709.Image: scorpion: ele-ce_r..u a kind of scorpion (Ka.lex.)

710.Image: small particle, drop: lava small particle, drop (Pali.Pkt.); lav particle; adj. small (G.); lava fragment, particle (MBh.)(CDIAL 10974).

711.Sickle: il.a_ sickle; il.i_ bill-hook (M.); ili_ (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 302).

712.Harvest: lava that which is cut off, fleece (Mn.); reaping (Skt.); lav grass dried and twisted into rough cables and kept for fodder (K.); reaping, 20 sheaves of corn (L.); lau crop, a cutting (of grass, corn etc.)(P.)(CDIAL 10974). patlo leaves cut off from the culm of the reed saccharum spontaneum and used for thatching, dead leaves fallen from a tree (H.)(CDIAL 7737). lavaka reaper (Pali); lava_ka sickle (Skt.)(CDIAL 10975). laut.ha_ piece of wood for sharpening a toddy-collector's sickle (Bi.)(CDIAL 10976). lava_pe_ti causes to be reaped (Pali); lavium. to cut (Pkt.); lem, lha_im I cut grain (Kal.); leik to reap, mow (Kho.); loiki (1 sg. lam) to reap; lo_nu, lyo_nu, 1 sg. lam (Sh.); laun.o, lawon.o to reap, collect (Ku.); launa_ to cut, reap (H.); la_pan. to cut ears of tall crops (L.)(CDIAL 10986). lavana reaping (Ka_tyS'r.Pali); lavan.a (Pkt.); launi_ (Bi.); wages for reaping (H.)(CDIAL 10987). lavitra sickle (Pa_n..); latra_ to reap (Ash.); lavitta (Pkt.); letra_ (Wg.); let.ege sickle (Pr.); lye_tr to reap (Dm.Pas'.); le_t (Pas'.); le_ti (Shum.); le_l mowing (Wot..); le_t- to reap (Gaw.); le_tr reaping (Kal.); letri (Kho.); le_c reaping; le_et.r.i_ sickle (Sh.)(CDIAL 10988). lavya to be cut off (Skt.)(CDIAL 10989). la_va reaping, cutting (Skt.); lau reaping (Psht.); la_w millet (Wg.); rau (Kt.); la_u rice (Wot..); la_v reaping (K.); la_i_ wages for reaping (S.); la_vi_, la_i_ reaping, wages for reaping (L.); la_vi_ a day's labour at reaping (P.); la_u reaping (H.)(CDIAL 11031). la_vaka reaper (Ma_rkP.Pali); la_yaka id. (Pali); la_wa_ hired reaper (P.H.)(CDIAL 11032). la_vayati causes to be cut (Gr.); la_ve_ti (Pali); la_iavva (Pkt.); la_van. row or 40 sheaves in harvest field (one of which is the reaper's wage)(L.); la_uni_ harvest (H.); la_n., la_n.i_ reaping, rice or other grain; la_n.i_ sickle (H.); la_n., la_n.i reaping (Konkan.i); la_yana cutting (Pali)(CDIAL 11035). la_vya to be reaped (Pa_n.. com.); la_b harvesting (Br.)(CDIAL 11036). la_ba_ro harvest (S.)(CDIAL 11037). luban.u to be reaped (S.)(CDIAL 11038). lu_na cut, reaped (MBh.Pali); lu_naka cut (Skt.); lu_n.a (Pkt.); lu_n.adu_ has been cut (of wheat)(Sh.); lu_nu pp. of lonun to reap (K.)(CDIAL 11094). lu_ni act of reaping (Pa_n.. va_rtt.); atha-lo_n reaping crops by hand (K.)(CDIAL 11095). luna_ti cuts, reaps (TBr.Pali); lunana (Pali); lun.ai, pp. lun.ia (Pkt.); lun- (Bshk.); lu_n.- (Tor.); lu_n- (Phal.); lonun, lo_nun, pp. lu_nu (K.); lun.an.u, pass. luban.u (S.); lun.na_, lona_i_ reaping (P.); lun.nu_ to cut (grass only); lun.na_ to reap (WPah.); lunia pp. (OAw.); lunna_, nunna_ (H.); lun.ai (OG.); lan.vu~, lan.n.i_ harvesting (G.)(CDIAL 11082). pralu_na cut off (Skt.); pralava chip (S'Br.); palun.i small wickerwork screen to cover doors as a curtain (Ku.)(CDIAL 8763). lava, rave the act of cutting up or off; reaping, mowing, plucking or gathering; lavana an implement for cutting, a sickle (Ka.lex.)

713.Image: quail: lava, la_va a kind of quail; la_va the red spur-fowl, galloperdix spadiceus; la_vaka (Ka.lex.)

714.A list of soldiers: la_van.a a list of soldiers or of public servants (Ka.); la_van.a, la_van.i (Ma.); ila_van.am (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) la_van.i, la_van.ige a mass, a collection, an assembly, a throng (Ka.); la_van.e_m., la_gan.e_m. to place in contact or connection, to join together (M.)(Ka.lex.) Permanent right to hereditary office: ila_van.am, la_van.am conferrring on a person a permanent right to a hereditary office (Coim.); food stuffs and money distributed to the Bra_hmans of the villages on festive occasions by the Na_t.t.ukko_t.t.ai Chettis according to a prepared list; list of soldiers, of recruits for the army; enlistment (Ta.); la_van.amu (Te.); la_van.a (Ka.Ma.); ila_van.amer..utal to enroll recruits; ila_van.n.iya_rccitam private property of a married woman, consisting of that which has been presented to her at her marriage as a token of affection by her father-in-law or mother-in-law (Ta.lex.) To settle or re-settle a village: la_vn.e~ to settle or re-settle (a village, etc.); a place set with trees, plantation (M.)(CDIAL 11017).

715.Olibanum: lo_ba_na olibanum, frankincense; turus.ka, silha (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

716.Image: sloping roof: lo_be, lo_ve a sloping affixture to a flat roof; the frame-work of a sloping roof: wood for the support of lo_ve; go_pa_nasi (Ka.lex.)

717.Trough: la_yam stable for horse (Ta.); la_yamu id. (Te.); la_ya id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

718.To pant: ir..u to gasp for breath; ir..uppu asthma (Ta.); ir..ayuka to breathe hard as a dying person; ir..ukkuka to gasp for breath as from asthma (Ma.); el.v to pant; el.vl panting (Ko.); el.f to pant; el.p panting (To.)(DEDR 504b).

719.Image: field-rat: er.go_ a small mouse mostly found in fields (Kur.); er.ge a small field-rat (Malt.)(DEDR 787). cf. elka rat (Kol.Nk. Kond.a); eluka, elika (Te.); hal id. (Br.); eli rat, bandicoot (Ta.Ma.Ka.Kod..Tu.)(DEDR 833). ili a rat, a mouse (Ka.lex.)

720.Earth: el.e, il.e [bhu_va_caka (a word denoting 'earth'), bhu_myartha (the meaning of 'earth'), bu_vi, dare, rannava-sir-al. [belly or abdomen (basir-) containing gems and jewels], pod.avi, pr.thvi, me_dini; cf. pud.avi (Te.); put.avi (Ta.)]; el.ede_ra whose chariot is the earth: S'iva; il.e, ile the earth; nela; water; food; fluids; il.eya piriya, ila_-vr.nda_raka a bra_hman.a (Ka.lex.) ile, ila_ = id.e, ire, il.e, el.e the earth; ile_s'a a king (Ka.lex.) id.e the earth, heaven; the goddess id.a_, the wife of Budha (Ka.lex.) ila_-bhr.ta a king; a mountain; ila_dhi_s'a a king; ila_dhipa id.; ila_tala the surface of the earth (Ka.); ila_ju a resource, a means, a remedy (Ka.M.H.); ila_khe a claim, a right; connection with; a village under a township (Ka.M.H.); jurisdiction; charge, possession; department; district; presidency; ila_-val.aya the circumference of the earth, the terrestrial globe; ila_-vr.ta name of one of the vars.as or divisions of the known world (Ka.lex.) cf. aid.avid.a, ailavila Kuve_ra (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) An annular continent: ilavanti_vu an annular continent (Ta.lex.) il.a_virutavarut.am one of nine divisions of the earth; cf. il.avirutam < il.a_vr.ta a region (me_ruppu_taram cu_r.. varut.a mil.a_virutama_kum : Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 36), i.e. the land surrounded by Mt. Me_ru; cf. ila_vr.tam one of the divisions of the world (pas'ca_nma_lyavatah. pra_cya_m gandhama_danas'ailatah.; ila_vr.tam ni_lagire_rya_myato_ nis.dha_dudak)(Skt.lex.) i.e. situated with ma_lyavata mountain range on the west, gandhama_dana mountains on the east, ni_lagiri mountains on the south and waters of the nis.adha country; [poss. phonet. il.a_virut.a ~~ l.a_vid.a ~~ dravid.a ~~ damila ~~ tamir..: hence, il.avr.tam perh. included Gujarat, the West coast including Malabar, other regions of south India and Sri Lanka; cf. dravid.a name of a country to the south of the wild tract between Kr.s.n.a_ and the Polar; in its larger sense it included the whole of the Coromandel coast to the south of the Go_da_vari_; but in its strict sense it must not have extended beyond the Ka_ve_ri; its capital was Ka_ci, Coonjeevaram situated on the Vegavati_ river 42 miles south-west of Madras (Skt.lex.) cf. ila_ the earth; ilika_ the earth (Skt.lex.); ila_t.am < la_t.a name of a country, prob. modern Gujarat; ila_l.am < la_t.a name of a country (S.I.I. i,83)(Ta.lex.) cf. la_t.a name of a country said to lie to the west of the Narmada_; it prob. included Broach, Baroda, and Ahmadabad, and Khaira (Skt.lex.)

721.Image: big tank: ilavantikai a big tank provided with machinery for refilling as well as emptying, yantira-ya_vi (Man.i. 3,45); royal park encircling a large tank (Cilap. 10,31); ilavanti id. (Cilap. 25,4)(Ta.lex.)

722.Clove: ilavam < lavan:ga clove (Te_va_. 353,2)(Ta.lex.)

723.Clearing-nut: ilavu clearing-nut tree, te_r-r-a_maram (Ta.lex.)

724.Customary fees paid by a bridegroom: il.avat.t.a-p-pan.am a customary present of a quarter-rupee coin which a newly married bridegroom has to pay to the people of the village or villages through which he passes on his return home after his marriage in the bride's house (Rd.); a small present, prob. of the nature of a permit-fee, which a bridegroom who is not a native of the village wherein his marriage is celebrated has to pay to the youths of the locality, just before the usual marriage procession starts in a palanquin (Rd.)(Ta.lex.)

725.Mahua: cf. iluppam-pu_-carkkarai fragmented sugar made from the flowers of: iluppai, iruppai south Indian mahua, bassia longifolia (Perun.. Ucaik. 50,33)(Ta.); iruppa (Ma.); ippa (Te.); ippe (Ka.); ilippa (Ma.); iluppai-k-kat.uku sediment of mahua oil; kernel of mahua seeds; iluppai-ney oil of mahua seeds (Pata_rtta. 158); iluppai-p-pa_l id. (S.I.I. ii,426)(Ta.lex.) cf. semant. 'candied sugar', ayir, ayilam (Ta.lex.) ippe, hippe the tree bassia latifolia, all the parts of which are useful, arrack being distilled from the blossoms, oil extracted from the seeds etc.; Synonyms: madhu_ka, madhu-druma, lo_dhra-pus.pa, gud.apus.pa bassia latifolia (Ka.Tu.Te.); hippe, hippi the refuse or residue of what is squeezed out (Ka.); pippi (Te.); pi_re (Ma.); tippi (Ta.); hippe the refuse or residue of what has been used in the manufacture of spirits (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

726.Orange: i_l.e, il.l.e, hiral.e orange (Ka.); i_d.e the inner division of an orange (Te.); kitte_l.e orange (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) i_d.e a kind of orange (Te.); i_d. citrus aurantium (M.)(DEDR 552). kiccili sylhet orange, citrus aurantium; seville orange, citrus vulgaris (Ta.); kiccili orange (Ma.); kicili, kittal.e, kittil.e an orange; cittul.i orange (Ka.); kittali, kittili, kitl, citturli an orange; citlipul.i a kind of orange; citturli, cittupul.i an orange (Tu.); kiccili, kittali the orange tree (Te.)(DEDR 1512). Citrus aurantium: khatta (H.)(GIMP, p.68).

727.Boat: agat.t.hiya_ a boat (Jain.Skt.); ekat.ha_ boat which came from Nepal and carried 40 to 50 maunds of grain (F. Buchanan, An Account of Bihar and Patna in 1811-27, p.705; loc. cit. Jagdishchandra Jain, Life in Ancient India as depicted in Jaina Canon and Commentaries, Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1984, p.155).

728.To proceed: e_gu to go, proceed; (Inscr.) e_gincu to carry the deity in procession through the village streets (Te.)(DEDR 871). ya_ta gone; going, motion; ya_ti going, marching, proceeding; ya_tu a goer; a wayfarer; ya_tr. a goer, a traveller; ya_tre, ja_tre going, travel, march (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ya_ go (Skt.); ya_ta gone (RV.Pali); ja_ya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10451). ekkumat.i export (Te.)(DEDR 766). Image: to move away: ikattal to depart, go away; to leave, put away, eradicate (Nan-. Cir-appup.); to overflow, go beyond (Kampara_. Na_t.. 9)(Ta.lex.) ika (-pp-, -nt-) to leave behind, go away from (Ta.); ikaykkuka to move away, part with (Ma.)(DEDR 411).

729.Image: tortoise: ekka_ tortoise (Kur.); eke a kind of small tortoise (Malt.)(DEDR 773).

730.Wild hog: e_kali_d.u wild hog (Te.); ekkala id. (Ka.); akr.a_l, wild pig (Go..)(DEDR 771). e_kalamu wild hog (Te.); ekkala id. (Ka.); akr.a_l, wild pig; ikunda_l boar (Go.)(DEDR 771). e_n-am, e_r-u a hog (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) ekend.a the leader of a herd of wild pigs (Mu.); ekenr.aha (Sadani)(Mu.lex.)

731.Image: phallus-god: e_kalin:ga-de_va an isolated phallus-god; Kuve_ra (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. aid.avid.a, ailavila Kuve_ra (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

732.To give: e_kuka to give, bestow (Ma.); e_t- allomorph in pres. indefinite, imper., and optionally probable future, of tining to give (Br.)(DEDR 872). cf. tining to give (Br.); taru to give (Ta.)(DEDR 3098).

733.To peel: endexna_, endaxa'a_na_ to remove the outer envelope from a fruit, clean and trim vegetables (Kur.); en-gde to clear away weeds (Malt.)(DEDR 801). eln:g- to peel off; elkip- (elkit-) id. (Pa.); elun.- to peel (as fruit); elin.p- (elin.t-) to peel off (Ga.); el- to be peeled off; elsp- to peel off (Go.); ebbu to peel (Ka.)(DEDR 843).

734.Image: chest: ed trunk from chest to navel; courage; ed ma.r chest of body (Ko.); e0y courage (To.); ede, edde, erde chest, breast, courage; edega_r-a bold man (Ka.); ede heart, chest, bosom (Tu.); eda heart, mind, wish, breast, fear, alarm (Te.); ed.a~da, ed.d.a the heart, mind, breast (Te.); edram, edrom chest (Pa.); edur-am pl. edur-amku chest (Kond.a)(DEDR 827). cf. itayam < hr.daya heart (Te_va_. 619,1); chest (Ka_cika. Makal.ir. 23)(Ta.lex.) hr.daya heart (RV.); hadaya heart (Pali); hiaa, had.ak(k)a, halaa, hitaa, hitapa (Pkt.); hiad.a, hiad.ulla, hiaulla (Ap.); yilo heart, spirit (Gypsy); zidi_ heart (Ash.); id-em my heart (Shum.); ide (Nin:g.); hida breast; hida_lun:ga part near the heart (Gaw.)(CDIAL 14152). cf. hr.dya in the heart, dear (RV.Pa_n..); Íhr.d heart (Skt.)(CDIAL 14154). cf. hardi heart (Kho.); ha_d. (G.); ha_r., har. (Pas'.); zdi (Dm.); ha_rdi interior or body (RV.); heart (AV.)(CDIAL 14064).

735.Toddy drawer: i_d.iga a man of the toddy-drawer's caste (Ka.); i_d.igava_d.u (Te.); i_d.igitti, i_d.igiti a female i_d.iga (Ka.); i_d.i toddy (Ka.); i_r..a (Ta.); e_li (Ta.); i_n.d.re (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Palm-leaf bucket for irrigation: it.a_r palm-leaf bucket for irrigation; it.a_ id. (Cilap. 10,111, Urai.); kind of measure (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: palmyra palm; palmyra leaf for writing: e_t.akam palmyra palm, coconut palm; flower (Ta.); id. (Ma.); e_t.u strip of a palmyra leaf for writing, book; petal, flower, eyelid (Ta.); palm leaf, leaf of book, book, flower leaf (Ma.)(DEDR 884). e_t.t.u-p-por-i seal set on a letter written on a palmyra leaf; e_t.t.uvin-ai occupation as writer on palmyra leaves (e_t.t.tuvin-ai-k-kan.akkan : Perum.. Vattava. 10,95; 109); e_t.u-ko_l.a_l.an- accountant (Ta.lex.) Image: leaf: ed.e the leaf, etc. on which food is placed (Ka.lex.)

736.Document writer: er..utu to write, paint, draw; become indented by pressure; er..uttu letter, writing, painting, drawing, membranous intervals on the skull, fancied as lines of destiny (Ta.); picture, letter, learning (Ma.); er..utuka to paint, write, learn (Ma.); er..utikka to cause to paint or write, teach, obtain a document (Ma.); er..uttan writer; painted (Ma.); el.d- (el.dy-) to write (Ko.); el.t writing (Ko.); el.p unjoined suture in top of child's skull (Ko.); el.id- (el.idi-) to write (Kod..); el.iti writing, education (Kod..)(DEDR 853). e_lu, elki mind, reason, thought, wisdom, understanding, remembrance (Kui); e_lu giva to think, remember (Kui); e_d.u wisdom (Kuwi); he_l knowledge, wisdom (Br.); he_l kanning to learn (Br.); he_l tining to teach (Br.)(DEDR 912). cf. racayati fashions (R.); racan.u to form, invent (S.); racnu to make, pass. racinu (N.); racna_ to be made, be formed (H.)(CDIAL 10574). ra_ji streak, line, row (S'Br.); line (Pali); ra_ji_ (MBh.); ra_i_ (Pkt.); wood, thick grove (?M.); rada line (Si.)(CDIAL 10687). vri_sa (vri_si-) to make an incision, furrow or mark, scratch, write, plough, cut up flesh; n. writing; pl. action vri_ska (vri_ski-)(Kui); ra_s- (-t-) to write (Kond.a); ra_cinai to write, paint, record (Kuwi); ra_skinai to limn (Kuwi); ra_c- (-it-) to write; bri_nai to draw (Kuwi); varc- to scratch (Pa.); ra_yap- (ra_yat-) to write (Ga.); rasa_na, ra_sana_, ra_s-, varasa_na_ id. (Go.); varasaval writer, scribe; varsa_na_ to puncture (with the point of a sickle)(Go.); vra_yu, ra_yu, ra_su to write, inscribe, compose, draw, paint, delineate (Te.); ra_s'i gerund having marked (boundaries)(Te.inscr. A.D. 1310); vra~_ta writing, handwriting; vra~_taka~_d.u writer, clerk; vra_yasamu writing, letter, note; ra_yasamu clerkship; vra_yi letter of the alphabet, writing, line; vra_yincu to cause to be written; vra_lu writing, handwriting; varuju to draw or mark a line with a sharp instrument on a plank, etc.; variyu to test metal on the touchstone; baruku to scratch, claw, lacerate, tear, scribble (Te.); baripuni to gash, cut, scratch; bare branding the arm; bareta line, mark, scar, weal, stripe; barepini to write, draw; barepa_vuni to dictate, cause to write; bara_vu writing, manuscript, learning (Tu.); bare stripe, brand-mark, burn made on the body in illness (Kod..); bare, bari to write, draw; bare writing, lines or stripes; barepa, barapa, baraha, bara_, bara_vu writing, drawing, writ, scripture, written letters (Ka.); barasu, barisu, bareyisu, baresu to cause to write, have written; barcan.e paint, colour (Ka.); barcisu to paint, colour (Ka.); varv- (vard-) to write; var letter of the alphabet; scar (Ko.); varayuka, variyuka to draw lines; vari line, rule, row (Ma.); vara line, streak, furrow, wrinkle; varekka to make lines, being wrinkled (Ma.); vari to write, paint, draw; adorn, decorate; n. line, streak, stripe, course (as of bricks), line (as of writing), row; varai to write, inscribe, paint, draw; n. line, wrinkle (Ta.); varaippu writing; varaivu id., painting (Ta.); rajju- a writer (Pkt.)(DEDR 5263).

737.Image: wall: e_d.u_ka, aid.u_ka a building or wall enclosing bones; a building constructed of rubbish, bones, etc. (Ka.lex.) Image: bank: e.ri parapet of well, bund (in paddy-fields, of tank)(Kod..); e_ri large tank, reservoir for irrigation (Ta.Ka.); bank (Ma.)(DEDR 901). Pillar: erur.. pillar, post; strength, might (Tol. Col. 388, Urai.); er-ur..-vali great strength; puissance (Ci_vaka. 785); mighty hero (Ci_vaka. 1723)(Ta.lex.) Fort: eyil fortress, wall, fortification, city, town (Ta.); fortress, wall, city, town (Ma.)(DEDR 808).

738.Image: interval, unfilled space: it.ai middle in space or time, interval, gap, unfilled space, waist (Ta.); it.a, et.a interval, place between, interval of time, middle, waist (Ma.); ed.a, ed.e id. (Ka.); id.e id. (Tu.); ed.avat.t.u middling, inferior (Tu.); ed.a space, interval, distance, difference (Te.); ed.amu intervening space, distance (Te.); er. place or time between (Ko.)(DEDR 448). it.t.e_r-i narrow path between two fields (Ta.); it.ukku narrow passage, straitness, difficulty, poverty (Ma.); it.umpu a narrow passage (Ma.); it.t.il lane between two hedges (Ma.); et.ayi a by-way, lane (Ma.); et.a lane, narrow path (Ma.)(DEDR 445). it.t.u narrow, small; it.t.it.ai smallness, minuteness, obstacle, hindrance (Ta.); it.t.it.aical trouble, straits (Ta.); it.t.itu scantiness, slenderness (Ta.); it.t.imai smallness, narrowness (Ta.); it.t.al.am crowd, throng, insufficient air-space, difficulty, affliction (Ta.); it.t.al.appat.u to be brought together as fragments and concentrated within a small area (Ta.); id.aku, id.anku, id.uku, id.ugu narrowness, closeness, trouble (Ka.); it.t.u state of being close, narrow, pressed, thronged (Ka.); it.t.an.isu, it.t.al.isu thronged, abundant, assemble in large numbers (Ka.); it.t.an.a, it.t.al.a a crowd, throng, mass, abundance (Ka.); it.t.id.e narrowness (Tu.); ed.enkilu corner, predicament (Tu.); it.t.alamu great, abundant (Te.); id.igeda a few (Ga.)(DEDR 445). it.a-y-it.ai at frequent intervals (Ta.lex.) it.ukku narrow lane, parting between fingers, cleft in split wood (Ta.); it.ankar narrow path (Ta.); it.ukkal, it.uval crevice (Ta.); it.ukkan.i corner, nook (Ta.)(DEDR 445).

739.Image: narrow space: it.ukku narrow lane, parting between fingers, crevices between the teeth, cleft in split wood, any place where a person or thing may get pressed or wedged in, difficulty, trouble, straits; it.ukkam closeness, narrowness of space, trouble; it.ukkal, it.uval crevice; it.un:ku (it.un:ki-), it.uku (it.uki-) to shrink, contract; it.ukkan- misery, distress; it.ukkan.i corner, nook; it.akkar being close and crowded; it.an:kar narrow path; it.aical narrowness, closeness, trouble; it.t.u small, narrow; it.t.it.ai smallness, minuteness, obstacle, hindrance; it.t.it.aical trouble, straits; it.t.itu scantiness, slenderness; it.t.imai smallness, narrowness; it.t.al.am crowd, throng insufficient air-space, difficulty, affliction; it.t.al.appat.u to be brought together as fragments and concentrated within a small area; it.t.e_r-i narrow path between two fields (Ta.); it.ukku narrow passage, straitness, difficulty, poverty; it.un.n.uka to be straitened, contracted; it.ukkuka to confine; it.an.n.u strait; it.umpu a narrow passage; it.t.il lane between two hedges; et.ayi a by-way, lane; et.a lane, narrow path (Ma.); id.aku, it.aku, it.uku, id.an:ku, id.iku, id.uka, id.uku, id.ugu narrowness, closeness, straitness, difficulty, trouble; it.t.u state of being close, narrow, pressed, thronged; it.t.an.isu, it.t.al.isu to be close, thronged, crowded, abundant, assemble in large numbers; it.t.an.a, it.t.al.a a crowd, throng, mass, abundance (Ka.); it.t.id.e narrowness; ed.en:kilu corner, predicament (Tu.); it.t.alamu great, abundant (Te.); id.igeda a few (Ga.)(DEDR 445). Image: be separated, as joints: it.ai (-v-, -nt-) to make room, get out of the wayl, retreat, fall back; it.ampu (it.ampi-) to keep aloof (Ta.); it.ayikka, it.ekka to disunite, separate; it.accal family discord, separation (Ma.); ed.ayu to be separated or disunited, remove; ed.ayika separation; ed.apu to break, separate, disunite; ed.agilu to stand aside, get out of the way; ed.agala, ed.agalaga further off, at a little distance; ed.amuga at a distance, aloof; ed.alu to be broken, be separated (as joints); ed.alincu to separate, remove, loosen; ed.al(u)cu to remove, take off (as clothes); ed.avu distant, remote; davvu distance; distant (Te.); davva, dauta_n distant (Kol.); dha_v distance (Nk.); id.-e_r- to get separated (Ga.); er.are to keep aloof, get away; er.atre to separate, remove (Malt.); (h)ar.sing to turn something back or round, get back again, recover, (disease) attacks again; har.se_nging to turn oneself back, return, turn oneself round, take a turn, turn (of milk), be turned (of the stomach); har.se_fing to make to return, withhold (Br.); dhava far, distant (Nahali)(DEDR 446). To break: et.na_ (et.t.as) to tear to pieces, lacerate (Kur.); refl.-pass. et.rna_ (Kur.); et.e to deface, destroy; et.gre to be broken, be defaced; et.gro broken, defaced; et.ro a broken winnowing fan (Malt.)(DEDR 785). Image: to butt; to quarrel: it.u (it.uv-, it.t.-) to hit against; it.a_cu (ita_ci-) to strike, collide; it.i (-pp-, -tt-) to butt, hit against, kill; n. stroke, blow, push (Ta.); it.ayuka to hit against, press against, quarrel; it.accal a quarrel; it.accil conflict; it.i stroke, blow, shock, bruising, pounding; it.ikka to beat, bruise (Ma.); id.- (it.-) to beat; i.r. a blow; ir.yl act of striking a blow (Ko.); id.- (it.-) to hit against (To.); id.aku to beat, cuff (Ka.); id.i to pound, beat; id.u (it.t.-) to hit; d.ikka_, d.ikki, d.i_, d.i_ku a butt with the head (Ka.); ed.an:kuni to hit, kick; ed.apuni, ed.upuni, ed.puni to thump, strike with the fist, pound in a mortar (Tu.); d.i_ a butt with the head; d.i_konu to butt, encounter, attack, meet, oppose (Te.); ir.- to strike (Kol.); r.ey, r.i_- to beat, strike (Kond.a); ir.- (ir.t-) id., throw (stone)(Pe.); ir.ya'a_na_ to kick (Kur.)(DEDR 443). it.ar affliction, distress, trouble, poverty; it.ai trouble, difficulty, check, impediment; it.aiyi_t.u, it.aiyu_r-u obstacle; it.umpu cruelty, oppression, tyranny; it.umpai suffering, affliction, distress, calamity, evil, harm, injury, disease, poverty; it.acal obstruction, hindrance, trouble (Ta.); it.ar trouble, grief, impediment, hindrance; it.ayu_r-u obstacle; it.ampuka to obstruct (Ma.); id.aru, id.uru, id.ru, ed.aru, ed.ru impediment, hindrance, trouble, enmity; ed.ar-, ed.ar-u poverty, indigence, ruin (Ka.); ed.aru misfortune; ed.d.ami misfortune, calamity; ed.d.amu prevention; id.uma calamity, misfortune, trouble, hardship, evil, ill; d.epparamu, depparamu danger, peril; (inscr.) ed.ar-u to obstruct (Te.)(DEDR 435). cf. er.ex-er.pa_ prison, gaol; er. obstruction (Kur.)(DEDR 788). etir that which is opposite, over against, in front, before; obstacle, that which is contrary, adverse, hostile; adv. in front; (-v-, -nt-) to happen, befall, come to pass in future, precede, be opposed, be at variance; oppose, confront, meet; (-pp-. -tt-) to meet face to face, encounter, oppose, withstand, prevent, hinder; etirnto_r adversaries, combatants; etirmai happening in future; etirvu meeting, confronting, happening; etiri enemy (Ta.); etir opposite, adverse; etirkka to attack, face, resist; etirppu opposition, what crosses one's way, bad omen (Ma.); edyr enemy (Ko.); o0ir openly, (to lie) on one's back (To.); idir, idaru, iduru, edaru, edir, edur that which is opposite, the front, in front, that which is hostile, opposition; idircu, idirisu, edarisu, edirisu, edurisu to face (generally in a hostile manner), oppose, withstand, come into hostile contact; edara_yisu, edira_yisu, edura_yisu to oppose, contradict (Ka.); edike in front (Kod..); eduru the front, that which is opposite, presence (Tu.); eduru the front, the point directly opposite, the presence, the forepart, an opponent; opposite, front; vb. to oppose, resist, act against; edut.a adv. in front; ediri opponent, foe; edirincu, edurucu to oppose, resist, act against, face, encounter (Te.); edru opposite, in front (Kond.a)(DEDR 795).

740.Moves; stumbles: hin.d.ate_ moves, wanders (Dha_tup.); hin.d.ati roams (Pali); him.d.ai goes, wanders, strolls (Pkt.); hi~d.n.e~, hinn.e_ pl. legs of a quadruped (WPah.); hi~r.nu to walk (N.); hin.d.iba_ to move about, wander (Or.); hi~d.na_ to move, walk (H.); hi_m.d.ai (OG.); hi~d.vu~ (G.); hi~d.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 14089). hin.d. move (Skt.); hi~_d.u, i~d. flock (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 14088). in.d.o_l bachelor (Dm.); hin.d.a_u bachelor; hin.d.au barren woman (Kal.); hin.d.a_l bachelor, spinster, widow; adj. childless, barren (of women and animals)(Kho.); hi~r.a_lnu to make move (N.)(CDIAL 14090). hit.n.o to move, walk (Ku.); hit.nu (N.); hit.iba_ to slip down, stumble, be opened (Or.)(CDIAL 14086). For semant. 'stumble' cf. it.ar-u to stumble (Ta.); ed.gu to stumble (Ka.)(DEDR 437).

741.To be dashed against: it.ar-u (it.ar-i-) to stumble, strike one's foot against, kick, obstruct; n. obstacle; it.ar-al stumbling, obstacle (Ta.); it.ar-uka to stumble, trip, falter, hesitate; it.arcca stumbling, hesitation; it.ampuka to stumble, knock against, oppose, walk with difficulty; it.ampal contrareity; it.antuka to walk with difficulty (Ma.); id.- (id.y-) to limp (To.); id.ar-u, ed.ar-u to stumble, trip; ed.acu, ed.agu difficulty, esp. in speaking; ed.gu to stumble; ed.ahu to stumble, commit a mistake; n. stumbling; ed.ahuha stumbling, deviating from the right course (Ka.); d.an:ku to stumble (Ka.); et.t.uni id.; ed.an:ku, d.an:ku, dan:ku, don:ku id., hit against; dumpiyuni, dompu to stumble (Tu.); d.akki id. (Kor.); d.ekku to hinder, prevent, arrest (Te.); ir.mbe, ir.pe to tumble, be dashed against (Malt.)(DEDR 437).

742.Herdsman: it.ai the herdsman caste; it.aiyar men of the herdsman caste inhabiting the mullai country; fem. it.aicci (Ta.); it.ayan, et.ayan the middle caste of shepherds and cowherds, rather foreigners in Malabar; fem. it.acci (Ma.); it.as's'e_ri herdsmen's quarter (Ma.)(DEDR 450). it.aiyar literally people inhabiting the middle region, applied specially to herdsmen as those who graze their cattle in regions known as mullai or forest pasture lying midway between hilly tracts or kurici and the plains of marutam (Tivya. Periyati. 11,8,6) (Ta.lex.) Herdsman; guarding: it.ai the herdsman caste; it.aiyar men of the herdsman caste inhabiting the mullai country (Tiv. Periyati. 11,8,6); fem. it.aicci (Ta.); it.ayan, et.ayan the middle caste of shepherds and cowherds, rather foreigners in Malabar; fem. it.acci; it.as's'e_ri herdsmen's quarter (Ma.); in.t.ar shepherds (Tiv.Tiruppal.5); end.e_ra herdsmen (Si.)(DEDR 450). an.t.ar, in.t.ar shepherds (Ta.); an.t.ar id. (Ma.)(DEDR 125). adhis.t.a_yaka guarding (Skt.); adhit.t.ha_yaka guarding; director (Pali); ahit.t.haga superintendent (Pkt.); ahi_t.a_, ahit.a_ field watchman (H.)(CDIAL 263). cf. nanda cowherd (Skt.lex.)

743.Image: prehensile claws: it.ukku (it.ukki) to take between the fingers or toes, grasp as with pincers, press or squeeze as between two boards; n. prehensile claws as those of a scorpion or of a lobster (Ta.); claws of a lobster (Ma.); it.ukki pincers, tongs, tweezers, steel trap, prehensile chela of a crab or a scorpion (Ta.); pincers, tongs, forceps (Ma.); ikl. tongs (Ko.); ikkur.., ikkur..a, ikkar..a, ikr..a pair of tongs, pair of pincers (Ka.);id.aku to pinch, tweak (Ka.); ir..kur..i tongs, pincers (Ka.); id.umbulu (in wrestling) the act of seizing each other tightly with both hands (Te.); ikkul.i, ikkul.e, ikkul.u pair of pincers or tongs (Te.); d.i_pa tongs, pincers (Kui); id.aku to pinch, tweak (Ka.); Vice in a turner's lathe: it.t.it.ai vice in a turner's lathe (Ta.); it.ukkuka to press, pinch (as a crab)(DEDR 444). Synonyms of ikkar..a: la_l.i, tan.d.asa, ga_l.uka (Ka.lex.) Image: trap: it.a_r trap for squirrels or rats (J.); cf. at.a_r (Ta.lex.) id.aku to pinch, to tweak; to press (Ka.lex.) id.iku to be thronged, to be close together; id.ir.. the state of being crooked (Ka.lex.) zak crowd (A.); ja~_k (B.); ja_ka (Or.); adj. tight, narrow (Or.); ja_kiba_ to tighten (Or.); jakar.na_ to tighten (P.); ja~_kar. pledge, deposit (B.); jakar.iba_ to hold tightly, be tight (Or.); jakar.na_ to tighten, bind, put in the stocks (H.); jakar.nu to arrest (N.); jakar.vu~ to tighten, bind (G.); jak(h)ad.n.e~ (M.); yata restrained, proffered (RV.)(CDIAL 10400). Control: yanti control (Pa_n..com.); jat.l. control, possession (WPah.)(CDIAL 10406). jan.t.l.or. long string round spinning wheel (WPah.)(CDIAL 10413). ede, hede a bow-string (Ka.lex.)

744.Image: crab: e_d.i = esad.i a crab (Ka.lex.) en.d.raka_yi id. (Ka.); en.d.raka_ye, en.d.i (Te.); esad.i a crab (Ka.); an.t.u, an.t.u, nan.t.u (Ta.); n.an.d.u (Ma.); id.aku to pinch, tweak; to press (Ka.); it.ukku (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

744a.Image: pinch, compress: ir-aku, id.aku, ir-an:ku, ir-eku, ir-uku, irku, iliku to be closely confined or squeezed; to fonfine, to compress, to squeeze, to press, to pinch (Ka.); iri (Tu.); ir-aku the state of being close, confined, squeezed, or straitened; ir-akuda_ri a narrow, difficult path (Ka.lex.)

745.Image: pole of plough: e_d.iko_la the pole or shaft of a plough (Te.); e_n.t.a (pl. e_n.t.en) ploughshaft (Kond.a); entikarra cart-shaft (Kuwi)(DEDR 888).

746.Kubera: aid.avid.a, ailavila name of Kubera (Skt.Ka.lex.) ail.avil.i Kubera (Ma.lex.) aid.a Puru_ravas, son of Id.a_ (RV. x.95.18); aila a descendant of Ila_, Puru_ravas (Vedic.lex.) e_le_s'ake_tayya, e_le_s'varada ke_tayya, e_le_s'varana ke_tayya a name (Ka.lex.)[ke_tana a flag, banner; splendour (Ka.lex.)] God of wealth: ailavila, aid.avid.a kuve_ra, the god of wealth; kuve_ra, kube_ra the god of wealth and regent of the north, S'iva's friend (Ka.lex.); e_la_vila, ailavila name of Kube_ra; ilavila_ name of the wife of Vis'ravas and mother of Kube_ra, hence the name ailavila for Kube_ra (Skt.lex.) Image: phallus-god: e_kalin:ga-de_va an isolated phallus-god; Kuve_ra (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. aid.avid.a, ailavila Kuve_ra (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ?cf. id.ir.., ed.ar..u the state of being crooked (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

746a. Dammer-resin: it.ar-cam black dammer tree, kukkil, kun:kiliyam, black dammer-resin; < guggulu, tripterocarp dammar, shorea; konkani resin, boswellia serrata glabra (Mu_. A.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

746b. Pomp:vid.a_yi, vid.a_ya grand display; pomp; greatness; might (Ka.); vid.aujas Indra (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

746c.Gentleman: ayira, ayyira n.-adj. (Vedic a_rya, metathesis for ariya as diaeretic form of a_rya, of which the contracted (assimilation) form is ayya.); ariyan nobleman, gentleman (opp. servant); adj. ariyan well-born, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, gentlemanly; ayira_ lady, mistress (of a servant); v.l. oyyaka_; voc. ayire, ayye my lady; ariyaka = ayira; ayya gentleman, sire, lord, master; worthy, honourable; pl. nom. as voc. ayya_ in addressing several; ayya-putta son of an ariyan, i.e. an aritocratic (young) man gentleman; lord, master; prince; ayyaka grandfather, forefather, ancestors; ayyaka_ grandmother, granny; ariya noble, distinguished; right, good, ideal; -alamariya fully or thoroughly good; anariya ignoble, undignified, low; ariya-dhana sublime treasure; ariya-voha_ra noble or honorable practice. [There are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh language, from frivolous talk]. (Pali) (Pali.lex.) aytana the state of being an ayya or jan:gama (Ka.); ayya a master, a lord; a grandfather, a father; a jan:gama (Ka.); ayye a teacher, a schoolmaster (Tu.); ayya id. (Te.Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) jan:gama a walking lin:ga: a lin:gavanta of a higher position brought about by a kind of di_ks.e, also called an ayya, whose feet and lin:ga are worshipped by the other lin:gavantas, who lives either by begging and eating in the houses of the various castes of the lin:gavantas or by trading and may be made a guru (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

780.Wife: er-ati a mistress: the wife of Ka_ma (Ka.); ir-aivi the mistress of a house (Ta.); er-e the state of being a master or husband (Ka.lex.)

781.Anyone who is great: ere anyone who is great (Ka.); ir-ai anyone who is great, as one's father or gur or any renowned and illustrious person (Tol. Po. 256; Tiva_.); king, sovereign, monarch (Kur-al., 547); Supreme God (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,3,6); height (Pur-ana_. 17,27); superior, master, chief (Tiva_.); husband as lord of his wife (Tiv. Periyati. 2,3,5)(Ta.lex.) Wife: era wife, female, applied to women only and generally as a mark of respect; hopon era, hopon erat a daughter; era hopon a man's family; saheb era the wife of an Englishman; majhi era the village chief's wife; jaher era the goddess of the sal grove; gosa~e era a female santal deity; kisa~r. era the master's wife; budhi era an old woman (respectful); era uru wife and children; nabi era a prophetess; diku era a Hindu woman; era uru gidar pidar doko bagi ot.oatkoa they left the women and children behind (Santali.lex.) i_r pron. personal pronoun, honorific plural of i_ (you)(Tu.lex.) er.on. you yourself, you yourselves, just so; am er.on.em agukedina, ado nitok dom jobaban kana you yourself brought me, and now you are dismissing me (Santali.lex.) Friendship, nearness: erako friendship, nearness (Tu.lex.) a_r.i_ a friend, a companion; ar.i_a_, ar.i_e interj. oh! ho! halloo! friend! (addressed to a man or woman by females generally) (P.lex.) aryamya intimate, very friendly (RV.); aryaman, arya (RV.); a_jama most respectful, worshipful (OG.); a_jam mod. epithet for a great or honoured person (OG.)(CDIAL 689). a_rya an Aryan; a_rya_ (RV.); noble, respectable (Mn.); ayya worthy; gentleman; ayya_ (Pali); aya-puta prince (As'.); aryag'a a title (NiDoc.); ajja noble; master, mother's or father's father (Pkt.); a_jo free, at liberty (S.); aya person (Si.); ariya, ana_riya (Pali); a_riya, a_riya_ (Pkt.); ari- in cmpds. 'excellent' (Si.)(CDIAL 1347). a_ryaka respectable man, grandfather (MBh.)(CDIAL 1348). Ceremony for ancestors: a_ryaka ceremony performed in honour of departed ancestors (Skt.); a_ja-pu_ja_ worship (N.); -ayika oblation (Si. insc.) (CDIAL 1349). ariya adj. [Vedic a_rya, of uncertain etym. The other Pali forms are ayira, ayya] 1. (racial) Aryan; 2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth; 3. (ethical) in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. Hence: right, good, ideal; adj. ariya ena si_lakkhand.hena samanna_gata fitted out with our standard morality; ariya_ya ja_tiya_ ja_to, become of the Aryan lineage; alamariya fully or thoroughly good; na_lamariya not at all good, object, ignoble; ariya_nan anupava_daka one who defames the noble; ariya_nan adassa_vin not recognising the nobles ones; anariya adj. and n. not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, common, uncultured; ariya-a_vaka_sa appearing noble; ariya-uposatha the ideal feast day; ariya-kanta loved by the best; ariya-gan.a_ pl. troops of worthies (Pal.lex.) ariya precious, dear, excellent, rare, difficult; arumai rareness (Ta.); aru (Te.); arudu (Ka.); arumakka_ran- priest of the kon:gu ve_l.a_l.as (Ta.lex.) a_raf < a_rif (Arab.) wise, sagacious, ingenious;skilled in divine matters, possessing knowledge of god and his kingdom, and of the way of walking well with Him; pious, devout; a holy man, a saint (P.lex.) nahar, na_har a tribe of lodhi pat.ha_ns who formerly ruled in the southern part of the Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh districts. In 1450 AD Bahlol Lodi became king of Delhi and granted the triangular piece of country lying between Harand, Kasmor and Sitpur to Islam Khan, Lodi or Nahar, for which during the seventy-six years (1450-1526) of the Lodi dynasty the nahars paid no revenue... Nahars are still to be found in Sitpur, Bhagsar, Harand and in Sind ... (P. lex.) na_yima_r a Nair of Kerala; a Malayalee (Tu.lex.) nayin-a_r < na_ya lord (T.A.S. i,93); lord, master (W.); title especially of Jains; a deity; Citragupta (Ta.lex.) cf. naeke the village priest of the Santals; nahi a prophet, to prophesy (Santali.lex.)

789.Region including the forests; pasture tract: a_riya-na_t.u a region including dan.d.aka_ranya (Patir-r-p. 6, Pati, Urai.); a_riyappira_man.ar a sect of bra_hmans in Rame_swaram who have certain rights in the temple and are believed to be immigrants from north India; a_riyam sacred land of the a_ryas (Aka. Ni.); Sanskrit, the language of the a_ryas (Kampara_. Pampa_. 14); a_riya-ve_l.ar-kolli a secondary melody-type of the pasture tract (Pin..); a_riyan < a_rya one who is an arya by race (Te_va_. 844,5); inhabitant of a_rya_vartta (Cilap. 23, Kat.t.urai.); worthy, respectable man, venerated person (Aka. Ni.); guru, spiritual preceptor (Tiruva_ca. 1,64); scholar, learned man (Tiva_.); teacher (Ilak. Kot. 8); the god aiyan-a_r (Cu_t.a_.); a_riyan- < ana_rya barbarian, foreigner, aborigines; a_riya_varttam the tract of country in India lying between the Hima_layas and the Vindhya mountains, the sacred land of the a_ryas (Ta.lex.) na_kari the Sanskrit script; na_karam < na_gara id. (Civataru. Civaja_n-ata_. 32); na_yan-te_ a term of addres meaning 'my lord' (I_t.u, 4,3,5); nayintai superior, leige, lord; the master of a slave, among some castes; a term of respect among some castes (W.); na_yan-ma_r gods (I_t.u, 7,2,11); canonized s'aiva saints whose history is narrated in Periyapura_n.am (Ta.); na_yut.u title of the na_yak caste (Ta.lex.) na_yka one of the community names in Tuluva (Tu.lex.)

747.Mahua: ayilam bark of the mahwa root, iluppaive_rppat.t.ai (Ira_cavait.)(Ta.lex.) ira_ food; spirituous liquor; aire_yam spirituous liquor (prepared fromk ira_)(Skt.lex.) aila-br.da procuring plenty of food (VS. xvi.60; TS. iv.5.11.1)(Vedic.lex.) ailam food, a quantity of food (Skt.lex.) aid.a containing anything that refreshes or strengthens (VS. xv.7)(Vedic.lex.) ayilam bark of the mahwa root (Ira_cavait.) (Ta.lex.) cf. ayil-tal to eat (Tiruvil.ai. Uk. Ve_lval.ai. 60); to drink (Kantapu. Caravan.a. 33)(Ta.lex.) cf. ayilai a fish as edible (Akana_. 60); ayin-i food (Malaipat.u. 467); ayin-i-ni_r water mixed with rice, saffron and lime, waved before the married couple, or at the close of an auspicious ceremony (Kampara_. Mitilai. 51)(Ta.lex.)

748.Image: javelin: ayil javelin, lance (Jn-a_. 33)(Ta.); ayil (Ma.); surgical knife, lancet (Ja_n-a_. 30); ayilavan- Skanda as bearing a javelin (Tiruppu. 312)(Ta.lex.)

749.Measure: it.a this quantity, so much as this; it.u, is.t.u, i_t.u id. (Ka.); it.u thus (Te.) (Ka.lex.) yati as many as (RV.); jai id. (Pkt.); jai (P.H.)(CDIAL 10402). eta_ adv. < yatha_ always used as a relative, and in Tamil generally in compounds, in which manner, as much as, eppat.i (Ta.lex.) yatra in as much as (Pali)(CDIAL 10405). yatha_ in which manner (RV.); just as (Pali); yatha, yatham., yatha_, atha_ (As'.); yatha (Dhp.); yadha (Dhp.); jadha_, jaha_ (Pkt.); ja~_ after the manner of (S.)(CDIAL 10407). it.ai-vari, et.ai-vari tax on measures and weights (Ta.lex. Inscr.) i_t.t.ukki_t.u measure for measure (Ta.lex.) it.ai a measure of weight = 100 palam (Ta.lex.) et.ai weighing (Ta.); a measure of weight = 25 palam (G.Tn.D. i,237); a weight for weighing firewood = 54 lbs. (C.G.); ettu weighing (Te.Ka.); et.aik-kat.t.u allowance made for the weight of a receptacle before weighing its contents; et.aikket.ai like weight, even weight; et.ai-kat.t.utal to weigh; to allow for the weight of the receptacle for the thing purchased; et.aivari an ancient tax on weights (Ta.inscr.); Notch: et.ai-va_y notches marked upon a rod used in weighing; en. calculation, computation (Ci_vaka. 2353, Urai.); en. id. (Ma.); it.ai a measure of length, breadth, thickness; it.ai weight (Orutur-aik. 185); a measure of weight = 100 palam (Ka.lex.) Notch: it.t.ar-a wooden block with a notch, used by carpenters to wedge in planks in order to work them (Ma.); it.t.are, it.t.ire a mortice, cavity cut into a piece of timber to receive the end of a beam or plank; a stone placed under a beam (Tu.)(DEDR 454). ettan-ai how many; how much, what measure, what degree (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,3,8)(Ta.lex.) So much; very little: ittini very little (Ta.); ittiri, icciri id. (Ma.); is's'i a little (Ma.); isumanta adj., adv. a litt,e a particle, a jot; incuka a little; adv. a little somewhat (Te.); ijik a little (Go.); izri small, little (Kond.a); icuk a little (Mand..); icki, icke little, small, tiny (Pe.); icci, ici, i_ci small (Kuwi); uccai, hu_cai (Kuwi)(DEDR 410). iyattaka, iyattika_ so little (RV.); ittiya so much (Pkt.); iti so much, so many (Wg.); itti_ so big (L.); iti thus far (Or.); itta_ so much (H.); itau (Braj.); i_to, ito (OMarw.); ita_ much, very (Si.); ittila (Pkt.); ittla_, itra_, itn.a_ (P.); itro, itn.o, ituk (Ku.); itna_, itak (H.); i_taro, i_tano (OMarw.); itka_ (M.); ettaka (Pali); ettaa (Pkt.); ettia (Pkt.); etta_ (P.); etti_, etr.a_ (WPah.); yati (N.); eta (B.); ete (Or.); et (Mth.); etta_ (Aw.); ettila, ettula (Pkt.); etiro (S.); etna_ (P.); eteka (A.); etaka, etiki (Or.); etna_, etek (Mth.); e_tna_ (Bhoj.); etalau (OG.); et.lu~ (G.); etakin, etekin by that much (Si.); utti_, utla_ (L.); utn.a_ (P.); utta_, utna_ (H.)(CDIAL 1589). i_yant so much (RV.)(CDIAL 1591). hur.in, hud.in small, little, few etc.; hud.ur.i, hud.ur.in, hud.ul, hur.ur.i very small, very little etc. (Mu.lex.)

750.Image: rafter on roof: etirkkai slanting timber forming a continued line with the ridge and uniting in an angle formed by the slanting hip; rafters on either end of a hipped or bungalow roof (W.)(Ta.lex.) yati restraint (TS.); jai_ space between top of wall and the roof which rests on the outer edge of it (M.)(CDIAL 10403).

751.Image: to gore as a bull: it.a-ttal to gore as a bull. to root up as a hog (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,23)(Ta.lex.)

752.Bark: it.a-ttal to be stripped off, as the outer covering (S.I.I. 93,49); to peel off (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

753.Image: bull allowed to roam at liberty: id.vara, it.cara a bull allowed to roam about at liberty (Ka.lex.) Image: pack-ox: et.uttan- pack-ox (Ta.lex.) ettu, er..tu, eddu an ox, a bullock, uks.a (Ka.); erutu, e_r-u (Ta.Ma.); eddu (Te.); eru an ox; a male buffalo (Tu.); ettinava a bullock-man; etto_du a reading with the capacity of a bullock, i.e. reading, remembering and digesting (as the bullock chews the cud)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) To rise: etta lifting up, raising; reaching, obtaining (Ka.); finding out an item in an account (Ka.); ettu id. (Te.); ettike lifting (Ka.); ettuval.i collecting or gathering money; ettuvike raising etc. (Ka.lex.) Image: place with a good view: edkuy high place from which to see things, place with a good view (Ko.); o0wil.y place with good view (To.)(DEDR 799). Image: an elevated arm with finger's extended: ettagey, ettakey = ettugey a (man's) elevated arm with the fingers extended; ettageyyudda the height to which a man reaches with an arm elevated and its fingers extended (Ka.lex.) er..u to rise (as from seat or bed), ascende (as heavenly body), rise by one's own power (as a bird), appear, originate, be excited, aroused, increase, , grow (as a tree, breasts), return to life, awake, spread (as fame, rumour), begin, commence; er..al enthusiasm, elation, originating; er..ucci rising, ascent, elevation, starting (as of an idol in procession), origin, birth, appearance, beginning; er..uppu to cause or help to rise, erect (a building), awake, rouse, restore to life, excite, stimulate, instigate, agitate, inflame (as the passions), raise (as the voice in speaking or singing); rousing, waking; er..uppam rising, getting up, growth, height, elevation; er..umpu = er..u empu to rise, spring up; er..umai height; er..uvu to cause to rise; evvu to rise; et.u (-pp-, -tt-) to take up, raise, bear, carry, hold up, weight in a balance, undertake, utter or sing in a loud voice, speak highly of, choose, build (as a wall), remove; be inflated (as a monkey's cheeks), be high (as the forehead), be prominent (as nose or ear); et.ukkal lifting; et.uttal weight, measurement by balance; et.uppu elevation, superiority, undertaking, arrogance, superciliousness; et.uppu to awake, produce (as harmonious sounds from an instrument), dispel, drive away; et.ai weighing, weight, rousing from sleep, lengthening, increasing; it.ai weight; et.ci height, prominence (Ta.); er..uma rising; er..umpuka = er..uka; et.ukka to raise, lift, take up; et.uppu raising, taking up, harvest; er..uka to rise (hon. of ra_ja's moving)(Ma.); er.v- (er.d-) (smoke) rises up, spring up from position, fly; er. weight (Ko.); or.f- (or.t-) to carry, place (corpse) on fire, arouse from sleep (To.); er.., e_r.. (er..d-), e_r..u (edd-) to stand up, rise, awake, spring up, be produced, be obtained (Ka.); er.. rising; er..bu, ebbu to rise (Ka.); er..bisu, er..visu, ebbisu, erbu, ebbu to rouse, awaken, lift up, raise, take away, give life (Ka.); er..isu to cause to rise, raise, etc. (Ka.); e_r..ige, e_r..ge, e_r..uvike, e_r..vike, e_r..uha rising, growth, greatness, elation, haughtiness (Ka.); e.l.- (e.v, edd-) to get up; raise up, make to get up (Kod..); erkuni to rise or collect (as water in a place), puff up, swell (Tu.); erpuni to lift up; erku rising or accumulation (as of water)(Tu.); adj. exceeding (Tu.); erke, erkelu rising; erka fullness; adj. full (Tu.); erte flood tide (Tu.); en.n.i to lift; en.n.ali to carry a child (Kor.); d.in- to stand on one's toes; d.inga_na_ to become erect (obscene)(Go.); d.e_k- to carry on the shoulder (Mand..); d.e_nja (d.e_nji-) to be raised, uplifted, weighed; n. an uplift (Kui);[cf. senga (sengi-) to climb; n. act of climbing; senger.i ladder (Kui); hreg- (-t-) to climb (Kuwi)(DEDR 2752)]; pl. action d.e_ska (d.e_ski-); d.e_spa (d.e_st-) to raise, lift, uplift, rear, build, praise, flatter, weigh; n. act of raising, erection, flattery, weighing (Kui); d.ehka (d.ehki-) to carry on the shoulders; n. act of carrying, etc.; d.e_ka to carry on the shoulder (Kui); dekali, de_ki'nai, d.e_k- (-it-) to carry (Kuwi); he_fing, harfing to raise, lift up, support, carry, tolerate, carry off, lead off (Br.)(DEDR 851a). et- (eyt-) to take (by picking up and carrying), raise (as legs to the sky when one is knocked down), build (house)(Ko.); ettu to lift, raise, take up, hold up, exhibit, raise up; etta, ettu lifting up, raising, undertaking (Ka.); ettike, ettuvike lifting, raising, etc. (Ka.); ettisu to cause to raise, take up, lift up, erect, etc. (Ka.); ettu to carry a child (Ka.); ettarsu to raise (Ka.); ettuni to raise a subscription or tax; ettaruni to ascend, climb; ettara high; height; ettige a collection (Tu.); ettu to lift up, raise, take away, steal; n. height, elevation, weight, a load; adj. high, elevated (Te.): ettincu to cause to be raised, lifted, erected; ettaramu, ettaravu high, elevated (Te.); et- (ett-) to lift up (Kol.); ett- to lift (Nk.); etip- (etit-) id. (Pa.); ett- to take or carry (child) in arms, lap; att- to carry child on hip; atta_na_ to take in one's lap (Go.); et- to carry on waist (Mand..); eta (eti-) to carry a child on the hip supported by a cloth around it (Kui); etali, et- (-it-) to carry child on hip (Kuwi); et- to join hands in salutation (Ko.)(DEDR 796). Rising ground; embarkation: e_ta (fr. e_r-uta) = ya_ta ascent, rise; an instrument on the principle of the lever for raising water, a picotta (Ka.lex.) ruh grow, rise (Skt.); ruhati mounts, grows (MBh.); -ruhat aor. inj. (RV.); ru_hana_ to mount, rise, climb (H.)(CDIAL 10796). ru_d.ha risen (AV.); grown, sprung up (MBh.); grown together (R.); ru_l.ha grown (Pali); ru_d.ha customary (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10801). ro_ha mounting (AV.); growth (S'rS.Pkt.); roh seed that has sprouted (M.)(CDIAL 10860). ro_han.a means of ascending (RV.); name of a mountain in Ceylon (Skt.); name of a mountain (Pkt.); ruhun.u, ru_n.u southernmost of the three divisions of Ceylon (OSi.)(CDIAL 10861). ro_hati, ro_dhati grows; ro_hati mounts, climbs (RV.); ro_hai grows (Pkt.); rohana_ to mount, climb, ride (H.)(CDIAL 10862). rohu mountain, bare mountainous country (S.); roh mountain; rohr.i_ hill (L.); rohela_ adj. belonging to or coming from the hills; ruhella_, rahella_ inhabitant of Rohilkhan.d. (P.)(CDIAL 10845). rudhn.e~ to sprout, grow (M.)(CDIAL 10774). a_ro_han.a ascending (S'Br.); arising (Ma_rkP.); ascent (Pali); auri_ni a stick on which a load is supporting when coming downhill (Kho.); arohan mounting, riding (H.)(CDIAL 1334). arohna_ to mount, ride (H.); a_ro_hati mounts (RV.); a_ro_yati raises (RV.); a_ro_he_i makes mount (Pkt.); aureik to cause to mount (Kho.)(CDIAL 1335). a_ruhat ascends (RV.); a_ruhati (Pali); a_ruhai (Pkt.); climbs up (OG.); a_ru_l.ha (Pali); a_ru_d.ha (Pkt.); a_ru_d.hn.e~, a_rud.hn.e~ to ascent (OM.)(CDIAL 1326). e_r-u (e_r-i-) to rise, ascend, mount, abound in number, weight, or measure, spread, be diffused (as poison) (Ta.); to rise, increase, ascend, mount, climb; n. rising, etc., rising ground (Ka.); e_r-r-u(e_r-r-i-) to lift up, raise, increase (as price), eulogize, found, establish (Ta.); e_l (e_r-p-, e_r-r--, e_lv-, e_n-r--) to be excessive, abound; awake from sleep; bear, lift up, carry (Ta.); e_r-uka to rise, increase, be much, arise, ascend (Ma.); e_r-a much, more, beyond (Ma.); e_r-r-uka to raise, embark, multiply (Ma.); e_r-r-am rising, ascent, increase, climbing, pulling up, what is too much, embarkation (Ma.); e_lkka (e_r-r--) to multiply (Ma.); e.r big (Ko.); e.r, e.re.r, e.rr up (Ko.); e.tl act of raising (e.g., a fine)(Ko.); o.r- (o.r-y-) to rise high, (poison, disease) is diffused (To.); o.r-c to make high (To.); e.ra more than enough (Kod..); e_runi to ascend, climb, rise, be increased (Tu.); e_ra_vuni to raise, increase (Tu.)(DEDR 916). re_gu to rise (as dust), be aroused, excited, angry (Ka.); to be excited, rage, rise (as dust), swell (Te.); re~_gu, re_vu id. (Te.); re_yu to increase, rise, swell, rage (Te.); re~_cu, r-e~_cu, re~_pu to excite, rouse, provoke (Te.); reccu to rise, swell, increase (Te.); re_giyuni to be excited (Tu.)(DEDR 916). Image: rising sign: et.ci rising sign (astrology); e_t.ci rising of a heavenly body (Ta.); erke, erkelu rising (Tu.)(DEDR 851-a). Mounting palm trees, flow of tide: e_r-r-u mounting palm trees, flow of tide (Ma.)(DEDR 916). e_ra_ keel of a ship; e_ra_-p-palakai id.; e_ra_-maram id. (Ta.lex.) Slant, slope/ piccotah pole: e_t.ava_lu slope, slant (Te.)[cf. e_tam picottah, water-lift Te.); a_t.akarra, at.ama_nu picottah pole (Te.)[cf. a_tam picottah, waterlift; e_ta_m id. (Te.)]; e_r-asi steep, steeply rising (Kond.a); eski uphill (Kuwi)(DEDR 916). Picottah: e_r-r-am well-sweep, picottah (Ta.); e_ttam machine to draw water (Ma.); e_ta picottah; ascent, rise (Ka.); e_ra_vuni to load, embark (Tu.); erku rising or accumulation of water (Tu.); erte- tide (Tu.); ya_ta engine for drawing water (Tu.)[Perh. influenced by ya_r-u, a_r-u river, brook (Ta.)(DEDR 5119).]; e_tamu, e_ta_m, ettam, a_tam picottah, water-lift (Te.)(DEDR 916). To load cargo: e_r-u to be laden as cargo; e_r-r-u-tal to export (Ta.); e_r-r-u-tur-ai place of export or embarkation; e_r-r-umati export (Ta.); egumati id. (Te.Ka.); e_r-r-u-mati exported cargo; e_r-r-umutal cargo exported in boats etc. (Ta.lex.) Lofty; beautiful: er..il height, loftiness, elevation (Pur-ana_. 13); imposing appearance (Kur-al., 407); bigness, bulkiness (Pur-ana_. 23); beauty, gracefulness (Paripa_. 18,28)(Ta.); beauty, brightness, splendour (Ma.); er..iliya beautiful (Pur-ana_. 68,5)(Ta.); el.y beautiful (meaning uncertain; followed by buffalo name in vocative, in songs)(To.); ed.d.a beauty, charm, goodness (Ka.); ed.d.e goodness; good, superior, fair; adv. well (Tu.); edo, eda good (Pa.); edka very (Pa.); er.u good, beautiful, in health (Malt.)(DEDR 848). Firmness: e_n., e_n.am, e_n.ai, e_t.ci firmness, stability (Ta.); en. strength (Ta.); e_n.u to support (Ta.); e_n.am steadfastness (Ma.); e_n.u energy, firmness (Ma.)(DEDR 887). Complete, full; might: er-u to be full, complete (Ka.); erkuni to be full of milk (as breast or udder)(Tu.); er-ur.. strength, might (?Ta.)(DEDR 863). A climbing plant: er-ur.. a hill tree with red flowers (Ta.)(DEDR 864). e~dra_ a large climbing plant with fine flowers (P.)(CDIAL 2535).

754.To be pleased: r.hati increases, prospers, succeeds (RV.); rihan.u to be lawful or rightful (S.); rihando justly and lawfuly acquired, not obtained by violence or theft; riha_in.u to apply with right or justice (S.); ijjhati prospers (Pali); rijjhai prospers, is happy (Pkt. cf. re_z pleasure (Sogdian); ri_jhan.u to be pleased; ri_jha_in.u to amuse (S.); rijhan. to be allured, be amused (L.); rijhinu to rejoice (N.); rijha_unu to please (N.); rijhiba_, rijha_iba_ (Or.); ri_jhata is successful (OAw.); ri_jhna_ to be enchanted (H.); rijha_na_ to enchant, excite, annoy (H.); ri_jhai is satisfied (OMarw.); rijhvu~ to be pleased (G.); rijhn.e~ (M.); caus. rijhavin.e~ (M.); idenava_ to become ripe (Si.)(CDIAL 2457). riddha, id.d.ha- prosperous (Pkt.); ri_dho pleased (pp. of ri_jhan.u)(S.)(CDIAL 2457).

823.Olive: elumpi hill olive (Ta.); ilumpi id. (Ma.)(DEDR 838). cf. viky olive (Ko.); pis'ky wild olive, olea bournei (To.)(DEDR 5419).

755.Olive: Olea europaea (Ancient Egyptian d-dtw; Coptic: tree xoeit; oil nez mme (true oil); Modern Egyptian Arabic ze_t) "The olive tree probably originated in Asia Minor. It is mentioned in texts from Ebla dated about 2500 BC (called gis'-i-gis') at which time the tree was already extensively cultivated. The first finds in Egypt date from the 18th Dynasty (c.1350 BC)... Theophrastus said that it grew in Upper Egypt... Strabo, who travelled in Egypt nearly five hundred years later, says that the trees grew only in the Fayum Oasis... In the New Kingdom (1567-1085 BC) the olived and the oil were imported, first from Syria and later from Greece... A large bouquet of persea twigs from the tomb of Tutankhamum (1567-1320 BC) had a few olive twigs inserted... A bouquet of later date... consited of olive and origanum majorana. Ramesses III (1200-1085 BC) attempted to plant an olive grove near the temple of the sun-god Re at Heliopolis... used as lamp oil... used for steeping flowers to make fragrant oils... Copts... used as a vehicle for various remedies, mainly unguents and poultices..." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, pp.128-129). Olea europaea: zaytoun (Arab.); julipe (Ka.); saidun (Ta.); bark: bitter, astringent, reputed as substitute for cinchona; oil from the pericarp: demulcent, emollient and laxative; gum-like substance from the tree: vulnerary; fruits contain glucoside oleuropein, fatty oil; habitat: Baluchistan (GIMP, p.180). it.alai wild olive, olea dioica (Ta.); it.ala a wood, burning very rapidly, olea dioica; et.ala id. (Ma.); ed.ala wild olive (Ka.)(DEDR 436). Olea dioica: attajam (B.); parjamb (M.); koli (Ta.); vetila (Ma.); kulumb (Ta.Te.Ka.P.); karambu (M.); bark: febrifuge; habitat: lower hills of Assam and Bengal and western Peninsula (GIMP, p.180). kid- olea robusta (Ko.To.)(DEDR 1602). viky olive (Ko.); pis'ky wild olive, olea bournei (To.)(DEDR 5419). ambas.t.ha_ (gall of) quercus infectoria olive (Car. Su. 4.45, Vi. 8.144).

756.Image: archer: er.eth long-bow (Kur.); er.tu a bow; er.tyo an archer (Malt.)(DEDR 789).

757.Mirror: aina_, ayina_ a mirror; a glass-pane; spectacles (Ka.); ayina_, aina_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

758.Principal: ayinu, ainu, ayina_ti original, principal, prime (Ka.); aina (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

759.Image: antelope: e_n.a-va_hana whose vehicle is an antelope: Va_yu (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Decoy: di_hade_n.a a decoy antelope; di_hada miga, di_hada mr.ga a decoy animal or decoy antelope (Ka.); di_va a decoy: a bird, an elephant, an antelope etc. trained as a decoy (Ka.); di_m., di_mamu, di_mu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Image: male black antelope: ain.a belonging to the male black antelope; e_n.a a kind of deer or antelope of black colour with beautiful eyes and short legs; ain.e_ya belonging to the female black antelope; e_n.i a female antelope (Ka.lex.) ain.e_ya produced from or belonging to the female black antelope (A_s'GS.)(Vedic.lex.) Goat: e_d.a a kind of sheep (Ka.); e_d.u = a_d.u (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) cf. e_d.a a kind of sheep (Ka_tyS'r.)(CDIAL 2512). e_d.aka, e_l.aga a ram; a wild goat; a kind of sheep (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) aid.aka a species of sheep (S'Br. xii)(Vedic.lex.) el.aka goat (Pali.lex.)

760.Thread of four single yarns: enika, enike a thread composed of four single yarns united (Te.); ena equality, a match (Te.); ine, in.e a couple, pair (Tu.); en.e, en.a a couple, pair (Ka.); in.a pair, couple, union (Ma.); in.ekka to unite, couple, be equal (Ma.); in.ai (-v-, -nt-) to join, unite, agree, resemble; to join, tie (as a garland); union, likeness, pair, couple (Ta.)(DEDR 457).

761.Image: boar: e_n-am wild hog (Tol. Po. 623)(Ta.lex.); akr.a_, akr.a_l wild pig; ikunda_l boar (Go.); ekkala wild hog (Ka.); e_kalamu, e_kali~_d.u (Te.)(DEDR 771). e_n-a-p-pat.am shield in the shape of a boar's head (Cilap. 14,172)(Ta.lex.) aka_ra_ lonely, single (P.); ika_ro (Ku.); ekaira bal.a_ only son (Or.); e_kacara wandering alone, solitary (MBh.)(CDIAL 2465). cf. ballemu wild boar (Te.lex.); bara_h (H.); bara_ (A.B.); vara_ha (RV.)(CDIAL 11325). erur..i pig (Tiruvil.ai. Pan-r-i. Mulai. 26)(Ta.lex.)

762.Image: elephant: e_nal, ye_ni_, aini_, e_ni, e_n (Go.); e_ngu (Kond.a); ya_n-ai elephant (Tol. Po. 570); a_n-ai elephant (a_n-ai ya_y-k- ki_t.ama_y)(Tiruva_ca. 8,14)(Ta.lex.) a.n elephant (Ko.To.); a.ne (Kod..); a_na (Ma.); a_ne, ya_ne (Ka.); a_ne (Tu.); e_nu~gu, e_nika, e_niga, e_nige, e_nuga (Te.); ena_gi_, e_ngi (Kol.); e_nagi_ (Nk.); e_nu (Pa.); e_nig (Ga.)(DEDR 5161).

763.Palm leaf vessel; tool: e_n-am palm-leaf vessel for drinking toddy; tool (Ta.); e_nam id. (Ma.)(DEDR 918). e_ttan-am tool, instrument; vessel, utensil (Ta.lex.) cf. yat dispose (Skt.); yatna effort (Mn.); yatana (Pali); jatta (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10404a). yatta striving, contending (Skt.); ready, prepared for (MBh.); strenous, watchful (Pali); jattai strives, is active (Pkt.); jamman., jamban. to wait, wait for (L.)(CDIAL 10404). cf. yantra controlling device (RV.); any implement or contrivance (MBh.)(CDIAL 10412). Edge of a blade: e_nu one edge of a blade of hoe or spade (Te.); e_n., e_n.i boundary, limit (Ta.); e_n.u edge, chiefly the three edges of the coconut (Ma.); e.n.er edge (Ko.); e_n., e_n.u edge, border, point (Ka.)(DEDR 886). Barber: e_n-a_ti barber; name of a division among Sha_n.ans (Ta.); e_na_di barber (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Soldier: e_n-a_ti an ancient title conferred by a king on his minister (Man.i. 22,205); general; soldier, warrior; e_na_ti-mo_tiram ring being the insignia of the title of e_n-a_ti (Ci_vaka. 2569, Urai)(Ta.lex.) cf. se_na_di (Skt.lex.)

764.Silly; disgust; wretch: ebad.a, ebra_si a man who has difficulty in speaking; a foolish, silly man; ebad.atana the manner or being of an ebad.a; silliness; ebad.i a woman who has difficulty in speaking; a silly woman; ebad.isu to be afflicted with difficulty in speaking; e_bra_si a foolish, silly man (Ka.); ebul.ante (Tu.); ebbera_si, ebbra_si, e_bhra_si, e_bhyara_si (Te.); ebbe, e_bhya nasty; ebbetana, ebberika nastiness, disgust; loathsomeness; e_va, e_ve dislike, disgust; baseness, vileness (Te.)(Ka.lex.) he~dra_ clownish, stupid (H.); he~dar dung, rubbish (M.); he~dra_ dirty (M.)(CDIAL 14161). he_pia raised, high (Pkt.); hepnu to grow insolent, be overbold (N.)(CDIAL 14162). hopal. sick, slovenly, disorderly (M.); huma_, humya_ blockhead (M.)(CDIAL 14177). hula_ silly (M.)(CDIAL 14142). hu_sar. uncouth, stupid (H.)(CDIAL 14143). e_ma_l.i a beggar, a silly man (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) e_r..ai indigent person, poor wretch, helpless fellow; e_r..aimai poverty (Ta.); e_r..a a poor or innocent person, one who is helpless; e_ya poor person (Ma.); e.l.y poor (To.)(DEDR 911). he_sike, pe_sike, pe_sige, e_sike aversion, disgust; nastiness; a nasty, disagreeable object, an object that causes disgust; he_si a disgustful female; he_su, pe_su to feel aversion, to have a dislike, to recoil; he_si ho_gu to feel aversion (as the mind); he_su-maga a nasty son; he_su ma_tu a disgustful word; he_su-tana nastiness (Ka.lex.) e_vam fault, blemish (Ta.); e_va disgust, dislike, hatred; ugliness; e_vaysu to be disgusted or vexed; he_va disgust, repugnance; he_varisu to feel aversion (Ka.); e_va, e_vamu dislike, disgust, hate; disgusting, hateful; e_vagincu to hate, dislike, be disgusted (Te.)(DEDR 908). ha_ba_n. stupid (A.); ha_ba_, haba_r.i dumb, stupid (Or.); habr.a_ clumsy, ill-shaped (H.)(CDIAL 1392). hin:ga_ worthless, boastful (Or.); hen:ga_ good-for-nothing (Or.); he~ga_d., he~ga_d.a_, he~gd.a_ clumsy, stupid (M.); hokha_ weak, unsteady, characterless, worthless (P.); hoga_ slack, slothful, sturdy, and overbearing (M.)(CDIAL 14078). hi_jir.o an impotent man (S.); hi_jr.a_ eunuch (P.); hijar., hijr.a_ (B.); hijar.a, hijar.a eunuch; hijar.i_ woman with male characteristics (Or.); hi_j weak, lazy, cowardly; hijr.a_ eunuch (H.); hejar.a_ shameless, laughing loudly, impotent (Or.); hijr.u~ impotent (G.); hijd.a_ hermaphrodite (M.); hejar.a_ miserly, shameless (Or.); hejal.a_ impotent (Or.); hocho low, mean (S.); hucca_ disreputable (M.); hoccha_ quarrelsome over trifles (L.); mean, stupid, trifling (P.); ho~cho mean, shallow-minded (Ku.); hoco, ho~co low, short (N.)(CDIAL 14084).

765.Black soil: ere black soil (Ka.); re_-gad.a, re_-gad.i clay [gad.d.a clod)(Te.); gad.a clod (Go.); kat.t.i clod, lump (Ta.)(DEDR 1148)](DEDR 820). ar-al black sand found on the seashore, water (Ta.); black sand (Ma.); ar-il, ar-al, ar-ulu, arla, arlu mud, clay (Ka.)(DEDR 312). rehu_ barren soil (i.e. furrowed and left fallow (OAw.); re_kha_ scratch, streak, line (Gr.hyaS.); line, streak (Pali); re_ha_ line, row (Pkt.); reh furrow made in sugar-cane planting (Mth.)(CDIAL 10810). Red loam soil: eran.-ka_t.u fertile land of red loam soil; fertile black cotton soil; barren land (Ta.lex.) cf. er-r-a red (Te.lex.)

766.Image: honeycomb: ir-a_l honeycomb (Nal.a. Kalini_n..14); ir-avu id., ira_t.t.u id. (Ta.); e_ri empty beehive; irl.e honeycomb; ra_d.e id. (Ka.); te.n-eri id. (Kod..); edi id. (Tu.); ye_ri_ the bees' comb in which the eggs and grubs live; arey part of hive where bees and grubs live (Go.); je_ka honeycomb (Kui)(DEDR 518). horla an empty comb of bees or wasps; an empty nest of red ants (hau); in contrast to harku a white-ant's comb, full or empty (Mu.lex.) kurumpi comb of white ant's nest (Ta.); gugge an insect inthe snake hole (Ka.); gurma comb of white ant's nest (Pa.); garem, garum(i) nest inside anthill (Go.); ku_ru white ant's nest (Kond.a)(DEDR 1790).

767.Bull; male: e_ra_n-, e_r-an- bull (Nan-. 392, Mayilai)(Ta.); e_r-u bull (Pur-ana_. 1,3); males of certain animals as pan-r-i, pulva_y; ur..ai, kavari, erumai, marai, per-r-am (Tol. Po. 593,594); turuva_t.u (Tiva_.); puli (Pin.); cin:kam (Pa_rata. Kirut.. 76); male shark (Tol. Po. 595); male conch (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) e_t.t.ai male of animals, as of the buffalo (Pin..); e_r-r-ai male of any animal remarkable for physical strength (Tol. Po. 604)(Ta.lex.) Image: hump on a bull: e_ri hump on bull (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 904).

768.Image: male buffalo: eru male buffalo (Tu.)(DEDR 815). e.r male buffalo (Ko.To.); tir e.r buffalo calf at Toda calf sacrifice (Ko.)(DEDR 917). erumai-po_ttu he-buffalo (Tol. Po. 596); erumai-k-kat.a_ id. (Ta.lex.); enu po_tu male buffalo (Te.); arm, ar.mi buffalo (Go.); erumai female buffalo (Ta.)(DEDR 816).

769.A weapon; a club: er..u a kind of weapon (Ta.); a club (Ma.); er..uku a club (Ma.)(DEDR 852). Arrow: ey arrow (Tivul.ai. Par..iya. 24); eytal to discharge arrows (Pa_rata. Campava. 49); ey (Ma.); e_y (Ka.); e_yu (Te.); eyir-r-ampu (eyir-u + ampu) arrow tipped with a spear-head (Ci_vaka. 780)(Ta.lex.) eyin- hunting tribe of the desert tract (Cilap. 12, Pa_t.al, 18, 'An.imut.i'); eyin--ce_ri village inhabited by the hunting tribes (Kantapu. Val.l.i. 28); eyin-a-c-ce_ri id. (Nan-. 212, Virut.); eyin-an- hunter, inhabitant of the desert tract (Perumpa_n.. 129)(Ta.lex.) e_ shooting as an arrow (Pu. Ve. 5,5); arrow (Ci_vaka. 370); evvu to discharge as a missile or an arrow (Kampara_. U_rte_. 177); e_cu-tal to hurl, dart (Te_va_. 380,6); e_vu to hurl; to discharge as an arrow; to throw as a dart; arrow (Kantapu. Ka_mataka. 66); e_vun.n.u-tal to be injured by an arrow (Ir-ai. 6,64)(Ta.lex.) eyyuka to shoot an arrow; eyttu shooting; eyyikka to cause to shoot; e_vuka to hurl, dart, shoot; e_vu shooting (Ma.); ey- (ec-), i_y- (i_c-), icv- (ict-), ic- to shoot (Ko.); ef- (et-) to shoot (arrow)(To.); esu, ese, isu (ecc-), e_y to shoot (as an arrow), thorw; ece id., to expel (as water out of a syringe); esu, ese, esige, esage, esuge shooting, throwing; e_su to throw; n. a throw, a shot (Ka.); eyyuni, i_puni to shoot an arrow; esaguni to discharge (Tu.); egucu to cast, shoot, discharge (as an arrow); e_yu to throw, fling (Te.); ey- (e-), eyk- to shoot (arrow)(Pa.); esna_ to shoot; es- to shoot with bow (Go.); ijna_ to shoot (arrows), cause a liquid to gush out upon; gush out (Go.); in-he (inj-) to pelt, stone; ece to throw out; ge to throw away, scatter (Malt.)(DEDR 805). Arrow: is.u arrow (RV.BHSkt.); isu (Pkt.); is.uka arrow (AV.)(CDIAL 1596). is.i_ka_ reed used as an arrow (AV.); sort of sugar-cane, small stick to stir crucible (Skt.); i_s.i_ka_ reed, cane (MaitrS.); i_s.ika_ arrow; is'i_ka_ id. (Skt.); isi_ka_, isika_ reed (Pali); isiya_ stick (Pkt.); hiya, hi_, iya, i_ya arrow; i_-tan.a the grass heteropogon hirtus (Si.)(CDIAL 1595). wes.u arrow, bullet (Kho.)(CDIAL 2324). wes.eik to send, dispatch, send away (Kho.); upe_s.ate_ attacks (RV.)(CDIAL 2323). Spear: cf. is- (-t-) to strike (Kond.a); ihpa (iht-) to thrust into or through, spear, spit, impale (Kui)(DEDR 425). is.i_ke a small stick of wood or iron used by goldsmiths (Ka.lex.)

770.Images: stroke (as of a sword); to pounce upon: e_r-u throw, beating (as of a drum), stroke (as of a sword), pouncing upon, destroying, scar (Ta.); a throw (Ma.); that with which one pierces or which one throws; a cut, wound (Ka.); e_t.u a blow, stroke (Te.); a blow, throw, shot (Ka.); et.t.u a blow (Ka.); ettu cutting, stabbing (Ka.); er-r-u (er-r-i-) to strike, kick, butt, cut, cleave, pierce, kill; n. kicking, hitting, pushing, attacking (Ta.); er-i (-v-, -nt-) to hack, chop, smash, destroy, beat, pounce, kick; n. throw, fling, kick (Ta.); a throw (Ma.); er-iva missiles (Ta.); eyr- (erc-) to cut, kill, slaughter (animal)(Ko.); eyrl a cut (Ko.); et- (ety-) to fight; e.rp a cut, blow (Ko.); e.r(p) pa.r. pain of wound (Ko.); er-y (er-s-) to throw, cut, sting, charge with horns, sacrifice (To.); ir-- (ir-0-) to hit with weapon (To.); i.r-k depression made by cutting; ir- depression in anything (To.); ir-i (ir-id-) to throw, beat, strike, pierce, kill, butt; throb (as a sore)(Ka.); ir-a, ir-i, ir-u tossing, butting (Ka.); ir-aku, ir-ike, ir-ata, ir-ipu striking, piercing, goring, etc. (Ka.); r-eppu to strike (Ka.); et.t.uni to be hit; box the ear (Tu.); et.t.akut.t.a quarrelling and fighting (Tu.); r-immu to throw, fling, toss, spurt, squirt, thrust, butt; n. spurt, thrust, butt (Te.); ey- (et.t.-) to throw (Ga.); e_rista_na_ to beat violently, thrash; erta_na_ to thrash (Go.); re_h- to beat; re_- to shoot (bow)(Go.); eR- (-t-) to shoot (arrow), fling or pelt (with a stone); ir-- (iRt-) to throw; ir-ga a sling to chase birds destrying crops (Kond.a); ec- (ecc-) to shoot with bow (Pe.); ibga (<ig-b; igd-) to throw down, let fall, drop; pl. action iska (iski-)(Kui); ir-u to throw as a spear, fling (Ta.); er-iyuka to throw, fling, hit (Ma.); er-ikka to remove the bark from timber, rough hew for sawing (Ma.); er-r-u a blow (chiefly beating clothes)(Ma.); er-r-uka to throw (as with sling), fillip, propel, spirt, beat hard (Ma.); irhmu_ throw! (Kuwi); ir- (-h-) to throw; iskali to dump down (i.e. pl. action)(Kuwi)(DEDR 859). Thunderbolt: e_r-u that with which one pierces or which one throws (Ka.); a thunderbolt (Ta.); a cut, wound (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Missiles: e_r-u throw (Ta_yu. Cacci. 8)(Ta.lex.) er-iva missiles (Kantapu. Tiruvil.ai. 47); er-i-vallayam spear or lance, that is hurled, opp. to kuttuvallayam; er-i-val.aiyam discus used as a missile; er-i-pat.ai missile (Kampara_. karan-vatai. 52); er-i throw, fling (Ta.Ma.); to throw, cast, fling, discharge, hurl (Na_lat.i, 66); to shiver into pieces, smash (Pur-ana_. 4,10)(Ta.lex.) er..u club; kind of weapon; column, pillar; cross-bar of wood set to a door (Perun.. Ucaik. 49,3); er..u-kal.am battle-field(Ta.lex.) Image: to pierce: ir-uttal to pierce through, as an arrow; to gore, stab (Pur-ana_. 19,9); to throw, as a spear; to fling (Pu. Ve. 3,24, Kol.u)(Ta.lex.) Image: opposing: e_r- to meet in battle, oppose; n. state of meeting and opposing, a wound (Ka.); e_rsa_vuni to beat, strike (Tu.); e_l (e_r-p-, e_r-r-, e_lv-, e_n-r--) to oppose in battle, encounter (as a foe)(Tirumuru. 55); e_r-r-al disputation, polemics (Perun.. Ucaik. 36,243); e_r-r-a_r foes, enemies (Tiruva_ca. 3,158)(Ta.lex.); e_lkka (e_r-r--) to hit, meet in battle; e_lpikka to wound, make (a dog) to attack or seize (Ma.)(DEDR 906). e_r-u pouncing upon as an eagle (Pur-ana_. 160,3); e_r-a_l.ar warriors (Ta.lex.) Image: to equal: e_l to equal (Tan.t.i. 33)(Ta.lex.)

771.Image: to pour out: er to sow, to scatter; to be sown or scattered; er hor.o dhan that has not been transplanted; hor.oko erakoa sim do they scatter dhan for the fowls (Santali.lex.) elkhna_ to pour liquid out (by tilting a vessel standing on the ground); elkhrna_ to be poured out (Kur.); eqe to pour out from a vessel (Malt.)(DEDR 840). cf. er-r-u to throw out (as water from a vessel)(Ta.)(DEDR 866). ekku-tal to squirt, thorw up as water (Paripa_. 11,57); to rise, go up (Paripa_. 16,45)(Ta.); id. (Te.); ekki syringe, squirt (Paripa_. 10,12)(Ta.lex.) er-acu to sprinkle; to scoop; to scatter; to strew; to cast; to sow (Ka.); ir-ai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

772.Images: a wing, fin, rib: er-ake a wing; a fin; an arm (Ka.); ir-aku, ir-ai, cir-aku (Ta.); ir-agu, egir-u (Ma.); er-ake, r-ekke (Te.); a rib (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

773.Image: oblong trough: er-r-an--maram a kind of oblong trough with a long handle, supported by three posts used to bale water in irrigation; er-r-ar--pat.t.ai basket with which water is baled by four or six persons (Ta.lex.)

774.Image: rend: er-r-u-tal to cut, cleave, rend (Kalit. 85); to snap, as a carpenter's line for marking a board (Nait.ata. Cantiro_. 33); er-r-u-nu_l carpenter's line for marking a board (Ta.lex.)

775.Image: kicking: er-r-u kicking, hitting, pushing, attacking (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

776.Image: to hit with fist: er-r-u-tal to strike, cuff, hit with the fist (Kampara_. Ma_ri_can-. 63)(Ta.lex.)

777.Images: enmity; to butt: era iri to be at enmity with each other; era iri akanakin they are at enmity with each other (Santali.lex.) er-r-u-tal to butt as an elephant; to dash against as the waves of the sea (Te_va_. 92,2)(Ta.lex.) ir-i to beat, to strike; to throb as a sore; to piere, to stab, to gore; to butt; to kill (Ka.); er-i (Ta.); ir-ida_d.u to stab mutually; to butt one another as animals (Ka.lex.)

778.For all time: er-r-aikkum adv. < en-r-u + for all time, for ever (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 29)(Ta.lex.) arja_ age, lifetime (P.lex.) ir-e_ a particle frequently used in Vais.n.ava religious writings and occurring mostly at the end of sentences to indicate that the subject mentioned is either (1) common knowledge, or (2) one which must be known by all, or (3) one that is emphatically so (I_t.u, 2,1,1)(Ta.); er-e_ part. id. (Akana_. 41, Urai.); en-r-aikkum for ever (Ta.lex.) ar-a clearly (Pur-ana_. 224)(Ta.lex.) ar-i-tal to know, understand (Na_lat.i. 74)(Ta.); er-ugu (Te.); ar-i (Ma.); knowledge (Kur-al., 638)(Ta.lex.)

779.Notification: ar-ikkai < ar-vi- notice (Ve_ta_ran.i. Paraco_. Man.ava_l.ac. 33); ar-ikkai-va_cittal to publish banns of marriage; ar-ivittal to make known, relate, communicate; to publish, announce (Ta.lex.)
782.Image: ox: nahira_, na_hira_ an ox whose horns are straight and projected upwards; a rude, ill-tempered spiteful man (P.lex.) eru an ox, also buffalo (Tu.lex.)

783.Canal watered land: nahiri_ canal watered land; nahir, naihar a canal, a stream (P.lex.) nai, nayi river (Kon.lex.) cf. na~i a river, the Damuda river (Santali.lex.) nihar a canal, stream (P.lex.) naital. river-bed; da_kt.i nai rivulet (Kon.lex.)

784.Image: turner's gouge: naiha_ a turner's gouge (P.lex.)

785.Image: lion; tiger: nahar, na_har < narhari (Skt.) a tiger, a lion; a wolf (P.lex.)

786.Wife: nakar wife (Kalit. 8)(Ta.lex.) cf. naihar applied to parents' house after marriage (Santali.lex.)

787.Gardener: ara_i_n. a caste among muhammadans employed in gardening and in cultivating lands for the production of vegetables; ra_i_n. id.; they are very industrious and great vegetable growers; ara_ha_ a grass preserve, a place where grass is cultivated for the use of government, and others are prohibited from cutting it (P.lex.)

788.Harvest: har.hi_, ha_r.i_ the rabi crop (sown about the month of assu_ and kattak), the rabi harvest. The rabi instalment of land revenue so called because the rabi crops are harvested and divided and the revenue instalment paid, in the month of ha_r.h; ha_r.hi_ sa_uni_ sowing and autumn harvests, rabi and kharif (P.lex.) rabbi_ depending on divine care; the winter crop (commonly called ha_r.hi_), the spring harvest crops sown in winter and cut by the month of ha_r.h; rabbi_-ul-awwal the third month of the muhammadans; rabbi-ul-sa_ni_ the fourth month of the muhammadans; ra_bhan to be sown, to be cultivated (P.lex.) erba a cultivated grain, setaria italica, kunth, used metaphorically for girls; tinak ir.i ar tinak erba? how many boys and how many girls? (Santali.lex.) ir to reap; irok din harvest; ir arpa a small sheaf of grain, the daily perquisite of a yearly servant during harvest; ir samtao, ir ader to harvest; irokko reapers (Santali.lex.) ir.i a cultivated millet, panicum crus-galli; kokor janga ir.i a cultivated millet, panicum crus galli or frumentacea (Santali.lex.)

790.Image: leaf: ire leaf, plantain-leaf (Tu.lex.)

791.Image: two: iru the form taken by erad.u in certain compounds to denote two; irve_r two persons; irnu_du two hundred (Tu.lex.) iral eight; iral gel eighty; iral isi eight score; gel iral eighteen; cf. as.t.au dual in Sanskrit; semant. ir (Two) times four (an ancient system of four as a landing point in numeration, gan.d.a); hence, iral (Santali.lex.) car four; caukhu~t. four points of compass (Santali.lex.)

792.Image: narrow: ir-uku, ir-aku the state of being close together; a narrow place, a thicket (Ka.Te.); ir-umbu a narrow place (Ka.lex.)

793.Image: killing: ir-ku, ikku killing, destroying (Ka.lex.)

794.Image: seven: e_l.u seven (Tu.lex.)

795.Prosperity: e_l.ige prosperity (Tu.lex.)

796.A numerical connective particle: en-ra_ < en-- a numerical connective particle (Tol. Col. 73); en- part. particle having the force of whatever, whichever (Kur-al., 430); en-n-u-tal to say, utter, express (Tol. Col. 422); en-kai saying (Kantapu. Me_t.u. 26)(Ta.lex.) ar-ku-tal < alku- to be permanent, to remain, endure (Kur-al., 333); alku-tal to be permanent (Ta.lex.)

798.Offering: arkkiyam < arghya water offered reverentially to gods or guests (Ce_tupu. Ce_tupala. 90)(Ta.lex.)

799.Image: swan: ekin-, ekin-am swan; Brahma_ who rides on a swan (Tiruppu. 609) (Ta.lex.)

800.Faith: ekki_n- < yaggin (Arab.) faith (Ta.lex.) ekkiyam < yaja sacrifice, ceremony in which oblations are offered (Tiruva_n-aik. Ko_ccen.. 70)(Ta.lex.)

801.Image: to the brim: erka adv. full to the brim, fullness; erka_vu cause to fill in (Tu.lex.) erku to rise as water in a tank, to be full; kan.d.ot.u ni_ru erkun.d.u the field is full with water (Tu.lex.) er-u to be all, entire, full or complete (Ka.); erku to be full (Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

802.Image: fish: e_ran:kam < e_ran:ga a kind of fish (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) e_ri a big sea bream fish; e_rinu tindudu bo_rinu ma_riy having eaten the e_ri fish, he sold the bullock, i.e. being a slave to the palate, he lost all his (Tu.lex.)

803.Molten cast: erako molten cast (Tu.lex.) eh-kam any weapon made of steel (Cu_t.a_.); eh-ku steel; eh-ku-pat.utal to melt, to soften (Cilap. 15, 210, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ayas metal, iron (RV.); ayo_, aya iron (Pali); aya (Pkt.); ya (Si.)(CDIAL 590). yakad.a iron (Si.)(CDIAL 591). yakul.a, yavul.a sledge-hammer (Si.); ayo_ku_t.a, ayaku_t.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 592). ayas'cu_rn.a powder prepared from iron as a vermifuge (Sus'r.); yahun.u iron filings (Si.)(CDIAL 489).

804.Image: an enclosed area: ere the area enclosed between the wall and the water-line in a courtyard (Tu.lex.)

805.Tin, solder: ran:ga tin (Skt.); ram.ga (Pkt.); ra~_g pewter, tin (P.H.); ra~_ga_ pewter, tin (P.H.); solder (Or.Bi.Mth.); ra_n. tin, solder (Ku.N.A.B.); ra~_k (Ku.); ra_n.o (N.); ra_n:ga tin (Or.); ra_n:ga_ solder (Or.); ra_m.ga (OAw.); ranga tin (Si.)(CDIAL 10562). ra_n.(g)ta_ tinsel, copper-foil (B.)(CDIAL 10567). [cf. ren. cement for metallic objects (G.); ren.i_ ingot (L.)(CDIAL 10639).]

806.Brass: ri_ti yellow brass, bell metal (Skt.); ri_tika calx of brass (Skt.); ri_ri_ brass (Pkt.); yellow brass (Skt.); rit copper (Dm.); ri_t (Gaw.); ri_da copper (Gaw.); ri_d brass (Bshk.); zit (Tor.); ri_l brass, bronze, copper (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10752). eruvai ?copper (Ta.); ere a dark-red or dark-brown colour, a dark or dusky colour (Ka.)(DEDR 817). eruvai yurukkin-a_lan-n-a kuruti (Kampara_. Kumpaka. 248)(Ta.lex.) eri sulphur, brimstone (Ta.lex.)

807.Silk-worm; castor-oil plant: {Castor-oil plant is of pre-historic introduction. Castor oil is a mild purgative. It is used extensively to manufacture Turkey red oil for the dyeing industry. It is a dressing for leather, in 'fat-liquoring' in the leather industry, as an illuminant, and as wool oil. After extracting the oil, the cake is used as manure, as fuel, for caulking timber, to destroy termites (white ants) and to stuff the soles of native shoes. [Quisumbing, E., Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.532.]} kiter.i maran castor-oil plant (Kond.a); kitele id. (Mand..); ki'er.i id. (Kui); ki'en.i ma_rnu id. (Kuwi)[cf. -en.i used as -en.n.e oil in some DEDR forms]; kieri ni_yu_ oil for cooking (Kuwi); kieni ni_yu castor oil (Kuwi)(DEDR 1549). git- to penetrate (thorn, etc.), prick, pierce (Go.)(DEDR 1550). [The castor capsules are ovoid, about 1 cm. long, green or purplish, and covered with soft spinelike processes; whence the attribute kit- in some DEDR 1549 forms. cf. the use of -er.i of kit-er.i (Kond.a) form in the following:] eri (A.) e~r.i_ (H.) a silkworm which feeds on the castor-oil plant; e_ran.d.a castor-oil plant, ricinus communis (Sus'r.Pali); eram.d.a (Pkt.); e_ran.d.aka (Pali); aran.d.u (S.); iran.d., arin.d., harin.d.a, rin.d.i_ (P.); e_n.d.a_ (WPah.); i~_d. (Ku.); i_n (Ku.); a_r.eri (N.); era_ (A.); rer.i (B.Or.); re~r., le~r. the plant (Bi.); re~r.i_, le~r.i_ the seed (Bi.); a~r.ar., a~r.ri_ (Mth.); an.d.a_, an.d.i_ (Mth.); re~_r.i_ the plant (Bhoj.); aran.d., re~r. the plant (H.); eran.d.i_, aran.d.i_, re~r.i_ the seed (H.); era~d.o the plant (G.); eran.d.iyu~ the oil (G.); err., err.i_, err.iyu~ (G.); era~d. the plant (M.); era~d.i_ the seed (M.); eran.d.u, en.d.aru the plant (Sk.); aram.d.u (OAw.)(CDIAL 2517). e_ra~d.el castor-oil (M.)(CDIAL 2518). di_r.a pl. di_r.el castor-oil plant (Pa.); di_r.a ney castor oil (Pa.); dir.el pl. castor-oil plants (Ga.)(DEDR 3281). [cf. era~d.i_, era~d.el (M.) forms in CDIAL 2518).] cf. parelu castor seed (Tu.); haral.u castor oil plant (Ka.)(DEDR 3959).] alumbud.a, alumbud.e castor-oil plant (Tu.); a.man.d. (Ko.); o.mul.g (To.); a_t.alu, avud.la, avun.d.la, avud.ala, aman.d.a, a_man.d.a (Ka.); a.n.ake mara (Kod..); a.n.ak-en.n.e castor-oil (Kod..); aman.t.alam, a_t.am, a_man.t.am, a_man.akku, a_t.al.ai castor-oil plant (Ta.); a_man.akku (Ma.); a_mudamu (Te.); a_medda_, a_meda (Kol.)(DEDR 360). muttam castor-bean, pearl (Ta.)(DEDR 4959). a_man.d.a, aman.da, man.d.a castor-oil plant, ricinus communis (Skt.); a_mam.d.a the fruit of the wild myrobalan [cf. a_malaka]; a_d., a~d. castor-oil tree (H.); an.d.i_ its fruit (H. possibly < aran.d.< e_ran.d.a) (CDIAL 1240). a_t.am castor-plant (Ta.lex.) eran.d.a ricinus communis (Car. Su. 2.12, 4.22); paca_n:gula id. (Car. Su. 14.42, 27.109). eran.d.a, ruvaka ricinus communis [eran.d.om dare ricinis communis (Santali.lex.) {Ricinus communis Ancient Egyptian dgm; Coptic: plant themec; seeds kiki; Modern Egyptian Arabic harwa 'A perennial plant with palmate leaves which may grow as tall as a tree. The seed capsules are bur-like, the oval glossy seeds black, red, white or mottled with an agreeable nutty taste... In Egypt the plant is sown around houses to repel mosquitoes... Seeds of the castor-oil plant have been found in prehistoric burials in Egypt... use of castor oil in Egypt as a lamp oil. Strabo adds that the poorer people used the oil for anointing the body... The leaf of the plant was used as a bandage... the fruits were burnt as fumigation to expel a disease caused by a demon.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., pp.142-143)]; "Ricinus (Castor oil seed). Habitat. India... When grown on a large scale, bee-hives are essential in order to insure well developed seed... castor oil is extensively used as a purgative and lubricant." (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 521-423). Ricinus communis: eranda (Skt.); arand (H.); bherenda (B.); erendi (M.); eri (A.); manda (Ka.); erandam (Ma.); amanakku (Ta.); erandamu (Te.); oil from seeds: purgative (GIMP, p.214). cf. a_man.t.am castor-oil plant (Ta.)(DEDR 360).

808.Cyperus: eruvai European bamboo reed; a species of cyperus; straight sedge tuber (Ta.); eruva a kind of grass (Ma.)(DEDR 819). Typha grass: e_ragu a kind of grass for making coverlets (Pali); e_raka typha-grass (Pali); e_raka a kind of grass with emollient and diluent qualities (MBh.)(CDIAL 2516). iruve_ri cuscus grass (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 18,47)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); iruve_li < hri_be_ra (Tiva_.); ir-una_kam cuscus grass; ila_miccai < la_majja cuscus grass, anatherum muricatum with aromatic root (Tiva_.); ila_miccu id. (Kat.ampa. Pu. Ili_la_. 182); ila_maccam < la_majja id. (S.I.I. ii,123)(Ta.lex.) cf. Vetiveria zizanioides = andropogon muricatus: khaskhas (B.); khasakhasa (M.); khas (H.); ushira (Skt.); vattiveru (Te.); vettiver (Ta.Ma.); roots: in infusion considered refrigerant, febrifuge, diaphoretic, stimulant, stomachic and emmenagogue; pulverized and made into a paste in water used as a cooling external application in fevers; their essence used as a tonic; habitat: practically over the whole of India (GIMP, p.254).

809.Image: eagle: eruvai a kind of kite whose head is white and whose body is brown; eagle (Ta.); eruva eagle, kite (Ma.)(DEDR 818).

797.Image: sun: en-r-u < el sun (Kantapu. Vintakiri. 4); en-r-u_r.. summer (Pur-ana_. 75); sunshine (Cilap. 14,121); sun (Kur-un. 215)(Ta.lex.) cf. el lustre, splendour, light (Tol. Col. 271); sun (Tirumuru. 74)(Ta.lex.) elle adv. tomorrow (Tu.lex.) eri the glare or heat of fire (Tu.lex.) ar-kan- < arka sun (Kantapu. Kayamukan-va. 35) (Ta.lex.) cf. arka flash, ray, sun (RV.); akka (Pali.Pkt.); a_k (Mth.); aka lightning (Si.)(CDIAL 624). cf. a_yir-u sun (Ta.lex.)

810.Cardamom: ela_ cardamom (Skt.lex.)(CDIAL 2522). cf. e_lam cardamom plant, elettaria cardamomum (Ta.)(DEDR 907) e_la_ti < e_la_ + a_di lit. 'cardamom and other ingredients', name of an ancient didactic work by Kan.i-me_ta_viya_r containing 100 stanzas and mentioning six virtues in each stanza, one of patin--en.-ki_r..-k-kan.akku (Ta.lex.) Synonyms: vis.kut.i_, pr.thva_ka_, bahula_ cardamom; tuttha_, ko_ran:gi_, triput.a_, tr.ti_ small cardomom (Skt.lex.) {Elettaria cardamomum (Modern Egyptian Arabic habaha_n) The cardamom is indigenous to India and Ceylon. No ancient Egyptian name for it has been identified, nor have traces of it been found, but classical sources mention it as an ingredient in the much-valued Egyptian unguents. Pliny informs us that the best one was made in the city of Mendes. Theophrastus mentions that cardamom was imported into his country from Media, though some said India, and that it found use in perfumes. (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museums Publications Ltd., p.100).

811.Auction: e_la_, ela_m, ya_la an auction, a public sale (Ka.); e_lam (Tu.); e_lamu, ya_la_mu (Te.); nila_m, lila_m.va, le_la_ma, le_la_m.va (H.M.)(Ka.lex.)

812.Rafter: el.anta, el.unta plank (Ma.); el.e rafter (Ka.)(DEDR 854A). fol.e plank (Kon.lex.)

813.To rule: e_lu to rule, govern, control, manage; (inscr.) e_l.u to rule; e_lika ruler, king, lord, master; e_liki government; e_lubad.i, e_lbad.i rule, government; (inscr.); a_d.avan.d.u ruler, master (Te.); a_l. (a_l.v-, a_n.t.-) to rule, reign over, control or manage (as a household), cherish, maintain, keep or maintain in use (Ta.); (inscr.) ya_l. to rule; a_l.an-, a_l.i one who rules; a_l.ukai rule, dominion, control; a_l.va_r the Deity, as supreme ruler; a_t.ci lordship, ownership, government, rule, reign, use, possession; a_t.cai weekday; a_t.al ruling, reigning; a_n.t.a_r owner, master, lord; gods; a_n.t.avan-, a_n.t.ai master, lord; a_n.mai controlling power, possession (Ta.); a_l.uka to rule, possess, have; a_r..ca day of the week, week (Ma.); a.n.- (a.d.-) to possess, rule, keep, own (Ko.); o.l.- (o.d.-) to own (buffaloes), rule (To.); a_l. (a_l.d-) to get, have, possess, govern, rule, manage; a_l.ike, a_l.ke obtaining, ruling, reign, government; a_l.isu to cause to obtain or get, cause to rule; a_l.utana, a_l.tana ruling, rule, sovereignty; a_l.ma, a_n.ma, a_n.ba ruler, lord, master; a_n.d.a_ri rulers, masters (Ka.); a.l.- (a.l.i-) to rule; a.ce week, day of the week (Kod..); a_l.uni to rule, govern, reign; a_l.ik, a_l.uvike, a_l.vike reign; a_d.al.ite, a_d.al.te administration, management, government (Tu.)(DEDR 5157). a_n.t.i a class of non-brahman S'aivas; non-brahman S'aiva mendicant, usually dressed in yellow cloth (Ta.); religious mendicant, worshipper of Subrahman.ya, a Pan.d.a_ram (i.e. S'aiva mendicant](Ma.); o.d.y in: o.d.y fodafng to one who comes begging (To.); a_n.d.i a religious mendicant of the S'aivas (Ka.); an.d.arulu religious mendicants of the S'aiva sect (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 356).

814.Noise: ailaba noise, roar (AV. vi.16.3)(Vedic.lex.) e_le_lo_ a word that occurs again and again in songs sung by boatmen or others while pulling or lifting together; e_la-p-pa_t.t.u boatmen's song in which the words, e_lo_, e_le_lo_ occur again and again (Ta.lex.)

815.Image: frolicsome: e_la_yati to be merry or frolicsome; to be wantonly mischievous in behaviour (Skt.lex.)

816.To abuse: cf. Íhe_l despise; Íhi_d. anger (Skt.); ed.d.isu, i_d.isu to abuse, mock (Ka.); hi_d.ati angers (Skt.)(CDIAL 14123).

817.Image: a fish: e_lan:ga a kind of fish; ili_s.a, illis'a a sort of fish, commonly hilsa or sable (Skt.lex.) cf. ayilai a kind of fish; ayirai, acarai, acalai loach, sandy colour, cobitis thermalis (Ta.); ayala a fish, mackerel, scomber; aila, ayila a fish; ayira a kind of small fish, loach (Ma.)(DEDR 191).

819.Image: bandicoot: eli rat, mus rattus (Kur-al., 763); id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.); elika (Te.); eli bandicoot (Tan-ippa_. i,32,61)(Ta.lex.)

820.Beleric myrobalan: eli-t-turumam beleric myrobalan (Mu_. A.)(Ta.); kali-druma (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

821.Wave: elava a wave (Kol.); helva id., flood (Go.)(DEDR 830). hillo_la wave (Skt.); hillo_layati swings, rocks (Dha_tup.); hilola wave (MB.); hilora_ (OAw.); hilor, hilori_, hilora_ shaking, wave (H.); hilol.o merriment (G.); hilorna_ to swing, rock to and fro (H.); hi_lolai shakes (OMarw.)(CDIAL 14121). hillati dallies (Dha_tup.); hilln.a_ to shake, be moved (P.); hillhan.u_ to move (WPah.); hilnu to move, be shaken (N.); hiln.o to move, tremble (Ku.); hela_, hila_ to vacillate, oscillate, incline (B.); hi_lna_ to shake; hela_ a push (H.); hilvu~ to move, shake (G.); hi_lo jerk, shake (G.); hiln.e~ to move, stir (M.); hilkan.a_ to be shaken (P.); hilakna_ to write (H.); hilkorna_ to shake (H.)(CDIAL 14120). cf. hallai moves (Pkt.)(CDIAL 14018).

822.Death duty: elavai, e_lavai death-duty; fee for crematorium (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) elu, iluvu a bone (Ka.Tu.); en-pu, elumpu (Ta.); elumpu (Ma.); emmu (Te.); iluvu, elabu, elavu, elu, elubu, eluvu, elbu, elvu a bone (Ka.lex.) Bone: elumpu, en-pu bone; er-pu-ccat.t.akam body (lit. cage made of bones)(Ta.); ellu, elumpu, elun:ku, eluvu, elpu bone (Ma.); elv id. (Ko.); el.f- id.; kit- el.f ankle;[kit-- small](To.); pid--es-p heel (To.); elu, eluvu, elubu, iluvu, emike, emake, elvu bone; elugu id. (Ka.); elimbi id. (Kod..); elu id. (Tu.); elkal.i, elkade id. (Kor.); emmu, emmuka, emuka id.; makkelu bones (Te.); ed.u_ka monument containing the ashes or bones of a dead person (Skt.); eluka id. (BHSkt.)(DEDR 839). elukad.ito mere skeleton; elukot.t.i, elkot.t.i one who is reduced to skin and bones, skeleton; elukad.ito mere skeleton (Tu.lex.)
824.Perfume: ela-va_luka perfume (Skt.) e_lava_luka, aile_ya, kallan:gad.ale, kal.l.an:gad.ale, kal. a shrubby plant, sida rhombifolia (Ka.lex.) al.iyana gid.a an undershrub, sida carpinifolia (Ka.lex.) e_la-va_luka the fragrant bark of feronia elephantum (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. va_lka made of the bark of trees (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) The morpheme: e_la- in e_la-va_luka connotes the bael tree; e_le_s'ake_tayya may connote the person with bael as his banner; cf. the image of trefoil on the so-called priest-king statue of the Indus Valley civilization]. aile_ya a perfume (Ka.lex.) cf. ailavila, aid.avid.a Kube_ra (Ka.lex.) A fragrance: ayir candied sugar, kan.t.a-carukkarai; an imported white fragrant substance for burning (Cilap. 4,36); ayirai name of a hill in Ce_ra country, 9 miles west of Palni, now called Aivar-malai (Patir-r-up. 21; I.M.P. Mr. 236); name of a river in the Ce_ra country (Cilap. 28,145)(Ta.lex.) cf. ji_vala_ the tree odina wodier (AV.); jiul, jiuli the gum exuding tree odina wodier (B.); divul feronia elephantum (Si.)(CDIAL 5248). Synonyms of aile_ya a perfume: e_lava_lu, e_lava_luka a perfume, the fragrant bark of feronia elephantum (Ka.Skt.lex.) e_lava_lukai greater cardamom, pe_re_lam (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) Perfume: ayil perfume (Aka. Ni.)(TED). cf. aile_yam, ailava_lukam a kind of perfume (Skt.lex.) cf. e_lam spikenard, jat.a_ma_m.si_; e_la_parn.i par-an:ki-c-cakkai, China-root (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. va_le_ntira-po_l.am myrrh (Ta.lex.) aila-va_luka, aile_ya a kind of perfume; e_lava_lu the fragrant bark of kapittha, feronia elephantum; a granular substance (used as a drug and perfume); e_lukam a kind of perfume; a medicinal substance of a plant (Skt.lex.) e_lava_lu, e_lava_luka, e_lvava_luka, e_lva_lu, e_lva_luka fragrant bark of feronia elephantum (Sus'r.); aile_ya (Skt.)(CDIAL 2521). t.an:ka fruit of feronia elephantum (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 5429).aile_ya a kind of perfume (Skt.lex.) erya_la a medicinal plant, aloe perfoliata (S.)(CDIAL 2521). Aloe perfoliata... native of Africa... used to prevent falling of the hair. e_luka a kind of fragrant substance (Sus'r.); e_lu a partic. kind of tree (Pkt.); eryo the drug aloes (S.); elu_a_, elwa_ aloe perfoliata (P.); elwa_ aloes (N.); elu_a_, eluwa_, elwa_ (H.); el.iyo (G.); el.iya_, e_l.ya_ inspissated juice of aloes as a drug (M.)(CDIAL 2523). cf. kuma_ri_ aloe perfoliata (Skt.)(CDIAL 3304). {Aloe socotrina ad aloe perryi. Aloes was known to the Greeks as a product of Socotra (about 128 leagues from the mouth of the straits, with Arabia on one side and Ethiopia on the other) from about the first century B.C. Pliny refers to it. Arabs call it sibr; Hindus alia; Cingalese kumarika and the Malays call it alivah... Aloes of Socotra are called suco-cetrino; Portuguese call it azevre; Spaniards acibar, Canarese call it catecomer; Arabs call it cebar... Pliny and Dioscorides say that the best aloes come from India... first brought to India from Socotra... and exported from Cambay and Bengal to Ormuz, Aden and to Juda (Jidda) (G. Da Orta, pp.6-9). Aloe: botanical origin: aloe perryi; aloe barbadensis (aloe vera); aloe ferox; aloe spicata; synonyms: socotrine aloe, curacao aloe, cape aloe; part used: the dried juice of the leaves; habitat: Africa... Aloe perryi which yields socotrine aloe, is a perennial herb indigenous to Socotra... The socotrine aloes is produced in East Africa, the island of Socotra and Arabia... It is brought in a wet condition by Arab traders to Red Sea ports or Zanzibar, thence to Bombay where it is shipped in casks, kegs or skins to Europe, thence to the US... used as purgative in colon constipation." (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 198-203).

825.Spikenard; musk-like fragrance: e_lam spikenard, cat.a_ma_ci; unguent for perfuming the hair of women (Tiruva_ca. 29,3) (Ta.lex.) ma_m.si_ the Indian spikenard nardostachys jatamansi (Sus'r.); ma_m.sika_, ma_m.sini_ (Skt.); mam.si (Pali); ma~_si_ (H.)(CDIAL 9987). ma_m.si_ nardostachys jatamansi (Car. Su. 5.21, Gi. 14.231); nalada id. (Car. Su. 3.25, 4.14); palan:kas.a_ id. (Car. Su. 4.48, Ci. 3.267). ma_ci spikenard herb (tutta ma_ci : Perun.. Makata. 17,147); a fragrant substance (Ta.lex.) "Spikenard was of great price and much praised in ancient times. For it is said in the Gospels that that unguent could be sold for more than 300 dinheiros (1 lb. for 300 pence or denarii)... this was in those days, a great sum... They call it espique in the country where it grows, among the Gentios cahzcara... (... the true spikenard... is the fibrous root of nardostachys jatamansi, of the southern slopes of the Indian Himalayas. Its Sanskrit names are, where fresh and soft, pisita and when dry, jat.a_mansi, meaning matted hair plant; and its Arabic and Persian name sumbul atibhindi, meaning 'Indian fragrant arsenic'.)" (G. De Orta, pp. 400-407). ba_luchar nardostachys jatamansi (H.).... a native of the mountains of Northern India and has been used in Hindu medicine from a very ancient period. The fragrant root is considered a nervine tonic, and is much used as an aromatic adjunct in the preparation of medicinal oils and ghritas. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.181). Nardostachys jatamansi: jatamansi (Skt.H.B.); balacharea (M.); jatamashi (Ta.); masi (Garhwal); jatamamshi (Te.); jetamanshi (Ma.); bhutijatt (K.); root: aromatic, bitter, tonic, stimulant, antiseptic, employed for treatment of epilepsy, hysteria and convulsive affections; used in palpitation of heart; useful in intestinal colic; essential oil; habitat: alpine Himalayas, 11,000 -15,000 ft., extending eastwards from Kumaon to Sikkim, 17,000 ft. and Bhutan (GIMP, pp.173-174). cf. jatamansi cyperus stoloniferus (M.); mutransialian (Persian); tuber: stomachic, stimulant for heart; habitat: shores of India, especially in sea sand, from Sind to Ceylon; the Nilgiri hills, Malwa in sandy seashore and tidal mud (GIMP, p.89). jat.a_ma_m.si a herb growing on the Hima_laya, the Indian spikenard, nardostachys jatamansi (Ka.lex.) Sumbul: sumbul or musk root consists of the dried rhizome and roots of ferula sumbul... possessing a characteristic musk-like odour... perennial herb native to Asia. The commercial supplies of the drug are obtained from Turkey and Russia... used as a calmative in hysteria and some other nervous disorders. A substitute of sumbul is the rhizome of nardostachys jatamansii (fam. valerianaceoe) native to India. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, p. 637).

826.Mass: ogga_ a mass of seeds sown thickly in one place; ogga_ ha_ku to sow thickly with a view of transplantation; oggu to become one, to unite with, to meet together (Ka.Te.); ogga_ to become one, be united (Tu.); oggu, orgu, or-gu an assemblage, a mass (Ka.); oggara a heap, a mass (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

827.Seasoning: oggarisu to season, to spice (Ka.); oggaran.e, aggaran.e a kind of seasoning done in two ways: into boiling oil or ghee one or more spices are thrown, after which vegetables are added and boiled with the mixture; or to pulse that has been boiled with salt, tamarind, pepper, etc., fried spices are added (Ka.Tu.); pogupu (Te.) (Ka. lex.) cf. ukkira_n.am < ugra_n.i_ (M.) storehouse for provisions, granary (Ta.lex.) cf. pukai smoke (Ta.lex.)

828.To retreat: ok-ku-tal to retreat, fall back (Kampara_. Pal.l.ipat.ai. 106)(Ta.lex.) olku to become bent (Kalit. 77); to tremble from weakness; to bend with trembling (Cir-upa_n.. 135); to walk, tread (Kalit. 115,14)(Ta.lex.) oggu, ur-ugu to bend, to bow; to turn towards (Ka.); to become submissive (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.)

829.Image: to trample: okkuka cattle to trample upon sheaves of corn; vb. noun okkal (Ma.); ok- (oky-) to drive (cattle) round in threshing; okl act of threshing one lot of grain completely (Ko.); wik- (wiky-) (bullocks) go round in threshing (To.); okku to tread out corn, remove grain from the ears by the treading of oxen, thresh with sticks; n. threshing; okkal, okkike, okkan.ike threshing; okkisu to cause corn to be trodden out (Ka.); okk- (okki-) to thresh (paddy crop) by driving cattle round on heaps of grain (Kod..); okki heap of paddy on threshing floor on which cattle are driven round (Kod..); ukkhan. to thresh (Pkt.)(DEDR 927). okkike treading out corn; okkal thrashing; okkil separating etc.; okkisu to cause to be trodden out; okku to tread out corn, to remove grain from the ears by the treading of oxen etc.; to thrash (Ka.); var..ukku to beat (Ta.); okkugo_lu a big stick used for thrashing (Ka.lex.)

830.Image: equal: iken, ikin, ikinan, imin, iminan as large as, as much as (Mu.); okka to be equal (Te.)(Mu.lex.)

831.To indent: okkuka to indent (Ma.); okki to scratch (as fowls)(Ka.); okku to dig (Ka.); okkuni to scratch (Tu.); ogi to cut (Kor.); uhca_na_ to scratch (Go.)(DEDR 926). ot.ukku dent or depression in a metal utensil (Ta.)(DEDR 954).

832.Backyard: okol, okoli, ekoli backyard, rear of the house (Kui); okkopara the space at the back of a house; okopa_r.a backyard of house (Kuwi)(DEDR 928).

833.Image: to copulate: o_kkuka to copulate (Ma.); o_l. to have sexual intercourse (Ka.); o.l.- (o.p-, o.t-) to have sexual intercourse with (Kod..); o_ (-pp-, -tt-) to copulate; o_r.. id.; o_l. id. (Ta.)(DEDR 1071). uka to be glad, desire (Ta.); og- (ogy-) to be infatuated, desire strongly sexually (Ko.)(DEDR 558). oha_eb to copulate (of animals)(Mth.); avaba_dhate_ keeps off (RV.); presses down (Skt.); sam.ba_dhate_ (AV.); sam.ba_hai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 796). Copulate: yabh copulate (Skt.); yabhati (AV.Pali); zi (Ash.); yi_v (Kt.); zaw (Pas'.); zav (Kal.); jahan.u (S.); ye_vun., yahan. (L.); jhavn.e~, jha~vn.e~ (M.); jaihn.a_, jahin.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 10418). jahan.i_, jahin.i_, yahin.i_ copulation (S.); yabhana copulation (Vop.)(CDIAL 10419). jabhan.u, yabhan.u to be sexually enjoyed, be tired (S.); yabhan. to have sexual relations (L.); yabbhal corpulent but weak (P.)(CDIAL 10420). yaddhi_ rogue (L.)(CDIAL 10417). abbara desire, craving; abbarisu to desire; arume, arame love, affection, a fickle or libidinous state of being (Ka.); a_ro_mal darling; pleasantly, happily (Ma.); armeli period of heat in animal (Kuwi); a_rvam desire, hankering (Ta.)(DEDR 381). a_vu to desire; a_val great desire, craving (Ta.); a_valar lovers; ava_vu to desire, crave for, covet; ava_van- avaricious person (Ta.); a_vikka to desire (Ma.); a_ba greediness (Te.)(DEDR 394).

834.To spit: oka_liba to eject from the mouth, retch (A.); uka_l.iba_ to vomit (Or.)(CDIAL 1716). ukuliya_iba to eject from the mouth (A.)(CDIAL 1717). cf. okkia vomited (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2538). uchr.a_na, ochr.a_na to vomit (B.)(CDIAL 1650). ur..iyuka to spit out (after rinsing the mouth)(Ma.); ul.u.v spittle (Ko.); ulugu, ul.igu to spit (Ka.); uri, u_l.u id. (Kor.); ur.- to spit out (pips, etc., not saliva)(Pa.); ur.i- to spit out (e.g. stone of fruit)(Go.)(DEDR 687). ugaran.a vomiting (Or.); udgiran.a spitting out (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 1950). ugiro nauseous (S.); ogal, ugal chewing the cud (L.); ugal. chewed stuff spat out (M.)(CDIAL 1952). udga_ra spitting out (R.); spittle (MBh.); ugga_ra vomiting, ejection (Pali); vomiting, belching (Pkt.); uguri wooden trough into which flour falls from the mill (Kal.); uguru (Kho.); uga_r, waga_r chewing the cud (Ku.); uga_r belch (A.); uga_ra vomiting, belching (Or.); uga_r escape (G.); uga_ro saving (G.); ugura throat, gorge (Si.); ugurak a mouthful (Si.); ugga_la- vomiting, belching (Pkt.); uga_li_ chewing the cud (L.); uga_l mouthful chewed and spat out (P.); uga_ chewing the cud (WPah.); uga_l, waga_l spittle, snake poison (Ku.); uga_l that which is spat out (H.); uga_l. (M.)(CDIAL 1957). udgirati spits out, ejects, discharges (MBh.); uggirati spits out (Pali); uggire_i belches, vomits (Pkt.); ugira_i_ belching (S.); ugilna_ to vomit (H.); ugelnu to belch forth (N.); ugra_unu to chew the cud, be on heat (of cows)(N.); ugra_na to vomit, chew the cud (B.); u_garai is saved (G.); ugarvu~ to escape (G.); jugran.o to chew the cud (Ku.); ugalan., pres. part. ugle_nda, uglan. to chew the cud (L.); uggaln.a_, ugguln.a_ to vomit, spring up, be discharged (P.); ugaln.o to vomit, belch out (Ku.); ugalab to vomit, spit out (Mth.); ugalna_ to spit out, dosgorge (H.); u_galai vomits (OMarw.); ugal.n.e~ to spit out, vomit (M.); uga_ran.u, oga_ran.u to chew the cud (S.); uga_rn.o, waga_rn.o to chew the cud (Ku.); uga_riba to belch (A.); uga_r to vomit (B.); uga_riba to vomit, belch (Or.); uga_ri vomits (M.); uga_ran.u, oga_ran.u to chew the cud (S.); uga_ln.a_ to vomit (P.); uga_l.iba_ (Or.); uga_lna_ to vomit, chew the cud (H.); ugal.n.e~ to spit out, vomit (M.)(CDIAL 1960). ukat.t.u to nauseate (Ta.); ur..ekka to be inclined to vomit; ur..appu nausea; ur..antuka to belch (Ma.); ubbal.isu, ubbul.isu to nauseate, become squeamish (Ka.); ogad.isu to vomit (Ka.); uka_lu, ukka_lu vomiting, en emitic (Tu.); ulla_xa_rna_ to feel nausea (Kur.); unglare id. (Malt.)(DEDR 678). cf. o_kka_l.am, o_n:kal retching (Ta.); o_kari, o_ka_l.a vomiting (Ka.); va_karisu, va_kal.isu to vomit (Ka.); o_kara, o_kili retching (Te.)(DEDR 1029). cf. okkia vomited (Pkt.); oka_l.iba to eject from the mouth, retch (A.)(CDIAL 2538). uvvakka vomited (Pkt.); uvvakkai vomits, drives out (Pkt.); ubaka_ran.u to retch, sigh (S.); ubakn.a_ to vomit (P.); ubkai nausea (Ku.); uba_kna_, ubakna_ to vomit (H.); ubak, ubko retching (G.); ubak rising of matter from the stomach (before vomiting)(M.)(CDIAL 2337). uccha_l swelling or running over of a river (L.); ucha_li_ vomiting (P.); ucha_l leap, stride, vomit (Ku.); ucha_r, ucha_r-pacha_r raising and dropping; ucha_l wave (N.); uchal flowing over (B.); ucha_l.a vomiting (Or.); ucha_l tossing up, motion up (H.); ucha_l.o leap (G.); usa_l.i_ splashing, spurting up (M.)(CDIAL 1846). uccha_le_i throws up (Pkt.); ucha_l.n.a_ to toss up (P.); ucha_l.n.o to throw up, vomit (Ku.); ucha_rnu to lift up (N.); ucha_l.uiba_ to vomit, clean out a wall (Or.); ucha_lna_ to throw up, dangle (H.); ucha_l.vu~, acha_l.vu~ to throw up, shake up the contents of a pot (G.)(CDIAL 1848). umi to spit, gargle; umini_r spittle, saliva; umivu spitting; umir.. to spit, gargle, emit, vomit; umir..vu spitting, spittle (Ta.); umiyuka, umikka to spit out; umi, umir..u spittle; umir..ka to spit, emit (Ma.); ugur.. (ugur..d-), ugar.. to emit (as saliva, etc.), spit out, spit, sputter; n. spittle, saliva; ugi to spit, spirt out, emit; ugur..isu to cause to emit or spit; ugur..uvike spitting, etc.; unmalu, ummulu phlegm, mucus (Ka.); ubbiyuni to spit; ubbi saliva, spittle; ubbina spittoon; ugipuni to spit out; ubi to spit (Tu.); ubbi to spit; umi saliva (Kor.); umiyu to spit; spit out; ummi spittle, saliva (Te.)(DEDR 636). vama act of vomitting (Pa_n..gan.a); vam-a vomiting (Si.)(CDIAL 11292). vama_ranava_ to vomit (Si.)(CDIAL 11293). vamati vomits (Skt.Pali); utters (RV.); vamai (Pkt.); bo_mim 1 sg.pres. (Kal.); bomik (Kho.); wamun (K.); vamelu~ pp. (G.)(CDIAL 11294). vamana vomiting (Sus'r.); emetic (Pali); vaman.a vomiting (Pkt.); waman (K.); bavana (OH.); vaman-a (Si.)(CDIAL 11295). va_ma vomiting (Pa_n..gan.a.)(CDIAL 11535). va_mayati causes to vomit (Sus'r.); va_me_i causes to vomit (Pkt.); va_mium. pp. destroyed (OG.); va_mvu~ to throw goods overboard, abandon, leave (G.)(CDIAL 11539). va_nta vomited (MBh.); one who has vomited (Mn.); vanta vomited, renounced (Pali); one who has vomited (Pali); vam.ta id., vomiting (Pkt.); va~_do empty, at leisure (S.); va~_dha_ empty; va~_da_ (L.)(CDIAL 11517). va_nti vomiting (Skt.); ba~_ti vomiting; ba~tiya_iba to vomit (A.); ba~_it vomiting, a vomit (B.); ba_nti vomiting (Or.); va~_t (M.)(CDIAL 11518). ubat (ubatt before following vowel) vomiting (L.); u_t, ot, vat boiling over, inflation, haughtiness (M.)(CDIAL 2070). uba~_t vomiting (H.); udva_nti id. (Vop.); udvamati (TS.); udva_nta (Skt.); uvvam.ta (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2079). va_nti vomiting; the matter vomited; an emetic; va_nta vomited, ejected from the mouth, effused (Ka.lex.) va_nti vomiting, ejecting from the mouth (Na_mati_pa.600)(Ta.lex.)

835.Rice: ogra, ukra, ugra soup (Turk.); ogra_ thick rice water (P.); oggara a kind of rice or grain (Pkt.); ogro, wagro gruel of rice and pulse as a sick diet (Ku.); ogra_, oghra_ a mixed dish, gruel, pottage (H.)(CDIAL 2539). o_rai boiled rice, rice that is mixed with other edibles such as tamarind, sesamum, etc. (Ta.); o_ra boiled rice (Ma.); o_gara boiled rice (Ka.); o_giramu, o_remu, (Inscr.) o_viramu food, boiled rice (Te.); ogara, vogara rice, food (OM.)(DEDR 1030). Porridge: pukkai a kind of porridge; pur-kai a kind of porridge of rice or other grains (Kur-al., 1065); boiled rice (Ta.lex.)

836.Orderly: oykane orderly, properly, exactly, clearly (Ka.); vaime straightness, fitness, rectitude (Tu.); ogi order, a range or line; ogin in order (Te.); uira'a_na_ to put in order, arrange (Kur.)(DEDR 986). cf. or..uku to be arranged in regular order; or..un:ku row, line, order, regularity, regulation (Ta.)(DEDR 1011). Image: line, row: o_je a row, line, heap, mass, regularity, order, propriety; o_jayila a man of propriety; o_jisu to be properly or carefully performed (Ka.); o_ja a row, line, regularity, order, manner, way (Te.)(DEDR 1038).

837.Image: mountain top: o_n:kal mountain top (Ain:kur-u. 231); mound, elevation; mountain (Te_va_. 589,10)(Ta.lex.)

838.Image: tree: o_n:kal tree (Cilap. 13,153); o_n:ku-tal to grow, rise high as a tree; to ascend as a flame; to be lofty as a building or a mountain (Ir-ai. 14,95); to spread, extend, edpand (Kantapu. Tiruvavata_ra. 48); o_kkam height, elevation; increase, enlargement,bigness, largeness (Ka_rikai, Or..ipi. 7)(Ta.lex.)

839.Image: to lie hidden: o.garv- (o.gard-) to listen without speaking, be silent when called, keep silent (*o.g + *karv- to lie hidden (DEDR 1258)(Ko.); o.x to hear (To.); o_n:ge_runi, o_n.on.uni to listen, overhear, eavesdrop; o_kon.uni to answer a call (Tu.)(DEDR 1032). cf. or-r-u to spy out (Ta.)(DEDR 1022).

840.To flow: okhara cow's milk (Or.)(CDIAL 733). o_kirati pours down or over, casts out (Pali); avakirati scatters, pours out (A_s'vGr..); oirinu with pass. suffix to drop (as corn into a mill), fall headlong (N.); wairna_ to pour (rice, etc.) from hand or vessel, to sow (H.); okkhin.n.a scattered (Pkt.)(CDIAL 732). ogaral milk to come into the udder of a cow before giving milk (Bhoj.); ogra_l.o a large brass or copper ladle for serving liquid food (G.); ogarn.e~ to dish or ladle out; ogar a mass (esp. of boiled rice) ladles out (M.)(CDIAL 741). o_ga_l.ha immersed, firmly grounded in (Pali); o_ga_dha (Pali); o_ga_d.ha, avaya_d.ha (Pkt.); or.hu very deep; deep hole in a river (S.); avaga_d.ha plunged into (Skt.)(CDIAL 743). avagalati falls down, slips down (Skt.); o_galia slipped down, fallen (Pkt.); uwaliba to slough off, be rotten, be shattered (A.); ogol- to descend, get down (D..); ogal.vu~ to trickle down, ooze, melt (G.); ogal.n.e~ to fall off, trickle (M.); ogal moisture near surface of soil (H.); ogal. streamlet; vagal. refuse, dregs (M.)[cf. oga_r residue of cattle fodder (G.); oga_l. chewing the cud, cud (G.)(CDIAL 744)]; oga_l to make descend, to take down (D..); oga_l.vu~ to cause to melt (G.); vagal.n.e~ to drop disregardfully, cast out, omit (M.)(CDIAL 742). o_hat.t.a withdrawn (Pkt.); o_hat.t.ai decreases, withdraws (Pkt.); ugat.n.o to abate, be ruined (Ku.); ohat.n.e~, aut.hn.e~ to abate, ebb, flow down (M.)(CDIAL 748). vo_hara water-channel (Pkt.); ohri_ small water-channel from well (L.); ohar channel worn into land by irruptions from the sea (M.); ohal. oozing, streamlet (M.); ol., ol.i_ streamlet, gutter (M.); oghal., vaghal. streamlet (M.)(CDIAL 750). o_harai throws down, upsets (Pkt.); ohal.n.e~, vahal.n.e~ to ooze, trickle (M.); ohal.n.e~, vahal.n.e~ to upset (M.); oghal.n.e~, vaghal.n.e~ to slip off, make run or slip, reject (M.)(CDIAL 751). Silt at the mouth of a river: oha_l., ol.i silt at the mouth of a river (G.)(CDIAL 756). o_d.ha_l flood; od.ha_, od.ho_l (Phal.)(CDIAL 773). ojjhara, ujjhara stream coming down a mountainside (Pkt.); ojhar trickling, stream (M.)(CDIAL 769). ojjharia thrown aside (Pkt.); ojharn.e~ to trickle, ooze, run in streamlets, graze, just touch (M.); ojhiran.u to nod from drowsing (S.); ojharab to be put in disorder, be dishevelled (Mth.)(CDIAL 770). o_harati takes down (Pali); avaharate_ brings down (Skt.)(CDIAL 881).

841.Image: filter: od.i to flow in a small, gentle stream, trickle through, ooze, run and cause blots (as ink)(Ka.); od.i-gat.t.u to strain off, filter (Ka.); od.d.uni to flow, run; od.d.a flowing (Tu.); od.pa_vuni to drain (Tu.); vad.iyu, od.iyu to be strained or filtered, percolate (Te.); vad.ucu, vad.acu to let fall in drops, pour slowly; vad.upu, vad.i_-gat.t.u, vad.iya_-gat.t.u to strain, filter (Te.); vad.p to pour (Kol.); vad.is to pour down, serve (of liquid food)(Kond.a); vat.i filter, strainer (Ma.); vat.i to drip, trickle, strain, filter; n. filtration, distillation (Ta.); vat.iyal straining, filtering, strained or filtered liquid; vat.ivu that which is strained or filtered, outflow, surplus water (Ta.); a current (Ma.); vatical straining, filtering, rice boiled and strained, ebbing (Ta.); vat.ippu straining, filtering (Ta.); vat.iyuka to overflow, ebb, trickle (Ma.); war.f (blood) flows (To.); vad.p- (vad.apt-) to pour (Kol.)(DEDR 5221). To overflow; purify: var.. to drip down (as through filter)(Kond.a); vara_na_ to leak, drip (Go.); var..i to overflow, flow (Ta.); bal.i to flow out completely (as oil from an inverted pot)(Ka.)(DEDR 5296). od. to be filtered; ot.- (-h-) to strain, filter (Kuwi); ot.pi ki to make clean, cause to be clean (Kuwi); otpinai to cleanse (Kuwi); odi(ti) clear (of water); oth'nai to purify, refine (Kuwi); od.a (od.i-) to be clear, pure, bright; n. purity, cleanness; pl.action ot.ka (ot.ki-) (Kui); od.av attractive (Kol.); od.ikamu prettiness, beauty, elegance (Te.)(DEDR 967). vat.i-y-it.u to be filtered (Ta_yu. Karun.a_. 8)(Ta.lex.) var..i to overflow, flow; to shed, let flow; var..iyal that which overflows or drains off (Ta.); var..iyuka to flow, overflow (Ma.); var..iccal overflowing (Ma.); var..ikka to cause to overflow (Ma.); bal.i to flow out completely (as oil from an inverted pot)(Ka.); var.a_na_, war.a_na_, var.-, vara_na_ to leak, drip (Go.); var.- (-t-) to drip down (as through filter); var.in (pl.) in: pu_s var.in saliva (Kond.a)(DEDR 5296). vat.i-catukkam place where filtration is done; vat.i-tan:kam purified gold; vat.i-te_y- to polish, as jewels; to burnish, as gold (Ta.lex.) vat.i filtration, distillation (Pu. Ve. 1,19); vat.i-pa_n-ai, vat.i-p-pa_n-ai vessel for cooking rice; condenser in a distilling apparatus; pot which receives the distilled liquid (Ta.lex.)

842.Raised bank of river; image: causeway: od.d.u causeway, bank (Ka.); bank, shore (Te.); od. slope of hill (Ko.); on.d.i bank, shore (Ka.); od.u raised bank of river (Go.); bank of a river or stream (Kond.a); bank of river (Kuwi); ot.t.a_ shore (Kur.)(DEDR 965). Image: flowing: ot.a_ drain for taking water out of a house (A.); avat. ebb-tide (M.)(CDIAL 451). avat.n.e~ to ebb (M.); ot. check (Aw.); ebb tide (G.); avt.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 452). ava_ndha_, avandha_ opening of a watercourse into a field (L.); ava~_dha_ head of a watercourse (L.)(CDIAL 460). o_t.ai large water course, channel for the conveyance of water, rivulet, dyke (Ta.); o_d.a id. (Ma.); o_t.ai tank, reservoir (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,1,5); moat, ditch round a fortification (Ta.lex.) o_t.uka_l water channel (Pur-ana_. 105, Urai)(Ta.lex.) o_r.a channel, drain (Kui); o_t.a water-course (Ma.); current of water (Ka.); current of a stream, sailing of a vessel (Tu.); o_d.u to flow, trickle (Te.); o_d.ika stream, current (Te.); o_d.igillu to flow, run (Te.)(DEDR 1041). Purifying by melting: o_t.t.am purifying by melting, as gold (Cilap. 5,152, Urai); o_t.avit.utal to refine, as gold (Ta.lex.) cf. or..uku to flow, trickle down (Ta.); or..ukku flowing, dripping (Ta.)(DEDR 1010). cf. osa_r shrinking back from, retreating (G.); osa_r, osa_ra_ flowing off (M.); apasa_ra way out, escape (Skt.); o_sa_ra_ exit (Pkt.)(CDIAL 466). osarvu~ to subside, recede (G.); osarn.e~ to flow away, subside (M.); o_sarati recedes (Pali)(CDIAL 465). Image: sluice: o_tti open gutter, drain; o_ku, o_vu gate, sluice, drain (Ma.); o_ shutter or other means to stop the flow of water (Tol. Er..ut. 180, Urai)(Ta.)(DEDR 1027). o_kam ; cf. o_gha (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vat.i-ka_l outlet, canal (Ta.lex.)

843.Wet : odman flooding (VS.); o_dma wetting (Pa_n..); odda dampness, moisture (Pkt.); wob, wop id. (Ku.)(CDIAL 2553). o_tam moisture, dampness, flood, sea, wave (Ta.); dampness in rainy season (Ma.); odde wetness, dampness, moisture (Ka.); odde id.; wet; vedd moist, wet (Tu.); vad, vod dew (Nk.)(DEDR 1047). u_d- (-it-) to become wet, be soaked; u_t- (-t-) to wet, soak (Kond.a); u_d- (u_tt-) to become wet; caus. u_di ki-; u_t- (-t-) to urinate (Pe.); u_d- to get wet (Mand..); u_d- id. (Kui); u_dali to become wet; u_thali to moisten; u_th'nai to wet; u_d- (-it-) to become wet, damp; u_t- (-h-) to make wet, damp (Kuwi)(DEDR 743). Wet, damp: oda_ untempered (of metals), half dried or roasted (of grain)(A.); odda wet (Pkt.); oda, oda_ , damp (B.); oda wetness (Or.); oda_ wet, damp (Or.); wet (H.); od wetness (H.); olla wet (Pkt.); ol wet, damp (H.); dampness (M.); ola_ wet, fresh, green (M.); valle~ wet (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 2554).

844.Image: lid of brazier's crucible; curtain; covering: o_ha_d.an.a covering (Pkt.); o_ha_d.an.i_ lid; o_had.an.i_ bolt, door-bar (Pkt.); uha_r.a shelter, cover, shade, screen (Or.); oha_r litter-curtain, lid of brazier's crucible (Bi.); cover (Bhoj.); oha_r., uha_r. cover, wrap, litter-curtain (H.)(CDIAL 418). o_hat.t.a curtain, screen; warding off; o_hat.t.aya id. (Pkt.); ohat. screen, shelter (H.)(CDIAL 417). o_had.iya covered, shut (Pkt.); uha_r.iba_ to cover, shelter, take to one side (Or.)(CDIAL 419).

845.To float; to swim: o_gna_ (u_gyas) to swim, float; o_grna_ to be swum across, (tank or stream) supports; o_gta'a_na_ to make swim, float (trees, etc.)(Kur.); ge to swim, float (Malt.)(DEDR 1031). augh flood, stream (S'Br.); o_gha id.; quantity (MBh.); flood (Pali); collection (Pkt.); o_ha id. (Pkt.); okanda great flood (Si.)(CDIAL 2565).

846.To break: oci-tal to break, become broken as a stick; to lean, incline (Ci_vaka. 595); ocinta-no_kku side-glance (Cilap. 1,55)(Ta.lex.)

847.Tree: ociyal tree, a branch of which has been broken (Kur-un. 112)(Ta.lex.)

848.Cleistanthus collinus: ot.u, ot.uvan-, ot.uvai, ot.aicci, ot.uku, ot.uppai the tree cleistanthus collinus (Ta.); ot.uku, od.ukku id. (Ma.); orcha id. (Go.)(DEDR 951). Cleistanthus collinus: garari (H.); karlajuri (B.); nilaippalai, odaichi (Ta.); kadishe (Te.); plant: astringent, extremely poisonous; extract of leaves, roots and especially fruits: violent gastro-intestinal irritation; root, loeaf and bark: fish poison; habitat: Bundelkhand, Bihar, Chota Nagpur, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, N. Circars, Carnatic and the Deccan especially Hyderabad and Malabar (GIMP, p. 70).

849.Image: boil: ot.u festering sore; ot.u-kkat.t.i boil in the armpit (Ta.); ot.uvu bubo; ot.ikkuru bubo, rupture (Ma.); od.ise, od.ucu bubo; ud.acu, ud.ucu venereal boil in the iliac region; ud.i a kind of disease (Ka.); od.i bubo (Tu.); od.ise-gad.d.a, vad.ise-gad.d.a bubo (Te.)(DEDR 950).

850.Bamboo: o_t.ai longer internoded stout reed bamboo, ochlandra tranvancoriea (Ta.); o_t.a a large reed; ot.t.al a kind of small bamboo, ochlandra rheedii (Ma.); e.r.- (obl. e.t.-), o.r. (obl. o.t.-) sp. ochlandra (thin bamboo-like plant)(Ko.); wa.r.- id.; wa.t. mil. shoots of bamboo (To.);[cf. mil. shoot of plant (To.)(DEDR 4997)]; o_t.e a large jungle reed (Ka.); o.t.e reed (Kod..); o_n.t.e a kind of large thin reed, a pipe made of reed (Tu.)(DEDR 1043). o_t.kor..alu a reed fife; o_t.ekur..i a place on the Mercara ghaut (Ka.); va_t.i a large jungle reed (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

 851.Chameleon: o_ti, otti, o_nti blood-sucker, a common agamoid lizard, calotes versicolor, o_n.a_n- (Tiva_.); o_ti (Ka.); o_ndu (Ma.); o_nti (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) o_tti chameleon, chamaeleo vulgaris (Ta.); o_n.a_n-, o_ma_n- bloodsucker lizard, calotes versicolor; o_nta_n- bloodsucker; o_t.akka_n- id. (Ta.); o_ntu chameleon; bloodsucker, lacerta cristata (Ma.); wi.c large jungle lizard (To.); o_ti, onti a kind of lizard or chameleon, bloodsucker, lacerta cristata (Ka.); o.ndi, o.tike.te chameleon (Kod..); o_nti bloodsucker, salamander (Tu.); ute a tree lizard called also qse-nu lit. bloodsucker (Malt.)(DEDR 1053).

852.Gamboge: o_t.e the tree garcinia pictoria, the Mysore gamboge tree; a_mlavati, a_mravati (Ka.); o_n.t.e, o_t.i (Tu.); o_t.ipul.i, o_t.ihul.i its fruit (Ka.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) cf. o_n.t.e-pul.i the sour fruit of garcinia cambogia (Tu.)(DEDR 1044). Garcinia morella: tamal (B.); tamel (H.); pinnarpuli (Ma.); tamil (M.); tamala (Skt.); irevalsinni (Ta.); pasupuvarne (Te.); gum resin: purgative, anthelmintic, used in dropsical affections, amenorrhoea, obstinate constipation and as vermifuge; dry pericarp of seeds yields 10% morellin; habitat: E. Bengal, Khasia Hills, evergreen forests of N. Kanara, W. Ghats from S. Kanara and Mysore to Travancore, upto 3,000 ft. (GIMP, p.123). Garcinia indica: kokam (H.M.); murgal (Ta.); punampuli (Ma.); fruit: atiscorbutic, cooling, cholagogue, emollient, demulcent; bark: astringent; oil: soothing, used in skin diseases (GIMP, p.122). Medicinal herb or drug: o_t.ati < o_s.adhi medicinal herb or drug (Kampara_. Akalikai. 23)(Ta.lex.)

858.Image: issuing out: o_dati_ issuing out, rising upwards; epithet of the dawn (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) udaya rise (RV.); rising (of sun etc.)(S'Br.); rise, growth (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 1931). udaya growing upwards, rising; springing from, coming forth, coming into being (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Water: udi_pa flooded; flood (Skt.); vyu_p, vi_pis flood (K.)(CDIAL 1938a). ud.u water; ud.upati Varun.a, regent of water (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) cf. o_dman flooding (VS.)(CDIAL 2553). cf. odda wet (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2554). Libation of rice beer: dor.om to make a libation or offer a sacrifice of rice-beer (Mu.lex.)

859.Image: to break: ottu to cut or break betel nut (Ka.); to cut or break with nippers (Te.)(DEDR 975). ottu the state of being doubled; a double consonant; the state of being multiplied; joined, close together; the bank of a river; vicinity; a rising mass; pressure (impression)(Ka.Te.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) or-r-u consonant (Tol. Er..ut. 411)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

860.Image: to attack: or-r-utal to attack (Kalit. 77,5)(Ta.lex.)

861.Image: part of a lute: or-r-u a part of cen:ko_t.t.ai-ya_r.. (Cilap. 13,108); or-r-ur-uppu a piece in the ya_r.. adjoining the strings and the belly, prob. fret (Cilap. 13,108, Arum.)(Ta.lex.)

862.Image: one of a pair: or-r-ai one; one of a pair (Nan-. 185, Virut.); otta id. (Ma.); odd number (Maccapu. Capin.t.i_. 27); singleness; soleness; uniqueness; a kind of instrument, a tul.aikkaruvi (Ta.lex.)

864.Image: one-eyed woman: otte the state of being single or one of a pair (Ka.Tu.); ot one; otter-a one kind or sort (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ka_n.i_ f. one-eyed (Or.); ka_n.a one-eyed (RV.)(CDIAL 3019). ka_n.iya eye disease (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3621).

865.Image: one-eyed: or-r-aikkan.n.an- one-eyed person; S'ukra, the priest of the Asuras having only one eye; Kube_ra (Ta.lex.)

863.Image: pair: udri a match, pair (Tu.); uddi a match, an equal, a rival; equal; uddincu to pair, match, couple (Te.); utti a player on the opposite side, corresponding to one on one's own side in a game in which the players are divided into two parties (Ta.); uddi id. (Te.)(DEDR 623). cf. unti a game of Indian women somewhat akin to the English game of battledore and shuttlecock; untipar-attal to play the game of unti, an ancient game, consisting prob. in jumping accompanied by singing (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,9,11)(Ta.lex.) cf. du~_d uproar (H.); dvam.dva pair (TS.); dum.da pair (OAw.)(CDIAL 6649).

866.Image: seal: or-r-u (or-r-i-) to stamp (as a seal)(Cilap. 5,98); press, hug close, press down, press upon, attack, apply fomentation; fomentation; ottu (otti-) to place in contact with, foment; or-r-at.am, ottat.am, ottan.am fomentation (Ta.); ottanam fomentation; ottal fomenting (Ma.); ot- (oty-) to blow (bellows)(Ko.); ottu to press together, press, squeeze, shampoo, press down, impress (as a seal), push, subdue, harass, stress, foment; state of being pressed, etc., a mass; ottike pressing; ottuha rubbing, shampooing; ottad.a, ottala, ottal.a fomentation, pressure; ottarisu to subdue (Ka.); ott- (otti-) to press, squeeze; otta.ya urging (Kod..); ot.t.uni to press; ottuni to press, shampoo, seal, stamp; be close, thickset; ottu closeness, thickness; otta_ya force, compulsion; otta_vuni to cause to press, be impressed or sealed; ottele oppressor (Tu.); ottu to press, squeeze, foment, urge, produce a mark on a surface by pressure; pressure, denseness; close, thick, dence; ottad.amu fomenting, pressing gently (Te.); ottu thickness (Kuwi); uh'nai to press (Kuwi)(DEDR 1021).

867.Mortgaged land: or-r-i-k-ka_n.i mortgaged land (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

868.Mortgage with possession: or-r-i mortgage with possession (as of land, trees, cattle, etc.)(Tol. Col. 81, Urai)(Ta.); a pawn (Ma.); otte a pledge, pawn (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 1020). or-r-ikkaran.am, or-r-i-c-ci_t.t.u usufructuary mortage deed; or-r-ikkalam id. (Tol. Col. 81, Urai); or-r-i-k-ka_n.i mortgaged land; or-r-i-y-a_t.ci enjoyment of usufructuary mortgage; or-r-i-mi_l.tal to redeem a mortgage; or-r-i-nar-ukku mortgage deed, lease deed, written out on a palmyra-leaf; or-r-ivaittal to mortgage, as land, as trees (Tiruva_ca. 6,18)(Ta.lex.) cf. or-r-i, or-r-iyu_r a place celebrated for its ancient shrine of S'iva, a few miles to the north of Madras (Arut.pa_. iii, calla_pavi. 5; Te_va_. 1103,1)(Ta.lex.)

869.Tribute: ot.ukkuka to pay taxes (Ma.); ot.t.aja tribute (Ka.)(DEDR 952). cf. od.a be, pledge (Si.)(CDIAL 14175). ot.ukku-mariya_tai honours rendered at the close of a festival to the trustees of a temple; ot.ukku-c-ci_t.t.u receipt given by government for money paid; ot.ukku place of concealment (Maturaik. 642); secrecy (Ta.); ot.ukku-p-pat.i an ancient tax (Inscr.)(Ta.lex.)

870.To lay up into a treasury: ot.ukku-c-ci_t.t.u receipt given by government for money paid (W.); ot.ukku-p-pat.i an ancient tax (Ta.inscr.); ot.ukkam place of concealment (Maturaik. 642); ot.ukku-mariya_tai honours rendered at the close of a festival to the trustees of a temple (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ot.ukkuka to pay taxes (Ma.)(DEDR 952). od.d.u to place, to put, to lay; to array (Ka.); to heap up (Ka.Te.); od.d.o_laga a great assembly, a royal durbar, a royal audience (Ka.Te.Tu.); ot.t.o_lakkam (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. od.uku to deposit (Te.)(DEDR 962). To deposit into treasury: ot.ukku to remit or lay up as into a treasury; to deposit or garner as in a storehouse (Periyapu. Kun:kiliya. 13)(Ta.lex.)

871.Bill of exchange: hun.d.ika_ bill of exchange (Skt.); hunduwi_ id. (Pers.); hundiya_n, hundiya_wan commission on bill of exchange (Pers.); hnd.u bill of exchange (K.); hun.d.i_ (S.L.P.Ku.Bi.H.G.M.); hun.d.i (N.A.B.Or.)(CDIAL 14138). un.t.i, un.t.ikai, un.t.iyal bill of exchange, draft, cheque; alms box covered and locked or sealed receptacle kept in temples for money-offerings from devotees; or similar box for collecting subscriptions for a public benefaction taken round by people who beg for charities (Ta.lex.) hun.d.a_l.ata trade in bills of exchange; hun.d.i gad.ige a box for money received (in a temple or at a custom-house)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) A stamp; a ticket: un.d.ige a stamp, an impression (Ka.); un.d.incu to place (Te.); un.d.ige a pass, a ticket of free transit or passage (Ka.lex.)

873.Title: upa_dhi title (Pali)(Pali.lex.) Teacher: upa_dhya_ya a teacher or preceptor in general; a sub-teacher who instructs for wages only in a part of the Veda and is inferior to an a_ca_rya; a religious or spirutal preceptor (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) uva_tti teacher (Man.i. 13,4); uva_ttu teacher, male or female (I_t.u, 9,8,5)(Ta.lex.) o_ta_ < ho_ta nom. sg. of ho_tr. officiating priest at a sacrifice (Maccapu. Cantiro_. 12)(Ta.); o_ttiram < ho_tra anything fit to be offered as an oblation (Patir-r-up. 70, Pati.); o_ttin--ca_lai place for teaching the Ve_das (Cilap. 22,28); o_ttu the Ve_da (Man.i. 13,25); section or chapter of a book (Tol. Po. 480)(Ta.lex.)

874.Seven inferior metals: upadha_tu an inferior metal, a semi-metal: svarn.am ma_ks.ikam ta_rama_ks.ikam tustham ka_syam rati sindu_ram s'ila_jatu (Skt.)(Skt.lex.)

872.Treasure up: upadha_ to place or lay upon, place under or in; treasure up, lay to heart; to place, lay; to put to or yoke (as a horse to a carriage etc.); to impose, entrust with, charge with (as a duty); to place over, cover, conceal; to add, place in addition; upadha_na used (as a mantra) in the putting up of the sacrificial bricks; upahita placed in or upon, deposited; possessed of; ready; deputed to act as a spy; given, bestowed; upa_hita deposited, placed; agreed upon, done by mutual agreement (Skt.); upa_dha_ to place near or upon; to offer, give, impart; to create, cause, produce (Skt.lex.) Means or expedient: upadha_ means or expedient (Skt.)(Skt.lex.)

875.Provisions; dues: upada_ giving a present (Vedic); a present, an offering to a king or a great man, nazara_na_; to offer, give, grant (in general); to take upon oneself (Vedic); upadi_kr. to offer as a present; upada_nam an oblation, a present (in general); a gift made for procuring favour or protection, such as a bribe (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) upa_di stuff of life; substratum of being, khandha; upa_di-sesa having some fuel of life ( = khandhas or substratum) left, i.e. still dependent on existence, not free (Pali)(Pali.lex.) upa_da_na fuel, supply, provision; adj. supported by, drawing one's existence from (Pali)(Pali.lex.) upa_da_nam taking, receiving, acquisition, obtaining; the material cause (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) upa_dhi supplement, ornament; upa_dhi-ratha the chariot with the outfit; the royal chariot with the golden slipper (Pali)(Pali.lex.) upanidha_ to produce; to present (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) upa_da_na a present (Ka.); upade an offering, a present (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) upa_ti < upa_-dhi dues, kat.amai (S.I.I. ii,118)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) upada_na gift (Skt.); upada_ giving (VS.); upada_yaka (Pali); va_n. religious gift to a brahman (M.)(CDIAL 2177). upada_yaka bestowing, giving (Pali); upadha_na imposing, giving, causing (Pali)(Pali.lex.) upa_dhi point of view, aim (Car.); upa_hita set out, proposed as prize (S'Br.); wi_ reason, cause; ye wi_k for this reason; wi_ le on account of, with regard to (Ku.)(CDIAL 2299).

876. Deception: upadhi imposition, deception, fraud (Ka.); upa_dhi consideration of moral duties, virtuous reflection; a man who is careful to support his family (Ka.Skt.); upa_dhi-vanta a man who is full of inevitable business (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) upatai < upa-dha_ test of the character and honesty of a minister or any officer of State in four ways, viz., ar-avupatai, porul.upatai, in-pavupatai, accavupatai (Kur-al., 501, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

877.Image: to oppose: od.d.u to become opposite; to oppose, to counteract, to resist (Ka.); to array (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

878.Image: channel cut through: ut.aippu portion breached, channel cut through a ridge in a field (S.I.I. ii,393); u_t.aiyam, ut.uvai ditch round a fort or a camp (Ta.); ut.uvai pool, a vast sheet of water, reservoir of water (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

879.Boat: cf. o_t.am boat, raft, float, vessel (Ta.)(DEDR 1039). o_t.t.u sailing of a vessel (Ta.); o_t.am boat, ferry-boat (Ta.); id. (Ma.); od.a id. (Te.Ka.); o_t.am raft, float, vessel of any kind; a song in the boatman's tune; o_t.a_vi shipwright, boat builder; carpenter (Ta.lex.) cf. ho_d.a a raft, float (Skt.lex.) hor.i_, hola_ canoe, raft (H.); hor.i_ boat (G.); hod.i_ canoe made of hollowed log (M.)(CDIAL 14174). cf. ho_la_ spring festival (Skt.)(CDIAL 14182). vod.eka_r, vod.eka_ra_ boatman; Tul.u and Goan (Kon.lex.)

880.Image: running: o_t.a running; a run; speed; o_d.u to run; to flee (Ka.Ta.Ma.Tu.Te.)(Ka.lex.) o_t.t.am running, speeding, galloping (Ka_cippu. Man.i. 18); speed, swiftness (Ta.); o_t.a running (Ka.Tu.); o_t.t.am id. (Ma.); o_t.t.u running (Par..a. 163); defeat, fleeing (Kur-al., 775)(Ta.lex.)

881.Tortoise: ot.un:ki tortoise (as that which contracts (Ta.)(DEDR 954).

882.Shelter; ambush: ot.a protection, shelter (S.); ot. curtain, partition (G.); obstruction (H.); support, shelter (L.P.); wot. shade (Ku.); ot.al screen (H.); ot.li_, ot.lo veranda, porch, raised platform to sit on (G.); ot.i_ veranda or unwalled space in front or behind central space (M.); ot.a_ parapet along terrace, raised mass of earth or bricks (M.); ot.na_ to cover, screen (H.); ot screen, shield, ambush (B.); shelter (N.); ote secret (B.); od., od.o curtain to stop draught (G.)(because of d., not r., connection unlikely with apat.i_ screen of cloth (Skt.); ota screen, shelter (OMth.); o_vat.a obstructed (Pali)(CDIAL 2544). od.hur screen (L.)(CDIAL 2548). ar., ar.i_ obstacle, obstruction (Br.); ad.i to stop, intercept (Kond.a); ad.d.i obstacle, opposition (Tu.)(DEDR 83). od.d.u resist (Ka.); od.d.u to interpose, prevent; an obstacle (Te.)(DEDR 963). ad.e to be enclosed, shut up (Ka.); at.ai to shut, close (Ta.); at.a a lock (Ma.); at.ayuka to be shut, be enclosed (Ma.); ad.d.u a screen, anything that affords concealment (Te.); ad.a a screen (Kui); ad.na_ to furnish (a drum) with skin, cover it with leather Kur.)(DEDR 83). at.a_i enclosure for cattle (Or.)(CDIAL 179). To lie in ambush: on.t.u (on.t.i-) to take shelter, conceal oneself (as a person to shoot game), lurk (as an animal for prey); ot.t.u (ot.t.i-) to play the eavesdropper, lurk, lie in ambush (Ta.); on.d.al shed, shelter, hiding-place (Ir.); od.- (od.y-) to crouch down behind shelter, eavesdrop (Ko.); ond.a den (of wild animal)(Ga.); od.e shelter, refuge; od.ye to screen, shelter (Malt.); ordrna_ to take shelter (Kur.)(DEDR 969). Images: to lie in ambush, lid: ad. sheltered; shelter, protection (Br.); ar. obstacle, obstruction (Br.); ad.d.a_m, adda_m shelter (Go.); ad.a_m shade (Go.); a_r. shelter (Br.)(?<IA.); ar.k to conceal (Kond.a)(DEDR 83). a_r. covering (H.); cover (N.); a_r.i hide-out for hunters (Or.); a_r. interruption (H.); shelter (N.); a~_r screen (A.)(CDIAL 188). at.akku to hide, conceal (Ta.); at.akkam being contained; all, whole (Ma.); ad.aku to press, press into narrower compass (Ka.); ad.acu to pack, stuff in (Ka.); ta_gud.i an ambush, lurking or hiding place (Ka.); den:guni lie in ambush (Tu.); d.a_gu, da~_gu to lie hidden (Te.); d.ha_n to hide, be hidden (Nk.); d.a_n to lie hidden, hide oneself (Kond.a)(DEDR 63). d.hakkai shuts (Pkt.); d.hakan.u to cover (S.); d.hakn.o (Ku.); d.ha_ka_ (B.); d.ha_kal (Bhoj.); d.hakai (OMarw.); d.hakkin.i_ lid (Pkt.); d.hakkan.i_ lid (S.); d.hakn.a_ (P.); d.hakni (N.); d.ha_kan (B.); d.hakna_ cover of grain-pot (Bi.); d.hakni_ lid (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5574). at.a shelter, refuge (Ma.)(DEDR 79). Shield; screen: ad.d.ana shield (Skt.); ad.d.an.a id. (Pkt.); a_r.an.i id. (Or.)(CDIAL 190). ad.d.ana shield (Ka.); ad.ana, ad.d.an.a, ad.d.an.e a shield (Tu.); ad.d.anamu a shield (Te.); ad.d.amu, ad.d.u a screen, that which hides or separates (Te.); ad.a a screen, an intervening or intercepting object (Kui)[said to be < Or.]; ad.agiva to screen, intervene, intercept (Kui); d.a_koli a hide shield (Kui); ad.ap to be obstructed (M.); ad.d.am veil (Go.); ad.a_m veil (Go.)(DEDR 83). od.en-r.e a shield (Malt.); od.d.u an obstacle (Te.); od.d.an.a a shield (Ka.); od.d.u to counteract, resist (Ka.)(DEDR 963). at.aru obstinate (S.); at.va_man. obstacle (G.); at. obstruction (M.); at.t. sediment in a well, silt (L.)(CDIAL 179). ar.na_ to stop (P.); ar. dam (H.); ad.n.e~ to be stopped; ad. obstruction (M.); ar.ak obstruction (G.)(CDIAL 187). Image: honeycomb: ad.na_ (ad.cas/ad.d.as) (birds or bees) construct a nest or honeycomb; stop stubbornly (Kur.)(DEDR 83). ot.t.a_ram obstinacy, stubbornness, pervsersity (Ta.Ma.); od.d.a_ramu enmity, opposition; od.d.a_rincu to be hostile (Te.)(DEDR 963b).

882a.Screen; shield: od.hur m., loc. od.hir screen (L.)(CDIAL 2548). od.en-r.e a shield (Malt.)(DEDR 963).

883.Image: shelter, hiding-place: od.e shelter, refuge; od.ye to screen, shelter (Malt.); ordrna_ to take shelter (?Kur.); on.t.u to take shelter, conceal oneself (as a person to shoot game), lurk (as an animal for prey)(Ta.); ot.t.u to lurk, lie in ambush; to play the eavesdropper, lurk (Ta.); on.d.al shed, shelter, hiding-place (Ir.); od. to crouch down behind shelter, eavesdrop (Ko.); ond.a den (of wild animal)(Ga.)(DEDR 969).

884.Image: espionage: or-r-u (or-r-i-) to spy out (Maturaik. 642); to hide (Kur-al., 927); espionage (Tol. Er..ut. 411); a spy, secret agent (Kur-al., 581)(Ta.); private intelligence, secreat information (Ma.); or-r-an- male spy (Man.i. 26,27); or-r-uvan- a spy (Kantapu. Nakarar.. i.36)(Ta.); or-r-a_l. a spy (Tirikat.u. 85); or-r-umai qualities requisite in a spy; or-r-uvi (-pp-, -tt-) to keep oneself informed of events through spies (Ta.); or-r-an, or-r-ukka_ran a spy; or-r-ikka to cause to spy (Ma.)(DEDR 1022). or-r-a_t.al employing and directing spied (Kur-al.. 59, A_ti.)(Ta.lex.) Image: machan in tree for tiger-shooting: ol.i to hide, conceal, disguise; lie hid; hiding, lurking-place, screen, cover for a fowler, decoy animal; ol.ippu slinking away, hiding, concealing, keeping secret; ol.ivu place of concealment; ul.avu secrecy, spying (Ta.); ol.i concealment, ambush; ol.ivu ambush, hiding; ol.ika to be hidden; ol.ikka to hide oneself; ol.ippikka to conceal; ul.iyuka to stoop, peep (Ma.); oyl.- (ol.c-) to hide; oyl. machan in tree for tiger-shooting (Ko.); wil.y- (wil.c-) to hide (To.); ul.i to conceal oneself, hide; n. hiding, ambush, lurking-place, hunter's hut; a thief; ul.iga man who hides or lurks; ul.ita hiding or sheltering oneself; ol.avu, ol.agu a secret (Ka.); ol.i- (ol.ip-, ol.ic-) to hide (Kod..); ol.a secret, private; ol.avu, ol.a_vu secret thought; ol.agut.t.u a secret; ul.avu one's secret (Tu.); on.pi to hide (Kor.); ol.avu a secret; o_lamu a shelter, cover, screen (Te.); olp- (olup-) to hide (Ga.); o_lta_ nanna_ to hide; ol-, ol.- to bend down (Go.); o_la_ resting-place of a wild beast, hiding-place or lair (Kur.)(DEDR 1015). ugha_r.i a raised thatched platform in the fields for watching the crops from (Or.); udgha_t.a watchhouse (Skt.)(CDIAL 1972).

885.Bracelet: or-r-u flat bracelet for a child; ottu a thin bangle (Ta.); or-r-a-tta_li marrage badge (Ma.); ottulu gold bracelets for children (Te.)(DEDR 1023).

886.Spinners of cotton thread: ot.t.aka-k-ka_ra-p-par-aiyan- name of a sub-sect of Pariahs, spinners of cotton thread, but formerly beaters of drums mounted on camels (Ta.lex.)

887.Image: camel: ot.t.akam camel, camelus dromedarius (Tol. Po. 573); us.t.raka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) ot.t.ai (Ko_yir-pu. Nat.a. 30) camel (Ta.lex.) us.t.ra buffalo (RV.); camel (MBh.); us.t.r. bull drawing a plough (RV.); ot.t.ha a particular domestic animal (Pali); ut.t.a camel (Pkt.); ut.a (NiDoc.); stir (Gypsy. perhaps < ustur (Persian); ustyur, uscur (Pr.); u_t.hu_r, us.t.hu_r (Pas.); ut. (Kal.); u~_t.h (Bshk.); ud (Tor.); u~_t.h (Sh.K.P.WPah.); wu~_t.h (K.); ut.hu (S.); ut.t.h (L.P.); u_t.h (P.); u~_t. (P.H.Mth.G.Kuu.); u_nt. (WPah.); u_t. (WPah.); u~t. (N.); ut. (A.B.); ut.a, ot.a (Or.); u~_t.u (Aw.); ut.a (OMarw.); ot.uva_ camel (Si.)(CDIAL 2387). aus.t.raka of a camel (Pa_n..); aus.t.ra the camel genus (Mn.); ot.ho of a camel (S.); o_t.ha_ (L.); ot.t.ha (P.); ot.t.hiya (Pkt.); ot.hi_ camel-rider (S.); o_t.hi_ camel-man (L.)(CDIAL 2572). ot.t.ha (Vedic us.t.ra buffalo = Old High German, Anglo-saxon ur; Latin urus bison, aurochs. In classical Skt. it means a camel.] It is mentioned in two lists of domestic animals (Pali.lex.) us.t.t.a [vastar draught-animal (Avestan)] bullock (RV. x.106.2)(Suryakanta, Practical Vedic Dictionary, 1981).

888.Mystic syllable: o_m [particle ba_d.ham assuredly, certainly; oh yes; very well, be it so, good; much] yes, the mystic monosyllable, the object of profound religious meditation (Vedic.lex.) o_m the sacred syllable, uttered as a holy exclamation at the beginning and end of a reading of the Vedas, or previous to the commencement of a prayer or sacred work; as a particle it implies (a) solemn affirmation and respectful assent (so be it, amen!); (b) assent or acceptance (yes, all right); (c) command; (d) auspiciousness; (e) removal or warding off (Skt.lex.) o_ma a protector (Vedic); one who is favourably disposed (towards another); any one fit to be protected or favoured; o_man protection; favour, kindness; a kind person; o_mya_ favour, protection (Skt.lex.) omnete gratis, for nothing, free (Santali.lex.) a_m yes; o_m yes, the expression of affirmation or consent (Tiruva_lava_. 38,4); o_mpat.ai protection, safeguard (Tol. Po. 91); place of protection (Cilap. 5,179, Arum.) (Ta.lex.) o_mo sacrifice [Skt. ho_ma](Tu.lex.) o_m < o_m a + u + m mystic name of the deity, preceding all the mantras of worship, writings etc. (Kampara_. Iran.i. 76)(Ta.lex.)

889.Mystic name of the deity: o_m mystic name of the Deity, preceding all the mantras of worship, writings, etc. (Kampara_. Iran.i. 76); o_ma-kun.t.am < ho_ma pit dug out in the ground for keeping sacrificial fire (Kantapu. Acurarya_ka. 42); o_ma-ca_lai sacrificial hall (Cilap. 10, 143, Arum.); o_mam offering an oblation to the gods by pouring ghee, etc. into the concecrated fire (Ce_tup. Ce_tuca. 51); o_mittal to perform the ho_ma sacrifice (Upate_caka_. Pan.t.a_cu. 65)(Ta.lex.) ho_ma offering or making an oblation; invocation; ho_man oblation, sacrifice (RV. i.84,18); invocation, praise (RV. viii.63,4) (Vedic.lex.) Protect: o_mpu (o_mpi-) to protect, guard, defend, save (Kur-al., 549); to preserve, cherish (Poruna. 186); to maintain, support; to bring up (Te_va_. 1,1)(Ta.); o_mpuka to cherish, take care of; stroke (as in embracing, blessing); o_mana fondness, tenderness with children, darling; nicety, beauty; o_manikka to fondle, caress; o_mal fondness, darling; neatness (Ma.); o_vu to take care of, guard, protect, cherish (Ka.); o_mana darling, dear; fondness, tenderness (Tu.); o_mu to preserve, cherish (Te.)(DEDR 1056). o_mpat.ai protection, safeguard (Tol. Po. 91); place of protection (Cilap. 5,179, Arum.); o_mpat.ai-k-kil.avi entrustment of the heroine to her lover by her companion for protection (Tol. Po. 114); o_mputal to protect, guard, defend, save (Kur-al., 549); o_mu (Te.); o_vu_ (Ka.); o_mbu (Ma.); to preserve; nourish (Poruna. 186); to maintain, support; to cause to increase; to bring up (Teva_. 1,1); to clutch or grasp tightly, as a miser (Kur-al., 626); o_mpat.uttal to protect (Tol. Po. 114, Urai); to confirm; to encourage; to cheer up (Ta.lex.)

890.Bride-price: on:ga_ra = ban:ga_ra (Tadbhava of bhr.n:ga_ra) gold; gold ornaments; the price paid for a wife (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) van:ka_ru, van:ka_ra gold (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Image: a golden pitcher; porcelain ware: bhr.n:ga a golden vase or jar; bhr.n:ga_ra id., a pitcher of a particular shape; a vase used at the coronation of a king (Skt.); jhari_ (M.) (Skt.lex.) bhr.n:ga_ra, ban:ga_ra, bin:ga_ra, bin:ga_ri, bhan:ga_ra, bhr.n:ga_ri a golden pitcher or vase; a vase used at the inauguration of a king (or at marriages), which may be made of gold, silver, brass, iron etc.; kanaka_luke; a_luke = a small jar (Ka.lex.) pin:ka_n.i crockery: porcelain, China ware, dishes, plates etc. (Ka.Te.); pija_n.i (Ma.); finja_n (Pers.); pi_n:ka_n- (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cini a~ida_n, cini a~ida_na_ porcelain (Kon.lex.) pin:ka_l.am a kind of metallic vessel (pin:ka_l.amon-r-u nu_r-r-u aimpattu ain:kar..acu : S.I.I. ii,422); van:ka_ram < ban:ga_r (Pkt.) < bhr-n:ga_ra gold (van:ka_ra ma_rpilan.i ta_r : Tiruppu. 748)(Ta.lex.) gonon. pon price paid for a bride; canda t.aka id. The amount paid as gonon. varies from three rupees to twelve rupees, the higher sum, however, being very seldom given. Return presents are made in proportion to the sum paid as gonon.. gonon. tor.aoni return presents made by the bride's father to the bridegroom's party. These presents vary in value according to the price paid for the bride, gonon.., but when the lowest rate of gonon., three rupees is paid, no return presents are given by the bride's father to the bridegroom's party. (Santali.lex.) pi_n:ka_n- < pin:ga_n (Pers.) porcelain, chinaware (I_t.u, 7,2,1)(Ta.lex.)

891.Caraway: Trachyspermum ammi = carum copticum = ptychotis ajowan: ajamoda (Skt.); ajwan (M.); ajowan (H.); jowan (B.); omum (Ta.); omamu (Te.); omu (Ka.); fruit: antiseptic, stomachic, carmiantive, stimulant, tonic, used in diarrhea, cholera; root: diuretic; fruits yield 4-6% of an essential oil containing 45-55% thymol; cultivated extensively in Indian gardens (GIMP, p.245). Caraway: o_mam bishop's weed, carum copticum (Ta.); o_mam sison (Ma.); o_ma, o_mu, o_vu, va_ma, vo_ma, ho_ma bishop's weed, ligusticum (or ptychotis) ajwaen (Ka.); o_ma the seed of bishop's weed, common caraway, sison amomum, ptychotis (Tu.); o_mamu the seed of bishop's weed, sison ammi, ptychotis ajowan (Te.); o~_va_ ligusticum ajwaen; bishop's weed, or the seed of it, sison ammi; caricum copticum = ligusticum ajawain = ligusticum ajouan = ptychotis ajowan = sison ammi (DEDR 1054). Carum carvi: caraway fruit, caraway seed; kummelsamen (Ger.); de carvi, cumin des pres (Fr.); part used: the dried ripe fruit; habitat: Asia and Europe; uses: stimulant, carminative, condiment, and flavouring agent; source of oil of caraway. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 617-621). Carum copticum = trachyspermum ammi = ptychotis coptica: The fruit contains volatile oil, 3 to 4 percent, with 45 to 55 percent thuymol... Kirtikar and Basu report that in India, the seeds are much valued for their antispasmodic, stimulant, tonic and carminative properties. They are administere in flatulence, atonic dyspepsia, and diarrhoea, and are often recommended for cholera. They are used most frequently in conjunction with asafoetida. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.683).

892.Image: to lift up hand: o_n:ku to lift up, raise (as arm, weapon, pestle)(Ta.); o_n:kal mountain, mound (Ta.); o_kku to raise, lift up (Ta.); o_n.n.uka to lift up (as hand), prepare to strike, aim at (Ma.); o_ppuka to raise, lift (Ma.); o.k- (o.yk-) to raise (hand to strike, corpse on to fire)(Ko.); wi.k- (wi.ky-) to aim (To.); o_ga pride (Ka.)(DEDR 1033).

893.Image: rat: osga_ rat (Kur.); osge mouse (Malt.)(DEDR 941).
894.Veil, covering: ojhal veil, curtain, cover (G.); ojha_r.i shade (G.); ojhat. shadow (G.); uchal, ucal shade (Gypsy); ojhal privacy, retirement (P.); ojhya_l, ojel shadow, shade, shades of night (N.); ojhal screened; screen, shelter, concealment (H.)(CDIAL 2542). ocha_yo shadow (G.)(CDIAL 763). occha_yan.a covering (Pkt.); ochya_n bedding (N.); ocha_on, ochauna_ bed covering (Mth.)(CDIAL 764). ochaiya covered (Pkt.); ochya_unu to spread out (N.); ocha_eb (Mth.); ucar to cover, protect (Gypsy); uchar to cover (Gypsy); uccha_d.ia covered (Skt.)(CDIAL 765). ochan.u covering, dress (S.); occhaa covered (Pkt.); avacchada covering (R.); ucha_r covering, curtain (H.); ochiyo protection from heat (G.); ocha_r. coverlet (G.); osva_ shade of trees (M.) (CDIAL 760). [cf. Semantic concordance of ucal shade (Gypsy) with: kuji_ shadow, phantom (Kur.); kuji shadow (Malt.)(DEDR 1641). ca_yal shadow (Ta.)(DEDR 2457). co_la shade, grove (Ma.); cale grove (Malt.)(DEDR 2891).]

895.To draw out gold thread, embroider: ot. to embroider (To.)(DEDR 347). or.k to embroider (Ko.); or..ukku to draw out, as gold thread (Ta.); osa (osi-) to sew, weave; n. sewing, weaving (Kui.); ojjna_ to sew, stitch together (Kur.); oc-/os- to sew (Nk.); r.oc- (-c-) to sew; plait, weave (Pe.)(DEDR 1012).

896.Perquisite of the village scribe: od.ha_ double handful of corn carried off as perquisite of the village scribe (H.); apo_d.ha carried off (R.)(CDIAL 498).

897.Decoration of red paint: o_r-e painting (Ka.); o_r-ega_r-a a painter (Ka.); o_ru decoration of red paint (Te.)(DEDR 1074).

898.Wild rice: o_d.ika_, o_d.i_ wild rice (Skt.); uri-dal a water grasss producing grain like rice (A.); uri-dha_n wild rice (A.); ur.i., ur.i-dha_n wild rice (B.)(CDIAL 2546). o_dana grain mashed and cooked with milk (RV.); boiled rice (Ka_s'.on Pa_n..); boiled rice (Pali); o_dan.a, o_yan.a (Pkt.); o_n (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2552).

899.Image: range of rice fields, share: o_t.i a tract of land (Cen.13,172)(Ta.lex.) otukkuppa_t.u cultivable land enclosed by trees (Ta.lex.) ot.i side, division or range of rice fields (Ma.); od.i division or range of fields, side, piece of ground (Ma.); border; division, plot, or range of ricefields (Tu.)(DEDR 948). o_ti share, part (Ma.); o.di share (Kod..)(DEDR 1049). ontu, vantu, vanti a turn, time; ontu a share, portion (Ka.); onti a turn, time (Tu.); ontu id., once (Tu.); ontige a contribution (Tu.); vantu share, portion, a turn by rotation, a round (Te.)(DEDR 979).

900.Image: procession; marriage: o_dir, oyir marriage procession (Pa.); o_dur marriage (Ga.); uina_ (uyyas) to marry (Kur.)(DEDR 1051). vo_d.hr. carrying, bringing (Pa_n..); vo_l.ha_ draught horse (RV.); bridegroom, husband (Mn.)(CDIAL 12153). ota (oti-) to fetch (persons)(Kui); otthorna_ (otthras) to take out, bring out, expel; ondorna_ (ondras) to bring, take along, take for wife (Kur.); otre to take out, bring out; ondre to bring (Malt.)(DEDR 976). voita_na_, voia_na_, woi_na_, woia_na_ to take away; caus. vosahta_na_ (Go.); oy-/o_- to take, take away, carry; oya_na_ to carry (Go.); o- (-t-) to carry, take away, take along with oneself; caus. opis- (Kond.a); o_- (-t-) to take (Pe.); u_- (-t-) id. (Mand..); ho'ona_ (occas/hoccas) to take, receive, transport, conduct; refl. ho'orna_; pass. ho_ta_rna_; caus. ho_ta'a_na_ (Kur.); oye (oc-) to take away (Malt.); uy- (ud-, un-) to take, take away (Ga.); uy- (u-) to carry, take, take away (Pa.); osa~gu, osavu to give; n. a gift; uccu to send (Te.); ogi to pull (Bel.); uyti force (Kod..); oyipuni to draw, pull, drag; occiyuni to deliver, give in charge (Tu.); oy, uy (oyd-) to carry off, conduct, carry, convey; osage a gift, present; occu to row a boat (Ka.); y- (s-) to chase (To.); oy (-v-, -nt-) to drag along (as a flood), launch (as a boat), send forth, give; oyyal forwarding, giving; uy (-pp-, -tt-) to carry, take away, lead, guide, send, discharge (as arrow), give (Ta.)(DEDR 984). endr-, ender- (endert-) to bring (Pa.); indr- id. (Ga.)(DEDR 802). vo_d.hum inf. of vahati carries, bears along (of rivers), is carried along (RV.); vahati carries, proceeds (Pali)(CDIAL 11453). vahya to be carried (A_s'vS'r.)(CDIAL 11465). cf. vahur.o young bullock; vahur.i_ heifer (S.); vohur., va_har., vhar. young bull; vhir. heifer (L.); bahar. young bullock (Ku.)(CDIAL 11459). Marriage: viva_h marriage (AV.)(CDIAL 11920). viva_hyate_ takes (a girl) in marriage (Skt.)[caus. of vivahati carries off (RV.); marries (AV.)]; bia_hna_, bya_hna_ to marry (H.)(CDIAL 11923). cf. bi_ga, biyyaga relative by marriage (Ka.); viyyamu marriage alliance or connexion (Te.)(DEDR App.58). viji_vun. to be married (L.)(CDIAL 11838).

901.Image: badge on the forehead: o_t.ai metal plate or badge for the forehead, frontlet for elephants (Ta.); o_t.a ornamented frontlet of an elephant (Ma.)(DEDR 1045). Flat bracelet: or-r-u flat bracelet for a child; ottu a thin bangle (Ta.); or-r-a-t-ta_li marriage badge (Ma.); ottulu gold bracelets for children (Te.)(DEDR 1023). or-r-ai-t-ta_li marriage badge, without any other accompanying jewels, pendants, etc. (Ta.lex.)

902.Double meaning: or-r-uppeyarttal stanza composed in such a way as to admit of the words being interpreted by artful analysis to convey more than one meaning (Tan.t.i. 95, Urai); or-r-er..uttu consonant; or-r-u consonant (Tol. Er..ut. 411); to appear, as a pure consonant (Tol. Er..ut. 48)(Ta.lex.)

903.Tortoise: o_t.an- tortoise, from its having a shell; o_t.u shell, as of a tortoise, of an egg (Ta.); o_d.u id. (Te.Ka.Ma.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) o_t.t.ikka shell (Ma.); wi.r. shell, tile (To.); o.r. shell (Ko.); o.d.i tortoise shell (Kod..); o_d.u, o_d.illu tile (Tu.); o_d.u-billa a roofing tile (Te.)(DEDR 1042).

904.Brick: o_t.u brick (S.I.I. i,150); od.icil brick-bat (Ta.); vad.isela id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ot.icil, ot.is'il sling (Ma.); od.isela (Te.)(DEDR 949). ul.u tiles for covering a house (Si.)(CDIAL 1681). cf. is.t.aka_ brick (VS.); it.t.haka_ burnt brick (Pali); it.a_l, it.al brick (B.)(CDIAL 1600). i_t.a a brick; berel it.a a sun-dried brick; isin it.a a baked brick (Mu.); cf. i_t., t. (Skt.); i_t.a-khunt.a, i_t.a-kunt.a a column or pillar built of bricks in a church or bungalow (Mu.lex.)

905.Waist, groin: or. waist (Ko.); ud.i, ud.a, ud.u, ud.e hip, waist (Ka.); od.i lap (part of the body), loins (Te.); od.d.i lap (Nk.); od.i groin (Ma.); ot.i, ot.uku groin (Ma.); ut.a id., testicle of oxen (Ma.); ?ut.ampu anus (Ma.)(DEDR 947). or. kat. waist (Ko.); od.i lap (part of the clothing), front loose part of a garment which can be held out for receiving anything (Te.); ud.i, ud.alu, ud.il, ud.ulu, ud.lu pouch made in front by folding or doubling a part of the lower garment (Ka.); od.i katti Coorg sword (worn at waist of back)(Kod..)(DEDR 947). For kat.. in Ko. cf. ga_tu lap (Kond.a); kra_to lap, bosom (Kui)(DEDR 1450). cf. kar.ma_ waist (Kur.); kar.me (Malt.)(DEDR 1143).

906.Stubble: ot.t.u stubble (Ta.); ot.u id. (Ma.); od.d.u (Tu.)(DEDR 966).

907.Image: snare (?cage): od. to set (net, spring-trap)(Ko.); od.d.avuni to set (a snare), cast (a net), to hold or stretch out (Tu.); od.d.u to spread (as a net), cast, stretch out, extend (Te.); ad.ye to lay a snare (Malt.); od.d.eti to throw out (as a net), lay (snare)(Pali)(DEDr 962). vat.t.a snare (Pa.); vata a trap for peacocks and hares (Pe.); var.ta a snare (Kui)(DEDR 5229). vat.t.i basket made of palm-stem fibre, a measure of capacity (Ta.); round basket of grass, straw, leather, or palm-leaves (Ma.); bat.t.i basket (Kod..); rattan basket (Tu.); vat.t.ikai basket (Ta.); vat.t.il id., measure of capacity, quiver for arrows (Ta.)(DEDR 5231).

908.Trench: o_da, va_da ditch, trench, pitfall for catching elephants (Ka.); o_damu pitfall for catching elephants (Te.)(DEDR 1048). o_tai surrounding wall, fortification; paved passage along the walls within a fortification; ot.t.uvaittal to dig trenches or moats round a city (Ta.lex.) avata well, cistern (RV.); avat.a hole in the ground (VS.); awa_ pool, pond (Pas'.); avad.a, avad.aa, ayad.a well; agad.a, ad.a well, trench near well for cattle to drink from (Pkt.); o_r. pit, ditch (Bhoj.); val.a hole, pit (Si.); a_va_t.a pit, well (Pali); a_d. common round well with steps (M.)(CDIAL 774). hrada deep water, lake, pool (RV.); rahada deep pond (Pali); rau deep pool, low land, valley (Ku.); raha pond (N.); ra_va pond, lake (Si.)(CDIAL 14183). cf. draha deep lake (Skt.)(CDIAL 6627).

909.Strainer: onali, ondari, ondri, vandari, vandare, vandri a sieve, strainer; one, one to winnow, sift; onasu, onisu to cause to shake to and fro; ocu to sift (Ka.); onali a sieve (Kod..)(DEDR 979). ucandi sieve (Gypsy); uchan to sift; us'a_n to knead (Gypsy); us.a_n to churn (Yid.)(CDIAL 1745). Image: strainer: ottharaka a kind of strainer (Pali); othro nest (N.)(CDIAL 865). ottharati covers (Pali); ottharai, uttharai covers, overcomes (Pali); wotharun to wipe (K.); otharab to spread (esp. kus'a grass)(Mth.); ottharan.a spreading over (Pali); coverlet (Pkt.); wotharunu towel (K.)(CDIAL 866). otha_r leather shoes (Bshk.); a kind of dragnet (A.); avasta_ra spreading, covering (Skt.); bed (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 867). Prop: ot.hu~ prop (G.); avastha standing, firm (Skt.)(CDIAL 871).

910.To refine, perfect; elegance: vat.i to become beautiful; to refine, perfect; n. form, shape (Te_va_. 815,5); vat.ivu form, shape (Tiruva_ca. 5,25)(Ta.lex.); beauty (Te_va_. 618,7)(Ta.lex.); fair complexion; brightness, lustre (Tiv. Tiruppal. 2); true word, truth (Ta.lex.); form, size, manner, figure, beauty (Ma.); vat.ippam elegance, shapeliness, beauty (Ta.)(DEDR 5223). vad.uvu form, shape (Te.)(Ta.lex.) vat.u chiselled figure (Cir-upa_n.. 121)(Ta.lex.)

911.Mole: vat.u wart, mole, scar, wale (Ta.); mark of stripe, scar, weal, wart, mole, freckle (Ma.)(DEDR 5227).

912.Lance: vat.i-ve_l sharp lance (Kantaralan.. 70); Skanda, as wielding the lance (Ta.lex.) cf. vat.i sharpness (Te_va_. 830,6)(Ta.lex.) val. sharpness, pointedness (Ta.); valj- (knife) to have cutting edge (Pa.); var.s to be sharp (Kond.a); r.ah- (r.ast-) id. (Pe.); r.ah- id. (Mand..); vele thorn (Mand..); vala point, sharp end, spearhead, sting (Kui); var.h- (var.st-) to sharpen; r.e'- id. (Kuwi); r.emperi valli whetstone; le_'nai to sharpen (Kuwi); repel vwalli whetstone (Kuwi)(DEDR 5306). Sword: vat.u sword; copper; vat.ippu iron rod (Ta.lex.)

913.To tremble: bal.aku, bal.iku, bal.(u)ku to shake, tremble (Ka.); on.aku to tremble (Ka.); bal.akuni to quake, shake, quiver (Tu.); vad.a_ku, van.a_ku to tremble, shudder, quiver (Te.); vad.k- to tremble, shiver (Kol.); var.ak- to tremble (Nk.); var.k- to tremble (Go.); van:k- to shake, tremble (Kond.a)(DEDR 5307). cf. hilln.a_ to shake, be moved (P.)(CDIAL 14120).

914.Fine writing: vat.i-v-er..uttu a letter, written symbol of an uttered sound, dist. fr. oli-y-er..uttu an articulate sound considered as a symbol of certain state of consciousness (Nan-. 256, Mayilai); fine writing (Ta.lex.)

915.Image: opposition: on.t.ami disagreement, enmity; on.t.aramu enmity; on.t.impu convenience, aid, help (Te.); on.t.u to be agreeable, wholesome, or salubrious (Te.); to agree (with one's health)(Ka.)(DEDR 970). cf. od.d.u to become opposite, oppose (Ka.); od.d.a_ramu enmity, opposition (Te.)(DEDR 963).

916.Image: oath, tribute; hostage: od. oath (Kol.); od.a (od.i) to swear an oath; n. swearing (Kui); ottinai to swear (Kuwi); o_tali to take an oath (Kuwi); ot.t.u oath (Ta.); a vow, solemn promise, oath; to make a vow (Ka.); an oath (Te.); od.d.u to put a stake at play (Ka.); a wager (Te.); ot.t.am a wager (Ma.); ot.t.u to wager (Te.)(DEDR 959). hod.d.a, hud.d.a, hud.d.a_ wager (Pkt.); hod.a (S.); hor. (Ku.N.B.H.); ur.a vow (Or.); hod.a wager, rivalry (OMarw.); hod. wager (G.M.); od.a bet, pledge (Si.)(CDIAL 14175). od.uku to give, deposit (Te.); od.d.eti to throw out (a net), lay (snare)(Pali)(DEDR 962).

917.Tribute; vow; image: rivalry: cf. ot.t.aja tribute (Ka.); ot.ukkuka to pay taxes (Ma.)(DEDR 952). hod.d.a, hud.d.a, hud.d.a_ wager (Pkt.); hod.a (S.); hor. (Ku.N.B.); ur.a vow (Or.); hor. wager (H.); hod.a wager, rivalry (OMarw.); hod. wager (G.M.); od.a bet, pledge (Si.); ot.t.u wager (Ta.); od.d.a wager (Ka.)(CDIAL 14175). cf. ot.t.u (ot.t.i-) to wager, stake, bind oneself to do a thing; n. oath (Ta.)(DEDR 959). Image: pair: cf. udri a match, pair (Tu.); uddi a match, an equal, a rival; equal; uddincu to pair, match, couple; uddika~_d.u, uddi~_d.u companion, friend (Te.); utti a player on the opposite side, corresponding to one on one's own side in a game in which the players are divided into two parties (Ta.)(DEDR 623). cf. od.d.u to become opposite, oppose (Ka.)(DEDR 963).

918.Image: a pile of three with one on the top: od.d.i, ud.d.i heap or pile, esp. a pile of three with a fourth set on top (Ka.); ud.d.i any pile of three with one on the top (Tu.); ud.d.a, ud.d.a_ a parcel or pack of four (Te.)(DEDR 599).

853.Image: earthen hoop: o_d.e, va_d.e a burnt earthen hoop used in constructing a tube-well, a storage vessel constructed of baked earthen hoops (Ka.)(DEDR 1042). od.d.a a pile, a heap (Ka.); ot.t.a (Ta.); od.d.a a class of people who cut stones from the earth, convey them on their carts to where they are wanted, dig tanks and wells. They speak a Telugu patois, and in S. Maharas.t.ra occasionally they say they are followers of a deity at So_lla_pura, called Siddhara_me_s'vara (Ka.); od.d.e drudgery; od.d.eva_n.d.lu tank diggers, labourers, pitmen; od.d.e-de_s'a = o_d.ra-de_s'a (Te.); ot.t.ar tank diggers, inhabitants of ot.t.iya a country in the north of Madras (Ta.); od.d.ati a woman of the od.d.as (Ka.lex.)

854.Diggers: ot.t.an- (Ta.) < o_d.ra; od.d.eva_d.u (Te.); od.d.a member of a caste of diggers, sappers, scavengers, miners (Tanippa_. ii, 131,331 ) (Ta.lex.) ot.t.acci f. member of a caste of diggers (Ta.); ot.t.ar, ot.t.iyar people of the tank-diggers caste (Ma.); od.d.a class of people who cut stones from the earth, dig tanks and wells, etc.; f. od.d.atti; adj. od.d.i (Ka.); od.d.e_ man of caste of snake-charmers; f. od.d.ati (Kod.); od.d.e man of the tribe of tank-diggers (Te.)(DBIA 59). ud.d.a a caste of well-diggers (Pkt.); od.ru a caste that make mud walls, blockhead (S.); od. (L.); a tribe that clear watercourses or build houses (L.); or., wor. mason (Ku.); or. (N.); od. a caste of Hindus who dig and carry earth and build mud houses (G.)(CDIAL 2549).

855.Orissa: ot.t.ar (Ta.Ma.) < o_dra People of the Orissa country; o_t.t.iram Orissa (Ta.lex.) od.ra Orissa; the inhabitants of Orissa; o_d.ra a tribe of S'u_dras (Mn.); name of a people (MBh.); od.d.a, ud.d.a the land of Utkala; the inhabitant of Orissa (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2549). or.a an original inhabitant of Orissa (Or.); od.d.ia pertaining to Utkala (Skt.); or.iya_ inhabitant of Orissa (B.Bhoj.); ur.iya_ (B.); or.ia_ (Or.); or.iya_ navvy (EH.)(CDIAL 2549). or.isa_ Orissa (Or.); ur.i_sa_ (H.)(CDIAL 2551). od.d.e native of Orissa (Te.)(DBIA 59).

856.Heap up; transport of articles: lard load (Skt.); lad, luzu heaped-up load (K.); ladd load (P.); la_d transport of articles, goods (Ku.); an elephant's load (A.); lada_, nada_ loading; lada_-ladi loading up (Or.); la_d load, burden (H.)(CDIAL 10965). lardayati loads (Skt.); ladde_i loads; laddan.a (Pkt.); lad, ladav (Gypsy); lada_y (Dm.); ladun to raise, set up, send, despatch (K.); lad.an.u to load; la_d.u_ carrying a load (S.); lad.d.an., lad.an., pres. part. lad.d.e_nda_, laddun. to load, carry; pass. ladi_vun. (L.); laddn.a_ to load (P.); la_dnu (N.); la_diba (A.); lada_na (B.); la_diba_, ladiba_, nadiba_ (Or.); la_dab (Aw.); la_dna_ to load, pile up, oppress (H.); la_dai loads (OMarw.); la_dvu~ to heap up, load (G.); la_dn.e~ (M.); lar- to load (Gypsy); lhadu_m I load (Phal.)(CDIAL 10966).

857.Image: to run: lad.an.u to run (S.); lad.d.an. (L.); lar.nu to slip, stumble (N.); lariba to run (A.)(CDIAL 10925). rad.d.a slipped (Pkt.); rar.akn.o to fall down (Ku.); rar.kanu to slip (N.); rar.ka_na_ to shove (H.); rar.vu~ to slip (G.)(CDIAL 10594).

919.The original number: od.d.u a mass, heap (Ka.); ot.t.u a total (Tu.Te.); union, glue (Ma.)(DEDR 958). od.d.u the original number whether multiplicand or dividend (Ka.); od.d.e multiplication table (Tu.); od.d.u the multiplicand (Te.)(DEDR 964).

920.Seven: od. seven; od.gi seven things; or.i seven; or.in go_r.i 140 (Kui)[cf. DBIA 122); cf. d.- in: d.ebbadi seventy (Te.)(DEDR 3918)]; odgi seven; odi pattu seven times twelve dozen (= 1008)(Kui); e_r.u seven (Kond.a); e_r..u seven (Ta.Ma.Ka.); e_r..mai id. (Ta.); er..u-patu seventy (Ta.Ma.); e.y seven (Ko.); e.g id. (Ko.Sholur dialect); el. vat seventy (Ko.); ow seven; pa.w seventeen (To.); e_r..-pattu, eppattu seventy (Ka.); e.l.i seven; e.l.ane seventh; el.u-vadi seventy (Kod..); e_l.u seven (Tu.); e_l.ane seventh; e_l.veru seven persons; el.pa, e_l.pa, erpa seventy (Tu.); e_d.u (7th cent.; inscr.), e_r..u seven; e_d.uguru seven persons; e_n.-nu_r-u 700; d.ebbadi, d.ebbhai, d.abbhai seventy; d.ebban.d.ru seventy persons (Te.); ed., e_r. seven; ergur, ed.gur seven persons (Kol.); e_r.un, ye_r.ung, yed.ung, e_r.u~_ seven (usually non-masc.); e_r.vir, e_rur, e_r.ur, e_r.vur seven (masc.); ye_r.k seven each (Go.)(DEDR 910). sapt seven (RV.); satta (Pali.Pkt.); sata (Dhp.); sut, sot, su_t (D..); so_t (Wg.); sut (Kt.); sete (Pr.); sat (Dm.Tir.); sa_ta, sa_te, sa_t, sat (Pas'.); sat (Nin., Shum. Wot.Kal. Bshk.Sv. Phal.Sh.); sa_t (Kal.Mai.Tor.Kand.Phal.); satt (Bshk.Sh.); st (Sh.); sath dat. satan; satt (K.); sata (S.); satt (L.P.WPah.); sa_t (Ku.N.B. Mth.Bhoj.Aw. H.Marw. G.M.); xa_t (A.); sa_t (Or.Konkan.i); sata (OSi.Bra_mi_ inscr.); sat-a, hat-a (Si.); hat (Md.)(CDIAL 13139). saptaka consisting of seven (Mn.); sattaya septad (Pkt.); sotu (K.); sato the number 7 (S.); satta_ (P.); aggregate of seven (H.); sattu~ the 7-times table (G.)(CDIAL 13140). sa_r.tri_ 37 (G.); saptatrim.s'at 37 (MBh.)(CDIAL 13145). zda_ro~_, sida_ro~_ 17 (Wot..)(CDIAL 13146). e_ abbreviated form of the cardinal numeral, e_a, seven; used in the formation of the following cmpd. numerals: (a) in the multiples of seven by twenty, hundred, thousand etc., e_ hisi, 140; e_ sae, 700; e_ hajar, 7000; (b) in the formation of phrases denoting multiplication: e_sa, seven times; (c) in the formation of distributive adjectives and adverbs: e_e_a, seven each; e_e_ate, seven by seven; e_e_sa, seven times each; (d) in the formation of approximative numerals; it stands before irilia or iril: e_iril t.aka omaime, give him about seven or eight rupees; e_iriliako taikena, there were about seven or eight; used before certain words which are used in enumerations of men, families and cattle: hor.o, persons; or.a families; bo_ heads of cattle; arar. yokes of...; e_a cardinal numeral, seven (Mu.); hinniaw (Khasi.); e_-e_ate distributive adv., seven by seven, seven at a time, in groups of seven (Mu.lex.) o_r-u, er- seven (Ka.); yo_r-u seven (M.)(Ka.lex.) er-, ep, e_r-, e_r-u seven (Ka.); er-u (Ta.Ma.); er-vittu = eppattu of which it is the original form (Ka.); el.pa (Tu.); e_r-bir, e_r-biru seven persons (Ka.); e_r-u seven; e_r-u ge_n.a, e_r-u ke_ri etc., (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) eae seven (Santali.lex.)

921.Girdle: od.i-kat.t.u girdle (Te.)(DEDR ). ot.t.iya_n.am girdle worn by yo_gis while in a sitting posture, so as to bind the waist and the doubled-up legs together, yo_ka-p-pat.t.ai (Tiruman. 818)(Ta.lex.); gold or silver girdle or belt worn by women (Ta.); ut.aan. gold chain round the loins (Ma.); od.ya_n.a, od.d.ya_n.a, od.d.an.a, od.d.ava_n.a, od.d.iva_n.a, od.va_n.a belt of gold or silver chiefly worn by women (Ka.); od.yan.e, od.ya_n.a belt or girdle made of gold and generally worn by a devil-dancer (Tu.); od.d.a_n.amu belt of gold or silver worn by women (Te.). Probably < *ot.i-a_n. waist-string (DEDR 961).

922.Dislike: or-u (-pp-, -tt-) to punish, chastise (Pur-ana_. 10,4); to rebuke, reprove (Akana_. 342); to deride, ridicule (Kur-al., 779); to dislike, be disgusted with, suppress (as the desires), mortify (as the body); or-uppu dislike, aversion, rebuke, punishment, self-mortification; ur-ai (-pp-, -tt-) to rebuke, disgrace (Ta.); or-uppu hatred, aversion; punishment (Ma.); ro_su to dislike, feel disgust; n. (also); ro_te dirt, filth, ordure; roccu, rocce, rojju, rojje mud, mire, foul water (Ka.); orudala backbiting, tale-bearing (Te.); ro_yu, r-o_yu to hate, dislike, be disgusted with, be wearied or tired, give up, abandon, leave, despise, rebuke; ro~_ta, ro_ta disgust, abhorrence; dirt, filth; r-occu, ro_ta contempt, disregard; mud, mire; rompi mud, mire (Te.)(DEDR 1019). ver-u (-pp-, -tt-) to detest, loathe (Na_lat.i, 172); hate, be angry at, renounce, be afflicted; ver-ukkai, ver-uppu aversion, loathing (Ain:kur-u. 93); dislike, displeasure (Kur-al., 696)(Ta.lex.); verv- (vert-) to dislike (Ko.); ver-ukka to avoid, abstain from, loathe, hate, renounce; ver-uppu aversion, abomination; ver-uppikka to cause anger; vir-akkam repugnance (Ma.); birkha'a_na_ to disgust with, make sick of, disaffect from; birkha_rna_ to grow disaffected, conceive a disgust for, be sick of (Kur.)(DEDR 5512). Disgusting: arotu, arucu bad, no good, useless (K.); aruta disgust, loathing, aversion to food (Si.)(CDIAL 613). arucya unpleasant; rucya tonic (Sus'r.); aruc unpalatable, disagreeable (P.); aruco unpalatable (N.)(CDIAL 614). aro_caka not shining (Kaus'.); disgusting (Sus'r.); aro_cuk displeasing (skt.); aru_cu, dat. pl. aro_cen unpleasing, disagreeable (K.)(CDIAL 623).

818.Image: sun: el sun (Tirumuru. 74); sunshine (Pin..); day time (Pur-ana_. 170); day of 24 hours (Pin..); lustre, splendour, light (Tol. Col. 271); ellavan- sun (Pa_rata. Patin-et.. 119); elli daytime (Te_va_. 344,8)(Ta.lex.)

923.Shining: rotu, rucu good, excellent, beautiful, sweet (K.)(CDIAL 10755). rutiya wish, desire (Si.)(CDIAL 10756). aro~_ happy (Ash.); aro_, ro_ rich, noble (Kt.); a_ro_k shining through (RV.); a_ro_ai gets happy (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1329). viro_cate_ shines (RV.); viro_cati shines out (Pali)(CDIAL 11876). ruci light, beauty (AV.); brightness, pleasure (Pali); rui- beauty, charm (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10762). cf. meruku glitter, lustre, polish (Ta.); mer-u~gu to shine, glitter, gleam; n. brilliance, glitter, polish; bright, shining (Te.)(DEDR 5074). rucita bright (S'Br.); rucia pleasant (Pkt.); zut morning (Tor.); re_t, re_d tomorrow (Bshk.); ras't dawn (Sang.)(CDIAL 10763). rucyate_ is pleasant (R.); ruccati finds pleasure in (Pali); ruccai to be liked, be pleasing (Pkt.); rucan.u to be pleased, excite desire (S.); rucn.a_ to be liked, be pleasing (P.); rucn.o to be liked, be wholesome, be digested, like (Ku.); rucnu to be pleasant (N.); ruca_unu to like (N.); rusiba to be palatable (A.); ruca_ to be liked, be relished (B.); ruciba_ (Or.); rucai (OAw.); ru_cna_ (H.); rucvu~ to be liked, relish (G.); rucn.e~ to be liked (M.); russanava_ to be pleased with (Si.); rici desired (OSi.); risi-ya wish, pleasant taste (Si.)(CDIAL 10765). ro_c bright (AV.); gladdening (Skt.); ro_a liking, taste for (Pkt.); ros' pleasure (Kal.)(CDIAL 10831). ro_cate_ shines (RV.); ro_cyati makes pleasant (AV.); ro_cyate_ is liked (R.); ro_cati shines (Pali); ro_ai (Pkt.); rozo_nu to be light (Sh.); ro_ce_ti is pleased (Pali); rocetu, locetu let them find pleasure in (As'.); ro_e_i, ro_ai gives pleasure (Pkt.); ro_cun, pp. ru_cu to be liked (K.)(CDIAL 10832). ro_cis light, brightness (RV.); ro_c bright (AV.); ro_cas light (MaitrS.); ro_i_ light (Pkt.); zuc daybreak (Ash.); wruc, zuz (Wg.); ruc, ric-kol (Kt.); urjuk, yrjk (Pr.); ru_c morning (Gaw.); zo_i-zal pine tree (Pas'.)(CDIAL 10833). ro_cya shining (MaitrS.); ru_c, ro_c dawn (Gaw.)(CDIAL 10835). cf. ro_yu, r-o_yu to seek, search, look for; va_r(u)cu to look for, wait, expect, wish (Te.)(DEDR 1059). Light: ol.i light, brightness, splendour, sun, moon, star, fire, sunshine, lamp, beauty; ol.iyavan-, ol.iyo_n- sun; ol.ir (-v-, -nt-), ol.ir-u (ol.ir-i-) to shine; ol.irvu, ol.ir-u brightness; onmai brilliance, brightness, beauty (Ta.); ol.i splendid, bright; the light; ol.ima, ol.ivu brightness; on.ma splendour, beauty; ul.ayuka, ul.iyuka to shine, glitter (Ma.); ol.a, ol.apu shine, blaze; ul.ku to shine, blaze, appear; ul.ku, ul.uku a shining substance, a meteor [or ulka_- (Skt.)](Ka.); ol.i light, splendour (Tu.); or.ini(ka) white, bright (Kond.a)(DEDR 1016). ulevuni to shine (Tu.); olayu shine (Te.); ole come to light, to appear (Ka.); oliyal luxuriance, sprout (Ta.)(DEDR 997). To see: o.l (o.lt-) to see, look at (Kol.); o_l- to see; o_lip- to show (Nk.)(DEDR 1066). lo light (e.g. of moon)(WPah.); lo_ light (L.); light, dawn (Sh.K.); deodar (Bshk.)(CDIAL 11120). lo_e_i shines (Pkt.); lo_en:g (lightning) to flash (Bshk.); lo- to see (Shum.); lo_kate_ sees (Dha_tup.); lo_kyati shines (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 11122). lo_cana lighting (BhP.); eye (MBh.Pali); lo_an.a (Pkt.); loin. eye, eye-sight (P.); loyan eye (H.); loan.a (OG.)(CDIAL 11128). lo_i_ light (Pkt.); lu_i tomorrow (Pas'.); le_wil brightness (Wot..); loi light, lustre (H.)(CDIAL 11129). lec adj. light, bright (Pas'.); lo_c dawn (Shum.); loj night (Tor.)(CDIAL 11131). lo_cyate_ is caused to shine (Dha_tup.); locan.u to desire, search for (S.); locan. to favour, wish (L.); locvu~ to desire earnestly (G.)(CDIAL 11132). el lustre, splendour, light, sun, daytime; elli, ellai sun, daytime; ilaku (ilaki-), ilan:ku (ilan:ki-) to shine, glisten, glitter (Ta.); ilakuka to shine, twinkle; ilan:kuka to shine; el lustre, splendour, light; ella light (Ma.); elamu to be shiny, splendid (Te.); alla day (Pkt.)(DEDR 829). cf. tel. to become clear (Ta.); tel.ir (-v-, -nt-) to shine, sparkle (Ta.); tel.i clearness, brightness (Ma.); teli, seli clear, pure, filtered (Tu.)(DEDR 3433). ne_ram time, season, opportunity (Ta.); sun, day, light, time, season, hour, turn; ne_rattu early, seasonably (Ma.); ne.ra sun, time; ne.rate early in the morning (Kod..); ne_rd id. (Tu.); de_ sun, sunshine, day, time (Br.)(DEDR 3774). nir-a brilliant, be distinguished (Ta.); nir-am light, lustre (Ta.); nir-am light, splendour; nir-akka to shine (Ma.)(DEDR 3680). Image: sun: er-ikka to shine (as sun); er-i to shine, glitter (Ta.)(DEDR 861). er- sun (?To.); en-r-u sun (Ta.); en-r- u_r.. sun, sunshine, summer (Ta.); en.d.a sun, sunshine, heat of the sun (Te.); eddi heat of the sun (Go.); yaddi hot, sunlight (Go.); addi_, adi_, addi heat of the sun (Go.); nendi, nend.i heat of the sun (Pa.); edde sunshine (Nk.)(DEDR 869). cf. vel., ven. white, pure, shining, bright (Ta.)(DEDR 5496).

924.Image: splinter; crack; to break: o_t.t.a crack, leak, hole (Ma.); o_t.t.ai hole, crack in a vessel, flaw, leak (Ta.); ot.ipu breaking off in the middle (Ta.); ut.ai to break as a pot burst into fragments, be split; ut.aivu cracking, fracturing (Ta.); ot.ikka to break (Ma.); ot.appu breach or bursting of a ridge in a ricefield or bund; ot.iccil breaking or fracture; ut.ayuka to break as pottery, nuts, etc.; ut.ekka to break in pieces (Ma.); or.v (or.d-) to break; or. small crack in wood or iron (Ko.); o.t. hole (Ko.); war.- to break in pieces, as pot; war.f id.; wir.y- (joints) crack; war. ad.y broken pot (To.); od.i, ud.i to be broken, crack, burst, be broken in pieces; break in pieces; ud.i fragment, splinter; ud.isu, od.isu to cause to be shattered in pieces; od.aka, od.aku state of being cracked, crack, fracture; od.e to be broken (= od.i); fragment; ot.t.e, o_t.e a crack, fracture (Ka.); od.e- (od.ev-, od.and-) to break, be broken (pot); od.a- (od.ap-, od.at-) to break (Pot); od.e piece of something hollow or of round fruit; od.eve a break (Ka.); od.iyuni, od.eyuni to break; od.ipuni, od.epuni to break, break open; udepuni, ud.evuni to break, split as pot, etc.; od.aku bruise, fracture, leak; od.ka bruised, broken; od.puni to pluck; od.pu plucking; od.atelu breaking, broken; ud.ettelu bruide; ot.t.e fissure, hole, potsherd; broken, cracked (Tu.); ud.e, od.i to break; od.i, od.pu to pluck (Kor.); od.api breach, opening; od.iyu to take by force, snatch; od.ucu to defeat, overthrow, to take away by force; o_d.u to be defeated; defeat; crack, chink, hole; o_t.u defeat, overthrow; o_t.i cracked, broken, leaky; o_t.ami defeat, failure; o_t.ar-u, o_t.a_r-u to be split, broken, be ruined, defeated (Te.)[cf. semant. o_t.u to be defeated, run (Ta.)(DEDR 1041)]; o.d.- (o.d.t-) to burst; o.t.- (o.t.t-) to smash (pot)(Kol.); o_r.- to break; o_t.- id. (Nk.); ut.up- to split, break; ot.up-/ot.p- to break; o_r.- (o_t.t.-) to break (Nk.); o_d.- to break, burst; o_t.ip- (o_t.it-) to cause to burst (Pa.); or- to break (Ga.); wo_r.a_na_ to burst of an egg or pot; wo_hta_na_ to burst, (chicks) hatch out; o_r- to break; o_h-, ohta_na_ to break; orsahta_na_, orih- id.; orun, urung-, urng- to break, break off; caus. uruht-, ureht-, urut-, uris-, urih-, urh- (Go.); o_h- (o_st-) to strike with hammer, smash (clods)(Pe.); o_ja (o_ji-) to be burst, broken, cracked (Kui); ohpa (oht-; ?o_hpa) to burst, smash, crack (Kui); o_y- (-it-) to be brokenj; o_h- (o_st-) to break (Kuwi)(DEDR 946). ot.ital to break, as a stick, a branch, a rib (Ta.); od.i id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) ot.ittal to break short off; to snap, as a branch, a stick (Kantapu. Tikkuvicaya. 110); od.isu (Ka.); od.i (Ma.Tu.); ot.ivu breaking, fracturing (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vad.e slices (Kol.); var.ka, var.ga_ division, part; vad.ga_ half, portion (Go.)(DEDR 5228).

925.Great assembly: ot.t.o_lakkam show, pomp, magnificence (Ta.); great assembly (Ta.); od.d.o_lagamu (Te.); od.d.o_laga (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

926.Image: earthen vessel: o_t.u earthen vessel (Na_lat. i.139); piece of broken earthenware, potsherd; mendicant's bowl for receiving alms, as a potsherd; o_t.u shell, potsherd, tile (Ma.); wi.r. skull, tile (To.); o_d.u potsherd, earthen pan, skull (Ka.); o.r. potsherd, skull (Ko.); o_d.e, va_d.e a burnt earthen hoop used in constructing a tube-well, a storage vessel constructed of baked earthen hoops (Ka.); o.d.i skull, wide circular dish (Kod..); o_d.u, o_d.illu potsherd; o_d.ari potter (Tu.)(DEDR 1042); o_t.ai vessel for holding sandal, etc.; ot.t.u-vat.t.il small vessel for holding water, etc., placed before the idol in worship (S.I.I.ii,3); ot.ukku dent or depression in a metal utensil (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

927.Image: swan: o_ti, o_timam swan (Kampara_. Cu_rppa. 5)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(DEDE 1050). o_tima-va_kan-an- Brahma_, whose vehicle is the swan; o_timamuyartto_n- Brahma_, whose banner has the figure of a swan; o_timan- Brahma_, who rides on a swan (Pirapo_ta. 26,26); o_tima-vil.akku swan-shaped pendent lamp (Perumpa_n.. 317)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_ti knowledge, wisdom, spiritual perception; learning, erudition; learned person; one who recited the Ve_da and S'a_stras (Ta.lex.)

928.To recite: o_tu (o_ti-) to read, recite, utter mantras, repeat prayers, speak, declare; o_tuvi (-pp-, -tt-) to teach the vedas, instruct; o_tal reciting (sas the veda)(Tol. Po. 25); o_ti learning, learned person; o_ttu reciting, uttering (as a mantra), the veda (Ta.); o_tuka to recite, read, say; o_tikka to teach; o_ttu reading (chiefly of scriptures), using formulas (Ma.); o.d- (o.dy-) to read, pronounce (charms), learn; o.t a charm (Ko.); wi.0- to read; wi.t incantation (To.); o_du to utter, read, recite, study, say; n. reading, etc.; o_disu to cause to read, instruct in the s'a_stras; o_dike, o_duvike reading; o_tu, o_ta reading, that has been read or studied, the veda (Ka.); o.d (o.di-) to read (Kod..); o_duni to read; o_da_vuni to cause to read, teach how to read; o_dige, o_du reading (Tu.)(DEDR 1052). ho_tr.ka assistant of the ho_tr., priest (S'Br.); ho_traka (AitBr.); hottiya member of a sect of va_naprastha ascetics (Pkt.); wuto_, uto_ high priest (Kt.); wuta_, uto_ (Pr.)(CDIAL 14176). ho_tra office of the priesthood, priesthood (RV. x.51,4); ho_tra_ call, invocation, praising (RV. i.120,1); hautra verses recited by Hotr. (Vedic.lex.)

929.To plunge: om.bal.n.em. to wash lightly, to plunge (M.); oha_l. alluvial deposits, silt brought in by the river (G.); omba_lai = pla_vayati (Pkt.)(Bloch, p. 309). cf. o_ma_likai fragrant substances put in water used for drinking and bathing, of which there are 32 (Cilap. 6,77, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ho_ma havih- praks.e_pa: offering or making an oblation; ho_tra id. (RV. iii.17.2); ho_tr. sacrificer, priest, who invokes the gods at a sacrifice (RV. iii.35.10) (Vedic.lex.) o_ma (Tadbhava of ho_ma) an oblation of clarified butter, a burnt-offering (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) o_kam flood (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.); o_gha (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_kul.i, o_kal.i a red liquid of various ingredients which is sprinkled or squirted upon persons at the ho_l.i feast, at the close of a temple festival, or at marriages (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) o_kas ease, pleasure, comfort (RV. i.173.11; pa_ni_ya_dikam sadanam (RV. ii.191); o_kiva_m.s pleasing (RV. vi.59.3); vaokus' (Awesta); o_ks.a to sprinkle over (RV. iii.62.16); o_dman flood (VS. xiii.53 : o_dmani o_s.adhi_s.u)(Vedic.lex.)oum.l, vaum.l. mimusops elengi (M.); vakula (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 308).ogal, oghal., ohal., vaghal. stream; ogal.n.em., oghal.n.em. to seep, to drip (M.); ogal.vum. to melt, to trickle (G.); ogga_lo tatha_ oa_lo alpam. srotah- (OM.); -ghr.- to moisten (Skt.); ogha current (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 308). ojhar trickling, current, waterfall (M.); ojharn.em. to trickle (M.); avajharei, ojhara (Pkt.); avaks.ar (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 309).

930.Image: simile: oppan.i simile; oppam parallel, comparison, resemblance (Ta.); id. (Ma.); oppa id. (Ka.); oppu likeness, similarity, resemblance (Kur-al., 993); id. (Te.Ka.Ma.); oppumai likeness, similarity, resemblance (Tan.t.i. 29)(Ta.lex.) on-r-a a sign of comparison (Tol. Po. 286)(Ta.lex.) o_pa_ti part. particle of comparison (Ta.Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

931.Delivers; deposits: upa_rpayati brings near (S'Br.); oppe_i, uppe_i hands over, delivers to (Pkt.); opn.e~, vapn.e~ (M.); o_pe_ti makes go into, deposits (Pali); caus. formed from upe_ti approaches (Pali); o_via set upon (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2311). nyarpayati thrown down (AV.); nappan. to seize; nappun. to take, hold; nape_van. to catch (L.); napan. to seize (L.)(CDIAL 7611). pre_ran.a driving on (Skt.); pe_ran.a, pe_ran.a_ impelling (Pkt.); pri_ran act of sending (K.)(CDIAL 9000). pre_rte_ moves, appears (RV.); ce_l. to arrive; caus. cela_ (Mai.); chlo_n. (Chil.)(CDIAL 9001). Deliver: oppat.ai-ttal to entrust, consign, deliver, give over to the charge of another; oppat.ai entrusting, surrender, commitment, delivery, pledging, giving charge; oppat.aippu delivery in execution of (legal) proceedings; oppu to agree, accede to, assent (Ta.Te.Ka.); oppi (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) oppantam agreement, stipulation, contract (Ta.); oppanda id. (Ka.Tu.); oppandamu id. (Te.); oppantama_naka_n.i land for which the title has been commuted into a lump sum by agreement; oppam signature; writ, summons, citation; written grant of privileges or honours; sanad (J.); oppamit.utal to subscribe one's name to; to grant a certificate of privileges or honours; to grant a diploma or sanad; oppat.imicukku computation of the actual value of a crop;[micukku computation (Ta.)]; oppan:ku_r-u partition deed showing division of property (C.G.); opputalraci_tu delivery receipt for property purchased in court sale; acknowledgement receipt (Ta.lex.) To send: pre_rayati sets in motion, pushes on (RV.); pe_rai sends; pass. pe_rijjam.ta (Pkt.); pru_run to send (a message); pri_run to dispatch, instigate, order (K.); prervu~ to send, despatch, urge, cause to do (G.); pelle_i sends (Pkt.); pellai, pillai throws (Pkt.) prela draw (water)(Tir.); pre_l, le_l, te_l to herd (cattle), stretch out (hand)(Pas'.); peln.a_ to push (P.); peln.o (Ku.); pelnu (N.); pela_iba to throw away (A.); pel to throw down (MB.); peliba_ to push (Or.); pelal (Bhoj.); pelai pushes, drives away, tramples on; pe_lab to enter by force (OAw.); pelna_ to push (H.); peln.e~ (M.); pelani fit to be thrown away (A.)(CDIAL 9002). cf. arpayati causes to move (AV.); puts in or on (RV.); delivers up (Ya_j.); appe_ti fits in (Pali); appe_i hands over (Pkt.); a_pab to deposit, place (Mth.); a_pvu~ to give, pay (G.)(CDIAL 684). Consignable: cf. arpita fixed (RV.); entrusted (Ya_j.); a_pai_ deposit, present given to a friend at a distance (M.); arp(i)ya consignable (Skt.); appiya given (Pkt.)(CDIAL 685). cf. opa (ot-) to lead away, take away (persons); n. act of leading away; o_va (o_t-) to take away (things), take, receive; n. act of taking (Kui)(DEDR 984). cf. oppat.i harvest (Ta.)(DEDR 982).

932.Common wealth fund: oppat.i a kind of common good fund raised by proportionate contributions from all land owners (G.Tn.D. i,103); oppuravukka_ran- caste man; he that has an equal share with others in inheritance; co-parcener, pan:ka_l.i; opparakka_ran- id. (Ta.lex.)

933.Image: polishing instrument: oppakkatir jeweller's polishing instrument; oppam gloss, polish (Pur-ana_. 147,7, Urai.); oppan- that which has been burnished (S.I.I. ii,7)(Ta.lex.)

934.Image: furrow, line; one: or.a drawn line, furrow (S.); o_r., pl. o_r.a~ furrow (L.); or. (P.); or.iba_ to plough a field once (Or.); or.e ca_sa one ploughing (Or.)(CDIAL 2545). Image: one: o_r, or one etc. (Ka.Ta.Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. oru, o_r one; ori to be united in harmony; orukkam oneness, sameness; orun:ku altogether, simultaneously; ore_ onely, one; o_rmai unity (Ta.); oru, o_r one, the same; o_ro_, o_ro_ro_, o_ro_nnu each one (Ma.); orrvi. one at a time, once every day (Ko.); or, o_r one; o_ran.a a line, row (Ka.); ori one (adj.)(Kod..); o.rak etti one pair of bullocks (Kod..); or one (adj.); oru one, single, solitary; ora once, at once (Tu.); orima, orimika friendship, harmony (Te.); oror one; orone alone; or.e one; warpne at one place (Go.); uRku uRku one each (Kond.a); ro, ronje one (Pe.); ru, rund.i one (Mand..); ro one (Kui); rondi, ro_ one (Kuwi); utxi_ alone, lonely; orot one man or woman; orma_ all (Kur.); ort one (Malt.); asit. one (entity); asi one (adj.); asi_ke once (Br.)(DEDR 990). on.t.i that which is single, solitary or single person (Ta.); one, single, alone (Ka.); alone, single, separated (Tu.); state of being alone, singleness, solitariness; single, only one, alone (Te.); unt.hal one (neut.)(Go.); on.t.a_ one thing (Kur.)(DEDR 990). hora a line (Santali.lex.)

935.Image: to subdue: orukku to subdue, control, kill, slay (Ta.)(DEDR 991). Image: to subdue: cf. orukku-tal to subdue, control (Patin-o. Tiruvit.ai. Mum. 24); to kill, slay (Kampara_. Pirama_. 195); to bring together (Ci_vaka. 60, Urai.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.)

936.Image: rat: orli rat (Pe.); urli id. (Mand..); od.ri id. (Kui); ori'i id., mouse (Kui); or.li, orli rat (Kuwi)(DEDR 994).

937.Preparation; readiness; agreement: orun.n.uka to be ready; orukkuka to prepare, get ready; orukkam preparation (Ma.); oggu to be prepared or ready, undertake (Te.)(DEDR 992). okka together; in company with (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 5,2,10)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); oru-ppat.u-tal to come together (Tiruva_ca. 45,1); oruppat.uttu-tal to bring together; to bring to an agreement; cause to consent (Ir-ai. 6,65); oruppa_t.u consent (Kantapu. Val.l.iya. 163); unanimity, concord (Kantapu. Me_ru. 18); endeavour, effort (I_t.u, 6,1,8)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

938.Emperor: o_riyar Na_gas (Ta.); emperors of the mountains of cakkarava_l.am (Pur-ana_. 175,6, Mutar-patippu.); supernatural beings said to dwell in mountains, and said to possess magical power (Pur-ana_. 175, Urai.); o_ri name of a liberal chief, one of seven kat.ai-val.l.al (Pur-ana_. 158,5); the name of a horse of O_ri, a chief of the ancient Tamil country (Cir-upa_n..111)(Ta.lex.)

939.Image: man's hair; mane: o_ri man's hair; mane (Poruna. 164)(Ta.lex.) cf. ul.ai mane, hair of head (Ta.); ul.a mane of horse or lion, man's hair (Ma.)(DEDR 701).

940.Estate: o_ra_n--ka_n.i estate under a single owner (Ira_mana_. Uyutta. 74)(Ta.lex.) va_ra a share: a landlord's half share of the produce of a field in lieu of rent (Ka.Te.Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

941.Boiled rice: o_rai boiled rice, a general term used to indicate rice that is mixed up with other edibles such as tamarind, sesamum etc. (Ta.); o_remu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) o_gara boiled rice (Ka.); o_gira, o_hara, o_remu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. o_viramu food, boiled rice (Te.inscr.); ogara, vogara rice, food (OM.)(DEDR 1030).

942.Image: circular dance: o_rai a kind of ancient dance with hands joined in a circle, the performers singing while dancing; kuravai (Pin..)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

943.Those in original residence: buniadi hor.ko those in original residence (Santali.lex.) or.ak house (Santali.lex.) o_r, o_r., or.e beginning, origin (Kur.); r.e beginning, end; r.-otre to end, finish (Malt.)(DEDR 1065). Family: or.akrenko family (Santali.lex.) bunia_d foundation (H.); buna_di id. (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) buniad foundation (Santali.lex.)

944.To stick to: ora, orakol.l.u to stick to (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

945.Images: row; slanting: va_ra, va_re declivity, sloping (Ka.Ta.Ma.) (Ka.lex.) o_ran.a a line, a row (Ka.); o_l.i, o_n.i a continuous line, a row; a number, a mass (Ka.); o_li (Te.); o_l.a (M.); o_re the state of being aslant, leaning, oblique, sloping (Ka.); o_lu, ma_lu to bend (Ka.); va_lu, vra_lu (Te.); o_lu to slant (Ka.Te.); to hang, to dangle (Ka.); ve_lu, vre_lu (Te.); o_l swinging or dangling about (Ka.); o_rad.i sloping, declivity; variance, difference or unevenness in scales (Ka.); va_re (Te.); or-agu to be bent, to incline (Ka.); oragu, olan:gu (Tu.); ur-in:gu (Te.); ur-iccu (Ma.); uggu, oggu, or-agu, or-ugu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Image: line: o_l.i a continuous line, row (Kampara_. Miti. 22)(Ta.); id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) o_l.i a continuous line, row (Kampara_. Miti. 22)(Ta.); id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) o_ra_yam obliqueness, slantingness; the leeward or leaning side of a boat or other vessel (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. por-i to inscribe (Ta.); pori line made on the soil of the field by the tip of the ploughshare (Tu.)(DEDR 4564).

946.Cart: or..ukai cart (uman.ar uppo yor..ukai yen.n.upa : Pur-ana_. 116); train of carts (Perumpa_n.. 63)(Ta.lex.)

947.Royal protection; pleasure: cf. o_lakkam assembly of state (Ta.lex.) olime, olume, oluve, olme pleasure; affection, love, favour, kindness; royal protection, pran.aya, prasa_da (Ka.); elami (Te.); olavu, ola pleasure, complacency; kindness, favour, grace; olava_n to obtain or experience pleasure; olavalar pleasure to bloom or to become great; olavettu to assume pleasure; oli, ole to be pleased, to be favourable, to be pleased with; to desire; to be fit; to be pleasant; olavara, valavara pleasure etc.; alluring charm; olavaran:gol. to take pleasure in, to side with; olavad.isu to cause one's self to experience pleasure, to be pleased; olaga_r-a an amiable man; olaga_rti an amiable woman; olapu, onapu moving the body in a foppish manner, affectation in walking, foppishness, dandyism, coquetry; olapuga_r-a a fop, a dandy; olme-ver-u pleasure to be got (Ka.lex.)

948.Fire-place: cf. oln:gam blaze of fire (Pa.)(DEDR 1001). cf. ulai smith's forge or furnace (Na_lat.i, 298)(Ta.); ula (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ole a fire-place (unconnected with a chimney), of which there are three kinds : 1. three rough stones two of which form the sides and one the back; 2. on.bole with the same triangular form, breadth and height of about one foot, but constructed of mud or clay, and always adjoins to the wall of a kitchen (this type of fire-place is occasionally constructed of clay in a portable shape); [For semant. on.- 'cook' cf. un. to eat or drink (Ta.); un.a food (Ta.); ond.a boiled rice (Kuwi)(DEDR 600)] 3. jo_d.uko_d.ole is more elongaged to both sides than the second one; a hollow passage within connects the elongations with the fire, and conveys its heat to two extra-pots on the openings (ko_d.ole) of their surface (Ka.); ule (Tu.Ma.); ulai (Ta.); poyyi (Te.); ole-gun.d.u the three stones of which an ole consists; ole-guppu a ball of clay for shutting one or both of the side-openings of an ole; olehod.u, olegun.d.u to put three stones together to form an ole; ole, pol.e to appear, to come to light (Ka.lex.)

949.Abortion: vol.ai abortion (cause); a_voi burgea_k vol.aita_ the child is miscarried; vol.aun.e abortion (Kon.lex.) hamal khun, hemal khun to cause abortion; god. bud.i abortive (Santali.lex.) kut.t.i-y-ar..ittal to cause miscarriage, abortion of a child conceived in adultery (Ta.lex.)

950.Kitchen: om.vra_ kitchen; ovri_ lodgings for pilgrims under the portico along a temple wall (M.); ord.o, ord.i_ apartment (G.); ovaraka room (Pali); apavaraka (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 309).

 951.Bedbug: utkun.a bug, louse; un:kun.a, o~kun.a, o~kun.i, o_kkan.i, o_ko_dani_ (Skt.); okkan.i_ louse (Pkt.); okani (A.); ukun, okan, okni, ikun (B.); ukun.i, okni, ukhan, ukhun, ukhen head-louse, weevil; or.kana_ bedbug (Or.); ukun.a_ (Si.); ikin.i_ louse; ukunu (Si.)(CDIAL 1728). ce.l. bedbug (Ko.); tixin.y id. (To.); tagani, tagan.e, tagun.e, tigan.e, tigun.e id. (Ka.); savan.e id. (Ka.); tagule, cagul.e id. (Tu.); cavn.a id. (Kor.); tokki bedbug (Kurub.)(DEDR 2996).

952.Image: eagle: ukko_sa osprey (Pkt.); utkro_s'a sea-eagle (Sus'r.); ukkusa osprey (Pali); ukah eagle (A.); ukussa_ kite, hawk (Si.)(CDIAL 1740).

953.Dillenia indica: uka_ sandpaper-tree, dillenia indica, uva_maram (Malai.); uhamaram (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) uva_, uva_y sandpaper tree, dillenia indica (Ta.); uvva dillenia speciosa (Te.); uka-maram id. (Ma.)(DEDR 560). Dillenia indica: Common names: elephant-apple, Indian catmon; occurs in India, Siam and Malaya... a deciduous tree growing upto 10 meters or more in height... According to Burkill, the fruit is eaten in Malaya as a flavouring with curries and may be made into a jam... In the Siamese Malay States the pulp of the fruit is used to wash the hair... Kirtikar and Basu maintain that the bark and the leaves are astringent, and are used medicinally... fruit is slightly laxative... The juice of the fruit, mixed with sugar and water is used as a cooling beverage in fevers and as a cough mixture... The fruit contains a soft, fleshy, green, edible pulp with a flavour somewhat like that of a green, sour apple... It makes an excellent sauce or jam and is also used for flavouring fish. A red dye is obtained from the bark of this tree... Acid juice of the fruit is also employed for cleansing the hair (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 612-613). Dillenia indica: bhavya (Skt.); chalta (H.B.); mota karmal (M.); uva (Ta.Te.); fruit: tonic, laxative, used in abdominal pains; bark and leaves: astringent; bark and leaves contain tannin; habitat: evergreen forests of the sub-Himalayan tract, from Kumaon and Garhwal eastwards to Assam and Bengal and southwards to Central and South India (GIMP, p.97).

954.Salvadora persica: uka_ tooth-brush tree, salvadora persica, o_mai (Pin..); uka_y id. (Ne_mi. Er..ut. 15, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) uka_, ukai, upa_, o_mai tooth-brush tree, salvadora persica (Ta.); uka-maram careya arborea (Ma.); ogani, uguni, go_n.i, go_nu id., or salvadora persica (Ka.)(DEDR 560). Salvadora persica = salvadora indica: brihatpilu (Skt.); chotapilu (H.B.); pilvu (M.); pilu (P.); perungoli (Ta.); gogu (Te.); leaves: used as external application in rheumatism; their juice given in scurvy; shoots and leaves: pungent, used as antidote to poisons of all sorts; fruit: carminative, diueretic, deobstruent; stem bark: used in decoction in low fever and as a stimulant and tonic in amenorrhoea; root bark: acrid; habitat: drier parts of India such as occurring in Rajputana, Bihar, Konkan, Circars, Deccan, Carnatic, and in Baluchistan and Sind (GIMP, p.219). Salvadora oleoides: pilu (Skt.); bahapilu (H.); kankhina (M.); pil (P.); kalawa (Ta.); root bark: vesicant; leaves: used as purgative and as a cure for cough; fruit: aphrodisiac; oil from seeds: used as a stimulating application in painful rheumatic affections and after child-birth; habitat: Punjab, Salt Range, Rajputana, Gujarat, Sind and Baluchistan (GIMP, p.219).

955.Image: heap of earth: ukar, uki_r a heap of earth; ukard.a_, ukird.a_, ukri_d. dunghill (M.); ukard.o, ukayd.o (G.); ukkera, ukkara (Pkt.); utkara, utkira (Skt.)(Bloch, p.303).

 956.Images: crouching, hip: ukad., ukd.a_, ukid.va_, ukud.va_ adj. crouching (M.); ukula hip (Si.); ukkut.ika (Pali); utkat.uka, utkut.aka crouching (Skt.); kat.a hip (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 302).

957.Image: hips: cf. ukkalai the hips (Ta.); ukkal (Ma.); okkal, okkalai hip side of the body (Par..a. 290); okku (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

958.Image: cooking pot with a rope handle: ukkad.a a piece of rope that is tied to the lower end of a well-rope for fastening the vessel, and is of a different texture, generaly not so thick (Ka.lex.) Image: string round a vessel; rope: ukkam rope or cord attached to anything, as to a handle (Ta.); ugga id. (Ka.); ukkad.a piece of rope that is tied to the lower end of a rope for fastening the vessel, and is of a different texture, generally not so thick (Ka.); oggi a suspender or cord attached to a pot that it may be carried about with its mouth untilted (Tu.); uggamu id. (Te.); ug(g)ur rope, bowstring; ogur rope (Nk.); ugi_ the top-knots by which the strings which support a carrier's loads are connected with the shoulder-stick (Kur.); ukka_ = ku_patula_ (Pkt.)(DEDR 570). ukkha_ cooking-pot (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1630). ughen the string round a vessel for lifting it (Mth.)(CDIAL 1965). u_r.u_ ogali to noose (Kuwi)(DEDR 934). urru hanging; uru, huru snare (Kuwi); ur-i a running knot, loop, noose (Ma.)(DEDR 655).

959.Image: pot: ukkhali pot for cooking rice in (Pali)(CDIAL 1630). ukku, urku to boil, to bubble up (Tu.lex.) ukhe a pot, a cauldron (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ukad. to boil (Kon.lex.) ukhya dressed or boiled in a pot (as fish etc.); ukha a boiler, pot, vessel; ukha_ a boiling vessel, a boiler or cooking pot (such as a sauce-pan); a fire-place at sacrifice (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) pur..un:ku-tal to be steamed; to be slightly boiled or steamed; to be parboiled (Ta.); pur..gu (Ka.); pur..ukku boiling grains; well-boiled food (Patir-r-up. 90,25); dholl well-boiled and seasoned (Perumpa_n.. 195, Urai.); dholl and rice boiled together (Ta.); flesh, meat (Pur-ana_. 212); pur..ukkal cooked rice (Poruna. 114); rice from paddy, parboiled, dreid and husked (Tiruvil.ai. Na_t.t.up. 32); pur..ukkar-ai hot air room for causing perspiration (Man.i. 3,95)(Ta.lex.)

960.Boiler: ukkhali (Vedic ukha and ukha_ pot, boiler; Latin aulla; Gothic auhns oven) a pot in which to boil rice and other food (Pali); ukkhalika_ id. (Pali); ukha_ cooking vessel; ukkhepana suspension (Pali)(Pali.lex.) utkalike, ukkalike a water-pot, kaman.d.alu (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

961.Image: trough: ukhra_n.i_ trough (L.); uc.ar poured out (Kt.)(CDIAL 1744). cf. uha_ an earthen pot (Or.)(CDIAL 1629). ukha cooking-pot (AV.); ukha_ (RV.)(CDIAL 1629). ukkha_ cooking-pot (Pali.Pkt.); ukkhali pot for cooking rice in (Pali); ikiliya pot (Si.)(CDIAL 1630). Cooking-pot: ukhya being in a cauldron (S'Br.); boiled in a pot (Pa_n..); ukha_iba to boil slightly (A.); ukhowa _ rice boiled and dried before husking (A.)(CDIAL 1630). ukha cooking-pot (AV.); ukha_ (RV.); uha_ an earthen pot (Or.)(CDIAL 1629). ugha_uni small pot to take water in from the spring to fill a larger vessel (N.); udgha_tana bucket for raising water (Skt.)(CDIAL 1975). cf. pukai smoke (Ta.lex.) ukkaram sultriness (Ta.); uga, ugi, uge steam, vapour or reek (as that which rises from a grain-pit)(Ka.); ug, ukki steam (Tu.); ukka confined heat (Te.); ukkur steam (Go.); ukur. heat; ukkur., ukkad. sweat; ukur. boiling point (Go.); ukkola heat, sultriness (Pkt.)(DEDR 568). urku, ukku to rise, swell, boil excessively, come up or over in boiling, foam, boil (as rage); swelling, etc., froth, pride (Ka.); urpu steam (Kond.a); u_rhali to boil over; urh'nai to swell (boiled milk)(Kuwi); (h)u_ringing, (h)u_re_nging to swell up, break out, break out (of boils, etc.), sprout (Br.)(DEDR 666).