request, request for marriage (G.); man.a betrothed (S.); man:g (L.P.); ma_m.ga (OMarw.)(CDIAL 10078). ?man:gu female cat (Tu.Ka.); man:kai woman, girl between twelve and thirteen years (Ta.); man:ka, man:kacci (pl. man:kayar) a young, playful woman, a coquette (Ma.); man:gan.e, man:gane affectation, coquetry; man:gu female cat, silly female (Tu.)(DEDR 4625). macimam beauty (Ta.lex.) maju beautiful (Pali); charming, lovely (MBh.); mam.ju charming (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9720). man:gala auspicious sign (in cmpds.)(RV.); happiness (Mn.); good omen, festivity (Pali); man:galam. karo_ti gets married (Pali); mam.gale, magale auspicious ceremony (As'.); mam.gala id. (Pkt.); man.aru fire (S.); man:gula, magula happy event, festival, wedding (Si.)(CDIAL 9706). man:galya auspicious (Kaus'.); auspicious event (Pali); mam.galla auspicious (Pkt.); magula, man:gul-, magul- (Si.)(CDIAL 9708). makir.. to rejoice, exult (Ta.); makir..cci joy, pleasure, delight (Ta.); makir..uka to rejoice (Ma.); maxing to laugh (Br.)(DEDR 4618). man:kaliyam marriage badge, ta_li; man:kalliyam id.; man:kalyam id. (Kantaralan.. 21); man:kalattiruna_l. holy day of festival (Man.i. 10,83); man:kala-pattirikai letter of marriage invitation; man:kalam luckiness, auspiciousness; marriage (Cilap. Pati. 63); marriage badge (Kampara_. Urukka_t.t.u. 35); man:gala-v-an.i marriage badge (Cilap. 1,47, arum.); man:kali married woman, as wearing the ta_li (Ta.lex.) manaru fire (S.); mangal gladness (P.); magula happy event, festival, wedding (Si.); magul the planet Mars (Si.)(CDIAL 9706).

310.Woman with living husband: swa_gili woman with living husband (Ku.)(CDIAL 13617). sovha_l.a_, soha_l.a_ festive occasion (M.)(CDIAL 12533). cf. sava_n.i_ woman (L.); swa_n.o beeautiful, goodlooking (swa_no pres. part. of suha_n.o); suha_na_ charming (H.)(CDIAL 12536). cf. s'uba_ beautiful (Dm.); s'ubyen (Wot..); s'ubhvan splendid (RV.)(CDIAL 12540). s'ubha bright, auspicious (Mn.); subha bright, beautiful; welfare (Pali); subha, suha auspicious; good luck (Pkt.); sohlu~ good, auspicious; auspicious holiday (G.); xuwala_ elegant (A.); suhela_ beautiful, good looking (H.)(CDIAL 12532). bhaga vulva (Mn.)(CDIAL 9347). bhaga female organs of generation, yo_ni (Ka.); bhagandara, bhage_ndra a disease in which fistulas and ulcerous holes form in the private parts (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) X bhaga good fortune, sexual pleasure (RV.); bhai_ with pleasure (OG.)(CDIAL 9346). baga_su to desire (Tu.lex.) bhag fate, fortune, chance; bhagan blessed, fortunate, lucky; bhage good, well; bhagete an adverb or an adjective possessing intensifying force; bhageteye dalkedea he beat him severely; bhagetekin kapharianena they quarrelled fiercely (Santali.lex.) bha_g, bha_ga_ happiness; bha_g to pine; bha_gevont happy (Kon.); bha_gevont-pon. happiness (Kon.lex.) X sukh happpiness; sukhi happy; khus'a_lai joy; sukhu, sukha_ id.; satos bhog enjoy pleasure (Kon.lex.) sukha pleasant (AV.) comfort, happiness (VS.); adv. sukham pleasanly (AItBr.); sukha pleasant; well-being (Pali); sukham. adv. well (As'.); suha (NiDoc.); sukhu, suha (Dhp.); sugha, suha happiness (Pk.); suha (OB.OG.); suvaya (Si.); suhelo easy (S.); suhela_ (P.H.); sohilau, suhulu_m. (OG.); sahelu~, soylu~ (G.); sukkha happiness (Pkt.); su_k (H.); sukha_la_ easy (H.); sukha running easily (of chariots)(RV.); easy (Skt.); sukhallika_ luxurious life (Skt.)(CDIAL 13451). suks.e_ma great comfort or quiet (VarBr.S.); suce_mo quiet (of a horse), honest, well-wishing (Sh.)(CDIAL 13450). sukha_yate_ is pleased (Skt.); sukha_yati is pleased (Pali); sukha_yana_ blessing (As'.); suha_i, suha_ai is pleased (Pkt.); suha_un.a_ o be pleasing, befit (P.)(CDIAL 13452). cf. s'ubha_yate_ in bahu-s'ubha_yate_ is a great blessing to (Skt.); suha_un.a_ to be pleasing (P.); suha_n.o, swa_n.o to look pleasant (Ku.); suha_unu, suwa_unu to become, suit (N.); xuha_iba (A.); suha_i looks nice (OAw.); soha_b (OAw.); suha_na_ to befit (H.); suha_i is liked (OG.); suha_vu~, soha_vu~ to look well, be agreeable (G.)(CDIAL 12537). subhaga beautiful, fortunate (RV.); loved (of a wife)(Skt.); subhaga_ favourite wife (R.); five year old girl representing Durga_ at festivals (Skt.); subhaga lucky (Pali.Pkt.); suhaya (Pkt.); suha_, suo, so the goddess Pa_rvati_ (B.)(CDIAL 13484). subhava of high birth (VS.); subhavas (TS.); suhava fortunate (Pkt.); su_hava beautiful (OG.)(CDIAL 13487). cf. suman:gala auspicious (RV.); sumangul, sumagul auspicious, fortunate (Si.)(CDIAL 13488). subhaga welfare (RV.); loveliness (BhP.); sova agreeableness (Si.)(CDIAL 13616). saubha_gya prosperity, conjugal happiness (RV.; so_bhagga prosperity, beauty (Pali); so_hagga happiness, husband's love (Pkt.); suha_gu good fortune, husband's love, husband; suha_gin.i_ favourite wife, woman with living husband (S.); soha_g husband's love, husband, ornaments won when husband is alive, amatory caress (P.); husband's love (Ku.); sua_g good fortune (Ku.); xuwa_g love (A.); soha_g husband's love, dalliance (B.); soha_ga, suha_ga, sua_ga excessive fondness, fondling (Or.); soha_gin woman with living husband (Bi.); soha_gini (Mth.); soha_ga good luck (OMth.); soha_g, suha_g wifehood with living husband (H.); soha_gin(i_) f. such a wife (H.); soha_g good luck (Bhoj.Aw.); soha_g, suha_g good luck (G.)(CDIAL 13617). saubha_gya auspiciousness, good fortune, good luck; blessedness; beauty, grace, charm; the happy and joyous state of wife-hood (as opposed to widowhood, consisting in the privileges of using pigments, wearing ornaments etc.); subhaga, sobagu possessing goof fortune, blessed, auspicious, highly favoured, very prosperous; beautiful, lovely; beloved, amiable; respectable, illustrious; beauty (Ka.); subhagatva beauty; prosperity (Ka.); sobagu, sabaga a beautiful, charming man; sompage nicely, beautifully; nice; sompu, sampu beauty, elegance, charm (Ka.lex.) cf. sommu (fr. svam) own, one's own; property, wealth, riches (Ka.Te.); com (Ta.) (Ka.lex.)

336.Marriage ceremony: ne_thar, dat. ne_tras marriage ceremony (K.); nayate_ marries (MBh.); ne_tra leading (AV.); netta guidance (Pali)(CDIAL 7586). baraneta marriage ceremony in which bride's party invite groom's party to their house (OH.)(CDIAL 11316). parn.etar, pan.tar, parn.et wedding, wife (G.)(CDIAL 7828). pa_rin.a_yya paraphernalia received by woman at time of wedding (Skt.); pa_netar garment of silk or fine cotton worn by bride at wedding (G.)(CDIAL 8112). pran.aya guidance, affection (MBh.); pan.aya affection (Pali); pan.ayam. acc. sg. m. (As'.); pan.aya (Pkt.); ponu grief, mourning (on death of a dear one)(K.); pan.a love, affection (Si.)(CDIAL 8525). pran.ayati conveys (esp. fire or water or soma to its place)(RV.); inflicts punishment (Mn.); pran.ayate_ draws in (breath)(S'Br.); pan.e_ti brings out (Pali)(CDIAL 8526). pa_n.ti_ man who directs course of water in irrigated fields (G.)(CDIAL 8084). pone_thar, dat. pone_taras second or later marriage of a man; pone_turu married for a second time (of a man)(K.)(CDIAL 8275). parin.aya leading bride round fire, wedding (Gr.S'r.); parn.o wedding (S.); parna~_, parna_ (L.); parna_hu (P.)(CDIAL 7818). parin.ayati leads round (RV.); marries (a wife)(MBh.); parin.e_ti leads round (Pali); parne~_da_, pres. part. of parni_van. to marry caus. from pass. parni_ (L.); paran.ai (OMarw.); paran.vu~ (G.); paran.n.e~ (M.); parin.e_i marries (Pkt.); parn.an.u (S.)(CDIAL 7819). parin.ayana marrying (S'rS.); parin.ayan.a, parin.ayan.a_ (Pkt.); parin.ayan.a (OG.); paran. deriv. of verb paran.vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 7820). parin.a_payati causes a man to marry (Skt.); parin.a_vai causes to be married (Pkt.); parna_van. to marry (L.); parna_hun.a_ to give in marriage (P.); parna_na_ (H.); paran.a_i (OMarw.); parn.a_vvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 7821). pariniyam.ti 3 pl. pres. (NiDoc.); parin.i_yama_n.a, parin.ijjam.ta pres. part. (Pkt.); parni_jan., parni_van. to be given in marriage; parnivun. (L.)(CDIAL 7826). parin.e_tavya to be given in marriage (Skt.); parin.e_yavva to be married (Pkt.); parneva_ marriage (L.)(CDIAL 7827). Bride, maiden: parni_ bride, maiden (H.); paran.i_ 3 sg. f. pret. (OMarw.); parin.i_ta married (MBh.); parin.i_a, parin.iya married (Pkt.); parnia_, parni_a_, parni_ married person (L.)(CDIAL 7825).

367.Marriage; ceremony in which a lamp is waved: a_rta_, a_rti_ marriage ceremony in which a lamp is waved (H.); a_rti_ the ceremony (G.M.P.); a_rti (Ku.); a_rat (M.); a_rati_, a_l.ati the a_ra_trika ceremony (Or.); a_rati_ id. (S.); a_rati id. (A.B.Aw.); the song sung at this ceremony (N.); a_ra_trika the ceremony of waving a lamp in front of an image at night (AVParis'.); the lamp so waved (S'am.kara.); a_rattiya (Pkt.); a_rati_ a special kind of address to a god (K.); a_rti_ a lamp with four or five wicks used in a temple (Bi.)(CDIAL 1315). [cf. a_rit.am < a_rs.a marriage in which the bride and bridegroom are placed between a cow and a bull both well decorated (Tol. Po. 92, Urai)(Ta.lex.)] a_ra_trikam waving a light (or the vessel containing it) at night before an idol; the light so waved (Skt.lex.) a_ratti one of sixteen acts of worship, consisting in the waving of a light or lighted camphor before an idol; the waving of light, or water mixed with saffron, or saffron-coloured food-balls, before important personages such as a newly-wedded couple, a ruler, or a spiritual head, in processions or on other auspicious occasions; a_rati song sung while waving lights; a_rapat.i < a_rabhat.i_ a kind of drama having for its topic the acquisition of wealth and centering round the achievements of great warriors as heroes, one of four na_t.aka-virutti (Cilap. 3,13, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. a_ra_dh to propitiate, conciliate, please, try to win the favour of; to honour, worship, respect; to deserve, merit; a_ra_dhanam pleasing, satisfaction, entertainment, gratification; serving, worshipping, adoration, propitiation (as of a deity); accomplishment, undertaking; acquirement, attainment; a_ra_dhya fit to be worshipped or propitiated; a_ra_dhiyitr. an adorer, humble servant, worshipper (Skt.lex.) a_ri excellence, eminence (Ci_vaka. 129); cf. a_rya (Skt.); a_ra_ttiyar < a_ra_dhya Linga_yat Bra_hmans; a_rit.a-lin:kam Lin:ga established by R.s.is (Caiva. Potu. 431)(Ta.lex.) r.s.i inspired singer (RV.); isi (Pali.Pkt.); risi (Pkt.); ris.aya (NWPkt.); ris.aya, ras.aya (Khot.); ras'ai priest, monk, schoolmaster (Gypsy); isi, ihi (Si.)(CDIAL 2460). de_vars.i a saint of the celestial class, a great r.s.i (MBh.); dia_si one who foretells the future (Or.)(CDIAL 6538).

396.Nuptial present: aran.a a nuptial present (Ka.); aran.amu a gift of money to a daughter and son-in-law at the time of marriage (Te.)(DEDR 203). cf. arul. (arul.i-) to be gracious to, grant, bestow (Ta.)(DEDR 227). X an.uga son; an.ugi daughter (Ka.); an.an:ku young offspring (Ta.)(DEDR 113). Desire: arpu, appu to embrace; arume, arame a fickle or libidinous state of being; love, affection; a kiss (Ka.); aruva eagerness, fondness = a_s'e (Te.); arulu, arlu = va_tsalya (Te.); arul. = karun.e, kr.pe (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. appiyuni to embrace (Tu.); al.pu, al.ke, appuge an embrace (Ka.); appukai, appai folding the arms on the breast; appiyuni to clasp (Tu.)(DEDR 158). a_lin:gana embrace (Skt.lex.) cf. an.i (-v-, -nt-) to be beautiful, be an ornament; decoration, ornament, beauty (Ta.)(DEDR 116). cf. anv fertility of ground (Ko.); anu, anuvu, anavu fitness, propriety, nicety, loveliness, that is pleasing, charming or beautiful, worth (Ka.); a, am. beautiful, pretty; ammai beauty, prettiness (Ta.)(DEDR 328). Possession: an an affix indicating possession; apitan having a father; tarwar.ean hor. a man having a sword; ak saranko those having bows and arrows; nawanko those who have found; an:ge, an:get to take, keep a portion for oneself (Santali.lex.) a_bharan.a ornament; alan:karan.a ornamentation (Pali.lex.) bharan.a bearing, supporting (Pkt.); bharan. support, means of support (Ku.)(CDIAL 9395). bha_ran. support, maintenance, means of support (Ku.)(CDIAL 9460). an:g desire, greediness; an:g bud.pini to covet for something, usually eatables (Tu.lex.) anij to wish for, to desire, to be attracted, to attract (Santali.lex.) Love, relationship: an-pu love, attachment, friendship, benevolence, devotion, piety; an-pan- friend, husband, lover, devotee; an.i love; a_n.am love, friendship, affection; a_n.u attachment, affection (Ta.); anpu, ampu love, affection, trust, devotion; anpan lover, friend, husband; anpuka to be fond of, connected with (Ma.)(DEDR 330). an.pu, an.pita relationship, friendship (nan.t.adudu; an.pate)(Ka.lex.) ammu to be willing, wish, desire; n. desire (Ka.)(DEDR 330). al.avi nearness; al.aviga a friend; al.ipu, al.upu hankering after, desire, addiction, attachment, love; to be addicted to; to hanker after; to long for (Ka.); al.i compassion, grace (Ta.); arabu desire (Tu.); al.iya (a man who is longed for? or one who joins a family?) a daughter's husband, a son-in-law (Ka.); ar..ugu to love (Ka.); ar..ivu tenderness, love (Ma.); aragu vicinity (Ka.); aruku to approach; to join; to embrace (Ta.); ar..kar- to love; pp. ar..kirtu; ar..kar.., ar..kar..u, akkar-u love; pleasure; kat.t.ar..kar- great love or pleasure; kat.al.k a tight embrace; ar..ti, arti love; a lovable, pleasant object; pleasure; ar..tivad.u to feel love or desire; to become pleasurable; ar..tika_r-a a lover (Ka.lex.) cf. a_rvam affection, love, desire, hankering, devotion (Ta.)(DEDR 381). cf. akm affection (Ko.); arkame strong desire, eagerness; akkare affection, fondness (Tu.); arkyn passionate woman (To.)(DEDR 281). cf. al.i (-v-, -nt-) to be attached; (-pp-, -tt-) love, grace, desire (Ta.)(DEDR 301). al.ittal to protect, take care of, nourish (Pin..); to create desire (Ci_vaka. 192); al.i love (Iraku. Na_t.t.u. 1); clemency, grace (Tol. Po. 247, Urai.); desire (Kampara_. U_rte_. 83); al.inta_r loving persons (Par..a. 182); al.iyan- one who has great love, gracious benefactor (Kantapu. Akkin-i. 198); one who deserves protection, needy person (Tirumuru. 284)(Ta.lex.)

474.An aquatic plant: a_rai aquatic cryptogamous plant, marsilia minuta coromandelica (Ta.); marsilea quadrifolia (Ma.)(DEDR 380).

353.Entire extent of land irrigated by a tank: a_yvu width, breadth; a_yakat.t.u the entire extent of land irrigated by a tank, measurement of land determining the boundaries of a village; deceitful fabrication, false statement (Ta.); old settlement register (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) a_yam pit 34" deep, a standard of measurement (Carva_. Cir-. Pak. 21)(Ta.lex.) a_ya measure, extent, rule, standard, propriety, fitness; craftiness, deceit; a_yakat.t.uga_r-a a man who does his work properly (Ka.); a_yaga_r-a a clever man; fem. a_yaga_rti (Ka.); a_ya measure, proportion; a_yakat.t.u, a_yikat.t.u fixing the limits of a field, etc., regulation, arrangement (Tu.); a_yatte boundary, limit; a_yakat.t.u rate, standard (Te.)(DEDR 366). cf. a_ya_ma extension, length (A_s'vGr..); length (Pali.Pkt.); ayama id. (Si.)(CDIAL 128).

97.Medicine: avur..tam, avir..tam (Tant.alai. 89) medicine (Ta.lex.) < aus.adha (S'Br.)(CDIAL 2571). o_s.adhi herb, medicinal herb (RV.); o_sadhi (Pali); us.e medicine, gunpowder (Kt.); wus.u medicine (Pr.)(CDIAL 2562). osar. drug, medicine (G.); osuva medicine (Si.)(CDIAL 2571). aus.adha (< o_s.adhi), agasidde, ausada a herb; any medicament or drug; aus.adhi = avusti = aus.adha; o_s.a burning, combustion; o_s.adhiprastha-pura name of a mythic town, the town of Himavat; agaja_te Pa_rvati_, the daughter of Hima_laya (Ka.lex.) voizapon. medicine; vokta_nci vidya science of medicine; voka_t drug (Kon.lex.) ojon, ran medicine; ojha man of medicine (Santali.lex.)

203.Meliosma wightii: ar.dn marm meliosma wightii; ar.dn van. its fruit (Ko.); od.dn sp. tree with edible berries (To.)(DEDR 92).

178.Memorial: yada_stu a memorandum, a rough note, a memorial (Ka.Te.H.); ya_di remembrance; memorandum-scrap (Ka.); ya_da, ya_di_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) yatha_ in which manner (RV.); just as (Pali); yatha, yatham., yatha_, atha_ (As'.); yatha (Dhp.); yadha (Dhp.); jadha_, jaha~_ (Pkt.); ja~_ prep. after the manner of (S.)(CDIAL 10407). yatha_ na in order that not (S'Br.Pali); yina (K.); jan particle of prohibition (Ku.); janu, jani (Mth.); jan, jani, jin (H.)(CDIAL 10408). antu, avvatu in that way, thus (Ta.)(DEDR 1).

223.Image: menses: antu_ menses (Ga.); an.t.u menses (Ka.); an.t.agu to be in menses, menstruate (Te.)(DEDR 120). an.t.u that is viscuous, the menses or courses; mut.t.al (Ka.lex.) r.tu, a_rtava menses (Skt.lex.)

454.A scent; mesua ferrea: arat.u wood used for the axle of the chariot-wheel (RV. viii.46,27)(Vedic.lex.) cf. irul. ironwood of Ceylon, mesua ferrea (Ta.)(DEDR 482). Axle: cf. ircu an iron axle-tree (Ka.); irsu axle (Ga.)(DEDR 484). ka_ca-stha_li_ the trumpet flower, bignonia suaveolens; ka_cana a middle-sized tree with fragrant blossoms, mesua ferrea, na_gasampige; ka_cana-prasara the tree mimusops elengi, bakula, na_gake_sara (Ka.lex.) Mesua ferrea: na_gake_sara the tree mesua roxburghii; its flower (Sus'r.)[orig. trade name of the stamens of the na_ga tree used as a scent, I.H.Burkill Proc. of the Linnaean Soc. of London, Session 156, 1943-4, Pt. 2,88]; n.a_gake_sara a partic. kind of flowering tree (Pkt.); na_har mesua ferrea (A.)(CDIAL 7042). naghesar (H.B.); nagchampa (M.); nagkesar (P.); nagakeshara (Skt.); nagappu (Ta.); kesaramu (Te.); nagachempakam (Ma.); nahor (Assam); flower buds: used in dysentery; unripe fruits; aromatic, sudorific; bark: astringent, aromatic, combined with ginger used as sudorific; flowers contain essential oil, two bitter substances; habitat: mountains of E. Himalayas and E. Bengal, Assam, evergreen rain-forests of N. Kanara and S. Konkan, forests of the W. Ghats from S. Kanara to Travancore, up to 5,000 ft., Andamans (GIMP, p.166).

450.Millet: a_rike the Indian millet, panicum italicum (Ka.); a_rike, a_ruke paspalum frumentaceum (Te.)(cf. unna_l.a, ko_drava, ko_radu_pa)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_ruka, a_ruga, a_rike, a_riga panicum scrobiculatum (= p. frumentaceum)(Te.); a_l.l.u pl. p. scrobiculatum (Te.); a_rike the Indian millet, panicum italicum; ha_raka, ha_raku paspalum scrobiculatum (Ka.); a_rk setaria italica (Go.); a_rku pl. a species of millet (Pe.); a_rka id. (Kui); a_rgu pl. a_rka panicum italicum (Kuwi)(DEDR 379). ayk a kind of grain called in Halbi kang i.e., panicum italicum (Pa.); aykil a kind of millet called in Te. kor-r-alu i.e., setaria italica (= panicum italicum)(Ga.)(DEDR 195). cf. aky grain of any grain food when husked (Ko.)(DEDR 215). s'areg green corn, sprout (Kho.); autumnal, young millet crop (Kho.); s'a_radika autumnal (Pa_n..); sa_radika autumnal (Pali); sa_radia, sa_raia, sa_laia (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12403). saraya_ a partic. sort of rice (H.); s'a_rada autumnal (AV.); corn or fruit ripening in autumn (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 12402). s'arad autumn (RV.); s'ordo-mo autumn (Pas'.); s'aru_o_ gha_s hay left on ground for use in winter (WPah.)(CDIAL 12329). sarauti_ a kind of sugar-cane (H.)(CDIAL 12330).

452.Great millet: ir-un:ku great millet sorghum vulgare, co_l.am; black co_l.am (Ta.lex.); ir-at.i Italian millet setaria italica (Malaipat.u. 169)(Ta.); black Italian millet panicum indicum, karuntin-ai (Ta.); ir-un.n.u a kind of maize (Ma.)(DEDR 525). ir-ukutal to be rich, luxuriant, as growing corn or as fruitful trees (Malaipat.u. 132)(Ta.lex.) cf. priyan:gu = sa_ma_ a medicinal plant; priyan:gu means a medicinal plant and the millet panicum italicum (Pali)(CDIAL 12666).

190.Mirror: attam mirror (Ta.); addamu mirror, pane of glass (Te.); addam mirror (Ga.Go.); adam id. (Kond.a); ademi id. (Kuwi); adda_a mirror (Pkt.)(DEDR 147). a_dam.sa, a_dam.saga, a_yam.sa, a_yam.saga, a_ya_sa mirror (Pkt.); a_dars'a (S'Br.); a_dars'aka (R.); a_da_sa, a_da_saka (Pali); a_darisa, a_yarisa (Pkt.); res'o (Pas'.); res.e (Shum.); a_hiri_ (S.); a_rhi_, arhi_ (L.); a_rs'i_ (WPah.); a_rsi (N.); a_rhi likeness (A.); a_rsi mirror (B.A.); a_risi, a_rasi (Or.); a_rasi_ (Bhoj.Aw.); a_rsi_ (H.); a_ri_sa (OG.); a_ri_so, ari_so, a_rso large mirror; a_rsi_ small mirror (G.); a_rsi_ (P.); a_risi_, a_rsi_ (S.); a_rsa_, arsa_ small mirror (M.); a_rs'i_, ars'i_ mirror (M.)(CDIAL 1143).

421.Image: male monkey: appar male monkey (Tol. Po. 602, Urai.) (Ta.lex.) ha~r.u~ the langur; ga~r.i~ a monkey (Santali.lex.)

498.Image: monkey: la_khu monkey, langur (N. < kapila brown)(CDIAL 11003). cf. ka_vi red ochre (Ta.)(DEDR 1490). cf. la~gur monkey, tail (G.)(CDIAL 11009).

280.New moon: ampuli moon; a_mpal id. (Ta.); ampil.i id. (Ma.); ja_bil(l)i id. (Te.)(DEDR 179). ama_ new moon; ama_nta end of the day of new moon (Ka.lex.) amai new moon (Ce_tupu. Tura_ca_. 41)(Ta.lex.) ama_va_sya_ the night of the new moon (AV.); ama_va_siyam. loc. sg. (Pali); ama_vassa_, ama_va_sa_ (Pkt.); ma_was, loc. ma_wasi (K.); ama_us (P.); maus (EP.); va~s, a~s (EP.); a~_s, awa~_s (WPah.); au~s (Ku.); ua~_sa (Or.); ama_was (H.); ama_s (G.); a_vas, avas, au_s, loc. avs'i~_ day of the new moon; early night, just before dawn (M.); ama_ day of the new moon (Si.)(CDIAL 565). ama_va_syaka born on a new moon night (Pa_n..); au~sya_ha_ child born on a new moon night (N.); ua~_si a daughter so born (Or.)(CDIAL 564). ama_va_cai new moon, as the time when the sun and the moon dwell together (Upate_caka_. Cilavi. 229)(Ta.lex.) ama_vasye, amava_se, ama_va_se, ama_va_sye, ama_se, avase the first day of the first quarter on which the moon is visible (Ka.lex.)

91.Mosquito: acal mosquito; acaval gnat; acar-u minute insect that sticks on leaves and injures plants; acukun.i small insect breeding and feeding on plants; acuvun.i a destructive insect; aal, aalam sp. of gnat (Ta.); accu a little snail (Ma.)(DEDR 40). isre glow-worm (Kol.); iskid.i-puli, iske ji_poli firefly (Pe.); iske fire (Mand..)(DEDR 428). cf. un.n.i tick on dogs, sheep, cattle (Ta.)(DEDR 604). cf. ummun.i an insect (Ka.)(DEDR 638). mas'a, mas'aka mosquito (Skt.lex.) musahri mosquito net; sikr.i~c mosquito (Santali.lex.) zal.a_r mosquito (Kon.lex.)

85.Mother: acci mother; a malaya_l.a woman (Ka.); acce mother; acci mother; a woman of the Na_ya or S'u_dra caste; a female of animals (Ma.); acca = Tadbhava of ajja a grandfather; ajja id. (Ka.); ajji grandmother; acya excessive love; acya_ma_d.u to fondle, to spoil by indulgence as a child (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) a_voi, pl. a_vio mother (Kon.lex.)

283.Breast: ammam woman's breast, food of babies (Ta.); ammii nipple (Ma.); ammi mother's breast (Ka.); amman.n.i nipple, teat, breast (Ka.); aman.i, amani, umani nipple (Tu.); ama_ the mother's breast (M.)(DEDR 181). a_ma_ breast, bubby (M.)(CDIAL 578). cf. pamme breast (Kol.)(DEDR 3935). amma_ mother (Ta.Br.); amma id. (Ta.Ma.Ka.Tu.Kol.Te.)(DEDR 183). amba_ mother (RV.Pali.Pkt.); ambi_ (RV.); ambika_ (VS.); amba_d.a_, amba_la_ (Pa_n..); amba_li_ (TS.); amma_ (Pali.Pkt.H.); amma~_ (L.P.WPah.); ambaka_ poor woman (Pali); abaka nurse (As'.); am.bae_ mother (KharI.); ammaya_ (Pkt.); am.bia_ name of a goddess (Pkt.); ama grandmother, esp. an old prostitute or bawd (K.); ama_, ami_ mother, daughter (S.); a_ma_ grandmother (Ku.); a~_m id. (Ku.); a_ma_ mother (N.); a_mai mother of friend or namesake, mother's female friend, father's friend's wife (A.); ama~_ mother (Mth.); ambuva, abi mother, wife (Si.); ambr.i_ (P.); amar.i, aman.i mother (S.); ammr.i_ little mother (L.); amr.i_ mother (L.)(CDIAL 574). Mother: avvai mother, old woman, woman ascetic; tavvai mother, elder sister, goddess of misfortune as the older sister of Laks.mi_; evvai our younger sister (Ta.); av mother, mother's sister or female parallel cousin (Ko.); af, afuf id. (To.); avve, avva mother (used as a title or respect and love), grandmother, any elderly woman; abbe mother (Ka.); an elderly woman, matron (Tu.); ava_ mother (Go.); avve mother, mother's sister or female parallel cousin (Kod..); avva mother, grandmother, an old woman (Te.); father's mother (Pa.); mother (Go.); avve old woman (Ga.); awwal (pl. awwa_hk) mother, dam of man or beast; avval, avval (pl. avvasku), aval (pl. avahku), ava_l mother (Go.); awha_r.i_ mother, dam of man or beast; awhari, avha_ri, avahari mother (Go.)[cf. hari fem. a term affixed to names of relationship when referred to 3rd person, to denote respect; haral (Go.); jaran, in: ta_k-jaran father (Nk.)(DEDR 2357). yavva mother (Go.); ave (pl. avek) id. (Kond.a); ava elder brother's wife (Mand..Kui.Kuwi); awa sister-in-law (Kuwi)(DEDR 273). avva_ mother (Pkt.); ava_, ava_ji term of courtesy in addressing a S'u_dra woman (Pkt.)(CDIAL 904). aval. that female person, she, f. of avan- (Ta.); aval.u (Ka.); aval. (Ma.); avan- that male person, he (Ta.); avan (Ma.); avanu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

315.Lady, gentleman: ayduve a wife whose husband is alive (Te.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ayira, ayyira n.-adj. (Vedic a_rya, metathesis for ariya as diaeretic form of a_rya, of which the contracted (assimilation) form is ayya.); ariyan nobleman, gentleman (opp. servant); adj. ariyan well-born, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, gentlemanly; ayira_ lady, mistress (of a servant); v.l. oyyaka_; voc. ayire, ayye my lady; ariyaka = ayira; ayya gentleman, sire, lord, master; worthy, honourable; pl. nom. as voc. ayya_ in addressing several; ayya-putta son of an ariyan, i.e. an aritocratic (young) man gentleman; lord, master; prince; ayyaka grandfather, forefather, ancestors; ayyaka_ grandmother, granny; ariya noble, distinguished; right, good, ideal; -alamariya fully or thoroughly good; anariya ignoble, undignified, low; ariya-dhana sublime treasure; ariya-voha_ra noble or honorable practice. [There are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk.](Pali)(Pali.lex.) For -aka in ayyaka grandfather (Pali) cf.: Ancestor: ake grandfather, ancestor (Kui); akka mother's father (Pa.); akko_ id. (said by granddaughter); akko great-grandfather; akko daughter's son or daughter, grandson's wife; ukko (i.e. akko) maternal grandfather (Go.); ako (pl. -r) id. (Pe.); akenja grandfather (Kui); akku (Kuwi)(DEDR 24). aytana the state of being an ayya or jan:gama (Ka.); ayya a master, a lord; a grandfather, a father; a jan:gama (Ka.); ayye a teacher, a schoolmaster (Tu.); ayya id. (Te.Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) ayya_ father (Ta.); ayya (Te.Ka.); ayyan (Ma.); ayye (Tu.); aiyan- < ayya (Pali) < a_rya sage; priest, teacher, preceptor; father; superior person, man of dignity, of respectability; aiyar < ayya (Pali) < a_rya men worthy of respect (Periyapu. TIruna_l.ai. 30); sages (Tol. Po. 145); celestials, bra_hmans; title of sma_rta bra_hmans; title of linga_yats; aiyan--pa_r..i shrine of Aiyan-a_r (I_t.u, 1,1,5); aiyan-a_r name of a guardian deity of the village, who has a cock on his banner and riding a black horse (Ta.lex.) jan:gama a walking lin:ga: a lin:gavanta of a higher position brought about by a kind of di_ks.e, also called an ayya, whose feet and lin:ga are worshipped by the other lin:gavantas, who lives either by begging and eating in the houses of the various castes of the lin:gavantas or by trading and may be made a guru (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Mother, woman: ay mother (Kol.); ayma woman (Nk.); ayal (pl. aycil) woman, wife; iya (pl. iyov) mother (Pa.); a_ya mother (Ga.); ayal woman, wife (Ga.); asmal woman (Ga.); aya_l wife (Ga.); a_smal woman (Ga.); ya_ya_l, ya_yo, ayal, iya_l mother (Go.); mi_yal your mother (Go.); ma_yo mother (Go.); ma_i_ female (Go.); maiju_ wife (Go.); ma_yi wife, woman (Go.); iya mother (Pe.); aya mother (Pe.Kond.a.Mand..); (pl. ayek) mother; ayma woman, wife; ayli daughter; ya_ya mother (related to 1st or 2nd person); aysi id. (related to 3rd person)(Kond.a); aya-tar-i woman, wife; teya female of animal; teyhi mother (related to 3rd person)(Kond.a); taya female of animal (Mand..); aia, aiali, aja, ia, ija, ijali mother, woman (Kui); i_ya mother (ma_iya my mother, ma_ya your mother); aiya woman; aya woman; a_ya woman, wife (Kuwi); ayang mother (Kur.); ayo_ mother (Kur.); ayya my mother; ijjo thy or your mother; teho his, her, or their mother (Malt.)(DEDR 364). ayar marriage badge; ayire, ayarda_l.i, ayrada_l.i id.; ayire, ayar, ayra, ayduve, ayde (Tadbhava of acira_) a wife whose husband is alive (Ka.lex.) a_jol., ajol., a_ju_l., aju_l., a_jval., ajol.a_ mother's father's house (M.)(CDIAL 1350). ajjia_ grandmother (Pkt.); a_ryika_ respectable woman (Skt.); ze_i mother (Wg.); a_i_, ya_ (Wg.); yi_ (Dm.); iza_i, za_i, ja_i (Gaw.); a_ya (Kal.); i_e_i (Bshk.); yai (Tor.); ya_i (Savi.); ye_i (Phal.); a_je, a_ze pl. ma_ya_re < ma_tarah. (Sh.); ha_j, ijji_, ij (WPah.)(CDIAL 1351). a_i_ mother (Pas'..); mother, aunt, respectful address for any senior female relative (S.); mother's mother, mother;s aunt (B.); mother's mother (Or.); mother, term of endearment for an infant (M.); a_i mother (Par.A.G.); grandmother (G.); a_i-ma_i wife, woman (N.); mother, motherly person (M.) a_i_-ba_i_ motherly old woman (M.)(CDIAL 997). a_y, a_yi, ya_y, a_y mother; a_ycci mother, grandmother (Ta.); a_cci mother, grandmother (Ta.Ma.); a_cca_l. mother; a_ya_l. mother, grandmother, old woman; (ya_y my nmother; a_y thy mother (Kur-unt. 40); ta_y mother (Ta.Ka.); ta_ycci wet nurse, pregnant woman; ta_ya_r mother, Laks.mi_; ta_ymai motherhood (Ta.); ta_yi mother (Ma.Ka.Te.); to.y mother (To.); a_yi (Ka.); ta_ye mother (Ka.); ta.yi grandmother (Kod..)(DEDR 364). Respectable man: ajja (Tadbhava of a_rya) a grandfather (Ka.); ajje (Tu.); acca (Ma.); accan-, attan- (Ta.); ajji a grandmother (Ka.); a_rya, a_riya, ajja a respectable, venerable man; an A_rya; a Vais'ya; a guard of the women's apartments; the sun (Ka.lex.) ajjaga grandfather (Pkt.); ayyaka id. (Pali); a_ryaka respectable man, grandfather (MBh.)[so called because the mother addresses her husband's father as a_rya(ka); cf. ajjautta husband (Pkt.)]; ajjia_ grandmother (Pkt.); a_zo great- (in relationship) in a_o-kaka_, a_zo-na_ti great-grandfather, great-grandson (A.); a_ji grandmother (B.); aja_ mother's father (Or.); grandfather (H.M.); a_ja_ grandfather (Bhoj.Aw.H.M.) a_ji_ grandmother (Bhoj.H.M.); aji_ (H.M.); a_jo mother's father (G.); a_jjo grandfather (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 1348). a_rya an Aryan; a_rya_ noble, respectable (Mn.); ayya, ayya_ worthy, gentleman (Pali); aya-puta prince (As'.); aryag'a a title (NiDoc.); ajja noble, master, grandfather (Pkt.); a_jo free, at liberty (S. ?< a_za_d (Pers.); aya person (Si.); ariya, ana_riya (Pali); a_riya (Pkt.); ari- in cmpds. 'excellent' (Si.)(CDIAL 1347). ajja grandfather (Ka.); ajji grandmother (Ka.Tu.); ajje grandfather (Kod..Tu.); mutt-ajje great-grandfather (Kod..); accan- father (Ta.); acci Na_yar woman (Ta.Ma.); a Malaya_l.a woman (Ka.); mother (Ma.Ka.); acciyar women ascetics (Ta.); accan father, lord (Ma.); acca mother; aj ayn. very old man (Ko.); aj av very old woman (Ko.); a_jak-jaran grandfather (Nk.); aji father's mother (Mand..); ajjos (voc. ajjo_) paternal grandfather (Kur.); ajji_ grandmother (Kur.)(DEDR 50). a_ja_-puja_ worship (N.); -ayika oblation (Si.inscr.); a_ryaka ceremony performed in honour of departed ancestors (Skt.)(CDIAL 1349). Father: ayyan-, aiyan- father, sage, priest, teacher, brahman, superior person, master, king; ayya_ father, respectable man; aiyar men worthy of respect, sages, brahmans, title of sma_rta brahmans, etc.; tam-aiyan- elder brother or parallel male cousin; numaiyan- your elder brother; ai lord, master, husband, king, guru, priest, teacher, father (Ta.); ayn. father, father's brother or parallel male cousin, mother's sister's husband (Ko.); in, eyi- (voc. eya-) id. (To.); ayyan father, lord (Ma.); tamayan elder brother (Ma.); ayya, aya father, grandfather, master, lord, teacher (Ka.); ayye father's brother or parallel male cousin, mother's sister's husband (Kod..); tamayya.n younger brother (Kod..); ayye priest, minister, teacher, master (Tu.); tammaiya an affectionate form of addressing a younger brother (Tu.); ayya, aya father (Te.); ayya_ mother's father Kol.); ayya_k god (Kol.); e_ya_l father (Go.)(DEDR 196). Grandfather; father: attan- father, elder, person or rank or eminence (Ta.); attai, attaica_r father's sister, mother-in-law, woman or rank or eminence (Ta.); atta_n- elder sister's husband; father's sister's son, maternal uncle's son when elder, wife's brother when elder; atta_cci elder brother's wife, husband's sister; attimpe_r elder sister's husband; father's sister's husband; atti elder sister; atto_ exc. of wonder; tattai elder sister (Ta.); attan father (Ma.); atte, atti mother-in-law (Ka.); id., aunt (Tu.); atta mother-in-law, father's sister, maternal uncle's wife (Te.); aunt (Kuwi); mother, mother's sister (Ma.); so_dar-atte, so_dar-atti father's sister, mother's brother's wife (Ka.); attike elder sister (Ka.); attige elder brother's wife (Ka.); elder brother's wife (Tu.); atiak father's sister (Nk.); a_ta, atta id. (Ga.); a_ti father's sister (Go.); ata, atali grandmother (Kui); atu grandmother (Kuwi)(DEDR 142). Mother: a_ttai, a_tta_l., a_tta_ mother; a_ttai, a_tti excl. expr. surprise, fright or pity; a_tta_t.i exc. expr. wonder, of restfulness after toilsome work (Ta.); a_tto_l., a_tto_l Nambutiri's wife (Ma.)(DEDR 358). a_ta_ grandfather (Si.); address to a respectable old man (A.); a_ta_ji grandfather (G.); ado brother (S.); adda_ father (L.)(CDIAL 221). atta_ mother, mother's sister, elder sister (Skt.); atti(ka_)-, anti(ka_)- elder sister (Skt.); atta_ mother, father's elder sister, husband's mother [an interchange of meaning due to Drav. custom of a girl being married to her father's sister's son](Pkt.); ata_, a_ta_ term of address to mother and elder sister (Or.); a_ta_ father's sister (Or.); a_t, a_tas, a_tu_, a_te, a_tes father's sister (M.); adi_ sister (S.)(CDIAL 222).

6.Mould: cf. accu stamp, impression, sign (Ka.); stamp, impression, print, mould (Te.)(DEDR 47). sacaka- mould (Skt.); saca_, sacca_ mould (P.)(CDIAL 13096). Metal: akka, aka (Tadbhava of arka) metal; akka metal (Te.); cf. aka-sa_le the workshop of a goldsmith; a goldsmith (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) accu a mould; what has been formed with a mould; accu-bella boiled treacle poured into a mould and thus made into a cake; accu-mara a wooden mould (Ka.lex.) acca_n- cast from a mould; accu mould (Ta.Te.Ma.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ac- mould for casting iron (Ko.); acci form, model (Tu.)(DEDR 47). cf. aks.a (Skt.lex.) Weight of gold: accu, aks.a a certain weight of gold, kars.a; ?nis.ka (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

402.Image: yawning: an:g to open (as in the case of yawning the mouth); to await with desire for something (Tu.lex.) an:gop to yawn (Santali.lex.) cf. an:ka_ttal to open the mouth (Nan-. 76)(Ta.lex.)

95.Mud, mire: acar-u mud, mire (Ta.); acumpu soft mud, miry place (Ta.); ayam mud, mire (Ta.Ma.); ayar-u manure (Ma.); asalu mud, mire (Te.)(DEDR 41). Pool: ayam water, spring, tank, pond (Ta.); pool, tank (Ma.)(DEDR 188). a_ya_ma water in which rice has been boiled (Pkt.); a_ca_ma (Pali.Skt.)(CDIAL 1068). a_cama sipping water (Skt.)(CDIAL 1064). a_camanaka a spitting pot; a_camana sipping water from the palm of the hand; gargling the throat (Ka.lex.) am.cavn.em. to wash one's mouth after a meal (M.); acvau (H.); a_camana (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 296). Image: flowing: a_kharu scum of butter which rises when boiling to make ghee (S.)(CDIAL 1022). akha_lan. to clear (a watercourse)(L.); a_salan.em. to flow (of tide), swell up (OM.)(CDIAL 1024). a_ka_ram clarified butter (Ta.lex.)

108.Mustard: asuri the plant sinapis racemosa (Ka.lex.) a_suri_ sinapis ramosa (Skt.); ahuri mustard seed (S.); a_huryo, a_hiryo a seed used in medicine (S.); hur, ahu~r, arheo~, a_hur mustard (L.); a_hur (P.); a_suri_ (B.H.); a_soru mustard plant, sinapis ramosa (K.); asuro the shrub, adhatoda vasica (N.)(CDIAL 1496). aiyavi mustard; aintai id. (Ta.); aiyavi, ayyavi id. (Ma.); a_va id. (Te.); a_valu mustard seeds (Te.); sars.apa (Skt.); sa_sava (Pkt.); sa_savi, sa_save (Ka.); sa_suvulu (Te.)(DEDR 921). asuvekal a slab on which condiments are ground (Ka.lex.) sa_sa_u mustard; sa_sva_tso le_p mustard plaster (Kon.lex.) tur.i mustard plant; tur.i par.hao mustard seed, to recite incantation over (Santali.lex.)

219.Image: necklace: ad.d.ike, ad.d.ige one of the pieces of gold of which the necklace called ad.d.ike is composed, a necklace composed of ad.d.ikes (Ka.); at.t.ikai closely fitting necklace of gold wires or of precious stones (Ta.); at.t.iyal closely fitting necklace (Ta.); at.t.ika id. (Ma.); ad.d.ige gold necklace (Kod..); ad.d.igalu pl. ornament worn round the neck by women (Te.)(DEDR 95). Image: unit in a string of beads: an.t.u unit in a string of beads, link in a chain (Ta.); an.d.u id. (Te.); an.t.a-p-pa_r-ttal to join, unite (Ta.)(T.E.D.)

445.Images: neck; necklace: a_ra-vat.am < ha_ra + string of pearls (Tan.t.i. 47, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) a_r, a_ru a frame put on the neck of cattle when training them (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_ram ring round the neck of doves, lines on the necks of parrots and other birds (Tiruppu. 748) (Ta.lex.) a_riva_l.a, pa_riva_l.a a pigeon (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ha_ra a string of pearls; a necklace of sixty-four or hundred and eight strings; any necklace (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Images: bead; necklace: harwa_ bead (Mth.); a_ra necklace (K.); ha_ra (MBh.Or.); garland (Pkt.); string of pearls (OAw.); ha_ra_ necklace, string of pearls (H.); ha_r necklace (P.A.B.Mth.Bi.G.); ha_ri_ string of white beads (Mth.); hara string of pearls (Si.); ha_raka string of pearls (Skt.)(CDIAL 14059).

30.Need: akkar-ai, akkarai concern, interest, need, necessity (Ta.); akkar-e want, necessity, need (Ka.); akkar-a necessity, want, need, interest (Te.)(DEDR 21).

428.Image: net suspended from the shoulder: ar-uvai net or hoop suspended from the shoulder (Cilap. 10,98)(T.E.D.)

323.There is: ayte, ade it certainly is, it is, there is, is (Ka.lex.) ayinta_ < a_'inda next, ensuing (ayinta_ pacali : C.G.)(Ta.lex.) ayinda_, ainda hereafter, next time, in future (Ka.Te.H.)(Ka.lex.)

504.Dewy season: ar-ciram < al 'night' + s'is'ira first half of the dewy season (Ain:kur-u. 464); ar-cirai id. (Kur-un. 277)(Ta.lex.) alkal night (Kalit. 90); day of 24 hours (Akana_. 25); al night (Pin..)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

120.Occupation; support; instruction: a_har occupation, effort (P.); a_dhara support (Skt.); a_hir postp. depending on (S.); ohur, obl. a_hr support, encourage-ment, instruction (L.)(CDIAL 1162). a_dhi deposit (RV.)(CDIAL 1167). Mercantile corespondence: a_ta_ram document, voucher, title deed by which a right to property is established and maintained (Ta.lex.) a_dha_ra sanction, authority, foundation; a_dha_rastha a man of property; a_dhi a deposit, a pledge; a pawn (Ka.); a_dhe_ya to be deposited or placed; to be pledged or mortgaged etc. (Ka.); a_dhi_na subject, dependent; come into the possession of somebody; subjection, control, charge (Ka.); a_dhi-daivika relating to or arising from a tutelary or presiding deity (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_tikkam superiority, power (Ta_yu. Maun-a. 3); a_ti_n-am ownership, possession; s'aiva monastery, a religious organization composed of ascetics with a head, usu. of great learning and spiritual attainments, who resides at the headquarters and initiates aspirants and, in a general way, keeps control over the properties of the mat.am (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.aikkalam refuge, shelter, deposit (Ta.); ar.pin dowry (of buffaloes given by girl's father)(To.); ad.avu pawn, pledge, deposit, mortgage (Ka.); r.a_spa to give in marriage; n. giving in marriage (Kui); d.a_yu, da_yu to approach; d.a_pu, da_pu nearness; da_parincu to fall to one's lot (Te.)(DEDR 79). Wholesale trade; agency business: at.atti < ar.hat (U.) buying and selling in lots, wholesale; premium for ready money; commission or agency business; at.atti-c-ci_t.t.u note given by one chetti to another, showing the amount within which to draw upon him for funds in trading (Ta.); at.itti-viya_pa_ram wholesale dealings (C.G.); at.ai-tal to get, obtain, enjoy (Ta.); ad.e id. (Ka.); at.ai-ttal to lease, give in contract (Ta.); to bestow (Ci. Ci. 1,54)(Ta.); to entrust (Tiruva_lava_. 28,13)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.itti < arhat (U.) mercantile correspondent or agent (C.G.)(Ta.); ad.iti (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Commission or agency business: ahr.at < ar.at partnership in trade, selling goods on commission, percentage; mutual dealing, connection, agency; ahr.atia a partner in trade, one who sells on commission, one who has dealings of any sort with another (P.lex.) a_dha_payati caus. of a_dadha_ti gives, lends (RV.); a_dhi pledge, pawn (RV.); pp. replaced by a_japta: a_jna_payati (Skt.); a_d.havai begins; pass. a_d.happai (Pkt.); a_d.hatta, ad.d.hatta begun, undertaken (Pkt.); a_d.ata mercantile correspondence,agency (S.); a_d.atio merchant's correspondent (S.); a_hr.ti_ broker (L.); a_r.hat, ar.hat commission; a_hr.ti_, ahr.ti_ commission agent (P.); a_r.hat commission; a_r.ati customer (Ku.); a_r.at commission (B.); a_r.hat brokerage; ar.hatia_ agent (Mth.); a_r.hat, ar.hat, a_r.hatya_ (H.); a_r.ati, a_r.ati_yo (G.); a_d.at, ad.at, a_d.atya_, ad.atya_ (M.)(CDIAL 1164). at.atti-c-ci_t.t.u note given by one Chetti to another, showing the amount within which to draw upon him for funds in trading; at.atti buying and selling in lots, wholesale; premium for ready money; commission or agency business (Ta.lex.) ?cf. arukan- arhat; Jain (Kalla_. 4); associate, companion, friend (Ta.lex.) a_dha_na receptacle (Pali); the place in which anything rests (S'Br.); a_ha_n.a refuge (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1163). a_driyate_ regards, is careful about, attends to (S'Br.); a_diyati heeds (Pali); ajelo ashamed (Sh.); a_arai respects (Pkt.); a_riba_ to fondle (Or.); a_darvu~ to work with zeal, begin, woo (G.); a_darn.e~ to take (a business) in hand (M.); a_darna_ (H.); a_darn.e~ to honour (M.); a_dara (Skt.)(CDIAL 1161). Pledge: at.aku pledge, pawn of personal property (Tiruppu. 594); ad.avu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ad.apu, ad.avu a pledge, a pawn (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.aima_nam pledge, property mortgaged or hypothecated (Ta.); at.ama_nam (Ma.); at.ai-y-o_lai ola document serving as evidence of pledge (I.M.P. SA. 15)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_ta_n-am < a_-da_na depositing, placing, usu. in compounds as akkin-i-ya_ta_n-am, karppa_ta_n-am (Ce_tupu. Akat. 38)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Ledger; register: at.avan.e, at.t.avan.e addition and subtraction (in arithmetic); revenue (Ka.); at.avan.e_m. to gather together, in, up (M.); at.havan.a memory, remembrance; at.avan.e (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.t.avan.ai index, cash-book, ledger, register, catalogue (Pan.avit.u. 30)(Ta.); at.havan.a (M.); at.t.avan.ai prefix to an official designation to imply that the person is duly registered as holding the office as in: at.t.avan.ai-t-ta_cilta_r (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) adadi of counting or numeration, determined by counting, used in selling or buying fruits etc. (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) a_taram regard, love, affection, kindness (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 16); honour, hospitality (Ko_yir-pu. Iran.iya. 95); a_taravu love, affection, kindness (Kantapu. Ma_rkkan.. 21); prop, stay, buttress; a_taravu-c-ci_t.t.u voucher (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

112.Anoint: aj to smear, anoint; pr. anakti, an:kte_; sb. anajat; ipv. an.dhi, anaktu; ajant, aja_na; inf. a_jan; pf. a_naja, a_naje_, a_najre_; sb. anaja_; op.anajya_t; pt. a_naja_n; ps. ajyate_; pt. ajyama_na; pp. akta; gd. aktca_, -ajya (TS. v.1.11.1); ajana collyrium; sprinkling ghee and anointing the havis with ghee (KS'S.); ajana_bhyajana unction and inunction; ajani_-ka_ra one who beautifies the eyes with collyrium (TBr. iii.4.10); ajas ointment, a mixture (RV. i.132.2); aji adornment, hue, brilliancy (RV. viii.20.11); ajimant coloured, bright, adorned (RV. v.57.5); ajiva slippery, smooth (AV. vii.6.9); aj-sakthya having smooth, ornamented, or coloured thighs (a god)(VS. xxiv.4)(Vedic.lex.) aj to anoint, smear with, bedaub; aja_ to anoint, smear; ajanam anointing, smearing with; mixing; collyrium or black pigment used to paint the eye-lashes; paint, a cosmetic ointment; magic ointment; ajani_ a woman decorated with the application of pigments, ointments, sandal etc., or one fit for such application (Skt.lex.) ajana-ke_s'i name of a vegetable perfume (Skt.Ka.); nakhala_ (M.); ajanaki_ name of a medicinal plant (Skt.lex.) ajani_ name of two plants: kat.uka_vr.ks.a and ka_la_jana vr.ks.a (Skt.lex.) ajani a hollow tube for black collyrium (Ka.lex.) ajanaka a portion of the vedas containing the word ajana (Skt.lex.) ajati = anakti anoints, smears, decorates (RV.); ajati smears, anoints (Pali); am.jai (Pkt.); ac- to smear (Pr.); a~_jna_ to apply collyrium to the eyes (H.); ajvu~ (G.); andinava_ to anoint, paint (Si.)(CDIAL 169). ajana anointing, ointment (A_s'vS'r.); ajan. collyrium (P.); andana_ anointing, painting, putting on (clothes)(Si.)(CDIAL 170). ajas ointment, mixture (RV.); aza_ curry, pottage; vyajana condiment (MBh.)(CDIAL 172). ajita smeared (Pali); ajayati anointed (A_s'vS'r.); am.jiya oiled (Pkt.); andi painted, marked (Si.)(CDIAL 173). abhyan:ga anointing with oil (Mn.); ointment (Sus'r.); abbham.ga anointing; abbham.gai anoints; abbhim.ga, abbhim.gai (Pkt.); a_bha_n. smearing the body with oil (B.)(CDIAL 542). cf. a_jya clarified butter (RV.)(CDIAL 1097). a_jana fat (RV.); ointment (esp. for the eyes) (AV.); a_jani_ ointment (VS.); collyrium for the eyes, box therefor (R.); ajana collyrium; ajani_ pot therefor (Pali); am.jan.a, am.jan.aga collyrium (Pkt.); ana ghee (Ash.); anro~_ (Wg.); a_nir.o collyrium pot (S.); a_nr.i_ collyrium pot; a_ndar ghee (L.); a_nn.o, a_nr.o sty in eye (Ku.); a_nu (N.); a~_jan collyrium (B.); a~_jan (H.); a~_jan. (G.); ajan.a (Konkan.i); andana, anduna (Si.)(CDIAL 1100). a_janiya, a_janya (with eyes) having to be anointed with collyrium (TBr.); a_nir.i_ sty in the eye (S.); a_nr.i_ (L.); a_nn.o, a_nr.o (Ku.); a_nu (N.); a_zina_i (A.); a_jna_i, a_jina_ (B.); ajani_ (H.); a~_jn.i_ (G.); a~_jn.i_, a~_jin.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 1101). acan-am collyrium, black pigment for the eyelashes (Tiv. Ci. Mat.al. 10); magic black pigment, of which there are three, viz., pu_ta_can-am, pa_ta_l.acan-am, co_ra_can-am (Pan.avit.u. 15); a tree (Maccapu. Attiri. 5); acan-i iron-woood tree (Ta.lex.) ajana a kind of tree, perh. terminalia arjuna (Ka.lex.) acan-avan.n.an- Vis.n.u, as dark-complexioned (Cilap. 6,47); acan-a-ver-pu the Tirupati hills (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,2,8); acan-akko_l pencil to paint the eyelashes with collyrium (Ci_vaka. 1894); acan-appet.t.i < vyajana = acar-aippet.t.i spice box with five compartments, one in the middle and four surrounding; acan-akkal sulphuret of antimony, black bismuth, used as collyrium, as a combustible in fireworks (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) ham.sapa_da vermilion (Ka.lex.)

211.To besmear: a_t.u-tal to rub, besmear, as sandal paste (Man.i. 16,31)(Ta.lex.) d.e to bedaub, deface (Malt.)(DEDR 348). Gum; alluvium: ad.akn.e~ to stick fast (M.); ar.na_ to stick fast (P.)(CDIAL 187). Cement: at.t.a-pantan-am a kind of cement used at the base of a stone idol; as.t.apantan-am kind of prepared cement used at the base of a stone idol to fix it firmly, and made of eight ingredients, viz., (1) cukka_n-kal (kunkur limestone, impure concretionary carbonate of lime), (2) komparakku (stick lac), ca_tilin:kam (vermilion, red sulphurate of mercury, hydrargiri bisulphuretum a prepared arsenic), (3) cempacu (cotton coloured with lac-dye), (4) te_n- (honey), (5) mer..uku (wax), (6) erumai ven.n.ai (butter from buffalo's milk), (7) kun:kiliyam (konkani resin, boswellia serrata glabra; Indian bdellium, commiphora mukul), (8) nar-ka_vi (red ochre, reddle)(Ta.lex.)

261.Anointing: appu to stick with the hand (as sandal paste), apply repeatedly (as a fomentation)(Ta.); appi, appu plaster; appuka to press in (Ma.); appige, apige, appad.e, appuge act of joining, cementing, soldering, etc.; a patch; appal.isu to strike against, stroke, flap, slap (Ka.); appal.incu to slap, touch, tap, strike gently with the open hand, smear, apply; appal.inta slapping, etc. (Te.)(DEDR 157). abhyan:ga anointing with oil (Mn.); ointment (Sus'r.); abbham.ga anointing (Pkt.); abbham.gai anoints; a_bha_n. smearing the body with oil (B.)(CDIAL 542).

88.Opportunity: ajja time or circumstances favourable for the purpose, opportunity (Ka.); ajje (Te.); ar-r-am (Ta.); ajja-gal.l.a a crafty thief (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

197.Ore: atar fine sand (Ta.); aduru id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) aduru native metal (Ka.); adaru a sparkle; dear, costly (Te.); ayil iron; beauty; avir splendour (Ta.); ayir iron dust, any ore (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. aril small sharp pebble (Ta.)(DEDR 209).

259.Only: apka only (Pe.Kuwi)(DEDR 153). yeka_ts, fa_ka_t only (Kon.lex.)

248.Other: a_n.i, an:khi_ and; a_n (poet.) beside; n. and; a_nsa_ adj. (poet.) other (M.); a_n., a_n other; ane and (G.); ani, a_n (OH.); anum anik other (Si.); anikd.a_ day after tomorrow (Si.); an.n.a other (Pkt.); anya other (Skt.); an.u otherwise (Ap.); alyeka other (Tocharian); alecce a stranger (Tokharian); an-par (Gothic); antra-s other (Lithuanian); alter (Latin)(Bloch, p. 300). an-r-iyum conj. besides (Cilap. 5,110, Arum.); an-r-iyil except (Ci. Ci. 4,8, Civa_k.); an-r-i besides (I_t.u. Ava.)(Ta.lex.) an-r-u that day, then, any time but the present; an-r-ai that day (Ta.)(DEDR 1).

50.Image: overflow; rinse: a_hla_ overflow, inundation (H.)(CDIAL 1055). aghal.n.e~ to rinse by shaking in water (M.); a_gha_ran.u to rinse (S.); agha_lan. (L.); ha~gha_l.n.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 1058). Washing the body: an:ga-ra_ga different unguents used for perfuming the body; perfuming the body after bathing (Ka.lex.) am.go_hali bathing all the body except the head (Pkt.); a~ghol. ablution; a~ghol.vu~ to bathe (G.); a~ghol., a~ghu_l., a~_ghu_l. washing the body (M.); a~ghol.iyu~ pot for warming bath water (G.); a~ghol.r.i_ song sung during ceremonial wedding bath (G.)(CDIAL 124). agur.., agur..cu pp. to sink in water, to be immersed, to dive (Ka.); amir.. (Ta.); a~gho_l.a bathing (M.)(Ka.lex.) ?cf. ayavu washing (Ma.)(DEDR 36). Used in bathing: attu bark of sage-leaved alangium, astringents, redness (Ta.); mimosa inga used in bathing (Ma.)(DEDR 146). Alangium lamarckii: an:ko_le, an:ko_la, an:ko_t.ha, an:kali, an:ko_lu a shrub or small tree, alangium lamarckii, alangium hexapetalum (Ka.lex.) cf. attu bark of common cadamba, bark of sage-leaved alangium (Ta.)(DEDR 146). Buttress tree: an:ko_t.a, an:ko_t.ha_ the small tree alangium hexapetalum (Skt.); an:ko_la, an:ko_laka (Skt.Pali); an:ko_lla (Skt.); a~_kor. a partic. plant (B.); a~kol. the tree;its fruit (M.); am.kolla (Pkt.); a_n:kola, a_n:kula, a_n:ku (Or.); akol, akola_ (H.); a~kol (G.)(CDIAL 113). ar..icil, ar..icu, an.icil sage-leaved alangium, alangium lamarckii (Ta.); ar..iil a. decapetalum; arail the buttress tree (Ma.)(DEDR 280). d.hela alangium lamarckii (Santali.lex.) Alangium lamarckii = alangium salviifolium: ankota (Skt.); akola (H.); akar kanta (B.); ankola (M.); irinjil (Ma.); ankolamu (Te.); alangi (Ta.); leaves as poultice in rheumatic pains; habitat: grown vigorously in the forests of S. India. (GIMP, p.10). an:kot.a alangium salvifolium (Car. Ci.23.244).

13.Ornament, decoration: an:ka ornament, decoration; alan:ka_ra (Ka.lex.)

16.Image: palm of the hand: an:kai < akam + kai palm of hand (Tol. Er..ut. 315, Urai) (Ta.lex.) akan:kai palm of the hand (Ma.Ta.); an:kai palm of the hand (Ta.); an.-gey id. (Ka.); angay id. (Kod..); an:gai id. (Tu.)(DEDR 7). an. arm (Pas.); cha_n.o having six toes or fingers on foot or hand (S.); a~_ga_ as much as can be held in both arms (H.)(CDIAL 114). o~jal., o~jhal., va~jal. cavity made by putting the two hands together (M.); un~jal double handful (P.); ujla_ (Or.); ujal, ujli_ (H.)(CDIAL 2298). ar-an.-kai palm of the hand (Ta.); ar-a-ce_yi id. (Te.); a_rankei, arungkei id. (Kol.)(DEDR 310). cf. ajali the hollowed hands placed together (S'Br.Pali); ajalika_ (Pali); am.jali_ (Pkt.); anjil single or double handful, the hands put together palms up in salutation (Kho.); [cf. aintu five(Ta.)]; anzal (K.); ajli_ (P.); a~_juli_, a~_culi_, a~jwa_l double handful; a~_jui, a~_cui(Ku.); a~juli, a~julo open palms placed together (N.); a~_zli (A.); a~_juli, a~_jla_ (B.); a_jul.i, ajul.i, a_jul.a_, ajul.a_ (Or.); a~juri_ (Bhoj.); ajal, ajul, ajla_, ajli_, ajuli_ double handful (H.); a~jl.i_ open palms together (G.); a~jl.i_ (M.); dilla (Si.); ujal double handful (P.); ujla_ (Or.); ujal, ujli_ with metathesis < ajul (H.)(CDIAL 171).

225.Image: half a bullock load; pannier: ad.igamu a sort of pannier (Te.); an.d.ige one pannier or pack, half a bullock load (Ka.); an.d.emu, an.d.iyamu a sort of pannier (Te.)(DEDR 127). jan.d.ri_ mule pannier (L.)(CDIAL 10412). antal.akam coat of mail (S.I.I. ii,98, Kur-ippu.); antal.am id. (Ta.); antal.akatta_l.ar warriors wearing coat of mail (S.I.I. ii,97)(T.E.D.) To lean; bed, pillow; house; refuge: at.t.na_ to spread out upon the ground something folded or rolled up (Kur.); at.e to spread (as bedding); at.po bedding (Malt.)(DEDR 102). a_dhara *support (Skt.); dura_dhara irresistible (MBh.); a_hir postp. depending on (S.); a_har the dependent end of a sack thrown over a beast (P.); hur, obl. a_hr support, encouragement, instruction (L.); a_har occupation, effort (P.)(CDIAL 1162). Image: pack-saddle; coverlet: aster saddle (Gypsy); asturuk bedding (Pr.); a_tharu packsaddle (S.); a_thur (L.); pl. a_thar donkey's saddle, bullock gear (L.); atthari_ a_thri_ deep earthen dish in which tobacco is prepared (P.); a_thro, athro a dish of food (Ku.); athuri-pathuri entire belongings of anyone (Or.);{Echo word}; athara_ firework maker's wooden platter (Bi.Mth.); athari_ potter's mould (Bi.Mth.); a~_thar large coarse mat of bamboo (M.); a_thar covering for floor or ground (G.); a~_thri_, a~thri_ matting, bed-cloth (M.); atiriya, atirilla coverlet (Si.); a_stara covering, cushion, bed (Skt.); atthara rug (for horses, elephants etc.)(Pali); attharaka covering (Pali); attharaya covering, outer garment (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1505). a_staran.a layer of sacred grass (AV.); bed, coverlet (AitBr.); attharan.a coverlet, matting (Pali.Pkt.); astarana (NiDoc.); atthuran.a (Pkt.); a_sturun bedding (Pr.); a~_thru_n., a~thru_n. matting, bedspread (M.); ataran.a, aturun.a cloth spread out for or over a seat, sheet (Si.)(CDIAL 1506). a_starati spreads, covers (R.); attharati (Pali); attharai (Pkt.); a_sturu (Pr.); o_stori to spread out (a carpet)(Pr.); a_tharvu~ to spread out (G.); a~_tharn.e~, a~tharn.e~ (M.); aturan.ava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 1507). starimani spreading out, covering (RV.); stariman bed (Skt.)(CDIAL 1508). a_ntul.n a low poor bed; a_ntul.na_r a_sa_ is sick (Kon.lex.) a_stara spreading (Skt.); a_staraka fire-receptacle (Skt.); attha_ra spreading out (Pali); atha_ra earthen pot over which a cloth is stretched for steaming cakes (Or.); atura the string which toddy-tappers stretch from one palm-top to another (Si.)(CDIAL 1509). attaran.a (Tadbhava of a_staran.a) a piece of coloured woollen-cloth thrown over the back of an elephant, or over a carriage, etc.; a cover; a_staran.a spreading; decking (Ka.); a carpet, a rug, bed clothes etc. (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

312.Image: pannier: akkha_ one end of a bag or sack thrown over a beast of burden; one side of a pair of camel panniers (kaja_wa)(P.lex.)

220.Paraphernalia; graciousness: a_ndan., a_ndan.a_ a box given to a bride (paraphernalia) (Kon.lex.) antam beauty, comeliness (Pin..); id. (Ma.); andamu (Te.); anda (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) ando beauty, form (Tu.lex.) anta = ramya (Skt.lex.) anta handsome, lovely (Skt.lex.) net.ai to adorn, grace; net.on.i an ornament (Kon.lex.) Graciousness: antan.mai seemly graciousness (Tiruman. 234); antan.-pulavan- bra_hman scholar (Na_n-man.i. 90); antan.attuvam bra_hmanhood (Upate_caka_. Civavirata. 337); antan.mai bra_manhood (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 25); antan.an- < am + tan.-mai; or anta (Ve_da_nta) + an.avu- (Tirumuru. 94-6, Urai.) gracious one (Kur-al., 30, Urai.); bra_hman (Tol. Po. 625); id. (Ma.); sage, recluse (Pin..); Brahma_ (Pin..); Jupiter (Paripa_. 11,7); antan.a_l.an- gracious one (Te_va_. 181,6); bra_hman (Tol. Po.637)(Ta.lex.) anda_yi adj. that which is true; anda_yi pa_terogu sanda_yo iddi there is no counter statement for a truthful utterance (prov.)(Tu.lex.) antan.an- brahman; antan.mai, antan.amai, antan.attuvam brahmanhood (Ta.); antan.an brahman (Ma.)(DEDR 148). andu yes; anda_yi adj. that which is true; andayi pa_terogu sanda_yo iddi there is no counter statement for a truthful utterance (Tu.lex.)

83.Measure of land; estimate: a~_si measure of land (Ku.); a~_s, a~_so share (Ku.); am.s'a share, part (RV.); am.sa (Pali.Pkt.); do-a~_s' consisting of two parts or two grains (B.); asa part, half (Si.)(CDIAL 2). a~_ca_ to estimate (B.); aciba_ to conjecture (Or.)(CDIAL 166). am.siya_ share, part (Pkt.); onshai lot, chance (Wg.)(CDIAL 2). a~soi_ partner (Ku.); ams'abho_gin sharing (Skt.)(CDIAL 3). do-a~_s' consisting of two parts or two grains (B.)(CDIAL 2). do-a~_s'la_ cross-bred (B.)(CDIAL 2). sa_m.s'a having or consisting of parts or shares (Skt.); sam.sa together with its parts (Pkt.); sa~_zu half produce of land; sa~_jo jointly owned (Sh.); sa_jha_ held in partnership; sa~_jha_ common (L.)(CDIAL 13318). sa_kam jointly with (RV.); sa~_ with (S.)(CDIAL 13319). cf. acc- to split, saw; acca_na_ to cut off (hand, foot, etc.)(Go.); asye to chisel (Malt.); haccu, heccu to cut in pieces; hacci to divide (vegetables and fruits)(DEDR 46).

83.Measure of land; estimate: a~_si measure of land (Ku.); a~_s, a~_so share (Ku.); am.s'a share, part (RV.); am.sa (Pali.Pkt.); do-a~_s' consisting of two parts or two grains (B.); asa part, half (Si.)(CDIAL 2). a~_ca_ to estimate (B.); aciba_ to conjecture (Or.)(CDIAL 166). am.siya_ share, part (Pkt.); onshai lot, chance (Wg.)(CDIAL 2). a~soi_ partner (Ku.); ams'abho_gin sharing (Skt.)(CDIAL 3). do-a~_s' consisting of two parts or two grains (B.)(CDIAL 2). do-a~_s'la_ cross-bred (B.)(CDIAL 2). sa_m.s'a having or consisting of parts or shares (Skt.); sam.sa together with its parts (Pkt.); sa~_zu half produce of land; sa~_jo jointly owned (Sh.); sa_jha_ held in partnership; sa~_jha_ common (L.)(CDIAL 13318). sa_kam jointly with (RV.); sa~_ with (S.)(CDIAL 13319). cf. acc- to split, saw; acca_na_ to cut off (hand, foot, etc.)(Go.); asye to chisel (Malt.); haccu, heccu to cut in pieces; hacci to divide (vegetables and fruits)(DEDR 46).

212.Grove: at.ukkam thick grove (Cilap. 10,157)(Ta.lex.) ad.akottu, ad.ako_tu, ad.akegatti, ad.agatti, ad.agattri a sort of scissors for cutting areca nut (Ka.); ad.d.akattari, id.akatti (Tu.); ad.akattu, ad.akottu, a_kottu (Te.); ad.akita_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) at.u-ttal to join together (Ci_vaka. 617); to join (Kantapu. Tati_ciyut. 39)(Ta.); at.uppu adhering, joining (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.); at.ai joining (Kampara_. Mantira. 88)(Ta.); ad.a (Te.); ad.e (Ka.); at.a (Ma.); at.aicu-tal to be joined, placed (Ci_vaka. 819, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) a_t.ha_, et.ha_ gum (A.); et.ha_. et.hi gummy, slimy (A.); a_t.ha_ gum, birdlime, paste (B.); at.ha_ gum (Or.); at.t.uwa any glutinous substance (Si.); a_tho paste (G.)(CDIAL 186). an.t.aru to stick to (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) atuku, atiku, aduku to be joined, united, or soldered, to cling together; to join, unite to, solder, cement (Ka.Te.); attu, pattu to be joined etc. (Te.); ar..uttu to make form; ar..untu to grow firm (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) at.ai-man. silt, alluvium; earth that sticks to the plough (Ta.lex.) ad.e a sticky, clotty mass (Ka.); ad.a a lump, clot, mass (Te.)(DEDR 84). at.t. sediment in a well, silt (L.); at.n.e~ to thicken, inspissate (M.)(CDIAL 179). Cake of coarse sugar: at.t.u cake of coarse sugar (pan-a_t.t.u : Tol. Er..ut. 284, Urai.)(Ta.); id. (Te.); at.t.i south Indian mahua, iluppai (Mu_. A.); < yas.t.i liquorice-plant (Tailava. Taila. 64) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) ad.e, an.d.ige, an.d.i a sticky, clotty mass, a lump as of dates, tamarind, sugar, hair etc. (Ka.Te.); avaiyal a ball of clay etc. (Te.); ad.egat.t.u to become a sticky mass, to be clotted or matted together, as the hair etc. (Ka.Te.); ad.egallu a stone-like mass of unclean hair (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Field; plain: at.ukkam a plain, field (Ma.)(DEDR 80). Mud, mire: ad.alu, ad.lu, had.lu, ad., ad.e, at.il, at.lu, ad.usu mud, clay (Ka.); ad.usu mud, mire (Tu.)(DEDR 82). ar..ukku, ar..uva, ayacu filthy, slippery ground, dirt (Te.); ad.usu (Te.); al.ar-u, acar-u, ce_r-u mud (Ta.); asalu mud (Te.); ad.aka an unclean place (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Leech: at.t.e, a_d.e leech (that adheres? or that is like a headless trunk?)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.t.ai leech (Ta.); at.t.a id. (Ma.); at.t.e, a_d.e id. (Ka.); at.t.e water leech (Kod..)(DEDR 99). kurt.ubi leech (Pa.); kurt.um id. (Ga.)(DEDR 1798). kuruti blood, red colour (Ta.); blood (Ma.); kurudi coloured red water (Ka.); kurdi, kurudi red liquid prepared by mixing turmeric and lime, used for auspicious purposes (Tu.)(DEDR 1788). cf. semant. raktapa_ leech (Skt.lex.) keola leech (Santali.lex.) su_Ri leech (Kond.a); hu_ci id. (Pe.); hut.t.a, hu_ta, hutta, hu_ci id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2746). jo~k leech (Santali.lex.)

214.Gum, paste: an.t.u gum, paste (Ka.); to stick, adhere to; n. adhesion, that adheres, an impurity, that is sticky, that is viscous (Ka.); gum, paste, adhesion (Tu.); to stick or adhere to, smear or rub over (Te.); and. to stick to, adhere (Pe.); at.t.u to join, stick, paste (Ta.); state of being joined (Ka.); an.t.ai patch (Ta.); at.t.uka to join, stick, adhere (Ma.); an.t.aru to stick to; an:ke, an.pu act of smearing or anointing (Ka.); an.t.uni to adhere, stick; to paste, attract (Tu.); an.t.upattu adhesive, attractive; an.t.a_vuni to paste; an.aru moss, lichen, mould, green stuff on stagnant water (Tu.); an.t.incu to cause to adhere, attach, paste; an.t.a leaves stitched together so as to serve as a platter for eating on; an.t.a~-gat.t.u to join together, tie up; an.t.asil(l)u to touch, meet; an.t.rinta burgrass (Te.); at.- (at.t-) to stick, (child) attaches itself to breast; at.ip- to stick, put (child) to breast (Kol.); to stick (Nk.); at.t.- to stick to (Nk.); and.- (-t-) to stick to; at.- (-it-) to get stuck; attinai to inhere; atti ki_nai to paste (Kuwi)(DEDR 96). d.anj- (d.anc-) to stick, adhere (Pe.); d.enj- id. (Mand..)(DEDR 2942). a_t.ha_, et.ha_ gum (A.); a_t.ha_ gum, paste (B.); a_t.ha_l, a.t.a_l viscid (B.); at.ha_ gum (Or.); at.t.uva any glutinous substance (Si.); a_tho paste (G.)(CDIAL 186). at.t.u to be joined; the state of being joined (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ad.e a lump, a sticky, clotty mass (Ka.); ad.a a lump, clot, mass (Te.)(DEDR 84). an.t.u to come or be in contact with, to touch; to stick, to adhere to (Ka.); an.t.u adhesion: contagion; that adheres, an impurity; that is sticky, gum, paste, glue; an.t.uka a sticky or tenacious man (Ka.lex.) a_t.u (a_t.i-) to rub, besmear (as sandal paste)(Ta.); d.e to bedaub, deface (Malt.)(DEDR 348). an:ke, an.pu an ointment; the act of smearing or anointing; anule_pana (Ka.lex.) san.d.ha bubo (P.)(CDIAL 12277). d.anj to stick, adhere (Pe.); d.enj id. (Mand..)(DEDR 2942). ot.t.u to stick (as with paste or gum), glue on; patch (Ta.); glue, union (Ma.); close adhering, union (Ka.); ot. to stick (Ko.)(DEDR 958). at.t.u joining, fitting, being becoming or proper (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

206.Pavonia odorata: a_ntai fragrant sticky mallow (Mu_. A.); pe_ra_mut.t.i pink-tinged white sticky mallow, pavonia odorata (Pata_rtta. 469)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) For pe_ra_- in Ta. cf.: hribe_ra (Skt.): Pavonia odorata: hribera (Skt.); sugandhaballa (H.); bola (B.); kalavala (M.); kuruntotti (Ma.); peramutti (Ta.); ettakuti (Te.); root: astringent, tonic, prescribed in dysentery, cooling, demulcent, carminative, febrifuge; plant: used as a cure for rheumatism; habitat: NW INdia, Bundelkhand, Sind, Baluchistan, W. Rajputana, Bengal, Konkan, S. Mahrata country, N. Circars, Deccan and Carnatic. (GIMP, p.187). ba_la_, hrivera (Skt.); sugandha-bala_ (H.): the fragrant roots of this plant are considered aromatic, cooling and stomachic and are much used in combination with other medicines of the sort in fever, inflammation, hemorrhage from internal organs etc. Ba_la_ enters into the composition of a well-known fever drink called shadanga pa_niya (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.124). iruve_ri, iruve_li cuscus grass (Ta.); iruve_ri, iruve_li andropogon muricatus (Ma.); irve_ri id. (Tu.); hri_vera, hri_vela(ka), hirivera a kind of andropogon (acc. to some, pavonia odorata)(Skt.)(DEDR 488). cf. mut.i-va_r..ai andropogon muricatus, cuscus grass (Ta.); mud.iva_l.a andropogon schoenanthus (Ka.); mud.iva_l.a, mud.d.ela, mud.yala, mud.yela andropogon muricatus (Tu.); andropogon squarrosus = andropogon muricatus (DEDR 4924). cf. ba_l.a, ba_la, va_l.a, va_ra andropogon muricatus, cuscus grass (Ka.); karba_l.a a grass with fragrant roots, cuscus grass (Ka.); va_la, va_laka, ba_la sp. andropogon (Skt.)(DEDR 5374). vir..ai darbha grass, a kind of sedge, cuscus (andropogon muricatus); vet.t.i, vet.t.i-ve_r cuscus grass (Ta.); vir..a_l a vermifuge plant, erycibe paniculata or murraya; embelia ribes (Ma.); bir..il name of a plant (Ka.); vid.avali, vat.t.i, vat.t.i-ve_ru cuscus grass, andropogon muricatus (Te.); vi_ran.a, vi_rin.a (Skt.); vid.an:ga embeliaribes (Skt.)(DEDR 5428). cf. va_laka a kind of andropogon (VarBr.S.); va_ro andropogon grass (S.); va_l.o (G.); va_l.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 11574). cf. vi_ran.a the fragrant grass andropogon muricatum (MBh.); viran.a (Skt.); bi_ran.a (Pali); vi_ran.a, vi_ran.a_ (Pkt.); bi_rn (WPah.); bena_ (B.); bi_ran.a, ben.a_ andropogon muricatum, andropogon squamosum (A.); biren (A.); bena_ andropogon muricatum (H.); viran. a kind of fragrant root (G.); iran. the shrub clerodendron philomoides (M.)(CDIAL 12057). cf. vid.an:ga_ embelia ribes (Skt.); vid.an:ga its fruit (used as vermifuge)(Sus'r.); birin. a partic. medicinal plant (A.); bir.an:ga embelia ribes (Or.)(CDIAL 11715). Andropogon muricatus: us'i_ra, vi_ran.a (Skt.); bena_ (B.); khas (H.): the root of this plant is well known as the khas khas root of which taor or door screens are made for watering during the hot weather... A paste of the root is rubbed on the skin to relieve oppressive heat or burning of the body. This use of the drug appears to have been popular with the ancients. Ka_lida_sa in his drama, S'a_kuntala_ alludes to it... An aromatic cooling bath is prepared by adding to a tub of water the following substances in fine powder, namely, root of andropogon muricatus, pavonia odorata (ba_la_), red sandal wood, and a fragrant wood caleld padma ka_s.t.ha (a fragrant wood resembling toon brought from Malwa or southern India). The same medicines are reduced to a thin emulsion with water and applied to the skin (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 271-272). ila_miccu, ila_miccai, ila_maccam < la_majja cuscus grass, anatherum muricatum with aromatic root (Tiva_.; S.I.I. ii,123); uci_ram cuscus root, ila_miccai ve_r (cantan-a muci_ran. ko_t.t.am : Tiruva_lava_. 43,16) (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) la_maca, la_macca, la_majja, la_maca, la_vaca (Tadbhava of la_majja) a grass with fragrant roots used for fans etc. the cuscus grass, andropogon muricatus, ba_l.a, kol.ave_r (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Prunus padum = prunus sylvatica = cerasus puddum: padmaka, padmaksh (Skt.); paddam (H.); chamiara, amalguch (P.); padma kastha (M.); padma kathi (G.); a native of temperate Himalayas from Garhwal to Sikkim and Bhutan. Fruit is acid and somewhat astringent. Kernel is used in stone and gravel. Bark contains amygdalin and the smaller branches are sold in the bazaars as substitutes for hydrocyanic acid in Indian practice. Prunus puddum: padmaka (Skt.): used in scorpion-sting. Kernel is used in gravel. (Nadkarni, The Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1015-1016).

425.Image: piercing, perforating: arpan.am piercing, perforating (said to mean also fire, god, an oblation, a mantra and the tongue)(Skt.lex.) cf. aruppu-t-tor..il filigre work in imitation of flower buds (Kalit. 104, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

185.Perfume: attar, attaru attar (ottar, otto) of roses; perfume, essence (Ka.Tu. M.H.) (Ka.lex.) a_ttar attar (Kon.lex.) attar < 'atr, 'itr (U.) attar, fragrant essential oil, esp. of rose petals (pun-ukattar ce_rttan.iya villai : Tan-ippa_. i,389,44)(Ta.lex.)

299.Phyllanthus emblica: "a_malaki_ (Skt.); dha_tri_ (Skt.); a_mloki (B.); a_onla_ (H.): like cheblic myrobalan, emblic myrobalan is also extensively used in Hindu medicine... a preserve of the ripe fruits made with sugar, is considered a wholesome article of diet and a preservative of health... the fresh juice is cooling, refrigerant, diuretic and laxative... the exudation from incisions made on the fruits while on the tree, is a very useful external application in recent inflammation of the eye. It is also used as a collyrium." (U.C. Dutt, Materia Medica of the Hindus, 1922, pp.161-164; pp.226-227).

297.Winter cherry: amukkira_, amukkiri Indian winter cherry, withania somnifera (Ta.); amukkiram a medicinal root, physalis flexuosa (Ma.); amaki_re, aman:gura a medicinal shrub; physalis flexuosa = withania somnifera (DEDR 168). ashvakandika (Skt.); asvagandha (B.,M.); sagand (H.); amangura (Ka.); amukkiram (Ma.); amukkira (Ta.); vajigandha (Te.); root: considered alterative, aphrodisiac, tonic, diuretic, narcotic; used in rheumatism, consumption, debility from old age; leaves: bitter, given in infusion in fever; bruised leaves and ground root: used as a local application to painful swellings, carbuncles and ulcers; seeds: hypnotic, diuretic, used for coagulating milk; habitat: in the drier parts of India (GIMP, p.258).

136.Image: one after another: at.al a layer, story; row upon row; at.al at.ako dur.up akana they are sitting in rows (one behind the other); atom in order, one after the other, all, every one; ona atorenko mit atomteko hecena all the people from that village have come (Santali.lex.) Image: pile: ad.aku, ad.uku the state of being piled conically; ad.aku-pa_tre round vessels that are put one in or upon another so that a cone is formed (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ad.akil, ad.ikil, ad.akal piling, putting one closely upon another; a pile; ad.akilpondu one to come upon another;ad.aki a woman who stores up or fills (Ka.); ad.akale_r-isu to raise or make a pile (Ka.); at.ukkal (Ta.); ad.akal (Ka.); ad.aka placing one thing upon another, piling as pots; piled state; a pile, a stack (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.ukkat.ukka_y adv. in piles, in tiers (Ta_yu. Man.t.ala. 1)(Ta.); at.ukku-tal to pile up one on top of another, heap up in order, pack (Cilap. 11,1)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Images: row, series; pile: at.ukku to pile up one on top of another, heap up in order; n. pile, series, row, tier (Ta.); row, pile, layer (Ma.); set of things which fit one within another as cooking pots (Ta.lex.); four threads of yarn, a term used by weavers (W.) (Ta.lex.); at.uku-c-ca_ttu-tal to adorn an idol with a cloth gathered in folds (Ko_yilo. 38); at.ukkuppa_n-ai tier of seven pots used at marriage among certain castes (Ta.); at.ukuval.am pile of vessels containing cakes, sweetmeats etc., one on top of another (I_t.u, 6,1,2)(Ta.lex.) at.ukkam pile, tier, range of mountains, mountain slope (Ta.); at.ukkal series, mountain (Ta.); ar.g to be piled up in order (Ko.); ad.aku, ad.uku to pack, pile as pots, heap up (Ka.); ad.ang to be piled in order, filling space (Kod..); ad.ak to heap in order, filling space, to arrange formally (Kod..); ad.uku to pile up, arrange in a set or series; n. a series or set of things, a compact pile of articles (Te.)(DEDR 80). Heap: at.a_la_ heap (P.); at.a_l, t.a_l heap; at.a_la_, at.a_ra_ heap (H.)(CDIAL 185). at.t.a_l.aippet.t.i case of shelves (Ta.lex.) at.t.i a pile, heap of rice (Tu.); at.a_ra widespread, as the branches of a tree (Tu.); et.t.am, at.t.ad.i, at.t.ava packs of cut or fencing branches/bushes collected and piled up on bullock (Te.)(DEDR 84).

406.Image: post: aral.e a post, pillar, statue (Ka.); ra_d.u (Te.); er-ur.. (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Image: pillar; oar; pole: ra_d.u post, pillar (Te.); ra_d., ra_l peg (Kol.); aral.e post, pillar, statue (Ka.)(DEDR 211). aritra oar (RV.); aritta punting pole (Pali); rudder; alitta, a_litta oar (Pkt.); rit.a, rit.i long pole used as an oar (Si.)(CDIAL 608). ar.akat.a, ar.kat.a a rafter; cf. arkat.ha (Sadani)(Mu.lex.)

239.Images: the pin of a wheel-axle; brush with four or five prongs: an.i, an.i_ the point of a needle; a linchpin, the pin or bolt at the end of a pole or carriage (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) Images: the pin of a wheel-axle; brush with four or five prongs: a_n.i pin of the axle (RV. i.35.6) (Vedic.lex.) a_n.i the pin of a wheel-axle, a linch-pin; a peg, pin, bolt, stop (at a door); peg-like (or secured by apeg, of a door), small, little in: a_n.i-colaka a small (piece of) rag; a_n.i-dva_ra; khuddaka-dva_ra the towngate's sallyport; 'gestock' (fastening, enclosure) a_n.i-gan.t.hik'a_hato avopatto; a sort of brush made of four or five small pieces of flexible wood (Pali); lun (OHG.); lunse (Ger.); lynes (Ags.) = lynch (English); ulna elbow (Latin); elina (OHG.); eln (Ags.) = el-bow (English)(Pali.lex.) a_n.i-kallu the base or foot of a pillar, the stone on which a pillar stands; a_n.i-ka_r-a a nail-maker (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Pin: a_n.i corner of a house, boundary (Skt.); an.i (Skt.); a_n.i linch-pin, bolt, peg (Pali); a_ni linch-pin (B.); a_n.i, an.i, an.a-kil.a_ linch-pin; an.i-ka_t.hi pin driven into felly to fix a spoke (Or.); a_n, a_ni boundary (H.); naya nail, peg; niya prow of a canoe (Si.); a_n. mountain, mountain-slope (Kho.); an.i point of needle or stake (Or.); a_n.i, an.i_ spike, point (M.)(CDIAL 1110). Prow: an.iyam forepart of a vessel, stem, prow (Ta.); ship's head, prow (Ma.); an.ya prow of a vesel (Tu.); annemu prow (Te.); ani_ka (Skt.); an.iya (Pkt.)(DEDR 118). an.e, han.e forehead (Tu.lex.) ani_ka point, edge (RV.); an.iya point, edge (Pkt.); an.i_ point of nail sticking out from finger, pen-nib (S.)(CDIAL 308). ani_ point (H.); an.i_ point (G.); an.i_, a_n.i_ point, spike (M.); aniya_ra_ pointed (H.); an.iya_l.u~, ani_su~ (G.)(CDIAL 308). a_n.ava small, minute (Pa_n..); niya small (Si.)(CDIAL 1109). a_n.i the pin of the axle of a cart, the linch-pin; the edge of a sword (Skt.lex.) a_n.iyaccu nail plate, lathe (C.E.M.); a_n.i nail, small spike (Tan-ippa_. i,170,22); linch-pin (Kur-al., 1032); style for writing (Cilap. 8,55); peg, plug, wooden spike (Tol. Er..ut. 99, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) a_n.i the linch-pin; a nail (Ka.Ta.Ma.Tu.Te.); a_n.i-ka_r-a a nail-maker (Ka.lex.) an.i, an.i_ the point of a needle; a linchpin, the pin or bolt at the end of a pole or carriage (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) a_n.i, a_n.i-k-kanakam pin of gold for testing the standard of other gold (Ta.lex.). a_n.i-k-ko_vai string of gold pins for testing the quality of other gold (Ta.lex.) a_n.i-k-kal standard weight for gold, pon- nir.ukkum kal (kacci-p-pe_t.t.u a_n.i-k-kalla_l nir.ai irupatin kar..acu pon- : S.I.I. i,117)(Ta.lex.) a_n.i linch-pin, acca_n.i [ur..uva_ rulaka-t-ta_r-k-k-a_n.i : Kural., 1032)(Ta.lex.) a_n.i nail, small spike, peg, linchpin (Ta.); peg, nail (Ma.); nail, linch-pin (Ka.); peg, nail, wedge, screw (Tu.); nail, pin, linch-pin (Te.); a.n.y metal, nail, joint of body (Ko.); o.n.y nail (To.); a.n.i nail of metal or wood (Kod..); a_n.i linch-pin (Skt.); id., bolt, peg (Pali)(DEDR App.10). ani_nu the reins of a bridle; vasu (Ka.M.H.) [vasu tie of a yoke, rein (Ka.)](Ka.lex.) Point, spike: ani_ka point, edge (RV.); an.iya point, edge (Pkt.); an.i_ point of nail sticking out from finger, pen-nib (S.); an.i_ bank (L.); point, crisis (G.); point, spike (M.); a_n.i_ id. (M.); ani_ crisis (Aw.); point (H.); aniya_ra_ pointed (H.); an.iya_l.u~, ani_su~ (G.)(CDIAL 308). Piercing with a pointed weapon: hanna_ round block of iron pierced with a hole and placed on the perforated anvil (when iron is being pierced with holes) (Mth.) (CDIAL 13964). hanu part of spear (Skt.); weapon (Skt.)(CDIAL 13965). hana killing (RV.); hana_ act of piercing with a pointed weapon (A.); han.a killing (Pkt.); han.a_ killing with a sharp weapon, cutting (Or.)(CDIAL 13962). hanati strikes, kills (MBh.)(CDIAL 13963). hantr. killing (RV.); hantar killer (Pali) (CDIAL 13969). ha_ni ruin (Mn.); loss, injury (N.A.); loss (H.); ha_n.i injury (S.Ku.); ha_n. (P.); loss (M.); ha_n.i loss (G.); ha_n loss (H.); ani harm, trouble (Si.)CDIAL 14055). ha_n.n.o to strike, wound, shoot (an arrow)(Ku.); ha_niba to stab, pierce (A.); ha_na_ to strike, wound, shoot (an arrow)(B.); ha_n.iba_ to strike (Or.); ha_n.n.e~, ha_n.avin.e_ to strike, kill (M.)(CDIAL 14054). Weapon: e_ti weapon (Iraku. Tikku. 35); sword (Ta.lex.) cf. he_ti (Skt.) hati killing (MBh.); destruction (Pali); hai killing (Pkt.); hai~ attack (Sh.)(CDIAL 13956). Array of an army: an.i array of an army, order, regularity, row; (-v-, -nt-) to put in an array (as an army) (Ta.); row, line of soldiers (Ma.); an array, body of soldiers, detachment (Ka.); an.iyam array of an army (Ta.); ani battle, war (Te.); ani_ka- (Skt.); an.iya (Pkt.)(DEDR 117). Army unit: an-i_kam army; an-i_kin-i army (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 76)(Ta.lex.) ani_ka face, front, point, edge, row (RV.); army (Bhag.); army (Pali); an.iya army; a_n.iya military camp (Si.)(CDIAL 308). anukrama succession, order, method (MBh.); anukkama (Pali); an.ukkama (Pkt.); nukama order, arrangement (Si.)(CDIAL 310). Army: pe_ran.i the rear of an army; main body or centre of an army (Ta.lex.)

73.Ditch: akar..i ditch surrounding a fortification, moat (Cilap. 13,183); pit, depression (Pur-ana_. 14,5)(Ta.); akar..u id. (Ka.); agad.ta id. (Te.)(T.E.D.) akar..i-tiruttu-tal to fill up small pits and level the ground for cultivation (S.I.I. v,216)(T.E.D.) cf. paga_r. trench, ditch, trench and bank, bank round field (B.); paga_r id. (B.); paga_ra ridge round field (Or.); pagar fence (Santali)(CDIAL 8464).

2.Place, ground: an:ka place, ground (Ka.); akam (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Measure of a space between pillars: an:kan.a-da_ya the measure of an ankan.a; an:kan.a-da_ya a line of an:kan.as (Ka.lex.) an:kan.am superficial measure for house sites, about 12 ft. long by 6 ft. broad (C.G.); an:kanamu id. (Te.); an:kan.am space enclosed by four pillars (C.G.); space between two pillars (R.)(Ta.); an:kan.a id. (Ka.); an:kan.am chamber, room, division of a house (R.)(Ta.); an:kan. beautiful place (Na_lat.i, 373); an:kan.am < an:gan.a courtyard in a house (Kur-al., 720)(Ta.lex.) an:gan.i superficial measure for house sites; space; room (Kuwi); an:kan.am (Pali); a_n:kun.am (Kuccaram); an:gan., a_n:gan. (H.)(T.E.D.) Image: space between pillars; courtyard: an:gan.a-valaya the boundary or circumference of a yard (Ka.lex.) an:kan.a the (small or large) space either between any two posts or pillars in a wall that support the roof, or between any two beams (Ka.Te.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) an:god. courtyard, compound (Pa.)(DEDR 35). an:kam place (Te_va_. 818,1)(Ta.lex.) an:kan.amu space between two crossbeams or pillars supporting a roof (Te.)(DEDR 28). an:gana act of walking (Skt.); courtyard (R.); an:gan.a open space before palace (Pali); am.gan.a courtyard (Pkt.); a~_gun (K.); an.an.u (S.); an:gan (WPah.); a_n.an. (Ku.N.); a_n:gan, a_n:gina_ (B.); agan.a_ (Or.); a~_gan, a~gna_ (Bi.); a~_gan (Mth.h.); a~gna_ (H.); a_n.an (Bhoj.); a~_gn.e~ (M.); a~_gan., a~_gn.u_ (G.); a~_n:gan.a, a_n:gon. (Konkan.i); angan.a, angun.uva (Si.); a~_gn.yu~ open space about a house (G.)(CDIAL 118). angod. courtyard, compound (Pa.)(DEDR 35). agwa_s space in front of a house (Bi.)(CDIAL 81). cf. a_l-it.am street row (Ta.lex.) Verandah; terrace: aran:ku, aran:kam stage, dancing hall, assembly hall, gambling house (Ta.); aran.n.u a stage, scene, place for public exhibition (Ma.); ara~gu a pial; arun:gu id., terrace, raised a foot from the ground; arugu terrace, raised flat terrace, raised seat (Te.); argu verandah (Go.); arn.u the edge of a verandah (Kond.a); ran:ga (Skt.)(DEDR App. 8). ran:ga-tala a stage (Pali.lex.) ran:ga dancing; place of public amusement, arena, stage (MBh.); ra_u masquerade (WPah.); ran:ga dancing place, theatre (Pali); ram.ga (Pkt.); ran.n. festival on full-moon night of Pos (WPah.); ran:ga dancing, acting (Si.)(CDIAL 10561). ran:gan.a dancing (Skt.); ran:gum-a id. (Si.)(CDIAL 10565). ran:ga-bhu_mi place for acting, stage, arena (MBh.); ran:gabima theatre, arena (Si.)(CDIAL 10568). ran:ga-man.d.ala theatre stage (Pali); ran:ga-mad.ala theatre (Si.)(CDIAL 10569). ran:gati moves to and fro (Skt.); ram.gai wanders to and fro (Pkt.); ran.elinu to wander, loaf (N.); rallinu to idle away the time (N.)(CDIAL 10566). Image: walking: an:gana going, walking (Ka.lex.)

118.Trust, pawn, pledge: ad.e, ad.arpu trust (Ka.); ad.a, ad.apu, ad.avu, ad.ahu, ad.ivu suitableness, properness, proper way (Ka.); at.avu, at.aivu method, manner (Ta.); ad.avu a pawn, a pledge, a deposit, a mortgage (Ka.); at.ama_n-am, at.ai-ma_n-am (Ta.); ad.ama_na (Ma.); ad.avu, ad.a_vu (Tu.); ad.d.amu (Te.); ad.avikku to pawn, to mortgage; ad.avid.u to redeem a pawn; ad.asat.t.e estimate, computation (Ka.Te.M.H.) (Ka.lex.) pa_tiyen.i trust; pa_tiye to trust (Kon.lex.) patiau to trust; patiar worthy of trust (Santali.lex.)

121.Partition; a line; a row: da_ya dividing, distributing; a part; a partition, a line, a row; sa_lu; share, portion, property to be divided, inheritance; property, wealth (Ka.lex.) Image: dice: cf. da_ya a kind of backgammon (Ka.); ta_yam (Ta.Ma.); da_ya a throw of dice (Ka.); cauka-da_ya a throw of dice that exhibits the even numbers from 4-12, one exceeding the other at the rate of four; cauka-duga four times (a throw of) two dice of which both exhibit the number one (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Gift: cf. da_ya a gift, a present; a nuptial present, that which a bride and bridegroom receive at their marriage (Ka.Skt.); da_yiga (Tadbhava of da_yaka = an heir, a kinsman) a cognate kinsman in a remote degree, one subsequent in right of inheritance to the sago_tra (Ka.); da_-i_-ja kinsman (M.); da_ya_dya id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Pledge: at.ai conveying, deposit (Ta.); at.aivu pledge (Ta.); at.aku pledge, property mortgaged (Ta.); at.a bail, pledge (Ma.); at.avu money that has come to hand; at.ama_nam a pawn, mortgage (Ma.); ar.pin dowry (of buffaloes given by girl's father)(To.); ad.avu, ad.apu pawn, pledge, deposit, mortgage (Ka.); r.a_spa to give in marriage (Kui)(DEDR 79). a_dha_na depositing; appropriating to one's self, takingl holding, possessing; the containing anything, the being in possession of a thing; a deposit, a pledge; a surety; assigning, employing; a receptacle (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_ta_n-am depositing, placing, usu. in compounds, e.g. akkin-i-ya_ta_n-am, karppa_ta_n-am (Ce_tupu. Akat. 38)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

444.Plough: cf. araka a plough with bullocks etc. complete (Ta.); are a plough (Malt.)(DEDR 198). e_r plough (e_ri n-ur..a_a rur..avar : Kur-al., 14); team of oxen and the plough (Tamir..na_. 60); yoke of oxen (Cu_t.a_.); ploughing, agriculture, as an occupation (e_rin-u nan-r-a_ leruvit.utal : Kur-al., 1038); as much land as can be ploughed in a day; e_r-k-kal.am threshing floor (Tol. Po. 91, Urai.); e_r-k-ka_n.ikkai plough tax; e_r-k-kur-ippu daily account of ploughs at work (M.M.); e_r-man:kalam ancient song of benediction sung at the commencement of ploughing (Cilap. 10,135)(Ta.lex.) cf. carrna_ to plough for the first time in the year (Kur.); sarra_na_ to be split, as wood (Go.); cartre to cause to cut with scissors (Malt.)(DEDR 2416). Pair of ploughing bullocks; plough: cf. se_r, he_r a plough (Go.); he_r. one pair of bullocks (Go.); se_ru yoke of oxen (Kond.a); he_r set of plough and bullocks (Pe.); e_r plough, plough and team of oxen, yoke of oxen; ce_r id. (Ta.); he_ru_ plough (Kuwi); he_ru pair of ploughing bullocks (Kuwi)(DEDR 2815). harhya pole of a plough (S.); haris (Bi.); hari_s (Mth.); haris (N.H.); halas, hiras, harsa_ (H.)(CDIAL 14014). Pair of oxen: a_r, a_ru, e_ru a pair of oxen yoked to the plough (Ka.); e_ru-kanda_ya, e_ru-ga_n.ike; e_ru-sun:ka plough-tax (Ka.); e_ru a plough complete with cattle (Te.); e_r a yoke of oxen; a plough with draught oxen (Ma.); a_rka_lu plough-foot: the bottom part of a plough (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ha_ pair of bullocks (WPah.)(CDIAL 14066). ha_ri_ ploughman (S.)(CDIAL 14067). cf. hara_thi_ plough bullock (Bi.)(CDIAL 14012). harwa_, harwa_ha_ ploughman (Bi.); harwa_h (Mth.)(CDIAL 14009).

202.To plough: ad.d.a-cala a part of the plough (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) dunnu, dunu to plough, till (Te.); tunnu, (tunni-) to plough (Ta.); u_d. to plough (Ga.); u_d.uni, hu_d.uni id. (Tu.); ad.apuni, dappuni id. (Tu.); ur.da_na_ id. (Go.); r.u_ to plough (Kond.a.Pe.Mand..Kuwi); r.u_va to plough; n. ploughing (Kui); r.uki ploughing bullock, bullock (Kuwi)(DEDR 688). u.v one furrow in ploughing (Ko.)(DEDR 688). [By extension, d.ukki (Pa.) may be interpreted as twice-ploughed land, perh. for two crops: d.ukki cultivated upland field called in Ha. maran (Pa.)(DEDR 688)]. t.hot.ho to plough; ut.hau third ploughing (Santali.lex.)

234.Ploughed area: an.aippu area that can be ploughed by two pairs of oxen in a day, from half to one acre; an.aippu-t-tu_ram distance furrow is driven before the plough is turned, about 50 yards (Ta.lex.)

497.Plough: ala plough (Pkt.MBh.); hal, xal (with preventive hardening of the threatened h-)(Dm.); hal ploughshare (Pas.); ha_la, al, a_l (with rising tone) plough (Pas.); a_l (Shum.); ha_l plough (Phal.Gaw.Kal.); hal plough (Sh.Tor.); ploughshare (Sv.); har plough (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); haru plough (S.); hari_ drill plough (S.); hal. plough (L.G.M.); oxen and plough (P.); hal plough (L.P.WPah.Ku.B.H.); a pair of bullocks (N.); hal.a plough (Or.); haw plough (WPah.Ku.); hal-a plough (Si.)(CDIAL 14000). halasi_ra plough (BHSkt.); hali_ra_ plough (P.); haler the day on which neighbours join to plough one man's land (P.)(CDIAL 14010).[For -si_ra in the compound: cf. ce_r plough and team of bullocks (Kol.); se_ru yoke of oxen (Kond.a); e_r plough (Ta.)(DEDR 2815).] ala plough (K.); halya_ collection of ploughs (Pa_n..gan.a); hala front pole of plough (S.); hal beam of plough (L.); plough (WPah.); hall beam of plough (L.P.); ha_l the plough and its furniture, a couple of animals (whence haliya_ in couples (A.); plough (whence ha_liya_ plough ox)(B.); halya_, hela_ male buffalo (M.)(CDIAL 14016). a_la plough (K.); ha_ pair of bullocks (WPah.); ha_la_ plough, tax on plough (H.)(CDIAL 14066). halwal ploughshare (Pas.)(CDIAL 14005). For -wal in the compound: cf. va_l. ploughshare (Ta.)(DEDR 5376). hale_s.a_ pole of a plough (Skt.); hale~_s' pole ofa plough (Sv.); hale_s' (Phal.); haleh (L.); harhya (S.); hals (P.); haris (Bi.N.H.); hari_s (Mth.); halas, hiras (H.); harsa_ (H.); hal.i_s (M.); hal.as (M.)(CDIAL 14014). halheit.l. whole apparatus of a plough (WPah.)(CDIAL 14011). hara_i custom by which tenant lends landlord his plough and bullocks for two days each year (Bi.)(CDIAL 14004). haler the day on which neighbours join to plough one man's land (P.) (CDIAL 14010). halavams'a pole of plough (Skt.); ala~_s plough beam (Pas.); hala~_s id. (Gaw.)(CDIAL 14008). hala~_z plough beam (Phal.Gw.); arala_nz id. (K.)(CDIAL 14007). halayu_na plough rope (Skt.); halon the leather strap tied to one yoke handle (Ku.); hau~_r.~ rope for fastening plough to yoke (Ku.)(CDIAL 14006). halasthin standing to the plough [For -sthin- cf. tris.t.hin-, parame_s.t.hin-.]; hara_thi_ plough bullock (Bi.)(CDIAL 14012). ha_liya_ plough ox (B.); ha_lya_, hela_ male buffalo (M.)(CDIAL 14016). Image: plough: araka a plough with bullocks, etc. (Ta.); are a plough (Malt.)(DEDR 198). a_r pair of oxen yoked to a plough (Ka.)(DEDR 2815). Blade: alaku blade of a weapon, or instrument, head of an arrow; weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warp (Ta.); blade of sword, knife, or spear (Ma.); alagu, alugu blade of a knife, sword, etc. (Ka.); alu~gu tip of an arrow, sword (Te.)(DEDR 237). Plough: na~_gali, na~_gelu, na~_ge_lu plough (Te.); na.ngli (Kol.); na_ngar (Nk.); na~_gil (Pa.); na_ne_l (Go.); na_ngel (Pe.); na_ngeli (Kui); a_cil, na_cil plough (Ta.); nangelli ploughshare (Kuwi); ne.lg plough (Ko.); ne_gal id. (Ka.)(DEDR 2907). {Image: tail: [The suffix particle -gul/gel/gil etc. may relate to xola_ tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2135). The a_- initial morpheme may relate to a_lam earth, land (Ta.Ma.); ne_la id. (Te.); field (Kuwi.Kui.Pe.); na_l low fields, terraced fields (Kur.); na_la field under cultivation (Skt.)(DEDR 2913). nilam ground, earth, land (Ta.); nelm ground (Ko.); nela earth, soil, floor, ground (Tu.Ka.)(DEDR 3676)]}. Image: tail; ploughshare: le_ngula, le_ngut.t.a, la_ngu_la tail (SKt.); having a tail (MBh.)[Variety of forms attests non-Aryan origin.]; langula tail (Pali); lamgu_la (Pkt.); lagur tail, monkey (G.); laguriyu~ tail (G.); la~_gar., na_gr.i tail (M.); la_ngur.a, na_ngur.a tail (Or.); negur tail (A.); lengur. tail (B.); ne~gula_ the only boy amongst the girls fed on the 9th day of A's'vin in honour of Devi_.(Aw.)(CDIAL 11009).

162.Image: pole used by two men: at.t.ago_l, at.ago_l a pole used by two men to lift sacks in lading oxen (Ka.); at.a a bar, nail etc. used as a lever; an obstruction (Ka.); at.t.a-vad.i a long stick (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.t.ave a structure of poles put on stones, on which a stack is heaped (Ka.lex.) Rubbing post: at.t.ha_na stand, post; name of the rubbing-post which, well cut and with incised rows of squares, was let into the ground of a bathing place, serving as a rubber to people bathing (Pali.lex.) Image: burden on either end of pole: ad.d.e a pole or bamboo by which two people carry a burden suspended from its midst, or by which two small burdens suspended from both ends are carried across the shoulder of one man (Ka.); ad.he_m., a_d.e_m. a ridge pole; the ridge along the shoulders (M.); ad.d.eor-ai a burden or burdens carried in the above manner; ad.d.e hor-u to carry the ad.d.e (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. -at.i in: ka_vat.i (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

93.Relay; post: ha_salu postage (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) acal letter post (Ma.); the post (Tu.); relay, resting place on a journey, letter post (Ta.); the post (Tu.); aci letter post (Ta.); ace a postal road, stage, relay, the post (Ka.); acida_ye post-man (Tu.); ance, anciya post, a relay of horses, palanquin-bearers, letter-carriers, etc. (Te.)(DEDR 54). ace = a_ce on that side, beyond (Ka.); aci (Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

48.Image: pot having a wide mouth: akal small earthen pot having a wide mouth, hollow earthen lamp, a measure of capacity (Perumpa_n.. 377)(Ta.); hollow earthen lamp (Ma.Ta.); a measure of capacity (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Urai)(Ta.lex.); small earthen lamp or pot having a wide mouth (Ma.); akal.am jar, large earthen pot, bucket; a_l earthen vessel (Ta.); agal a metal plate used for eating; agul.i a kind of flat vessel (Ka.); agoli, agol.i a large vessel (Tu.); agle pot (Ga.)(DEDR 9). cf. akal to spread, widen, extend (Pur-ana_. 3,16) (Ta.lex.)(DEDR 8). Metath. cf. al.ige, al.age a capacious earthen vessel to hold water or grain (Ka.); alaki an earthen pot (Te.)(DEDR 303). a_l earthen vessel (Ta.lex.) akal.am large earthen pot (Malaipat.u. 104); jar (Ta.); akar..i pot with a wide mouth (Tailava. Taila. 94)(T.E.D.) cf. ha~_llu~, ha~_d.lu~, ha~_d.i_, ha~_d.li_ pot (G.); hankiya_ potter, mumps (Ku.); ha~_r.e mumps (believed to be cured by rubbing on pot-black)(N.); ha~_r.i earthen cooking pot (N.); ha~_r.ha_, han.d.a_ large copper vessel for boiling rice in (Bi.); ha~_r.i_, ha~r.iya_ earthen pot (Bhoj.); ha~_r.i_ vessel (Aw.); han.d.a_ open-mouthed metal vessel (M.)(CDIAL 14050).

122.Pot: at.ka_, adka earthen pot used for cooking (Go.); ad.igera a pot (Ka.); ad.d.yara earthen jar or pot (Tu.); at.ika a small earthen pot with a large mouth (Te.); ar.ka earthen pot (Nk.); cooking pot (Go.); ar.i_ earthen waterpot (Kur.)(DEDR 75). a_t.u cooking, boiling (Pur-ana_. 164); distillation (Pu. Ve. 1,2)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.t.ar..ittal to cook and distribute (Ta.inscr.)(Ta.lex.) at.u_ food, boiled rice (at.vas'u_la_ janapada_)(Skt.lex.) ad.ike, ad.ige, ar..ke cooking, dressing, boiling; maturing; that has been cooked; dinner; a chemical preparation; ad.igeya ole a fire-place; ad.igeyava a male cook; ad.igeyir..isu to precipitate by boiling; to take things from the fire when they are properly boiled; ad.ige sa_le a kitchen (Ka.); ad.isu to cause to cook; ad.u, at.t.u to cook, to boil, to dress; to prepare a meal; to prepare; to mature (Ka.); van.d.u (Te.Tu.Ma.); van.t.u (Ta.); ad.u-golajji, ad.ugo_lajji a respectable woman who cooks for strangers and travellers; ad.u-ba_n.ale a frying pan (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)(Ka.lex.) at.u to cook, roast, fry, boil, melt (Ta.)[cf. at.u to cook, roast, fry, boil, melt (Ta.)(DEDR 76).] Kitchen: at.t.an.a (the hind part of) the deck of a vessel (used as a cook room) (Ka.lex.) at.t.il < at.u + il kitchen (Cir-upa_n.. 132); place for performing sacrificial ceremonies (Cilap. 10,143); at.t.ir--ca_lai kitchen (Man.i. 20,7); at.t.ar..ittal < at.u + to cook and distribute (Ta.inscr.); at.u-tal to cook, dress as food, roast (Kalla_. 13)(Ta.); adu (Ka.); at.uka (Ma.); at.ukkal.ai kitchen, cook-house (Man.i. 29,61); at.ukkal.a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ad.abal.a, ad.uval.a a cook (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) an.d.e vessel made of a hollow bamboo, etc., generally with a handle (Ka.); vessel made of hollow bamboo or nutshell, vessel of a toddy-drawer for putting toddy in (Tu.); an.t.ai squirt for festival occasions (Ta.); an.d.y pot into which cow is milked, bamboo pot used formerly to carry broth to workers in the field (Ko.); ad.y clay pot (To.)(DEDR 130). han.d.ika_, ha_d.ika_ earthen pot (Skt.); han.d.i_ pot (S.); ha_n.d.i_ cooking pot (L.); ha~_d.a_ large cooking pot (P.); ha~_d.i_ small cooking pot (P.); pot (G.); earthen cooking pot (H.); small pot (Ku.); ha_n.i receptacle for oil in an oil-mill (WPah.); hen.d.u_ kettle (WPah.); ha_no, ha~_d.o large earthen pot, head, brains (K.); ha_ni_, ha~_d.i_ small pot (K.); ha~_r.i earthen cooking pot (N.); ha_ri (A.); ha_r.a_, ha~_r.i_ cooking pot (B.); ha~_r.al hole, pit (B.); han.d.a_ pot (Or.); large copper vessel for boiling rice in (Bi.); ha~_r.ha_ id. (Bi.); han.d.i pot (Or.); ha~_r.a_ cavity in a sugar-mill (Bi.); ha~_r.i_, ha~r.iya_ earthen pot (Bhoj.); ha~_r.i_ vessel (Aw.); ha~_d., ha~_d.a_ large cooking pot of earth or metal (H.); ha~_r.i_, ha_diya_, ha~r.iya_, ha~_d.i_ earthen cooking pot (H.); ha~_d.o large pot (G.); ha~_d.li_ pot (G.); ha~_d.i_, ha~_d.li_, ha~_d.lu~, ha~_llu~ pot (G.); han.d.a_ open-mouthed metal vessel (M.); ha~_d.i_, han.d.i_ small pot of earth or metal (M.); han.d.e~ general term for pot (M.); hankiya_ potter (Ku.)(CDIAL 14050). ha~rawa_y bag carried by bullocks in which drivers put their luggage (Bi.)(CDIAL 14051). a_dhi receptacle (BhP.)(CDIAL 1167). an.d.y pot into which cow is milked, bamboo pot used formerly to carry broth to workers in the field (Ko.); ad.y clay pot (To.); an.d.e vessel made of a hollow bamboo, etc., generally with a handle (Ka.); vessel made of hollow bamboo or nutshell, vessel of a toddy-drawer for putting toddy in (Tu.)(DEDR 130). Image: deep wooden vessel: had.appha, had.appa vessel (Pkt.); har.piyo deep wooden vessel (Ku.); harpe wooden vessel for ghee (N.); harpha_ wooden hut to keep cut grass and chaff in (H.); har.pho a chest (G.); had.pa_ (M.)(CDIAL 13948). cf. han.d.ika_ earthen pot (Skt.)(CDIAL 14050). cf. ha~r.awa_y bag carried by bullocks in which drivers put their luggage (Bi.)(CDIAL 14051). cf. Hsuan-Tsang's utakia-hanch'a ?water bag (CDIAL 14050). cf. ad.apa, had.apa a small bag (Ka.)(DEDR 64). Boiled rice: at.a flour, meal; ata to roast grain over fire in a peculiar way, generally in sand; to fire; ata ohoc the potsherd in which the grain is roasted; jon.d.ra ata roasted Indian corn; but. ata roasted gram; cha ataeme fire the tea (in manufacturing); ata carec a few stalks of grass or split bamboos about a foot in length tied together with which the grain is moved about when being roasted on the ata system (Santali.lex.) at.t.a boiled rice, food (Ka.); at.t.u to cook; at.t.id.a a place where where (one's) food has been dressed: one's native place (Ka.); at.t.u pp. of ad.u to cook (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ata sata food, victuals; ata sata cet ho~ banuktaea he has no food whatever; ata talsa food, such as taben, khajar.i, satu etc. (Santali. lex.) ad.u, ad.avuggi rice mixed with flesh (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) [cf. ad.agu flesh, meat; ad.agudin to eat meat (Ka.); ad.abal.a flesh (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ar.age curry made of meat, fish or vegetable (Malt.)(DEDR 60)]. Flour: at.t.a food (MBh.); boiled rice (Skt.); o_r.e flour (Psht.); a_rt (Yghn.); a_rd (Pers.); as'a (Av.); at.a (NiDoc.); aro, varo, vanro, va_rdo_, arav, ato_s, ato_ with 3 sg. enclitic pron. -s?, ata (Gypsy); o_t. (D..); a_t. (Dm.Tir.. Bshk.); grit of rice boiled and mixed with flour (M.); a_t.a_-pa_n.i_ food and water (M.); a_t flour (Shum.Kal.); ha_t. (Phal.); a~_t.e pl. (Sh.); ot.u, abl. a_t.i (K.); at.o meal (S.); a_t.an.u dry flour laid over and under dough when it is rolled (S.); a_t.a_ flour (L.A.B.Bi.H.); at.t.a_ (L.); a_t.t.a_ (P.); a_t.t.u (WPah.); a_t.o (Ku.N.); a~_t.o (N.); at.a_ (Or.); a~_t.a_ (Bi.Mth.); a_t.o (G.); at.uva rice-store (Si.)(CDIAL 8). a_t.o pounding (G.)(CDIAL 179). a_t. rice boiled and mixed with flour (M.); a_t.o (G.S.); a_t.a_ (H.B.); t.u (K.); aro, vanro flour (Romany); as'a ground (IE); ar0 mill (Sogdian); a_rd (Persian); o_r.a flour (Afghan); atam (Armenian); aleo I grind (Gk.)(Bloch, p. 299). cf. ar-ai grinding stone (Ta.)(DEDR 321). araikal grinding-stone (Ta.); arakallu id. (Ma.); arai-ttal to grind, pulverise (Te_va_. 461,2); are id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Boiled rice; bread; cooking, distillation: ad.ige cooking, distilling (Ka.); a_t.u cooking, boiling, distillation (Ta.); at.ucil, at.icil boiled rice (Patir-r-up. 21, Urai.)(Ta.); at.t.u a cake of coarse sugar (Ta.); at.t.ilu cooking, meal (Tu.); at.t.amu food, fuel (Te.); at.t.a dried, dry (Skt.); becomes dry (Pkt.); at.n.e~ to dry up (M.); at. bread (Nk.)(DEDR 76). at.acil boiled rice food (Tol. Col. 46, Ce_n-a_.); at.icir-ca_lai rest house for providing food (Ci_vaka. 75, Urai.); at.cir-pur-am land assigned tax-free for providing food (Ci_vaka. 2577); at.icir-r-al.i kitchen (Ci_vaka. 2579)(Ta.lex.) ar.- (at.-) to cook by boiling (Ko.)(DEDR 76). cf. at.uppu oven, fire-place for cooking (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,9,5); id. (Ma.); fire in the oven (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) at.uttu_n. land given for livelihood (I_t.u, 4,8,8)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Image: hearth: at.uppu oven, fireplace for cooking, fire in the oven (Ta.); fireplace, oven (Ma.); ar. (at.-) to cook by boiling, bake (pots)(Ko.); at.t.umbal.a kitchen (Ka.); ad.kala cooking shed, oven (Tu.); at.t.u a flat thin cake roasted or baked on an iron pan (Te.); ad.asa_la kitchen, cook-room (Te.); at.t.a- dried, dry (Skt.); at.t.ai becomes dry (Pkt.); at.n.e~ to dry up (M.)(DEDR 76). Portable oven: kai-y-at.uppu small portable oven (Ta.lex.) at.u to melt (Ta.); a_t.u distillation, cooking, boiling (Ta.); ad.ige distilling, cooking (Kod..); at.t.a_na_ to cook by boiling (Go.)(DEDR 76). at.ukalan- vessel for cooking (Tiruvil.ai. Nakarap. 64)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

153.Image: large pot: atal.ai large pot (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_t.a_p contain e.g. a vessel containing (Kon.lex.) cf. had.appha, had.appa vessel (Pkt.); har.piyo deep wooden vessel (Ku.); harpe wooden vessel for ghee (N.); harpha_ wooden hut to keep cut grass and chaff in (H.); har.pho a chest (G.); had.pa_ (M.)(CDIAL 13948).

153.Image: large pot: atal.ai large pot (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_t.a_p contain e.g. a vessel containing (Kon.lex.) cf. had.appha, had.appa vessel (Pkt.); har.piyo deep wooden vessel (Ku.); harpe wooden vessel for ghee (N.); harpha_ wooden hut to keep cut grass and chaff in (H.); har.pho a chest (G.); had.pa_ (M.)(CDIAL 13948).

226.Image: pitcher: an.adige, an.idige a kind of pitcher or water jar; an.d.e a vessel made of a hollow bamboo, etc., generally with a handle (Ka.Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

305.Image: beggar's bowl: aiyam alms, beggar's bowl (Ta.); ayyam alms (Ma.)(DEDR 920). koe emok alms; koe to beg, to ask for, to pray (Santali.lex.)

306.Image: pitcher used at weddings: arya a small earthen vessel; en.n.edarya oil-vessel (Tu.lex.) ayra_n.i, ayran.e a small vessel, or painted vase or pitcher, used at weddings = pa_like, a collection of five earthen vessels containing offerings of pulse or grain for Brahma_, Indra, Yama, Varun.a and So_ma, used at marriages (Ka.); arimenakun.d.a, arive_n.i, aire_ni (Te.); ahiri_ (M.); ayra_n.i kumbha = ayra_n.i gad.ige = ayran.e; ayra_n.ikod.a = ayra_n.i; ka_canada ayran.e an ayra_n.i made of gold (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) aiyam beggar's bowl or gourd (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) For semant. 'five' cf. : Five each: ai-v-aintu < aintu + aintu five each, dist. fr. aiyaintu (Nan-. 199, Virut.); aiyaintu five fives, i.e. twenty five (Ta.lex.) ayvar, aybaru five persons (Ka.lex.)

210.Image: to pour: at.t.u (at.t.i-) to be discharged as pus, flow as honey; to pour (Ta.); at.iyuka (eye) suffers from excessive secretion; at.t.uka to pour, discharge (urine)(Ma.); at.- (ac-) to pour; mol. at.- to urinate; nar.- (nat.-) (sweat) streams (dative of person)(Ko.); ot.- (ot.y-) to pour (To.); at.t.uni to urinate (with object po_sra)(Tu.)(DEDR 97).

266.Prefix to verbs: apa (prefix to verbs): (a) away from; (b) deterioration; (c) negation; (d) illustration; (e) exclusion; (f) joy; (g) concealment or denial (Skt.lex.)

59.Image: pregnant: aguru, aguri pregnant (Sh.); agu_rak heavy (Kal.); ugu_r (Bshk.); ugura (Dm.); u_gu_ (Tor.); ungu_ro slow (Chil.); ugero heavy (Sv.); uguro, un:guro heavy (Phal.); un:guri pregnant (Phal.); ugu_ra pregnant (D..); haguro pregnant (Sh.)(CDIAL 1962).

139.Pride: atai to swell, be puffed up, become proud (Ta.); ataykkuka to swell up, tumefy (Ma.); adat.u pride, arrogance, presumption (Te.); adat. very brave (M.)(DEDR 140). hit.h firmness of mind, pertinacity, courage, hope (P.)(CDIAL 262). Bravado: a_ta_l.i boasting, bragging, bravado (Tiruppu. 557) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) adat.a, adal.a a very firm man, a man not easily giving way, a very persevering man; a mighty, powerful or heroic man (Ka.); adat.u self-will, boldness; pride, heroism (Ka.); pride (Te.)(Ka.lex.) en.t.u arrogance (Ka.); boasting, pride, craftiness, cunning (Tu.)(DEDR 794).

328.Image: kino-tree: acan-am < asana Indian kino-treee (Pin..); acan-a_mirta-tailam unguent made of the bark of pterocarpus marsupium, tinospora cordifolia and other herbs (Tailava. Taila. 47); acan-i frankincense leaf (Ira_cavait.)(Ta.lex.)

103.Quickness; rainy season rice-crop: a_s'u quick (RV.); rice ripening quickly in the rains (S'Br.); a_su quick (Pkt.); a_hu a species of rice reaped in June-July (A.)(CDIAL 1459). a_us rainy season rice-crop (B.); rice harvested in autumn (Or.); a_u_s rice sown in April-May (H.); a_vars.ate_ rains (RV.)(CDIAL 1445). pra_vr.s. the rainy season (RV.); pa_vusa rain, the rainy season (Pali); pa_vasa, pa_usa the rainy season (Pkt.); pa_usa (MB.); pa_os (Mth.); pa_vasa (OAw.OG.); pa_was (H.); pa_us (H.); pa_u_s (M.); pa_vas (G.); pa_usu rain (Konkan.i); pavusa rain cloud (Si.)(CDIAL 8964). To jolt; to push; to shake: aco obstacle, crowd (G.); a_cko shock, push; acakvu~ to stop (G.); a~_cka_ sudden pull (M.); acki_ convulsive gasp; a~_cakn.e~ to jolt, strike (M.)(CDIAL 141). acan:ku to stir, move, shake; acakku, ayakku to shake; acai to move, stir, go away; to shake, move, agitate; cud, sling for carrying or preserving o_la books; acaivu shaking, moving about, swinging; ayar to drive, as a chariot (Ta.); ayakka, ayekka to send, let go, leave, slacken, loosen; ayaccal being loose, untied; ayappu sending, slackening; ayappikka to make to send, get oneself dismissed, take leave; ayayuka to slacken; aya, ayavu rumination; ayavu elasticity; ayar-uka to chew the cud (Ma.); asi to move, shake, tremble, dangle, pendulate; to throw away, scatter, disperse; asavasa haste, speed; asimisi without deliberation; asu quickness, haste; asumbu to cause to move about, shake, agitate (Ka.); ay- (ayp-, ayc-) to send (Kod..); asiy-a_d.u to move, tremble, hang as a pendulum (Te.); asrna_ to tremble (Kur.)(DEDR 37). cf. atir to shake, tremble (Ta.); adyare agitated (Malt.)(DEDR 137).

200.Raft, boat: a_d.u_ a raft, a float (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) a_d.u motion; to wave, to swing, to shake; a_d.undole an oscillating or swinging beam, a beam in motion (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_t.al shaking, moving, quivering (Tirukko_. 393, Kol.u.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ando_layati swings (Dha_tup.); am.do_lai (Pkt.); a_ndoliba to bend down (with fruit), agitate (water)(A.); a_ndol.iba_ to hesitate (Or.); andolna_ to swing (H.); a~_dol.n.e~, a~_dul.n.e~ to swing, toss about, totter (M.); ha_ndol.iba_ to rock to and fro (Or.); ha~_dul.n.e~ to shake (a tree etc.), swing, rock (M.)(CDIAL 384). am.do_laya swing, cradle (Pkt.); a~dolo doubt (Ku.); a_ndol.a_ sedan chair, litter (Or.); a~dol. swinging (G.); ha_ndol.a_ litter (Or.)(CDIAL 383). andan.o a palanquin (Tu.lex.) hindo_la, hindo_laka swing, swing cradle (Skt.); hindo_layati swings (Dha_tup.); him.do_la (Pkt.); hi~doro swing (S.); hindol(a_) (H.); hi~dol.a_, hi~dul.a_ swinging cradle (M.); idolu swing (Si.); him.d.o_la swing (Pkt.); ha~d.ola_ revolving swing (L.P.); him.d.ora_ (OAw.); hin.d.ol(a_), hir.ol.a_, hi~d.ul.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 14094). him.do_lan.a swinging (Pkt.); hi~dorna_ to puddle (H.); hi~dal.n.e~ to jog, shake (M.); hi~d.al.n.e~ id. (M.)(CDIAL 14095). cf. Ödul swing, wander (Skt.); d.ulai sahkes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6453). Palankeen: andal.a, andan.a (Tadbhava of a_ndo_la) a litter, a palankeen; d.o_li (Ka.); a_ndo_la swinging; a swing; a palankeen (Ka.); a_ndo_la-sattige a parasol on a palankeen; a_ndo_lana swinging, oscillating, trembling; a swing, a palankeen; a_ndo_lika a palankeen (Ka.lex.)

327.Image: ram: aja a ram; a he-goat; the sign aries (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

101.Orange dye; raspberry: a~_cha_ raspberry (Dm.); a~char.ik (Gaw.); achu blackberry (Kho.); a_khi raspberry (P.); acha_ strawberry (WPah.); a_c, a_cu morinda tinctoria (B.); a_chu, a_chua_ morinda tomentosa, morinda agastifolia (Or.); a_c, auch morinda tinctoria (H.); morinda citrifolia (from root of which an orange dye is extracted)(H.); a~_cu_ raspberry (H.); ahu morinda tinctoria, morinda citrifolia (Si.); aks.i_ka, a_ccuka, a_ks.ika the tree morinda tinctoria (Skt.)(CDIAL 1025). X macal. turmeric, curcuma longa, yellow colour as that of turmeric (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) macan.a_r-i, macan.a_r-r-i, macan.a_tti Indian mulberry, morinda citrifolia; dyeing mulberry, morinda tinctoria; small ach root, morinda umballata (Ta.lex.) cf. maal. Indian saffron, curcuma longa, yellow dye (Ma.)(DEDR 4635).

62.Image: rat: a_ku < a_-khu rat; bandicoot (Ta.lex.) akar..a_n- field rat or wild rat; akar..eli field rat, millardia meltada (Ta.); akar..a_n-et.uttal to make holes in the earth; to burrow, as rats (Ta.)(T.E.D.) a_khu rat (Pali.lex.) Subterranean granary: age, hage, hageya a hole in the ground (for storing grain); a subterranean granary (Ka.); payampu a pit (Ta.); van:ku a hole (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

466.House: cf. varu_tham a family; protection; a house, residence (Vedic)(Skt.lex.) or.ak a house; to build a house; hopon or.ak small house; dolan or.ak brick house; kot.ha or.ak a house with timber and earth roof gud.o or.ak pavilion roofed house (Santali.lex.)

282.Raw; uncleaned: a_bda_ unbleached, unscalded (of rice), raw, as uncooked rice (Kur.); thwa raw, not boiled (Malt.)(DEDR 395). a~_wat. barley ground without being first cleaned (Bi.Mth.); a_ma grain not yet freed from chaff (Skt.); a_madhaa (Pali); a_ma uncleaned (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1253). a_ma raw (RV.Pali.Pkt.); a_maka (Sus'r.Pali); a_maga (Pkt.); a_me-ste unripe, raw (Wg.); a_ma (Dm.Tir.Kal.); u_ma (Shum.); a_m (Bshk.); mu (Kho.); ama (Kal.); o_mo (Phal.); a_mu (Sh.); mu (K.); a_mi_a~_ unripe barley or wheat roasted in the ear (P.); ewa~_ fresh, not hardened by baking, not having reached puberty (A.); a_m raw (B.G.); amu (Si.)(CDIAL 1236). a_ma_nna undressed rice (Skt.); a~_uni in: a~_uni ba~_uni (< ba~_dhuni_) harvest festival in the month of Paus.a when an earthen pot filled with new rice is covered and tied up with rope of new straw (B.)(CDIAL 1251). a_ma-s'ra_ddha uncooked articles of food distributed at a s'ra_ddha [opp. to anna-s'ra_ddha cooked food distributed at a s'ra_ddha]; a_ma raw, uncooked; unripe, immature; a_ma-gandhi the smell of raw meat or of a burning corpse; a_ma_s'aya the receptacle of the undigested food, the upper part of the belly to the navel, the stomach (Ka.lex.)

18.Ready: aita_ pron. that one, there; a_yta_ adj. all ready (M.); a_iti_ preparation (OM.); a_ytum. ready, free (G.); a_yita_ (H.); ayati, ayiti depending on, belonging to (H.); a_yatta (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 308). atu that (Ta.lex.) a_yatta, a_yata readiness (Ka.Te.Ta.); a_yita (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

481.A law of inheritance: al.iya nephew (used on ly in the compound): al.iyakat.t.u line of inheritance in the female line (Tu.lex.) al.iya a daughter's husband, a son-in-law (Ka.); allud.u, alluva_d.u (Te.); al.iya a son-in-law, a nephew (Tu.); a brother-in-law (Ma.); al.iya-santa_na the law of inheritance in the female line, according to which the family property descends not from a man to his son, but to his sister and her children (Ka.lex.)

482.Feast for son-in-law; wife's brother; brother-in-law: alliyamu feast or entertainment given to son-in-law by father-in-law immediately after the marriage (Te.); al.iyan brother-in-law, wife's brother or sister's husband (Ma.); ayl. brother-in-law, male cross-cousin (male speaking); ayl. ba.vn brothers-in-law, male cross-cousins (collectively); mal ayl. son-in-law who lives in father-in-law's house (Ko.); al.iya son-in-law (Ka.Tu.); nephew (Tu.); al.iyatana state of being a son-in-law (Ka.); allu~d.u, alluva~_d.u son-in-law (Te.); sa.nzin (pl. sa.lnikul) younger sister's husband; sanma mother's younger sister; san.ma_ id., sister's daughter (Kol.); sa_nikul, sa_njin son-in-law, younger sister's husband (Nk.); sanjil bridegroom (Nk.); salid. (pl. -kil) son-in-law, younger sister's husband (Ga.); sann son-in-law; sanne-mi_a_r sister's daughter; sanne_-marri_ sister's son; se_la_r-sanne_ younger sister's husband; sanai son-in-law; san.e younger sister's husband; sar.e, sad.e, har.e, anne, ar.ne daughter's husband; sar.e_, hunn son-in-law (Go.); san.in, (with reference to 3rd person) san.isi id. (Kond.a); hone, honesi id. (Kuwi); sa_lum son-in-law; brother-in-law (Br.)(DEDR 2410). sya_l wife's brother (RV.); sya_laka (Ca_n..); sya_li_, sya_lika_ wife's younger sister (Skt.); sa_laka wife's younger brother (pali); sa_la wife's brother; sa_li_ wife's sister (Pkt.); sali (NiDoc.); salo, sali (Gypsy); sa_rt. wife's sister (Kt.); sa_la wife's brother (Gaw.Sv.); sa_l wife's sister, husband's brother's wife (K.); sa_lo wife's brother; sa_li_ wife's sister (S.); sa_l.a_, sa_l.i_ wife's younger brother and sister (L.M.); sa_la_ (P.); wife's brother (B.H.); sa_li_ wife's sister (H.); sa_i wife's sister (WPah.); sa_la_bhai her husband (WPah.); s'au sister's husband (Ku.); s'ai_ wife's sister (Ku.); sa_lo, sa_li wife's younger brother and sister (N.); xa_l wife's sister (A.); sa_li, ha_li wife's younger sister (B.); sa_l.a_, sa_l.i (Or.); sa_r wife's brother; sa_ri_ wife's sister (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); sa_l.o, sa_l.i_ wife's younger brother and sister (G.); sa_l.o (Konkan.i)[The masculine is frequently a term of abuse indicating that the sister of the person addressed has had sexual relations with the speaker.] sa_ra_n.i wife's sister (Dm.); sa_rani (Gaw.); sa_ren (Bshk.); sa_re_n.i (whence saro_n.u sister's husband, husband's brother)(Phal.); saro_n.i (Sh.)(CDIAL 13871). sa_la_t.ru wife's brother's son (S.)(CDIAL 13872). salha_j, sileha_j wife's brother's wife (L.); sarhaj, sarha_ji_ (Bhoj.); salaj, sarhaj (H.)(CDIAL 13873). sjiwa, sjuv wife's sister's husband (K.)(CDIAL 13874). e_ra_lu husband's brother's wife (Te.); serutra husband's younger brother's wife (Nk.); se_rand.u_, sernd.u, harnd.u, ervond., er..ond. spouse's younger brother (or spouse's younger sister's husband; fem. serand.al, serand.a_r, sernd.ar, harnd.ar spouses' younger sister; se_riya_r., se_riya_l elder brother's wife (Go.); se_r-on husband's younger brother (Kond.a); he_jun wife's younger brother (Mand..); sejenju husband's younger brother (Kui)(DEDR 2819). sa_n.d.u_ wife's sister's husband (Phal.); san.d.hu_ (S.); sa_n.d.hu, sa_d.hu_ (L.); sa_(n.)d.hu_ (P.); sa_r.u_ (Ku.); sa_r.(h)u (N.); sar.(h)u (Or.); sa_r.(h)u_ (H.); sa_d.(h)u (G.); sa_d.(h)u_ (M.); ma_sar.u mother's sister's husband (S.)(CDIAL 13875). cf. may(i)duna, may(i)da, maydana sister's husband (Ka.); maittun-i wife's sister (Ta.); maccin-an- wife's brother, sister's husband, son of maternal uncle or paternal aunt (Ta.)(DEDR App. 53a). For ser- in: sernd.u (Go.) cf.: Male: se_r-i kor-u cock (Kond.a); sehi male (Kuwi); sehi neh'ur.i male dog (Kuwi)(DEDR 2820). cf. e_r-u bull, male of certain animals (pig, deer, buffalo, sambar, tiger, lion)(Ta.)(DEDR 917). cf. sru_ horn (Av.)(CDIAL 12715). Hon. affix to names of relationship: s'ri_ light, beauty (RV.); welfare, riches (ASV.); -s hon. affix to names of relationship (e.g. a_ja_-s, a_ji_-s)(M.)(CDIAL 12708).

57.Distress; to press: agacu, agucu, agusu to press firmly, confine, hold firmly; agaca_t.(a)lu, agaca_t.(a)le, agaca_t.u affliction, trouble (Ka.); agaca_t.lu troubles, difficulties, affliction (Te.)(DEDR 2). amun:ku (amun:ki-) to be pressed down; amukku (amukki-) to press, press down, press in or under (as a vessel into water), overcome, repress; n. pressure (as in a nightmare), thing that compresses; amukkan-, amukki nightmare (Ta.); amukkuka, amakkuka to press down; aman.n.uka to sink, be squeezed (as hand in hand); to be pressed down; amukkam, amukkal, amukku, amakku the act of pressing down, compressing; amarkka to press down, subdue; amarttu pit.ikka to grasp tightly; amarcca subjection, severity; ampikkuka to press down; ammuka to be pressed, subside (Ma.); amg- (amgy-) to be pressed hard; amk- (amky-) to press hard, make to keep quiet; amk act of pressing; amc- to press, throw (woman) on ground to rape (Ko.); omx- (omxy-), omg- (omgy-) to be pressed down; omk- to press down (To.); amar to seize firmly; amugu, avugu to yield to pressure (as the surface of a ripe fruit or tumour); amuku, amiku, avuku, avun:ku to press or hold firmly, squeeze, trouble; avun:ku pressing or holding firmly, confine, embrace (Ka.); amapuni to press down; amaruni to seize, hold; amara_vuni to hold fast; ama_runi to embrace, hold, plant to twine; amepuni, amatupattuni to press, hold in the arms, hug; avun:kuni, aun:kuni to press down; avumpuni to press (Tu.);[cf. appu, arpu to embrace (Ka.); appukai, appai folding the arms on the breast (Tu.)(DEDR 158)]; ancu to oppress, afflict; avukku to yield to pressure; adj. weak (of wall or soil)(Te.); avs- to knead (Ga.)(DEDR 169). For semant. 'embrace' cf.: an:gavisu, an:gaysu to come together, to join, to meet, to crowd; to lay hold of, to seize; to concern one's self in(Ka.); an:ga_vin.e_m. to embrace (M.)(Ka.lex.) am.h press (Skt.)(CDIAL 8). m.has trouble (RV.); am.ha dirt (Pkt.); a~haju distress (S.); a~hajo distressed (S.)(CDIAL 9). amir.. (-v-, -nt-) to be immersed, plunged, sink; amir..ttu to press down, drown (Ta.); amir..ttuka, amur..ttuka to fix, set (Ma.); agur.. to sink in water, be immersed, dive (Ka.)(DEDR 167).

343.Image: boar: airis. boar (Dm.); a_ru hog (Skt.)(CDIAL 1321). cf. vara_ha boar (Skt.lex.)

472.Image: boar: a_ru a hog (Ka.lex.)

65.Uncrushed rice: aks.ata not crushed (A_s'vGr..); pl. uncrushed barley (Skt.); unhurt (RV.); akkhata unhurt (Pali)(CDIAL 28). Uncrushed grain: ayk a kind of grain called in Halbi kang (i.e. panicum italicum); aykil a kind of millet called in Te. kor-r-alu (i.e. setaria italica = panicum italicum)(Ga.)(DEDR 195). cf. kan:ku panicum italicum (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 2605). kan:guni_ millet (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2606). akkhaya unhurt, unbroken; pl. uncrushed rice (Pkt.); akho offering of grain thrown into water or given to mendicants (S.); a~_khat rice soaked in water and used for religious purposes (Ku.); a_khai parched paddy, husked maize (A.); a_khi_ ceremony of carrying rice or corn in the hand round a person to remove the effects of the evil eye (G.); akho offering of grain thrown into water or given to mendicants (S.)(CDIAL 28). ari rice, paddy, ear of paddy (Ta.); grain of rice freed from chaff, seed, grain (Ma.Tu.); aky grain of any grain food when husked (Ko.); akki rice deprived of its husk, grain that resembles rice (Ka.)(DEDR 215). Lump; image: a single grain: akul.ai an inferior variety of ce_mpu; kallat.i-c-ce_mpu (Ta.)(T.E.D.) agal.u, agul.u a grain of boiled rice, a small lump of rice kneaded into a ball (Ka.); avri cooked rice (Kor.); avir.. single grain of boiled rice (Ta.); avud.u a grain of anything (Ka.)(DEDR 270). cf. pula_ka lump of rice (Ka.lex.) Grain: ahkam grain (Cine_n. 425); akki (Ka.); akkam (Ta.); argha (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

461.Paddy: vri_hi_ (a type of paddy)(Car. Su.27.15,33). ir-an:kal variety of coarse paddy sown in July, and harvested after six months (Ta.lex.) arici-k-ka_n.am an ancient tax (I.M.P.Tp. 234); arici rice without husk; any husked grain (Tamir..na_. 22); vari (Te.); ari (Tu.); oruza (Gr.)(Ta.lex.) Oryza sativa: dhanya, shali (Skt.); chavan, dhan (H.B.); tandula (M.); arishi (Ta.); dhanyamu (Te.); ari (Ma.); bhatta (M.); rice gruel: in disorganized digestion, in bowel complaints, in diarrhoea and dysentery; rice-water: demulcent, refrigerant, soothing, nourishing drink in febrile diseases and inflammatory states of intestines; rice poultice: used like linseed meal poultice; habitat: widely cultivated (GIMP, pp. 182-183). jirsa_l. fine rice (Kon.lex.)

501.Grains of paddy: alaku grains of paddy, ear of paddy or other grain (Ta.); algu rice obtained from paddy without boiling it (Kui); alkhr.a_ parched rice (cyu_r.a_ (H.) th paddy is first steeped in tepid water, then parched, finally unhusked by means of a wooden pedal and winnowed)(DEDR 255). Boiled rice: lay boiled rice (Pe.); lay id. (Mand..); lahi id. (Kuwi); la_h'i boiled mand.eya grain (Kuwi)(DEDR 5186). Parched grain: la_ja parched grain (VS.Pali); la_ya id., dried rice (Pkt.); la_wa_ fried unhusked rice (N.); burst parched rice or other grain (Bi.); parched grain (H.); la_i_ id. (H.); la_hi_ parched rice or wheat (M.); lada parched grain (Si.)(CDIAL 11011). Rice: s'a_li growing or unhusked rice (MBh.); grains of rice (R.); s'a_lika of rice (Skt.Pali); sa_li rice (Pali.Pkt.); sal, sali (Gypsy); salima (Ash.); seli_, salima_ (Wg.); sali (Kt.); growing rice (Dm.); sa_l (Pas'.); so_le (Wot..); sa_li_ (Kho.); se_l (Bshk.); sa_l (Tor.); shaeyl (Mai.); se_li_ (Phal.); sili_ rice (Pr.); sha_li_ (Bashg.); sa_ri_ unhusked rice (S.); saria~_ rice (L.); xa_li principal variety of transplanted rice (A.); sa_l, sa_il a kind of rice (B.); sa_l.i growing or unhusked rice (Or.); sa_ri (Bi.); sa_l (H.); sa_l. (G.M.); sa_l.iyu~ (G.); sa_l.i_ (M.); hal, al (Si.)(CDIAL 12415). Unparched, unhusked rice; mud, wet: a_rdra wet (RV.); adda wet, slippery (Pali); wet (Pkt.); atere wet (Tir.); oz mud (Tor.); az.u wet (Sh.); oduru (K.); a_d.roko moist (S.); a_d.a_ran.u to steep (grain, etc., in hot water)(S.); ada wet (Si.); alla moist, freshly gathered (Pali); wet (Pkt.); ya_lo fresh, uncooked (Gypsy); all, a_l wet (Bshk.); a_lo (S.); wet, fresh (Ku.); freshly pickled (N.); damp (OMarw.); alla_ unripe, half-parched, imperfectly healed (P.); a_la unboiled (of rice), fresh (not salted)(B.); a_la_ damp (H.); a_la_-li~lu~ half-wet and half-dry (G.); a_la_-pa_la~, a_le~-pa_le~ mere greens and roots (M.); aluwa_ rice that has not been parched before husking (N.)(CDIAL 1340).

157.Rich: at.i riches, wealth (I_t.u, 4,2,9); ati-ya_l < hadi_ya present or offering made to a superior, nuzzer (Ta.); antai an ancient standard weight (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Name of an ancient clan: atti-ko_catta_r name of an ancient clan (Tol. Col. 167, Urai.); atikama_n- a liberal chief (Tol. Po. 62, Urai.); atikan- a liberal chief (Cir-upa_n.. 103) atti name of a prince of the lunar race as the founder of Hastina_pura (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 28)(Ta.lex.) a_l.ha, a_l.haka (from *a_d.ha probably meaning 'grain') a certain measure of capacity, originally for grain; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure (udaka-a_l.haka); catta_ro pattha_ a_l.haka_ni don.an... udaka_l.haka; mitan a_l.hakena = dhaa-ma_paka-kamman katan; a_l.haka-tha_lika_ a bowl of the capacity of an a_l.haka; a_l.hiya rich, happy, fortunate; ana_l.hiya poor, unlucky, miserable (Pali)(Pali.lex.) ad.d.ha adj. rich, opulent, wealthy, well-to-do (Pali)(Skt. a_d.hya from r.ddha pp. of r.dh, r.dhnoter.dhyate to thrive); ad.d.ha in combination with mahaddhana and maha_bhoga of great wealth and resources (followed by: pahu_ta-ja_taru_parajata pahu_ta vittu_pakaran.a etc.)[pahu_ta sufficient, abundant, much, considerable; prabhu_ta (Vedic); pahu_ta-dhaa having many riches (Pali); ad.d.haka adj. wealthy, rich, influential (Pali); ad.d.hata_ riches, wealth, opulence (Pali)(Pali.lex.) a_d.hya rich, wealthy; rich in, abounding in, possessessing abundantly; a_d.hyan:karan.am the means of enriching, wealth, prosperity; a_d.hyata_ opulence, wealth (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) Merchant; rich: a_d.hya rich (S'Br. iv, xiv); ad.d.ha (Pali.Pkt.); ad.d.haka (Pali); a_l.hiya, a_l.hika (Pali); ar.ewa_ wealth (H.); a_d.hiyo merchant who has a large godown of cotton (G.)(CDIAL 1108). a_n.d.a_ri rulers, masters; and as a title: lord, master; e.g. ariva_l.ada_n.d.ari, avanida_n.d.ari, ir..ivada_n.d.a_ri, gurutanayana_n.d.a_ri, gurubhaktiya_n.d.a_ri (Ka.); cf. a_n.t.a_r (cf. a_l., to rule) rulers (Ta.); a_n.ma, a_n.ba, a_l.ma a ruler, a lord, a master, a husband (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Wealth: a_sti property, estate, wealth, riches (Ta.Te. Ka.Ma.Tu.) (Ta.lex.) rtha aim (RV.); cause (Mn.); thing, wealth (S'Br.); attha, at.t.ha (Pali.Pkt.); athra, at.hra, atha, at.ha business, purpose (As'.); artha (NiDoc.); ha_tya for the sake of (Kal.); athan.u possessions (S.); a_th wealth (H.); a_thi_-pothi_ wealth and learning (G.); at.a wish (ata wealth, meaning)(Si.)(CDIAL 638). atthi, atthika desirous (Pali); arthika desiring (MBh.); at.t.hika useful (Pali); t.i desirous of (Si.)(CDIAL 640). a_sti property, wealth (Ka.Te.); id. (Tu.Ma.Ta.); a_sti-pa_sti reit. (Ka.); asti existence; substance, property, wealth (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) artha advantage, use, utility; wealth, property; arthada conferring riches; Kube_ra (Ka.lex.) Village: ato a village; ato hor.ko villagers; bir mak t.an.ikatele ato akata we cleared the jungle and have made a village (Santali.lex.)

246.Wealth; beauty: ya_n.ar wealth (Patir-r-up. 35, 10); fertility (Ja_n-a_. 60); fresh income (Patir-r-up. 71); freshness (Tol. Col. 379); ya_n. beauty (Ja_n-a_. 37); ya_n.an- beautiful person (Aric. Pu. Cu_r..vin-ai. 19); ya_n.u beauty (Tol. Col. 381)(Ta.lex.)

331.Acquired property: net.t.am acquired property (Ta.); ne_t.u (ne_t.i-) to earn (Ta.); ne_t.uka to obtain, get; ne_t.t.am acquisition, gain (Ma.); ne.d.- (ne.d.i-) to earn; ne.t.a earning (Kod..); de_r.u_ borrowing of milch-animals for their milk, animal borrowed for its milk (Br.)(DEDR 3766).

354.Property: aivoz, auviza_ amount (of money)(Kon.lex.) aive_ci, aive_cu < aiwaz (U.) property, wealth, stock, capital; aive_ji id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) aivaju, ayivaju property, wealth: cash or goods (Ka.M.H.); aivaja (H.)(Ka.lex.) ayiccuriyam < ais'varya wealth (Va_yucan.. Pa_cupatavi. 34)(Ta.lex.) Herd of cows: a_yam herd of cows (Cilap. 17, Uraippa_t.t.umat.ai. 5); a_yar-pa_t.i hamlet of cowherds (Tiv. Na_yc. 14,2)(Ta.lex.) ayam < aja sheep (Upate_caka_. Ayamu. 73)(Ta.lex.)

431.Possession: arb finding money, extreme happiness (Ko.); good life (To.); abbu to be acquired, gained, come into one's enjoyment, possession, or reach (Te.); abbinai to prosper (Kuwi)(DEDR 232). al.umba excess, greatness, excellence (Ka.); ar..uvam greatness, excellence, expanse (Ta.)(DEDR 287). cf. arbuda ten thousand millions (Skt.) Whole, sum total: ar-uvu whole, sum total (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) arbu greed, miserliness (Tu.lex.) a_ppa_ a term of fondness towards children (Kon.lex.) abhiramati enjoys; pp. abhirata; abhirati, abhiraman.a enjoyment (Pali.lex.)

435.Ricinus communis: uruvu_ka, ru_buka, ruvu_ka, ru_vuka the plant ricinus communis (Ka.lex.)

400.Image: mouth of a river: ar..ivi inlet to a back-water, mouth of a river (Kur-un. 340); ar..iva_y sand bank at the mouth of a river or harbour (Ta.lex.) cf. ar..i place where the lagoon joins the sea (Ta.)(DEDR 278). cf. aruvi river's mouth (Ta.)(DEDR 225).

422.Image: to spring out: arbi a torrent that has ceased from flowing or is checked in its course; arvi constant descent of water, waterfall; abbi a tiny waterfall (Ka.); arbi water collected in an elevated place (Tu.); arbi ki_tuni water to fall in broken streams over a small height; arabi, arbi waterfall (Tu.); arbili water particles drifting in when it rains (Kor.); aruvu (aruvi-) to spring out and gently flow down; aruvi waterfall, spring at the foot of a hill (Ta.); aruvuka to spring out, and flow down gently; aruvi, arivi waterfall, cascade (Ma.); ebbi waterfall (Kurub.)(DEDR 226). Seaport: cf. aruve seaport, mouth of a river (Tu.); aruvi river's mouth (Ta.)(DEDR 225). cf. ar..i place where the lagoon joins the sea (Ta.); al.uve mouth of a river, harbour (Tu.)(DEDR 278). ar-uvu dry channel in a tank or well (Ta.lex.) aruvi waterfall, cascade (Ci_vaka. 1779); river; estuary of backwater; spring at the foot of a hill; water (Patir-. 71,2); hill, mountain; aruvu-tal to wear away, as a flood the banks of a river (T.E.D.) a_l.ve estuary, the mouth of a river (Kon.lex.) praro_hati shoots up VS.); paluhai blooms, is fresh and invigorated (OAw.); paluhana_ to sprout (H.)(CDIAL 8742). Öruh, Örudh grow, rise (Skt.); ruh growth, sprouting (RV.)(CDIAL 10795). avaro_dha shoot sent down by a branch of the banyan tree (AitBr.); avaro_ha (Kaus'.); ur aerial roots of the banyan tree (Or.)(CDIAL 815). cf. ullu_d.ha risen (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2064). ni_ro_ha shooting out, growing (TS.); niri second crop, second and inferior crop of grain or grass (Si.)(CDIAL 7562). cf. paro_ha sprout (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8747). cf. viru_hati sprouts (Pali)(CDIAL 11870). ro_dha dam (Skt.); rohu mountain (S.)(CDIAL 10845). praro_dhana ascenting (TS.); praro_han.aa growth (MBh.); parohan animal for riding (Bi.)(CDIAL 8746). cf. vi_rudh plant (RV. AV.); vi_ruha_ a spreading creeper (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12060). arbuda name of a mountain in the west of India (Abu); a place of pilgrimate (of the Jainas)(Skt.lex.)

486.To bring a boat to the shore: a_lawun to bring (a boat) to or near the shore (CDIAL 1377).

287.Rogue: ammu (ammi-) to dissemble, act with reserve and duplicity; ammu-kkal.l.an- thievish person, dissembling rogue; amukkan-, amukkun.i dissembler (Ta.); amma-kkal.l.am sagacity and roguery; amma-kkal.l.an deep fellow; amukkan a deep rogue (Ma.)(DEDR 185).

70.Rope: akan.i palm fibre; akan.ippa_y bamboo mat (Ta.lex.) d.l.un.o hemp rope, thread holding beam of balance (WPah.); gun. single thread or strand of a cord, rope (TS.); gun.a cord, string (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 4190).

468.Image: rope: vara_t.a, vara_t.aka a rope, a cord (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

404.Coarse; rough; strong; best: urat.u, urat.a, urut.a, ur(u)t.u, ut.t.u, orat.u, ort.u coarseness (of cloth, thread, hari), thickness, stoutness; orpu strength, firmness, durableness, coarseness (of cloth); urku, ukku power, valour (Ka.); ura (-pp-, -tt-) to become firm, hard (as the soil), become thick, coarse (as paper); urappu hardness (as of rice that is not well boiled), coarseness or roughness (as of paper or cloth), resoluteness, strength; uram strength, hardness, compactness, resolution, heart of a tree, manure (as strengthening the soil);[cf. ru_s.ita soiled; ru_ks.ayati soild (Skt.)(CDIAL 10807)]; uran- strength of will, support; uran-ar persons of strong will; uravu (uravi-) to become vigorous, get strong; uravam strength, force; uravan-, uraviyan-, uravo_n- strong man; uravu strength, firmness, strength of mind, increasing (Ta.); urakka to be strong; urattan strong man; uram strength, firmness (Ma.); orp- (orpy-) to excel (Ko.); u.n. pith; ut-ir, utin-ir, us'tin-ir best buffalo in herd; ut-ox best woman (To.)(DEDR 649). uttama highest, the most removed in order or time (RV.Pali); highest, best, first, last (Pkt.); utum excellent (Si.); uttima excellent (Pkt.); utyo~ upper; utyo coming after the next (month or year)(S.)(CDIAL 1765). Rough, coarse, dry: ru_s.ita roughened (Skt.); rut.ha_ rough, dry (A.); rut.ha_ dry, sapless, barren (Or.); ru_r.h, ru_r.ha_ rough, stiff, raw, angry (H.); ru_d.hna_ to be offended (H.)(CIDAL 10807). a_ru_s.a garlic, leek (Pas'.)[?roughish](CDIAL 1327). ru_ks.a dry, rough (S'Br.); lu_ks.a (TS.); rukkha rough (Pali.Pkt.); rukho dyr, rough, stern, unkind (S.); rukkha_ rough, dry, without ghee (L.P.); ru_kho rough, dry, stiff; rukhyu_n.o to wipe off oil or grease (Ku.); rukha_ dry, rough, unsavoury, harsh, unfriendly (H.); ruk-a pain, care, illness (Si.); rukha_ rough (M.); rukho barren (N.); rukha_ rough (B.); to be angry (B.); lu_kha rough, coarse, meagre (Pali); lukkha, lu_ha rough, without grease (Pkt.); lochu, lyuchu, luchu, lichu rough, hard, cruel, irascible (K.); lukha_ dry, rough; nukhura_ not oily, not smooth or glossy (Or.); lu_kha_ dry, not greasy (H.); lu_khu~, likkhu~ dry, not greased, unsavoury (G.)(CDIAL 10799). ru_ks.ayati makes dry (S'Br.); offends (Skt.); aru_ks.ita unroughened (RV.); rukha_ to be angry (B.)(CDIAL 10800).

98.Royal presence: haja_ra a hall, a pavilion (Ka.); ha_ja_ra (Te.); haju_ru, huju_ru royal presence, the presence of a superior authority, as of a judge, collector, etc.; the principal collector's office (Ka.Ma.); huju_ra (M.H.); huju_ru-kace_ri the principal collector's office (Ka.) huju_ru-jama_bandi the yearly jama_bandi (collective assessment) made by the principal collector; ha_jaru, haji_ra present, ready; ha_jaru-ja_mi_nu a security for the appearance of, bail (Ka.); ha_jara-ja_mi_na id. (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ha_jir in attendance (H.lex.) ha_zir presence (Arab.)(Ta.lex.)

490.Sacrifice: ale_j sacrifice (in which the patient witnesses the slaughter smeared with the blood)(Br.); la_ka_na, la_ka_nj the sacrifice after a successful hunt (Go.); r.a_k- (-t-) to offer worship, sacrifice; intens. r.a_bga-; r.a_kel ja_ni priest who offers sacrifice (Pe.); r.a_k- to offer worship, sacrifice (Mand..); la_ka (la_ki-) id.; n. a sacrifice, worship; la_ka so_ka a sacrifice, worship (Kui); la_k- to sacrifice; la_kinai to praise; la_kwinai to invoke; la_gu offering to a deity; r.a_k- (-it-) to sacrifice (Kuwi)(DEDR 297). da~r.e~ sacrifice; da~r.e~ saman. to offer sacrifice (Santali.lex.) il.aku (il.aki-) to shake, agitate; il.akku (il.akki-) to shake (Ta.); il.akula to move, shake, fluctuate; il.akkuka to move, shake, stir, disturb, interrupt; stir; il.akkikka to get into motion, set on (e.g. a dog); il.akkam shaking, fluctuation, irresolution (Ma.); el.g- (el.gy-) (something) is slightly raised or imperfectly fixed in place, lift one's body slightly from ground, (mind) is moved (by pity); el.k- (el.ky-) to lift slightly from position, lever out, pull (trigger); el.c- (blister) rises (Ko.); el.- (el.i-) to leave one's position, leave abruptly, be removed from one's position; el.ak (el.aki-) to make to leave a position, uproot, (god) possesses (man who devil-dances); el.aka uprooting from position, violent, shaking (as when possessed by a god)(Kod..); lakkuni to rise, get up, depart, start; lakka_vuni to lift, raise, wake, rouse, steal (Tu.); le_sk- to tremble, be possessed by gods; le_ske pl. le_sker medium through whom gods speak (he always shakes his head); le_s- to cast out evil spirits by means of spells; le_ske pl. le_sker priest, shaman (Go.); hilh fever (Br.)(DEDR 509). er.bna_ (ir.byas) to cut the throat of, slaughter, sacrifice (Kur.); er.we to sacrifice, propitiate, worship (Malt.)(DEDR 790). ra.n:g- (ra.n:kt-) to be possessed by (a god)(Kol.); r.a_nja (r.a_nji-) (spirit, demon) possesses, inspires, excites; n. spirit-possession, demon-possession (Kui)(DEDR 5165). sirileng to be possessed (i.e. by spirits, god etc.)(Kol.); ciral a medium (Pa.); ciral id.; siraha id. (also leski)(Go.); hira, sira id., shaman (Pe.); siraha (Or.); sira_ha_ (Halbi)(DEDR App. 37). al.l.ai devil, demon (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

209.Red sandal: at.t.i red sanders, cecantan-am (Mu_. A.); sandal (Ta.); at.t.u to join, stick, paste; to put on (Tirukko_. 122)(Ta.); to put on (Ka.); at.t.u-tal to pour as water or oil (Kur-al., 1093)(Ta.lex.) To emit fragrance: at.i-ttal to emit fragrance, blow as wind (Ta_yu. Te_co_. 2)(Ta.); ad.ucu (Te.); ad.acu (Ka.); at.ikka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

370.Sandal incense: a_ram sandal-wood tree (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 94); sandal wood, one of six tu_pa-varkkam or articles of incense (ne_rkat.t.i cente_ n-iriya_can. kar-pu_ram, a_ra makilur-uppo_ ra_r-u : Ci_vaka. 534, Ura.); sandal paste (Ta.); a_r to spread over (Ta.); a_rakkam red sanders-wood, cecantan-am, pterocarpus santalinus (Ta.lex.) a_rata reddish (Sus'r.); arate red (Shum.); a_rata reddish, purple (OMth.)(CDIAL 1296). a_rakta reddish (Ka.lex.) cf. alakta a partic. red substance (R.)(CDIAL 695). a_ral fire (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 376). a_rati, a_rti (fr. a_ra_trika) the ceremony of waving (around an idol, around the bride and bridegroom, around the heads of the people assembled at marriages, around a king etc.) a platter containing a burning lamp; the platter and lamp waved; the lotus-leaf described with colours on the platter (Ka.); a_rti (H.); a_rati, a_l.ati (Te.); a_rati, a_latti, a_la_tti (Ta.); a_rati (M.)(Ka.lex.)

51.Image: scorpion: i~gl.i_ a large black deadly scorpion (M.); i~gl.a_ a kind of large ant (M.)(CDIAL 125). a_ghi_ a kind of stinging fly (M.)(CDIAL 57). cf. cigl.a a fly (Ka.); hi_gn.e mosquito; hen.n.e a fly (Mand..)(DEDR 2506). vicchika scorpion (Pali.lex.) cf. itsu, itsa_, vitsu scorpion (Kon.lex.)

51.Image: scorpion: i~gl.i_ a large black deadly scorpion (M.); i~gl.a_ a kind of large ant (M.)(CDIAL 125). a_ghi_ a kind of stinging fly (M.)(CDIAL 57). cf. cigl.a a fly (Ka.); hi_gn.e mosquito; hen.n.e a fly (Mand..)(DEDR 2506). vicchika scorpion (Pali.lex.) cf. itsu, itsa_, vitsu scorpion (Kon.lex.)

230.Image: scorpion: a_n.t.ai Indian turnsole (Mu_. A.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

491.Image: scorpion: callaki Indian turnsole (Ta.lex.) ce_lgon.d.i sting of a scorpion (Tu.)[kon.d.i the sting of a scorpion (Ka.Te.); a sting (Tu.)(DEDR 2080)]; te_lu scorpion (Te.); tele id. (Malt.); te_lh id. (Br.) te_l. scorpion (Ta.Ma.); ce_r..(u), te_r.. id. (Ka.); te.l.i black insect with poisonous bite (Kod..); ce_l.u, te_l.u, te_lu scorpion (Tu.)(DEDR 3470). te_l.i scorpion-fish, leaden, attaining more than 1 ft. in length, saccobranchus fossilis, poisonous and having nippers like a scorpion (ayiraiyun te_l.iyu ma_ra_lun. kottiye_ : Kur-r-a_.kur-a. 91, Anupal.); te_l.e_r-u sting of a scorpion (ve_le_r-u pat.a-t-te_l.e_r-u ma_ynta_r-po_la : Ir-ai. 2, Pak.39)(Ta.lex.) te_r-u sting (as of a wasp)(Ta.)(DEDR 3440).

492.Image: scorpion, hornet, bumble bee: a_li scorpion (Pali); bee, scorpion (VarBr.S.); ala sting in tail of scorpion or bee (Skt.); sa_d.a having a point or sting (as stick, scorpion, etc.); alini_ female bee (Pali); ali, alin.i_ bumble bee, (Pkt.); alin.a scorpion (Pkt.); ali_ black bee, scorpion (H.); al., al.i_, al.ai_ maggot in grain or fruit (M.); a_li bumble-bee (Pkt.); a_li_ scorpion, bumble bee (H.); aliya scorpion (Si.)(CDIAL 716). alikula swarm of bees (VarBr.S.); aliula (Pkt.); ali_la bees (OG.)(CDIAL 712). ran:gha_l hornet; an:ga_l (WPah.); alan.a_r (Ku.); ari~ga_l, ari~gal, arin.a_l (N.)(CDIAL 714). al., al.ai_, al.i_ fruit insects and grains, sort of caterpillar (M.); ala_i_ skin irritation (G.); el. insect (G.); ali_ a large black bee, scorpion (H.); ali (B.); scorpion (Si.); alin wasp, scorpion (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 298). a_la a scorpion's tail (Ka.lex.)

54.Great: a_yatike the state of being great, worthy or noble; stateliness; grandeur etc. ; a_yatana a resting place; a place, a seat, a home; an altar; a temple (Ka.lex.)

351.Image: seated on a throne: ariye_r-u male lion (Pa_rata. Kirut.. 76); arima_ lion (Na_lat.i. 198) ariya_can-am < hari + lion-seat, throne (Tan-ippa_. i,2,1); ariyan.ai throne with carvings of lion (Kampara_. Tirumut.i. 38); ariyan.ai-c-celvan- arhat, as seated on a throne (Pin..); ariyama_n- chief of the manes (Ku_rmapu. Vipu_ti. 10)(Ta.lex.)

284.Selling: ammu to sell, vend; ammakamu, ammud.u sale, selling (Te.); mamma_na_, ama_na, mama_na, mamita_na_, momana_, bama_na_, omm-, vomm-, vam- to sell (Go.)(DEDR 186).

285.Goes: pamput.a to send; pampe_va_d.u sender; ampakamu, ampad.amu, pampad.amu sending (Te.lex.) hmmati goes (Skt.)(used in Saura_s.t.ra); hammai goes, pp. hammia- (Pkt.); ha_ma_ to crawl on all fours (B.); ha_ma_-gur.i crawling; ha_mur.iba_ to crawl (Or.)(CDIAL 13975). Crawling: ambega_lu, ambaga_lu, ambuga_lu the hands and knees placed on the ground for crawling; amba_l.u to crawl (Ka.); ambeka_ru crawling on the hands and feet (Tu.); amba_d.u to crawl (Te.); umba_-xa_rna_ to walk on hands and knees (Kur.)(DEDR 180). mbati goes (Dha_tup.); amiti (Pa_n..); ambati (Pali); a~_bvu~ to go towards, reach, touch (G.); am.bavanava_, ham.banava_ to drive away (Si.); amb go (Skt.)(CDIAL 572). ambna_ to let go, set free, send away, give up, pardon, leave a place; amba_ imper. don't! (Kur.); ambe to leave off, forsake; amba don't! (Malt.); hamping to load up, load up and go, start, depart, be wiped out; hampifing to make to load, make to start off, help to load; hamp start, starting (Br.); ampaka sending, dispatching, entertainment given to friends at their departure (Ka.); ampakam leave, permission (Ta.); ampakamu sending away, dismissal, permission to go or leave (Te.); an-uppu (an-uppi-) to send, accompany one a little way out of respect (Ta.); anuppuka to send (Ma.); anucu, ancu, anupu, ampu to send (Te.); anisp- (anist-) to load on cart (Ga.)(DEDR 329).

37.Image: part; asunder: akkun.i small quantity, trifle (Ta.)(T.E.D.) cf. a_hu minute, atomic (Ka.lex.) akkol.u part; adv. asunder (Tu.); akkakka id. (Tu.); akkakka_y asunder (Ta.)(DEDR 19). akai (-v-, -nt-) to be broken, crumpled, suffer; (-pp-, -tt-) to break, cut in pieces, beat, trouble, oppress (Ta.); agalu to break or go to pieces, burst; agalincu, agul(u)cu to break, burst (Te.); ag- to be torn; akp- to tear (Ga.)(DEDR 16). cf. pakal diving, separating (Ta.); pagiyuni to split, rend, fall in pieces (Tu.)(DEDR 3808). Image: to separate from; to spread:{Echo word} an:gan:gala, an:galu, an:gala the state of being separate or more or less apart; the thinness of corn in a field (Ka.lex.) a_n:ka_n:ku there and there severally (Ta.lex.) vegl.o separate; vingad. separate; vegl.o kar to separate; vegl.atsa_r, vegl.atsa_i separation (Kon.lex.) akala-nil-tal to stand aloof, to stand afar (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) agaldu to separate (Ka.lex.) Separate: Metath. alagna, algla unconnected (Skt.); alglam disconnectedly, stammeringly (S'Br.); alagga not joined (Pali); alogu unsuitably (K.); alagu, alago separate (S.); alagg (P.); alag (Ku.N.M.H.); alagga (N.); a_lag, a_lagga_ (A.); alagg (P.); a_lag (B.); a_lga_ (B.); alaga, alaga_ (Or.); alga_ (H.); arga_i_ separation (H.); alago separate (OMarw.); al.gu~ not touching; menstruation (G.); alag adv. without touching, smoothly; al.ag properly (M.)(CDIAL 700). Metath. agal to become loose (Ka.); agulu to become loose as a peg (Ka.); agulu to be unfastened, loosened,separated (Te.); avir.. (-v-, -nt-) to become loose, untied; (-pp-, -tt-) to loosen, untie, unpack (Ta.)(DEDR 14).

149.Daily provisions to travellers: ca_ta-varttu < sada_vart (U.) < sada_ + vr.tti daily provisions to travellers (Ta.lex.) cata_-ce_rvai perpetual (daily) devotion (S.I.I. i,127); cata_-virutti < sada_ + vr.tti daily provisions to travellers and mendicants, as in a choultry (Ta.lex.) Propitiatory gift; incidental expenses: ca_tar to be served, as an order (Perun.. Ucaik. 42,205); ca_tar-a_tal < sa_dir + (U.) to be served, as an order; cf. ca_tan-am means, instrument, expedient (Kaival. Tattuva. 11); practice (Kantapu. Iran.t.a_. Yut. 385); document, any instrument in writing; ca_can-am order, edict, command; cf. s'a_sana (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) ca_tal-va_r, ca_ttal-va_r, ca_tal-va_t < sa_darwa_r (U.) contingencies, incidental expenses; catar-va_rittu id. (R.T.); catar-karccu < sa_dir + kirc (U.) remission or allowance made by the government, of a certain percentage of the revenue raised from a village, for repairing tanks, giving alms to mendicants, and other incidental expenses (R.T.); catar-va_rittu < sa_dir + wa_rid (U.) charge formerly levied on ryots for supplying the public office with ink, paper, oil and the like; catarata_lattu < sadr + ada_lat (U.) chief court of justice (C.G.); catar-ami_n- < sadr + ami_n (U.) the name given to the subordinate judge during Muhammadan rule (Ta.lex.) Land revenue: catur-p-pa_kam land held on favourable tenure paying only one-fourth of the revenue due to government (C.G. 93); a grant or alienation of one-fourth share of government revenue (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) cata_-civam < sada_s'iva manifestation of S'iva bestowing grace upon sentient beings, highest of five karta_kkal. (Ci. Ci. 1,65);[the five functioning forms of S'iva are: piraman (brahma), vit.t.un.u (vis.n.u), uruttiran- (rudra), make_curan- (mahe_s'vara), cata_civan- (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)]

75.Red gum: agasti sesbania grandiflora akatti (Ta.)(DEDR 5). Sesbania grandiflora agasti (Skt.); basna (H.M.); bak (B.); agatti (Ta.); agise (Te.); akatti (Ma.) Bark infusion given in smallpox; habitat: plains of western Peninsula (GIMP, p.226). agase, akace, agace, agise (Tadbhava of agasti) a tree with large scarlet flowers, sesbana (or aeschynomene) grandiflora; agastya (Ka.); agase a leguminous tree, coronilla grandiflora (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Sesbania grandiflora produces a clear gum used as substitute for gum arabic... B. Dey says that the red gum from the bark resembles Bengal kino. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.430). Peatree: akatti, accam, acci West Indian peatree, sesbania grandiflora (Ta.); akatti sesbania grandiflora (Ma.); akace, agace, agase, agise the tree with large scarlet flowers, sesbania or aeschynomene grandiflora (Ka.); agase-mara agati grandiflora (Tu.); agise, agis'a, avise-cet.t.u a leguminous tree, coronilla grandiflora or aeschynomene grandiflora [sesbania = aeschynomene = agasti/agati = coronilla](DEDR 5). agsti the tree agasti grandiflorum (Sus'r.); Agsti nom. rop. perh. from this, Mayrhofer (Skt.); agatthi, agatthiya a partic. tree (Pkt.); agti_, akti_ the tree sesbana or aeschynomene grandiflora (H.); agthiyo a partic. tree (G.)(CDIAL 50). cf. achih wood leech (Malay.)(Ta.lex.)

216.Sewing: attu sewing; to unite, make to fit in with one another; to be joined or attached (Ta.); to be attached or joined (Te.); atuku, aduku junction, union, joint, patch (Te.); be fit, soldered; to cement, solder; to be joined, united, agree with (Ka.); atiku, aduku id. (Ka.); attna_ to clothe or dress oneself in, put on (Kur.); ate to wear, put on (Malt.); atkap to mend, join (Ga.); adk to tie (knot, etc.)(Go.); atku a joint, patch (Kond.a); atku a joint; atkap- to mend, join (Ga.)(DEDR 145). cf. sandhi a joint, an articulation (of the body etc.)(Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) an. leash for dogs, running knot (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ot.t.u patch; piece stuck or fastened on, whether of cloth, board or metal; union, friendship; border; bark of a tree; division of an army (Ta.lex.) an.t.u (Ta.Te.) unit in a string of beads, link in a chain; an.t.ai thing attached, annexed, as a plug to stop a hole, patch; an.t.ai-po_t.u to mend, patch (Ta.lex.) an.t.incu to unite, join (Te.); at.hinai to add (Kuwi)(DEDR 120). an.t.ai thing attached, patch; an.t.ai-po_t.u to mend, patch (Ta.lex.)

175.Shackle: had.d.a_, had.d.em. shackle, embarrassment (M.); had.i (B.BHSkt.)(Bloch, p.414). cf. at.t.am obstacle (Te.lex.) hur.ka shackle for buffalo (Santali.lex.) andu_, andu, andu_ka chain for an elephant's foot (Skt.); andu chain, fetter (Pali); am.du, am.duya_ (Pkt.); a~_d(h)u chain for elephant's foot (B.); a_ndhu, a_ndu, adu (Or.); a~_du_, a~dua_ wooden contraption to faste to elephant's hind foot (H.); a~du_ elephant's foot chain (M.); andu (Si.); Öand bind (Skt.)(CDIAL 382). andati binds (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 381). har.a knot in a corner of a cloth (S.); hareri knot on either side of a porter's head-rope, knot in the cord of a wallet (N.)(CDIAL 13950). had.i wooden fetter (BHSkt. ii, 617); hat.hati binds to a post (Dha_tup.); had.i wooden fetters or stocks (Pkt.); har.i, ha_r.i, ha_ir. stocks (B.); har. stocks (H.); her. (G.); had.d.a_, had.d.e~ difficulty (M.)(CDIAL 13951). ga_nt. knot, fig. used for bundle of money (Kon.lex.) at.eran. to wind yarn (L.); at.ern.a_, ut.ern.a_ to reel, make up into skeins (P.); at.erna_ to wind (H.); at.ervu~ to form skeins of thread (usu. on the fingers)(G.); at.erun. yarn-twister (L.); at.eran., ut.eran. reel (P.); at.eran distaff, winder (H.)(CDIAL 1444). Linen: at.t.a = ?coarse ks.auma, linen cloth prepared from linseed. cf. ks.auma linen cloth (Ka_tyS'r.); kho_ma made of flax, n. linen cloth or garment (Pali); made of flax, n. linen or cotton or silk cloth (Pkt.); kho_miya made of flax or cotton or silk (Pkt.); khua_ a coarse sort of silk (MB.); khu~ye id. (B.); komu fine cloth of goat's hair (Si.)(CDIAL 3755).

175.Shackle: had.d.a_, had.d.em. shackle, embarrassment (M.); had.i (B.BHSkt.)(Bloch, p.414). cf. at.t.am obstacle (Te.lex.) hur.ka shackle for buffalo (Santali.lex.) andu_, andu, andu_ka chain for an elephant's foot (Skt.); andu chain, fetter (Pali); am.du, am.duya_ (Pkt.); a~_d(h)u chain for elephant's foot (B.); a_ndhu, a_ndu, adu (Or.); a~_du_, a~dua_ wooden contraption to faste to elephant's hind foot (H.); a~du_ elephant's foot chain (M.); andu (Si.); Öand bind (Skt.)(CDIAL 382). andati binds (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 381). har.a knot in a corner of a cloth (S.); hareri knot on either side of a porter's head-rope, knot in the cord of a wallet (N.)(CDIAL 13950). had.i wooden fetter (BHSkt. ii, 617); hat.hati binds to a post (Dha_tup.); had.i wooden fetters or stocks (Pkt.); har.i, ha_r.i, ha_ir. stocks (B.); har. stocks (H.); her. (G.); had.d.a_, had.d.e~ difficulty (M.)(CDIAL 13951). ga_nt. knot, fig. used for bundle of money (Kon.lex.) at.eran. to wind yarn (L.); at.ern.a_, ut.ern.a_ to reel, make up into skeins (P.); at.erna_ to wind (H.); at.ervu~ to form skeins of thread (usu. on the fingers)(G.); at.erun. yarn-twister (L.); at.eran., ut.eran. reel (P.); at.eran distaff, winder (H.)(CDIAL 1444). Linen: at.t.a = ?coarse ks.auma, linen cloth prepared from linseed. cf. ks.auma linen cloth (Ka_tyS'r.); kho_ma made of flax, n. linen cloth or garment (Pali); made of flax, n. linen or cotton or silk cloth (Pkt.); kho_miya made of flax or cotton or silk (Pkt.); khua_ a coarse sort of silk (MB.); khu~ye id. (B.); komu fine cloth of goat's hair (Si.)(CDIAL 3755).

46.Sheaf as a daily perquisite: ahla a small sheaf; aloi a sheaf as a daily perquisite of a servant (Santali.lex.) kala_pa a sheaf (Pali.lex.)

173.Skein: an.t.i_ bundle, skein, sheaf (H.); a_t.i_, at.t.i_ skein, bundle, twist (H.); a~_t.i bundle (B.); a~_t.i_ skein of thread (G.); bundle of straw (Bi.); bundle of grain divided between reaper and master (M.); bundle, skein, sheaf (H.)(CDIAL 181). Bundle: hatthi_ bundle of grass or reeds (P.); ha_ti_ bunch (esp. of bananas) (Ku.)(CDIAL 14041). ut.u, dat. ace skein, bundle (K.); at.t.i_ skein (L.); at.t.a_ id. (P.); at.t.i_ f. (P.); a_t.i sheaf (A.); sheaf, faggot (B.); sheaf, bundle (Or.); a~_t.ho, a~_t.hi bundle, sheaf, plait of hair (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 181). a_t.i_, a~_t.i_ twist, plait (H.); a~_t. twist (H.); a~_t.i_ a frame on which thread is wound (H.); a~_t.i knot in thread (G.)(CDIAL 1443).

419.Image: sheaf of corn: aruvi sheaf of corn (Teyvac. Vir-alivi.u.); stubble of Italian millet; stubble of dry crops (Na_mati_pa.); aruvi-vet.t.u harvesing (Tan.t.ikai. Pal.. A_ra_y. 1); ar-u-vat.ai harvest; ar-uvat.ai-me_rai emolments of village servants and artisans paid at harvest time in kind or at a commuted price; ar-uvari tax to be paid in fixed instalments (T.E.D.)

467.Image: cowry: vara_t.a, vara_l.a a cowry, cypraea moneta (used as a coin, 1/80 of a pan.a); vara_t.aka a cowry (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vara_t.aka cowrie (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

509.Image: stake in a mud-wall to support the coping: alla_ri stake in a mud wall to support the coping, cuvarin a_ral taku mul.ai (Ta.lex.) a_ral wall; coping of a wall (Ta.lex.) Image: roof laths: alakku roof laths (Periyapu. Il.aiya_n-. 19)(Ta.lex.) cf. aral wooden bolt of door attached to the frame (P.)(CDIAL 605)

102.Shorea robusta: a_cca_ sa_l, shorea robusta (Ci_vaka. 2613, Urai.); a_ ebony (Cilap. 12, Uraippa_t.t.u mat.ai, 1)(Ta.lex.) a_su, a_ca, a_rse the sa_l tree, shorea robusta (Ka.)(DEDR 343). cf. karumaram shorea robusta, ebony (Ma.)(DEDR 1282). cf. tumpi Ceylon ebony, diospyros tomentosa (Ta.)(DEDR 3329). cf. sa_la shorea robusta (Pali. Pkt.) (CDIAL 12412). cf. ke_ndu a kind of ebony, diospyros embryopteris (Skt.)(CDIAL 3464). cf. sarja sa_l (Skt.lex.)

379.Resin of shorea robusta: ara_l.am a hard, dark coloured, brittle resinous substance which exudes from the trees of dammara genus in the Eastern islands, resin of shorea robusta (Ca_mpacivam pil.l.ai akara_ti, The Research Institute of Siddha Science, Madras, 1931); kun:kiliyam (Tailava. Taila. 119)(Ta.); ara_l.am (Ma.)(T.E.D.) ara_lam kun:kiliyam; resin of the plant shorea robusta (T.E.D.) Dammer tree; resin: ara_la, ra_la resin, yaks.adhu_pa; resin of the plant shorea robusta, sarjarasa (Skt.lex.) Resin: ara_l.am sa_l resin (Tailava. Taila. 119)(Ta.lex.) ral pitch (Santali.lex.) ara_la, ra_la, ra_l.a resinous exudation of the plant shorea robusta (Skt.); ra_l.a resin in general (Ka.M.); Synonyms: s'a_la, sajjarasa; yaks.adhu_pa, sarjarasa (Ka.); ra_l.ada-mara the white dammer tree, vateria indica; ra_l.a-dhu_pada-mara a tall tree furnishing the resin called black dammer (Ka.); ra_la, ara_la, ra_l.a the resin of the s'a_la tree, shorea robusta (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ra_la, ra_laka, ra_li resin of shorea robusta; ara_la id. (Skt.); ra_la, ria_la resin (S.); ra_l resin, pitch, the tree shorea robusta (P.); ra_l.a tar, yellow resin (Or.); ra_l resin of shorea robusta (H.); ra_l. resin (G.M.)(CDIAL 10715). ra_la-ka_rya the sa_la tree (Skt.lex.) yaks.a-dhu_pa the resin of shorea robusta; resin in general; yaks.apa, yaks.a-ra_j Kube_ra (Skt.lex.) ra_l resin, rosin, pitch; a tree shorea robusta, dipterocarpaceae which grows in the hills in the Panjab. The timber is hard and heavy and durable, and is one of the best possible for all purposes where great strength is required. The resin which exudes from this tree is used medicinally and in the arts; the mimosia rubicaulis (Punjabi.lex.) For -ka_rya in ra_la-ka_rya the sa_la tree (Skt.lex.) cf. Sterculia gum (gum stercullae): a_r..al, na_r..al name of various plants, cassia sophera, caesalpina pulcherrima, cochlospermum gossypium, crocus sativus (Ta.)(DEDR 2915). ka_rpa_si_ gossypium barbadens (Car. Ci. 7.96). Synonyms of stercuia gum: gum karaya; the dried gummy exudation from sterculia urens, sterculia villosa, sterculia tragacantha or other species of sterculia or from cochlospermum gossypium or other species of cochlospermum (fam. bixaceoe); the sterculia species are tropical trees mostly native to Asia... cochlospermum gossypium is a small tree native to India... golden yellow flowers in panicles and many seeded capsular fruits... the gum occurs in tears or in broken irregular pieces the latter somewhat crystalline-like and known commercially as 'crystal gum', pale yellow to pinkish brown, translucent and horny... odour slightly acetous... Uses: in lotions and pastes; industrially as a size for paper, in printing gum, nicotine sprays etc... An Indian gum termed karaya or kadaya gum, is yielded by cochlospermum religiosum, a member of the bixaceoe family, growing in India and adjacent countries. This article is largely used by the paste, cigar and ice cream industries... (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 560; 456-459). Sterculia urens: gulu (M.); karrai (H.); bhutali (Ka.); pandruk (Konkan.i); tonti (Ma.); vellaipputtali (Ta.); ponaku (Te.); gum: used as substitute for tragacanth; used in throat affections: leaves: useful in pleuro-pneumonia in cattle; habitat: Gujarat, Konkan, Deccan, N. Kanara, S. Mahrata country, dry forests of the Madras State, Rajputana, N. and Central India and Chota Nagpur (GIMP, p.234). Cochlospermum gossypium = bombax gossypium Linn.: A small tree, 2.4 to 5.4 m. high, with a branching head; bark smooth, ash-coloured; flowers bright yellow (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp.214-215, Vol.I). The fibers from the pods of bombax pentandrum Linn. (which contain numerous black seeds which are compressed-globose, smooth and embedded in fine, silky fibres) are very extensively used for stuffing pillows, cushions, and mattresses and are excellent for these purposes. {English name: kapok, white silk cotton tree} Kapok oil, which is extracted from the seeds, is used for the manufacture of soap and as a substitute for cotton-seed oil. (Quisumbing, E., Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.598). soho doho bombax malabaricum (Santali.lex.) {"Gum and resin were added to ointments not only for their own scent, but also to fix the fragrance of other ingredients, just as they are an optional ingredient of potpourri today. Apart from their use in fumigation, frankincense and myrrh were frequently required in medical prescriptions. Frankincense occurs as light yellowish-brown 'tears' on certain trees of the genus boswellia which grow in Southern Arabia and on the Somali coast, or on the commiphora pedunculata in eastern Sudan and Ethiopia. The Egyptians obtained it from the land of Punt, which has not been definitively placed on the map, although it seems most likely to have been in the region of Somalia. Myrrh, consisting of yellowish-red 'tears', is obtained from commiphora. It was also imported from or via Punt. Large quantities of these commodities were needed in Egypt for the daily cult in the temples, in the funerary ritual, and in cosmetics and medicine... Dioscorides quotes a recipe for a marjoram unguent called sampsuchum. Since he uses the Egyptian plant name it may have been an Egyptian specialty... Theophrastus comments that the scent of sweet marjoram unguent was as durable as that of 'The Egyptian'... Both Pliny (NH. XII. li) and Dioscorides (I.124) mention a tree called cyprus, of which the best quality grew at Canopus in the Delta. It has been identified as henna (lawsonia inermis) which does indeed have fragrant flowers... Pliny explicitly says that unguents keep best in 'alabaster' containers (NH. XIII. iii)... Another aromatic substance, used abundantly by Egyptian priests, was so important that the recipe was engraved on the walls of the temples and repeated in the works of the classical authors... we must still rely on an article from 1887 (V. Loret, 'Le Kyphi', Journal Asiatique, 8e serie, X, 1857, pp. 76-132). "Plutarch gives a list of sixteen ingredients used by the Egyptians in preparing kuphi -- honey, wine, raisins, sweet rush, resin, myrrh, frankincense, seselis, calamu, asphalt, thryon, dock, both kinds of arceuthids, cardamum, and orris root (De Isid, 81)... the compounding was of ritual importance and a matter of mystery. Sacred books were read aloud while the kuphi was being mixed." (James Hastings (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, New York, Charles Scribner's sons, 1915, p.201).The famous kyphi was an oil- and fat-free scent, based on wine and raisins with a number of added aromatic herbs and resins. It was not used to perfume the body, but it was burnt in the temples... In ancient times, kyphi was also added to beverages. Kyphi. Take 1/2 pint of cyperus (bulrush, 'thickening' agent) and 1/2 pint juniper berries; 12 lb stoned plum raisins; 5 lb resin; 1 lb aromatic rush; 1 lb asphalatus (identified as cytisus lanigerus, genista acanthoclada or calycotome villosa); 1 lb iuncus odoratus (cymbopogon schoenanthus); 1 1/2 oz myrrh; 8 1/2 pint old wine; and 2 lb honey... The hieroglyphic recipes are written on the walls of the temples of Edfu and Philae... Recipe for making 10,164 g of excellent kyphi: 1. Take 270 g each of acorus calamus (sweet flag; ancient Egyptian kni; Modern Egyptian Arabic wag; rhizome qas.ab el-zori_ra; applied in a bandage is said to have cured a pustule on the finger of the Prophet.); andropogon schoenanthus (aromatic rush; the 'sweet cane' which is the source of palmarosa oil); pistachio resin; cassia; ti-sps (cinnamon? or East African camphor tree cinnamonium camphora or ocotea usambarensis; the constituents of the roots cinnamonium zeylanicum and cinnamonium camphora are very similar, but traditionally ti-sps is taken to mean cinnamon; in classical texts cinnamon is often confused with cassia, cinnamonium cassia... Prospero Alpini knew thin quills as qirfa, whereas thick quills were called da_rsi_ni. The evergreen cinnamon tree is native to Ceylon, whereas cassia originated in China and Burma. It was thus imported into Egypt... Theophrastus says that a perfume called megaleion was made of burnt resin and balanos oil to which is added cassia, cinnamon and myrrh. pp.88-89); db (aspalathos?); total 1870 g. Grind and sieve. Only the powder is to be used, 1/5 of total = 756 g. 2. Take 270 g each of juniper berries; an unidentified plant; pkr-plant; cyperus longus; total 1080 g. Grind. Add to this 2250 g wine. Leave until the next morning. Half the wine will be abosorbed by the herbs. The rest is to be discarded. 3. Take 1800 g raisins and 2250 g oasis wine. Grind together well. Remove the rind and pips of the raisins (weighing 1350 g). Place the rest (weighing 2700 g) in a pot with the herbs. Leave for five days. 4. Mix 1200 g frankincense and 3000 g honey in a vessel. Boil gently until thickened and reduced by 1/5, the total weight being 3360 g. Mix with the other ingredients and leave for five days. 5. Add to this 1143 g finely ground myrrh, and you will have 10,164 g kyphi... Cinnamon (Ancient Egyptian ti-sps; Coptic kinamwmon; Modern Egyptian Arabic qirfa) was used in incense. cf. wall-painting in the tomb of Queen Nefertari, Thebes; Ramesside... used in a fumigation 'which one makes to make the smell of the house or the dress pleasant'... cinnamon or cassia are the only true species actually to be mentioned in connection with mummification... What appears to be cinnamon has been found on actual mummies... A mummy from the 20th Dynasty (Ramesses III-XI; 1200-1085 BC)... still retains the faint smell of cinnamon or cassia... Another mummy examined in the last century was also said to be filled with the dust of cedar, cassia etc... Cinnamon was among the items presented to the temples by the king. In a papyrus listing the revenue ceded to the various gods by Ramesses III, there is a frequent mention of measures of cinnamon. Once in the temple, the goods would pass into the hands of the priests who would either recirculate them in exchange for other commodities, or, since they formed the medical profession as well, use it in their preparations of drugs... The king's gift to the god Amun included one whole log, 246 measures and 82 bundles... Earlier on, in the 18th Dynasty (1567-1320 BC), when Queen Hatshepsut sent out her famous expedition to the land of Punt in search of incense and spices, the ships were loaded for their homeward journey not only with frankincense and myrrh, but with other fragrant woods, including cinnamon. [cf. Relief in the temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari]. Wherever the land of Punt may have been located, cinnamon trees did not grow there. Punt was once part of the chain of commerce which spread from the East to Africa and Europe, and cinnamon was one of the costly commodities which made the long journey. In the 19th Dynasty (1320-1200 BC) Sethos I also connects cinnamon with Punt when displaying to the god Amun how he has conqured the world: 'I turn my face to the East, I work a wonder for you... I gather together all the countries of Punt, all their tribute of gum and myrrh and cinnamon and all the pleasant sweet wood of the God's land.' Land of Punt: "It was a constant tradition among the Egyptians that they originally hailed from the Land of Punt... (Heras locates Punt in the southern tip of Arabia on the Red Sea, in the neighbourhood of Minaei, Yemen (Saba) and above the horn of Somaliland and Sokotra island on the Erythraen sea)... Egyptians themselves used to locate it across the Red Sea in the land of the frankincense... The incense tree (shown in the carvings) of Deir el-Bahari... the tree of myrrh... covered with luxuriant foliage (Fig.211)... the frankincense in Arabia of Dhofar, the 'sachalitic' frankincense of the Periplus, the modern shehri luban... clearly the boswellia carteri... this frankincense is always called in the Deir el-Baari inscriptions 'anti incense', which is an Arabic word a-a-nete, which means 'three eyes'... for the Egyptians to say 'anti incense' was tantamount to saying 'Arabian incense'... Virgil avers twice that incense comes only from the Sabaeans, who were some of the inhabitants of Yemen: India mittit ebur; molles sua tura Sabaei 'Ivory sends India; the soft Sabaens their incense'... Sola India nigrum Fert ebanum; solis est turea virga Sabaeis 'The ebony black is only possessed by India; the incense twigs by the Sabaeans only'. The same is recorded by Pomponius Mela: 'The country which spreads between the two seas is named Arabia, and styled Eudaemon (Eudaimon, now modern Aden), a narrow strip, but very fertile bearing cinnamon, frankincense and other aromatic substances'... Pliny... 'There is no country in the world that produces frankincense except Arabia... almost in the very center of that region are the Atramitae, a community of the Sabaei, the capital of whose kingdom is Sabota, a place situated in a lofty mountain. At a distance of eight stations from this is the incense-bearing region, known by the name of Sab (Abana)... Adjoining are the Minaei... the sole transit for the frankincense... The Minaei were the first people who carried on any traffic in frankincense... It is the Sabaei alone, and no other people among the Arabians, that behold the incense tree; and not all of them, for not over 3,000 families have a right to that privilege by hereditary succession; for this reason these persons are called sacred, and are not allowed, while pruning the trees or gathering the harvest, to be defiled, either by intercourse with women or coming in contact with the dead; by these religious observances it is that the price of the commodity is so enhanced... they make an incision on the tree... an unctuous foam oozes forth, which gradually thickens and coagulates... received upon mats of palm leaves... is of a white color.' (Pliny, XII, 3a.)... there is still another product which seems to have been found in abundance in the country of Punt. That is cinnamon... 'one of the marvels of the country of Punt' (according to the inscriptiosn of Queen Hatshepsut)... there is no sign of cinnamon in Somaliland... Marco Polo mentions cinnamon as growing in Malabar and Ceylon (Franspton, The Most Noble and Famous Travels of Marco Polo, pp.113 and 128)... Discorides... "Arabia... is the only country which produces frankincense, myrrh, cassia, cinnamon and laudanum'... Herodotus narrates that the phoenix comes to Egypt from Arabia, wherefrom it brings a ball of myrrh to the temple of Ra_ at Helipolis (Herodotus, III,107)... the bird that brings cinnamon and sprigs of incense is called in Arabic khol... Theophrastus, Atheneus and Strabo allude to the wealth of Arabia in aromatic plants... We hear of several expeditions from Egypt to get the natural riches of the Land of Punt. The first of these we know of took place under the Pharaoh Sahure of the Vth Dynasty (28th cnetury BC)... another expedition by the last king of the XIth Dynasty Mentuhetep IV Sankhkara, under the leadership of his admiral Hannu. The fleet sailed from Koseir, at the entrance of the Wa_di Hamma_ma_t, reached PUnt and, laden with gums, incense and aromatic spices produced there, returned in safety (Breasted, A History of Egypt, p.153; Flinders Petrie, History of Egypt, I, p.142)... expedition sent by the famous Queen Hatshepsut of the XVIIIth Dynasty (C. 1503-1481 BC)... results recorded and graphically illustrated on the walls of the rock and temple of Deir dl-Bahari... the people of Punt, as they are represented in those carvings, are not Semitic, as Arabs proper should be. Thei type, as it should be from what we know of the history of Yemen, is Hamitic... The Minaei were excellent merchants and their trade, especially in spices and incense, was very brisk (Encyclopaedia of Islam, pp. 377-379). The name Agur of one of the few kings of this nation known to us, is thoroughly Dravidian. All these details seem to indicate the enterprising Indian traders of the Proto-Indian period... The Minaeans of Yemen had an independent writing, which is acknowledged as a development of the Proto-Indian script of the Indus Valley inscriptions (Hunter, The Script of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and its connection with other Scripts, p.22)... Land of Punt... inhabited by people who according to all evidence, had originally come from India... The Periplus remarks that the inhabitants of Sokotra are 'a mixture of Arabs and Indians and Greeks who have emigrated to carry on trade there'... 'no one given spot in the reach of the ancients could produce at one and the same time so many of the coveted products of that day-- the ruby coloured dragon's blood (draco kinnabari of Piny), three distinct species of frankincense, several kinds of myrrh, besides many other valuable gum-producing trees, and aloes of super-excellent quality'. (Bent, Southern Arabia, pp.343-344)... The Achemenian King Darius in an inscription at Nakht-i-Rustam, near Persepolis, calls it (Sokotra) iskuduru, which seems to be a corrupt repetition of the sounds of sukha_da_ra. In an Egyptian tale of the XIIIth Dynasty (18th century BC), the island is spoken of as paa-enka, which is translated 'Island of the Genius', and happens to be the Home of the King of the Incense Land... incense bearing country panchaia, mentioned by Virgil... 'totaque thuriferis panchaia pinguis arenis: the whole Panchaia rich in incense (impregnated) sands'..." (Rev. H. Heras, Studies in Proto-Indo-Mediterranean Culture, Bombay, Indian Historical Research Institute, 1953, pp. 339-360)]. Vateria indica: "Vateria... Resinous trees... habitat: Seychelles, South India. The resin of vateria indica is used medicinally. A large and very handsome tree; bark whitish; young branches and inflorescence clothed with hoary, shellate pubescence; leaves: ellpitic-oblong, sharply pointed or obtuse, cordate or rounded at the base, glabrous.... distribution: Western India: from N. Kanara to Travancore up to 3,500 to 4,000 ft. chiefly in evergreen forests, but occasionally along rivers in deciduous forests. In Coorg both in the Ghat forest and east of the Ghats up to 3,500 ft., in the latter locally always in evergreen forest. The bark is hot with a sharp, bitter, acrid taste; alexipharmac, cures cough, anaemia, ear diseases, urinary discharges, skin eruptions, ulcers and wounds; useful in dysentery, leprosy, itch (Ayurved). The resin is of three kinds -- reddish, dark, slightly white; bitter, becoming more bitter as it gets older; alexipharmac, tonic, carminative, expectorant, detergent; good for sore throat and in chronic bronchitis, piles, rheumatism, amenorrhoea, diarrhoea, hemicrania, tuberculous glands, boils, and ringworm; the smoke is good in painful piles and beneficial to the foetus in pregnant women (Yunani). Under the influence of gentle heat, the resin combines with wax and oil and forms an excellent resinous ointment; it forms a good substitute for official resin. Fine shavings are administered internally to check diarrhoea. The fruit yields a solid fatty oil, which has obtained considerable repute as local application in chronic rheumatism and some other painful affections. Arabic: mukilijraka; Bengal: chundrus; Bombay: ral; Canarese: bilidhupa, biluguggula, dhupa, dhupada, dupa, guggula, maddidhupa, mandadupa, rala, shandike; Coorg: bilidupa; Deccan: sufeddamar; English: Indian copal tree, piney varnish tree, white dammer tree; Greek: sandaraki; Hindi: kahruba, sageddamar, sandras; Malayalam: kunturukkam, pantam, payani, payin, perumpayani, telli, vellakkunturukkam; Persian: buejhudan; Sanskrit: ajakarna, dhupa, kundura, mandadhupa, marichapatraka, pitaphada, sarjaka, shala; Sinhalese: hal, haldumula; Tamil: attam, kukkil, kukkulu, kundurukkam, kungiliyam, kungulu, sadagulai, tubam, vellaikkundurukkam, vellaikkungiliyam; Telugu: dupadamaru, telladamaru, tellaguggilamu; Tulu: lobhana, paini, tandoligeda; Urdu: guggul." (Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I, pp.291-293). Shorea: Shorea: resiniferous trees. Leaves entire or repand, with parallel nerves; stipules large... All the species abound in various kinds of copalline resins. The following are used medicinally: in the Philippine islands: shorea guiso, shorea malaanonan, shorea mangachapuy; in Cambodia: shorea cambodiana, shorea harmandii; official: the oil from the seeds of shorea stenoptera in Holland; the resin from shorea wiesneri and other species in Russia and Spain; from various species in Austria. Shorea robusta (Plate 113): a deciduous tree, seldom quite leafless, bark dark brown, smooth or with a few longitudinal cracks. Leaves 10-30 by 5-18 cm., ovate-oblong, acuminate, tough, thinly coriaceous, glabrous and shining when mature, base cordate or rounded, lateral nerves 12-15 pairs; petiole 1.2-2 cm. long... flowers... yellowish... fruit 1.2 cm. long, ovoid, acute, indehiscent, pubescent... Distribution: Kangra district of the Punjab, from the Kalesar forest in the Ambala district along the sub-Himalayan tract to the Darrang district of Assam, sometimes in the outer Himalayan valleys up to 5,000 ft.; Garo hills, Kamrup, Khasia hills, jaintia hills, from the Santal Paraganas through Chota nagpur and Orissa to Ganjam, Jeypore, Central Provinces, Vizagapatam. The bark and leaves are oily, hot, bitter, and acrid; anthelmintic, alexeteric; cures ulcers and wounds, itch, leprosy, gonorrhoea; enrich the blood, stop perspiration, improve the complexion; good in cough, diseases of the vatgina, carache, headache. The fruit is sweet and cooling; aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, tonic; causes 'vata'; useful in thirst, burning, tubercular ulcers, and blood troubles. The resin is cooling but difficult to digest; bitter and acrid; astringent to the bowels; purifies the blood; lessens perspiration and fever; good for wounds, ulcers, burns, pains, itching, fractures, useful in dysentery; good for vaginal discharges (Ayurved). The resin has a bad taste and smell; tonic to the brain; good in menorrhagia, enlargement of the spleen, obesity, ulcers, and wounds; useful in toothache; as a collyrium good for eyesores and burning of the eye. The oil is good for skin diseases, scabies, and all kinds of wounds (Yunani). The resin is regarded as astringent and detergent. It is used in dysentery, and for plasters and fumigations. It is commonly given for weak digestion, gonorrhoea, and as an aphrodisiac. Arabic: kaikahr; Bengal: sakher, sakhu, sakhua, sakoh, sal, sala, salwa; Bhumij: sargi; Bombay: sal; Burma: enkhyen; Canarese: asina, asu, ashvakarna, guggula, kabbu, sarja, vamsa; Central provinces: rinjal, sal, sarai; Deccan: ral; English: common sal, Indian dammer, sal tree; Garwhal: kandar; Garo: bolsal; Gujerati: ral; Hindi: sakher, sakhu, sakhua, sakoh, sal, sala, salwa, shal; Kharwa: sakwa; Khond: jargi; Kolami: sarjum, sekura; Kumaon: sal; Lepcha: taksalkung, teturl; Malayalam: maramaram, mulappumarutu; Marathi: guggilu, rala, sajara; Nepal: sakwa; North Western Provinces: kandar, koron, sakhu, sal; Oudh: koroh; Persian: lalemoabbari, lalemohari; Punjab: sal, seral; Sanskrit: agnivallabha, ashvakarna, ashvakarnika, chiraparna, dhanya, dirghaparna, dirghashakha, divyasara, jaladashara, jaranadrua, kala, kalalajodhbhava, karshya, kashayi, kaushika, kaushikahva, kushika, lalana, latashankha, latataru, rala, ralakarya, sala, saraniryas, salaveshta, sarja, sarjakarya, sarjarasa, sarjjaka, sasyasambara, sayasamvera, shankataru, shankurriksha, shasyasambara, shura, sidhaka, sureshtaka, tarkshyaprasava, mallivriksha, vansha, vastakarna, yakshadhupa; Santal: sarjom; Sinhalese: dammala; Tamil: attam, kungiliyam, shalam; Telugu: gugal, guggilamu, saluva, sarjakamu, sarjamu; Uraonm: sekwa; Urdu: ral; Uriya: sagua, sala, salwa, shalua, sodingi, soringhi, sorjjo. Shorea tumbuggaia = vatica tumbuggaia: a large tree (Plate 114). Leaves ovate or oblong-cordate... Distribution: forests of the Cuddapah, North Arcot and Chingleput hills upto 3,000 ft. The resin is used as an external stimulant. English: green dammer; Malayalam: tampakam; Tamil: karundanbai, karuppudamar, tambagam, tambai, tambugai; Telugu: guggilamu, jalari, nalladammara, nallaguggilamu." (Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I, pp. 288-290).

142.Image: fork-tailed shrike: a_t.a a kind of bird = dabbimukha (Pali); a_t.i turdus ginginianus (Skt.)(Pali.lex.) dhu_mya_t.a the fork-tailed shrike (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. dhu_mala of a smoky hue; purple (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. u_ta_ purple (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vya_ghra_t.a a sky-lark; name of another bird; bharadva_ja, hegga_r-a (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. at.a roaming, wandering (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.t.a-gaval a tail bifurcated (or lateral) branch (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ke_ya shrike (Kuwi)(DEDR 1994). kukkat.i fork-tailed shrike (Ka.); ku~_kat.ima~_ga id. (Te.)(DEDR 1627). a_t.i a kind of bird; a_t.i-mukham a surgical instrument used in blood-letting (so-called from its being like the bead of the bird a_t.i)(Skt.lex.) bagha kerket.a, kalaia the shrike (Santali.lex.)

394.Harvest; to cut; sickle: ark- to cut, reap (Nk.); ark- (arakt-) to harvest grain by cutting (Kol.); arna crop, harvest, crop, cultivation, corn, grain (Kuwi); harring to tear, rend asunder (Br.); ar-f- (ar-t-) to cut, reap (To.); ar-ake fragment, piece (Ka.); arv- (art-) to cut (meat) into small pieces for broth (Ko.); ar-uppu severing, sawing, harvest; ar-r-am extremity, end; ar-u severing, cutting; ar-uka to be severed, cut off, break, cease (Ma.); ar-uvat.ai harvest; ar-ainan- one who reaps; ar-uppu harvest, reaping the crop, piece, section sawn; ar-uti end, limit; ar-al becoming detached by cutting; ar-u (ar-uv-, ar-r--/(mod.) ar-unt-) to be severed, break as a rope, settled; (-pp-, -tt-) to break off, cut, part asunder, sever, cleave, resolve (Ta.)(DEDR 315). ar-i (-v-, -nt-) to cut off; (-pp-, -tt-) to gnaw as white ants; n. cutting; ari va_l. billhook, sickle, garden knife; arivi reaped corn, handful of reaped grain; aruvi stubble of Indian millet; arakku (arakki-) to clip off, prune, cut, sever (Ta.); ariyuka to reap corn, cut grass, cut very small, hack to pieces; ari va_l. sickle, reaping hook; arakkuka to cut, chop off, sever (Ma.); ayr small heap of grain stalks made of one handful in reaping (Ko.); ark- (arky-) to chip (To.); ari (arid-) to cut or lop off; n. a handful or more of corn cut at one stroke (Ka.); arisu to cause to cut off; ariva_l., aruva_l. sickle (Ka.); ark- to cut paddy, harvest; arup-/arp- to cut (Nk.); raz- (rast-) to cut (e.g. with a saw)(Pe.); raspa (rast-) to cut across, cut crosswise; n. a cross cut (Kui); rat- (-h-) to cut (Kuwi)(DEDR 212).

341.Sign, token, remembrance: Öja_ know (Skt.); abhija_na sign, token, remembrance (R.); abhia_n.a sign (Pali); ahin.n.a_n.a (Pkt.); hayon target (to shoot at), present (as a reminder of a foreign place)(Sh.); ahina_n.a, idha_n.a sign, trace (OG.); e~dha_n., edha_n., edha_n.i_ (G.)(CDIAL 516). cf. sam.ja_ agreement, understanding (S'Br.); sa~_je~ vow, promise (M.)(CDIAL 12874). upaja_ invented knowledge (Pa_n..); upaja_ta ascertained (S'Br.); upaa_ta (Pali); uhuu sign, token (S.); uhuan.u, oan.u sign, indication (S.)(CDIAL 2171). parija_na_ti notices, learns (RV.); knows accurately, recognizes (Pali); pariya_n.ai (Pkt.); pira_n to know, recognize (Wot..); parya_n.u, parya_n.o counsel, thought, assignation (S.); paryanan. to recognize; paryan.na_, parya_n.na_ (WPah.)(CDIAL 7816). pi_en, pia_n, pian, pi_n to know, recognize, hear (Pas'.); pie_n to know (Shum.); pia_n (Gaw.)(CDIAL 8157). praja_ wisdom (S'Br.); paa intelligence (Pali); pan.n.a_, pajja_ (Pkt.); pan.a, pana wisdom (Si.); pa_ne i the direction of (B.)(CDIAL 8515). sapraja endowed with understanding (MBh.); sappaa intelligent (Pali); sapan, hapan wise, clever (Si.); hapana_ wise man (Si.)(CDIAL 13164). praja_yate_ is discovered (Skt.); praja_payati shows, points out (S'Br.); paayati is known, appears (Pali); pan.n.a_yai knows well (Pkt.); panenava_, pen.anava_, penanava_ to appear, be visible; caus. penvanava_ to show (Si.); paa_pe_ti makes known (Pali); pan.n.ave_i teaches (Pkt.); pan.avanava_, panavanava_ to appoint, fix, settle as law, cause to be (Si.)(CDIAL 8516). pratipraja_ti ascertainment (AitBr.); pil.ipan knowledge (Si.)(CDIAL 8579). pratyabhija_na_ti recognizes (MBh.); paccabhia_n.a_di, paccahiya_n.ai recognizes (Pkt.); pacha_nun (K.); pacha_n.na_, pucha_n.n.a_ (P.); pus'a_n.n.u_ (WPah.); pachya_n.an.o (Ku.); pahica_nnu, paica_nnu (N.); pahica_na recognition (MB.); pahica_nab to recognize (Aw.); pahica_nna_, paicha_nna_, pahca_nna_ (H.); picha_n.n.o (Marw.); picha_n.vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 8637). pratyabhija_na recognition (MBh.); paccabhia_na recognition (Pali); prinjan, prinjar, pincar, pinjar, pencar to know, recognize (Gypsy); paccabhin.n.a_n.a (Pkt.) (CDIAL 8638). cf. vijapti information, report, request (to a superior) (Skt.) (CDIAL 11706). samabhija_na_ti recognizes fully, perceives (MBh.); samabhija_ta (Skt.); samabhija_na_ti knows, recollects (Pali); samabhija_n.ai 2 sg. imper. samabhija_n.a_hi (Pkt.); sea_n.an, pp. sea_ta_ to recognize (L.); sija_ta_ recognized (L.); pres. st. sija_n.an. (L.)(CDIAL 13184). sama_ja_ta pp. recognizes (MBh.); sua_n.an.u to recognize (S.); su~ja_n.an. (L.); samaa_ta known (Pali); sua_to (S.); suja_ta_ (L.)(CDIAL 13208). sama_ja_payati directs (MBh.); su~ja_pan. to be recognized (L.)(CDIAL 13209).

10.A list of titles: an:kita a signature; in one's own power or subjection; an:kita-na_ma a proper name; an:ka-ma_le a list of titles (Ka.lex.)

77.Sister; mother: akka_ mother (Ka_s'.); sister, bawd (Pkt.); aka_ respectful term for elder sister or any elderly woman (M.)(CDIAL 16). akka_, akkai, akkan-, akka_ttai, akka_l., akkacci, akkaicci elder sister (Ta.); akka id., wife of an elder brother, elderly maternal or paternal cousin, a term of endearment denoting an elderly woman (Ma.); akn elder sister or female parallel cousin (Ko.); okn, okok id. (To.); akka (nom. sg. akkam., i.e. akkan, nom. pl. akkan:gal. / akkandir) elder sister; a woman older than oneself is usually termed akka, endearingly girls are also so called by their elders (Ka.); akk elder sister or female parallel cousin (Kod..); akka, akk elder sister (Tu.); akka id. (Te.); akka_ba_i_ id. (Kol.); akka_,akkal(i) (pl. akkasku), akkal (pl. akkahku) id.; akka husband's elder sister; takka_ (pl. -hk),takka_r (pl. takka_hk) elder sister; takka_ (pl. -k) id. (used only with reference to 2nd and 3rd person)(Go.); aka/akey voc. used to younger girls (Kuwi)(DEDR 23).

124.Image: sitting cross-legged: at.t.an.-ka_l, at.t.an.an.-ka_l, at.t.an.ai-k-ka_l folded legs in sitting cross-legged (Ta.); ad.d.aka_ru the bent knee (Tu.)(DEDR 83). pat.gan.d.o to sit cross-legged; pat.et to cross the legs; har.ak, pat.ak to cross legs when walking; hur.et pat.et id. (Santali.lex.) For pa- cf.: pa_i leg (Kon.lex.)

441.Image: numeral six: a_r-u the numeral six (Ta.Te.Ka.Ma.); a_ji (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) a_r-il-on-r-u one-sixth of a crop, as the proportion due to the Crown (Ta.lex.)

218.Image: oblique, transverse, what is across: ar.ki_, ad.d.e_, a_r.e_ (?ar.e_) oblique, across (Kur.); ad.d.ane, ad.ane across, transversely (Ka.); at.t.am what is across, transverse, thwarting (Ma.); ad. oblique, slanting, at right angles, crosswise (Ko.); ad. ad. at full length, at right angles (Ko.); ad.a, ad.d.a, ad.d.a_, ad.d.e state of being across, transverse, or in the way, state of being broadwise or horizontal, crosswise; obstructing, an obstruction; state of being contrary or perverse (Ka.); ad.d.a crosswise (Kod..); obstacle, hindrance; horizontal, intervening; across, athwart; rafter (Tu.); ad.d.amu obstacle, hindrance; adj. cross, which is crosswise (Te.); ad.am across (Kond.a); addunga across in measuring (Kuwi)(DEDR 83). a.d.e rafter (Kon.lex.) ad.o thwart, edge of a boat (S.); a_d.o transverse (S.); ad.d.a_ thwart of a boat (L.); a_d.d.a_ crooked (P.); a_r. aslant (B.); horizontal lines painted across forehead (H.); a_r.a_ transverse (H.); cross-beam (Or.); beam (B.); a_r.a width (Or.); a_d.o transverse (OMarw.); a_d.u~ slanting (G.); a_d. curved piece of mica worn as ornament by women on forehead (G.); ad.va_ transverse (M.); a_d.a crosswise (Konkan.i)--compounded with an IA. word of same meaning: a_r.a-ba~_ka oblique (Or.); ar.ban:ga_ crooked; m. obstruction (H. ar.b(h)an:ge crosswise, obstacle (N.)(CDIAL 189). cf. a_li row, range, line (Skt.); line, dam (Pali); a_l.i id. (Pali); a_li_ line, row (Pkt.); a_li row (of plants), bed (for plants)(Ku.)(CDIAL 1102).

347.Image: oblique: ayar, ayar ayar oblique, obliquely, not at a right angle; d.angra do ayar ayare calak kana the bullock is going obliquely; noa a~r.gom ayargepe benao akata you have made this harrow oblique (the pole not at a right angle to the harrow)(Santali.lex.) cf. a_r.a-ba~_ka oblique (Or.); ba_n:kar.a_ somewhat curved (Or.); va~_k curve (G.)(CDIAL 11191).

449.Lull to sleep: a_r-a_t.t.u (-a_t.t.i-) to lull to sleep; o_r-a_t.t.u to lull, lullaby (Ta.); a_r-a_t.t.uka, a_r-a_t.ikka to sooth or lull a child to sleep (Ma.)(DEDR 374). horlo lolo a lullaby; orloporlo looking sleepy (Santali.lex.)

231.Image: minute, small: a_n.am smallness, meanness (Kantapu. Vi_rava_ku. Kan. 39)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_n.aka low, inferior, vile (Skt.lex.) a_n.ava small, minute (Pa_n..); aniya small (Si.)(CDIAL 1109). un.o less; la_na_i smallness (Kon.lex.)

503.Small: alpa small (AV.); alpakam a little (S'Br.); appa, appaka (Pali); apa (As'.); alpa (NiDoc.); appa, appaga (Pkt.); a_pu little, few (Sh.); opu mean, of low degree (K.); a_pa_ boy; a_pi girl (A.); ap small (Si.); apele_k little, few; apala, apali_ bad (Ash.); apiluk little, few (Wg.); apila few (Gaw.); apra_ short, short-nosed (M.); eipar.o stunded bullock (WPah.)(CDIAL 722). alpe_ccha having moderate wishes (Skt.); appiccha, appiccha_ contentment (Pali); apis contented; apisa contentment (Si.)(CDIAL 723). svalpaka very small (AV.); svalpa small (Mn.); svalpatgara insignifant (Skt.); sukalpa easy to correct (AV.); sopa_ easy of accomplishment, facile, easy (M.)(CDIAL 13446). sopa_ra_ easy to do (M.)(CDIAL 13447). ar-pam that which is trifling, insignificant (Pin..); ar-pa_yu short life (Civataru. Parama. 26); ar-pakkiyan- < alpa-ja person of little knowledge (Cu_ta. Ekki. Ut. Cu_ta. 3,8)(Ta.lex.) alkal deficiency (Nait.ata. An-n-attaikkan.. 66)(Ta.lex.)

505.To shrink; to be permanent: alku (alki-) to shrink, diminish, lessen (Ta.); to diminish in quantity gradually, curum.kutal (Ta.lex.); to stay, abide; to be permanent, nilaittu nir-r-al (Kural.. 333, Urai)(Ta.lex.); alkal deficiency, poverty (Ta.); ak-ku (ak-ki-) to be reduced, shrink, be dejected, become closed (as a flower); nalku_r (-v-, -nt-) to be poor, indigent, destitute; n. poverty (Ta.); akkud.isu to become small, wane (Ka.)(DEDR 252).

373.Whose sign is smoke: ara_l.aki va_lvel.l.i (dhu_make_tu) vakai (Takkaya_kap. 457, Urai.); a comet (T.E.D.) aral.u, al.l.u parched grain, especially parched paddy or jo_l.a (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) dhu_make_tu whose sign is smoke: agni, fire; pa_vaka; a meteor, a falling star; a very portentous object; a comet; dhu_ma, du_ma, du_ve smoke; vapour; a cloud; dhu_pisu to incense, to set on fire or burn (any incense); to perfume, to make fragrant; dhu_pita, dhu_pa_yita incensed; dhu_pavarti a thin stick covered with frankincense; dhu_padhu_maniro_dhakriye aromatic vapour and smoke being shut in or unable to escape; dhu_padi_panaive_dya the three essential constituents of idol worship: the burning of incense, the waving of lamps, and the offering of boiled rice etc.; dhu_madhvaja whose banner is smoke: agni, fire; the number 3; dhu_mapata_ka id.; dhu_mapa_na, dhu_mrapa_na drinkming, i.e. inhaling, smoke or vapour; smoking tobacco; dhu_mayo_ni a cloud; dhu_mala of a smoky hue; a colour composed of black and red; purple; dhu_mavarn.a, dhu_mravarn.a smoke-coloured; dhu_masam.hati a mass or cloud of smoke; dhu_mye a mass or cloud of smoke; dhu_mra, du_mara, du_mala smoke-coloured, of a smoky hue, grey; dark-red; purple; a mixture of red and black; the colour purple; dark, lurid, obscured; the colour of the rasa called ka_run.ya; dhu_mraka the grey animal: a camel; dhu_mrapatre having grey or dark-red leaves; tobacco (Ka.Te.); tamba_ka (Te.)(Ka.lex.) dhu_p to heat or to be heated; to fumigate, perfume, incense, to make fragrant; (in astrology) to obscure with mist, eclipse; dhu_pa incense, frankincense, perfume, any fragrant substance; the vapour issuing from any fragrant substance (like gum, resin, etc.), aromatic vapour or smoke; a fragrant powder; dhu_pa-aguru a kind of agallochum used for incense; dhu_pa-an:ga turpentine; the sarala tree; dhu_pa-arha a black kind of agallochum; dhu_pa-pa_tram a vessel for incense, censer; dhu_pava_sa fumigating, perfuming; dhu_pa-vr.ks.a a kind of pine, the sarala tree; dhu_paka a perfumer; dhu_mra_ an epithet of Durga_; dhu_mra an epithet of S'iva (Skt.lex.)

346.Image: boa constrictor: ahi snake (RV.Pali.Pkt.); ai_ (Kho.)(CDIAL 994). heru, eru snake (G.); hairu~ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 995). Image: snake: an:katam snake (Iraku. Ya_kap. 71); akat.u_ri snake (Cinta_. Ni.)(Ta.)(T.E.D.) a_r boa constrictor (M.Konkan.i); da_ra- in: da_rakaravala_ the snake bungarus ceylonicus; da_rapolan:ga_ a kind of viper (Si.); a_ha_r, ahi_r the boa constrictor (M.); ha_ru (Konkan.i); ajagara boa constrictor (AV.Pali.Pkt.); ayagara (Pkt.)(CDIAL 148). ahi snake (Pali); azi (Av.); ahi-kun.apa the carcas of a snake; ahi-ga_ha a snake catcher or trainer; ahi-vijja_ snake-craft, i.e. fortune-telling or sorcery by means of snakes (Pali.lex.) ahi snake (TS. i.8.14.2); anguis (Latin); angis (Lithuanian); ahi-go_pa_ guarded by the dragon (RV. i.32.11); aira_vata name of a mythical serpent (AV. viii.10.29)(Vedic.lex.) ahi, ahiran.e a kind of snake, said to be two-headed; ahi the demon Vr.tra; ra_hu (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) aki < ahi snake (Ce_tupu. Ira_man-aruc. 30); aki-talam serpent world in the nether regions (Iraku. Ya_kap. 79)(Ta.lex.) ayan. bin. the cobra; ddudhia ayan., d.omba ayan., ka~r.a~ayan., jeren. ayan., jola ayan., hende ayan., kabra ayan. varieties of cobras distinguished by Santals (Santali.lex.)

427.Image: serpent: arbuda a serpent-like demon killed by Indra; a serpent; a long round mass, lump of flesh; arbudi a serpent-like demon conquered by Indra (Skt.lex.)

484.Image: water-snake: alagarda water-snake (Sus'r.); alagardha, ali_garda, ali_gardha id. (Skt.); alagarda_ large poisonous leech (Skt.); alagadda water-snake (Pali); ala_dh (Mth.)(CDIAL 699). ol.l.e, hol.l.e, ul.l.i a kind of amphisbaena (Ka.); ol.l.e pa.mbi water-snake (Kod..); ol.l.e, olle id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1018).

127.A sowing machine: ad.d.e a kind of sowing machine; sad.d.e (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

369.Cultivated: ra_dha_, ra_dhi_ cultivated (Soil); poh di_ ra_dhi_ tekahen. na_ kha_dhi_ sown in poh was eaten by none; ra_dhan to sow (P.lex.)

270.Image: open space: ambila, ambela the place around or in front of a temple (Tu.); ambila house on village green for meetings (Kod..); ambala an open shed or hall where public affairs are discussed (Ka.); ampalam place devoted for public use, assemblies, etc., a temple (Ma.); open space for the use of the public, village assembly for transacting village affairs (Ta.)(DEDR 173). Open space, open air, sky; place around a temple: ambara sky (Pkt.); ambura open space, open air, sky (Si.)(CDIAL 573).

344.Javelin, lance: ayil surgical knife, lancet (Ja_n-a_. 30); javelin, lance, ve_l (Ja_n-a_. 33); sharpness (Na_lat.i. 386); iron (Par..amo. 8)(Ta.lex.) ayil javelin, lance (Ma.); ayiri surgical knife, lancet (Ma.)(DEDR 193). Any ore, native metal; lancet, surgical knife: ayil iron (Ta.); ayir, ayiram any ore (Ma.); aduru native metal (Ka.); ajirda karba very hard iron (Tu.)(DEDR 192). ayas metal, iron (RV.); ayo_ (Pali); aya iron (Pali.Pkt.); ya id. (Si.)(CDIAL 590). yahun.u iron filings (Si.)(CDIAL 589). yakad.a iron (Si.); ayaska_n.d.a a quantity of iron, excellent iron (Pa_n..gan..); ayo_ku_t.a, ayaku_t.a iron hammer (Pali); yakul.a sledge-hammer (Si.); yavul.a (< ayo_ku_t.a) (Si.)(CDIAL 592).

116.Sphaeranthus indicus: at.akka_-man.iyan sphaeranthus indicus (man.iyan a kind of paddy)(Ma.); ad.ike-kasa a low annual plant growing in rice-fields, sphaeranthus indicus (kasa weed); ad.ika-ba_r..e-gid.a a climbing herb, cucumis pubescens (Ka.); ad.ake-ba_re cucumis pubescens (Tu.)(DEDR 62).

205.Spleen: ar.xa_ spleen (Kur.); ar.gu id. (Malt.)(DEDR 91). nereal spleen (Pa.); niran-jal an internal organ, possibly the sweetbreads; nir-jar. the spleen of animals; narnjari an internal organ (? pancreas)(Go.); mirjer. intestines (Kol.)(DEDR 3751). antah-stha interior (S'Br.); andasto_n liver (Pas'.)(CDIAL 352). tan:ka lungs, liver (Tu.); san:ka liver (Tu.); tarn:gud. id. (Kol.); tarn:gur., tan:g id. (Nk.); tar.un:g id. (Pa.); tar.in. id.; tan.ail pl. id. (Ga.); tar.aki, tana_ki,tane_ki, tane_ki_, tara_ki, tar.aki, tar.ak, ta_nd.'ki, tar.ki, tar.k id.; tudakee the heart; tan.ike the liver (Go.); tar.ki, tan.a_ki id. (Kond.a); tr.a_kin. pl. id. (Pe.); t.r.a_ken. id. (Mand..); tla_d.a, tra_d.a, tr.a_dan:ga id. (Kui); thr.a_'na, tra'na, ta_l.l.a id. (Kuwi); ta_d.ya = kloman- lung (Skt.)(DECDR 3120). antastya intestines (AitBr.); andas', andec liver; andec guts (Pas'.); ande_c guts (Gaw.)(CDIAL 376). antagun.a lower intestine, bowel, mesentery (Pali); atun.a, pl. atun.u bowel (Si.); ateran:gi_n (Gaw.)(CDIAL 1183). anor.o, pl. anyu_r.a_ entrail (Ku.)(CDIAL 1184). a_ntrika visceral (Skt.); indre~ entrails (Kal.); el (Bshk.)(CDIAL 1186). a_ntra entrail (RV.); antra (Sus'r.); anta lower intestine (Pali); am.ta entrail (Pkt.); czi (Sh.); anjon. (D..); andar (K.); a~_d.ro (S.); a_ndra~_ pl. a_ndr, a~_dra_ (L.); a_ndar (P.); a~_d (EP.); a~_t.l., a~_t.l.a_, a~_tra (WPah.); a~_t internal organs (N.); entrails (A.B.); a~_ti pulp and seeds of cucumber (B.)[a~_tarasa_ natural juice of meat (B.)(CDIAL 1185)]; anta-bujuna_ intestines; anti inside of a melon (Or.); a~_t entrail (Bhoj.H.); id. (M.); a~_ta pl. (Konkan.i); atun.a (Si.); am.trad.i_ entrail (Ap.); a~_dr.i_ (P.); a~_dr.o, a_nr.o (Ku.); a_nro (N.); a~_tr.i_ (H.EP.); a~_trar.u~, a~_trar.i_ (G.); a~_td.e~, a~_td.i_ (M.); andrala_o (Kho.); ajulo, azelo_ (Sh.)(CDIAL 1182). jera~_d.i_ liver, lights and spleen of an animal suspended by the windpipe (S.)(CDIAL 10393). cf. i_ral, i_rul. internal organ of the body, as liver or spleen (Ta.)(DEDR 546). cf. karal., karul. lungs and heart, liver, bowels (Ma.)(DEDR 1274). yakr.t, yaknas liver (RV.); yaka- in cmpd. (Pali); jaga (Pkt.); yo_k (Wg.Kt.); wyak (Kt.); jogo_ (Tor.); jikur.o (Ku.); yakana (Pali); wi_en, yu_n (Ash.); yai (Kt.); zi_argu, za_n:ga (Kal.); segun (Kho.); s.an:gur entrails (Kho.); s.ogun (Phal.); ya_n (Bshk.); u~_, yum (Sh.); jero (S.); ja_ra_ (L.); jara~d.i_ inflammation of the liver (M.); jigar (Pers.); jagar liver (Bal.); zagar bird's crop (Kho.); jhan:ga_r liver (Phal.)(CDIAl 10394). ka_l.iz liver (Kon.lex.)

205.Spleen: ar.xa_ spleen (Kur.); ar.gu id. (Malt.)(DEDR 91). nereal spleen (Pa.); niran-jal an internal organ, possibly the sweetbreads; nir-jar. the spleen of animals; narnjari an internal organ (? pancreas)(Go.); mirjer. intestines (Kol.)(DEDR 3751). antah-stha interior (S'Br.); andasto_n liver (Pas'.)(CDIAL 352). tan:ka lungs, liver (Tu.); san:ka liver (Tu.); tarn:gud. id. (Kol.); tarn:gur., tan:g id. (Nk.); tar.un:g id. (Pa.); tar.in. id.; tan.ail pl. id. (Ga.); tar.aki, tana_ki,tane_ki, tane_ki_, tara_ki, tar.aki, tar.ak, ta_nd.'ki, tar.ki, tar.k id.; tudakee the heart; tan.ike the liver (Go.); tar.ki, tan.a_ki id. (Kond.a); tr.a_kin. pl. id. (Pe.); t.r.a_ken. id. (Mand..); tla_d.a, tra_d.a, tr.a_dan:ga id. (Kui); thr.a_'na, tra'na, ta_l.l.a id. (Kuwi); ta_d.ya = kloman- lung (Skt.)(DECDR 3120). antastya intestines (AitBr.); andas', andec liver; andec guts (Pas'.); ande_c guts (Gaw.)(CDIAL 376). antagun.a lower intestine, bowel, mesentery (Pali); atun.a, pl. atun.u bowel (Si.); ateran:gi_n (Gaw.)(CDIAL 1183). anor.o, pl. anyu_r.a_ entrail (Ku.)(CDIAL 1184). a_ntrika visceral (Skt.); indre~ entrails (Kal.); el (Bshk.)(CDIAL 1186). a_ntra entrail (RV.); antra (Sus'r.); anta lower intestine (Pali); am.ta entrail (Pkt.); czi (Sh.); anjon. (D..); andar (K.); a~_d.ro (S.); a_ndra~_ pl. a_ndr, a~_dra_ (L.); a_ndar (P.); a~_d (EP.); a~_t.l., a~_t.l.a_, a~_tra (WPah.); a~_t internal organs (N.); entrails (A.B.); a~_ti pulp and seeds of cucumber (B.)[a~_tarasa_ natural juice of meat (B.)(CDIAL 1185)]; anta-bujuna_ intestines; anti inside of a melon (Or.); a~_t entrail (Bhoj.H.); id. (M.); a~_ta pl. (Konkan.i); atun.a (Si.); am.trad.i_ entrail (Ap.); a~_dr.i_ (P.); a~_dr.o, a_nr.o (Ku.); a_nro (N.); a~_tr.i_ (H.EP.); a~_trar.u~, a~_trar.i_ (G.); a~_td.e~, a~_td.i_ (M.); andrala_o (Kho.); ajulo, azelo_ (Sh.)(CDIAL 1182). jera~_d.i_ liver, lights and spleen of an animal suspended by the windpipe (S.)(CDIAL 10393). cf. i_ral, i_rul. internal organ of the body, as liver or spleen (Ta.)(DEDR 546). cf. karal., karul. lungs and heart, liver, bowels (Ma.)(DEDR 1274). yakr.t, yaknas liver (RV.); yaka- in cmpd. (Pali); jaga (Pkt.); yo_k (Wg.Kt.); wyak (Kt.); jogo_ (Tor.); jikur.o (Ku.); yakana (Pali); wi_en, yu_n (Ash.); yai (Kt.); zi_argu, za_n:ga (Kal.); segun (Kho.); s.an:gur entrails (Kho.); s.ogun (Phal.); ya_n (Bshk.); u~_, yum (Sh.); jero (S.); ja_ra_ (L.); jara~d.i_ inflammation of the liver (M.); jigar (Pers.); jagar liver (Bal.); zagar bird's crop (Kho.); jhan:ga_r liver (Phal.)(CDIAl 10394). ka_l.iz liver (Kon.lex.)

420.Image; sprout: arumpu (arumpi-) to bud (Kur-al.. 1227); sprout, spring forth; n. bud, soft sprouting hair, young beard or moustache; arumpi (-pp-, -tt-) to bud, sprout, rise (Te_va_. 969,4); arumpar bud; aruppam first sprouting of moutsache (Ta.); arimpu flower bud, first appearance of fruit (Ma.); arumbu flower bud (Ka.)(DEDR 224). Image: germ of a grain of paddy: aruppam germ of a grain of paddy (Iraku. Na_t.. 32)(Ta.lex.) Image: stubble of Indian millet: aruvi stubble of Indian millet; arivi reaped corn, handful of reaped grain (Ta.); ayr small heap of grain stalks made of one handful in reaping (Ko.); ari a handful or more of corn cut at one stroke (Ka.)(DEDR 212). Ear of paddy: ari rice, paddy, ear of paddy (Ta.); grain of rice freed from chaff, seed, grain (Ma.); rice freed from husk, any small grain (Tu.); argi rice (Bel.); arici rice without husk, any husked grain (Ta.); rice (Ma.)(DEDR 215). Paddy used for seeds: her adj, with baba, paddy used for seeds, but not sown in mud, in contrast to acar.a baba paddy seeds sown in mud; kunt.ababa paddy seeds fallen on the field and sprouting next year; her kode a field of sown eleusine coracana in contrast to roa kode a field wherein this millet has been transplanted; her to sprinkle fine dry materials such as dust, sand, salt, etc. or besprinkle with them; to sow; her-en to besprinkle oneself with dust, sand etc.; he-p-er to besprinkle each other with such materials; her-o to get strewn; he-ne-er the extent or amount of sowing; the act of sowing; the field which has been sown; here adj. destined to be sown; herea, heretea seeds; heroa, herotea fields to be sown (Mu.lex.) Filigree; image: soft sprouting hair: arumpu filigree work in imitation of buds; soft sprouting hair, young beard or moustache; arumpu-t-tor..il filigree work in imitation of flower buds (Kalit. 104, Urai); arumpu-kat.t.i name of a sub-divion of the Ve_l.a_l.as, esp. in Trichinopoly and Ramnad districts, from the occupation of making garlands; arumpu man.i necklace of gold beads set with granules of gold; arumpu val.aiyam gold or silver rings interspersed with beads in a rosary; arumpu_t.t.u anything too short to be securely fastened, as a short girdle, necklace or bowstring; arumpu_tu making and uniting globules of melted gold by blowing (Ta.lex.)

172.Thin flat plate of gold; stamping, coining: thari brass plate (Santali.lex.) at.ar thin flat plate of metal, esp. gold (Ta.)(at.arpor- cirakatta_l va_kki : Kalit. 51,7) (Ta.lex.); ad.i- (ad.ip-, ad.ic-) (lightning) strikes (Kod..); at.ippu printing, stamping, coining (Ma.)(DEDR 77). ad.acu to rap, to cuff (Ka.); ad.acu, ad.ucu to beat, strike, break, destroy, smite (Te.); at.i to beat, to strike (Ta.Ma.); ad.aya_l.a a mark, a sign (Ka.); ad.iya_la (Te.); at.aiya_l.am (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

177.Message: seal, emblem: at.aiya_l.am mark, symbol, emblem, seal (Ta.); mark, sign (Ma.); ad.aya_l.a mark, sign (Ka.); ad.iya_lamu sign, token (Te.); od.yo.l.m sign (To.)(DEDR 89). dag mark; to mark (Santali.lex.) da_kai show (Kon.lex.)

130.Image: stand: ad.d.an.ige a three-legged high stand with steps used as a ladder (Ka.); a small wooden or metal (generally) three-legged stand (Ka.); ad.an.i_ (M.); at.t.a_l.ai a Cingalese bench (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) ga~r.sa~de a stand for pots (Santali.lex.)

11.Image: stirrup: an:gavad.i, an:go_n.i a stirrup (Ka.); an:kapat.i, an:kavat.i (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. an:ko_le stirrup (Tu.)(DEDR 32).

286.Grinding stone: ammi horizontal stone for macerating spices for curry, grinding fine mortar, etc. (Ta.); grinding stone (Ma.); a stone to grind or bruide things upon (Ka.)(DEDR 184).

12.Image: a decorated stool: an:ka-van.i a decorated stool or seat (Ka.lex.)

304.Image: small stool: hayi_n.i small stool (Phal.); hai_n chair (Phal.); low bed (BShk.); hayana covered palanquin (Skt.)(CDIAL 13977).

144.Image: to stop intrepid combatants; to control: at.kao, at.ok to prevent, hinder, check, obstruct; calakin at.kaoena I was prevented from going (Santali.lex.) at.akku-tal to control (Ta.); id. (Ma.); ad.acu id. (Te.); ad.aku id. (Ka.); at.akkam submission, subordination (Tol. Po. 260, Urai.); id. (Ma.); ad.akuva id. (Te.); ad.aka id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. at.aru obstinate (S.)(CDIAL 179). at.t.am opposition, cross direction; enmity, rivalry (Tiruvil.ai. Kat.alcuvar-a. 9)(Ta.); ad.d.amu (Te.); ad.d.a (Ka.); at.t.am (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. at.kan.u to be stopped (S.)(CDIAL 182). at.ikil that which subdues or controls (Ka.lex.) ad.na_ (ad.cas/ad.d.as) stop stubbornly where one is (a naughty child, intrepid combatants, etc.) (Kur.) (DEDR 83). at.akkam submission, subordination (Tol. Po. 260, Urai.)(Ta.); ad.akuva (Te.); ad.aka (Ka.); at.akkam (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) at.o_pu, at.o_pa, at.o_bu, a_t.o_pa control, power (Ka.); at.apa, at.o_pa control (M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to subdue: at.an:ku to obey, yield, subdue, to be subdued (Kur-al., 124); at.akku to control (Ta.); at.an.n:kuka to be contained, submit, yield, be calmed; at.akkuka to subdue, allay, quiet (Ma.); ar.g to stop, be obedient (Ko.); ar.k to cause to stop (Ko.); ar.kat.m obedience; ar.km (obl. ar.kt) act of making submit, burial (Ko.); or.k to subdue; od.km submission, burial (Tu.); ad.an:gu, ad.agu to be humbled, crouch; ad.aku to subdue, control; akku to subdue, bring under control; ad.ak (ad.aki) to hold in closed hands; ad.a_gu, ad.agu to yield, submit, be humbled; ad.a_cu, ad.acu to suppress, humble (Te.)(DEDR 63). at.akkam burial (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) hat.kan.u to hesitate (S.); hat.kan. to hinder, forbid (L.); hat.kan.a_ to hinder (P.); hat.kon.o to hinder, prevent, dissuade (Ku.); har.kanu to oppose, object to (N.); hat.akna_ to stop (H.); hat.akn.e~ to defy (M.)(CDIAL 13945). at.kan.u to be stopped (S.); at.ak hindrance (S.); obstacle (H.); stoppage (G.); at.kan. to stop (L.); at.akn.a_, at.ka_ stoppage (P.); at.akn.o to stop, wait (Ku.); ar.kanu to stick in, stop (N.); a_t.ka_na to obstruct (B.); at.akiba_ to come to a stop (Or.); at.aka_, akat.a_ hindrance (Or.); at.akab to stay, cease (Mth.); at.aka_b to prevent (Mth.); at.ke~ obstacle; at.akn.e~ to be stopped (M.)(CDIAL 182). ar.na_ to stop (P.); ar. stoppage (P.); ar.na_, arna_ to come to a stop (H.); ar.kan.a_ to be stopped (P.); ar.ak obstruction (G.)(CDIAL 187). ar.inu to stop, halt (N.); a_r.na_ to cause to stop (H.); a_d.i obstacle (G.); ad.vu~ to stop (G.); ad.n.e~ to be stopped (M.)(CDIAL 188). atakku to subdue, control (Ta.); atukku to press with fingers (as a ripe fruit or boil), squeeze (Ta.); atakkuka to cram down; atukkuka to squeeze (Ma.); adaku, adapu, adamu, adimu, adugu, adupu, adubu, adumu to press, squeeze (Ka.); adumu to press, squeeze, subdue (Te.); adum- (adumt-) to press (Kol.); adum- to press, to squeeze (Nk.); ayb- to press (Pa.); adb- id. (Ga.); admn, adm-, a_dma_na_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 133). e_t.a_ku_t.am perverseness, contradiction, confusion (Ta.); opposition, perverseness (Ma.); e_d.a_go_d.amu, e_d.a_ko_d.amu contradiction, opposition (Te.)(DEDR 883). ad.d.i objection, hindrance; a_d.ya_ prevent, impede (Kon.lex.)

233.Image: restraint, stoppage; fence: a_ng to stop (Go.); a_g to stop (Go.); e_ng to intercept, hold back, hold up (Mand..); a_nga to intercept, hinder, prevent; n. interception, prevention, defence, herding (Kui); a_nge_ni, a_nge_r.i a fence (Kui); a_ngali to check; a_nginai, a_nga tuh'nai to prevent, defend; a_n:g to stop one from going; a_ngen.i lane, alley (Kuwi); a_pu restraint, stoppage (Ka.); to hold back, restrain; n. stoppage, cessation (Te.); an:kili obstacle, impediment (Te.); a_gulp to obstruct (Ga.); an:ke command, control, restraint (Ka.); force, compulsion, power, control, support (Tu.); a~_ka order, command, prevention, custody (Te); a_n:ke opposition (Ka.)(DEDR 340). an.aku to subdue, control (Ka.); an.a~_gu to yield, submit, be humbled (Te.); an.agu to be humbled, crouch (Ka.)(DEDR 112). cf. a_ja command (Mn.)(CDIAL 1095).

159.Compress; hide; store: ad.aka, an.aka pressing into a narrower compass, compressing; compressed state or condition (Ka.); at.akkam (Ta.Ma.); ad.aka storing (Ka.); the act of stowing away or putting in (as a corpse etc. in the ground)(Ka.); hiding one's self, entering into so as to disappear; hiding place; ad.aka-gol.isu to press into a narrowe compass as cotton in a sack; to press as a bookbinder does; ad.akada ko_n.e a storeroom (Ka.); at.t.u closeness; the state of being crowded or thronged, pressed or squeezed; at.t.ad.avi an impervious forest (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) at.ut. many, very numerous, in crowds (Santali.lex.)

182.Clearing nut: anduga bon:ka resin from the tree, andugu the clearing nut plant, strychnos potatorum; Synonyms: turus.ka, pin.d.aka, sihla, ya_vana, ha_lu-mad.d.i (Ka.lex.) cf. andugu clearing nut (Ka.); andg sa_l tree (Kol.)(DEDR 151). u_da = silha, sihla = lo_ba_na (Ka.lex.) cf. u_da frankincense (Ka.lex.) kucla strychnos potatorum (Santali.lex.) cf. at.t.am nutmeg, ca_tikka_y (Malai.)(Ta.lex.)

84.Stupid; dull; cold: acat.u stupidity (Vive_cin. 64); fool; acat.an- foolish man (Tiruppu. 625); low person; acat.i silly woman (Tiruppu. 243)(Ta.); as'at.u meanness (Ma.); asad.u stupidity, stubbornness; asad.a stupid man; fem. asad.i (Ka.)(DEDR 38). ujar. a lout (H.)(CDIAL 1662). ujhar., ujjhar. stupid (H.)(CDIAL 1663). jad.a stupid, dumb (Mn.); jd.hu, jl.hu dull (RV.)[certainly of non-Aryan origin]; jal.a dull, stupid (Pali); jad.a, jala lifeless, foolish, cold (Pkt.); zar deafness; zoru deaf (K.); jar.u stupid (S.); jar. (Ku.B.); numb, cold (B.); jaire fool (N.); jarro tough (N.); zar inanimate (A.); jar.a stupid, numb, cold (Or.); jar. id. (H.); jar. inert, stupid (G.); jad. cold, stupid (M.); jad.a, zad. heavy (Konkan.i); jad.d.a weak (Pkt.); zad., zod.u stupid (K.); jad.d.a_ lame (L.); ja_r.o cold (WPah.); ja_r., ja_r.i_ foolish, fat (Ku.); ja_r. cold (B.); ja_r.ua_ dumb (Or.); ja_d.u~ thick (G.); ja_d.u (Konkan.i); ja_d., ja_d.a_ (M.);% jla_ foolish (L.); jalha_ dumb (WPah.); jar.h dull, ignorant (Mth.); zur cool (A.); jur.a_ to grow cool, rest (B.); jur.a cold (Or.); ju_r., ju_r cold; jur.a_eb to grow old (Mth.); ju_r., ju_r.a_ cold; coldness (H.)(CDIAL 5090). ja_d.ya chillness (Skt.); stupidity (MBh.); insensibility (Sus'r.); jad.d.a coldness (Pkt.); zad. dullness of intellect (K.); ja_d.d.a_ cold, chill (P.); ja_r.o coldness (Ku.); ja_r.o coldness, winter (N.); za_r (A.); ja_r., ja_r.a_ (B.); ja_r.a (Or.); ja_r. (Bhoj.); ja_d.a_ (OAw.); ja_r.a_ (H.); ja_d. thickness (G.); ja_r.a stupidity (S.)(CDIAL 5180). jad.d.u, jid.d.u, dad.d.u callosity, a callous spot, wart, scar; dad.d.a a blockhead, a stupid, doltish, ignorant man (Ka.); dad.d. a dull man; fem. dad.d.e; dad.d.i a dull woman (Kod..); jad.d.u callosity, hardness as of the skin of the hand, etc., from much use; dad.d.u id.; dull, stupid, idle; dad.d.e a stupid fellow; fem. dad.d.i (Tu.); jed.d.i mole (on skin)(Kor.); jad.d.u drowsiness, sluggishness (Te.)(DEDR 2314).

371.Image: sun: cf. aru sun (Skt.); yor (Kho.)(CDIAL 612). arun.a red (RV.); red colour (RV.); dawn (Mn.); arun.i_ red cow, dawn (RV.); arun.a dawn (Pali); alune prob. the red-headed pochard (As'.); arun.a red; sun (Pkt.); arun dawn (K.); female red-headed pochard (Bi.); arun reddish-brown; dawn (H.); arun.a red; arun.u dawn (Si.)(CDIAL 616). aruna_ra_ tawny (H.)(CDIAL 617). Image: sun: ar..alo_n-, ar..alavan- agni, sun (Ta.); ar..al to burn, glow; fire, flame, heat (Ta.); heat, fire, heat of pepper, brightness, inflammation, grief (Ma.); grief (Ka.); ad.alu id. (Ka.); an.al warmth (Ta.); ar..ali fire; ar..alikkai burning smart; ar..arci burning sensation, pungency, rage, envy, inflammation in cattle; ar..ar-r-u (ar..ar-i-) to burn, heat, cause smarting (as a burn, caustic, poison), irritate; ar..ar-r-i that which causes burning; ar..anam heat, fire; ar..ukku envy; ar..ukkar-u to be envious; ar..ukka_r-u envy; ar..un:ku to suffer, be in distress; ar..un:kal affliction, compassion, pity; ar..ukkam care, anxiety, concern; at.alai trouble, distress (Ta.); arluni to burn, blaze, smart; arat, arad heat, burning, impetuosity; aregga_lo hot season, summer (Tu.); ad.aru grief (Te.); to burn, shine (Te.); er.ki, er.k, ar.ki_, arki_ fever (Go.); r.i_mbu (pl. r.i_pku) piece of burning coal, ember (Kond.a); r.inj- (-it-) to blaze; r.i_h- (-t-) to make fire burn, light fire (Kuwi); an:gna_ to feel pain in the soles of the feet from walking on a rough road (Kur.)(DEDR 276). cf. tar..al to glow, be very hot, burn, shine; fire, live coals, embers (Ta.)(DEDR 3115).

161.Breakfast; supper: atta_l.am supper; atta_r..am evening (Ta.); supper (Ma.)(DEDR 143). mutta_l.am morning (Ta.); mutta_r..am breakfast (Ma.)(DEDR 4958). al night, darkness, evening; alku night, afternoon; alkal night; el, elli id.; ya_lam id. (Ta.); al, allu darkness, night (Ma.); ellna_ to be night-blind, to be very dark (Kur.)(DEDR 235). cf. nallam blackness, darkness (Ta.)(DEDR 3613).

241.Support: an.ai support, prop, protection (Ta.); an.t.ai support (Ta.); an.a support (Ma.); an.a.r by the help of (Ko.); an.d.e support, prop (Ka.); an.d.a support (Te.)(DEDR 123). an.ai a yoke of oxen, with an ordinal number prefixed, as o_ran.ai, i_ran.ai (Ta.lex.) an.ai to join, put close to, as earth to a tree; to tie, fasten, as animals (kat.t.utal); to tie up in a bunch; to produce (Ta.lex.); an.a yoke, pair (Ma.); an.ayam vicinity, neighbourhood (Ma.); on.c ferrule on stick or pounder (To.); an.i joining, fitness, order (Ka.); an.t.u to come or be in contact with (Ka.); an.epuni to come in contact, press (Tu.); an.t.incu to unite, join (Te.)(DEDR 120). an.d.a nearness, support, protection, patronage (Te.)(DEDR 120); nan.mai, nan.i nearness, proximity (Ta.)(DEDR 3588). To lean: a_n.am support (Ta.Ma.); a_n.i id., basis (Ta.); a_nika support, prop, strength (Te.); suport, help, prop (Kond.a); a_n, a_nu to be upheld, rest on, lean against, recline on, lean, bend, support (as the head), bear, endure, suffer; a_nike, a_n:ke, an:ke leaning on, a staff to lean upon; a_nisu to bend or hold towards, make lean against, cause to recline on, cause to be upheld, protect; a_nu leaning on; a_pu an object to lean on, refuge, protection (Ka.); a_nipuni to make lean (Tu.); a_nu to lean, recline, be a support, lean or recline on; a_nincu to place or lay so as to lean against, lean, support (Te.); a_n-e_r- to come to help (Ga.); (tlau) e_n.ba (e_t.-) to lay one's head upon; reclining (Kui); a_nna_ to cause pain being pressed against the skin (as gravel on the road, a knot in a mat)(Kur.); an-r.et.e to lean or rest on pillows (Malt.)(DEDR 408). a_namati bends down (R.); propitiates (RV.); a_na_mayati causes to bend (e.g. a bow)(MBh.); an.iba_ to lean to one side (Or.); a_na_me_ti makes bend (Pali); an.a_van. to turn over (bread when baking)(L.); an.a_iba_ to make to incline or lean against (Or.)(CDIAL 1173). cf. namati bends (RV.Pali); namate_ bows (RV.); namayati makes bend (RV.); n.aamai, n.avai bows, stoops (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6956).

166.Nightsoil sweeper: at.i sweeping the house (Ma.); at.ikka to sweep the ground; at.ippu sweeping (Ma.); ad.ipuni to sweep; ad.ipu sweeping (Tu.)(DEDR 73). had.d.ika servant belonging to the lowest caste; had.d.i, had.d.ipa, had.d.aka, had.ika id. (Skt.); han.d.a_ low-caste female (Skt.); ha_r.i low untouchable caste of nightsoil sweepers (B.Or.); ha_r.ia_n.i a woman of this caste (Or.); ha_r.i_ a low caste; ha_r.ia_ni_ f. (H.)(CDIAL 13953). Slave: at.imai slavery, servitude, slave, servant (Ta.); at.itti, at.icci maid-servant; at.iyavan-, at.iya_n-, at.iyo_n- slave, devotee (Ta.); at.ima slavery, slave, feudal dependency; at.iya_n slave, servant; fem. at.iya_tti (Ma.); ad.ime slavery; ad.iya slave (Ka.); ad.ime slavery, slave, bondman; ad.iya~d.u slave, servant (Te.); ad.i beneath; ad.it below; ad.ita lower; ar.ke below; ad.ita, ad.na lower; ad.(d.)i below, low; ad.i_ down; ar.gi underneath; ar.gita lower (Go.); ad.gi below, underneath; ad.giR(i) that which is underneath; ad.giRan.d. from below, from the bottom (Kond.a)(DEDR 72) ad.i ho! here you! used in addressing women in a familiar manner (Kampara_. Cu_rppan.a. 93)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) an.e interj. used in calling to women (Ka.); an. oh! hey! (Tu.)(DEDR 124). X an.n.u a woman (Ka.); annu id. (Te.)(DEDR 132). at.a_ excl. addressed familiarly to an inferior or a child and in contempt to an enemy; at.i excl. used in addressing women in a familiar manner; at.e_ excl. of calling (Ta.); at.anna, fem. at.i_, hon. at.o_ interj. calling persons of lower rank (Ma.); ad.a ad.a = at.a_, at.e_ (Ta.)(DEDR 70). appa_t.a_ excl. of surprise or relief (Ta.)(DEDR 156). ar.e of contempt; are to an inferior (S.); are_ interjection of calling (VS.S'Br.); interj. of astonishment or contempt (Pali); interj. of calling (Pkt.); are of calling (Ku.H.); of anger or disrespect (N.); to an inferior (A.); of anger or to an inferior (Or.); of grief (G.); of contempt (M.); a_re of contempt (B.)(CDIAL 621). at.appan-, at.appan-a_r honorific appellation among Paravas (J.)(Ta.lex.) For semant. 'nightsoil' in ha_r.i low untouchable caste of nightsoil sweepers (B.Or.)(CDIAL 13953): cf. had defecate (Skt.); hadati defecates (BhP.); hanna evacuated (of excrement) (Skt.); hadati stools (Pali); hanna stooling (Pali); hagun to stool (K.); han:gan.u (S.); haggan., hagan., ha~gan., haggun. (L.); haggn.a_ to stool (P.); hagn.i human excrement (WPah.)[cf. cakan.i dung (Ta.lex.)]; hagn.o to stool (Ku.); hagnu (N.); ha_giba (A.); ha_ga_ (B.); ha_giba_, hagiba_, agiba_ to stool (Or.); hagab (Mth.); hagal (Bhoj.); hagna_ (H.); hagvu~, aghvu~ (G.); ha_gn.e~, hagn.e~ (M.); haga_un.a_ to make defecate (P.); haga_unu (N.); haguwa_iba (A.); ha_ga_na (B.); haga_iba_ (Or.); haga_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 13960). u~hadati anal. after pp. replaced by u_hanati whence pass. u_haati is soiled (Pali); uggiba_ to defecate (Or.)(CDIAL 2092). upahadana discharging faeces upon (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 2279). Anus: ha~_gn.i_ anus (Or.)(CDIAL 13960). zadah anus (Av.); zulu vulva (Pr.)(CDIAL 13961). at.i base, bottom; stand, support, foundation (S.I.I. ii,15)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: buttock: an.d.u a buttock; the buttocks; the bottom of a vessel (Ka.); yo_ni (of children)(Tu.)(Ka.lex.) an.t.i anus (Ta.); an.t.u-tal.l.ukai prolapsus ani (Ta.)(DEDR 129). at.i-t-tal.l.ukai prolapsus ani (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

479.Sweeping: ayk- (aykt-) to sweep away; ayak (obl. ayk-) rubbish (Kol.); ayk- to sweep (Nk.); ay- id. (Nk.); ayp- (ayt-) id. (Pa.); ays-, ayk- (ayt-) id.; ayp- to clean, wipe (Ga.)(DEDR 194). i_ca_na_ to wipe, to wipe a part of one's person, esp. to blow the nose, to blow the nose (Go.); i~_jhrna_ to blow the nose; i~_jna_ to clean the nose; i~_jrna_ to clean one's nose (Kur.); inje to blow the nose (Malt.)(DEDR 537). ocg- (ocgy-) to sweep (Ko.); ud.ugu, ud.agu, ud.igu, hud.ugu id. (Ka.); od.ik- (od.iki-) id. (Kod..); od.ki id. (Kor.); orp- (orup-) to clean floor by hand (Ga.)(DEDR 953). errna_ (irryas) to sweep; errta'a_na_ to make sweep (Kur.); ere to sweep; erpo a broom (Malt.)(DEDR 828). at.i sweeping the house; at.ikka to sweep the ground; at.ippu sweeping (Ma.); ad.ipuni to sweep; ad.ipu sweeping (Tu.)(DEDR 73). ar..ukku dirt, stain, excrement, impurity of mind or soul, discharges after confinement (Ta.); ar..ukku, ar..un.n.u, ar..ukkal dirt, filth (Ma.); ad.aka, ad.ka, ad.ukaja_gu an unclean place, a burying place (Tu.); s-k dirty (To.)(DEDR 283). ar..un:ku (ar..un:ki-) to be spoiled, injured, disfigured; ar..un:kal ruin; ar..uku (ar..uki-) to rot, decompose, putrefy; ar..ukal rotten, fruit, putrefied matter, uncleanness; ar..an, ar..anam corpse (Ta.); ar..ukuka to rot, decay; ar..ukkuka to putrefy (Ma.); ol.g far- articles (par-) in the outer room or outer section of the room of ti. dairy (i.e. more exposed to pollution than those of the inner section)(To.); ar..ugu to decay, rot, spoil by being overboiled; ar..kame state of being decayed, dissolved, digested; ar..ku to be worn out, decayed, digested; ar..kisu, akkisu to digest; ar..gu to be dissolved, decay (Ka.)(DEDR 284). al.i (-v-, -nt-) to become mellow, be over-boiled; al.aivu becoming soft as rice by over-cooking (Ta.); al.iyuka to be over-ripe, decay; al.iccal mellowness, decay (Ma.); alun:guni to be soft (as a ripe fruit)(Tu.)(DEDR 302). cf. ar..i (-v-, -nt-) to perish, be ruined, decay, be mutilated, fail, be defeated, suffer, be used up; (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, spend, ruin, damage, efface, bring to a close; n. ruin, destruction (Ta.)(DEDR 277). aln:g (aln:kt-) to kill (Kol.); al.an.- id. (Nk.)(DEDR 309). alampu (alampi-) to wash, rinse; alacu (alaci-) to rinse; alaicu (alaici-) to wash, rinse; alaittal to wash clothes by moving them about in water (Ta.); alakkuka to wash clothes by beating; alakku washing; alampuka to shake clothes in water (Ma.); as-p- (as-py-) to clean (To.); alambu, alumbu, alabu, alubu to rinse, wash; ale to wash; alasu to shake or agitate in water (as a cloth, vegetables etc., for cleansing)(Ka.); alambuni to wash; alumbuni, lumbuni to plunge, wash, rinse (Ka.); alamu to smear, wash; ala~du to smear, daub, apply; aluku to smear the floor of a house or a mud wall, etc. with macerated cowdung (Te.); akali rinsing (Kui)(DEDR 246). urp- (urt-) to wash face (Ga.); kan:k u_r/u_r.- id.; ur- id. (Go.); u_rpa- (-t-) to wash (hands, feet, face etc.)(Kond.a); ur- (-t-) to wash face (Pe.); ru_p- (-it-) id.; mu_mbu_ ru_pali to wash one's face; mu_mbu ru_pi ki_ali to wash (another's) face; ru_binai to wash (Kuwi)(DEDR 670).

478.Image: be delivered of a child: alga tidy, clear (Kui); alga a_va to be tidy, clear, be delivered of a child (?Kui); ale to get clear (as water when left undisturbed); allna_ to become clear (of liquids left undisturbed)(Kur.)(DEDR 261). avakkhalita washed off (Pali); okhal dirt of body or clothes (A.)(CDIAL 734). cf. ks.al flow, wash; ks.alati flows (Dha_tup.); chalum wash (K.)(CDIAL 3664).

5.Written syllable for accounting: akkara, akkira, accara (Tadbhava of aks.ara) a letter of the alphabet; a syllable (Ka.lex.) The invention of 'writing' is related to accounting: cf. the proverb akkaravu lekkakke tarka ta_ va_dakke, mikka o_dugal.u tirupege [(i.e. letter of the alphabet for accounting, logic for debate, other arts for wandering (for alms)](Ka.lex.) akaram the letter a; akkaram letter of the alphabet (Civataru. Ko_pura. 219); at.caram letter of the alphabet, writing symbol (Ta.lex.) aks.ara indestructible; word, syllable (RV.); letter of the devana_gari_ syllabary (Skt.); aks.ara_ word, speech (RV.); akkhara n.pl. syllables, words (Pali); akkhara written syllable (Pkt.); achur, pl. achar letter of the alphabet (K.); akharu (S.); akkhar (L.P.WPah.); a~_khar letter; pl. writing (Ku.); a_khar any small marks or lines (N.); letter of the alphabet (A.Mth.B.); letter (H.); a_khara letter of the alphabet (Or.OAw.); a~_khar id. (B.); mystical formula or spell (H.); a~_khara letter of the alphabet (OMth.); akura, akara letter (Si.)(CDIAL 38). Word; what is impressed: accu (what is impressed), an impression; a sign; a type, a stamp; accaks.ara, aks.ara a printed letter; a letter of the alphabet; a word, speech; accottu to impress with a mark, to seal; to impress firmly or to press firmly (Ka.lex.) accu sign, mark, print, stamp (E_ka_m. Ula_. 211); exact likeness (Ce_tupu. Ve_ta_. 16); accu < ac vowel (Nan-. 146)(Ta.lex.) Image: circlet: aks.ata the sectarian circlet on the forehead in the centre of the stripe and of a colour different from it; the pigment used for the circlet (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: notch, digit: cf. an:ka hook (RV.); an:gu numerical figure, mark (S.); a~_khi_ pole with hook and netting for gathering mangos (M.); a~_ko notch (G.); a~_k digit (G.)(CDIAL 100). an:gal digit; an:ko number; an:kya_ci vidya arithmetic (Kon.lex.) an:ke a digit (Tu.lex.)

418.Tamil language; Tamils: aruvar the Tamils (Kalin.. 438, Putu.)(Ta.lex.) aruva_, aruva_-na_t.u [one of the 12] regions(s) where a vulgar dialect of Tamil was spoken, possibly a large portion of South Arcot district; aravar the Tamils (Ta.); arava, aravu, aruvu, arva Tamil; aravagitti, araviti a Tamil woman (Ka.); arava Tamil (Tu.); ar-avamu Tamil language; ar-avalu Tamilians (Te.)(DEDR 313).

355.Income: a_yam income, revenue, profit (porul.a_yam : Kur-al., 933); customs, toll (Pin..); duty, obligation (Ta.lex.) a_ya income (Mn.Pali); gain (Pkt.); aya-dvara revenue (NiDoc.); aya, a_ya revenue; aya tax, income, winnings (Si.)(CDIAL 1283). a_yakkam total number; a_yakka_ran- tax gatherer; publican; a_y to pluck, gather; a_yattur-ai custom house, place where tolls are collected (Tan-ippa_, ii,16,34) (Ta.lex.) a_y (a_yd-), a_yi to collect, gather, select, cull; n. collecting, etc.; a_ykul.i, a_yikul.i a collector (of alms), beggar; choosing, selecting, picking up (Ka.); a.y- to choose (Kod..); a_yuni to select, choose, gather, pick up (Tu.); ajapuni to select, choose (Tu.); a_seng to choose (Kol.); a_c- to choose, select (Pa.); a_s- to choose, select (Go.Kond.a); acali to sort out; a_c- (-it-) to choose (Kuwi); ade to select, discriminate, judge (Malt.)(DEDR 363). Income: a_yam income; tax in general (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.); bhatt-a_ya (Ka.) Synonyms: bhakt-a_ya, bhakt-a_da_ya (Skt.), pakt-a_ta_yam (Ta.Skt.)(SITI) revenue in rice or paddy. [cf.bhakti_ name of a land measure (EI 8)(IEG.); dha_ny-a_da_ya tax payable in grains (Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) eri-a_yam income from fishing in the tank, etc.; amount payable by the owners of the fields irrigated by the tank for its upkeep (Ta.Skt.) (SITI.IEG.). eri-i_vu share in the expenses of the maintenance of the tank (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ka_s'-a_yam, ka_s'u-a_yam tax and dues payable in coin; synonyms: ka_s'a_ya-vargam, ka_s'u-vargam, ka_s'u-kad.amai (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) kan.d.-a_yam, kat.t.a_yam consolidated amount payable for the minor taxes; sometimes taken as the compulsory payment of certain dues (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) nel-a_yam tax payable in paddy; synonym: ner.-kad.amai (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) pat.t.a_d.ai-a_yam tax on silk cloth (Ta.Skt.) (SITI.IEG.)

80.Customary dues: accu (cf. ar..isu) to pay unjustly, as rent for land on which the crop has failed, to make a payment which is not properly due and on account of which one suffers loss (Ka.Te.); ar..iccal expense, waste, custom, demand for; ar..ivu expense, esp. customary (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) accu-vari an ancient tax (I.M.P. Tn. 104)(Ta.lex.)

432.Tax: ari tax, duty (Ta.); tax, tribute (Te.); aruvu to pay as taxes; a loan of grain, etc., purchase or sale on credit (Te.); ar.vu_, aruwu loan (Kuwi); appu loan, debt (Te.)(DEDR 216).

433.Harvest: ari-mukkai three handfuls, an ancient tax on the paddy crop (Ta.lex.) ari-et.uppu double handful of grain, as much grain as can be held by both the hand, given as a perquisite from the threshing floor to village servants at the division of produce (Ta.lex.) ari-ra_ci harvest perquisites of village servants, being grain left at the bottom of the heap (Ta.lex.) ar-uvari tax to be paid in fixed instalments (Ta.lex.) ar-u-vat.ai harvest (Ta.lex.) ar-uvat.ai-me_rai emoluments of village servants and artisans paid at the harvest in kind or at a commuted price (Ta.lex.); me_r..i plough (Ta.)(DEDR 5097).

469.Tax: vara_d.a a public subscription; tax, impost (Ka.); viral.a, vira_l.a (Te.); vara_ta urging for payment, dunning (Ka.M.H.); vara_tu id. (Ka.); vari tax, cess; levy, contribution (Ka.Ta.Ma.); vari tege to gather or raise taxes (Ka.lex.) cf. ari tax, duty (Ta.)(DEDR 216).

507.Market dues: al.l.u-k-ka_cu market dues collected from retail sellers; al.l.u handful of grain given on the threshing floor or in the bazaar, as perquisite = al.avuku_li or measurement fees (C.G.); al.l.a_ya-ma_n-iyam right to receive a handful of the grain sold, as perquisite (I.M.P.Sm. 91)(Ta.lex.)

14.Temple festival: a_yano, an:ka_yano a temple festival [an:ka + a_yano](Tu.lex.) cf. an:ka-kkil.ari < an:ka + honours to liberal donors in a temple (Ta.lex.) Control; law: an:gavan.i ability from practice, habitude; force, vigour; prowess or power (Ka.); an:gavan.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) an:ke control, limit; an:g, han:g obligation (Tu.lex.) an a law, an enactment; an ar.i laws and ceremonies (Santali.lex.)

253.Terminalia chebula: pathye the tree terminalia chebula or citrina (Ka.lex.) cf. kat.ukka_y terminalia chebula (Ta.Ma.); haritaki (S.B.)(GMIP, p. 242). cf. madgi terminalia tomentosa (Kol.)(DEDR 4718). an.ile, al.ale, al.ile, al.ule, al.l.i, al.l.e a large tree furnishing Indian myrobalans or ink nuts, terminalia chebula (Ka.); an.ile-ka_yi gall-nut, ink-nut; an.ile-mara ink-nut tree, terminalia chebula; ald.e-ka_yi gall-nut (Tu.)(DEDR 119). atnak terminalia tomentosa (Santali.lex.) jun:gi, rol terminalia chebula (Santali.lex.) cf. kat.u chebulic myrobalan, terminalia chebula (Ta.)(DEDR 1134). ka_re the spinous shurb webera tetranda = canthium parviflorum; terminalia chebula (Ka.)(DEDR 1475). kauha terminalia arjuna (Santali.lex.) cf. ta_n-r-i belleric myrobalan, terminalia belerica (Ta.)(DEDR 3198).

456.Terminalia chebula: arat.u the tree colosanthes indica (AV.); arad.u, aralu (Kaus'.); araluka (Sus'r.); arat.va made of its wood (RV.); arad.u, aralu (Pkt.); aral.u (Or.); the plant terminalia chebula (combretaceae) (Si.); aral.uva its fruit (Si.)(CDIAL 597). cf. kat.u chebulic myrobalan, terminalia chebula (Malaipat.u. 14)(Ta.)(DEDR 1134); cf. ka_re terminalia chebula (Ka.)(DEDR 1475). are_n.ukam root of chebulic myrobalan; cf. hare_n.uka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) pathya_ synonym hari_taki_ (Car. Ci. 5.105, 122); also called abhaya_, hari_taki_, terminalia chebula (Car. Su. 25.40, Vi. 8.133). ren.uka_, haritaki (terminalia chebula) cf. an.ile Indian myrobalan tree or ink nuts, terminalia chebula (Ka.)(DEDR 119). hari_taka the yellow myrobalan tree terminalia chebula (Sus'r.); hari_taki_ (Skt.); hari_taka yellow myrobalan (Pali); hari_t.aka (Pali); harid.aya, hari_d.ai_, hare_d.agi_, harad.ai_, haraai_ (Pkt.); hari_r.a, hari_ra (S.); hari_r., hari_r (L.); harar. (P.); harro (N.); harir.a_, harr.a_ (Or.); harr.a_, hard.a_, harra_, harla_, harr.ai_ (H.); harr.i_ the tree (G.); harr.u~ the fruit (G.); hard.a_, hird.a_ (M.); hard.o (Konkan.i); aral.u, aral.uva the fruit (Si.)(CDIAL 13997). hari_taki_ terminalia chebula (Car. Su. 25.40, Vi. 8.133). haritaki (Skt.B.); harir (H.); hirda (M.); kadukkai (Ta.); karitaki (Te.); katukka (Ma.); hilikha (A.); fruit: astringent, laxative, used externally as a local application to chronic ulcers and wounds and as a gargle in stomatitis; finely powdered used as a dentifrice and considered useful in carious teeth, bleeding and ulcerations of the gums; bark: diuretic, cadiotonic; abundant in N. India from Kangra and Kumaon to Bengal and southwards to the Deccan tablelands at 1,000 - 3,000 ft. and up to 6,000 ft. in Travancore; higher forests of the Bombay Ghats, Satpuras, Belgaum and Kanara (GIMP, p. 242).

39.Terror; apprehension: an:kala_yppu disquiet, mental worry (Ta.); an:gal to grieve, be afflicted (Ka.); an:gu greed (Tu.); an:gala_rucu to grieve, lament, cry out from grief, fear or pain (Te.); anglna_, angla'a_na_ to weep loudly (Kur.)(DEDR 31). agi to tremble, fear; agurvu, agurbu amazement, terror; a terrible form; agurvisu to be terrifying or formidable; terrify (Ka.); aguruni to totter, stagger (Tu.); agurvu fear, terror; agurpu, agurvu 'bhayan:karamu' (Te.)(DEDR 12). s'an:kura frightful (Skt.)(CDIAL 12262). s'an:k fear, doubt (Skt.); s'an:ka_ fear, distrust (S'Br.); san:ka_ fear, suspicion (Pali); sam.ka_ (Pkt.); s'on. care, precaution (Sh.);san:ga timidity (S.); s'an:g fear, suspicion (Kho.); sa~_ga care, thought, appre-hension (S.)(CDIAL 12258). an:kala_y (-pp-, -tt-) to lament, grieve, sorrow, be envious, covet (Ta.); an:kala_ykka to lament, grieve (Ma.); an:kala_ppu anxiety, worry, disquiet (Ma.); an:gla-pm desire, liking (Ko.); an:gala_rcu, an:gala_cu to cry from grief, grieve, sorrow; an:gala_pu lamentation, grief (Ka.); an:galappu, an:gala_pa covetousness (Tu.); an:gid.pini to be greedy, covetous; an:gipuni to wish, be greedy of; an:gele a greedy person, glutton; an.n.an.yuni to be greey of, covet (Tu.); an:gada misfortune, trouble; mental agony, anxiety (Te.)(DEDR 31). e_n:ku (e_n:ki-) to sound, scream as a peacock, weep, wail; e_n:kal shout, screaming as of a peacock, weeping; e_e Sa_maveda (Ta.); e.kalc- to shout to someone from a distance (Ko.); o.x- (o.xy-) to scream (peacock or diviner); o.xm (obl. o.xt-) scream of a peacock or a diviner (To.); e.n:g- (e.n:gi-) to lengthen note (in singing, crowing)(Kod..); e_gu to sound; e_ncu to make sound (Te.); ye_ca_na_ to play a flute or any wind instrument (Go.)(DEDR 879). e_n:ku (e_n:ki-) to pine, languish, long for, yearn after; e_kkam despondency, craving; e_kkar-u (e_kkar-i-) to languish, long for; e_car-u (e_car-uv-, e_car-r--) to long for, desire, be troubled, feel sorry; e_car-avu desire, longing; regret, penitence (Ta.); e_kkam grief, anxiety (Ma.); e.n:g- (e.n:gy-) to grieve; e.katm extreme sorrow (Ko.); e_vuro greediness; ye_vura excessive desire (Tu.); e~_karu, e~_ka_ru to long; e~_kat.a strong desire, longing; e~_cu to harass, torment, annoy, trouble; e~_pu torment (Te.); e_va jealous (Kol.); e_xna_ to be dissatisfied, want more (Kur.); ge to be dissatisfied (Malt.)(DEDR 878).

17. There, in that place: vaha~_ there (H.lex.) an:kan. adv. there (Tirukko_. 290, Urai.; Kantapu. Cu_ran-r-a. 29); an:kit.t.u adv. there, yonder (I_t.u, 6,8,11); an:ku there, yonder (Ta.) annu (Ma.); an.n.an- there (Tirukka_lat. Pu. 16,16); in that manner (Ta_yu. Cittar. 10); a_n:ga in that way (Tol. Col. 279, Urai.); a_n:gan. in that place (Tol. Er..ut. 114, Urai.); a_n:kan-am thus, so (Man.i. 16,128); a_n:ku there (Kantapu. Ayan-aiccir-aini_. 42); then (Cir-upa_n.. 111); thus, so (Pur-ana_. 24); part. a word of comparison (Pur-ana_. 35); a loc. ending (nin-n-a_n:ku varuvatu po_lum : Man.i. 11,47)(Ta.lex.) an:ga a vocative particle: well, indeed, true; please; rather; quick (Ka.lex.) anta, an-ai, a_n-a, akkat.a, a_n:kan., an:kit.t.u, an:ku, an:ke_, ato_l., ato_l.i, anta_le_, antil, ampar, a_n- there; an:kuttai, a_n.t.u, a_n.t.ai that place; an:ko_t.-in:ko_t.u here and there; an.n.an-, an.n.an-am, avan. there, in that manner (Ta.); ay that place, there; ayk to that place; aytr from that place (Ko.); al there, in that place (To.); al that place; alli in that place, there, to that place; ahage, ahan:ge, ha_ge, han:ge in that manner, thus (Ka.); avul.u, baul.u, al.pa, a_mbe there; al.ta of that place (Tu.); at.t.e_ in that manner; a_da that place, there; akkad.i of that place (Te.); atan there; adar.in therefrom (Nk.); abe/ba_n (obl. aben.-/ba_n.-) there; aben.i/ba_n.i of that place, belonging to that place; abekan man belonging there (Kond.a); a- that over there (Kui); atala yonder (Kuwi); a- that most remote; asan, hasan there, thither; ayya_, hayya_ there, in that place (Kur.); ano there (Malt.); dahun, daun, duhun in this manner (Br.)(DEDR 1). tattha, tatra, tahin., tahan. adv. there; tattaka there-abouts; tato therefrom (Pali.lex.)

90.Image: small, slender: as'u thin, slender (Ma.); a_cu anything small or mean, minuteness, trifle (Ta.); asi, asa thinness, leanness, minuteness (Ka.); asi slight (Te.); asadu small, slender (Te.)(DEDR 341). a_si_ the smallest sheaf (Bi.)(CDIAL 2). uccha low, mean (Pkt.); u_cha, u_ca little (Dm.); uci_k light (of weight)(Kal.); uco a little (Phal.); ocho paltry, mean (S.); ocha_ (L.); light, vain, absurd (P.); hoccho mean, low (WPah.); occho, waccho mean, contemptible (Ku.); ocha small, mean, exhausted (Or.); o_ch mean (Bhoj.); ocha_ empty, small, silly (H.); uchau less (OG.); ochu~ deficient, inferior (G.); Unpopulated; empty space: os desolate, depopulated (M.); osa_ empty space in cornfield (M.); otsa_ light, mean, deficient (M.)(CDIAL 2540).

27.A thorny plant: a_ko_na_-kuthul, ako_na-kuttul a thorny plant (Go.); a_kor.i, a_koni a species of thorn tree (Kui)(DEDR 338).

196.Image: to thresh grain with cattle: atari-tiri-ttal to thresh grain with cattle (Pur-ana_. 371); atari-kol.l.u-tal to thresh grain with cattle (Maturaik. 94); to tread out enemies, as on a threshing floor (Pur-ana_. 373)(Ka.lex.) dal to thresh grain; dal, dal lahut to thresh with flail or stick (Santali.lex.)

137.Image: to throw: ad.akuni to throw, cast out, discharge (as a gun)(Tu.); ad.arincu, ad.arucu to discharge, shoot (as an arrow or other missile)(Te.)(DEDR 61). at.t.anam a weapon shaped like a discus (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) ud.ai to cast; sod.ai to cast out (e.g. devils)(Kon.lex.)

179.Thus: at.u, at.ula, at.ulu, at.t.ulu, at.lu thus (Te.); ant.had like that (Nk.); ane, ana_y thus (Kol.); a_han, a_hun thus (Go.); anen thus, in that way (Pe.); ande then, thus; andeke in that manner (Malt.); daun, duhun in this manner (Br.); a_n:ku there, then, thus (Ta.)(DEDR 1). ata_vatu that is to say, namely (Ta.); ata_n-r-u, ata_ an-r-u besides, moreover (Tol. Er..ut. 258, Urai)(Ta.lex.) yuthu, yichu like this (K.); ittham thus; ittha_, ittha_t (RV.); ittham., ittha thus (Pali); ittham. thus (Pkt.); ittha, itthayam. here (Pkt.); iti thus (Si.)(CDIAL 1564). ittaram this kind, thus (Ma.); int.a like this (Nk.); ita like this (Pa.); idam (Go.); ihti this kind (Kui); indeki, inki, inle, in-y, in-yle thus (Malt.)(DEDR 410).

52.Image: measure of the thumb: an:gus.t.hya pertaining to thumb or big toe (Skt.); an:gus.ak, an.ucik finger-ring (Pas'.); nyo_t.hu thumb-ring (K.); a_n:gat.ha_ finger-guard on bow-string (A.); a_n.ot.h, a_n.ot., a_n.ot.ha_ toe-ring (B.); a_n:gt.a_ large-ring (Or.); a_n:gut.hi, au~t.hi toe- or finger-ring (Or.); an:gut.u small, short (Si.); an:gus'ti_ ring (Wg.); an.s'ti, an.us'tri (Kt.)[cf. an:gus'tari_ (Pers.)]; an.u_thi_ thumb-ring (S.); an:gu_t.hi_, un:gu_t.hi_ toe- or finger-ring (P.); an:gu_t.hi_, an:got.t.hi, au~t.hi (WPah.); an.ut.hi (Ku.);. au~t.hi (N.); a_n:gat.hi (A.); a_n:gut.i (B.); a_n.t.i (B.); a~gut.hi_, au~t.hi_, ai~t.hu_a_ (Bi); an.ut.hi_ (Bhoj.); a~gu_t.hi_ (Aw.H.); a~gut.hi_ (G.); a~gut.hiyo measure of the thumb (G.); a~gt.hi_ thumb- or toe-ring (M.)(CDIAL 138). Wrist: gut. wrist (Kt.); got. (Pr.); gut.t.h corner;[cf. khu~_t. corner (H.); kun.d.a corner (S.)(CDIAL 3898)]; gut.t., gut.t.i_ joint; gut.t.hi_ wrist; gut.t.i_ (L.); ghun.t.a ankle (Skt.)(CDIAL 4178). ghut.a, ghut.i_ ankle (Skt.)(CDIAL 4479). cf. kut.a_ heel (Ash.)(CDIAL 3243). cf. Knot; entanglement: ghu~t.i_ entanglement (G.); ghu~r.i catch in a loop (N.); ghun.d.i_ knot (P.); knot of thread (S.)(CDIAL 4483). Image: finger's breadth: an:gula finger's breadth, a measure equal to eight barley corns (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) an:kulam finger (Marutu_. 48); inch, a measure of length, as a finger's breadth (Kantapu. An.t.a. 5); an:kuli finger or toe (Periyapu. A_n-a_ya. 13)(Ta.lex.) am.guli_, am.gl.i_, a_m.goli_ finger (M.); am.gul.i_, am.guli_, a_m.gl.i_, a_m.gli_ (G.); am.guli_, um.gli_ (H.); an.uri (S.); un:guli_ (P.); onguju (K.); on:gul measure of a finger (K.); a_n:gilla (Si.); an:guli (Skt.Pkt.)(Bloch, p. 295). cf. an:gula finger's breadth (R.)(CDIAL 134). Image: wrist: cf. gulu forearm above wrist (K.)(CDIAL 4214). an:gal, an:gala_ digit (Kon.lex.) an:gula finger's breadth (R.Mit.Pali); am.gula (Pkt.); on:gul (K.); an.uru (S.); an:gul (L.); un:gal bhar (P.); a~wal, amal (N.); a_n:gul (A.); angul.a (Or.); a~_gul, a~_gur, un:gal (H.); a~_gal. (G.); a~_gu_l., a~gu_l. (M.); angala_ distance from first to second joint of forefinger when bent (Si.)(CDIAL 134). an:guli_ finger, toe (VS.); an:guri (AV.); svan:guri (RV.); an:guli_ (Pali); an:gulika_ (Pali); am.guli_ (P.); angul, ungli (Gypsy); agu_la (D..); pl. agu_lin. finger, toe (D..); on:guju finger (K.); a_n.uri finger, toe (S.); an:gal, an:gul (L.); an:guli_, un:gul, un:gli_, un:gal, un:gali_ (P.); an:goli (WPah.); an:golo thumb (WPah.); an.uli, a_n.ulo (Ku.); au~li, au~lo; in cmpd. a~wal-, amal-tunu thimble (N.); a_n:guli (A.); a_n.ul, a_n:guli (B.); a_n:gul.i (Or.); a~_gur, an:guria_ (Mth.); a~_guri_ (OH.); an:guli_, un:gli_, an:gul, un:gal (H.); a_m.guli_ (OG.); a~_gl.i_, a~_gl.u~ (G.); a~_gol.i_, a~gl.i_ (M.); n:gilla, n:gili (Si.); a_n:guli-ya_iba to point at (A.); a_n.la_na to touch with the fingers (B.); a~_gl.iyu~ child (G.); an.r. finger (Ash.); an.y (Kt.); an.re, an.uri_ (Wg.); g (Pr.); a_n:guri (Dm.); an:gur.e (Tir.); an:gur.i_, a~_ur. (Pas'.); a~n.ur.em my finger (Shum.); an:gu_ (Ning.); an:gur.i (Gaw.); an:gu_ryak (Kal.); an:gl. (Kho.); n:gi_r (Bshk.); n:gi_ (Tor.); hagu_i_ (Kand.); agui, an:gui (Mai.); an:gr. toe (Phal.); an:gr.i finger (Phal.); gha_n an:gr.u thumb (Phal.); agui finger (Sh.); han.ui, hagur.i first finger; hagur.u thumb (Sh.)(CDIAL 135). Finger-ring: an:guli_ya finger-ring (R.); am.guli_ya, am.guli_yaga, am.gulijjaga (Pkt.); an:guli_ (Mai.); van.li_ earring (Gypsy); an:guleyyaka (Pali); am.gule_yaya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 136). Thumb: an:gus.t.ha thumb (A_s'vGr..); big toe (Ka_tyS'r.); an:gut.t.ha, an:gut.t.haka thumb, big toe (Pali); am.gut.t.ha (Pkt.); an:gus't finger; van.us'to, gus'to (Gypsy); an:guc thumb (Bshk.); an:gu_t.h (Tor.); agut.o thumb, big toe (Sh.); nyo_t.h (K.); a_n.u_t.ho (S.); an:gu_t.h, an:gu_t.ha_, an.d.ukha_ (L.); an:gu_t.h(a_), gu_t.t.ha_ (P.); nut.t.h thumb; a~_gut.h, gu~t.h, gu_t.ha_, gun.t.hi_ finger; gun.t.he, au~t.he (WPah.); an.ut.h, an.ut.ho thumb, toe (Ku.); au~t.ho finger, toe (N.); a_n:gut.hi, a_n:gt.hi, au~t.hi (Or.); a~gut.ha_ thumb (Bhoj.Aw.); a~gu_t.ha_ thumb, big toe (H.); a~gut.ho (G.); a~gut.ha_, a~got.ha_, a~gt.ha_ (M.); a~gt.hi_ little finger or toe (M.); u~gt.o thumb (Konkan.i); an:gut.a (Si.); an:gu_t.hr.a_ ring for thumb or big toe (P.); an:gustri_, angrus'ti ring (Gypsy); an:gus'tari_ (Pers.)(CDIAL 137). Ring: ugorm ring (To.); un:gara, un:gura, un:gra ring (Ka.); un:gila id. (Tu.)[cf. an:gula (Skt.)]; un:g(a)ramu id. (Te.); ongaram id. (Kol.); ungriyam, ungra ring (Nk.)(DEDR 572). ho_r finger (Br.)(DEDR 561). Image: thumb's breadth: an:gut.a (Tadbhava of an:gus.t.ha) thumb; un:gut.a, un:gut.t.a id., the great toe; a thumb's breadth (Ka.lex.) an:kut.t.am thumb, great toe (Varata. Pa_kavata. Par-ku. 20); measure of a thumb (Pa_kavata. Cu_riyaman.. 20)(Ta.lex.)

4.Town in an agricultural tract: akaram town in an agricultural tract; town (Pin..)(Ta.); ager field (Lat.); agros (Gk.); ajra (Skt.); aecer (OE.); ackar (OHG.); akr (ONordic); akrs (Goth.); acre (E.); aka-na_t.u interior of a territory (Maturaik. 149); agricultural tract (Pur-ana_. 28,11-14); akal the interior or inner part of a town or village; inland town or village; country, province (Ta.); akaram-e_r-r-u-tal to establish a bra_hmin colony in an agricultural tract (Tiruva_lava_. 48,22); akara-ppar-r-u land gifted to bra_hmins (Madras Epigraphical Reports (M.E.R.), 556 of 1919); akara-ci_rmai bra_hmin quarters (M.E.R. 389 of 1916)(T.E.D.) cf. ve.gad. burnt field cultivation. a_har, a_hra_ pond (H.); a_ro quay, watercourse (G.)(CDIAL 1165). The plain; image: embankment: a~_khn.e~, a~_kn.e~, a~kn.e~ sloping divisions of a flat earth roof for water to roll off (M.)(CDIAL 102). cf. kanku ridge to retain water in paddy fields, dam (Ta.); kag deep pool in river (Ko.)(DEDR 1085). Plain of high land: ahra_, ahri_, a_har long embankment thrown round a plain of high land in which rice is grown, the plain itself (Bi.); a_ro embankment, quay (G.)(CDIAL 1165). a_ira_, aira_ embankment made to hold up rain (P.)(CDIAL 1000). Sandhill: ekka sand cast ashore by rivers (Ma.); ekkar, ekkal sandy place, sand heaped up (as by the waves), sandhill (Ta.); ekkali sand washed down by a river (Te.); ekku to be heaped up (as sand on the shore)(Ta.)(DEDR 770). agal., agal.u, agal to wave, to shake (Ka.); aghal.an.e_m. to shake about in water (M.); agal.a_d.u to pendulate, to swing, to vibrate, to shake (Ka.lex.) Image: land divided into beds; ridge in a field: accu ridge in a field (Ta.); accu-k-kat.t.u (-k-kat.t.i-) to form a ridge around a field (Ta.); field with ridges, land divided into beds to admit and retain water for the cultivation of paddy (Ta.)(DEDR 49). accu kat.t.u se_yu to make a ridge along the boundary (Te.Inscr.)(DEDR 49). aks.a strength, strong support (Ka.lex.) acca, accu, accukat.t.u, accakat.t.u a well-defined or proper boundary or proportion; suitable order (Ka.lex.)

268.Tranquil; patient: amar to abide, remain, be seated (Kantapu. Kat.avu. 12); be tranquil, remain; amarttu to make quiet; amarikkai tranquility, quietness; amai (-v-, -nt-) to become still; (-pp-, -tt-) cause to be still, patient, control (Ta.); amaiti calmness; amaivu rest (Ta.); amaruka to subside, be calmed, quiet; amaral abating of wind or fire, peace; amarcca calmness, self-government; ameyuka to be subject, agree; amekka to subject, join, rule (Ma.); amaruni to become quiet, calm; settle; amapuni to quiet (Tu.)(DEDR 161). amars.a non-endurance (Pa_n..); impatience, anger (MBh.); a_mars.a (Skt.); amars.an.a impatience (MBh.); amarisan.a patience (Pali.Pkt.); mars.a patience (Skt.); mars.an.a (MBh.); amarisa impatience (Pkt.); mes.e anger (Ash.); mes.o (Kt.); mus. (Wg.); -mis.- to scold (Pr.); mr.s. forget (Skt.)(CDIAL 558). mars.ayate_ is forgotten (Skt.); parimussati is bewildered, vanishes (Pali)(CDIAL 9898).

195.Image: trap: at.a_r trap for tigers and other animals (Pur-ana_. 19)(Ta.lex.) ka_tar, ka_tri trap for mice (Kon.lex.) dhar.ap a trap; han.d.ruk a rat trap (Santali.lex.)

458.Image: tray: aruva_n.am copper tray, platter (Ta.); ariva_n.a id. (Ka.); aruva_n.am food offered to a deity in temples (Ko_yilo. 50)(Ta.lex.)

123.Image: trough: ad.lige a flat round basket with several divisions, used by jo_gammas (devotees of Ma_ri_ or Durga_) to carry their idol and put their alms in (Ka.); a flat basket, or basin-like tub, or earthen vessel, used by merchants in their shops (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. a_r.hi a measuring vessel (Or.); a_rhi trough, tray, water-clock (N.)(CDIAL 1106). ad.d.a a dry measure (Te.); ad.a a unit of one seer (Kond.a); a unit of measure (Kuwi)(DEDR 105). a_d.haka a measure of grain, the fourth of a dron.a = 64 prasthas = 16 kud.avas = nearly 7 lbs. 11 oz. avoir; a_d.hakika holding an a_d.haka, sown with an a_d.haka of seed (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) cf. a_l.ha, a_l.haka a measure of grain (Pali); a_d.haka a measure of grain = 4 prasthas; a_d.hakika containing an a_d.haka (Pa_n..); a_d.haga a measure = 4 prasthas (Pkt.); a_r.hi, a_r.i a measure of grain (B.); ar.ha_ a measure of capacity; a_r.ha_ a measure of grain (Bi.); a_d.h heap (G.); a_d.hi_, a_d.i_ wicker framework to contain a vicious cow when being milked (M.)(CDIAL 1106). cf. a_r..a_kku ollock, one-eighth of a measure (Ta.); one-eighth of a seer (Ka.)(DEDR 397). a_t.am liquid measure esp. for oil, about 24 measures (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_dhi deposit (RV.); receptacle (BhP.); a_dadha_ti adds (fuel to fire)(RV.); a_hita added (of fuel to ire)(RV.); ahia_, ahya_ a small fireplace improvised by digging in the ground (Or.)(CDIAL 1167). a_dha_ra basin at the foot of a tree, pond (Skt.); vessel (Ya_j.); stool for alms-bowl, basis, suppport (Pali); a_dha_raka stool, stand (Pali); a_ha_ra refuge, stay (Pkt.); a_huru, a_huro raised manger for cattle to eat from (S.); a_r help, loan (Ku.); a_har, ahra_, ahri_ long embankment thrown round a plain of high land in which rice is grown, the plain itself (Bi.); ahri_ round vat for dissolving saltpetre from saline earth (Bi.); a_har, a_hra_ pond; a_hri_ small pond (H.); a_ro embankment, quay, watercourse (G.); a_ha_ra_, a_hra_, a_ra_ ring of grass placed under a pitcher (M.)(CDIAL 1165). a_tam regard, solicitude (Kantapu. Tirukkalya_. 11); cf. a_-dara (Skt.); a_tam prop, stay, protection (Tiruva_ca. 31,5)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

272.Granary; image: trough; a measure: ampan.atti Durga_, as dancing with a grain measure; ampa_ram heap of paddy or other grain on the threshing floor(Tiv. Tiruvirut. 58, Vya_. Arum.); amba_r (U.); ampa_ram granary (Ta.lex.) amba_ra a heap of thrashed straw (Ka.Te.Ma.H.); amba_ra-kha_ne a magazine of grain, a granary (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) arman.a a partic. measure = 1 dron.a (Sus'r.); amman.a trough, a measure of capacity (Pali); aman.a, amun.a a measure of capacity for corn (Si.)(CDIAL 688). avan.am, aman.am a measure = 20,000 areca-nuts; ampan.am a grain measure (Cilap. 14,209)(Ta.); avan.am a weight or measure, a mason's rule or level (Ma.); amban.a, amman.a a measure of capacity (Pali)(DEDR 263).

213.Image: headless trunk: at.t.ai-y-a_t.al hero's body continuing to manifest heroic deeds even after dismemberment, as the quivering of a leech after being cut in two (Tol. Po., 357 Urai.); at.t.a headless trunk (Te.); at.t.e id. esp. one retaining vitality (Ka.); mat.t.ai (Ta.); at.t.e-y-a_t.a the motions or play of headless trunks (Ka.)(Ta.Ka.lex.)

471.Image: tip of an elephant's trunk: a_r..i tip of an elephant's trunk (Ta.lex.)

426.Image: swelling: arbuda a swelling, tumour (of various kinds); arbudin afflicted with swelling or tumour (Skt.lex.)

349.Image: tusk of the elephant or the wild hog: eyir-u tooth (Na_lat.i. 287); id. (Ma.); tusk of the elephant, of the wild hog (Kampara_. Kil.ai. 119)(Ta.lex.) i_r-u gums; evur, ekur gums (Ta.); e_ri gums (Ma;); ekir-u, akir-u tooth (Ma.); i.r gums (To.); i_r-u, igaru id. (Ka.); iguru, ciguru the gums, the tender part under the nail (Te.); hirar. the gums (Go.)(DEDR 554). ukir finger or toe nail, talon; claw (Man.i. 20,59); go_ru (Te.); ugur (Ka.); uhir (Ma.); uguru (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) ukir-c-cur-r-u whitlow (Ta.); go_rutsut.t.u (Te.); ugurusuttu (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ho_r finger (Br.); orgu nail (Malt.)(DEDR 561). cf. ko.re tusk of elephant or boar (Kod..); ko_r-ai a scratch (Ta.)(DEDR 2257). cf. uhca_na_ to scratch (Go.)(DEDR 926). cf. ugorm ring (To.)(DEDR 572). Synonym: nakha nail (Skt.lex.) nakha, nakhara a nail of a finger or of a toe (Ka.Skt.); a claw, a talon (Ka.lex.)

117.Image: to twist back: ad.rna_ to twist back one's limbs or bend the body inward (as under threat of a blow)(Kur.); ad.re to strut; ad.ro a swaggerer (Malt.)(DEDR 108). i_n.t.u (i_n.t.-) to gouge, extract, pull out (Ta.); i_n.uka to bend forward or backward so as to apply force (Ma.)(DEDR 539).

99.Valuation: ha_sil (U.) valuation, as for purposes of stamp duty (Ta.lex.) ha_sal < ha_sil (Arab.) produce, production; profit, grain, retur; ha_sal cher a payment in commutation for statute labour. This is the name by which the collections on account of water-rate were known before the introduction of the term a_bia_na_; ha_sal hon.a_ to be acquired; to carry; ha_sal karna_ to realize; to gain, to make, to collect; kalara_shi_ bhoen. raha_en., ta_n. ha_sal mit.t.i_ cha_en. if you cultivate kallar-like land, you must expect a crop or produce of earth (P.lex.)

25.Image: small vessel: akir--kut.am vessel meant for burning agar incense (Ci_vaka. 2391)(Ta.lex.)

148.Violence; drive away; confusion {Echo word}: a~t., a_t.a zealous, vehement, forcible, strong, intense, vigorous, loud, difficult; nunak a~t.e bohokeda he called so loudly; a~t.teye dalkedea he struck him with great force; a_t.a a~t.i to dispute, to wrangle, to contend, quarrel (Santali.lex.) ad.d. to join; to attack; to argue; ad.d.anam a shield (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) at.a_pit.i violence (Ta.); violence, outrage, quarrel, uproar (Ma.); at.a_vat.i outrage, violence; at.ipit.i broil, fray, scuffle (Ta.); quarrel, scuffle, affray (Ma.); ad.a_vud.i alarm, confusion, quarrel, riot, fright (Ka.); ad.avadi, ad.a_vudi confusion, uproar, fright (Te.)(DEDR 71). hat.ha violence (R.); ht.hati is violent (Dha_tup.); hat.ha (Pali); had.ha (Pkt.); hat.ati is excited (Dha_tup.); har.har. exclamation to drive animnals away (G.); harkinu to be frightened, be scattered (of animals)(N.); har.akna_ to fret, be driven away (H.); had.akn.e~ to give a smart blow (M.); har.selvu~ to push violently (G.); had.asn.e~ to drag violently (M.)(CDIAL 13942). To startle; confusion: d.unja (d.unji-) to start, start forth, break cover, come to light, attempt; n. starting forth, attempt; pl. action d.uska (d.uski-); d.uspa (d.ust-) to cause to start forth, drive out of cover, bring to light, remind; n. driving of game or enemy (Kui); o_t.t.am running, speed, defeat (Ta.)(DEDR 1041). hattha quick, hasty (Pkt.); hatta-patta in haste; hata_r haste; hata_so trepidation, hurry (N.)(CDIAL 13957). at.a_vat.i < at.u -- a_ neg. + outrage, violence (Ta.); ad.a_vad.i (Te.); ad.a_vud.i (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) at.u to trouble, affflict (Kantau. Cu_ran-amai. 59); to destroy, consume (Kantapu. E_maku_. 18); to kill (Pur-an_. 36)(Ta.lex.) cf. pat.apat.a to be overhasty (as in speech)(Ta.)(DEDR 3842). har.bar.i_ haste (P.); har.ibar.i, har.bar. (Ku.); har.bar. confusion (N.); har.bar.i (B.); har.abar.a (Or.); har.bar.i_ (Mth.H.); had.bad. hurry (M.); har.bar.a_in.u to hurry (S.); har.bar.a_un.a_ (P.); har.bar.a_unu to be bewildered, to bewilder (N.); har.bar.a_na to be startled (B.); har.abar.a_iba_ (Or.); har.bar.a_na_ to hurry (H.); har.bar.vu~, harbar.vu~ to be frightened, caus. har.bar.a_vvu~, harbar.a_vvu~ (G.); had.bad.n.e~ to hurry, caus. had.bad.a_vin.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 13949). at.a_r-ka_ram < hat.ha_tka_ra that which is done by force, by violence (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 18,10)(Ta.lex.) Distress; confusion: ad.alu whirling, confusion of mind; grief, fear (Ka.); at.ar (Ta.); ad.aru, ad.alu (Te.); ad.alu-hur..i a winged insect that continuously whirls round (Ka.); ayilu, aylu bewilderment, frenzy (Ka.); ayilu, annu (Te.); annu konu to be intoxicated (Te.); ayaru to faint, swoon; to fear; to forget; to be drowsy (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) ala (-pp-, -nt-) to suffer, be in distress, suffer privation, be in want; alam distress, pain, misery; alappu confusion of mind; alantalai distress, vexation, confusion; alantai trouble; alanto_n- one who is in distress; alati-kulati disorder, confusion; alan:ku (alan:ki-) to be agitated in mind, troubled; alacu (alaci-) to suffer, be distressed, be exhausted, become weary; alamaru (alamari-) to be agitated, distressed; alamala (-pp-, -nt-) to be confused, dazed, be anxious; alampal vexation, trouble; alavu (alavi-) to be troubled in mind; n. confusion, perturbation; alavalai hasty action, confusion of mind, distress; alu (-pp-, -tt-) to be weary, tired by overwork or care; alai (-v-, -nt-) to be harassed, wander in weariness; (-pp-, -tt-) to be weary, tired by overwork or care; aluppu weariness, exhaustion; aluval business, affair; alai (-v-, -nt-) to harass, vex, afflict, annoy; n. oppression; alaicu (alaici-) to be lazy; alaiccal weariness, vexation; alaippu disturbance, distress, trouble; alaivu mental agitation, trouble, distress; allal affliction, distress; alla_ (-pp-, -nt-) to suffer, be in distress; n. distress; alla_t.u (alla_t.i-) to suffer (Ta.); ala lamentation; alan.n.uka, alukka to be worn out, grow lean; aluppu weariness; alampal having enough of it, vexation; alayuka to be wearied; alaccal vexation, mourning; alasal, alas'al agitation, fatigue, disappointment; alasuka to be tired; alati troublesome; alappu confusion, stir, fright; alampu trouble; alampuka to be agitated, tired; aluval bustle, business; allal sorrow, grief; alla tumult, disturbance (Ma.); alv- (ald-) to become wearied by walking or searching; (alt-) to cause to become wearied etc.; alvl state of being busy, trouble (Ko.); ala, alapu, alupu, alavu, alavike, alasike fatigue, weariness, trouble; alapat.e, lampat.e, alasat.e exhaustion, weariness, harassment; alasu to become weary, be tired, vexed, disguested, loister; n. weariness; ale to annoy, slight, disgrace; allari state of being troubled, disturbed, harassed (Ka.); ala- (alap-, aland-) to crave; alambali hurry; alas- (alasi-) (curry, rice) becomes spoiled (Kod..); alasuni, alajuni to cause to tire, fatigue; alumbe suffering; aluban:ga vexation, trouble; albe thin, weak, lean (Tu.); alayu to be tired, be disgusted; alayincu to weary, overwork, disgust; ala~gu to be displeased, take offence, grieve; ala~cu to tease, harass; ala~ta fatigue, exhaustion, grief, pain; ala~duru to grieve; n. grief, sorrow; alakuva, alapu, alayika fatigue; alajad.i sorrow, affliction, grief, calamity; alamaru to grieve, sorrow, be tired; alamat.a grief, sorrow, affliction; alamat.incu to grieve, sorrow; alasat.a weariness, fatigue, exhaustion; alipiri lean, thin, weak; allari tumult, confusion, quarrel; lampat.a trouble, pain, weariness; lampat.u~d.u one who is attached to or fond of, a libertine (Te. < Skt.); alay- (alayt-) to become tired; alp- (alpt-) to make to become tired (Kol.); alac illness (Pa.); ala_r.i fatigue, distress from fatigue, exhaustion; laha langour, laziness; lazy (Kui); alga_ sluggish, without energy; laya_koya_ adj. moving or walking listlessly (as though the limbs had no strength); laikoyorna_ to move the limbs in a negligent, languid fashion as though deficient in strength and manliness (Kur.); alesi sweat, heat (Malt.). "These etyma and Ta. alan:ku (DEDR 240) seem to have started from two roots with different basic meanings: suffer and move, shake. There has, however, been so much convergence in the range of mental meanings (suffer -- be mentally agitated -- move) that it is difficult to separate all the items cleanly." alasa- lazy, tired, faint (Skt.); lampat.a desirous (Skt.); lampad.a covetous (Pkt.) ?< lampat.a (Te.); lampat.e (Ka.); ala- (Kod..)(DEDR 236). Sickness; distress: at.t.a worried, distressed (Pali); at.t.iyati, attiyati is worried (Pali); at.t.ita distressed (Pali); at.t.iyana amazement, fright (Pali); atta, at.t.a pained, exhausted; at.t.a thin, weak (Pkt.); a_to vexed, weary; a_tu retching (S.); a_ta_ needy, necessitous (L.); a_tar vexed, distressed, needy (P.); ata_i great anxiety (Ku.); a_tinu to be confused, get nervous (N.); at.n.e~ to torment (M.); a_rta, a_rtta pained, injured, sick (S'Br.); rdati, r.dti, r.n.tti disperses, dissolves (RV.); wounds, kills (Dha_tup.); ardyati vexes, hurts, makes uneasy (AV.)(CDIAL 7). a_rti pain, injury, sickness (AV.); at.t.i disease (Pali); pain (Pkt.); atti pain (Pkt.); a_t. teasing (M.)(CDIAL 9). cf. at.i blow, stroke, blast, as of wind (Ta.); id. (Ma.); ad.i id. (Ka.); at.ittal to burn, as fever; to beat, smite (Ta.lex.) addai beats (Pkt.)(CDIAL 641). cf. at.al killing, murdering; at.alai battle, trouble, distress (Ta.)(DEDR 77). a_r-a_t.t.am agony of extreme sickness (Ta.); a_r-a_t.a the anxiety of a sick man (Ka.); a_ra_t.amu grief, sorrow; a_ra_t.incu to grieve (Te.)(DEDR 402). ard hurt (Skt.); rdati dissolves; ardyati agitates (AV.); r.dti is scatterd (of dust)(RV.); addita afflicted (Pali); addiyati is worried (Pali); ad.d.n.a_ to separate, spread out, open (P.)(CDIAL 641). Bewildered: ardana tormenting (R.); pain (Sus'r.); addana tormenting (Pali); addan.a bewildered (Pkt.); adan oppression (Si.)(CDIAL 642). aduhu to be perplexed, suffer doubt, become suspicious (Ka.); adangi surprise, astonishment, wonder, fear; adj. surprising, wonderful; a. a_va to be surprised, astonished, wonder at, fear; adlangi bewildered (Kui); addajakka aiyali to be surprised; a. ki_ali to surprise (Kuwi)(DEDR 139). To tremble; be alarmed: atir (-v-, -nt-) to shake, quake, tremble (as by an earthquake, the fall of a tree, the rolling of chariots), be startled, alramed, resound (as thunder), reverberate, sound (as a drum), roar (as beasts); (-pp-, -tt-) to alarm by shouting, intimidate, rebuke, thunder, roar (as the sea); atircci quaking, shaking, trembling, loud noise or report, roaring; atirppu trembling, echo; atirvu shaking, trembling, tremolo (Ta.); atiruka to fear, tremble (Ma.); adir, adaru, aduru, adru to tremble, shake, shiver, fear; n. trembling, tremor; adirpu trembling, fear; adalu - adir vb.; adarisu, adalisu to make tremble, shake; adat.u to tremble, shake (Ka.); aduruni, adaruni to tremle, quake; adura_vuni to shake, agitate; adura_t.a shaking, trembling; adurupaduru shaking and trembling; adarpuni to cause to tremble, admonish, rebuke; addalipuni to rebuke, frighten (Tu.); adaru to tremble, shake, quake, shiver; n. trembling, afraid; adalincu, adalucu, adalupu, adalpu to frighten, rebuke, reproach; adalupu, adalpu frightening, rebuke; adiri-pad.u to start, be alarmed; adiri-pa_t.u a start, alarm; adv. suddenly, unexpectedly (Te.); adrap- to shake (Ga.); adyare to be agitated (Malt.)(DEDR 137a). zal.ai to worry, to tease; cause to burn (Kon.lex.) cf. cal.l.ai trouble, annoyance (Ta.)(DEDR 2414). asthira unsteady (S'Br.); atthiratta instability (Pali); atthira unsteady (Pkt.); athe_ro thoughtless, careless (Sh.); athra, atthra_ restless (L.); atthara_ teasing (P.); athiro unsteady (Ku.); a_thar trembling (with age), decrepit (A.); a_thir (B.); atira (Si.)(CDIAL 983).

276.Tumult: amalai dance of soldiers who have gathered round a fallen enemy king (Tol. Po. 72, Urai.); songs sung by soldiers who have gathered round a fallen enemy king (Tol. Po. 72, Il.ampu_.); denseness (Ja_n-a_. 43)(Ta.lex.) amal.ikka to be troubled; avil.i tumult (Ma.); amal.i tumult, uproar, bustle, press of business (Ta.); tumult, affray, cry, wail (Ma.); amalai noise, din (Ta.); amakkal.a tumult (Ka.)(DEDR 166). amal.i-kumal.i great uproar (Ta.lex.)

277.Threat: amat.t.u (amat.t.i-) to hector, bully, intimidate; n. threat, menace (Ta.); amat.t.uka to repress, threaten; amat.t.u a threat (Ma.); amarisu to reprove (Ka.)(DEDR 160).

342.Order; permit: prajapta ordered, engaged (BHSkt. ii,358); prajapti teaching (BhP.); paatta ordained (Pali); pan.n.atta explained, arranged (Pkt.); panata law, regulation (Si.); paatti description, making known (Pali); praati (NiDoc.); pan.n.atti special knowledge (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8514). anuja_na_ti permits (RV.Pali); an.uja_n.ai (Pkt.); anudananava_ (Si.); caus. anuja_na_pe_ti (Pali); anudanvanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 315). anujapti permission (Skt.); anudat (Si.)(CDIAL 317). cf. a_japta ordered (Mn.); a_n.atti order (Pali); a_n.atta ordered (Pkt.); an.ata command (Si.)(CDIAL 1094). cf. a_ja_ command (Mn.)(CDIAL 1095). Promise: cf. pratija_ promise (MBh.); pat.ia promise, vow (Pali); pat.im.a_ (As'.)(CDIAL 8563).

415.To wear; waist, waist-string: arai waist, loins, stomach (Ta.); ar nin. silver waist-string (To.); are waist (Kod..)(DEDR 230). [cf. n.i_vi waist-string (Pkt.); ni_vi piece of cloth wrapped around waist (AV.); neval.e~ silver or gold girdle worn round waist (Konkan.i); niviya waist-fold (Si.)(CDIAL 7572). ni_vi ornamental plaiting in a saree hanging from the waist; knot of a saree tied at the waist when dressing (Periyapu. A'n-a_ya. 2); cloth; money or other valuables tied up in a cloth (Ta.lex.)] ram.d.hua rope (Pkt.); ra~_d.hvu~ rope, string (G.)(CDIAL 10598).

480.Image: side, groin: alle, al.le side, groin (Tu.lex.)

493.Image: buttocks and thighs: al.kat. waist on either side of belly (Ko.); al.k a.r- (a.c) to shake, walk in tired fashion (Ko.); al.k a.t.- (a.c-) to shake, wag (Ko.); al. belly (al. a.r.- belly shakes, i.e. fear comes)(Ko.); al.l.ai side of the body(Ta.); al.l.e that portion of the abdomen of man which is immediately below the coastal margin, is regarded as a very tender spot, tenderness, weakness; the flank of an animal (Ka.); the side, groin, hip (Tu.); alle id. (Tu.)(DEDR 294).alkul pudendum muliebre (Ta.); alki_t.am vulva (Ma.); algalv hindquarters (of person or animal), loins (Ko.); agel.f buttocks and thighs (To.); alga- the groin (Skt.)(DEDR 253). alkul side (Perumpa_n.. 244); alkit.am (Ma.); alkul waist (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 9,7)(Ta.lex.)

405.Image: fort: aran.i to fortify; aran.i a wall; aran., aran.a a fort; a wall; ar..uva a fort (Ta.); ar..u, ar..ugu a high wall of irregular stones around an orchard, a mud wall (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

359.Cleansing: araka, ari the act of cleansing rice from dust and stones by washing in water; arakacat.t.i a brass basin to perform the araka (Ka.Ta.)(Ka.lex.) ari-ttal to wash away by waves on the bank or shore (Te_va_. 283,3); to separate by washing (Ta.); arikku-cat.t.i large-mouthed shallow pot for cleaning rice (Ta.lex.)

156.Image: shelter hut: atal.ai hut for shelter of those who watch the harvest (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_t.t.al.gi depository (a plank at the wall)(Kon.lex.) tola a depository for grain (Santali.lex.) Watch-tower: ate listen, hear, hark; ate cet sad.e kana? hear, what is making a noise? aten to listen, to eaves-drop; aten babr.a kanae he is eaves-dropping; at.ahona pat.haona to go messages; at.haona pat.haona lagit mit hor.le doho akadea we have engaged a man to go messages (Santali.lex.) at.t.a_la, at.t.al.e, at.t.a_laka an apartment on the roof; a palace; a breast-high wall, a parapet; a bastion, kottala, buruju (Ka.); at.t.a (a tatsama) high, lofty; an upper loft in a house used as a place of lumber and repository of stores (Ka.); an apartment on the roof (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Store for lumber: at.t.a high, lofty; an upper loft in a house used as a place of lumber and repository for stores (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) House; image: watch-tower: at.t.a tower, watch-tower (Skt.Pali); hide-out in a tree, platform (Pali); watch-tower, room on roof (Pkt.); a_t.i high bank, prominence (A.); at.a_ upper room (H.); at.iya_ small thatched room on the roof (H.); at.uva platform, loft, structure over fireplace (Si.)(CDIAL 180). at.t.a_la watch-tower (R.Pali); room on roof or over gate (Pali); at.t.a_laya roof-terrace (Pkt.); at.a_ri_ turret (L.); at.a_la_ platform, mound, heap (P.); heap, high building (H.); at.a_ri_ small room on roof (P.); thatched upper building (H.); balcony (G.); at.a_li balcony (N.); a_t.a_l platform of bamboos laid across the beams of a house (A.); at.a_l.i palace, mansion (Or.); at.a_l.a_ platform in cornfield (M.); at.a_l.i_ terrace (M.); at.alla scaffold, watch-tower (Si.)(CDIAL 185). at.t.am terraced roof, upper story (Ira_mana_. Pa_laka_. 17)(Ta.lex.) cf. at.ai to collect (Ta.)(DEDR 84). cf. katuppu herd of cattle (Ta.)(DEDR 1198). at.a a raised platform from which wild animals are shot, an ambush; at.aku durupena, menkhan tarup bae a~r.golena they sat in the raised ambush, but the leopard did not appear (Santali.lex.) Image: temple: antal.i temple (Can.. Aka.)(T.E.D.) Image: structure of four poles: at.t.am terraced roof, upper storey (Ta.); roof used as store-room, scaffold on four poles (Ma.); at.t. loft, attic (Ko.); at.t.a upper loft in a house, apartment of roof, tower (Ka.); loft (Kol..); upper loft, garret, upper room, ceiling (Tu.); raised platform, scaffold, loft in house (Kur.); bamboo framework for roof (Pa.); at.uka loft under the roof of a house; at.t.amu fortified place in front of building, room or chamber built over gate of a fort (Te.); at.t.uka, at.t.ava attic (Te.); at.u attic room (Pa.); a_t.u attic (Pe.); at.t.e laths laid across rafters of roof (Go.)(DEDR 93). a_th, a_thi_ store of money (G.)(CDIAL 638). a_d.e, a_d.ea_ rafter (Kon.lex.) For -a_laya in at.t.a_laya roof-terrace (Pkt.) cf. : Abode: a_layam abode, dwelling, residence (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 119)(Ta.lex.) a_laya house, receptacle (Ya_j.); house (Pali); place, house (Pkt.); olu nest, recess in a wall used as a shelf (K.); a_la_ niche in a wall (L.P.H.); a_ro nest or eggs on which a hen sits (S.); a_lo niche in a wall (Ku.); a_ru (Aw.); alaya house (Si.); a_ller.a_ bird's nest (P.)(CDIAL 1366). a_layan.a rest house, sleeping room (Pkt.); layana place of rest (Skt.); alena epithet of a rug (NiDoc.); a_lhn.a_ nest (L.); a_hlan.a_ (P.); a_lna_ (H.); a_len. network at the bottom of a cot (WPah.)(CDIAL 1367).

350.Place where the ojha sits: akhor., akhr.a the place where an ojha sits with his pupils; akhr.ako laga ar on.d.e pak donko ceda they will smooth the akhr.a, and there they will learn the war dance (Santali.lex.) Image: raised platform: e.gar (pl. -sil) watchman's raised platform (Kol.); hegar (pl. hegad.l.) id. (Nk.)(DEDR 877). ekkala high, tall, huge like a demon (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) oyk-, vayk- to see (Nk.); oh- id. (Go.)(DEDR 987). edkuy high place from which to see things, place with good view (Ko.); o0wil.y place with good view (To.)(DEDR 799). a_ka_cava_ciyar lit. sky-dwellers (Tirumuru. 168, Urai.); cf. a_ka_cam open space; a_ka_ya-kan:kai the celestial Ganges (Man.i. Pati. 17); hence, may be inhabitants of the gantetic plains (Ta.lex.)

292.Water: ambu water (SvetUp.)(CDIAL 576). ambhas water (RV.); id., sea (Pali); ambha id. (Pali); water (Pkt.)(CDIAL 577). am, a_m water (Ta.); emna_ to take a bath (all over the body); amm water, urine, dropsy (Kur.); amu water (Malt.); am-amre to water (as the mouth); amsro waterish; amye to bathe (oneself); amte to bathe (another)(Malt.)(DEDR 187). a_mpal water lily, nymphaea lotus (Ta.); a water lily which opens after sunset (Ma.); a_bal, a_val, a_la red waterlily (Ka.); a_mbalu a water-lily which opens after sunset (Tu.)(DEDR 362). cf. ambalika_ name of a plant (Skt.); am.bala the plant limnanthemum cristatum (Si.)(CDIAL 575).

151.Image: wattle under a goat's neck: atar kind of wattle or excrescence under the neck of goats and sheep; atal. skin (Perumpa_n.. 151)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) a_d.a_r wattle (Kon.lex.) t.at.iol wattle and daub wall (Santali.lex.)

194.Image: way, road: atar way, path, public road (Kur-al., 594); atarit.ai-c-celavu theme of warriors setting forth for the recovery of cattle seized by enemies (Pu. Ve. 2,3)(Ta.lex.) jhad.ruk phad.ruk a path (Santali.lex.) as'ir va_t. a narrow path (Kon.lex.)

245.Image: road: ya_na a road, way (Vedic)(Skt.lex.) Stream: ya_ni_ path (TS.); za_n stream, ravine (A.)(CDIAL 10460). uja_y goes upstream (B.); udya_ti rises (RV.); goes out (S'Br.); originates from (Skt.); uyya_ti goes out or away (Pali); wuzun to spring forth, appear, come to mind (K.); uja_iba_ to rise up (Or.); u_ja_i runs (OG.); uja_vu~, ujvu~ to run away (G.); uza_iba to go upstream, move towards the head of a bed, come out in a shoal in flood (of fish)(A.)(CDIAL 2051). Vehicle: ya_n-acey-tal to go (Iraku. Na_t.t.up. 41)(Ta.lex.) ya_na going, proceeding (Pali)(fr. ya_, as in ya_ti; cf. Vedic. ya_na and Lat. janus); ya_na means of motion, carriage, vehicle; hatthi-ya_na (elephant-carriage); go-ya_na (cow-carriage); aja-ya_na (goat-carriage); men.d.aka-ya_na (ram-carriage); ot.t.ha-ya_na (camel-carriage); khara-ya_na (donkey-carriage); ya_na one of the requisites (carriage or other means of locomotion) of the bhikkhu and as such included in the deyya-dhamma or 14 gifts [ci_vara (robe), pin.d.apa_ta (food received in the alms-bowl), sena_sana (sayana + a_sana, sleeping and sitting, bed and chair, dwelling and lodging), gila_na-paccaya-bhesajja-parikkha_ra (support or help for the sick; accessory, equipment, medicine as help in sickness), anna (food), pa_na (drink), vattha (cloth), ya_na (carriage), ma_la_ (garland), gandha_ (perfume), vilepana (ointment, cosmetic), seyya (couch, bed), a_vasatha (dwelling-place, house), padi_-peyya (material for lighting a lamp, lamps and accessories)]; ya_na-ugghata shaking or jolting of the carriage; ya_na-put.osa_, ya_na-put.ol.i_ provision bag on a carriage, provision for the journey; ya_na-sannidhi storing up of carriages or means of locomotion; ya_naka a (small) cart, carriage, waggon, vehicle (Pali.lex.) ya_na going, vehicle (RV.); ya_naka waggon (BhP.); ya_na going, conveyance (Pali); ya_naka small vehicle (Pali); ja_n.a riding, driving, vehicle (Pkt.); ja~_r.~ going (Ku.); yana travelling; yanna_ traveller (Si.)(CDIAL 10459). Image: procession: ya_nam a procession, train; a voyage, journey (Skt.lex.) Going; coming: cf. wa_'nai, vwaiyali (vwat-), va_- (-t-) to come (Kuwi); va_va (va_t-; imp. va_mu and va) to come, approach; n. coming, approaching (Kui); bare to come (Malt.); banning (bar-, ba-; imp. ba; past bass-) to come (Br.); varu (va_r-, imp. va_; vant-) to come, happen, come into being, be completed (Ta.)(DEDR 5270). Image: to carry the deity in procession: e_ku (e_ki-) to go, pass, walk (Ta.); e_gu, e~_gu to go, proceed; (Inscr.) e_gincu toi carry the deity in procession through the village streets (Te.); e_kna_ (i_kyas) to walk, direct or conduct affairs (Kur.); ke to go, move (Malt.)(DEDR 871). ya_ta gone (RV.); come into (Mn.); gone (Pali); ja_ya (Pkt.); za_lem I arrive (Kal.); ya_ came (Bshk.)(CDIAL 10451). ya_ti goes, approaches, comes to (RV.); goes, goes on (Pali.As'.); yam.ti 3 pl. (As'.); ja_i, ja_ai (Pkt.); jal 3 sg., jar, ja- (Gypsy); za_ to come (Pas'.); z- (Nin:g.); ze_ (Shum.); zi-, ji-, 2 sg. imper. jo_ (Gaw.); y- (yante 'am coming')(Bshk.); y- (2 sg. imper. yai < ya_hi)(Tor.); y-, yh- (2 sg. imper. yah, pres. yha_ndu 'am coming')(Phal.); yunu, jain.o_ (K.); ja_h 2 sg. imper. of vajan. to go (L.);[cf. vante_r-i newcomer, immigrant (Tiv. Na_yc. 8,9, Vya_.); vante_r-u-tal to come and settle permanently; to immigrate (Ta_yu. A_n-anta. 10); varunar new comers (Kur-icip. 202); guests (Pur-ana_. 10); va_-tal, varu-tal to come (Tol. Col. 29); va_ (Ma.); ra_ (Te.); ba_ (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.)]; ja_n.a_ (2 sg. imper. ja_h)(P.); ja_n.a_ (Wpah.); ja_n.o (Ku.); ja_nu (N.); za_iba (A.); ja_oya_ (B.); jiba_ (1 sg. pres. ja_u~)(Or.); ja_eb (Bi.Mth.); ja_ib (Aw.); ja_na_ (H.); ja_vai (2 sg. imper. ja_)(OMarw.); ja_i (OG.); ja~_vu~ (G.); ja_n.e~ (M.); yanava_ (Si.); yat 3 pl. pres. (OSi.); Fut. ya_syati; yayoiki (1 sg. pres. ya_yam) walk, go, come; yazo_nu, ya_zo_nu (Sh.)(CDIAL 10452). ya_tra_ journey (MBh.Pali); festival (Skt.); jatta_ journey (Pkt.); ja_t.ra body of pilgrims, furrow left by plough (S.); ja_t.l.a_ pilgrimage; ja_t.l.i fair, pilgrimage (WPah.); yatu journey (Si.); yaturu path (Pali); viha_laya_tam. pleasure tour (As'.); ja_ya_ journey (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10456). ya_ttirai festival (Ta.lex.) ya_trika relating to a march (Mn.); traveller (Skt.); ja_t.ri_ pilgrim (S.)(CDIAL 10457). ya_man going, flight (RV.); ya_man going (in cmpds.)(RV.); ya_ma_-gi tune played when the bridegroom takes the bride (Sh.)(CDIAL 10468). a_ya_ti comes near (RV.); a_ya_ta (MBh.); a_ya_ti approaches (Pali); 3 pl. a_yam.ti, a_ya_im.ti they come (Pkt.); ayam.nae (NiDoc.)(< a_ya_na (RV.); a_ya_na (Palik); a_ya_n.a (Pkt.); a_yam, a~_s, a~_i, ai (< a_ya_hi) come (Ash.); elom (Wg.); a_- to come, go (Pr.); o_nu to come (Sh.); 2 pl. fut. ya_th, imper. eh (Sh.); ai (Mai.); ajan. to come (< a_yy-)(WPah.); a_ya_ to come (Tir.Pas'.Gaw.Shum.K.); a_ya_ta (Pali); a_ya_ya (Pkt.); ayida (NiDoc.); aya came (Kt.); a_m I came (Wg.); a_los (Sh.)(CDIAL 1288). aiti comes near (RV.); e_ti comes back (Pali); e_i comes; pres. part. em.ta, ejjam.ta (Pkt.); e_- (Tir.); ya-, yei- (Pas'.); ze- (Shum.); ye_- (Wot..); zi- (Gaw.); i_k (pres. im, is, iu < aimi, ais.i, aiti)(Kal.); 3 sg. pret. hai < a_yat (Kho.); e_- (Mai.); o_nu, fut. sg. em, e_, i (Sh.); yunu, 1st and 3rd sg. fut. yima, yiyi, imper. yih (e_hi), e_n.u, ye_un, yiunu (K.); pres. part. i~_do (S.); e_n.u_, i_n., ain.u_, ejn.u_ (imper. ei), ejnu (WPah.); yen.e~ (M.); yetta_ comes (Konkan.i); enava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 2534). upaya_ti, upa_ya_ti approaches (RV.); upaya_ti (Pali); uvaya_i, pp. uva_ya_ya, uya_ya (Pkt.); vayoiki to come, 1st. sg. fut. va_m (Sh.)(CDIAL 2207). nirya_ti goes out (MBh.) dies (Car.); pp. nirya_ta (MBh.); nirya_ going out (TS.); niyya_ti goes out (Pali); niya_tu (As'.); n.ijja_yai, pp. n.ijja_ya (Pkt.); nia_la (Kal.)(CDIAL 7382). praya_n.a setting out, journey (RV.); death (S'Br.); praya_n.aka journey (Skt.)(CDIAL 8732). paya_n.a journey (Pkt.); paya_n expedition, attack, death (A.); paya_n march, departure, escape (B.); paya_n.a departure (Or.); paya_na departure, death (OAw.OMth.); paya_n, paya_na_ departure (H.); pi_a_n.am. march (OG.); piya_n.u_ pilgrim party (G.); pen.e~ stage of a journey, halting place (M.)(CDIAL 8732). ya_n-am march against an enemy (Iraku. Tikkuvi. 21)(Ta.lex.) viya_ti passes through (RV.); wa_ to pass through (Pr.)(CDIAL 11834). sam.ya_na journey (MBh.); vehicle (R.); hayana covered carriage (Si.)(CDIAL 12983). ya_ttirai walking, moving (Tiruva_ca. 4,29); military expedition; business, occupation (I_t.u, 4,10)(Ta.lex.) e_ku-tal to go, pass (Na_lat.i, 15)(Ta.); e_gu (Te.); e_hu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

319.Image: sun's journey: aya, ayana going, moving (Ka.lex.) ayan.am < ayana going, moving (Ci_vaka. 851); ayana the sun's journey north or south of the equator; the half year; the equinoctial and solstitial points (Ka.Skt.); ayanisu to move, progress, as the sun does; payan.a (Tadbhava of praya_n.a) journey (Ka.lex.) ayan-am road, path, course; time of the sun's northward or southward course; half-year from soltice to solstice (Cu_t.a_.); solstitial point, the first in either kat.akam or makaram (Ve_ta_ran.. To_r-r-ac. 82); ayan--man.t.alam the ecliptic (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ayana going, path (RV.); road, goal (Pali.Pkt.); enu act of coming (Pali)(CDIAL 586).

403.Image: narrow, rugged path: a_ruddha blocked, pp. of a_run.addhi (RV.); aru~dh, aru~d narrow, strait (M.)(CDIAL 1324). a_rit.ai difficult or rugged path (Kalit. 4)(Ta.lex.) aral.ai-caral.ai gravel used for laying paths and roads (Ta.)(T.E.D.)

240.Cloth, wearing: an.ivu wearing (Ta.); an.i to wear (as jewels)((Ta.); to wear (Kod..); devil-dancer's head-dress (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 116). Beauty, form; to wear: an.i n. decoration, ornament, beauty (Ta.); decoration (Ma.); niceness, beauty; devil-dancer's headdress (Ka.); to wear, enjoy (jewels)(Kod..); a kind of mask or appendage worn by a devil-dancer (Tu.); an.an:ku beauty, form (Ta.); an.iyal adorning, necklace (Ta.); an.ivu wearing; an.ikam ornament (Ta.); an.iyuka to dress, adorn (Ma.)(DEDR 116). cf. cmpd. morphemes in: Worn out clothes: ha~_d.ha_un.a_ to wear out (clothes), have (a woman) as mistress for a long time (P.); *han.t. wear, wear out, last (Skt.); hand.un to be worn (K.); han.d.an.u to wear, continue, last (S.); han.d.a_in.u to bring into use (S.); han.d.in.o durable (S.); han.d.an. to be worn (L.); had.d.han., han.d.han. to be worn, get old (L.); had.d.ha_van., han.d.ha_van. (L.); han.d.hn.a_ to be old, have great experience (P.)(CDIAL 13954). a_t.ai cloth, clothing, dress, garment; inner skin of the edible palmyra roots; a_t.ai-k-kur-i dhoby's mark on a cloth; a_t.ai-vi_cu to wave a garment or cloth for joy (a_r-t-ta_ran.i-y-a_t.ai vi_cinar : Aric. Pu. Cu_r..vi. 82)(Ta.lex.) a_t.a old, stale, worn out (only of things)(Pa.); e_t. old (Ga.)(DEDR 350).

386.Image: Persian wheel; spoke of a wheel: arat., arut.t. Persian wheel; rat.t. wheel of a well on which rope ladder and pots are hung (L.); araghat.t.a wheel for raising water (Skt.Pali); arahat.t.a, rahat.t.a (Pkt.); arahat.h, dat. arahat.as Persian wheel (K.); art.u Persian wheel, spinning wheel (S.); cuharht.a_ a well with four Persian wheels (P.); rahat. spindle (Ku.); rohot.e pin. a wheel on which seats are slung and used at fairs (N.); arat.a spinning wheel (Or.); raht.a_ (Bi.); rahat., ra_hat. wheel at the top of a well (Mth.); ra~hat.a_ spindle (Aw.); arhat., rahat., re~t. Persian wheel (H.); re~t.i_ small Persian wheel; raht.a_ Persian wheel, spinning wheel (H.); arahat.a (OG.); rahe~t., re~t. waterwheel (G.); re~t.iyo, re~t.ur.o spinning wheel (G.); raha_t., ra_t. Persian wheel (M.); halat.ru Persian wheel with bullocks and apparatus included (S.); halhat. Persian wheel (P.)(CDIAL 596). ra_t.an.a, arat.i, raha_t.a, ra_t.ava_n.a, ra_t.al.a, ra_t.a_n.a, ra_t.i, ra_t.n.a, ra_t.n.e, r-a_t.al.a, r-a_t.a_l.a, r-a_t.t.a a machine for drawing water; water-wheel worked with the feet; a spinning wheel; a machine for reeling; the wheel of a machine in general; ghat.e_yantra id. (Tadbhava of araghat.t.a)(Ka.); ra_t.t.a, ra_t.na (Te.); ira_t.t.in-am (Ta.); r-a_t.t.u (Ma.); ra_t.isu to wind upon a reel, to reel (Ka.); arat.e, ra_t.e a machine for reeling, a reel (Ka.lex.) ar spoke of a wheel (RV.); ara spoke of a wheel (Pali.Pkt.Si.); a_ra (MBh.); ara felloe of a wheel (Or.); araga, araya spoke of a wheel (Pkt.); aro spoke, cog (S.); ar one of the crosspieces in a cartwheel (P.); a_ra spoke (Or.); a_ra_ first pair of spokes in a cartwheel (Bi.); spoke (H.); a_ro (G.)(CDIAL 594).

442.Wheel with six spokes: a_r-u-gan.t.u six knots or joints (Ka.lex.) [A cmpd. perh. attesting to an ancient landing point in numeration : six. a_r-a_ra-c-cakkaram (a_r-u + a_ra + cakra) stanza of four lines so composed that it can be written in the form of a wheel with six spokes, some of the letters being repeated in reading as one goes on reading the lines from spoke to spoke, a variety of cakkara-pantam, one type of mir-aikkavi [mir-ai = curve, bend (Ci_vaka. 284)](Ma_r-an-a. 282, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. a_r-a_ra two circles of six spokes each! cf. cakkara-antam a fantastic metrical composition in the diagrammatic form of a cart-wheel (Ma_r-an-alan.. 281)(Ta.lex.) a_r-a_ra-c-cakkaram (a_r-u + a_ra + cakra) stanza of four lines so composed that it can be written in the form of a wheel with six spokes, some of the letters being repeated in reading as one goes on reading the lines from spoke to spoke, a variety of cakkara-pantam, one type of mir-aikkavi [mir-ai = curve, bend (Ci_vaka. 284)](Ma_r-an-a. 282, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. a_r-a_ra two circles of six spokes each! cf. cakkara-antam a fantastic metrical composition in the diagrammatic form of a cart-wheel (Ma_r-an-alan.. 281)(Ta.lex.)

443.Image: wheel: a_ram < a_ra spoke of a wheel (Cir-upa_n..)(Ta.lex.) Image: circle: a_ru circle of people (K.); r circle, band, fillet (K.); ha_r row (N.); line (M.); ha_ri line (G.); ha_ri line (Pkt.)(CDIAL 14059). Circle: a_r..i circle; ring; wheel, carriage wheel; potter's wheel (Kampara_. Va_liva. 37); a_r..i-y-ir..aittal id. (Ci_vaka. 1037)(Ta.lex.) a_r..i roundness (as of disk, ring, etc.); funeral pile (Ma.)[cf. semant. a_r..a_ram stone circle of ancient Tamils, 8 to 10 ft. in diameter, containing cinerary urns and bones, Indian cromlech (M.M.)(Ta.lex.); a_r..i roundness, a circle, a discus; a_n.i roundness (Ka.); a_n.i spherical, round, globular (applied to pearls)(Te.); a_re potter's wheel (Go.)(DEDR 398). Discus: tiru-v-a_r..i discuss of Vis.n.u (As.t.ap. Tiruvaran:kattu. 1); signet-ring (Ci_vaka. 1032, Urai.); a_r..i-viral ring finger (Ta.); a_r..iya_n- Vis.n.u as wielding the discus (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,7,4); tiruva_l.an- Vis.n.u (Tiv. Periyati. 5,5,1); a_r..i discuss weapon (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,4,1); royal power as symbolised by the discus weapon (Kampara_. Taila. 70); rule, command (Upate_caka. Civavirata. 16)(Ta.lex.)

377.Image: woman: ara_la_ an unchaste woman, harlot, courtezan; a modest woman (Skt.lex.)

313.Word: akkha_ a saying, a word, a riddle; a_khan. a word, a saying; to say, to tell, to inform; akha_n a saying, an adage, a proverb, something made up (P.lex.)

368.Worshipper: a_ra_takar < a_-ra_dhaka officiating priests in a temple (Ko_yilo. 27); a_ra_tan-am < a_-ra_dhana worship (As.t.ap. Tiruvaran:kattan. 30); a_ra_tan-ai temple service, offering flowers and other articles before an idol, worship (Cen. 21, Perunto. 20); annual ceremony performed in honour of deceased ascetics (Ta.lex.) Öra_dh to reach one's aim (RV. x.107.6); to make willlingly (RV. x.63.6); to satisfy anyone (RV. i.120.1); to attain, obtain (RV. i.116.11); to prosper (S'Br.); ra_dha gift (RV. i.30.5); ra_dhas giving, presenting (RV. i.81.8); wealth (RV. ii.22.3; RV. i.22.8; RV. iv.55.10 indro_ no_ ra_dhasa_gatam may Indra come to us with wealth; RV. v.52.17); oblation (RV. ii.9.4 abhi gr.n.i_ha ra_dhah- havyam); ra_dhas-pati lord of gifts (RV. viii.61.1); ra_dhi fulfilment of a rite or sacrifice, prosperity; ra_dho_-de_ya giving of gifts (RV. iv.51.3); ra_dhya to be accomplished or performed, to be gratified or propitiated (RV. i.156.1) (Vedic.lex.) ra_dhas food; kindness, favour; a gift, present; liberality; wealth, riches; ra_dha the month called vais'a_kha; ra_dham favour, kindness; prosperity; ra_dhi_ the day of full moon in the month of vais'a_kha; ra_dhanam propitiating, conciliating; pleasure, satisfaction; accomplishing; acquisition, going (Skt.); ra_dhani_ worship; ra_dha_ prosperity, success; name of a celebrated gopi_ or cowherdess loved by Kr.s.n.a (whose amours have been immortalised by Jayadeva in his Gi_ta-go_vinda); ra_dh to propitiate, conciliate, please; to prepare, make ready; to be favourable or merciful; to propitiate, look to the welfare of (anyone); to be successful, to succeed, prosper; to be ready; to propitiate; to make ready; ra_ddha propitiated, pleased; effected; dressed; prepared; obtained; perfect in magical power; ra_ddhi accomplishment, perfection; success, prosperity (Skt.lex.) a_ra_dhaka who or what worships, a worshipper; a pu_ja_ri; a_ra_dhana accomplishment, carrying into effect; attainment; gratifying, propitiation (Skt.Ka.); worship, adoration; a_ra_dhya to be made favorable; to be worshipped or served; a class of s'aiva bra_man.as who wear the janiva_ra which they call s'ivada_ra; a_ra_dhane service, worship (Ka.lex.) ve_ma a loom; ve_mana_radhhya name of a person (Ka.lex.) radha cor.ok a contrivance by means of which Hindu devotees, and at times also Santals, swing as a religious observance; rad.go pad.go under cooked, inefficiently, mainly applied to pot-herbs (Santali.lex.) aradhon supplication, humble petition, to implore (Santali.lex.) a_ra_t.o the concluding item of a festival programme in which bathing the idol in a river or tank forms an important part (Tu.lex.) cf. randha cooked (Pali.lex.) cf. ra_dheti [caus. of ra_dh to succeed, ra_dhyate 'san.siddhiyan' i.e. of success] to please (Pali.lex.)

33.Image: tail of the yak: a_ku the tail of the yak, used as a fan for idols (Pin..); cf. gya_k (Tibetan)(Ta.lex.)

267.Yes: a_m yes (Pa_n..); a_m e_va (Skt.); a_ma (Pali.Pkt.); a_mam. (Pkt.); aa~_ (Tor.); a~_ (K.WPah.B.); a~ (Ku.N.); a_ (Or.M.); a_u~ (G.)[cf. avunu (Te.lex.)]; with emph. h- or h- from verb 'to be': ho_ti etc. (Pali); ha~ (Kho.N.); ha~_ (S.P.Ku.N.B.Or.H.G.M.); a_i~_ (K.); a~_i~ (S.)(CDIAL 1235). a_m yes, so, expressing assent, recollection (< a_kum); a_ka_tu no (Ta.); a_kum it will be thus, just so; a_m id., interj. of agreeing (Ma.); a_vu yes (Tu.); avunu yes; ka_ni bad, wrong; ka_du no (Te.); a_pka (a_pki-) pl. action; a_, a_ngo yes; a_e.. [a_'e] no; a'e is not (Kui); a'e no (Kuwi)(DEDR 333). cf. a_kat.t.um yes; so be it; a_ka either...or; a_m adv. yes, so, expressing assent, recollection; it is said, they say, on dit (Ta.lex.)

274.Zero: ambara ether; a sign for the zero or 0 (Ka.lex.)