1259.Image: crab: karkat.a a crab; cancer, the fourth sign of the zodiac; karkat.aka id. (Skt.lex.) kat.kom a crab; dhiri kat.kom, patal kat.kom a large crab found underneath stones in rivers; sod.ok kat.kom a small crab found in water courses; bad kat.kom a small crab found plentifully in highland rice fields; toa kat.kom a species of crab without a shell and its body filled with liquid resembling milk; buru kat.kom a very black crab found in hill streams; kedin. kat.kom, kidin. kat.kom a scorpion; hako kat.kom hilok a certain day during Sakrat festival when the youne men go fishing for crabs and fish; kat.kom a ceremony performed after a marriage; kat.kom itilenae he has a little wealth; kat.op to cut with shears (Santali.lex.) sakrat a festival observed in the last three days of the Hindu year; sakrat hilok the last day of the sakrat festival and the last day of the year (Santali.lex.) karkkat.aka-can.kira_nti beginning of the month of a_t.i when the sun passes to the sign of the cancer (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) karkat.a crab; karkat.aka (Sus'r.); karkat.i_ (MBh.); karka crab (Skt.); kakkat.aka crab (Pali); kakkad.a (Pkt.); ke~kora_ crab; ke~kuri_ female crab (A.); ka~_kr.a_ crab (B.); ka_n.kar.a, kan.kar.a_, ka_ka_r.a_ (Or.); kekr.a_, gegt.a_ (H.); khe_kr.o (G.); khe~kad. crab, crayfish (M.); kakul.uva_ crab, lobster (Si.)(CDIAL 2816). kakr.a hako a species of river fish (Santali.lex.) kat.akane with the sound of kat.a, i.e. that produced when one bites a hard or crisp substance (Ka.lex.) karkat.a a crab; the sign cancer; karkavr.tta the first point of cancer, the summer solstice (Ka.); karkat.aka a crab, kuli_ra, e_d.i (Ka.lex.) karkat.a, karkad.a, karkara firm, hard, strong; karkad.avandi a strong or fierce boar (Ka.lex.) kar-kat.akam gesture with both hands in which the fingers are interlaced in teri-nilai pose, resembling a crab (Cilap. 3,18, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: claw of crab: ge_t.a claw of crab (Pa.)(DEDR 1943). kad-en crab (Sora.lex.) Image: to grasp: kat.i to grasp, hold in the mouth; to bite, bite off; to crop, gnaw, nibble (Tiruva_ca. 41,3)(Ta.lex.) ka_t.u a bite (of the teeth), a cut (of an axe, a sword etc.)(Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) kat.ikai piece cut off (Ci_vaka. 1076); kat.ittal to cut into pieces (Na_lati, 156); mark or scar of a bite (Ta.lex.) kat.ho_ra hard, solid, stiff (BhP.); kat.ho_la, kat.hura, kat.hara hard, cruel (Skt.); kad.ho_ra hard, stiff, cruel (Pkt.); kud.uru hard, difficult (of a road or person)(K.)(CDIAL 2651). cf. kat.t.u hardness (Ta.); gat.t.i id. (Tu.)(CDIAL 2650). kad.d. be rough; kad.d.ati id. (Dha_tup.); kar.a_ rough (N.B.Or.); kar.a_, kar.r.a_ (H.)(CDIAL 2657). kat.t.u (kat.t.i-) to harden; firmness, strength (Ta.); kar.c very hard, brittle steel (Ko.); kad.ugu to become hard or solid; gat.t.i firmness, hardness, lump; gad.acu, gad.asu, gad.usu hardness, brittleness, severity (Ka.); gat.t.i, gad.usu firm, hard (Tu.Te.); gad.d.u hard, difficult (Te.); gat.t.in hard (Ga.); d.r.ahpa (d.r.aht-) to be hard, stiff, difficult, troublesome; n. hardness, stiffness, difficulty, trouble; d.rai hard, stiff, firm; d.rai inba to be hard, etc.; d.ra_na solidly (Kui); gatti hard; adv. gattining (Kuwi); kar.arna_ (kar.ryas), kad.rna_ to be paralysed with fear, to congeal, freeze (Kur.)(DEDR 1148). kat.hina hard, stiff (Sus'r.); hard, stiff, cruel (Pali); kad.hin.a, kad.hin.aga, kat.t.hin.a hard (Pkt.); kad.hi_n. difficult; khad.i_n., khad.an. vicious, difficult (of an animal)(M.)(CDIAL 2650). cf. kakkhat.a, khat.a hard, solid; kakkat.a (Skt.); kakkkhal.a rough, hard, cruel (Pali)(CDIAL 2587). cf. karkara hard, firm (Skt.)(CDIAL 2819).

1260.Image: monkey: gar.i the macaque, macacus sinicus, a long-tailed monkey, smaller than sara, the hanuman ape; a smaller kind of macaque is called sakamgar.i; gar.i-ganda_l adj. used in addressing scoldingly children restless like monkeys (Mu.Sadani); gut.i-gar.i a small kind of maccque monkey; gut.i-merom a small kind of goat; gut.i-sara a small kind of domestic pig (Mu.)(Mu.lex.)

1261.Image: toothed comb: kakri nakic a small toothed comb; kakwa, nakic a tooth cut out in each end of a karha on which the drag chains are fastened; karha an agricultural implement used to drag earth from one place to another (Santali.lex.)

1262.The first man: kakar. another name for pilcu har.am, the first man according to Santal tradition; sa~ te kakar. the first woman and man (Santali.lex.)

1263.Image: lizard: kakr.a the common lizard; dhiri kakr.a, arak kakr.a, d.hibri kakr.a species of lizards (Santali.lex.) ko_kilam wall-lizard (Ta.lex.)

1264.Bdellium; aegle marmelos: karko_t.aka aegle marmelos (Skt.)(CDIAL 2825). karko_t.a, karko_t.aka the bilva tree; kakkula the bakula tree (Skt.lex.) kakkola, takkola bdellium, a perfume made from the berry of the kakkola plant (the 'takola' of Ptolemy; perhaps = Skt. karkot.a: Trenckner, V., 'Notes on the Milindapaho, in Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1908, p.19; loc. cit. Pali.lex.) cf. takko_li a kind of eagle-wood used as incense (Cilap. 14, 108, Urai.) (Ta.lex.) takko_la the resin of the olibanum tree, gum olibanum; Synonyms: dvije, hare_n.u, re_n.uka, bhasmagandhini; re_n.uka embuva gandhadravya, i.e. a fragrant substance named re_n.uka (Ka.lex.) hare_n.u a sort fo drug or medicinal substance (Ka.lex.) re_n.uka a particular drug or medicinal substance, said to be fragrant, butter and slightly pungent in taste, and of a greyish colour; bhasmagandhini_= re_n.uka_ a kind of perfume (Ka.lex.) koc bel the wood-apple, feronia elephantum; kat. bel id. (Santali.lex.) cf. kakko_la a species of plant with a berry the inner part of which is waxy and aromatic (R.); its perfume (Sus'r.); bdellium, perfume made from the berries of the kakkola-plant (Pali); kakkol an aromatic berry (A.)(CDIAL 2586). karko_la, kakko_la a plant, a perfume; gavalakacu_ra (Ka.lex.) Bdellium: kautika a fragrant gum, bdellium; kaus'ika bdellium; guggul.a; kaunti a sort of perfume; kunda olibanum, the resin of boswellia thurifera; one of Kube_ra's nine treasures (Ka.lex.) kaus'ika bdellium (Skt.lex.) kavikam black dammar, resin; kukkil-mara-ppicin- (Ta.lex.) kaucukam < kaus'ika tripterocarp dammar, kun.kiliyam (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) Incense: kapica, kapis'a agilu, incense, storax or coarse benzoin (Ka.); kapija, kapis'a (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kapija, kapija-tailam storax or benzoin; kapija-lo_man a kind of perfume (Skt.lex.) Olibanum: kapi embilica officinalis, a species of the tree pongamia glabra, olibanum (Skt.); kapika_ vitex negundo (Skt.); kapila_ name of two plants (Pali); kaya_ edible pine cone (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2747). cf. kaya olive (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2747). Smell; a kind of perfume: kavul fetid odour; bad smell (Ta.); gavulu (Ka.); gaulu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) kavuru, kavut.u, kamaru, kavval the disagreeable, stifling smell arising from burnt oil, fish, raw meat, eggs, ulcers, ghee, hair etc. (Ka.); kamaru id. (Te.); kavar (Ma.); kapul, kavul (Ta.); gauru, gaulu, gaul.u (Te.); kavurid.u to create a bad smell; kavure_r.. a bad smell to arise (Ka.); kavacu, kaucu, kausu (Te.); kaviccu (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kavul, kaul fetid odour, bad smell (Ta.); kavar, kaur offensive smell of the body (Ma.); kamat.u, kamut.u rankness, rancidity, fetid smell, esp. of dirty clothes; the disagreeable smell of burnt oil or ghee; kavut.u the disagreeable smell of burning oil, fish, raw meat, eggs, ulcers, etc.; kavuru, kavval a strong or bad smell; gavulu, gavalu, gavul.u a fetid smell, as that of sweat or of oil or the body (Ka.); kaun.t.u rancidity; rancid; kaun.t.uni, kaun.d.uni to become rancid; kaul.u odour, scent, smell, a kind of perfume, stench (Tu.); gaulu an offensive odour, stink or stench; kavucu, kaucu fish-smell, stench (Te.)(DEDR 1334). kapile a sort of perfume, re_n.ukabi_ja (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kapittam a plant that yields an odoriferous medicinal oil (Tailava.)(Ta.lex.) kapo_ta_n.ghri a kind of perfume (Skt.Ka.lex.) Perfume: gavulu, gavalu, gavul.u a fetid smell, as that of sweat or of oil on the body (Ka.); ko_la-dala a kind of perfume; Synonym: nakhi; takko_lada bon.ke resin of takko_la; ko_laka, kakko_laka a kind of perfume, gavalakacu_ra (a kind of bad-smelling kaco_ra) (Ka.lex.) gaja-bhaks.ye is a synonym of the tree boswellia serrata; tadiku the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera; taduku id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) {It is probable that the construction: gaja-bhaks.ye was related to the synonym: gavulu kaco_ra = kakko_laka, ko_laka, berries from which a perfume is prepared}. Boswellia glabra, boswellia thuriferia or boswellia serrata: kapitthaparni, konkanadhoopam, salakho, guggul (Skt.); Indian olibanum or frankincense (Eng.); boswellie-dentelee (Fr.); indischerweihrauch-baum (Ger.); lobhan, gugal (H.); guggul, luban, salai, kundre (B.); dhup-gugali (G.); pahadi dhup, visheshdhup (M.); parangi-sambrani (Te.); kundrikam (Ta.); sambrani (Ma.); guggula (Ka.); vishesha-dhoop (Konkan.i); kundur (Deccan); gandhabiroz (M.); habitat: mountainous tracts of central India and on the Coromandal coast; parts used: gum resin and oil; action: resin is of a bitter balsamic odour when burnt, and is used as refrigerant, diuretic, 'aromatic, demulcent, aperient, alterative', emmenagogue and ecbolic. Oil called 'olibene' is stimulant; uses: the fragrant resin is largely consumed as an incense in houses especially during religious ceremonies; as astringent in the form of ointment is useful in chronic ulcers, diseased bones, buboes etc., in which it promotes absorption. The resin rubbed in cocoanut oil or lemon juice is an application to foul ulcerations. The gum is used in rheumatic and nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and in skin diseases generally combined with aromatics... mixed with gum acacia it is used as a corrective for foul breath... Boswellia serrata: shallaki (Skt.); luban (H.B.); constituent: essential oil; action: diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 211-212). Bael: ku_vil.am (Perh. ku + vil) bael; vilvam (Kur-icip. 65); ku_val.am (Ma.); ku_vil.ai id. (Tiva_.)(Ta.); ku_viram bael, aegle marmelos; a mountain tree (Kur-icip. 66)(Ta.lex.) Feronia elephantum or anisiphalins rumphii or crataeva vallangai: kapitha, kapi-priya, dadhi-phala (Skt.); elephant or wood-apple (Eng.); kavat, kavitha (H.); feronia geant (Fr.); elephantenapfel (Ger.); katori kavath (Si.); kotha, kavit (G.); katbel, khaet (Deccan); kathbel (B.); mahan (Burm.); kavitpana, kavath (M.); kavatha (Santal); velaga (Te.); vilakpittam, nelavilam, vila, vilaphalam, vellil (Ta.); vilav (Ma.); baelada-phala, bilva-phala, belawala-kai (Ka.); belpatri-phal (Konkan.i); kabita (Arab.Pers.); diwal (Si.); habitat: met with throughout India, cultivated for its fruit; parts used: fruit, gum, leaves, bark and pulp; gum from the stem is demulcent... transparent gummy substance exuding from the stem when cut or broken resembling gum arabic, may be used in bowel affections and to relieve tenesmus; reduced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in dysentery and diarrhoea... a medicated oil is also made of the five parts of the plant which is used for applying to the whole body. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 535-536). Aegle Marmelos: bilva, bilvam, sriphal (sri = goddess of abundance; phal = fruit; it is an emblem of riches or fertility; Bengal quince, bael fruit (Eng.); bel, bael sripal (H.); bilivaphal, bilinuphal (G.); baela (M.); bilvamu, bilvapandu, maredu (Te.); vilvam, vilva-pazham, bilvam (Ta.); belapatre (Ka.); koovalam, vilvam (Ma.); bela, bael (B.); katori (Si.); maika (Gond); shul (Pers.); habitat: found all over India, from sub-Himalayan forests, Bengal, central and south India and in Burma; parts used: fruit (both ripe and unripe), root-bark, leaves, rind of the ripe fruit and flowers... fresh leaves yield in distillation a yellowish-green oil with a peculiar aromatic odour... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 45-49). {Styrax benzoin. or laserpiucium chiefly used for incense in the Greek church; benjuy is gum benjamin, i.e. luban-javi; the Olibanum of Java or benzoin, the balsamic resin of styrax benzoin; the asa-dulcis and laser cyrenaicum of the older pharmacists... benjuy is from India, near the ganges... is called amendoado in Siam... the Moors give them the name of louanjaoy, almost like the incense of Java... louan is their name for incense. The Deccanis and Guzeratis call it udo... we call the incense olibano, taking the word from the Greeks, and these also seem to have imitated the Greek word, corrupting it to louan..." (G. Da Orta, pp. 58-64). Frankincense: loban frankincense; luban incense, the resin of boswellia serrata (Santali.lex.) lo_ba_na olibanum, frankincense (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) "Frankincense. from the bark of different trees, particularly boswellia serrata. The Hebrew term is lebhonah, and the Arabic cognate is luban; the term frankincense means 'free (-burning) incense.' The gum is a product of South Arabia and was known to commerce as early at least as the seventeenth century BC; it was never cultivated in Palestine, and the word for the so-called dark frankincense from Lebanon is usually translated by the word 'myrrh.' The trade in frankincense was important; there was a deity whose significance was due to his function as a protector of the industry and the growth of the material; it is believed that the name Ethiopia comes from the word meaning 'collector of frankincense.' The gathering of the raw material was associated with pecular customs, the product being regarded as the blood of a tree the soul of which was a divinity. The best kind was that known as masculine frankincense (Pliny, Hist. Nat. xii.32). The substance became an article of luxury; wine was spiced with it, it figured in the presents to kings, and it was burnt at their burial. It was indispensable to heathen worship." (Samuel Macauley Jackson, (ed.), The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Book House, p. 372). To offer the first fruits: loban, luban to offer the first fruits; a mela held yearly at Bud.hai in the Santal Pargannas (Santali.lex.) "Frankincense was offered with the meat-offering, and first fruits, and burned with them on the altar. It was also placed on the shewbread as a 'memorial', azka_ra_h, in two golden vessels and then consumed on the altar at each weekly renewal of the bread (in Jewish rituals)" (James Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915, p.203). Great man: lobab a great man, a prince (Santali.lex.) cf. nobab (H.lex.) Boswellia serrata: s'allaki, sallaki the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera; tadiki, taduku id.; gajapriya, gajabhaks.ai, suvahe, surabhi, rase, mahe_ran.e, kanduruki, hla_dini, a_nebe_la id.; tadukina dhu_pa, ya_vana, turus.ka, pin.d.aka, sihla; tadukina mad.d.i, ya_vana, turus.ka etc, anduka bonka, ha_lumad.d.i; cf. mad.d.iya dhu_pa incense varieties (Ka.lex.) s'allaki_ boswellia serrata (Car. Su. 4.32,5.23). Olibanum: silha (Tadbhava of sihla) olibanum (Ka.lex.) sihla, sihlaka benzoin, incense; sihlaki_, sihli_ the olibanum tree (Skt.lex.) s'ailakam benzoin; bitumen (Skt.lex.) salga boswellia serrata (Santali.lex.) s'allaki_ boswellia serrata (Skt.) Boswellia serrata: shallaki (Skt.); luban (H.B.); salai (H.B.); parangisambrani (Ta.Te.); gum: diuretic, astringent, used in rheumatism, nervous and skin diseases; two varieties are usually distinguished: serrata with serrate and pubescent leaves, and glabra with entire, glabrous leaves; habitat: Madhya Pradesh, Deccan, Bihar, Orissa, Rajputana, Madhya Bharat, Eastern States and N.Gujarat. Not found in Assam and Bengal (GIMP, p.39). Frankincense or olibanum: "A large proportion of the arboreal vegetation of the Siwa_liks (range of mountains running parallel to the Hima_laya near Dehra Dun) consists of species which occur both on the lower slopes of the Hima_laya and on the hilly districts of central and southern India, thus affording a good illustration of the width of distribution of Indian plants. As examples may be mentioned bombax malabaricum, buchannia latifolia, spondias mangifera, boswellia serrata, garuga pinnata, spatholobus roxburghee, albizzia stipulata, anogeiussus latifolia, ulmus integrifolia, and others." (E.T. Akinson (ed.), Flora of the Himalayas with special reference to Kumaon, Garhwal, Nepal and Tibet, New Delhi, Cosmo Publications, 1882, repr. 1989, p.300). 'Boswellia an important genus of incense-yielding trees (family burseraceae) of northern Africa and India having triangular 3-celled fruit with winged seeds ... a gum-resin obtained from certain species of trees of the genus boswellia, and natural order burseraceae. Sir George Birdwood distinguishes five species of boswellia: (a) boswellia thurifera (boswellia glabra and boswellia serrata), indigenous to the mountainous tracts of central India and the Coromandel coast, and boswellia papyrifera (plosslea floribunda) of Abyssinia, which though both thuriferous, are not known to yield any of the olibanum of commerce; and (b) boswellia frereana, boswellia bhua-dajiana and boswellia carterii, the 'yegaar', 'mohr add' and 'mohr madow' of the Somali country, in East Africa, the last species including a variety, the 'maghrayt d'sheehas' of Hadramaut, Arabia, all of which are sources of true frankincense or olibanum. To obtain the frankincense a deep incision is made in the trunk of the tree, and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 in in length is peeled off. When the milk-like juice ('spuma pinguis', Pliny) which exudes has hardened by exposure to the atmosphere, the incision is deepened. In about three months the resin has attained the required degree of consistency. The season for gathering lasts from May until the first rains in September. The large clear globules are scraped off into baskets... Much as formerly described by Arrian, in the region of Sakhalites in Arabia (the tract between RAs Makalla and Ras Agab), so now on the sea-coast of the Somali country, the frankincense when collected is stored in heaps at various stations. Thence, packed in sheep- and goat-skins, in quantities of 20 to 40 lb., it is carried on camels to Berbera, for shipment either to Aden, Makalla and other Arabian ports, or directly to Bombay. At Bombay, like gum-acacia, it is assorted, and is then packed for re-exportation to Europe, China and elsewhere. Olibanum is a reputed natural product of China.. Frankincense burns with a bright white flame, leaving an ash consisting mainly of calcium carbonate, the remainder being calcium phosphate, and the sulphate, chloride and carbonate of potassium. Good frankincense, Pliny tells us, is recognized by its whiteness, size, brittleness and ready inflammability. That which occurs in globular drops is, he says, termed 'male frankincense'' the most esteemed, he further remarks, is in breast-shaped drops, formed each by the union of two tears. The best frankincense, as we learn from Arrian, was formerly exported from the neighbourhood of Cape Elephant in Africa (the modern Ras Fiel); and A. von Kremeer, in his description of the commerce of the Red Sea (Aegypten etc., p.185, ii, Theil, Leipzig, 1863), observes that the African frankincense, called by the Arabs 'asli' is of twice the value of the Arabian 'luban.' Frankincense was used by the ancient Egyptians in their religious rites, but, as Herodotus tells us (ii.86), not in embalming. It constituted a fourth part of the Jewish incense of the sanctuary, and is frequently mentioned in the Pentateuch. With other species it was stored in a great chamber of the house of God at Jerusalem. As a medicine it was in former times in high repute. Pliny (Nat. Hist. xxv.82) mentions it as an antidote to hemlock... In the East frankincense has been found efficacious as an external application on carbuncles, blind boils and gangrenous sores, and as an internal agent is given in gonorrhoea... Common frankincense (thus or abietis resina), is the term applied to a resin which exudes from fissures in the bark of the Norway spruce fir, albies excelsa; when melted in hot water and strained it constitutes 'burgandy pitch,' pix abietina... Egypt where incense was prominent in religious ritual; e.g., at the daily liturgy before the cult image of Amon-Re and in the mortuary rites, when the souls of the dead were thought to ascend to heaven in the flame. Incense was employed to coutneract disagreeable odours and drive away demons and was said both to manifest the presence of the gods (fragrance being a divine attribute) and to gratify them. The Babylonians used it extensively while offering prayer or divining oracles. It was imported into Israel before the Exile and was assigned miraculous powers; later, in the 5th century BC, altars were set apart for incense offerings. The Hindus, especially the Shivaites, use incense for ritual and domestic offerings, and so do Buddhists, who burn it at festivals and initiations as well as at daily rites. In China incense was burned to ancestors and household gods, in festivals and processions, and in Japan it was incorporated into Shinto_ ritual. In Greece, from the 8th century BC, woods and resins were burned as an oblation and for protection against demons, a practice adopted by the Orphics. In Rome fragrant woods were replaced by imported incense, which became important in public and private sacrifices and in the cult of the emperor. In the 4th century AD, the early church began to use incense in eucharistic ceremonial, where it came to symbolize the ascent of the prayers of the faithful and the merits of the saints... Bdellium, is a gummy resinous concreted juice, brought from Arabia and the East Indies, in globes of different figures and magnitudes. It is of a dark reddish brown colour, and, in appearance, somewhat resembles myrrh; and is recommended as a sudorific, diuretic and uterine... Myrrh. a gum resin, highly esteemed by the ancients as an unguent and perfume, used for incense in temples and also in embalming; it was one of the gifts offered by the Magi. True myrrh is the product of commiphora myrrha, a small tree of the family burseraceae that grows in eastern Africa and Arabia... baisa bol, bhesa bol or bissa bol, from commiphora kataf, resembles true myrrh in appearance... opaque bdellium produced by commiphora play fairii, when shaken with water forms a slight but permanent lather. It is known as meena harma in Bombay and was formerly used there for the expulsion of the guinea worm. African bdellium is from commiphora africanum, and like opaque bdellium lacks the white streaks which are characteristic of myrrh and bissa bol... Indian bdellium, probably identical with Indian drug googul obtained in Sind and Baluchistan from commiphora mukul and commiphora pubescens, is of a dark reddish colour, has an acrid taste and an odour like cedar wood, and softens in the hand... As met in commerce... it consists of a mixture of resin, gum and essential oil, the resin being present to the extent of 25 to 40%, with 2 1/2 to 8% of the oil, myrrhol, to which the odour is due...' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, MDCCLXXI; Vol. 16, 1958). Commiphora agallocha, commiphora roxburghii = balsamodendrom roxburghii: gugala (B.); gugal (M.); agaru (Te.); kungulu (Te.); gum resin: used as astringent, antiseptic; habitat: Assam, Sylhet, E. Bengal and Madhya Pradesh (GIMP, p.75). Commiphora mukul = balsamodendron mukul: guggul (B.M.H.Te.); guggulu (Skt.); gukkulu (Ta.); gum resin: astringent, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, carminative; commercial product contains 1.45% essential oil besides gum and resin; habitat: Bellary, Mysore, Deccan, Khandesh, Kathiawar, Rajputana Desert, Sind and Baluchistan (GIMP, p.75). pura synonym of guggulu (Car. Vi. 8.144, Ci. 3.267). guggulu commiphora mukul (Car. Su. 3.4, 5.21). Commiphora myrrha = balsomendron myrrha: rasagandhi (Skt.); bol (H.); gandarash (B.); vallaippolam (Te.Ma.Ta.); gum resin: in dyspepsia, chlorisis and uterine affections; essential oil, bitter substance; habitat: a native of Arabia and of the African coast of the Red Sea. (GIMP, p.75). ras commiphora myrrha (Car. Ci. 23.152). Balsam: cf. kil.uvai Indian balm of gilead, balsamodendron berryi; hill balsam tree, balsamodendron caudatum (Ta.)(DEDR 1587). {To make scented ox fat: Remove any blood and skin from the fat. Pour over it some old scented wine... 4 lb Nettle tree seeds (identified as celtis australis, the one used for making pipes)... aspalathus (identified as cytisus lanigerus, genista acanthoclada, a shrub used to thicken ointment, also called calycotome villosa) and 4 lb amaracinum flowers (sweet marjoram?)... To make scent sweeter 10z of the fattest myrrh, diluted in wine of many years may be added (Dioscorides). To make scented goose or pork fat: 2 pints clean fat... mix with 1 1/2 oz each of erysisceptrum (cyperus rotundus), xylobalsamum (wood of balsamodendron opbalsamum to thicken), palm shoots, sweet flag, old wine (Dioscorides). cf. lady with an unguent cone. wall-painting in Theban Tomb no.69; 18th Dynasty 1567-1320 BC. A solid mass of fat, presumably ox tallow, perfumed with herbs and spices was shaped into a cone and fixed to the wig or placed on the crown of the head. The fat will soften and envelope the wig, clothes and body with its grease and scent.)(Lisa Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, pp. 51-53). Balsomodendrom opobalsamum = commiphora opobalsamum: balasan (H.); habbul balasan (M.); balsam; astringent, demulcent; given in discharges from genito-urinary organs; essential oil, bitter substance; habitat: found on both sides of the Red Sea. Also recorded from the Nubian coast and in Abyssinia. Met with on the Asiatic side at Ghizndad in Arabia, at Eden and Yemen. (GIMP, p.75). Saffron: ka_le_ya saffron (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ka_li_yaka saffron (Skt.lex.) Camphor: kalai < kalah (Malay) a kind of camphor imported from Kalah in the Malay peninsula (Cilap. 14,109, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Black sandal wood: ka_likam black sandal wood; ka_li_yam, ka_li_yaka, ka_le_ya, ka_le_yaru a kind of sandal wood; ka_li_yaka yellow sandal; a dark kind of sandal wood; ka_le_ya the black sandal wood (Skt.lex.) Red ebony: ka_le_mintaram < kalumediriya red ebony of South India, diospyros hirsuta; calaminder wood, diospyros quaesita a type of wood from ilan.kai (Ta.lex.) ka_ke_ndu a kind of ebony, diospyros melanoxylon = diospyros tomentosa (Ka.lex.) Yellow eagle-wood: ka_le_yam < ka_le_ya eagle-wood, akil (Ta.lex.) ka_le_ka-van.n.am paste composed of various perfumes (Tiva_.); ka_le_kam id. (W.)(Ta.lex.) ka_li_yaka a species of aloe wood (Skt.lex.); a kind of yellow fragrant wood (Skt.Ka.); ka_la_nusa_rya a kind of yellow fragrant wood; gum benjamin or benzoin (Skt.Ka.); kallu-huvvu gum benjamin or benzoin; vr.ddha, s'aile_ya, as'ma pus.pa (Ka.lex.) s'aile_ya benzoin or storax (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cailakam < s'ailaka benzoin, ca_mpira_n.i (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) ka_le_yaka a kind of aloe wood; ka_le_yakam a fragrant wood (Skt.lex.) ka_r..vai tiger's milk; akil; (a_ran. ka_r..vai kat.iyirum pun-n-ai : Kur-icip. 93; M.M. 892); ka_r.. harness, close grain as of timber; core, maravairam (Tiva_.); cf. ka_s.t.ha; ka_r.. skin as of a fruit; rind (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) ka_le_yaka the plant curcuma xanthorrhiza (= maradarisana (marada + aricana), pi_tadru, haridrava, da_vi; a yellow dye, morinda umbellata) (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ka_l.inti siris, va_kai (Malai.); teak (Ta.lex.) Styrax; storax: s'aile_ya benzoin or storax (Ka.Skt.lex.) cayile_kam a kind of fragrant resin; ?benzoin or storax (Ta.lex.) Synonyms: liquid storax, sweet gum; flussiger storax (Ger.); styrax liquide (Fr.); botanical origin: liquidambar orientalis, liquidambar styraciflua; part used: balsam obtained from the trunk; habitat: liquidambar orientalis is native to forests of southwestern Asia Minor; liquidambar styraciflua to the Americas; production: in the early part of the summer the trunk of the oriental sweet gum is bruised on one side. As a result of this injury storax forms in the young layers of wood and oozes into the wounded bark. In autumn, this bark, which is more or less saturated with balsam, is stripped off and the balsam pressed out. The bark is then boiled in wate within copper kettles and again pressed, and the remaining balsam thus extracted. The balsam is poured into barrels, goat skins or cans for shipment... Uses: storax is used as a stimulating expectorant in compound tincture of benzoin and other pharmaceutical preparations. It is also employed as a perfume in soaps and toilet preparations; preparation: compound benzoin tincture. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 398-401). karppurai benzoin tree, styrax benzoin, ca_mpira_n.i (Can.. Aka.); cf. karbura_ (Skt.); karppu_ra-k-kil.uvai hill balsam tree (Ta.lex.) cf. karbu_ra gold (Skt.); karppu_ram id. (Ta.lex.) kuntalin.kam benzoin tree (W.); ca_mpira_n.i, styrax benzoin = frankincense, olibanum, gum benzoin (Pata_rtta. 1072)(Ta.lex.) "Styrax benzoin: gum benjamin, benzoin laurel, benzoe (Ger.); benzoin (Fr.); part used: a balsamic resin. Sumatra benzoin yields not less than 75% of alcohol-soluble extractive. Siam Benzoin yields not less than 90% of alcohol-soluble extractive. Habitat: East Indies. The species of styrax yielding benzoin grow on hills and in plantations of Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Siam, North Annam and Tonkin... The balsamic resin slowly exudes as a white liquid... The first three years' product is more fragrant and contains more white tears. This is known to the natives as 'head benzoin'. The next 7 to 9 years' yield is somewhat brown and termed 'belly benzoin'. The trees are subsequently felled and the trunk split. The product that is scraped off... is known as 'foot benzoin'. Uses: Siam benzoin is used chiefly in the manufacture of toilet preparations and as a fixative in the manufacture of perfumes. Sumatra benzoin is employed internally as a stimulating expectorant and externally as a stimulant and antiseptic. Benzoin is also employed by the confectionery trade in the preparation of vanilla creams, etc. and by the leather trade as an ingredient of leather dressings." (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 647-649). Styrax benzoin: luban (H.B.M.); shambirani (Ta.Te.Ka.); balsamic resin: external antiseptic, stimulating epectorant; habita: Malacca and Malaya (GIMP, p.236). Styrax offiicinalis: silajit (B.); usturak (M.); resin: stimulating expectorant; a native of Levant, Asia Minor and Syria (GIMP, p.237). turus.ka styrax offiicinalis (Car. Ci. 28.153). Deed of gift to temple: cf. ca_mpira_n.i-p-pat.t.ayam deed of gift to temple, etc., preserved with smoke-perfume (W.); ca_mpira_n.i-po_t.utal to burn or offer incense; to invoke the descent of a spirit on a person by burning frankincense; ca_mpira_n.i-t-tu_pam fragrant smoke of frankincense, as an offering (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) guggula a kind of perfume (Pali.lex.) Synonym: par-an.ki-c-ca_mpira_n.i salai tree, Indian olibanum, boswellia serrata typica; exudus of Indian frankincense (M.M. 781)(Ta.lex.) For par-an.ki- cf. pa_lan.ka the olibanum tree; pa_lan.ki_ incense; pa_lakya, pa_lakya_ incense (Skt.lex.) Image: hawk: pa_lan.ka a hawk (Skt.lex.) Bdellium: kil.uvai Indian balm of gilead, balsamodendrom berryi; hill balsam tree, balsamodendrom caudatum (Ta.); kil.iva_ Madras balsam tree, balsomodendrom berryi(Ma.)(DEDR 1587). gulgulu bdellium (TS.Pkt.); guggulu (AV.Pali); guggula (Skt.); a kind of perfume (Pali); guguru the tree balsamodendrom roxburghii and its gum bdellium (S.); gugul bdellium (L.); guggul (P.); the tree amyris agallochum and its resin (H.); gu_gal id. (H.); gugul a fragrant gum (Bi.); gugal. (G.); gugu_l. bdellium, resin (M.); guggal.i_ the plant argyreia speciosa (M.); guggul.u bdellium (Konkan.i); gugulu bdellium, the tree moringa pterygosperma (Si.); guggal bdellium (P.WPah.); gugul (N.); guguw (Ku.); gogul-dhup the tree ailanthus grandis (N.); gugul.a, gugal.a lignum aloes (Or.); (CDIAL 4215). kil.uvai common hedge plant, balsamodendron berryi (Ta.lex.) balsamodendron = commiphora (burseraceae family)(GIMP, pp.32-33). Canarium luzonicum or canarium album is a member of the burseraceae family, yields 'elemi' a term applied to a variety of resinous products. It is an 'oleoresin' which burs with a smoky flame; used as a varnish, for caulking boats and for torches. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.476). The members of the commiphora species include: guggul, guggal (commiphora mukul); vel.l.aippo_l.am (commiphora myrrh), agaru [(commiphora roxburghii or agallocha, eagle-wood, aquilaria agallocha (Paripa_. 12,5)]; malaikkil.uvai (commiphora stocksiana). Commiphora playfairii: balsamodendron playfairii: meeno harma (M.); gum resin: expectorant, in rheumatism; yields saponin; habitat: North-east Africa (GIMP, p.75). Bdellium: guggul.a bdellium; a powder made of it (guggul.a kaliyana_r); guggil.a = guggil.ada gid.a boswellia serrata (var. glabra), a large timber tree yielding frankincense or olibanum, kautika (Ka.lex.) kukkil < guggulu black dammar-resin (Pin..); kukkir--cu_ran.am a kind of medicinal powder prepared by stuffing a fowl with dammer-resin, calcinating and pulverising it (W.)(Ta.lex.) A canonized saint: kun.kiliya-k-kalaya-na_yan-a_r name of a canonized S'aiva saint, one of 63 (Periyapu.); kun.kiliya-kkalaiyar id. (Ta.lex.) kukarar inhabitants of the annular continent, ca_ka-t-ti_vu (Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 48)(Ta.lex.)

1265.Image: wild pipal: ka_ko_l.i wild pipal; as'o_ku saraca indica; Indian mast-tree (Ta.lex.) cf. as'o_ka the tree jonesia asoca (Pali.Skt.); aso_ga, aso_a (Pkt.); asau (N.); ho_ (Si.)(CDIAL 914); a_s'o_ke_ya belonging to the as'oka tree (Pa_n..); a_so_a (Pkt.); a_so-pa_lo leaves of the tree jonesia asoka (G.)(CDIAL 1461). asuge (Tadbhava of as'o_ka)(Ka.lex.) ka_ko_d.umbarike the opposite-leaved fig tree, ficus oppositifolia (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1266.Image: cobra: karko_t.a, karko_t.aka one of the eight principal cobras (Skt.lex.) en.t.u-kula eight castes of men; the eight kinds of na_gas: ananta, va_sugi, taks.aka, karko_t.aka, padma, maha_padma, s'an.khapa_la, kulinda (Ka.lex.) cf. concordance with some names of Kube_ra's treasures: padma, maha_padma, s'an.kha; s'an.kha-nakha the shell of the trochus perspectivus; s'an.kha a particular perfume; one of Kube_ra's treasures (Ka.lex.) kako_taram < ka_ko_dara snake, prob. from its moving in a zigzag manner upon its belly (Ka_l.at. Ula_, 148)(Ta.lex.) karot.i a class of genii that formed one of the 5 guards of the devas against the asuras, associated with the na_gas; karot.apa_n.ayah a class of Yaks.as (Pali.lex.) ka_ko_dara a serpent (Ka.lex.) Image: scorpion: cf. ka_ko_l.i Indian turnsole (Ta.lex.)

1267.Basilicum: kaggor-ale a kind of basilicum, ocymum sanctum (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

1268.Image: ox-horn; trumpet: ka_kal.am < ka_hala trumpet (Kantapu. Caravan.a. 9)(Ta.lex.) kan.kil a part of the trumpet (S.I.I. ii,5)(Ta.lex.) ka_lan--kompu ox-horn (W.); ka_l.am < ka_hala trumpet, horn (Periyapu. Tiruja_n-a. 620); ka_l.akam long trumpet, ram's horn, ekka_l.am (W.)(Ta.lex.) X Image: quadrupeds: ka_le_cam herbivorous quadrupeds (kucara mutaliya ka_le_can.kal.um : Tol. Po. 152, Urai.); ka_le_yam id. (Na_n-man.i. 67); ka_li herd of cows as being quadrupeds (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,6,1); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Image: ox: ka_l.ai steer, bull, ox (Ta.); ka_l.a bull, bullock (Ma.); ka.l.e bull which is leader of the herd (Kod..)(DEDR 1502). cf. ka_l.ai steer, young bullock (Ta.); cf. gad.i (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Image: trumpet; horn-shaped: ka_hale, kahal.e, kahal.a_, ka_l.e a horn; a metal horn (trumpet) of a long tapering shape, or of a horn-like shape (Ka.Skt.lex.) kahal.e-ka_r-a a man who blows a kahal.e (Ka.lex.) ka_hali an epithet of S'iva (Skt.lex.)

1269.Image: carrying yoke: ka_nj to carry on the shoulders (Ga.); carrying yoke (Kond.a)(DEDR 1417). cf. ka_n.i, ka_ni, ka~_d.i, ka_vad.i yoke of plough (Te.); ka_nj-to carry on the shoulders (Go.)(DEDR 1417). Image: water-carrier: ka_jaha_raka bearer of a carrying-pole (Pali); ka_ha_ra carrier of water or other burdens; n. carrying-pole (Pkt.); kahar palanquin-bearer (K.); kaha_ru (S.); kaha_r id., water-carrier (P.); class of cultivators who act as bearers (N.); a low caste of bearers (Bhoj.Aw.); palanquin-bearer, water-drawer (H.); palanquin-bearer (M.); ka_ha_r a low caste of palanquin-bearers and water-carriers (B.); ka_ha_l.a, ka_ha_ra, ka_a~_l.a, ka_a~_ra a low caste of bearers (Or.); kaharawa_ palanquin-bearer, water-drawer (Aw.)(CDIAL 3011). (Pkt.deriv.from ka_va = ka_vo_ya one who carries a yoke)(CDIAL 3009). ka_ca banghi-pole (Kuwi); ka_sa pole or stick carried on the shoulder from the ends of which loads are suspended and carried (Kui); the shaft of a ka_vr.i_ (Kond.a); ka_nju_ (pl. ka_ska) a banghi (Kuwi); ka_cal carrying yoke (Pa.); ka_ to carry with carrying yoke (Pa.); ka~_j, ka id. (Ga.);  ka_nju id. (Kui.Kuwi); pl. ka_ska (Kuwi); ka_sal carrying yoke (Ga.); ka_nja_na_, ka_nj to carry on the shoulders (Go.)(DEDR 1417). X Bamboo: kamad.ha, kamaya bamboo (Pkt.); ko_ro bamboo poles (Bhoj.); ka_mro bamboo, lath, piece of wood (N.); ka_m.vari bamboo pole with slings at each end for carrying things (OAw.); ka_vad.ia, kavva_d.ia one who carries a yoke (Pkt.); ka~_war.i_, ka~_war.iya_ id. (H.); ka_var.iyo id. (G.); ka_va_t.hi_ carrying pole (S.); ka_va_t.hyo the man who carries it (S.); ka_mar.a_, ka_mur.a_ rafters of a thatched house (Or.); ka_mr.u~ chip of bamboo (G.); ka_mar.-kot.iyu~ bamboo hut (G.); kamt.ha_ bow of bamboo or horn (M.); kaba_ri flat piece of bamboo used in smoothing an earthen image (A.); ka~_bi_t., ka~_bt.i_, ka_mi_t. split piece of bamboo, etc., lath (M.)(CDIAL 2760). kambi branch or shoot of bamboo (Skt.); stick, twig (Pkt.); ka_mba (OG.); ka~_b longitudinal division of a bamboo, etc., bar of iron or other metal (M.)(CDIAL 2774). pampu-mu_n.kil a variety of bamboo; vampu curved bamboo pole of a palanquin (Ta.); a bamboo, chiefly as a measure of palm-wine (Ma.); bambu, bombu a large, hollow bamboo (Ka.); bambu bamboo (Tu.); vambha id. (Skt.); ba~_bu_ id. (M.)(DEDR 5253). Bamboo; bow: ka_rmuka bamboo, bow (Skt.)(CDIAL 3077). ka_rmukam bow (Ja_n-a_. 20,19); bow for cleaning cotton (Tiruppu. 44); bamboo (Ta.lex.) Bearer of a carrying-pole; water-carrier: ka_va_l.ar carriers of ka_vat.i (Cilap. 15,205)(Ta.lex.) ka_vr.i, ka_ver.i, ka_vir.(i), ka_ve., ka_har.i carrying yoke (Go.); kavr.i carrying yoke (Pe.Mand..); ka_ pole with ropes hung on each end, used to carry loads on the shoulder; lever or beam for a well-sweep, lever of a steelyard (Ta.); ka_vu pole used for carrying burdens (Ma.); ka_vat.i id. (Ta.Ma.Tu.Te.); pole or stave of wood used for carrying burdens; a decorated pole of wood with an arch over it, carried on shoulders with offerings mostly for Muruka's temple, commonly with some parade; that which is carried on the shoulder with a pole (Ta.lex.); ka_vu (ka_vi-) to carry on the shoulder (as a palanquin, a pole with weight at each end), bear anything heavy on the arms or on the head (Ta.); ka_vuvo_r palanquin-bearers (Ta.); ka_vat.i split bamboo with ropes suspended from each end for carrying burdens (Ma.); ka_vuka, ka_vikka to carry on a pole (Ma.); ka_gad.i, ka_vad.i bamboo lath or pole pvovided with slings at each end for the conveyance of pitchers, etc. (Ka.); ka_vad.i split bamboo with ropes suspended from each end to carry burdens across the shoulders (Tu.); ka_vat.i, ka_vad.i yoke or pole with a sling attached to each end, placed upon the shoulder for carrying burdens (Te.); ka~_d., ka_d.i, ka_d.i-ma_nu, ka_d.ima_ku, ka_n.d.i, ka_n.i, ka_ni, ka_vad.i yoke of plough, etc. (Te.); ka_var.i carrying yoke (Kol.)(DEDR 1417). ka_vad. carrying-pole (M.); ka_var. id. (G.); ka_war., ka_war id. (H.); ka_vad.a id. (Pkt.); kada id. (Si.); ka_ca, ka_ja id. (Pali); ka_ya, ka_va id.(Pkt.); ka_o, ka_yo rafter (S.) < Drav. ka_sa (Kui); ka_ju (Kuwi); ka_gad.i, ka_vad.i (Ka.)(CDIAL 3009). X cf. ad.y claypot (To.); an.d.e vessel made of a hollow bamboo, etc., generally with a handle (Ka.); id., vessel of a toddy-drawer for putting toddy in (Tu.); an.d.y pot into which cow is milked, bamboo pot used formerly to carry broth to workers in the field (Ko.); an.t.ai squirt for festival occasions (Ta.)(DEDR 130). Image: bearer of a carrying-pole: ka_ca a sling for suspending things; the rope net-work or the string by which the articles to be carried are suspended from the cross-pole (Ka.Skt.lex.) ka_ca, ka_ja carrying-pole (Pali); ka_ca loop, string fastened to both ends of a pole, carrying yoke (Skt. < Drav.: ka_sa (Kui); ka_ju (Kuwi); ka_gad.i, ka_vad.i); ka_ya, ka_va (Pkt. Derivative: ka_vo_ya one who carries a yoke); ka_o, ka_yo rafter (S.); kada carrying-pole (Si.); ka_vad.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3009). gal.e long stick (Kod..); gal.u, karu, garu rafter (Tu.); gad.a pole, staff, rod, stick, stalk, mast (Te.); kari pole fastened to a load by which it is carried on the shoulders (Tu.); kar..a pole for carrying burdens, bamboo (Ma.); kar..ai pole used for propelling boats, elephant-goad, shaft of bamboo (Ta.); ka_r.. elephant goad, post, pillar, oar, iron rod, handle, rafter (Ta.); kol.ag churnstick (word used at ti. dairy and at kog fol.y dairy of To.r.o.r. clan (To.); ka.w forked stick (?To.); gar.., gar..a, gar..u, gar..uvu, gar..e, gad.e, gad.i bamboo rod or stake, bamboo, pole, staff, bamboo pole on which Kollat.igas or Dombas tumble, churning stick (Ka.); kari bar with which a door is fastened (Tu.); kare, gare the pole to which a bucket is attached in a country water-lift (Tu.); gar.a pole, long stick (Kond.a)(DEDR 1370). ka_r..u stake for impaling criminals (Ta.Ma.); kar..uku id. (Ma.); ka_r..u sharp-pointed pieces of wood strung around cow's neck, trident (Ta.); ko.w point, pointed stick, wooden skewer used by Kotas, peg (To.); kar.., kar..u an instrument for perforating an elephant's ear (Ka.)(DEDR 1361). ka_r.i_ rafter, yoke (H.); ka_r.o rafter (N.)(CDIAL 3023). Stake: kot.hu impalement stake (K.); kas.t.a-laur.a wooden contrivance used in threshing ; kat. branch (Dardic); ka_s.t.ha piece of wood (S'Br.); ka_hor.i piece of wood serving as axle in a flour-mill (WPah.)(CDIAL 3120). ka_n.d.a_ra_ bamboo-goad (Skt.); kana_r bamboo-goad for young elephants (Mth.)(CDIAL 3025). jar..ave, jalle a bamboo pole (Ka.); jalle cane of sugar (Kod..)(DEDR 2382).

1270.Downcast: ka_ku fatigue; contempt; adj. vain, empty, useless (Te.); ka_ku bad, corrupt (Tu.); ka_kr.u distress (Pe.); ka_kali unthrifty, spendthrift, wasteful; ka_kaligat.anju a spendthrift, unthrifty man or boy; fem. ka_kaligat.ari (Kui); kaku_li travail; kaku_l-gattasi a poor man; ka_kuligattasi id.; ka_kuli ki_nai to harm, hag, moil (Kuwi); kklare to be distressed, be in trouble; kkletre to trouble, tease; kkli affliction, trouble (Malt.)(DEDR 1424). ka_hala speaking unbecomingly or indistinctly (Skt.); downcast, faint-hearted (BHSk.); downcast (Pkt.); ka_hla_ impatient, hasty (P.)(CDIAL 3142).

1271.Small coin: ka_kini_, ka_kin.i_ a small coin; the shell cypraea moneta (Skt.)(DEDR 1423). [Concordant with the S. form: ka~_gir.i_ abrus precatorius].

1272.Agriculturist: khamman a sub-division of jats (P.lex.) cf. kamma a caste of agriculturists (Te.lex.)

1273.Roll of betel: kuhali, kuhali_ betel leaf (Skt.); khili packet, roll (esp. of betel leaf)(N.); khila_ leaf, betel leaf (A.); khili roll (esp. of betel)(B.); khila bundle (Or.); khi_li_ betel leaf prepared for chewing (H.)(CDIAL 3887). Roll: sirl- (silr-, silir-), sirlap- to rotate (Go.); surul.i, surul.e, sural.i a coil, roll (Ka.); curul.al coil; curul. roll, coil (Ta.)(DEDR 2684). Image: betel: kar-pu_rak-kot.i a kind of betel (G.Sm.D. 215)(Ta.lex.)

1274.Wild dog; wolf: ko_ka wolf (R.); ko_kad.a fox (Skt.); ko_ka-ya_tu (RV.); a kind of noxious parasitical animal (AV.); ko_ka wolf (Pali); ko_a (Pkt.); kog wild dog (Kho.); kik (Wkh.); ko~_ (Sh.)(CDIAL 3481). kuwa_n. wolf (A.)(CDIAL 3482).

1275.Image: leopard; jackal: kukka_l leopard (Go.); kukond.i, kukand.i leopard (Pa.)(DEDR 1626). kul tiger; kul dander den of tiger; and.kul to become tiger (Santali.lex.) khin.khira, khin.kiri_ fox (skt.); khikhi, kikhi (Skt.); khim.khin.i_ she-jackal (Pkt.); khikhir fox (Mth.); khi~ki_ (H.); khekhli_ (G.)(CDIAL 3878). kro_s.t.r. crying (BhP.); jackal (RV.); kro_s.t.u (Pa_n..); kot.t.hu-, kot.t.huka-, kotthu-, kotthuka jackal (Pali); kot.t.hu- (Pkt.); kot.a jackal (Si.); kot.iya leopard (Si.)[cf. ked.iak tiger (Kol.); kar.eyak panther (Nk.)(DEDR 1132)]; kur-ukkan, kur-u nari jackal (Ma.); ko_lhuya-, kulha- jackal (Pkt.)[cf. kul.l.a-nari jackal (Ta.)(DEDR 1839)]; kolha_, ko_ jackal; adj. crafty (H.); kohlu~, kolu~ jackal (G.); kolha_, kola_ (M.)(CDIAL 3615). karaj a jackal (Santali.lex.) kudke fox (Kor.); kudike jackal (Tu.); kudka id. (Ka.); kor-o naka jackal (small in size, opposed to peri naka)(Kond.a)(DEDR 1851). kul.l.a-nari jackal (Ta.)(DEDR 1839). Image: male hunting leopard: kun.t.at.iyan- male hunting leopard, felis jubata (Ta.lex.) kun.inari a fox (Ka.); kur..inari (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kul the tiger, filix tigris; kul en.ga tigress (Santali.lex.) cf. ku~n.d. a pit, a pitfall (Santali.lex.) kun.i, kur..i, gun.i, gur..i a hole; a pit (Ka.); guri (Tu.); kut.ai to hollow, make a hole (Ta.); kun.d.a a hole in the ground, a pit (Ka.); kundi low, or bent, ground; gun.d.i a hole, a pit (Ka.); kun.t.u what is hollow, deep, low (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kun.d.el to lie down, to lie prostrate (Santali.lex.) kunun.gu = kun.gu to crouch (Ka.lex.)

1276.Image: hare: ko_kat.am < ko_kad.a a kind of hare (Ta.lex.)

1277.One who gives away a girl in marriage: kukuda, kuku_da one who gives away a girl in marriage with suitable decorations and in accordance with prescribed ceremonies (Skt.lex.) ku_kuda one who gives a girl in marriage in due form, decorating her with ornaments; ku_su trifling; ku_tu a daughter (Te.); ku_su a male or female infant, a babe; a maiden, a young virgin; a person (Ka.); ku_sugud.u to give a child in marriage (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) ku.x girl, daughter (To.); ku_su infant, babe; maiden, young virgin (Ka.); ku_kru young, small (Tu.); ku_je small boy; ku_ji girl; ko_ji boy (Kor.); ku_su low, base, trifling, insignificant; ku~_turu, ku_tu, (inscr.) kuntur- daughter; (inscr.) ku_vita id. (Te.); ku_co_, ku_co mother's younger sister; kuci id., father's younger brother's wife; kusi id., mother's sister (Go.)(DEDR 1873). koccu small, young; koccan- young boy (Ta.); koccu short, small, yong, mean; (also koccan) little boy; kocci girl; kocam a little; kou a young stunted coconut (Ma.); koyyal lean (Pa.); kocceka, koceka a little (Kuwi)(DEDR 2041). Young; prattle: kis'o_ra a youth, lad, a boy below fifteen, a minor in law; kis'o_ri_ a maiden, a young woman; kis'o_ra a colt, cub, the young of any animal; e.g. ke_sarikis'o_rah. (Skt.lex.) koccaiyar young persons (Tiruman. 1394); cowherds, shepherds (Tiruppu. 255); kocam little, small quantity (Tiruppu. 609); id. (Ma.); kocemu (Te.); koca (Ka.); kondra (Tu.); cf. kicit (Skt.); kocal childish prattle (Ta.Ma.); koccu id. (Ka.); kocutal to lisp, to prattle, as children (Uttarara_. Campuva. 21); id. (Ma.); to talk softly or amorously, as young women (Ta.); koccai, koccai-c-col lisping; rustic or unrefined speech (Ta.lex.) cf. uccarati utters, speaks (MBh.)(CDIAL 1641). kis'o_ra foal (AV.); a youth (BhP.); kis'o_rika_ (Pa_n..); kiso_ra boy; kiso_ri_ girl (Pkt.); kyo~_ru foal (Sh.); kis'ora_ a youth (Or.); kis'ori_ f. a youth (Or.); kisora_, kisori_ (OAw.)(CDIAL 3190). Youth; beauty: koko child (Go.); small, little (of quantity); kogri younger, small; kogi mother's sister, father's younger brother's wife (Kond.a); koki father's younger brother's wife, mother's younger sister; kogle woman (? originally 'girl'); koy(i) pl. koyik (small) girl, daughter, sister (Pe.); koganju a small man or boy, lad; kogari a small woman, girl, animal, or thing; kogara mogara a small piece; particle; kogeri, kogi small, tiny, little; goi pl. goiska girl friend (a term of endearment used by one woman or girl to another)(Kui); kokasi, ko_ka_si boy; kokkasi boy, pupil, child; kakka_yu_ boy (Kuwi); kukkos boy, lad, young man, male child; kukoy girl, lass, young woman; koy abbreviated form of the vocative kukoy (Kur.)(DEDR 203). kuci anything small; young bird, chicken; kucu young of birds and various animals (Ta.); kuu, kuci young, small, infant; kuan boy; also endearingly of girls; kui = kuu, kuan; girl (Ma.); kunj children as given by god, men as children of god; kun small (Ko.); kunni young of an animal, esp. a young dog; gunna smallness; kui a young one (Ka.); kui child; ma.n.ui n. pr. bull in mythology; kuappe uncle, father's younger brother; kuavve aunt, father's younger sister (Kod..); kundu a child of Pariahs; kui, kun.n.i small (Tu.); gunna young of an animal; kunna~d.u boy, lad; (inscr.) kunnalu pl. sucklings, children (Te.); ku.na puppy (Kol.); cur.kuju, curxunju_ the last-born of a family (cf. cud.d.a end, last)(Kur.)(DEDR 1646). kur..akan- youth (Tiruvil.ai. Tiruman.a. 44); beautiful person (Tiruva_ca. 3,12); Skanda; person of yielding or accommodating nature (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,6,3); kur..a-makan- youthful hero, as of a poem (Ilak. Vi. 858); a poetic composition in which women extol the worth of a youthful hero (Ton-. 283); wooden doll (Pa_rata. Niraimi_. 136); kur..a-man.am marriage of dolls; kur..aman.an- wooden doll (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,2,6); kur..aku youthfulness (Ci_vaka. 2790); beauty (Te_va_. 468,7); infant (Tiruppu. 106); kur..avi infant, babe (Man.i. 11,114); young of certain animals (viz., ya_nai, elephant; pacu, cow; erumai, buffalo; kat.amai, elk; marai, sambur, Indian elk; kuran.ku, monkey {quadruped, beast (Ta.lex.) cf. kuran.ga antelope (CDIAL 3320); mucu, langur, black monkey, semnopithecus priamus}; u_kam black monkey (Cir-upa_n.. 221) (Tol. Po. 575-579); young of the vegetable kingdom (Tol. Po. 579, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) kur..avi-kol.pavar those who bring up a child (Pur-ana_. 5); kur..avu young, tender age, juvenility (Tol. Col. 312)(Ta.lex.) kur..antai infant, babe, suckling (Kampara_. Urukka_. 65); childhood, tender age (Kampara_. U_rte_t.u. 209); kur..akutal to prattle playfully (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,2,5); to coax, wheedle (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,2,6); kur..a young, tender (Tol. Col. 312)(Ta.lex.) cf. kud.'aga boy (NiDoc.); kud.'i girl (NiDoc.); kr.ta_ girl (RV.); kud.ati acts like a child (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 3245). Boy: kor.a boy; kur.i girl (Sant.Mun.d.ari); koa, kui (Ho); ko_n, ko_nje_ (Ku_rku_); kur..a young (Ta.); kod.a youth (Ka.); kr.ta_ girl (RV.); kud.ati acts like a child (Dha_tup.); kud.a'aga boy; kud.'i girl (NiDoc.); ku_r.e child, foetus (Ash.); istrimali_-kur.a_ girl (Ash.); kru_, kuruk young of animals (Kt.); kyu_ru young of animals, child (Pr.); kyuru boy; kuri_ colt, calf (Pr.); kura child (Dm.); kur. (Shum.); ku_rak young of animals (Kal.); kur.i_ woman, wife (Phal.); ku_ru young girl; ko_r.i_, kur.hi_ (K.); kur.a_ bridegroom (L.); kur.i_ girl, virgin, bride; woman (L.); girl, daughter (P.); kur.i, kul.i_, kol.a_ boy; kur.i_ girl (WPah.); a~_t.-kur.a_ childless (a~_t.a tight)(B.); ko_ son; ku_i_ daughter (WPah.); ko son; koi daughter; kua_, ko_i_, koa_, ku_i_ (WPah.)(CDIAL 3245). kut.t.am young of a monkey (Ta.); kut.t.an- laddie, lassie, as a term of endearment; kid or lamb; kut.t.i young of a dog, pig, tiger, etc.; little girl (Ta.); kut.t.an boy, lamb, calf; kut.t.i young of any animal, child (chiefly girl)(Ma.); kwit.n. husband, man younger than a woman speaking, man (suffix in proper names)(To.); kwit.y wife (very restricted use)(To.); gud.d.a a boy (Ka.); kut.t.i child of any caste except Coorgs; young of animals (except dog, cat, pig)(Kod..)(DEDR 1670). kuruku young of an animal (Ta.); kuruman- young of certain animals and birds (Ta.); kurul.ai young of certain animals, young of a snake, child (Ta.); kurul, kurl a baby (Tu.); kurnja young male child; fem. kurnji (Pe.); kuru_ colt (Kur.)(DEDR 1791). kur..aku youthfulness, infant; kur..antai infant, childhood; kur..avi infant, young of certain animals, young of the vegetable kingdom (Ta.); kon.asu young one of wild beasts (Ka.); korayi, kori husband; korti wife (Kor.); kod.a tenderness, tender age, youth (Ka.); kor..untu anything young; kor..untan husband, husband's younger brother; kor..unan- husband; kur..a young, tender; kur..akan- youth, beautiful person, Skanda (Ta.); kod.uku son; kon.d.ika child; kodama the young of any animal; young (Te.); kovve young of bird or animal; koral younger brother's wife; kommal (pl. kommasil) daughter; kola bride, son's wife, younger brother's wife (Nk.); kor. very young; kor.ung new shoot, sprout; kor.ol bride (Pa.); kor.al son's wife, younger brother's wife; kod.us-, kod.c- to sprout (Ga.); kor.un young shoot (Ga.); ko_r.sa_na_, ko_rsa_na_ to sprout, grow (of trees, plants, etc.); kor.s- to sprout; kor.i leaf-shoot; kor.k-ila new leaf; kor.ta month of Bhadra_ (Aug-Sept.) when new paddy is worshipped; koria_r. son's wife; tammur-koria_r. younger brother's wife (Go.); Daughter-in-law: kor.ia_r. daughter-in-law; kor.iyar. id., sister's daughter, younger brother's wife; kod.iya_d. daughter-in-law, sister's daughter (of a male)(Go.); komma maiden, female; ko_d.alu daughter-in-law; ko_t.ramu, ko_d.an.t.ramu, ko_d.an.t.rikamu, ko_d.ar-ikamu the position and duties of a daughter-in-law, daugher-in-lawship (Te.); kor.o (pl. -k) female child, (pl. -r) male child; kor.onali a nursing mother; kor.ya daughter-in-law, younger brother's wife; kor.esi daughter-in-law (when referrinng to the 3rd person); kodma male buffalo calf (Kond.a); kor.iya ga_r. son's wife, younger brother's wife (Mand..); kur.a, kr.ua, kr.uha wife (Kui); kur.ia, ku_ria daughter-in-law; kur.va younger brother's wife (Kuwi); kor.gi young (of children); qro infant (Malt.); xarruni_ wife (Br.)(DEDR 2149). cf. kalatra wife (MBh.); kad.atra (BHSkt.); kalatta (Pkt.); kaletri_ (Pas'.); kaletro husband (Pas'.); kalatravant having a wife (BhP.); khanwo_tri_ woman; kanwotro husband (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2915). kur.matt relationship by marriage (P.)(CDIAL 3234).

1278.Marking-nut; cashew-nut: kohka_ mara_ marking-nut tree (Go.); ko~_di marking-nut tree (Pa.); ko_ndu maren, ko_n.u_n id. (Ga.); ko_hka_ mar.a_, kohka_, kohka, k'ka, kohoka id. (Go.)(DEDR 2217). X cf. goh'o_ cashew nut tree (Kuwi); ko.g stone of olive (Ko.)(DEDR 2179). ka_lakam, ka_vaka_ marking-nut, ce_n.kot.t.ai; emetic nut, marukka_rai (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ka_laka (Skt.) ce_, ce_n.kot.t.ai marking-nut (Pata_rtta. 1066); marking-nut tree, semecarpus anacardium (Malai.); ce_n.kot.t.ai-k-kur-i marks on clothes made with the juice of the marking-nut; ce_pa_lam < ce_ + phala marking-nut (Ta.lex.) ke_r, ke_ru, ge_r, ge_ru the tree semecarpus anacardium which produces the marking-nut (Ka.); ce_r (M.); ce_, ce_r (Ta.); ji_d.i, je_d.i (Te.); arus.kara (Ka.); aks.a, bhalla_taka, vi_ravr.ks.a; ke_ru-bi_ja the marking-nut (Ka.lex.) ce_r marking-nut tree, semecarpus anacardium (Ta.); ce_r marking-nut tree, semecarpus orientalis (Ma.); ke_r, ge_r semecarpus anacardium (Ka.); ge_ru-ka_yi, ge_re-ka_yi, je_ru-ka_yi marking-nut; te_reda-mara marking-nut tree, semecarpus anacardium (Tu.); ji_d.i id.; ji_d.i-ginja marking-nut (Te.); si_r.i cashew (Kond.a); ki_ro_ semecarpus anacardium (Kur.); kro the Malacca bean (Malt.)(DEDR 2005). For -pa_lam in ce_-pa_lam (Ta.) cf. bhalla_ta the tree semecarpus anacardium (cashew or marking nut); its fruit (S'a_rn.S.); bhalla_taka (MBh.); bhalla_taki_, bhalli_ (Bhpr.); bala_dur (Pers.); bhalla_taka, bhalla_taki_, bhalli_ (Pali); bhalla_ya, bhalla_aya, bhilla_yai_ (Pkt.); bhela_o the nut (S.); bhila_va_ nut and tree (P.); bhalya_, bhalyo a broad-leaved tree growing in the Bha_bar and used medicinally (Ku.); bhala_yo the nut (N.); bhala_ nut and tree (A.); bha_la_, bha_lia_, bhelua~_ (Or.); bhila_wa~_, bhila_wan, bhalli_ (H.); bhila_mo the tree; bhila_mu~ the nut (G.); bhila_va_ the nut (M.); bala the tree nothopegis colebrookiana (anacardiaceae); badulla, baduluruk semecarpus anacardium (Si.)(CDIAL 9414). Anacardium orientale the oriental cashew-nut or marking-nut, represents the fruit of semecarpus anacardium, a tree with greenish-white flowers and black, drupaceous fruits indigenous to India... The fruits contain cardol, anacardic acid, the alkaloid chuchunine and tannin; the seeds, a fixed oil. The oil of the pericarp is used as a caustic or an escharotic, and sometimes in the treatment of certain indolent ulcers... the sap is a violent contact poison, and causes painful swelling and minute pustules on the skin. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p. 542). Semecarpus anacardium: Indigenous to India... The fixed oil is used in India as an application to floors of houses, serving as a repellent to termites. The black juice of the fruit is used in printing cotton cloth. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, p.537). Semecarpus anacardium: bhallika (Skt.); bhela (B.); biba (M.); bhilawa (H.P.); temprakku (Ma.); serangottai (Ta.); bhallatamu (Te.); nut: bruised and applied to os uteri to procure abortion; given as a vermifuge; oil from the nuts: vesicant, used externally in rheumatism and leprous nodules; gum from bark: used in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections and nervous debility; ashes of the plant: in combination with other drugs used in snake-bite and scorpion-sting; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract from the Beas eastwards and deciduous forests of all districts (GIMP, p. 225). "bhalla_taka (Skt.); arus.kara (Skt.); bhela_ (B.H.); the acrid juice of marking nuts is a powerful vesicant and is often employed by the natives for producing fictitious marks of bruises. These can be distinguished from actual bruises caused by blows with a stick or other weapon, by their deep bluish-black colour and from their presenting small vesicles or minute blisters on their surface. The practice of causing blisters by the application of the juice of marking nuts among the Hindus appears to have been at one time very common, for in our ancient medical works a section or paragraph is generally devoted to the treatment of ulcerations thus produced. The ripe fruits are regarded as acrid, heating, stimulant, digestive, nervine and escharotic, and are used in dyuspepsia, piles, skin diseases, nervous debility, etc... Equal parts of marking nuts, chebulic myrobalans and sesamum seeds, are made into a confection with treacle and administered in doses of forty or sixty grains... Another confection of marking nuts, made with the addition of a number of aromatic substances, is recommended for use in skin diseases and leprosy. Marking nuts enter into the composition of some caustic applications for warts and piles. They form an ingredient of liniment for rheumatic affections called saindhava_dya taila..." (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 142-143). For semant. arus.kara cf. arus.ka wound, sore (Car.); arus- wounded, sore (S'Br.); wound, sore (AV.); aru, aruka (Pali); aruya (Pkt.); aruk a kind of leprosy (Si.)(CDIAL 618). aru_karo_ti wounds (Skt.); aru_rna_ to be hurt (OH.); aru_lna_ to pierce (OH.)(CDIAL 619). s'e_pha_like the small tree nyctanthes arbor tristis = ni_like; the shrub or small tree vitex negundo or trifolia (Ka.lex.) sindwari dare vitex negundo (Santali.lex.) cf. s'e_pha_lika_ vitex negundo, nyctanthes arbor tristis (Sus'r.); s'e_pha_li_, s'e_pa_la, s'i_pha_lika_ (Skt.); se_bha_lia_, se_ha_li_, se_ha_lia_ a kind of creeper (Pkt.); xewa_li the flower of nyctanthes arbos tristis (A.); siuli (B.); sia_l.i, sia_ri a wild creeper with a drinkable watery juice (Or.)(CDIAL 12608). ?Nyctanthes hirsuta = guettarda speciosa: This tree is 5 to 15 meters in height... the flowers are white, fragrant... girls in the Pacific put them in their hair; and Fijians and Samoans string them into necklaces... It is said that a kind of attar is prepared from the flowers in southern India (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.907). ?Nyctanthes sambac = jasminum sambac: Sampagita (Philippines)... is a spreading or sprawling shrub usually less than 2 meters in height... Filipias often conceal the blossoms in their hair on account of their fragrance... Burkill reports that in China the flowers are used for giving an aroma to tea. In Malaya women soak the flowers in water to be used for washing the face... the flowers yield an essential oil similar to that of jasmine (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.708).

1279.Luvunga scandens: ko_laka a kind of perfume; ko_ladala id.; nakhi (Ka.lex.) ko_laka, kakko_laka = gavala kacu_ra (Ka.lex.) Species: Indo-Malayan. Distribution: Eastern Bengal, Assam, Khasia Hills, Chittagong, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Cambodia, Sumatra. The root and berries are sweet, oily, cooling; allay thirst; aphrodisiac; cure consumption, biliousness. The berries are used in preparing a perfumed medicinal oil (kakkolaka), and are sold in the bazaars of Bengal under the name of kakala. (Ayurveda). Malay: akar keping; Sanskrit: dhankshika, dhira, dhmanksholi, jivaniya, jivanti, kakoli, kayasthika, kshira, lavangalata, madhura, payasvinim payasya, shitapaki, shukla, svadumansi, vayasoli, vayasolika, vayastha. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 479-480). Luvnga scandens: lavangalata (Skt.); labangaphjal (B.)(GIMP, p.157).cf. gu_li ball (K.); golaka, gut.ika_ (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 328).

1280.Image: nape of the neck: kun.ke, gon.ke the nape of the neck (Ka.); kuji (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

1281.Image: fowl: kukkut.am < kukkut.a gallinaceous fowl, cock, hen (Kantapu. Val.l.i. 261)(Ta.lex.) kukkil crow-pheasant, centropus rufipennis (Kal.avar..i. 5)(Ta.lex.) kukkut.a-ti_pam a fowl-shaped lamp used in temples (Parata. Or..ipi. 42, Urai.); kukku_-ven-al onom. expr. signifying crowing sound, as of a cock (Kur-un. 157)(Ta.lex.) Cock: kutaru a cock (Skt.lex.) kukkut.a cock; kukkut.arava cock's crow; kukkut.ayuddha cock fighting (Pali.lex.) kor (pl. kod.l) hen, cock, fowl (Kol.); hen (Nk.Go.); cock (Ga.); korru id. (Ga.); korr cock, hen, fowl (Pa.); fowl, hen (Go.); kor.u (pl. koRku) fowl (Kond.a); kozu (pl. kosku), kuzu (pl. kusku) fowl (Pe.); kuy id. (Mand..); koju (pl. koska) id. (Kui); koiyu_ (pl. ko_ska), koyu (pl. koska) id., hen (Kuwi)(DEDR 2160). ko.l.i fowl (Kod..); ko_ri, ko_l.i fowl (Tu.); ko_r..i cock, hen, cowl (Ka.); fowl (Ma.); gallinaceous fowl (Ta.); kod.i cock, fowl (Skt.)(DEDR 2248).

1282.Image: fork-tailed shrike: kukkat.i fork-tailed shrike (Ka.); ku~_kat.ima~_ga id. (Te.)(DEDR 1627). Image: magpie, bird: ke_ya shrike bird (Kuwi); snipe or similar bird (Pa.); ke_ga magpie (Kui)(DEDR 1994). Image: pigeon: gugrcet.y pigeon (Ko.); cet.t.i hen-sparrow (Ka.)(DEDR 2763). cf. cat.aka sparrow (Skt.)(CDIAL 4571). kut.ur sit.i... cooing of pigeons (To.); kut.ru, gut.ru id. (Ka.); kut.ru id. (Tu.); gud.r- (-it-) to coo (Kuwi)(DEDR 1667). Pigeon; dove: guvva dove, pigeon (Te.); kumur-i a kind of pigeon (Ta.); gu_va dove (Ka.); ku_ki_ id.; gummal, gummul the grey dove with a ring round its neck (Go.); go_van.d.a pigeon (Kond.a); guguri dove (Kui); kuguri, ku_gu_ri, kugguri (Kuwi); gugr, gugrgr.. pigeon's noise (Ko.)(DEDR 1930). cf. ku_ cooing, as of a dove (Ta.); kuvi to cry out (Ka.); ku_g to call (Nk.); ku_gu, ku_ku a cry, clamour (Ka.); ku_vu to crow, cry (as a cuckoo or birds in general)(Ta.)(DEDR 1863). kapo_ta pigeon, dove (RV.); pigeon (Pali); kapo_taka small pigeon, small dove (MBh.); small pigeon (Pali); kapo_ti_ pigeon (Pali); kapo_tika_ small pigeon (Pali); kapota (As'.); kavo_ya, kavo_d.a (Pkt.); kau_ (D..); kewi_k (Ash.); kaweki (Kt.); kowrot.i_ (Pr.); kawaya_ (Pas'.); koho_u, obl. koho_lu_na, koho_r (Kal.); kowor (Kho.); kovi_ small dove (L.P.); kuvi_ (P.); kovo, kovu, kobo_ (Si.); kupte white dove (Wg.); ko_pot pigeon (Gaw.)(CDIAL 2753). ko_tur, dat. ko_taras pigeon, dove (K.); kapo_tar (Pahl.); kautar (Psht.)(CDIAL 2754). ka_po_ta pertaining to pigeons (MBh.); dull white, grey (VarBr.S.); ka_po_taka grey (Pali); kovu dark coloured, black (K.); ka_woru id. (K.); ka_wa-dach, ka_vuru dach vine with small black grapes, berberis lycium (K.)(CDIAL 3041). Image: crow pheasant: kuppul.u a bird (Ka.); kupulu, kupul.u, kupl.u the crow-pheasant (Tu.)(DEDR 1735). Coo: kuharita cry of the ko_kila bird (Skt.); kuhara_ to coo (B.); kuhariba_, kuhuriba_ to coo, lament plaintively (Or.); kuharna_, kaharna_ to groan (H.)(CDIAL 3388). kuyil word; kuyir-r-u to tell, say, utter; to lay down, as rules; kuyin-mor..i soft, sweet words, like the notes of the koel; liquorice; kuyil ku_vu to present a pleasing, thriving aspect, as a field with luxuriant crop (Ta.lex.) kuyil to sound, play; vi_n.ai kur..alo_t.u kuyila (Ci_vaka. 1255); kuyiluvam playing on stringed musical instrumments, drums, tabrets, clarionets, horns; kuyiluvar players on stringed instruments; payir-or..irx.) kukkai, kokkai calls, challenges (Pkt.); ku_kan.u to screech (S.); ku_kan. to scream (L.); ku_kn.a_ (P.); ku_kna_ to scream (H.); kukn.e~, ku~kn.e~ to crow (M.); ku_ka scream (S.); ku_k (L.P.H.); kok (H.);--Deriv. ku_kir.o consternation (S.)(CDIAL 3390). cf. aor. kruks.at shouts (RV.)(CDIAL 3596).

1283.Indian cuckoo: ko_kulam < ko_kila koel (Paripa_. 9,65); ko_kilam id. (Tirukko_. 322)(Ta.lex.) kuyil koel, Indian cuckoo, eudynamis honorata (Ta.); kuyil, kur..il Indian cuckoo, cuculus or eudynamis orientalis (Ma.); (kuyilv-, kuyin-r--) to call, whoop, halloo; utter, tell (Ta.); kuyir-r-u (kuyir-r-i-) to tell, utter (Ta.); kukil cuckoo; v.t. to cry as a cuckoo; ku_gula cuckoo (Ka.); ko_gile, ko_jile, kuyilu id. (Tu.); kuhu pat.a id. (Kuwi); kokila Indian cuckoo (Skt.); kuhila id. (Pkt.)(DEDR 1764). ko_kila_ the Indian cuckoo cuculus indicus (MBh.). [Among NIA forms those of S.Or.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.G. apparently, unless borrowed are <-illa-: all others, except M., may be <-illa] ko_kila (Pali); ko_ila (Pkt.S.OAw.); koil (P.WPah.Mth.H.); koili (N.Or.); koili (Bhoj.); kuli (A.); kuila (MB.); ko_il (H.M.); koyal (H.G.); koyalr.i_ (G.); koi_l. (M.); koya_l. (M.); kovula_, kevili_ (Si.)(CDIAL 3483). kun.a_la the Indian cuckoo (Pali); kun.al (Si.)(CDIAL 3258). Image: cuckoo: ko_rakai Indian cuckoo; ko_racam a kind of partridge (Ta.); ko_kila (Skt.)(Ta.lex.); kurakam myna, starling, acridotheres tristis (Ta.); goravanka, goravanke the common maina, acridotheres tristis or the pastor (Ka.); goravanka, go_ra, go_ranka, go_rinka, go_ruvanka myna (Te.); go_ro_d. id. (Go.)(DEDR 1766). To cry; to call: ke_gu to cry as a peacock; n. the cry of a peacock; ke_ku, ke_ke the cry of a peacock; kekku to shout in training cattle (Ka.); ka.k to call, invite (?Kod..); ke_k shout of joy, loud laughter (Tu.); ke_ka a cry or shout, the cry of a peacock; ke_karincu to cry or shout out; ke_karinta a cry or shout; ke_ka_ramu the cry of a peacock (Te.); ke_y- to call, (peacock) to cry, (owl) to hoot, (animal) to call; ke_i_a_na_ to summon (Go.); kekeri ki_ali to cackle (Kuwi)(DEDR 1992). ke_ka_ peacock's cry (MBh.); keka_ (Pkt.); ki_ha scream (S.); keha_ peacock (H.); kekin peacock; Apabhrams'a; kekkara cry of peacock (Skt.)(CDIAL 3458). To say; to coo: kathayati converses with, describes (MBh.); kathe_ti speaks, preaches (Pali); kahe_i, kahai says (Pkt.); kahan.u (S.); kahin.a_, kaihna_ (P.); ka_hnu_ (WPah.); kaun.o (Ku.); kahanu (N.); kaiba (A.); kaha_ (B.); kahiba_ (Or.); kahal (Bhoj.); kahab (Mth.Aw.); kahna_ (H.); kahai (OMarw.); kahai (OG.); kahevu~ (G.); kiyanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 2703). ga_the, ga_de, ga_he a song; a verse; a metrical su_tra; a saying or proverb (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kuharita cry of the ko_kila bird (Skt.); kuhara_ to coo (B.); kuhariba_, kuhuriba_ to coo, lament plaintively (Or.); kuharna_, kaharna_ to groan (H.)(CDIAL 3388). kukkai, kokkai calls, challenges (Pkt.); ku_kan.u to screech (S.); ku_kan. to scream (L.); ku_kn.a_ (P.); ku_kna_ (H.); kukn.e~, ku~kn.e~ to crow (M.); ku_ka scream (S.); ku_k (L.P.H.); kok (H.);--Deriv. ku_kir.o consternation (S.)(CDIAL 3390). Image: to shout: kokkari (-pp-, -tt-) to shout in triumph; cluck, cackle (as goose), chuckle (as crow); n. shouting (Ta.); kokku cackling, chuckling; kokkuka, kokkikka to cackle (as a hen), cluck, pipe, cry as a deer (Ma.); kokkok ennu to cackle or cluck as a hen; kokkarisu to threaten, menace, abuse, deride, shout; chuckle, giggle (Ka.); kokkarincu to mock, ridicule; shout, cluck (Te.); kaka_ring to cackle (Br.)(DEDR 2031).

1284.Image: ruddy goose: ko_ka the ruddy goose, anus casarca (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) ko_kam ruddy shield-rake, cakkarava_kam (Iraku. Tikkuvi. 247)(Ta.lex.) karkara a sort of duck or goose; ka_ran.d.ava (Ka.lex.) kokod.al heron, duck (Go.)(DEDR 2125).

1285.Hopea wightiana: ko_n.ku common caung. hopea wightiana; hopea parviflora iron wood of Malabar (Ta.); id. in: neduva_r go_n.gu (Ma.)(DEDR 2185). cf. ur-uppa_ a tree, the timber of which is used instead of teak in ship-building, hopea decandra; urappu-ppicin- an evergreen tree, hopea odorata (Ta.); ur-ippu, urippu a heavy timber more durable than teak, hopea decandra (Ma.)(DEDR 717).

1286.Image: to sit: kukku to sit on one's legs, squat (Ta.); kuki.r to sit down (Ko.); kukkarisu to squat (Ka.); kun.kuru going on hands and legs, as an infant; kokkaru-kul.l.u to sit on the half-bended knees (Ka.); kukund.d.u to sit (Te.); kopka (< kok-p-; kokt-) to sit, sit down, sit on, settle down, subside; n. act of sitting, subsidence (Kui); kug, kog, ku_gali, kugginai, gok to sit; kupki ki to make to sit (Kuwi)(DEDR 1628). ku_r to sit down (Ka.); kuc to sit (Pe.); kuh id. (Mand..)(DEDR 1900). kukkutal to sit on one's legs, squat (Ta.); kukkarisu (Ka.); kukkut.a_can-am sitting posture in yogic practice, the soles touching the ground like those of a cock (Tiruman. 561)(Ta.lex.) kukai cellar, subterranean walled room for the ascetic in trance, serving as sepulchre after his death, when he is interred in it in a sitting posture (Tiruman. 1913) (Ta.lex.) cocon.got, cucumguc, cucun.gut, huchucu to sit on heels; comcor.ok to sit on hind legs (Santali.lex.) Image: to move in a sitting position: kuc- (-c-) to sit (Pe.); kuh- (-t-) id. (Mand..); ku_r to sit down; ku_risu to cause to sit (Ka.); ku_r(u)cun.d.u to sit, be seated (Te.)(DEDR 1900). xunzing, xinzing, xizzing, xuzzing to move in a sitting or crouching position (Br.); cf. khaz (Pers.); kuy- to pull, drag (Nk.); gunjeri a_ to be giddy, weak (Kuwi); gunj- to pull (Go.)(DEDR 1648).

1287.Dense, crowded: kikkar-isu to be closely united or crowded, be thickset, be excessive (as the water of a tank); make small, draw together (as one's body) (Ka.); krikkir-incu, k(r)ikkir-iyu to be crowded, dense, thickset or close-set, occupy fully, leave no space; ki_ka_ran.yamu a thick and dark forest (Te.); kikkir-i to be close together, be dense, be crowded, abundant, thickset; n. a crowd; kikkinda, kis.kinda closeness, narrowness, pressure, a crowd (Ka.); cf. kis.kindha (Skt.)(DEDR 1509).

1288.Dense; ford: gahana deep, dense (Ka.lex.) ga_han. crossing by a ford, a ford (Pali)(CDIAL 4128). jhag expanse of shallow water; jha_gan.u to wade through shallow water; ajha_gu unfathomable (S.)(CDIAL 4129). vaikai, vaiyai < ve_ga-vati_ the vaigai river in the Madura district (Pur-ana_. 71,10); vaiyai-t-tur-aivan- the Pa_n.d.ya king, as ruling the vaigai region (Perunto. 1410)(Ta.lex.) ga_hate_ dives into (AitBr.); roams (Skt.); ga_ha- in cmpd. 'diving into' (Skt.); ga_hati immerses (Pali); ga_hadi dives into, seeks (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4152). ga_dha ford; adj. shallow (Kaus.Br.); ga_dhate_ stands firm (Dha_tup.); ga_dhati (Pali); ga_dha fordable; ford (Pali); shallow (Pkt.); gaha- ford (Pkt.); ga small mountain stream, large nullah; vai-ga_ ford, stream; in meaning 'valley, stream' (Sh.)(CDIAL 4127). ga going, moving (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vaikai, vaiyai the Vaigai river in the Madura district (vaiyai cu_r..nta val.an.ker..uvaippin- : Pur-ana_. 71,10); vaiyai-t-tur-aivan- the Pan.d.ya king, as ruling the Vaigai region (Tiva_; Perunto. 1410)(Ta.lex.) gan.ga_ > kan.kai the river ganges (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,7,1); river in general, the proper name of the Ganges becoming a common noun to denote any river (Kantapu. Ta_raka. 37)(Ta.lex.) ga valley, stream (Sh.); ga_ha depth, innermost recess (RV.); gaha depth (N.)(CDIAL 4151).

1289.Dumb: gun.ga, gun.gi_ dumb (Pas'.); gung (Pers.); gun.go (S.); gun.ga_ (L.P.); gu~go, go~go (N.); gon.ga_ speaking indistinctly (A.B.); ghon.ga_, goga_ dumb (B.); gun.ga, gun.ga_, ghun.ga_ dumb; gua~_ga fool (Or.); gu~_ga_ dumb (H.); gu~go (G.); gu~g stupid (M.)(CDIAL 4171). cf. mu_n.kai dumb person (Ta.)(DEDR 5026). u_m dumbness; u_man-, uvaman- dumb man; fem. u_macci, u_maicci; u_mai dumbness, dumb person; u_maiyan- a dumb man (Ta.); u_man dumb, stupid (Ma.); u_me dumb man, taciturn man (Ka.)(DEDR 746).

1290.Image: mosquito: kocu mosquito, gnat, culex; kocuku id. (Ka_cika. 40,17)(Ta.lex.) Image: mosquito, gnat: gun.ga_d.a, gun.ga_d.i, gun.ga_n.i mosquito, a trifle (Ka.); gun.guru eye-fly; mosquito, gnat (Ka.); gugguru small insect infecting grain (Tu.); gungu a large wood-boring insect (Kui); gon.gara viha a kind of mosquito (Kuwi); gu~gurad.e mosquito (M.)(DEDR 1634A.) Image: fly: gun.gi a large black bee, resembling the humble bee (Ka.); ghun.ga kat.i_m a sandfly, a midge, a gnat (M.); gun.gan.e_m. to buzz, hum, whiz (M.); guja humming (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kukula_ bee (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: cricket: ghugri a kind of insect, the mole cricket, gryelus gryllopia (Santali.lex.) Moth, butterfly: gu.ge butterfly (Kol.); gu_ge id. (Nk.); gogava_la id. (Pa.); kukavar.e id. (Ga.); kuge, guge, gu_ge id.; guge moth (Go.)(DEDR 1874).

1291.Image: bill, beak: kokku long beak, bill (Ma.); beak, bill (Ka.); kokki beak (Kod..); kokku, kokka_yi, ko_ka_yi bill, beak (Tu.)(DEDR 2034). Image: crane, heron, paddy bird, duck: kokod.al heron, duck (Go.); konga crane (Go.); kohko paddy bird (Kui); kongi, kokor.a crane (Kuwi); xa_xu_r demoiselle crane (Br.); kokku common crane, grus cinerea; stork, paddy bird (Ta.); kuruku heron, stork, crane, bird, gallinaceous fowl, an-r-il bird (Ta.); kokku, kokkan, kocca, kuriyan paddy bird, heron (Ma.); kuru heron (Ma.); kosk heron (To.); kokku, kokkare crane (Ka.); kukku heron, crane (Ka.); korngu crane, stork (Tu.); konga, kokkera, kokkara_yi crane (Te.); pegguru, begguru (< peru-kuru) adjutant crane (Te.); konga crane (Kol.); kokkal pl. kokkacil (Pa.); kokka_le (pl. kokka_sil) heron (Ga.); konalin (pl. konasil), kokalin crane (Ga.); koruku crane (Go.)(DEDR 2125). Image: paddy bird, crane: kan.ka heron [VS. < Drav.; influence certain in o of M. and Si.]; kan.ka heron (Pali); kam.ka id. (Pkt.); kan.gu crane, heron (S. > Balu_ci_.Iranian); ka~_k heron (B.); ka_n.ka heron (Or.); ka~_kr.u~ a particular ravenous bird (G.); -- with o from Drav.: ko~ka_ heron (M.); koka_ heron (Si.); pl. kokku various kinds of crane or heron (Si.); keki_ female crane (Si.); ke_ki a species of crane, the paddy bird (e_?)(Si.)(CDIAL 2595). ko~k a heron (Santali.lex.) d.hen.ka, sahraj a species of crane (Santali.lex.) krca a kind of snipe or curlew; kruc, krun. (VS.); krauc curlew (TS.); osprey (Skt.); krauci_ (Mn.); kro_ca (BHSkt.); kum.ca a kind of bird (Pkt.); lu_nc kite (Pas'.); koca heron (Pali); kom.ca a kind of bird (Pkt.); ku~_j, pl. ku~_ja_ demoiselle crane (L.); ku~_j a large grey water-bird (P.); ku~_j, ku~_ja_ a species of crane (H.); ko_ca_ a kind of water-bird (H.); kar-koca_, kar-koci_, kar-kuci_ demoiselle crane (M.)(CDIAL 3597). kala_n.kura the bird ardea sibirica (Skt.); kara~_kul a kind of crane (H.)(CDIAL 2928).

1292.Boiled grain: ghun.gan.i_ grain boiled whole (P.); ghun.n.i, ghugni boiled peas with spices and oil (B.); ghu~_gni_ (H.)(CDIAL 4476). guggari, gugguri, gugri grain boiled whole or half dressed and seasoned (Ka.); gugguri soaked grain (Tu.); guggil.l.u pl. any grain boiled but not reduced to a pulp (Te.); gugri_ any grain boiled and seasoned (Go.)(DEDR 1632).

1293.Image: spear: gorka spear (Pa.Go.); goh-ka, gohka id. (Go.)(DEDR 2126). kahli a fish-spear (Santali.lex.) 

1294.Image: monkey: ko_kulam monkey (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ko_d.aga a monkey, an ape (Ka.); ko_t.aram, ko_kilam, kuran.gu (Ta.); kod.aji, kod.aju a large kind of ape (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Monkey's bark; cough: kokl to cough (Pa.); khokla, khoki_ id. (Go.); kok to cough (Kond.a); krok id. (Pe.); kruk id. (Mand..); go_khali id., (Kuwi); go_ki cough (Kuwi); goghi cough (Kuwi)(DEDR 2127). khokkhai barks (of a monkey)(Pkt.); khokkha_ monkey's bark (Pkt.); khoknu to cough (N.); khoki id. (N.); khuka_ (B.); kho~khna_, kho~khi_ (H.); khokhlo (G.); khokn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 3926). Image: hawk: ke_karisu to hawk in spitting; ke_karike hawking, spitting out (Ka.); ka_n.kariyuni, kan.kariyuni, kan.karipuni, ke_n.kariyuni, ke_n.karipu, ke_karipu, ka_n.karipu, kan.karipu to hawk, force up phlegm with a noise, hem (Tu.); ke_karincu to hawk in spitting; ke_karinta act of hawking in spitting (Te.)(DEDR 1991). cf. kapka (< kak-p; kakt-) to laugh, ridicule (Kui)(DEDR 1080). cf. kakku (kakki-) to vomit, eject; n. whooping cough (Ta.)(DEDR 1079). daggu, d.aggu to cough; n. a cough (Te.); dag- (dakt-), d.agg- to cough; d.ag a cough (Kol.); d.hag- to cough (Nk.); d.aga_na_ id.; d.ag(u) coughing, hawking (Go.)(DEDR 2939). Image: monkey: ko_ve, koye, kovve, kowwe_ red-faced monkey (Go.); kovva red-faced monkey (Pa.); kove id. (Ga.Go.)(DEDR 2142). kapi monkey (RV.Pali.OSi.(Bra_hmi_); kavi (Pali.Pkt.); kai (Pkt.); kiviya_ black monkey (Si.)(CDIAL 2746). Image: monkey: kapi a monkey (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kapittha_syah- a kind of monkey (Skt.lex.) kavi ape, monkey (Kampara_. Urukka_t.. 29)(Ta.lex.) Image: monkey: go_-la_n.gula a kind of monkey with a dark body, red cheeks, and a tail like that of a cow (Skt.lex.) Image: monkey: ka_r black monkey (Ta.lex.) Image: monkey: kat.uvan- male monkey (Ta.)(Tol. Po. 623); kad.uvan id. (Ma.Ta.lex.); gad.ava a stout male monkey (Ka.); gad.d.i black-faced monkey; gad.d.e_ id. (male)(Go.)(DEDR 1140). Monkey: kapi monkey (Skt.) kapila brown, tawny, reddish (RV.); kapilaka, kapiraka reddish (Pa_n..); kabila (Skt.); kapis'a brown (MBh.)[for relationship monkey ~~ brown cf. ma_kr.u~ red-faced monkey (G.); markat.a monkey (VS.)(CDIAL 9882); man.ga monkey (Ka.)]; kapila brown, tawny, reddish (Pali); kavila (Pkt.); ku_lu reddish-brown (K.); kela_ pale red (of buffaloes)(L.); kaila_ pale (of buffaloes)(L.); grey (of horses and cattle)(P.); black cow or heifer, young calf under three months (B.); kailo greyish (esp. of eyes)(N.); kaira_, kai~ra_ reddish brown (Or.); kol.u~ reddish brown (G.); kol.i_ cow (G.); kailo blackish (Ku.); ke_l brown (Ku.)(CDIAL 2750).

1295.Image: to turn one's back; to look up: go_pka (< go_k-p-; go_kt-) to stretch forth, stretch the neck in order to observe something, crane the head out (Kui); kok- (-t-) to raise and project the head (while seeing a distant object)(Kond.a); go_k- to look up, await; go_khmu_ look up! (Kuwi)(DEDR 2180). xo_xa_ behind (of time or place), afterwards (Kur.); xo_xna_ to throw behind one's back, cast aside, turn one's back upon, arrive before another (Kur.); qoq behind, at the back (Malt.); qoqe the back (Malt.); qoqeye to turn one's back (Malt.); qoqte, qoqwa the latter or last one (Malt.)(DEDR 2182). koyok to look up (Santali.lex.) Shoulder: ko_ku shoulder (Ta.lex.)

1296.Image: socket of a wheel: kon.d.e the bush or socket of a wheel (Tu.lex.)

1297.Image: hollow: khokha_, khoka_ hollow, decayed (H.); khokho sound of hollow things when struck (Or.); khokh dry and hollow; khokhu~ outer dry crust after inside is removed (G.); khok, kho~k hole, bruise (M.); khokhoru, khukhoru hollow (K.); khokhra_ (P.); khokro (N.); khokra_ (H.); khokharo cavity (OMarw.); khokhla_ hollow (P.); khoklo, khuklo loose, slack (N.); khokhal, khokhla_ hollow, decayed (H.); khokar. (H.); khokhas hollow grains (M.)(CDIAL 3928). Image: socket of the eye: kuval.ai socket of the eye; eyelid (W.)(Ta.lex.) Socket, hollow; sunken: kuval.ai socket (Ta.); kuval.a id. (Ma.); go_l.e id. (Ka.); go_l. hollow-ness, hollow; socket (Tu.); ko_l, ko_l hollow, sunken (Tu.); go_l.e socket (Te.)(DEDR 2143). Hollow; cavity: kho_h, kho cave, shelter of overhanging cliff (Sh.); khoh hole, cavern, pit (P.); khoha cave (OAw.); khoh, kho, khau hole, pit, cave (H.); kho cave (G.)(CDIAL 3813).[cf. guha_ hiding place, cave (VS.Pali.Pkt.); guh (RV.); goh cave (G.)(CDIAL 4220)]. Cellar; image: sitting posture: kukai cave, mountain cavern, grotto; hermit's cell; cellar, subterranean walled room for the ascetic in trance (Ta.lex.) kho~j, kho~c, khu~_j glen, ravine, depression between two hills (N.)(CDIAL 3930). kukaram cave, cavern (Aricamaya. Paktica_ra. 37); cavity, hollow, subterranean passage (Pa_rata. Ve_t. 2); kukam id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kevi deep valley, cave (Ta.); gavi cave; gambu cave of wild animals (Ka.); gavi cave, hole, cell (Tu.); cavern (Te.)(DEDR 1332).

1298.Image: saddle: ko_gi_ru a cushion used as a saddle (Ka.); kho_gi_ra (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

1299.To hand over; arch; to string bow; stretch wire: go_h- to hand over, pass (Kuwi); go_ssali (go_st-) to offer (Kuwi); go_h'nai to outreach, spread (hand); go_nj- (-it-) to string (bow), stretch (wire, etc.)(Kuwi); ko_nja (ko_nji-) an arch (Kui); to string a bow, stretch something from one point to another (Kui); gonjali to string a bow (Kuwi)(DEDR 2193).

1300.Image: vessel with handle and lip: ko_karn.am < go_-karn.a a metal vessel with handle and lip for serving liquid food (Ta.lex.)

1301.Image: span: go_karn.a a span from the tip of the thumb to that of the ring-finger (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1302.Bow-string hemp: gokarun.i < go_karn.i_ bow-string hemp, perun.kurumpai (M.M. 477)(Ta.lex.) go_gi the deckanee hemp, hibiscus cannabinus (Ka.); go_gu, golugu, go_nu, gon.gu_re hibiscus cannabinus = pi_lu, gud.aphala; go_gina_ru a hemp produced from the go_gi (Ka.); go_guna_ra (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Red cotton: ko_n.ku red cotton tree (Ta.lex.); ko_n.kalar a garment of ancient times (Cilap. 14,108, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Hemp: go_gi Deckanee hemp, hibiscus cannabinus (Ka.); go~_gu, go_nu id. (Te.); go_n.gu_ra leaves of h. cannabinus (Te.)(DEDR 2183). Unripe pod of cotton: gogir.u_, go_gi~r.o unripe pod of cotton (S.)(CDIAL 4514). ko_n.kilavu cochlospermum gossypium, false tragacanth (Ta.lex.) Flax: khu~ye a coarse sort of silk (B.); khua_ made of flax or cotton or silk (MB.); kho_miya id. (Pkt.); komu fine cloth of goat's hair (Si.); kho_ma, kho_maga made of flax; n. linen or cotton or silk cloth (Pkt.); kho_ma made of flax, n. linen cloth or garment (Pali); ks.auma prepared from linseed (Sus'r.); made of linen (La_t.y.); linseed (Sus'r.); linen cloth (Ka_tyS'r.); ks.aumika made of linen (Skt.); ks.uma_ flax, hemp (Skt.)(CDIAL 3755).

1303.Woman's garment: ko_ka a woman's garment or cloth, a cloth (Te.); kok(k)e cloth (for women)(Nk.)(DEDR 2181). kucavam folds of cloth put on by Indian women; koccakam ornamental pleating of a cloth when worn (Tol. Po. 433, Urai.). koycakam puckered or tucked-up ends of a cloth, as a woman's; ornamental pleating in a woman's dress hanging from the right hip, koycaka marun.kur-a-c-ce_rtti : Kampara_. Te_re_r-u.6); koyyakam ornamental folds of cloth used as hangings in a hall; pacum pon-ut.ukkai koyyaka mi_ppat.a na_r-r-in-ar : Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 62); koy- to plait, gather into folds, as ends of a cloth; (ko_t.i-p-pu_ntukil koytu : Perun.. Ila_van.a. 5,165); to bristle, as manes of a horse (Ta.lex.) kocu loose inner end or corner of a cloth brought between the legs and tucked in behind; kocikam cloth (Ta.lex.) ?< ko_cikam ?< kaus'ika silk, silk cloth (Perun.. Ucaik. 43,154). Garment of ancient times: ko_n.kalar a garment of ancient times; perhaps ko_n.ku red cotton tree + alar blossom (Cilap.14,108,urai)(Ta.lex.) A variety of silk coton: ko_n.k-ilavu false tragacanth; cochlospermum gossypium (Ta.lex.)

1304.Basting, tacking: ko_kku < ko_k (Urdu) basting, tacking (Ta.lex.) cf. ko_ka_ nail, peg (.); kokan.u to tack, stitch together (S.); koka_ a very small nail (P.); hobnail, tack (L.)(CDIAL 3486). To string: ko_ to string (as beads, flowers), insert, thread (as a needle)(Ta.)(DEDR 2176). To string, decorate; thread a needle; string of ornamental bead: ko_kka nail [Skt. > ku_k (Para_chi_.Iranian)]; kokka_sa the name of a carpenter (Pkt.); ko_ka_ nail, peg (.); kokhchu (Wg.); ko_ku_ (Pas'.); koko small nail, pin (S.); kokan.u to tack, stitch together (S.); koka stitch (S.); koka_ hobnail, tack (L.); tack, nail, thorn, spike of plantain, bud (H.); a very small nail (P.); kok basting (P.); kokai ka~_t.i nails (N.); ko~ka_ spike of plantain (M.)(CDIAL 3486). ko_kka, ko_rkka to string together (as a garland, pearls, beads), thread a needle (Ma.); ko_ (-pp-, -tt-), ko_r (-pp-, -tt-) to string (as beads, flowers), insert, thread (as a needle); ko_ppu stringing, threading, inserting, arrangement, order, decoration (Ta.); ko_vai, ko_rvai stringing, filing, arranging, string of ornamental beads (Ta.); ko_rmpal, ko_mpu string of pearls, bunch of things (Ma.); ko_ (ko_d-, ko_t-) to string (pearls, beads, etc.) upon a thread, thread (Ka.); k(r)o_va a string, as of pearls, etc. (Te.); ko.nz- (ko.nst-) to string, thread (Kol.); ko_nj- (j = dz) to string (Pa.); ka_s to string beads (Go.)(DEDR 2176). To twist, wind; skein: krukta curved (Skt.); kukr.u_ reel of spun thread (WPah.); ku_kna_ to wind, twist; ku_kri_, kukri_ skein (H.); kukd.e~ quantity of thread drawn from a spindle (M.)(CDIAL 3595).

1305.Maize; horse gram: kukkut.a, kukut.a the potherb marsilla quadrifolia (Skt.); kukkut.i_, kuku_t.i_ dolichos pruriens, salmalia malabarica (Sus'r.); kukkud.a a partic. kind of plant (Pkt.); kukkur.a_, kukr.a_, san-kukr.a_ a kind of hemp (P.); kukkur.i, kukkr.i_ maize (WPah.)[cf. kor.aka horse gram (Go.)(DEDR 2153)]; kukr.i, ku_khr.i_ (WPah.); ku_kar.-veli a creeping plant used medicinally (G.)[cf. val.l.i climber, creeper (Ta.)(DEDR 5316)]; kukulu a kind of creeper (Si.)(CDIAL 3209). cf. a_rai aquatic cryptogamous plant, marsilla minuta coromandelica (Ta.); a_ral marsilea quadrifolia (Ma.)(DEDR 380).

1306.To itch: kok- to itch, scratch (Kol.); ko_k- to itch (Kol.); kokk- to itch, scratch (Nk.); gro_pa (gro_t-) to claw, scratch; n. act of clawing, scratching, a scratch (Kui)(DEDR 2257).

1307.Rumex nepalensis: keygl rumex nepalensis (the long oblong leaves are used by girls to make dolls); key van. gir.v polygonum rude and chinense (Ko.); kwa.gil rumex nepalensis (To.); ko_gile_ gid.a a plant of which the leaves are used instead of plates etc.; ko_giley ele = kuvvey ele leaf of k. (the leaves are dried to make raincapes; kuvve is not identified botanically -- (Ka.)(DEDR 2184). kakurthotne polygonum chinense (N.); ameta (Garhwal)(GIMP, p.200). kuvvey ele is not the same as ku_kai, ku_vai East Indian arrow-root, curcuma angustifolia (Ta.); ku_va (Ma.); ku_ve, kuvve (Ka.); ku_v, kuv (Tu.)(DEDR 1872).

1308.Crop laid out ready for threshing: khoh crop laid out ready for threshing (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 3752). kuku crop which has remained without forming ears (S.); kukk, pl. kukka_ a date which has shrivelled on the tree (L.)(CDIAL 3207). Chaff: kuku_la chaff (Skt.); kukkusa red powder of rice husks (Pali); chaff of rice, etc. (Pkt.); kukusa id. (Pkt.); kuska_ pl., kuski_ chaff of rice, bran (G.)(CDIAL 3212). khokho anything withered and dried up (S.)(CDIAL 3928). Image: conflagration of chaff; smoking fire: kukula chaff; a fire made of chaff; kukulam a hole, dietch (filled with stakes); an armour, mail (Skt.lex.) ka_ko_la a forest conflagration (Ka.lex.) kuku_la conflagration of husks or chaff; a smoking fire; a hole filled with stakes; table-land; superior, excellent (Ka.lex.) cf. kukkir--cu_ran.am a kind of medicinal powder prepared by stuffing a fowl with dammar-resin, calcinating and pulverizing it (Ta.lex.)

1309.Crucible: kukai crucible (Ta_yu. 32); kukai-c-cat.t.i kettle; kukai-p-put.am calcination or refining of metal in a crucible; kukai-me_n-ta-t-ti_ (kukai + me_l + na_tam) a drug which dissolves gold; kukkut.a-put.am calcination of metals in a pile of ten dried dung-cakes approximating to the height of a cock (Kantapu. Ma_rkkan.. 134) (Ta.lex.)

1310.Wild indigo: kor..ici, kor..uci purple wild indigo, tephrosia purpurea (Ta.); kor..iil galega colonila (Ma.); koggi, koggid.i, koggili, kogge a very common undershrub, tephrosia purpurea = galega colonila (Ka.)(DEDR 2145). Tephrosia purpurea: sharapunkha (Skt.); bannilgach (B.); sarphunkha (M.); sarphonka (H.P.); phanike (Ka.); kolinnil (Ma.); mokkukkay (M.); plant: tonic, laxative, used as anthelmintic for children; used internally as a purifier of the blood and considered a cordial; root: bitter, given in tympanitis, dyspepsia, and chronic diarrhoea; fresh root bark: ground and made into a pill, with a little black pepper, given in cases of obstinate colic (GIMP, p.240).

1311.Image: basket: kik small round basket (Ko.); kukke, kukki small basket made of bamboo (Ka.); kukke basket; kurkilu a kind of basket (Tu.); cot.t.a kurkeli a small basket (Kor.)(DEDR 1629). cf. kuriyan a matbag, light basket of pandanus leaves; kurutti basket for catching fish (Ma.)(DEDR 1779). kujelu a kind of weel for catching fish (Tu.); kua small bamboo basket (Pa.)(DEDR 1644). kurve basket (larger than kurpa_n.o)(Kon.lex.)

1312.Butterfly: gu.ge butterfly (Kol.); gu_ge id. (Nk.); gogava_la id. (Pa.); kukavar.e id. (Ga.); kuge, guge, gu_ge id.; guge moth (Go.)(DEDR 1874).

1313.Refusal: ke- (used only in negative forms) to be unwilling (Kond.a); ka_- (conjugated only in the negative; pres. kaun., etc., past ka_vatan. etc., special base kad-) to be unwilling, refuse (Pe.); kahi don't! (sg.); ka_heri id. pl.; ka_hi ki- to forbid (Kuwi)(DEDR 1420). ku_- to be unwilling (Mand..); ku_va (ku_t-) to refuse, abstain from, abjure; n. refusal (Kui); ku_iyali (ku_t-), ku_nai to refuse; ku_no_mi we do not want (Kuwi)(DEDR 1869). -ke, -ga a particle added to a verb to express permissibility; e_n.kl.u barke shall we take leave (Tu.lex.)

1314.Pogostemon speciosum: kakadg, pen. gakadg pogostemon speciosum (the latter 'female k'); am gakadg plectranthus macraei ('our k.'); ka.r. gakadg plectranthus nepetaefolius ('jungle k.')(Ko.); kaka0x pogostemon speciosum (To.)(DEDR 1077).

1315.Image: whip: kan.kari (Tadbhava of khan.kari); kan.kari-go_l a large whip (Ka.lex.)

1316.Image: locks of hair: khan.kari, kan.kari having locks of hair; khan.kara a curl, a lock of hair (Ka.lex.) Image: bristling hair: gugguri, guggari curling, a curl; becoming erect, bristling as the hair of the body; gugguru the act of becoming erect or bristling; guggari to become erect as the hair of the body (Ka.lex.) Curl: gugguri curl (Ka.); ghu~ghar curls (H.); ghu~ghu~r, ghu~ghru~_ toe bell (M.); ghughro jingling bell (G.); ghu_ghara toe bell, string of bells (OMarw.); ghun.g(h)ru_ string of bells (H.)(CDIAL 4477). guggari curling, a curl (Ka.); gun.guru, gujuru state of being curled or tangled (Ka.); gujjiru curled (Tu.)(DEDR 1633). ghun.gra_l a string of bells on the neck of cattle (P.)(CDIAL 4478). cokr.o to curl up; ghur.ci id.; kir.cot kor.cot curly as hair (Santali.lex.) Image: tangled hair: gun.guru, gugguri, gujur, junjuru the state of being curled or tangled; curled hair; gun.gurudale a head with curled or tangled hair (Ka.lex.)

1317.Miserable: kan.ga_l poor; poverty-stricken; wretched; weak; barren as soil (Ka.M.H.); kan.ga_la a pauper, a miserable wretch, a weak man; kan.ga_latana pauperism, wretchedness (Ka.); kan.ga_li wretchedness (Ka.M.); a pauper, a beggar (Ka.); kan.ga_l.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.) kan.j barren; a barren cow or buffalo that rejects the bull (P.lex.)

1318.Presents, sacred relics: kun.ka presents; the leavings of food presented to great men, given to dependents; sacred relics (P.lex.) gon.go salaka a doal (sari striped with red and white) cloth given by the bridegroom to the bride's (aunt) gon.go; gonok, gogok a piece of cloth thrown over the shoulder and falling down over the breast and tucked in on both sides to a piece round the waist; worn by women; gok to carry on the shoulder; gonon., gonon. pon the price paid for a bride; gonon. tor.aoni return presents made by the bride's father to the bridegroom's party (Santali.lex.)

1319.Image: skeleton: kan.ka_la a skeleton (Ka.Skt.); kan.ka_la-ma_li whose necklace is formed of bones: S'iva (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kan.ka_l.ama_li id. (Ta.lex.) kan.gror., kan.gru_r. the back-bone, vertebral column (P.lex.) Image: skeleton: cf. kan.ka_la skeleton (MBh.)(CDIAL 2603).

1320.Image: seat: ka_kul.i seat, mat, bed (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

1321.Image: single pebble: kan.kare gravel: a single pebble or particle (Ka.); kan.kara (M.H.Te.)(Ka.lex.) Soil mixed with gravel: ka~krot.iya_ soil mixed with coarse gravel (Bi.)(CDIAL 2821). kan.kar < U. kankar limestone, an impure concretionary carbonate of lime; gravel (Ta.); kan.kare id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) karkara stone, bone (Skt.); kakkara stone, pebble (Pkt.); kakiro stone (S.); kakra_ gravel (L.): ka~_kar stone, pebble (A.); gravel (B.); ka_n.kara, kan.kara (Or.); ka~kra_hi_ gravelly soil (Bi.); ka_m.kara gravel (OAw.); ka~_kar, kan.kar, kan.kra_ nodule of limestone (H.); ka~_kri_, kan.kri_ gravel (H.); ka~_kro pebble (G.); ka~_kri_ sand, small pebble (G.); ka_kriyu~ stony field; abounding in pebbles (G.); kan.kar gravel, pebble (M.)(CDIAL 2820). garasu, garusu gravel (Ka.); karn.kallu gravel, hard sand (Tu.); garusu gravel (Te.)(DEDR 1260).{cf. carakkallu, caral gravel (Ma.); caral, caral., caral.ai gravel, laterite (Ta.); jari grit, granule, sand (Tu.); sra_mbu gravel (Kui)(DEDR 2354). cf. taricu pebbles; land lying waste or fallow (Ta.); tari granule, grit, sand (Ma.); tarasu uncultivated, fallow land (Ka.)(DEDR 3097).} s'arkara_ (usu. pl.) gravel, grit (AV.); s'arkara pebble (Skt.); sakkhara_ gravel, grit, potsherd (Pali); sand, gravel (Pkt.); sakkharilla gravelly (Pali); s'a_kra_ pl. small stones, flints (WPah.); xikar, xikaliya_ tartar on teeth (A.); sakira_ piece of gravel or grit, pebble (M.); sakara, sakuru, hakura, akura gravel, pebble, potsherd (Si.)(CDIAL 12337). s'arkara gravelly (Pa_n..); sa_kar gravel, broken brick (L.)(CDIAL 12408). Hard: kakkhat.a, khakkhat.a, kakkat.a solid, hard (Skt.); kakkhal.a rough, hard, cruel (Pali); kakkhad.a-, kakkhala rough (Pkt.); kaker.a_ hard (Ash.); keker (Kt.); kaker (Wg.); kuku hard, tight (Pr.); khakara_na, kaker- hard (Dm.); kakar.a_, kaxer.a_, xagalo_ (Pas'.); kakar. (Wot..); khakar.a, kakar. (Gaw.); khaker.a (Sv.); kha~_kar hard, dry, shrunken, decayed (H.); kakul.u hard, rough, severe (Si.); ka_kr.a_ stiff leather, large or stiff wick (H.); ka_kad., ka_kat. of firm or solid make (M.)(CDIAL 2587). Hard; sharp: karkara hard, firm (Skt.); kakkarata_, kakkariya roughness, harshness (Pali); kakkara hard, firm (Pkt.); kan.gara ice (Tir.Pas'.); kan.gal, karan.g ice (Psht.)[cf. karai be reduced from solid to liquid form (Ta.); karg to melt (Ko.)(DEDR 1292)]; kakkar frost, raw thong (L.); frost (P.); kakru ice (WPah.); ka_kara, ka~_kara dew (Or.); kakru~ rough (G.)(CDIAL 2819). karkas'a rough, hard (MBh.); kakkasa rough, harsh (Pali); kakassa roughness (Pali); kakkasa rough, hard (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2822). khas harsh, rough (to touch)(B.); khaskhas (B.); harsh sound (H.); khasakhasia_ harsh, rough (Or.); khahat.a_ rough (A.); khasuru gravel (K.); khahuro rough (S.); khasro rough, coarse, thick (N.)(CDIAL 3856).

1322.Image: spiral lines: cf. kan.go_re an ornamental cordon, groove etc.; spiral lines (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Constantly turning: cf. gham.gho_ra constantly turning (Pkt.); ghan.g(h)olna_, ghan.ghorna_ to stir round (H.)(CDIAL 4404). kan.kan.a turning round (Ka.lex.) kun.j a corner; an embroidered work on the four corners of a shawl (P.lex.)

1323.Image; water-drop: kan.kan.a a water-drop (Ka.lex.) kan.apala_yi (kan.a + pala_yi) a peculiar plough-like arrangement used in buffalo-race for spurting the water to the maximum height (Tu.lex.) agin., agin.i, aggavan.i water; this term, together with its other forms, is used only by educated lin.gavantas, especially in their mat.has (Ka.lex.) cf. arghya a respectful offering of water (Skt.lex.)

1324.Fetching: kan.apini fetching [< kon.d.apini < kon.d.ubarpini; kon.da to bring (Tu.); kon.d.a_t.o fondling](Tu.lex.)

1325.Image; crest: kan.kan.a a crest (Ka.lex.) ka_n.gor cornice (Kon.lex.) kan.gura a parapet, a battlement, a turret; kan.gureda_r having a parapet (P.lex.)

1326.Tin foils used in decoration: kan.guri tin foils used in decoration (Tu.lex.)

1327.Image: side-glance: kan.gad.e, kan.gad.e, kan.kad.e a side-glance, a leer (Ka.lex.) cf. kan.gal.a, kan.ga_l.a a blind person (Ka.lex.)

1328.Image: eye-hollow: kan.-gun.ike, kan.kul.ike a corner of the eye; kun.ike a corner; a hollow, a cavity (Ka.lex.)

1329.Image: upside down:{Echo word} kan.kan.i, kan.kan.e adv. upside down; kan.kan.emalan.kan.e adv. upside down (Tu.lex.) kan.kan. turning round; bhraman.a, tiruguvudu (Ka.lex.)

1330.Image: water-drop: kan.kan.a a water-drop (Ka.lex.)

1331.Image: pot: ka_n.ku < kan.g (Chinese) large earthen pot (Ta.lex.) cf. gha_ghari a kind of waterpt (S.); ghagri earthen pitcher (Or.); gha_gar waterpot (M.)(CDIAL 4403). kan.gan.a a small plate; kan.gan.a palla_yi a flat earthen plate (Tu.lex.) kan.gghaln. to rinse (a vessel, cloth); khan.ghal rinsing a vessel (P.lex.) gan.gal.a, gan.ga_l.a a circular metal vessel for holding water (Ka.M.); a metal plate for eating from (Ka.lex.) Cleanse; rinse; image: to overflow: kha~kha_l.vu~ to wash vigorously; kha~khol.vu~ to rinse, rummage (G.); kha~khorvu~ to scatter; kha~khervu~ to shake off dust; kha~ga_l.vu~ to rinse the mouth in the morning (G.); kha~ga_l.n.e~ to shake about in water (M.); khokhalun to cleanse, be rinsed of water and shaken about (K.); khakoln.o to gargle (Ku.); khaka_lnu to rinse (N.); kha~ga_lna_, kha~g(h)a_rn.a_ to rinse (H.); kha~gha_ln.a_, gha~gha_ln.a_ to rinse (a vessel)(P.)(CDIAL 3762). [For -khalun cf. kar..uvu rinse (Ta.)(DEDR 1369); cf. cullu_ mouthful of water (H.); cula_ gargling (P.)(CDIAL 4875); For the prefix, kha~- and semant. of 'cleaning, purification' cf. kan.g brazier, fireplace (K.)(CDIAL 2999)]. cf. ks.al flow, wash (Skt.)(CDIAL 3664). *a_ghala overflow, refuse (Skt.); a_hla_ overflow, inundation (H.)(CDIAL 1055). a_gha_rayati sprinkles (Skt.)(CDIAL 1057). a_gha_rayati sprinkles (TS.); a_jigharti sprinkles with fat (RV.); a_gha_ran.u to rinse (S.); agha_lan. (L.); ha~gha_ln.a_, ha~ga_ln.a_ (P.); a_gha_l.n.e~, agha_l.n.e~, aghal.n.e~ to rinse by shaking in water (M.)(CDIAL 1058). akha_lan. to clear (a watercourse)(L.); a_salan.em. to flow (of tide), rises up (OM.)(CDIAL 1024). accho_d.e_i sprinkles, dashes about (Pkt.); a_sud.n.e~ to shake (the winnowing fan)(M.)(CDIAL 1033). kar..ivu waste, refuse, leavings, dross (Ta.Ma.); kal.ivu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) kar..ippu what is rejected (Ma.); kar..alisu, kar..alcu to put aside, lose (Ka.)(DEDR 1356). To melt and mould as metal; to rinse, purify: kar..uvu to melt and mould, as metal (irumpar-a-k-kar..uvi)(Ci_vaka. 698); to wash, cleanse by washing, rinse, purify (kar..a_akka_l pal.l.iyul. vaittar-r-a_l : Kur-al., 840); to remove (aruvin-ai kar..u_u ma_ti mutalvan- : Man.i. 12,36); kar..uva_y purification, expiation from sin (Pur-ana_. 34,4); kar..uva_y-nilam green fields from which sods are taken (W.); kar..unar those who wash away dirt or sin (Ci_vaka. 2771); kar..uni_r water in which rice has been washed (Na_lat.i, 217)(Ta.lex.) ka_r..iya_n- washerman, dhoby (Ta.); kar..ukuka to wash, cleanse, wash off (Ma.); kar.t- (kayt-/kar.ty-) to wash (hands, face, child); kal.v- a.l bathroom (Ko.); kor. a purifier, in: kor. ot.- to purity (dairy) with dried buffalo dung (lit. to pour purifier)(To.); karcu, kaccu washing, water in which raw rice  has been washed; karcu to wash (Ka.); katt- (katti-) to wash (plate, hands); katt washing (Kod..); kacci to wash vessels (Kor.); kad.ugu, kad.gu, kad.uvu, kad.vu to wash, scrub, bathe, lave; n. water in which rice or anything has been washed (Te.); kahpa (kaht-) to lave, anoint, wash the face (Kui); gla_pinai to smear (Kuwi); xajjna_ to cleanse the head of, with the soapy clay called xajrna_ xajj (xajj earth, clay)(Kur.); kaje to wash as clothes (Malt.)(DEDR 1369).

1332.Image: brazier: kan.gr.i a small firepot used in Cashmere (P.lex.) cf. ka_gni a small fire (Skt.); kan.g brazier, fireplace (K.)(CDIAL 2999). ka_n.kai heat, feverishness, pyrexia (Ta.); ka_ka (Te.); ka_n.ke (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ka~_guru, ka~_gar portable brazier (K.); kan.gar portable large brazier (K.); ka~_gri_ small portable brazier (H.)(CDIAL 3006). a~ga_ri_ small hearth with embers in it (G.); an.ga_rika_, anga_rita_ portable fireplace (Skt.)(CDIAL 131). a~gt.i_ brazier (Konkan.i); agnis.t.ha fire-pan (A_pS'r.); an.gut.i smoke-hole (Dm.); agnis.t.ha_ that corner of the Yu_pa towards the fire (Pkt.); an.gut. fireplace, chimney (Phal.); a~gi_t.hi_ fireplace (S.); a~gi_t.ha_ stove (P.); a~gi_t.hi_, a~gi_t.t.hi_ small stove (P.); agt.hi hearth; get.he (WPah.); aget.ho portable fire-vessel (Ku.); a~get.hi (N.); a~n.gat.ha_ burning coal (A.); an.gat.ha_, an.get.ha_ fire-pan (Or.); a~get.ha_, a~get.hi_, a~gait.ha_ jeweller's fireplace (Bi.); a~gi_t.ha_ goldsmith's furnace; a~gi_t.hi_, a~get.hi_, a~get.i_ portable stove (H.); a~gi_t.hi_, a~get.hi_ (G.); a_m.gi_t.ha_ stove (OM.); a~gt.he~, a~gt.e~, a_gt.hi_, a_gt.i_, a_kt.i_ heap of kindled sticks (M.)(CDIAL 65). agnis.t.ha_ that corner of the sacrificial post which is nearest the fire (TS. v.i.3.4); agnis.t.hika_ fire-pan; agnis.t.ha fire-pan; agni-s'akat.i_ a vehicle carrying fire (A_pS'r.); agnis.t.ha placed near fire (S'Br. iii.7.2.4); in the As'vamedha sacrifice the eleventh yu_pa which is nearest the fire and to which the horse is tied; agny-aga_ra the place for keeping the sacred fire; agny-a_dhe_ya placing the fire on the sacrificial fireplace (AV. xi.7.8) (Vedic.lex.) akkin-it.t.i < agn.is.t.hika_ fire-pan, censer (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) aggit.ige, agit.ige, agis.t.ike, aggas.t.ige, aggit.aka, aggis.t.ake, aggis.t.i, aggis.t.ike, aggis.t.ige a potsherd used as a fire-pan or chafing dish, and also as a furnace; an.ga_radha_nike, an.ga_-s'akat.a, hasanti, hasani [The terms clearly appeard to be Tadbhavas of agni-is.t.ike] (Ka.lex.) akkin-i-t-ta_r..i earthen pot which holds the sacred domestic fire (Ta.lex.) an.garthai fireplace (Dm.)(CDIAL 129). an.ga_ra-dha_nike a portable fire-place; an.ga_ra-s'akat.i id. (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) aggit.t.ha_na fireplace (Skt.); a~_i~_te, an.ata~r (Wg.); en.gatai~ (Pas'.); a~_than (Shum.)(CDIAL 66). agnyaga_ra a house for keeping the sacred fire (S'Br.0; agnya_ga_ra (Ka_tyS'r.); agyaga_ra, agya_ga_ra house in which fire is kept (Pali); agiya_ri_ small fire-temple (G.); agya_ri_, ageri_ pit or house in which fire-worshippers keep their fire (M.)(CDIAL 67). a~ga_ri_ portable brazier (H.); an.ga_ri, an.ga_rita_ portable brazier (Skt.)(CDIAL 130). Image: charcoal-burner: yen.guru charcoal-burner (K.); i~gal., i~gl.a_ (M.); i~gl.o (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 125). an.garan, an.garani_ fireplace (Pas'.); an.ga_radha_ni_, an.ga_radha_nika_ portable stove (Skt.)(CDIAL 127). an.ggit.ha a large fire-place, receptacle for fire, a fire-stand; an.ggit.hi a small fire-place, a vessel for holding fire, a brazier, grate, hearth, chafing-dish, a chimney (P.lex.) a~gut.ea_, a~gut.e, a~gus.t.e a sort of brick-kiln; kiln (Kon.lex.) awa kiln; achia a fireplace opening for pot; it.hulak, ut.hulak a rude fireplace (Santali. lex.) Glowing charcoal: an.ga_ra glowing charcoal (RV.); an.ga_raka (Skt.); in.ga_la (Skt.); an.ga_ra charcoal (Pali); am.ga_ra, am.ga_raya, am.ga_la, am.ga_laya (Pkt.); angar charcoal; vana_r, yangar (Gypsy); an.a_ fire (Ash.); an.a (Kt.); an.a_ (Gmb.); anege (Pr.); an.gar (Dm.); na_r (Tir.Chilis Gau.K.Psht.); an.ga_r (Pas'.); a~_r (Shum.Pas'.); an.ga_r (Gaw.Kal.Kho.Bshk.); an.a_ (Tor.); aga_r (Mai.); an.go_r (Phal.); aga_r, haga_r (Sh.); an.aru charcoal (S.); an.ga_r (L.); an.gya_r, an.gya_ra_ (P.); a~gea_r (EP.); an.ga_ro~, pl. an.ga_ra~ (WPah.); an.a_r, d.an.a_r (Ku.); an.a_r (N.); a_n.ga_r, en.ga_r (A.); a_n.ga_r, a_n.ra_ (B.); an.ga_ra (Or.); a~garwa_h man who cuts sugar-cane into lengths for the mill = pakwa_h (Bi.); am.ga_ra (OMth.); a~gor (Mth.); a~ga_r, a~ga_ra_ (H.); a~ga_r, a~ga_ro (G.); a~ga_r (M.); an.gura (Si.); a_r, a~_i_ fire (Wg.); an.ari_k charcoal (Wg.); in.gha_l.a glowing embers (Pali); im.ga_ra, im.ga_la, im.ga_laya (Pkt.); yen.gur charcoal (K.)(CDIAL 125). an.alawat. fire stone (Ash.)(CDIAL 128). cf. an-al fire, heat (as of fever), glow (Ta.)(DEDR 327). kan.ku cinder, glowing coal (Ta.lex.) an.ga_raka charcoal (Skt.); an.ga_raka red like charcoal (Pali); Mars (Pali); am.ga_raya (Pkt.); an.a_ro Tuesday (S.)(CDIAL 126). an.ga_rya_ heap of embers (Skt.); an.ga_ri_ya fit for making charcoal (Skt.); an.ari_k, an.gric charcoal (Wg.); an.gerik black charcoal (Pas'.); a~gerik (Shum.); an.geri_ charcoal; an.geri_s.i black charcoal (Phal.); an.a_ri sparks (Ku.)(CDIAL 131). angis't charcoal (Pers.); anglis (OPruss.)(CDIAL 65). an.ga_ra, an.gara charcoal, either heated or not heated; in.gal.a, kol.l.i, ken.d.a (Ka.); ashes (Ka.M.); an.ga_raka a sectarial mark made with charred wood or ashes (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ingl.o, ingl.ea_ charcoal; kend., kend.a_ burning charcoal (Kon.lex.) an.ga_ra burning coal (S'Br. iii.9.3.26; S'Br. x.34.9); an.ga_ra_-vaks.ayan.a a pot in which burning coal is extinguished (Vedic.lex.) Sacred fire for protracted soma sacrifice: an.kit.t.o_mam < agni-s.t.o_ma variety of jyo_tis.t.o_ma which is the main type of so_ma sacrifice (Uttarara_. Tikku. 117); akkin-i-t.t.o_mam id. (Maccapu. Tat.a_ka. 26); an.kiyan.-kat.avul. Agni (Tol. Po. 142, Urai.); an.ki-y-a_ta_n-am initiatory ceremony of placing the sacred fire on the altar and consecrating it (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 29,33); Images: fire; sun: an.ki < agni fire; Agni (Kantapu. Pa_yira. 53); sun (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 30,14); akki < aggi (Pkt.) < agni (Skt.) fire (Tiruvil.ai. Caman.a. 38); god of fire (Civataru. Can-an-a. 51)(Ta.lex.) agnis.t.o_ma a protracted sacrifice extending over several days in spring (Ka.lex.) agnis.t.o_ma a protracted ceremony... the performer is a brahmin who maintains the sacred fire, the offering is the soma, the deities are Indra etc. and the number of priests required is 16; the ceremonies continue for five days. It is the chief modification of jyo_tis.t.o_ma (VS. xxvii.42)(Vedic.lex.) Image: oven: akul oven (Ta.)(T.E.D.) Fireplace: a_hula_, auhla_ second opening in a fireplace on which an extra pot can be placed (P.)(CDIAL 1075). ahia_, ahya_ a small fireplace improvised by digging in the ground (Or.); a_dadha_ti adds (fuel to fire)(RV.)(CDIAL 1167). a_dhi receptacle (BhP.); ahia_, ahya_ a small fireplace improvised by digging in the ground (Or.)(CDIAL 1167). a_gut.em, a_gut.ea_ furnace, kiln; a_vo, a_vea_ kiln-clay (Kon.lex.) cf. at.uppu oven (Ta.lex.) akaital to burn (Kalit. 139,26)(Ta.lex.) a_ra_na_ to warm oneself, to grow cool (Go.); a_r-ike, ar-ike state of growing or being dry or parched (Ka.); a_r-u to be extinguished, be cooled (Te.); a.rp- to make to dry (Kol.); arta'a_na_ to spread out in the sun for drying (Kur.)(DEDR 404). agnidha_na receptacle for the sacred fire (RV.); agya_n. tinderbox (WPah.); aghya_nu, agenu a fire for sitting round (N.)(CDIAL 60). aggia_ria_ fire-worship (Pkt.); agya_ri_ kindling the sacred fire (H.); ageri_ throwing ghee on the fire during ancestor-worship (M.)(CDIAL 58). aggika fire-worshipper (Pali); a_gnika belonging to the preparation of the sacred fire (Ka_tyS'r.)(CDIAL 57). agya_ri_, ageri_ pit or house in which fire-worshippers keep their fire (M.); agyaga_ra, agya_ga_ra house in which fire is kept (Pali); agiya_ri_ small fire-temple (G.)(CDIAL 67). akar.. to dig out (Ta.); akar..uka, akir..uka to dig out (Ma.); akir.., akar.. trenth, ditch, moat (Ma.); agad.ta id. (Te.); arxna_ to dig (Kur.); arge id. (Malt.); ad.g-, ar.g- to dig (Ga.)(DEDR 11). cf. khe_ya needing to be dug (Pa_n..); ditch (Skt.); xev f. hole, opening, window (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3923). akkarati_pam row of 51 lights set up as a votive offering in temples (Parata. Or..ipi. 42); akkara_latti 51 lights arranged in concentric circles in a circular metallic tray and waved in front of the main shrine as a special thanksgiving offering to the deity (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Civapu_cai. 48)(Ta.lex.) a_kuti < a_huti oblation offered in the consecrated fire (Tiruman. 214) (Ta.lex.) hu offers libation (Skt.); hunati id. (Skt.); hune sacrifices (MBh.)(CDIAL 14139). ho_tr.ka assistant of the ho_tr. priest (S'Br.); ho_traka (AitBr.); hottiya member of a sect of va_naprastha ascetics (Pkt.); wuto_, uto_ high priest (Kt.); wuta_, uto_ (Pr.)(CDIAL 14176). akka-ca_lai metal works (Cilap. 16,126, Urai); mint; akkaca_laiyar goldsmiths, jewellers (Ta.lex.) Image; sun: a_hal., a_hl.i_, ahl.i_ glare; a_hal.n.e~, ahal.n.e~ to be burnt by hot blasts (of sun or fire)(M.); a_bha_ light, flash, colour (MBh.); lustre, splendour (Pali.Pkt.); a_ha_ (Pkt.); a_he, a_hi_, ahi_, aha_i_ glow of fire, glare, blast of hot air (OM.); eb-ikana peeping (Si.) (CDIAL 1227). a_bha_ti shines towards (RV.); blazes (Pali)(CDIAL 1229). cf. arka flash, ray, sun (RV.); akka sun (Pali.Pkt.) (CDIAL 624). Image: sun: an.ki sun (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 30,14); fire; agni (Kantapu. Pa_yira. 53); an.kicuma_li a deity representing the sun, one of the tuva_taca_tittar (Ta.lex.) axrna_ to warm oneself (by the fire, in the sun)(Kur.); awge to expose to the heat of the sun or fire; awgre to bask in the sun, warm oneself to a fire (Malt.)(DEDR 18).

1333.Image: comb: kan.ggha a large comb used by Sikhs; kan.ggha hon.a to be combed; kan.ggha wahun.a to dress with a comb, to comb; kan.gghi a small comb for men and a large comb for women (P.lex.) cf. ka~_gar. a weaver's instrument (G.); kan.ghi_ comb (L.)(CDIAL 2598). cf. kan.katam < kan.kata comb (Ta.); kan.kata (Ka.); kan.gadam (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

1334.Image: squares: kan.gr.e the name of a game, in which boys draw lines with charcoal on stones in two different places (P.lex.) kan.ku row, regular order (Ira_mana_. A_ran.i. 14); shred, piece (W.)(Ta.lex.)

1335.Image: finger: kun.ike a finger (Ka.lex.)

1336.Image: kite: cf. kan.kam common kite (Iraku. Mi_t.ci. 48)(Ta.lex.)

1337.Image: waterfowl: kan.gra a young crow; kan.gre young crows (P.lex.) kan.kan.am a waterfowl (Ta.); kan.kan.amu (Te.); kam.ka (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 1083). cf. kan.ka heron (VS.)(CDIAL 2595). ka_ko_lam < ka_ko_la jungle crow, raven (Uri. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) Image: partridge: cf. kakkare partridge (Kol.); ka_kral id. (Pa.); kakra_nj, kakranj id. (Go.); karkara a gallinaceous bird (Skt.); kakkara jungle cock (Pali)(DEEDR 1078).

1338.Image: fish: kan.gghi a fish of the perch family, ambassis baculis (P.lex.) Image: large cowrie: gon.ga a large cowrie, shell (Tu.); gongo prawn (Kui); goskori shrimp (Kuwi)(DEDR 2036). kokkarai chank with spiral turning to the right (Ta.lex.) kocu prawn, lobster (Ma.)(DEDR 2044). gho_n.gha shell (Sus'r..); bivalve shell (Sus'r.); gho~gha_ snail, cockleshell (H.); ghogho periwinkle shell (S.); ghogha_ a small river shell (P.); cockleshell, snail (H.); gogal, gu_gal id. (H.)(CDIAL 4514). ga_n.gat. shrimp, prawn (L.) ga_n.gat.a (Skt.); ga~_gat.u (S.)(CDIAL 4109). ko_nto shrimp, prawn (Kond.a)(DEDR 2045). sunkat. bigger shrimp, a kind of crustacean; ga_lmbi a small shrimp (Kon.lex.)

1339.Image: coulter of the plough: kan.ggi the coulter of a plough (both the iron point and the piece of wood to which it is attached) (P.lex.)

1340.Saffron: ka~ku~ saffron (G.); cancanum (Pliny.Gk.)(CDIAL 3214). ka~kotri_ invitation to a marriage party (conveyed in a letter dyed red)(G.)(CDIAL 3215). kun.kumam saffron, bulbous-rooted plant, crocus sativus (M.M. 775); a kind of red paint (Kalla_. 17,34); saffron powder worn on the forehead (Ta.lex.) kun.kuma saffron, crocus sativus (Sus'r.Pali); kum.kuma (Pkt.); kon.g (K.); kun.gu_ a bright red dye used for marking forehead (L.); kun.gu_ red paste for the forehead, saffron (P.); ku~ku~ turmeric (G.); ku~ku~_ saffron (M.); kokum, kokun. (Si.)(CDIAL 3214).

1341.Image: dance: kan.gilo a kind of dance among a_didra_vid.as (Tu.lex.)

1342.Bracelet: kan.kan.a bracelet (MBh.); kan.kan.i_ ornament with bells (Skt.); kan.kana bracelet (Pali); kam.kan.a (Pkt.); kangun (K.); kangan.u (S.); kangin.i_ bracelet (S.); kangan. (L.P.); kangun. (L.); kangan (P.H.); kangna_ (H.N.); ka~gna_ (Bi.); ka~gni_ (Bi.); kanna_ (Bhoj.); kangn.i_ (M.); kankan. (WPah.); kankn.o~ (WPah.); ka~_kan (B.); ka~_kan. (G.M.); ka~kna_ (Bi.); kakana_ (Aw.); kakna_ (H.)(CDIAL 2597). kan.kan.am bangle, bracelet, wristlet (Tiruva_ca. 9,19)(Ta.lex.) Tinkles: {Echo word}: kan.kan.a (-pp-, -tt-) to sound, rattle, jingle, tinkle; kankan.-en-al tintinnabulation, tinkling as of bells (Ta.); kan.a an imitative sound; kan.akan.a the ringing sound of unbroken earthen or metal vessels, bells, etc., when struck with knuckles; gan.a, gan.agan.a, gan.al, gan.il imitative sound of the ringing of bells (Ka.); gan.ilu tinkling; gan.an.n.u a tinkling sound (Tu.); gan.agan.a the ringing of tinkling of bells (Te.)(DEDR 1162). ghan.iya thunder; ghan.ghan.a_iya indistinct noise (Pkt.); ghanghan jingle (Mth.); ghanghana_na_ to jingle (H.); ghan.ghan., ghan.a_n. tinkling (G.); ghan.ghan.n.e~ to ring, clang; ghan.a_n.a_ with a loud clang (M.)(CDIAL 4425). khan.akhan.a_yate_ cracks, tinkles (BhP.); khan.at, khan.i_kr.ta (Skt.); khan.khan.ai tinkles (Pkt.); khan.a_n.ne~ to clank (M.); khan.a_n. loud clanking (M.); khan.akkhan.ai (Pkt.); khankhan jingle (N.); khankhana_unu to jingle (N.); khankhan ringing (B.); tinkling (H.); khan.khan. a sound produced in the nose when coughing (Or.); with a clang (M.); khankhana_na_ to tinkle (H.)(CDIAL 3791). khan.ko, khan.khanvu~ (G.); khan.khan.n.e~ to clang (M.)(CDIAL 3791).

1343.Bound by a religious vow; bracelet: kan.kan.a-baddha a man who has a kan.kan.a tied round his wrist for any good, favourable or happy rites; one who devotes himself to the accomplishment of any good or bad object; kan.kan.a, kan.kal.a an ornament of the wrist, a bracelet; a string or ribbon tied round the wrist; any ornament or trinket (Ka.lex.) [cf. kaccam agreement, binding (Ta.inscr.); kaccan.kam id. (Tiv. Na_yc. 5,8)(Ta.lex.)] kan.kan.an.-kat.t.u-tal to make a vow to accomplish something, by tying a cord round one's wrist; to be pertinacious in the realization of an aim (Ta.lex.) kan.ggan.a a parti-coloured thread tied round the wrist of a bridegroom or a bride; a Hindu marriage rite, the bridegroom unties the kan.ggan.a of the bride and vice versa; kan.ggan. an ornament worn on the wrists by men and women; gold or silver bracelet; hatth de kan.ggan. nun. arsi ki to see the bracelet on your arm you require no looking-glass (P.lex.) kan.ggan.i, kan.ggun.i, kan.ggn.i a small ornament (especially of iron) worn on the wrist by men and women (P.lex.) cf. kan.kan.am < kan.kan.a a string tied with a piece of turmeric to the right wrist of the bridegroom and the left wrist of the bride at the commencement of the wedding ceremonies, also round the arm of such as bind themselves by a religious vow; bangle, bracelet, wristlet (Tiruva_ca. 9,19)(Ta.lex.) cf. kan.kan.a bracelet (MBh.)(CDIAL 2597).

1344.Supervisor: kankut, kankut. appraising the produce of a field; kan.oi an officer appointed by Government to value a crop (P.lex.) kan.ga_n.u, kan.ga_n. to perceive with the eyes (in opposition to mentally)(Ka.lex.) khan. < khan (Pers.) a title among the Mohammedans and especially of nobles and of those of Pathan or Rajput descent; a common adjunct to Pathan or Afghan names; khan. bahadar a title of honour conferred upon Mohammedans, men of respectability and faithful service, by the British Government (P.lex.) cf. kan.ka_n.i supervisor (s'ri_-ma_he_cuvara-kan.ka_n.i : S.I.I. iii,43); kan.ka_n.i overseer, supervisor, superintendent (Cir-upa. 40); inspector of crops, measurer of grain on a village establishment; supervisor of coolies in plantations; supervision (T.A.S. i,163); kan.ka_n.ittal to oversee, supervise, superintend (Ta.insc.); id. (Ma.); kan.ka_n.am supervision (Tiruva_lava_. Na_t.t.uc. 4); watch kept over fields or produce on behalf of the landlord; permission granted by a landlord to his tenant to harvest his crop; fee paid in kind for watching the sheaves or grain (Ta.lex.) cf. kachan.u to measure (S.); ka_chu land-measurer (S.)(CDIAL 2617). For semant. 'superision of plantations' cf.: ka_ garden, forest, pleasure-grove (Ta.); ka_n- jungle; ka_l forest; ka_n-am woodland, grove, forest tract, flower-garden; ka_n-akam jungle; ka_n-al grove or forest on seashore, forest on slope of a hill; ka_van.am garden, tope, grove; ka_vam forest (Ta.); ka_nam, ka_nakam jungle; ka_nal very dry jungle (Ma.); ka_ forest; ka_nu id. (Ka.); ka_na forest, jungle, wood (Tu.); forest (Te.)(DEDR 1418). cf. ka_nana forest (Skt.)(CDIAL 3028). cf. kaman, khamna forest (Go.); kaman forest (Pe.); kambare uncultivated ground (Malt.)(DEDR 1228).

1345.The plain; image: embankment: cf. kan.ku ridge to retain water in paddy fields, dam (Ta.); kag deep pool in river (Ko.)(DEDR 1085). a~_khn.e~, a~_kn.e~, a~kn.e~ sloping divisions of a flat earth roof for water to roll off (M.)(CDIAL 102). Plain of high land: ahra_, ahri_, a_har long embankment thrown round a plain of high land in which rice is grown, the plain itself (Bi.); a_ro embankment, quay (G.)(CDIAL 1165). a_ira_, aira_ embankment made to hold up rain (P.)(CDIAL 1000). Sandhill: ekka sand cast ashore by rivers (Ma.); ekkar, ekkal sandy place, sand heaped up (as by the waves), sandhill (Ta.); ekkali sand washed down by a river (Te.); ekku to be heaped up (as sand on the shore)(Ta.)(DEDR 770). Image: land divided into beds: accu ridge in a field (Ta.); accu-k-kat.t.u (-k-kat.t.i-) to form a ridge around a field (Ta.); field with ridges, land divided into beds to admit and retain water for the cultivation of paddy (Ta.); accu kat.t.u se_yu to make a ridge along the boundary (Te.Inscr.)(DEDR 49). aks.a strength, strong support (Ka.lex.) acca, accu, accukat.t.u, accakat.t.u a well-defined or proper boundary or proportion; suitable order (Ka.lex.) Image: division crosswise: gan.d. a cross, ridge, or embankment, a division crosswise; gan.d.e to place at right angles to something else, cross, transverse; gan.d. gan.d. id. (Santali.lex.) ad.d.amu cross-wise (Te.lex.)

1346.Millet: kan.ggan. Italian millet, pennisetum italicum; kan.ggan. sajji a plant from which sajji, an impure mass of various potash and soda salts is made (P.); kan.gar. dry useless jawar stalk with a white rib on the leaves; kan.ki straw of wheat (P.lex.) kan.ku-ro_kam small blisters on the skin, resembling grains of millet (Ci_varat. 144)(Ta.lex.) kan.h a stalk, a reed, a kind of plant, saccharum spontaneum found only in the marshy portions of lands adjoining the rivers (P.lex.) kan.ggan.i, kan.ggun.i, kan.ggn.i a kind of grain, millet, pennisetum italicum; an aromatic bitter seed, celastrus paniculata held in much repute for diseases of the stomach and bowels; kan.ak kamadi san.ghn.i; t.awin. t.awin. kan.ggan.i sow wheat and sugarcane close together, but kan.ggan.i scatterd (P.lex.) cf. ka~_g, ka~_gu_ millet, panicum italicum (M.)(CDIAL 2605). cf. kan.ki an ear of jo_l.a or sejje, th grains of which have been removed (Ka.); an ear or head of corn (Te.)(DEDR 1084). cf. kan.ku black Italian millet, panicum indicum (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. ka~_gn.el oil made from the millet panicum italicum (M.)(CDIAL 2608). cf. ka~_gar.u holcus saccharatus, stubble; ka~_gir.i_ wheat stalk, seed of abrus precatorius (S.); ka_n.guka a kind of corn (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 3000). kan.ki, kan.ku an ear of jo_l.a or sejje (also of some other corn) the grains of which have been removed (Ka.Te.)(sun.kiganu, hurihalu, bin.kina beleven.d.u, kan.kiya, sun.ka, nasugunni i_ a_r-u sun.kidare bid.avu: (1) a collector of customs, (2) parched corn or pulse mixed with salt etc., (3) pompous prostitute, (4) ear of jo_l.a, (5) toll or customs, (6) a plant stinging like nettles, cowhage, carpopogon pruriens; these six will not leave once touched. (Sarvajapada: loc. cit. Ka.lex.) Millet: *an.gu embedded in: priyan.gu panicum italicum (VS.); sinapis ramosa (MBh.); priyan.guka_ panicum italicum (Sa_mavBr.); piyan.gu a panic seed, a medicinal plant (Pali); piam.gu millet, a partic. kind of tree ( = piama_-)(Pkt.); pinga panicum italicum (K.); pi~gvi_, pi~gi_ heart-pea, cardiospermum halicaccabum; pi~gve~, pi~ge~ its seed (M.); piyangu millet; puvan.gu the plant sinapis nigra (Si.); puvan.gu, pavan.ga the lofty tree myristica horsfieldia (Si.)(CDIAL 8976). pi~vel, pi~gel oil made from the seed of cardiospermum halicacabum or heart-pea (M.)(CDIAL 8978). Image: sprout: an.kuram sprout (Periyapu. Tiruja_. 53)(Ta.lex.) akaital to flourish (Maturaik. 92); to sprout (Kalit. 74); akaittal to sprout (Pur-ana_. 159); to proceed at intervals (Tol. Po. 541, Urai.); to raise (Ta.lex.) Sprout; seedling: aka germ, bud, shoot (Ma.); age seedling, sprout (Ka.); akai to sprout, flourish (Ta.); age paddy seedling (Kod.); akhua_ seed-bud, sprout, shoot (Kur.); agge the shoot of a branch (Tu.); akra_rna_ to germinate, shoot, sprout (Kur.)(DEDR 15). Yield a harvest: qe to ripen, become mature (Malt.); aiyali (at-) to yield crops (Kuwi); a_ga (a_gi-) to bear fruit, yield a harvest (Kui); a_itta_na_ to ripen (of makka, juar, gram); aitta_na_ to ripen (of corn); aiya_na_ to be ripe; caus. aisahta_na_ (Go.)(DEDR 339). Ripening: agga_nde in future (L.); aga_t, aga~_t adv. early (of sowing or ripening); aga_t the early grains (M.)(CDIAL 89). a_kkam prosperity, creation (Ta.); a_ka being, so as to be (Ma.); agu, avu (ayi having become; allomorph ka_-) to be, become (Te.)(DEDR 333). an.kura sprout (Skt.); an.kura (Pa.); am.kura (Pkt.); a~_kuro (N.); a~_kur (B.Mth.); a~kura_ (H.); a~_ku_r tender spike of a tree (M.); a_n.kuriba_ to cut off ears of ripe rice (Or.); akura, akara sprout, tumour (Si.)(CDIAL 109). a~gu_ru sprout (S.); a~ku_r, a~ku_ra_ (H.); an.guri_ blade of corn when it first appears (L.)(CDIAL 112). cf. aks.a eye; akhulo joint of sugarcane (Ku.); a~_kh sprout in the joint of sugar-cane (H.)(CDIAL 23). a~ghu sprout (S.)(CDIAL 111). a_khu sugar-cane (B.Or.); a_k sugar-cane sprout (H.)(CDIAL 46). un.garna_ to sprout (P.); un.garan. (L.); a~gurn.o (Ku.); a~kural (Bhoj.); a~kurn.e~ (M.)(CDIAl 110). cf. Bhoj. form concordant with: kural corn-ear, spike, stalk, sheath of millet or plantain (Ta.); koral.u an ear of corn (Tu.)(DEDR 1775). korali Italian millet, setaria italica (M.M. 893); white Italian millet, panicum glaucum (M.M. 894); kural corn-ear, spike (Maturaik. 272); koralu id. (Tu.); kural stalk, sheath of millet or plantain (Pur-ana_. 168,6); Italian millet (Ta.); korra id. (Te.); koral.e id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) kan.ki, kan.ku an ear of jo_l.a or sejje, the grains of which have been removed (Ka.); kan.ki an ear or head of corn (Te.)(DEDR 1084). jeki, jiki the small stalk on which a grain of paddy hangs (Pe.); jakehin id. (Mand..); re_ga id. (?Kui); je_ka head of rice (Kuwi); jengu_ (pl. jekana) ear of paddy (Kuwi); je_ngu (pl. je_ka) head of rice (Kuwi)(DEDR 2750).

1347.Mushroom: kesavu mushroom (Ka.); qejo a kind of mushroom (Malt.); kacaka id. (Skt.)(DEDR 1935). ot mushroom; ot d.an.d.it stem of mushroom; chata head of mushroom; bin. ot poisonous mushroom (Santali.lex.) For chata cf. chatra, catra a parasol, an umbrella (Skt.Ka.); a mushroom (Ka.); chatraka mushroom (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

1348.Image: male buffalo: ka_sara a male buffalo (Skt.Ka.); ka_sari a female buffalo (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ka_ca_ < ka_sara buffalo (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

1349.Bronze: kam.sa_l.aka a male gold- or silver-smith (Ka.); kam.sa_lava_d.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ka~_ja_ adj. of metal (L.); ka_sa_ jar (L.); ka~_so bronze, pewter, white metal (N.); ka_m.sya made of bell-metal (Ka_tyS'r.); bell-metal (Ya_j.); cup of bell-metal (MBh.); ka_m.syaka bell-metal (Skt.); kam.sa bronze (Pali); kam.sa bell-metal, drinking vessel, cymbal (Pkt.); ka_sa id. (Pkt.); kas-kut. metal alloy (N.); ka~_h bell-metal (A.); ka~sa_ (Or.); ka~_sa_ (B.Bi.H.); base metal (Bhoj.); ka~_s bell-metal (Bhoj.); ka~su~ (G.); ka~_se~ (M.); ka~_s'e~ bronze (Konkan.i); kasa bell-metal (Si.); ka~_iha~_ bell-metal (L.); ka~_ssi~_, ka~_si~_ (P.); ka~_si_ (H.)(CDIAL 2987). kase_ra_ metal worker (L.); worker in pewter (P.Bi.H.); kasero maker of brass pots (N.)(CDIAL 2988). ka_m.syaka_ra worker in bell-metal or brass (Ya_j.com.); kam.saka_ra (Skt.); kasa_r maker of brass pots (N.); ka~ha_r worker in bell-metal (A.); ka~_sa_ri pewterer, brazier, coppersmith (B.); ka~sa_ri_ (Or.); kasa_ri_ maker of brass pots (H.); ka~sa_ro, kasa_ro coppersmith (G.); ka~_sa_r, ka_sa_r worker in white metal; ka_sa_rd.a_ contemptuous term for the worker in white metal (M.)(CDIAL 2989). kam.sabhan.d.a brass ware (Pali); ka_sa~_d.i_, ka_sa~d.i_ metal vessel of a partic. kind (M.)(CDIAL 2992). kam.sa metal cup (AV.); bell-metal (Skt.); bronze dish (Pali); kajho bell-metal (S.); ka~_h gong (A.); ka~sa_ big pot of bell-metal (Or.); ka_so (= ka~_so?) bell-metal tray for food, food (OMarw.); ka~_sa_ cymbals (G.); kenzu clay or copper pot (K.)(CDIAL 2576). kasti_ra tin (Skt.); kathi_r tin, pewter (H.); pewter (G.); kathi_l, kathi_la_ tin, pewter (H.); kahti_l tin; kathle~ large tin vessel (M.)(CDIAL 2984). cf. kacam bell-metal; cymbal; goglet, drinking vessel (Ta.lex.) kaciyam a minor mineral < ka_m.sya (Ta.lex.) Bell-metal: kacam bell-metal, drinking vessel (Ta.); kacaka_ran brazier (Ta.); koc brass (To.); kocxo.rn man who makes brass vessels, clever worker (To.); kacu, kaca white copper or brass, bell-metal (Ka.); a vessel made of bell-metal etc.(Ka.); kacaga_r-a brazier, coppersmith (Ka.); kaci, kacu bell-metal (Tu.); kaciga_re brazier (Tu.); kancu bell-metal, bronze; kancara bell-metal work (Te.); kanz.u (z. = c) bell-metal, bronze (Kuwi); kam.sa bell-metal, brass, white copper; vessel made of metal (Skt.)(DBIA 67). ka_n.keyam gold; ka_n.keya-t-tor..ir- kammiyar (Iraku. Tikku. 189)(Ta.lex.) Copper work; brazier: kan- copper work, copper; kan-n-a_n- brazier (Ta.); bell-metal worker, one of the divisions of the Kamma_l.a caste (Ta.lex.) kanna_n id. (Ma.)(DEDR 1402). kan- workmanship (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 5,8,3); kan-mam (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,2,7); karumam (Ta.lex.) kan-mi labourer (Pa_rata. Tiraupati ma_lai. 64); one who duly performs religious rites (Tiruman. 536); official (S.I.I. iii,135); kan- stone; kan-me_ler..uttu inscription on a stone, expressive of that which is stable and enduring (Va_kkun.. 2)(Ta.lex.) karumam action, work, deed; business, profession, occupation (Kur-al., 266); religious rites; duties that are enjoined by the S'a_stras; moral duty, specific obligation (Te_va_. 897, 10); karuman, karumakan-, karuma_n- blacksmith (Ta.); karuma_n id. (Ma.); karuma-vinaian- one who officiates as priest in conducting the religious rites and ceremonies performed by the householder (Cilap. 26,40)(Ta.lex.)

1350.Vitriol: ka_cam blue vitrol (Ta.lex.) ka_si_sa green vitriol (Sus'r.); ka_s'i_s'a (Skt.); kasis green sulphate of iron, copperas (N.); ka_si_sa (Or.); kasi_s blue or green vitriol (H.); ka_hi_ (H.); hira_-kas, hira_-kas'i_ green vitriol, copperas (M.); kahijan.u to become coated with verdigris (S.)(CDIAL 3140).

1351.Treasurer: gajavara treasurer (Skt.); gam.navara (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 3963). ka_ca_n.a, ka_cana wealth (Ka.lex.) kacan-a_ < khaza_na_ (U.) treasury (W.)(Ta.lex.) Treasury: gaja grainstore; treasury (Skt.); gamni-dramga treasure house (Dardic); gonj storeroom (Kho.)(CDIAL 3961). Store; treasury: gra_hy to be seized (RV.); gajjha, gejjha (Pkt.); gajjha_ store, heap, plenty, wealth (H.)(CDIAL 4385). khaza_ci treasurer (U.); khaza_na_ treasury, public treasury (U.); kaca_na_, kaja_na_ treasury, public treasury (Ta.); kaca_n-ci, kaja_nji treasurer, cashier (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) gaja, gaje a store-room, a treasury; a mine; a tavern (Ka.lex.) Treasury: khaja_ne, kaja_ni, khaji_ne a treasury; treasure (Ka.); khaja_na_, khaji_na_ (M.H.); khaja_ci a treasurer, a cash-keeper (Ka.Te.H.)(Ka.lex.)

1352.Gold: kasavaram kad.avara gold; kad.avara a treasure (Ka.lex.)

1353.Image: god of hunting: kaca-wir the god of hunting (Kal.) (CDIAL 3113). ka_cala de_vi a deity; ka_calu name of a village (Ka.lex.) kacca_lai a S'iva shrine in Conjeevaram (Tan.t.i. 95,13, Urai.) Image: offering to a ferocious deity: ka_yppu produce of a tree, crop of fruit or grain (Ta.); ka_pu (Te.); ka_ypu (Ma.); ka_yppu-maram, ka_ymaram fruit-bearing tree (Ta.); ka_ympan-ai fruit-bearing palmyra (J.); ka_ympa_l.ai flower calyx of the fruit-bearing palmyra tree (W.); ka_y-mat.ai offering of fruits, commonly to a ferocious deity (J.); ka_ya_-maram barren tree (Pat.t.in-at. Tiruppa_. Tiruve_kam. Ma_. 21)(Ta.lex.) kasuvu, kasavu strength, power; the nutrimental principle as of soils (Ka.); kasa id. (M.)(Ka.lex.)

1354.Image: canopy: khajaka an awning, a canopy (Skt.Ka.); khajava id., candro_daya, vita_na, ullo_ca, me_lkat.t.u (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1355.Image: man-like wooden idol: kashau a particular wooden idol formed like a man (Wg.); kas'yapa class of divine beings associated with Praja_pati; of semi-divine genii regulating the course of the sun (AV.); name of a mythical r.s.i (VS.); kassava, ka_sava name of a family of r.s.i-s (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2969). gan.d.au, gan.d.a_l ancestor image (Kal.)(CDIAL 3998). kaccu-c-ca_ttutal to tie with bands of tape an idol to its va_kan-am or a va_kan-am to its poles, for a procession (W.); kaccai broad tape; kaccai-kat.t.utal to gird up one's loins, solemnly determine to do a thing (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a.)(Ta.lex.)

1356.Earth: ka_s'yapi the earth (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ka_cin-i < ka_s'ini_ earth (Pu. Ve. 9,42, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) kas'yapa name of a r.s.i, the husband of Aditi and Diti, and thus the father both of gods and demons; he is often called Praja_pati; ka_s'yapa a god; a demon; ka_s'yape_ya Garud.a; gods and demons; ka_rs.n.i an epithet of the god of love (Skt.lex.) ka_cipan- a r.s.i said to be the father of de_vas by Aditi, and of asuras by Diti (Val.l.uvama_. 14)(Ta.lex.) kas'yapa name of a r.s.i, a descendant of Mari_ci, and the husband of Aditi and twelve other daughters of Daks.a; kas'yapa-nandana Garud.a; kasava, kasama a proper name; kasama-maci (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ke_carar < khe_-cara lit., those who move in the aerial regions; Vidhya_dharas, a class of demigods (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 104)(Ta.lex.) ke_s'avan- < ke_s'a-va Vis.n.u (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,7,1); Cho_la king; ke_s'avar-ku-t-to_r..an- lit. the friend of Kr.s.n.a, Arjuna (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

1357.Image: scorpion, crab: kaca kupi scorpion (kupi crab)(Pe.Kuwi); kaca kupe id. (Mand..); kasa a bite, sting (Kui)(DEDR 1097). kaccu, karcu to bite; to sting; to smart, to gripe, to ache; kacca_t.a mutual biting; kaccu biting; an incision (Ka.lex.) Scorpion: kharju_raka scorpion (Skt.); khajuro centipede (N.); khajria_ (Or.); khaju_ra_ (H.); khajura_ twisted (of thread)(H.)(CDIAL 3829). Bite: kaccu (kacci-) to bite, gnaw, nibble (nursery)(Ta.); koc to bite (To.); kaccu, karcu to bite, sting (Ka.); qaswe to eat greedily, nip off with the teeth (Malt.)(DEDR 1097). kar-i to chew, eat by biting or nibbling (Ta.); kar-uvu (kar-uvi-) to nibble as a rat (Ta.); kar-ur.. bridle, bit (Ta.); kar-ampuka to nibble, gnaw (Ma.); kajepuni to chew, husk with the teeth or beak (Tu.); kar-acu to bite, gnaw (Te.)(DEDR 1390). kaccuni to bite (Tu.); kacc id. (Kol.Pa.); to sting (Pa.Ga.)(DEDR 1097). Itch: kajji, gajji scab, itch (Ka.); kajju itch (Ka.); kajji itch (Kod..); gajji itch, scab (Tu.Te.); kasi itching, desire (Te.); khaj itch (Nk.); kajra id. (Pa.); kajra ringworm (Go.); gajji, gajju itch (Go.); kusee id. (Go.); gazi id. (Kond.a); kasa the itch (Kui); khasra_ id. (Kur.)(DEDR 1104). Itch, measles: khasa itch, scab (Skt.); khahi, khahi_ itch (S.); khas'a (Or.); khas itch, scab (G.); kas itch, skin disease (Si.); khasu itch (Pkt.); khahu, khahuwa_ adj. (A.); khasu (B.); khassar itching (L.); khasra_ smallpox (P.); scab, measles (H.)(CDIAL 3854). kharju itching, scratching, scab (Skt.); khajju_ (Pkt.); khajju (Pali); xanj (Gypsy); khazu_ (Sh.Dardic); kha_ji (S.Ku.); kha_j (P.WPah.H.M.); khaj (G.); khajuri_, khujl.i_ itch, prickly heat (G.); khajuli_, khujli_ mange (H.); khujuri, khujul.i itch (Or.); khajjati is itchy (Pali); xanj (Gypsy); khazoiki to itch (Sh.Dardic); kha_oja_ to scratch (B.)(CDIAL 3827). kacchu_ itch, scab, cutaneous disease (Sus'r.); kacchu (Pali); kacchu_, kacchu (Pkt.); ka_chu (Or.); kas (Si.)(CDIAL 2621). kacchur affected with itch (Ka_s' on Pa_n..); kacchula (Skt.); kacchuria envious (Pkt.); ka_chura_ suffering from itch (Or.); kacchula attacked by itch; kacchulla (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2620). kiculaka earthworm (Skt.); ke~su, kesu earthworm (A.); ke~cua_, ke~co, ke~cui (B.); kecu, kecua_ earthworm, tape-worm (Or.); ke~cua_ earthworm (H.)(CDIAL 3459).

1358.Oil-presser: {Echo word} gham.ciya oil-presser (Pkt.); gha~_ci_, gha~_cen. (G.)(CDIAL 4405). gham.ciya oil-presser (Pkt.); gha~_ci_, gha~_cen. (G.)(CDIAL 4405). cf. ga_n.iga an oil-miller (Ka.lex.) cf. kacca-vat.a-k-ka_ran- merchant, trader (W.); kacca-vat.am mixing up things (Ta.lex.) cf. khacra_ mixed, of mixed parentage; khaccar mule (H.)(CDIAL 3765). cf. kac-pac hotch-potch (H.); kacarvu~ to press (G.)(CDIAL 2611). Market gardener: ka_chi_ caste of market gardener (H.); kachiya_na_, kachwa_ra_ vegetable plot (H.)(CDIAL 2618). Trader in cosmetics: ka_cchika artisan who manufactures and trades in cosmetics, gandhayuktija, gandhayuktivid (Br.hatsam.hita_. LXXXVI. 41)(India as Seen in the Br.hatsam.hita_ of Vara_hamihira, p. 238). ka_chchi_ vegetable growers (Jambu_dvi_pa Prajapti, III, 43, pp. 193-194 ff.)(Jain.Skt.) Perfumer: ka_cchika = gandhayuktija perfumer; gandhayukti art of perfumery (Skt.) kacapa a leaf; kacapam a vessel for vegetables; kaccha-de_s'a name of a place in the South (Skt.lex.) Vegetable stimulants: ka_yam vegetable stimulants used in medicine (Tailava. Taila. 135)(Ta.lex.) The ain.ka_yam or five stimulants are : kat.uku, o_mam, ventayam, ul.l.i, perun.ka_yam (Ta.lex.) Vegetable merchant: ka_s prairie (M.); ka_s lawn (G.); ka_sa coppice (Si.); cf. ka_chiyo vegetable merchant (G.); ka_chi_ gardener (H.); kaccha lawn (Pkt.); kaks.a, kaccha herb, prairie, marshland (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 315). gajani poor rice-lands (Ka.); kar..an-i mire; a paddy-field (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Vegetable: ka_char a kind of coarse grass; ka_chiyo vegetable seller (G.); ka_s meadow for growing grass (M.); ksa thicket (Si.)(CDIAL 2589). kaciro vegetable remnants; kaciri_ dried slices of fruits or vegetables (S.)(CDIAL 2615). kha_jja_ victuals, food, eatables (P.lex.) kajipu curry, a side-dish (Tu.lex.)

1359.Rich man: kha_ja_ < khua_jah (Pers.) a gentleman, a rich or respectable man, a title of respect among Muhammadans; khua_jah khizar (Arabic) the name of a Muhummedan saint who is said to have been skilled in divination and have discovered the water of life. He is the patron saint of rivers and waters, and has a special care for travellers. He is represented as a venerable man, standing on a fish. He corresponds to the udhero or vadhero lall of the Hindus in sindh (P.lex.) Treasury: khaja_na_, khaja_nna_ < khaza_nah (Arabic) a treasury (P.lex.) khaa_no, kha_za_nea_, khaza_n, khaza_na_ treasury (of the state)(Kon.lex.) kajya a bag or metalic vessel in which pilgrims put their offerings; wicker-work used for storing rice; kacil a vow made to a demon (Tu.lex.) khajan.ci, khajanti a treasury (Santali.lex.) kaci a place name (ka_ci_puram)(Tu.lex.)

1360.Court-house: kachahiri_, kacha_ri_h < kutiashari_ (Skt.) a court, a court-house or office, cutchery, a court of justice, tribunal; bhari_ kachahiri_ wichch in an open court; kachahiri_ char.hn.a_ to bring an action, to go into court; kachahiri_ da_ kutta_ lit. an official dog, jacks in office (the ahalka_rs and constables are commonly so called)(P.lex.) kacari public office (chiefly the building)(Kon.lex.) kacchari_ court-house (S.); kacaihri_ (P.); kacahri (N.); ka_sa_ri (A.); ka_cha_ri (B.); kaceri_ (Or.); kacahari_ (Mth.); kacahari_ (H.); kaceri_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 3429). kacca_-vacu_l [ < kacca_ + (U.)] recovery of what has been embezzled; kacce_ri [ < kachahri (U.)] office for the transaction of any public business, an office of administration, revenue office, court-house; business proceeding in a public office; assembly, as for musical entertainments or other parties for play or pastime; kacce_ri-k-karai-va_cal public office (Ta.lex.)

1361.Image: placenta: kajelu, kajeli, gajelu placenta (Tu.lex.)

1362.Image: censer: kacan-ai censer (Ci_vaka. 2140)(Ta.lex.) kas- (-t-) to be lit (as fire), burn; kasis- (-t-) to light (lamp, fire) (Kond.a); kacay ki- to light (lamp)(Pe.); hiccu kahinomi we kindle fire (Kuwi)(DEDR 1090).

1363.Image: to print, press: kantsai, kontsai to press; print, e.g. in the mind; kantsoun.e, kantsoun.ea_ pression; inspiration (Kon.lex.) koclao to press close to; ghuc ghucao to press for payment; kocao to press in; caha~t. pressing; ucat. to bring pressure (Santali.lex.)

1364.Cake: khajji_, khaju_r < kharja_r (Skt.) a date, the date tree, the palm; a kind of sweetmeat made in the shape of a date; khaju_ri_ made of the date or of the palm leaf (P.lex.) kajja_yo eatables fried in ghee or oil usually sweet in taste; paca kajja_yo a sweet preparation made of the following five things: pulse, gingely seed, jaggery, cocoanut, honey (Tu.lex.) kam.sa_ra, kasa_ra, ka_sa_ra a kind of sweet (Pkt.); kasa_ru (S.); kasa_r a sweet of flour, sugar, ghee and spices given at parturition (P.); sweet of sugar and powdered fried rice given at marriage and investiture ceremonies (N.); a kind of sweet (B.H.); ka~sa_r, kansa_r, kasa_r a sweet of wheat flour and molasses (G.)(CDIAL 2578). kacori_ wheaten sweetmeat (S.); kacori_ cake of wheaten pastry (L.P.); wheaten sweetmeat (G.M.); kacauri cake of sugar and white flour (N.); kacuri wheaten pastry stuffed with pulse (B.Or.); kacauri_ (H.)(CDIAL 2614). karcari_ a medicinal substance (Bhpr.); karcarika_ a kind of pastry or cake (Skt.); karcu_t.ika_ a kind of pastry (Skt.); kaccara_ pickles made of dried melon fried with spices (Pkt.); kacri_ a kind of fruit or vegetable (P.); kacuri a kind of cake (B.); kacuri, kacori a cake made of pulse and flour (Or.) (CDIAL 2827). kajja_ya a kind of sweet rice-cake (Ka.); kacca_ya (Ta.); kha_je_m. (M.); karaci, karaji, karji, karci, karaci-ka_yi a small pancake folded and including el.l.u (sesame) and jaggery (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: cone: ka_y a preparation in the form of a cone made of pulse mixed with treacle, one of the many important eatables exhibited on marriage occasions (Ta.lex.)

1365.To mix: kaca, kasa, kasara, gaji, kacapici the sound of mixing miscellaneous boiled things (as rice, vegetables, etc.) with the hand: confusion; kacapici kalasu to mingle boiled things in a confused manner; kacapicakelasa confused work (Ka.lex.) kaca kaca a sound produced as when kneading any glutinous substance (Tu.lex.) kujalam sour gruel (Skt.lex.) To mix; rice and lentils: kacapu a dish of boiled vegetables or fruits seasoned with salt, pepper, etc. (Ka.); kajapu, kajipu (Tu.); katipaya several, some (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ginjna_ to mix (Kur.); ginjye id.; ginjgro mixed (as food)(Malt.)(DEDR 1522). kiccad.i a kind of vegetable dish; kaccari a kind of sauce (Ka.lex.) kiccat.i a kind of rice gruel for sick people and children (Ta.); curry prepared with fresh curds, coconut and green chillis; a dainty made of rice and split pulse boiled together with ghee and spices (Ko_yilo. 31); kiceid.i (Te.); khicad.i (M.)(Ta.lex.) ka_yam pungency (Ta.Ma.); ka_yamu (Te.); ka_yam sliced vegetables for curry (Kur-un. 389); curry stuffs, condiments, seasoning (Kur-al., 253, Urai.); vegetable stimulants used in medicine; ain.ka_yam (Tailava. Taila. 135); ka_yamaruntu a medicinal preparation of vegetable stimulants given to a lying-in woman (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kr.sara, kr.s'ara a dish of sesamum and grain, rice and peas and spices (Kaus'.); kr.sara (MBh.); kr.sara_ (Sus'r.); kisara sesamum with rice and milk, rice and lentils; kisara_ rice and lentils (Pkt.); kisi_ri rice and lentils (Sh.)(CDIAL 3456). Rice and lentils: khicca_ dish of rice and peas (Npr.); khicca (Pkt.); khicu dish of boiled millet (S.); khi_c rice and lentils (G.); khici_ mixture of vegetables with flour and pulse (M.); khecuru dish of rice, peas and millet (K.); khiccar., khicr.i_ rice and lentils (P.); khicar.i_ (Ku.); khicro (N.); khicar.i_ (N.H.); khiciri_ (A.); khicar.i (B.); khicur.i_, khecar.i_ (Or.); khicr.i_ rice, peas and millet (H.); rice and lentils (G.); khicar.i_ vegetable pottage (Mth.); khicr.o jumble (G.); khicd.i_ rice and lentils, medley (M.); khicd.e~ mash for cows of bran and lentils (M.); khicd.i_ mash for cows, dish of rice and lentils or of boiled millet (M.)(CDIAL 3880). kur..ai-ttal to macerate, mash, reduce to pulp; to mix as powder with a liquid; kur..ai-tal to become soft, mashy, pulpy (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,1,3, Vya_.); kur..ayu (Ma.); kor..e (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) khesa_ri a kind of lentil (N.); the pulse lathyrus sativus (B.Or.); khesa_ri_ mixed crop of barley and peas (Bi.); a kind of grain (Mth.); lathyrus sativus (H.); khisa_ri_, kisa_ri_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 3925).

1366.Vegetable sellers: kucce curry (Kol.); cooked vegetables (Nk.); kucca vegetables, greens (Pa.); kuse, kucce vegetables (Ga.); kusri_ dal, i.e. cooked pulse; vegetable; kusir, kusri, kusir(i) cooked vegetable; kusor herbs, vegetables (Go.); kusa edible greens and vegetables (Kond.a); kuca vegetables, curry (Pe.Mand..); ku_sa edible leaves, greens, vegetables, herbs, addition to curry (Kui); kuca curry; kucca cooked vegetable (Kuwi); kuy seasoning with spices, spy seasoned curry (Ta.); ku_ra a vegetable, garden-stuff or curry-stuff (Te.)(DEDR 1760). kucam < ku-ja tree (Cu_t.a_.) (Ta.lex.) ku~jr.a_ caste of vegetable sellers (H.); ku~jr.o vegetable seller, gardener (G.); kuja place overgrown with plants or ceepers, arbour (MBh.); hollow, glen, dell (Pali)(CDIAL 3226). Sediment of oil: kus'ika sediment of oil (Skt.lex.) kojan.t.i refuse (as of fruits)(Ka.); kujan.t.i, kojan.t.i the refuse of vegetables from which the juice has been expressed (Tu.)(DEDR 2039). cf. kucakkur-avar the Kuravas who manufacture weaver's brushes from roots, and are employed as shikaris (E.T.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ki_rai greens, pot-herbs, vegetables (Ta.)(DEDR 1617). Perfume: ko_s'a-phala a kind of perfume (Ka. Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Dealer in flowers, fruits and roots: kusuma-phala-mu_la-va_rta dealer in flowers, fruits and roots; maulika dealer in roots (Skt.)

1367.Aloe-wood: ka_s.t.ham wood or timber, a piece of log of wood in general; ka_s.t.ha_ name of a wife of Kas'yapa and daughter of Daks.a; ka_s.t.hakam aloe-wood (Skt.lex.) kayat.e_rikam eagle wood; akil (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kapat.e_rikam id. (Ta.lex.)

1368.Marshy land; to sink into mud: gacu mortar, plaster; gaci plastered with mortar (S.); gacc mud, mortar, cement (P.); gac noise made in walking through mud (H.); gacn.e~ to sink into mud (M.); gac. mud (Pahlavi); gec. (Pers.)(CDIAL 3954). kaccha marshy land, bank, shore (MBh.); marshy land (Pali); bank, shore, flooded forest, land near a river, garden to grow radishes etc. in (Pkt.); kacchara mud, morass (Pkt.); kac beside, near (Sh.); kaci adv. near; kacilo adj. (Sh.); ka_char., ka_chal river bank (P.); kacha_r hillside, foot of hill (N.); moist lowland by a river (H.); ka_cha_r. steep slope (B.); ka_ch low marshy land (Bi.)(CDIAL 2618). kacavara rubbish (Pali); kayavara, kaya_ra, kaccava_ra, kacchara, kassa mud (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2615). Semant. 'rubbish' cf.: kacat.u dirtiness, dregs; kacal rubbish heap, refuse (Ta.)(DEDR 1088). Moist: ka_u~da_ slightly moist (Or.)(CDIAL 3360). cf. a_rdra wet (RV.); adda wet, slippery (Pali); oduru wet (K.)(CDIAL 1340). Mud: kical mud (Phal.); cical clay (Phal.); ki_c mud, dirt (Ku.); kica_, kicar. (B.); kicr.a_ha muddy (H.); ki_car., ki_c mud (G.); kicad. (M.); khaca dirty, bad (Dm.)(CDIAL 3153). kacar-kacar muddy (Or.); kacra_, kacla_ clay (H.)(CDIAL 2615). Mud: kwar mud (To.); kor manure, filth, mud (Ko.); kurai mire, mud, fine clay (Ma.)(DEDR 2123). kacan-ai dampness, moisture (Ta.); kacivu dampness (Ta.); kasavva wet, damp (Pkt.); kasi drizzling, fine rain (Ka.)(DEDR 1091). Saline soil: kal.ar saline soil; bog; kal.ari id. (Ta.lex.) [cf. kardama, karda, kardat.a mud (Skt.)(CDIAL 2867-70)].

1369.Fragrant resin; unguent: kas.a_ya a decoction with one part of a drug mixed with four, eight, or sixteen parts of water (the whole being boiled down until one quarter is left); plastering, smearing; anointing; perfuming the body with unguents; kas.a_yita yielding a resinous exudation, astringent (Skt.lex.) kas.a_ya fragrant (Skt.Ka.); an infusion, a decoction of medicinal herbs; exudation of a tree, as gum, resin, etc.; astringent, an astringent flavour (Ka.Skt.); kasa_ya, kasa_yi id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kacai cement, paste (W.)(Ta.lex.) kacupicukkai being sticky, adhesive so as to stick to the hands or feet (W.)(Ta.lex.) kaca_yam decoction (Me_ruman. 543)(Ta.); kaca_yam (Pkt.)(Ta.lex.) kacar-pit.ittal to be soiled wit the juice of a vegetable; kayar astringency; astringent matter, as juices that taint metals, linen, skin; soft, spongy top ofa coconut (Ta.lex.) Crystal: ka_cam < ka_ca crystal; ka_calavan.am salt of potash or soda in crystalline state, one of paca-lavan.am; ka_cu gem, crystal bead (Ir-ai. 2, Urai. Pak. 29)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: manger, trough: gha_sa-don.i_ trough; godon.i manger (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

1370.Image: pincers: kacai-mur-ukki goldsmith's pincers; cf. kaca + ; kacai-val.aiyal bracelets made of braided gold wire; kacai-ve_lai braiding with gold wire (W.); kacai-vaitta-put.avai gold-fringed cloth (W.); kacitam < khacita setting, mounting with precious stones,inlaying (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

1371.Image: lute: kacchapi_ a kind of lute; also the lute of Sarasvati_ (Ka.Skt.lex.)

1372.Image: turtle; tortoise: ka_sai, ka_sye a kind of tortoise (the bigger kind) (Kon.lex.) kaccakad.i a tortoise shell (Tu.lex.) kaccam tortoise (kat.alpu-k-kur..i-k-kaccama_ki) (Kampara_. Kat.ar-a_vu. 42)(Ta.lex.) kacchapa turtle, tortoise (MBh. Pali); kacchava, kacchavi_ (Pkt.); kochuwu (K.); kacha~u~, kachu~_ (S.); kacchu_, kacchu_-kumma~_ [< ku_rma- (P.); kachuwa_ (N.); ka_cha (A.); ka_chim (B.); kechu, kecho, ke~chu, kai_cha, kai~_ca, kachima, kacima (Or.); ka_chi (Mth.); kachua_ (Bhoj.Aw.H.); kachwa_ (H.); kacch, kach (H.); ka_sav, ka~_sav (M.); ka_savu (Konkan.i); kacchabha (Pkt.); kasumbu, kasubu (Si.); ka_cbo (G.)(CDIAL 2619). kaccapam, kaccan-, kaccam turtle, tortoise; kat.alpu-k-kur..i-k-kaccama_ki (Kampara_.Katar-a_vu.42) (Ta.lex.) ?kavve tortoise (Kol.Nk.Ga.); kavva (Pa.); gavva cowrie (Te.)(DEDR 1342).

1373.Trade: kasabu, kasaba, kasubu business, trade, profession (Ka.); kasaba (M.H.); kasabada_ra a tradesman (Ka.); kasabe the chief town of a district or ta_lu_k, a metropolis (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kasba_ < qasba (U.) chief station or head-quarters of a district or division (Ta.lex.) kacappu occupation, calling, profession < kasab (U.)(Ta.lex.)

1374.Butcher: kasa_ya, kasa_ba a butcher (Ka.); kasa_i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) kaca_ppu slaughter of animals for food; butcher (Ta.); kassa_b (U.)(Ta.lex.)

1375.Image: cicatrice: ka_yam scar, cicatrice (Kumara. Pira. Maturai-k-kalam. 13); wound, contusion (Ta.); ga_yamu (Te.); ga_ya (Ka.Tu.); ka_yam (Ma.); gha_ya (M.)(Ta.lex.) Image: boil: kaca a cicatrix (Ka.lex.) ka_y (-pp-, -tt-) to become callous, form warts or excrescences on the body (as from wounds, walking, using

tools); n. cicatrice from a wound, wart; ka_yppu scar, callous excrescence; kacci scar, cicatrice (Ta.); ka_y callosity; ka_ykka to be callous (Ma.); ka_y callosity (Ka.); ka_ya wart, pimple, corn, callosity (Te.); kac baitta_na_ white skin to form on the site of a boil just healed (Go.)(DEDR 1460). kacchapi a cutaneous disease, wart or blotch (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1376.Ironwood tree: alli iron-wood tree, memecylon edule (Ta.); alamar, alle a sp. of memecyclon (Ka.); ud.it-ale memocyclon edule (Kod..); alimaru, alima_ru memecyclon (Tu.); alli memocyclon edule (Te.)(DEDR 257). ka_a_, ka_cai, ka_ya_, ka_ca_ ironwood tree, memecylon edule; oblong cordate-leaved bilberry, memecylon malabaricum (Patin-o. A_l.u. Tiruvula_, 130; Kampara_. Kan:kai. 53)(Ta.lex.); ka_ya_mpu_van.n.an- lit. he of purple colour like ka_ya_ flower, Vis.n.u (Ku_rmapu. Ira_man-avata_.)(Ta.lex.) ka_ya_vu the blue-flowered memecylon tinctorium (Ma.); ka_sa_vu memecylon malabaricum; ka_ya_m-pu_ flower of memecylon edule (Ma.)(DEDR 1464). Memecylon edule = memecylon umbellatum: anjani (Skt.); anjana (M.); archeti (Ka.); kasavu (Ma.); kasai (Ta.); midalli (Te.); niroso (Or.); leaves: used as a cooling astringent, in conjunctivitis as a lotion; internally given in gonorrhea and leucorrhoea; decoction of root: useful in excessive menstrual discharges; habitat: western Peninsula, mostly on the coast. Inland mostly in evergreen and semi-evergreen shrub. Orissa, Assam and Sylhet (GIMP, p.165). Memecyclon ovatum: This medicinal plant is a smooth shrub or small tree reaching a height of 8 metres... The flowers are faintly scented... deep-blue or purple... the fruit is ... dark-purple... the roots in decoction are used in certain irregularities of menstruation, and the leaves in infusion are employed as an astringent in ophthalmia (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 674-675). Memecylon edule, memecylon tinctorium: anjani (Skt.); iron wood-tree (Eng.); lokhandi (Bombay); limba (M.); anjana (B.); limbatoli (Ka.); kashoa (Ma.); allichettu (Te.); kayampuvuchedi, caserychedi, kashamaram (Ta.); wari-kaha, serookaya (Si.); kalo kudo (Kon.); is found in the eastern and western Peninsula and in Ceylon... leaves used as cooling and astringent... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 787-788).

1377.Aromatic substance: kis'ara (Pa_n.. 4.4,53)[cf. allied species in Pa_n.ini: kis'ara_di gan.a aromatic substances like kes'ara, jat.a_ma_m.si_, tagara, guggulu, parn.i_, nalada, sthagala, haridra_, haridru] kes'ara (Car. Su. 5.20; Vi. 8.144); Synonym: kes'ara = na_gake_sara the tree mesua ferrea; the tree mimusops elengi [cf. bakula mimusops elengi (Skt.); bakul (H.B.); borsali (M.); bakulam (Ma.); maulsari (P.); magilam (Ta.); vakulamu (Te.)(GIMP, p.167). cf. Mesua ferrea: nagappu (Ta.Ma.); nagakeshara (Skt.); bark: aromatic, combined with ginger used as sudorific (GIMP, p.166)]. na_ka-ke_caram, na_kappu_ iron wood of Ceylon; = cir-una_kam ironwood of Ceylon, irul.maram; cir-una_kappu_ iron wood of Ceylon, mesua ferrea (Pata_rtta. 1011); cassia cinnamon, periyalavan:kappat.t.ai; cf. irul. ironwood of Ceylon (Perun.. Ucaik. 41,33)(Ta.lex.) Mesua ferrea, mesua roxburghii, mesua coromandalina: nagkesara, nagpushpa, champeryah (Skt.); cobra's saffron (Eng.); mesua naghas (Fr.); naga-kesara, gajapushpam (H.Te.); nagesar (B.); nagchampe (M.Kon.); nagashappu (Te.); veillutta-champakam, charu-nagapu, sirunagappoo (Ta.); nagachampakam, veila (Ma.); nagasampige (Ka.); kenga, gungen (Burm.); narae-kaisar (Arab.); Habitat: common on the eastern Himalayas, East Bengal and Assam, Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats upto about 5000 ft., Burma and the Andamans... Parts used: flower-buds, flowers, fruit, seed, root, bark and oil... young fruit contains an oleo-resin from which an essential oil is obtained... Resin is in tears... Oleo-resin exuding from the bark, root etc. is aromatic and demulcent... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 792-793).


1378.Cheek: gam.ja cheek (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3962). cf. gan.d.a cheek (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 3999).

1379.Image: neck of a vessel: kan.t.a (Tadbhava of kan.t.ha) the neck of a vessel (Ka.lex.)

1380.Image: body: ka_yam < ka_ya body (Tiv. Iyar-. Mu_n-r-a_n. 13)(Ta.lex.) ka_ya body (Ka_tyS'r.); body (Pali.Pkt.); kaya body (Si.)(CDIAL 3049).

1381.Image: heap: ka_ya heap (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 3049). gaju each of the round brass or copper vessels that are put one in another to form a cone (Ka.); gaja a heap (M.)(Ka.lex.) gaj heap (P.); ga~_j heap (Bhoj.); ga_j close growth of plants (N.); heap (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 3962).

1382.Root of the two smaller fingers: ka_ya the root of the two smaller fingers, sacred to Praja_pati (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) [Perh. the starting point of counting on the phalanges or knots of the fingers]. cf. gan.d.a joint of plant (Skt.)(CDIAL 3998).

1383.Image: Indian stag: kad.ave, kad.aba an elk (Ka.); kad.ambe (Te.); kat.amai, kat.ampai (Ta.); kad.ama_n (Ma.); kad.ama (Tu.); kad.ave the Indian stag, rusa aristotelis (Ka.lex.)

1384.Image: a narrow pass between mountains: kad.ambe, kad.a_yi, kar..ava_yi, kar..a_yi a narrow pass between two mountains, a hill, a pass, a gap (Ma.); gan.d.i, kaname, kanave, kante, kalave, ganime (Te.); kan.ava_y (Ta.); kan.ame, kan.ave, kan.ime, kan.ive, kan.d.i (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1385.To ooze: kaci (-v-, -nt-) to ooze out (as moisture from a wall), perspire, weep (Ta.); kacan-ai dampness, moisture (Ta.); kacivu ooze, perspiration, weeping (Ta.); kacikacippu being damp, dark, moist to the touch (Ta.); kasi to ooze, trickle, flow; drizzling, fine rain (Ka.); kassa, kasa blood (Kuwi); kasavva- wet, damp (Pkt.)(DEDR 1091). To drip, slip: khasai, khasaphasai slips, falls (Pkt.)[cf. pacappu moisture (Ta.); pacai id. (Ta.); paca, pas'a, paya moisture (Ma.); pa_ci, pa_si, pa_vase green slime on stagnant water, mouldiness, lichen (Ka.); paji wet, damp (Tu.); pas, pas' moisture, wetness (Tu.); pa~_ci, pa_ci, pra~_ci moss (Te.)(DEDR 3821)]; khasnu to fall (N.); khahiba to fall off (A.); khasa_ to fall off, slip away (B.); khasiba_ to drop off (Or.); khasab to fall, slip (Mth.); khasai drips, slips (OAw.); khasna_ to sink, fall (H.); khasvu~ to slide, move, go to a distance (G.); khasn.e~ to sink down (M.); khaskan.u to slip away (N.); khasakna_ (H.); khasar.iba_ to slip (Or.); kaser to be tired (Ash.); khasar (Dm.); kaser tired (Shum.); khasari_ (Gaw.); khasariba_ to slip (Or.)(CDIAL 3856).

1386.Poor rice land: gajani poor rice land (Ka.); poor or infertile ground (Tu.)(DEDR 1103). Paddy crop: key crop, paddy plant (Ka.); ke~_yyu id. (Ka.); keyi the crop of paddy (Tu.); keja paddy (Go.); xess paddy (rice in the husk or standing in the field)(Kur.); qesu paddy (Malt.)(DEDR 1936).

1387.Image: distribution channel: kaje variety of land with plenty of subsoil water; a place name (Tu.lex.) kacakka_l < kaccha + spring channel, channel dug out in beds of deep sand in a river to tap the underflow of water (Ta.lex.) kasi_ trench, watercourse (S.); kass catch drain, ravine (L.); kassi_ small distributing channel from a canal (L.); ka~_s artificial canal for irrigation (G.)(CDIAL 2909). kayava_y estuary (Malaipat.u. 528)(Ta.lex.) ka_s'i-kuppe a phial in which pilgrims keep water taken out of the Ganges at Benares (Ka.Ta.); ka_s'i-ta_li a metal vessel used like the ka_s'i-kuppe (Ka.); ka_s'ike, ka_s'ika_ Benares (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ka_ci Benares, the sacred city on the Ganges, one of catta-puri (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) kharasua_ having a swift current, name of a river in Orissa (Or.)(CDIAL 3825). kharad.ia rough (Pkt.); kharus. rough, rugged (Bshk.)(CDIAL 3819). kur-an:ku a branch channel (Ta.); kwar- small thicket (with stream running through)(To.); kor-akalu a cut, excavation made by running water, bed of a stream (Ka.)(DEDR 1841).

1388.To test, examine, shine: kus. to test, examine; to shine (Skt.lex.) kusumbha, kusumbham gold (Skt.lex.) kah, dat. kusu testing gold on a touchstone (K.)(CDIAL 2970). ko_cikam Sa_ma ve_da (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) Gold: ku_r..ai gold (Ta.); cf. kus' (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) kr.s'a_nu burning, tormenting (Rudra_, Agni_); kr.s'a_nu guarding of the Soma, name of an archer who guards the soma from gods and men (kr.s'a_nurasta_ etanna_makah- so_mapa_lah- : RV. iv.27.3) (Vedic. lex.) cf. the interpretation of soma as electrum, gold-siver ore, op cit. kr.s'anam gold; form, shape; a pearl; kus'a wrought iron (Skt.lex.) kr.s'ana pearl (RV. x.68.11); kr.s'anvant decorated with pearls (RV. i.126.); kr.s'anin id. (RV. vii.18.23)(Vedic.lex.) cf. ka_cam gold; ka_cu gold; ka_can-am gold (Ta.lex.) ko_s'am gold or silver wrought or unwrought; treasure, money, wealth (Skt.lex.) Money-lender: kucchar. miserly (WPah.)(CDIAL 3420). kusi_dika, kusi_din a usurer; kus.i_da usury; kusita one who lives on usury (Skt.lex.) kahu_ mean, miserly (K.)(CDIAL 3441). kusi_da usury, a usurer (Skt.Ka.); kusi_daka a usurer (Skt.Ka.); a money-lender (Ka.lex.) kaca-vaci niggard; kaya-vaci id. (Ta.lex.) Usury: kusitah. an inhabited country; one who lives on usury; kus'i_dam. usury; kusi_dam. any loan or thing lent to be repaid with interest; lending money, usury, the profession of usury; kusi_daka, kusi_din a usurer kusi_dah. (also written as kus'i_-s.i_-da) a money-lender, usurer; kusi_da-pathah. usury, usurious interest; any interest exceeding 5 percent; kusi_da-vr.ddhih. interest on money; kusi_da_ the wife of usurer; kusi_da_yi_ id. (Skt.lex.) Usury: kausi_da connected with a loan; usurious; kausa_dhyam the practice of usury (Skt.lex.) cf. kucar < khusr (U.) anything obtained from shopkeeper as a bargain (Ta.lex.) kusita_yi_ a kind of demoness (Maitra_yan.i Sam.hita_. iii.2.6); kusida_yi_ wife of a money-lender (Ka_t.haka Sam.hita_. x.5)(Vedic.lex.) Lazy: kusi_da lazy, inert (TS.); lazy (Pali); ko_sajja sloth (Pali); kusi_ weariness (Si.)(CDIAL 3376). kucapputti stupidity, dullness, as a term of contempt; kucattan-am id. (Ta.lex.)

1389.Expense: kust, kusta_ expense, in the phrase mojea_ kusta_r; mozuri, mazuri wages (Kon.lex.)

1390.Bargain: kucar, kocar, kocur-u anything obtained extra from a shopkeeper as bargain (Ta.); khusr (U.)(Ta.lex.) kasaru deficiency, defect, dimunition; customary detraction in delivering certain measures as of grain, toddy etc.; a sum added to or subtracted from either side to make up a difference (Ka.M.H.Ma.); profit or loss on the exchange of coins; kasaru basaru = kasaru (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kasar < khasr (U.) difference between the nominal chit amount and the actual amount bid for (Ka.lex.) ka_cu defect, fault (Cilap. 2,74)(Ta.lex.) kacar < kasar (U.) surplus, balance, profit or loss on the exchange of coins, excess; kacar-pa_pattu < kasar + (U.) undisturbed balance (Ta.lex.) kacar < qua_sir (Arab.) deficiency, dimunition; kacar flaw in a ruby (Ka.lex.) kayam < khaya (Pkt.) < ks.aya (Skt.); decay, wane, dimunition (Tiruccen. Puceyantipuravai. 11); deficiency, defect (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

1391.Inhabited country: kusita an inhabited country; kus to surround; kus'a_vati_ name of a city, the capital of Kusa; kus'a-sthalam name of a place in the North of India; kus'a-sthali_ name of the town of Dva_raka_; kusuma-puram, kusumavati_ name of the town of Pa_taliputra; cf. kusumavat furnished with flowers, flowering (Skt.lex.) An ancient city: ko_campi an ancient city on the banks of the Ganges in the lower part of the Doab (Man.i, 15,61); kauca_mpi (Ta.lex.) kaus'a_mbi_ name of a city (R.); kosam.biya (As'.); ko_sam.bi_ (Pkt.); kosam a village near Allahabad (H.)(CDIAL 3566). An annular continent: kus'a one of the great dvi_pas or divisions of the universe; kus'a-sthala a class of Bra_hman.as on the western coast; name of the town of Kanyakubja_ (Ka.lex.) kuca-t-ti_vu, kucai-t-ti_vu < kus'a + the fourth annular continent believed to have sprung from Brahma's kus'a grass and to be surrounded by the ocean of ghee (Tiva_.) or ocean of curds (Kantapu.)(Ta.lex.) kus'ai darbha grass (Pirapulin.. Ko_rakkar. 1)(Ta.lex.) ko_ca_yi a class of ascetics from North India (Ta.); go_sa_vi id. (M.)(Ta.lex.)

1392.Evening market: gujari, gujjari the evening market (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

1393.Gujaratis: kuccaram < gurjara Gujarat (Man.i. 18,152); kuccarar people of Gujarat (Kalin.. Putup. 319); kucciliyar < gurjari_ Gujaratis, people of Gujarat (Tan-ippa_. ii,75,190)(Ta.lex.)

1394.Milkmen: gurjara name of a people (Pacat.); gujjara (Pkt.); gujoru, gujuru pastoral wandering tribe (K.); gujjar a caste of milkmen (P.); gu_jar inferior caste of Rajputs (H.); gujari_ a Gu_jar woman (OMarw.); gu_jarad.i_ a woman of Gujarat (OG.); gujri_ f. (G.); gujar an inhabitant of Gujarat (M.); gujard.a_ m. (contemptuous)(M.); gujaru (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4210). gujjaratta_ country of the Gurjaras (Pkt.); gujara_t (H.); gujra_t (G.)(CDIAL 4211). gujret.i_ a Gu_jar girl (H.)(CDIAL 4212). gujra_t. kingdom of the Gurjaras (B.)(CDIAL 4213). gijr.i sour milk; ghor butter milk (Santali.lex.)

1395.Glass bangle: ka_ji a glass bangle (Tu.lex.) ka_ju (Tadbhava of ka_ca) glass; ga_ju glass; ga_ju-dod.ige a glass-ornament (Ka.lex.) ka_ch glass (so termed in poetry); kachch glass (P.lex.) ga_ju glass (Te.lex.)

1396.Arable land: kachch strips and patches of arable land inside the beds of ravines and nallahs (P.lex.) kachcha_, kachchi_ low land between rivers and high land, or the alluvial land tract flooded by river (P.lex.)

1397.Calcining: kaca-put.am < gaja + calcining medicine with the fire prepared from burning 100 cakes of cow-dung (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kacaga_r-ike the business of a brazier, a worker in bell-metal, a coppersmith; kacaga_rti a woman of the brazier caste; kaciga name among Telugu bra_hman.as and s'u_dras (Ka.); kacuga_r-a, kacaga_r-a brazier; vyo_ka_ra, lo_haka_ra (Ka.lex.) Still: kacchapa a flat kind of still (Ka.lex.) A treasure of Kube_ra: kacchapa an apparatus used in the distillation of spirituous liquor; one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra (Skt.lex.) To rub, scrape, assay: kasan assaying (H.); kasn.i_ test by rubbing, distress (G.); kas.an.a rubbing, testing (Skt.)(CDIAL 2971). kas.ati rubs on a touchstone (Pa_n..com.); scratches (ChUp.); kas. hurts (Skt.); kasai rubs (Pkt.); ks.e to scrape, rub (Kt.); kas.a_ to whittle, lick (Wg.); kos.o to scratch (?Pr.); ka_z. to smear, wipe (Pas'.); khos.ik to groom a horse (Kho.); kaha_iba to apply a mordant substance (A.); kasiba_ to rub, scrape, scratch, labour hard (Or. semant. cf. gahan.u)(CDIAL 2972). Touchstone: kas.a rubbing (Skt.); touchstone (Pa_n..com.); kasa striking; rubbing on a touchstone (Pkt.); touchstone (Or.); kahu wearying (K.); kahu tinder (L.); kasi touchstone (N.OMarw.OG.); kah a mordant substance (A.); kas touchstone (B.P.); assay, test (H.); quality of gold or silver as determined by rubbing on a touchstone (M.); kasaya touchstone (Si.)(CDIAL 2970). kasapat.t.a, kasavat.t.a touchstone (Pkt.); kas.apat.t.ika_ touchstone (Skt.)[perh. hyper-sanskritism]; kahwut.u (K.); kasaut.i_ (Ku.); kasat.i (B.); kaxat.i (A.); kasot.i (Or.); kasaut.i_ (Bi.OAw.H.P.); kasawat.i_ (Bhoj.); kasot.i_ (S.); kasvat.i_ (S.M.); kasaut.au (OG.); kasot.i_ (G.M.); kasvat. (M.)(CDIAL 2973). Friction, trituration, abrasion: ghars.a friction (R.); gharisa, ghamsa, gha_sa id. (Pkt.); gos. dough (Kho.)[cf.a_raz.el to knead (Psht.)]; gah, gah trituration (K.); ghaso rub, scrape (S.); ghe~s a touch, a rub (B.); ghas abrasion (L.); ghassa_ loss (L.); rubbing (esp.in copulation)(P.); gha_s wear and tear (G.); gha_sa_-gha_s reiterated rubbing (M.)(CDIAL 4448). Miller: ghat.ero, ghat.t.ero miller (N.)(CDIAL 4452). ghars.an.a rubbing (Sus'r.); gharisan.a-, gharasan.a-, gham.san.a rubbing (Pkt.); gahana beating (Si.)(CDIAL 4449). Grindstone, mill: ghars.t.a grindstone, mill (Skt.); gharat.t.a grindstone (Skt.); gharat.t.aka, gharat.t.ika_ grindstone (Skt.MIA.< gharas.t.ra or ghrat.t.hra- (Skt.) ghurat. handmill (L.)(CDIAL 4488). To pound; rub, polish, wear away: ghr.s.t.a rubbed, pounded (Sus'r.); frayed, sore (MBh.); ghat.t.ha, ghit.t.ha rubbed (Pkt.); gat.ho rubbed (S. with a for i after pres. st. gasan. < ghars.ati); ghat.t.ha_ hard place on palm by attrition (P.); gha_t.ha_ blister (P. ?<H.)(CDIAL 4510). xarbna_ to give an extra pounding of rice, for cleaning it from grains unhusked or spoiled (Kur.); qarwe to clean rice by pounding; qarwre to be bruised or hurt by falling (Malt.)(DEDR 1295). ghr.s.t.i rubbing, pounding (Skt.); ga_t.hi an excoriation (a_?)(S.)(CDIAL 4511). ghars.ati rubs (Sus'r.); ghr.s.yate_ is rubbed (Skt.); gham.sati rubs, grinds (Pali); gha_sai rubs (Pkt.); gas., gas to rub, rub in (Dardic); ghasun. to rub (L.); gha_sta_ polishes (Konkan.i); gasanava_, gahanava_ to beat, strike (Si.); ghasai rubs, polishes (Pkt.); gaz.oiki to grind (on flat stone with another stone)(Sh.); gahun to grind, polish (K.); gahan.u to rub, grind by rubbing (S.); ghaun.a_ to grind, rub (P.); ghau~h rubbing (P.); ghi_h rubbing the body (P.); ghasnu to rub on (N.); gha~hiba to rub, grind (A.); ghi~sa_ to rub against (B.); ghasa_ to rub (B.); ghasiba_ to rub, massage (Or.); ghisna_, ghasna_to rub (H.); ghasvu~ to rub, polish (G.); gasan.u to be abraded, to fret (S.); ghassan., ghassun. to be rubbed, wear away (L.); ghasn.a_ id. (P.); ghisinu id. (N.); ghisna_ to be rubbed (H.); gha_vu~ to wear away (G.); gha_sn.e~ id. (M.)(CDIAL 4450). ghars.a friction (R.); gharisa, gham.sa, gha_sa (Pkt.); gah, gah trituration (K.); ghas'o rub, scrape (S.); ghas abrasion (L.); ghassa_ loss (L.); rubbing (esp. in copulation)(P.); ghe~s a touch, rub (B.); gha_s wear and tear (G.); gha_sa_-gha_s reiterated rubbing (M.)(CDIAL 4448). ghat.t.ayati rubs, touches, shakes (Sus'r.); ghat.t.ate_ (Dha_tup.); ghat.t.ita (MBh.); ghat.t.ai touches, rubs against (Pkt.); ghot.o to rub with a pestle (S.); gho_t.un. to rub (L.); ghot.n.a_ to grind, rub, smoothe; ghot.t.a_ a paper-polishing instrument (P.); ghot.nu to rub, polish, wear away (N.); gho~t.a_, ghu~t.a_ to rub (B.); ghot.na_, gho~t.na_ to rub (H.); gho~t.n.e~ to grind, rub, polish (G.)(CDIAL 4417). To rub; to pulverize: xo_sna_ (xu_syas) to pulverize by pounding with a heavy instrument which beats vertically, harass (Kur.); qose to pound, smash (Malt.); xo_shking, xo_shing to rub (Br.); tene xo_shking to consort with, interfere with (Br.)(DEDR 2189). sok to pound grain; chakachun, khijau to pulverise (Santali.lex.) Rubs; grinds: gos. dough (Kho.); a_gazel to knead (Psht.); gah, gah trituration (K.); ghas'o rub, scrape (S.); ghas abrasion; ghassa_ loss (L.); rubbing (esp. in copulation)(P.); ghe~s a touch, rub (B.); gha_s wear and tear (G.); gha_sa_-gha_s reiterated rubbing (M.)(CDIAL 4448). cf. ghars.an.a rubbing (Sus'r.); rubs oneself (MBh.); ghr.s.yate_ is rubbed (Skt.); gham.sati rubs, grinds (Pali); gham.siya, gha_sai rubs (Pkt.); gas. (Dm.); gas' to rub, rub in (Wot..); ghas' to clasp, bite (Phal.); ghasun. to rub (L.); ghasa_ (B.); ghasna_ (H.); gha_svu~ (G.); gha_sn.e~, gha~_sn.e~ (M.); gha_sta_ polishes (Konkan.i); gasanava_, gahanava_ to beat, strike; ga_nava_ to rub, smear (Si.)(CDIAL 4450). kas'un (past tense impersonal) to itch, scratch oneself (K.); kas. rub (Skt.)(CDIAL 2979). kas.a rubbing (Nais..) (CDIAL 2970). To rub the body; wipe off: khus, khos' to wipe off (Gypsy); ghasai rubs, polishes (Pkt.); gazoiki to grind (on flat stone with another stone)(Sh.); gahun to grind, polish (K.); gahan.u to rub, grind by rubbing; pp. gat.ho (S.); ghaun.a_ to grind, rub; ghau~h rubbing; ghi_h rubbing the body (P.); ghasnu to rub on; ghisinu to be rubbed (N.); gha~hiba to rub, grind (A.); ghi~sa_ to rub against; ghasa_ to rub (B.); ghasiba_ to rub, massage (Or.); ghisna_, ghasna_ to rub (H.); ghasvu~ to rub, polish (G.); gasan.u to be abraded, to fret (S.); ghassan., ghassun. to be rubbed, wear away (L.); ghasn.a_ (P.); ghisinu (N.); ghisya_unu to drag along; ghisrinu to be bedraggled (N.); ghisna_ to be rubbed (H.); gha_svu~ to wear away (G.); gha_sn.e~ (G.)(CDIAL 4450). gasa_t.i with great force (of rubbing)(Ka.); ghas.t.a_ a rough rub or wipe (M.); gasa_t.i tikku to rub with force (Ka.M.); gasa a sound used in imitation of a somewhat gentle, but quick way of rubbing; gasagasa tikku to rub as the teeth, the body, or clothes on a stone slab etc. (Ka.M.); gasagasa tur..i to make clean or bright by treading as grain (Ka.); gasi, gas.t.u the sediment or dregs of oil or melted butter or of pickles (Ka.Te.); kat.t.u (Ma.); kat.uku (Ta.) (Ka.lex.)

1398.Acacia catechu: ka_cu cashoo, catechu or cutch, the inspissated juice of the acacia catechu (Ka.); ka_cu (Ta.); ka_ccu, ka_r-r-u (Ma.); kayra, khadira, kadira the tree acacia catechu and its resin which is called catechu, khayar, or terra japonica (Ka.); ka_cu (Te.); ka_cina-gid.a (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ka_cu-k-kat.t.i downy-foliaged cutch, acacia catechu typica (Ta.lex.) Acacia catechu: khadira (Skt.); khair (H.); khaderi (M.); kuth (B.); karangalli (Ta.); khadiramu (Te.); bark: astringent; habitat: Punjab, NW Himalayas, Madhya Bharat, Bihar, Ganjam, throughout the Konkan, S. Mahrata contry, Deccan (GIMP, p.2). kher khair acacia catechu (M.); kher (G.); khair (P.H.); kihiri (Si.); kharo (Pkt.); khadira (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 324). khayar acacia catechu (Santali.lex.) Betel-nut: khapura the betel-nut tree, areca caufel or catechu (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kayra, kaira (Tadbhava of khadira); kayragul.ige a pill made of kaira (Ka.lex.) Mulberry; areca palm: kamuku areca palm, areca catechu (Ta.Ma.); kamuku, kamun.n.u, kavun.n.u betel-nut tree, a. catechu (Ma.); kaun:gu areca-nut tree; kemmu id. (Ka.); kan:gu, kamu id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1233). kramu betelnut tree (Skt.); kramuka id. (Sus'r.); mulberry, symplocos racemosa, cyperus (Skt.); ke_mbuka kernel of areca nut (Skt.); krumuka a piece of wood used to catch the sacrificial fire when kindled by friction (TS.); kamuka areca palm (Pali); kumuku id. (Si.); kurun mulberry (P.); t.l.umm, t.l.umr.o a tree like a mulberry (WPah.); kimb the large sour lime citrus acida (P.); kemm a large sour lime (WPah.); ki_mu_ mulberry (Ku.); kimbu, kimu, kip (N.); koa~lik mulberry (Ash.); kenelik (Kt.); kunalik (Wg.); kumlugy (Pr.)(CDIAL 3440). ka_rmuka made of kr.muka wood (S'Br.); ka_mu_, ka_mo, ka_muhi_ the tree phyllanthus multiflorus (S.)(CDIAL 3077). pu_ga areca catechu (Skt.)(CDIAL 8313). guva_ka, gu_va_ka betelnut tree areca catechu (Skt.); gu~ a parti. kind of tree; guo~ its fruit (WPah.); guwa_ areca or betel nut (A.); guya_, go a. catechu (B.); gua_ its nut (Or.Bhoj.); gu_a_ (H.)(CDIAL 4219). Areca catechu guva_ka (Skt.); pu_ga, kramuka (Skt.); gua, supa_ri (B.); supa_ri (H.)(Sanskrit Materia Medica, p. 250). po~_ka areca catechu, the areca tree; an areca nut (Te.); po_ke betel (Kol.); po_ka mra_nu areca tree (Kuwi); pa_kku areca nut, areca palm (Ta.); a raw areca nut (Ma.); pa_kut.t.i knife for cutting betel nuts (Tu.); pa_ku areca nut; pa_kku-vet.t.i crackers for slicing areca nuts (Ta.); betel-knife (Ma.)(DEDR 4048). pu_ga areca catechu; its nut (Sus'r.); areca tree (Pali); pu_(g)a, pu_gi_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8313). pu_gaphala, pu_gi_phala betel nut (Sus'r.); pu_a(p)phali_, popphali_ areca catechu; pu_giphala, popphala, po_phala betel nut (Pkt.); pophal. the tree; the nut (M.); phoppal.a (Konkan.i); phophal. the nut; phophl.i_ the tree (G.)(CDIAL 8314). puvak areca palm (Si.)(CDIAL 8315). moc-ras areca catechu (P.)(CDIAL 10348). "Cate (Areca catechu) ... Complaining of relaxation and softening of the gums, your cook told me that I should eat (chew?) betre, areca, and cate well mixed together... This plant is most abundant in the territories of Bacaim, Manora, and Damam, cities of our King... it is taken to Malacca and China in large quantities, as well as to Arabia, Persia and Khorasan... The Arabs, Persians and all the people of India call it cate. In its own proper country they call it uplot, also pucho [cf. pu_ga (Skt.)], owing to the great trade in it to Malacca, where it is so called... Cate is what Galen and Pliny and Dioscordes, Avicenna and Rasis call licium..." (G. De Orta, pp. 264-271).

1399.Berberuis Lycinum: The watery extract from the wood of which is famous all over India under the name of rusut. The Hindustani name of the wood of these trees is chitra, the Sanskrit daruharidra, i.e. 'wood turmeric', the Persian pilzahra, the Arabic ambarbaris, and the Chinese kauki. (G. De Orta, pp. 264-271). pi_tadru synonym of da_ruharidra_ (Car. Ci. 10.43,12.25); pi_tada_ru id. (Car. Si. 9.8,10.23). da_ruharidra_ berberis aristata (Car. Su. 4.3, 12.14); da_rvi_ id. (Car. Ci. 6.26,28). daru haridra (Skt.); darhaldi (B.); daruhald (M.); daru-hald (H.); rasaut (H.); rasvat(K.); root bark, wood and an extract made from root bark: rasaut: alterative, deobstruent, used in skin diseases, diarrhea, jaundice, and affections of the eyes; decoction of root bark: in malarial fever; habitat: Himalayas from 6,000 to 10,000 ft. and Nilgiri Hills (GIMP, p.36). Berberis lycium: kashmal (H.); darhald (M.); extract, rasaut: used in ophthalmia (GIMP, p.36). pu_ga areca catechu (Car. Su. 5.77). Berberis asiatica da_ruharidra_, da_rvi_ (Skt.); da_ruhaldi (H.): The wood, root-bark and extract of Indian barberry have been used in Hindu medicine from a very remote period. Its properties are said to be analogous to those of turmeric. The extract called rasa_njana in Sanskrit and rasot in the vernacular... is said to be particularly useful in affections of the eyes. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.108). cf. kal.a_ Nepal barberry, berberis nepalensis (Ta.)(DEDR 1377). tak berberis tinctoria (Ko.); tarike berberis nepalensis (Ka.); tok berberis tinctoria (To.)(DEDR 3096). Berberis asiatica: sumlu berberis asiatica; kilmora (Kumaon); kingora (Garhwal); chitra (N.); roots: used in healing ulcers, urethral discharges, ophthalmia, jaundice, fevers and source of rasaut; habitat: dry outer Himalayas from 2,000 to 8,500 ft. and Assam (GIMP, p.36). Berberis aristata: pita-daru, daruharidra, darvi, parjanya (Skt.); Indian or Nepal or Opthalmic barberry; tree-turmeric; falso calumba (Eng.); rasaut, chitra, darhald, kashmal (H.); sumlu, chitra (P.); chitra (N.); filzahrah, zarishk (Pers.); darhaldi (B.); daruhald (M.); jharki-halad, zarishk (H.); doddamaradarsina (Ka.); maramanjal, kasturimanjal (Ta.Ma.); kasturipaspu, daruharida (Te.); Habitat: barberry bushes grow on the Nilgiris and all over the temperate Himalayas, from Bhutan to Kunawer; Parts used: extract, fruit, root-bark, stem and wood. Root and wood are rich in a yellow alkaloid 'berberine'... Tonic, stomachic, astringent, antiperiodic, diaphoretic, antipyretic and alterative... in disease of the eye, ears and face... (Indian Materia Medica, p. 187). Berberis lycium: kashmal, chitra (H.); kushmal (U.P.); darhalad (Bombay); zirishk (fruit)(Pers.); Habitat: grows in dry hot places in western Himalayas from Garhwal to Hazara; Parts used: root, stem, branches, leaves... Medicinal extract from the root known under the name of 'rasaut' is a very highly esteemed drug in the indigenous medicine... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 189-190.

1400.Spikenard: kacco_lam spikenard; ma_cil (Mu_. A.); a kind of aromatic (Cilap. 6,77, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kacco_ram long zedoary, pu_la_n:kir..an:ku, curcuma zedoaria (said to be wild in the eastern Himalayas and coastal forests of Kanara); spikenard, ma_cil (Ta.lex.) An aromatic: gandha-kaco_ra zedoary, curcuma zedoaria, karcu_raka, dra_vid.aka (Ka.lex.) karpu_raka curcuma zerumbet (Skt.); kapu_ra_ a kind of tuber like turmeric (Or.)(CDIAL 2881). karbu_ra curcuma zerumbet (Skt.)(CDIAL 2886). kacu, karcu_raka, kaco_ra, kacu_ra, kaccho_ra the plant curcuma zerumbet (Ka.lex.) kaccu_ram molucca-bean; bonduc-nut, caesalpinia bonduc; kar..ar-ci id. (Ta.); kar..acci (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) gavala-kacu_ra, gavul.akacu_ra a kind of bad-smelling kaco_ra, kakko_laka, ko_laka (Ka.lex.) Curcuma zedoaria, curcuma zerumbet, amomum zerumbet: kachura, krachura, shati, sati (Skt.); round zedoary (Eng.); gandamasti, kakhur, kachura (H.); sutha, shori, sati (B.); kachura (Bombay); jadvar khata, kazhur (Pers.); katchoor (Deccan); kuv, kachur (M.); kachora (Ka.Kon.); kichili-gaddalu, kachoeramu (Te.); kastori-manjal, nirvisham, pulan-kizhanga, kichilic-kizhanga (Ta.); pulan-kizhanna, adavi-kachhola (Ma.); thanu-wen (Burm.); hinhurh (Si.); aurakula-kappura (Arab.); Habitat: cultivated in gardens in many parts of India, especially in eastern Bengal and in districts of Chittagong and Tipperah; Parts used: tubers and leaves... Root which possesses an agreeable camphoraceous smell, is cooling, diuretic and aromatic... Root is generally chewed by Indians to correct a sticky taste in the mouth especially by singers for cleaning the throat.. the pounded root is applied as a paste to the body... It is an odoriferous ingredient of the cosmetics used for the cure of chronic skin diseases caused by impure or deranged blood... Dry root powdered and mixed with the powdered wood of caesalpinia sappan makes the red powder called 'abir' which is mixed with water and thrown over the body during the 'holi' festival of the Hindus... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 418-419).

1401.Kashmir: kas'i_ru, kas'i_r, kas'i_ri_ (K.)(CDIAL 2968). ka_cumi_ram < ka_s'mi_ra Kashmi_r, a country in the north of India, one of 56 te_cam (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 97)[cf. khas'a, khasa name of a people in North India (Mn.); khasa (Pkt.); kha_h a man of the Khas tribe (K.); khas the people of Khas'a_l; khassa_li_ their language (P.); khas' the people; kha_s'a_ the district of Khas'a_l in Jammu (WPah.); khas, khasiya_ name of a caste; khas'i~r. a woman of this caste (Ku.); khas a caste of Chettris (N.)(CDIAL 3853).] ka_cumi_ra-kan.t.am Kashmi_r (Kumare_. Cata. 24)(Ta.lex.) ka_s'mi_ra coming from Kashmir (MBh.); ka_s'mi_raka (Pa_n.. MBh.); ks'yuu, kos'iru of or belonging to or coming from Kashmir (K.)(CDIAL 3117). kas'mi_ra name of a people (Pa_n..); kasmi_ra (Pali); kamhi_ra, kamha_ra, kam.bha_ra, kam.bhu_ra, kasami_ra the people; kasumi_ra_ the country (Pkt.); kas'i_r Kashmir (Sh.)(CDIAL 2968).

1402.Kaempferia galanga: kaccu_ra a leafless plant, wild and cultivated, kaempferia galanga (Ka.lex.) cf. kiccili-k-kir..an:ku camphor zedoary, hedychium coranarium (Ta.lex.) kaempferia galanga: chandra mulika (Skt.); chandramula (H.); chandu-mula (B.); kapur-kachri (M.); kacholum (Ta.); kachoram (Te.); katjulam (Ma.); tubers: stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, carminative, reduced to powder and mixed with honey given in coughs and pectoral affections; boiled in oil externally applied to stoppages of the nasal organs; habitat: throughout India, cultivated (GIMP, pp.146-147). Kaempferia galanga: a smooth, stemless herb rising from tuberous aromatic rootstocks... two ovate leaves... the plant is used for flavoring rice. According to Burkill, the rhizome is used in cosmetics, and in Borneo it enters into the preparation of yeast, and of dyes. Stuart says that the rhizome is used in perfumery and also as a means to preserve cloths from insects... In India the powder or ointment of the rhizome is applied to wounds... the leaves are also used as a perfume in washing hairs. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp.192-194). Kaempferia galanga: sugandhavacha, chandramulika (Skt.); chandramoola, sime-kich-chilik (Te.); kacchola kilangu, kachula-kalanga (Ta.); kachhuram (Ma.); sidhoul (H.); kapur-kuchri (Bombay); chandumula, humula (B.); kapur-kachri (G.M.); kachhur (Ka.Kon.); vilati kachu (Deccan); growing abundantly in gardens in southern India. The tubers are diuretic, carminative, stimulant and expectorant; they are used as a masticatory with betel leaves and arecant. Tubers are used generally in perfumery. They are attached to the necklaces for their perfume and also placed in the clothes. Leaves are also used as a perfume in washing the hairs... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 715-716).

1403.Olibanum: gajapre_mi, gajapriye the gum olibanum tree, boswellia serrata (Ka.Skt.); gajabhaks.ye id., tadiku, tadugu (Ka.lex.) cf. kunda olibanum, the resin of boswellia thurifera; kunduru, kundu id.; kunduruki the plant boswellia thurifera (Skt.Ka.); one of Kube_ra's nine treasures (Ka.lex.)

1404.A timber tree for furniture: kaccha a tree, the timber of which is used for making furniture (Skt.lex.) kacchapa the tree cedrela toona (Skt.lex.) cedrela toona. It is a large forest tree. The wood is principally used in the manufacture of cigar boxes. The bark in decoction is used for cleansing wounds, considered antiseptic to dust over gangrenous ulcers (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.489.) Cedrela toona: tun.i the tree cedrela toona; tunna (Skt.); tunnaka (Bhpr.); tunyu name of a tree (Kaus'.); tu_ni_ cedrela toona (K.); tun. (P.); tun.i a tree with a hard and lasting timber (Ku.); tuni, t.uni cedrela toona (N.); tu~d (B.); tu~_n, tuni_ (H.)(CDIAL 5852). kacchaka a kind of fig-tree, the tree cedrela toona (Pali.lex.) kaccha a tree, the timber of which is used for making furniture etc., cedrela toona, the common tu_n; kacchapa one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra (Ka.lex.) Cedrela toona: nandivriks.a (Skt.B.); tun (H.B.); tuni (M.); tunumaram (Ta.); khusing (P.); nandichettu (Te.); malarveppu (Ma.); bark: astringent, tonic; in chronic infantile dysentery; external application for ulcers; bitter substance, red colouring matter nyctanthin; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract from the Indus eastwards, Chittagong, Assam, Chota Nagpur, Ganjam, W. Ghats of Bombay to the Nilgiris and Anamalais and other hills of the W. Peninsula (GIMP, p.56). cf. cedrus deodara, pinus deodara: toon-maram (Ta.); deodar, toona (H.)(Indian Materia Medica, p. 295). Cedrela toona (timber for furniture): tunna cedrela toona (Skt.); tun id. (B.H.)(Materia Medica of the Hindus, p.322). Mahogany: nandi the tree cedrela toona, the wood of which resembles mahogany; pun:gava id. (Ka.); nandi-vr.ks.a id.; kaccha, kun.i, kuve_raka, tunna id. (Ka.); basavana-gid.a id. (Ka.lex.) Timber tree: nandi the tree lagerstroemia microcarpa; nandimara, bil.e_ nandimara a large timber tree with white bark, lagerstroemia parviflora, basavagid.a (Ka.lex.) Indian fig tree: nandin the Indian fig tree (Skt.lex.)

1405.Part of a boat: kaccha a part of a boat (Ka.Skt.lex.)

1406.Image: arm-ring: kaccar..i an honorary arm-ring (Ka.lex.)

1407.Image: hair of the head: ke_c- to shave (Pa.); ke_ma razor (Pa.); ke_s- to shave; ke_sal razor (Ga.)(DEDR 1995). kaca the hair of the head in: kaca-kala_pa a mass of hair, tresses (Pali); kaca, ka_ci (Skt.); cingo, cicatrix (Latin)(Pali.lex.) kaca_kkiram < kaca + agra point of a hair; a linear measure equal to a hair's breadth (Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 5)(Ta.lex.) kacai hair ornament fastened by a hook from the top of the ear to the back of the head (Ta.lex.) Image: a bundle of hair: kacam hair on the head (Ta.lex.) kaca the hair of the head (Ka.Skt.); matted and twisted hair; a bundle of hair at the back of the head; a binding, band; the hem of a garment; kaca-paks.a a quantity of hair; much hair; thick or ornamented hair; kacapa_s'a = kacabhara a quantity of hair etc. (Ka.); kacabandha a braid of hair (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) For semant. 'hem' cf. kaks.a, kacca, kacce the hem of a garment tucked into the waist-band (Ka.Skt.); kacce (Tadbhava of kaks.e) id.; a female's cloth; a girdle (Ka.); kaccai (Ta.); kaccha the hem or end of a garment tucked into the waist-band; the tuck of a do_tra etc.; ka_ca_, ka_si a cloth used as girdling for the loins (Ka.); ka_cya_ (M.H.); ka_s'a_karpat.a = ka_sigappad.a, ka_sikacad.i, ka_sigappad.a a rag used to cover the privities or to gird the loins (Ka.); ka_s'e, ka_ca_, ka_si, ka_se (Tadbhava of ka_s'a_) a cloth used to cover the privities or to gird the loins (Ka.); the end of a woman's garment tucked into the waist-band (Ka.); ka_cya_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

1408.Battle-array: kesarin name of a battle-array (kesarin sanga_mo) (Pali.lex.)

1409.A sitting posture: ke_cari-y-a_canam a yo_gic posture in which the legs are disposed in such a way that the left ankle touches the right side and the right ankle touches the left side of the perineuum, the hands are on the thigh and the gaze, is fixed on the tip of the nose, one of nine a_canam (Ta.lex.)

1410.Image: rat: kecca or'i a kind of rat (Kuwi); kejra orli id. (Pe.); kezer-i elka mouse, muskrat (Kond.a)(DEDR 1937).

1411.Musk deer: ka_car-ai musk deer (Cilap. 25,52); musk (Cilap. 28,27); pomatum; hair oil (Tiruvil.ai. Tiruman.ap. 156); ka_car-ai-kkaru fawn of the musk deer (Cilap. 25,52)(Ta.lex.) kastu_ri < kastu_ri_ musk, animal perfume supposed to come out of the navel of the musk deer, of which there are five kinds: karikai, tilakai, kul.untai, pin.t.akai, na_yakai (Pata_rtta. 1081); kastu_rima_n- musk-deer, moschus moschiferus (Ka.lex.)

1412.Ploughman; people; ploughing; piece of land ready ploughed or hoed; image: furrow; line: casa_ to plough (B.); cars.an.i_ f. pl. = kr.s.t.i f. pl. people (RV.); sahiba to cultivate (A.); casiba_, tasiba_ (Or.); ca_sna_ (H.); ca_svu~ (G.); hayanava_ to pull; ha_nava_, hi_ ha_nava_ to plough (Si.); ca_sa ploughing, plough land (Pkt.); sa_h tilled (of land), act of tilling (A.); ca_s ploughing; ca_sa_, ca_si_ ploughman (B.); ca_sa, ta_sa agriculture (Or.); casa_ ploughing, cultivator (Or.); ca_si, ta_si, f. ca_sun.i, ta_sun.i cultivator (Or.); ca_s a ploughing (Bi.); ca_s tilth (Bhoj.); ploughing (H.); furrow (G.); ca_sa_, ca_si_ ploughman (H.); ca_sa (OM.); sa_hani a piece of land ready ploughed or hoed (A.)(CDIAL 4712). cf. kasan.a ploughing (Pali); kes.eni plough (Pas'.); kis'ni knotted string for tightening or loosening a drum (WPah.); kasn.a_ ploughshare (Or.); kasan.i, kasun.i drawing tightly, string, ring used by archers for protecting fingers (Or.); kasan pain, torture (H.)(CDIAL 3445). kr.s.aka ploughman (Skt.); kasaka (Pali); kis.ak cultivator (Kho.); kes.a plough (Pas'.); kr.s. pull (Skt.)(CDIAL 3444). kr.s.ati ploughs (RV.); kasati (Pali); kris.ati, kris.idaga ploughed (NiDoc.); kasai tightens (Pkt.); kisia ploughed (Pkt.); kis. to plough (Dm.); kis.ik (Kho.); kasta_ ploughs (Konkan.i); kis' to plough (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3446). kr.s.a_n.a ploughing (Ya_j.); kisa_n. farmer (P.Or.); industrious (Ku.); kisa_n farmer (N.); field labourer, cultivator (Bi.Mth.H.M.)(CDIAL 3447). kr.s.i ploughing (RV.); kasi ploughing, agriculture (Pali); kris.i-vatra ploughing and sowing (NiDoc.); kisi ploughing (Pkt.); kis. ploughing (Kt.Dm.Kal.); cultivated field, crops (Pas'.); ki_s. ploughing (Wg.); kis' plough, cultivation (Kho.)(CDIAL 4483). kars.aka cultivating; husbandsman (Ya_j.); kassaka ploughman (Pali); karisaya, ka_saya, ka_sava (Pkt.); kasaya_ peasant (Si.); kasu-kama ploughing, agriculture (Si.); kassa_ mattock; kassi_ small mattock; kussi_ (H.)(CDIAL 2906). Draw, pull; make a line: kars.a dragging (Pa_n..); agriculture (Skt.); ka_rs.i ploughing (TS.); kars.i (Skt.); karisa dragging; kassa mud (Pkt.); kas. pulling (Pas'.); ka_sa time or turn of ploughing a field (Or.); kos. dragging or trailing on the ground (Wg.)(CDIAL 2995). cf. xo_ir cultivated field, meadow (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3876). kars.an.a tugging, ploughing, hurting (Mn.); cultivated land (MBh.); karisan.a pulling, ploughing (Pkt.); karsan. cultivation, ploughing (G.); karasan.i cultivator (OG.); karasn.i_ (G.)(CDIAL 2907). kars.ati draws, pulls (RV.); kassate_ ploughs (Pali); karisai, ka_sai pulls (Pkt.); ks'al to drag, pull, lead (Gypsy); kas' to pull (Gypsy); kes.awa_ to draw out (Ash.); kas. to pull (Wg.); kas.a_ to take away by force (Wg.); -ks.e- to pull (Pr.); kas.a_y- (Dm.); kasan.u to tighten (S.); kassan., kassun. (L.); kas'n.u_ (WPah.); kassn.a_ (P.); kasn.o (Ku.); kasnu (N.); kasa_ (B.); close-fisted (Or.); kasab to tighten (Mth.); kasai (OAw.); kasna_ (H.); kasai harnesses, binds (OMarw.); kasvu~ to tighten (G.); kasn.e~ (M.); ka_san.em. to tie fast (OM.)(CDIAL 2908). kr.s.t.a drawn, ploughed; ploughed land (S'Br.); kat.t.ha ploughed; kit.t.ha growing corn, corn-field (Pali); kat.t.ha furrowed; kit.t.ha ploughed (Pkt.); kis't to be taken for a drive, to ride (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3449). kad.d.hati pulls, draws (Pali); kad.d.hai pulls, makes a line, ploughs (Pkt.); ka_r to move (Gypsy); kar. to pull (Wot..); khar.a (Gaw.); kad.un to pull out; karun, ka_ri, kad.i (K.); kad.han.u (S.); kad.d.han. (L.); kad.d.hn.a_ (P.); kad.d.hn.u_, ka_d.h, kad.d.hn.a_ (WPah.); ka_r.nu (N.); ka_r.iba (A.); ka_r.a_ (B.); ka_r.iba_ (Or.); ka_r.hab (Mth.Aw.); ka_r.hna_ (H.); kar.hna_ to be drawn (H.); ka_d.hai to pull out (OMarw.); ka_d.hvu~, ka_d.vu~ (G.); ka_d.hn.e~ to take out, to abate (M.); ka_d.u_ka to remove (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 2660). kr.s.t.i drawing, ploughing (Skt.); pl. men (RV.); kit.t.hi pulling (Pkt.)(CDIAL 340). kr.s.ya to be ploughed (Skt.); kis. cultivated fields, crops (Pas'.); kis' plough, cultivation (Kho.); kis', ki~_s. thoiki to drag, pull, push (Sh.)(CDIAL 3455). Image: line; cultivation: kis'i_ line (Kho.); kis.i_ line (Sh.); kis.i wrinkle in skin (Sh.); kasi line, underlining (B.); kas'i_ cultivation (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4483). kars.i furrowing (Skt.); ka_rs.i ploughing (VS.); kars.u_ furrow, trench (S'Br.); ks.i_ plough-iron (Pr.); kas.i mattock, hoe (Pas'.); kas.i spade, pickaxe (Shum.); khas.i_ small hoe (Dm.)(CDIAL 2909). kr.s.ika, kus'ika, kus'i, kus'ira a ploughshare (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kacc iron, iron blade (Go.)(DEDR 1096).

1413.Trequia nudiflora: ka_ci river portia, treqia nudiflora (Ta.Ma.Ka.)(DEDR 1433).

1414.Tender-hearted: kacivakattun.mai < kacivu + akattu + un.mai kind-heartedness, one of the characteristics of the ve_l.a_l.as (Tiva_.); kaci-tal to ooze out; to melt, as salt; to grow tender-hearted; to become compassionate (Man.i. 10,64); kacivu tenderness, sensibility, humanity (Tan.ikaippu. Avaiyat.ak. 2)(Ta.lex.) kad.ai to melt (Kon.lex.)

1415.Image: roar of a tiger: cf. gujrau, hudur. growl of tiger (Santali.lex.) cf. garja_ roaring (Skt.)(CDIAL 4047).

1416.Pulp: ku_cci pulp of wood-apple (Ta.); ku_u, ku_al centre of a fruit, stalk in the midst of a jackfruit (Ma.); ku_ji, gu_ji the stalk in the midst of a jackfruit (Tu.); gujuru, gujjulu, gunju id. (Te.); gunji_ sweet inner fibre of sugarcane (Go.); gurju juice, pulp (Ga.); gurju pith (Kuwi)(DEDR 1880). kogo_ mango stone (Kur.); ko.g stone of olive (Ko.); kwi.g seed inside fruit (To.); ko_gile seed inside mango stone (Ka.); go'i stone of mango (Go.); gohi pulp of fruit (Go.); goh'o cashew nut tree (Kuwi)(DEDR 2179). koyo stone or kernel of fruit (N.); koya_ pulp of jackfruit (H.); koy id. (M.); koya~d.a_ mango stone (M.); koya_l. having a fully formed kernel (of a mango)(M.)(CDIAL 3525). Mango: kokku mango tree (Ta.); kukku a mango (Tu.)(DEDR 2033). Pulp; brick: gijaka_vasatha residence of bricks (Pali); kujika_vasatha (Skt.); pangija_ brick (Bi.)(CDIAL 4156). kajjna_ to press down under a weight (Kur.); kaje to beat down (as earth), wash (as clothes)(Malt.)(DEDR 1101). gicca crowded (M.); gicgic crowded together (G.); gacca tightly, firmly (G.); gac tightly (M.); gi~ji dense (B.); ge~jiba_ to press together (Or.); gijna_, gi~jolna_ to mash with the hand (H.); ghacet.o push (Ku.); ghacca_ thrust (N.); ghacet.nu to push, thrust (N.); ghaca-maca pressure of work (N.); ghi~ji dense, impentrable (B.)(CDIAL 4153). kical mud; cical clay (Phal.); ki_c mud, dirt (Ku.); kica_, kicar. (B.); ki_c, ki~_c (Mth.); kicpic mud (H.); kicr.a_ha_ muddy (H.); ki_c, ki_car. mud (G.); kicad. (M.; ka_c, ka_c-ki_c mud, filth (Mth.)(CDIAL 3153). gijat.i, giji giji a jelly-like, viscous, pulpous, sticky state (Ka.); giji giji soft, pulpous (Tu.); giji, gii pith (Pa.); ginji pulp of fruit (Go.); ginjna_ to beat or press into pulp (Kur.)(DEDR 1519). ginjna_ to mix (Kur.); ginjye id. (Malt.); ginjgro mixed (as food)(Malt.)(DEDR 1522). cf. kiccu fire (Ta.)(DEDR 1514). Pulp: kusuri, kusuru the pulp or soft part of some vegetables and fruits (Ka.); kusri (Tu.); gujuru, gujju, guju pulp; thick juice; pith (Te.); kocci pulp (Ta.); kur..ampu thickened fluid, conjee, loam; to grow thick or condensated (Ta.Ma.); ku_r..u fat, thick, solid (Ma.); kusuri the sticky filament of flowers (Ka.); kusuri, kusuru unripe; kusuri-ga_yi a very young, quite unripe fruit (Ka.lex.) Half-ripe jack fruit: kur-uje, kujje an unripe fruit of the jack tree (Ka.); gujje a tender or half-ripe jack fruit (Tu.)(DEDR 1854). Damp; rice field: kus.t.hala * swampy land (Pa_n..); kut.hal rice field (WPah.); kuthala some kind of farm land (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 3372). ku_s' damp (of ground etc.)(Sh.)(CDIAL 3552). Image: clay-coated mortar: cf. cujna_ to pound rice, beat with repeated vertical knocks; refl. pass. cujrna_, cujka_ a clay-coated hole in the ground, used as a mortar for pounding rice in (Kur.); cunje to clean rice by pounding (Malt.)(DEDR 2653). Stench; urinate: kus- (-t-) to urinate; kuski (usually pl. kuskin-) urine (Kond.a); kuh- (-t-) to urinate (Mand..)(DEDR 1635). korcu, koccu stench of urine (Ka.); kujaru id., any bad smell (Tu.); kotte urine (Kor.)(DEDR 2128).

1417.Image: elephant: ku˝jara elephant (Skt.lex.)

1418.Young: koccu small, young (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) koccu short, small, young; little boy; koccan little boy, stunted fruit; kocci girl; kocam a little (Ma.); kou a young stunted cocont (Ma.); koyyal lean (Pa.); kocceka, koceka a little (Kuwi)(DEDR 2041). kis'o_ra a youth, lad, a boy beloe fifteen, a minor in law; kis'o_ri_ a maiden, a young woman; kis'o_ra a colt, cub, the young of any animal; e.g. ke_sarikis'o_rah. (Skt.lex.) koccaiyar young persons (Tiruman. 1394); cowherds, shepherds (Tiruppu. 255); kocam little, small quantity (Tiruppu. 609); id. (Ma.); kocemu (Te.); koca (Ka.); kondra (Tu.); cf. kicit (Skt.); kocal childish prattle (Ta.Ma.); koccu id. (Ka.); kocutal to lisp, to prattle, as children (Uttarara_. Campuva. 21); id. (Ma.); to talk softly or amorously, as young women (Ta.); koccai, koccai-c-col lisping; rustinc or unrefined speech (Ta.lex.) cf. uccarati utters, speaks (MBh.)(CDIAL 1641). kis'o_ra foal (AV.); a youth (BhP.); kis'o_rika_ (Pa_n..); kiso_ra boy; kiso_ri_ girl (Pkt.); kyo~_ru foal (Sh.); kis'ora_ a youth (Or.); kis'ori_ f. a youth (Or.); kisora_, kisori_ (OAw.)(CDIAL 3190). kon-n-u (kon-n-i-) to stammer, stutter, babble; kon-n-ai stammering, babbling (Ta.); kocuka to prattle, fondle, caress (as a child), flirt; kouka id., stammer, hesitate in speaking; kocal fondling, coquetry; koa id., prattle, inarticulate speech; koan stammerer (Ma.); kwiz,- (kwij-) to ridicule; kwiz,il ridicule (To.); koccu, korcu to speak much or braggingly; utter in ostentatious language; koe babble, prattle (Ka.); koccuni to prate, brag; ko_ca, ko_c boasting; koa prattling; ko stammering (Tu.); kurca'ana_ to stammer, speak like a child (Kur.); kwic humbled, low (To.); koca, koce a little, littleness, inferiority (Ka.); koncemu a little, a few; deficiency, contempt; little, few, slight, mean, deficient (Te.)(DEDR 2043).

1419.To whisper: kuchan.u to speak, talk (S.)(CDIAL 3281). kucukucu (-pp-, -tt-) to whisper; kucukucuppu whispering; kucukuc-en-al onom. expr. signifying whispering; kacu-kuc-en-al, kacu-muc-en-al whispering into the ear (Ta.); kus'ukus'ukka, kucukucukka to whisper; kus'alikka id., to mumble; kas'ukus'u imit. sound of whispering (Ma.); guc guc in- (id--) to whisper; gucgucn in a whisper, secretly (Ko.); kucu, kusa, kusu, guja, guju, gusa, kisu, gisu a sound imitating whispering (frequently reduplicated)(Ka.); guji, guju, gujji, gujju, gusu, kusukusu whispering (Tu.); gusagusa whisper; in a whisper or low voice (Te.); kuskusa var.k- to whisper; kusai silently, noiselessly; kusa_y in a low voice, secretly; kusmu_s man- to be silent (Go.); kusmusa'a_na_ to whisper (Kur.); khusukhusa to whisper (Pkt.); khuskhus (H.); khuskhus whispering (N.)(CDIAL 1638).

1420.Meanness: kuts abuse (Skt.); kutsayati abuses, blames (MBh.); kutsyati (R.); pp. kutsita (Skt.); kucchita contemptible (Pali); kucchai abuses, blames (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3281). koccai meanness, despicableness (Kampara_. Yut. Mantirap. 101); id. (Ma.); mean, despicable person (Kampara_. Yut. mantirap. 112); koccai-c-col vulgar language; kocan- mean person (Tiruppu. 609); kocattan-am sorry plight, pitiable condition, meanness (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 112,1); koce-tanamu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) koccu mean (Ma.)(DEDR 2041). kujd.a_ sullen, rancorous (M.); krijjhun. to fret (L.)(CDIAL 3600). Disgusting; irritated: kr.cchra painful, miserable (MBh.); difficulty, trouble, danger (RV.); kasira distressed (Pali); kiccha distressed; n. pain, trouble (Pali.Pkt.) gri- to be bitter (Mand..); gripka (< grik-p; grikt-) to irritate the throat, as when something briny or pungent is eaten; gretenji sour, unpleasant to the taste (Kui); grik- (-h-) to be bitter (Kuwi)(DEDR 2260). kisur to be intolerable or very disagreeable; kisur, kisur-, kesaru an intolerable or very disagreeable state; strife, quarrel; the evil eye, evil, harm; kittad.a disagreeableness, disgustfulness (Ka.); kedaruni to be excited, irritated (Tu.); kiduku to fret, be cross on waking from sleep (as children)(Te.); kickica disgust (Pe.); kickica filthy, disgusting; disgusted (Pe.); kijja kijja a_nai to loathe (Kuwi); ceyir- (-pp-, -tt-) to be angry with, show signs of anger, afflict, cause pain; n. anger, rage, battle, fight; ceyirppu anger (Ta.)(DEDR 1511). To quarrel: kacati shouts (Skt.); kackaca_t. quarrelling (Ku.); kackac constant grumbling; kacmac disturbed (of sleep)(N.); kaskasni restlessness (A.); kacakaca (Or.); kackac (H.); kac brawl; kaciya_ro troop of discontented children (G.); kackac restlessness (G.); kackac (M.)(CDIAL 2612). kasaru to bargain bitterly (Ta.); kayakka to quarrel, abuse; kayaccal, kayampam contention; kayarkka to start up in anger, quarrel, reprove, punish; kayarppu reviling, quarrelling, wrath (Ma.); kac party in a quarrel (Ko.); gaj-va.yn. man who talks non-sensically (va.y mouth)(Ko.); kasaru ill-humour; ke_n.a, ki_n.a envy, grudge; anger, passion; gajar-(u) to produce a loud sound, scold; n. a loud, angry sound or speech (Ka.); kacca_d.uni to quarrel, dispute, fight, battle; kasaru to scold, rebuke; n. anger, a scolding; kasi anger, spite, malice, grudge; kasugu to mutter in vexation; kacce, kacciya a quarrel; kisaru anger; gay(y)a_l.i a shrew, termagant; gay(y)a_l.incu to behave as a termagant (Te.); kayri an enemy, talebearer (Pa.); kayar anger, sorrow (Ga.); ka_se hostility, enmity, blood feud; ka_senju a male enemy; fem. ka_sali (Kui); kaskinai to incense (Kuwi); kackacrna_ to be vexed, get annoyed; kackac annoyance, vexation (Kur.)(DEDR 1089). kaks.ya_ (Skt.); kat.ci faction, party, clique; battle-field (Cilap. 12, Uraip. 23)(Ta.lex.) Blame; fret: khim.sa_ blame (Pkt.); khim.sae_ blames (Pkt.); khi_s grin (P.); ridicule (Ku.); mockery (H.); anger (Mth.); khisi, khissi mockery, scorn (N.); khisya_unu to mock (N.); khisia_eb to be fretful (Mth.); khi_sna_ to mock, grimace, show the teeth (H.); khisya_na_ to grin (H.)(CDIAL 3889). Image: grin; mockery: gija_unu, gijya_unu to mock; gija_, gi~ja_ the gums (N.); gijaun.o to provoke (Ku.)(CDIAL 4155). qese to tease, disturb (?Malt.); kijovi joke; kijovi ki to make fun, joke (Kuwi); kizay- (-t-) to jeer at, ridicule (Kond.a); kijowi joke (Kuwi); kijowigatti witty; kitzowi ki_nai to jest, jeer, joke (Kuwi)(DEDR 1518). kiccukkiccu mu_t.t.u/ppan.n.u to tickle (Ta.); kiskwit.- id. (To.); kiskwil. tickling is (with dative)(To.)(DEDR 1516). kicv- to make a grimace (of derision, etc.) by opening mouth and drawing back lips, open mouth at death; kicva.yn. one who acts foolishly through temporary inadvertence; ginj- (dog) shows (teeth) with a snarl (Ko.); kisi (kisid-/kist-) to expand, open, withdraw the lips from the teeth so as to show them, grin, put astride; kisa, kisi, kisu; kisikisi nagu to grin in laughter, grin; kicikil to neigh (Ka.); kisu, kisuka, kisi grinning; kis'i-kis'i a titter, laugh (Tu.)(DEDR 1510).

1421.To weave: kuyil to weave, (u_ciyot.u kuyin-r-a tu_cum pat.t.um : Tol. Col. 74, Urai); to plait, braid, intwine; to bore, perforate tunnel (DEDR 1763). cf. kuccu-k-kat.t.utal < guccha to braid the hair (Ta.lex.) guccha_ bunch, tassel (H.); guchi tuft, sheap (B.)(CDIAL 4172). kuyila_yam bird's nest; pottery, potter's workshop (Ta.lex.) koy to plait, gather into folds, as ends of a cloth; ko_t.ip pu_ntukil koytu (Perun.. ila_va_n.a. 5,165); koy-y-akam ornamental folds of cloth used as hangings in a hall; (pacum pon-utukkai koyyaka mi_ppat.ana_r-r-in-ar : Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 62); koyya_-k-kayir-u a weaving instrument; kayir-u-tat.i a weaving instrument (Ta.lex.)

1422.To burn incense; image: soot on bottom of cooking-pot; smoke: kus'u_la a fire made of chaff; kus'a_nu fire; kus'a_nu-re_tas an epithet of S'iva (Skt.lex.) kosso, kosoy, kosoyi soot (?Go.); kosso_ soot on bottom of cooking-pot (?Go.); kuhula smoke (?Kui); koy smoke (Pe.); go_yi smoke (of kitchen)(Kond.a); ko_d-, ko_t- (ko_tt-) to smoke; burn incense (Pe.); gu_ to smoke (?Pa.); gu_i, gu_jkud. smoke (?Pa.); kusso smoke (?Go.)(DEDR 2226). xossna_ (xussya_) to burn without flame, catch fire, (fire) catches; xossta'a_na_ to ignite, cause (fire) to catch (Kur.); qose to be burnt, burn; qostre to burn, inflame (Malt.)(DEDR 2042). To be burnt up: kerj (Pa.) = katir (Ta.) X gaja to be influenced by heat (Sora.); gajam to be burnt up, to be reduced to dust or powder (Sora.); kas to be lit (as fire), burn (Kond.a); kasis to light (lamp, fire)(Kond.a); kacay ki to light lamp (Pe.); hiccu kahinomi we kindle fire (Kuwi)(DEDR 1090). Image: flame: kocci fire (Ta.); cf. kuccu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ko_s.n.a, kavo_s.n.a warm (Pa_n..); koso hot, warm (S.); ko_sa_ luke-warm; fever (L.); ko_ssa_ lukewarm (P.); kuhumi_ya_ tepid (A.); ko~bat., komat. warmish (M.)(CDIAL 3552). kor..untu flame (Kantapu. Iran.t.a_. cu_ra. 359); kor..untu-vit.utal to blaze up; to shoot up, as flames (Kuce_lo_. Kuce_larme_lkat.a. 52)(Ta.lex.) Image: smoke: kacama_la smoke (Ka.lex.) kacakku-p-pukai-y-ilai tobacco prepared in a certain way for smoking (J.); kaca-kacattal to feel uneasy from clamminess due to perspiration on account of heat or sultriness (W.); kacakacaven-al onom. expr. signifying rustling; perspiring and being hot (Ta.); kaskasrna (Kur.)(Ta.lex.) kaci perspire (Ta.); kacivu perspiration (Ta.)(DEDR 1091). Image: smoke: koy smoke (Pe.); ko_t to smoke, burn incense (Pe.); kosso, kosoy, kosoyi soot (?Go.); go_yi smoke (of kitchen)(Kond.a); kuhula smoke (?Kui)(DEDR 2226). kaca_lai kitchen; cf. pa_ka-s'a_la_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) ?Fog: kuyil, kuyin- cloud (Ta.); kuhka_r fog, mist (Go.); guhra sky, cloud (Go.); kutu kuer.i mist, fog (Kui)(DEDR 1765). kuhi_, kuhed.i_ (Skt.); koi dik to rain while the sun is shining (Kho.); kowa_mowa_ haziness (A.); ko fog, mist (B.); ku_ha_ morning fog (Bi.); kuh fog, mist (Mth.); kuha_ dampness of weather, ground, etc. (M.); kuhi_r. mist, fog, haze (L.); fine rain, mist (P.); kohr.o mist, fog (Ku.); koha_r.a (B.); kuhur.i (Or.); kuhr.i_ (H.); kaurih mist (Sh.); kuhur fog, mist (P.); kohar (H.)(CDIAL 3386). kuhes, kuhesa_ mist, fog (Bi.); kuhes, ku_hassa_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 3389).

1423.Image: goblin: kusu_la, kuks.ila a kind of goblin (AV. vii.6.10: kusu_la_ ye_ ca kuks.ila_)(Vedic.lex.) ? ko_s.a, ko_s'a cupboard, treasury; ko_s.aq name of a family of priests (S'Br. x.5.5.8); ko_s.t.ha store-room; ko_s.t.hya proceeding from the chest (RPr. xiii.1); ko_s'ayi_ chest, trunk, bundle (RV. iv.47.22); ko_s'a chest, trunk (RV. vi.47.23)(Vedic.lex.) kuks.i, kukki a cavity; the belly (Ka.lex.) Concordant with semant. 'goblin' cf. s'u_la death, dying (Ka.lex.) cu_lakkur..i pit for stones set up in funeral ceremonies; cu_lam trident the three-pronged dart of S'iva (Tiruva_ca. 9,17); brand-mark on cattle, usually trident-shaped; supposed position of S'iva's trident during week-daysl, considered inauspicious; cu_lavil.akku temple lamp in the form of trident; cu_lavari an ancient tax (I.M.P.N.A. 255); cu_la-k-ka_l.ai bull branded with trident mark and dedicated to S'iva's shrine; va_ra-cu_lai (astrol.) inauspiciousness of each day of the week for starting on a journey in a particular direction indicated by the position of S'iva's trident on that day (Co_tit.a. Cin. 33)(Ta.lex.) va_ras'u_le, va_ras'u_la id.; s'u_la_yudha S'iva (Ka.lex.)

1424.Granary: go_cara food, pasture (Pali); pasture ground (A_pS'r.); go_ara pasture ground (Pkt.); gojare (NiDoc.); go_r herd of cows (Pas'.); gojura fodder, booty (OSi.); godura id. (Si.)(CDIAL 4264). kusu_la a granary, store-house (for corn etc.); kus'u_la a granary, cupboard, storeroom; kus'u_la-dha_nyaka a house-holder who has three year's grain in stock (Skt.lex.) kus'u_la granary (Skt.); kusu_la large earthen vessel for storing grain, granary (Pkt.); kuseli_ corn bin (Pas'.); kusu_l granary, fire of chaff (B.); kusu_l.a granary (Or.); kusu_la-dha_nya having grain stored for three years (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 3379). ko_s'a storeroom (Mn.); ko_sa storeroom (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 3539). ko_s'a_ga_ra treasure chamber (MBh.); koha_ra_ cash box, box for blacksmith's odds and ends; khu~ha_ra_ (L.)(CDIAL 3542). cf. kudir a receptacle for paddy or grain made of earthen hoops or bamboo mats, a granary; kus'u_la (Ka.); kutir, kulukkai (Ta.); kr.dara (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kulukkai circular earthen bin for storing grain (Ta.); kulukka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Three years' grain in stock; granary: kusu_la granary for rice or other grain (BhP.); kusu_la-dha_nya having grain stored for three years (Ya_j.); kusu_la large earthen vessel for storing grain, granary (Pkt.); kuseli_ corn bin (Pas'.); kuseli_ (Shum.); kusu_l granary, fire of chaff (B.); kusu_l.a granary (Or.)(CDIAL 3379). ko_cam treasure; treasury; street (Ta.lex.) ko_s'a_ga_ra treasure chamber (MBh.); koha_ra_, khu~ha_ra cash box, box for blacksmith's odds and ends (L.)(CDIAL 3542). cf. ko_s.t.ha granary, storeroom (MBh.); ko_s.t.haka treasury (Skt.)(CDIAL 3546). Storekeeper; granary: kot.tu granary (Par..a. 388, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Treasury: kosa any cavity or enclosure containing anything, viz. a store-room or storehouse, treasury or granary; wealth, stores; kosa-kot.t.ha_ga_ra explained as koso vuccati bhan.d.a_ga_ran; four kinds are mentioned: hatthi-ko, assa_-ko, ratha_-ko, rat.t.han-ko; a vessel or bowl for food; kosa-a_rakka the keeper of the king's treasury (or granary); kosa-kot.t.ha_ga_ra treasury and granary, usually in phrase paripun.n.-kosa-kot.t.ha_ga_ra adj. with stores of treasures and other wealth (Pali.lex.) ko_cam a part of the fortress wall (Pin..); street (Tiva_.); cf. gho_s.a (Skt.); ko_s.t.haka a granary; a surrounding wall (Skt.lex.) ko_caram town, village; lineage, family (Caivaca. Potu. 331, Urai.); cf. go_tra (Skt.); ko_ca_lai cow-shed (Ko_yilo. 100); cf. go_+ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Register or muniment of title: ko_cam treasure; treasury (Perun.. Vattava. 9,5); register or muniment of title (Ta.); ko_ca-ma_r-r-utal to transfer pat.t.a etc., in another's name; koca-k-ka_ran- Pat.t.a_da_r (Ta.lex.) ko_cam pat.t.a_; treatise, book, vocabulary, dictionary (Ta.lex.) kuca-k-kan.akku wrong, clumsy reckoning, pottering in calculation; a sub-sect among potters, as doing the duties of an accountant; kucavan- potter (Ta.Ma.); kusave (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) ko_s'a storeroom (Mn.); seed-vessel (R.); ko_sa storeroom (Pali); storeroom (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3539). ko_s'aga_ra treasure chamber (MBh.); koha_ra_ cash box, box for blacksmith's odds and ends; khu~ha_ra_ (L.)(CDIAL 3542). Image: drinking vessel: ko_s'ike a sort of drinking vessel (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

1425.Image: small house: kuccu hut, shed made of palm leaves (Tan-ippa_. i,384,34); kuccil small house; small room (Ta.lex.) Image: coping: kucalai coping of a wall (Ta.); kusi id. (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: upper coping: kosi_su_ ornamental structure on a parapet (G.); kosi_sum. small pinnacle ornamenting a wall (OG.); kavisi_saya top part of a wall (Pkt.); kapis'i_rs.a the upper coping of a wall (Skt.)(CDIAL 2751). ko_cam a part of fortress wall (Ta.lex.) Sharp point: ku_ccu sharp point (Ta.); ku_ci (Te.); cf. ku_rca a kind of grass (Skt.)(CDIAL 3408); kuccu-p-pul cluster-grass, cynosurus indicus (Pur-ana_. 257, Urai); kucam darbha (Pa_rata. Campava. 55)(Ta.lex.) kucci highest point, crest, summit (Kampara_. Va_n-ara. 20); cf. ucca tall, lofty (Mn.); ucca_, uccaih. above (RV.); ucat high (Psht.); uco excellent (S.)(Ta.lex.)

1426.Image: to look with eyes of grace: ku_cu-kan. a kind of nearsightedness, causing one to keep the eyes nearly shut (W.); ku_ci-vir..ittal to look with dazzled eyes; to look with eyes of grace (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: squint-eyed: kus'ika squint-eyed; kus'ika nom. prop. (RV.)(Skt.lex.) Image: sly look: ku_r..ai-p-pa_rvai sly look (Tiv. Periyati. 9,6,3)(Ta.lex.) kucca a perfectly blind man (Ka.lex.) ko_n:gan.n.u a squint eye; ko_su adj. oblique, squint; ko_cu-kan.n.u squint eye (Tu.lex.)

1427.Image: zigzag: ko_su, ko_cu state of being crooked or curved, deviation from squareness (as that of torn cloth, of a wall, etc.)(Ka.); ko_su oblique, squint (of eye)(Tu.); ko_su obliqueness; oblique, not at right angles (Te.)(DEDR 2186). kongor.i bent, curved, crooked, zigzag (Kui); go_n:kot.i bent, crooked (Kuwi); kokre to stoop down (Malt.); kokro bent, curly (Malt.); kokd.i_ crookedly (Kol.); kokta crooked, zigzag (Nk.); gongor. keser sickle (Go.); kon:gari crookedness (Ka.); kokkarai crookedness, deformity, rake (Ta.); kuran:ku hook, clasp, link in jewelry (?Ta.)(DEDR 2032). kon:ga crookedness (Ka.); kon:ki a hook, fish-hook, angle (Ka.); konku, kongu state of being bent, crooked (Ka.); kokke crook, hook, anything bent (Kod..); a hook, clasp (Tu.); kon:ke, kun:ke a hook, crookedness; bent, curved, arched, irregular (Tu.); kokki, konki a hook (Te.); kon:kara crookedness (Te.); goggi uneven, irregular (Te.); konki curved hoe (Nk.); konga, kohonga elbow (Nk.); kangan.i elbow (Kuwi); kongoni arm (Kuwi); kongor.i, kengeri, kingir.i, kengoni, kongoni bent, curved, crooked (Kui); konkat.a_ crooked, bent (Kuwi); go_nkot.i bent, crooked (Kuwi); konko_, konkr.o_ shaped like a hook, curved, winding (Kur.); kenkr.o_, kenko_-benko_ crooked, curved, or shaped like a hook (Kur.); qonqe to indent, notch, bend the knees slightly in dancing, form the ridge of a thatched roof (Malt.); kokro bent, curly (Malt.); kongori concave (Malt.)(DEDR 2032). Curved: ko_la curved, crooked (Skt.); crooked (Dm.); ku_ra crooked (Khot.); ko_le curved, crooked (Ash.); koli crooked, also 'left hand, left'; cf. kaula worshipper of S'akti according to the left-hand ritual (Kho.); ko_l crooked (Bshk.Tor.); ko_lu (Sh.)(CDIAL 3533). kulavu to bend, curve (Ta.); kolge to curve, bend; kolgro bent, curved (Malt.)(DEDR 2136). Sickle: ko'er sickle (Kond.a); kuyam sickle, reaping hook, curved knife, razor (Ta.); koyes, koves sickle (Pe.); koyta_ grass-sickle (M.); koyti_ small knife (M.); koy- to cut, reap (Ta.); koyka to cut, reap (Ma.); koy- to cut (Ko.); koyl. harvest (Ko.)(DEDR 2119). [cf. gonga large cowrie shell (Tu.)(DEDR 2036); sankha conch (Pali)(CDIAL 12265).] kokor to be bent, curved (Pa.); konki a fish-hook (Ka.)(DEDR 2032). gongor. keser sickle (Go.)(DEDR 2032). The second element keser may relate to the depiction of a curved 'neck' xe_ser (xesr-) neck, shoulders (Kur.); qasru neck (Malt.)(DEDR 1996); and to the function ke_sal razor, ke_s to shave (Ga.); ke_c to shave; ke_ma razor (Pa.)(DEDR 1995)].

1428.Great; men of the plains: ko_ha_ great, big, haughty, important, eminent in rank, etc.; ko_har elders, grandees, chiefs; kogha_ great one, elder relative; koghar elders (Kur.); ko_, ko_n-, ko_ma_n- emperor, king, great man, leadership; ko_yil palace, temple; ko_yin-mai, ko_vin-mai, ko_n-mai royal dignity, arrogance; ko_vil temple; ko_n-a_t.u a division of the Chola country; ko_car name of certain chieftains mentioned in the Sangam literature and connected with the Tul.u country (Ta.); ko_, ko_n, ko_ma_n king; ko_yil, ko_vil palace, temple; ko_yilakam palace; ko_nma, ko_yma royal authority (Ma.); ko.na.r. the plains; ko.na.t.o.n, ko.na.t.o.r man, men of the plains (Ko.); ko_yila, ko_vela temple (Te.); ko_c king (Pa.); ko_su id. (Ga.)(DEDR 2177). kon- greatness, vastness (Kur-un. 138); power, strength (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) ko_n:kan.a name of a people on the western shore of the Deccan (MBh.); kom.kan.a, kum.kan.a; kom.kan.aga adj. id. (Pkt.); ko~kn.i_ of the province of Konkan (G.); ko~kan., kokan. the country; ko~kn.i_ adj. (M.)(CDIAL 3487). Place-name: koccai-vayam Ci_ka_r..i (Te_va_. 124,1); koccai id. (Te_va_. 1035,11)(Ta.lex.) Ancient caste of warriors: ko_car an ancient caste of warriors (meymmali perumpu_t. cemmar- ko_car : Akana_. 15 )(Ta.lex.) kut.a-k-ko_n- Che_ra king, as ruling the western country (kut.akku)(Ta.lex.) go_ha adulterer, police superintendent or the like, cruel man, soldier, village headman; ga_mago_ha village headman (Pkt.); gou_ thief (OH.); goho, ghov husband (M.); gho_u (Konkan.i); goyu slave (Si.); jodho, godho warrior (S.)(CDIAL 4343). yo_ddhr. warrior (MBh.); jodha_ lusty fellow (P.); jodha_ha_ strong, stubborn (N.); jodha_ warrior, brave fellow (H.); jodh strong, lusty (G.); jodho warrior (G.); jodha_ strong, lusty (M.); jodha_r warrior (Marw.)(CDIAL 10532). yo_dha warrior (RV.Pali); yodha (NiDoc.); jo_ha (Pkt.); yo_ (Si.); yo_dhaka (MBh.)(CDIAL 10533). Hindu man; constable: ko_sur a government servant or paik, outsiders and strangers; kosur, koshur Hindu man; kosta_r, koshta_r Hindu woman; kosh the Hindi language (Go.); ko_slaen (pl. ko_ska) a peon (Kond.a); ko_sku peons (Pe.); koheesi constable (pl. ko_ska police); ko_h'i (pl. ko_ska) peon; ko_hu had.a the Oriya language (Kuwi)(DEDR 2192). cf. khojja footmark (Pkt.); khoji_ tracker (L.); khojji_ tracker of lost cattle (P.); khoj search (G.); khodalnu to search for (N.)(CDIAL 3929). so_vu spying, watching, observing secretly (Tu.); jo_pa guard, watch, lookout (Kui)(DEDR 2892). ko_s.t.ha_ga_rika storekeeper (BHSkt.); kot.t.ha_ga_rika id. (Pali); kot.ha_ri_ one who in a body of faqirs looks after the provision store (S.); treasurer (Or.); storekeeper (Bhoj.); kut.hiya_ri_ (H.)(CDIAL 3551). koccaiyar cowherds, shepherds (Tiruppu. 255); young persons (Tiruman. 1394)(Ta.lex.) go_ca_raka cowherd (Skt.); gu_ru cowherd, milkman (K.); gowa_ri_ buffalo-keeper (A.); gowa_rini_ his wife (A.); gova_ri_ cowherd (M.); gwa_r a tribe in the Terai (N.); cowherd (Bi.)(CDIAL 4267); go_ru_ cowherd (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4265).

1429.Image: stubble; ear of corn: khoselo husk (N.); kho_h what is removed after pounding rice or maize (Sh.); khosa_ husk (B.Or.H.); khost.o husk (of maize, etc.), eggshell (N.); koha fibre of coconut husk (Si.)(CDIAL 3948). kosa_ sheath of maize cob (Bi.); pod of a leguminous plant (H.); ko_s'a case, cover (AV.); sheath (MBh.); ko~h tender shoot (A.); kosu~ shoot springing from a joint of millet and similar plants (G.); koso pod, ear of corn (N.)(CDIAL 3539). Image: sprout: kis'ala sprout (Skt.); kis'alaya (Gaut.); kisalaya (Skt.Pali.Pkt.); kisala (Pkt.Si.); kisu_l. thin and meagre stalks or shoots (M.)(CDIAL 3189). kicalayam tender leaf, sprout (Kantapu. Iran.iyan-yu. 56); kicam, kicalai id.; kicalam id. (Tailava. Taila. 50) (Ta.lex.) kican-an- poor, destitute man, as having very little (Ta.lex.) cf. kim.cid anything (RV.); kim.ci anything, a little (Pkt.); kich some, a little (WPah.); kisu a little, a few (A.); kichu something, anything (B.Mth.); kachu_ (OH.); kuch (H.); hic nothing, something; ci_ anything (Gypsy); kici anything (Pali); kim.ci, na im.ci nothing (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 3144). kicil adv. very little (Ja_n-ava_. Vaira_k. 74); adj. a little (Tiruva_lava_. 20,10); id. (Ma.); kicu a little (Or..ivi. Potuvi. 24); kia_ a kind of shrub with small evergreen leaf (Ta.lex.) Image: to put forth the ear (corn): go_pka (< go_k-p-; go_kt-) to put forth the ear (corn)(Kui)(DEDR 2180). khode broken husked grain (Santali.lex.) ko_sa pod (Pkt.); ko_si_ bean-pod (Pkt.); ko_s' pod (Kho.); ko~ie pl. pods (of beans, peas)(Sh.); koso pod, shell (Ku.); koso pod, ear of corn (N.); ko~h, ko~ha_ tender shoot, bud (A.); ku~hi young leaf just appearing from bud (A.); kosi_ beard of corn (B.); kusi_ pod (of cotton), young or green fruit (B.); kosa_ sheath of maize cob (Bi.); kosa_ pod (Bhoj.); pod of a leguminous plant (H.); kos cuff of a sleeve (H.); kosu~ shoot springing from a joint of millet and similar plants (G.); koha fibre of coconut husk (Si.)(CDIAL 3539). ko_s'aka_ra a kind of sugarcane (Sus'r.); ko_s'akr.t (Sus'r.); ku~hiya_r sugarcane (A.); kusia_r (Mth.)(CDIAL 3541).

1430.Lean: khisira_ lean, thin (A.)(CDIAL 3420). kr.s'a lean, thin (RV.); kisa, kisaka lean (Pali); kris'aga (NiDoc.); kisa, kasa (Pkt.); kahu_ mean, miserly (K.); kis'lo thin (Gypsy); kahira_ thin (P.)(CDIAL 3441). kr.s'a_n:ga thin, emaciated (MBh.); kisam.ga lean (Pkt.); kesanga poor, lean (OSi.)(CDIAL 3442). kr.s'o_dara slender-waisted (Skt.); kisoyari_ adj. (OG.)(CDIAL 3443). kus'a wicked, vile, depraved (Skt.); kr.s' to become lean or emaciated; to wane as the moon; to emaciate; kr.s'a lean, weak, feeble, emaciated; a woman with a slender frame (Skt.lex.) kr.s'a lean, thin (RV.); kisa, kisaka lean (Pali); kris'aga (NiDoc.); kisa, kasa (Pkt.); kis'lo thin (Gypsy); kahira_ thin (P.); kras'iman (Skt.); kara_s' snake (Ash.)(CDIAL 3441).

1431.Image: nest; honeycomb: kos' honeycomb (WPah.); ko_s'a sheath (MBh.); case, cover (AV.); ko_sa sheath, cocoon, praeputium; ko_si_ sheath (Pali); ko_si_ sword sheath (Pkt.); ko~h, ko~ha_ honeycomb (A.); kosa_ silkworm cocoon (Or.); kos sheath (Si.); kus'et.o, kus'it.o silkworm cocoon (G.); kosla_ cocoon (M.); kos'era_ cocoon (M.)(CDIAL 3539). ko_s'aka_ri_ silkworm (VS.); ko_s'aka_raka (Ya_j.); kusa_ri_, kusiya_ri_, kuswa_ri_ silkworm (H.)(CDIAL 3540). kosa cocoon (Pali)(CDIAL 3542). kosa-ka_raka the cocoon-maker, i.e. the silk-worm; koseyya silk; silken material; koseyya-pa_va_ra a silk garment; koseyya-vattha a silk garment (Pali.lex.) cf. ko_cikam < kaus'ika silk, silk cloth (Perun.. Ucaik. 43,154); ko_ca-ka_ram silk-worm (Ja_n-va_. Man-at. 22)(Ta.lex.) Wasp: ko_s.t.ha_ga_rin wasp (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 3551). kurampai bird's nest (Ta.); kurampu nest made by a sow before littering (Ma.)(DEDR 1773). kurumpi comb of white ant's nest (Ta.); gugge an insect in the snake hole (Ka.); gurma comb of white ant's nest (Pa.); garem, garum(i) nest inside anthill (Go.); ku_ru white ant's nest (Kond.a)(DEDR 1790). surund (obl. surnd-) honeycomb; surunt potte bee; curund sp. bee; curund tat.t.a honeycomb (Kol.); surund bee, honey (Nk.); curud, curdi (stem curd-) sp. bee (Pa.); su_rwe_-phuki_ bee which builds in hollow boughs; surve medium-sized beehive; hurrve honey; urve talla honeycomb; orve kind of bee; orve neyi honey; ur.ve, uruve kind of bee (Go.); horu_ swarm of bees (Kuwi); curumpu bee, drone; curumpi (-pp-, -tt-) to hum (as bees)(Ta.)(DEDR 2689). tot.aiyal honeycomb (Ta.); tot.t.e a bee's empty cell (Ka.); tot. wax in honeycomb (To.); tot.t.e, tat.t.i honeycomb (Tu.): tod.d.uve beehive, honeycomb; tod.d.elu a large bee (Tu.); tet.t.iya, tet.t.e beehive (Te.); tat.t.a id.(Kol.); tet.t.e, t.et.t.e honeycomb (Go.); te_ne-t.at.a beehive (Kond.a); t.at.t.i, t.at.t.o honeycomb (Kuwi); tatti wasp's nest (Kuwi); tati beehive (Kuwi)(DEDR 3490).

1434.Image: hawk: kosiyo a partic. kind of bird (G.); kohelo, kuhelo a species of hawk (S.); kuhi_ a species of hawk (S.); ku_hi_ a bird of prey, a specis of hawk (P.)(CDIAL 3567).

1435.Image: tracker: khojja footmark (Pkt.); khoji~ tracker (L.); khoj footprint; khojji_ tracker of lost cattle (P.); khoj clue (N.); footprint (A.); trace (B.); kho~j id. (B.); khoja footmark, trace (Or.); khoj search (G.); xo_j, ku_ej to ask (Pas'.); khuj (Par.); khojim I seek (Kal.); khoj- to ask (Bshk.); kuj- (Tor.); kho_j- (Phal.); khojoiki, khozyo_nu (Sh.); khojna_ to seek (P.); khojan.u to seek (S.); khojn.o (Ku.); khojnu (N.); khojiba to beg, ask for (A.); khoja_, kho~ja_, khu~ja_ to search for (B.); khojiba_ (Or.); kho_jab (Mth.); khojai (OAw.); khojna_ to seek, inquire (H.); khojvu~ to search for (G.); kuda_ to ask (Kt.Ash.); kud (Wg.); xud (Pas'.); khud (Gaw.); khodalnu to search for (N.)(CDIAL 3929). cf. khodna_ to search, carve, dig (H.)(CDIAL 3934). cf. cuvat.u track, footstep, sign (Ta.)(DEDR 2695). cf. kesur. to ask (Go.); kecu to beg humbly (Ta.)(DEDR 1939).

1436.Image: sail: ko_cu lower front rope of the sail or a boat, clew line (W.)(Ta.); ko_cile_ va_tal, ko_cile_ varutal, ko_cile_pit.ittu-varutal, ko_cile_pit.ittu-va_tal to manage the rudder so as to sail close to the wind (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. cors (Port.) ko_cuppa_y spanker, after-sail in a barque; ko_cu-mantil gaff lift, the spar upon which the upper edge of a fore and aft sail is extended (Ta.lex.) cf. ko_nja (ko_nji-) to stretch something from one point to another (Kui); go_nj- (-it-) to stretch (wire etc.)(Kuwi)(DEDR 2193). cf. pa_y sail, extension, spreading, mat (Ta.); mat, sail (Ma.); ha_y a sail (Ka.); pa_yi mat, sail (Tu.); pa_h- (pa_st-) to spread (Kuwi)(DEDR 4088).

1437.Image: cup: kus'ulo having a bit broken off (e.g., a cup), maimed ? (Sh.)(CDIAL 3364). Image: water-pot: kusumbha the water-pot of the student and sannya_si (Skt.Ka.lex.) X cf. cempu metal vessel (Ta.lex.) kuval.ai wide-mouthed vessel, cup; Image: brim of a vessel: kos cuff of a sleeve (H.)(CDIAL 3539). kuval.ai brim of a vessel (R.)(Ta.lex.) kuvai crucible, melting pot (Tan.ikaippu. Tiruna_t.up. 63); kuva id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Vessel: kosaka a bowl; container or vessel for food (Pali.lex.) ko_s'a bucket (RV.); seed-vessel (R.); ko_saka needle-sheath; bowl (Pali); kosu large leather bucket for drawing water (S.); kosa_ boat-shaped copper vessel (B.); kusi_ small spoon-like copper vessel (B.); kosa seed vessel of jackfruit (Or.); kos leather bucket (G.)(CDIAL 3539). ko_cam receptacle, case (Ta.lex.) Image: waterpot: ko_s'ika_ a drinking vessel; ko_s'am a vessel for holding liquids, a pail; a bucket, cup; a vessel in general (Skt.lex.) kucat.t.i small earthen vessel (J.)(Ta.lex.) kus'aya, kus'apa a drinking vessel, cup, goblet; kus'in mixed or combined with water; kus.ita mixed with water; kus'umbha the waterpot of an ascetic; or a jar in general; kusumbha, kusumbham the waterpot of an ascetic (Skt.lex.) koja_ cup (Kol.); kho_ja bowl (Go.)(DEDR 2191). ku_ca_, ku_ja_ a kind of goglet, water-monkey; kar..uttu ni_n.t.u vayir-u parutta ni_rkkalam = long-necked, stout-bellied waterpot (Ta.); ku_za_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) kur..ici pot, cooking vessel (co_r-at.u kur..ici : Perumpa_n.. 366); large pot (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) ko_s.t.ha pot (Kaus'.); ko_s.t.ika_ pan (Bhpr.); ko_ti wooden vessel for mixing yeast (Sh.); kot.ho jar in which indigo is stored (G.); kot.hlo wooden box (G.)(CDIAL 3546). cf. kut.a water-pot, pitcher (Skt.); kud.ika_ (Skt.); kut.a pitcher (Pali); kud.'a waterpot (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 3227). Tool box: kos'a box (kos'am na pu_rn.am vasuna_) (RV. x.42.2; AV. 1.14,4)(Vedic.lex.) koha_ra_, khu~ha_ra_ cash box, box for blacksmith's odds and ends (L.)(CDIAL 3542). kora-mut.t.u tool, instrument (Ka.); kor.a use, profit; useful, profitable (Tu.); kor.a-mut.t.u tool, instrument (Tu.)(DEDR 2161). ko_s'aka_ra maker of scabbards or boxes (R.); ko_s'aka_ri_ f. (VS.)(CDIAL 3540). kot.hi_ large earthen jar (G.); kot.ho jar in which indigo is stored (G.)(CDIAL 3546). Sheath: kosohita ensheathed; kosaka a sheath for a needle; kosi_ a sheath (Pali.lex.) ko_s'aka_ra maker of scabbards or boxes (R.)(CDIAL 3540). ko_s'a sheath (MBh.); case, cover (AV.); ko_si_ sword sheath (Pkt.); kosa_ sheath of maize cob (Bi.); kos sheath (Si.)(CDIAL 3539). ko_cam sheath, scabbard (Ta.lex.) Image: wide-mouthed pot; small metal vessel for sandal paste: kacco_lam small metal vessel for holding rice, sandal paste etc. (S.I.I. ii,408, Note); kacho_l.a (M.); kacci coconut shell (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kasau~r.i cooking pot (N.)(CDIAL 2990). ka_can.t.i a kind of pot with a wide mouth (Pirapo_ta. 11,31); ka_ca_n.t.i id. (Ta.); ka_san.d.i (M.)(Ta.lex.) Image: large earthen pot: ka_n:ku large earthen pot; kan:g (Chinese)(Ta.lex.) gha_ghari a kind of waterpot (S.); ghagri earthen pitcher (Or.); gha_gar waterpot (M.)(CDIAL 4403). ka_cu the hollow in the center of each row of palla_n:kur..i; kacci < ka_ycci coconut shell; half of a dried palmyra-nut (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kat.o_ra a bowl or cup (Ka.M.H.); karo_t.i a basin, a cup (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kacco_la cup (Pkt.); kacco_laya id. (Pkt.); kacora_ vessel for eating from with a projecting base (Bi.); kacaura_ cup; kacauri small cup (N.); kacol., kacol.e~ little metal vessel to hold rice (M.)(CDIAL 2616). cf. kat.o_ra cup (Skt.); kat.t.o_raga cup (Pkt.); kat.oro (S.); kat.ori_ small open-mouthed cup (L.); kat.ora_, kat.ori_ (P.); kat.ori the cup holding charcoal in a hookah (WPah.); kat.ora_ cup (B.); kat.ora, kat.ora_, kat.ara_ (Or.); kat.ora_ flat dish for eating from (Bi.); kat.ora cup (OMth.); kat.ora_, kat.ori_ (H.); kat.oro, kat.ori_ (G.); kat.ora_ (M.)(CDIAL 2648). cf. karo_t.i cup, skull (Skt.); kurat.t.a nut (Ma.); koran.t.u nut (Tu.); karat.a coconut shell (Ka.); cirat.t.ai coconut shell, begging bowl (Ta.); karo_t.i, karo_t.ika basin, bowl, skull; karo_t.iya skull (Pali); karo_d.a coconut; karo_d.aga cup (Pkt.); karo_d.i_, karo_d.iya_ wide-mouthed vessel; karo_d.i_ skull (Pkt.); kart.i_ coconut, skull (M.)(CDIAL 2813). karo_t.i garland of skulls (Te_va_. 524,8); karo_t.ikai id. (Patin-o. Ko_yin-a_n-man.i. 23)(Ta.lex.)

1432.Image: slaughter!: kosu slaughter (S.); kosar.u fit for slaughter (S.); ko_s animal fit only for killing (L.)(CDIAL 3553). kus.ati strikes; kus.n.a_ti tears asunder (Skt.); kus'- to beat, tear, pluck out, scalp, flay (Gypsy); kuxto pl. imper. slaughter! (Tir.); kus'ik to kill (Kho.); kuhun to tear up, clear by digging (K.); kuhan.u to kill (S.); kuhan. (L.); kuhn.a_ (P.); kusa_na to rough-hew timber (B.); kus'to bald (Gypsy); kuxto slaughtered (Tir.); kut.ho (S.); kut.t.ha_ (L.); kut.t.ha_ killed (of an animal by Moslems, contemptuously used by Sikhs)(P.); kut.t.han. to slaughter (L.); kut.t.hn.a_ to be killed, to kill (P.)(CDIAL 3369). kusan.u to be killed (S.); kussan. (L.); kusa slaughter (S.); kus.yate_ is struck; kus.yati is torn (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 3375). inf. nis.ko_s.t.um, aor. nirako_s.i_t (Vop.); ko_s'ik to slaughter (Kho.); ko_han., ko_vun. (L.)(CDIAL 3544). kusuku, kusaku, kusiku, kusun:ku to strike, to beat (Ka.lex.) cf. kol to kill, murder (Ta.)(DEDR 2132).

1433.Image: to strike; slaughter (animl); to strike: kus.ati gnaws (BhP.); kus.n.ati tears asunder (Skt.); kus strike (Skt.); kus' to beat, tear, pluck out, scalp, flay (Gypsy); kuxto 2 pl. imper. slaughter! (Tir.); kus'ik to kill (Kho.); kuhun to tear up, clear by digging (K.); kuhan.u to kill (S.); kuhan. (L.); kuhn.a_ (P.); kusa_na to rough-hew timber (B.); kuxto slaughtered (Tir.); kut.ho (S.); kut.t.ha_ (L.); killed (of an animal by Moslems, contemptuously used by Sikhs) (P.); kut.t.han. to slaughter (L.); kut.t.hn.a_ to be killed, to kill (L.)(CDIAL 3369). cf. kusuku, kusaku, kusiku, kusun:ku to strike, beat (Ka.); gunju to beat (as clothes in washing)(Te.); kusumu, kusubu to knock down (Ka.)(DEDR 1637). kosu slaughter (S.); kosar.u fit for slaughter (S.); ko_s animal fit only for killing (L.)(CDIAL 3553). kus.yate_ is struck; kus.yati is torn (Pa_n..); kusan.u to be killed (S.); kusa slaughter (S.); kussan. to be killed (L.)(CDIAL 3375). ko_s'ya two lumps of flesh near the heart of a sacrificial horse (VS. xxxix.8)(Vedic.lex.) Army: cf. ku_r..ai rear of an army (Pur-ana_. 88,1); hindmost row, as a herd of cows (I_t.u, 9,9, Pra.); ku_l.a-p-pat.ai army constituted of various classes of persons (I_t.u, 6,6,1, Arum.); ku_l.am broken pieces of straw, of hemp; chaff (Tamir..na_. 83); id. (Ma.); ku_l.i company, multitude; family; commander of an army; ku_l.iyar soldiers, warriors; hunters, those who live by chase (Maturaik. 691); mountaineers; attendants (Tirumuru. 282); friends; ku_r-r-am species, class (Ci_vaka. 1143); division of a country in ancient times (Pur-ana_. 24, Urai.); kor..untu front rank as of an army (Kampara_. Er..ucci. 24)(Ta.lex.) kr.s. to lead or conduct as an army; to bend (as a bow); to become master of, subdue, vanquish, overpower; caus.: to torture, torment, give pain (Skt.lex.)

1438.Implement for turning up clods: kusa_ hand implement for turning up clods (a pole with an iron blade or head)(M.); kusi_ a tool made of iron (Pkt.); kus'i_ small wooden pin used to mark in recitation (MaitrS.); small wooden pin made of metal (S'Br.); ploughshare (Skt.); kus'ika (Skt.); kus'a_ pin for marking in recitation (Pa_n..); kus'ika_ piece of wood used as a splint for a broken limb (Car.); kuhi_, kahi_ mattock (L.); kahi_ (P.); kusi_, kusiya_ ploughshare; kus, kussa_mattock (H.); kas', kos' iron instrument for digging; koslu~ bar of iron attached to a plough (G.); kos'iya_l.o wooden wedge holding ploughshare in wooden frame of plough (G.)(CDIAL 3367). kus'e a plank for covering anything; a piece of wood (Ka.lex.) cf. ku_ci, ku_cu (pl. ku_ckul) crowbar (Pa.); gusi id. (Ga.); ku_nj (pl. ku_sk) hoe, shouldered digging stick; ku_nj crowbar; ku_ysa_ id., ploughshare (Go.)(DEDR 1879). kor..u bar of metal, bullion (Ta.); koru (Tu.); cf. kus. (Skt.) kus. to plough, make furrows; to draw, drag, pull, drag away, tear; to draw towards oneself, attract; to plough, till; caus.: to draw out, tear up; to extract; to plough, till, cultivate; kus.aka attractive, drawing; ploughing; a ploughman, husbandman; kus.akam a ploughshare; kus.a_n.ah., -kr.s.ikah. a ploughman, husbandman; kr.s.i ploughing; agriculture, husbandry; kr.s.i-karman agriculture; kr.s.i-ji_vin living by husbandry; kr.s.i-kalam agricultural produce or profit; kr.s.i-se_va_ agriculture, husbandry; kr.s.i_vala one who lives by husbandry, a farmer; kr.s.t.a drawn, pulled, dragged, attracted etc.; ploughed; kr.s.t.a-upta sown on cultivated ground; kr.s.t.a-pacya, -pa_kya ripening in cultivated ground; cultivated; kr.s.i-phalam the product of a harvest; kr.s.t.i drawing, attracting; ploughing, cultivating the soil (Skt.lex.) kus'a ploughshare; kus'ika a ploughshare (Skt.lex.) kus. to tear, extract, pull or draw out (Skt.lex.) cf. guju to pull, contract, move convulsively (Ka.); gunju drag, to pull (Te.)(DEDR 1648). Ploughshare; mattock; hand implement for turning up clods or digging: kus'i ploughshare (Skt.); kusi_ a tool made of iron (Pkt.); kuhi_, kahi_ mattock (L.); kusi_ ploughshare (H.); kas', kes' iron instrument for digging; keslu~ bar of iron attached to a plough (G.); kusa_ hand implement for turning up clods (a pole with an iron blade or bead)(M.)(CDIAL 3367). Crowbar, digging stick; ploughshare: gusi crowbar (Ga.); ku_ci, ku_cu (pl. ku_ckul) crowbar (Pa.); ku_nj (pl. ku_sk) hoe, shouldered digging stick; crowbar (Go.); ku_ysa_ crowbar, ploughshare (Go.)(DEDR 1879). an:kus'a hook, driver'shook (RV.); an:kusa hook, elephant goad (Pali); am.kusa (Pkt.); an:gus elephant goad (P.); an:kuse hook (N.); a~_kuhi long stick with a hook (A.); a~_kusi, a~_ksi (B.); a_n:kusa_ elephant goad, hooked stick (Or.); a~_kus elephant goad (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); goad (H.); a~kusa_ fringe-maker's iron hook with ring (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); a~kusi_ hook (Bhoj.); a~_kusa goad (OAw.); a~_kus'i_ hooked stick (M.); akussa elephant goad (Si.)(CDIAL 111). akhaina_ hooked-stick for pushing sheaves under bullock's feet when threshing (Bi.); pa~_cakh five-pronged stick for same use (Mth.); pacakha_ (Bhoj.Mth.); akuva stake (Si.); aks.u perh. bamboo-pole (AV.)(CDIAL 46). Plough: kos to plough (Kon.lex.) kes.a plough (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3444). kis' plough (Kho.)(CDIAL 3455). ks.e plough-iron (Pr.)(CDIAL 2809). Mattock, hoe: kas.i mattock, hoe (Pas'.); Spade, pickaxe: kas.i spade, pickaxe (Shum.); kars.i furrowing (Skt.); kars.u~ furrow, trench (S'Br.); kasi_ trench, watercourse (S.); kassi_ small distribution channel from a canal (L.); ka~_s artificial canal for irrigation (G.)(CDIAL 2909). kars.ati draws, pulls (RV.); kassate_ ploughs (Pali); karisai, ka_sai pulls (Pkt.); ks'al to drag, pull, lead (Gy.); kas. to pull (Wg.); kasan.u to tighten (S.); kassan., kassun. (L.); kas'n.u_ (WPah.); kassn.a_ (P.); kasab (Mth.); kasai harnesses, binds (OMarw.); kasvu~ to tighten (G.); ka_sanem. to tie fast (OM.)(CDIAL 2908). To penetrate: kuc to dig (Wg.Kt.); kuce (Pr.); ko_c (Dm.Kal.); ke_ci (Pas.); kucalna_ to bruise, crush (P.); kucra_ broken to pieces (P.); kocn.o to penetrate (Ku.); kocnu to thrust, force into (N.); koca_rnu to thrust (N.); kucelnu to stir up (N.); kocru~ having holes (G.); kocna_, ku_cna_, ko~cna_, ku~_cna_ to pierce, rip (H.); kocvu~ to pierce (G.); -- Prob. separate from kuca_y to scratch oneself (Dm.); kuceya_ itch (Pas'.); kuch to scratch (Kal.); kuc.e_I (Kho.); kuca (Gaw.)(CDIAL 3489). kutar-u (kutar-i-) to dig up and scatter (Ta.)(DEDR 1704). kuttu (kutti-) to dig (Ta.); kuttuka id. (Ma.); kuttuni to bore (Tu.); xutting to dig, probe (Br.)(DEDR 1719). To cut, reap: krakaca saw (MBh.); krakara (Skt.); kakaca (Pali); kiyata saw (Si.); for -t- cf. pl. kiyat (Si.); karakaciya sawn (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3570). kur-ai (-pp-, -tt-) to cut, reap (Ta.); piece, section (Ta.); kur-u (kur-uv, kur-r--) to pluck (Ta.); kur-ekka to cut off (Ma.); kwar-f- (kwar-t-) to cut (To.); kor-e, kor-i to cut (as wood with a saw, the throat with a sword, stalks of millet), break (as a hole in a wall), bore, excavate (as running water the soil), pierce (as cold)(Ka.); kor-e cutting, a cut-off piece (as of sugar-cane); kor-eyuvike cutting, etc. (Ka.); kor-eta, kor-ata act of cutting, etc.; the piercing of cold (Ka.); korcu, koccu to cut away, up, or to pieces (as thorn-bushes); koccu act of or an instrument for cutting to pieces, state of being cut into pieces (Ka.); kudupuni to cut, reap (Tu.); kude piece of wood (Tu.); kujimbu, kujumbu a chip, fragment (Tu.); kudi to saw (Kor.); ko_r-a a cut-off portion (Te.Inscr.); kutuk-/kutk- to cut (meat); kutup to cut with axe (Nk.); kud- (kutt-), kud.- (kut.t.-) to cut (Pa.); kud- to kindle fire by bamboo stick (Pa.); kuy to cut (Ga.); kra_pa (kra_t-) to cut, saw; n. act of sawing (Kui)(DEDR 1859). cf. ur..ava_ram small hoe for weeding or cutting grass(Periyapu. Tiruna_vu. 77)(Ta.lex.) khurni_ a kind of spade (Bi.)(CDIAL 3728). kor.an digging (Mth.); koran hoeing; kor.ni_ ploughing of millet when one foot high; kor.an id. (Bi.)(CDIAL 3494). asa_r.hi_ kor hoeing of sugarcane in June-July (Bi.); kor.i spade (Or.)(CDIAL 3492).

1439.To surround; to entreat: kus, kusyati, kusita to embrace; to surround (Skt.lex.) kecu (keci-) to beg humbly, entreat, crave, beseech with supplicating gestures (Tan-ippa_. i,339,50)(Ta.); kecuka to beg, supplicate, emulate in vain; kicuka to beg (Ma.); kenj- to beg (Ko.); kesur., ke_nj- to ask, request (Go.); kwejre to entreat (Malt.)((DEDR 1939). cf. ke_nj-, ke_nja_na_ to hear; caus. kencahta_na_ to inform (Go.); qge to ask (Malt.); ke_n.uni to hear, ask, inquire, request (Tu.)(DEDR 2017a).

1440.Image: pipal tree: kunjara-as'ana the asvattha tree (Skt.lex.) kucara_can-am pipal, as elephant's food (Ta.lex.)

1441.Image: female dwarf: gujji a female dwarf; gujja_ri a short man, a dwarf; gujju, kur-ucu shortness, smallness (Ka.); id. (Te.); guju (Tu.); koccu (Ma.); gujju-mara a small tree, a shrub or bush (Ka.lex.) kucan- < kubja dwarf (Ta.lex.) kucaka being crooked, bent, curved or contracted (Ka.lex.)

1442.Choir-leader: kuslo choir-leader (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3365). kus'i_lava bard, actor, mimic (Mn.)(CDIAL 3368).

1443.Prosperity: kucalam well-being, prosperity (Uttarara_. Campu. 37); virtue, goodness; excellence; kucai gladness, joy (Ja_n-va_. Ta_cu_ra. 85); khus.i_ (U.); kucalan- skilful person, expert (Ta.lex.); kus'ala right, proper (AitBr.); competent, clever (ChUp.); healthy, prosperous (R.); well-being (TUp.); kusala clever, right, prosperous; prosperity, virtue (Pali.Pkt.); kuj'ala (NiDoc.); kus'ala happiness (Dhp.KharI.); ks'ule clever (Kt.); ku_s'la (Wg.); kus'ul wise (Pr.); kus'ula (Dm.); kusal health, prosperity (N.); kusal.a (Or.); kusal, kusali_ happy, well (H.); kusal., kuslan., kusli_n., kusri_n. sorceress; kusri_ clever woman, skill (M.); kusala merit, power of good works (Si.); kus'lo choir-leader (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3365). kusa_ri friendly greeting (N.)(CDIAL 3366). cf. kucala-vittai accomplishments of women, being five, viz., en.n.al, er..utal, ilai-kil.l.al, pu_ttot.uttal, ya_r..-va_cittal (counting, writing, plucking leaves, stringing flowers, playing the lute)(Pin..)(Ta.lex.) kusala a good thing, good deeds, virtue, merit, good consciousness; kusalan karoti to what is good and righteous; kusalan bha_veti to pursue righteousness; kusala_kusala good and bad; kusala-anuesin striving after righteousness; kusala-kamma meritorious action, right conduct; kusala-pakkha the side of virtue; all that belong to good character; kusalata skill, cleverness, accomplishment; good quality (Pali.lex.) kus'a_lu ease; healthy state; fun, frolic, pleasure (Ka.); khus'a_la (M.H.); kus'i, kus.i, kusi pleasure; will (Ka.); khus'i_, khus.i_ (M.H.); kus'i_lava an actor, dancer, mime (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

1444.Image: one-horned (ibex, markhor, etc.); ?unicorn: kus' one-horned (of ibex, markhor, etc.)(Sh.); kus'ika squint-eyed (RV.); kus'o maimed, crippled; kus'ulo having a bit broken off (e.g., a cup), maimed ? (Sh.); kus'a depraved, mad, inebriate (Skt.)(CDIAL 3364). kofy- (kofs-) to have piece broken off; (kofc-) to break piece off (To.); kavi (-v-, -nt-) to break down (as the bank of a river), crash, fall (Ta.); kavc- to unfasten, knock off (something fixed in place)(Ko.); kamiyu to be crushed (Te.); xao~_khna_ to knock the pestle against the sides of the pounding hole, cut gashes in the pounding hole; (wild animals) to tear a piece of flesh out of prey (Kur.)(DEDR 1333). ko_ju (pl. ko_ska) horn (Kui); ko_t.u (in cmpds. ko_t.t.u-) horn, tusk, coil of hair, cluster, line, bank of stream or pool (Ta.); ko.r. (obl. ko.t.-) horns (one horn is kob), line marked out (Ko.); kwi.r. (obl. kwi.t.) horn (To.); ko_d.u horn, tusk (Ka.); ko_r.. horn (Ka.); ko_d.u horn (Tu.); rivulet (Te.); ko_d. (pl. ko_d.ul) horn (Pa.); ko_r (pl. ko_rgul) id. (Ga.); ko_r (obl. ko_t, pl. ko_hk) horn of cattle or wild animals, branch of a tree (Go.); ko_r, ko_r.u (ko_hku), kogoo horn; kohk branch (Go.)(DEDR 2200). cf. ko_su, ko_cu state of being crooked or curved (Ka.); ko_su obliqueness (Te.)(DEDR 2186). Image: ox with blunt horns: ku_r..ai-k-kompan- ox with blunt horns; ku_l.i ox (Pin..); gu_l.i (Ka.); ku_l.i covering bull (Ta.lex.) ku_r..aiyan- short, stunted person; ku_l.i dwarfishness, shortness (Ta.lex.) kur..a-k-ka_li < kor..u + well-shaped, intractable bull in a herd (Ta.lex.) kor-r-i young calf (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) kus.aka an ox (Skt.lex.) kus'to bald (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3369). cf. kot.u curved, bent, crooked (Ta.)(DEDR 2054-a).] [cf. kajja great (Kuwi)(DEDR 1093).] cf. kus'ika a ploughshare (Skt.lex.) ko_su, ko_cu state of being crooked or curved, deviation from squareness (as that of torn cloth, of a wall, etc.)(Ka.); ko_su oblique, squint (of eye)(Tu.); obliqueness, oblique, not at right angles (Te.)(DEDR 2186). kucitam that which is bent, curved, crooked (Ko_yir-pu. Pata. 41); kucita-pa_tam the bent and upraised foot, as in the dancing posture of Nat.ara_ja; kucita-nat.am the dance of Nat.ara_ja with one foot upraised and bent (Mar-aicai. 93); kucittal to upraise and bend, as the leg; to cause to bend (Te_va_. 521,4)(Ta.lex.) cf. kuca crimped (Or.); ko~s bend, fold (CDIAL 3223). Bend; fold; contract; cramp; fainting: ko_ccuka to be contracted, shudder (Ma.); ko_ccal contraction, cramp (Ma.); ko.j- (leg or arm) becomes asleep (Ko.)(DEDR 1287). kavuci fainting (Ta.); kaval.i a swoon (Ka.)(DEDR 1336). kusi to bend, stoop, be lowered, hang down from heaviness, sink, give way (Ka.); kusuku state of being lowered or low, as a door, etc. (Ka.); kus'iyuni, kus'ipuni, kusipuni to contract, shrink in (Tu.)(DEDR 1636). kucati contracts (Dha_tup.); kucinu, kuccinu to be crushed (N.); kuca_na to plait, shrivel, cut into bits (B.); kuciba_ to thrust; kuceiba_ to cut into pieces (Or.); kucna_ to be contracted, be crumpled (H.); kucaln.a_ to trample on (P.); kuclanu, kulcanu (N.); kucalna_ (H.)(CDIAL 3221). kucate_ bends oneself (Sus'r.); kucayati caus. (Skt.); kucita bent, curled (MBh.); kum.cai is curved or bent (Pkt.); ko_siba to be contracted, shrink (A.); ku_ca_na to plait, shrivel, reduce to small fragments (B.); ku~ciba_ to curl, contract; caus. kuca_iba_ to pleat (Or.); kucita bent (Pali); kum.ciya, kom.ciya (Pkt.); ku~ci splinter (B.)(CDIAL 3224). koin.u to draw in (the belly), save, economize; koa economy (S.); sam.ko_cayati contracts (MBh.)(CDIAL 3488). guju to pull, contract, move convulsively (as muscles, hands or legs)(Ka.); gunju to pull, drag; ginjukonu to writhe, move the limbs convulsively; gijagija violently, convulsively; n. violent struggle, convulsion; gijagija-gonu, gijagijala_d.u to be in convulsion (Te.); kuy- to pull, drag (Nk.); gunjana_ to drag; gunj- to pull (Go.); gunjeru a_- to be giddy, weak (Kuwi); xunzing, xinzing, xizzing, xuzzing to move in a sitting or crouching position (Br. < khaz- (Pers.)(DEDR 1648).

1445.Image: to bend: kusi to bend, stoop, be lowered, hang down from heaviness, sink, give way (Ka.); kusuku state of being lowered or low, as a door, etc. (Ka.); kus'iyuni, kus'ipuni, kusipuni to contract, shrink in (Tu.)(DEDR 1636). xo_col bone (Kur.); qoclu id. (Malt.)(DEDR 1288). cf. ko_ca bending from the right course, making crooked; contracting (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Images: oblique; corner: ko_su, ko_cu state of being crooked or curved, deviation from squareness (as that of torn cloth, of a wall, etc.)(Ka.); ko_su oblique, squint (of eye)(Tu.); obliqueness, oblique, not at right angles (Te.)(DEDR 2186). ko~r.se obliquely (Santali.lex.) kum.cai is curved or bent (Pkt.); kucita bent (Pali); kum.ciya, kom.ciya id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3224). khu~_j corner (P.); kho~j, kho~c, khu~_j glen, ravine, depression between two hills (N.); khu~_c tendon Achilles (H.); kho~c corner (G.)(CDIAL 3930). khuca hollow behind ankle (S.)(CDIAL 3891). kuj corner (P.); ko~s bend, fold (A.)(CDIAL 3223). Image: corner: kho~c corner (G.); khu~_j, khu~_ja_ corner (P.)(CDIAL 3930). Curved knife: kuyam sickle, reaping-hook, curved knife (Cilap. 16,30); razor (Ci_vaka. 2500)(Ta.lex.) cf. ke_c- to shave (Pa.); ke_ma razor (Pa.); ke_s- to shave; ke_sal razor (Ga.)(DEDR 1995). kucate_ bends oneself (Sus'r.); kucita bent, curled (MBh.); kum.cai is curved or bent (Pkt.); ko~siba to be contracted, shrink (A.); kuciba_ to curl, contract (Or.); kucita bent (Pali); kum.ciya, kom.ciya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3224). cf. kusi to bend; state of being bent, sunk etc. (Ta.); kus'iyuni, kus'ipuni, kusipuni to contract, shrink in: kuruni to shrink in; kuskuni to shrink, give way, sink in (Tu.); kusi below (Kor.); kudiyu to sink, go down, decrease; kudincu to suppress, abate, lessen (Te.)(DEDR 1636). ko_ccuka to be contracted, shudder (Ma.); ko_ccai contraction, cramp (Ma.); ko.j (leg or arm) becomes asleep (Ko.)(DEDR 1287). cf. ko_su, ko_cu state of being crooked or curved (Ka.); ko_su oblique, squint (of eye)(Tu.); obliqueness (Te.)(DEDR 2186).

1446.Image: to blow with fist: ghu_so fist (S.); ghussa_ fist, blow with fist (N.); ghus fist (B.); ghusa blow with fist (Or.); ghu_sa_, ghussa_ fist (H.); ghuso (G.); ghusa_ ghussa_ (M.)(CDIAL 4498). kusuku, kusaku, kusiku, kusun:ku to strike, beat, wash by slightly beating (Ka.)(DEDR 1637). ka_s'i the clenched hand, fist; a handful (Skt.lex.)

1447.Potter: kucam pertaining to the potter's class, always used as the first part of compounds. e.g. kuca-k-karuvi, potter's implements; kuca-k-kalam, earthenware, potter's vessel; kuca-k-ka_n.am, tax on potters (S.I.I. ii.,509); kuca-p-putti; kuyam potter caste; kuyatti female potter (Civap. Pirapan. Piks.a_t.an-a. 6); kucatti a female potter (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kuyam, (kucam- first member of compound) potter caste; kuyavan-, kucavan- potter; fem. kuyatti, kucatti; ko_ potter (Ta.); kuyavan, kus'avan potter (Ma.); fem. kuyatti, kuyavi, kus'avi (Ma.); ko.v Kota man (Ko.); ko.ty Kota woman (Ko.); ko. mog Kota child (Ko.); ko. ka.l Kota village (Ko.); kwi.f Kota man (To.); kwi.ty Kota woman (To.); kwi.ko.l Kota village (To.); ko_va, kuvara potter (Ka.); kusave id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1762). kuca-k-karuvi potter's implements; kuca-k-kalam earthenware, potter's vessel (Ta.); kus'akkalam id. (Ma.); kuca-k-ka_n.am tax on potters (S.I.I. ii,509); kucam pertaining to the potter's class; kuyam potter caste; kucavan- potter (Ta.); kus'avan id. (Ma.); kusave id. (Tu.); kuca-v-o_t.u pot tile (C.E.M.)(Ta.lex.)

1448.Image: woman's breast: kucam < kuca woman's breast (Pa_rata. Campava. 55); kuyam woman's breast (Tan-ippa_. ii,75,190)(Ta.lex.) koch, kochi lap, lower part of bosom where babies are carried or dandled (K.); kukhi slender part of the body below the ribs; kuchir. hip (S.); kukh side between hip and ribs; kucchir. carrying a child astride the hip; kuchur. lap (L.); kukkh belly, side of belly, womb (P.); kucch hiding place; kucchar. lap, bosom (P.); ku_kh hips (H.); belly (Marw.); belly, womb, side below ribs, armpit (G.)(CDIAL 3213). cf. ku_t.u hip (Tu.); kut.a thigh (Pe.)(DEDR 1885). cf. ce_kku breast milk; ce_kkai woman's breast (Ta.)(DEDR 2803). Image: woman with full breasts: kon:kacci, kon:kicci woman with full breasts (Ma.); kon:kai woman's breast, protuberance of a tree (Ta.); kon:ka woman's breast (Ma.); kangur.i nipple, teat (Kui)(DEDR 2038). {cf. ko_n:kalar ancient garment (Ta.lex.)} kuca (usu.dual) female breast, teat (Sus'r.); kuca id. (Pali); kuya id. (Pkt.); kucuru small penis, esp. a baby's (K.); ku_c breast, bosom, chest (Sh.); kuch, kuci female breast (K.)(CDIAL 3216). {cf. kucer dress (Bshk.)(CDIAL 3218). kuncam tassel; a measure in the width of cloth = 120 threads of the warp (Ta.lex.)}

1449.Decampment of troops: ku_cu march or decampment of troops (or of people)(Ka.); ku_ca (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

1450.Image: framework; kuruju a frame-work of bamboo-slits covered with paper or cloth or leaves, used to put idols in, or by the bride and bridegroom to sit in (Ka.); kuruji, gurji (Tu.); ku_tu-va_hana a kuruju in which an idol is put and before which people dance in procession; ku_tu dance, play (Ka.); ku_ttu (Ta.); ku_rda a leap, a jump (Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

1451.Splinter: ku~ci splinter (B.)(CDIAL 3224). cf. kuccu splinter, bit of stick, stalk (Ta.); kucci splinter, peg, stick (Ta.); gusil stump of a tree (Kond.a); gruc id. (Pe.Mand..); kucci id. (Pa.); kusun (pl. kuskul) id. (Ga.); kucci, kutti stump of a shrub (Tu.); kuccu chip, piece of straw (Ma.)(DEDR 1640). kutti stump (Ka.); kucci, kutti the stump of a shrub (Tu.)(DEDR 1640). Image: post, pillar: ku_ccam small-sized post used in building (Ta.); ku_cu, ku_ca post or pillar in a wall for the support of beams; gujju queen-post, strut (Ka.); gujji, gujju pole or post fixed in water (Tu.); ku_camu, gunja pillar, post; kuru~ju queen-post (Te.); gujju one of the small vertical posts by means of which short beams are supported upon longer ones in the construction of a shelving roof (Te.); gunje post, pillar (Go.); gu_j (pl. gu_cuku) pillar, post (Pe.)(DEDR 1878). cf. ku_ (pl. ku_val) shaft of axe (Pa.); ku_d. handle (e.g. of knife)(Ga.)(DEDR 1870). Pit for erecting a flagstaff: kuci pit for erecting a flagstaff; flagstaff (Ci_vaka. 143, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: stump of a tree: kuccu stalk (Ta.); kucci stump of a tree (Pa.)(DEDR 1640). kuncika_ the shoot of a bamboo; a shoot (Skt.lex.) kuja_ta a tree; the tree dalbergia ougeinensis (Ka.lex.) Splinter; bit: kucini anything very small, tender, slender (Ta.); kusi (Ka.); ku_su (Te.); kucci splinter, peg, stick (Ta.); kuccu splinter, plug, any bit of stick, stalk; tent-peg; hairpin; kucai bridle, bit (Pa_rata. Patin-a_r-a_mpo_. 27); kur-r-i stump, stub, stake, block, log (Na_lat.i, 178)(Ta.lex.) kus'i small wooden pin used to mark in recitation (MaitrS.); small metal pin used to mark in recitation (S'Br.); ploughshare (Skt.); kus'ika, kus'a_ pin for marking in recitation (Pa_n..); kus'ika_ piece of wood used as a splint for a broken limb (Car.); kusi_ a tool made of iron (Pkt.); kuhi_, kahi_ mattock; kahi_ (P.); kusi_, kusiya_ ploughshare (H.); kas', kos' iron instrument for digging (G.); koslu~ bar of iron attached to a plough; kos'iya_l.o wooden wedge holding ploughshare in wooden frame of plough (G.); kusa_ hand implement for turning up clods (a pole with an iron blade or head)(M.)(CDIAL 3367). kos to plough (Kon.lex.) kuci pit for erecting a flagstaff (Ci_vaka. 143); flagstaff (Ta.lex.)

1452.Image: pudendum muliebre: kacce, kacci the organ of generation (yo_ni) of cows and buffaloes (Ka.M.Te.); kari (Te.)(Ka.lex.) kuci, kucu membrum virile, as small (Ta.lex.) Pubic hair: kuco pubic hair (S.); kuciro one who lets the pubic hair grow (S.)(CDIAL 3408). kucci penis (Ma.); kuci membrum virile; kucu membrum virile (Ta.); kun.n.e genitals (Ka.); kua genitals (Tu.)(DEDR 1639). Image: penis: kun.n.a penis (Ma.); kun.n.e mari id. (Ka.); kun.n.e id. (Kod..); kun.n. id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1697). kut.hi the pubes (Santali.lex.) koyile pudendum muliebree (Tu.); golli pudendum muliebre (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 2138).

1453.Weaver's long brush: kuccu weaver's long brush (Ta.); brush (esp. of toddy-drawers)(Ma.); brush (Ka.); koccu brush (Ka.); kuca flybrush (Tu.); kucam weaver's brush (Ta.); kuci tassels (as insignia of royalty)(Ta.); kwisy/kwis fringe (on garment)(To.); kuccu, koccu tassel (Ta.)(DEDR 1639). ku_rcika_ brush made of hair (Skt.); ku_ci_ painter's brush (Sus'r.); brush made of hair (S.); paintbrush, weaver's brush (H.); kuccaya wisp of grass, brush (Pkt.); ku_ca_ brush (made of the leaf of the dwarf palm)(L.); kucci_ small whitewash brush (L.); kucc, ku_ weaver's brush (P.); ku_cca_, ku_ca_ brush, faggot (P.); ku_cci_, kuco brush (P.); kuco brush (Ku.N.); kuci small brush (N.); ku~_si brush (A.); kuci, ku~ci small bristle brush (B.); ku~_c weaver's brush (Bi.H.); ku_co, kucr.o, ku~cr.o large brush (G.); kucr.i_, ku~cr.i_ small brush (G.); ku~ca_, ku~ci_ brush (M.); kucun. to brush (L.); ku_cn.a_ to rub, scour (P.); ku~cn.e~ to brush (M.); kuccin. brush for dressing cotton (L.); ku~cn.i_ weaver's brush (M.)(CDIAL 3408). kuccu, kucam, kuci tassel, brush (esp. of toddy-drawers)(Ma.); kuccu weaver`s long brush; cluster, tuft (Ta.); kuci tuft of hair, crest of peacock, tassels (as insignia of royalty), membrum virile (Ta.); kocu mane of animals (Ma.); kucc(y)a bunch (Go.); kunjar. hair-knot (Go.)(DEDR 1639). [cf. kucca a kind of grass, beard (Pkt.); ku_ciya_ hair of the beard (Pkt.); kuc beard, chin (Gypsy); ku~_c weaver's brush (P.H.Bi.)(CDIAL 3408). Image: comb; brush: kucca hair comb (Pkt.); ku_rcaka toothbrush, painter's brush (Sus'r.); ku_ci_ paintbrush (Sus'r.); ku_ci_ brush made of hair (S.); kuc broomstick (Ku.); kuco brook; kuci small broom (N.); ku~_ca_ sweeper's broom (Bi.); ku~_ci_ (Bhoj.); ku_ca_ tuft, cluster (H.); ku_ci_ beard (H.); ku~ci_ brush (G.); kucci shavings (Konkan.i); kossu, kohu broom (Si.); kuccan. to scrub oneself (L.)(CDIAL 3408). kuci tuft of hair especially man's (Tiva_.); head; tassels as insignia of royalty (Ci_vaka. 437)(Ta.lex.) Image: beard: kucca beard, a kind of grass; hair comb (Pkt.); kuccaya beard (Pkt.); kucciya bearded (Pkt.); ku_ciya_ hair of the beard (Pkt.); kuc beard, chin (Gypsy); ku_ci_ beard (H.); kucci shavings (Konkan.i); ku_rcin having a long beard (Skt.)(CDIAL 3408, 3410). goco, kewa goco a beard (Santali.lex.) kuc beard, chin (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3408). ku_rcala bearded (as an animal)(Ka_tyS'r. com.)(CDIAL 3409). ko_java fleecy counterpane (Pali)(CDIAL 3490). Beard of corn: kim.s'a_ru beard of corn (AitBr.); kim.sa_ru (Pkt.); ki~jha_r beard of wheat or barley; ki~jha_ri_ beard (of wheat)(L.); kesru beard of corn, glumes of rice, rice chaff (K.)(CDIAL 3148).

1454.Lion: kujara-ara_ti a lion (Skt.lex.) ara_ti an enemy (Skt.Ka.); kujara_ri a lion; the animal S'arabha (Ka.lex.) cf. a_rati the ceremony of waving (around an idol) a platter containing a burning lamp (Ka.lex.) kujara-ara_ti S'arabha (a fabulous animal with 8 feet)(Skt.lex.)

1455.Image: lion, mane: kesarin having a mane, of a lion; kesara a mane, in kesara-si_ha a maned lion (Pali.lex.) ke_har, kehri_ lion, tiger (P.)(> H.Aw. kehari_ m. lion; Mth. kehari); kehari maned (of a lion)(S.); ke_sarin maned, m. lion (MBh.); maned (of a lion)(Pali); ke_sari lion (Pkt.); kesri_ m. lion (G.); ke_sar id. (M.); kesara_ id. (Si.)(CDIAL 3475). ke_sara mane (Pali); mane of lion; filament of flower (Pkt.); kesara mane (Si.)(CDIAL 3474). ke_sara the mane of a horse or lion; ke_sari having a mane (Ka.lex.) Image: mane: kocu mane of animals (Ma.); gusa short hair at the nape of the neck (Kui)(DEDR 1639). cuval mane, nape of the neck (Ta.)(DEDR 2696). kuci tuft of hair (esp. of man)(Ta.)(DEDR 1639). Image: nape of neck: kuci nape of neck (Ma.)(DEDR 1645). Image: tress: ke_s'i having much or handsome hair; ke_s'ave_s'a a tress or fillet of hair (Ka.lex.) Image: mane: kucai horse's mane (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) go_ccha_ furrow of upper lip (VarBr.S.); gum.cha_ moustache (Pkt.); gaca, gaje (Ash.); gu_ci_ (Kt.); gucha, gu~_ci_, gu~_ca_ (Wg.); gu_nca, goenca (Gaw.); goce_ (Sv.); go~_ch, go~_chi (K.)(CDIAL 4269). To entangle: guju to entangle, be entangled; n. state of being entangled; go_ju to entangle, be entangled (as thread); n. state of being entangled, of being embarrassed (Ka.); go~_ju, go~_ja_d.u to pester, harass, trouble (Te.)(DEDR 2190). Images: loop; knot: kur..aiccu loop, noose in a string or cord; tie, knot; eye or socket of a hoe, adze etc.; kul.acu id. ; kur..aiccu-p-pat.utal to be coiled, looped, as a rope; to be knotted, tangled; kur..aiccu-man.vet.t.i hoe with a socket for the handle (Ta.lex.) kol.uvu-kayir-u loop of the tying-string of an ola book; kol.uvutal to cause to hold (Pur-ana_. 55,1); to entangle, ensnare, inveigle (Ta.lex.) cf. kujji noose, snare (Go.)(DEDR 1642). Image: dishevelled hair; topknot: cucu the hair curling round the forehead (Ka.); cuncu a small lock of hair left upon the crown of the head (Te.); cuncur crest of cock (Kol.); cucurka topknot (Pa.); cucua-s'ekhara- (Pkt.)(DEDR 2651). jujuru state of being curled or tangled (Ka.); jujuru dishevelled hair (Te.)(DEDR 2652). cf. go_ju to entangle (Ka.)(DEDR 2190). cf. ko.j spider (Ko.); go_nzru id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2195). Bunch: jonge bunch, cluster (of growing flowers or fruits (Kod..); jon:ke, jon:kelu bunch, cluster (Tu.)(DEDR 2832). kuca-k-kur-avar < ku_rca + the Kuravas who manufacture weaver's brushes from roots, and are employed as shikaris (E.T.)(Ta.lex.) kuccu < guccha tassel, bunch, cluster, collection, tuft (Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 63); kuccu-k-kat.t.u-tal to braid the hair; kuccu cluster-grass, cynosurus indicus (Pur-ana_. 257, Urai.)(Ta.); koccu tassel (Ta.); kucam bunch of flowers (Ta.); kuci tuft of hair (esp. of man)(Ta.); kuccu, kucam, kuci tassel (Ma.); kocu mane of animals (Ma.); koccu, kuccu tassel (Ka.); kuca id., a kind of chowry (Ka.); kucci, goju tassel; kuca id. (Tu.); kuccu tassel, tuft (Te.); kunjar, kunjar. hair-knot; kunja_ the knob in the bun of hair tied on the top of the head; kunja kelk plaited hair (Go.)(DEDR 1639). kuccam < guccha_ bunch of flowers, cluster, tuft; tassel of thread, sheaf of paddy in the form of a tassel (Ta.lex.) cf. ku_rca bunch, tuft (of grass etc.); guccha bundle, bunch, clump (Skt.)(CDIAL 3408). guja bunch, bundle, cluster (Skt.)(CDIAL 4174). ku_ccu horripilation, bristling of the hair (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,3,5); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) koccu tassel (Ko_yilo. 97); goju id. (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Horripilation; dread: mayir-ku_ccu horripilation (Ma.); ku_cu (ku_ci-) to be shy, coy, be ticklish, be tender (as an eye), recoil, shrinkback (Ta.);[For semant. cf. kiccukkiccu mu_t.t.u to tickle (Ta.)(DEDR 1516)]; ku_cam, ku_cal shyness; ku_ccam shyness, ticklishness, hesitating, timidity; ku_ccu horripilation (Ta.); ku_cuka to be shy, dread; ku_s'al, ku_ccam timidity, shyness (Ma.); koyed timidity, terror (Ko.); kusuruni to be afraid; ku_runi to hesitate (Tu.); ku_ja shame, bashfulness, shyness (Kui)(DEDR 1876). Images: tail; tassel, tuft: kucam bushy tail of the yak (Ta.)(DEDR 1639). kuccu cluster, tuft, tassel (Ta.); tassel (Ma.); bunch, bundle, cluster, tassel (Ka.); tassel, tuft (Te.); kucam, kuci id. (Ma.); kunjar, kunjar. hair-knot (Go.); kucci, goju tassel (Tu.); koccu tassel (Ta.); bunch, bundle, cluster, tassel (Ka.); kuca id., a kind of fan or chowry (Ka.); tassel (Tu.); gocal cluster, bunch (Ka.); goci, gocilu bunch, cluster (Tu.); goce mass, cluster (Ka.); kucc(y)a bunch (Go.); kucam bunch of flowers, tassel, cluster of grass (Ta.); kuci crest of peacock, tassels (as insignia of royalty)(Ta.); kunja_ the knob in the bun of hair tied on the top of the head (Go.); kunja kelk plaited hair (Go.)(DEDR 1639). ku_ca_ tuft, cluster (H.)(CDIAL 3408). jhomble to make into a bunch (Santali.lex.) guccha bunch of flowers (Mn.) [Variety of forms and variation of u and o support < Drav.]; guccha_ bunch, tassel (H.); bunch of fruit (P.); gucchi_ barber's case of instruments (P.); First tuft of rice seedlings when transplanted: goch first tuft of rice-seedlings when transplanted (A.); small sheaf or bundle (B.); guchi tuft, sheaf (B.); guccha, goccha, gocha_ cluster, sheaf (Or.); gu_m.chalaum. bunch (OG.); gu~chl.u~, ghu~cl.u~ bunch (G.); guc.h, ghos, gho~s bunch (M.); kuruc., kruc. bunch of grapes (Kho.); ko_ro bunch of grapes (Yid.)(CDIAL 4172). gocchaka cluster, bunch (Pali); goccha, gum.cha, guluccha (Pkt.); (CDIAL 4172). guchi bundle of 20 betel leaves (A.); guci_ bundle of 100 betel leaves (H.)(CDIAL 4172). gut.t.ha clump, clump of grass (Pkt.); gut.t.hal lumpy; lump (H.)(CDIAL 4177). Bundle; sheaf: kossa, kohu bundle of twigs (Si.); kucca a kind of grass (Pkt.); ku_rca bundle of grass, bunch (TS.)(CDIAL 3408). gocha_ bundle of transplanted seedlings; guchi bundle of 20 betel leaves (N.); goch, gocha_ small sheaf or bundle; guchi tuft, sheaf (B.); guccha, goccha, gocha_ cluster, sheaf (Or.); guccha_ bunch; guci_ bundle of 100 betel leaves (H.); gu_m.chalaum. bunch (OG.); gu~chl.u~, ghu~cl.u~ bunch (G.); guch, ghos, gho~s bunch (M.)(CDIAL 4172). Heap: ussa_ heap of grass or fodder (L.); ucchra_yi_ raised piece of wood (Ya_j.); samucchraya accumulation (Skt.); samussaya id. (Pali)(CDIAL 1860). ku.s- (ku.sy-) to be heaped up (To.); ku.sil a heap (To.); gu_cuni, gu_suni, gussuni to pour, shed, spill (Tu.); gu_juni to ooze (Tu.); gu.c to lie or fall in a mass, (rain) pours down; put down in a mass (Ko.); gu.cl heap of fuel (Ko.)(DEDR 1877).

1456.Image: fish: kaccam a very small kind of fish; kaccar--karuva_t.u kaccal fish salted and dried; kacca-c-celvam bone of the kaccam fish (Ta.lex.) ka_ca_mpa_rai a kind of fish; kayar--ken.t.ai a kind of ken.t.ai fish (W.)(Ta.lex.) kat.uva_yi a kind of fish (Tu.lex.)

1457.Image: eel-like fish: kucika a kind of fish like an eel (Skt.); kucika_ (Skt.); kui_ a kind of fish (S.); ku~ciya_ an eel-like fish (B.)(CDIAL 3217). kuccu a kind of fish (Ka.lex.) kocu a kind of fish (Ta.); kocan, kocu prawn, lobster (Ma.); ko_nto shrimp, prawn (Kond.a); goskori shrimp (Kuwi)(DEDR 2044). cf. gongo prawn (Kui)(DEDR 2036). ga_ngat.a (Skt.)(CDIAL 4109). icak a shrimp (Santali.lex.) Image: fish with bones: kur-icci a kind of fish with many sharp bones (Ma.); kurci a kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 1848). kuri the fish cyprinus curchius (A.)[old kur.hi < *kur.ih]; kud.is'a id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 3247).

1458.Skein of gold or silver thread: Skein: Type 1: guji_ skein of gold or silver thread (P.)(CDIAL 4174). gu~chl.i_ skein (G.)(CDIAL 4172). Skein: Type 2: tandu gold or silver thread (S.)(CDIAL 5661). kucam is a measure of the width of cloth = 120 threads of the warp; fold of cloth (Ta.lex.) pucam is a sub-division of the warp containing 240 threads of skein; cloth of the length of 36 cubits and 38 to 44 inches in width and 14 lbs. in weight (Ta.lex.) Mensuration: skeins of thread: kucam = 120 threads of the warp (Ta.)(DEDR 2611). ci_t.u = a skein of thread = 8 kucam (Ta.)(DEDR 2611). punjamu = a skein of 60 threads (Te.)(DEDR 2611). ci_d.u = a skein of thread = 7 punjamu (Te.)(DEDR 2611).

1459.Image: cart: kasur, ka_sul, ka_ssul cart (Kol.); kasur, khasur id. (Go.)(DEDR 1092). kacikai carriage or chariot drawn by horses; palanquin (Ta.lex.) Boat: kocavi_raga a ship of a rectangular shape like a box, resembling the flank of a cart (Jain.Skt.)

1460.Nux vomica: ka_java_ra, ka_jiva_ra, ka_jira, ka_sara, ka_sarka, ka_sirike, ka_sa_raka, ka_sra the tree bearing the nux vomica (Ka.); ka_yer, ka_yi (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) ka_sarka the tree strychnos nux vomica (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ka_jira, ka_ji_rage a species of gourd or plant of the curcubitaceous order with an exterior resembling an orange, but with a pulp like cow-dung; the stychnos nux vomica; kimpa_ka (Ka.); ka_cira, ka_cirai (Ta.); ka_n.n.ira (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Strychnos nux-vomica: kupilu, kulaka, vishamushti, vishtindu (Skt.); nux-vomica or strychnine tree, poison-nut, quaker button (Eng.); noix vomique (Fr.); gemeiner brechnussbaum (Ger.); jahar, kuchla (H.); hub-ul-jarab (Arab.); kagphala (P.); kuchila (B.); kajra, kuchala (M.); mushti-vittulu (Te.); yetti, yetti-kottai (Ta.); kanjiram (Ma.); kasarkana mara (Ka.); karya-ruku (Kon.); khaboung (Bur.); Habitat: this tree is wild and plentiful throughout tropical India, commonly in the jungles about Manbhoom, in the Madras Presidency, Malabar and Coromandal coasts, Cochin, Travancore, Southern India, Orissa and Ceylon. Parts used: stem-bark, dried ripe seeds called nux-vomica... dried seeds... are nervine, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac, a spinal stimulant, also respiratory and cardiac stimulant... Several of the strychnos varieties furnish hunters with 'curare', an extremely dangerous arrow-poison. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1175-1181).

1461.Image: procession; to move, walk about: ka_sa causing to go (Ka.lex.) kas go, move; kasati goes, moves (Dha_tup.); ka_seu 3rd. sg. pres. flows (of water)(Kal.); kosik (1st sg. kasim) to walk about (Kho.)(CDIAL 2981). ka_sa moving (Pa_n..); ka_ha rush (S.); ka_ho driver, persecutor (S.)(CDIAL 3134). kaseik to cause to walk, walk (a horse) up and down (Kho.); ka_sun to take away, remove, pare (K.); ka_han.u to drive; to rush (S.)(CDIAL 3137). cf. kars.a dragging (Pa_n..); agriculture (Skt.lex.)(CDIAL 2906). ka_ca_-k-ka_ran- owner, proprietor (Ta.lex.) kha_sa_-sva_ri the equipage, procession, or train of a chieftain in person; the chieftain in person (Ka.M.H.); kha_ssava_ri (Ka.lex.) ka_sada_ra, ka_saga_ra a groom (Ka.); kha_sada_ra (M.H.); ka_sta_ra id. (M.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Own: ka_ca_ < kha_sa_- (U.) one's own, personal possession; original price; adj. fine, capital, elegant; ka_ca_-varkkam good tenants (Ta.lex.) ka_sa_, kha_sa_ own; good, fine; legitimate, not base born (Ka.); kha_sa_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ka_sagi private, not public; own (Ka.); kha_sagi (M.)(Ka.lex.)

1462.To tie a knot: keccu the knot which is formed by twisting; to join the end of two threads by twisting them with the fingers (Ka.); kerci a knot (Tu.)(DEDR 1965). gajipuni to fasten, strengthen (Tu.); kaccuni to be joined fast (Tu.); kaccu to join (Ka.); kacip to fasten bullock to yoke (Pa.); kah to tie, fasten up; ka_ca_na_ to be tied tight (e.g., clothes)(Go.); gac to tie, bind (Pe.); geh-, gehpa- to bind (Mand..); gaspa to tie a knot, hang, suspend; n. hanging, suspension (Kui); gah- to tie (Kui); to bind (Kuwi); gahpo fastening, tying (Kuwi); xa_jna_ to tether, bind by the feet (Kur.)(DEDR 1099). kasiba to draw tight (A.); kac a tying, bond (B.); kacakvu~ to bind tightly (G.); kacakn.e~ to pull smartly, jerk (M.); kacka_vin.e~ to bind tightly (M.); kacate_ fastens (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 2610). kas'a_ whip (RV.); rein (S'is'.); kasa_ whip (Pali); whip, thong (Pkt.); cord, tie of a garment (M.); ka_h strip of leather for sewing leather articles (K.); ka~hi~_ tie, tape, riband (S.); kasa rope (Or.); kasa string (OMarw.); kas tape of a bodice (G.); kasaya whip (Si.); kasiba_ to whip (Or.); kasai binds, harnesses (OMarw.); kasn.e~ to bind tightly with a cord (M.)(CDIAL 2965). Image: to join: kaccir-i to join things, to unite; kaccisu to cause to join, to unite; kaccu to join; kaccat.a, kaccut.a, kacad.i (Tadbhava of kaks.a_pat.a) a cloth passed between the legs to cover the privities (Ka.); kaccad.a a tuck, truss, etc. (Te.) (Ka.lex.) Binding: kaccan:kam agreement, binding (Ta.lex.) Fastening: sajana fastening (Skt.); andanaya monk's undergarment (Si.)(CDIAL 13098). sam.da_na fetter (RV.); (h)andinava_ to put on clothes (Si.); sanda_na cord, fetter (Pa.); sam.da_n.ai fetters (Pkt.); andana_ dressing (Si.)(CDIAL 12906). sa~_da rope to tie a cow's legs with while milking (H.)(CDIAL 12901). kaccu to join (Ka.); kacip to fasten bullock to yoke (Pa.); kah to tie, fasten up, secure (Go.); gac to tie, bind (Pe.); gaspa to tie a knot, hang, suspend; n. hanging, suspension, suicide by hanging (Kui); gah to tie (Kui); gahpo fastening, tying (Kuwi): xa_jna_ to tether, bind by the feet (Kur.)(DEDR 1099). To fasten; to be studded: khacayati fastens (Skt.); *khacyate_ be set, be studded (Skt.); khacita inlaid (MBh.); khacna_ to be fastened, be set, be studded (H.); khacn.e~ to set(jewels, etc.)(M.); khac crowd, crush (H.); khac tightly (G.)(CDIAL 3766). keccu, kettu to enclose, set (as precious stones)(Ka.); kettuni to set (as jewels)(Tu.); cer-r-u to set (as a jewel)(Ta.); ceyal setting work in jewelry (Ta.)(DEDR 1985). kacate_ fastens (Dha_tup.); kaca band, hem; kace_la string holding manuscript leaves together (Skt.); kasiba to draw tight (A.); kac a tying, bond (B.); kad.asn.i_ binding rope (M.); kacakvu~ to bind tightly (G.); kacakne~ to pull smartly, jerk (M.); kacka_vin.e~ to bind tightly (M.); kaciba_ to masturbate (Or.)(CDIAL 2610). Girdle, girth; loincloth: kaccai girdle, belt; (ma_cun.a-k-kaccaipa_t.i : Tiruva_ca. 9,19); whole piece of new cloth; kacikai garment, cloth; curtain; ka_ci woman's waist girdle consisting of seven strings of beads or bells; (ka_ci-y-er..u ko_vai : Cilap. 4,30, Urai); ka_cu girdle strung with gems; (pat.t.ut.ai cu_r..nta ka_cu : Ci_vaka. 468)(Ta.lex.) ka_ci_ girdle (Skt.); kam.ci_ (Pkt.); ka_ci tinkling girdle (Or.); ka~_ca a kind of loose pantaloons (S.)(CDIAL 3015). kaks.ya_ girdle, girth (RV.); kaks.ya pertaining to a girdle, girdled (?)(RV.); kaks.a_ girdle (MBh.); loincloth (Skt.); kaks.a girdle (MBh.); end of lower garment, hem (Skt.); kaccha_ belt, loin- or waist-cloth (Pali); ka_kha_ strings by which a load is tied to the back (Ku.); kakkha_, kaccha_, kaccha loincloth (Pkt.); ka_ch cloth worn between the legs, edge, hem (N.); loincloth (H.); tuck in a dhoti, loincloth (G.); ka_ch, ka_c hem of loincloth tucked in between the legs (B.); ka_cha a small cloth (Or.); ka_cha_ loincloth (Or.H.); small tight loincloth (Bi.) kacha_ end of garment tucked in (Or.); ka_chni_ a cloth worn over the loincloth (H.); kachani a small loincloth (Mth.); ka_cho tuck in a dhoti, loincloth (G.); ka_chr.o tuck in a sari (G.); ka_s, ka~_s tuck in a dhoti (M.); ka~_cya_ fold of dhoti, girdle (M. <H.); kasa-pat.a fold in a body cloth (Si.)(CDIAL 2592). Girdle: kaccu belt, girdle, sash, cummerband; mal.l.ar...ya_tta pu_n:kaccu (Ci_vaka. 16); broad tape bad; ta_r..kaccir- pin.ippun.t.u (Ci_vaka. 1748)(Ta.lex.) kaccam the end piece of the Hindu garment tucked up in folds at the waist, such fold brought up from the front and tucked up behind (Ta.lex.) kaccam elephant's neck-rope; stirrup (Ta.lex.) kaccai rope, girth, girdle, belt, piece of new cloth (Ta.); kacca girdle, waist-belt, long cloth (Ma.); end of the lower garment passed between the legs and tucked in behind (Te.); kaccad.amu cod-piece (Te.); kacv perineal cloth (Ko.); koc embroidered perineal cloth (To.); cloth given at funeral (To.); kacce cloth passed between the legs to cover the privities, girdle (Ka.); perineal cloth (Kod..); end of lower garment gathered up behind and tucked into waistband (Tu.)(DEDR App.20). Loincloth: kacevo_k, koco_k coat, mantle; kuchok bag (Wg.)(CDIAL 2594). kaccanti gunny bag; kaccanti-y-avir.. to spin a yarn, lit., to untie the bag (Ta.lex.) kacchat.t.i_, kacchut.t.iya_, kaccho_t.i_ loincloth (Pkt.); kachvat.t.i_ gusset (L.); kachot.a_ loincloth (P.); kast.a_, ka_sut.i (A.); ka_chat.a_ (Or.); kachaut.i_ (H.); kachot.o, kachot.i_ (G.); kasot.a_ tuck or end of dhoti (M.)(CDIAL 2590). kaccat.t.am < kacchat.ika_ folds in the garment of a Hindu; strip of cloth worn over a man's private parts; kaccam the end piece of the Hindu garment tucked up in folds at the waist, such fold brought up from the front and tucked up behind (Ta.lex.) kucavam < koycakam folds of cloth put on by Indian women (G.Tj.D. 63)(Ta.lex.) (kaccatu kat.intu : Kalla_. 44); gajji corset (Kur.); kacuka corselet, jacket (R.); bodice, armour (Pali); snake's slough (Skt.); kam.cu woman's bodice (Pkt.); kam.cua bodice, armour (Pkt.); ka~_jo band of metal round of a khukri (N.); ka~_cu_, ka~cuwa_ bodice, shirt (H.); ka~_c.va_ a sort of waistcoat (M.)(CDIAL 2626). kaja_k the waist-band or sash worn by peons or sepoys (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) kaculi_ bodice (Skt.); kam.culi (NiDoc.); kam.culia_ (Pkt.); kajuro (S.); kajli_ (L.); ka~_culi_ clothes (Ku.); bodice, sheath (H.); ka~_suli woman's bodice (A.); ka~_culi (B.); kacul.a (Or.); ka~_cali (OMth.); ka~_cl.i_ bodice (G.); ka~_c.ol.i_, ka_c.ol.i_ bodice (M.)(CDIAL 2627)[with o from col.i_ < co_d.a jacket (Skt.)(CDIAL 4923). Tunic, jacket: kacukan- one who wears a tunic or jacket; kacuki, ka_cukan, ka_cuki the body-guard of a king, wearing a jacket; jacket; curtain; ka_cukam jacket; ka_cuki id. (Ta.lex.) Dress, costume: ka_ca dress, costume, character (B.); kicca to be done; duty (Pali) to be done; action (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3428). Cloth merchant: kaccavat.a-k-ka_ran- merchant, trader; kaccavat.am (Ta.); kaccavat.am (Ma.) peddling, trade especially in cloth; mixing up of things (Ta.lex.) kaks.apat.t.a loincloth (Skt.); kacchat.t.i_, kacchut.t.iya_, kaccho_t.i_ loincloth (Pkt.); kachvat.t.ti_ gusset (L.); kahot.a_ loincloth (P.); kast.a_, ka_sut.i (A.); ka_chat.a_, ka_chot.i (Or.); kachaut.i_ (H.); kachot.o (G.); kachot.i_ (G.); kasot.a_ tuck or end of dhoti (M.)(CDIAL 2590). [cf. koch curve above hip where babies are carried (K.); ka_kh lap (N.); ka_s loins, waist, udder (M.); kaks.a armpit (RV.)(CDIAL 2588). kar.ma_ waist (Kur.); kar.me id. (Malt.)(DEDR 1143).] kacca-vat.akka_ran- merchant, trader; kaccavat.am peddling, trade especially in cloth (J.); id. (Ma.); mixing up of things (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Clothing:{Two types of clothing are related to parts of the body: kaccai girdle worn around the lap or hip and tied; and kaccu bodice taken around the armpits and breasts and tied.} > Stream 1: Armpit, hip, lap, side of the body below the armpit: kaca~_t near; kacant-kow armpit (Wg.)(CDIAL 2593). kachur.i flank below armpit (S.)(CDIAL 2591). Groin: keccal the udder of beasts (Ka.lex.) ked belly from navel to groin (Ko.); ke0 lower belly (of man)(To.); gejje the groin between the belly and the thigh (Ka.); gajja id. (Te.)(DEDR 1938). kaks.a armpit (RV.); groin ? (AV.); kaks.a_ armpit (Sus'r.); kaccha id. (Pali); kakkha, kaccha (Pkt.); kakh, kak (Gy.); xac.em my armpit (Pas'.); koch curve above the hip where babies are carried (K.); ka_kh lap (N.); side of the body, armpit (Ku.); ka_khi side of the body below the armpit, armpit (N.); ka_ch side, edge (N.); ka_x side of the body, edge (A.); ka~_kh flank, hip, waist; armpit (B.); side, armpit (Mth.Bhoj.H.); ka_kh id. (G.); ka_s loins, waist, udder (M.); ka_kha side, armpit (Or.); kach armpit (K.); kach, kachu (S.); kacho side of a boat (S.); kakchli_ id. (WPah.); kaccha_ id. (P.); kacch armpit (L.P.); ka~_kh armpit (M.); kha_kko (Konkan.i); kasa armpit (Si.); kac.-kuru_ armpit (Kt.); kacant-ko_u (Wg.); kus.lok (Pr.); kacya_l (Gaw.); kac.a_l (Bshk.); kas.a_l (Tor.); ka_xe by the side of (A.); kakhu to, for (OB.); kaha~_ beside, near (N.)(CDIAL 2588). kamukkat.t.u armpit (Ta.); ganjguy, ganjgu.l.y armpit (Ko.); komkwir. (To.); kavun:kur, kan:kur, kan:kar.., kan:kur..a, kon:kur.. id. (Ka.); gan:kelu id. (Ka.); kavnki vital spot (Kod..); kan:kkul.a armpit (Tu.); karkiled.i (Kor.); kaun:gili breast, bosom; an embrace; kaun:gilincu to embrace, hug, press to the bosom (Te.); kavkor, kavkod. armpit (Pa.); kavngil, kangil lap (Pa.); kalgil id. (Ga.); ka_kri_, kakri armpit (Go.)(DEDR 1234). kidukilu armpit (Tu.); kitki lomber.i, ki_ti kola id.; ki_ti tickling (Kui); kitkorod.i armpit (Kui); kutli_ id. (Go.); gutu id. (Kur.); kusul id. (Ga.)(DEDR 1551). akkul., can:kam armpit; akkul.u to tickle (Ta.); akkul.am armpit, tickling (Ma.); cakkili armpit (Te.); can:ka, can:kili id. (Te.); sanka_, sanka, sakka id. (Kol.); sakka id. (Nk.); canka id. (Ga.); ceql kund.e to tickle (Malt.)(DEDR 2274). tokku armpit (Ma.); tolokh side of the body, flank (Kur.); tolokh armpit (Kur.)(DEDR 3520). Breast, udder, teat: a~_car breast (Aw.); a~_cal. udder, teat (G.); a~_cu_l. udder (M.)(CDIAL 168). ca_ci mother's milk (Ta.) a childish word for the female breast (Ka.); woman's breast (Te.)(DEDR 2436). Hip, side of belly, lap: kuks.i belly (RV.); kucchi (Pali); kukkhi, kucchi (Pkt.); ku_c middle (Ash.); kucut. calf of leg; na_s belly; nas tapai_ calf of leg (Orm.); ku_c belly (Wg.); kace_ scrotum (Pr.); ku_c belly (Pas'.); ku_ic, kuc, kuca among; kucai out of; kuci into (Pas'.); kuc belly (Kal.); koch, kochi lap, lower part of bosom where babies are carried or dandled (K.); kukhi slender part of the body below the ribs; kuchir. hip (S.); kukh side between hip and ribs (L.); kucchir. carrying a child astride the hip; kuchur. lap (L.); kukkh belly, side of belly, womb; kucch hiding place; kucchar. lap, bosom (P.); ku_kh, ku~_kh belly, womb; ku_kh hips (H.); ku_kh belly (Marw.); belly, womb, side below ribs, armpit (G.); kum.si womb (OM.); ku_s belly; kusa_, kusva_ womb (M.); kusa, kisa belly, womb (Si.); kis interior (Si.)(CDIAL 3213). kauks.a, kauks.aka abdominal (Pa_n..); koccha pertaining to the belly; region of the belly (Pkt.); koc knee (Gypsy)[?< kuks.i-]; ko_ch belly (K.); kokh belly, womb (P.); khokh bosom (WPah.); kokharya_li_ armpit (Ku.); kokh womb (N.); kokho ribs, side (N.); ko~kh womb, side, rib (B.); ko_kh lap (Bhoj.); kosan. side below the ribs (G.); ko_khi womb (Aw.); kokh, kokha_ belly, womb (H.); ko_car. lap, end of a garment curled up to hold things (B.); ko_chal corpulent (K.)(CDIAL 3556). cf. ku~cki groin; kuca crimped border of cloth (Or.)(CDIAL 3223). > Stream 1: kaccu a kind of corset worn by Indian women in ancient times (Ta.); bodice to confine the breast (Ma.) < ? kacuka (Skt.)(DEDR 1098). kaccu > Stream 2: kaks.ya girdle, girth (RV.); kaks.a_ girdle (MBh.); loincloth (Skt.); kaccha_ belt, loin- or waist-cloth (Pali); loincloth (Pkt.); ka_kha_ strings by which a load is tied to the back (Ku.); ka_ch cloth worn between the legs, edge, hem (N.B.); tuck in a dhoti,loincloth (G.); ka_c hem of loincloth tucked in between the legs (B.); ka_cha a small cloth (Or.); loincloth (H.); ka_cha_ loincloth (Or.H.); kacha_ end of garment tucked in (Or.); small tight loincloth (Bi.); kachani a small loincloth (Mth.); ka_cho tuck in a dhoti, loincloth (G.); ka_chr.o tuck in a sari (G.); ka_, ka~_s tuck in a dhoti (M.); ka~_cya_ fold of dhoti, girdle (M. < LM); kasa-pat.a fold in a body cloth (Si.); kaci near (Dardic <?kaks.ye_); kas, kac, gasi~_ beside, with, by (Dardic)(CDIAL 2592). khesiyu~ a cloth loosely worn over the shoulders (G.); khe~s a partic. kind of cloth (cotton, wool,or silk)(M.); kes' silk, silk threads (Gy.); khes' a kind of silk cloth worn by women as a girdle (K.); a woollen wrapper (B.); khesr.a_ a figured cloth (H.); khesu thick cotton cloth (S.); khes thick cotton shawl with coloured border (L.); a particular kind of cloth made in Bhadgaon (N.); a figured cloth (H.); a cloth loosely worn over the shoulderss (G.); a kind of cloth (P.); khesi_ small shawl (P.)(CDIAL 3924). cf. kayal string (Ma.); kayir-u rope, cord, string (Ta.)(DEDR 1254).

1463.Confused; crowded: gija, giji a sound denoting confusion, etc.; giji giji, gija gija state of being very crowded (Ka.); gijilu confusion (Tu.)(DEDR 1520). kayakkam < kayan:ku- strain, stres (Man.i. 7,75); confusion, perturbation (Ci_vaka. 394); kayan:ku-tal to be disturbed as in mind, to be excited (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 4,5)(Ta.lex.) gic-pic crowded together (N.H.); gicgic (G.); gicca crowded (M.); gica_d. a dense wood (M.); vigim.cai separates (Pkt.); gacu much, many (S.); gac, gacpac crowded (H.); gacca firmly, tightly (G.); gac tightly (M.); gaccha collection, crowd (Pkt.); gi~ji dense; gijgij crowd (B.); ge~ja_-ge~ji over-crowded (Or.); ghicpic crowded (H.); ghi~c, ghicca (G.); ghacpaci overcrowdedness (S.); ghacet.o push (Ku.); ghacca_ thrust (N.); ghaca_ro rush, crowd (N.); ghacet.nu to push, thrust (N.); ghaca-maca pressure of work (N.); ghacr.a_-ghacr.i_ overcrowdedness (G.); ghi~ji dense, impenetrable (B.)(CDIAL 4153). To ram, thrust: gaja disrespect (Skt.); gam.jai oppresses, rebukes; gam.jia hurt; gam.jan.a disrespect (Pkt.); ga~_jnu to ravish, rape (a woman)(N.); ga~_ziba to thrust, cram (A.); ga~_jiba_ to ram, thrash (Or.); gajiba_ to oppress, abuse (Or.); gajan.a_ abuse (Or.); ga~_jna_ to churn; ga_jna_ to treat with contempt (H.); ga~_jvu~ to agitate, overpower, deceive (G.); ga~_jn.e~ to torment (M.); ga_jiba_ to ram, thrash, fall in torrents (of rain)(Or.); gaddia proud (Pkt.); ga_da_ to ram, cram (B.); ga_dna_ to press down, cram (H.)(CDIAL 3960). gandhayate_ hurts (Dha_tup.); gandhana injury (Skt.); gada illness (Sus'r.); agada (RV.); gada (Pali); gaya (Pkt.); gandhana injuring (Pali); ga~_dn.e~ to torment (M.); gandh hurt (Skt.)(CDIAL 4016).

1464.Marrow; slippery; mire, mud: keccu (the marrow, essence, or pith of plants etc.); core, the heart of a tree; essence, strength (majjan, sa_ra); marada-keccu id.; keccu-kat.t.u to become strong, firm, or excessive; kecco_r..ad.ike pieces of areca nut that are hard (Ka.lex.) kirci slippery mud (Ka.); kiraci, kireci mud, mire; adj. miry, dirty, foul; kirici mire, mud (Tu.)(DEDR 1565). khidor, kickic, kackac, kacpac muddy (Santali.lex.) To slip: gr.ih- (gr.ist-) to slip, slide; be slippery (Pe.); gris clean, clear, shining, polished; gris inba to be clean, clear, shining, polished; gris ispa to cleanse, make clear or shining, polish; grisna cleanly; grihu mucus, slime; grihi smooth, polished, slippery; grihpa (griht-) to be smooth, polished, slippery (Kui); gr.ih- (gr.ist-), gri_ssali (gri_st-), glih'nai, glis- to slide, slip; grihini slippery (Kuwi)(DEDR 2261). khisai slips (Pkt.); khisan.u, pp. khitho to fall in fortune, sleep (S.); khisna_ to sink, fall (H.); khisvu~ to slide, go to a distance; caus. khesavvu~ (G.); khisn.e~ to move aside (M.); khiskan.u to slip (S.); khiskan.a_ to slip away (P.); khisakna_ (H.)(CDIAL 3888). To mash: gredi, greji soft, pulpy, festering; gredi inba to be soft, pulpy; gredna to beat into a pulp (Kur.); geje geje to reduce to a pulp (Mun.d.a_ri_); crammed (Sant.); gijgij close (Sant.); gi~_jna_, gi~jolna_ to mash with the hand (H.); gacet.o lump (G.); gica_d. a dense wood (M.); gacu piece of bread (S.); gejja-, ga_gejja churned (Pkt.); ge~jiba_ to press together (Or.)(CDIAL 4153). gham.ciya oil-presser (Pkt.); gha~_ci_ m., gha~_cen. f. (G.)(CDIAL 4405). gijat.i, giji giji a jelly-like, viscous, pulpous, sticky state (Ka.); giji giji soft, pulpous (Tu.); giji, gii pith (Pa.); ginji pump of fruit (Go.); ginjna_ to beat or press into pulp (Kur.)(DEDR 1519). ku_cci pulp of wood-apple (Ta.); ku_u, ku_i, ku_al centre of a fruit, stalk in the midst of a jackfruit (Ma.); kusuri, kusuru the pulp of some vegetables and fruits; gu_ji stalk inside a jackfruit or pineapple (Ka.); ku_ji, gu_ji the stalk in the midst of a jackfruit, the germ-matter of a boil; kusri pulp of a fruit (Tu.); gujuru, gujju, gunju id.; gojju pulp (Te.); gurju juice, pulp (Ga.); gunji_ sweet inner fibre of sugar-cane (Go.); gurju pith (Kuwi)(DEDR 1880). cf. ko.g stone of olive (Ko.)(DEDR 2179). koya_ pulp of jackfruit (H.); koy mango stone (CDIAL 3525).

1465.Image: cock: ka_cu_ka a cock; the cakrava_ka bird (Skt.lex.)

1466.To measure; land-measure: kachchi_ lower, smaller (a weight, measure); kachcha_ tol beneath the standard weight; kachchh measuring land; kachchh pa_un.a_ to measure (land); kachchn. to measure (especially land), to estimate the produce of land; ka_chhu_, kachhu_a_ one who measures a field or estimates a crop; kachhwa_ha_ a tribe of ra_pu_ts claiming descent from Rus, the son of ramchandra; one who measures land (P.lex.) kacarai a measure in weight = 1 1/2 kahcu (S.I.I., ii,127); kacca_-c-ce_r small seer = 8 palam (Ta. < U.); kajam yard-measure (Ta. < gaz (U.); kasi_, kasai_, kesai_ rope used in land measurement (H.)(CDIAL 2965). kus.ki dry land, land not artificially irrigated (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) kus.ki < s'us.ka dry land, opp. to tari (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) kachan.u to measure (S.); Land measurer: ka_chu land-measurer (S.); ka_cho measure, size (S.); kacchan. to measure by length (L.); kacchn.a_ to measure (esp. land)(P.); kacch, ka_cch measurement of a field (P.)(CDIAL 2617). kaccam (Ta.); kacca (Ka.) a grain measure, marakka_l; standard of measure (Ta.); a certain very large number kal.ir-u por-r-e_r na_n-karai-k-kaccama_kum (Ci_vaka. 2219); agreement, binding (Ta.Inscr.)(Ta.lex.) Definitely, finally; accurately: xaccna_(as an auxiliary) finish, do thoroughly, definitely or finally (Kur.); qace to end, finish (Malt.)(DEDR 1100). kaccitam accuracy, correctness, neatness (Ta.lex.)

1467.Food: gaji conjee, rice-water, water in which rice has been boiled and which is drained off after the rice has been cooked (Te.Ka.Tu.); kaci id. (Ta.); starch, such water which is the starch generally used by Indian washerman (Kantapu. Na_t.t.up. 50); liquid food; slop in general used as an article of invalid diet (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,5,5); gruel prepared from cereals; kaci-ka_yccutal to prepare food, as gruel, slop or boiled rice; kaci-k-ku_t.ai colander by which conjee is strained off; kaci-t-tan.n.i_r conjee, water drawn off from boiled rice; term for food in general as applied by the poorer classes; liquid food; kaci-t-tel.ivu water strained from rice after it has been well-cooked, used as a light diet; kaci-t-tot.t.i place where gruel is given free to the poor; kaciyil-vat.ittal to show extreme stinginess, as straining conjee; to magnify very insignificant things out of all proportion to their importance; to strain at a gnat (Ta.lex.) Fermented liquor: kaar-am fermented liquor; kaci-k-ka_t.i vinegar produced from the fermentation of conjee (Ta.lex.) kha_v glutton (K.); kha_u_ (P.H.); -kha_u_ in cmpds. eating (G.M.)(CDIAL 3871). kho food (Tir.); kha_da food AV.)(CDIAL 3864). khaihan food given to a serf in return for labour (Bi.)(CDIAL 3866). kha_dani_ya to be chewed; n. hard food (BHSk.); solid food (Pali); ra_j-kha_ni goat's testicles (reserved formerly for the king's consumption)(N.)(CDIAL 3870). kha_n.ora_ gluttonous (M.)(CDIAL 3868). kha_n.a~_d.ro cookhouse (CDIAL 3869). kha_dana eating (Pali); food (RV.); khayam.na (NiDoc.); kha_n.a eating, food (Pkt.); kha_n.a_ meal (L.); kha~_r.u (Ku.); kha_n-pin eating and drinking (N.); kha_n-pa_n (B.); kha_n, kha_na_ meal (H.B.); kha_n.a food (OMarw.Konkan.i); kha_n.u~ dinner party (G.); kha_n. boiled grain for cattle (G.); kha_n.e~ food (M.); khen fiid after pyonu dat. penas to drink (K.)(CDIAL 3867). kha_dati chews, bites (RV.); eats (S'Br.Pali); kha_yati (BHSk.); khatva (NiDoc.); kha_ai, kha_i (3rd pl. kha_am.ti, kham.ti)(Pkt.); kar, xa, xath (Gypsy); kha_na (D..); kha_ (Tir.Wot..Tor.Bshk.Mai.); kha (Phal.); khoi_ki, kho_nu (Sh.); kha_n.o (K.); kha_van. (L.); kha_n.a_ (P.); kha_n.u_ (WPah.); kha_n.o (Ku.); kha_nu (N.); kha_iba (A.); kha_oya_ (B.); kha_iba_ (Or.); kha_eb (Mth.); kha_il (Bhoj.); kha_i (OAw.); kha_bu (OAw.); kha_na_ (H.); kha_bo (Marw.); kha_vu~ (G.); kha_n.e~ (M.); kha_um.k (Konkan.i); kanava_ (Si.); ma kani_ I am eating (Si.); khyonu (K. khewa_n I am eating), kheunu (K.); khian.u (S.); khia_iba_ caus. (Or.); khiya_na_ (OH.); kha_dita, kha_yita (Pali); khayidaga (NiDoc.); ke_ra he ate (Gypsy); xaliv flesh (Gypsy); xalo ate (Gypsy); kha_yo (N.); kha_ pi eating and drinking (Or.); kha_y act of eating (Mth.); kha_ya_ ate (H.); kha_i_ food, pastry (G.); ka_ eaten (Si.); ma ke_mi_ I ate (Si.); kha_dho food (S.); kha_dhi food (S.); kha_dha_ eaten (L.P.); kha_dhu~ (G.); kha_dila_ (OM.); kha_d nourishment (M.); kha_in.u to eat (S.); kha_da_pe_ti gives to eat, feeds (Pali); kha_viyam.ta pass. being fed (Pkt.); khya_wun (K.); khuva_un.a_ (P.); khuwa_n.u_ (WPah.); khuwa_unu (N.); khuwa_iba (A.); kha_oya_na (B.); khua_iba (Or.); khawa_na_ (H.); khuva_i (OMarw.); kava-nava_ (Si.); khajjati is eaten (Pali); khajjai (Pkt.); khaji-zo_nu (Sh.); kha~_jan.u (S.); kha_jan. (L.)(CDIAL 3865). kha_dya to be eaten; n. food (MBh.); khajja, khajjaka solid food (Pali); khaja-boja solid and other food (NiDoc.); khajja eatable (Pkt.); khajjaya a partic. food (Pkt.); kha_ju food (S.); kha_j food, eatable (L.); kha_jja_ victuals (P.Ku.); khajau~ food (WPah.); kha_j grain for food (WPah.); food (G.); kha_ja_ rice for chewing (Ku.); any light meal (N.); a partic. sweetmeat like piecrust (B.Or.); sweetmeat of wheaten flour (Bi.); food, a partic. sweetmeat (H.); kha_z not forbidden (of food)(A.); kha_ju~ piecrust (G.); kha_je~ grocery, a partic. sweetmeat (M.); kajaka meal; atara-kaja meal taken between morning gruel and noon (OSi.Bra_hmi)(CDIAL 3872). cf. Barley: kaj barley (Ko.); koj id. (To.); gajja id. (Pkt.)(DEDR 1106). cf. kaci rice-water, water poured off rice, starch (Ta.)(DEDR 1107). Rice gruel: kajja, kajja_ya bread (Ka.M.); kajja_ya a kind of sweet rice-cake (Ka.); kacca_ya (Ta.); kajja_ya, kajjemu (Te.); kha_je_m. (M.); kas'ipu food; clothing; in the dual: food and clothing (Ka.lex.) ka_ja_-man.t.ikai < gaja_ + (U.) a kind of cake made of wheat and rice flour (Intupa_ka. 326)(Ta.lex.) The carrying of the broth (kaji) may explain the transformation of ka_ + ad.i forms infixed with: -/j/c- : ka_jika sour rice-gruel (Sus'r.); ka_ji_, ka_cika (Skt.); kajika, kajiya (Pali); kam.jia (Pkt.); konzu (K.); ka_jhi_ sour beverage of water and mustard seed, rice gruel, buttermilk (S.); ka~_jha_ buttermilk and water (L.); ka_ji_, ka_ci_ sour liquor from fermented chick-peas or carrots (P.); ka~_ji whey (Ku.); ka~_zi sour rice gruel (A.); ka~_ji (B.); ka_ji_ (Or.); ka~_ji_ (H.); gruel, paste, gruel (G.); sour rice gruel, gruel (M.); kanda rice gruel (Si.)(CDIAL 3016). < Gruel: kaci rice-water, water poured off rice, starch (Ta.); kai rice-gruel, starch (Ma.); kaj ni.r water poured off rice (Ko.); koj rice-porridge (To.); gaji rice-gruel, starch (Ka.); kaji rice-gruel, porridge (Kod..); gaji gruel, rice-water, starch, porridge (Tu.); ganji gruel (Te.); genji water from boiled rice (Ga.); genji e_r id. (Go.); ka_sar yellow water which comes out of strained rice (Go.); kaisar boiled rice gruel; ka_ser, ka'eri water of boiled rice (Go.); genzi water poured from boiled rice (Kond.a); kanji, kanji_-amm water made very sour by a prolonged stay over cooked rice; broth or vegetable soup (eaten with rice and considered as curry); acid in general (< IA.)(Kur.); ka_cika water of boiled rice in a state of spontaneous fermentation (Skt.)(DEDR 1107). Foam: gaji_ foam, scum (S.); ga_j (Ku.N.Bhoj.); froth, scum (H.); gaja_na_ to cause to ferment (H.); ga~_ja_ frothing (B.); ga~_jla_ froth, beestings; ga~_ja_ to foam (B.)(CDIAL 3959). cf. kaca_< gaja_ toddy; kaca_ Indian hemp (Ta.lex.) ga~ja_ hemp (Skt.)(CDIAL 3964). cf. kaja to be congealed, solidified by growing cold (Kui)(DEDR 1102). kar..u-ni_r water in which rice has been washed (Ta.); karcu, kaccu washing, water in which raw rice has been washed (Ka.); kad.ugu, kad.gu, kad.uvu, kad.vu n. water in which rice or anything has been washed (Te.)(DEDR 1369). Image: barley: jave (Tadbhava of yava) barley (Ka.); java (Ma.); jave-go_di barley, hordeum vulgare (Ka.); yava, eve, jave, yave a barley corn, as a measure or as a weight; a figure or mark on the hand resembling a barley corn, supposed to indicate good fortune; yavaka, yavake barley; a sort of barley (Ka.); yava-ks.a_ra an alkali prepared from the ashes of burnt barley-straw, saltpetre, nitre, nitrate of potash (Ka.Skt.); yavasa_ya (Tadbhava of vyavasa_ya) agriculture (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) yava hordeum vulgare (Car. Su. 4.22,28,40). Hardeum vulgare (Ancient Egyptian it; Coptic eiwt; Modern Egyptian Arabic s'ieyr) "Egyptian barley was chiefly of the four-eared or six-eared variety... one of the basic food plants in ancient times, being used for bread and beer. Barley grains have been found dating back to predynastic times. An entire barley plant had been left in the coffin of Amenophis I (1567-1320 BC). Barley sprouts found during excavations were part of the burial rites, being symbolic of the resurrection of Osiris, King of the Dead... fermented liquid was probably a thin gruel. In present-day Egypt the Nubians brew a kind of beer called bouza... contains about 7% alcohol... Diodorus refers to it... used in white spots of a burn as bandage... with emme, barley was used in a birth prognosis..." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, pp.107-108). Hordeum vulgare: jau (H.P.B.); jav (M.); divya (Skt.); barliyarisi (Ta.); barlibiyam (Te.); grains: demulcent, easy of digestion, used in dietary of sick, parched and powdered much employed in the form of a gruel in cases of painful and atonic dyspepsia; cultivated chiefly in N. India and up to 13,000 ft. in the Himalayas (GIMP, p.136). cf. kaj barley (Ko.); gajja id. (Pkt.)(DEDR 1106). Hordeum vulgare: Hardeum vulgare or sativum or distichon; Synonyms: gerste (Ger.); orge (Fr.); the barley of Egypt and commonly found in ancient tombs is a six-rowed barley, hordeum hexastichon; habitat: probably western Asia as an evolution from a wild form of barley, hordeum spontaneum; barley is chiefly used as a brewing grain. The kernel is used as a food for humans chiefly in the form of pearl barley or as a patent barley flour. Roasted barley is used as a coffee substitute. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 142-146). Hordeum vulgare, hordeum sativu, hordeum decorticatum, hordeum distichun, hordeum hexastichun, hordeum zeocriton: yava (Skt.); barley (Eng.); orge anguleuse (Fr.); sechszeilige gerste (Ger.); jao (Pers.); jave, jan (H.); jab (B.); jawa (S.); cheno (G.); satu, jav (M.); pachcha-yavulu (Te.); barlhiarisi (Ta.); jave-godi (Ka.); baarli (Kon.); Habitat: this cereal is larely cultivated in several varieties in Sind, Bombay Presidency and other provinces of India... Parts used: dried decorticated grain called pearl barley and the seeds of yava... Java is nutritive; seed or grain is demulcent. Decoction of seeds is a bitter tonic and astringent... Java or yava is used as food by the poorer classes; medicinally it is also used as conjee... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 653-655).

1468.Tender; unripe, raw: kayam tenderness, softness (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) kasu, kasa unripe, young (Ka.); kasu id. (Te.)(Ka.lex.) kacca, kacca_ unripe, green; uncooked, raw; rude, rough; young, tender (Ka.); kacca_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) kur-uje, kujje an unripe fruit of the jack tree (Ka.lex.) kaco, khaco bad (Sh.); kocu unripe, raw, imperfect (K.); kaco raw (S.); kacca_ unripe, incomplete (L.); raw, unbaked (P.H.M.); kyacco raw (WPah.); ka_co unripe (Ku.N.); ka~_co id., uncooked (N.); ka~_si new (of moon)(A.); ka~_ca_ raw, unripe (B.); ka_ca_, kaca_, kaca_ (Or.); ka~_c, ka~_ce (Mth.); ka_ca_ (Aw.); ka_c, ka_ca_, ka~_ca_, ka~_c (H.); ka_cu~ (G.); ka_ca_ (M.)(CDIAL 2613). ka_yttal to bear fruit (Pur-ana_. 184); ka_tcu (Te.); ka_y (Ka.Ma.); ka_yi (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) ka_y fruit to grow or develop; fruit in a yet unripe, but pretty full-grown state (Ka.); unripe or ripening fruit (Ma.); unripe fruit; to bear fruit (Ta.); ka.y unripe fruit (Ko.); unripe fruit (Kod..); ka_yi unripe fruit, seed (Tu.); ka_yppu produce of a tree, crop of fruit or grain (Ta.); ka_yuka to be ripe (Ma.); ka_cu to bear or produce (as fruit)(Te.); ka_pu crop, brearing or producing fruit (Te.); ka_yk fruit (Nk.); ka_ya unripe fruit (Go.); xe_na_ unripe, raw, half-cooked (Kur.); kaiya fruit (Kuwi); qene unripe, raw (Malt.)(DEDR 1459). ka_y-kkulai bunch of unripe fruits (Cilap. 13,193); ka_y-kar-i unripe fruits, vegetables and the like used for preparing curry (Ta.Ma.); ka_yn:kan-i fruits ripe and unripe (Tol. Er..ut. 48, Urai.); ka_ykani (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

1469.Image: creeper: kucam bristly trifoliate vine (Ta.lex.) kosa_taki_ < kos'i_taki_ (Skt.) a kind of creeper (Pali.lex.) gho_s.a a creeping plant bearing white or yellow flowers, luffa foetida (Ka.lex.)

1470.Cucumber: ka_sarike a kind of potherb or cucumber (Ka.); ka_sara luffa tuberosa (Te.)(DEDR 1429). karka_ru the gourd beninkasa cerifera (Sus'r.); kakka_ruka, kakka_rika a kind of cucumber; kakkaru a kind of creeper (Pali); kakkaru_, ka~_h.aru_ water-melon (Pas'.); khanka_r melon (Gaw.); kakira, pl. kakiri cucumber (Si.)(CDIAL 2823). kacri_, kacari_, kacariya_ zedoary plant or root; a small green and yellow striped melon (H.); kacuro, kacoro curcuma zedoaria or zerumbet (G.)(CDIAL 2828). ka_linda, ka_lindaka watermelon (Sus'r.); ka_lin:ga (Skt.); kalinda_, kalindra_ watermelon (H.); ka_lim.gi_ (Pkt.); kal.i~gr.u~ (G.); kali~gad., kali~gd.e~, ka_li~gan. (M.)(CDIAL 3100). kan.t.avalli acacia concinna (Skt.); ka~_t.vel, ka~_t.i_l, ka~_t.li_, ka~_t.la_ a wild creeper, a variety of momordica charantia (M.); ka~_t.le~ its fruit (M.)(CDIAL 2677). ka~_kur cucumber, green melon (B.); kakora_ the vegetable momordica muricata or mixta (Bhoj.); karko_t.a a partic. fruit (Sus'r.); karko_t.aka momordica mixta; its fruit (Sus'r.); aegle marmelos (Skt.); kakko_d.a, kakko_d.aya, kam.ko_d.a a vegetable that grows in the rains; kakko_d.ai the plant (Pkt.); kakaur.a_ the vegetable momordica muricata (P.); ka~_krol the edible cucurbitaceous plant momordica mixta and its fruit (B.); ka_kol.a_, ka_kol.i, ka_kola_, ka_n:kol.a_, ka_n:kola_ a sweet vegetable febrifuge; kakario, ka_n:kar.a edible thorny fruit of the creeper momordica cochinchinensis (Or.); kakor.a_ the vegetable momordica muricata or mixta (H.); ka~kor.u~ a kind of vegetable, myrtus pimenta (G.); ka~kor.i_ its root, a fragrant medicinal powder made therefrom (G.)(CDIAL 2825). kaccara_ pickles made of dried melon fried with spices (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2827). kan:ko_la a kind of plant (Skt.); kam.ko_la, kakko_la a kind of tree; its fruit (Pkt.); kan:goru a kind of cane from which musical pipes are made (S.); ka~_kol a kind of thorny shrub (G.); ka~kol. myrtus pimenta, allspice (M.)(CDIAL 2607).

1471.Flowers for saffron dye: kesu, kesur.a~_ pl. the flowers (used for making a saffron dye)(G.); kesur.i_ the tree (G.); kim.s'uka the tree butea frondosa (MBh.); kaim.s'uka pertaining to b. frondosa (Sus'r.); kim.suka the tree (Pali); kim.sua the tree, the flower (Pkt.); ke_sua (Pkt.); kesu_ the tree (S.H.); ke_su_ phull the flowers (L.)[ <Drav. is supported by NIA forms which have no nasal; H. also has tesu_](CDIAL 3149). ke_caram < ke_s'ara filaments of a flower, stamens (Tiva_.); saffron; ke_cari wheat flour boiled with saffron and sugar (Ta.lex.) kesar saffron (N.G.); ke_sara filament of flower (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3474). ke_sari hu_vu the saffron plant; ke_sari saffron-coloured (Ka.); ke_sara saffron (Ka.); ke_s'ara (M.); ke_saravara (Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

1472.Wild date-palm: kacan:ku wild date-palm; stalk, as of the date-leaf used in making plaited baskets; kacan:ku-t-tat.t.u palm-leaf stalk (Ta.lex.) Date-palm: kharju_ra the date-palm phoenix sylvestris (TS.); its fruit (Skt.); kharju_ri_ the tree (VarBr.S.); kharjura (Skt.); kharjuraka its fruit (BHSk.); kharju wild date tree (Skt.); khajju_ri wild date-palm (Pali); khajju_ra m., khajju_ri_ f. date-palm (Pkt.); khajju_ra its fruit (Pkt.); khazar, khuzur its fruit (K.); khaju_ri the tree (S.); khaju_r the tree and its fruit (L.P.); kha~ju_r (P.); khaju_r (Ku.Bhoj.); the tree and its fruit (H.); khajur (N.); kha_zur (A.); kha_jur (B.); khejur (B.); khajuri the tree (Or.); khajura_ its fruit (Or.); khaju_riya_ a small variety and its fruit (H.); khajuri_ the tree (G.); khajur its fruit (G.); khajuri_ (M.); kaduru the tree (Si.); kaduru its fruit (Si.); khajja a partic. tree (Pkt.); khaji_ the date-palm phoenix dactylifera (S.); khajji_ date-palm (L.P.)(CDIAL 3828). ka_rakka a dried date fruit (Ma.); ka_re-ka_yi, ka_ra-ka_yi id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1470). kaju_ra, kajju_ra, karju_ra, kharju_ra the fruit of the date-tree, phoenix dactilifera, also when compressed and packed in bundles (Ka.); khaju_ra (M.); kajju_rapu, gajjura (Te.)(Ka.lex.) For -ju_ra in kharju_ra (TS.) cf.: chuha_ro a kind of date (S.); chuha_ra_ date palm (P.); chohara_, chohoro dried date (N.); soha_ra_, sohora_ (A.); choha_ra_ (B.); chuha_ra_, chua_ra_ (Or.H.)(CDIAL 5074). cf. uccu_t.i date palm (Go.); utoti date (M.); uttutte dried dates (Ka.)(DEDR 620). cf. ka_rakka a dried date fruit (Ma.)(DEDR 1470). cf. karavam wild date-palm, ka_t.t.i_ntu (Ta.lex.) cf. hen.d.a vinous liquor or toddy extracted from the wild date tree (Ka.)(DEDR 4397).

1473.Small: kuci anything small (Ta.); kuu small (Ma.); kun small (Ko.); kundu a child of Pariahs (Tu.); kui, kun.n.i small (Tu.); gunna young of an animal (Te.)(DEDR 1646). kocam little, small quantity (Ta.); a little (Ma.); koca, koce a little, littleness, inferiority (Ka.); kocemu a little, a few; deficiency, contempt; little, few, slight, mean, deficient (Te.); koyyal lean (Pa.); kocceka, koceka a little (Kuwi)(DEDR 2041). Image: dwarfish elephant: gunna smallness (Ta.); gunne young (Te.); gunna_ne a dwarfish elephant (Ka.); a young elephant (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

1474.Mangifera sylvatica: ko_s'a_mra mangifera sylvatica; its fruit (Sus'r.); ko_sam.ba a kind of fruit tree (Pkt.); kosam, kosabh a big timber tree of which the fruit is used medicinally and the oil for leprosy and boils (H.)(CDIAL 3543).

1475.Chicory: ka_cin-i-virai chicory, cichorium intybus (Ta.); ka_cin-i-vittu id. (Ta.); ka_sni_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) Cichorium intybus (Ancient Egyptian hri; Coptic zpi; wild chicory zpi ntooy; Modern Egyptian Arabic hendiba; cichorium pumilum s'ikoria). "Chicory is a deep-rooted perennial growing to 1.5m... It has large blue flowers which close at noon. It grows wild in Europe... the lowers leaves as a salad herb (endive), and the root for coffee substitute... the leaves produce a blue dye... It was considered a cooling herb, the 'endive' mentioned by Prospero Alpini to treat feverish diseases... Pliny refers to a wild chicory grown in Egypt along with a cultivated kind... juice... was drunk with wine to treat the liver and bladder... Dioscorides quotes the Egyptian name for chicory as agon; according to Pliny the wild kind was called seris... Copts used it in a pultice for swollen glands... and to treat blood spitting." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.88). Cichorium intybus: kasni (H.B.M.); kashni (Ta.); kasini (Te.); cultivated plant: used as tonic, in fevers, vomiting, enlargement of the spleen; and its root as a stomachic and diuretic; wild form of the plant: considered tonic, emmenagogue and alexiteric; habitat: wild in Punjab, NW Frontier Province and Hyderabad (Deccan); cultivated in Nadiad, Broach and Amalsad in Bombay (GIMP, p.64).

1476.Common poppy: kaca-kaca_ < khashkkhash (U.) opium poppy, narcotic herb, papaver somniferum, apin-iccet.i; poppy seed, white in colour (Pata_rtta. 1026)(Ta.lex.) kasakase, kasakasi, gasagase poppy-seed (Ka.M.); khasakhasa (H.); khaskhasa (Skt.); kas'akas'e (Ma.); gasagasa_ id. (Te.); kasakase-gid.a the opium poppy, papaver somjiferum (Ka.lex.) Papaver somniferum (Ancient Egyptian s'pn; Modern Egyptian Arabic: flower abu_ en-no_m (father of sleep) or hos'ha_s'; juice: afiu_n (opium) "This pink poppy is cultivated as a drug crop in some countries, including Egypt. The main constituent of the plant, particularly the latex, is morphine. It acts as analgesic, narcotic, stimulant and euphoric... In ancient Egypt... used to produce beer... the seeds of s'pn were part of an unguent... used for an external remedy ground with a mineral, myrrh and chalcedon... Amont the many items of produce from the tomb of Kha at Deir el-Medi_na was a pot containing some fatty matter... a mixture of various vegetable oils." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, pp.131-132). Papaver somniferum: ahiphena (Skt.); afim, post (H.B.); aphim (M.); afiun (Ma.); postaka (Ta.); kosakosa (Te.); opium the inspissated milky juice from immature capsules: narcotic; cultivated in the Uttar Pradesh, districts of Jullundur and Hoshiarpur in E. Punjab, and various parts of Rajputana and Madhya Bharat; widely cultivated as ornamental plant in gardens. (GIMP, pp.185-186). Papaver somniferum or album: gum opium, thebaicum, meconium; mohnsaft (Ger.); pavot officinal, opium (Fr.)... Indian opium is produced at Ghazipur, India... Uses: opium and morphine are used as somnifacient, analgesic, and calmative agents... papaverine is employed to relax spasm of smooth muscle... poppy capsules, deprived of their seeds, have been used in the preparation of a sedative syrup. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 379-387).

1477.Safflower: Carthamus tinctorius: safflower, dyer's saffron; saflor (Ger.); fleurs de carthame (Fr.); part used: the dried florets; habitat: India, Egypt and the Levant; uses: diaphoretic in hot infusion to promote eruption in measles and other exanthematous diseases; laxative; as a dyestuff. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, p. 909). "Safflower, obtained from carthamus tinctorius, has been discovered in early stone pots in Mesopotamia. The seeds of this plant, which have been found stored in Theban tombs of c 2000 BC, were used for the production of a vegetable oil. ITs use as a dye (ranging from pale red to golden) in ancient Egypt has been confirmed by chemical analyses of sheets of yellow linen in which mummies were wrapped. Its name in classical antiquity is derived from an oriental root meaning yellow." (Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R.Hall, Trevor I. Williams, A History of Technology, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, p. 246). Carthamus tinctorius (Ancient Egyptian k3t3; Coptic xoyx; Modern Egyptian Arabic qurt.um) 'Safflower is an annual herb with yellow flowers, apparently indigenous to Persia and north-west India, but introduced in Egypt during the New Kingdom if not before (c.1567 BC). It is frequently mentioned in Ptolemaic texts, and it grows in abundance in the fields today. The seeds produce a bland oil used for cooking and salads. The flowers yield a yellow colour, soluble in water, and a more permanent red, which has been used for dyeing silk, and in the manufacture of rouge... Dioscorides says that the Egyptians called it khino... Pliny says that the Egyptians did not consume safflower oil, but used it as a protection against poisonous stings... Egyptians found the flower pleasing to the eye and included it in the garlands laid on the mummies of their relatives. Remains of safflower were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (1567-1320 BC).' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., pp.83-84)}. kusumba carthamus tinctoria (Car. Su. 13.10). carthanus tinctorius kusum (H.B.); kusumba (M.); sendurakam (Ta.); kus.umba (Te.)(GIMP, p.52). centurukkam safflower, carthamus tinctorius (M.M. 776)(Ta.); centurukku, centurukkai id. (Ta.); centurakam id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kusumbe (Tadbhava of kusumbha) dried flowers of safflower (Ka.M.); the dye prepared from them; kusumbe-pa_gu a deep red turban; kusumbeban.n.a a deep red colour; kusumbha, kusibe, kusimbe, kusube, kusume a thistle-like herb, the safflower, carthamus tinctorius (Ka.lex.)

1478.A language: ko_calai modern Oudh (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 90); ko_calam modern Oudh, one of 56 te_cam (Ci_vaka. 2184); one of 18 languages referred to in the ancient Tamil works (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) ko_sala name of a country, the warrior-tribe inhabiting it, and its king (Ka.lex.)

1479.Herdsmen: gho_s.a station of herdsmen; pl. herdsmen (MBh.); gho_sa cowherd's station (Pkt.); ghos a caste of herdsmen (H.); ghosi_ herdsman (H.P.)(CDIAL 4528). ko_cam street; a part of fortress wall (Ta.lex.) House: gus' house (Sv.); gos. house (Sh.); ge_s'in, gus'i_n, ges'in house (Pas'.); go_s'in:g (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4335). gus.t. house (Tir.); go_s.t.-klo_m ceiling (Ash.); gho_s.t. cattle shed (Kal.Phal.)(CDIAL 4356). gos., pl. gozi, go_s. house (Sh.)(CDIAL 4528). ge_ha a house (Skt.Ka.); ge_sta (Tadbhava of gr.hastha); staying in a house; a householder; girasta, gira_sta, grahasta id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) gr.ha house; gr.ha_ wife; gr.hapa guardian of a house (VS. xxx.11); gr.hapatni_ the mistress of a house, housewife (RV. x.85.26); gr.ha-me_dhi_ya relating to domestic sacrifice (RV. vii.56.14); gr.hin possessing a house (TS. v.5.2.2); ge_ha house (VS. xxx.9; TS iv.5.9.1)(Vedic.lex.) goul.i, goul.ia_ herdsman (Kon.lex.)

1480.A measure of distance: ko_cu a measure of distance, calling distance (Kuruparam. Pan-n-i_. 217)(Ta.lex.) kro_sa a measure of distance (as far as a voice carries)(Skt.); ko_sa a distance of about two miles (Pkt.); kruh (K.); kohu, kuhu (S.); koh, ko_ (L.); karoh, koh (P.); kro (WPah.); ko_s' (Ku.); kos (N.B.); kosa (OMarw.Or.); kus (Or.); kos (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.P.G.M.); ko_su (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 3611). kro_s'a, ko_su calling out, a cry, a shout; a measure of distance, a kos, 1/4 yo_jana; ko_su (Tadbhava of kro_s'a) a measure of distance: 3 miles (Ka.H.); 4 miles (Ka.); sulta_ni_ ko_su (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. ga_vu_ta, gavyu_ta 2 kros'as; 1 kros'a (Skt.)(CDIAL 4150).

1481.Shout: kro_sa shout (VS.); kuru_ voice, word (Pas'.); kosa_ curse (H.)(CDIAL 3611). Image: cry; shout: akruks.at shouts (RV.); kr.c- to bellow (Wg.)(CDIAL 3596). Loud recitation: ghosa loud recitation (OM.)(CDIAL 4528). ghosab to proclaim, declare (Mth.); gho_sai shouts (Pkt.); gho_s.ati calls to (RV.); declares (MBh.)(CDIAL 4529). gho_s.an.e, go_san.e, go_sane speaking loud, making a great noise; gho_s.amata known, noted or distinguished by a great noise or loud sounds (Ka.lex.) ko_cam treatise, book, vocabulary, dictionary (Perun.. Ucaik. 38,167)(Ta.lex.) kro_s'ati cries out (RV.); kos' to abuse, curse, blame (Gypsy); kosna_ to curse (H.); kosn.a_ (P.); akos' to abuse (Gypsy); kos'ta pret. cursed (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3612). kro_s'ana crying (RV.Sus'r.); kosna_ cursing (H.); kosn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 3613). kot.ha invitation (S.); kot.han.u, kot.ha_in.u to send for (S.); kot.ho a call, messenger (S.)(CDIAL 3614). kuko contemptuous term for a coin, rounded piece of tile used by girls in play (G.); kuka_ term of reproach for an adult but still childish fellow (M.) (CDIAL 3207). Image: to speak: ku_r-u to speak, assert, cry out the price, cry aloud, proclaim; ku_r-r-am word (Ta.); cry (as for help)(Ma.); ku_r-r-u utterance, proclamation, word (Ta.); call, cry of men, noise (Ma.); ku_r-uka to speak, proclaim (Ma.); gu_rn.isu, gu_rmisu to murmur or roar (as water of a river or the sea), sound (as a trumpet), roar or bellow, cry aloud (Ka.); gu_runi to hoot (Tu.)(DEDR 1921). krus.t.a crying at (MBh.); abused (BHSk.); weeping (Skt.); kut.t.ha cursed; a curse (Pkt.); krut.t.h sullen and cheerless (WPah.); kosta pret. cursed (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3601). kuruli screech of an owl (A.)[cf. ulu_ka owl (RV.)(CDIAL 2359)]; kululi_ outcry (M.); kurla_van. to lament, cry out (esp. of birds)(L.); kurla_un.a_ to shriek (P.); kurlanu to cry out loud (N.); kuruliya_iba to screech as an owl (A.); kurul.iba_, kurur.iba_ to shout, laugh loudly in glee (Or.)(CDIAL 3347). ululi_ crying aloud (AV.); ulu_li noisy; ulu_lu (ChUp.); cry of rejoicing (Pkt.); uruli a thrilling sound uttered by women in concert on any joyful occasion (A.); ulu, ululu the sound uttered by Hindu women at festivals (B.)(CDIAL 2358). ura (-pp-, -tt-) to become loud (as the voice), become harsh (as a noise), become furious (as the wind), be boisterous (as the sea), become violent (as a controversy); urakka loudly, distinctly; urappu (urappi-) to whoop, shout so as to menace or intimidate, bluster, roar, frighten, cause to sound loudly; urappal whoop, roaring sound; urappu shout, roar, intimidation, bluster, threat; urar-u (urar-i-), urar-r-u (urar-r-i-) to resound, roar; urai (-pp-, -tt-) to sound, speak, tell; n. roar, loud noise, speaking utterance, word, fame; uraiyal narrating (Ta.); urakka, urekka to speak, say; ura, uri word, fame; urammuka, urampuka to grumble, roar (Ma.); uriy-a_t.uka to utter, speak; uriy-a_t.t.am talk; orappuka to vociferate in driving cattle (Ma.); ore to sound, utter, speak, say, relate; n. word; ura, uru crying; uruvan.i crying, crying aloud (Ka.); orad.- (orad.uv-, orat.-) to answer (Kod..); ojji to say (Kor.); u_raka (neg. gerund of *u_r-), uraka, ur-aka silently, quietly, not speaking; merely, simply, vainly; roda noise, outcry, uproar; ro~_ju to pant, gasp; n. panting; ro~_jud.u prattle (Te.); ur- to groan (Pa.); ronja_na_ to grieve, cry (Go.)(DEDR 648).

1482.Image: hunch-back: kubja, kubuja hump-backed, crooked; dwarfish (Ka.); f. kubje (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kucam < kubja dwarf; hump-back (Aka. Ni.); kucan- dwarf (Ta.lex.) cf. ko_ca_ hermaphrodite, eunuch (W.); kho_ja_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) kacan- < khaja lame man; dwarf who walks with an awkward slough (Ta.lex.) cf. kuu the hump on a bull's shoulders (Ma.); kunja_r.i hump of bullock (Go.); koonjaree id. (Go.); gunzam, guzam shoulder (Kond.a)(DEDR 1643).

1483.Barren: kot.t.u barren woman (Ta.); god.d.u id. (Te.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) god.d.u, got.t.u the state of being barren or sterile (Ka.); that of being sapless etc.; a barren cow, etc. (Ka.); kho_d.a an old cow of which the womb is closed; an old tree which bears no longer (Ka.lex.)

1484.To increase: kasaru to increase, rise high, be elated (Te.); kayar-uka to increase, rise, ascend, climb up, embark; kayar-r-uka to increase, raise, put on ship; kayar-r-am increase, steep ascent, attack (Ma.)(DEDR 1255). khazyo_nu to ascend (Sh.); khasun (K.); khothu, khotu pp. ascended (K.); kha_sun to lift up (K.)(CDIAL 3857).

1485.Mountain ebony: ka_canaka the tree bauhinia variegata (Skt.); kam.cana a partic. tree (Pkt.); ka_can a partic. plant (B.); kacan.a bauhinia acuminata and its red flower (Or.)[cf. ka_cana golden (MBh.Mn.); kasun golden (Si.)(CDIAL 3013)]; kam.can.a_ra a partic. kind of tree (Pkt.); ka~_cana_r, ka~_cana_l bauhinia variegata (B.); kacna_r, kacna_l (H.P.); kacna_r b. racemosa (L.); kacna_li b. variegata (S.); ka~_cna_r, ka~_cna_l (G.)(CDIAL 3014). kaciva_l.a, kacava_l.a, kaca_l.a, ka_civa_l.a the mountain ebony, bauhinia variegata (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) a_r, a_ram, a_rai, a_rcci, a_rtti common mountain ebony, bauhinia racemosa (Ta.); a_r bauhinia tree (Ma.); a_re b. racemosa (Ka.); a_re b. spicata (Te.); a_lu, a_luka ebony (Skt.); ka_cana_la, kuda_ra, kuda_la, kudda_la, kovida_ra, ka_nta_ra mountain ebony (Skt.); a_tti common mountain ebony, b. recemosa; holy mountain ebony, b. tomentosa (Ta.); ka_t.t.-a_tti mountain ebony; a_ ebony (Ta.); ka_t.t.atti, atti b. tomentosa, b. parvilora (Ma.); ka_d.atti b. tomentosa (Ka.); ka_t.arti b. tomentosa (Tu.)(DEDR 372). ad.d.a bauhinia racemosa (Te.); ad.a id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 106). ko_mar.xa_ mann a tree, the leaves of which are edible, bauhinia purpurea; ko_m ar.xa_ a vegetable, the leaves of the ko'enar tree (Kur.); komo a delicate vegetable obtained from the kachnar tree (Malt.)(DEDR 2221). cf. ar.xa_ any leguminous plant or eatable greens (Kur.); d.a_ga, d.a_ya edible green vegetables (Pkt.); at.a leaf, betel (Ma.); at.aku greens, edible leaves (Ta.); at.ai leaf, betel leaf, greens (Ta.)(DEDR 59). Bauhinia racemosa: svetakanchan (Skt.); kanchnal (H.); apta (M.); banraj (B.); kosundra (P.); areka (Ta.); banne (Ka.); habitat: North Kanara of Bombay Presidency; Parts used: gum and leaves... Bauhinia retusa: kandla (H.); kural (P.); Part used: gum; Action: emmenagogue; diuretic; Uses: gum is used for sores. Bauhinia tomentosa: phalgu, aswamantaka (Skt.); kachnar (H.); kanchan (B.); asundro (G.); pivala kunchan (M.); adavimandaramu (Te.); kanchini, tiruvatti (Ta.); kattatti (Ma.); kadatti (Ka.); chamel (Kon.); esamaduga (Madras); Habitat: throughout India and Ceylon; Parts used: whole plant-- root, bark, leaves, buds, young flowers, seeds and fruit... Plant is antidysenteric and anthelmintic... Bauhinia variegata: kovidara, kanchanara (Skt.); kacnar (H.); rakta-kanchan (M.); kovidara (G.); daevakanchanamu (Te.); shemmandarai, segapu-munthari (Ta.); chuvanna-mandaram (Ma.); kempu mandara (Ka.); Habitat: sub-Himalayan tract and the forests of India and Burma; Parts used: bark, roots, buds, gum, leaves, seeds and flowers... a brownish gum... Bark is alterative, tonic and astringent... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 183-185).

1486.Rottlera tinctoria: ke_sara rottleria tinctoria; ke_s'a a kind of perfume (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kamala, glanduloe rottleroe, mallotus philippinensis. Part used. The hairs obtained from the capsules. Habitat. Southeastern Asia. The plants abound in Indo-China, India and the Philippines where the ripe capsules are gathered by the natives who remove the hairs... which form a red powder... The drug is shipped from Indo-China and British India to the various markets of the world. Kamala is used as a taenifuge, as an anthelmintic to remove ascaris and threadworms, and as a dyestuff. (Heber, W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, pp. 528-529). Mallotus philippensis, rottlera philippinensis. Kamala is the powder obtained from the glands and hairs which cover the fruit. It is valued as a fast dye and for its medicinal properties... In India... the leaves and bark are used for poulticing cutaneous diseases, and the pounded seeds are applied to wounds... used as an external application in herpes circinnatus. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 521-523). Mallotus philippinensis: rechanaka (Skt.); kamala (H.B.M.); kamila (H.B.); shendri (M.); kamala, kapia (Ta.); sinduri (Te.); tavilu (Ma.); puddum (A.); glands and hair on the fruit: bitter, anthelmintic, cathartic, syptic; rottlerin, isorottlerin, a resin and a wax; habitat: throughout tropical India, along the foot of the Himalayas from Kashmir eastwards, ascending to 5,000 ft. and all over Bengal (GIMP, p.160). Mallotus phillippinensis, croton philippinensis, croton punctatus, croton coccineum, glandulae rottlerae: kapila, kambha, rechanaka (Skt.); Indian kamala, rottlera, monkey face tree, kamala dye (Eng.); kamala, kambila (H.); kamalaguri, kamila (B.); kamila (K.); shendri (M.); kinbila, wars, wurus (Arab.); kamal (P.); seria (Gwalior); kanbela (Pers.); kapile (G.); kunkuma (Te.); kapli, kapila (Ta.); komati (Kon.); vasare, chandahittu (Ka.); Habitat: this small evergreen shrub belonging to the spurge family, is distributed over the whole of India (Orissa, Bengal, Bombay), Ceylon, the East Indies, Malay Archipelago, as far as Australia; Parts used: glands and hair from the capsules or fruits... Preparations: kamala powder... known as an anthelmintic in India for a very long time... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 760-763).

1487.Grewia asiatica: gan:ger grewia betulaefolia, sageretia brandrethaiana, ehretia aspera, lycium europaeum (P.); ga~geru_, ga~geran uraria lagopodioides(used as a drug)(H.); ga~geruwa_ a hill tree with fruit like myrobolans used against phlegm (H.); ga_n.o, ga_n.i_ the shrub and fruit of two species of grewia (S.)(CDIAL 4110). ja_ni-gid.a a small tree, grewia abutifolia; ja_na g. asiatica (Ka.); ja_na g. orbiculata (Te.)(DEDR 2451). For semant. 'phlegm' cf. ka_cu phlegm (U.); ka_s'a (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) keheli the wood of which is used for handles of weapons and tools (Kui); ke_sla mar.a_ grewia tiliaefolia (dha_man tree)(Go.)(DEDR 1997). {Grewia meyeniana: the bast fiber is widely used for tying bundles. It is also made into rope which is used for tethering carabaos (buffalos) and horses, and for making halters. The rope is said to be durable during rainy weather. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.605}. Grewia asiatica, grewia elastica, grewia vestita: dharmana, parusha (Skt.); phalsa (H.S.G.); dhamani, pharsa (H.); shakri, phalsa (B.); phalsi, pharwani (M.); phalna, pharua (P.); jangolat (Sant.); phutiki (Te.); tadachit (Ta.); found throughout India. The small acid fruit, i.e. berries, is one of the phala-traya or fruit-triad of Sanskrit writers and served on the table during hot weather... astringent and are alleviative of vata and kafa... Grewia tiliaefolia: dharmana, dhanurvriksha (Skt.); pharsa, dhamani (H.B.); dheman, karkani (Kon.); olat (Sant.); thada (Ta.); charachi, tharra (Te.); thadsal, dhadsal, butali (Ka.); is found in hot dry forests throughout western India, Burma, Ceylon etc. Bark is emetic... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 593-594).

1488.A bark used for dyeing: kas'e_ru, kas'e_ru_, kas'e_ruka, kase_ruka root of scirpus kysoor (Skt.); kase_ru name of a grass (Pali); kase_ruka name of a plant (Pali); kase_ru, kase_ruya a kind of aquatic bulb (Pkt.); kahero name of a plant, a species of rhus; kaheri_ its bark used for dyeing (S.); kaser root of the grass cyperus tuberosus (P.); kasur edible sweet root of a partic. plant (N.); kaseru the grass scirpus kysoor (B.); kaseru, kasuru, kesuru its root (Or.); kaseru_ scirpus kysoor, edible root of cyperus tuberosus (H.); kas'eru, kas'ed., kas'et., kasai_ the grasses scirpus kysoor and cyperus tuberosus (M.)(CDIAL 2966). cf. kas.a_ya yellowish red, astringent (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 2974). cf. ka_i_ khaki coloured (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2977). paca_y a grass, cyperus rotundus tuberosus (Perumpa_n.. 217); paca_y-k-ko_tai a toy made of paca_y grass (Ain:kur-u. 54); paca_y-p-pa_vai id. (Ilak. vi. 521, Uta_.)(Ta.lex.) cico_t.aka arum orixense (Skt.); se~sor edible tuber of the marsh rush scirpus kysoor (A.)(CDIAL 4793). ks.i_ravalli_ batatus paniculata (Skt.); khi_roli an annual creeper (S.); khi_roli_ the tuberous root cyperus tuberosus (eaten as a vegetable)(S.); khirau~lo, khiramlo a partic. plant used with curry (N.); kirivala the creeping plants morinda umbellata and ichnocarpus frutescens (Si.)(CDIAL 3701). cf. ko_rai cyperus (Ta.); ko_ra cyperus juncifolius (Ma.)(DEDR 2235). ga_n:ge_ya root of scirpus kysoor or of a cyperus (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 4110). The bark of scirpus kysoor: kaheri_ (S.) is used for dyeing (CDIAL 2966). Scirpus grossus = scirpus kysoor: kasheruka (Skt.); keshur (H.B.); kaserudila (P.); gundatiga-gaddi (Te.); gunda-tunga-gaddi (Ta.); is very common in Konkan, principally Salsette... Conjee made of root and tubers with milk is a suitable form of nourishment in diarrhoea and vomiting... Several species of scirpus occur in South India. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1117-1118).

1489.Hemp: gaja_ hemp (from which an intoxicating drink was made)(Skt.); gr.ja name of a plant (Sus'r.); gr.jana tops of hemp chewed to produce inebriation (Skt.); Sumerian GAN.ZI hemp ?; gam.ja hemp, cannabis sativa (Pkt.); ga~_j hemp (Ku.); ga~_jo hemp flower (G.); ga~_ja_ dried hemp (M.); hemp (N.A.B.H.)(CDIAL 3964). kaca_ Indian hemp, cannabis sativa; the dried flowering tops of the cultivated female plants of the Indian hemp (Ta.lex.) Indian brown hemp: ka_cci-k-ki_rai Indian brown hemp (Ta.); ka_ci id. (Te.); ka_ca_, ka_cai kaus, a large and coarse grass (Ta.); ka_ca_ < ghaja_ Indian hemp (U.)(Ta.lex.) ka_ccarakku-na_r, ka_ccurai id. (Ta.); pul.iccai, pul.icca-na_r, pul.iccai-k-ki_rai Indian brown hemp, hibiscus cannabinus (Ta.); pilici (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ka_cai-y-a_t.ai brown-red cloth worn by ascetics < ka_s.a_ya brownish red, dyed reddish (Skt.)(CDIAL 3119). Brown: kas.a_ya yellowish red, astringent (Ya_j.); an astringent juice (S'Br.); kasa_ya reddish yellow, astringent (Pali.Pkt.); keha_ astringent (A.); kaha turmeric, saffron (Si.); kasa_va reddish yellow, astringent (Pali); kas.ara monk's yellow robe (NiDoc.); > ka_s.a_r (Tocharian.A.); kas.a_r (B.); kr'z'kh (Sogdian.Iranian); kr'z, kz'ry (Uigur); kasa_ro of astringent taste (S.)(CDIAL 2974). kasa_ro astringent flavour (S.)(CDIAL 2976). kas.a_yita reddened (Skt.); ka_sa_yita stained (Pali); kasa_ia red-yellow (Pkt.); kasa_iba_ to be dyed red (Or.)(CDIAL 2975). kasa_i red-yellow (Pkt.); kas.a_yin astringent, dyed red (Skt.); ka_i_ khaki coloured (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2977). ka_sa_ya, ka_sa_va yellow (of monk's robe)(Pali); ka_sa_ya dyed reddish brown (Pkt.); kaha yellow (Si.)(CDIAL 3119). cf. ka_cca-k-ki_rai Indian brown hemp (Ta.); ka_ci id. (Te.); ka_yccirakku, ka_ccirakku, ka_ccurai, ka_ccurakkai-na_r, ka_ccarakku-na_r id. (Ta.lex.) ganja cannabis sativa (Santali.lex.) Cannabis sativa: bhanga, ganjika (Skt.); bhang, charas, ganja (H.B.M.); bhang (P.); bhangi (Ta.); ganja (Ta.); tanzai (Te.); plant: used as tonic, intoxicant, stomachic, analgesic, narcotic, sedative and anodyne; naturalized in the sub-Himalayan tract and abundant in wastelands from Punjab eastwards to Bengal and Bihar and extending southwards to Deccan; cultivated for the narcotic drug (GIMP, p.49). cf. maci sunn-hemp, cannabis sativa (Ta.)(DEDR 4637). (Ancient Egyptian s'ms'mt; Coptic epbici; Modern Egyptian Arabic qinnib) 'Hemp is a tall annual shrub with thin leaves. It grows wild and is cultivated in the Soviet Union and Central Europe for the oily seeds and fibre, and in tropical countries for the flowering tops, which produce marijuana, a narcotic drug. The plant was known in Egypt by the middle of the second millennium BC, when the fibres were used for ropes, but the word occurs as early as in the Pyramid Texts, written down a thousand years earlier, also in connection with rope making. Pieces of hemp have recently been found in the tomb of Amenophis IV (Aakhenaten) at el-Amarna; cannabis pollen has been identified on the mummy of Ramesses II. The medicinal use of hemp is known from a number of prescriptions... for the eye... for glaucoma... Assyrians in their herbal medicine used it in fumigation to dispel sorrow or grief.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., pp.82-83)}. bhan:ga hempen cloth (Pali.lex.) Cannabis sativa: cannabis indica, guaza, ganjah, hashish, Indian hemp, marihuana, hanf (Ger.); chanvre (Fr.); parts used: the dried flowering tops of pistillate plants; habitat: Asia (India chiefly north of Calcutta and east of Bombay); uses: cerebral stimulant, analgesic, narcotic, delirifacient; a sedative in migraine, neuralgia, hysteria, cramps of summer diarrhoea. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 275-280). cf. go~_gu, go_nu hibiscus cannabinus (Te.); go_gi deckanee hemp (Ka.)(DEDR 2183).

1490.Night-patrol: kastu < gasht (U.) night-patrol (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) gasti, gastu rounds or a patrol: going the rounds (Ka.); gasta (M.H.); gasti pahari = gasti; gastiyavanu a man going the rounds (Ka.lex.)

1491.Molucca bean: kaja caesalpinia bonducella (H.)(CDIAL 2785). kar..an:ku, kar..al, kar..ar-ci, kar..ar-ka_y, kecca-k-ka_y molucca bean, caesalpinia bonducella, bonduc nut (Ta.); kar..acci, kar..aci, kar..ar-r-i guilandina bonducella (Ma.); gajuga, gajjuga, gajiga, gajjiga, gajige, gajaga, kel.ijika_yE molucca bean, guilandina bonducella (Ka.); gajig, kad.eji, kal.eji molucca bean, guilandina bonducella (Tu.); g(r)acca caesalpinia bonducella, bonduc (Te.)[caesalpinia = guilandina](DEDR 1347). Caesalpinia bonducella = caesalpinia crista: kuberakshi, putikaranja (Skt.); karanju (H.); nata (B.); nata-karanja (B.); sagurghota (M.); gajaga (M.); kazhichikay (Ta.); gachacha-kaya (Te.); kaznchik-kuru (Ma.); seeds: antiperiodic, antipyretic, tonic, febrifuge, in asthma; tender leaves: in disorders of the liver; leaves and seeds: used in external applications for dispersing inflammatory swellings; leaves and bark: emmenagogue, febrifuge, anthelmentic; oil from seeds: emollient, used as embrocation to remove freckles from the face and for stopping discharges from the ear; habitat: throughout the hotter parts of India; common in Bengal and S. India (GIMP, pp.43-44).

1492.Abrus precatorius: kunr.i crab's eye, abrus precatorius (Ta.); guri-ginja seed of abrus precatorius (Te.); guru-guji, kunne, kunni id. (Ka.); guru-guji, gurgoji seed of abrus precatorius (Tu.); kunni, kunne, guru-guji, guru-guje, guru-gaji id. (Ma.); gurija, gurivenda, guri-ginja, guru-ginja id. (Te.)(DEDR 1865). kun-r-i-man.i a standard weight for gold = 4 paddy grains = 2 gr. troy = 1/2 maca_t.i = 1/32 pagoda (Ta.lex.) ku~_c abrus precatorius seed used as a weight (H.); guja_ abrus precatorius (of which the berry was used as a weight)(Sus'r. Pali. Skt.); gui~j a red and white seed with a black tip (Or.); gu~j abrus precatorius (M.); kucika_ id. (Skt.) < Drav. (CDIAL 4176).[The first element gur- in many Drav. forms is prob. a reflex of Ta. kun-r-i, Ma.kunni < kun-r-u (Ta.); kur.u (Ma.) deficiency; kundu (Ka.) to decrease; kun-r-al diminishing, decreasing (Ta.); elision, omission (Grammatical)(Tol. Er..ut. 109). The concept 'decreasing' is directly relatable to the process of seizing a portion of the produce as tax or tribute.] kanta gud.d.a eyeball (Nk.)(DEDR 1680). Image: abrus precatorius: gum.ja_ a plant with a berry (Pkt.); ku~c seed of a. precatorius used as a weight (B.); gu~jd.a_ a ball of wax studded with its seeds (M.)(CDIAL 4176). ghu_ghci_ id. (H.); kucika_, guja_ abrus precatorius (Skt.)(CDIAL 4176). ka_kacica_, ka_kacici_ abrus precatorius (Skt.); ka_aim.ci_ (Pkt.); ka_ica (Or.)(CDIAL 2994).

1493.Image: balance: ghat.a a balance, a pair of scales; ordeal by the balance; the sign of libra of the zodiac; ghat.in id.; a dealer, trader; ghat.aka a weight equal to 42 gunja or raktika (Skt.lex.)

1494.Manager: ghat.a exerting one's self, intently occupied or busy with; ghat.aka, gat.aka id., a manager between parties; a manager in general; strong and powerful; ghat.aka_vayava strengthening (nourishing) component parts (Ka.lex.) cf. kat.akam agent, commissioner, middle-man (Tiv. Tiruppa_. Ava. Pak. 18); a well-versed, proficient person (Ta.lex.) ghat.in a dealer, a trader (Skt.lex.) Synonym: ja_lika the president or governor of a district; ca_l.aka, ja_l.aka a man full of tricks and pranks (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

1495.Image: crab: cf. kat.akam < karkat.akam cancer, a sign of the zodiac (Ta.lex.)

1496.Image: earthen water-vessel: ghat.a an earthen water-vessel; ghat.a-yo_ni born in a water-jar, Agastya; ghat.i, gad.i, gad.e a small water-jar, a period of 24 minutes; the metal sinking cup for measuring time; ghat.i_yantra the rope and bucket of a well, any machine for raising water; ghat.ike, gat.ike, gad.ike, gad.age a water-jar or pot; ghad.a_, gad.a a musical instrument formed of an earthen vessel and beaten as a drum (Ka.lex.) ghat.a, gat.a, gad.a a measure equal to one dro_n.a, or according to others, equal to twenty dro_n.as; gad.a a liquid measure = 40 se_rs (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kad.a_yi (Tadbhava of kat.a_ha) a large, round boiler of copper, bell-metal or iron (Ka.lex.) Synonym: ca_l.ikai < jha_ri_ jar (Ta.lex.)

1497.Image: range of mountains: ghat.t.a = gat.t.a (one of the Tatsamas) a range of mountains, a ghaut (Ka.lex.) cf. kat.akam mountain side, ridge of a hill (Ta.lex.)

1498.Caesaria tomentosa: kat.iccai casearia tomentosa (Ta.); kad.isa tree producing a brown berry that is used as the drop to an ear-ring (Ka.); kad.ise cluytia collina (Te.)(DEDR 1131).

1499.Strobilanthes: kat.t.e strobilanthes, conehead (A_lKu.); ebbukat.t.e strobilanthes, conehead (Ir.A_lKu.); [For ebbu cf. peb a profuse flowering of strobilanthes (Ko.)]; kat. strobilanthes (Ko.); kat. strobilanthes flower (To.); kat.t.e strobilanthes (Ka.)(DEDR 1154).

1500.Image: rays; radiance: katir (-pp-, -tt-) to shine, glow, become manifest, abound, increase; n. ray of light, beam, light; katirppu radiance; katiravan- sun (Ta.); katir ray; katiram beauty, radiance; katiravan sun; katirkka to shoot rays or looks, be radiant; katirmma shining, beaming (Ma.); kadir ray of light, splendour; kadaru, kaduru lustre (Ka.); kaduru to be produced, increase, spread (Te.)(DEDR 1193).

1501.Image: ear of grain: katir ear of grain, spear of grass (Ta.); ear, spike of corn (Ma.); katirkka to shoot into ears; katirppu a sprout, shoot (Ta.); kadir spike of corn, ear (Ka.); kadi ear (of paddy, wheat, etc.)(Kod..); kadiru ear of corn; kadpu ear of ripened corn (Tu.)(DEDR 1194).

1502.Image: swelling: katu a scar (Ta.); gadu, gaduvu a swelling (as from a blow), a tumour; gaddarisu to swell (as the face of limbs); ga_dari weal (Ka.); gadaru a lump (Tu.); kadumu a swelling, bump; kanti excrescence, lump, wen, swelling (Te.)(DEDR 1196). kar-ame an ulcer (Ka.); karamp wound; karampelu scar of a wound (Tu.); karem, karam, kar.am, kar.e_m pl. kar.e_hk boil, wound, sore (Go.); kre_mbu pl. kre_pka sore, wound (Kui)(DEDR 1273).

1503.Treasure; godown: kad.avara a treasure; bayake, nidha_na (Ka.lex.) cf. kad.avara, kasavara gold (Ka.); karbu_ra, karcu_ra gold (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kit.an:ku storehouse, prison; kit.t.an:ki storehouse (Ta.); kit.an.n.u prison; storehouse (godown)(Ma.); gad.an:ga, gad.an:gu, gid.d.an:gi storeroom, godown (Ka.); gad.an:gu id. (Tu.); gid.d.an:gi gaol; storehouse, godown (Te.); cf. godown (Hobson-Jobson)(DEDR 1525). gad.an:ga a godown, a store-room, esp. also a spirit-shop (Ka.); gid.an:gi_ (H.M.)(Ka.lex.) Warehouse: kit.an:ku, kit.t.an:ki < gad.ong (Malay.) storehouse, warehouse (Ta.); gid.d.an:gi (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Bamboo granary: kadike a bamboo granary (Ka.); kadike granary (Tu.); ga_de a large high basket used for storing grain (Te.); gadeya granary (Pa.); gadde a bamboo receptacle for storing paddy (Kuwi)(DEDR 1192). [cf. semantics related to a 'deep' storage space: cf. CDIAL 3981: ga_n underground room (K.)]. ka_nt., ka_nt.i basket (Kon.lex.)

1504.Image: running: kat.uvaral hastening, running fast (Man.i. 17,25)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kad.u greatly, swiftly; kat., kat.t.u, kad.idu id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: speed: kat.i speed, swiftness (Pur-ana_. 9,5); kat.ukkam celerity, speed (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 17,9); kat.u-ttal to move swiftly, run fast (Maturaik. 388); kat.itu speedily, quickly (Civap. Pirapan. Nan-. 31); kat.uku-tal to move fast (Man.i. 14,80); kat.uka speedily (I_t.u, 9,1,10)(Ta.lex.) gad.a, gad.u a term expressing quick motion; gad.agad.a quickly (used of walking, reading, eating etc.); gad.abad.i bustle; gad.abad.isu to move quickly (Ka.lex.) Image: running away: gacce running away; making off (Ka.); gaccha id. (M.); gacce hod.e to run away (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

1505.Image: quickly: kan.n.a speedily, quickly (Ta.); kranna, krannana quickly, rapidly, soon, at once; kraccur-a quickly, soon (Te.)(DEDR 1181). ks.an.a the twinkling of an aye, moment, leisure (MBh.); khan.a moment (Pali.Pkt.); khan moment (B.); ei-khan.i, ei-khin.i now (B.); khan moment (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); khan. (G.); ekenehi at that moment; san.a moment; sanen immediately (Si.)(CDIAL 3642). cat.t.ane suddenly, all at once, quickly, also of sneezing (Ka.Te.); cat.akkane (Ka.); ced.ukkane (Ma.); jhut.akana (M.)(Ka.lex.) cat.cat.t.-en-al onom. expr. signifying haste or hurry; cat.t.-en-al id. (Ja_n-a_. 6,12); tcat.t.ana (Te.); cat.t.ane (Tu.); cat.akku speed, rapidity (I_t.u. 7,4,7); cf. sra_k (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cat.t.a speedily (Tiruva_ca. 30,2); cat.iti < jhat.iti quickly, instantly, at once (Ce_tupu. Ci_taikun.. 20)(Ta.lex.)

1507.Fees, dues; presents; to earn: kat.t.an.am fees, dues (Ta.); kat.t.an.amu id. (Te.); kat.t.al.ai-c-celavu allowance paid to village karnams as compensation for expenses incurred by them in connection with the preparation of the annual accounts; kat.t.al.ai-t-tampira_n- ascetic appointed by the chief of a s'aiva mutt to supervise and administer the temples belonging to the mutt, his main duties being to receive the rents, etc. due to the temples, to make necessary disburse-ments, and to see that the services are properly conducted (Ta.lex.) khat.t.i a number of presents given to a bride by her parents; gain, profit, income; khat.t. mansn.i to consecrate the gifts given to a bride by her parents; khat.t. wachdann.i to spread out the presents to be given to the bride by her parents (P.lex.)

1508.Debt; obligation: karja debt, to incur debt; karja do d.herentaea his debt is large (Santali.lex.) kat.am debt, religious obligations, duty; kat.an- obligation (Kur-al., 218); debt, loan of money, of goods on trust (In-. Na_r-. 12); tax; kat.amai duty, obligation; debt; tax, tribute (Tiva_.)(Ta.); kat.am, kat.an, kat.appu, kat.ama debt, obligation; kat.appukka_ran debtor (Ma.); kor.n. loan, debt (To.); kad.a debt, loan (of money, cloths, books, etc. and eatables)(Ka.); loan, debt (Tu.); karra, kara loan (Go.)(DEDR 1113). To pay: kat.t.u (kat.t.i-) to remit, pay up (Ta.); kat.t.uni to pay government dues (Tu.); kat.t.u to remit, pay up (Ta.); to pay (as tax)(Te.); kat.t.anamu, kat.namu a gift (Te.); qat.e to give (to me or us)(Malt.); kat.t.an.am fees, dues (Ta.); kat.- (kac-) to pay, pay off (Ko.); kot.- (kot.y-) to pay (revenue tax, fine, offering to temple)(To.)(DEDR 1149). Promise, agreement, pledge: karar. to promise, pledge oneself, engage, undertake; karar.kedan ninak dinten emoka I promised to pay within so many days; karar. nama a written promise, or agreement; karam d.ar, karam phul a ceremony in which two young persons of the same sex swear eternal friendship; karaite on account of; kar in exchange for, in return for, on account of; hor.o karte agu akatan t.aka I have undertaken to repay a loan of money in dhan; kare manaokeda he agreed, or accepted the reason as satisfactory (Santali.lex.)

1509.Image: building: kat.t.an.am building (Patir-r-up. 64,7, Urai.)(Ta.); kat.t.an.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

1510.Ceremony: kat.le, kat.lea_ ceremony (used only for pagan ceremony)(Kon.lex.) Principal priest: kat.t.al.ai-k-kuru, kat.t.al.ai-c-cuva_mi principal priest for the time being; kat.t.al.ai-t-tampira_n- ascetic appointed by the chief of a S'aiva mutt to supervise and administer the temples belonging to the mutt, his main duties being to receive the rents, etc., due to the temples, to make necessary disbursements, and to see that the services are properly conducted (Ta.lex.)

1511.Divination: kat.t.u divination, foretelling events (Tol. Po. 115); kat.t.u-k-ke_l.(t.)-ta(t.a)l to consult a diviner (W.); kat.t.a_t.i he who is temporarily possessed of a kind of divination for the purpose of uttering oracles, inferior to can-n-atam (Ta.lex.) kat.t.u-p-pe_ccu fabricated story, ingenious statement, fictitiously made up, concoction; kat.t.urai proverb (Te_va_. 523,8); figurative language, magnifying or deprecating (Kalit. 14); falsehood, fabrication (Te_va_. 1033,10) (Ta.lex.)

1512.Cipher: kat.t.u-k-ku_t.t.u special code for the communication of secret correspondence, cipher; kat.t.u-t.ai-ttal to break the seal as of a letter (Ta.lex.) gud.a_nci bha_s language of secrets (Kon.lex.) cf. gu_d.ha secret (Skt.lex.)

1513.Image: saddle: kat.t.al.ai saddle, harness and other equipment for a horse (Ci_vaka. 767)(Ta.lex.)

1514.Order: kat.t.al.ai regularity, order, rule (I_t.u, 6,5,8)(Ta.lex.) Endowment; community law; measurement: kat.t.al.avu measurement by heaping up, dist. fr. level measuring; kat.t.al.ai-k-kal (Kur-al. 505), kat.t.al.ai standard of measurement; balance, scales, weighing apparatus; libra, a sign of the zodiac; standard weight; touchstone (Kur-al., 986); grade, rank (Patir-r-up. 81,17); regularity, order, rule; limit; community law; code of laws regulating the conduct of individual members of a caste or community (I_t.u. At.aiya. Arum.); treatise which presents within a small compass the fundamental principles of a religion; endowment for some special services in a temple, distinct from one for the general upkeep and maintenance of the institution; provision for the free feeding of a certain number of pilgrims in a temple or mutt; order, command, precept, direction, decree for execution, injunction, warrant (Ta.); kat.t.ad.a id. (Te.); kat.t.al.e id. (Te.); kat.t.al.ai-k-ko_l, kat.t.al.ai-c-cat.t.am regulation, enactment, edict, statute (Ta.); To assign rank of office: kat.t.al.ai-vali to assign rank or grade, as of an office (Patir-r-up. 81,17); kat.t.a_yam force, compulsion, constraint (Ta.); kad.d.a_yamu (Te.); kad.d.a_ya (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Office: kanto_r office (Ta.); < kando_ruva (Si.)(Ta.lex.) Rule; knot: kat.t.al.ai code, rule, regulations, etc. (Ta.); kat.ma.nm caste custom, order given (Ko.); kat. knot, caste custom, case of which decision has been given (Ko.); kat.an. caste custom, individual's habit (Ko.); kat.t.u regulation, rule, bewitching (Ka.); regulation, bond (Tu.); rule or regulation (Te.); kat.t.ad.a, kat.t.ad.i rule, law, fashion, manner (Te.); kat.t.al.e custom, rule (Tu.)(DEDR 1147). Endowment: kat.t.al.ai endowment for some special service in a temple, distinct from one for the general upkeep and maintenance of the institution (R.F.)(Ta.lex.) kat.t.a_yam < kat.t.u + a_ya an ancient tax (I.M.P. Cg. 1095)(Ta.lex.) ka_t.t.a-p-per-u-tal to lay claim (S.I.I. iii,142)(Ta.lex.) khat.t.i kumai earning, gain; suman. di khat.t.i kutte jan. gua dogs strip the miser's earnings; khat.aun. to cause to earn, to cause to acquire; khat.au one who causes another to gain; an earner, a gainer; khat.waun. to cause to earn or acquire; khat.t.u an earner, a gainer; khat.t.n. to earn, to gain, to acquire; khat.t.i earnings, gain; khatta daily account; khat a letter, note; hand-writing; a line, a stroke; katab a writer; kateb < kita_b (Arabic) a book (P.lex.) cf. kat.t.ale, kat.le an established rule, order, or period (Ka.lex.) kat.t.u-t-ta_li the ta_li (marriage badge) among Maravas which, when some impediment arises to prevent the celebration of the marriage, is sent to the bride, whereupon she is brought to the house of her husband the completion of the ceremony being deferred to a subsequent date, sometimes even after children have been born (E.T.); kat.t.u to tie on, adorn with (Kalla_. 10); to tie, bind, fasten, shackle (Na_lat.i, 153); id. (Ka.Te.); id. (Ma.Tu.); to marry (Ta.); kat.t.u-p-pa_t.u compact, social bond, community law (Ta.lex.) Force; compulsion: khat.t.ayati hides (Dha_tup.); khat.un to conceal, overwhelm (K.); khat.un to conquer, gain (S.); khat.t.an. to earn (L.)[cf. kat.t.u to remit, pay up (Ta.); kat.t.an.am fees, dues (Ta.)(DEDR 1149)]; khat.t.n.a_ (P.); khat.a_unu to depute, select (N.); kha_t.iba to work for, undergo as penalty (A.); kha_t.a_ to work, apply (B.); kha_t.iba_ to labour hard, fit in (Or.); khat.na_ to be gained, remain over, be obstructed (H.)[cf. ad.d.i obstruction (Te.)(DEDR 83)]; kha_t.vu~ to gain (G.); khat.n.e~ to come to a stop (M.)(CDIAL 3779). kat.t.a_yam force, compulsion, constraint; certainly (Ta.); certainty, surety (Ma.); kat.t.a_yma certainty (Ma.); kad.d.aya force, compulsion, exaction (Ka.); kad.d.a_yamu id. (Te.)(DEDR 1157).

1515.Cloth for writing on: kad.itamu account-book of cloth covered with a black paste, written on with a kind of soft stone (Te.); kad.itram a skin for writing on, leather for writing on (Skt.); kat.itam canvas on which paste is applied before writing, painting or drawing upon (Ta.)-- neytta ku_r.. varuta-k-kat.itame_ yenavum (Ve_ta_. Cu_.43)(Ta.lex.); kad.ita, kad.ata book made of folded cloth covered with charcoal paste, on which one writes with bal.apa (Ka.); kad.ata cloth covered with a composition of charcoal and gum and used instead of a slate for writing (Tu.)(DEDR App.23). Cotton cloth: kat.hina the cotton cloth supplied annually by the laity to the bhikkhus for the purpose of making robes; kat.hina-ci_vara a k. robe made of k.cloth; kat.hina-dussa the k. cloth; kat.hina-rajju string used to fix the k. cloth on to the frame; kat.hina also a wooden frame used by the bhikkhus in sewing their robes (Pali.lex.) [Possibly, ghat.ita folded, produced; kad.itamu cloth covered with black paste; and kat.hina the hard, firm, stiff cloth supplied to the bhikkhus are cognate etyma referring to the type of cloth produced for writing and account-keeping in a book made of such folded cloth.] Monk's outer garment: samgha_t.i a kind of garment (Sus'r.); monk's waist cloth (Skt.); sangha_t.i_ one of the three garments of a monk (Pali); samgha_d.i_ outer garment (Pkt.); san:gal.a, han:gal.a double cloth of monks (Si.)(CDIAL 12861). Image: wooden frame used by bhikkhus to make robes: kat.hina a wooden frame used by the bhikkhus in sewing their robes; kat.hina man.d.apa a shed in which the bhikkhus stitched their k. cloth into robes; kat.hina-rajju string used to fix the k. cloth onto the frame; kat.hina-dussa the k. cloth; kat.hina-ci_vara a k. robe made of k. cloth; kat.hina-attharan.a the dedication of the k. cloth (Pali.lex.)

1516.Weight used by goldsmiths: kat.le, kat.t.ale an established rule, order, or period; kat.lekallu stones used as weights; kat.le-ci_la a bag for keeping the kat.les and other things; laks.a-gat.t.ale, laks.gat.le by lacs (Ka.); khat.ala_, khat.ale_m have been formed; it is also contracted into kat.le (M.); kat.t.al.e (a strong or firm measure); an order, a command; a rule; rate (Ka.); kat.t.al.ai (Ta.); kat.t.ad.e (Te.)(Ka.lex.) kad.a_ propriety, fitness, exactness (used with regard to eating and weighing), kat.a_kat.a strictness, exactness, accuracy (used with regard to truth, weighing etc.); kad.a_ko_d.u strength, firmness (as that of utensils, the body); kad.a_ko_t.a, kad.i_ko_t.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) kat.t.al.e custom, rule, practice (Tu.lex.)

1517.Image: scales; standard of measurement; weight used by goldsmiths or jewellers : kat.t.u a weight by which anything is weight; kat.le, kat.t.ale, kat.t.al.e a weight (of stone or metal) used by goldsmiths and ciniva_ras, viniva_la, cinnava_la, cinniva_ra (money-changer; a seller of jewels); cf. cinna gold (Ka.); cinnada (Te.); tan:ga (Ta.Ma.); cinna-varada a dealer in gold or money, a shroff; laks.a-gat.t.ale by lacs; kat.le-kallu stones used as weights; kat.le ci_la a bag for keeping the kat.les and other things (Ka.lex.) kat.t.al.ai balance, scales, weighing apparatus (Pin..); libra, a sign of the zodiac (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) kat.t.i a measure of weight = 25 palams; kat.t.i-vara_kan- a gold coin, the vara_kan- (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a.); kat.t.i-p-pon- gold in lump, opp. to pan.i-p-pon- (that which has not been worked on)(Tiv. Tiruppa_. 3, Vya_.); kat.t.i gold, bar of gold (Patir-r-up. 81,16) (Ta.lex.) zad.a_i weight; zad.a_yetso weighty (Kon.lex.) Standard: kat.t.al.ai standard of measurement, standard weight (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

1518.Necklace: kat.t.a_n.i necklace of 5 or 7 strings of gold beads each having a gold coin in the middle (Tu.lex.)

1519.Bracelet: kad.e, kad.eya a ring, a bracelet (Ka.); kad.i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) kat.aka a bracelet of gold; a zone or girdle; the link of a chain (Skt.lex.)

1520.Image: plaited hair: kad.d.an.a a band of plaited hair (Ka.lex.)

1521.To make into small pieces: kat.ra kut.ra to make into small pieces; katrao to slice, to cut into thin slices; helta katraome slice the bamboo shoots across (Ka.lex.) kat.ic small, insignificant, young (Santali.lex.) katla < qatla (Arabic) a piece, a cutting, a fragment; a piece of sweetmeat, a slice (P.lex.)

1522.Image: authority: ket.i authority, power (Cu_t.a_. 9,10); fame, glory (Ira_mana_. Yut. 32); kat.i-nakar fortified town, guarded city (Man.i. 17,22); kat.i-man-ai fortified place (Pu. Ve. 4,61)(Ta.lex.) Image: worship: kat.i worship, homage (Paripa_. 17,3)(Ta.lex.) kat.i-maram tree planted and well-guarded as a symbol of sovereign power or dominion, in ancient times (Patir-r-up. 33,3); kat.i-muracam royal drum, a symbol of sovereign authority, in ancient times (Pu. Ve. 9,202) (Ta.lex.) kat.ikai village assembly (I.M.P.Cg. 129); cf. ghat.a_ (Ta.lex.) Protection: ket.i < gad.i (Te.) hill-fort (Ta.lex.) kat.i protection, safeguard, defence (Pur-ana_. 95,3); worship, homage (Paripa_. 17,3)(Ta.lex.) gad.i a small fort (Ka.Te.); gad.i_, gad.hi_, gad.d.i_ (H.M.); gad.a a small fort, especially a hill-fort; durga (Ka.); gad.a (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) kat.akam fortified wall; Cuttack, the capital of Orissa (Tamir..na_. 223); army (Pin..); troop of elephants (Pin..); cf. ghat.a_ (Skt.); kat.aku < kat.aka protector (S'ri_vacan-a. 245); shield (Ci_vaka. 2218, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) kat.aka-na_tan- commander-in-chief (Pa_rata. Iran.t.a_m. 6)(Ta.lex.) cf. kan.aiyam fort (I_t.u, 5,4,7)(Ta.lex.) kad.itale a leather-shield; kad.itale-ga_r-a a soldier armed with a shield (Ka.lex.) ghat.i an assembly; a troop of elephants arrayed for battle (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

1523.Rule, authority: khatta rule, authority (Pali); ks.atra might, rule (RV.)(CDIAL 3647). Image: to cut: kat.t.n. to cut, to kill, to slaughter; to disjoint, to tear asunder; miti kat.t.n.a to deduct, to discount (P.lex.) kat.t.a_n.i < katna (U.) reaping; kat.t.a_van.i id.; kattari-ttal to cut with scissors, clip, snip, shear (Tiva_.)(Ta.); kattarisu (Ka.) (Ta.lex.) Carver, distributor: ks.ad cut up; ks.attr. carver, distributor (RV.)(CDIAL 3647). ks.ati hurt, injury; wound, damage (Ka.lex.) ks.ata wound, hurt, hit, injured (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kat.t.u_n. < kat.t.u vbl. pple. + un. = living by plunder (Cilap. 16,169)(Ta.lex.) Battle; images: murder; fight: ka_tu (ka_ti-) to kill, murder, cut, divide; n. murder (Ta.); ka_du to war, fight, contend with (Ka.); ka_tal killing, fighting, cutting, breaking (Ta.); ka_duha fighting (Ka.); ka_duni to quarrel, fight, wrestle (Tu.); ka_da_t.a a fight, war, battle (Tu.)(DEDR 1447). gha_ta killing (Mn.Pali); blow, bruise (MBh.); gha_ya wound ( Pkt.)(CDIAL 4460). ka_du to war, fight, contend with (Ka.); ka_duha fighting (Ka.); ka_duni to fight, quarrel, wrestle (Tu.); ka_da_t.a a fight, war, battle (Tu.)(DEDR 1447). ks.atriya ruling (RV.); one of the ruling order (AV.); khattiya member of the Ks.atriya caste; khattiya_ (Pali); khattia, khatti, khattin.i_, khattiya_n.i_ (Pkt.); khattri_, khatra_n.i_ (L.); khattri_ (P.); kti warrior (Si.)(CDIAL 3649). ka_yade, ka_yide a rule, a regulation (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ka_ta_ < kha_ta_ (U.) current account in a person's name; ledger (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) kha_ta_ account book (A.B.Or.Bi.); id. (H.Ku.N.L.); plot of agricultural land (B.); kha_tu~ administrative department, subject, account, account book (G.); kha_te~ (M.); khatta rule, authority (Pali); ks.atra might, rule (RV.); kha_to account book (S.); kha_tta_ (P.)(CDIAL 3648). kha_te an account as appearing on the day-book; the range or sphere (of rule, sway); province, proper office; department (Ka.); kha_te_m. (M.); vidya_-kha_te educational department (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Ruling order; warrior: kattiriyan- ks.atriya, man of the warrior caste, the second of the four castes (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,9,6)(Ta.lex.) ks.atriya ruling (RV.); one of the ruling order (AV.); khattiya member of the Ks.atriya caste (Pali); khattia (Pkt.); khattri_ (L.P.); kati warrior (Si.)(CDIAL 3649). ka_t.avan- title of the Pallava kings (Periyapu. Aiyat.ikal..) (Ta.lex.) [cf. Pali. -khattun [Skt. -kr.tvah] in cmpd. with numerals "times": dvikkhattun, tikkhattun, etc. twice, three times, etc.] [Pali.lex. (Rhys Davids): khattiya [der.fr. khatta = ks.atra having possessions; Skt. ks.atriya] pl.nom. also khattiya_se; a shortened form is khatya; f. khattiya_; khatti_ and khattiyi_. A member of one of the clans of tribes recognised as of Aryan descent. To be such was to belong to the highest social rank. The question of such social divisions in the Buddha's time is discussed in Dialogues I.97-107; and it is there shown that whenever they are referred to in lists the khattiyas always come first. Khattiyo set.t.ho jane tasmin: This favourite verse is put into the mouth of a god; and he adds that whoever is perfect in wisdom and righteousness is the best of all. On the social prestige of the khattiyas see further M II.150-157; II.84; S I.98. Wealth does not come into consideration at all (in the texts dealing with the religious side). Only a very small percentage of the khattiyas were wealthy in the opinion of that time and place. Such are referred to at S I.15. All kings and chieftains were khattiyas D.I.69,136; III.44,46,61; A I.106; III.299; IV.259. Khattiyas are called ra_ja_no Dhp 294, quoted Netti 165. -kula a khattiya clan, a princely house; -parisa_ the assembly of the khattiyas; as one of the four parisa_s (kh-, bra_hman.a-, gahapati-, saman.) at Vin I.227; A II.133; as the first one of the eight (1-4 as above, Catummahara_jika-, Ta_vatinsa-, Ma_ra-, Brahma-) at M I.72 = D III.260; -maha_sa_la the wealthy khattiya; khattiyi_ (f.) a female khattiya, in series bra_hman.i_ kh- vessi_ suddi_ can.d.a_li_ nesa_di_ ven.i_ rathaka_ri_ pukkusi_ A III.229; M II.33.40.] garduge, gaddige throne (Ka.); gadde (Te.); gad.i the royal court where the king transacts business (K.); gaddi_ cushion, royal cushion (H.); ga_di seat, throne (N.); pile, stack, elevated place (B.); heap, mound, seat, throne (Or.); ga_di_ seat of honour, wadded pan on elephant's back (A.)(CDIAL 4053).

1524.Image: ox; young steer; bull which is leader of the herd: ket.i-ma_t.u bullocks stationed as relays in a journey; ket.i < gad.i (U.) stage for relays in travelling (Ta.lex.) kat.i stage in a journey, where the horses or bulls of carriages are changed (Ta.lex.) kat.t.a_kka_li ox or cow suffered to roam at large, or that is not put into the stall by night (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ka_l.e, ka_hale (Tadbhava of kahal.e) a metal horn (trumpet) of a long tapering shape, or of a horn-like shape (Ka.lex.) gad.i young steer; gali id. (Skt.); gali, galia badly trained, wild (of horse, donkey, ox)(Pkt.); gar.i steer, lazy bullock; adj. given to lying down like a bullock at time of work, lazy (B.); gar.i calf, lazy ox, unbroken ox (Or.); galiya_, gariya_r lazy ox (H.); gal.iyo obstinate bullock (G.)(CDIAL 3975). ka_l.ai steer, bull, ox (Ta.); ka_l.a bull, bullock (Ma.); ka.l.e bull which is leader of the herd (Kod..)(DEDR 1502). ka_l.ai-k-kan-r-u, ka_l.an:kan-r-u bull-calf; ka_l.ai-ma_t.u ox, bullock (Ta.lex.) gra_d.u calf (Kui); dra_d.u (pl. d.ra_t.ka) id. (Kui); ga_r.o a bullock or buffalo not trained to the plough (Kui); kit.a_ bull (Ta.)(DEDR 1123). kit.a_ri a cow-calf, heifer (Ma.); kre_pu calf (Te.); gr.a_lu calf (Kond.a); d.a_lu, da_lu calf (Kuwi); kat.a_ri heifer, young cow that has not calved (Ta.); karc kurl cow calf between two and three years (Ko.); xara_s bull, bullock (Br.)(DEDR 1123). ka_l.an.- kan-r-u bull-calf, very young steer (Ta.lex.) Ox: sar.it (pl. sakkil) bullock (Ga.); r.a_nu (pl. r.a_ku) ox; sar.a bull (Kond.a); sr.ahnu ko_d.i bullock (Kuwi); [ko_d.i cow, ox (Kui)(DEDR 2199)]; sanap cowdung (Nk.); carpi (prob. car.pi) id. (Pa.); sar.pi, sad.pi id. (Ga.); sara_pi_, sar.p, sad.a_pi_, sar.ap, har.ap, har.ap, ar.api, har.pi, ar.pi, ar.ap id. (Go.); r.a_pi id. (Kond.a.Pe.Mand..Kuwi); ra_pi id. (Kuwi); [cf. pi_ excrement (Ta.)(DEDR 4210)](DEDR 2402). Image: uncastrated bull: sa_hn. bull (K.); sa_nh bull, stallion, any entire animal (L.); bull, stallion (P.); sa_n.h, sa~_d.h, sa_n.d.ha_ bull, stallion (P.); s.an.d.a bull (Skt.); sa~_r.h bull set at liberty (Bi.Bhoj.); sa~_d.h mischievious bull (G.); s'rand.a bull set at liberty (K.); s'ed. bull (WPah.); sam.d.aka bull set at liberty (As'.); sam.d.a bull, bull set at liberty (Pkt.); san.d.a bull (Wot..); entire bull (Or.); bull set at liberty (Si.); sa_n entire bull (Ku.); sa_r. entire bull (Ku.); sa_no troublesome (of bull or bullock), wandering (Ku.); sa~_r. bull (N.); bull (esp. one set at liberty), stallion (H.); entire bull (B.); sa~_r.e uncastrated (N.); xa~_r entire bull (A.); sa~_d. bull (esp. one set at liberty), stallion (H.); mischievous bull (G.); bull set at liberty (M.); sa_n.d.a entire bull (Or.); sa~_r.u entire bull (Aw.); sa_n.d.a uncastrated (of bull)(MaitrS.); entire bull (Skt.); s.an.d.a entire bull dedicated to S'iva (MBh.); entire bull (Skt.); s.an.d.ha, s'an.d.ha entire bull (Skt.); s.a_n.d.a, s.an.d.ha name of S'iva (Skt.); s.an.d., s'an.d.a, san.d.a castrated (Skt.); san.d.a_ burly, fat; fat ox (H.); s.an.d.a bull (Skt.)(CDIAL 13331) [contaminated with s.an.d.ha-, s.an.d.a-, s'an.d.a-, san.d.a- 'castrated'; san.d.o stout and strong (N.); san.d.ha, san.d.a, san.d.a_ stout and strong (Or.); sa~d.a_ tall and strong (M.)(CDIAL 12270); note also the application of the word for 'entire bull' to the lumbering bull-buffalo](CDIAL 13331). Bullock: sar.it (pl. sakkil) bullock (Ga.); r.a_nu (pl. ra_ku) ox; sar.a bull (Kond.a); sr.ahnu ko_d.i bullock (ko_d.i cow, ox (DEDR 2199)(Kuwi)(DEDR 2402). cf. Oxen and plough: hal. oxen and plough (P.); hal a pair of bullocks (N.)(CDIAL 14000). ha_ pair of bullocks (WPah.)(CDIAL 14066). san.d.hi_ a large and powerful woman (P.); san.d.ha_ male buffalo (P.); s'ann, s'a~_d. barren cow or buffalo (WPah.); san.d.o stout and strong (N.); san.d.ha stout and strong; (of woman) incapable of conception; (of man) too corpulent for sexual relations (Or.); sa~d.a_ tall and strong (M.)(CDIAL 12270). Semen: ca_n.t.u menstrual discharge (Ta.); semen (Ma.); sa~_d.u id. (Te.); sa_n.d.(u) the fluid ejection from the female or the male genital-organ (Kond.a)(DEDR 2447). X Barren; semen: s.an.d.haka eunuch (MBh.); s.an.d.hi_ woman without menstrual periods or breasts (Skt.) [Poss. connexions in Munda... In words containing a sibilant it is impossible to determine whether the NIA. forms with unaspirated retroflex represent an original aspirate or not: the aspirate and unaspirated forms are therefore grouped together (in CDIAL 12270), although the presumption from similar 'defective' word-groups is that the two series existed in this group also...] sar.h obstinate (of animals (L.); sar.a, sar.ha secret consultation (Or.); sad. stump of sugar-cane, etc. (M.); sad.a_ bare, void, standing alone (as a person unmarried)(M.); sallo silly woman (H.); sa~_t.ho stalk, reed (G.); ho_t.hu (of women or animals) barren (t.h?)(K.); sam.d.ha eunuch (Pkt.); hond.u large fat ram (K.); san.d.hi adj. barren (S.); san.d.hi~_ barren (of women and animals)(L.); san.d.h barren (P.); san.d.a eunuch (Si.)(CDIAL 12270).

1525.Contract: ket.i business accomplished; work finished (Cin-e_n. 451)(Ta.lex.) ke_tana business; summons, invitation; a place; a house; ke_ta summons, invitation; place, site (Ka.) (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kat.ittal < ghat. to be successful, consummated (Ta.lex.) kad.a a debt (Ka.Ma.); kat.an-, kacca, kat.amai (Ta.); kad.agol. to contract a debt; to borrow; kad.aga_r-a a debtor (Ka.lex.) Contract; done, artificial: kr.ta done (Skt.); deed (RV.); kr.taka made, artificial (MBh.)(CDIAL 2814; 3420). karta (Tadbhava of kr.ta) a doer, a maker, an agent; a creator; kartr.ka, kartr., kartu a doer, a maker (Ka.lex.) kr.trima made artificially, factitious, artificial (Skt.Ka.); kitama id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kattiru < kartr. agent, doer, maker, creator (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 37)(Ta.lex.) kat.akan- < ghat.aka agent, commissioner, middle-man (Tiv. Tiruppa_. Ava. Pak. 18)(Ta.lex.) kr.ta deed (RV.); kr.taka made, artificial (MBh.); kr.ti doing (S'Br.); kiti work (MIA. form in Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum Vol. II, Part 1); katika_ pact, contract, conversation (Pali); kii action (Pkt.); kray deed, action, (esp.) religious performance (K. ?<kriya_)(CDIAL 3424). Compound perfume: kr.trima-dhu_paka compound perfume (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Produced: gha_t.ita produced (Skt.); ghat.ita connected (Pali); combined (pp. of ghat.eti to join, to connect, to unite < denominative from ghat.a multitude, heap, dense mass, i.e. thiket, cluster; e.g., maccha-ghat.a a swarm of fish (Pali.lex.); ghad.ia- (Pkt.); ghar.i_ folded (H.)(CDIAL 4412). sughat.ita well-arranged (Skt.); sughari neat, clean (of persons)(N.); xughari well-shaped, faultless (A.)(CDIAL 13461). gha_ro bar, rod, crossbeam (N.); ghat.ika_ stick used as a bolt (Pali); gha_d.a friendship (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4458). Labouring: kad.agu, kad.an:gu, kad.ugu to be or become full of desire, eagerness, zeal, strive, make efforts; kad.an:gu desire, wish (Ka.); kad.a~gu, kad.an:gu, kan.a~gu to endeavour, strive; kad.a~ka, kad.an:ka, kan.a~ka striving, attempt (Te.)(DEDR 1111). kat.h labour, pains (H.); kat. pain, work (M.)(CDIAL 2978). ghat.a busy with (Pa_n..); ghat.aka accomplishing (Skt.); ghat.ate_ is busy with (MBh.); happens (Skt.); ghat.ita suitable (As'.); ghad.ai is active (Pkt.); gahd.n.e~ to happen (M.); ghad.ta_ occurs (Konkan.i); ghar.an.u to form, forge (S.); ghar.an. to form by hammering (L.); ghar.na_ to form by hammering (P.); ghar.na_ to form, make (H.); ghar.vu~ to shape, hammer (G.); ghad.n.e~ to form, touch (M.); ghar.awun to form, produce (Wg.); ghar.a_na_ to cause to make (H.)(CDIAL 4407). kat.aian- man of low or degrated caste (Periyapu. Tiruna_l.ai. 11); man of the labouring caste in an agricultural tract; kat.aican- id. (Ja_n-ava_. Ka_ti. 16); kat.aicci low caste woman of the agricultural tract who works in the field; kat.aimai meanest condition (Periyapu. Can.t.e_cura. 50); kat.aiyar men of the lowest rank or status (Kur-al., 395); low caste men of agricultural tracts (Nampiyakap. 23)(Ta.lex.) Labouring caste: kat.aican-, kat.aian- man of low or degraded caste; man of the labouring caste in an agricultural tract; man of mean character (Ta.lex.) kat.aiyar gate-keepers (Perun.. Ucaik. 32,82) (Ta.lex.) Agricultural worker: kat.aicci low caste woman of the agricultural tract who works in the field (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

1526.Old stock: kat.t.ukkit.ai old stock, cloth or other goods lying unsold for a long time (Maturaippatir-. 38); kat.t.ugad.a id. (Te.); kat.t.ukkit.aiyan- id.; kat.t.u bundle, packet, pack, bale; kat.t.u-t-tiraviyam treasure put into a purse; kat.t.i-k-kol.(l.u)-tal to lay up, accumulate, as virtuous deeds; to store up, as sins for future retribution; kat.t.i-c-curut.t.u-tal to pack up one's goods (Pat.t.in-at. Potu. 30)(Ta.lex.)

1527.Accuracy: kacccitam accuracy, correctness, neatness (Ta.); kaccitamu exact, accurate, precise, strict, rigorous (Te.)(DEDR 1095). kacca_-ce_r < kacca_ + (U.) small seer = 8 palam (Ta.lex.) Stamped receipt; branding: kacan-ai a mark with which cattle are branded (J.); kaca_tu registration of marriage; kaca_ter..utu-tal to register a marriage; kacca_ttu stamped receipt book showing the collector's acknowledgment of the instalments of land tax received from the ryot together with an accurage account of the holding of the ryot, of any rough account of money received; voucher; advice list of goods sent by a tradesman to his customer (R.F.; S.I.I. i,78); kai-cca_ttu signature (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 61); id. (Ma.); invoice, list of goods with the vendor's signature; receipt for land tax paid; acknowledgment of payment (Ta.lex.) Agreement, binding: kaccam agreement, binding (Ta.inscr.) cf. ka_ji a muhammadan priest; a judge (Ka.H.M.); ka_ji va_ji (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kacce_ri office for the transaction of any public business, revenue office, court-house (Ta.); kachahri (U.)(Ta.lex.) ka_jiya_r Muhammadan judge; ka_ji < qa_zi_ (U.); ka_ciya_r Muhammadan judge having jurisdiction over all cases of law, religious, moral, civil and criminal (Ta.); ka_jida_r (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Court-house: kacchari_ court-house (S.); kacaihri_ (P.); kacahri (N.); ka_sa_ri (A.); ka_cha_ri (B.); kaceri_ (Or.); kacahari_ (Mth.); kacahari_ (H.); kaceri_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 3429). kacca_-vacu_l [ < kacca_ + (U.)] recovery of what has been embezzled; kacce_ri [ < kachahri (U.)] office for the transaction of any public business, an office of administration, revenue office, court-house; business proceeding in a public office; assembly, as for musical entertainments or other parties for play or pastime; kacce_ri-k-karai-va_cal public office (Ta.lex.)

1534.Feast: kad.aku nice, beautiful, good as a feast (Ka.); kad.aka (M.)(Ka.lex.)

1535.Desire: kad.agu, kad.an:gu to be or become full of desire, ardour, to strike (Ka.lex.)

1536.God: kat.aval. a deity, god (Ka.); kat.aval., kat.avul. (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

1537.Image: to make haste: kad.agu, kad.an:gu, kad.ugu to make haste (Ka.); kad.agu, kad.an:gu, kan.agu, kan.an:ku (Te.); kat.uku (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

1538.Greatness; image: speed: kad.uhuka_r-a a valourous man (Ka.); kad.d.a_ya, kat.t.a_ya force, compulsion; forcing people to pay the price set upon articles, exaction (Ka.Te.); kad.d.a_ya-ga_r-a an outrageous man (Ka.); kad.upu, kad.ipu, kad.uhu firmness etc.; force, vehemence; severity, censoriousness; great valour; pride (Ka.); kad.uppa, kad.uppu (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kat.uppu speed (Ce_tupu. Kanturu. 15)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Hero, courageous man: kad.uve a hero, a courageous man (Tu.lex.) kad.val., kad.vol. god (Kon.lex.) kat.avul. god (Ta.lex.) kat.avunar those who conduct, lead or manage (Cilap. 5,54)(Ta.lex.) cf. kat.aku protector (S'ri_vacan-. 245)(Ta.lex.) kat.umpu relations (Pu_ana_. 68,2)(Ta.lex.) cf. kut.umba family (Skt.lex.)

1539.Image: likeness: kat.uppu similarity, likeness (Tiva_.); kat.uppa part. similar, like, as, used as a particle of comparison (Tol. Po. 290, Urai.) (Ta.lex.)