1792.Image: elephant hook: ko_n.am elephant-hook (Maturaik. 592); curved sword (Ta.lex.)

1794.Sharp point: gunapamu iron crow-bar (Te.); kun.apa- spear (Skt.)(DEDR 2076). konai tip, end (as of a needle); kunai sharp point or tip of a thing (Ta.); kot side (a kotl on that side, i kotl on this side)(Ko.); koty trigger of gun (Ko.); kone extremity, point, tip, end, corner, sprout (Ka.); kotti tip, nipple, joint where flower and stem are joined (Kod..); kona end, extremity, point, tip, summit (Te.); konaka, in: cevi-konaka tip of the ear (Te.); kone point, end, extremity (Tu.); kona pointed end (as of a leaf, etc.)(Kond.a)(DEDR 2174).

1870.Part of a house: ko_n.e an inner apartment or chamber, kitchen (Ka.); a room, apartment (Tu.); ko_nar. (pl. ko_nahk) shed for hens (Go.)(DEDR 2211). ko_n.a part of a house (Pkt.); kon.n.a corner of a house (Pkt.); ko_n.aga corner, part of a house (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3504). go.n. corner of room (Ko.); ko_n.i corner of a piazza (Ma.)(DEDR 2209).

1871. Image: corner: go_n.t.u, go_t.u, got.t.a a corner (Ka.lex.) Image: bend, groin: kuj corner (P.); ko~s bend, fold (A.); ku~cki groin (B.); ku~_c hough (of a quadruped), tendon Achilles (H.)(CDIAL 3223). khuca hock, hollow behind ankle, tendon Achilles (S.)(CDIAL 3891). kusi to bend, to stoop (Ka.)(DEDR 1636). cf. ko_su, ko_cu state of being crooked or curved (Ka.)(DEDR 2186). Elbow: kapho_n.i elbow; kaphan.i, kuphan.i_ (Skt.); kaphaud.a (prob.) elbow (AV.); kuhin.i_, kuhan.i_, kahalla (Pkt.); kuni (Gypsy); khon, khoni upper part of forearm (K.); ko_hn.i_, ku_hn.i_, ko_hni_, ku_hni_ elbow (P.); khunni (WPah.); kuhan.o (Ku.); kuhunu, kuinu (N.); kanui (B.); kahun.i (Or.); kehuni_ (Bi.Mth.); ke_huni_ a sheaf as large as can be carried between the arms (Mth.); kohni_, kuhni_, kehuni_ elbow (H.); kon.i_ (G.); with ba_hu-: bekhin. upper arm (Tor.); bakhu_ni elbow; bakhun.i (Sh.); baku_ni (D..)[influenced by: ba_hu arm (Skt.)]; kuci_, ko_nci, kunji_, xunjuk (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2757). kangan.i elbow; kongon.i crooked; go_nkot.i bent, crooked; kongoni arm (Kuwi); konga, kohonga elbow (Nk.)(DEDR 2032). kunagay, kunamkay, kunankay elbow; koondakaiyoo elbow (Go.); kot.u bent, curved (Ta.)(DEDR 2054a). t.ongre elbow, knee (Nk.); t.ongi elbow (Go.)(DEDR 2983). konki curved hoe (Nk.); kokr. to contract (arm, etc.)(Pa.)(DEDR 2032). ku_rpara elbow (Skt.); kaphaud.a (prob.) elbow (AV.); kappara elbow (Pali.); kuppara, koppara id. (Pkt.)[> kopparam (Ta.); kopparamu (Te.)]; kopriyu~ id. (G.); kopar, ko~par id. (M.); kopra_ corner (M.); khoppo_ru elbow (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 3413). Crooked: kongoni, kongor.i, kengeri, kingir.i, kengoni bent, crooked, curved, zigzag (Kui); gon(g)- to be bent (Pe.); kokr.-, kokr.ayt- to contract (arm, etc.)(Pa.); kon-gori concave; kokro bent, curly (Malt.)(DEDR 2032). ghit.t.ha humpbacked (Pkt.); ghid.d.a_ crooked-legged (L.)(CDIAL 4473). cf. ki_t.u disregard, scorn (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 1609). ku_t.a false, untrue (Mn.)(CDIAL 3395). ko_n. crookedness, angle, crossness of disposition (Ta.); ko_n.u (ko_n.i-) to be bent, curved, be crooked, deviate, be perverse; ko_n.am curve, curvature, scimitar, angle, corner; ko_n.al obliquity, hump, crookedness (as of mind); ko_n.an- humpback; ko_n.ai curvature, crookedness, cruelty; kun.aku (kun.aki-) to become bent, crooked; kun.akku (kun.akki-) to bent; n. crookedness, curvature, crossness; kun.alai bending of the body through bashfulness; kun.ukku (kun.ukki-) to bend (Ta.); ko_n. corner, angle; ko_n.uka to bend; ko_n.am corner; ko_n.i corner of a piazza (Ma.); go.n. corner of room (Ko.); ko_n., ko_n.a, ko_n.e, ko_na angle, corner (Ka.); ko_n.a, ko_n. id.; ko_n:gan.n.u a squint eye (Tu.); ko_n.amu angle, corner; ko_na corner (Te.); ko_ne corner (Ga.); ko_na id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2209). Corner: ko_n.a corner, angle (MBh.Pali); corner (Pkt.); ko_n.aga corner (Pkt.); kuni_ corner (Sh.); ku_n (K.); kon., kon.a_, ku_n., ku_n.a_ (P.); ko_n.i, ku_n.a_ (WPah.); kun.o, pl. kwa_n.a_, ku~r.~ (Ku.); kunu (N.); kon. (A.B.); kon.a_ (B.); kon.a, kun.a (Or.); kon, koni_, kona_-koni_ ploughing from corner to corner (Bi.); koniya_ low wall round three sides of winnowing basket (Mth.); ko_n corner (Bhoj.); kona_, kon (H.); kon. in: ka_t.-khun. = -kon. right angle)(G.); kon. (M.); kona (Si.); kon.n.a corner of a house (Pkt.); kon corner (M.); konna_, konya_ cornerstone (M.)(CDIAL 3504). kona_t.h a piece of bamboo or wood bound on the hips of a roof to close the thatch at each corner (B.)(CDIAL 3505). konsi_, konsiya_ ploughing from corner to corner (Bi.); konsiya_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 3506). cf. kun.i defective in having a bent or withered arm or a hand without fingers (MBh.)[For 'withered' cf. khun.t.a withered branch (Or.)(CDIAL 3899)]; kun.a bent, lame (Pali); kun.i deformed or paralysed (of arms)(Pali); maimed of arm (Pkt.); kun.ia id (Pkt.); kun.i_ hollow or light grain of pulse (M.); ku_n.i having a withered arm (B.); kun.a_ru having a withered arm (RV.)(CDIAL 3259). khun corner (Phal.); khu~_t. corner, direction (H.); khu~t. corner, side (P.); khu~_t.ri_ angle (G.); kun.d.a corner (S.); ku~_t. corner, side (P.)(CDIAL 3898). khu~_j, khu~_ja_ corner (P.); kho~j, kho~c, khu~_j glen, ravine, depression between two hills (N.); khu~_c tendon Achilles (H.); kho~c corner (G.)(CDIAL 3930). ku~r.~ corner (P.)(CDIAL 3504). ko.n.d. a bend (Ko.); go_t.u angle, corner, point of the compass, edge (Ka.); go_n.t.u corner, etc., point of the compass (Ka.); ko_n.t.u angle, corner, crook (Tu.); ko_nt.a corner (Nk.Go.); ko_t.i corner (Ta.Ma.); ko_t.u id. (Ma.); ko_d.i corner (Tu.); ko~_t.a corner (Pa.)(DEDR 2054-b). khun corner (Phal.); khu~_t. corner, direction (H.); khu~t. corner, side (P.); khu~_t.r.i_ angle (G.); khun. corner (G.); kun.d.a corner (S.); ku~_t. corner, side (P.)(CDIAL 3898). kuni angle (Te.)(DEDR 1927). kon-ai tip, end (as of a needle)(Ta.); kone extremity, tip, end, corner, sprout (Ka.); point, end, extremity (Tu.); kona end, extremity, point, tip (Te.); pointed end (Kond.a)(DEDR 2174). kundau a corner (Santali.lex.) kone:n corner, a bend as in e-kone-jo:l bend of a river (Sora < ko:na (Skt.) go.n. corner of room (Ko.); ko_n.i corner of a piazza (Ma.)(DEDR 2209).

1795.Giving; a gift: kod.age, kod.ige a gift, a grant; ko_d.u giving; a gift (Ka.); kud.u, kod.u to give; to present, to bestow, to grant; to allow (Ka.); kot.u (Ta.); kod.u (Ma.); kor (Tu.) (Ka.lex.) kod.u to give; kod.u gid.u id.; kod.uvike, kod.uha giving; kod.u kol.l.uvadu giving and receiving (Ka.lex.) koppo, kappo, kapya_ tribute (Kon.lex.) Gift; what is given to a servant above his yearly pay: kot.u to give (to 3rd person)(Tol. Col. 30); bring forth, allow; kot.ai giving away as a gift (Ta.lex.) kot.uppu giving (Ta.); kot.ukka to give (to 3rd person)(Ma.); kor.- (kot.-) to give to 3rd person (Ko.); kwir.- (kwir.t-) id. (To.); kwar. fine levied by assembly (Tol.); kod.u, kud.u (kot.t.-) to give, allow, emit (as a sound); ko_d.u, kod.u, kod.uvike, kod.uha giving; kod.age, kod.ige gift, grant; kod.isu, kud.isu to cause to give (Ka.); kod.i- (kod.ip-, kod.it-) to give to 3rd person (Kod..); korpini to give; korpa_vuni to cause to give, give through another; korpa_t.a giving; koru, kol.u to give, grant (Tu.); kur.pi_ what is given to a servant above his yearly pay (?Kur.)(DEDR 2053).

1796. Tribute: kon.t.i tribute (Pur-ana_. 51,6)(Ta.); kot.t.aja id. (Ka.); ot.t.aja id.; od.ukku to spend; to pay taxes (Ma.); ot.t.a, vat.t.a discount etc. (Ka.Tu.); bat.t.a_ exchange (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kur-ai-tal to decrease, abate (Kantapu. Me_ru. 28); ku_r-ai cloth, clothes, garment (Na_lat.i. 281)(Ta.); ku_r-a id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kor-e clothes, raiment especially also that which is given on a wedding day (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1797.Trader: ko_mt.i man of the trader caste; fem. ko_mt.igra (Nk.); ko_mat.t.i Telugu-speaking merchant caste (Ta.); a tribe of Lingaite merchants, e.g. in Wayana_d.u (Ma.); ko_mat.i, ko_mat.iga a Vaisya shopkeeper (Ka.); a class of merchants (Tu.)(DEDR 2220). ko_mat.i a miser (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ko_t.hi a granary; a factory; a bank; a warehouse (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kon.t.u-vilai money-lending business, trade etc. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

1798.To marry; to bring; to buy; tribute; getting possession of property: kon.t.i < kol.- getting possession of, securing as property (Maturaik. 583); food (Maturaik. 137); tribute (Pur-ana_. 51,6); kot.t.aja id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kol. (kol.v-, kon.t.-) to seize, receive, buy, acquire, marry, abduct; kol.vo_n- buyer; kol.l.unar buyers; kon.t.al receiving; ko_l. taking, receiving, accepting, holding, opinion; ko_l.i receiver; ko_t.al taking, buying (Ta.); kol.ka (kon.t.-; imper. ko_) to hold, contain, receive, acquire, marry; kol.l.ikka to make to hold or receive; ko_l. holding, taking, purchase (Ma.); kol.-/kon.- (kod.-) to marry (wife), buy (cattle), begin (funeral)(Ko.); kol., kol.u, kol.l.u (kon.d.-; present relative ppl. komba; medieval and mod. imper. ko_) to seize, take away, take accept, obtain, buy, undertake: aux. with refl. meaning; kol., kol.uha, kol.l.uvike seizing, preying, taking; kol.i holding, seizure; kol.isu, kol.l.isu to cause to seize; kol.isuvike causing to seize (Ka.); kol.l.- (kovv-, kon.d.-) to take; kon.d.a- (kon.d.ap-, ko.nd-), ko.nda- (ko.ndap-, ko.nd-) to bring (Kod..); kon.uni (kon.d.-) to take, hold, keep; aux. with refl. meaning (Tu.); konu (kon.t-) to buy, take, hold, take up, care for (advice), consider, suppose: aux. with refl. meaning (in this use, imper. ko_); (inscr.) kon.- to take (kon.iri); olupu to cause to do, prompt, set on; be agreeable, (ideas) suggest themselves, be inclined; ko_lu vb.n. of konu; taking, plunder (Te.); kor-/ko- (kott-; imper. kota, kotar) to bring (imper. ko-, kor give!)(Kol.)(DEDR 2151).

1799.Image: to turn away the face: kon.d.e kose to turn away the face sullenly (Santali); kon.d.e kose bar.aedae she turns her head to one side (Santali.lex.)

1800.Images: small hand-drum; masquerade dance: ko_t.an:ki a small hand-drum; soothsayer who uses the ut.ukku drum; ko_t.a_n:ki id., ko_t.an:ki-pa_r to consult a ko_t.an:ki, soothsayer (Ta.lex.)

1801.Dance: ko_t.an:ki a masquerade dance (Ta.lex.) ku_ttu dance, dramatic performance, strange event; ku_ttan- dancer, actor; ku_tti female actor, dancer, prostitute (Ta.); ku_ttu dance, drama; ku_tti, ku_tticci harlot; ku_ttan dancer (Ma.); ku.t Tamil dance, unusual thing (To.); ku_tu dance, play (Ka.)(DEDR 1890). Image: masquerade dance: kor-r-i a masquerade dance (Cilap. 3,13, Urai); kot.t.amu id. (Te.); roaring, trumpeting (Ta.); mischievousness; got.t.u id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Masquerade dance: konti mask, masquerade dance (Cilap. 3,13, Urai.); gon.d.ili id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) kontal.am a kind of dance (Ta.); gon.d.li dancing (Te.); gaun.d.al a kind of dancing (Skt.)(DEDR 2099). Image: step: kodom a step, an ambling trot, taught by natives of India to their horses; mit kodom ohon senlena I will not go one step; mit kodomteko calak kana they are keeping step; kon.d.on to hang the head, to trot as a horse (Santali.lex.) Image: roaming: kodoe kodoe roaming, wandering about (Santali.lex.) Image: hopping: kun.t.an.ike hopping; kun.t.an.ike-y-a_t.a hop-scotch (Ka.M.); kun.i to move in a hopping, skipping or jumping manner; to dance (Ka.); kuni (Ta.Ma.); guni (Te.); dancing; kun.i-nad.ike a vaulting or capering, pace (Ka.); kun.uku to play, to sport (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1802.Beautiful woman: go_ti woman (Te.); ko_tai woman (Man.i. Pati. 81)(Ta.)(DEDR 2214).

1803.Image: garland: ko_tai garland of flowers, worn by women (Perun.. Ucaik. 48,77); garland of pearls (Patir-r-up. 88,31)(Ta.lex.) To wind round: gund.ap to wind round (Nk.); gund. to bend; gund.pip- (gund.pit-) to make bend (Pa.)(DEDR 1691). cf. grantha knot (TS.)(CDIAL 4350). cf. granthana stringing together (Pa_n.. Va_rtt.)(CDIAL 4351). Assembly; bunch: kud- bundle (Ko.); bundle of firewood or grass (To.)(DEDR 1866). jhutto bundle of 4 or 6 maize cobs (N.); jhuttinu to get entangled (N.)(CDIAL 5402). kottu assembly, family; bunch, cluster (Ta.); kontu gathering, multitude, cluster of flowers (Ta.); kottu cluster (Ma.Ka.); kottan.i, kottar..i multitude, flock, assemblage; gondan.i, gondan.a, gondal.a mass, assemblage, concourse of people, crowd; gondan.isu to assemble; gutti, gudi bunch or cluster of fruits or flowers (Ka.); gutti, gudi, gottu bunch, cluster (Te.); kunti_ = majari_; gutti- garland (Pkt.)(DEDR 2092). gutthi_ bundle (L.); guthli_ bundle, bag (P.); guthn.a_ to be tightly plaited or strung (P.); guthnu to wind round, to thread (N.); gu_th round ball of cotton (H.); gu_thna_ to plait; guthna_ to be entwined (H.); guthai strings, threads (OMarw.); gu_th knot (M.); gotanava_ to plait, knit, attach (Si.); gutti tying (Pkt.); gutan.u to plait, string tightly (S.); gutta_ tied, strung (L.); gutt plait of hair hanging down woman's back (L.); guttn.u_ to plait the hair (WPah.); gutnu to wind round, thread (N.); gutna_ to be threaded or strung or entwined (H.); gundan. to plait (L.); gundun. to braid hair (L.); gundn.a_ to weave, plait (WPah.); gundhan. to plait (L.); gundhan.u (S.); gu_thnu to string, thread (N.); gunthiba_ to string together (Or.); gu~_thna_ to plait (h.); gu~thvu~ to knit, plait (G.); gum.dhai plaits, strings (Pkt.); gumhan. to plait loosely (L.); gunnhn.a_ to braid, knead (P.); gu~_dhna_ to plait, mix, knead (H.); ghun.ai plaits (OMarw.)(CDIAL 4205). gon.a_ to work cotton with the hands, knead (P.)(CDIAL 4205). kuttuni a cloth woven with a silk warp and cotton woof (G.Tj.D. 118) (Ta.< khutani (M.) (Ta. lex.) gus.pita tangled mass (RV.); guphati strings together (Pa_n. Ka_s'.); guttha strung (Pkt.); gu_th round ball of cotton (H.); gotanava_ to plait, knit, attach (Si.); gumthan.a stringing (Pkt.); guthai strings, threads (OMarw.); gu~thnu to string, thread (flowers, etc.)(N.); go_n.t. to tie (Ash.)(CDIAL 4205). cf. kottu bunch, cluster (Ta.)(DEDR 2092). Tethering rope: gu_r.ha_ tethering rope for cattle (Bi.) gur.hi_ rope round roots of tree during transportation, rope (in general)(Bi.) (CDIAL 4224). kut.t.ai, kut.t.ai-maram stocks (Ta.); kai-k-kut.t.ai handcuffs (Ta.); kut.y, koy-kut.y id. (To.)(DEDR 1674). Knot, loop; tight: kutai loop, running knot, button or clasp of a bracelet (Ta.); kuta loop (as of bowstring); kutam tightness, elasticity (Ta.); kude a fetter; gutta closeness, tightness (Ka.); gudi to tie the feet or legs (Ka.); gudi, gudige, guduge, gudupu rope for the feet used in climbing palm trees (Ka.); guddi a clog tied to the neck of cattle (Ka.); kudiyu to become tight or close (as a knot)(Te.); guttamu fitting, tight (as a bracelet)(Te.); kuducu to hold tight, tie tight (Te.); gudi-gar.r.a a clog tied to the neck of cattle (Ta.); gud.am button (Pa.); gudam id. (Go.)(DEDR 1713).

1804.Image: order, regularity, row: go_ti order, regularity, row (Te.); ko_ta id. (Ma.); ko_tai id. (Ta.lex.) Line: ko_t.u (in cpds. ko_t.t.u-) bank of stream or pool, line (Ta.); ko_d.u (Te.)(DEDR 2200).

1805.Image: mountain: ko_t.u mountain: kumari-k-ko_t.um (Cilap. 11,20); high ground, elevation (Maturaik. 286)(Ta.lex.)

1806.Thick grove: ku_t.al thick grove, commonly of palmyras (Iraku. Te_n-uvan. 70)(Ta.lex.) Sprouts round stump of a tree: jho_d.a dead tree (Pkt.); jhor.o bundle (Ku.); jhun.d. sprouts round stump of a tree (P.); jhor.i_ bunch, cluster (Ku.); jhun.t.a bush (Skt.); jho_d.a betel-nut tree (Skt.)(CDIAL 5400). Image: a bower: kud.an:ga a bower, an arbour; kut.un:gaka an arbour formed by creeping plants; a creeper winding round a tree (Skt.lex.)

1807.Image: body: kut.i the body (Skt.lex.)

1808.Image;Chequer-board; Woman's striped cloth: got.h, got.i chequer or chess or dice board (K.)(CDIAL 4271). ko_t.a_n:ki woman's striped cloth; kan.t.a_n:ki a kind of chequered cloth worn by women (Ta.lex.) Image: square: kus.t.a a square, as in tables of calculation (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) khon.d. a square; khon.d.pe aulaukeda you have mixed up the matter, i.e. you have mixed up the lines dividing one square from another (Santali. lex.)

1809.Image: seed, kernel: kot.t.ai seed of any kind not enclosed in chaff or husk, nut, stone, kernel; testicles (Ta.); kot.t.a kernel of fruit, particularly of coconut, castor-oil seed (Ma.); kur-at.t.a kernel (Ma.); got.t.a mango stone (Ka.); koran.d.i id. (Kod..); kot.t.e kernel of a nut (Tu.); kernel of fruit (Ka.)(DEDR 2069). got.t.u kernel of a nut as coconut, almond, castor-oil seed (Tu.); gor.va stone of fruit (Kol.); got.a_ any seed which forms inside a fruit or shell (Kur.)(DEDR 2069). got. a fruit, whole piece (A.); gut.i small ball, seed, kernel (A.); got.a_ seed, bean, whole (B.); seed (Bi.); whole, undivided (Or.); got.i small ball, cocoon (Or.); got.a numerative particle (Mth.); got.o kernel of coconut (G.)(CDIAL 4271).

1810.Image: double; double handful: ko_nd.o_ on all fours, bent double (Br.)(DEDR 2054-a). Image: the whole (of four units): got.a the whole; got.a or.ak the whole house; got.anak a whole one; got.an., got.ec, got.en used with numerals, also with 2,3, and 4, when reduplicated; mo~r.e got.ec hor.ko tahe~kana there were five people; babar got.an. two each; pepe got.n. three each; popon got.ah four each; gel got.en do bape saphalena? are got.ec doko okaena? Were there not ten of you cleansed? where are the nine? gunti to count, to number; mase guntibonme come, count us (Santali.lex.) Image: both handsful: kot.anna, kut.anna both handsful (Ma.); kod.ande double handful (with two hands together)(Kod..); kon.idili a handful (Te.); kor.op a double handful; kor.k mend.u a full double handful; kor.ov double handful; folded hands; kor.v ar- to worship with folded hands; kar.we_ ki_a_na_ to worship (Go.); gro_d.a the scoop or receptacle made by holding both hands together (Kui); gr.o'li, gro'leka, glo'oli, glo'oleka, gro'leka, gorli a double handful; gro'li cupped hands (Kuwi)(DEDR 2046). cf. kod.ame a double basket for catching fish (Ka.)(DEDR 2047). Image: one unit, counted in fours: kod.a, kor.a in arithmetic one; a shell, a mite; 4 kor.a or kod.a = 1 gan.d.a = 4; kod.a ke kod.ae agukedea he made him pay up all; gon.d.a a set of 4; bar gon.d.a poesa two annas (Santali.lex.)

1811.Image: number marked one: kut.ci the number marked one that is turned upwards in a game played with cowries, etc. (Ta.); gud.d.i (Te.); cf. kus.t.i (Skt.); kut.t.i additional coin or seed which a player gets in excess of another in games like palla_n:kur..i; additional sum claimed or allowed in respect of a debt, as a share of the net profit; kut.t.i-po_t.utal to put down a forfeited seed or coin in gambling as stakes to be played for; kut.t.i-vai, kut.t.i-y-at.ittal id. (Ta.); cf. gud.d.i- + (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: dice: got. piece on a chequer board (P.); got.o piece (N.); got.i chess piece (N.); got.a_ globular, solid (A.); gut.i small ball, seed, kernel (A.); got.a_ seed, bean, whole (B.); whole, undivided (Or.); got.i small ball, cocoon; got.a_li small round piece of chalk (Or.); got.a_ seed (Bi.); got.a numerative particle (Mth.); got. piece at chess etc. (H.); got.i_ lump of silver, clot of blood (G.); got.a_ roundish stone; got.i_ marble (M.); got.ul.a_ spherical (M.); gut.iya lump, ball (Si.)(CDIAL 4271). cf. kot.t.ai nut, kernel (Ta.); gor-at.e (Ka.)(CDIAL 4271). cf. gud.a globe, ball (MBh.); guria_ bead (Mth.); guriya_ glass bead; gula_ ball, bullet (H.); guri minute particle (A.); gulia_ ball (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4181). Numerative particle; ball: got.a numerative particle (Mth.); got. piece on a chequer board (P.); piece at chess etc. (H.); cloud of smoke (G.); got.o piece (N.); got.i chess piece (N.); got.t.a_ globular, solid (A.); got.a_li small round piece of chalk (Or.); got.u large ball of tobacco ready for hookah (S.); got.h, dat. got.i chequer or chess or dice board (K.); got.t.i_ a marble (M.); got.ula_ spherical (M.); gut.iya lump, ball (Si.)(CDIAL 4271). cf. gurta a mark, sign, token, recognition; gottu, gontu knowledge, understanding, acquaintance (Tu.); gottu knowledge (Kor.); gott(i) un.d.i/ille it is/it is not known (dat. to a person); gott(i) a.g- to become known (dat. to a person); gotti ma.d.- to know; gurti a mark (Kod..); gur-utu, gur-atu, gur-uta, gurta, gurtu, guttu, gottu a mark, sign; acquaintance (Ka.)(DEDR 1847). cf. kur-i (-pp-, -tt-) to design, intend, aim at; n. mark, sign, motive (Ta.)(DEDR 1847). Numeration; heap: ot.t.u total, the whole (Tu.); a total (Te.); glue, union (Ma.); join, put together, pile up; cohesion of a lump of clay, union, total, heap, pile (Ka.); od.d.u a mass, heap (Ka.); ot.t.al adhesion (Ta.Ma.); od.d.a a pile, heap, army (Ka.)(DEDR 958). ko_t.t.ilakkam (Ta.); ko_t.ilakka (Te.) remainder, in division (arithmetic); magic square (Ta.lex.)

1812.Instalment: kist, kisti an instalment; kisti bandi, kisti bondi an agreement to pay by instalments; kisti khilapi failure to pay instalment when due; mit kisti Agha~r.re one instalment in Aghan, the eighth Hindu month (November-December); kistikatinme make it payable by instalments (Santali.lex.) kot.t.ha_sa instalment; bha_ga (Pali.lex.)

1814.Image: Indian file: giroe goroe, goyor goyor, gior goyor following each other in a line, trailing; gonto goto, gonto gotor, gonto goyo, gonto goyor one after another, Indian file (Santali.lex.)

1815.Image: ancestor: ko_nturu ancestor in the fifth line, great-grand-father's grandfather, pu_t.t.an-ukku-p-pa_t.t.an- (Ta.lex.) ko_ttiram family, lineage (Perun.. Makata. 6,185); go_tra (Skt.); ko_tam (Me_ruman. 332)(Ka.lex.)

1816. Images: nest: kut.ampai nest (Kalla_. Kan.apatituti, Vari, 26)(Ta.lex.) gu~r. nest (N.)(CDIAL 3264). ghol nest (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 4525). kut.ava nest (Pali)(CDIAL 3227). Image: snare: kut.ava, ku_t.ava a nest (Pali.lex.) kaut.a snared; kaut.akika, kaut.ika one whose business is to catch birds etc. in traps; kaut.ika relating to a snare or trap; ku_t.a a trap for catching deer (Skt.lex.) Image: cage for fowls: kutturi weel for catching fish, basket-shaped cage for fowls (Tu.); kuriyan, kuriccan a matbag, light basket of pandanus leaves; kurutti basket for catching fish (Ma.); kurve small basket (Ka.); basket (Tu.); ku_ri a kind of weel for catching fish (Tu.)(DEDR 1779). Image: trap: ku_t.a-yantra a snare; a trap (Ka.lex.) ku_t.u nest, bird-cage, coop, hive, cocoon, shell of a testaceous animal; pen, sty, kennel, cage for animals (Ci_vaka. 2328); receptacle for grain (Poruna. 182); hollow, globular or prismatical case, as a balloon, as the lamp of a light-house; dome, cupola; covering or top of a cart (Ta.); basket for catching fish (Ta.); gu_d.u (Te.Ka.Tu.); gu_r.u a fowl-shelter fixed on the top of a floor in a house (Kond.a); kut.a_ppu plaited coop for fowls, etc. (Ta.)(DEDR 1883; DEDR 1884). Dome: cf. pako_l.am vault of the heavens (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. bha-go_la (Skt.); cf. pagoda_ dome (Skt.) Image: nest, birdcage: gu_r.u a fowl-shelter fixed on the top of a floor in a house (Kond.a); kir.enji cage, cage-trap (Kui); ku_da cage (made of bamboo)(Kuwi); ku_d.a hen-coop, pig-sty; cage (Kuwi); kut.gle the hoop or spring of a kind of mouse-trap (Malt.); ku_t.u nest, birdcage, coop, hive, pen, sty, kennel, receptacle for grain, dome; cage (Ta.); ku_t.a_ppu plaited coop for fowls, etc.; ku_n.t.u hen-coop (Ta.); gu.r. (obl. gu.t.-) nest, large hollow (Ko.); ku.d. nest (To.); kwa.t.-a.s- calf-shed; cowshed of Badaga village (To.); gu_d.u nest, dove-cot, fowl-house, lodging, trap for catching wild animals, cage, pit of the stomach, hollow in bones (Ka.); nest, cocoon, bird-cage, hollow (Tu.); gu.d.i nest, pig-pen, fowl-house (Kod..); gu~_d.u nest, cage, niche in the wall, sheath (Te.); gu_d.a nest, wooden trap (Pa.); gu_d.e, gu_d.u nest (Ga.); gu_d.a_ bird's nest; ku_t.ini a stone-fall trap for birds; goda_ nest (Go.)(DEDR 1883). ku_rai sloping roof, small hut (Ta.); ku_ra hut, thatch (Ma.)(DEDR 1904). gu_d. a kind of basket (Tu.); ku_l.e, ku_l.i basket for fishing (Ka.); gu_la_ basket (Go.); ku_t.ai basket made of rattan, ola, or bamboo, palm-leaf rain-covering; ku_t.u basket for catching fish (Ta.); ku_t.a id. (Ma.); gulla big basket, basket (Go.); ku.r. winnowing basket, a winnowing-basket of grain (Ko.); gu_d.e, gu_d.a basket, basket used as a bucket (Ka.); ku.t.e basket (Kod..); gu_d.a triangular basket used as a bucket, flower-basket, mat hood or head-covering against rain (Te.)(DEDR 1884). Nest: ku_t.a trap for catching deer (R.); ku_d.a trap, snare (Pkt.); kor.ko trap for catching birds (S.)(CDIAL 3397). ku_t.u nest, birdcage (Ta.); gu~_d.u nest, cage, sheath (Te.); gu_d.a nest, wooden trap (Pa.); ki_r.enji cage, cage-trap (Kui); kut.gle the hoop or spring of a kind of mouse-trap (Malt.)(DEDR 1883). ku_t.ai basket made of rattan, ola or bamboo (Ta.); ku_t.a id. (Ma.); gu_d.a (Te.); gu_d.e (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) khaca a cage (Santali.lex.) Winnow: hat.ak a sieve to winnow; hat.ak hosec to winnow rice; hosec to sift; kod.or to sift with a hat.ak (Santali.lex.) kor..i (-pp-, -tt-) to sift in a winnowing fan (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 29)(Ta.lex.); kor..ippu sifting, prosperity; kor..iyal-arici ill-cleaned rice (Perumpa_n.. 275, Urai.); kor..i- to test, closely examine details of evidence, facts etc. (Par..a. 10) (Ta.lex.) kor..ikka to sift, winnow; kor..i sifting (Ma.); kod- (kody-) to separate broken from whole grains (by winnowing with several side-to-side movements followed by sharp upward movement, the process being repeatedly done)(Ko.); kwic- to separate grain from stones, etc. with winnowing basket; kwas't bran (To.); [cf. kasa, kasavu rubbish, sweepings, weed (Ka.)(DEDR 1088)]; koccu to shake flour, as it comes from the mill, on a small fan so as to separate any impurites (Ka.); ko~_d.u to separate the broken from unbroken grain, or the smaller particles from dhall or split pulse, etc. (Te.); gonjip- (gonjipt-) to winnow with side-to-side motion (Kol.); gonjip- id. (Nk.); kossa_na_, ko_ssa_na_ to sift in a supa [s'u_rpa (Skt.)] with a sideways motion; koss- to sift with sideways motion; kussitta_na_, kossa_ana_ to winnow; go_enje_ kia_na_ to swing grain in a flat basket with a sideways sweep; kur.hutta_na_ to shake roasted mahua in a basket to get rid of the fibrous part (Go.); kor.s- (-t-) to winnow (Kond.a); kr.ohpa (kr.oht-) id., sift (Kui); korssali to winnow; kloh'nai to sift; kr.oh- (kr.ost-), kr.o_h- to winnow (Kuwi)(DEDR 2144). To strike, tear away: skus. strike, tear away; skus.t.va_ having removed (A_pS'r.); nis.ko_s.anaka serving as a toothpick (Skt.); khos, khos', khus to wipe off (Gypsy); kho_s.u_m I dig (Phal.); khasun to pluck hair from the privities (K.); khohan.u to pluck out (S.); khohan. to seize (L.); khohn.a_ to take away by force (P.); khu_hn.a_ to pluck (WPah.); khosn.o (Ku.); khosnu to snatch away (N.); khosa_, khusa_ to thrust a thing in among a number of others (B.); khosiba_ to push in, tuck in (Or.); khosna_ to pluck out (H.); khosvu~ to force in (G.); khosn.e~ (M.); khutho plucked out (S.); khuttha_-puttha_ stripped, bereft; khutthn.a_ to be torn out (P.); khusan.u to be plucked out, be worn away (S.); khussan. to be seized (L.); khussn.a_ to be taken away by force (P.); khusn.a_ to seize (WPah.); khuskanu to be loosened, slip away (N.); khusot.n.a_ to tear off (P.); khum.s'e_ti curses (Pali)(CDIAL 13661). kod.apu, kod.avu, kod.ahu to scatter or throw in different directions with the hand; to shake or toss about; to shake (Ka.lex.) cf. kulun:ku (kulun:ki-) to be shaken, agitated, tremble, shudder (Ta.)(DEDR 1806).

1817.Image: double-basket: kod.ame, kod.ambe a double basket for catching fish (Ka.); kod.ama a basket in which fish are snared (Te.)(DEDR 2047). Image: strainer made of wickerwork; twisting: kot.t.am small ola basket; kot.t.u basket made of rattan (Ta.); kot.t.a basket (Ma.)(DEDR 2060). kud.upu a strainer made of wicker-work (Tu.); kut.alai long cylindrical basket of palmleaf, ring of wickerwork for a well, cover of palmleaf carried as protection against rain (Ta.); kud.pu small basket (Ka.); kud.p- (kud.t-) to weave baskets, etc. out of bamboo (Pa.); kurp- (kurt-) to plait split bamboos to make baskets (Ga.); kurut.p- (kurut.t-), kurut.k- (kurut.t-), kurud.p- to spin thread (Ga.); kud.na_ to plait, braid, twist (Kur.)(DEDR 1653). kut.t.a_n--kat.t.utal to put a cover over fruits for protection from birds; kut.t.a_n- little ola case, basket or sheath, of various forms and uses (Ta.lex.)

1818.Curry: kodilu curry (Ka.)(DEDR 2085). koddelu, koddyelu a highly seasoned soup of vegetables with or without pulse (Tu.lex.) kad.i, kad.ye curry (Kon.lex.)

1818f.Image: fish: kucika a kind of fish like an eel; kun~cika_ (Skt.); kui_ a fish (S.); ku~ciya_ an eel-like fish (B.)(CDIAL 3217). kon~cu a fish (Ta.); kon~can, kon~cu prawn, lobster (Ma.); ko_nto shrimp, prawn (Kond.a); goskori shrimp (Kuwi)(DEDR 2044).

1961.Image: tree; tree for making rope: cf. gudal a kind of tree (Pa.); kudal a tree the bark of which is used for making rope (Go.); kudali a forest tree from the bark of which the ancients made clothes (Kui)(DEDR 1701). at.al gon.d.al an assortment of cloth (Santali.lex.) Tree: kut.a, kut.i, kut.ha, kut.hi tree (Skt.); kut.aka a kind of tree (Kaus'.); kud.a tree (Pkt.); kur.a_ tree (Pas'.); kar.ek tree, oak (Pas'.); ko_r. stick (Par.)(CDIAL 3228). kucam < ku-ja tree (Ta.lex.) at.-kur.a forest tree (Santali.lex.)

1818e.To bend; to contract, shrink: ko_ccuka to be contracted, shudder (Ma.); ko_ccal contraction, cramp (Ma.); ko.j (leg or arm) becomes asleep (Ko.)(DEDR 1287). gun~ju to contract, to pull, move convulsively (as muscles, hands or legs)(Ka.); gunju to pull, drag; ginju-konu to writhe, move the limbs convulsively; gijagija violently, convulsively; n. violent convulsion (Te.); gijagija-gonu, gijagijala_d.u to be in convulsions (Te.); kuy- to pull, drag (Nk.); gunja_na_ to drag (Go.); gunj- to pull (Go.); gunjeri a_ to be giddy, weak (Kuwi); xunzing, xinzing, xizzing, xuzzing to move in a sitting crouching position (Br.)(DEDR 1648). cf. khaz (Pers.). sam.ko_cayati contracts (MBh.); koin.u to draw in (the belly), save (S.)(CDIAL 3488). kuc bend, contract (Skt.); kucati contracts (Dha_tup.); kucna_ to be contracted (H.)(CDIAL 3221). kun~j corner (P.); ko~s bend, fold (A.); ku~cki groin (B.); kun~ca crimped border of cloth (Or.); kun~ca_ pleated (Or.); ku_~c hough (of a quadruped), tendon Achilles (H.)(CDIAL 3223). khuca hock, hollow behind ankle, tendon Achilles (S.)(CDIAL 3891). khu_~j, khu_~ja_ corner (P.); kho~j, kho~c, khu_~j glen, ravine, depression between two hills (N.); khu_~c tendon Achilles (H.); kho~c corner (G.)(CDIAL 3930). ko_su, ko_cu state of being crooked or curved, deviation from squareness (as that of torn cloth, of a wall etc.)(Ka.); ko_su oblique (Tu.Te.); not at right angles, obliqueness (Te.)(DEDR 2186).

2032.Image: corner: koca an angle, corner, a dark nook, in contrast to kona an angle, an angular corner (Mu.); gosha (Persian); kocca_, koccha_ (Oraon); kocan a nook or corner in the forest, i.e. the upper end of a narrow valley (Mu.lex.)

1818g.Image; entangled: go_ju to entangle, be entangled; n. state of being entangled (Ka.); gun~ju to entangle; n. state of being entangled (Ka.); go_~ju, go_~ja_d.u to pester, harass, trouble (Te.)(DEDR 2190).

1818h.Image; bowl: koja_ cup (Kol.); kho_ja_ bowl (Go.)(DEDR 2191).

1818j.Image; monkey: ko_nza red-faced monkey (Kond.a); ko_nja black-faced monkey (Kui); ko_nja monkey (small)(Kuwi); konja ape (Kuwi); konzu monkey; ko_nja black-faced monkey (Kuwi)(DEDR 2194).

1866. Image: monkey: kut.ha_ru an ape, a monkey (Skt.lex.) cf. kut.t.am smallness, young of a monkey (Ta.)(DEDR 1670).Image: red-faced monkey: ko_d.aga monkey, ape (Ka.); ko.d.e monkey (Kod..); ko_t.aram monkey (Ta.); ko_d.a (small) monkey (Ir.); ku_d.ag monkey (Ir.); ko.r.n. small monkey (Ko.); kwi.r.n. monkey (To.); kod.aji, kod.aja, kod.angu baboon (Tu.)(DEDR 2196). cf. a_jane_ya Hanuman (R. Skt.lex.) ko_nza red-faced monkey (Kond.a); ko_nja black-faced monkey (Kui.Kuwi); ko_nja monkey (small)(Kuwi); konja ape (Kuwi); konzu monkey (Kuwi)(DEDR 2194). Image: red-faced monkey: kut.t.am the young of a monkey (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,5,7)(Ta.lex.) kut.t.i young of a dog, pig, tiger, etc. (Tol. Po. 565); young of any animal (Ma.); gud.d.i id. (Ka.lex.)(DEDR 1670). cf. a_jane_ya Hanuman (R.). ko_ti an ape, monkey (Ka.Tu.Te.); ko_nti (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Black-faced monkey: kon.t.ai-mucu a large black-faced monkey (Ta.); kon.d.amucu id. (Te.); kon.d.amusud.i (Ka.); kon.t.ai-mucur-u (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: ridicule: ko_t.t.a_ ridicule, mockery (Ta.); kho_t.a_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) ko_t.t.i pleasantry, jest, joke, mimicry (Ta.Ma.); ko_d.igamu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ko_t.t.i, go_s.t.hi grimaces, pranks (Ta.); ko_d.an:gi id. (Ka.); ko_d.igamu, ko_d.i ridicule (Te.)(DEDR 2206). ko_d.an:gi an apish man: a buffoon, a harlequin (Ka.Ma.); ko_n.an:gi (Ta.Te.); kod.an:gai (Tu.); ko_t.t.a_lai, kun.a_mbu, ko_ppu, ko_ran.i (Ta.); ko_d.iga, ko_d.ige (Te.); ko_parat.t.a, ko_dra_t.a, ko_ma_l.a jesting, buffoonery (Ma.); ko_d.an:gitana buffoonery (Ka.); ko_n.an:gitana (Te.)(Ka.lex.) got.h secret and confidential talk (G.); got.hiyo friend (G.); got.h conversation, tale (M.)(CDIAL 4339).

1921.Canoe: kuntira_-t-to_n.i canoe in the Maldives constructed wholly from the coconut tree (W.); kuntira_, kuntira_-t-ti_vu Maldive islands (W.)(Ta.lex.) Stern of a vessel: kunta_ stern of a vessel (Ta.); kunda (U.)(Ta.lex.)

1818k.Image; spider: ko.j spider (Ko.); ko_ca (Te.); kova~se (Ga.); go_nzru, go_nzur(i), go_ndru (Kond.a); ko_ndru (Pe.); ko_chuti, ko_cudi, ko_cot.i (Kuwi)(DEDR 2195).

1914.Small: kondra small, little (Tu.); koddi a little, a few, a trifle (Te.); gonde, gondeka some (Kui)(DEDR 2101).

1818m.Image; dog: kucuru dog (Wg.); kucur, kicir (Bshk.); kucur, kicir (Wot.); kunj_, kiji_ (Tor.); ku~sar, kucara (Mai.); kucuro, kusuro (Chil.); kusur (Gau.); kucuro_ (Sv.); kucuro (Phal.); kucuru, kucu_r puppy (K.)(CDIAL 3219).

1818a.Crowbar; slaughter!: xo_~sna_ (xu_~syas) to pulverize by pounding with a heavy instrument which beats vertically, harass (Kur.); qose to pound, smash (Malt.); xo_shking, xo_shing to rub; tene xo_shking to consort with, interface with (Br.)(DEDR 2189). kuc to dig (Wg.Kt.); kuce (Pr.); ko_c (Dm.); ke_ci (Pas.); ko_c (Kal.); kucalna_ to bruise, crush; kucra_ broken to pieces (P.); kocn.o to penetrate (Ku.); kocnu to thrust, force into; koca_rnu to thrust; kucelnu to stir up (N.); kocna_, ku_cna_, ko~cna_, ku_~cna_ to pierce, rip (H.); kocvu~ to pierce (G.); kocru~ having holes (G.); kuca_y to scratch oneself (Dm.); kuceya_ itch (Pas.); kuch to scratch (Kal.); kuce_i (Kho.); kuca (Gaw.)(CDIAL 3489). ku_ci, ku_cu (pl. ku_ckul) crowbar (Pa.); gusi id. (Ga.); ku_nj (pl.ku_sk) hoe, shouldered digging stick; ku_nj crowbar; ku_ysa_ id., ploughshare (Go.)(DEDR 1879). kho~sriba to loosen earth with a pointed instrument (A.); kuca to scratch (Gaw.); khu~cai pierces (OG.); khoc, khoca_ stab (H.); khoc dint (M.); khu~ca_na to prick (B.); khu~ci inserting new thatch in old (B.); khu~cr.a_na to stir a fire (B.); khun~ciba_ to poke; khun~ca peg (Or.); khu~cvu~ to pierce; khu~c indentation (G.); kho~c cut, tear (P.); kho~siba to stab (A.); kho~cna_ to thrust; kho~ca_ stab; kho~ci_ stuffing; kho~ca_lna_ to scratch; kho~car. an officious person (H.); kho~cn.e~, kho~carn.e~ to thrust in; kho~cal.n.e~ to dint (H.)(CDIAL 3890). cf. ko_car ancient warriors (Ta.); cf. kus.a_n.a ancient warriors (Skt.) kucinu, kuccinu to be crushed (N.); kuca_na_ to cut into bits (B.); kuciba_ to thrust (Or.); kuceiba_ to cut into pieces (Or.); kucna_ to be crumpled (H.)(CDIAL 3221). kus. strike; kus.ati gnaws (BhP.); kus.n.a_ti tears asunder (Skt.); kus to beat, tear, pluck out, scalp, flay (Gypsy); kuxto pl. imper. slaughter! (Tir.); kusik to kill (Kho.); kuhun to tear up, clear by digging (K.); kuhan.u to hill (S.); kuhan. (L.); kuhn.a_ (P.);kusa_na to rough-hew timber (B.); kut.ho slaughtered (S.); kut.t.ha_ (L.); killed (of an animal by Moslems, contemptuously used by Sikhs)(P.); kut.t.han. to slaughter (L.); kut.t.hn.a_ to be killed, to kill (P.)(CDIAL 3369). kus.yate_ is struck; kus.yati is torn (Pa_n.); kusan.u to be killed (S.); kussan. (L.); kusa slaughter (S.)(CDIAL 3375). ko_sik to slaughter (Kho.); ko_han., ko_vun. (L.)(CDIAL 3544). kosu slaughter (S.); kosar.u fit for slaughter (S.); ko_s animal fit only for killing (L.)(CDIAL 3553).skus. tear away, strike (Skt.); khos, khos, khus to wipe off (Gypsy); kho_s.u_m I dig (Phal.); khasun to pluck hair from the privaties (K.); khohan.u to pluck out (S.); khohan. to seize (L.); khohn.a_ to take away by force (P.); khu_hn.a_ to pluck (WPah.); khosn.o (Ku.); khosnu to snatch away (N.); khosa_, khusa_ to thrust a thing in among a number of others (B.); khosiba_ to push in, tuck in (Or.); khosna_ to pluck out (H.); khosvu~ to force in (G.); khosn.e~ (M.); khutho plucked out (S.); khuttha_-puttha_ striped (P.); khutthn.a_ to be torn out (P.); khusan.u to be plucked out, be worn away (S.); khussan. to be seized (L.); khussn.a_ to be taken away by force (P.); khusn.a_ to seize (WPah.); khuskanu to be loosened, slip away (N.); khusot.n.a_ to tear off (P.); khum.se_ti curses (Pali)(CDIAL 13661).

1818b.Image: to trample: kucaln.a_ to trample on (P.); kuclanu, kulcanu (N.); kucalna_ (H.)(CDIAL 3221).

1818d.Image;to copulate: khuccn.a_ to be enjoyed sexually (P.); khucnu~ to copulate (WPah.)(CDIAL 3890).

1818c.Image: creeper: kunj place overgrown with plants or creepers, arbour (MBh.); hollow, glen, dell (Pali); ku~jr.a_ caste of vegetable sellers (H.); ku~jr.o vegetable seller, gardener (G.)(CDIAL 3226).

1819.Image: pillar, post: ku_ca, ku_cu post or pillar in a wall for the support of beams; gujju queen-post, strut (Ka.); kuru~ju queen-post (Te.); gunje pillar, post (Go.); ku_ccam small-sized post used in building (Ta.); gujji, gujju pole or post fixed in water (Tu.); ku_camu, gunja pillar, post; gujju one of the small vertical posts by means of which short beams are supported upon longer ones in the construction of a shelving roof (Te.); gu_nji post (Go.); gu_j (pl. gu_cku) pillar, post (Pe.)(DEDR 1878). gud.i_ pole set up at a festivity (G.)(CDIAL 4189).

1819b.Image: snare: kujji noose, snare; khujji a noose for snaring quails (Go.); kuji a snare for birds (Kui); kuja a snare (Kuwi)(DEDR 1642).

1819c.Image: hump on bullock: kunja_r.i hump of bullock (Go.); koonjaree id. (Go.); gunzam, guzam shoulder (Kond.a); kuu the hump on a bull's shoulders (Ma.)(DEDR 1643).

1819a.Image: capital of a pillar: kautakam capital of a pillar, wooden piece attached to a wall supporting the main beam of a house (Na_.)(Ta.); kautam cornice (Tinn.)(Ta.); kavutakam parapet wall (Ta.); kavucikam lamp-stand (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Stump of a tree: kavantam stump of a tree (Ta.); kavan-am forest, jungle (Tiva_.); cf. gahana dense (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) ka_vu, ka_m.vu, ka_mu (Tadbhava of kad.amba, kadamba, karamba, kalamba) a stalk, a culm, a stem; a handle (Ka.); ka_mpu (Ta.); kar..ambu, ka_du, ka_mpu (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) ka_van--maram favourite tree of a royal dynasty, as the object of special care by its kings (Pur-ana_. 23, Urai.)(Ta.); ka_van--mullai theme of extolling the king's rule (Pu. Ve. 8,24)(Ta.lex.) Branch of tree: kavat.u branch of a tree (Ci_vaka. 1389); kavat.a (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: pillar, post: kappu small pilar, post; support, refuge (S'ri_vacan-. 244)(Ta.lex.) kha_mbo, kha_mbea_ pillar; support; cf. Lat. palus (Kon.lex.) Image: a pole: gud.i a pole erected on the new year's day before the house-door; the festival connected with it (Ka.); gud.hi_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: post: khun.t.i a post; khep khun.t.i the cannon pin of a cart fixing it to the axle; kham khun.t.i the centre post supporting a roof, members of one's family; khap khun.t.i a post with a notch on the top to receive a beam; tor.e khun.t.i the posts fixed at the four corners of a funeral pyre to keep the firewood in position; pir.hi khun.t.i a post with a wooden cushion on the top to receive a beam; khun.t.au to tie or bind to a post, to give information; khun.t.ut a stump of a tree left in the ground (Santali.lex.) kut.aka, kut.ara the post round which the string of the churning-stick passes (Skt.lex.) cf. kunda a pillar of bricks etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 1723). Image: pillar of bricks; peg, post: khun.t.i a pillar (Santali.lex.) kunda a pillar of bricks (Ka.); pillar, post (Tu.Te.); block, log (Malt.); kantu pillar, post (?Ta.)(DEDR 1723). khun.d., khun.d.a_ peg, stump (P.); khun.d. tethering post or peg (WPah.); khu~t.a_ post; khu~t.i_ peg (A.); khu~t.a_, khu~t.i_ wooden post, stake, pin, wedge (B.); kun.d.a peg for fastening yoke to plough-pole (Dm.); khut.i_ peg (Ku.); khu_t.a_ peg, stump (H.); khut.i_ peg (Marw.); khu~_t.a_, khu~_t.i_ stake, peg (P.); khumt.a, khom.t.aya peg, post (Pkt.); khut.a_ id. (Mth.M.); khu~t.a_ stump, log (H.); khun.t.a pillar, post (Or.); khu_t.ra_ posts about one foot high rising from body of cart (Bi.); khu~_t. landmark (G.); khu~t.o, khu~t.i_ peg; khu~t.u~ stump; khu~t.iyu~ upright support in frame of wagon; khu~_t.ru~ half-burnt piece of fuel (G.); khu~_t. stump of tree, pile in river, grume on teat; khu~t.a_ stake; khu~t.al.n.e~ to dibble (M.)(CDIAL 3893). khun.d.h stump, old man (P.); khun.t.a withered branch (Or.)(CDIAL 3899). [Possible connexion with *khut.t.a peg, post (CDIAL 3893) with kh- sanskritized as ks.-] ks.o_d.a post to which an elephant is fastened (Skt.)(CDIAL 3748). kho_d.a boundary post (Pkt.); kho_d.i_ big piece of wood, wooden bolt (Pkt.); tam.tukkho_d.i_ peg in a loom (Pkt.); khoriyo land on which trees have been cut and burnt crops sown (< *having stumps?)(N.); khor. piece of wood (H.); large block of wood (G.); khor.ka_ stump of a tree (H.); khor.a_ stocks, handcuffs (H.); khod. trunk or stump of a tree (M.); khod.a_ stocks for criminals (M.)(CDIAL 3748). kut.t.a a knotty log (Ma.); gut.l. stake to which animal is tied, any large wooden peg (Ko.); kut.y a stump (To.); kut.t.u stem of a tree which remains after cutting it (Ka.); kut.t.e log (Kod..); kut.t.i stake, peg, stump (Tu.); kut.t.a, gut.t.a, gut.a stump of tree (Go.); kut.a stump of tree (Pe.); gu_t.a, gut.a id. (Kui); gut.t.u pl. gut.ka id. (Kuwi); kud.uli log (Kuwi)(DEDR 1676). kut.ara the post round which the rope of the churning stick passes (Skt.lex.) Pin: khu~t.a_ pin, wedge (B.); khut.nu to stitch (N.); khu~t.i_ wooden pin (M.)(CDIAL 3893). kut.ai-y-a_n.i pin or nail with round head, opp. to cat.ai-y-a_n.i (Ta.); kut.aya_n.i (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) bhaj khun.t.i wooden pin (Santali.lex.) Peg, stake: gu_n.t.a, gun.t.i, gun.t.e, gu_n.t.ige peg, pin, stake (Tu.); gun.t.a, gu_n.t.a, ku_t.a peg, plug (Ka.); gud.ida id., stumpy post (Ka.); gu.t.a peg, post (Kod..); gu_t.amu stake, post, peg (Tu.); gud.ide hinge, peg, pivot (Te.); kut.t.a pillar, post (Go.)(DBIA 104). kor.i pegs in the ground in two rows on which the thread is passed back and forth in preparing the warp (S.); kori_ division, branch, class (H.)(CDIAL 3497). Chopping block: sa~_kat.an., sa~_kat.n.e~ chopping block (M.); sakut.an. (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12826). sa~_kat.n.e~ to chip up (M.)(CDIAL 12827). kut.t.ai, kut.t.ai-maram stocks (Ta.); kai-k-kut.t.ai handcuffs (Ta.); kut.y, koy-kut.y id. (To.); kut.t.u stem of a tree which remains after cutting it (Ka.); kut.t.e log (Kod..); kut.t.i stake, peg, stump (Tu.); kut.t.a, gut.t.a, gut.a stump of tree (Pe.); gu_t.a, gut.a id. (Kui); gut.t.u (pl. gut.ka) id., stubble of paddy; kud.uli log (Kuwi); gut.t.am, gut.t.a, gut.a_ peg (Go.)(DEDR 1674). Image: saddle-bow; tree-trunk: khod. tree-trunk, saddle-bow; khod.i_ stake, pillar (M.); khod. piece of wood (G.H.); khor.an.u to drive in (stake)(S.); khor.a_ to drive in (H.); khod.i si_ma_-ka_s.t.ham; tantukkhod.i_ va_yakatantropakarn.am (OM.); ks.od.a stake for tying elephants (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 324). Image: stick; arrow: kot.t.e small stick, match, arrow (Kol.); small stick (Nk.); kot.t.e_yla_ stick (Go.)(DEDR 2071). pin gol.em golden churnstick, with reference to the ti. dairy (To.); kol.ag churnstick (word used at ti. dairy and at kog fol.y dairy of To.r-o.r- clan; ordinary word is mod (To.); kol.em id. (To.)(DEDR 1370). Image: stumps of trees: gut.t.u (pl. gut.ka) stump of tree, stubble of paddy (Kuwi); kud.uli log (Kuwi);[cf. qodali spade (Malt.)(DEDR 1722)]; kut.y a stump (To.); kut.t.u stem of a tree which remains after cutting it (Ka.Coorg); kut.t.e log (Kod..); kut.t.i stake, peg, stump (Tu.); kut.t.a a knotty log (Ma.); kut.t.a, gut.t.a, gut.a stump of tree (Go.); kut.t.a stump of tree, stubble (Go.); kuta jowari stubble (Go.); kut.a stump of tree (Pe.); gu_t.a, gut.a stump of tree (Kui); [cf. CDIAL 3893 khut.t.a, khun.t.a; CDIAL 3748 ks.o_d.a. These forms "exhibit considerable convergence and present many problems of immediate relationship" (DEDR 1676)]. kur-r-i-maram plank placed in a house parallel to a wall as a support for utensils (Ta.lex.) Log of wood: kur-at.u small block or clump of wood, plank (Ta.); piece of wood (Ma.); kuran.a log, stump, gnarled wood (Ma.); kuran.t.i board used as a seat, stump (Ma.); kuran.t.u log (Ma.); kud. club, bar of door, log (Ko.); kud. large stick, club (To.); kor-ad.u trunk of a lopped tree, stump, piece of wood (Ka.Te.); kodan.t.i log of wood (Ka.Tu.); kudan.t.i id. (Tu.); kut.t.i small piece of wood (Kod..); korad.u log, stump (Tu.); kodad.u chopping-block (Tu.)(DEDR 1842). ko_t.t.i larger stick in the game of tip-cat (Ta.); a stick for play (Ma.); ko.t.y gal big marble used with a lot of small pebbles in one form of jackstraws (Ko.)(DEDR 2205). Image: stumps of trees: gut.t.u (pl. gut.ka) stump of tree, stubble of paddy (Kuwi); kud.uli log (Kuwi);[cf. qodali spade (Malt.)(DEDR 1722)]; kut.y a stump (To.); kut.t.u stem of a tree which remains after cutting it (Ka.Coorg); kut.t.e log (Kod..); kut.t.i stake, peg, stump (Tu.); kut.t.a a knotty log (Ma.); kut.t.a, gut.t.a, gut.a stump of tree (Go.); kut.t.a stump of tree, stubble (Go.); kuta jowari stubble (Go.); kut.a stump of tree (Pe.); gu_t.a, gut.a stump of tree (Kui); gut.a_, gut.t.am, gut.t.a peg (Go.); gut.l. stake to which animal is tied, any large wooden peg (Ko.)(DEDR 1676). [cf. CDIAL 3893 khut.t.a, khun.t.a; CDIAL 3748 ks.o_d.a. These forms "exhibit considerable convergenc and present many problems of immediate relationship" (DEDR 1676).] Pin of yoke; metal stick; a perforating instrument; impalement stake; trident: kot.hu impalement stake (K.)(CDIAL 3122). Image: a forked post: can:ga khun.t.i a post with two ears like a fork between which the beam rests; jan:ge khun.t.i a post with two ears between which a beam rests; these posts are used for fences of brushwood (Santali.lex.) khun.t.i a stake (Santali.lex.) kar..u stake for impaling criminals, trident (Ta.Ma.); an instrument for perforating an elephant's ear (Ka.); kar.. id. (Ka.); kar..uku stake for impaling malefactors (Ma.); ko.w point, pointed stick, wooden skewer used by Kotas, peg (To.)(DEDR 1361). kar..i handle of tool, peg to keep a yoke in place (Ta.); pin of yoke, staff of hoe (Ma.); ka_r.. iron rod, elephant-goad, handle, post (Ta.); gad.e, gad.i bamboo rod or stake, pole (Ka.); gal.e long stick (Kod..); gad.a pole, staff, stick (Te.); kar.a id. (Kond.a); kar..ai pole used for propelling boats (Ta.); kar..a bamboo, pole for carrying burdens (Ma.); ka.w forked stick (To.); gar.., gar..a, gar..u, gar..uvu, gar..e, gad.e, gad.i bamboo stake, churning stick (Ka.); kar..a_y acrobat's pole, spiny bamboo; kar..a_yar pole-dancers, tumblers (Ta.); kari bar with which a door is fastened, pole fastened to a load by which it is carried on the shoulders; kar, gar the pole to which a bucket is attached in a country water-lift; garu, karu, gal.u rafter (Tu.); kar.cid (pl. kar.cil) wood for fuel; kar.pa thin stick, twig, bean stick (Pa.); kar.sid (pl. kar.sil), kad.cil (pl.) wood for fuel; kar.met stick; kand.ven (pl. kand.ve_l) id. (Ga.); gar.a pole, long stick (Kond.a)(DEDR 1370) > yat.t.hi staff (Pali); yat.hi post (KharI.); jat.t.hi stick (Pkt.); yat.i-ya stick, measure of length (= 7 ells.)(Si.)(CDIAL 10444). Image: wooden contrivance: ka_s.t.ha piece of wood (S'Br.); kat.t.ha wood (Pali); kas.t.a-laur.a wooden contrivance used in threshing (Pas'.); kat.haur country plough used in indigo culture (Bi.)(CDIAL 3122). cf. gale measure in Kannad.a inscriptions; MIAI.] kad.d.i small stick, bit of wood, fibre or vein of a leaf, bit of a stem or of a haulm, small stick used for writing (Ka.); small stick, bit of wood (Kod..); the fibre or vein of a leaf, a very small stick (Tu.); stick (esp. of metal), bar, ingot, slate pencil (Te.); ka_d.i_ match-stick (OM.)(DEDR App. 24). ka_d. straw; ka_d.i_ little stick, blade of grass; ka_d.u_k little stick (M.)(CDIAL 3017). Post to which a cow is tied: ka_r.. post to which a cow is tied, kat.t.tu-t-tar-i. (kavai-t-ta_mpu tot.utta ka_r..u_n- r-alkul : Perumpa_n. 244); pillar (ma_ttirat.t.in:ka_r.. : Net.unal. 111); oar (van.am.kuka_r..vam.kam pukum : Kalit. 92,47); iron rod (ka_r..ir- cut.t.a ko_r..u_n- : Poruna. 105); elephant goad (Kalit. 2,26); bolt, bar, as of a door; handle, stem; firewood; rafter (Ta.lex.) Image: elephant-post: kan.aiyam post to which an elephant is tied (Ci_vaka. 81, Urai.); kan.aiya-maram cross-bar of wood set behind the doors of a fortress (Pur-ana_. 98, Urai); cross-bar, toll-bar, wooden bar, set to bar entrance (Ta.lex.) ka_r.., ka_d.u, ka_r..u a forest; a wild; ka_r..tur-u wild cattle; ka_r..pura a forest-stream; ka_r..paunal id.; ka_ r..biyada a forest-hunter; ka_r..mare a kind of deer; ka_r..ma_nisa a savage; ka_r..mr.ga a beast of prey; ka_r.. wildness, ferocity, wickedness; ka_r..ugelasa wicked, bad work (Ka.lex.) ka_d.e (Tadbhava of ka_n.d.a) a stalk (Ka.); ka_d.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) ka_s.t.ha piece of wood (S'Br.); kat.t.ha wood (Pali.Pkt.); kat.ha (NiDoc.); kust firewood (Gypsy); kast piece of wood, timber (Gypsy); kat. branch (Kt.); kas.t.a-laur.a wooden contrivance used in threshing (Pas'.); kalt. wood (Pas'.); ka_t., kot. rafter (Sh.D..); ka_t.hu, ka_t.u, ka_t.o rafter (Sh.D..); ka_t.h wood (K.); kot.hu impalement stake; ka_t.hu large beam (S.); ka_t.hi_ thin bamboo measuring rod (A.B.); wood, sheath, saddle (H.); stick, measure of 5 cubits (G.); pole, horse's penis; measure of 5 cubits (M.); ka_t.ha_ measure of length (B.); measure of land of 320 square cubits (B.); kat.a dry stick, fuel (Si.); ka_hr.uo firewood (WPah.); ka_hor.i piece of wood serving as axle in a flour-mill (WPah.); ka_t.h wood (L.P.); id.( Ku.N.A.B.Mth.Bhohj.Aw.H.G.)(CDIAL 3120). [cf. DEDR App.24 linking these with kad.d.i small stick (Ka.) etc. with the comment: CDIAL 3120...has only items with t.h/t.t.h.] kat.t.ai firewood; block, small stump, piece of timber; funeral pyre (Tan-ippa_. i,195,10)(Ta.lex.) ka_t.hor.o wooden frame of a saddle, bottle frame; ka_t.hor.i_ wooden furniture (S.); kat.hor.o after part of a ship (G.)(CDIAL 3121). Firewood (twigs in a bunch): gan.d.a joint of plant; gan.d.i_ trunk of tree from root to branches; gan.d.a stalk; gan.d.i_ sugarcane joint, shaft or stalk used as a bar (Pali); gam.d.a, gam.d.iya_ (Pkt.); gan.d.i_ stem, stump of a tree, large roof beam (Pas'.); gan.a stem (Kt.); gan.d.a_ stem (Par.); gon. stick (Orm.); gen.d.u_, gan.i_, ga~_r.o (Orm.); gen. log (in a wall); gon., go_n.d. handle; gun.d.ik stick (Kal.); gon, gonu, go_n haft of axe, spade or knife (Kho.); gond.u, grond.u great untrimmed log (K.); ganu oar, haft of a tool; gano sweetstalks of millet (S.); ganna_ sugarcane (P.H.); gan.d.a_ (Bi.); ga~_r.a_ (H.); ga~_d.a_ (M.); gam.d.i_ri_ sugarcane joint (Pkt.); ga~r.e_ri_ small pieces of sugarcane (Bhoj.); ga~d.eri_ knot of sugarcane (H.); piece of peeled sugarcane (G.); gam.d.ali_ sugarcane joint (Pkt.); ganaru stock of a vegetable run to seed (S.); gino block, log (Ku.); gi~r.o piece of sugarcane; ge~r.nu, gi~r.nu to cut in pieces (N.); ge~r. tuber (B.); ge~r.i_ piece of sugarcane chopped ready for the mill (Mth.); ged.d.i_, gid.d.ia_ stick (Pkt.); ged.i_ stick used in a game (P.); ger.i_ (H.); gir, girra_ stick, esp. one used in a game (N.); geri_, ger.i_ (H.); ger.i_ (G.)(CDIAL 3998). kina_t.a the inner part of a tree (S'Br.); kilil edible part of the stem of a coconut tree (Si.)(CDIAL 3163). kar..al piece of sugar-cane (Ma.); kar..alu two or three of the upper joints of a sugar-cane that are insipid (Ka.)(DEDR 1352). kar..a_l weeding, uprooting (Ta.); ka.t-- to pluck, to make to fall from tree (To.)(DEDR 1349). ga~r.a_, ga~r.a_sa_ fodder cutter (Bi.); ga~r.a_si_ its blade (Bi.); ga~r.a_s a partic. iron instrument (Bhoj.); ga~r.a_si_, ga~r.a_sa_ knife for cutting fodder or sugarcane (H.); ga~da_sa_ chopper for cutting fodder (P.)(CDIAL 4004). ga_n.d.i_vam the bow of Arjuna presented by Soma to Varun.a, by Varun.a to Agni, and by Agni to Arjuna, when the latter assisted him in consuming the kha_n.d.avana; a bow in general; kha_n.d.avam name of a forest in Kuruks.e_tra, sacred to Indra, and burnt by Agni with the assistance of Arjuna and Kr.s.n.a; kha_n.d.ava-prastha name of a town; kha_n.d.ava sugar candy; kha_n.d.avika, kha_n.d.ika a confectioner; khan.d.a a sort of sugar-cane; khan.d.a-s'arkara_ candied sugar; khan.d.ika a sugar-boiler (Skt.lex.) gand.ra trunk of a tree; gandrang rath'nai to cut in pieces; gan.d.ra piece (Kuwi)(DEDR 1176). kha_n.d.ava, ka_n.d.ava name of a forest in Kuruks.e_tra, burnt by Agni with the assistance of Arjuna and Kr.s.n.a; kha_n.a food, fodder (Ka.); kha_n.e_m. (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Branching top of a tree: skandhas branching top of a tree (RV.); khandha tree-trunk (Pali); khamdha id. (Pkt.); kanda stem, trunk (Dardic); kandh tree trunk, thick branch (H.); kha~d, kha~_da_ large bough (M.); kanda tree trunk (Si.)(CDIAL 13627). Image: haystack: kuntam haystack (Ta.)(DEDR 1724). kank wood, fuel, timber (Kur.); kanku wood (Malt.); kan:k thin dry sticks used as kindling or in a bunch as a torch (Ko.); kan.aku fuel, firewood (Tu.); kar.cid (pl. kar.cil) wood for fuel (Pa.); kar.sid (pl. kar.sil); kad.cil wood for fuel (G.)(DEDR 1165). kan. joint of bamboo or sugarcane (Ta.); ka_n.d.a single joint of a plant (AV.TS.); kan.d.a joint of stalk, stalk (Pali); kan tree, large bush (Kho.); ka~_r.o rafter (N.); ka~_d. trunk, stem (M.); kam.d.a, kam.d.aya knot of bough, bough, stick (Pkt.); ka~_r.i_ torch (Pas'.); ka~_d. stalk of a reed, straw (K.); ka_no reed; ka_ni_ topmost joint of the reed Sara, reed pen, stalk, straw (S.); ka_na~_ stalk of the reed Sara (L.); ka_nna_ the reed saccharum munja (P.); ka_n.d.a, ka~_r. stalk, arrow (Or.); kar.a_ stem of muja grass (used for thatching)(Obi.); ka~_r. stack of stalks of large millet (Mth.); kan.d.a_ reeds (Bhoj.); reed, bush (H.); ka~_d. joint, bough, arrow (G.); ka~_d.i_ joint, bough, arrow, lucifer match (G.); ka~_d.e~ stem, straw, joining (M.); kuna_lo staff, walking stick (Sh.)(CDIAL 3023). Image: sprouting: kundrta'a_na_ to generate, beget, produce (Kur.); gunda (gundi-) to sprout, bud, shoot forth into bud or ear; n. a sprouting, budding (Kui); kundna_ to germinate, bud, shoot out (Kur.)(DEDR 1729). 

1963.Mark of punctuation: kut. mark of punctuation (A.); kut.t.u~ wooden bar serving as pivot of door, wooden peg in socket of flour mill (WPah.); ka_t.ha-kut.o woodpecker (S.)(CDIAL 3236). Image: punctuation mark: kuttu insert punctuation marks; dot, point, stop; to draw a line of dots (Ta.)(DEDR 1719).

1963a.Hoe: kut.o hoe (Ku.)(CDIAL 3236). 

1985.Ox antelope: gud.va nilgai (Pa.); kod.al (ma_v) a kind of deer; kod.a_ ma_v, khod.d.a ma_v blue bull; gur.iya ma_v nilgai (Go.); guri god. bison (Ga.); gura bison (Kond.a)(DEDR 1664). Image: deer without horns: gutrut a deer that has lost its horns (Santali.lex.)

1964.Image: loops: ku_t.al loops drawn on sand by a love-lorn lady for divining the safe arrival of her lord (Tiv. Na_yc. 3); ku_t.al-ir..aittal to draw ku_t.al on sand (Tirukko_. 186); ku_t.ar--teyvam the deity contemplated while drawing ku_t.al (Tirukko_. 186, Urai)(Ta.lex.) The mystic syllable: kut.ilai the mystic syllable o_m (Kantapu. Kat.avul.va_. 14)(Ta.lex.) Decorative diagrams: ko_lam: ko_t.t.am lines, figures and diagrams drawn with rice-flour on the ground, on festive occasions, ma_-k-ko_lam (Ta.lex.) Decoration: ko_t.an.ai decoration, adornment (Man.i. 5,94, Arum.); ko_t.i (cf. kro_d.i_ka_ra (Skt.) to adorn, decorate (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 8,185); to make, form, build (Ta.lex.) cf. co_t.an-ai, co_t.in-ai adorning, decoration; beauty due to decoration (Vir-alivit.u. 375)(Ta.); jo_d.na_ (H.); jo_d.ane (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) ghu~r.i tag or button to catch in a loop (G.); ghun.t.i cloth button (B.Or.); ghun.d.i_ tag, button (H.); knot, button (P.); knot of thread, tangle (S.)(CDIAL 4483). Coil of rope: cur.r.u coil, roll; to be coiled, coil up, roll up (Ta.); what is circular, a ring (Ma.); cur.a a circle, once round (Ma.); sut. to twine (rope)(Go.); su_tali to roll up (cloth)(Kuwi); cut.t.a loop, coil; to roll as a mat, etc. (Te.); suttuni to roll (Tu.); suttu coil, coiled metal ring (Ka.); cut coil (rope)(Ko.); cur-a a coil (Ma.); tud.py circle, round place (To.); sutta circumference, circuit (Tu.); suttu, tuttu dressing (Tu.); tusa to gird (Kui)(DEDR 2715). cu_d.i a coil of rope (Tu.)(DEDR 2723). kutai loop, running knot, button or clasp of a bracelet (Ta.); kuta loop (as of a bowstring)(Ma.); kude a fetter (Ka.); kudiyu to become tight or close (as a knot)(Te.); guttamu fitting, tight (as a bracelet)(Te.); kuducu to hold tight, tie tight (Te.); gud.am button (Pa.); gudam id. (Go.)(DEDR 1713).

1820. Image: sexual union; wedding ceremony sacrificial fire: ku_t.al sexual union; joining (Ta.); ku_t.a joining, connexion, assembly, crowd, heap, fellowship, sexual intercourse (Ka.)(DEDR 1882). Sexual intercourse: kut.t.a_ra, kut.i_ra, kut.i_raka sexual intercourse; a hut, cottage (Skt.lex.) ka_n.d.a samiti, sa_n:gatya, vidha_na, tantra; associating with; ku_t.a sexual intercourse (Ka.M.); ku_t.ami (Te.); kut.i_ra, kuri_ra (Skt.); ku_t.aku_d.u to assemble (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)  Associating with: ka_n.d.a associating with; cohabitation; milana, ku_t.a, nijaku_t.a (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ku_t.a adv. with, together with (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Kavur-can-a. 65); id. (Ma.); ku_d.a (Te.Ka.Tu.); a particle having the force of also, even (Kumare_ca. Cata. 67) (Ta.lex.) ku_t.t.un.n.utal to have sexual intercourse (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,5,7)(Ta.lex.) Herd: khar., gahn.d.i a herd (Santali.lex.) Sexual union: ku_t.al sexual union (Kur-al., 1284); joining, uniting; ku_t.utal to agree, consent (Tiruva_lava_. 1,15); to associate or befriend; to cohabit (Kantapu. Maka_ca_t. 17)(Ta.lex. 1821.Market: ku_t.a a heap, a multitude, an assemblage (Ka.lex.) hat., hat.ia a moveable market, a market held at intervals, generally of a week; kaerako hat.a they offer plants for sale at the market (Santali.lex.) Collection: kut.t.am multitude, collection, heap (Ci_vaka. 1079); assembly (T.A.S. i,9)(Ta.lex.) Assembly; multitude: ku_t.a heap, multitude (MBh.); heap (Pali); ku_d.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3392). ku_t.a, ku_t.u, ku_d.u a joining; a coming in contact with; a junction; connection, union; an assembly, a crowd; a heap, a quantity; company, fellowship (Ka.lex.) ku_t.t.amai-ti_ sacrificial fire at the wedding ceremony (Perun.. Vattava. 17,113); ku_t.t.amaivu residing together (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 17,16)(Ta.lex.) Union, association: ku_t.t.utal to unite, join, combine, connect (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,9,9); to compound, mingle, mix, amalgamate; ku_t.t.atta_r members of a tribe; members of a society (Ta.lex.) ku_t.t.am union, combination, meeting; crowd, flock, herd, group; kindred, relations, tribe; friends, companions; class, kind, series, set, species, genus; association, kindred, battle (Ta.); assembly, caste, flock, assembly, court, quarrel (Ma.); ku_t.t.ar companions, members of same clan or tribe (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvu. 84)(Ta.); ku_t.t.aravu uniting, joining; association, acquaintance (Ja_n-ava_. Mumut.. 25); collection, aggregate, series; combination, union (Ci. Po_. Pa_. Avaiyat.ak. Pak. 36); companions, of the same class (Ma.); ku_t.t.ur-avu intimate connection (Arut.pa_. Vi, Arul.vil.a. 84); friendship, alliance (Ta.); ku_t.t.al uniting, seeking the alliance of powerful kings (Pu. Ve. 9,37, Urai); ku_t.t.a_l.an- associate; partner in trade, coparcener (Arut.pa_. vi, Arul.vi. 14); ku_t.t.a_l.i associate, partner in trade, coparcener; agent of a money-lending business (Ta.); associate, one of a crowd (Ma.); ku_t.t.a_l.an associate (Ma.); ku_t.t.u-k-ka_ran- partner, associate (Ta.Ma.); ku_t.t.u persons or things of the same class (I_t.u, 9,8,9); companionship, fellowship, friendship (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 31); assistance,help (Kampara_. Va_liva. 81); relationship, consanguinity; horde, throng (Pu. Ve. 10, Potuviyar-. 2); plenty, abundance (Maturaik. 762); joining, agreement, fellowship, mixture (Ma.); ku_t.uka to come together, meet, join, befall, be added, be possible; ku_t.a, ku_t.i along with; ku_t.t.uka to bring together, join, heap up, add, acknowledge as belonging to the caste or family, make to pass (Ma.); ku_t.t.am assembly, flock, heap, caste, assembly, court, quarrel; ku_t.t.ar companions, of the same class (Ma.); ku.r.- to join, meet, assemble, (cows) enter shed; (day) comes close at hand, (wound) heals; ku.t.- (ku.c-) to make to join, summon (a meeting), gather, shut in (cattle) (Ko.); ku.t.m (obl. ku.t.t-) meeting, conversation; ko.t. a.l. intimate male friend, woman's lover, man who has a mistress; ko.t.a.c intimate female friend, man's mistress (Ko.); ku.r.- (ku.r.y-) to join, have intercourse with, finish (doing so-and-so); ku.t.- (ku.t.y-) to join, close (eye); ku.d. (ku.d.y-) (others than Todas) marry (To.); ku.t.m (obl. ku.d.t-) meeting of assembly, dispute; mu.ku.r.- (mu.ku.r.y-) to meet (of persons, rivers); mu.ku.t.- (mu.ku.t.y-) to cause to meet (To.); ku_d.u to join, unite, come together, be endowed with, be possible, be fit, take place, have sexual intercourse, add; n. joining, association, company; ku_d.a along with; ku_d.al state of being joined with or endowed with, junction (Ka.); ku_d.ike, ku_d.uvike joining, meeting, junction; ku_d.uha meeting, union; ku_d.udale success, prosperity; ku_d.isu, ku_d.asu to join, mix, amass (Ka.); ku_risu to join (as two pieces of wood); ku_ru a tenon (Ka.); ku.d.- (ku.d.i-) to join with others, gather, be inserted; ku.t.- (ku.t.i-) to join (others) with oneself, insert; ku.t.a quarrel, dispute, panchayat (Kod..); ku.t.i gathering, assembly (Kod..); ku_d.uni to join, unite, copulate, embrace, adopt, meet, assemble, gather, be mingled, be possible; ku_d.isuni to add; ku_d.a_vuni, ku_d.isa_vuni to join, connect, collect, amass, mix; ku_t.uni, ku_n.t.uni to mix, mingle; ku_d.a along with; ku_d.ige joining, union, collection, assemblage (Tu.); ku_d.u to meet, join, associate with, copulate with, add together; meet, join, agree, gather, collect, be proper; ku_d.ali, ku_d.ika joining, meeting, junction; ku_d.a along with; ku_d.ani wrong, improper; ku_d.ami impropriety; ku_t .amu heap, assembly, conspiracy (Te.); ku_t.uva, ku_t.uvu heap, collection, army; ku_t.ami meeting, union, copulation; ku_t.akamu addition, mixture; ku_r(u)cu to join, unite, bring together, amass, collect; caus. ku_rpincu; ku_rpu joining, unitin (Te.); ku_r. pa_v meeting of ways (Kol.); ku_r. er- to assemble (Pa.); ku_r. to join (Go.); to assemble (Kuwi); gu_d.- to assemble; gu_r.na_ to swarm (Go.); ku_r.a_- (ku_r.a a_-) to assemble (Pe.); to gather together (Kuwi); ku_r.- (-it-) to join, meet, assemble, come together; ku_r.p- to mix (cereals etc.), join or put together, collect; ku_r.a-a together (Kond.a); ku_r.- to assemble (Kuwi); ku_r.i ki- to collect; ku_d.i ki_nai to gather; ku_r.cinai to collect (Kuwi); xo_n.d.na_ to bring together, gather, collect into one place, wrinkle (e.g. the nose), multiply in imagination; xo_n.d.rna_ to meet or come together, be brought into the company of (Kur.)(DEDR 1882).

1821a.Image: lute: kan.d.o_li_, kan.d.o_la-vi_n.e a lute of the ca_n.d.a_l.as, a vulgar lute (Ka.Skt.lex.) cf. ca_n.d.a_l.a (Skt.lex.)

1822.Head of a guild: kulika the head of a guild (EI 15,35.IEG.) in a series: nagara-s'res.t.hin, sa_rthava_, prathama-kulika and prathama-ka_yastha (Ep. Ind. Vol.XV, p.130), where kulika means an 'artisan'. kulika is also mentioned as a people probably meaning mercenary soldiers of the Kulu valley (Ep. Ind. Vol.XVII, p.321.); kulika an officer in charge of ten villages who was granted a kula of land for his salary (Mn.,VII,119; kullu_ka); and also 'an arbitrator as a tribunal' (IHQ, Vol.XIX, p.14). Assembly, flock; company, family: un.t.ikai huge gathering, large concourse of people (Paripa_. 6,36)(Ta.lex.) ku_l. (ku_l.v-, ku_n.t.-) to crowd together, assemble muster (Ta.); ku_l.i company, multitude, family (Ta.); gu_l.e, gu_l.evu, gu_lya, gul.e, gul.ya people leaving a place en masse from invasion or famine (Ka.); gu_l. id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1915). kur..u assembly, flock, herd, heap (Ta.); kur..umpu, kur..a_m herd, crowd; kur..umu (kur..umi-), kur..uvu (kur..uvi-) to collect in large numbers (men, animals), gather together; kur..umal, kur..uval, kur..u_u, kur..a_al assembling, crowding, crowd (Ta.); gun.d.u, gun.pu assemblage, crowd, heap (Ka.); kur.ayp- (kur.ayt-) to heap up (Pa.); kur.ap- (kur.at-) id. (Ga.)(DEDR 1821). kul.u_ the valley of Kulu (WPah.H.); kulu_ta name of a people (Skt.)(CDIAL 3348). jhun.d. a flock (Santali.lex.) kur..a_m herd, flock, swar, shoal (Kantapu. Tirunakarap. 31); society, company, association (Kur-al., 840); kur..a_ al gathering, flocking together (Patir-r-up. 29); cf. hud. (Skt.); kur..umal assembling, crowding (Kantapu. Te_vakiri. 21); kur..umu to gather together, mix (Cilap. 12); kur..uval crowding, assembling (Kampara_. Varaik. 28); kur..uvutal to assemble in large numbers, to crowd (Kur-un. 31); to associate, mingle (Na_lat.i, 137); kur..u_u class, assembly, crowd (Nan-. 211)(Ta.lex.) hud.ati, hun.d.ati collects (Dha_tup.); hud.ua flow (Pkt.); hur-hur blazingly (N.); hur.a_ to grow luxuriantly (B.); hur. crowd (B.); hurab to pound and consolidate earth, pound, pummel (Mth.)(CDIAL 14136). hullar. mob, riot (P.); hu_l batch (Ku.); hul mob, crowd (N.); riot (A.); hullar. crowd, noise (H.); hular. riot (G.); hulad. (M.)(CDIAL 14141).

1823.Image: to pour forth: kot.t.am flowing, pouring (Ta.); kot.t.u (kot.t.i-) to pour forth, shower down, empty the contents of a basket or sack, throw into a vessel; drop (as leaves), fall off (as hair); n. pouring, emptying (Ta.); kot.t.uka to shoot out, empty a sack (Ma.); kot.t.ukoni-po_vu to be carried along by stream or air current (Te.)(DEDR 2065). cf. ko_t.t.a much, plenty (Ma.)(DEDR 2208).

1824.Image: cowpen/lower storey of a house: got. cowpen (Wot..); house (Sh.); cowpen (Konkani.i); go_s.t.ha cow-house (RV.); meeting place (MBh.); got.t.ha cowpen (Pali.Pkt.); gut.ha (Pkt.Or.); got.ha (NiDoc.); herd, flock (Or.); gut.h place in a village where cattle collect (K.); got.hu village, town (S.); got.h cattle shed; lower storey of a house (Ku.); cowshed (N.Bhoj.); pasture land, herd, flock (B.); got.ha_ cowpen (M.); gohth place where sheep are penned for the night in the high ranges (P.)(CDIAL 4336). ko_t.t.am town, city; district, province; diagrams drawn with rice-flour on the ground on festive occasions; room, enclosure; temple (Cil. 14,10); place; cowshed; herd of cows (Ta.lex.) ko_t.t.am cow-shed: a_n-iraika t.un-n-u ko_t.t.am (Va_yucan.. Paca_k. 58)(Ta.lex.) kot.t.il workshop, house, shed, cowhouse (Ma.); hut, shed, cow-stall (Ta.); kot.t.am cattle-shed (Ta.); kot.t.age stall or outhouse (esp. for cattle), barn, room (Ka.); kot.t.i shed (Kod..); kot.t.a hut or dwelling of Koragars (Tu.); kot.ya shed, stall (Tu.); kot.t.a_mu stable for cattle (Te.); kot.t.a_yi thatched shed (Te.); kor.ka cowshed (Kol.Nk.Go.); khot.a id. (Nk.); kot.am id. (Go.); kot.a hamlet (Malt.)(DEDR 2058). ko_t.a hut, shed (Skt.); kor.i cowpen (G.)(CDIAL 3493). kot.t.akai shed with sloping roofs (Ta.); kot.t.il shed, hut (Ta.); workshop, house, shed (Ma.); kot.t.i shed (Kod..); kot.t.age, kot.ige, kot.t.ige stall or outhouse, room (Ka.)(DEDR 2058). ko_n.e an inner apartment, or chamber, a kitchen (Ka.); ko_n. a room apartment (Tu.); ko_nar. (pl. ko_nahk) shed for hens (Go.)(DEDR 2211). Cattle-shed, school for archery; workshop: kor.ka, korka_ cowshed (Kol.); khot.a cowshed (Nk.); kor.ka id. (Nk.); kot.a, kot.am (pl.kot.ak) id. (Go.); kot.ka shed (Go.); kor.ka id. (Go.); korka, kurka cowshed (Go.); kot.t.il cow-stall (e_r-u kat.t.iya kot.t.il arankame_ : Tanippa_.i,88,174); school for archery (kallu_ri nar-kot.t.ila_ : Ci_vaka. 471); hut (Ta.lex.); cowhouse, shed, workshop, house; kot.t.i shed (Kod..); kot.orla, kot.orli shed for goats (Go.); ?Influenced by Skt. gos.t.ha- (DEDR 2058). kot.t.akai shed with sloping roofs, cow-stall, marriage pandal (Ta.); kot.t.il workshop, cowhouse, shed, house (Ma.); kot.a shed (Go.)(DEDR 2058). Dwelling of Koragars: kotola, kot.orli shed for goats (Go.); kot.a hamlet (Malt.); ?influenced by gos.t.ha- (Skt.); kot.t.a hut or dwelling of Koragars (Tu.); kot.ya shed, stall (Tu.); kot.t.akai shed with sloping roofs, cow-stall; marriage pandal; kot.t.am cattle-shed; kot.t.il hut (Perun.. Ucaik. 43,199); shed, cow-stall (Tan-ippa_. i,88,174)(Ta.); cowhouse, shed, workshop, house (Ma.); kot.ambe feeding place for cattle (Ta.); kot.t.age, kot.ige, kot.t.ige stall or outhouse (esp. for cattle), barn, room (Ka.); kot.t.i shed (Kod..); kot.t.amu stable for cattle or horses; kot.t.a_yi thatched shed (Te.); kor.ka, korka_ cowshed; kont.od.i henhouse (Kol.); khot.a cowshed (Nk.); kor.ka id. (Nk.); kot.a, kot.am (pl. kot.ak) id. (Nk.); kot.a, kot.am (pl. kot.ak) id.; kot.ka shed; kor.ka, korka, kurka cowshed (Go.)(DEDR 2058). gohari herd of cows (S.); cattle path out of a village (P.)(CDIAL 4340). go_s.t.ha_na serving as an abode for cows (VS.); got.ha_n. a group of cattle (Ku.); go_stha_na cow station (Skt.); gushthn house (Tir.); got.han. shady resort for pasturing herds (M.); gotha_n place where cattle are assembled, cowpen (H.)(CDIAL 4338). got.ha_lo herdsman; got.ha_lni his wife (N.); got.ha_li female herd (N.); go_s.t.hapati chief herdsman (Skt.)(CDIAL 4337).

1825.Mash: goithu mash or bran with chopped straw, etc. for cattle (S.)(CDIAL 4341). koccu thick mess of boiled brinjals, mangoes etc., seasoned with tamarind, chillies, salt etc. (Ta.); gojju id. (Ka.); gojji boiled juice or pulp of any fruit, mixed with coconut, salt, chillies etc., and eaten with boiled rice (Tu.)(DEDR 2040). kojan.t.i refuse (as of fruits)(Ka.); kujan.t.i, kojan.t.i the refuse of vegetables from which the juice has been expressed (Tu.)(DEDR 2039). chuai grinds, presses (Pkt.); chuo remnants of sugarcane, tooth-stick with frayed end (S.)(CDIAL 3710). khujjai rejects; chujjai is crushed (Pkt.); khu_jha_ sediment, refuse (H.)(CDIAL 3711). Fodder; bran: ghotu~ food placed before milch-cattle before milking (G.); gohot mash for cows (M.); go_bhatta cattle-fodder (Pali); guhutu mash or bran and chopped straw for cattle (S.)(CDIAL 4299). Sugarcane stalks: kum.d.a heap of crushed sugarcane stalks (Pkt.); kunnu_ large heap of a mown crop (WPah.); kunyu~ large heap of grain or straw (N.)(CDIAL 3266). kum.d.aga chaff (Pkt.); kun.d.a_ rice bran (Or.); ku~d.a_, ko~d.a_ bran (M.)(CDIAL 3267). cf. ka_nta_raka a kind of sugarcane; ka_nta_ra (Sus'r.); kata_ra_ a species of sugarcane, tamarind (H.)(CDIAL 3032). cf. cakkai refuse as of sugar-cane after pressing (Ta.); cakkal rotten straw (Ta.)(DEDR 2276). Cow-shed: gudri a house in which goats, sheep or calves are kept; gor.a a cow-shed, a cattle-shed; gai gor.a a cow-shed; goroeya the divinity who is supposed to preside over the cattle shed; on the second day of the Sohrae festival offerings are presented to Goroeya in the cow-shed by each family; got. another name for the Sohrae festival; got. caole contributions of rice; got. the place where cattle are collected at mid-day (Santali.lex.) Image: haystack: kuntam haystack (Ta.); kuttar.i a stack, rick (Ka.)(DEDR 17). Image: cattle-shed: kot.t.am cattle-shed; ko_t.t.am cow-shed (Va_yucan.. Paca_k. 58); herd of cows (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Image: heap: kantu heap of straw enclosing the threshing floor; heap of chaff which gathers outside the threshing floor; kantu-kat.t.utal to float or recede to a side of the pot in boiling, as curry stuffs; to settle in a heap around the threshing floor, as bits of straw (Ta.lex.) kot.t.il cow-stall (Tan-ippa_. 8,88,174); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. go_tra cowpen, enclosure (RV.); herd of cows (Pa_n..); go_t. house (Wg.)(CDIAL 4279). gotiharaum. cowpen (OG.)(CDIAL 4280).

1826.Ashes: chu_to remnants of sugarcane, tooth-stick with frayed end (S.); suti_ ashes (Ash.); sut earth (Kt.); chuti soil, mud, dust (Kho.)(CDIAL 3709). khuda broken rice (Or.); khud id. (B.); khuddi_ broken pulse or rice (Bi.); khu_d a small particle (Bhoj.); khu_d dregs, refuse (H.); kud.a dust (Si.)(CDIAL 3712). khu_t.o ashes, burning coal; khot. embers (Dardic); khot.a_ alloyed (L.); khot. base, alloy (P.)(CDIAL 3931). Coal: ko_ila_ burning charcoal (Pkt. < Proto-Munda ko(y)ila = kuila black (Santali). ko_kila lighted coal, charcoal (Skt.); kolla burning charcoal (Pkt.); koilo dead coal, pl. charcoal (S.); koila_, kola_ (L.P.); kwelo (Ku.); koila_ (N.Or.H.Mth.); kayala_ (B.); koela_ (Bi.); koilo (Marw.); keyalo (G.)(CDIAL 3484).

1827.Image: trough: kottal.am, kontal.am trough, stone pavement (Ma.); kottal.a, kottala trough, stone pavement (Ka.)(DEDR 2090). ko_s.t.hakam a brick trough for watering cattle (Skt.lex.) Plastered; paved: kut.t.imam < kut.t.ima paved floor, pavement, ground paved with mosaic, ground smoothed and plastered (Kampara_. Kit.kin. 109)(Ta.lex.) kut.t.ima paved with small stones, decorated with mosaic; kut.t.imam an inlaid or paved floor, ground paved with small stones, pavement; ground prepared for the site of a mansion; a jewel-mine (Skt.lex.)

1828.Fort: ko_t.t.a fort, residence (Ma.); ko_t.t.ai fort, castle (Ta.); ko_t.e fort, rampart (Ka.); ko_t.u stronghold (Ta.); fort (Ma.); ko.t. castle, palatial mansion (Ko.); ko_n.t.e fort (Ka.); ko.t.e palace (Kod..); ko_t.e fort (Tu.); ko_t.a, (Inscr.) kot.t.amu fort (Te.); ko_t.a palace, fort (Kuwi); kot.t.a-, kot.a- fort, stronghold (Skt.)(DEDR 2207-a). ko_t.t.a_ra a fortified town, strong-hold; ko_t.i a class, department, kingdom; ku_t.amo_hana an epithet of Skanda (Skt.lex.) Fort, palace: ko_n.t.e-ka_l.aga a fight on the ramparts (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_t.a a fort; a hut, shed; ko_t.aka a builder of sheds, thatcher; a mixed caste (offspring of a mason by a daughter of a potter); ko_t.i_-pa_la the guard of a strong hold; ko_t.t.a_ra a fortified town, strong-hold (Skt.lex.) ko_t.t.ai-ve_l.a_l.ar a sect of ve_l.a_l.as living in a fort at Srivaikuntam in Tinnevelly district (Ta.lex.) Image: watchman: kot.al a watchman (Santali.lex.) cf. ko_s.t.hapa_la storekeeper (Skt.); kot.hval.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 3547). Police officer; one who watches crops: ko_t.t.va_la, kut.t.ava_la police officer (Pkt.); ko_t.t.apa_la commander of a fort (Skt.); kut.awa_l captain of a fort, chief of police, city magistrate (K.); kot.a_ru district officer, who watches crops, police officer (S.); kut.va_l a kind of village constable (L.); kut.wa_l hon. title of a T.hakkur (WPah.); kot.a_l watchman, constable (B.); kat.ua_l.a town policeman (Or.); kot.wa_r, kot.wa_l police officer (H.); kot.va_l (L.); kot.va_lu (S.); kot.va_l. (G.)(CDIAL 3501). kottava_l < kotwa_l (U.) chief police oficer for a city or town, superintendent of markets; kottava_r--ca_vat.i police station or residence of a kottava_l; central place in some towns serving as a market for provisions, etc. (Ta.); kotwa_l-ca_vat.i id. (Te.); kottava_r--ce_vakan- police constable under a kottava_l (Ta.lex.) kontakan- commander of an army (Tiruva_lava_. 30,45); konta-kulam the family of ve_l.a_l.as in Kontakai near Madura, formerly commanders under Pa_n.d.yas (Tiruva_lava_. 39,1) (Ta.lex.) Image: bastion, bulwark: kottal.a, kottala bulwark, bastion (Ka.); stone pavement (Tu.); kottal.am bastion (Ta.); bulwark, bastion, stone pavement (Ma.); krottal.amu, k(r)ottad.amu bastion (Te.)(DEDR 2090). kottal.am part of a rampart, bastion, defensive erection on the top of a rampart (Ta.Ma.); kottad.amu (Te.); kottal.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kot.t.haka (Pali)(Ta.lex.) koend.a gar., gar., gar.h a fort (Santali.lex.) koen.d.a gar. a fort mentioned in the traditions of the Santals; koen.d.a rapaj the race of kings who reigned at the traditional fort of Koen.d.a gar. (Santali.lex.) kot.a fort, fortified town (As'.); kot.t.a, kut.t.a id. (Pkt.); kut. tower (?Kt.); kot. tower (Dm.); ko_t. (Kal.); fort (Sh.); village (Dardic); kut.h, ku_t.as fort (K.); kot.u (S.); kot. (L.); fort, mud bank round a village or field (P.); ko_t.h stockade, palisade (A.); kot. fort (B.H.Marw.G.M.); rampart (G.); kut. fort (B.); kut.a (Or.); kot.h fort (M.); kot.uva (Si.)(CDIAL 3500). ko_t.t.ai-k-ku_li wages on nuts; prob. charges for the upkeep of forts (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ko_t.t.ai-magamai tax for the maintenance of forts (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)

1829.Image: headman: kor-r-avan- king, headman (Ma.); king, victor (Ta.); kor-r-avai goddess of war and victory, Durga_ (Ta.)(mur-r-avai ka_t.t.i-k- kor-r-avai par..icci : Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 2,31); kor-r-i id. (Ta.); kor-r-am victory, success, bravery, power, *sovereignty (Ta.)(DEDR 2169). kor-r-avai-nilai these of offering sacrifice to Durga_ and worshipping Her (Tol.Po.59)(Ta.lex.) Treasurer; headman: gotga.rn treasurer of the village (Ko.); gottu appointment, rule, regulation; gottuga_r-a headman (Ka.); kottukka_ran- head of a company of labourers (Ta.)(DEDR 2093). X cf. ko_t.t.ai fort, castle; ko_t.u fort (Ta.)(DEDR 2207). Troop: jun:gur in a troop (Santali.lex.) jhun.d. flock, troop (P.H.G.M.); flock of sheep or goats (Bi.); jhu~_r. id. (Bi.); jhun.d.ru band of fakirs (S.); jhun.d.i flock, troop (Ku.); jhun.d.a (N.); jhu~r.i crowd (Bhoj.); jhut, jhutti crowd (N.); jhutta crowd (B.)(CDIAL 5402). cut.t.amu relation, kinsman; cut.t.arikamu relationship, kinship (Te.); cur-r-am friends, attendants, kinsmen, relations, crowd (Ta.); friendship (Ma.)(DEDR 2715). Attack: jhaur. attack (P.); jhaur.na_ to attack (H.); jhod.n.e~ to destroy (M.); jho_d.ia hunter (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5335). Watchman: ko_r-r-akai-ma_kkal. warriors armed with sticks? (ko_l + takai +)(milai-c-caru cilatarun. ko_r-r-akai ma_kkal.um : Perun.. Ucaik. 42,24); ko_r-r-or..ilavan- guard or watchman armed with a stick, stationed at the porch of a king's palace (Perun.. Ucaik. 47,10); ko_r-r-or..il rule or government of a kingdom, as symbolically by sceptre-wielding (Perun.. Makata. 23,60); fine workmanship (Kalit. 100, Urai)[cf. ko_r-r-ot.i bangles of fine workmanship (Cilap. 26,121)]; ko_r-r-or..ila_l.ar king's attendants armed with sticks, their duty being to disperse the crowd and clear the way for the king to pass (Perun.. Ucaik. 58,76)(Ta.lex.) ko_r-al killing, slaying (Kur-al., 321)(Ta.lex.) 

1829a.Image: naked woman; goddess: ko_t.ari_, ko_t.avi_, ka_t.avi_ a naked woman (Skt.lex.) kudra than the place where the Pargana bon:ga is worshipped; kudra one of the Santal godlets; kudra dan.o bon:ga id.; kudri a female godlet of the Santals (Santali.lex.) Durga: ko_t.ari a naked woman; Durga_ (Ka.lex.) kor-r-i Durga_ (Ta.)(DEDR 2169). kor-r-iya_r a sect of Vais.n.ava female mendicants wearing basil garlands and other religious marks; goddess of parturition; kor-r-iya_rai-var..i-vit.utal to bid farewell to the goddess of parturition on the fifth day after childbirth, by sending away the midwife to some open place or jungle with the mat used by the mother and a morsel of each of the dishes she had tasted (Ta.lex.)

1829b.Image: woman with dishevelled hair: ko_t.t.avi_ a naked woman with dishevelled hair; name of the goddess Durga_ (Skt.lex.) cf. kor-r-avai (Ta.lex.)

1906.Image: dishevelled hair: kud.pal. a woman with uncombed hair; the name of a female demon (Tu.lex.)

 

1947.Entrails: zoiwa_l entrails (Pas'.); zur. (Pas'.); zo_r. (Shum.); zo_ (Ash.); wru_, zu_ (Wg.); ru_ hip, waist (Kt.); ro_da (Pers.)(CDIAL 10838).

1948.Placenta; entrails: kut.ar, kut.al, kut.alai bowels, intestines, entrails (Ta.); kut.ar, kut.al bowels, placenta, prolapsus ani, etc. (Ma.); kor.n. small intestines (Ko.); kwir. id. (To.); kun.d.ali_ a stomach of ruminants (Go.)(DEDR 1652). cita_l bowels (Ash.); kt.yl (Kt.); kt.al (Pr.); ktol belly (Bashg.)(CDIAL 3157). Breast; belly: ko_s.t.ha any one of the large viscera (MBh.); kot.t.ha stomach (Pali.Pkt.); kut.t.ha (Pkt.); kot.hi_ heart, breast (L.); kot.t.ha_, kot.ha_ belly (P.); kot.ho (G.); kot.ha_ (M.)(CDIAL 3545). kottha pertaining to the belly (Pkt.); kotha_ corpulent; kothala, kotha_l.a pot-bellied (Or.)(CDIAL 3510). ko_cam sheaths or cases believed to constitute the body (Kaival. Tattu. 10); womb (Pa_rata. Campava. 72)(Ta.lex.) cf. ko_s'a case, cover (AV.); kosia_ having a large scrotum (Or.)(CDIAL 3539). a_n.d.a-ko_s'a egg (BhP.); an.d.ako_s'a, an.d.ako_s.a, an.d.a-ko_s.aka scrotum (Skt.); an.d.ako_sa shell of eggs (Pali); a~d.us testicles (G.)(CDIAL 1112). kon.t.i < kol.- getting possession of, securing as property (Maturaik. 583); food (Maturaik. 137); abundance (Perumpa_n.. 454)(Ta.lex.) cf. kottu cooked rice (Ta.); kor-r-u food, means of subsistence (Ta.); food, rice (Ma.); kohpe pej of man.d.eya (Kuwi)(DEDR 2171). kotiyan- one who hankers after food (Ta.); kotiyan glutton (Ma.)(DEDR 2084). A feast: kon.d.a, kun.d.a a pot (Ka.); kon.d.appa name among Bra_hman.as (M.Ka.); kon.d.a-ban.d.i a cart used at the kon.d.a feast; kon.d.a-habba a feast in honour of Vi_rabhadra at which Lingavantas carry an idol of Vi_rabhadra and dance with it on live coals in a pit (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. kun.t.a_ vessel with wide mouth (Ta.); gun.d.a_ (M.); kun.t.u round vessel of medium size (Ta.lex.) guju, guji_ entrails, fowl's crop, gizzard (S.); guji_ fowl's crop, matter from a boil (L.); ka_ne guji ear-wax (N.); guiz human excrement (Tir.)(CDIAL 4198). Wrapped up: gun.t.hika (in meaning = gun.t.hita) one who is covered with or wrapped up in, only in ahi-gun.t.hika a snake-trainer. Other forms: ahi-gun.t.ika; ahi-kun.d.ika; gun.t.hita in pansu-gun.t.hita covered with dust (Pali.lex).

2014.One-sided pickaxe, small mattock: kuda_la_ mattock (P.); kuda_wa pickaxe (WPah.); kuda_li_ small mattock (H.); kudra_ small mattock (H.); kuda_l. hoe (M.); kud.la_ large hoe (M.); kud.l.i_ small hoe (M.); kud.l.e~ hoe (M.); udalu mattock (Si.); kunda_l hoe (Gaw.); kuda_ri pickaxe (Aw.); kuda_ri one-sided pickaxe (Or.); kudri_ small mattock (H.); kudda_la spade, hoe (Pali); mattock (Pkt.); kudda_laka spade, hoe (Pali); kuda_l mattock (P.H.); hoe, spade (B.); kuda_li hoe, spade (B.); kuda_l.i one-sided pickaxe (Or.); kuda_r mattock (Mth.H.); hoe (Bhoj.); kudda_r mattock (B.); kuda_ra spade (Or.); kuda_ri_ mattock with narrow blade (Mth.); small mattock (H.); kodda_la, kodda_liya_ mattock (Pkt.); kod.ari hoe, spade (S.); ko_d.a_l (Br.); kod.aryo worker with a kod.ari (S.); koda_l mattock (L.); hoe (A.B.); kodali hoe (L.); koda_lo, koda_li (N.Ku.); koda_l.a hoe (Or.); koda_ri_ hoe (Bi.); koda_r (Mth.); koda_ri (Mth.); koda_l.o spade (G.); koda_l.i_ hoe (G.); kud.d.a_la, kud.a_la part of a plough (Pkt.); kon.d.a_l, konda_l mattock, hoe (Wg.)(CDIAL 3286). ket.uva_ to dig with a spade, cut with an axe, bruise, pound (rice)(Si.)(CDIAL 3241). kot.yu_n.o to dig up with a hoe (Ku.)(CDIAL 3241).kod.ali (Tadbhava of kut.ha_ra) an axe, a hatchet, da_tra, lavitra (Ka.lex.) Image: pick-axe with one prong: kunta_li pick-axe with one prong, pick-axe (Tiruman. 2909); battle-axe (Pu. Ve. 9,38, Urai); id. (Ma.); kunta_l.i id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Pickaxe; hoe: guddali hoe with spade-like blade (Kod..); guddali, guddoli, guddol.i a kind of pickaxe (Tu.); guddolipuni to dig with a pickaxe (Tu.); guddali, guddili, guddela, gudde_li, gudde_lu a hoe (Te.); guddalincu to hoe (Te.); kudal. spade (Nk.); ku_nta_li crow-bar, pickaxe; kunta_l.i, kunta_li pick-axe with one prong (Tiruman.2909); battle-axe (Pu. Ve. 9,38, Urai)(Ta.lex.) kunta_li, kunta_l.i pickaxe (Ta.); kunta_li, ku_nta_li id. (Ma.); kidli a spade (Kurub.); kuda.y hoe (Ko.); guddali, gudli a kind of pickaxe, hoe (Ka.);  kudar. spade, axe (Go.); guddar. spade, hoe (Go.); goodar hoe (Go.); gudeli hoe-like instrument for digging (Kond.a); qodali a spade (Malt.)(DEDR 1722). [For the element -ali cf. alaku blade of a weapon, or instrument, head of an arrow, weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warm (Ta.); alagu blade of a knife, sword etc. (Te.)(DEDR 237). cf. Image: cowry: alaku cowry (Ta.)(DEDR 238). a_li oyster (Ma.); a_licippa cockleshell (Te.)(DEDR 385). alaku grain of paddy (Ta.)(DEDR 235). al.aku to prick, throb (Ka.)(DEDR 304).] Tools: to dig, hoe, spade: kot.al hoe, spade (Ga.); hoe (Pa.); kot.t. to peck, dig (Pa.); kor.k to peck (Nk.); kot.re, kot.t.u spade (Tu.); kod.kare woodpecker (Malt.); kod.i hoe (Kui); kod.gi hoe (Pe.); kor.gi, ku_rgi, korgi hoe, mattock (Kuwi); kot.re spade (Tu.); kot.t.u id. (Tu.); id., hoe with a short handle, weeding-hoe (Ta.); kot.- to dig, hoe, (snake) to bite (Pe.); kud.uku to peck (Ka.); kud.apu to bite (as a serpent), peck, strike with the beak (Tu.); kot.t. to peck, dig (Nk.); to hoe (Go.)(DEDR 2064). Hoe: kot.t.u hoe with short handle, weeding-hoe; spade (Ta.lex.) Hoe with sharp, broad blade: kako.t. hoe with sharp, broad blade (?Ko.)(DEDR 1265). cf. od.i katti Coorg sword (worn at waist of back)(Kod..)(DEDR 947). For -ko.t. : cf. kottu a small hoe for rooting out weeds (Ta.)(DEDR 2091). khore to hoe; kora_nt.i a little hoe (Kon.lex.) kud.i a hoe (Santali.lex.) Weeding hook: kal.ai-k-kot.t.u, kal.ai-kottu, kal.ai-ko_l (ka_riyan- r-i_nnta kal.ai-k-ko_lum) (Tamir..na_.45) weeding-hook, grass-hoe, small iron pick with broad blade and wooden handle (Ta.lex.) Hoe: udalla, pl. udalu a kind of hoe (S.); udda_la pressing, crushing (Pkt.); ura_l a mortar (A.)(CDIAL 1991). X kudda_la. udda_layati bursts, tears up (MBh.); udda_le_ti tears off (Pali); udda_lai snatches away (Pkt.); u_da_lai squanders (OG.); uda_l.vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 1992). uduranava_ to tear out, pluck up (Si.); udri_yati, uddi_yati is split open (Pali); udiya_iba to uncover, expose to view (A.); ud.iran.u to rip, become undone, burst; ud.oran.u to rip, burst, unstitch (S.); udi uncovered, open, bare (A.); udda_ria torn up, uprooted, run from battle (Pkt.); oda_rvu~ to plough (G.)(CDIAL 1983). ur.asna_ to prick, insert, fold in (H.)(CDIAL 1984). u_ta_ri-pat.u to become damaged, spoiled, impaired, blighted (Tiruppu. 904)(Ta.lex.) cf. kudda_la a kind of spade or mattock (Skt.); kud.d.a_la, kud.a_la part of a plough (Pkt.); koda_l.i_ hoe (G.)(CDIAL 3286). kud.i a hoe; guji kud.i 2-handed hoe; dabla kud.i ill-shaped hoe; kud.i d.and.om handle of a hoe; kat.a kud.i pronged-hoe; dhabr.u kud.i broad hoe (Santali.lex.) go.l- (god.d.-) to beat, shoot with bow; god. to cut with axe (Kol.); gor.- (got.-) to strike, beat, kill (Nk.); kol. (kol.v-, kon.t.-) to strike, hurt; ko_l. killing, murder (Ta.); kol.ka (kon.t.-) to hit, take effect, come in contact (Ma.); kol.l.ikka to hit; ko_l. hitting, wound, damage (Ma.); kol.-/kon.- (kod.-) to pain, trouble (Ko.); kwil. (kwid.-) to quarrel (To.); kon.pini to hit; kol.puni, kolpuni to come into collision (Tu.); konu to be pierced as by an arrow (Te.)(DEDR 2152). Chisel: a_ho_d.ai strikes, beats (Pkt.); ahor.an.u, ahur.an.u to roughen a millstone by pricking with a chisel; ahor.o stonecutter's chisel (S.); ahad.n.i brazier's instrument for smoothing down dints in new-made vessels (M.)(CDIAL 1036).. Engraving: kottu engraving (Ta.Ma.); kottu-ve_lai carved work, engraving, statuary; kottu-ve_lai-c-cempu a copper pot of fine workmanship; kottu-ma_n-am fine chisel-workmanship in gold or silver (Ta.lex.) qse to pound, smash (Malt.); xo_shking, xo_shing to rub; tene xo_shking to consort with, interfere with (Br.)(DEDR 2189). kontu to gore, pierce (Periyapu. Kan.n.ap. 145)(Ta.lex.) Hoe; pick-axe, stone-digger, carver; hunting bludgeon: kottu (kotti-) to grub up, hoe, peck (as a bird), bite (as a snake), chop, hack, mince, carve; n. grubbing, mincing, pecking, biting (as a serpent), gashing, a small hoe for rooting out weeds (Ta.); kottal pecking; kottan- a mason; kontu (konti-) to peck, mince, gnaw, gore, pierce; pick up shells, etc., from the floor before a thrown-up shell comes down (as in game played by girls)(Ta.); kontal picking, nibbling (Ta.); kottuka to dig, carve, peck, pick up, bite (as snakes), strike, cut; kottu stinging, digging, pecking, picking up; kotti pick-axe, stone-digger, carver (Ma.); kot- (koty-) to peck, bite, hook (small stick) in playing tipcat (Ko.); kot a peck (Ko.); kwi0k- (kwi0ky-) to peck, (snake) bites (To.); kottu to chop, mince (Ka.); kott- (kotti-) to pick up with single sharp motion, peck; kotti para game of jackstones (Kod..); godduni to pick or devour, as a fowl (Tu.); kondu to mince, cut or chop into small pieces (Te.); gondip- to tattoo (Nk.); gond- to cut with axe; go_nda piece, log of wood; gonda bit, piece (Go.); kot- (-t-) to peck, hammer, hit hard on the top (Kond.a); gonda piece, piece of wood, log (Pe.); kospa (kost-) to beat, strike with stick or mallet; peck, bite, sting; n. a beating, bite, sting (Kui); kot- (-h-) to dig with hoe, peck, hoe; ko_thali to hoe; kothnai to pick (with pickaxe); kotpinai to haggle, hash (i.e. mince; pl. action)(Kuwi); xotna_/xosna_ (xottas) to cut by striking, slash, inflict a gash, wound by a blow from any heavy and sharp-edged instrument, decapitate; kotogna_ to peck at; kotga_ a hunting bludgeon (Kur.); kothke to peck or strike with the beak, sear with a hot iron (Malt.)(DEDR 2091). cf. kor..utu to peck, drill through, hollow out (as beetles in wood or flowers), pluck, cull out, rend, tear (Ta.)(DEDR 2148). kot.t.u hoe with short handle, weeding-hoe, spade (Ta.); kot.t.u, kot.re spade (Tu.); kor.k to peck (Nk.); kot.- to dig, hoe, (snake) to bite, to peck (Mand..)(DEDR 2064).[cf. CDIAL 3241 forms with meaning 'prick.hoe'.] Spade, hoe: kot.yu_n.o to dig up with a hoe (Ku.); kot.anava_ to cut with an axe, dig with a spade, bruise, pound (rice)(Si.)(CDIAL 3241). kut.o, kut.i_, kut.lo hoe (Ku.); kut.o, kut.i id. (N.)(CDIAL 3236). To dig, carve: kotarvu~ to dig, carve (G.); kotar cave, den (G.); kotranu to scratch (N.); khot.ranu to dig, carve (S.); khotarn.a_ to poke about (L.); khanotarn.a_ to poke, dig up with any small instrument (L.); kho_trun. to scratch dig (L.); khotarvu~ to dig, scratch (G.); khotarn.a_ n. pl. old errors raked up (G.); khotar burnt sediment of milk (N.)(CDIAL 3512). Digging tool: cf. khanitra digging tool (RV.); khanitti_ (Pali); khan.itta (Pkt.); khanti spud (N.); khanti id. (A.); khanta_ long-handled spud (B.); khanti_ pointed iron instrument for tapping well-spring (Bi.); spud (H.)(CDIAL 3814). khod.na_ to dig, carve (P.); khud.na_ to be dug (P.); khudati thursts (penis) into (RV.); prakhudati futuit (AV.); khoda_, khuda_ to dig, carve (B.); khodvu~ to dig, carve (G.)(CDIAL 3934). godu hole (K.); khodna_ (H.); khodnu (N.); kho~r.a_ to dig (B.); kor.ab to dig (Mth.); kor.a_, ko_r.a_ to dig, pierce (B.); koriba_ to cut clods of earth with a spade, beat (Or.); khodn.o to dig (Marw.); khodn.e~ to dig, carve (M.)(CDIAL 3934). godi hole (K.); godi karun to pierce (K.); godnu to pierce (N.); godna_ to pierce, hoe (H.); gudna_ to be pierced (H.); godo a push (G.); godn.e~ to tattoo (M.); god.an. to hoe (L.); god.n.a_, god.d.i_ hoeings (P.); gor.nu to hoe, weed (N.); gor.na_ to hoe up, scrape (H.); gor.hna_ (X ka_r.hna_?)(H.); god.vu~ to loosen earth round roots of a plant (G.); gud.an.u to pound, thrash (S.); gud.d.n.a_ to beat, pelt, hoe, weed (P.)(CDIAL 3074). Loosen; image: dishevelled: kutar-u (kutar-i-) to become loose, dishevelled (Ta.); kutar-uka to shake off (Ma.); kut- (-t-) to stri off, remove (clothing), untie (knot), open (doors) (Kond.a); kut- (-t-) to loosen, unfasten, take off (hat)(Pe.); kud- (-it-) to shift, move; kut- (-h-) to shift (Kuwi)(DEDR 1703). khud.ai is separated, is broken (Pkt.); chur.an.u to get loose, be fired, (semen) to be emitted (S.); chur.a_na to discharge, shoot (B.)(CDIAL 3706). ks.o_t.ayati throws (Dha_tup.); cho_d.e_i, cho_d.ai loose, pp. cho_d.ia, cho_d.a_viya (Pkt.); chor to pour; cor to pour, piss (Gypsy); cor to leave; cor kar- to fall (Bshk.); cho_run to abandon, leave (K.); chu_roiki, choryo_nu to put, place (Sh.); chor.an.u to set free, le go (S.); chor.an. (L.); chor.n.o to leave (Ku.); soriba to remove (A.); chor.a_ to throw, discharge, shoot (B.); chor.iba_ to lay bare, exhibit (penis or vulva)(Or.); cho_rab to leave (Aw.); chor.na_ to let go (H.); chor.ab to release, open (Mth.); chor.nu (N.); chor.n.o (Marw.); chor.vu~ (G.); sod.n.e~ (M.); sod.ta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 3747). co_r (-v-, -nt-) to become loose (as rings), grow slack (as a grip), slip off or down (as clothes) (Ta.); co_ruka to slip through or down (Ma.); so_r to be or become loose or slack; n. state of being loose, dangling; jo_l to be or become loose or slack; make loose; n. slackness, looseness; so_lu to fall off in respect to vigour (Ka.)(DEDR 2884). Escape; free: kuri- (kurit-) to start, protrude from hole, come forth, (sun) rises; kuru_y- to start; kurs- (kurust-) to escape; kursip- (kursipt-) to make to escape (Kol.); kur- to come out, emerge, (sun) rises (Nk.); kuy- to come out, appear (star), rise (sun)(Nk.)(DEDR 1820). chut.t.a released (Pkt.); khut.t.a broken (Pkt.); chut.t. except (P.); chut.t.ar forsaken (P.); chut.t.o separate (N.); chut.t.a_ (H.); chut.u~, chut.t.u~ loosened (G.); sut.a_ (M.); chut.t.ai is released; khut.t.ai becomes less, is broken (Pkt.); chut.an.u to get loose (S.); chut.t.an. to get loose, run (L.); chut.t.n.a_ to be freed (P.); chut.n.o~ to slip away, be left behind (WPah.); chut.n.o to be released (Ku.); chut.nu to get loose, come to an end (N.); sut.iba to run (A.); chut.a_ to get loose, run away, run (B.); chut.iba_ to run (Or.); chu_t.ab to go away (Mth.); chu_t.ai escapes (OAw.); chu_t.na_ (H.); chut.n.o to get loose (Marw.); chut.vu~ (G.); sut.n.e~ (M.); chut.i_ freedom (S.); chut.t.i_ leave (P.H.G.); chut. separation (N.); sut.i_ leave (A.); chut.i leave, dismissal (B.Or.); sut.i_ remission (M.); chut.kan.u to be fired off (S.); chut.ka_na_ to release (H.); chut.ko escape (G.); sut.akn.e~ to vanish (M.)(CDIAL 3797).

1830.Share, portion: kot.t.ha_sa share, portion; adj. divided into (Pali); kot.asa, kohot.a share, part, piece (Si.)(CDIAL 3549). Part of a fortress wall: ko_s'am a part of fortress wall (Ta.lex.) Wall: kundhi a recess in a wall to hold small articles, a corner; sim kundhi a hen-house; ka~t a wall built of mud or clay, to build a wall with clay (Santali.lex.) kud.yam a wall; plastering a wall (Skt.lex.) cf. kud.d.a wall (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3251). go.r. (obl. go.t.) wall (Ko.); go_d.e (Ka.Tu.); go_d.a (Te.); god.a_ (Kol.); ko_d.a wall, prison (Kuwi)(DEDR 2207b). kud.d.a a wall built of wattle and daub; kud.d.a-nagaraka a little wattle and daub town; it.t.haka_-kud.d.a wall of tiles; sila_-kud.d.a wall of stone; da_ru-kud.d.a wall of wood; kud.d.a is explained as: geha-bhittiya_ house having a wall or wall; tirokud.d.an outside the wall; kud.d.aka having a wall; eka-kud.d.aka, dvi-kud.d.aka having single or double walls (Pali.lex.) kud.ya wall (Ya_j.); plastering (a wall)(Skt.); kud.d.a wattle and daub wall (Pali); wall (Pkt.); kud., kud.h, kur.h (Phal.); kut., pl. kur.e (Sh.); ku_d.a (D..); ku_d. wall of slight sticks plastered with mud (M.); kud.n.e~ to fence; kud.an. fence, hedge (M.); kod.a wall; kond.avara wall of wattle and daub (Si.); kuliya, kuliya_ wall (Pkt.); kul. revetting wall (in terracing on the hill-side)(Kho.); kur wall (Tor.); kuda mound of earth, sandhill, heap (Or.); kondu wooden projection from a wall (Si.)(CDIAL 3251). kud.a_va_ wall of wattle and daub (M.); kud.va_ ledge along the bottom of a wall (M.)(CDIAL 3252). kur.a~tar, kur.a~_tro partition wall (G.)(CDIAL 3253). Inner verandah; encircling wall: pakut.a, pakut.t.a an inner verandah (Pali); cf. prakos.t.ha an inner court in a building (Skt.); paot.t.ha (Pkt.); pakulla (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

1831.Image: roofed house: kot.ha or.ak a house with an upper story, or a house with a ceiling; kot.ha an upper story, a ceiling; kot.ha kandha a loft; kot.ko a mound, raised ground (Santali.lex.) gud.i or.ak a house without gables, and the roof sloping all round (Santali.lex.) cf. ko_t.e rampart, fort (Ka.);; ko.t.e palace (Kod..); kot.t.amu fort (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 2207). Image: gate with a small roofing at the top: kot.t.i tower gate in a temple; gate; kot.t.i-y-ampalam a gate with a small roofing at the top (Ta.lex.) cf. kur.ma hut, outhouse (Go.); kut.i house, abode; kut.an:kar hut, cottage (Ta.); kut.il hut, shed, abode (Ta.); kud.l. front room of house (Ko.); gud.il, gud.alu, gud.isalu, gud.asalu, gud.asala hut with a thatched roof (Ka.)(DEDR 1655). Image: door of a city: ku_t.a the door of a city; ku_t.a_ga_ram an apartment on the top of a house; kut.un:gaka a thatch, roof; a hut; a granary; kut.alam a roof, thatch; ko_t.aka a builder of sheds, thatcher; a mixed caste (offspring of a mason by a daughter of a potter); kud.i_ a hut; kut.t.a_rakam a small house, hut (Skt.lex.)

1832.Image; tent: kut.ru tent (B.)(CDIAL 3548). ku_t.aka_ram hall in the topmost floor of a house (Ir-ai. 21,112); balcony (Ci_vaka. 2328, Urai); ku_t.a_ram (ku_t.a_ra mat.a mayilpo_la: Ci_vaka. 2328) (Ta.lex.) ku_t.a_ram tent (Ta.); id., camp (Ma.); gud.a_ra, gun.d.a_ra tent (Ka.); gud.a_ra id. (Tu.); gu_d.a_ramu id. (Te.); kut.aru (Skt.); gud.d.ara id. (Pkt.); gud.ha_r id., howdah (M.)(DEDR 1881). ku_t.am < ku_t.a house; drawing-room, hall; verandah; top (Perun.. Ucaik. 40,72); temple tower, palace tower; open space under trees, considered as a shrine (Tirukko_. 129); ku_t.t.u roof-frame, etc. of a house (Ta.lex.) Hut: kurampai small hut, hovel, shed (Maturaik. 310); kurambu bird's nest (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kumba a hut; kur.ia or.ak, tutkur.ia a small hut (Santali.lex.)House: ku_t.a a house, dwelling (Skt.lex.) kaut.a living in one's own house, hence, independent, free; kaut.ika-taks.a (opp. to gra_ma-taks.a) an independent carpenter, one who works at home on his own account and not for the village (Skt.lex.) Image: a watch house: kundraka, kundraga a watch house; a dwelling raised on a scaffold; kun.t.aka a roof, thatch; kut.am a house (Skt.lex.) cf. guttika a guardian, one who keeps watch over; nagara-guttika the town-watchman, the chief constable (Pali.lex.) cf. kot.t.akai shed with sloping roofs (Ta.)(DEDR 2058). Apartment on the roof of a house: ku_t.a_ga_ra apartment on the roof of a house (R.); building with an upper storey (Pali); ku_d.a_ga_ra house shaped like a crest (Pkt.); kula_ra balcony, gabled house (Si.)(CDIAL 3398).  Hut; bird's nest: kurampai bird's nest (Ta.); kurampu nest made by a sow before littering (Ma.)(DEDR 1773). kut.il hut, shed (Pa_rata. Kirut.. 80); movable, conoidal roof for sheltering beasts or stacks of straw or gate-ways from weather; abode, dwelling place (Kantapu. Kat.avul.. 14); a cone-shaped block of wood used to prevent big cars from running fast and to turn them at street-corners (Ta.lex.) kut.i_ hut (MBh.); single-roomed hut (Pali); kud.i_, kud.aya hut (Pkt.); kuri house, tent, room (Gypsy); kuri, guri tent (Gypsy); kui village, country (Sh.); kur nest or hiding place of fish (N.); kat.-kuro small shed for storing wood (N.); kur.iya_ small thatched hut (B.); kur.i_, kur.ia_ hut (Or.); kur.i_ fireplace (H.); kud.i_ hut (M.); kil.iya hut, small house (Si.)(CDIAL 3232). kut.ikai hut made of leaves, temple (Ta.lex.) Image: halting place for idols; nexus: temple: gurji a temporary halting place for idols, decorated with leaves, flags, etc.; a temporary shed covered with awning for offering oblations to the manes of the deceased S'u_dra-s (Tu.); gurykat. funeral car (?Ko.)(-kat. prob. the bed on which the corpse is placed under the tall, storied framework; cf. kat.e cot (Kui.Malt.); kat.el bed, cot (Pe.Mand..); kat.t.il cot, bedstead, throne (Ta.); bedstead, cot (Ma.)(DEDR 1145). kuruju framework of bamboo slats covered with paper or cloth or leaves, used to put idols in, or by the bride and bridegroom to sit in (Ka.)(DEDR 1786). cf. kilica thin board, bamboo (Skt.); kalaja calamus rotang (Skt.); kalan:ka bamboo (Pkt.); kilam.ja bamboo vessel (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3186). Temple: kur.y Hindu temple (To.); gur.y temple (Ko.); gur.i temple (Go.); gud.i temple (Te.Kol.); id. (Pa.Ga.Go.); small pagoda or shrine (Tu.); central room of house, living room (Kui); kud.s. outer room of dairy, in: kud.s. was. fireplace in outer room of lowest grade of dairies (To.); gud.d.i_ temple, tomb (Go.)(DEDR 1655). kur.e hut (Ga.); kur.ya_ small shed or outhouse (Kur.); kur.ya hut in the hills (Malt.); kud.(d.)i_ hut, small house, wife (Br.); ku_r.i hut made of boughs, etc. (Kui) < kut.i, ku_t.i_ hut (Skt.); kut.i_ra hut (Skt.)(CDIAL 3232, 3233, 3493). Hut: kuccu hut, shed made of palm leaves (Tan-ippa_. i,384,34); small room (Ta.); kut.ijai hut (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 12,43); kut.ical, kut.icai < kut.ika_ small hut, cottage; gutis'e (Te.)(Ta.lex.) kut.i house, home, mansion (Kantapu. A_r-r-u. 12); abode, residence (Tiruva_ca. 2,8); id. (Ta.Ka.); ryot (Poruna. 182); id. (Ma.); family (Pur-ana_. 183); lineage, descent; caste, race; town, village (Tirumuru. 196); kut.i-k-ka_t.u village (Pa_rataven.. Va_cute_van-r-u_. 69); kut.i-k-ka_n.am a fee paid by tenants (I.M.P.Cm. 22); kut.i-ket.utal to be utterly ruined, as a family (Tiruva_ca. 5,2); kut.i-ke_t.i one who is the ruin of a family (Tiruppu. 625); kut.i-ke_t.u ruin of a family (Tiruva_ca. 36,2); kut.ikai hut made of leaves, hermitage (Man.i. 6,33); temple (Man.i. 24,161); kut.i-ko_l. ruining of a family by deep-laid schemes (Tol. Po. 258); kut.i-can-am inhabitants, subjects; kut.i-ceytal to bring credit to one's family, as making it (Kur-al., 1025); to dwell, reside (Te_va_. 413,10)(Ta.lex)

1833.Image: granary; monk's cell; brick-built house: kot.ha_ brick-built house (B.Or.); granary (H.); large granary (M.); kot.t.ha monk's cell (Pali); da_ntar-kut.ha fire-place (Sv.); kut.hu room (K.); kot.ho large room (S.); kot.ha_ hut, room, house (L.); kot.ha_ house (L.); kot.ho room (Marw.); kot.hari_ chamber (Or.); kut.hari_ chamber (A.); kut.hri_ (B.); kot.hari (Or.); kot.hla_ room (H.)(CDIAL 3546). ko_t.t.am temple; ko_r..i-cce_var- kot.iyo_n- ko_t.t.amum (Cilap. 14,10); room, enclosure (Man.i.6,59); camp; prison; place; cow-shed; herd of cows (Ta.lex.) cf. kut.i house, abode, home, family, town, tenants; kut.ikai hud made of leaves, temple; kut.ical hut; kut.icai; kut.iai small hut, cottage; kut.il hut, shed, abode; kut.an:kar hut, cotage (Ta.); gud.i central room of a house, living room (Kui); gud.d.i temple (Go.)(DEDR 1655). cf. ku_t.u receptacle for grain (Ta.)(DEDR 1883). X Shop, factory; granary: kot.hi_ shop, brothel (L.); big well-built house, house for married women to prostitute themselves in (P.); kot.t.hi_ (P.); ko_s.t.ha granary, storeroom (MBh.); inner apartment (Skt.); ko_s.t.haka treasury (Skt.); kot.t.ha storeroom (Pali); kot.t.haka storeroom (Pali); kot.t.ha, kut.t.ha, kot.t.haya granary, storeroom (Pkt.); ko_t.ha granary; kut.hu granary, storehouse (K.); kot.hi_ storeroom (S.); kot.ha_ hut, room (L.); house (L.); house with mud roof and walls, granary (P.); kot.t.ha_ id. (P.); kut.hi_ house (WPah.); kot.ho large square house (Ku.); chamber (N.); ko_t.hi room, building (Ku.); kut.hi shop (N.); kot.ha_, ko~t.ha_ room (A.); kut.hi_ factory (A.); kot.a storehouse (K.); kut.hi_ bank, granary (B.); kot.hi_ factory, granary (Or.); granary of straw or brushwood in the open (Bi.); grain-chest (Mth.); granary, large house (H.); factory (G.); granary, factory (M.); kot.ho room (Marw.); jar in which indigo is stored; warehouse (G.); kot.ha storeroom (OAw.); ku_t.huru small room (K.); kot.hr.i_ small side room (L.); room, house (P.); kot.her.i_ small room (Ku.); kothr.i_ room, granary (H.); kot.hd.i_ room (M.); kut.hari_ chamber (A.); kut.hri_ (B.); kot.hari (Or.); kotul wattle and mud erection for storing grain (Sh.); kot.hla_, kot.hli_ room, granary (H.); kot.hlo wooden box (G.)(CDIAL 3546). kut.ru tent (B.)(CDIAL 3548). cf. ku_t.a_ram tent (Ta.); id., camp (Ma.); gud.a_ra, gud.a_re, gun.d.a_ra, gu_d.a_ra tent (Ka.); gud.a_ra id. (Tu.); gud.a_ramu, gud.a_ru, gu_d.a_ramu id. (Te.); kut.aru id. (Skt.); gud.d.ara id. (Pkt.); gud.ha_r id., howdah (M.)(DEDR 1881). Image: sack; grainstore: kotthali_ sack (Pali); kotthala bag, grainstore (Pkt.); ko_ha bag (Pkt.); kothul, kothulu large bag or parcel (K.); kothuju small bag or parcel (K.); kothiri_ bag (S.); kuthlo large bag, sack (Ku.); ku_thli_ satchel, wallet (B.); kuthal.i, kuthul.i, kothal.i, kothil.i wallet, pouch (Or.); kothla_ bag, sack, stomach (H.); kothli_ purse (H.); kothl.o large bag (G.); kothl.i_ purse, scrotum (G.); kothl.a_ large sack, chamber of stomach (M.); kothl.e~ sack (M.); gothiri_ bag (S.); gutthla_ (L.); kothl.i_ small sack (M.)(CDIAL 3511). ko_tu covering, capsule, pod (Tailava. Taila. 18)(Ta.lex.) Sack: go_n.i a sack, a pack-sack (Ka.Skt.M.); go_n.i, go_ne (Te.); ko_n.i (Ma.Ta.); ko_n.ikai, ko_n.iyal (Ta.); gavasan.ike, gavasan.i (Ka.); gavasan.isu to inwrap, to cover (Ka.); gavasan.ige a cover, a cloth, a sack; any cover or case (Ka.); kavican-ai (Ta.); kaviyan (Ma.); gavisane (Te.); kacul.i (Ta.); go_ta a sack (Te.); kavi to cover; kavavu to put in, enclose (Ta.); go_n.itat.t.u sackcloth (Ka.); go_n.ta_t.a (M.); go_n.i a burden of wares (M.); ragged clothes (Ka.); the measure of a dro_n.a (Ka.lex.) Granary: kutir large earthen receptacle for storing grain (Ta.); kudir receptacle for grain made of earthen hoops or bamboo mats, a granary (Ka.)(DEDR 1710). kuduru recovery of health, adjustment, fitness, beauty, symmetry, steadiness, a ring of straw, rope, etc., placed under a pot to prevent its rolling over, a support, a rim of stone or other material placed under a mortar to prevent spilling of rice; well-formed, beautiful (Te.); to settle, recover from illness, be set, arranged, fixed, settled, set right, be reformed, become firm, resolute, prosper, succeed; n. (also kudri) settlement, symmetry, orderliness, health, a rim preventing grain flying out of a mortar [cf. kundi (Te.)], a ring of cord to prevent a pot from rolling over (Ka.); kudurcu, kudirincu to arrange, adjust, settle, cure, rectify; kudirika state of being well-adjusted, steadiness; kodaru to increase, abound; kudut.a-bad.u to become settled, well-grounded, arranged, quieted, pacified (Te.); kuduruni to recover from sickness (Tu.); kutir (-v-, -nt-) to be settled, determined, fixed up (Ta.); kud-id.- (-it.-) to fix firmly in ground, tamp earth around (post), hammer end of iron bar to shorten it, apply force (Ko.)(DEDR 1709). kudi fixed, settled (Tu.)(DEDR 1709). Image: pial: guduri a long pial in the house to keep waterpots, etc. on (Kond.a); kudru top of fireplace (Kuwi); kudut.abad.u well-grounded, quieted, pacified (Te.)(DEDR 1709). To plant, fix: kuttu (kutti-) to plant, set, fix in the ground, set on edge (as bricks in arching, terracing); kutta_n.-kal, kutt-kkal stone or brick laid upright on edge (Ta.); kut- (kuty-) to build up stones into wall (Ko.); kus't- (kus'ty-) to build (wall of pen, etc.) with stones (To.); kutukal, kotokal memorial menhir (Go.)(DEDR 1720). cf. kunda a pillar of bricks, etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 1723). Granary: kot.t.u granary (Par..a. 388, Urai.); basket made of rattan; trunk of palmyra (Ta.); kot.t.il shed; hut (Perun.. Ucaik. 43,199)(Ta.lex.) cf. kot.t.a_ram (Perun.. Makata. 14,19)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); kot.a_ramu (Te.); kot.t.a_ra (Tu.Ka.); kot.t.a_ram place where paddy or other grains are husked (Ta.); kot.a_ru_ id. (Ka.); kot.t.am small ola basket (Cir-upa_n.. 166); kot.t.aka_ram store-room, granary (Periyapu. It.an:kar..i. 7); kot.t.aka_ram id. (Ma.); kot.a_ramu (Te.); kot.t.a_ra id. (Tu.); kot.t.at.i room, as kitchen, store-room (Ta.); ko_t.had.i (M.); ko_t.hari (U.)(Ta.lex.) ko_s.t.ha an apartment; a granary; ko_s.t.ha_ga_ra, ko_t.a_ra, ko_t.t.a_ra a store-room; a treasury; ko_s'a, ko_s.a a storehouse, a treasury; a treasure, a store, provisions; ko_s'agr.ha a room in which valuable things are kept or contained; a treasury; ko_s.t.haka a surrounding wall; kot.t.age a stall or out-house (Ka.)(Tadbhava of kut.an:ka or kut.aka_ a hut?)(Ka.lex.) kottu:n a storeroom, barn (Sora.); kottu:dolai Bisoyis' storekeeper (Te.) (Sora. lex.) Storekeeper: ko_s.t.haga_rika storekeeper (BHSk.); kot.t.ha_ga_rika (Pali); kot.ha_ri_ one who in a body of faqirs looks after the provision store (S.); treasurer (Or.); storekeeper (Bhoj.); kut.hiya_ri_ (H.)(CDIAL 3551). kot.hval.a_ storekeeper (M.); ko_s.t.hapa_la (Skt.)(CDIAL 3547). kot.t.an.a, kot.n.a beating the husk from paddy (Ka.); kot.t.amu (Te.); kot.t.an.age_ri a street where people live who perform kot.t.an.a; kot.t.an.agitti a female who beats husk from paddy (Ka.); kot.t.a_ri the officer in charge of a granary or warehouse, a steward (Ka.); cf. kot.t.a_ra, kot.a_ra (Tadbhava of ko_s.t.ha_ga_ra a store-room, a treasury) a threshing-floor (Ka.lex.) Treasury: cf. kot.t.haka the stronghold over a gateway, used as a store-room for various things, a chamber, treasury, granary; kot.t.hake pa_turahosi appeared at the gateway, i.e. arrived at the mansion; kot.t.ha a closet, a monk's cell, a storeroom; kot.t.ha_gara storehouse, granary, treasury; paripun.n.a-kosa- kot.t.ha_ga_ra 'with stores of treasures and other wealth'; explained as threefold, viz., dhana-, dha_a-, vattha- treasury, granary, warehouse; kot.t.ha_sa share, division, part; kosa-kot.t.ha_ga_ra explained as: koso vuccati bhan.d.a_ga_ran, i.e. a treasury and granary; kosa-a_rakkha keeper of the king's treasury (or granary)(Pali.lex.) ko_s.t.ha_ga_ra storeroom, store (Mn.); kot.t.ha_ga_ra storehouse, granary (Pali); kot.t.ha_ga_ra, kot.t.ha_ra storehouse (Pkt.); kut.ha_r wooden granary (K.); kot.ha_r (WPah.); kut.hari_ apartment (A.B.); kot.hari (Or.); kot.ha_r zemindar's residence (Aw.); kut.hiya_r granary (H.); kot.ha_r granary, storehouse; kot.ha_riyu~ small granary, small storehouse (G.); kot.ha_r, kot.ha_re~ large granary; kot.ha_ri_ small granary (M.); kot.a_ra granary, store (Si.)(CDIAL 3550). Room near the gate of a palace: prako_s.t.ha the room near the gate of a palace; a court in a house, a quadrangle or square (surrounded by buildings; prako_s.t.haka a room near the gate of a palace (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) prako_s.t.ha a court in a house, an open space surrounded by buildings (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kor-r-u masonry, brickwork; mason, bricklayer; the measure of work turned out by a mason (Ta.lex.) cf. kottava_l chief police officer for a city or town, superintendent of markets (Ta.); kotwa_l (U.); kottava_r-ca_vat.i central place in some towns serving as a market for provisions etc. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ko_t.t.a much, plenty (Ma.)(DEDR 2208). ko_t.t.ai a land-measure (I.M.P.Tn. 278); a straw-covering with paddy stored in (Tiruva_lava_. 50,13); stack of straw or hay (Tanippa_. i,4,3); abundance, plenty; bundle, as of tamarind, plantain leaves, et., enclosed in matting or other covering; ko_t.t.ai-kat.t.u to store paddy-seeds in bundles; ko_t.t.ai-p-po_r hay-stack; ko_t.t.ai-k-kat.an- short loan money returnable in kind after harvest; ko_t.t.ai virai-p-pa_t.u land measure about 1.62 acres = the extent of land which requires one ko_t.t.ai of seed for sowing (G.Tn.D. I, 238)(Ta.lex.)

1834.Image: cross-roof: kudume the side or cross-roof of a house (Tu.lex.)

1835.Image: fox: kudk a fox (Tu.lex.)

1836.Small island: kuduru a small island, a sand-bank (Tu.lex.) kudro, kudrya_ island (Kon.lex.)

1837.Image: boat: kundri a small craft or vessel from the Maldive islands (Tu.lex.)

1838.Measure of camphor: kutiram 35 kar..acu of camphor (Kan.akkati.) (Ta.lex.) kut.t.e, kut.ya_ 1/2 seer; 1/4 seer (of rice and the like)(Kon.lex.)

1839.Image: a cut-throat: go_n.a, go_n.uma_ri a man who is a cut-throat; a man who kills (Ka.lex.) Image: throat: go_n., go_n.a, go_n.u, go_r.. the nape of the neck, the neck; thee throat; go_na_l.i the throat, the neck; go_mana_l.i the neck or throat including also the Adam's apple and its corresponding place in beasts (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

1840.Gum: ko_ntu gum (Ta.lex.) go_ndu, go_nda gum (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) go_ndu (Te.); go_nd (U.); ko_ntu-tta_n- gum-pot, gum-bottle (C.G.); go_nd-da_n (U.)(Ta.lex.) gu~_d gum (Pas'.); gu~d a plant from which mats are made, gum (N.); go~d gum (B.); gunda, gonda (Or.); gon gum (Mth.); gu~_d, go~d gum; gu~_dni_, go~dni_ the gum fruit tree cordia rothii or angustifolia (H.); gu~dar, gu~d gum (G.); go~d gum (M.) ko_tu refuse, waste, empty kernels of grain, lees, residuum, leavings; fibre, as of a tamarind fruit, sugarcane (Na_lat.i, 34)(Ta.lex.) Fibre: ko_tunarampu fibre (C.G.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) go_d.u sediment taken from the bottom of wells, tanks etc. (Ka.lex.) gum.davad.aya a partic. kind of sweetmeat (Pkt.); gu~dvar., gu~dvar.u~ (G.)(CDIAL 4200).

1841.Cordia myxa: gondhan (M.) = cordia dichotama = cordia myxa (GIMP, p.77). Cordia rothii = cordia angustifolia: gondi (H.P.); gundi (M.); laghushleshmataka (Skt.); selu (Ta.); chinna-botuku (Te.); decoction of bark: astringent, used asw gargle; habitat: Punjab, Sind, Rajputana, Gujarat, Deccan and Carnatic. Cordia wallichii = cordia obliqua: bara lessura (H.); bahubara (B.); burgund (M.); shelu (Skt.); namaviri (Ta.); peddanakkera (Te.); periyaviri (Ma.); fruit: demulcent, expectorant, astringent, useful in bronchial affections and in irritation of urinary passages; habitat: Gujarat, N. Kanara, Deccan and W. Ghats of Madras State (GIMP, p.77). gundra saccharum sara; gundra_ the reed typha angustifolia (Sus'r.); gun.d.a scirpus kysoor; gun.d.a_ a kind of reed; gun.d.ra, gun.d.ra_ a kind of cyperus (VarBr.S.); gunda_ the grass cyperus pertenuis (Pali); gum.da a grass (Pkt.); gunda, gund, gun vine (Pas'.); gu~d a plant from which mats are made (N.); gunri a mat (N.); go~d a reed (Bi.); go~dri_ a mat made therefrom (Bi.); gu~dr.o bulrush (G.); go~d, go~dni_ the reed typha angustifolia (H.); go~dn.i_, go~dhan., go~dhn.i_ cordia myxa; go~dhan. its fruit (M.); gum.da a kind of grass (Pkt.); gun. vine (Pas'.); ku_ndr bulrush, typha angustifolia (L.)(CDIAL 4199).

1842.Image: jungle sheep: kon.d.a a hill or jungle sheep (Ka.); kon.d.a-gor-e id. (Ka.); kon.d.a, kauhis.a the four-horned antelope, tetraceros quadricornes (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: antelope: cf. kon.d.a-gor-r-e deer, antelope (Te.)(DEDR 2165b). cf. kori antelope (Kol.)(DEDR 1785). cf. kad.as sambur deer (Kol.)(DEDR 1114).

1843.Gond tribe: ko_ mountain (Ta.); ko_du a Khond, man of a certain hilltribe (Te.); ko_ya name of a certain tribe of mountaineers (Te.); koitur a Gond male; ko_i_ta_r. a Gond female; koy, koya Gond man; koytand. (pl. koytar.) Koya man (Go.); ku_bi the Kond.a Dora (Kond.a); ku_i the Kond tribe or language; ku_enju a Kond man or boy; fem. ku_ali; kui above, aloft, over; atop, upon; kuiki to the place above; kuit.i from the place above (Kui); ku_vina the Parja Khonds; kui up, above, west; ku_ita in the west (Kuwi)(DEDR 2178). gond.a man of Gond tribe (Kol.Nk.); a man of low tribe (in the Vindhya mountains), a mountaineeer (Skt.); a forest, jungle (Pkt.); go_nd. Gond (Pe.); go_nd.a the Gond tribe; go_nd.enju (pl. go_nd.enga) a Gond man or boy; fem. go_nd.ali (pl. go_nd.aliska, go_nd.asaka)(Kui); gond.ortad fem. a woman of Gond tribe (Kol.); gond. man od Gond tribe; fem. gond.ia (Nk.)(DEDR 2077); gom.d.a forest (Pkt.); gunno rascal (WPah.); go~r. a partic. non-Aryan tribe (B.Bhoj.); gun.d.a_ rascal, bully (Or.); go~d.a_ (H.)(CDIAL 4276). Image: mountain: kunnam mountain (Ma.); konr-a id. (inscr.)(Te.); kondi mountain; pl. kondkul (Pa.); kunr-uvar mountaineers (Ta.); kunr-am, kunr-u hill, mountain (Ta.); kunnan mountaineer (Ma.); kur.u hill (Ma.); kundi mountain (Kod..); konr.a (Inscr.), kon.d.a mountain, hill, rock (Te.); kuruva, (Inscr.) kur-uva a raised ground, footpath on a hill (Te.); kod hill (Nk.); kond.ekor the Gadbas near Salur (Ga.); kur.u hill (Go.); kur.o mountain, forest (Go.); gor-on (pl. gor-oku/gor-onku) hill, mountain, forest on a hill (Kond.a)(DEDR 1864).

1844.Image: alligator: cf. go_dha_ alligator (Skt.lex.) Porpoise: ni_ru-go_d.aga, ni_ru-ko_d.aka the gangetic porpoise, delphinus gangeticus, s'is'uma_ra, mosal.e, crocodile, alligator (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. gho_n.a_ the nose, snout (Skt.lex.) ko_tikai < go_dhika_ crocodile (Ta.lex.) go_dhi, go_dhike, go_dhika_ gangetic alligator; an allegator; lacerta godica, the aquatic iguana; an iguana; go_dhe, go_dda, go_dha a large kind of lizard, an iguana (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) go_dhi the gangetic alligator; go_dha_ the alligator (Skt.lex.) godha_, godha, golika_ iguana, a large kind of lizard (Pali)(Pali.lex.) cf. kudur d.okka a kind of lizard (Pa.); kudur d.okke id.; kudur d.ekke garden lizard; kidri d.okke house lizard (Go.)(DEDR 1712). kaul.i, kavul.i house-lizard (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_t.. Kur-a. 11); gavul.i, gaval.i = musali, mus.ali = house-lizard (Ka.); gaul.i (Te.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kol. seizing, preying; taking (Ka.Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

1845.Wheat: go_di, go_dive, go_dume, go_duve wheat, triticum vulgare villars; go_dhuma (Ka.); ko_di (Ta.); ko_dambu (Ma.); go_di-kallu a stone for grinding wheat (Ka.); go_di-ka_r..u a grain of wheat; wheat; go_di-sara a string of gold beads in the form of grains of wheat (Ka.M.)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) go_dhu_ma (having pith, good 'pith') wheat (TS.VS.); gandama (H.)(Vedic.lex.) guhum, gohum wheat (Santali. lex.) Wheat; grain: godhu_ma (VS.Pali); go_duma, gohomi, goma (NiDoc.); go_hu_ma (Pkt.); gisu, ge_su_, ge_su_wi, gihi, giu, giv wheat, rye (Gypsy); gehu~_ wheat (S.); ghe~h wheat (A.); gohu~ (WBi.); gahu~_ (WPah.H.M.); gyu~_ (Ku.); gahu~ (N.Or.G.); gau~ (N.); ghe~h (A.); go_m, gu_m (Ash.); gu_m (Kt.); umu_ (Pr.); ulyum growing wheat (Pr.); xo_lum (Brah.); go_m wheat (Dm.); guyu (K.); guo_me, go_mu, gum wheat (Dardic); go_hu~_ (Bhoj.Aw.); gohu~_ (H.); gehu~_ (H.); gahu~, ghau~ (G.); gam.v (Konkan.i); goyama growing corn (Si.); gomdha_n maize (A.); gom, gam wheat (B.); gahama (Or.); gahum, gohum (Bi.); gohum, gahu_m (Mth.)(CDIAL 4287). xo_lum wheat (?Br.)(DEDR 1906)(DBIA 123). ko_tumpai, ko_tumam, ko_tumai < go_dhu_ma (Skt.) wheat, triticum vulgare (Pata_rtta. 827); ko_tu_mam id. (Tiruva_n-aik. Na_n-avi. 25)(Ta.lex.) godhu_ma triticum aestivum (Car. Su. 3.23, 6.25). godhuma, godhu_ma wheat (Skt.lex.) Triticum aestivum = triticum sativum: godhuma (Skt.); gehun, giun (H.); kanak (P.); gam (B.); gahu (M.); gendum (Ma.); godumulu (Te.); godumai (Ta.); seeds: cooling, tonic fattening; increase appetite and relish for food; useful medicine in general disorders of health; habitat: widely cultivated in many parts of N. India and the Deccan Peninsula, especially in the north-west, and upto 13,000 ft. in the Himalayas and Tibet (GIMP, p.249).

1846.Millet: konde:men, konde:m sar-en a kind of coarse variety of corn grown on the hills, which the Sora-deities prefer to the paddy grown on wet lands (cf. de:m-en, contr. form)(Sora.); kunde:m (Pareng); kondemmulu (Te.) kode a cultivated millet, eleusine coracana; lapr.a kode, lapra kode, man.d.wi kode, bhador kode varieties of eleusine coracana known to the Santals; gundli a cultivated millet, panicum miliare; layo gundli a cultivated millet, panicum antidotale; sumtu bukuc, suntu bukuc eleusine aegyptiaca (Santali.lex.) Edible grain: kodo a small edible grain (Ku.); kodo eleusine indica (N.); p. scrobiculatum (B.Mth.H.); kodua (Or.); kodo p. frumentaceum (Bi.); kodai_ a smaller variety (Bi.); kodo_ p. scorbiculatum (H.); kodaw (H.); kodra_ (H.<P.); m. pl. the grain (G.); ko_drava paspalum scrobiculatum (a grain eaten by the poor)(MBh.); ko_dravaka (BHSk.); ko_radu_s.a (Sus'r.); kudru_sa (Pali); ko_d.u_saga (Pkt.); ko_d.u_saga (Pkt.); koddava, kuddava (Pkt.); kuduru (K.); kod.rir.i_ f. (S.); kodra_ (P.); koda_, kodo~ (P.< H.); kod.l.o (WPah.); kodri_ f. the grain separated from the chaff (G.>); kodru_ (M.)(CDIAL 3515). A grain: ko_drava the grain paspalum frumentaceum or paspalum scrobiculatum (Ka.); unna_l.a, ha_raka (Ka.); ko_dravi_n.a, kaudravi_n.a a ko_drava field (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_drava a species of grain eaten by the poor; ko_da_ra a grain (Skt.lex.) A grain: kunta a kind of grain; kuntala barley (Skt.lex.) kudru_sa, kudru_saka a kind of grain (Pali.lex.) Granary: cf. kutir large receptacle for storing grain (Ja_n-ava_. Mittai. 11)(Ta.lex.); receptacle for grain made of earthen loops or bamboo mats, a granary (Ka.)(DEDR 1710). o_de sheaf of corn (Te.lex.) Paspalum scrobiculatum: kodrava paspalum scrobiculatum (Car. Su. 21.25, Ci. 14.205); kodo (H.); kodoadhan (B.); kodra (M.P.); varagu (Ta.); kiraruga (Te.); plant: used in scorpion sting, occasionally develops narcotic properties; habitat: throughout hotter part of India, wild or cultivated (GIMP, p.186). rukhi a cultivated millet (Santali.lex.)

1847.Image: drum: ko_ntula_ a kind of musical drum used by Mahratta beggars (Ta.); go_n.dhala (M.)(Ta.lex.) Image: hand drum: kut.ukkai a hand drum (Cilap. 3,27, Urai)(Ta.lex.) ut.ukkai small drum tapering in the middle (Ta.); ut.ukka a tabor resembling an hour-glass (Ma.); ud.uku a kind of small drum (Tu.); ud.uka small drum of the shape of an hour-glass (Te.)(DEDR 589). hud.ukka- a kind of rattle or small drum (Skt.); hud.ukka_ a kind of drum (Skt.) d.hak a drum; d.um-d.hukak a drum (Santali.lex.)

1848.Careya arborea: go_n, go_nu, go_na mara the tree careya arborea or salvadora persica (Ka.lex.) go_n.i, go_l.i the tree called ficus elastica, ficus religiosa (Ka.lex.)

1849.Title of kings: ko_tai a title of the Chera kings (Pur-ana_. 172,10)(Ta.lex.)

1850.Indian laburnum: svarn.adru, svarn.apus.pa cassia fistula (Skt.); suvarn.aka cathartocarpus fistula (Bhpr.); xona_ru cassia fistula (A.)(CDIAL 13521). kon-r-ai Indian laburnum, cassia fistula, red Indian laburnum, cassia marginata; Siamese tree senna, cassia siamea (Ta.); konna cassia fistula (Ma.); konde id. (Ka.); kond pudding-pipe tree (Tu.)(DEDR 2175).

1851.Concern: god.ave connexion, concern with (Ka.); god.av id. (Tu.); god.ava bother, worry, fuss (Te.)(DEDR 2048).

1852.Spool on which gold or silver wire is wound; gold lace: go~_t.u an ornamental appendage to the border of a cloth, fringe, hem, edging (Te.); ko.n.t.l. pocket in outside edge of cloak (Ko.); kwi.s. id. (To.); kwi.t.y id. (in songs)(To.); go_t.u border or hem of a garment; fringe, edging, trimming (Ka.); embroidery, lace (Tu.); got. hem of garment (M.); got.a_ edging of gold lace (H.)(DEDR 2201). gu~_ju~ bag or pocket attached to a coat (G.)(CDIAL 4174). got. spool on which gold or silver wire is wound (P.); got.t.a_ gold or silver lace (P.); got.o gold or silver lace (S.); got. edging of silver lace (H.); hem of a garment (M.); got.a edging of gold braid (K.); got.t.i_ lump of silver, clot of blood (G.); got.t.a_ gold or silver lace (P.); got.a_ roundish stone (M.); edging of silver or gold lace [H. > got.a edging of gold braid (K.)]; got.i_ small ball, cocoon (Or.)(CDIAL 4271). kot.i gold or silver thread worn round a person's waist (S.I.I. ii,5); kot.i-k-kayir-u well-twined rope; kot.ukku ornamental hangings or ends of cloth: kaccaipun-aintatile_ vit.t.a_n- perun:kot.ukku : Tiruva_lava_. 30,9); cloth passed between the legs and tucked up behind; kot.umpu small fibrous rising on a surface of thread or string (Malaipat.u. 24, Urai); kot.u-mat.i cloth at the waist folded to hold things, as in a bag: (kot.umat.i yut.aiyar ko_r-kai-k- ko_valar : Akana_. 54,10); kot.uman.am an ancient town noted for the manufacture of jewellery (Patir-r-up. 74)(Ta.lex.) Gold or silver lace: [cf. guji_ < semant. go_t. gold/silver thread. cf. image: abrus precatorius.] gu~_ju~ bag or pocket attached to a coat (G.); guji_ skein of gold or silver thread (P.); guu wrinkle (S.); gum.jellia made into a lump (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4174). kuca crimpled border of cloth; kuca_ pleated (Or.)(CDIAL 3223). kora edge, binding, tape (S.); kor edge, hangnail (P.); edge, tip (H.); edge (G.); side, direction (M.)(CDIAL 3531).

1853.Base of a hand-spindle: kot.t.ai base of a hand-spindle; nu_r-kum. katirin kot.t.ai (Ta.lex.) Rolls of cotton prepared for spinning: kot.t.ai rolls of cotton prepared for spinning: (kot.t.ai-t- talaippa_l kot.uttu : Tiv. Periya_r... 3,5,1); pad for carrying a load; small round pillow, cushion: (pacin-net.t.an.ai yaruka_k kot.t.aikal. parappi : Patin-o. Tiruvit.aima. Mum. 19); knob of wooden sandals: (pavar..a-k- kot.t.ai-p- por-ceru-p- pe_r-r-i : Perun.. Makata. 22,202); knots made of warp threads at the end of a cloth: kot.t.ai-k- karaiya pat.t.ut.ai nalki (Poruna. 155); warp threads at the end of a cloth hanging loosely and not made into knots (Poruna. 155, Urai); head of a pole used as a prop: man.ipun-ai cempor- kot.t.ai (Ci_vaka.113)(Ta.lex.) To spin cotton (yarn): kot.t.ai-nu_l, kot.t.ai-nu_r-r-al to spin cotton; kot.t.ai-y-it.u to prepare cotton yarn (Ta.lex.)

1854.Jujube: kot.t.ai-ilantai woody-fruited jujube, zizyphus xylopyrus (Ta.); kon.t.ai jujube tree (Ta.); kot.t.a, kod.aci-gid.a z. xylopyrus (Ka.); kot.t.e-mul.l.u id. (Tu.); got.t.i, got.ike id. (Te.); ghotia id. (Go.); ghat.o_l mar.a_ id., the gont. tree (Go.); ghon.t.a_ a kind of jujube; got.a_ zizyphus jujuba (Skt.)(DEDR 2070). kol.a_, kol.i the jujube tree and its fruit (Or.); kuvala the fruit of zizyphus jujuba (VS.); kuvali_ (Skt.); ko_la the fruit (ChUp.); the jujube tree (Pali.Pkt.); kuvali_ name of a partic. tree (Pkt.); kul, ku_l the jujube (B.); koli the tree (Si.)(CDIAL 3358). kur.it rama, rama kur.it zizyphus oxyphylla (Santali.lex.)go_ti woman (Te.); ko_tai woman (beautiful as a garland)(Ta.)(DEDR 2214).

1855.Image: watercarrier: ko_t.iyar those who carry palanquin at its two ends; professional dancers: kot.umpar-ai-k- ko_t.iyar (Maturaik. 523); cf. ko_t.i end, tip, point (Ta.); ko_d.i (Te.)(Ta.lex.) kol.i_ a caste of water-carriers (M.); a particular S'u_dra caste (G.)(CDIAL 3535). ko_t.iyan-, ko_t.ik-ka_ran- one who carries temple va_kanam (Ta.lex.)

1856.Weaver; spider: mak-ko_d.a_ merges two streams of cognate etyma: maggam loom (Te.); ko_t.i cloth. The word is a composite of: makara_ spider (A.)(CDIAL 9883) and: ko_ndru spider (Pe.); ko_chuti, ko_cudi, ko_cot.i id. (Kuwi); go_ndru, go_nzru, go_nzur(i) id. (Kond.a); kova~se id. (Ga.); ko.j id. (Ko.); ko_ca in : puli-ko_ca a large venomous spider (Te.)(DEDR 2195). Munda word for spider: in mak-ko_d.a_ (Pkt. > markat.a spider (CDIAL 9883). Weaver: ko_t.ikar weaver (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kaulika a weaver (Skt.lex.) ko_likan-, ko_liyan- a caste of weavers (Ne_mina_. Er..ut. 16, Urai.); a kind of coarse cloth, as woven by ko_likar (Tol. Col. 114, Urai.); ko_lika-p-par-aiyan-, ko_liya-p-par-ai a division of the Pariah caste who weave coarse cloths; ko_lika-k-karuvi loom (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kuli weaver (Or.); ko_lia weaver, spider (Pkt.); kori_ weaver (S.); koriar.o spider (S.); koli weaver (Ku.); koli_, kolhi_ Hindu weaver (H.); kol.i_ a partic. S'u_dra caste (G.); kol.i_ a caste of water-carriers, a sort of spider (M.); karol.iyo, kara_liyo spider (G.); in form the same as karol.iyo potter (CDIAL 3535). Spider: gan:gar-bu_t. spider (Bshk.)(CDIAL 4109) To be entangled (thread): go_ju to entangle, be entangled (as thread); n. state of being entangled, of being embarrassed (Ka.); guju to entangle, be entangled; n. state of being entangled (Ka.); go_ju, go_ja_d.u to pester, harass, trouble (Te.)(DEDR 2190). Fleecy cloth: ko_java fleecy cloth (Skt.); rug or cover with long hair, fleecy counterpane (Pali); ko_yavaya coverlet made of cloth stuffed with cotton-wool (Pkt.); kondu made of goat's hair (Si.)(CDIAL 3490). The words for nest, birdcage: ku_t.u (Ta.)(DEDR 1883) and kula_ya nest (AV.)(CDIAL 4525) explain the two streams of etyma: ko_t.ikar weaver (Ta.)(DEDR 2198)[ko_t.ikar varaippin-um (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 8,67)]; and ko_lia weaver (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3535). Weaver, spider: ko_t.ikar weaver (Ta.)(DEDR 2198). ko_lika weaver (Yas'ast.); Mu. word for 'spider' in mak-ko_da (Pkt.)[makara_ spider (A.)(CDIAL 9883)]. Weaver: ko_lia weaver, spider (Pkt.); kori_ weaver (S.); koriar.o spider (S.); koli weaver (Ku.); kuli weaver (Or.); koli_, kolhi_ Hindu weaver (H.); kol.i_ a particular s'u_dra caste (G.); kol.i_ a caste of water-carriers, a sort of spider (M.); karol.iyo, kara_liyo spider (G.)[in form the same as karol.iyo potter < kaula_la.](CDIAL 3535). ko_la name of a degraded tribe (Pkt.); kol name of a Mun.d.a_ tribe (B.)(CDIAL 3532). kula_la potter (VS.); kaula_la id. (VS.S'Br.); potter's ware (A's'rGr.); kaula_laka (Pa_n..) > Persian > Para_chi_. Iranian kelali_ pot; non-Aryan; prob. Drav. kut.a- (Ta.)] kula_la-cakka potter's wheel (Pali); kula_la potter (Pkt.); kra_l potter (K.); kroju potter's wife (K.); kula_l.a (Or.); kara_l.iyo seller of earthenware (G.); ko_la_la, kula_la potter (Pas'.); karol.iyo (G.)(CDIAL 3341). Image: watchman, as holding a staff: kai-k-ko_l staff, walking-stick (Ta.Ma.); tan-kai-k-ko_ lamman-ai-k-ko_ la_kiya ja_n-r-u (Na_lat.i, 14); kai-k-ko_l-il.aiyar watchmen, guards, as holding a staff; (ka_var-r-or..ilot.u kai-k-ko_ lil.aiyarum : Perun.. Ucaik. 57,70)(Ta.lex.) Image: goldsmith's pincers: kai-k-ko_l goldsmith's pincers; kai-k-ko_r- kollan- : Cilap. 16,108); kai-kol. to seize, grasp; kan.anirai kai-k-kon.t.u : Pu. Ve. 1,9)(Ta.lex.) Weaver-caste: kaikko_l.a caste whose profession is weaving (Ta.lex.) ko_l.- strength, power, ability; ari lion; ko_l.ari lion. kaiko_la (Te.); kaikko_l.an a caste, mostly weavers, found in all Tamil districts (Ka_cika. Kan:kaiyile. 4); kai-k-ko_l.-mutali chief of the k. caste (kaik ko_l.arkkum kaikko_l. mutalikal.ukkum... ul.l.a manaiyum : S.I.I. i,121)( Ta.lex.) [Perh. the element -ko_l.- is semantically concordant with kolhi_ Hindu weaver (H.)(CDIAL 3535 < Drav. ko_t.ikar weaver (Ta.); ko_t.i new unbleached cloth (M.); ko_r.i loincloth (Kuwi)(DEDR 2198).] To weave: kuyil to weave (Ta.)(u_ciyot.u kuyin-r-a tu_cum pat.t.um : Tol.Col. 74, urai); to plait, braid, intwine; to bore, perforate tunnel (DEDR 1763); to enchase, set, as precious stones; kuyir-r-u to enchase, set, as gems; (man.iyot.u vayiran. kuyir-r-iya : Cilap. 5,147); kuyin-ar those who polish and perforate gems; tailors (Ta.lex.) kuyila_yam bird's nest; pottery, potter's workshop (Ta.lex.) koy to plait, gather into folds, as ends of a cloth; (ko_t.ip pu_ntukil koytu : Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 5,165); koy-y-akam ornamental folds of cloth used as hangings in a hall; (pacum pon-utukkai koyyaka mi_ppat.ana_r-r-in-ar : Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 62); koyya_-k-kayir-u a weaving instrument; kayir-u-tat.i a weaving instrument; (Ta.lex.) New, just made: korra_ fresh (recently made, prepared, or obtained), pure (Kur.)(DEDR 2149). ko_t.i newness; ko_t.akam newness, novelty (Ta.lex.) ko_ra brand new, unused, unwed (K.); koro new, unwed, blank (S.); kora_ fresh, unused (of a pot), simple, stupid (L.); new (of a pot), unbleached, unwed, untaught (P.); rough, uncleaned, unbleached (B.); new (of cloth), unbleached (Or.); new, unhandled, unwed, simple, poor (H.); new, just made, unused (M.); koro unused, dry, rough (Ku.); raw (N.); kora_luga_ unbleached calico (Or.); koru~ new, unwed, unused (G.)(CDIAL 3526). Clothes: ko_r-a rough cloth (Ma.); kwi.r rag (To.); ko_r-i rag, worn-out blanket (Ka.); ko_ro rough cloth (Tu.)(DEDR 2255). ku_r-ai cloth, clothes (Ta.); ku_r-a a set of cloths, thick cloth (Ma.); kor-e clothes (Ka.)(DEDR 1925). Cloth; shroud for burying: ko_t.i newly purchased cloth (Ta.); new, unbleached cloth; shroud for burying (Ma.); ko_t.ikam cloth (Ta.); ko_r.i loincloth (Kuwi)(DEDR 2198);[ko_t.i-y-ut.uttu (Tiv. Na_yc. 6,3)]; ko_t.ikam cloth (Ta.)[(cen:ko_t.ikamum : Perun.. Ucaik. 57,43)]; ko_r.i loincloth (Kuwi)(DEDR 2198).

1857.Image: hand drum: kut.ukkai a hand drum (Cilap. 3,27, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: beating a drum: kot.t.u beating a drum (Ma.)(DEDR 2063).

1858.Ceylon leadwort, plumbago zeylanica: kot.u-ve_li, kot.u-ve_ri, kot.i-ve_li ceylon leadwort, plumbago zeylanica (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 2057). cf. Caraka, Sus'ruta. This is a spreading, somewhat climbing, half-woody plant, 1 to 2 metres in length. The leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate, 4 to 10 cms. long, and pointed at the tip; the base of the stalk is dilated and clasps the stem. The calyx is covered with long-stalked glandular hairs. The corolla is white or very pale blue. The roots contain plumbagin believed to increase the digestive powers and is used in caustic preparations uused for blistering. (Medicinal plants of the Philippines, p. 697).

1859.Image: crest; decoration: ko_t.i_ra a crest, a diadem (Skt.Ka.); ko_t.i ornament, decoration; beauty (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Decorate: ko_t.i to adorn, decorate: (ko_t.ittan-n-a ko_t.uca_l vaiyam : Perun.. Ila_van.a. 8,155); to make, form, build (Ta.lex.) Image: decorated: keydi state of being dressed or decorated (Ka.); kai, kay, key trim, decoration (Ka.); kai decoration (Ta.); kai-se_yu to adorn, ornament (Te.); kai-se~_ta adornment, ornamentation (Te.)(DEDR 2024).

1860.Image: bugle-horn: ko_n.a-k-kompu bugle-horn, wind-instrument; kun-ai the sharp point or tip of a thing (As.t.ap. Tiruvaran.. Ma_. 88); kon-ai tip, end as of a needle (Ta.); kona (Te.); kone (Ka.Tu.) (Ta.lex.)

1861.Image: banner: kot.i banner, flag (Ta.Ma.); kor.y flag on temple (Ko.); gud.i point, flag, banner (Ka.); kod.i flag (Tu.); tip, end of a flame (Te.)(DEDR 2049). Galley or cruiser: kot.i-k-kappal galley or cruiser flying a pennon; kot.imaram flagstaff in a temple (Cilap. 11,136, Arum.); kot.i-k-kampam id. (Ko_yilo. 73)(Ta.lex.) A demon worshipped: ko_d.i a demon worshipped by the Pariahs (Tu.); ko_d.i_ habba a certain festival (Ka.); ko_d.adabbu, ko_d.idabbu, ko_d.edabbu a demon worshipped by the Pariahs; ko_d.i a kind of flag, an image of garud.a, basava, or other demi-god set upon a long post before a temple (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) go_ndal.a, go_ndo_l.u worship of goddess Durga in fulfilment of a vow performed by decorating her image indoors and by dancing in the outer court around a burning lamp, the dancers singing and carrying torches in their hands, the leader of the troop is called a paras'ura_ma (Tu.lex.)

1862.Unite; adhere to: kro_d.i_-karan.am embracing, clasping to the bosom (Skt.lex.) cf. kro_d.a breast, bosom (AV.); kurouru breast (Dm.); kor.i_ breast of a quadruped (L.)(CDIAL 3607). Image: throat: kondoram, kondram the top of the breast bone near the throat, the sternum; kondoramteko t.helaok kana they persist in opposing (Santali.lex.) Image: hump: kod.go, kod.got hunch-backed, a hump; ut. deare kod.go menaka there is a hump on the camel's back; kondo fat necked, thick or bull-necked, fat; gordon thick-necked (Santali.lex.)

1863.Name of a golla: ko_t.a name of a golla (Ka.lex.)

1864.Image: a harrow: ko_t.is'a, ko_t.i_s'a a harrow (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1865.Crore: karo_d.a a crore, a lakh (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) ko_t.i a countless number; a crore or ten millions (Skt.Ka.); ko_t.a_nuko_t.i (Tadbhava of ko_t.yanuko_t.i) to be reckoned by crores, countless (Ka.); ko_t.ya_nako_t.a (M.); ko_t.ya_ntara id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1867.Image: wild cat: kot.al, kot.as a species of wildcat (Santali.lex.) kotti a male or female cat (Ka.); kur-uai, kur-eai, kur-r-e a she-cat (Ma.); kur-ukku, kur-ujju, kurut.t.u to purr (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kan.t.a_ male cat (Ka.); gad.a-berge, gad.o a wildcat (Malt.); ka_t.an tom-cat, male tiger; kat.uvan male of cats, pigs, etc. (Ma.); kat.uvan- tom-cat (Ta.)(DEDR 1140). cf. ked.iak tiger (Kol.)(DEDR 1132).

1868.Image: junction of roads: go_t.u, go_ju the state of being joined, mingled or mixed; go_t.a_d.isu to mix together, stir (Ka.lex.) ku_r. pa_v meeting of ways (Kol.)(DEDR 1882). ko_t.akam junction where several streets meet, crossing (Ta.lex.) cf. semant. s'r.n:ga_t.akam a place where four roads meet (Skt.lex.)

1869.Image: lane; strait: gondi, gondu an alley, a lane, a bye-place (Ka.); gondi, goraje, gorje (Te.); kur-ukku (Ma.); ko_cu (Ta.); go_n.d.a (M.); sandi-gondi a narrow passage in the ocean, a strait (Ka.lex.) gondi, gondu alley, lane, narrow passage in the ocean, strait (Ka.); gondi corner, lane (Te.)(DEDR 2100). o_n.i a footpath (Ma.); lane, alley, street (Ka.); lane, alley (Tu.); o.n.i lane leading to house (Kod..); o_ni-kat.t.u a dark alley, a narrow pass between hills (Te.)(DEDR 1046).

1872. Mouth of a river; confluence of rivers: ku_t.al mouth of a river (Pat.t.in-ap. 98); confluence of rivers; ku_t.ar--can:kamam confluence or junction of the Tungabhadra and the Krishna (Kalin.. Putup. 193) Madura (Kalit. 31); ku_t.ar--ko_ma_n- Pan.d.yan-the king of Madura (Ta.lex.)

1873.Image: sluice: kot.i a channel for carrying off the surplus water of a reservoir; a small branch-channel (Ta.lex.) Image: weir: ko_t.i weir of a tank, outlet for surplus water (Ta.); ko_d.i a passage to carry off excess water, outlet of a tank (Ka.); outlet of tank (Te.)(DEDR 2197). khorlon, duni gad.a a water-channel (Santali.lex.) ko_d.i a passage to carry off excess of water, the outlet of a tank (Ka.); ko_d.u (Ta.); ko_t.a, ko_d.u a channel (Te.); kur..imi a sluice (Ta.); ko_d.i-vari to flow through the outlet of a tank: to flow in streams (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1874.Image; horse; saving; surplus: ko_talu a led horse: something which is more than absolutely necessary (Ka.H.); saving, laying up in: sambal.adalli svalpa ko_talu ur..isuvadu saving a little from wages; ko_talu mutsadi an extra clerk; ko_talu sambal.a extra pay; cf. ko_tu farming, tenanting, contracting, renting (Ka.); kho_ta, kho_ti_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

1875.Image: gateway: ko_t.t.i gateway under a temple tower; (a_yir..ai ko_t.t.a-t-to_n:kirun. ko_t.t.i yirunto_y : Cilap. 30,62); door of a house (Ta.lex.) kot.t.iyampalam a gate with a small roofing at the top (Ta.lex.)

1876.A shrine: gud.i a small pagoda or shrine (Tu.lex.)

1877.Warp: ko_t.t.am warp (Ta.)(DEDR 2054). otor warp of web (Santali.lex.)

1878.Image: lute: ko_t.t.am lute; ko_t.an.ai playing on the lute (Ci_vaka. 603); musical instrument: (pa_t.imir.. pan-ittur-ai-k- ko_t.an.ai yaravamum : Perun.. Ucaik. 41,3); ko_t.u body of a lute: (makara ya_r..in- va_n-ko_t.u tar..i_i : Man.i. 4,56)(Ta.lex.)

1879.Image: bowing: ko_t.t.am bowing in worship, adoration: (mun-n-o_n- kar..ar-ke_ ko_t.t.an tarunan. kurumut.i ver-pan : Tirukko_. 156)(Ta.lex.) kud.bur, kud.un. to bow the head (Santali.lex.)

1880.Side-oven: kot.i side-oven (Ta.); kod.i id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) kot.i, kot.i-y-at.uppu a kind of domestic oven; side-oven (Ta.lex.)

1881.Money transactions: kot.ukkal-va_nkal money transactions, lending and borrowing (Ta.lex.)

1882.To burn incense: ko_d-, ko_t- (ko_tt-) to smoke; burn incense (Pe.); gu_ to smoke (?Pa.); koy smoke (Pe.); go_yi smoke (of kitchen)(Kond.a); gu_i, gu_jkud. smoke (?Pa.); kusso smoke (?Go.); kosso, kosoy, kosoyi soot (?Go.); kosso_ soot on bottom of cooking-pot (?Go.); kuhula smoke (?Kui)(DEDR 2226). xossna_ (xussya_) to burn without flame, catch fire, (fire) catches; xossta'a_na_ to ignite, cause (fire) to catch (Kur.); qose to be burnt, burn; qostre to burn, inflame (Malt.) (DEDR 2042). kuyil, kuyin- cloud (Ta.); kuhka_r fog, mist (Go.); guhra sky, cloud (Go.); kutu kuer.i mist, fog (Kui)(DEDR 1765). kuhi_, kuhed.i_ (Skt.); koi dik to rain while the sun is shining (Kho.); kowa_mowa_ haziness (A.); ko fog, mist (B.); ku_ha_ morning fog (Bi.); kuh fog, mist (Mth.); kuha_ dampness of weather, ground, etc. (M.); kuhi_r. mist, fog, haze (L.); fine rain, mist (P.); kohr.o mist, fog (Ku.); koha_r.a (B.); kuhur.i (Or.); kuhr.i_ (H.); kaurih mist (Sh.); kuhur fog, mist (P.); kohar (H.)(CDIAL 3386). ka_l.ok, duuri mist, fog; darkness (Kon.lex.) kuhes, kuhesa_ mist, fog (Bi.); kuhes, ku_hassa_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 3389).

1883.Farming; tenanting: ko_tu, ko_du farming, tenanting, contracting, renting (Ka.M.); kho_ta, kho_ti_ (M.); ba_ra-ko_tu barracks (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_ttu cantonment (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kaul favourable tenure of land (Ta.U.); cf. kavul favourable tenure of land; agreement whereby land is held for rent either perpetually or for a term of years (G.Sm.D. ii,22); qaul id. (U.); kaul-ta_r, kavul-ta_r ryot holding lands on kavul (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Lease: kuttakai contract of lease (Kumara. Pira. Tiruva_ru_r. 27); lease amount (Ta.); kuttaka contract of lease (Ma.); guttige (Ka.); gutta (Te.Tu.); gutta_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) guttige an exclusive right of sale, farm, a contract, as for tamarind trees, inknuts, liquor etc., monopoly; rental on land; guttige-hola a rented land (Ka.); gutta, gutte (Ka.M.); gutto (S.)(Ka.lex.) jota-dar cultivating tenant (Santali.lex.) cf. abuka_ri, abaka_ri, abka_ri, a_buka_ri revenue derived from duties levied on the manufacture and sale of inebriating liquors (Ka.H.Te.); abuka_ri-gutte monopoly for collecting duties on liquor-manufacture (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Wages paid in kind: kottu wages paid in kind as grain; cooked rice (Tan-ippa_. i,87,171); kottu-k-kan.akku hereditary office of accountant (Ta.lex.)

1884.Registered right for ownership of land: kud.tale the registered right for ownership of landed property (Tu.lex.) kud.ko part, piece; kud. matter (Kon.lex.)

1885.Rice: kodom sar a variety of the rice plant (Santali.lex.)

1886.Image: ox; any horned cattle: go_n.a < gon.a (Pali) an ox (Skt.lex.) gon.a an ox, a bullock; an ox for ploughing; gon.a-sira wild ox ( = araagon.aka); gon.aka a kind of ox, a wild bull; gon.isa_dika, gonisa_di an ox-stall (Pali.lex.) cf. go_de any horned cattle, a beast; god.d.u a bull (Te.); go_ndevar..ayigeya whose banner is a bull: S'iva (Ka.lex.) cf. ka_l.ai steer, bull, ox (Ta.); ka_l.a bull, bullock (Ma.); ka.l.e bull which is leader of the herd (Kod..)(DEDR 1502). cf. ku_l.i ox; covering bull (Pin..)(Ta.); gu_l.i ox (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Cross-wise: ko_n.-pa_yccal cross-wise or slanting direction (Ta.lex.) Image: bull, ox: go_nde a bull, an ox (Ka.); vr.s.abha, basava (Ka.); go_de any horned cattle, a beast; god.d.u a bull (Te.); go_nde var..ayigeya whose banner is a bull: S'iva (Ka.lex.) Bull, ox: kot.t.iyam bull, ox (Ta.Ma.); herd of pack-bullocks (Ta.lex. < Poss. go_s.t.ha.) kot.t.iya_n- carrier (Ta.lex.) go_da ox (Te.); konda_ bull (Kol.); ko_nda bullock (Kol.Nk.Go.); bison (Pa.); ox (Go.); ko_nde cow (Ga.); ko_nde_ bullock (Ga.); ko_nd.a_ bullock, ox (Go.)(DEDR 2216). Image: ox; young bull; adj. 'male': ko_d.i ox (Kui); kajja ko_d.i bull (Kuwi); khor.e male calf (Nk.); ko_r.e young bullock (Kond.a); ko_d.eka~_d.u a young man (Te.); ko_d.e bull (Kol.)(DEDR 2199). ko_d.i cow (Kond.a. Kuwi.Pe.Kui); ku_d.i id. (Mand..); ko_di id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2199). ko_d.e, ko_d.iya young bull; adj. male (e.g. ko_d.e du_d.a bull calf), young, youthful (DEDR 2199). [cf. kaja, kajja big, great (Kuwi); kaya great (Ta.); kayam, kayavu greatness (Ta.); kaya big (Ma.); gaja large (Te.Pe.)(DEDR 1093).] ged.a d.an:gra small ox; d.an:gra ox (Santali.lex.) Image: bull, ox: godho bull (G.); godhu~ young bull (G.); godalu entire bull (OG.); godhliyu~ young bull (G.)(CDIAL 4315). go_n.a bull (BHSk.); wild bull (Pkt.); ox (Pali); go_n.aka wild bull (Pali); go_na (As'.); go_n.a_ bull (Pkt.); gon-geri ox (Si.); gona_ ox (Si.)(CDIAL 4274). Young of a beast; image: male calf: kor-r-i young calf (Ta.lex.) Plough-cow: gun.d.i cow broken to the plough; gan.d.a gun.d.iten siok kana, bith ohon senlena I am ploughing with cows. I can not go to forced labour; Santals plough with cows; gun.d.i ban.d.i, gun.d.hi man.d.hi cows broken to the plough (Santali.lex.) For semant. 'cow' cf. ku.t.e cow (Kol.); khu_t.e, ku_t.e id. (Nk.)(DEDR 1886). gavaya a species of ox, the gayal, bos gavaeus (Skt.Ka.lex.) Image: ox whose horns meet at the points; wild bull: ku_t.u-kompan- ox whose horns almost meet at the points; kun.t.u-k-ka_l.ai covering bull (Ta.lex.) cf. godhalu entire bull (OG.)(CDIAL 4315). god.d.u any beast (Te.); a beast (Te.); god.lu kine, horned cattle (Te.); god. (pl. gor.ku), god.u, god.(u) (pl. god.k) cow (Go.); god.(u) cattle, cow; god.d.u cow (Go.); god.u god.ra cattle, etc. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2074).

1887.Brahmani bull: khu~t. Brahmani bull (Kathiawar G.); khu~t.r.o entire bull used for agriculture, not for breeding (G.)(CDIAL 3899). kun.t.u-k-ka_l.ai covering bull; kun.t.ai bull, ox (vaiyam pu_n:kalla_ cir-ukun.t.ai : Na_lat.i, 350); taurus, a sign of the zodiac (Ta.lex.) cf. gan:gi-reddu bull consecrated to a temple; gan:geddu id. (Te.)(DEDR 815).

1888.Land: khoriyo land on which trees have been cut and burnt and crops sown (< having stumps?)(N.); kho_d.a boundary post (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3748). New; perfected: ko_t.i-t-tarai land newly converted and made fit for cultivation (Ta.lex.) ko_t.ippatta perfected (Pali); kel.apat having reached the top (Si.)(CDIAL 3499). Backyard: ko_t.i backyard of a house; bead, as in carpentry; weir of a tank, outlet for surplus water; limit, bounds; a quality in diamond (Ta.lex.)

1889.Image; warp threads not made into knots; rolls of cotton prepared for spinning: kot.t.ai rolls of cotton prepared for spinning: kot.t.ai-t- talaippa_l kot.uttu (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,5,1); pad for carrying a load; small round pillow, cushion: pacin-net.t.an.ai yaruka_k kot.t.aikal. parappi : Patin-o. Tiruvit.aima. Mum. 19); knob of wooden sandals: pavar..a-k- kot.t.ai-p- por-ceru-p- pe_r-r-i : Perun.. Makata. 22,202); knots made of warp threads at the end of a cloth: kot.t.ai-k- karaiya pat.t.ut.ai nalki (Poruna.155); warp threads at the end of a cloth hanging loosely and not made into knots (Poruna.155,urai); head of a pole used as a prop: man.ipun-ai cempor- kot.t.ai (Ci_vaka.113)(Ta.lex.) To spin cotton (yarn): kot.t.ai-nu_l, kot.t.ai-nu_r-r-al to spin cotton; kot.t.ai-y-it.u to prepare cotton yarn (Ta.lex.) Base of a hand-spindle: kot.t.ai base of a hand-spindle; nu_r-kum. katirin kot.t.ai (Ta.lex.) kuttuni a cloth woven with a silk warp and cotton woof (G.Tj.D. 118) (Ta.< khutani (M.)(Ta.lex.) gus.pita tangled mass (RV.); guphati strings together (Pa_n.Ka_s'.); guttha strung (Pkt.); gu_th round ball of cotton (H.); guthai strings, threads (OMarw.); gumthan.a stringing (Pkt.); gotanava_ to plait, knit, attach (Si.); gu~thnu to string, thread (flowers, etc.)(N.); go_n.t. to tie (Ash.)(CDIAL 4205).

1890.Image: vulva: khod.u vulva (K.)(CDIAL 3790).

1891.Mortgage: kotuvai pledge, pawn, mortgage (Ta.); koduva id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

1892.Images: bowstring; cord of a lute: go_dha_ sinew, bowstring, cord of a lute (RV. x.28.10); go_dha_-vi_n.a_ a lute having strings of a catgut (Vedic.lex.) kutirai bridge of a stringed instrument; twisting stick for making rope, timber-frame for twisting cable (W.)(Ta.lex.) ghu~r.a~ a bowstring (Santali.lex.)

1893.Image: bandicoot: go_dha_ bandicoot rat (TS. v.5.15.1)(Vedic.lex.) kor-r-i bandicoot (Ma.)(DEDR 2170). bhus, bhus god.o the bandicoot rat; god.o a rat (Santali.lex.)

1894.Image: to disentangle hair: ko_tu-tal to disentangle as the hair with the fingers (Perunto. 1323); ko_tu (Ma.); ko_tai woman's hair (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

1895.Image: pin: kon.t.i the pin that holds the share to the plough (Ta.); kon.d.i id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

1896.Image: stalk of a branch: kottal.ige stalk of a coconut branch (Ka.); kottalige, kottal.ige a palm branch stripped of its leaves (Tu.); kontal.gi stalk of a coconut branch (Kor.)(DEDR 2089). cf. ko_t.t.i larger stick in the game of tipcat (Ta.); a stick for play (Ma.); ko.t.y gal big marble used with a lot of small pebbles in one form of jackstraws (Ko.)(DEDR 2208). kot.t.e small stick, match, arrow (Kol.); small stick (Nk.); kot.t.e_yla_ stick (Go.)(DEDR 2071).

1897.Shark: ko_t.t.u-mi_n- shark (Nar-. 49)(Ta.lex.)

1898.Image: hub of a wheel: kur..ici hub of a wheel (Ci_vaka. 2229)(Ta.lex.) kul.ai-c-cakkaram tile (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

1899.Image: eyeball: kud.d.o blind; kud.d.epon. blindness (Kon.lex.) gud.d.u, gud.d.i eyeball, egg; gud.asu anything round; gud.i a circle, halo (Ka.); kud.u testicles of dogs, cats etc. (Tu.); g(r)ud.d.u eye-ball, egg; gud.usu a circle, round; god.d.a cylindrical stone; gud.i halo round the sun or moon (Te.); gud. pl. gud.l testicle (Kol.); gud. (pl. -l) egg; kanta gud.d.a eyeball; gad.d.a stone, pestle made of stone (Nk.); gud.i variety of small bead (Go.); gud.u eyeball, egg, testicle; gurd.u, gurzu pupil, eyeball (Kond.a); gud.u egg (Kuwi)(DEDR 1680). cf. gut.ika_, gud.a globe, ball, pill (Skt.)(CDIAL 4181).

1900.Image: fulcrum of a balance: kut.t.e fulcrum (of a balance)(Kon.lex.)

1901.Image: small pores: kut.t.e decay (usually of wood wherein small pores occur and wood begins to crumble in the form of fine grains)(Tu.lex.) kud.u fresh scars of small pox (Tu.lex.) kud.e a hole in the ground or wall, usually made by rats (Tu.lex.)

1902.Image: socket-chisel: kur..aivul.i socket-chisel (C.E.M.); kur..ai-y-a_n.i stub nail (Ta.lex.) kuval.ai socket or bed for a gem in a jewel; socket in an ear-ring for insetting rudra_ks.a or other bead; socket of the eye (W.); eyelid; inner corner of the eye; kuval.ai-k-kat.ukkan- ear-ring with a bead or gem enchased in it; kuval.ai-t-ta_ran- lit., one who wears kuval.ai garland, Yudhis.t.hira (Cu_t.a_.); kuval.ai-ma_laiyar lit., those who wear kuval.ai garlands, ve_l.a_l.as (W.) (Ta.lex.) cf. kor..u awl (Tol. Pa_yi. Urai.); kor..utu-tal to peck, drill through, hollow out, as beetles in wood and flowers (Nait.ata. Cuyamvara. 155)(Ta.lex.) kur..ai ear-ring, ear (Ta.); kur..a id. (Ma.); kod.ige ear-ring, normally used by non-brahmins (Ka.); kod.an:g ear-ring; kud.ka, kud.ki female's ear ornament (Tu.); kud.ka ear-ring in upper ear (Kol.); kur.ka ear-ring (Go.)(DEDR 1823). kun.ukku an ear-ornament (Ta.); a lotus-like ear-ring; nose-ring (Ma.)(DEDR 1686).

1903.Part of a boat: got.aviya, got.avisa part of a boat, the poop, na_va_ya pacchimabandho, i.e. the binding at the back of the boat (Pali.lex.) kud.uma a ferry (Tu.lex.)

1904.Image: strainer: kud.upu a strainer made of wicker-work (Tu.lex.)

1905.Image: body: kud. body (Kon.lex.)

1907.Image: hornet: kud.pol. a hornet (Tu.lex.)

1908.Image: top of the drill for boring holes: gud.iga_re a turner and a cabinet maker (Tu.lex.) gud.ga_r turner (Kon.lex.) ku_t.u top of the drill for boring holes; mortise, groove, in carpentry (Ta.lex.) ku_risu to join (as two pieces of wood); ku_ru a tenon (Ka.)(DEDR 1882). Image: gouge: kuni ruka a gouge; kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase (Santali.lex.) ks.no_tra whetstone (RV. ii.39.7)(Vedic.lex.) Image: chisel for cutting round holes: kund ruke a chisel for cutting round holes, mainly the axle holes in wheels; kund ruka a gouge, a chisel with which circular holes are made in wood; kundau to turn on a lathe, to carve, to chase; ruka a carpenter's chisel; cimni ruka a small chisel; ruka d.at.a the front teeth, two above, two below; rok to pierce, to perforate, to sew, to pin; kurtae rokkeda she sewed a jacket; senerko rok akata they have perforated the rafters; janumin rokena a thorn has pierced me; rok mitkedae she sewed them together, she sewed them into one; patrae rorok kana she is pinning leaf plates, she is making plates by pinning leaves together; kundau dhiri a hewn stone; kod.rao to scrape out, to gouge out (Santali.lex.) kunda a turner's lathe; kunda-kara a turner (Skt.lex.) Image: hole: kon.d.ha a hollow, hole or cave in a bank (Santali.lex.) cf. uruvu to pierce through (Ta.)(DEDR 663). cf. trupka (< truk-p-; trukt-) to bore, pierce; trunga (trungi-) to become a hole, be pierced (Kui); tr-uk- (-t-) (pig) to root up earth with snout (Kond.a)(DEDR 3339). cf. kunda a turner's lathe (Skt.)(CDIAL 3295). Turner: kundakara turner (Skt.); kunda_r (A.); ku~da_r, ku~da_ri (B.); kunda_ru (Or.); ku~dera_ one who works a lathe, one who scrapes (H.); ku~deri_ f.; ku~derna_ to scrape, plane, round on a lathe (H.)(CDIAL 3297). Image: turner: gud.i-ga_r-a a turner, one whose occupation is to form wooden articles (also the plaything called cakra, hubble-bubbles, etc.) with a lathe and to cover them with shellac of different colours; gud.ugud.i ma_d.uvavanu id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: lathe: ku~dnu to shape smoothly, carve (N.); kund lathe (A.); kundiba to turn and smooth in a lathe (A.); ku~d lathe (B.); ku~da_, ko~da_ to turn in a lathe (B.); ku~_nda lathe (Or.); ku~diba_, ku~_diba_ to turn (Or. > ku~_d lathe (Kur.); kund brassfounder's lathe (Bi.); kunna_ to shape on a lathe (H.); kuniya_ turner (H.); kunwa_ turner (H.)(CDIAL 3295). Wood-worker: cundaka_ra turner (Pali); cuna_ro maker of wooden vessels (Ku.); cuna_ro, cana_ro, cu~da_ro id. (N.)(CDIAL 4862). cunda wood or ivory work (Skt.); ivory worker (Pali); cundiba_ to do woodwork (Or.)(CDIAL 4861). Image: elephant's trunk: tun.t.am elephant's trunk (Ta.); son.d.am id. (Nk.)(DEDR 3311). tun.d.a trunk of an elephant (Skt.)(CDIAL 5853). s'un.d.a_ elephant's trunk (Skt.)(CDIAL 12516). Image: to throw out; to toss about; to chop off: kut.ayuka to throw out, fling away, shake extremities (Ma.); kut.accal shaking off (Ma.); ker.v- (ker.d-) to shake (Ko.); kwir.y- (kwir.c-) to move violently, thrashing about (snake when attacked, person in convulsion)(To.); kod.apu, kod.avu to scatter or throw in different directions with the hand, shake or toss about (Ka.); kod.a- (kod.ap-, kod.and-) to shake (body); kod.ak- (kod.aki-) to shake, wag (tail); kud.i (kud.iv-, kud.ind-) (earth) shakes (Kod..); kud.puni to shiver (as from ague); dust, shake off (as the dust of a cloth)(Tu.)(DEDR 1662). gud.i_pen to cut crops or grass (Kol.); gud.d.ing to chop off, cut down, slaughter, bruise (Br.)(DEDR 1656). To bore with a tool, to perforate: kut.ai-kari piece of charcoal bored into a cup for melting small nuggets of gold or silver (Perunto. 1278); kut.o_ri lead ore; borax; a prepared arsenic; kut.ilam lead ore, white lead; a prepared arsenic, na_ka-pa_s.a_n.am (Ta.lex.) cf. kut.ai to bore with a tool; to perforate; to make holes, as beetles in wood; to churn (neykut.ai tayirin- : Paripa_. 16,3)(Ta.lex.) kut.hara, kut.aka the post round which the string of a churning stick winds (Ka.lex.) To embroider: kuttuka to embroider, pierce, prick in an ola, write (Ma.); to perforate, sew (Ta.); kut sewing, seam, half of cloak (To.); kund- to pierce, prod (Mand..); kuttinai to stab, stitch (Kuwi); kut- (-it-) to prick (Kuwi); kuta act of pricking (Kui)(DEDR 1719). kuttuni a cloth woven with a silk warp and cotton woof (G.Tj.D. 118) (Ta.< khutani (M.)(Ta.lex.) To pierce as with a needle: kud.na/kur.na_ (kud.d.as) to thread, string, fix on any pointed instrument (e.g. a spit), throw the woof-thread in weaving (Kur.); kud.e to pierce as with a needle (Malt.)(DEDR 1677). hul sting (Or.); barb, sting, point, awn (B.); hul.a (Or.)(CDIAL 14147). kut.t.u stitching (Te.); to prick, ache (Ta.); kut.t.- to pierce, sew (Pa.); to stitch, sew (Ga.)(DEDR 1672). Ache: kut.ai (-v-, -nt-) to pain (as the ear, the leg); kut.aiccal neuralgia, gnawing pain (Ta.); kod.e to ache, itch very much; kod.ata, kod.eta the pain of a sore, severe itching (Ka.)(DEDR 1661). kut.t.u to prick, ache (Ka.); stitching, hole or bore made in ear or nose for wearing an ornament (Te.)(DEDR 1672). kot.ya_unu to prick, pierce, scratch (N.)(CDIAL 3241). khu~ca_na_ to prick (B.); khu~ci inserting new thatch in old (B.); khu~cvu~ to pierce (G.); khu~c indentation (G.)(CDIAL 3890). khor.an.u to drive into (S.)(CDIAL 3802). To pierce: kot.a_na to sew (Go.); kot.t.a_na_ to pierce leaves and sew them for platters (Go.)(DEDR 2064). kot.a_na to sew (Go.)(DEDR 2064). Image: pointed instrument: kho~siba to stab; kho~sriba to loosen earth with a pointed instrument (A.); kho~cn.e~, kho~carn.e~ to thrust in; kho~cal.n.e~ to dig (M.); kho~c to cut, tear (P.); kho~cna_ to thrust; kho~ca_ to stab (H.); kho~ci_ stuffing (H.)(CDIAL 3800). Incision: kuttu incision, goading (Ta.); a dot, stab, prick (Ma.); kutti iron probe to test the contents of a sack, coulter of a plough (Ta.); a puncture, very small hole, a prick (Tu.); kut- (kuty-) to pierce, prick, sew, butt with horn, gore (Ko.); to pierce, stitch, thrust (hand into hole, pocket, water)(To.); kut pierced hole, half of cloak (Ko.); sewing, seam, half of cloak (To.); kutl act of pricking, goring, butting (Ko.); kutt- (kutti-) to thrust (with end of stick), gore (Kod..); kuttuni to bore, pierce (Tu.); gut- (-t-) to stitch (as a leaf-plate, leaf-cup, etc., flowers into a garland), pierce, butt; caus. gutis-/gutpis-. (Kond.a); kund- (kunt-) to punch with fist, pierce with spear (Pe.); kutkaha_ to strike one another with fists (Pe.); kut- to push with fist (Mand..); kund- (kunt-) to pierce, prod (Mand..); kuta (kuti-) to prick; n. act of pricking (Kui); kuttinai to stab, stitch; kut- (-it-) to prick (Kuwi); xutting to dig, probe (Br.)(DEDR 1719). For semant. 'punch with fist' cf. ghu_so fist (S.); ghussa_ fist, blow with fist (N.); ghus fist (B.); ghusa blow with fist (Or.); ghuso fist (G.); ghusa_, ghussa_ fist (M.); ghu_sa_, ghussa_ fist (H.)(CDIAL 4498). To dig; to bore; poker: khorna_, khorni_ grain-parcher's poker (Mth.Bi.); kho~r.a_, khu~r.a_ to dig (B.); khud.ai is broken, is separated (Pkt.); khud.e_i breaks (Pkt.); khud.n.e~ to pluck, tear (M.); khu~t.n.e~ to pluck with the nails, is obstructed (M.); khut.t.ai is broken (Pkt.); khut.t.a broken (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3892). To bore: kurepini, kurepuni to bore, scrape, excavate, drill (Tu.); korepini, korepuni to bore (Tu.)(DEDR 1818). Pit; to dig: khud.i_ pit, hole, hollow (M.)(Ta.lex.) Image: pot-shaped lamp-stand: kut.akka_l pot-shaped lamp-stand (Cilap. 6,138, Urai); kut.ai-kari piece of charcoal bored into a cup for melting small nuggets of gold or silver (Perunto. 1278); kut.aivu hollow; cavity (Ta.lex.) kut.am water-pot (Ta.Ma.); kut.a (Ka.); kut.amu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: pit, mortar, hollowness: kud-y pit, mortar (To.); to have a shallow hollow (as back of thumb by pressure of index finger); (kud-c-) to make in to a shallow hollow (e.g. pile of rice, back of thrumb by pressure of index finger)(To.); kut.ai anything hollow, ola basket for eating and drinking from (Ta.); kod.e to hollow, excavate, scoop, scrape out, remove with the finger or a pick (as ear-wax)(Ka.); kod.acu, kod.asu to remove the ear-wax with the finger or with a pick, remove the impurities from out of a vessel, by rubbing its inside with the hand; kut.a_ cavity, cavern; kut.avu cave (Ta.); kud.ite, kud.ute, kud.ate palm of the hand, esp. hollowed or held as a cup; god.agu, god.ugu hollow, hole; got.(a)ru hole, hollow in a wall, tree, etc. (Ka.); kud., gud. a rat's hole (Tu.); god.e id. (Kor.); khod.ra_, khod.ro_, khod.or hollow (of a tree trunk), full of holes; cavity inside a tree, hole (Kur.)(DEDR 1660). ko_t.ara hollow of a tree (MBh.); cave, cavity (BhP.)[cf. variety of initial k-, kh- and medial consonants -t.-, -t.t.-, -l-]: ko_d.ara, ko_lara, ko_t.ara, kot.t.ara hole, hollow (Pkt.); korar.a hollow in a tree, cave, hole (Or.); khod.ar pit, hollow in a tree; khor.ra_ (H.); kovul.a rotten tree (Si.)(CDIAL 3496). Pit: kut.t.ai pool, small pond (Ta.)(DEDR 1669). kut.t.am depth, pond (Ta.); kun.t.u depth, pond, manure-pit (Ta.); kun.t.am, kun.t.u what is hollow and deep, pit (Ma.); kun.d.a, kon.d.a, kun.t.e pit, pool, pond (Ka.); kun.d.i pit; kun.d.itere manure-pit (Kod..); kun.d.a pit (Tu.); kon.d.a pit (Tu.); kun.t.a, gun.t.a pond, pit (Te.); gun.d.amu fire-pit; (Inscr.) a hollow or pit in the dry bed of a stream (Te.); gunta pit, hollow, depression (Te.); gun.d.i deep (Kol.); ghun.d.ik id. (Nk.); gut.t.a pool (Pa.); kun.t.a pool (Go.); gut.a hollow in the ground, pit (Kond.a); kut.t. a large pit (Kui); gutomi pit (Kuwi); kun.d.i pond (Kuwi); kun.d.a- round hole in the ground (for water or sacred fire), pit, well, spring (Skt.)(DEDR 1669). [cf. cognate etyma connoting secrecy (treasure): gun.pu, gumbu profundity, solemnity, secrecy, depth (Ka.); gumpu secret, concealed (Tu.)(DEDR 1669).] xon.d.xa_, xo~_r.xa_ deep; a pit, abyss (Kur.); qond.e deep, low lands (Malt.)(DEDR 2082). khutt depression in earth or wall, hollow eyes (P.); khutti_ hole in the ground in a game with cowries (P.)(CDIAL 13655). kud.e a rat's hole (Tu.); kod.e to hollow, excavate (Ka.); kud.ute palm of the hand, esp. hollowed or held as a cup (Ka.)(DEDR 1660). Reservoir used in irrigation: go~r.a_ reservoir used in irrigation (H.)(CDIAL 3264). kun.t.am pool, tank; deep cavity, pit (Ta.Ma.); kun.t.u depth (Man.i. 8,8); id. (Ma.); kun.t.u-ni_r sea, as being deep (Na_lat.i, 94)(Ta.lex.) kum.d.a, kom.d.a pool (Pkt.); kun.d.a basin of water, pit (MBh.); kunu whirlpool (S.); kun.d. pool (WPah.); kunnu cistern for washing clothes in (WPah.); ku~_d. tub (H.); ku~d. pool, well (M.)(CDIAL 3264). kut.t.ai pool, small pond; a dry measure of capacity (Tol. Col. 400, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Ditch: kur..ikka to dig a hole, dig out (Ma.); kus. small valley, ditch (To.); kur..i hole, pit (Ta.Ma.); to make a hole, dig; hollow, hole, pit (Ka.); depression, pond, well (Ta.Ma.Ka.); gur..i, kun.i, gun.i id. (Ka.); guri, gul.i hole, pit (Tu.); kuy pit (Ko.); kr.oy pit, hole, ditch (Pe.); kr.ay id. (Mand..); kr.a_u (pl. kr.a_nga) pit, hole, cave (Kui); ku.t. ravine, dry pit (To.); ko_lu, kro_lu hole (Te.); goyyi, groyyi pit (Te.); groyyu to be formed into a hole or pit (Te.); kukki pit, hollow (Te.); kor.i ditch, hole (Go.); kur.ni to form pits; kur.k- to hollow out, make pits (Kond.a); kur.ni to be hollowed out, to form pits (Kond.a); kr.oy pit, hole, ditch (Pe.); kr.ay id. (Mand..); kr.a_u (pl. kr.a_nga) pit, hole, cave (Kui); graiyu_ (pl. gra_nga) hole; gr.a_yu hole, pit (Kuwi); xurrum grainpit (Br.); groccu, kroccu to dig (Te.); kr..occu to dig (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 1818).

1909.Image: stopple, cork: gud.d.e, gud.d.i stopple, cork (Kon.lex.) gud.i a mask to cover the face (Tu.lex.)

1910.Image: water-pot: kudpe a small kind of earthen vessel for boiling rice; kudpel ai boiled rice (Tu.lex.) ku_t.a a water-jar; an epithet of Agastya; cf. kud.ika_ an earthen or wooden water-pot (Skt.lex.) kaus'ika a water-pot, a drinking-vessel; kal.asige, mallike (Ka.); kutu, kutupa a small leathern oil-bottle (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kaus'ika_ a cup, drinking vessel; kus'apa, kus'aya a drinking vessel, cup, goblet (Skt.lex.) kor.iyu~ earthen cup for oil and wick (G.); ko_d.a, ko_d.aya small earthen pot (Pkt.); ko_ri milking pail (Dm.); kode~ earthen saucer for a lamp (M.); kur.ua_ tall red earthen pot for cooking curry and rice offerings in the temple at Puri (Or.); kut.a water-pot, pitcher (Skt.)(CDIAL 3227). gol.ya_ small earthen vessel (M.)(CDIAL 4322). ko_l.amba pot (Pali); ko_lam.ba dish (Pkt.); ko_r.mo_ pitcher (Nin:g.); kol.a~e~ pot with large opening (M.)(CDIAL 3502).[cf. kol.l.u to drink (Ka.); kro_lu to drink, eat (Te.); gronj to drink, guzzle (Kuwi); ko_ruka to eat greedily (Ma.)(DEDR 2233).] ko_ram, ko_rakam metallic dish or plate (Ta.); ko_rakai begging-bowl of the Buddhist ascetics (Ta.); ko_ra cup, tray (Te.)(DEDR 2228). khora almsbowl; khoraka pot (BHSk.); khoraya a kind of round pot (Pkt.Ardhama_gadhi). ko_y vessel for taking out toddy (Ta.); kwa.y bamboo pot used at ti. dairy (To.); xo_ cooking-pot (Br.)(DEDR 2225). xo_yna_ (xojjas) to measure, ascertain the extent, height, quantity or capacity of (Kur.); xo_yta_rna_ to be measured (Kur.); qoye to weigh, measure (Malt.); qoytre to have anything weighed or measured (Malt.); ka_hta_na_ to measure, count, to number, to count (?Go.); kah- to count; ka' to measure; kahca_na_, kahta_na_ id. (?Go.)(DEDR 2227). Vial: kutti bottle, vial for oil or ointment (Ta.); tall, narrow container made of bamboo or bell-metal (Kod..); pa.kutti milking pot (Kod..); kutti a liquid measure as of oil, etc. (Tu.)(DEDR 1717). kun.d.ike, gun.d.ige a water-pot (Ka.); kun.d.i a student's water-pot, made of a hollow coconut etc. (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kun.t.i bottom, as of a vessel; the end of a fruit or nut opposite to the stalk (Ta.lex.) Image: vessel with openings used for fumigation: kud.ava, kud.uba a measure of capacity, being the fourth part of a prastha; a measure of capacity containing about two seers (Ka.Skt.); pad.i a mesure of capacity, equal to half a seer (Ka.); a seer and a half (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kut.i, gud.i a vessel with openings used for fumigation (Ka.lex.) kut.a a water-pot, a jar, a pitcher (Skt.lex.) kut.ikai ascetic's pitcher (Ta.lex.) gud.a_n.a, gud.uvana a large earthen or metal water-vessel, used also for storing grain; an earthen pot used for churning (Ka.); gud.a_na (Tu.); gu_niye, gu_nu, gu_ne (Te.); ku_n-ai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Image: pot: kun.d.i = kun.d.ika_ a pail or pot; kun.d.i-paddhana giving a pailful of milk; kun.d.ika_ a water-pot = kaman.d.alu; kut.a a pitcher (Pali.lex.) Agastya: kut.aja name of Agastya; ku_t.a an epithet of Agastya; vanadhi-pi_ta Agastya; vanadhi ocean (Skt.lex.) Image: vessel with a wide mouth: kun.t.a_n-, kun.t.a_, kun.t.a_-cat.t.i, kun.t.a_n--cat.t.i, kun.t.a_-c-cat.t.i vessel with wide mouth; gun.d.a_ (M.) (Ta.lex.) Image: bottom of a vessel: kun.d.e the bottom of a vessel (Ka.lex.) kut.a, kod.a a water-pot, a pitcher; kut.i a vessel with openings used for fumigation (Ka.lex.) Oil vessel: kud.ua_ leather vessel (P)kt.); kutu_ leather oil vessel (Pa_n..); kutupa small leather oil vessel (Skt.); kurua_ leather bucket (Mth.); ku_to leather bag (Sh.); ku_ti leather case (Sh.)(CDIAL 3273). Image: large pot: ku_n cauldron (Ta.); ku_nai large earthen boiler (Kampara_. A_r-ucel. 49)(Ta.lex.); bailing bucket (Ta.); ku_na earthen vessel (Ma.); ku_ni earthen basin used by oilmen (Ka.); gu_na large earthen pot (Te); a large pot (Kuwi)(DEDR 1928). ?ku_ja_ > ku_za (U.) goblet, water-monkey (Ta.lex.) cf. kun.d.a bowl, waterpot (Skt.); basin of water, pit (MBh.)(CDIAL 1264). kuntan.ai special iron cauldron holding the vessel in which medicinal oil is prepared and serving as receptacle if the vessel gives way (Tailava. Pa_yi. 19)(Ta.lex.) gol.ya_ small earthen vessel (M.)(CDIAL 4322). kun.t.u-cat.t.i round earthen vessel (Tan-ippa_. i,169,20); kun.t.u-c-cu_l.ai circular kiln; kun.t.u-vat.t.il a hollow dish (Ta.lex.) kun.t.ikai ascetic's pitcher (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-. 9); coconut or other shell, used as a receptacle (Ta.lex.) kut.a-te_var Agastya, as born of a pitcher (S.I.I. ii, Introduction p.41); kut.antam pot; kut.an:kar waterpot (Kantapu. Te_vakiri. 24); aquarius, a constellation of the zodiac; kut.am waterpot (Ta.Ma.); kut.amu (Te.); kut.a (Ka.); aquarius, a sign of the zodiac (Pan-n-irupa_. 163)(Ta.lex.) kun.d.i = kun.d.ika_ a pail or pot; kun.d.i-paddhana giving a pailful of milk; kun.d.ika_ a water-pot = kaman.d.alu; kut.a a pitcher (Pali.lex.) Pot: gurigi a very small earthen pot (Te.); kurvi earthen cooking pot (Go.); kurvi_ earthen jar; kur.vi_ pitcher (black, for cooking)(Go.); kuri pot (Kui); kurri, kur'i pot (Kuwi)(DEDR 1797). gurke, kurikke, kul.ike, gurike a close-mouthed big copper vessel used to heat water for bathing etc. (Tu.)(DEDR 1818) [perh. incorporates the semantics of kul.i to take bath (Kod..)(DEDR 1832). [cf. gud.d.ing to chop off, cut down, slaughter, bruise (Br.)(DEDR 1656)]: kut.t.u secret (Ta.); kut. a secret, reserve (To.); gut.t.u a secret, one's private affairs (Ka.Tu.); secret (Tu.); a secret, secrecy (Te.); gut.t.i secret (Kod..)(DEDR 1673). Underground cellar: kut.a-v-ar-ai underground cellar, cave; small room (Ta.lex.) hat.hua an earthen pot (Santali.lex.) A treasure jar: kut.t.akam, kut.t.ukam large vessel with narrow mouth (esp. for treasure)(Ma.)(DEDR 1668). The duplication of -t.- re-inforces the 'secrecy` involved. The ancient word for a jar should be close to kut.a-, with a particle -ke-to connote the handles (kai hands) of the jar. kud.ava a measure of grain containing a quarter of prastha (MBh.); kut.apa, kud.apa id. (Skt.); kud.uba (Pali); kud.ava (Pkt.); kulava (Pkt.); kuru a measure of rice-straw equivalent to 96 handfuls (K.); kud.av, kud.o a measure of grain (M.); kol.ve~ a measure of capacity containing 1/8 ser (M.)(CDIAL 3246). kut.uvai vessel with a small narrow mouth, pitcher of an ascetic (Kantapu. Ayan-aiccir-aini_k. 9); small pot used in collecting palmyra juice or toddy (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 118,3)(Ta.lex.) kunci a measure of capacity equal to eight handfuls (Skt.lex.) nikucaka a measure of capacity equal to 1/4 of a kud.ava; su_lige; kucat.iga a s'u_dra (who prepares and sells split togari)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kut.ukka small coking vessel with narrow mouth (Ma.); kut.uka, kut.uva small vessel (Ma.); kut.am waterpot, hub of a wheel (Ta.); waterpot (Ma.); kut.an:kar waterpot (Ta.); kor.m (obl.kor.t-) waterpot with small mouth (Ko.); ? kuck small clay pot used to drink from (?< kut.ikkay, pot with handles)(Ko.); kur.ky small pot (To.); kod.a earthen pitcher or pot (Ka.); gud.uvana, gud.a_n.a large water-vessel, used also for storing grain; earthen pot used for churning (Ka.); kut.ike pot in which food (esp.) food is cooked (Kod..); kud.ki, kud.ke, gud.ke small earthen vessel (Tu.); kud.aka, kud.uka cup, bowl, scoop, any cup-like thing; gud.aka a coconut or other similar shell (Te.); gud.aka, kud.aka shell of a fruit prepared to serve as a snuff-box, etc., small metal box; (Inscr.) kud.alu small earthen vessels (Te.); d.o_ka, d.oka, do_kka pot (Te. kud.aka > kd.o_ka > d.o_ka)(DEDR 1651). cf. kul.akam a dry or liquid measure = 1/8 na_r..i (Ta.)(DEDR 1827). cf. kola measurement (Te.); kolagamu water-vessel (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 1827). cf. kut.t.akam large vessel with narrow mouth (esp. for treasure)(Ma.)(DEDR 1668). cf. kut.i to drink (Ta.)(DEDR 1654). cf. udaka water (Skt.lex.) ku_t.a- waterpot (Skt.)(CDIAL 3227). The suffix, particle -ke, may be explained as a handle of the waterpot: kai hand, arm; elephant's trunk; handle (Ta.Ma.); key id. (Ka.); kai hand, handle (Tu.); kayyu hand, arm, handle (Kuwi)(DEDR 2023). kut.a waterpot, pitcher (Skt.); pitcher (Pali.); kud.a waterpot (Dardic.Pkt.); kuliya_ small earthen cup (H.); kul.a_va pot, vessel for oil; kal.a-ged.iya waterpot (Si.); kur.ua_ tall, red earthen pot for cooking curry and rice offerings in the temple at Pu_ri (Or.); ko_d.aya, ko_d.ia small earthen pot (Pkt.); ko_ri milk-pail (Dardic); kor.iyu~ earthen cup for oil and wick (G.); kod.e~ earthen saucer for a lamp (M.)(CDIAL 3227). kun.d.a bowl, waterpot (Skt.); basin of water, pit (MBh.); kun.d.aka pot (Skt.); kun.d.ika_ (Pa_n.); kun.d.i, kun.d.ika_ pot (Pali); kum.d.a, kom.d.a pot, pool (Pkt.); kun.i pot (Dardic); kond. metal or earthenware vessel; deep, still spring (K.); kuna_la earthenware vessel with wide top and narrow base (K.); kuno earthen churning pot (S.); kunna~ tub, well (L.); kunni_ wide-mouthed earthen cooking pot (L.); kuna_l large shallow earthen vessel (L.); kun.d.a_la_ dish (P.); kunnu cistern for washing clothes in (P.); ku~r.i earthen pot, pipe-bowl (B.); ku~_r. iron or earthen vessel, cavity in sugar mill (Bi.); ku~_d.a_ cooking pot (P.); ku~_r.i_ stone cup (H.); ku~d.a_ large open-mouthed jar (M.)(CDIAL 3264). kut.t.uva big copper pot for heating water (Kod..)(DEDR 1668). cf. akam inside, house, place, agricultural tract (Ta.); inside, abode, house, room (Ma.)(DEDR 7). To drink: kur.y to drink (Ko.); kut.i drunkenness (Ta.); drinking, water drunk after meals (Ma.); kud.t to drink (To.); kud.i to drink (Kod..)(DEDR 1654) godam liquor shop (Santali.lex.) Drinking: kut.i to drink; n. drinking, beverage (Ta.); kut.iyan- drunkard (Ta.); kut.iyan drunkard (Ma.); kud.i drinking (Ka.); kud.ita, kud.ata drinking, a draught (Ka.); kud.ika, kud.aka a drinker, drunkard (Ka.); kud.cuni to swallow liquor, drink excessively (Tu.); kud.cele, kud.icelu drunkard (Tu.); kud.upu eating, food, enjoying, suffering (Te.); kud.iti the washings of rice, split pulse, etc. used as a drink for cattle (Te.); kut.i_ intoxicating liquor (Skt.)(DEDR 1654). Man of the toddy-tapper caste: kud.ie man of the toddy-tapper caste (Kod..)(DEDR 1655). Swallows: glati swallows (Dha_tup.); gilti (S'Br.); gal.vu~ (G.); galinava_ (S.); gara_eb to swallow (Mth.); galvanava_ to make swallow (Si.); gilati (Pali); gilai (Pkt.); giran.u to eat voraciously (S.); giliba to swallow (A.); gila_ (B.); gilab (Mth.); gil.iba_ (Or.); gilna_ (H.); gal.vu~ (G.); gil.n.e~ (M.); gil.ta_ (Konkan.i); gilinava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 4075). girti swallows, eats (RV.); girai swallows, eats (Pkt.); giran.u to eat voraciously (S.); gihan.u to swallow (S.); gara_r. drunkard (P.)(CDIAL 4160). cf. galo neck (K.)(CDIAL 4070). Small earthen pot: ko_d.ia, ko_d.aya small earthen pot (Pkt.); kut.a water-pot, pitcher (Yas'ast.); pitcher (Pali); kud.a waterpot (NiDoc.); id. (Pkt.); kur.a~_ claypot (Pas'.); kuliya_ small earthen cup (H.); kod.e~ earthen saucer for a lamp (M.); kor.iyu~ earthen cup for oil and wick (G.); ko_ri milking pail (Dm.); kur.ua_ tall red earthen pot for cooking curry and rice offering in the temple at Puri (Or.); kul.a_va pot, vessel for oil (Si.); kru_ri milking pail (Kal.)(CDIAL 3227). ko_l.amba pot (Pali); ko_lamba dish (Pkt.); ko_r.mo_ pitcher (Dardic); kol.a~be~ pot with large opening (M.)(CDIAL 3502). kol.ve~ a measure of capacity containing 1/8 ser (M.); kuru a measure of rice-straw equivalent to 96 handfuls (K.)(CDIAL 3246). Image: vessel with a small narrow mouth: kud.ki, kud.ke, gud.ke small earthen vessel (Tu.); kud.alu small earthen vessels (Te.Inscr.); kut.uvai vessel with a small narrow mouth, pitcher of an ascetic (Ta.); kud.ike pot in which food (esp. rice) is cooked (Kod..); kud.aka, kud.uka cup, bowl, scoop, any cup-like thing (Te.); d.o_ka, d.oka, d.o_kka pot (Kuwi)[Te. kud.aka > *kd.o_ka > d.o_ka](DEDR 1651). kut.t.uva big copper pot for heating water (Kod..)(DEDR 1668). kut.am waterpot, hub of a wheel (Ta.); waterpot (Ma.); kut.an:kar waterpot; kut.antam pot (Ta.); kut.ukka small cooking vessel with narrow mouth (Ma.); kut.uka, kut.uva small vessel (Ma.); kor.m (obl. kor.t-) waterpot with small mouth (Ko.); kur.ky small pot (To.); kod.a earthen pitcher or pot (Ka.); kud.ike small earthen, metal, or wood vessel (Ka.); gud.uvana, gud.a_n.a larger water-vessel, used also for storing grain; earthen pot used for churning (Ka.)[gho_la buttermilk (Sus'r.); curds strained through cloth (Pkt.); gula act of churning or beating up by hand two liquids together (K.); ghol churned milk, whey (B.); ghol.a buttermilk (Or.)(CDIAL 4524)](DEDR 1651). Stirs: praghu_rn.a turning round or rolling violently (Skt.); paho_d.ai swings; paho_lira one who swings or shakes (Pkt.); pa~_hul a Sikh initiatory rite involving the stirring of a bowl of sherbet (P.)(CDIAL 8487). cf. ghu_rn.ati moves to and fro, rolls about, is agitated (MBh.); ghun.ati, gho_n.ate_ moves about (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 4497). cf. guleik to stir (with hand or stick)(Kho.)(CDIAL 4526). urut.t.u-tal to revolve a thing on plane; to throw as dice; to whirl, as a discus (Man.i. 5,76)(Ta.); to form as clay or other substances into balls or globules (Kampara_. Ma_ri_can-. 139); id. (Ma.); urut. (Ka.); uran.e, urut.a_n.i, urut.u a roller for moving logs of wood; urat.an.i, urut.an.i, urut.a_n.i, urt.an.i, urta_n.i rolling-play: a play of a newly married couple, their jestingly rolling coconuts and balls between each other (Ka.lex.) urut.t.u rolling, revolving in a plane; wheel of a car (Kulo_t. Ko_. 212); urut.u rolling (Ka.); urut.t.u (Ma.); urut.ai < urul. cart, bandy (Ce_tupu. Mutti_r. 42); urul.(l.u)-tal to turn about as dice (Tiruva_ca. 5,39); urul. (Ka.Ma.); uralu (Te.); urul. car wheel (Tirumuru. 11)(Ta.); id. (Ka.Ma.); urul.i wheel of a vehicle (Patir-r-up. 27,11); id. (Ka.); urul.ai id. (Pa_rata. Ve_ttira. 50); urul.a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ghr.tasto_, pl. ghr.tasta_vah- drops of ghee (AV.); ghr.ta-sto_ka (S'Br.); gu_s, gu_st, ge_est butter (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4506). ghr.ta_kta anointed with ghee (Mn.); ghi_t ghee (Tor.)(CDIAL 4507). ghr.ta_ci_ adj. abounding in ghee; subst. sacrificial ladle for ghee (RV.); ghia_i vessel for ghee used in the sacrifice (WPah.)(CDIAL 4508). ghia~_r.a_ earthen vessel for storing ghee (H.)(CDIAL 4503). Pitcher: kut.ikai ascetic's pitcher (Kantapu. Ka_viri. 49)(Ta.lex.) kut.ukkai coconut or other hard shell used as a vessel (Ta.); kut.ukka id. (Ma.); gud.aka (Te.); kud.ike (Ka.); cf. kun.d.ika_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) kut.uvai vessel with a small narrow mouth; pitcher of an ascetic (Kantapu. Ayan-ai-c-cir-aini_k. 9); small pot used in collecting palmyra juice or toddy (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 118,3)(Ta.lex.) kunti fermented liquor, toddy (Ta.lex.) Pot or vessel: kolamba, kol.amba a pot or vessel in general; together with ghat.a, pitcher (Pali.lex.) kol.kalam receptacle, it.un:kalam (Kur-al., 1029)(Ta.lex.) cf. so_r.a_ a large earthen vessel for holding water, not food (Go.)(DEDR 2886). cf. co_ta-kumpam < so_da-kumbha a ceremony in honour of the manes, in which a pot of water is given to a Brahmin (Ta.lex.) ko_l.amba pot (Pali); ko_lam.ba dish (Pkt.); kollara (Pkt.); ko_r.mo_ pitcher (Nin:g.); kol.a~be~ pot with large opening (M.)(CDIAL 3502). Image: waterpot: ko_d.aya, ko_d.ia small earthen pot (Pkt.); ko_ri milking pail (Dm.)(CDIAL 3227).

1911.Secret: kut.t.u secret (Ta.); kut. a secret, reserve (To.); gut.t.u a secret, one's private affairs (Ka.Tu.); secret (Tu.); a secret, secrecy (Te.); gut.t.i secret (Kod..)(DEDR 1673). gu_d.ha, gu_l.ha hidden (RV.); gu_l.ha, gu_l.haka hidden, secret (Pali); gu_d.ha (Pkt.); gu_d.u hidden (K.); gu_r.ho thick, dense, deep-coloured (S.); gu_r.ha_ deep-coloured (L.P.); hidden, secret (H.); metath. d.u_gha_ deep (L.); gu_d.ha_ hidden (OAw.); gu_r.hau hidden, secret (Brj.); gul.e~, gud.he~ riddle, inhabitants of a village in flight from marauders (M.); gu_d.h riddle (M.); gul.u hidden, deep (Si.); gu_r khaki-coloured (Bshk.); gu_ yellow (Bshk.)(CDIAL 4223). gujha secret (Pkt.); guj (G.M.)(CDIAL 4222). guhya secret (RV.); a secret (MBh.); guyha secret (Pali); gujjha, gujjhaa (Pkt.); gujhu, gujha a secret (S.); gujjha_, gujh, gujha_ adj. (L.); gujjh, gujjha_ (P.); gujjha_ hidden (H.); gujjha_, gu_jha_ inside of a fruit (H.); gu_jha a secret (OG.); gu_j (G.M.)(CDIAL 4222). ghuiro secret, a secret (N.)(CDIAL 4221). Protection: gutti (Vedic gupti) protection, defence, guard; watchfulness--(a) literally of a city; (b) figuratively of the senses in indriya_nan gutti. guttika a guardian, one who keeps watch over, in nagara-guttika the town-watchman, the chief-constable; gutta (Skt. gupta, pp. of gupd] guarded, protected; nagaran guttan a well-guarded city; devinda gutta protected by the lord of gods; gutta dva_ra with guarded doors, always in combination with indriyesu gutta-dva_ra (Pali.lex.) Hidden: go_payati guards (S'a_n:khS'r.); hides (Mn.); go_ve_i protects, hides (Pkt.); goeb to hide (Mth.); goi_ pp. hidden (OAw.); gowna_, gona_ to hide (H.); govai (OG.); go~dhvu~ to shut up, detain (G.)(CDIAL 4291). guppa to be hidden (Pkt.); gupha_ cave (S.); hermit's cave (L.P.N.); goph cave, hole (K.); guph cave, ravine, pass (B.)(CDIAL 4204). guha_ hiding place, cave (VS.Pali.Pkt.); guh id. (RV.); goh cave (G.)(CDIAL 4220). To hide: gupun to hide (K.); go_pyate_ is preserved (MBh.)(CDIAL 4297). Cowherd: ko_p to tend (cattle)(Pa.Ga.); ko_pal, kopa_l cowherd (Ga.); ko_pe cowherdess (Ga.); kohval cowherd (Ga.); ko_pa to tend, herd (cattle, sheep); ko_vuramu ambush, lying in ambush (Te.)(DEDR 22l8). go_pa cowherd, guardian (Mn.RV.Pali); go_va (Pkt.); goi female of cowherd caste (Or.); govuva_, govva_, f. geviya_ cattle-keeper, herdsman (Si.)(CDIAL 4289). go_pa_la cowherd (VS.)(CDIAL 4293). gupi, goala a cowherd; goala a cowherd of Hindu caste (Santali.lex.) Guarded: go_via kept, hidden (Pkt.); go_pita guarded (MBh.Pali); gohi_ hiding, secret (H.)(CDIAL 4295). A pocket with two edges fastened up; protected: gotu a kind of pocket of which the two edges can be fastened up (K.); gupta protected (AV.); concealed (Skt.); gutta guarded (Pali.Pkt.); concealed (Pkt.); guta_ deep (Pas'.); gu_tu hidden (OG.)(CDIAL 4201). gupti protection (AV.); rampart (R.); gutti (Pali); guti, goti (As'.); gutti wooden hut (Pkt.); gut tent (Sh.)(CDIAL 4202). [For semant. 'rampart' cf.: ko_t.e fort, rampart (Ka.); go_d.a wall (Te.)(DEDR 2207).

1912.Carpenter: t.okn.o to destroy, reprimand (Ku.); t.okan heavy stick, club (A.); t.okh hammering (K.); t.oka nail, peg (Ash.); t.ok rebuke (Ku.); t.ok-t.ok sound of gentle repeated knocking (A.); t.ok goading (G.); t.okka, pl. t.oku blow on the head (Si.); t.okara knock (S.); t.okar rap (B.); knock (G.); t.okri_ tongue of a bell (G.)(CDIAL 5476). t.huxeik to knock (on a door)(Kho.); t.hukun to hammer (K.); t.hokan.u to knock (S.); t.hokan. to hammer (L.); t.hokn.a_ to strike (P.); t.hokn.o to wield (Ku.); t.hoknu to knock (N.); t.hu_kiba to strike (A.); t.hoka_, t.huka_ (B.); t.hukiba_ (Or.); t.hokna_ to knock, make firm (H.); t.hokvu~ to strike (G.); t.hokn.e~ (M.); t.huk hammering (K.); t.hoka_ carpenter (P.); t.hok obstacle (Ku.); blow (H.G.M.); t.hokara blow (S.Or.); t.hokar (P.N.B.Bhoj.H.G.); t.hokra_ wooden peg for stirring grain while being crushed (Mth.)(CDIAL 5513). d.ukk blow (P.); d.uka_ pl. fisticuffs (Ku.); d.uk blow with fist (H.); d.ukini_ fighting (Sh.)(CDIAL 5557). t.hunuka_ brittle (A.); t.hunka_ (B.); t.hun.a_ blow with the knuckles (Or.); t.hunko, t.hanko stroke, fragment (N.)(CDIAL 5507). daghno_ti precative daghya_h reaches to (RV.); dagh reach to (Skt.); daghno_ti strikes (Dha_tup.)); a_daghat will attack (TS.); pradaghah. to perish (S'Br.); dagun to hit with the fists, pound (K.)(CDIAL 6125). cf. taccan- carpenter (Man.i. 28,37)(Ta.lex.) cf. metath. kot.t.u (kot.t.i-) to hammer, beat (as a brazier), pound as paddy; kot.t.a_n-, kot.t.an- mallet; kot.t.i mallet (Ma.); kot.k- (kot.ky-) to strike (with small hammer), to knock on (door)(Ko.); kwit.k- (kwit.ky-) to tap (on door, something with stick)(To.); kod.apuni to forge, hammer; kud.apu to hammer metallic objects; korpini to beat (Tu.); kot.t.u to beat, strike, knock; n. a blow, stroke (Te.); kot.- to strike with axe (Ga.Go.); kot.t.- id. (Pa.); kot.ela mallet, drumstick (Go.); kot.oli mallet (Kuwi); xot.t.na_ (xut.t.yas) to break, smash, pierce, break open (Kur.); qot.e to break, knock, strike; qot.ure to knock or dash against (Malt.); kot.t.o to pound, beat (Nahali)(DEDR 2063). kot.t.eti hews, breaks, crushes (Pali); ku_t.ab to roughen a millstone with a chisel (Bi.)(CDIAL 3241). cf. kut.t.u to strike with the knuckles on the head or temples (Ta.)(DEDR 1671).

1913.Costus arabicus: ko_t.t.am costus shrub, saussurea lappa (ko_t.t.amum kun:kumamum parantu : Ci_vaka. 1905); putchock, fragrant costus root (kat.alit.aik ko_t.an te_yttuk kar..ivatu : Kampara_. Kumpaka. 145); patchouli, paccilai; arabian costum (Ta.); cf. kus.t.a (Skt.); ven.-ko_t.t.am a fragrant substance (Cilap. 4,77, Urai.); ven:ko_s.t.am arabian costum, costus speciosus; ven:ko_t.t.am id. (Perun.. Ucaik. 50,29)(Ta.lex.) ko_s.t.ha, kus.t.ha costus speciosus (Ka.lex.) kus.t.a the plant costus speciosus or arabicus; kol.anja id. (Ka.lex.) kot.t.a (Jain.Skt.); kus.t.ha (AV.); said to be grown in the snowy mountains of the north, Kashmir and taken to the people in the eastern part (Moti Chandra, Journal of the Indian Society of Oriental Art, VIII, 1940, p.71). kebuka costus speciosus (Car. Su. 4.15, 23.20). Costus speciosus: kemuka (M.); keu (H.B.); kushtha (Skt.); kuravam (Ta.,); chengalvakoshtu (Te.Ka.); root: bitter, astringent, purgative, stimulant, tonic, anthelmintic; root rich in starch; habitat: throughout India upto an altitude of 4,000 ft., particularly common in Bengal and Konkan; often cultivated as an ornamental plant (GIMP, pp. 78-79). Costus speciosus kus.t.ha or utpala is the fragrant herb called kuth. It is much used in preparing perfumes and was an important article of export to the Roman empire (H.G. Rawlinson, Intercourse between India and the Western World, p.124). kus.t.ha saussurea lappa (Car. Su. 4.3,20,25); pa_kala synonym of kus.t.ha (Car. Ci. 7.161). "Costo, costus arabis, is the root of aucklandia costus, aplotaxis auriculata, saussurea lappa. Its eastern names are kushta, Sanskrit; kut Hindustani; pachak, Mahratti; kost, Persian; and kust, Arabic... in Arabic costo is called cost or cast. In Guzerati it is uplot, and in Malay, where there is a great trade in it and it is much used, it is called pucho... it grows in regions which have often been subject to Guzerat, on the confines of Bengal, of Delhi, and of Cambay, that is, the land of Mandore (Malwa) and Chitor (Rajput state of Mewar)... The flowers have a sweet smell... They make a good deal into powder, when the smell is less and bitter... The Indian physicians use it in many prescriptions. The merchants take it to Ormuz, whence it is carried in to Persia and Coracone. It is also taken into Persia and Arabia, by way of Aden... many merchants of Arabia, Turkey and Persia said... that the greater part of costo from India was used in Turkey and Syria... Arabs and Persians also told me that they made a profit by bringing it to their respective countries... physicians of Nizamaluco... had never seen any other costo than that of India... the country where it grows..." (G. De Orta, pp.148-161). Costus root: kot.t.am costus root (Ci_vaka. 2575); ko_t.t.am id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kus.t.ha the plant costus speciosus (used as a medicine for takman-, a wasting disease with skin eruptions)(AV.); kut.hika (Skt.); kut.t.ha costus speciosus (Pali); a partic. drug (Pkt.); kot.h, kot.hu aucklandia costus (K.); kut.hu drug made from costus speciosus (S.); kut.t.h a bitter aromatic tonic made from the plant aucklandia costus and used in fever (P.); kut.t.h a partic. drug (WPah.); kut.h, kut.hi costus speciosus (B.); kut.h, kut. root of costus speciosus or arabicus (H.); kot.t.ha costus speciosus (Pali); kot.t.am (Si.); kur. (B.); kur.ha the plant and its root (Or.)(CDIAL 3370). cf. kus.t.hin leprous (A_s'vGr..); kut.t.hin leper (Pali)(CDIAL 3373). kus.t.ha leprosy (Sus'r.); kut.t.ha (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 3371).

1915.Slander, backbiting: ko_d.illa backbiter (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3557). ks.ulla small (BhP.); khulla, khullaya, chulla (Pkt.); khulla_ mean fellow (P.); chulya_ha_ deceitful, backbiting (N.); chullu_ childish (H.); culo a little (Gypsy); sulu small (Si.); chulchula_ trifling, puerile (H.)(CDIAL 3732). cuglia tale-bearing; cukgliie bearer of tales; cae cae, cae cugli id.; cugli, cugli capat.i to tell tales (Santali. lex.) Image: informer: kon.d.eya an informer, a slanderer, a defamer (Ka.); kon.d.iyud.u (Te.); kon.t.un.i (Ta.); kon.d.e, kon.d.ega, kon.d.eya backbiting, calumny, slander, defamation, abuse (Ka.); kon.d.emu (Te.); kun.t.iya, ko_l., kur-al.ai (Ta.); kural.e, kur-al.e (Ma.); kud.e_m evil-mindedness (M.); kon.d.isu to slander; to defame (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_l. calumny, aspersion, tale-bearing, falsehood; ko_l.an- tale-bearer; kol.uttu (kol.utti-) to slander, calumniate; kon.t.i, kon.t.iyam tale-bearing, backbiting (Ta.); ko.l. laying information about something heard (Ko.); kun.t.an.i, kun.t.un.i slander, calumny (Ta.); kun.t.an.i backbiting (Ma.); ko_l. calumny, false imputation; kon.d.eya, kon.d.e, kon.d.ega backbiting, calumny, slander, abuse, an informer, slanderer, defamer; kon.d.isu to slander, defame (Ka.); kon.d.emu backbiting, accusation, slander, calumny; kon.d.eka~_d.u tale-beare, slanderer, informer; f. kon.d.ekatte (Te.); go_ler- (go_len-) to abuse; go_le abuse (Ga.); kon.d.iya one who creates dissension among villagers (Pkt.)(DEDR 2251). kur-al.ai calumny, backbiting (Ta.); kur-al.a, kural.a talebearing, slander, backbiting (Ma.); kurcha backbiting (Go.)(DEDR 1846). karn.e_japa tale-bearer (Skt.lex.) tsa_d.iyega_r tale-bearer (Kon.lex.) cf. sul.l.u falsehood, fiction (Ka.)(DEDR 2708). ca_d.i, cahad.a, ca_d.a inventing and telling tales of; slander, backbiting (Ka.); id. (Ta.Te.); ca_d.ika_r-a, ca_d.iga_r-a a male slanderer or defamer (Ka.); caha_d.aco_ra (M.)(Ka.lex.) cul.l.u what is little, trifling (Ma.); sul.l.a a liar; sul.l.a_se false hopes; sul.l.u arasa a counterfeit pretender to the throne; sul.l.u kathe a fable, a fiction, a fabrication; sul.l.u khareya falsehood or truth; sul.l.u ca_d.i false accusation, calumny; sul.l.u devvu a demon of lie; sul.l.u nevana a false pretext or plea; sul.l.u muccu to hide a lie; sul.l.u he_r..u to tell a falsehood, to lie; sul.l.u ga_r-a a male liar; sul.l.u tana falsity, untruth (Ka.lex.)

1916.Peril: god.d.a peril, jeopardy (Ka.); god.d.amu peril, evil; god.aba, god.ava danger, calamity (Te.)(DEDR 2073). kharkho_da a kind of magic (Skt.); kha_rkho_t.a (Car.); ka_kho_rda a kind of evil spirit (BHSkt.); kaxvarda wizard (Av.); kaxard magician (Ar.); khakhorna (to be read khakhorda wizard)(NiDoc.); khokhu bogey, bugbear (K.)(CDIAL 3826). ?cf. xakkhna_ to catch in fault, come up with; acquire (Kur.); qaqe to receive; get a chance (Malt.)(DEDR 1082).

1917.Cruelty, oppression: kot.hiya_ mariba to be spoilt, be destroyed (A.)(CDIAL 2978). kot.iya_n- cruel man (Kampara_. Urukka_t.t.u. 9); kot.iyo_n- cruel man (Pur-ana_. 29,9); kot.un:ko_l lit., curved sceptre; unjust or unrighteous rule, despotic government, tyranny, opp. to cen:ko_l (Cilap. 23,111); kot.un.-ko_n-mai id. (Kur-al., 56, Ati.); kot.umpa_t.an- cruel man (Te_va_. 678,9); kot.um-pa_t.u cruelty, severity, hardship (Cilap. 15,121); perversity (Paripa_. 2,76)(Ta.lex.) kot.u cruel, severe; kot.umai cruelty, tyranny (Te_va_. 945,1); severity, harshness (Kantapu. Pa_r. 6); roughness, uncouthness; vileness, wickedness (Kampara_. Mantirap. 1); crookedness, obliquity (Cilap. 11,20); injustice (Tol. Po. 147); partiality, bias (Paripa_. 4,50); kot.u-vin-ai evil deeds of former births (Te_va_. 969,2)(Ta.lex.) kot.uku (kot.uki-) to be cruel, ruthless; kot.un:kai, kot.umpu severity, harshness, oppression; kot.uvai wickedness, mischievousness (I_t.u, 4,8,4); kot.u_ram cruelty, severity; ko_t.u hardship, oppression (Ta.); kot.u extreme, steep; severe, intense, cruel; kot.un:kai oppression; kot.uppam severity, intensity; kot.uma tyranny; kot.iyan a fierce, angry man (Ma.); kud.udu steepness (Ka.); go_d.iga id. (Te.); kot.- (-it-) to be hot, fierce (of sun)(Kuwi)(DEDR 2055). khori_ wickedness (H.); khod.i (OG.); khor. vice, fault (G.); khod. (M.); khot. vice (P.); khot.t.a_ vicious (P.); khot.o bad (Marw.)(CDIAL 3931). ko_t.t.a_lai distress, torment; grotesque gestures, as of one possessed by the devil; antic (Pan.avit.u. 158)(Ta.); ko_t.t.i trouble, vexation, annoyance (Ta.); ko_r..a violence (Ma.); ko_t.ale, ko_t.le trouble, affliction, pain; ko_t.aliga man who causes trouble (Ka.); ko_t.ale pain, sickness, hardship; ko_ra measles (Tu.); ko_d.a_d.u to suffer pain (Te.)(DEDR 2204). Turmoil; sorrow: kontal.am confusion, perturbation, turmoil; kontal.i (-pp-, -tt-) to be rough or boisterous, swell (as the sea), be stormy, tumultuous (Ta.); gondala confusion, bustle (Ka.); kondalamu sorrow, perturbation (Te.); gondala a battle gathering, clamour or tumult and confusion (Apabhram.s'a)(DEDR 2098). ko_t.t.a_lai stupid or foolish behaviour (Ta.); ko_t.t.a_ra id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) kot.t.am arrogance (Ta_yu. Cir-cu. 4); mischievousness, petulance (Ta.); got.t.u state of being hard to get or very scarce; obstinacy (Ta.); hard, difficult; stubborn; god.d.a stubborn (Te.); kot.t.am-at.ittal to be mischievous or turbulent, as an unruly boy (Ta.)(DEDR 2066). kon.t.i insubordinate, naughty person or animal (Te_va_. 710,7)(Ta.); kon.t.a viciousness, stupidity (Tu.); kon.t.e a cunning, mischievous, or prankish person; gon.t.u a wicked man; fem. gon.t.i; gon.t.ari a cruel man (Te.); kon.d.ega_ra(DEDR 2079). kon.t.ittan-am insubordination (Ta.); kon.t.etanamu id. (Te.); kon.d.etana id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) gha_ta killing (Mn.); blow, bruise (MBh.)(CDIAL 4460). can:kat.am < san:kat.a difficulty, trouble, straitened circumstances; narrow path (Ta.lex.) san:kat.a defile, difficulty, danger (MBh.)(CDIAL 12817).

1918.Encircle, envelope: gun.t.h (gun.t.hayati, gun.t.hita) to encircle, surround, envelop, enclose; to hide, conceal; gun.t.hanam concealing, covering, hiding; smearing as in bhasma-gun.t.hanam; gun.d. (gun.d.ayati, gun.d.ita) to cover, hide; to pound, reduce to powder; gun.d.anam concealing, covering, hiding (Skt.lex.) ghu~t.i_ entanglement (G.)(CDIAL 4483). avagun.t.h to envelope (Skt.lex.) gut.la_i envelop, tie (Kon.lex.) gru_pa (gru_t-) to surround, encircle; gru_si gru_si, gru_sisi around, round about, encircling; gurba enclosure (Kui); gluh'nai to surround; glu_'nai to rampart; gru'- to fence or surround (Kuwi); gu_r.na_ to shut in, imprison (Kur.)(DEDR 2262).

1919.A perfume: kut.ila_, kut.ila, kut.i_ a kind of perfume (Skt.lex.) ku_t.aka a perfume (Skt.lex.)

1920.Sweepings: kottai rottenness, blot, blemish, fibrous rising on cloth, scab, scale (Ta.); kotta dust, dirt as on the clothes of a traveller (Ma.); kott trash, dirt; gott sweepings, rubbish (Tu.)(DEDR 2094). kur-kot.u iron-slag, rubbish (K.); ku_r.a_ sweepings, dirt (L.P.); ku~ha_r (N.); kur., kur.a_ heap, pile (B.); kur.a_na to collect (B.); kur.ha heap (Or.); ku_r heap of dried grass, sweepings, dung (Mth.); ku_ra_ rubbish (Aw.); ku_r.a_, ku_r.i_, kurr.i_ dustheap (H.); ku_r.hi_ sweepings (H.); kul.a mass (Si.)(CDIAL 3392). Image: stubble: ko_li a stubble of jo_l.a (Ka.); ko_le a stub or stump of corn (Te.)(DEDR 2242). ku_l.e, ku_r..e stump of jo_l.a left in the ground to push out new shoots, stubble in general (Ka.)(DEDR 1914). kurmi_ the harder part of rice, kodon, etc. which remains after grinding, chaff (Go.); ku_l.am chaff of corn, etc. (Ma.); chaff, sediment, broken pieces of straw or hemp (Ta.); kurma_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 1916). kulunj stalk of leaf, handle of spoon (Pa.); klu_ju handle, haft, stem, shaft (Kui)(DEDR 1807).

1922.Image: birth; menstruation: kundrka_ birth; kundrna_ to be born; kundrta'a_na_ to generate, beget, produce (Kur.); kunde to be born, be created (Malt.)(DEDR 1729). kod, kud to bring forth (Sora.lex.) ku_dara the offspring of a bra_hman.a woman by a r.is.i, begotten during menstruation (Skt.lex.) tukkai menstruation (W.)(Ta.lex.)

1923.Image: globular gold bead: kun.t.u globular gold bead (S.I.I. ii,182)(Ta.lex.) gund.kula pe_ru bead necklace (Go.)(DEDR 1695).

1924.Barley: kuntala barley (Skt.lex.)

1925.Image: opening in the nave of a wheel; rim: kund the opening in the nave or hub of a wheel to admit the axle; sagar. kund the opening in the nave of a wheel to receive the axle; kun.d.li rim as of a butterfly net, fish net etc. (Santali.lex.) Image: hub of a wheel: kut.am hub of a wheel (Ta.)(DEDR 1651).

1926.Pill: gut.ika_, gud.a globe, ball, pill (Skt.)(CDIAL 418l). Circle: gud.i a circle, halo (Ka.); halo round the sun or moon (Te.)(DEDR 1680). Image: ball: go_la ball (BhP.); go_lika_ little ball (Skt.); go_la round; ball (Pkt.); go_liya_ ball (Pkt.); goil bread (Bshk.); gol round (L.P.); gola_ ball (L.P.); go_w round (Ku.); gol round, crowd (N.); guli_ bullet (A.B.); gola_ ball (B.H.); gol.a_ ball (Or.M.); gol round (Mth.); anything round (H.); gol. round (G.M.); gol.o globe (G.); gol.i_ pill (G.); go_l.aka ball (Pali); gol.i ball (Kho.); gol.a ball (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 4321). go_l large water jar (Skt.); gol, gola_ large globular waterjar (H.); gol.o large round jar (G.); gol.ya_ small earthen vessel (M.)(CDIAL 4322). gud.a globe, ball (MBh.); gud.ika_ kernel (VarBr.S.); gul.ika_ little ball (Pali); gulia, gulia_ ball (Pkt.); gur. globe, mouthful (B.); gur.a_, gul.a_ pill; gor.i pebble (Or.); gul.i_ round clod (Or.); guria_ bead (Mth.); guriya_ glass bead (H.); gula_ ball, bullet; gulla_ small pellet (H.); gul.iya pill, ball, lump (Si.)(CDIAL 4181). kun.t.u globular gold bead (S.I.I. ii,182)(Ta.lex.) [cf. guri-gija abrus precatorius (Te.)] gud.i variety of small bead (Go.)(DEDR 1680).

1927.Image: circle: gud.asu any round thing, a round, a circle; the disk of the sun or moon (Ka.); gud.usu (Te.); gud.i a round, a circle; a halo (Ka.Te.); kud.i (Ka.); kut.i (Skt.); ko_t.t.ai (Ta.); kuvi to be round (Ta.); gud.igat.t.u to form a ring or assemble round about; gud.ugisu to roll a single wheel along with the hand (Ka.lex.) Image: a point: gud.i a point; a flag, a banner (Ka.lex.) Image: circle: gunduri pl. gunduraka a round thing, circle; round, circular, surrounding (Kui); gunjeri round, circular, surrounding, all around (Kui); ku_ndro_mi gra_yu a round hole (Kuwi)(DEDR 1730). gun.d. gal, kal gun.d. a huge, round stone (Ko.); gun.d. gat. a way of tying up a person ina ball (Ko.); kun.t.u ball, anything globular and heavy, testicle of beasts (Ta.); gun.d.u id. (Tu.); id., round stone for grinding, boulder, plummet (Ka.); rock, bead, anything spherical (Te.); gun.d.e round (Tu.); gun.d.rani, gun.d.ramu round, spherical, cylindrical (Te.); gund. stone (Kol.); kun.d.ran round (Ga.); ghund. stone (Nk.); gond.ra round (Go.); gun.d.a_l round (Go.); gu~d., gu~d.a_ stone, esp. round stone (M.)(DEDR 1695). gun.d. round (Psht.); gunda ball of leaven (Pers.); gund testicle (Pers.)(CDIAL 3997).

1928.Image: coil of a rope: kur.uk coil of string or rope (H.)(CDIAL 3230). kut.alai ring of wicker-work for a well; long cylindrical basket of palm leaf for fruits and flowers (Ta.lex.) kun.d.ala the coil of a rope; a ring (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kuduru a ring of straw, rope, etc. (Te.)(DEDR 1709). ko~r.ara_ iron ring round the mouth of a bucket (H.); ko~r.ari_ wooden ring holding the leather of a hur.uk drum (H.); kor.a_r circular band round the wood of an oil-press (H.); gu~r.ulo a round mat to place pots on (N.); go~r.ara_, gu~d.li_, ge~r.uli_, ge~r.uri_ id. (H.); kun.d.ala ring, ear-ring (A_s'vGr..); coil of rope (Skt.); ring, esp. ear-ring (Pali); kum.d.ala ear-ring, circle (Pkt.); kond.ul, kond.olu ring-shaped, annular (K.); kuniru ear-ornament of yogis, round piece of wood in a donkey's saddle; kuniri sitting in a circle (S.); kunlo horoscope (from the circular form in which drawn); kunaw (Ku.); ku~r.ulo circle, coil (N.); ku~r.uli fold of a snake; ku~r.ulinu to be curled up (N.); ku~r.ar coil (N.); kun.d.al.a ear-ring, coil of a rope; kun.d.al.ia_ wearing ear-drops, spiral (Or.); kum.d.ara ear-ring (OAw.); ku~r.ra_ line drawn in a circle, magic circle from the centre of which one curses (H.); ku~d.al. ear-ring; ku~d.a_l.i_ small ring or circle; kun.d.a_l.u~ large circle (G.); ku~d.al.i_ circle, ring (M.); kod.ulu ear-ornament (OSi.); kond.ola ear-ring; kond.ola_ snake (Si.); kun.d.ul coil (L.); kun.d.al iron ring round an ox's neck, coil, ear-ring; kun.d.ali_ ring, coil, curl (P.); kun.d.ali_ head of a drum (Ku.); koror, kerer round (Tor.); kom.d.ala = kum.d.ala (Pkt.); ko~d.l.e~ circle, enclosure (M.); gu~_d.la_ round, circular; ring, circle, coil (H.)(CDIAL 3268). kaun.d.ala, kaun.d.alika furnished with rings (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 3561). kun.d.alita formed into a ring; round, circular; kun.d.ali, kun.d.an.i, kun.d.al.i circular, spiral, coiling (Ka.lex.) kuduru a ledge, or rim, preventing grain flying out of a mortar; a settle or ring of cord to prevent a pot from rolling over (Ka.Te.); kundan.ige, kundan.i, kundal.ige the wooden rim of a mortar so placed as to keep in the contents while beating (Ka.); kundi, kunde, kundene (Te.); kuntan.i a large mortar to beat paddy in (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) kun.d.li a rim of a net (Santali.lex.) Image: rock snake: go_nasa the boa constrictor, rock snake, python molurus (Ka.lex.) ghur.ci to coil (Santali.lex.) gun.d. round (Psht.); gunda ball of leaven (Pers.); gund testicle (Pers.)(CDIAL 3997). ottu-gun.d.an.i, ottu-kun.d.an.i a coiled snake (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kor.a_r circular band round the wood of an oilpress (H.)(CDIAL 3269).

1929.Image: parenthesis: kun.d.ala, kun.d.alu, kon.d.alu lines drawn to include parentheses, etc.; brackets (Ka.); kun.d.ali_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: hook: kon.d.i a hook; the semi-circular link of a padlock (Ka.); id. (Te.); a hook projecting from a wall (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1930.Image: quail: gund.ral (pl. gund.rahk) a kind of quail (Go.); gun.d.ri_ quail (Kur.)(DEDR 1696). kud.d.a burli the Indian bustard quail, turni taigoor; the painted spur-fowl, galloperdix lunulatus; the lerwa partridge, perdix lerwa; kud.d.a bel.l.akki the cinnamon heron, ardea cinnamonea (Ka.lex.) gun.d.ri a quail; gadle gun.d.ri the blue-breasted quail, excalfactoria chinensia; ghura gun.d.ri, t.ira gun.d.ri the common bustard, turnix suscitator taijoor; huker gun.d.ri blewitt's bush-quail, cryptoplectora erythrorhynchum blewitti; kasi gun.d.ri the little button, turnix dussu mieri; kho gun.d.ri a quail that calls 'kho kho' (Santali.lex.)

1931.Image: a large mortar: ku_n.d.a_ a small stone mortar; ku_n.d.i_ sot.a_ a pestle and mortar especially used for grinding bhan:g (Punjabi.lex.) kundi, kundene rim of stone or other material placed upon a mortar to prevent spilling of rice, etc.(Te.); kunta_n.i large mortar, protective ring placed over a mortar to prevent the grain from scattering (Ta.); mortar for beating paddy (Ma.); ku_nta_n.i id. (Ma.); kundan.ige, kundan.i, kundal.ige wooden rim of a mortar so placed as to keep in the contents while beating (Ka.)(DEDR 1726). kan.d.i mortar of d.hin:ki (Santali.lex.) Mortar: nelakkuri, nelakkul.i mortar for pounding rice (Tu.)(DEDR 1818). Image: pit, mortar, hollowness: kud-y pit, mortar (To.); to have a shallow hollow (as back of thumb by pressure of index finger); kut.ai anything hollow, ola basket for eating and drinking from (Ta.); kod.e to hollow (Ka.)(DEDR 1660). kot.ara hollow of a tree (Skt.)(CDIAL 3496).

1932.Low plot of rice-land; basin of water; pit: hu_dah pond, pool (Skt.lex.) kun.d.a basin of water, pit (MBh.); kum.d.a, kom.d.a pot, pool (Pkt.); kond. deep still spring (K.); kunu whirlpool (S.); kunna~_ tub, well (L.); kun.d. pool (WPah.); kunnu cistern for washing clothes in (WPah.); ku~r. small morass, low plot of rice-land (B.); ku~_r.a_ small tub (H.); ku~_d. tub (H.); ku~d. basin (G.); go~r.a_ reservoir used in irrigation (H.)(CDIAL 3264). um.d.a, um.d.aya deep (Pkt.); u_nho (S.); un.d.e down (WPah.); uno low (Ku.); unin.o to lower (of clouds)(Ku.); u~_r.a_ deep, sunk (H.); u_r.o deep (Marw.); u~_d.u~ (G.); o~d.a_ deep (H.); o~d., o~d.a_, o~d.ha_ (M.); au~d.a_ (H.); au~r.o (OMarw.)(CDIAL 2402). udanyati irrigates (RV.); is very thirsty (Pa_n..); uan.u to make thirsty (S.); unya_l hunger, thirst (Sh.)(CDIAL 1927). u_e~r, u_'in. dam, dyke (Wg.)(CDIAL 1926). udapa_na a well (ChUp.); udupa_na (BHSkt.); udupa_na_ni (As'.); unai, unui spring, fountain (B.); unnati prosperity (Pali); un.n.ai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1930). kun.t.am hollow in the ground for the sacred fire of the Hindus (Kalla_. 94,12); deep cavity, pit (Ta.Ma.); pool, tank (Ta.lex.) kun.t.u depth (Man.i. 8,8); id. (Ma.); sinking in, hollow, lowness; pool, pond; manure-pit; kun.t.u_ram manure of cow-dung, etc., as stored in a pit, dist. from kur..ai-y-uram (Ta.lex.) Low fields; bed of a stream: kudaru, kudiru, kuduru low ground, a hollow, bed of a stream, stream (Ka.); kuduru small island, sandbank (Tu.); kudur sand (Go.); kudar low-situated rice-fields; kudur na_l wet or low fields (Kur.)(DEDR 1700). Image: seed-bed: kunda a very small plot of ground (e.g. for seed-bed (Kuwi)(DEDR 1729). Rice land: ku~r. small morass, low plot of rice-land (B.)(CDIAL 3264). Small field: kun.t.u a small field (S.I.I. iii,105); a land measure = 1089 aq. ft. = 1/40 acre; depth (van.t.un.a malarnta kun.t.uni_ rilaci : Man.i. 8,8); sinking in, hollow, lowness; pool, pond; manure-pit; kun.t.u-k-kalam a standard measure of capacity = 24 marakka_l; kun.t.u-marakka_l a grain measure of capacity = 8 pat.i (G.Tn.D.I. 238); kun.t.uram manure of cow-dung, etc. stored in a pit; kun.t.u-ma_r-r-u-k-kur..ima_r-r-u (lit. exchange of lands); exchange between families, of daughters in marriage (Ta.); kun.d.ma_rpu (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

1933.Image: mountain: kut.t.i_ra, kut.hi a small mountain (Skt.lex.) Image: hill; heap: ko_ttiri mountain, hill (Tiruppu. 1187); go_tra (Skt.); ko_ttiram (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Image: haystack: kuntam haystack (Ta.); kuttar.i a stack, rick (Ka.)(DEDR 1724). jha_t., jo_t. mountain grass (Pas'.)(CDIAL 5161). Image: peak of a mountain: ku_t.am mountain peak; ku_t.t.am id. (Ta.lex.) kut.umi tip, end (Akana_. 5); summit or peak of a mountain (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 8); top of a building (Kampara_. Nakara. 4)(Ta.lex.) ko_t.i curved end of a bow (MBh.); summit (Pkt.); ko_d.i tip of bow, tip, point (Pkt.); kor tip, point (H.); kori_ division, branch, class (H.)(CDIAL 3497). ko_t.ar peak, summit of a tower; ko_t.u summit of a hill, peak (Purana_.2,24); id. (Ma.); ko_d.u id. (Ka.); ko_t.aram pinnacle of a car; branch of a tree (Ta.lex.) kone extremity, point, tip, end (Ka.Tu.); kona end, extremity, point, tip, summit (Te.); pointed end (as of a leaf, etc.)(Kond.a)(DEDR 2174). ku_t.a summit, peak (MBh.); summit (Pali); ku_d.a (Pali); kul.a mountain-top (Si.); ku_r.i_ iron helmet (H.)(CDIAL 3394). cf. Village: kur-ike village (Ka.); kur.icci village in the hilly tract (Ta.Ma.) (Ta.lex.) (DEDR 1844). Seed-bed, land: kunda a very small plot of ground (e.g., for seed bed)(?Kuwi)(DEDR 1729). kuni a bent or curved ground (Ka.); kuni bit of land (Te.)(DEDR 1927). Paddy field; field of dry cultivation: gud.d.e heap, pile (Ka.); heap (Tu.); gut.t.a hillock, heap (Te.); gud.d.amu, gud.d.a_mu a plot of land, field; gud.d.e, gud.d.i_ field on mountain slopes, a high field (Te.); gud.iya a small field for cultivation of vegetables (Ga.); gud.ia field of dry cultivation; gud.i_ka dry land; ku_dia paddy field; gud.iya field, esp. a dry one suitable for ploughing (Kuwi)(DEDR 1682). gud.il a mass; gud.isalu heaping up by sweeping; gud.iyisu, gud.asu, gu_d.isu to make a heap (Ka.lex.) [cf. gun.t.ha land measure, MIAI, pp. 58,59,163.] gud.e hill field (Kond.a); gut.i bank of river (Pe.Mand..); gud.d.e, gud.d.i field on mountain slopes, a high field (Te.); gud.d.a_mu, gud.d.amu a plot of land, field (Te.); Image: hill: gut.t.a hill, hillock, mountain, heap (Te.); hill, mountain (Go.); hillock (Ka.); gud.ri, gud.ra hillock (Go.); gud.d.e heap (Kod..); hill, heap (Tu.); gut.t.e hillock; gud.d.e heap, pile (Ka.); gud.d.a, gud.d.u mountain, hill (Ka.); kun.t.u a small hill (Ta.)(DEDR 1682). ku_t.a heap (MBh.Pali); ku_d.a (Pkt.); ku_r.a_ sweepings, dirt (L.P.); kur., kur.a_ heap, pile (B.); kur.ha heap (Or.); ku_r heap of dried grass, sweepings, dung (Mth.); ku_r.a_ dustheap (H.)(CDIAL 3392). Land reclaimed; suitable for ploughing: khu~t. kat.a, khu~t. kat.i, khu~t.a tar.a land reclaimed by the cultivator; khu~t. kat.a hor. the person who reclaimed the land from forest; noa do aleak khu~t. kat.a ato kana this village was reclaimed from forest by us (by the speaker or his ancestors) (Santali.lex.) cf. gud.d.amu, gud.d.a_mu a plot of land, field ; gud.d.e, gud.d.i field on mountain slopes, a high field (Te.); gud.iya a small land for cultivation of vegetables (Ga.); gud.i_ka dry land; gud.ia field for dry cultivation (Kuwi); gut.i bank of river (Kuwi.Mand..); ku_dia paddy land; gud.iya field, esp. a dry one suitable for ploughing (Kuwi); gud.e hill field (Kond.a); gut.i bank of river (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 1682). Outlying hamlets: gon.d.a outlying hamlets of a village, suburbs of a town; ga_ gon.d.ape dar.ana you visit villages and their outlying hamlets (Santali.lex.) ku_t survey, valuation (H.)(CDIAL 3276). Muddy, turbid: ghont.o turbid (Go.); got.ri muddy, dirty (Kui); grot.a turbid (Kuwi)(DEDR 2067). Field: kun.t.il small field or plot; kun.t.u a small field (S.I.I. iii,105); a land measure = 1089 sq. ft. = 1/40 acre; pool, pond; manure-pit; kun.t.u-k-kalam a standard measure of capacity = 24 marakka_l (Ta.lex.) [cf. gun.t.ha land measure, MIAI, pp.58, 59, 163.]} cf. kut hire of land (N.); kuta letting for a fixed rental (Or.); ku_t survey, valuation (H.); kutta rent, lease (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3276). Bit of land: kuni bit of land (Te.); kuni n. a bent or curved ground (Ka.)(DEDR 1927). Rice field: kut.hal rice field (WPah.); kus.t.hala swampy land (Pa_n..); kuthala some kind of farm land (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 3372). kut.t.am expanse, region (Maturaik. 540); depth, profundity (Pur-ana_. 20,1); tank, pond (Pur-ana_. 243,9); kut.t.amit.utal to dig out (I_t.u. 10,6,4); kut.alai ears of grain swollen and ready to shoot forth; kut.alaiyun.-katirum corn-ears or spikes partially shot forth (Ta.lex.)

1934.Image: capital of a pillar: kut.a-ta_t.i capital of a pillar (Ci_vaka. 593, Urai); kut.am globe, ball, sphericity (Ta.lex.) Image: sackcloth: ta_t.u, tat.t.u sackcloth (Ka.lex.) Image: plate: ta_t.a, ta_t.u, ta_t.i a dining-plate of silver, gold etc. (Ka.); ta_t.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. tat.t.am porringer, eating plate (Ta.)(DEDR 3035). Bark, skin: ta_t.i skin, bark (Ka.); ta~_t.a bark (Te.)(DEDR 3155). Pomp: ta_t.u pompous array; pomp, show (Ka.); dha_t.a (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. tat.avu, tat.a_ largeness, greatness; tat.am greatness, richness (Ta.); dad.avante a strong, powerful or influential man (Tu.)(DEDR 3020).

1935.Chief: ku_t.a head, chief (Skt.lex.) A master; any elder relative: kun.d.a_ a master: sir te kun.d.a_ hon.a_ lit. to have a kun.d.a_ (a master or any elder relative) at the head, i.e., one who controls (Punjabi.lex.) Leader, chief: kun.t.a_kkan- leader, chief (Te_va_. 963,8)(Ta.lex.)

1936.A community, society; sub-septs: kunda a sub-sept of Ha~sdak sept (Santali. lex.); rok lutur sub-septs of the Santal septs Ha~sdak, Marn.d.i, Soren, Besra, Hembrom, Kisku; khodna, khudni the male and female members of two tribes, one semi-hinduized, and the other semi-mohamedanized, who gain a subsistence by tattooing; khu~t. a community, sect, society, division, clique, schism, stock; khu~t.ren per.a kanako they belong to the same stock; mit khu~t. renko mit khon.d.reko bon:gaka those belonging to the same stock (or family) sacrifice in the same square; khu~t. matha the head of a subsept; kod.a an aboriginal tribe cognate to the Santals, and speaking a similar language; the kod.as are professional diggers (Santali.lex.) kut.i-y-e_r-u- to colonize, settle in a new country; to secure a sure place or footing; to be firmly rooted (E_ka_m. Ula_. 168); kut.i-y-e_r-r-u- to people, populate, colonise (Kampara_. Intiracit. 48)(Ta.lex.) Farmer; tenant; household; fort: cf. kut.ima the body of landholders, tenantry (Ma.); kut.imai family, lineage, allegiance (as of subjects to their soverign), servitude (Ta.); kur.m family (Ko.); kut.i tenants (Ta.); kud.iya, kud.u s'u_dra, farmer (Ka.)(DEDR 1655). cf. kot.t.amu fort (Te.)(DEDR 2207). cf. kot.t.am cattle-shed (Ta.); kot.t.a hut or dwelling of Koragars (Kod..)(DEDR 2058). kot.ika hamlet (Te.); gud.i temple (Te.); kur.ma hut, outhouse (Go.)(DEDR 1655). kud.uma (Tu.); kut.umba household (Skt.)(DEDR 1655). ku_rai small hut (Ta.); ku_ra hut, thatch (Ma.)(DEDR 1904). kut.i_ra hut, cottage (Ta.lex.) kut.i house, abode, home, family, town (Ta.); kut.ikai hut made of leaves, temple (Ta.); kut.i house, hut, tribe (Ma.); kut.il hut, outhouse near palace for menials (Ma.); kur.jl shed, bathroom of Kota house (Ko.); kud.l. front room of house (Ko.); kur.l. hut (Ko.); kud.i family of servants living in one house (Kod..); kot.ika hamlet (Te.); gud.ise hut, cottage, hovel (Te.); kur.ma hut, outhouse (Go.)(DEDR 1655). kut.i-va_r..kkai domestic life (Nalvar..i, 28); domestic economy, house-keeping; life, mode or manner of life; kut.i-vaittal to let a house for rent; to settle or establish a family (Tiruppu. 632)(Ta.lex.) Village office: kut.i-y-ampalam village office established with a view to assist the ryots in keeping accounts of payments made by them to the government; kut.i-y-a_ya-k-kat.t.u total number of families in a village; kut.iya_l. tenant (Ta.Ma.); kut.iya_n-a-k-kavun.t.ar Kon:ku-ve_l.a_l.a caste (G.Sm.D. i,144); kut.iya_n-, kut.iya_n-avan- cultivator, farmer, ryot; caste S'u_dra, opp. to par-aiyan- (Ta.lex.) Family: kut.ikai hut made of leaves, temple; kut.iy-a_l. tenant; kat.umpu relations (Ta.); kut.i family (Ta.Ma.); tenants (Ta.); tribe (Ma.); kut.ima the body of landholders, tenantry (Ma.); kut.iyan slaves (eg. in Coorg)(Ma.); kut.iya_n inhabitant, subject, tenant (Ma.); kur.m family (Ko.); ?kwid.y a family of children (To.); kud.iya, kud.u s'u_dra, farmer (Ka.); kud.i family of servants living in one hut; kud.ie man of toddy-tapper caste (Kod..); kut.i_ka_, kut.i_ra, kut.un:gaka, kut.icaka, kot.a hut; kut.umba household (whence Ta.Ma.kut.umpam id.)(Br.); kur.mb (Ko.); kud.uma (Tu.); kut.umbamu (Te.)(DEDR 1655). kur.matt relationship by marriage (P.)(CDIAL 3234). gust.i, gharosti, ghar gust.i family; grostali, gutri family (Santali.lex.) kut.umpan- headman of the Pal.l.a caste [cf. kur-umpar a sub-division of the Pal.l.a caste]; head of a family; householder (Ta.); kut.umpam household; family including husband, wife and children: kut.umpattai-k- kur-r-a mar-aippan- (Kur-al.. 1029); kut.umbi householder, head of a large family (Ja_n-ava. Ur-pa. 69)(Ta.lex.) kud.um.ba, kud.am.ba family (Pkt.); kut.umba household (ChUp.); ku~_m family (Ku.); kut.umba, kut.imba family, riches (Pali); kun.ba_ family (WPah.); kur.mu family (S.); kur.um-codi_ incest (H.); kunba_ kindred, caste, tribe (P.); kurma_ family (A.); kur.ma_, kumba_, kunba_ family, caste, tribe (H.); kurma_ni a connexion by marriage (A.)(CDIAL 3233). d.o_mba man of low caste living by singing and music (Skt.); d.omba, d.umba, d.ombilaya id. (Pkt.); rom man, husband (Gypsy); romni woman, wife (Gypsy); r.om a Gypsy; do_m a Nuri Gypsy; lom a Gypsy; d.o_m a D.om (Dardic); d.umb, d.u_m (K.); d.u_mu caste of wandering musicians (S.); d.u_m, d.o_m, nat.-d.u_m menials (L.)[cf. na_t.t.u-k-kur-umpar in Ta.Ma.]; d.omra_, d.u_m strolling musicians (P.); d.umn.a_ a caste of basket-makers (P.); d.um a very low-caste black-skinned fellow (WPah.); a low caste (N.); d.u_m an aboriginal hill-tribe (Ku.); d.om a fisherman (A.); a D.om (B.); d.am a D.om (B.); d.ombi_ (OB.); d.oma a low caste who weave baskets and sound drums (Or.); d.o_m a low caste of musicians (Bhoj.); d.omb, d.om, d.omr.a_, d.uma_r (H.); d.u_ma (OMarw.); d.o_b, d.om (M.); romano_ rai Gypsy gentleman; romani_ cib Gypsy language (CDIAL 5570); d.umaur.o habitation of the D.oms (Ku.); d.uma_n.o D.om settlement (Ku.)(CDIAL 5571-2). Farmer; landholder: kud.u s'u_dra, farmer (Ka.); kut.ima the body of landholders, tenantry (Ma.); kud.i family of servants living in one house (Kod..); kut.i tenants (Ta.); tribe (Ma.); kut.iyan slaves (e.g. in Coorg)(Ma.)(DEDR 1655). kut.iy-a_l. tenant (Ta.)(DEDDR 1655). guti a servant; guti enec a game played mostly by herd boys; gutia belonging to the same subsept or khon.d.; per.a gutia friends; gutia naya belonging to the same sub-sept; guti an agricultural male servant, a farm labourer; gan.d.a gut.i to dive up; to make up an account; gutik state, condition; gutri family, stock (Santali.lex.) cf. go_tra (Skt.lex.) Tenant; ryot: kut.i ryot; tenants; subjects, citizens; family; lineage, descent; caste, race; house, home, mansion; town, village (Ta.); abode, residence (Ta.Ka.Te.) (Ta.lex.) kut.i-makkal. sub-castes rendering service in a village, being 18 in number, viz., van.n.a_n-, na_vitan-, kuyavan-, tat.t.a_n-, kanna_n-, kar.r.accan-, kollan-, taccan-, en.n.aiva_n.ikan-, uppu-va_n.ikan-, ilai-va_n.ikan-, pal.l.i, pu_-ma_lai-k-ka_ran-, par.aiyan-, ko_vir.-kut.iya_n-, o_ccan-, valaiyan-, pa_n.an-; slaves (Ta.lex.); kut.imai allegiance, homage; slavery, servitude; a tax, certain dues from tenants (Ta.lex.); kut.i-y-ir.ai tax imposed on ryots; kut.i-y-ut.ampat.ikkai title-deed, registry of holdings [cf. pat.t.a_]; lease-deed; kut.i-y-ampalam village office established with a view to assist the ryots in keeping accounts of payments made by them to the government (Ta.lex.); kut.i-y-a_l. tenant (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) [?> caste S'u_dra, as distinct from par.aiyan]; kut.i-y-iruppu (Ta.Ma.) living, residing; life, existence; village; quarters occupied by a special class, as ryots; kut.i-y-irukkai quarters occupied by ryots in a village (SII ii,57)(Ta.lex.) kut.iyun-tat.iyum houses and lands (Ta.lex.) kut.i-y-e_r-r-a-na_t.u colony (Ta.lex.); kut.i-y-e_r-r-am colonization, newly populating a country (Ta.lex.) kut.i-y-ir-ai tax imposed on ryots (Ta.lex.); ir-ai tax on land, duty (Ta.); ir-a taxes, tribute, a certain fee for land-tenure (Ma.); iruppu payment of debt, tax (Ta.); paying a tax or repaying a debt (Ma.)(DEDR 521). cf. ari tax, duty, tribute (Ta.Te.)(DEDR 216); ari ear of paddy (Ta.); any small grain (Tu.)(DEDR 215); vari tax, impost, duty, toll, contribution (Ta.Ma.); tax (Te.); vary tax paid to government or to Kurumbas, tax paid by Badaga to Kota (Ko.)(DEDR 5266). House: kut.il hut, shed, abode (Ta.); kud.l. front room of house (Ko.); gud.il, gud.alu, gud.isalu, gud.asalu, gud.asala hut with a thatched roof (Ka.)(DEDR 1655). Head of a large family: kor.ma_ family (P.); kaut.umba necessary for a household (A_s'vGr..); household (Skt.)(CDIAL 3558). kur.matt relationship by marriage (P.)(CDIAL 3234). kaut.umbika pertaining to the family; father of a family (BhP.); ko_d.um.bi, ko_d.um.bia householder (Pkt.); kel.em.biya_ rich man (Si.)(CDIAL 3559). kut.umbika head of family, man of property (Pali); kut.umbin householder (Mn.); slave (Skt.); kut.umbini_ his wife (MBh.); kud.um.bi, kud.um.bia householder (Pkt.); kur.mi_ husbandman (S.); kur.am a relation by marriage (L); id., child's father-in-law (P.); kur.um child's father-in-law (L.); kur.um id. (L.); kur.me_t.a_ his son (L.); kur.am a relation by marriage, child's father-in-law (L.P.); kur.ma_n.i_, kur.mani_ his wife (L.); kur.amn.i_ his wife (P.); kur.mi, kurmi name of a caste (B.); kurmin a woman of this caste (Bi.); kurmi_ a member of the caste (Bhoj.H.); kumbi_ (WH.) (CDIAL 3235). kut.umbin householder (Mn.); kut.umbini_ his wife (MBh.); slave (Skt.); kut.umbika, kut.imbika head of family, man of property (Pali); kut.imbini mistress of house (KharI.); kud.ubi, kud.um.bia householder (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3235). Houses and lands: kut.iyun-tat.iyum houses and lands (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut.6,Sva_. Vya_. Pak. 56)(Ta.lex.) Tenant; ryot: kut.i ryot; tenants; subjects, citizens; family; lineage, descent; caste, race; house, home, mansion; town, village (Ta.); abode, residence (Ta.Ka.Te.)(Ta.lex.); kut.imai manners and customs of the higher classes, of nobility (Tol. Po. 273); supreme quality of advancing the status of a family (Kur-al., 793); allegiance, homage, as of subjects to their sovereign (Kampara_. Nintan-ai. 37); domestic economy; slavery, servitude, feudal dependance, feudatory in reference to his chief (Aric. Pu. Cu_r..vin-ai. 70); a tax, certain dues from tenants (S.I.I. iii,110); kut.imai-p-pa_t.u service (S.i.I. iii,48)(Ta.lex.); kut.i-y-irukkai living, residing; quarters, occupied by the ryots in a village (S.I.I. ii,57P; kut.i-y-iruppu living, residing (Ta.Ma.); life, existence; village (Tol. Po. 114, Urai); quarters occupied by a special class, as ryots; kut.i-y-iruppu-nattam the portion of a village site where villagers have their places of residence [cf. nattam town, village (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_t.. Pil.l.ait. 45); residential portion of a village; portion of a village inhabited by the non-brahmins, opp. to akkiraka_ram (C.G.); land reserved as house-sites (Ta.inscr.); place, site; natta-makkal. a sub-division of the Ve_l.a_l.a caste; natta-ma_t.i, nattam-pa_t.i a sub-division of the Ut.aiya_r case (E.T. vii,212); cf. nantutal to be luxuriant, fertile (Mullaip. 97); to prosper, flourish (Patir-r-up. 69,16); to be proud, glow with pride or splendour (Kalit. 78); kut.iyila_r tenants, ryots; kut.i-y-ir-an:ku to fix or establish permanently one's abode; to settle down, as a family; kut.i-y-ir.ai tax imposed on ryots (Tiva_.); kut.i-y-ut.ampat.ikkai title-deed, registry of holdings [cf. pat.t.a_]; lease-deed; kut.-iy-ampalam village office established with a view to assist the ryots in keeping accounts of payments made by them to the government (Ta.lex.); kut.i-y-a_l. tenant (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) [?> caste S'u_dra, as distinct from par.aiyan]; kut.i-y-iruppu (Ta.Ma.) living, residing; life, existence; village; quarters occupied by a special class, as ryots; kut.i-y-irukkai quarters occupied by ryots in a village (SII ii,57)(Ta.lex.) kut.iyun-tat.iyum houses and lands (Ta.lex.) kut.i-y-e_r-r-a-na_t.u colony (Ta.lex.); kut.i-y-e_r-r-am colonization, newly populating a country (Ta.lex.) kut.i-y-e_r-u- to colonize, settle in a new country; to secure a sure place or footing; to be firmly rooted (E_ka_m. Ula_. 168); kut.i-y-e_r-r-u- to people, populate, colonise (Kampara_. Intiracit. 48)(Ta.lex.) kut.i-y-ir-ai tax imposed on ryots (Ta.lex.); ir-ai tax on land, duty (Ta.); ir-a taxes, tribute, a certain fee for land-tenure (Ma.); iruppu payment of debt, tax (Ta.); paying a tax or repaying a debt (Ma.)(DEDR 521). cf. ari tax, duty, tribute (Ta.Te.)(DEDR 216); ari ear of paddy (Ta.); any small grain (Tu.)(DEDR 215); vari tax, impost, duty, toll, contribution (Ta.Ma.); tax (Te.); vary tax paid to government or to Kurumbas, tax paid by Badaga to Kota (Ko.)(DEDR 5266). kut.i-va_ra-nilam land over which tenants have a vested right to cultivate; kut.i-va_ram occupancy right, opp. to me_l-va_ram; the share of the produce to which a ryot having such right is entitled, opp. to me_l-va_ram (Ta.lex.) Rent, lease: kutta rent, lease (Skt.Pkt.); ku_t rent in kind (Ku.); kut hire of land (N.); kuta letting for a fixed rental (Or.); ku_t survey, valuation (H.)(CDIAL 3276). ku.r share (Ko.)(obl. ku.t- whence, kuttakai tenancy (Ta.); ku.r share, share inherited from father (To.); ko_ru a part, portion, share in cultivation (Ka.); a share, the king's or government`s portion (Te.); ku_r part, share, division of time, party, partnership (Ma.); ku_ru id. (Ma.); section, division, part, share (Ta.)(DEDR 1924). cf. ku_r to be attached to, love (Ka.); to covet, hanker after (Ta.); love (Ma.); ku_rimi, ku_rmi friendship (Te.)(DEDR 1897). kudi instalment (Tu.); kuti turn (Ka.)(DEDR 1706). kat.t.u-k-kuttagai rent fixed at the time of farming out the land; payment of consolidated rent (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) Pledge: kotuvai (kutuvai Ta.lex.) a pledge, pawn, mortgage (Ta.); kuduva, koduva id. (Te.)(DEDR 2088). To give: kot.ai giving away as a gift (Ta.); kod.ige gift, grant (Ka.); koru, kol.u to give, grant (Tu.)(DEDR 2053). kud.u to give, allow, emit (as a sound)(Ka.)(DEDR 2053). [cf. koda, kodava reminder (Te.); kutanam remainder, refuse, grated coconut from which milk is expressed (Ma.)(DEDR 1698).] kut.i-nar-kal a standard weight current during Co_r..a sovereignty (S.I.I. iii,142); kut.ijai-k-kal < kut.i + nal + kal a standard weight during Co_r..a soverignty (S.I.I. ii,69); kut.i-t-taram separate assessment for each individual ryot, dist. fr. motta-p-paical; kut.ittan-am family, domestic life; household affairs (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 29); tenancy; domestic economy, domestic order; kut.ittan--v-ur-uppu things necessary for a family, as chattels, furniture, dependants, servants, cattle (J.); kut.ittan--k-ka_ran- cultivator, farmer; man of wealth and influence in a village; householder, landlord; kut.i-t-tan-a-p-pat.utal to enter married life (J.); kut.i-t-tan--p- pa_n:ku domestic propriety; domestic economy; kut.i-teyvam family deity (Ci_vaka. 547); kut.i-ta_n:ki the mainstay of a family (Perunto. 1153); kut.i-ta_n:ki-k-ko_l an ancient measuring rod (Ta.inscr.); kut.i-tiruttutal to secure the welfare of one's subjects (Patir-r-up. 37,7); to advance one's family in wealth, status, reputation, etc.; kut.ina_t.t.utal to plant a colony; kut.i-p-pir-appa_l.ar persons of birth, of noble lineage (Na_lat.i, 141); kut.i-p-pir-appu noble birth, nobility, birth in a distinguished family (Man.i. 11,76); kut.i-p-pen. woman of birth and respectability; wedded lawful wife; kut.i-p-peyar family name as ce_ran-, co_r..an-, pa_n.t.iyan- (Pan-n-irupa_. 145; Cilap. 1,33, Arum.); kut.ipat.ai inhabitants; kut.i-pukutal to occupy a new house; to immigrate, settle and colonize, seek a fresh refuge (Kampara_. Varaik. 12); to occupy a newly-built house with appropriate ceremonies, to do house-warming; kut.i-po_tal to remove oneself to a new house; to emigrate, flee from home; kut.i-makkal. 18 sub-castes rendering service in a village: van.n.a_n-, na_vitan-, kuyavan-, tat.t.a_n-, kan-n-a_n-, kar-r-accan-, kollan-, taccan-, en.n.ey-va_n.ikan-, uppu-va_n.ikan-, ilai-va_n.ikan-, pal.l.i, pu_ma_lai-k-ka_ran-, par-aiyan-, ko_vir--kut.iya_n-, o_ccan-, valaiyan-, pa_n.an- [washerman, barber, potter, goldsmith, brazier, stone-cutter, blacksmith, carpenter, oil-monger, salt-seller, herdsman, flower-garland-maker, drum-beater, temple-tenant, temple-priest, fisherman, bard-minstrel; slaves (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 13. Vya_.)(Ta.lex.) kut.i-p-pil.l.ai sects which trace their origin to particular castes and adopt their titles; a division of Pariahs, generally doing the duty of barbers (E.T.); kut.i-makkal.-ma_n-iyam land given free of rent to washermen, barbers, etc. for the services rendered by them to villagers; kut.i-makan- person of noble birth (Par..amo. 209); a slave owning perpetual hereditary allegiance to a landlord under certain conditions; hired servant, one whose wages are paid by grain (I_t.u, 4,6,2); kut.i-matippu valuation of property for purposes of taxation; kut.i-mara_mattu customary contribution of labour by ryots for petty repairs to channels, tank-bunds, sluices, etc. (R.F.); kut.i-ma_rkkam married life; duties related to a husband; kut.i-mira_ci, kut.i-mira_cu right or privilege of a hereditary occupant (Ta.lex.) kat.t.u-mukkai three handfuls in the bundle; a contribution of three handfuls for every bundle of paddy stalks harvested, which were payable to the temples (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.); arimukkai a levy (Ta.)(SII 12.IEG.) Servant: gun.d.a servant (Ka.); kun.t.a slave; dirty woman (Ma.); gun.d.a_d.u servant (Te.)(DEDR 1690). golam, gulam, golamini f. a slave; khat.ao to slave; gutiko dasiko servants; guti m. agricultural servant (Santali.lex.) House site; item in dowry: kut.i-nilam house site, house premises; building sites, as an item in dowry (J.); kut.i-nilai theme of extolling the greatness of a warrior's family (Pu. Ve. 2,14); kut.i-nilai-y-uraittal id. (Pur-ana_. 290)(Ta.lex.)

1937.Image: corner: kut.a_ remote part of a large country or field; nook, corner, recess (Ta.lex.) kut.a_kkat.al bay, gulf; kut.a_kkai corner of a field (Ta.lex.) ku_t.a end, corner (Skt.lex.) ko_t.i corner (Ta.Ma.); ko_t.u corner (Ma.); ko.n.d. a bend (Ko.); go_t.u angle, corner, point of the compass, edge (Ka.); go_n.t.u corner, etc. (Ka.); ko_d.i corner (Tu.); ko_n.t.u angle, corner, crook (Tu.); ko_nt.a corner (Nk.Go.); ko~_t.a id. (Pa.); ko_nt.a corner (Nk.Go.); ko_t.a corner (Pa.)(DEDR 2054). kon.d., kundau corner (Santali.lex.) kon.a a corner (Pali.lex.) khun corner (Phal.); khu~t. corner, direction (H.); khu~t. corner, side (P.); khu~_t.r.i_ angle (G.); khun. corner (G.); kun.d.a corner (S.); ku~_t. corner, side (P.)(CDIAL 3898). kuni angle (Te.)(DEDR 1927). Heel, knee: kut.a_ heel (Ash.); khut.t.a knee (Dm.); ko_t.a (Pas'.); kut., kut.h (Bshk.); ku_t.h (Tor.); ku_t.hu (Kand.); kut.ho, khu_t.u (Phal.); kot.hu (K.)(CDIAL 3243). gid.ri knee-cap (Kui); gr.i'ma id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1536). cf. kuna heel (Pe.); kune id. (Mand..); gu'na id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 1862).

1938.Image: trunk of body without head: gu~n.d. trunk of body without head, applied principally to the bodies of animals which have been killed in sacrifice by beheading (Santali.lex.) kut.t.u~ buttock, hip; wooden peg in socket of flour mill (WPah.)(CDIAL 3236). Image: buttocks: kun.d.e, koce buttock; the buttocks, the posteriors, the anus (Ka.); kun.t.i (Ta.Ma.); kullige (Tu.); kut.t.i, kutte, gudde (Te.); kulla_ (M.); ku_di (Ma.); cu_ttu (Ta.); cu_ta (Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

1939.Image: bottom of a vessel: kun.t.i bottom, as of a vessel; the end of a fruit or nut opposite to the stalk (Ta.lex.) Image: small earthen pot: ko_d.a, ko_d.aya small earthen pot (Pkt.); ko_ri milking pail (Dm.); kor.iyu~ earthen cup for oil and wick (G.); kode~ earthen saucer for a lamp (M.); kur.ua_ tall red earthen pot for cooking curry and rice offerings in the temple at Puri (Or.); kut.a water-pot, pitcher (Skt.)(CDIAL 3227). gol.ya_ small earthen vessel (M.)(CDIAL 4322). kun.t.u cat.t.i round earthen vessel (Tan-ippa_. i,169,20); kun.t.u-c-cu_l.ai circular kiln; kun.t.u-vat.t.il a hollow dish (Ta.lex.) kun.t.ikai ascetic's pitcher (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-. 9); coconut or other shell, used as a receptacle (Ta.lex.) kut.a-te_var Agastya, as born of a pitcher (S.I.I. ii, Introduction p.41); kut.antam pot; kut.an:kar waterpot (Kantapu. Te_vakiri. 24); aquarius, a constellation of the zodiac; kut.am waterpot (Ta.Ma.); kut.amu (Te.); kut.a (Ka.); kut.am aquarius, a sign of the zodiac (Pan-n-irupa_. 163)(Ta.lex.) ko_l.amba pot (Pali); ko_lam.ba dish (Pkt.); ko_r.mo_ pitcher (Nin:g.); kol.a~be~ pot with large opening (M.)(CDIAL 3502).[cf. kol.l.u to drink (Ka.); kro_lu to drink, eat (Te.); gronj to drink, guzzle (Kuwi); ko_ruka to eat greedily (Ma.)(DEDR 2233).] ko_ram, ko_rakam metallic dish or plate (Ta.); ko_rakai begging-bowl of the Buddhist ascetics (Ta.); ko_ra cup, tray (Te.)(DEDR 2228). khora almsbowl; khoraka pot (BHSk.); khoraya a kind of round pot (Pkt.Ardhama_gadhi).

1940.Image: horn; bone on the forehead; prominence; top: ku_t.a horn, bone of the forehead, prominence (Vedic); prominence, top (Pali.lex.) ku_t.a a horn; an ox whose horns are broken; ku_n.ika_ the horn of any animal (Skt.lex.) sin:ghin horn projecting in front (Santali.lex.) ku_n.ika_ the horn of any animal; ku_t.a bone of the forehead with its projections, the crown of the head; end, corner (Skt.lex.) Image: crooked horned: khud.d.a_ blunt, crooked horned; khud.d.ha_ blunt (L.)(CDIAL 3897). khu~t.ehra_ plough with small worn block (Bi.)(CDIAL 3900). khun.d.a_ blunt, crooked horned (L.); khun.d.i_ crooked-horned (P.); khu~r.o blunt (N.); khun.d.a_ (H.)(CDIAL 3901). kun.d.a_ a bullock whose horns have been turned (Punjabi.lex.) Image: ox with blunt horns; lazy: ku_t.i_ hornless (?Br.); ku_r..ai-k-kompan- ox with blunt horns (Ta.); ku_r..aiyan- short, stunted person (Ta.); ku_r..ai that which is short (Ta.)(DEDR 1914). ko_n.d.a hornless (Kal.); ko_n.d.a_ bald (Pas'.); kon.t.ha crippled (Pali)(CDIAL 3508). ku_t.a hornless (Skt.)(CDIAL 3396). kun.d.hi_ crooked-horned (of buffalo)(P.); kun.t.ha blunt (MBh.)(CDIAL 3261). kun.d.a_ a bullock whose horns have been turned (L.); kun.d.i_ crooked (of buffalo's horns)(L.)(CDIAL 3260). khun.d.ha_ blunt (P.)(CDIAL 3899). khun.d.a_ blunt, crooked-horned (L.); khu~r.o blunt (N.); khun.d.a_ (H.); khun.d.i_ crooked-horned (P.)(CDIAL 3901). Tailless he-buffalo; ox with blunt horns: ku_r..ai that which is short; dwarf snake, calamaridae; ku_r..ai-k-kit.a_, ku_r..ai-k-kat.a_ tailless he-buffalo (Ta.)(DEDR 1914). Image: ox whose horns are broken: ku_t.a an ox whose horns are broken; ku_t.ara a hornless animal (Ka.lex.)

1941.Image: sunken: khun. mark made by pressing (G.)(CDIAL 13653). khutta sunk in (Pkt.); khutun to dig into (a person), squeeze, dig out from below (K.); khuto fixed in the mud (S.); khut obstruction (G.); khutn.e~, khu~tn.e~ to stick sulkily or doggedly (M.)(CDIAL 13654). khutt depression in earth or wall, hollow eyes (P.); khutti_ hole in the ground in a game with cowries (P.)(CDIAL 13655). kud.ca_ palm contracted and hollowed (M.); kut.ika bent (MBh.)(CDIAL 3230). kut.i a curvature, curve; kut.ila bent, crooked, curved (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) khut.ahra_ an old or worn out plough (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 3896). Image: bent: kun.d.a bent, crooked; kun.d.ala a ring, esp. earring (?bent); kun.d.ala-vatta turning, twisting round; kut.ila bent, crooked (Pali.lex.) kon.d.et, kon.d.et kon.d.et bent, twisted, off the straight; noa t.aku do kon.d.efena this spindle is bent (Santali.lex.)

1942.Image: head bowed: kud.un. kud.un. head bowed, and looking to the ground (Santali.lex.)

1943.Image: the peg of a lute: ku_n.ika_ the peg of a lute (Skt.lex.) kun.un:kar lute-players; kut.ukkai belly of a lute (Ta.lex.)

1944.Image: a gore: kun.d.a_ a gore (Punjabi.lex.) kadae rokkedea the buffalo gored him; rok to gore, to butt (Santali.lex.)

1945.Image: part of a plough: its share: ku_t.a part of a plough, its share (Skt.); part of a plough (Pali); kur. ploughshare, sole of plough (L.); ku_r. body of a plough (H.); kur ploughshare (L.)(CDIAL 3393). Image: to fix on a pointed instrument: cf. kud.na_/kur.na_ (kud.d.as) to thread, sting, fix on any pointed instrument (e.g. a spit)(Kur.); throw the woof-thread in weaving (Kur.); kud.e to pierce as with a needle (Malt.)(DEDR 1677). cf. uruvu (uruvi-) to pierce through (Ta.); hurna_, hur.na_ to strike at and penetrate without piercing, goad, thrust something pointed into cavity (e.g. pick teeth)(Kur.)(DEDR 663). Ploughshare: kur..a, kud.a, kur..u, gur..a, gur..u a piece of iron used for the ran.t.e (and kun.t.e), a ploughshare (Ka.); kor..u (Ta.Ma.Te.); ka_r-u (Te.); kar-r-u, kor-r-u (Te.); kutika, kuti_, kot.a, kot.aka (Skt.); kur..a an iron used in cauterizing (Ka.); kud.ina, kod.ina the body of a plough, i.e. the wood without the ploughshare and pole (Ka.); kud.igu, kud.inu, karn.i a particular part of a plough (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1946.Image: stack: kuntam haystack (Ta.); kuttar-i a stack, a rick (Ka.)(DEDR 1724). Image: chaff: kut.a_r chaff (Go.); kut.t.a_r corn without grains (Go.); kut.t.a_ chaff (Kur.)(DEDR 1665). kun.d.aka red powder of rice husks (Pali); kum.d.aga chaff (Pkt.); ku~r.o boiled grain given as fodder to buffaloes (N.); kuna_uro husks of lentils; kusa_uro chaff of mustard (N.); ku~r.a_ rice dust (B.); kun.d.a_ rice bran (Or.); ku~.a_, ko~.a_ bran (M.); kud.u powder of paddy, etc. (Si.)and..); saki id., fasting, starvation (Kui); hakki hunger (Kuwi); a~_kali hunger, appetite; a~_konu to be hungry; a~_konnatanamu hunger, famine (Te.)(DEDR 2429). goda hunger; goda-konu to be hungry (Te.); koti gried, desire; kotiyan- one who hankers after food; kutukutu (-pp-, -tt-) to desire eagerly; kutukutuppu eagerness, desire (Ta.); koti eagerness, greediness; kotikka to be greedy, envious, covet; kotiyan glutton (Ma.); kudi greed; kudugul.i glutton, greedy person; kodi desire to eat; kodippa_t.u greedy (Ka.); kodi love, desire (Kod..); kodi greediness, eagerness; kudipe_vuni to be desiring, wishing, be anxious (Tu.); kutuka curiosity, eagerness, desire for; kutu_hala id., impetuosity (Skt.)(DEDR 2084). khat.ati wishes (Dha_tup.); khar.a to wish (Gaw.)(CDIAL 3772).

1949.Cauldron: kit.a_ram cauldron, boiler (S.I.I. ii,3)(Ta.lex.) kit.t.a_la copper vessel (Skt.)(CDIAL 3157). kit.t.a_lam < kit.t.a_ra a kind of copper vessel (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) kat.akam large tray made of palmyra-stems (Pur-ana_. 33, Urai); kat.aka_l bucket, cylindrical bucket (Ta.lex.) kat.a_ram brass or copper boiler, cauldron; kat.a_y frying pan; large round boiler of copper, bell-metal, or iron (Ta.); kat.a_ram, kit.a_ram cauldron, boiler (Ma.); kad.a_ya, kad.a_yi large round boiler of copper, bell-metal or iron (Ka.); kad.a.ya large copper vessel (Kod..); kad.a~_yi boiler of bell-metal (Tu.)(DEDR App. 22). kat.a_ha boiler, saucepan with handles (MBh.Pali.); kat.a_haka, kat.a_hi_ (Skt.); kad.a_ha (Pkt.); kahri cooking pot (Gypsy); kra_y iron boiling pan (K.); kar.a_ho, kar.a_hi_ (S.); kan.a_ho, kan.a_hi_ frying-pan (S.); kar.a_h, kar.a_ha_ shallow pan for boiling sugarcane juice (L.); kar.a_ha_, kara_ha_ (P.); kar.a_h iron boiling pan (WPah.); kar.hai iron plate (Ku.); kara_i cauldron (N.); kera_hi_ (A.); kar.a_, kar.a_i shallow iron or brass pan (B.); kar.ha_, kar.a_ cauldron; kar.a_i, kara_i frying-pan (Or.); kara_h, kara_ha_, kara_hi_ vessel for removing sugarcane juice from boiler; karahiya_ earthen pot for boiling milk in (Bi.); kara_h large frying-pan (Bhoj.); kar.a_h, kar.a_ha_ shallow wide-mouthed iron boiler; kar.a_hi_ small shallow wide-mouthed iron boiler; frying-pan (H.); kad.ha_, kad.ha_i_, kar.a_i_ frying-pan (G.); kar.a_yu~ large frying-pan (G.); kad.ha_i_ cauldron for boiling sugarcane juice (M.); kul.a_va pot (Si.)(CDIAL 2638). kat.a-va_ttiyam earthen pot used as a musical instrument of percussion (Pa_rata. Pa_va. 23); ghat.a pot (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

1950.Bent, crooked, humpbacked: kut.ilam bend, curve, flexure (Ta.lex.) kut.a_ bend, curve (Malaipat.u. 501)(Ta.lex.) kut. bend; kut.il bent, crooked (Ka_tyS'r.); kut.ila bent; n. bend (Pali); kud.ila crooked (Pkt.); kud.illa humpbacked (Pkt.); kud.illaya bent (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3231). ko_t.ilya crookedness (Pali); kaut.ilya crookedness (Pa_n..); ko_t.illa crookedness (Pali)(CDIAL 3557). utko_t.ayati bends up (Pa_n..Ka_s'.); ukut.iba_ to be fully blown, be manifest (Or.); ukko_t.e_ti disturbs a legal question which has been settled (cf. ukko_t.an.a crookedness, perversion of justice)(Pali); ukko_d.iya one who accepts a bribe (Pkt.); okur.n.a_ to bend, stretch, forward, reach as far as possible (P.)(CDIAL 1727). kot.u curved, bent, crooked (Ta.); kot.umai crookedness (Ta.); kut.akki that which is crooked; kut.a curved, bent; kut.akkam bend, curve, crookedness; kut.akkiyan- humpback; kut.an:ku to bend; kut.antai curve; kut.avu (kut.avi-) to be crooked, bent, curved; n. bend, curve; kut.a_ bend, curve; ko_t.u (ko_t.i-) to bend, be crooked; n. crookedness, obliquity; ko_t.al bending, curving; ko_t.i bend, curve; ko_t.t.am bend, curve, crookedness (as of mind); ko_t.t.u (ko_t.t.i-) to bend; t.on:ku crookedness (Ta.); kot.un.-kai bent arm; ko_t.uka to be crooked, twisted, warp (of wood)(Ma.); ko_t.t.uka to bend; ko_t.t.am crookedness, distortion; ko_t.t.al what is crooked, turn, way of escape (Ma.); kor.y crick in neck from sleeping crooked or lifting heavy burden (Ko.); kwir. magoy elbow; kwi.r. curve (To.); kud.u, kud.a, kud.i state of being crooked, bent, hooked, or tortuous; d.on:ku to bend, be crooked; d.on:ku, d.on:ka state of being bent, curved, crooked, crookedness, a bend, a curve (Ka.); gud.ke a crooked man; d.on:ku crookedness, crooked, curved, perverse; d.on:kelu crookedness; dan:ga_vu to bend, incline (Tu.); go_d.i-vad.u to bend; go_d.i-vet.t.u id. (Te.); d.on:ku curvature (Te.); ku~d.an-gey elbow (Pa.); kunamkay, kunankay, kunagay elbow; koondakaiyoo id. (Go.); ko_r- to bend in dancing (Go.); kond.or.i, kond.oni bent, winding, zigzag; ko_nd.a (ko_nd.i-) to curl, be curly, bent, twisted; go_t.or.i, go_t.oni hooked, bent like a hook (Kui); d.ong- (-it-), d.o_n:g- (-it-) to be bent, crooked; d.ok- (-h-), d.o_k- (-h-) to bend (elbow, wrist, finger) (Kuwi); d.oveli, do_'velli (pl. do_velka) sickle (Kuwi); d.o_ga_ curved, bent (M.); ko_nd.o_ on all fours, bent double (Br.)(DEDR 2054a). Image: corner, angle: ko_n. crookedness, angle, cross-ness of disposition (Ta.); corner, angle (Ma.Ka.); ko_n.a, ko_n.e id. (Ka.Tu.); ko_n.amu id. (Te.); ko_na id. (Ka.); corner (Te. Kond.a); ko_ne id. (Ga.); ko_n.u to be bent, curved, be crooked, deviate, be perverse (Ta.); ko_n.uka to bend (Ma.); ko_n.am curve, curvature, scimitar, angle, corner (Ta.); corner (Ma.); ko_n.al obliquity, hump, crookedness (as of mind)(Ta.); ko_n.an- humpback (Ta.); ko_n.ai curvature, crookedness, cruelty (Ta.); kun.aku to become bent, crooked (Ta.); kun.akku crookedness, curvature, crossness (Ta.)(DEDR 2209); ko_n.a corner, angle, point of the compass (Skt.)(CDIAL 3504). kon.acil, kon.ical bend, curve; kun.aku to become bent or cooked; kun.ukku to bend; kun.akku crookedness, curvature; kut.a curved, bent (Tirumuru. 229, Urai); kut.akkam bend, curve, crookedness; kut.akki that which is crooked (Ta.lex.) kon-ai tip, end (as of a needle)(Ta.); kone extremity, tip, end, corner, sprout (Ka.); point, end, extremity (Tu.); kona end, extremity, point, tip (Te.); pointed end (Kond.a)(DEDR 2174). kone:n corner, a bend as in e-kone-jo:l bend of a river (Sora < ko:na (Skt.) go.n. corner of room (Ko.); ko_n.i corner of a piazza (Ma.)(DEDR 2209). ko_n.e an inner apartment or chamber, kitchen (Ka.); a room, apartment (Tu.); ko_nar. (pl. ko_nahk) shed for hens (Go.)(DEDR 2211).

1951.Back: gu_ni, ku_ni a hump-backed female; gu_nu, ku_n, ku_nu a hump; gu_nubennu a humpback (Ka.); ku_ntu bending, bent state; ku_ntugol. to bend downwards, to become crooked (Ka.); ku_n, ku_l to be bent or bowed, to stoop (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Image: humpback; stooping: ku_n-i, kun-i fem. humpback (Ta.); ku_n a humpback (Ma.); ku_ni, ku_nicci fem. humpbacked (Ma.); kunikka cause to stand stooping (Ma.); ku.n (ku.nd.) to be in bowed position (looking down, bent with pain, tiger crouching), become bent with age (Ko.); ku.n hunchback (To.); ku_n, ku_nu to be bent or bowed, bend, stoop; n. a hump (Ka.); ku_na a humpbacked man; fem. ku_ni, gu_ni; ku_ntu bending, bent state (Ka.); ku_n hunchback (Kod..); gu_ni hunchbacked woman (Kod..); gu_ne a hunchback (Tu.); gu_ni humpbacked (Te.); gu_nidi fem. a humpback (T.); kuni angle (Te.); gu'u hump of cow (Kuwi)(DEDR 1927). khu~_dhi hump on the back (G.); khu~_u~ humpbacked (G.)(CDIAL 3902). kun.i defective in having a bent or withered arm or a hand without fingers (MBh.); ku_n.i id. (Skt.); kun.a_ru having a withered arm (RV.); kun.i deformed or paralysed (of arms)(Pali); kun.a bent, lame (Pali); kun.i, kun.ia maimed of arm (Pkt.); kun.i_ hollow or light grain of pulse (M.); ku_n.i having a withered arm (B.)(CDIAL 3259). d.ogor back (Kol.); t.o_koli rear part of the cranium, base of the skull (?Kui)(DEDR 2979). kum.t.a humpbacked, dwarfish, minus a hand or arm (Pkt.); kot.a short, curtailed (ket.a a short woman) (Si.) (CDIAL 3260). khumt.a impotent, eunuch (OG.); khun.d.h old man (P.)(CDIAL 3899). khu~_dhi hump on the back (G.)(CDIAL 3902). kuda hump-backed (Si.)(CDIAL 3903). kun.t.ha blunt, lame, bent (Pali); kud.o, kud.ilo lame (Sh.)(CDIAL 3261). kun.t.hati is lame (Skt.); kud.oiki lame (Sh.); kud.i_joiki to be lame (Sh.)(CDIAL 3262). kun.t.hita blunted, dulled (Skt.); weak (Skt.); ket.a short (not long); ket.i short (not tall)(Si.)(CDIAL 3263). kho_ra lame (Skt.); kho_la, kho_t.a, kho_d.a (Skt.); khun.d.ate_ limps (Skt.); kora lame (Si.); Image: lame woman: khoran.d.o lame woman (N.); kera lame woman (Si.); khora_iba to limp (A.); khora_ lame (OAw.H.); kho_d.a lame (Pkt.); khor.a crippled, lame with leprosy, etc. (Or.); khor.u~ lame (G.); khod. a paralysed person (M.); khu_ru lame (Sh.); khul.a_ short and stunted of limb (M.); kulva bald (Ka_tyS'r.); atiku_lva (VS.); kulla having the tail cut off, weak (Pkt.); kolur the bald coot fulica atra (K.); kol impotent (M.)(CDIAL 3355). Image: lame: kho_la, kho_d.a limping, lame (Ka.); kun.t.i a lame woman; kun.t.u, kon.t.u lameness (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: lame; dwarf: cf. kum.t.a humpbacked, dwarfish (Pkt.)(CDIAL 326). kon.d.ha, kondha crippled, maimed in the feet; gud.ra, gud.ri short in stature; a dwarf (Santali.lex.) kon.t.ha a cripple (Pali.lex.) khun.d. to limp, be lame; kho_d.a crippled, lame, limping; kho_ra, kho_la limping, lame; kho_t. to limp, to be lame; kho_t.i a cunning or shrewd woman (Skt.lex.) Images: short, stout: ga_t.a_ squat (P.); ga_n.t.o dwarf (N.); ga~_t.a_ strong but short, stout, knobbly (B.); ger.a, ger.a_ squat (Or.); gai~r.e stunted (N.)(CDIAL 4112). Image: standing: khad.aka erect; bolt, post (Skt.); khoru standing (K.); khar.o up (K.); khar.khur. erect (K.); khar.o standing erect (S.WPah.Marw.); khar.a_ (P.WPah.H.); khar.u~ (G.); khad.a_ standing, constant (M.); khar.nu to stand (K.); khar.o_nu (K.); khar.e_n.u to fix (WPah.); khar.akvu. to make a heap (G.); kha_run to lift up, to make ascend (K.)(CDIAL 3784). kat.t.ai shortness of stature (Ta.); kat.t.aiyan- short man (Ta.); kat.t.ayan a short man (Ma.); ga_t.u dwarfish (Kui); khat.t.ana dwarf (Skt.)(DEDR 1151). Image: dwarf woman; to bend low: kur-al. shortness, dwarfishness (Ta.); fem. kur-al.i dwarf (Ta.); kur-ar.. to stoop, bend low (Ta.); kur-al.an dwarf (Ma.); kur-al. shortness (Ma.); ku.rn short man; fem. ku.ry (Ko.); gujja a dwarf (Ka.); kuru little, small (Tu.); kur-u, kur-uca short, dwarfish, small (Te.); gujju a dwarf (Te.); kur-i short, shortness; kur-ikan short man (Kond.a); kr.o_pka (< kr.o_kp-; ko_kt-) to make less, decrease; reduction (?Kui)(DEDR 1851). Lame: cf. lan:ga lameness (Skt.lex.) khaja limping (Mn.); lame on one or both feet (Pali); kham.je (NiDoc.); kham.ja lame, maimed (Pkt.); kha~ja_ha_ limping (N.); khajaka limping (Skt.); kanda lame (Si.)(CDIAL 3768). kur-uje, kujje an unripe fruit of the jack tree (Ka.); gujje a tender or half-ripe jack fruit (Tu.)(DEDR 1854). kun.t.an cripple (Ma.); kun.t. to be lame, limp (Ko.Kod..); to limp (Kol.); lame (Ko.); kut. lameness (Ko.To.); kut.n. man with slight limp (Ko.); fem. kut.y (Ko.); kun.t.u, ku_n.t.u to limp, halt, hop; n. lameness, hopping, a hop (Ka.); kun.t.a lame man (Ka.Tu.); fem. kun.t.i (Ka.); kun.t.u to limp, walk lamely (Te.); kun.t.i lame (Go.); lame, lameness, lame man (Te.); ku_t. to hop on one leg, limp (Go.); ku_t.al a lame man (Go.)(DEDR 1688). dhokar.a hanging down of breasts, decrepit (Or.); duk hump of camel (Dardic); d.oku hump-backed (K.)(CDIAL 5567). Image: dwarfish woman: kur-al.i dwarfish woman, kur-iyaval. (Ci_vaka. 1653, Urai.); kur-al. dwarfishness, shortness (Te_va_. 944,1); imp, goblin; kur-al.an- short person, dwarf; kur-al.an id. (Ma.) cf. khullaka; kur-al.an- Vis.n.u, as a dwarf (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kur-umai defectiveness, imperfection (Tol. Po. 67); dwarfishness, low stature (Ta.lex.) gud.ra m., gud.ri f., gut.hla m., gut.hli f. dwarf (Santali.lex.) Short; small: kul.l.am, kul.l.al shortness in stature, dwarfishness (Ta.); kul.l.an- short, undersized man (Ta.); ku_l.an young, short, stunted (Ma.); kul shortness and broadness of figure; kul.(n.) short man (Ko.); fem. kul.y (Ko.); kul.l.u shortness; kul.l.a a short man (Ka.); kul.l.a a short man (Kod..); kul.l.i undersized, short woman (Ta.Ma.Kod..); kul.(n.) short man; fem. kul.y (Ko.)(DEDR 1839); kur-u short, dwarfish (Ta.)(DEDR 1851). khulva_li wife's younger brother; khulva_lni_ wife's younger sister (A.)(CDIAL 3733). Image: female dwarf; short: kun.t.i a female dwarf; short (Tu.); kut.t.am smallness; kut.t.i smallness; kut.t.ai shortness, dwarfishness (Ta.); kun.t.ai shortness, that which is short and stout (Ta.); kut.u small, narrow (Ma.); kut. small, short; kut. xwar- small shola, kut.-xify short-ears, i.e. tiger (To.); gid.d.u, gud.d.u shortness, smallness; gid.d.a dwarf; fem. gid.d.i (Ka.); gud.d.a dwarf, a boy; smallness, shortness; kun.t.u short (Ka.); gid.d.a small, short; gid.d.e, gid.d.ele, gid.ye, gid.yele dwarf, short man; fem. gid.d.i, gid.d.u; kun.t.e a short man, dwarf (Tu.); gud.d.u short (Tu.); gid.d.a, git.aka short, dwarfish; gid.asa id., stunted; gud.d.a child (Te.); gut.ur. mane dwarf; gund.al short (Go.); gu_t.a short, dwarfish; gu_t.i stumpy, short, shortened (Kui); gud.ru_, gur.ru_ dwarfish (of persons and animals only)(Kur.); ghud.d.u_, gud.d.u_ small; urchin (Br.); gid.d.a_ short and thick (M.)(DEDR 1670). kut.t.a-ra_jan subordinate prince (Pali); ku_to pras small upper ribs under armpit (Kho.); kut.ula, kut.kura_ short, stunted (of hair or grass)(A.); kot.a short, curtailed; kot.a_ a short man; kot.e_ a stump (Si.)(CDIAL 3238). kurta short; khurdo small; xuredo_ small, dwarfish (Gypsy); khut.a, khut.i short (D..); khut.o (Sh.); khut.an.u to fall short, fail; khut.alu bankrupt (S.); khut.t.an. to be finished (L.); khut.t.n.a_ to be diminished, be finished (P.); khut.vu~ to be exhausted (G.); khut.n.e~ to lack (M.)(CDIAL 3895). Small; dwarf; lame: cut. small (Iranian); cho_d.i small (Pkt.); chut.u dwarf (Sh.); cot. lie (Sh.); chot.u short, small (K.); chot.a_ (L.); chot.t.a_ (P.); chot.o, chwat. (Ku.); chot.o small, mean (N.); sot. low-grade; sut.a_ deficient (A.); chot.a small (B.Or.); chot.a, chot.a_ (Mth.); chot. (Aw.); chot.a_ (H.); chot.u~ (G.); hot. very small (of cocoanuts, etc.)(Si.); curtu tailless (Kho.); chot.a_ lame, crippled (Or.)(CDIAL 5071).

1952.Image: crooked: ko_n.ai curvature; crookedness (Ta.lex.) Image: hunchback: ku_n hunchback (Kod..); ku_n-i humpbacked woman (Ta.)(DEDR 1927). ko_n.an- hump-back (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. gu_ni a hump-backed female; gu_nu, ku_n, ku_nu a hump; gu_nubennu a hum-back (Ka.lex.)

1953.Image: hare: gulug, guluk hare (Didey, Koraput.); glu, gulu, gulu hare, an animal locally called ka:ra (Bonda, Koraput.); gili id. (Gutob or Gadaba.); kulej hare (Ho, Singbhum, Bihar.); kulae id. (Munda.); pundi kulae white hare (Munda.) [ > pander-en, pander hare (Sora.)]; kulei hare (Santali.): kulahi (Koraku, M.P.); kujali (Mowasi, M.P.); kva:li(j) id. (Korku.) > kunde_lu hare (Te.); kuntu to sit on the heels with legs folded upright (Ta.)(DEDR 1728). tur-dan-en hare (Sora.)

1954.Image: semi-circle, curve, bow: guntha_ pellet-bow (Kur.); gun.r.ta id. (Malt.); gunti bow (Kol.Go.); gunt.i id. (Go.); guncili pellet-bow (Go.); gun.ci, gun.ca id. (Pe.); gur.tha_ id. (Kur.)(DEDR 1727). ku_n.i bow (weapon)(Ta.); ku_nal bending (Ma.); kuni semi-circle, curve (Ma.)(DEDR 1927). cf. khut.i_ peg (Ku.); khut.nu to stitch (N.); khum.t.a, khom.t.aya peg, post (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3893).

1955.Image: covered brick oven: ku_n.t.-at.uppu covered brick oven (Intupa_ka. 67)(Ta.lex.) Potter: ku_t.a-pa_laka a potter; a potter's kiln (Skt.lex.) kun.t.at.uppu earthen oven like a pit, with a side opening for putting in fuel (Ta.lex.) kud.ike bir-usu a volcano-like kind of fire-work (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1956.Image: burning coal: khu_t.o ashes, burning coal; khot. embers (Dardic); khot.a_ alloyed (L.); khot. base, alloy (P.)(CDIAL 3931).

1957.Image: water running out of a vessel with a narrow mouth: {Echo word} gud.u gud.u the gurgling sound of running water (Ka.); kut.ukut.u gurgling, the sound of water running out of a vessel with a narrow mouth; kul.ukul.u the noise of the water in a cocoanut when shaking (Ta.Ma.); gud.ugud.u the sound of running feet (Ka.); gud.ugud.a the sound emitted by a hubble-bubble, by a dry cocoanut on shaking it, by a growing belly (M.) (Ka.lex.) gud.ugud.a the sound emitted by a hubble-bubble (M.); gud.ugud.i a hubble smoking pipe, a hubble-bubble (Ka.); gudagud.i_ (M.); gud.igud.i, gud.ugud.u (Te.); kut.ukut.i (Ta.); gud.ugud.i bur-ud.e the vessel of body of the humble smoking pipe (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Rumble; thunder: kut.ukut.u (-pp-, -tt-) to rumble, rattle (Ta.); kut.ukut.a_, kut.ukut.i hookah (as producing a gurgle); kut.ukut.uppai anything making a rattling sound, small tambourine, wooden clapper; kut.ukut.ukkai ripe coconut in which the kernel rattles; kut.ukut.-en-al expr. signifying gurgling, rattling sound (Ta.); kut.ukut.a onomatop. descriptive of gurgling, rumbling noise (Ma.); gur.g- (gur.gy-) to thunder; gur.gl thunder; gur. gur.in- (id--) (water) runs with a gurgle; gor. gor. in- (id--) to make noise (stone rattled in pot, bee buzzing about in pot, any swift movement, as of flying, of movement in a narrow place, of train in tunnel)(Ko.); kud.x- (kud.xy-) (stomach, thunder) rumbles, (buffalo, man) makes stamping noise in running, (flies) buzz, (fire) crackles; kud.s. noise of walking; kud.ir-... (in-) noise of god Ko.nt-ow opening and shutting his dwelling (To.); gud.u, gud.i, gur..u a sound used in imitating rumbling, growling, grumbling, thundering, or roaring (Ka.); gud.ugu to thunder (Ka.); thunder, roar, etc.; gud.ugud.isu to grumble, roar etc. (Ka.); gud.ugud.u a rumbling noise (as of thunder), a noise made in smoking tobacco in a hubble-bubble, a noise made in shaking a coconut whose kernel is dried within; gud.ugud.i, gud.igud.i a hubble-bubble; gud.umbu the noise of anything falling into a well etc. (Tu.); gud.um- to make noise; gur.mcad it thunders (Kol.); gur.i-, gud.r to thunder (Pa.); gur.nj to thunder (Go.); d.r.u_ loud report, noise of explosion, thunder (Kui); d.r.u_ inba to make a loud report, thunder (Kui); gn.u to thunder; gu_r.r.lu_ aiyali id.; glu_nai id. (Kuwi); glu_pu thunder (Kuwi); gur.gur.amba'ana_,gur.gur.urna_ to make a succession of abrupt noises rapidly repeated (e.g. thunder, handmill, hookah, a shot re-echoing among hills)(Kur.)(DEDR 1659). had.ar hud.ur to thunder; had.hud., hud.ur, gud.gud. to rumble as distant tunder; gar.gar., gar.gar.ao, kod.oc, kod.roc gurgling sound; gud.gud., hadhud, bad.ar hud.ur, har.as rumbling sound; gargarao, har.bar., har.har. to rumble (Santali.lex.) gud.ugud.a_yana rumbling in belly (Sus'r.); gur.an.u to thunder (S.); gur.kan.u to rumble, purr (S.)(CDIAL 4180). huka the hubble-bubble; gar.gar.ak, gur.gur.i the hubble-bubble with a long stem (Santali.lex.)

1958.Image: jacket: kud.ati, kud.ata_, kud.ta_ a jacket (Ka.); kud.ati_, kud.ate_m. (M.)(Ka.lex.)

1959.Gulp: kud.ata, kud.ita drinking; a draught (Ka.lex.) ghut.t.ai, ghot.t.ai drinks (Pkt.); ghum.t.ai, ghum.t.a a swallow of water, etc. (Ap.); ghut.an.u to choke (S.); ghut.t., ghut.t.a_ a swallow (P.); ghut.t.i_ child's dose of medicine (P.); ghu~t.na_ to swallow (H.); ghu~t.r.o gulp (G.); ghot.n.e~ to swallow (M.); ghut.ghut. by gulps (M.); ghot. gulp (M.G.); ghut.ko swallow (S.); ghut.kan.u to swallow (S.); ghur.kya_unu, ghur.ko (N.); ghut.ka_ (M.)(CDIAL 4481). gur.akn noise of drinking so that water plops inside (Ko.); kur.k one swallow of water (To.); kut.uku, gut.aku a gulp, draught, morsel; food (Ka.); kut.ukisu, gut.ukisu to gulp (Ka.); gut.ukkane with a single gulp (Ka.); gut.t.i a mixture of medicine of such quantity as can easily be swallowed by babies (Ka.); gut.uka, gut.uku a single gulp, draught (Tu.); gud.umbu gulping (Tu.); gut.aka a single swallow or gulp; gut.uku, gut.ukku, gud.ukku the sound of swallowing; gut.agut.a the sound made in drinking water rapidly (Te.); gut.uka an act of swallowing (Ga.)(DEDR 1658). cf. kut.i to drink, inhale; n. drinking, beverage, drunkenness (Ta.); drinking, water drunk after meals (Ma.); kud.i to drink, inhale (Ka.); to drink (Kod..); kud.ucu to eat, suck, drink (Te.)(DEDR 1654). d.okoc gulp; hodor., kad.rac kod.roc gulping sound (Santali.lex.) Image: right hand, palm of the hand: kud.i right, right hand (Te.)(DEDR 1654. Poss. conencted with kud.i drinking (Ka.); kud.ite, kud.ate, kud.ute palm of the hand, esp. hollowed or held as a cup (Ka.)(DEDR 1660).

1960.Image: seed drill: kurige (Ka.) a seed drill or sowing machine drawn by oxen; land measure; 24 to 48 kurgi-s = one pat.t.i or nivartana; pat.t.i sheepfold, plot of land; measuring pole (one for black soil, one for masab or mixed soil and the third for tari or rice land); kurgi (M.) a land measure, the distance which may be ploughed and sown in one day with a pair of bullocks and drill plough (between 2 to 8 acres)(Bombay Gazetteer, vol.xxii, p.48; loc.cit. MIAI, pp. 29,44). Village: kur.ike village (Ka.); kur.icci village in the hilly tract (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 1844). 24 or 48 kurgi = one pat.t.i of land. [one kurgi = 2 to 8 acres; cf. MIAI, p.44.] kurige a seed-drill, sowing machine drawn by oxen (Ka.cf. MIAI, p.29. kurgi is a distance that may be ploughed and sown in one day, with a pair of bullocks and drill plough (M.)]

1962.Image: small bull: kun.t.ai shortness, that which is short and stout (Te_va_. 944,1); shortness (Akana_. 184)(Ta.)(DEDR 1670). kun.t.ai bull, ox (vaiyam pu_n:kalla_ cir-ukun.t.ai)(Na_lat.i,350); taurus, sign of the zodiac (Ta.lex.) kut.t.e_r-u a small bull (Ta.)(kut.t.e_r-r-aik ko_varttan-an-aik kan.t.i_re_ : Tiv. Na_yc. 14,2); hump of an ox (Kalit. 102,24, Urai)(Ta.lex.); kun.t.uram manure of cow-dung etc., as stored in a pit, dist. fr. kur..ai-y-uram (Ta.lex.) kun.t.u stallion, adult male horse; kun.t.u-k-kar..utai he-ass; kun.t.u-k-ka_l.ai covering bull, poli-erutu (Ta.lex.) kut.t.an- laddie, lassie, as a term of endearment (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,4,2) (Ta.); gud.d.a (Ka.); kut.t.an id. (Ma.); kwit.y wife (very restricted use)(To.)(DEDR 1670). ?Contraction of kut.t.e_r-u depicting a bullock with one horn erect?: Image: ox with curved horns; crooked horn, crooked eyebrows: bhau~a~_-t.er, bhau~a~_-d.er, bhau~a~_-d.era_ bullock with crooked eyebrows (Bi.); d.heru bullock with one horn hanging down (WPah.); kana-d.e_ria_ having half-closed eyes (Mth.); d.her-singo bullock with hanging horns (WPah.)(CDIAL 5474). [X cf. Persian: d.a_gh: t.a_ku mark, spot, brand (Ta.); t.a_ku-po_t.u- to brand cattle or horses with a red-hot iron; t.an:kuva_r braces of a horse-carriage; saddle-girth (Ta.); t.an:guva_ru, t.an:guba_r (Ka.)(Ta.lex.); t.a~_gun a species of hill pony (K.); t.a~_gan (N.H.)(CDIAL 5454)] d.a~_go male (of animals)(N.); d.in:go crooked (S.); d.in:ga_ (L.P.); d.i~go, d.io abusive word for a cow (N.); d.hagga_ small weak ox (L.); d.han:garu, d.hin:garu lean emaciated beast (S.)(CDIAL 5524). d.angur bullock (K.); horned cattle (L.); d.a~gar id. (L.); d.angar cattle (P.); d.angara id. (Or.); d.a~_gar old worn-out beast, dead cattle (Bi.); dhu_r d.a~_gar cattle in general (Bi.); d.a_ngar cattle (Bhoj.); d.a~_gar, d.a~_gra_ horned cattle (H.); d.a~_gar id. (H.)(CDIAL 5526). d.a_vra_ crooked-horned (M.); d.a_vre~ crooked horn (M.); d.eb bullock with one erect and one hanging horn (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 5539). {cf. ma_t.ai being bent downwards as horns of cattle (Ta.); ma_t.a cow with horns bent downwards (Ma.); mat. et bullocks with horns curving back (Ko.); mo_d.e ox or buffalo with curved horns (Tu.)(DEDR 4799). [This may be interpreted as a compound term: ma_ animal, beast (Ta.)(DEDR 4780) + d.eb bent, crooked (CDIAL 5539). ma_t.u ox (Ta.); ma.r. senseless beast (Ko.)(DEDR 4798) is echoed in: d.au_ fool (P.); d.ebro, debro obstinate (N.)(CDIAL 5539).]} damya young bullock to be tamed (Mth.); damma to be tamed (esp. of a young bullock)(Pali); to be tamed (Pkt.); damra_ young bull (A.); damu tamed (S.); da_muri calf (A.); da_mr.a_ castrated bullock (B.); da_mar.i_ heifer (Or.); da_mar.ia_ bull-calf, young castrated bullock (Or.); da_mur., da_mur.i young bullock (Or.)(CDIAL 6184). damana in cmpd. 'taming' (MBh.); a tamer (BhP.); act of taming (MBh.); taming (Pali); daman.a (Pkt.); daun subduing (H.); daman. (G.)(CDIAL 6177). [cf. at.an:ku to submit, be subdued (Ta.); at.an.n.uka to yield, be calmed (Ma.); or.k- to subdue (To.)(DEDR 63)]. dami colt, foal (Kho.); da_miya tamed (Pkt.); dami submissive (Si.)(CDIAL 6286). da_myati is tamed (S'Br.); tames (MBh.); domiba_ to be subdued (Or.); damvu~ to become tamed (G.); damn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 6287). dabun owner, master, landlord, god (Sh.); damo_n (Sh.); damu_nas householder, master (RV.); daman master (Bur.)(CDIAL 6180). Image: castrated bullock: da_nta tamed (TBr.); tamed ox (Skt.); danta tamed (Pali); dam.ta (Pkt.); danda bull (Gypsy); do_n, pl. da_na castrated bullock (D..Sh.); dan bull (Dm.); do_n , obl. do_ndas (Kal.); do_nu bull; castrated bullock (Sh.); do_du (Sh.); da~_d bull, bullock (K.); da_na, da_nt (K.); d.a~_du (S.); da~_d (L.); d.a~_d bullock fit for the plough (L.); da~_d bull (L.); da_nd, da_nt (WPah.)(CDIAL 6273). da~_twa_l ploughman (WPah.)(CDIAL

6274). Male animal: end.ka young male pig (Pa.); and.ren (pl. and.ran) male, man (Pe.Mand..); and.ra a male animal or bird; male (Kui); an.d.ra_ male (said only of animals); an.d.ya_ fierce, unmanageable (of bulls, bullocks and male buffaloes), haughty, overbearing (of men)(Kur.); and.ya a bull (Malt.); an.d.i_ra male (Skt.)(DEDR App.7) Uncastrated; bull-calf; male: a~_d.ur young birds (Ku.); a_niru uncastrated (S.); a_nur (L.); an.d.ira_ male (Or.); a_n.d.u_ uncastrated (P.); a~_d.u (Ku.); a~_r.u (N.); a~_d.u_ (H.); a~_r.ua_ bull-calf (B.)(CDIAL 1111).

1965.Notch: kutai notch at the end of bow to secure the loop of a bowstring, notch at the feather end of an arrow; (-pp-, -tt-) to fasten the bowstring at the notch (Ta.); kuta notch of bow or arrow, notch or step in a log of wood or rough ladder used for climbing, steps of well or ladder (Ma.); kutekka to make a notch (Ma.); kutam notch (Ma.); kudi tip of bow (Kuwi)(DEDR 1714). akhot.a_ grooved or notched channel (M.); aks.apat.t.a notched board (Skt.); akhat.o notch, step cut in a tree for climbing (N.)(CDIAL 32). Image: vertical, steep: kutta straight up (Ka.); vertical, steep, straight (Tu.)(DEDR 1716).

1966.Thrust; image: stone pestle: kurk- (kuruk-) to beat like a carpet (Ga.); kurkal stone pestle (Go.); kur-u (kur-uv-, kur-r--) to pound in a mortar, husk (Ta.); kur-r-u (kur-r-i-) to pound, strike, hit, crush (as lice)(Ta.); kussna_ to strike by thrusting the head against, butt (Kur.)(DEDR 1850). kur-r-u (kur-r-i-) to puncture, prick, pierce (Ta.); g(r)uccu to thrust, push, insert (as a stick, needle or the like into something or through a hole), pierce, prick, thread together (as beads), thread a needle (Te.); guhc- to pierce, poke; gu'c- to poke with finger, punch with elbow (Go.)(DEDR 1861). geje geje to reduce to a pulp (Mun.d.a_ri_); crammed (Santali); gic-pic crowded together (N.H.); gacpac crowded (H.); ghacca_ thrust (N.); ghi~ji dense, impenetrable (B.)(CDIAL 4153). kocnu to thrust, force into (N.); kocna_, ku~_cna_, ko~cna_, ku~_cna_ to pierce, rip (H.); kocvu~ to pierce (G.); kocru~ having holes (G.); kocn.o to penetrate (Ku.)(CDIAL 3489). gusu_m I copulate; pret. ghusilo (Phal.); ghussan. to enter, be thrust in (L.); ghusn.a_ (P.); ghusn.o (Ku.); ghusnu (N.); ghusa_na to thrust in (B.); ghusiba_ to enter by force (Or.); ghusal to enter (Bhoj.); ghu_sal to rub in (Bhoj.): ghu_sna_, ghusna_ to be thrust in (H.); ghusn.o to enter (Marw.); ghusvu~ to enter forcibly (G.); ghusn.e~ (M.); ghusom.k (Konkan.i); ghusr.an to be thrust in (L.); ghus.ar.na_ to penetrate (P.); ghusranu, ghusa_rnu (N.); ghusara_ to creep in (B.); ghusar.na_ to be thrust in (H.); ghuser.na_ (H.); ghusad.n.e~ (M.); ghuska_na to thrust in (B.); ghuski_ a forward woman (H.)(CDIAL 4492). ghocn.a_ to make a superfluous examination (P.); ghosn.o to goad (Ku.); ghocnu to pierce, stab (N.); ghocvu~, gho~cvu~ to pierce, thrust in (G.)(CDIAL 4515). Strung together: gundhan. to plait (L.); gu~_thna_ to plait (H.)(CDIAL 4205). gus.pita tangled mass (RV.); guphati strings together (Pa_n.Ka_s'.); guttha strung (Pkt.); gu_th round ball of cotton (H.); guthai strings, threads (OMarw.); gotanava_ to plait, knit, attach (Si.); gumthan.a stringing (Pkt.); gu~thnu to string, thread (flowers, etc.)(N.); go_n.t. to tie (Ash.)(CDIAL 4205). Pin, stake; peg: *khut. pin (N.); khu~t.i_ wooden pin (M.)(CDIAL 3893); got. hem of a garment, metal wristlet (M.); got.t.a_ gold or silver lace (P.)(CDIAL 4271). khun.t.a peg (Pkt.); khu~_t.a_ stump, stake, post, peg (H.); khu~_t.i_ peg (H.); khu~t.a_, khu~t.i_ stake, peg (M.)(CDIAL 3893). Pin: khu~t.a_ pin, wedge, stake, wooden post (B.); khut.nu to stitch (N.); khut.a_ peg, post (Mth.); khu~t.a_ stake; khu~t.i_ wooden pin (M.)(CDIAL 3893). gu_n.t.a, gun.t.i, gun.t.e, gu_n.t.ige peg, pin, stake (Tu.); gun.t.a, gu_n.t.a, ku_t.a peg, plug (Ka.); gud.ida id., stumpy post (Ka.); gu.t.a peg, post (Kod..); gu_t.amu stake, post, peg (Tu.); gud.ide hinge, peg, pivot (Te.); kut.t.a pillar, post (Go.)(DBIA 104). Image: stump; pillar: kusun (pl. kuskul) stump of a tree (Ga.); gusil id. (Kond.a); gruc id. (Pe.Mand..); kucci id. (Pa.); kuccu splinter, bit of stick, stalk; kucci splinter, peg, stick (Ta.); kuccu chip, piece of straw (Ma.); kutti stump (Ka.); kucci, kutti the stump of a shrub (Tu.)(DEDR 1640). Heap: gu.c- to lie or fall in a mass, (rain) pours down; put down in a mass; gu.cl heap of fuel (Ko.); ku.s- (ku.sy-) to be heaped up; ku.sil a heap (To.); gu_cuni, gu_suni, gussuni to pour, shed, spill; gu_juni to ooze (Tu.)(DEDR 1877).

1967.Wild rice: gadar inferior quality of rice (L.); gaddar, gaddara_ half-ripe (P.); ga_dar unripe (of grain or fruit)(H.)(CDIAL 4012). ke_r..al wild rice (ni_r vil.ai ke_r..alum : Civaka. 1422)(Ta.lex.) cf. ke_r..-varaku ragi, a millet, eleusine coracana, ke_ppai (Ta.lex.) Paddy; crop: key crop; paddy plant (Ka.); ke~yyu id. (Ka.); keyi the crop of paddy (Tu.); qesu paddy (Malt.); xess paddy (rice in the husk or standing in the field)(Kur.); keja paddy (Go.)(DEDR 1936). Swamp; cultivated ground: kaya swamp; deep; depth (as of water) (Tu.); deep place in a river (Ka.); kayam depth (Ta.Ma.); tank, water, sea (Ta.); kar..am depth, body of water (Ta.); kasa, kassa pool, tank (Go.)(DEDR 1251). khay low ground near a stream liable to be flooded (K.); kha_yal plot of ground (N.); kha_wa_ trench (N.); khar plot of cultivated ground (Kho.); kha_va_ salt mine (L.P.); kha_a dug; n. ditch, bank (Pkt.); kha_ta dug (RV.Pali); ditch, pond (S'Br.); khade, khadao dug (Dardic); kha_wai trench (A.); kha_i, kha_ia_ ditch, rampart (Pkt.); khoi-ma_li river bank (Dardic); kha_hi_ ditch (S.); kha_i_ ditch (L.P.WPah.Ku.B.Or. Bi.G.M.); kha~_i_ id. (H.); kha_i ditch (N.); khai ditch (Mth.)(CDIAL 3862). karda mud, swamp; gatta, ged.d.a (Pkt.); ka_da_ mud (B.); ka_da clay, mud (Or.); gatta (Pkt.); ka~_d wall (H.); ka_da_na to make muddy (B.); ka_da_r.iya_, ka_da_t.iya_, ka_da_la muddy (B.)(CDIAL 2867). kardat.a mud (Skt.); ka_dr.a_, ka_dar.iya_ muddy (B.)(CDIAL 2868). kardama mud, mire (Ka_tyS'rS.); muddy (Pa_n..); kaddama (Pali.Pkt.); kaddamaya (Pkt.); ka_do (B.); ka_dua, ka_do (Or.); ka_do mud in which crops will grow (opp. to pa~_k); kadwa_ ploughing to kill weeds, rice-field (Bi.); ka_dau, ka_do, kadawa_ mud, mud mortar (Mth.); ka_dau, ka_do, ka_da_ mud, clay, alluvium, bog (H.); ka_dav (G.); kadama (Si.); ka_m.dau (OAw.); ka~_daw, ka~_do (H.); ka_no (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 2869). kardamita muddy (Skt.); kaddamia muddy; buffalo (Pkt.); kadoi, kadai_ loamy soil never drier than mud, wet alluvium (Bi.); ka~daila_ muddy, dirty (H.)(CDIAL 2870). ged.d.a mud (Pkt.); gil dirt (Pers.); ga_d dregs, lees, scum (B.); ga_da sediment, dregs (Or.); ga_d low-lying land (Bi.); ga_di sediment of foul water (Mth.); ga_d sediment, dregs (H.P.); ga_da_ muck, sludge (M.); gadal. dirt (M.); gadla_ turbid, dirty (H.); gadlu_ dirty, dusty (G.); ga_dn.e~ to become turbid (M.)(CDIAL 4011). ga_l. dregs (Kho.); ga_r.o drop; ga_r.a drippings (S.); ga_l. dregs (M.); ga_d. mud (Tir.); ga_l. mud (M.); ga_l.a_ mud on bushes over a stream, alluvium (M.); ga_r.a_ kneaded or mixed mud (H.)(CDIAL 4114). git.t.e lump of earth (Ka.); a clod or lump, usually of earth (Tu.)(DEDR 1539). hel dirty or muddy ground (K.); helo consisting of black clay, very fertile (of soil)(WPah.); hi_l, hi_lo mud, swamp (Ku.); hilo mud (N.); jhi_l-hi_l small lakes or ponds (Mth.); hi_l, hi_la_ mud (H.); hi_lo cart-rut (G.)(CDIAL 14118). Wet: klinna wet (MBh.); rotted (Car.); klinnaka a little moistened (Skt.); kinna, kilinna, kilin.n.a, kili_n.a wet (Pkt.); kyonu wet; ke_nun to become wet (K.)(CDIAL 3622). Fertile black clay soil; swamp; wet; moist; rotted: jhi_l low marshy land (Bi.); lake, marsh (Mth.); id. (H.P.); deep reservoir of water (G.); rill; swmpiness (M.); jhillai bathes; jhilli_ wave (Pkt.); jhil lake, pool (N.B.); jhila lake, pool, swamp (Or.)(CDIAL 5392). cf. sitli marshland (Or.)(CDIAL 13388). citampu (citampi-) to be spoiled by too much moisture; n. spoilt condition, excessive maceration; citampal being softened by soaking or spoiled by too much moisture (Ta.); citacita dampness, moisture; cittad.i damp, moisture, wetness; damp, wet, moist; [For -tad.i cf.: tad.i moisture, wetness, dampness, damp; moist, wet, damp (Te.)(DEDR 3045); t.han.d.h cold (H.)(CDIAL 13676)]; cittar-i the rainy season (Te.); sindali moist, damp (Kui)(DEDR 2525). cf. cota-cota-v-en-l to be dripping wet (Ta.lex.) kotu wet, juicy; katun to become moist (K.); klid wet (Skt.)(CDIAL 3619). klidyati becomes wet (Sus'r.); rots (Car.); kilijjati festers (Pali); kacun to become wet (K.); sitta-: siccai; or it may be a direct anal. formation from kotu (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3620). klindati laments (Dha_tup.); klindat wet (Skt.); ke_nun to become wet (K.); kenda_ (of boiled rice) fresh and moist (Or.); kindanava_ to sink; kinda marsh (Si.)(CDIAL 3621). Wet; soft: gilla wet (Pkt.); grileste (Ash.); gri_la (Dm.); li_l wet, dew (Pas'.); gri_la wet (Kal.); gill dampness; gilla_ damp (P.); gi_lo (Ku.); gilo over-cooked, over-ripe, soft (N.); gi_l wet, muddy, benumbed (A.); gi_l wet (Aw.); dampness (H.); gi_la_, gilla_ damp (H.); gi_lau wet (OMarw.); gi_l pulp; gilgili_t oozy, over-ripe, squashy (M.)(CDIAL 4386). Soft: gilgilat. soft (Pa.); gilgila id. (Go.)(DEDR 1576). Fat, grease: kle_dayati wets (Sus'r.); kre_im I weep (Kal.)(CDIAL 3625). kle_du morbid combination of the three humours of the body (Skt.); kle_da wetness (Ya_j.); pli_eu, ti_u fat, grease (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3626). Fester; pus; rotten: kullum, kulum pus in a boil (Go.); ku_l- (-it-) to rot (as an ulcer), fester (Kond.a); ku_l- (-t-) to suppurate; ku_lpenj pus (Pe.); kulh'nai to ulcerate (Kuwi); culj- (pus) to form; culjukud. pus (Pa.); suluskur id. (Ga.)(DEDR 1814). kilinna wet, festered (Pali)(CDIAL 3622).

1968.Image: squatting, a stool: kun.d.rike, kun.d.arike sitting down or on; that on which one sits down, as a mat, a cumly etc.; kun.d.ru, kun.d.aru, kul.ir, kul.l.ir, kul.l.iru, kod.aru, kod.ru to sit down; kun.d.aru, kun.d.ru to fall so as to sit on the ground, to fall or sink down, as an animal, to sink, as a house (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) gund.is kopka to squat, sit on the heels (Kui)(DEDR 1691). Image: squatting, a stool: kuntu (kunti-) to sit on the heels with legs folded upright, squat; n. sitting on the heels, squatting (Ta.); kuttuka to squat, sit on one's heels (Ma.); kuntu, ku_tu having sat down (Ka.); kuton.u to sit (Tu.); gontu-gu_rcun.d.u to squat, sit with the soles of the feet fully on the ground and the buttocks touching it or close to it (Te.);[For semant. 'gontu-' and '-gu_r-'cf. : ghut.a, ghun.t.a ankle (Skt.); ghuno knee; ghu~t.i_ ankle joint (G.); ghu~t.an. knee (G.); gu_ri thigh (Dm.); gur.i (Phal.); khur heel (Gypsy)(CDIAL 4479); khura hoof (Ka_tyS'r.); khulaka ankle-bone (Sus'r.); khura hoof (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 3906)]; kudikilu, kudikila~bad.u to squat down (Te.); kud- to sit (Go.); kuttul a stool to sit on (Go.); kundika_l.l.u, kundikundika_l.l.u a boy's game like leapfrog (Te.)(DEDR 1728). [cf. kutin-ka_l, kuti-k-ka_l, kuti-ka_l heel of the foot (Ta.); kuti, kuti-ka_l id. (Ma.); gudi-ka_lu id. (Te.)(DEDR 1707). cf. kudur.-kudur. at a trot (Kur.)(DEDR 1705).] utkut.aka sitting on the hams; utkat.ika_ the act of so doing (Sus'r.); ukkut.ika sitting on the hams (Pali); ukkud.uya-, ukkad.iya- (Pkt.); okir.u_, okin.u_ (S.); ukr.u_ squatting; okur.u_, okr.u_ id. (P.); ukr.u_, ukr.u~_ adj. (H.); ukad. adv., ukd.a_, ukud.va_ squatting; ukid.va_, ukad.va_ adj. id. (M.)(CDIAL 1726). got.h a particular position in sitting (P.); squatting on the hams (Mth.)(CDIAL 4339). ukul.a, ukula hip (Si.); ikiliya hip, groin (Si.)(CDIAL 1703). cf. okkna_ to sit down (Kur.); oke to sit (Malt.)(DEDR 930). ul.ukku sprain, dislocation (Ta.); iluku (Te.); ul.uku (Ka.); ul.ukkal (Ma.); ul.ku (Tu.); ut.ka_r to sit down (Ta.); ul.ukkutal to write (Kampara_. Ka_rmuka. 10)(Ta.lex.) kel.illa, kel.ili bending of the knees; kel.illen in.dinava_ to squat (Si.)(CDIAL 3557). kukku to sit on one's legs, squat (Ta.); kuki.r to sit down (Ko.); kukkarisu to squat (Ka.); kun:kuru going on hands and legs, as an infant; kokkaru-kul.l.u to sit on the half-bended knees (Ka.); kukund.d.u to sit (Te.); kopka (<kok-p-; kokt-) to sit, sit down, sit on, settle down, subside; n. act of sitting, subsidence (Kui); kug, kog, ku_gali, kugginai, gok to sit; kupki ki to make to sit (Kuwi)(DEDR 1628). ku_r to sit down (Ka.); kuc to sit (Pe.); kuh id. (Mand..)(DEDR 1900).

1969.Image: squatting on the hams: got.h a partic. position in sitting (P.); squatting on the hams (Mth.); got. assembly (H.); go_s.t.hi_ assembly, meeting place (MBh.)(CDIAL 4339). Image: anus: gu_de prolapsus of the anus (Ka.); gu_de id. (Tu.); gu_da, gudda id. (Te.)(DEDR 1891). ku_ti pudendum muliebre (Ta.); posteriors, membrum muliebre (Ma.); ku.Dy anus, region of buttocks in general (To.); ku_di anus, posteriors, membrum muliebre (Tu.)(DEDR 1888). kun.t.i buttocks, rump; bottom (as of a vessel), end of a fruit or nut opposite to the stalk (Ta.); posteriors, anus; bottom of a vessel (Ma.); Image: bottom of a vessel: kun.d.e buttocks, anus; bottom of a vessel (Ka.); kut.t.e anus (Te.); kund. id. (Ga.); ku_na buttock (Kuwi)(DEDR 1693A.) guda intestine, anus (TS.); bowels (RV.); anus (Pali.Pkt.); guda_ (Pkt.); gui_ anus, posterior (S.); gui anus (A.); guya_ (B.)(CDIAL 4194). gohran anus (P.)(CDIAL 4196).

1970.Image: obstruction: kuntakam obstruction, obstacle (Ta.); kundaka (Ka.); kundakamu (Te.); cf. kunda (M.)(Ta.lex.)

1971.Setting gems: kuntan-a-k-ka_ran- one who enchases or sets precious stones (Ta.); kuntan-am interspace for encasing or setting gems in a jewel (Tiv. Tirunet.un. 21, Vya_. Pak. 178); gold, fine gold (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) Interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold: kuntan-am interspace for setting gems in a jewel; fine gold (Ta. < Te.); kundan-a setting a precious stone in fine gold; fine gold (Ka.); kundana fine gold (Ka.)); kundan.a pure gold (Tu.); kundanamu fine gold used in very thin foils in setting precious stones; setting precious stones with fine gold (Te.)(DEDR 1725).

1972.Image: tubercle on the cornea: kuntam < kunth tubercle on the cornea of the eye, protrusion of any part of the globe of the eye (Ta.lex.)

1973.Quicksilver: kuntam a mineral poison, kar-pa_s.a_n.am, ta_lam-pa_s.a_n.am; a standard weight = 4 palam; one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra; kuntan- Vis.n.u (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,9,7); holy person (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,9,7)(Ta.lex.) mukunda quicksilver; a kind of precious stone; name of one of the nine treasures of Kubera; name of Vis.n.u or Kr.s.n.a (Skt.lex.)

1974.Jasmine: kunda jasminum multiflorum or pubescens (MBh.); jasmine (Pali); kum.da a flowering tree; a kind of flower (Pkt.); ku~d jasminum multiflorum (B.); ku~ id., ku~da_ a partic. kind of flowering shrub (M.); konda jasmine (Si.)(CDIAL 3296).

1975.Olibanum: kuntam Konkany resin; wild lime (Ta.lex.) kuntalikkam myrrh-resin, gummi resina myrrha (Ta.lex.) kuntarikkam, kunturukkam, kunduru, kuntirikam, kunturukam < kunduru Konkany resin; salai tree, par-an:ki-c-ca_mpira_n.i, salai tree, Indian olibanum, boswellia serrata typica; exudus of Indian frankincense (M.M.781); cf. ca_mpira_n.i salai tree; nitta tree of Africa, parkia biglandulosa; benzoin tree, styrax benzoin; frankincense, olibanum, gum benzoin (Pata_rtta. 1072)(Ta.lex.) Frankincense: turul.akkam (perh. kundurukka) Indian gum anime, vateria indica, kunturukkam (Mu_. A.); frankincense, ca_mpira_n.i (W.)(Ta.lex.) turumam < druma tree; arnotto, ca_ppira_, kun:kuma-maram; celestial tree, kar-apakataru (Ta.lex.) Synonym: ca_ppira_ arnotto, bixa orellana (Ta.); ja_phara (Te.)(Ta.lex.) tur-akkam Svarga (Kalit. 118); tur-akka-na_t.u (Kampara_. Kat.ar-a_vu. 2)(Ta.lex.) Vateria indica: damar resin (GIMP, p.253). tura_yi-mara a cypress (Ka.lex.) Olibanum, frankincense: turukkam konkany resin, kunturukkam (Ta.lex.) cf. turus.ka olibanum (Sus'r.); turukkha olibanum (Pali); turukka (Pkt.); turuk-tel fragrant oil (Si.)(CDIAL 5882). turus.ka olibanum, Indian incense, the resin of boswellia serrata; cf. lo_ba_na (Ka.lex.) cf. turus.ka an Indo-Scythian or Turk; a Mahomedan; any foreigner (Ka.lex.) kunduru boswelia thurifera and its resin (VarBr.S.); kunduruka, kunduruka_ olibanum (Sus'r.); kunduru_ka (Skt.); mukunda resin of boswellia thurifera (Skt.); kum.durukka a sweet-scented substance (Pkt.); kundiru the medicinal gum resin olibanum (S.); kundura olibanum; kundura, kundura_, kunduri, kurr.u a kitchen fruit tricosanthes cucumerina (Or.)(CDIAL 3298). cf. mukuntam < mukunda a treasure of Kube_ra, one of nava-niti (Ta.lex.) kandu_raka a kind of fragrant substance (Skt.); ka~du_ri_ olibanum (H.)(CDIAL 2729). kunda olibanum or resin of boswellia thurifera (Skt.)(CDIAL 3296). kunda/mukunda is one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra; kunda/mukunda is resin of boswellia^ thurifera (Skt.)(CDIAL 3298). Frankincense occurs as light yellowish-brown 'tears' on some trees of the genus boswellia. cf. kunduruka, kunduruka_ olibanum (Sus'r.); kunduru_ka (Skt.); mukunda resin of boswellia thurifera (Skt.); kum.durukka a sweet-scented substance (Pkt.); kundiru_ the medicinal gum resin olibanum (S.); kundura olibanum; kundura, kundura_, kunduri, kurr.u a kitchen fruit tricosanthes cucumerina (Or.); kunduru boswellia thurifera and its resin (VarBr.S.); mukunda resin of boswellia thurifera (Skt.)(CDIAL 3298). kunduru frankincense (Santali.lex.) cf. kutru smoke (Assyrian). kunti_ a fragrant resin; kunda a fragrant oleander (Skt.lex.) cf. kunda jasminum multiflorum or pubescens (MBh.); olibanum or resin of boswellia thurifera (Skt.); its flower (Skt.); kunda jasmine (Pali); kum.da a flowering tree; a kind of flower (Pkt.); ku~d jasminum multiflorum (B.M.); ku~da_ a partic. kind of flowering shrub (M.); konda jasmine (Si.)(CDIAL 3296). gad.a hund baha jasminum arborescens (Santali.lex.) Jasminum multiflorum = jasminum pubescens: kunda (Skt.); kundphul (H.B.); mogra (M.); magarandam (Ta.); kundamu (Te.); kundam (Ma.); flowers: emetic; dried leaves: soaked in water and made into a poultice used in indolent ulcers; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.144). Jasminum sambac: mallika (Skt.); motia (H.); mugra (H.); bel, mogra (B.); mogri (B.); malligai (Ta.); bondumalle (Te.); mulla (Ma.); flowers: lactifuge, applied unmoistened to breasts to arrest secretion of milk in puerperal state in cases of threatened abscess; essential oil from flowers; cultivated throughout India (GIMP, pp.144-145). ja_ti_ jasminum grandiflorum (Car. Su. 4.13, Ci. 3.208). navama_lika_ jasminum arborescens (Car. Ci. 26.184). cf. kandu_raka a kind of fragrant substance (Skt.); ka~du_ri_ olibanum (H.)(CDIAL 2729). kunturukkam Konkan.i resin, vel.l.ai-k-kun:kiliyam or white guggulu; kun:kilikam, kun:kiliyam, kun:kulu < guggulu black oil; Indian bdellium, commiphora mukul; tripterocarp dammar, shorea; bastard sal, shorea talura (Ta.lex.) da_ru synonym of de_vda_ru (Car. Ci. 7.65, 88.101). pamara_ a kind of fragrant substance (Skt.); pao~r a deodar leaf (WPah.)(CDIAL 7789). Vateria indica: dhu_paka a perfumer (Ka.); dhu_pavarti a thin stick covered with frankincense; dhu_pa_yita incensed, perfumed, fumigated (Ka.); dhu_pa_rati an a_rati in which incense is burning; a censer (Ka.); dhu_pada mara the white dammer tree, vateria indica (Ka.lex.) Vateria indica: ajakarna (Skt.); sageddamar, sandras (H.); chundrus (B.); ral (M.); rala (Ka.); payani (Ma.); kundurukkam (Ta.); telladammaru (Te.); fatty oil from fruit: used as a local application in chronic rheumatism; damar resin; habitat: western India: from N. Kanara to Travancore up to 3,500 to 4,000 ft., chiefly in evergreen forests, but occasionally along rivers in deciduous forests. In Coorg both in the Ghat forests and east of the Ghats up to 3,500 ft., in the latter locality always in evergreen forest (GIMP, p.253). devada_ru cedrus deodar (Car. Su. 25, 23.12). de_vada_ru cedrus deodara, pinus deodara with aromatic wood which is considered carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic and useful in fever, flatulence, inflammation, dropsy, urinary diseases (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.248). bhadrada_ru, surada_ru, de_vada_ru cedrus libani a variety of deodara. It grows on the Himalayas at an elevation of 5,000-8,500 ft. The exudation of de_vada_ru was called kunduruka (B.Sam.. LVI.2; comm. kunduruko devada_ruvr.ks.a-nirya_sah.). Br.hatsam.hita_ refers to the guilds of ded.ayatrikas; this perhaps refers to itinerant traders of this product of deodar. According to Dioscorides 'cedar' is a preservative of dead (bodies). Cedrus deodara, pinus deodara: devadaru (Skt.B.); deodar (H.); dewdar (P.); keli (P.); tevadari (Ta.); devadri (Te.); wood: diaphoretic, diuretic, carminative, useful in fever, flatulence, pulmonary and urinary disorders, rheumatism, piles, gravels in kidney; oil: diaphoretic, used in skin diseases and for ulcer; bark: astringent, useful for fevers, diarrhea and dysentery; gum, cholesterin, essential oil; wood yields oil with balsamic odour; habitat: north-western Himalayas from Kashmir to Garhwal at 4,000 - 10,000 ft. (GIMP, p.56). Cedar: {Juniper phoenicea, juniperus drupacea = pinus cedrus. (Ancient Egyptian 2'n; Coptic (the resin perhaps cipe = Ancient Egyptian sft = pinus cedrus; Greek cedar (Herodotus and Diodorus); Modern Egyptian Arabic 'ar'ar) 'Juniper trees grow up to 5m in height and can attain an age of several hundred years. They were probably never indigenous to Egypt proper, although a group of juniper phoenicea actually grows in the mountains of Sinai. Most juniper timber was imported, presumably from Asia Minor, where it grew in abundance. The wood was used in carpentry, and the berries had multiple uses in medicine. The berries have an aromatic resinous flavour and are frequently used in stews, particularly to emphasise the flavour of game. The distilled oil adds its characteristic flavour to the Dutch genever. Juniper branches impart a delicate aroma to grilled food, and they were once used as a fumigant. The berries and leaves of various varieties of juniper are widely used in herbal medicine, being antiseptic, diuretic, stimulant and carminative... An infusion of milk of juniper berries, cumin, frankincense and an unidentified pod along with bone marrow was given to a woman who had not been menstruating for several years... Prospero Alpini says that juniper oil was used to massage the body before an attack of fever was expected... In ancient Egypt an oil scented with essential oil of juniper was used in mummification to anoint the corpse. The berries have been shown to have been mixed with the salt in which the bodies were laid for dehydration, at least among the early Christians... While discussing 'cedar' Dioscorides adds that "it is a preservative of dead (bodies), hence some have called it 'the life of him that is dead'". Sawdust and wood pitch of juniper have also been found on pharaonic mummies. Sawdust was one of the ingredients in a refreshing poultice which included various resins, wax, coriander, pork fat and ox fat. The twigs of juniper were added to a prescription for a patient suffering from illness in the head and neck. It consisted of ladanum, frankincense, kohl, red ochre, ibex fat and an unidentified balm, to be grated and made into a bandage. There is evidence of juniper having been used for dyeing in ancient times. A text tells that "fresh juniper" was employed to dye a strip of linen used in the cult at the temple of Dendara in Upper Egypt. When mordanted with alum or chrome juniper berries produce a pale creamy-brown dye.' {Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publcations Ltd., pp.111-112). deb daru dare, eroj the cedar tree (Santali.lex.) Juniperus communis or depressa: part used: the dried ripe fruit; habitat: Asia (in the dry woods), Europe, USA, northern Africa; uses: as a stimulant and stimulating diuretic in cystitis. Juniperus virginiana or eastern red cedar is a shrub or tree of pyramidal form... its wood is widely employed in the form of chips as an insect repellant and is also used in the manufacture of cedar chests and pencils. It is also the source of a volatile oil called 'cedar oil' which is a valuable clearing agent in microscopy. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, p. 128). Mummification: Herodotus reports three classes of mummification. Each class had the common process of anointing the body with cedar-oil and other ointments. Mummification is not identical with embalming (which literally means 'to place in balsam')... dehydrating the body with dry natron (sodium bicarbonate) in wooden boxes or mats was the basic operation... mummies of Dynasty XI (c 2050-2000 BC)... after desiccation with natron, the body was swathed in linen followed by a layer of linen soaked in a resinous aromatic mixture... (Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R.Hall, Trevor I. Williams, A History of Technology, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, p. 267-269). "The tomb of the pharaoh at Abydos was... a mastaba... the introduction of the mastaba gave impetus to a new craft at court -- embalming. Separated from the drying sands by walls of brick, a corpse quickly decayed. The first measure taken in response to this problem was cosmetic: swathing the body in linen bandages, soaked in resin preserved the form of the body even as the flesh mouldered within... By the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty, about 2600 B.C., (the royal embalmers) were taking the first step towards true mummification. They removed the dead pharaoh's internal organs through an incision in the abdomen and placed them in a so-called canopic jar, a vessel filled with a salty solution known as natron. The body cavity was then dried and packed with resin-soaked linen before the exterior was prepared -- attentions that might include highlightin the face with green paint or decking out the shrouded corpse in jewellery and elegant robes.... In contrast to Mesopotamia, where commerce had come early to a merchant class... foreign trade was the province of the pharaoh, who commissioned royal ventures... One of the chief commodities sought by the king's agents was timber... a brisk trade had been conducted ... with the ancient trading centre of Byblos, on the coast of Lebanon near mountains studded with cedars... there is no record of their taking to the seas before before the Fourth Dynasty... Among the most ambitious of the commercial expeditions sponsored (by the Twelfth Dynasty rulers) were those to a realm that Egyptian scribes called Punt, on the East African coast near present-day Somalia. To reach Punt -- source of frankincense, myrrh and other fragrant resins used by the Egyptians in religious ceremonies -- caravans had first to complete an eight-day trek across the blazing eastern desert from Koptos on the Upper Nile to the Red Sea. To complicate matters, the conscripts asigned to the task had to carry with them the dismantled sections of the ship that would bear them southwards down the African coast. The leader of one such expedition described the ordeal in the matter-of-fact tone generally adopted by Egyptian officials in their reports: 'My lord sent me to dispatch a ship to Punt to bring back fresh myrrh. I left with an army of 3,000 men. Every day I issued to each a leathern bottle, two jars of water, 20 pieces of bread. Then I reached the Red Sea, made the ship and despatched it'... thus the Egyptians assured themselves a steady influx of such prized iteems as timber and olive oil in exchange for their surplus stores of flax, papyrus, salted fish, ox hide, alabaster and gold." (The Age of God-kings, 3000-1500 B.C., Amsterdam, Time-Life Books, 1991, pp. 59-60; p. 81; p. 85). "Probably the earliest reference to the use of incense in any religion occurs in the notice of Sanchkara, a king of the XIth dynasty, who sent an expedition through the desert to the Red Sea towards the incense land of Punt... Punt is probably Hadramaut and Somaliland. Incense was also obtained from Gilead. A common representation on the wall of temples is that of a king offering incense. He holds a censer in one hand and with the other throws little balls or pastilles of incense upon it, praying the god to accept it and give him a long life. Immense quantities of incense are often spoken of as having been offered, e.g. 1000 censers, or, as an inscription referring to Rameses III reports, 1,933,766 pieces of incense, etc., during the 31 years of his reign. It was offered to all the gods, who delighted in its odour, their statues being censed with it and perfumed. Often it accompanied other offerings, greater or smaller -- e.g., frankincense, myrrh, and other perfumes were placed in the carcass of the bullock offered to Isis (Herod, ii.40)... At funerary rites, the deceased was purified with incense. Five grains were twice offered to mouth, eyes, and hand, once for the north and once for the south; thence incense from foreign parts was similarly offered, along with the litany of purification. Myrrh, resin, etc., but not frankincense, were placed in the body which was embalmed... Incense, in the sense of a gum resin, does not seem to have been used in Greece until post-Homeric times, and Pliny (Hist. Nat. xiii.1) says that people knew only the smell of cedar and citrus as it arose in volumes of smoke from the sacrifice... Hindus have always been fond of pleasant odours, and India was alreay celebrated for its perfumes in ancient times. Incense from Arabia was early imported there, but many native kinds of sweet-smelling materials have long been in use-- flowers and fragrant woods. These are burned ritually or in ordinary domestic usage. In ancient times sandal-wood was burned as incense in temples and as a fragrant stuff in houses, and in the daily rites the sacred fire was fed with consecrated wood, usually from the Pala_s'a tree... in the cult of S'iva it is daily burned by the priest before the stone representing the god at Orissa, and perfumes are also placed on it... Camphor and incense are burned before the image of Kr.s.n.a, and in the demon cults of Western India perfumes are commonly burned. In the Pacha_yatana ceremony of the Bra_hman house-holder perfumes and flowers are offered, and among the sixteen acts of homage is the offering of perfumes, sandal, flowers, and incense (dhu_pa)... in Ceylon, perfumes and flowers are offered before the image of Buddha, and in the Pirit ceremonial incense is burned round the platform on which the relics of Buddha are exposed. But it is in Tibet that the use of incense is most prevalent... In Japanese Buddhism, incense is also commonly used, and has influenced the native Shinto religion... Herodotus (vi.97) describes Darius burning 300 talents of frankincense upon the altar (in Persia)... in a passage of the Vendi_da_d (xix.24) it is called 'incense of vohu-gaona -- 'Thou shalt perfume vohu-mano (perhaps an idol) therewith.' Sandalwood and incense are burned in modern Parsi ritual... In Muhammadan cults proper, incense is not used, but it is commonly offered at the shrines of saints, and is permitted by the traditions as a perfume for a corpse... among all Muhammadans it is burned in houses on braziers, or at marriage processions it is burned in a mibkharah... or in the scinece of da'wah... the materials used for incense are frankincense, benzoin, storax, coriander-seed, aloes-wood, etc." (James Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915, p.203). "Throughout the early centuries of the New Kingdom Egypt's foreign trade appears to have been practically a royal, or government, monopoly, heavily protected by tolls and tariffs and carried out largely by caravans and ships owned or controlled by the crown or by one of the departements of the pharaonic administration... the so-called 'traders for foreign land', mentioned occasionally in inscriptions, were probably government agents, rather than independent merchants. Moreover, apart from a tomb painting showing some primitive Puntite sailing rafts bringing goods to a port on the Red Sea coast, there is only one Eighteenth Dynasty (1567-1320 BC) representation of foreign merchant ships in an Egyptian harbour... delegations of Hittite, Keftiu, Puntite, and other foreign traders are represented in Egyptian tomb paintings... invariably shown delivering their merchandise (nearly always called 'tribute' or 'gifts') to a crown official... " (I.E.S. Edwards et al (eds.) The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. II, Part I, 1973, pp. 386-387). The early route to India from Egypt and Asia Minor was through the Red Sea, hugging the Arabian and the 'incense-land' of Punt (present-day Somali on the east coast of Africa near the southern end of the Red Sea) coasts and through the mouth of the Persian Gulf to the mouth of the Indus River (Mohenjo-Daro) or Gulf of Cambay (Lothal)... The South West monsoon route to India reaching the Malabar coast was discovered at the time of Hero... Both (1) Punt and (2) Arabian coasts were centres for trade in (1) gold, ivory, aromatic gums, incense; (2) spices, aromatic gums respectively. (J.H. Breasted et al. (eds.), European History Atlas, Chicago, 3rd edn.) Cement: madana randia dumetorum popularly called dhatu_ra_; its fruit, madanaphala formed an ingredient of vajralepa, a cement. (B.Sam.. LVI.5) 'The Br.hatsam.hita_ (57, 1-8) gives an account of some adamantine compositions like vajra-lepa and vajra-sam.ghata. Vajra-lepa consists of extracts of certain types of plants, fruits, seeds, barks etc. (like unripe ebony fruit, wood-apple), blossoms of silk cotton and guggulu (a fragrant gum; exudation of amyris agallochum = amyris commiphora = commiphora agallocha). The process described is as follows: 'boil them in a dron.a of water and reduce it to an eighth of its original volume. Mix the residue with sri_va_s'aka (probably the resin of pinus longifolia), kunduru_ka (exudation of deodar), guggulu, linseed, resin of bilva fruit, etc., and make it into a paste.' This glutinous material could be applied on to the roofs and walls of temples and mansions. Its life has been stated to be ten million years. Vajra-sam.gha_ta is a metal-cement consisting of eight parts of lead, two of bell-metal and one of iron rust or brass. It is melted and poured hot as desired.' (D.N.Bose, S.N.Sen and B.V. Subbarayappa (eds.), A Concise History of Science in India, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, 1971, p.308). kuntalin:kam benzoin tree (W.); ca_mpira_n.i, styrax benzoin = frankincense, olibanum, gum benzoin (Pata_rtta. 1072)(Ta.lex.) Boswellia glabra ... distribution: North-West India, Belgaum district, Deccan and Carnatic from the Godavari to Mysore ... Bengal, guggul; Hindi, gugal. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp.520-523). East African Coast: '...The earliest written accounts of the East African coast occur in the Periplus Maris Erythraei -- apparently written by a Greek merchant living in Egypt in the second half of the 1st century AD -- and in Ptolemy's Guide to Geography ... (which) records the existence of six or so places (in Somaliland) where some kind of commerce was being organized and notes that regular customs dues were collected from both sides of what was later to be called Cape Guardafui. Ships, it goes on, sailed from the coast to western India to bring back cotton cloth, grain, oil, sugar, and ghee, while others moved down the Red Sea to the East African coast bringing cloaks, tunics, copper, and tin. Aromatic gums, tortoiseshell, ivory, and slaves were traded in return ... (Arab traders) dubbed the part of the coast to which they sailed (south of modern Somalia) Azania, or the Land of Zanj -- by which they meant the land of the blacks and by which they knew it till the 10th century... the chief town was Rhapta ... tortoise shell and rhinoceros horn were exported from there -- as were quantities of ivory and coconut oil -- no mention is made of slaves. Rhapta's main imports were metal weapons and iron tools -- suggesting that iron smelting was not yet known ... Azania ... was more usually directly subordinate to the people of Mocha in Yemen... (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 22nd edn., Vol. 6, p.91.) Thure and myrrh: 'Fifty-fifth colloquy: thure and myrrh. Why do they write of two kinds of incense, one of Arabia and the other of India?... Orta: ... It is brought from Arabia where it called lovam, corrupted from the Greek word olibano, which is much used by them. They also call it conder, namely, Avicenna, for conder or condros means resin, and camac means gum in Arabic. It is true that Serapio calls it ronder, but that name is corrupt. For I have spoken with many Arabs about it and they all call it lovam, except a few who call it conder, but none call it ronder here nor in its own land where it grows... I have asked the Portuguese, who have lived for along time in this land, and all say that it has no other names, and that the tree is also called lovam. These men say that the best is from the hills, while that from the plains is bad, as it gets mixed with the resins of other trees and is used as pitch for the ships (emphasis provided). The trees are the property of the king and no one can gather from them without his license. The merchants come from Adem, Xael, and other parts of Arabia and contract with the king for the quantity they are to be allowed to gather, and the price they were to pay for the incense, being good and the price they were to pay for the incense, being good and what we call incenso macho. The price is not high. The best that is brought from Arabia to India is worth 2 cruzados the quintal. Ruan: Do they call it macho? Orta: No. The good incense is called meleto in India... The tree which produces this gum is not very large, and the leaves are like those of mastich. In India they do not adulterate or falsify it, as they would gain so little by doing so. The Indian doctors use a great deal of the incense for unguents and perfumes, and it is eaten for many diseases of the head, and for dysentry. But the greatest quantity is taken to China for sale, where it is largely used. Those who trade with it there make large profit, and it is also used in the parts bordering on Malacca, where the myrrh is also in demand, called bolla in India. Ruano: Dioscorides, Avicenna, and others say that it is in India, and that is black; but I know, as you have said, that there is no incense in India. Orta: This word indo is often taken for black. For instance Mesu speaks of mirabolonos indos, which are the black kind, as I told you in discussing them. Ruano: Now tell me about the myrrh. You have said such a few new things about incense, that it is fair that you should now say where the myrrh comes from and what it like. Orta: Much comes to India from Arabia and the land of Abexim (Abyssinia) which is in Ethiopia, but the truth about this gum has never been ascertained, nor what the tree is like; only a merchant who traded between Melinde and Mozambique told me that the Bedouins brought it by land from Brava and Magadaxo, and that they came, according to what they said, from Caldea, so called by these Bedouins. These men were mountaineers, and spoke pure Arabic, which is said to be nearer the Caldean language than the ancient Syriae... (Abexim priest) said that magoxi, in that Caldean language, means a man of letters or learning, and these were the magos that came to worship our Lord. He said that these men were not kings but men of great learning, as well in the stars as in other things of nature... the star which guided these magos was not a natural celestial one, but an elemental one, such as we call a comet... Ruano: ... but I should rejoice if you would tell me something more about the incense, for our castilians say that it is in the Western Indies of our King. Orta: I only tell you what I know to be well authenticated... as I have not seen, I cannot say whether it is true or not... Footnote by the translator: Tus, or Turis, meaning incense in general (from 0vtia, an 'offering', a victim 'offered' in sacrifice), here refers to frankincense (i.e. 'pure' 'incense'), the Hebrew lebonah, 'milky', 'white' (cf. Lebanon, 'the white (i.e. 'snowy') mountain), the Greek libanos, the Latin olibanum (as if 'oil of Lebanon'), is the product of the Burceraceous tree, boswellia carterii, the mohr-modow of the Sumalis; boswellia bhaudagiana, the mohr add of the Sumalis; and boswellia freriana, the lemon-scented yegaar of the Sumalis. The first two make up the bulk of the frankincense of commerce, while the last is reserved, chiefly in South-Western Arabia and North-Eastern Africa, for special use... Colebrooke, supplies a semi-fluid oleo-resinous exudation, the salika, contracted to salia (meaning 'running', 'drooling'), of the people of the country, and 'Indian olibanim' of Anglo-Indians. The thus terrac of Pliny and our elder pharmacists is the 'ground pine'. Myrrh is obtained from the Burceraceous balsamodendron myrrha, Nees, of North-East Africa and South-East Arabia; and the bazaars of India, is always mixed up with 'Indian bdellium' produced by the balsamodendron roxburghii, Arnot, of Assam.' (G. Da Orta (c. 1490 to c. 1570), Colloquies on the Simple and Drugs of India, tr. by Clements, Markham, Delhi, Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi, 1913, repr. 1987, pp.447-450). 'Myrrh is called vola in Sanskrit and is described as an article to be had in the beniah's shop, thereby implying it to be an imported drug. It is said to be useful in fever, epilepsy and uterine affections, but is not much used in practice.' (Uday Chand Dutt, The Materia Medica of the Hindus, Varanasi, 1922, repr.1980, p.137.) Olibanum: 'frankincense, also called olibanum, aromatic gum resin containing volatile oil valued in ancient times in worship and as a medicine and still an important incense resin... semi-opaque irregular lumps or round or oblong teardrops covered with white dust... Heat develops a balsamic odour. Frankincense was used by the ancient Egyptians in their religious rites. It constituted part of the Jewish incense of the sanctuary and is frequently mentioned in the Pentateuch. The 1st century Roman natural historian Pliny the Elder described the characteristics of good-quality frankincense and mentioned it as an antidote to hemlock poisoning. The 11th-century Persian physician Avicenna recommended it for a wide range of bodily ailments. In China and elsewhere in the East, it was used both as an internal and external remedy, but according to modern Western medical theory, it has no special value. Frankincense is used in incense and fumigants and as a fixative in perfumes. The hardened gum resin, gum thus, from which spirits of turpentine is produced, is sometimes called common, or American, frankincense.' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 22nd edn., Vol.IV, pp. 282-283.) 'Olibanum. boswellia carterii and other species of boswellia. Frankincense is a synonym; German. weihrauch; French. Encens... Part used: the gum resin. Habitat. Somaliland and Arabia... The bark is incised by natives of Arabia, Somaliland and the Sudan, and the exudation, in tears or masses, is gathered after it has dried. A large amount of the Arabian drug is carried to Aden and shipped to Bombay, India, from where it is exported to various parts of the world. British Somaliland also produced frankincense in considerable amounts, and lesser amounts are gathered in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan... Uses. As an incense and infumigating pastilles and plasters; stimulant.'(Heber, W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, p. 510). Arab trade: '... Four main states are known to have established themselves in South Arabia -- Ma'i_n (of the Minaens), Saba' (of the Sabaeans), Qataba_n (Qitba_n) and Had.ramawt, in their territorial order from north to south and southeast... The choice by these states of seats somewhat away from the fertile land (e.g. Qarna_w (now Khirbah Ma'i_n), Yathi_l (now Bara_qish), Ma'rib (in what is now Yemen) indicates that the most significant basis on which their power and prosperity usually rested was trade... A main trading commodity was frankincense, a commodity then in great demand for ritual and other purposes in the lands of high civilization -- in Egypt and Mesopotamia north of Arabia, and later across the Mediterranean in Greece and the Roman Empire. Most of the frankincense was grown or collected in South Arabia itself, particularly in the Mahra region and in dhofar. This trade also carried the commodities brought by sea from India and East Africa to the ports of Cana (His.n al-Ghura_b) and Aden. Ma'i_n. Ma'i_n civilization seems to have been based entirely on trade activities. Autonomous Minaean trading colonies, whose task must have been to attend to trading affairs, are known to have existed in Dedan in northern Hejaz, in Timna', and in Shabwah. A group of Minaeans, indicated in inscriptions as m'n m s.rn [Note: ponetic cognate: se_n.i guild, division of army (Pali)(CDIAL 12718)] -- taken by many scholars to refer to the Minaeans of the colony at Dedan -- should most probably be identified as 'Ma'i_n of the caravan' or 'Ma'i_n of the expeditionary force', indicating the section of the Ma'i_n whose task was to lead or escort the caravans... Saba'... the earlier form of government in Saba' was under mukarribs, high priest-princes who combined religious and temporal power in the state and who peacefully gave way to kings... (sometime between 115 and 109 BC), the straits of Bab el-Mandeb at the southern tip of Arabia were opened for direct traffic from Egypt to India. This weakened the position of the overland incense traffic, which almost vanished within a century. The South Arabian states must have suffered a great blow; but another group which must have suffered were the Bedouin -- the 'arab and a'ra_b of the inscriptions -- who took part in the overland traffic and sold or hired camels to the South Arabians for this purpose... Qataba_n... The economy of Qataba_n rested on its share of the South Arabian trade and on an efficien tsystem of irrigation and agriculture... The temple administration also owned land and seems to have controlled a sizable part of the economy, including the trade...' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 22nd edn., Vol.1, p.1044.} Frankincense. "A fragrant gum resin used ritually in the Old Testament (Ex. 30,34; Cant. 3,6) presented to the Christ Child by the Magi, offered in gold censers with the prayers of all the saints before the throne, and purchased in large quantities by the Babylonians before the fall of their city, that is, Imperial Rome. This precious incense is obtained by slitting the bark of many species of Amyrids (e.g. boswellia carteri or serrata). These trees are found in India, on the western coast of Africa, and on the southern coast of Arabia. The best quality of frankincense is white when dry, and has the pleasing odor of balsam when burnt..." Incense. "Gums and spices were burnt as an act of worhip in the temple. Zachary was offering incense to the Lord within the sanctuary when the angel appeared to him (Luke 1,8-11)... It was one of the luxury wares sold in Babylon, that is, Imperial Rome." (John E. Steinmueller and Kathryn Sullivan, Catholic Biblical Encyclopedia, New Testament, New York, Joseph F. Wagner Inc., 1950, p.244; p.328). Arabian trade and commerce. "The chief importance of Arabia to the ancients lay in its exports, of which the most renowned was incense, a gum obtained from a certain tree by incisions made in the bark... Sprenger (Geog. p.299) regards the incense country as 'the heart of the commerce of the ancient world,' owing to the vast amount of it required for religious rites, and terms the Arabs, or more nearly, the inhabitants of the incense country, 'the founders of commerce as it existed in the ancient world.' It is perhaps noteworthy that the verb 'Arab' and its derivaties are used in Hebrew to signify 'commerce.'... incense... formed the basis of the proverbial wealth of the Sabaeans... Other scents and spices are also mentioned as Arabian exports; but we notice as interesting the observation of Glaser, that the particular spices mentioned in Ezk 27 as exported from a place we have grounds for locating in South Arabia do not really grow there. Almost as famous as the incense was the Arabian gold. The gold used by Solomon for gilding the temple is stated to have come from Parwaim, which is plausibly identified by Glaser with Sak-el-Farwain... in Central Arabia." (James Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible, Edinburgh, T & T Clark, 1898, p.134). Theophrastus discusses the making of perfumes and ungunets, and various spices and odors and of the oils used to retain the perfumes... Benoil (balanos) was considered one of the best because it possessed no odor of its own... Olive oil, sesame oil and oil of bitter almonds were also used... some plants used were: frankincense, myrrh, cassia, cinnamon, sweet-marjoram, cardamom, sweet-flag, thyme, myrtle, iris, rose, lily... Pliny refers to "a 'royal' unguent, so-called because it was first composed for the Parthian kings, was composed of myrobalanus, costus, amomum, cinnamon, comacum, cardamum, spikenard, marum, myrrh, cassia, storax, ladanum, opobalsamum, Syrian calamus and Syrian sweet-rush, oenanthe, malobathrum, serichatum, cyprus, aspralathus, panax, saffron, cypirus, sweet marjoram, lotus, honey and wine. Not one of the ingredients in the compound is produced either in Italy...or indeed in all Europe, with the exception of iris, which grows in Illyricum, and the nard which is to be found in Gaul..." (Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants, (trans.) Sir Arthur Hort, London, 1916, pp.229-233; Pliny, Book XIII, ch.2 (Trans.) Bohn's ed., III, p.166; loc. cit. John Maxson Stillman, The Story of Alchemy and Early Chemistry, 1924, p.23). Sabaei and frankincense: "Of substances referred to in the Bible, which are known to have been used by the Hebrews and other peoples as incense there are: (1) wood-- aloes (eagle-wood); (2) bark -- cassia; cinnamon; (3) roots -- costus; (4) gum resins = balm (?mastic); tragacanth (spicery), balsam (spices), bdellium (galbanum); ladanum (myrrh); stacte; frankincense; (5) flower products -- saffron; spikenard; (6) animal products -- onycha (the operculum of a marine mullusc)... Frankincense (Greek libanwtos, Hebrew lebho_na_h, Latin olibanum, libanus) is the gum resin of trees of the genus boswellia (boswellia carterii, boswellia frereana, boswellia bhua-dajiana) and is exported from Somaliland, probably the Punt of Egyptian inscriptions. Pliny (Hist. Nat. xii.14ff.) refers to it as a product of Arabia (Hadramaut), and says that the Sabaei alone behold the tree which produces it, and of these only 3000 families by virtue of hereditary succession. The trees are sacred; and, while pruning the trees or gathering the resin, men must not contract pollution by sexual intercourse or contact with a corpse. It is carried to Sabota, where the priests claim a tithe of it in honour of their god Sabis; until this is paid, none of it may be disposed of. Herodotus speaks of winged serpents which guard the trees and are driven off by burning styrax. It was one of the ingredients of Jewish incense, as it is still of that used in Christian ritual. Classical authors, in speaking of frankincense, usually refer to its exporting place as the seat of its origin, e.g. Syria and Phoenicia... flowers are commonly offered to the gods, or scented oils applied to their images. The bodies of the dead are also decked with flowers, aromatic oils, and perfumes... The right to see the species of trees (yielding frankincense) was reserved to certain sacred families. While harvesting the gum they must practise continence and take no part in funerals (Pliny, xii.54). The virtue of the gum lay in its being regarded as the blood of a divine plant... (the name of the incense) among Babylonians was kutrinnu, and the incense-offering consisted of odoriferous woods (cedar, cypress), myrtle, cane, and sweet herbs... Herodotus says that 1000 talents of frankincense were offered on the great altar of Bel at his annual feast, and the author of Is 65 (i.183) refers to Babylon as the land where incense is offered on bricks..." (James Hastings (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, New York, Charles Scribner's sons, 1915, p.201-203). "Incense... ingredients are usually frankincense, styrax, benzoin, and cascarilla bark combined in various proportions. Other substances used are balsam, cinnamon, myrrh, and sandalwood and musk. It is mentioned on an inscribed tablet that was placed on the Sphinx at Giza, Egypt, in about 1530 BC... styrax officinale of Asia yields resinous storax; styrax benzoin of Borneo, Java and Malayan islands yields benzoin." (Frank and Wagnall's Encyclopaedia, MCMLXXI, Vol. 13). "According to Plutarch, the Egyptians burned incense to the sun three times a day; Herodotus recounts that incense was daily burned before an image of a cow. Sacrifices were offered to the pharaoh, and incense was burned before him in the coronation procession. The importance of offering incense is evident from the title of a courtly official, the 'Chief of the House of Incense... In the Mesopotamian Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh's mother Ninsuna... burned incense and offered it to the god of creation, Shamash, to show her reverence and receive his blessings. As Gilgamesh embarked on his msision to kill the Evil One, Huwawa, he heard the words of his mother and remembered the fragrant aroma of the incense... In the Su_fi sama_' incense is often burned as the dhikr is chanted." (Mircea Eliade (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Religion, New York, Macmillan, 1987, p.162). {There are a number of boswellia species: "...the better known are: in South Arabia, boswellia carteri; in East Africa, boswellia bhaw-dajiana, boswellia carteri, boswellia freerana; in China, boswellia serrata; in Nigeria, boswellia dalzielii, boswellia odorata; the gum resin of boswellia spp., Austria, Denmark, France, Norway, Portugal, Spain; the gum resin of boswellia bhau-sajiana, Austria, Portugal, Spain; the gum resin of boswellia carterii, Austria, Denmark, France, Norway, Portugal, Spain... boswellia serrata ... common on dry hills throughout the greater part of India (except Assam and Burma) ... the bark is sweet, acrid, cooling; binding, tonic; removes 'kapha', biliousness; allays asthma; cures dysentery, skin diseases, ulcers; purifies the blood; the gum is ... useful in skin and blood diseases, fevers, diaphoresis, convulsions, mouth sores, vaginal discharges, 'vata', dysentery, diabetes, and diseases of the testis (Ayurveda). The gum is of five kinds. It is hot, dry, with a good flavour and a bad taste, bitter; astringent to the bowels, expectorant; used for boils, scabies, as a collyrium in ophthalmia; useful in intestinal troubles, bronchitis, asthma, cough, bad throat; heals wounds; strengthens the teeth; invigorating; may cause vomiting. Its distillate in oil is carminative and pectoral (Yunani)... The gum-oleoresin is recommended in combination with other drugs for the treatment of snake-bite (Caraka, Sus'ruta, Yogaratna_kara) and scorpion-sting (Caraka, Sus'ruta). (According to Caius and Mhaskar, the gum resin is not an anti-dote to either snake venom or scorpion-venom). Arabic, bastaj, kundur, luban; Bengal, luban, salai; Bombay, salai, salaphali, salayadhup, salga, guggula; Burma, bringiloban, thabi-ben; Canarese, dhupa, guggala, guggaladupa, kunda, lobana, maddi, sambrani, site, situmme, tadika, turushka, viseshadhupa; Chinese, fan hun hsiang; Cutch, saliyaguggul; Deccan, farangiaud, kundur; Gond, borsalei, ganga, salla; Gujarat, dhup, gugali, mukulsalai; Hindi, kundur, luban, salai, salga, salhe, sali, salpe, selgond; Kolami, salga; Kumaon, anduga, anduku, dumsal, guggar; Lambadi, saliria; Lohardugga, saleya; Malayalam, hladini, kunturukkam, mukundam, palankam, parankisamprani, stayanti, vellakkunturukkam; Marathi, salaphali; Sanskrit, ashvamutri, asraphala, bahusrava, gajabhaksha, gajapriya, gajashana, gajavallabha, gandhamula, gandhavira, hladini, hraswada, jalatiktika, karaka, konkanadhupa, kumbhi, kundu, kunduru, kunduruki, lhadini, maherana, maheruna, mocha, nagavadhu, rasala, salasi, sallaki, shallaki, silhabhumika, silhaki, sugandha, sukhamoda, surabhi, surabhisillaki, sushrika, susrava, suvaha, vanakarnika, viseshadhupa, yakshadhupa; Santal, salga; Sinhalese, kundrikan; Spanish, arbol del incienzo; Tamil, attam, kunduru, kundurukkam, kungiliyam, kungulu, muraiyidam, paragichambrani, sambrani, valugam, vellaikkungiliyam; Telugu, anduga, dhupamu, guggilamu, parangisambrani, tellaguggilamu; Ulwar, salar; Urdu, kundur, lobana; Uriya, loban).

1976.Rear of an army: ku_r..ai rear of an army (Pur-ana_.88,1); hindmost row, as of a herd of cows (i_t.u, 9,9, pra.)(Ta.lex.) ku_l.appat.ai army constituted of various classes of persons (I_t.u, 6,6,1)(Ta.lex.) kud.am the rear (Santali.lex.) Soldiers; friends: ku_l.i commander of an army (Ta.lex.) ku_l.iyar soldiers, warriors; hunters, those who live by chase (ka_ycina mun-pir- kat.un:ka. ku_l.iyar : Maturaik. 691); highway robbers, plunderers; mountaineers, kur-avar; attendants (ve_r-upal luruvir- kur-umbal ku_l.iyar : Tirumuru. 282); friends (Ta.lex.)

1977.Hunter: a_khe_t.ika skilful in chase; terrible, frightful; a hunter; a hound (Skt.lex.) a_khe_t.a hunting (Skt.); khe_t.aka hunting; huntsman (Skt.); a_he_d.a, a_he_d.aya hunting (Pkt.); a_yiru hunter (K.); a_her.o hunting (S.); her.a_ (P.); aher hunting, prey (N.Aw.); aher. (H.); ahed.u (OG.)(CDIAL 1037). a_khe_t.ika, akhe_t.ika huntsman, hunting dog (Skt.); aher.i_ hunter (OB.); a_her.i_ hunter (S.); her.i_ belonging to the chase (P.); aheri_ hunter (Bhoj.Aw.); aher.i_, aher.iya_, her.i_ (H.); aher.i_ (G.)(CDIAL 1038). ve_t.t.am, ve_t.t.ai hunting, chase, murder; ve_t.t.u occupation of hunting; ve_t.u hunting, hunter; ve_t.an-, ve_t.t.uvan- hunter, fowler; ve_t.acci, ve_t.icci woman of the hunter tribe; ve_t.t.am/ve_t.t.ai-y-a_t.u to hunt (Ta.); ve_t.t.a hunting, chase; ve_t.an- hunter, fowler (Ma.); ve.t. hunting; ve.t. a.r.- to hunt; ve.r.n. hunter (Ko.); pe.t. hunting; pe.t. o.d.- to hunt (To.); p.r. Tamilian (i.e. hunter)(To.); be_t.e, be_n.t.e hunting, the chase, animals pursued by sportsman; be_t.ey a_d.u to hunt; be_d.a huntsman; be_d.u multitude of huntsmen; be_n.t.iga hunter (Ka.); bo.t.e hunting, hunt (Kod..); be_n.t., bo_n.t., be_t.i hunting, chase (Tu.); be_d.ave fowler (Tu.); ve~_t.a, ven.t.a hunting, the chase; ve~_t.aka~_d.u, ve~_t.agiri, ve~_t.ari hunter, fowler; ve~_t.-a_d.u to hunt (Te.); ve.t. a.d.- id. (Kol.); ve_t.a hunting (Nk.); vet.a_ id. (Go.); ve_t.a id. (Go.Kond.a); be_t. id. (Pe.Mand..); be_t.a id. (Kuwi); betta ki_ali, be_ta ki_nai to hunt (Kuwi); [the Dr. word has been borrowed into the local Oriya of Koraput, with the substitution of b- for v-; this is reborrowed into some of the local Dr. languages, viz. Pe. Mand.. Kuwi.](DEDR 5527).

1978.To pass time: kar..i to pass (as time)(Ta.)(DEDR 1356).

1979.Flame:gudva flame; gudga_ to blaze (Mand..); gudva, gu_du_vwa, guduwa flame (Kuwi)(DEDR 1715).

1980.Handle of axe: kis.ku handle of axe (Ta_n.d.ya Br.); kusk armful, single (Kho.); kukku a measure of length (Pa.); kis.ku forearm (R.)(CDIAL 3191). Mensuration: span; Image: thumb to forefinger: kulic. span (from thumb to forefinger)(Bshk.); godris.t. (Gaw.); kudis.t.i a particular measure of length (Skt.)(CDIAL 3285). kit.aku < kis.ku cubit of 24 finger-breadths (Carva_. Cir-. 27)(Ta.lex.)

1981.Iron helmet: ku_r.i_ iron helmet (H.)(CDIAL 3394).

1982.Ear-wax; excrement: gu_tha excrement; karn.agu_tha ear-wax (Sus'r.); gu_tha dung (Pali)[cf. akkhi-gu_thaka, kan.n.a-gu_thaka]; gu_ha (Pkt.); khul, kxul, kjul (Gypsy); gu_ (D..); human excrement (Wg.Dm.Wot..Gaw.Phal.N.A.B.); excrement, dirt (G.); excrement, rust (M.); excrement (Konkan.i. Si.); g human exceement (Kt.); gu_i (Pas'.); gu_i (Shum.); cumur-gu_r iron slag or dross or scum; kar-gu_lu ear-wax (Kho.); goh excrement (K.); gu~_hu (S.); gu~h, ghu~_, gu~_ (L.); gu~_h (P.); guhu (N.); guha, ghua, gu, gaa (in speaking to children) excrement (Or.); gai ear-wax, infantile diarrhoea (Or.); gu~_h excrement (Bhoj.); gu_h (H.); gu_t (Bshk.)(CDIAL 4225). gan:guru cowdung (Kho.)(CDIAL 4097). goa_ manure (Bi.)(CDIAL 4262). kur-umpi ear-wax; excretion of the body, as urine and faeces (Ta.);[cf. karn.a-gu_tha (Sus'r.) = (reversed compound) gu_ + karn.a (CDIAL 4225)]: ku_kan.i, ku_gan.i, ku_gat.e, kur-ugan.i, koggu, gugge ear-wax (Ta.); kirmbilu, kirmbillu id. (Tu.); gubili, gulibi, gulimi id. (Te.); girub id.; kor- to scrape wax out of ear (Pa.); koranged., kor.ngel, kor.nguli, korekal, korveli ear-wax; gu_nju id.; kornju_l id. (Go.)(DEDR 1855).

1983.Smithy: kor-r-ur-ai (kol + tur-ai) blacksmith's workshop; smithy (Pur-ana_)(Ta.lex.)

1984.Hare: kunde_lu hare (Te.)(DEDR 1728).

1986.A perfume: kuntala a kind of perfume (Skt.lex.)

1987.Perfume: priyan:gu: gundre a medicinal plant and perfume, commonly called priyan:gu (Ka.lex.)

1988.Fragrant grass: gundra a kind of grass, saccharum sara; gundre the root of the grass cyperus pertenuis; the fragrant grass cyperus rotundus (Ka.lex.) Image: vine; bulrush: gundra saccharum sara; gundra_ the reed typha angustifolia (Sus'r.);[cf. jambu a bulrush, typha angustifolia (Te.)(DEDR 2347)]; gun.d.a scirpus kysoor; gun.d.a_ a kind of reed; gun.d.ra, gun.d.ra_ a kind of cyperus (VarBr.S.); gunda_ the grass cyperus pertenuis (Pali); gum.da a grass (Pkt.); gunda, gund, gun vine (Pas'.); gu~d a plant from which mats are made (N.); gunri a mat (N.); go~d a reed (Bi.); go~dri_ a mat made therefrom (Bi.); go~d, go~dni_ the reed typha angustifolia (H.); gu~dr.o bulrush (G.)(CDIAL 4199). ku_ndr bulrush, typha angustifolia (L.)(CDIAL 4199). Reed: kundri a common climbing plant, zehneria ambellata; at the edible root of kundri (Santali.lex.) Melathria heterophylla = zehneria umbellata kudari (B.); gametta, gometta (M.); amantmul (H.); tiddanda (Te.); juice of fruit: with cumin and sugar given in cold milk as a remedy for spermatorrhoea; juice of leaves: applied to parts which become inflamed from the application of the marking-nut juice; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, pp. 164-165). Melothra perpusilla = zehnaria hookeriana bankundri (M.P.); root: used with milk in fever and diarrhea; habitat: upper gangetic plain, E. Bengal, E. Himalayas up to 5,000 ft., Assam, Khasia, Konkan, Deccan, W. Ghats and Nepal (GIMP, p.165).

1989.Sorel plant: kudrum the name given to several fibre-yielding plants; arak kudrum the Indian sorel, hibiscus sabdariffa; dare kudrum hibiscus cannabinus; son kudrum crotolaria juncea (Santali.lex.) Hibiscus sabdariffa (rosselle) 'Source of red beverage known as jamaica in Mexico (said to contain citric acid and salts, serving as diuretic). Calyx called "karkade" in Switzerland, a name not too different from the Arabic. Karkade is used in jams, jellies, sauces and wines. In the tropics the fleshy calyces are used fresh for making roselle wine, jelly, syrup, gelatin, refreshing beverages, pudding, and cakes... Tender leaves and stalks are eaten as salad... The fibre strands, up to 1.5 m. long, are used for cordage and as a substitute for jute in the manufacture of burlap.' (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p. 228). cf. go~_gu, go_nu hibiscus cannabinus (Te.); go_gi deckanee hemp (Ka.)(DEDR 2183). gon:go salaka a doal (sari striped with red and white) cloth given by the bridegroom to the bride's (aunt) gon:go; gonok, gogok a piece of cloth thrown over the shoulder and falling down over the breast and tucked in on both sides to a piece round the waist; worn by women; gok to carry on the shoulder (Santali.lex.) sa_n.a hemp; sa_n.amaya hempen; sa_n.ipasibbaka hempen sack (Pali.lex.)

1990.Bride-price: gonon., gonon. pon the price paid for a bride; gonon. tor.aoni return presents made by the bride's father to the bridegroom's party (Santali.lex.) gonon the price asked or paid for a bride; the cost, value, price of something; efficacy; gon to give in marriage; it is possible that originally gon meant barter, to denote the value received; gonon must have meant: the things received for the barter of one's daughter; gonon kur.i to ask or pay so or so much as marriage price; gonon-en to ask so or so much as pay or wages; gononan adj. precious, valuable; gononka purasa balatanreko omoa, the bullocks due as marriage price are generally given on the betrothal day; genon-sati collective noun, the marriage price with all the little presents to be made on the occasion of marriage; gonon-uri a bullock which is part of the marriage price; gon the act of giving one's daughter in marriage (Mu.lex.) kon.-/kol.- (kod.-) to marry (wife), buy (cattle), begin (funeral)(Ko.); konu (kon.t-) to buy, take, hold, take up, care for (advice), consider, suppose; (inscr.) kon.- to take (kon.iri, etc.); kon.d.a~_d.u to praise, celebrate; kon.d.a_t.amu praise; kolupu to cause to do; n. festival of a god or goddess; kolucu to serve, worship; koluvu an assembly; service, employment; royal presence or the presence of a deity; koluvu-ka~_d.u servant; ko_lu vb. n. of konu; taking, plunder (Te.); kon.d.-a.r.- (a.c-) to praise (god)(Ko.); kol., kol.u, kol.l.u (kon.d.-; present relative ppl. komba (Ka.); medieval and mod. imper. ko_) to seize, take away, take, accept, obtain, buy, undertake; kol., kol.uha, kol.l.uvike seizing, taking, preying; kon.d.a_d.u to praise, respect highly (Ka.); kol.l.- (kovv-, kon.d.-) to take; kon.d.a- (kon.d.ap-, ko.nd-), ko.nda- (ko.ndap-, ko.nd-) to bring (Kod..); kon.uni (kon.d.-) to take, hold, keep; kon.d.-a_d.uni to praise, applaud, glorify (Tu.); kol. (kol.v-, kon.t-) to marry, buy, acquire, abduct; kon.t.al receiving, taking; kon.t.i getting possession of; kon.t.-a_t.u to enjoy a person's society, praise, celebrate (as a festival), solemnise; kon.a_ to bring, take, fetch, conduct; ko_l. taking, accepting, receiving, holding; kolu royal presence, durbar, presence of the deity in a temple; decorations in a Hindu house at the Navara_tri festival (Ta.); kol.ka (kon.t.-; imper. ko_) to hold, contain, receive, acquire, marry; kol.l.ikka to make to holr or receive; kon.t.a_t.uka to be interested, celebrate, praise; ko_l. holding, taking, purchase; kolu service, king's presence; magnificence, prosperity (Ma.); kor-/ko- (kott-; imper. kota, kotar) to bring (imper. ko., kor give!); kos- (kost-) to carry away, take; kosi- (kosit-; < ko-si.-, with si.- to give) to take and give (to someone)(Kol.); kor-/ko- (kott-) to bring; kos- to take (Nk.); kor-/ko- (kott-) to bring (Nk.); kor.- (kon.-, kot.-) to purchase; kol- (kot.-) to take (Kond.a); kor.- (-t-) to buy (Pe.); kr.ag- (kr.akt-) id. (Mand..); kod.a (kod.i-) to buy, take, take away, take off, pull off, pull up, pluck; n. buying, taking, plucking (Kui); ko_dali, kod.d.inai to take, buy; kod.- (-it-) to buy; kod.- (-it-) id., bring (Kuwi)(DEDR 2151).

1991.Image: broken piece: gun.d.a to make small, to make into small pieces; to grind; gun.d.a gun.d.i to make into small pieces, to make small crumbs, broken pieces; gun.d.ra to cut into pieces; a stump, a chip; kat. gun.d.rakam cut the log into pieces; khutri, khutri khutri to shred, to make into very small pieces or fragments; noa baha saname sit khutrikeda he pulled the flower and tore it into shreds (Santali.lex.) khun.d. to break in pieces; khud., kho_d.ayati to break in pieces, divide, cut up (Skt.lex.) cf. kut.ke small fragment, crumb (Nk.); kut.ka a piece; kut.ka_ sa_ri_ half of a loaf of bread; kut.ki, kut.ke a piece, lump (Go.)(DEDR 1666). Images: small broken grain; shell: khode small broken grain; broken in husking; caole khode broken rice; kod.a a shell, a mite (Santali.lex.) Image: an insect: kunta a small animal, an insect (Skt.lex.) Powder: gun.d.a powder (Te.); gund.a dust (Pa.); flour (Pe.); powder (Mand..); flour (Kuwi); gund.am powder; gund.al sawdust (Go.); gun.d.a powder, dust (Kond.a); gu_ndu_ flour (Kuwi); gun.d.na_ to reduce to powder; gun.d.a_ powder, flour, fragments, flour made of rice (also gun.d.i_)(Kur.); kund.o anything reduced to powder; gund.i dust (Malt.); gun.d.aka- dust, powder (Skt.)(DEDR 1692). cf. (CDIAL 4193).

1992.Image: harrow; drag rake: kun.d.al the cross bar of a jan.d.ra_ (a drag rake) into which the teeth are fixed. Also used of the dan.d.a_ti_ (Punjabi.lex.) kun.t.e a harrow, the web-beam in a loom (Ka.); kun.t. the web beam of a loom (Tu.); gun.t.aka, gun.t.ika, gun.t.iki, gun.t.ike, gun.t.ava, gu_t.ava a harrow (Te.)(DEDR 1689).  A broom: ku_t.t.u (ku_t.t.i-) to gather up with a broom (Ta.); gud.asu, gud.isu, gud.su, gud.iyisu, gu_d.isu to sweep (Ka.); gud.isalu sweeping (Ka.); gud.su a kind of broom (Tu.)(DEDR 1887). kod.atam, kontam a hooked stick on which are hung ropes and other accessories of the plough; a stick 2 feet long, at right angles to the harrow, to which the animals are attached by a rope; kon.ata, kon.atamu a stick to tie a dog to (Te.); kod.ata a stick tied to a dog's neck, by which it is fastened at home or led about (Ka.)(DEDR 2045). ko_t.i(t.i_)s'a a harrow (Skt.lex.) ko_tan.t.am a rope for punishment, suspended in schools, on which a boy is tied up with his hands clasped and which he is not permitted to loose (Ta.Ma.); ko_dan.d.a id. (Ka.Tu.); ko_dan.d.amu id. (Te.)(DEDR 2213). Peg in a loom: tam.tukkho_d.i peg in a loom (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3748). kor.i pegs in the ground in two rows on which the thread is passed back and forth in preparing the warp (S.); kori_ division, branch, class (H.)(CDIAL 3497). kud.d.a_la, kud.a_la part of a plough (Pkt.); kon.d.a_l, konda_l mattock, hoe (Wg.)(CDIAL 3286). udlla, pl. udalu a kind of hoe (Si.)(CDIAL 1991). Image: channel in lower part of harrow: gha_ta blow, bruise (MBh.); gha_i channel in lower part of harrow, plank to break clods with (Mth.); gha_i_ cudgelling (H.)(CDIAL 4460). ghai_ deep furrow (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 4464). kottal pecking as of birds (Ci_ka_l.at. Pu. Nakki_ra. 30); kontal picking, nibbling (Ta.lex.) kun.t.e an instrument for levelling ploughed ground and removing noxious roots, weeds etc.; it consists of a large block of wood (din.d.u) in which two shafts are inserted, and from which a thick plate of iron (kud.a) connected with it by two pieces of wood, juts out; it is drawn by two oxen (Ka.); gun.t.aka (Te.); in Mysore there are several bent pieces of iron in the block with an open interstice between each other, and the instrument is simply used for removing weeds from out of standing crops (Ka.); kun.t.e the web-beam in a loom (Ka.); ed.a place or space between, interval (Ka.); ed.akun.t.e a middling, smaller kind of weeding machine drawn by oxen. It is so constructed that the young plants, planted or sown in rows, pass unhurt between two pieces of iron, whilst the weeds on both sides are pulled up by them (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

1993.Image: leap: kon.aku a leap, jump (Ka.); kun.i to move in a hopping, skipping, or jumping manner, dance (Ka.); kunikka to dance, jump (Ma.)(DEDR 1863); kontal.am a kind of dance; konti mask, masquerade dance (Te.)(DEDR 2099); kummat.t.i jumping, romping (Ta.)(DEDR 2222). Image: jump: kul.il to amuse one's self with jumping over wood or trees (Ka.lex.)

1994.To jump: khut.la to jump (Santali.lex.) ku_rd leap (Skt.); ku_rda jump; gu_rda jump (Skt.); kud.u leap (S.); kud (N.); kuda, kuda_, kuda_-kudi jumping about (Or.)(CDIAL 3411). ku_rdati leaps, jumps (MBh.); gu_rdati, khu_rdate_ (Dha_tup.); kud.an.u to leap (S.); kud.an. to leap, frisk, play (L.); kuddn.a_ to leap (P.); kudn.o (Ku.); kudnu (N.); ku~da_, ko~da_ (B.); kudiba_ to jump, dance (Or.); ku~dab to jump (Mth.); ku_dab (Aw.); ku_dna_ (H.); ku_dai (OMarw.); kudvu~ (G.); kudn.e~ (M.); kudakna_ to leap, caper (H.); kudko a leap (G.)(CDIAL 3412). utku_rdati jumps up (Skt.); ukkuddai (Pkt.); ut.kana_ to jump up, bound; caus. ut.ka_un.a_ to startle (P.); udakvu~ to leap up (G.)(CDIAL 1730). va_kudn.e~ to jump about, frisk, frolic (M.)(CDIAL 12185). kuti (-pp-, -tt-) to jump, leap, bound, froilic, leap over, escape from, splash (as water), spurt out; n. jump, leap; kutippu leaping (Ta.); kuti leap, gallop; kutikka to jump, skip, boil, bubble up; kutukkuka to take a spring in order to leap (Ma.); gudi to jump, stamp, make a noise with the feet; kuduku to trot; n. trotting; gudiku to jump (Ka.); guttu a leap, jump; a stride (Ka.); kudupu to shake, agitate, jolt; n. shaking, jolting; kudulu to be shaken, jolt, shake while walking, flutter in agony; kudilincu to shake; kudilika shaking, agitation, jolting (Te.); kuddna_ to move about; kuda_ba'a_na_ to make run; kuda_kudi_ in hot haste; kudur.-kudur. at a trot (Kur.)(DEDR 1705). cf. kutirai horse (Ta.)(DEDR 1711a). Image: to leap: kunta_l.ittal to leap for joy; cf. kontal.i (Ta.lex.) dinku a jump, leap, skipping about in frolic, gambol (Ka.); d.ehk-, d.ahk- to jump (Go.); dega to run, jump, leap; n. running, jumping, jump, leap (Kui); devali to bound, jump (Kuwi); d.egna_ to leap, jump (Kur.); d.ev- to jump (Pkt.). [There is some connection with items in CDIAL 5534, d.ayate; esp. d.ei_ba_ to jump (Or.); cf. DEDR 2971). d.ayate_ flies (Pa_n..); d.e_ti (Pali); d.eiba to step over (A.); d.iaba_ to toss up (Or.); d.eo jump (A.); d.ia_ jump, throbbing (Or.); d.euka_ a bird's wing (A.)(CDIAL 5534). d.i_ fly (MBh.)[contaminated with dru-, dra_- to run?](CDIAL 5554). di_yati flies (RV.); dayati (Pali); dizoiki to fall (Sh.); di- to go (Gaw.)(CDIAL 6364).

1995.Horse: kutirai horse (Ta.); kutira (Ma.); kudyr (Ko.); ki0ir (To.); kudire, kudure, kudare (Ka.); kudire (Kod..); kudure (Tu.); kudira, kudaramu (Te.)(DEDR 1711a). ghur.o m., g'ur.ia f. (Sv.); ghu_r.u m., ghu_r.i f. (Phal.); go_wa (D..); guru, gud.u, ghur.u m., guru_ f. (K.); gura, go_ra, go_ri, khori, khuro horse; khuri_ foal (Gypsy); gho_t.a horse (A'pS'r.)[Non-Aryan, prob. Drav. origin]; gho_t.aka poor horse (Pali); gho_d.a, gho_d.aya horse (Pkt.); go_r.u horse (Ash); go_r.a (Wg.); iri (Pr.); go.ro (Dm.); go_r.a (Pas'.); gur.e (Nin:g.); go_r.o (Shum.); go_r. (Wot..); gur.o (Gaw.); gho_ra (Kal.); gor (Bshk.); gho_ (Tor.); ghee_ f. (Tor.)[aspirate mainatined to distinguish from go_ bull]; gha_ m., ghwi_ f. (Mai.); ghor.o m., ghor.i_ f. (S.WPah.Ku.); gho (Chi.Gau.); ghor.u foal (WPah.); ghor.a_, in cmpds. ghor.- (L.P.); gho~ra_, in cmpds. gho~r- (A.); gho~r.a_ (B.); ghu~r.i_ (Or.); ghor, ghora_ (Bi.); ghora (OAw.); ghor.., ghor.a_ m., ghor.i_ f. (H.); ghor.a_ (N.Bhoj.); ghor.o (Marw.G.); ghor.u~ poor horse (G.); ghod.a_ m., ghod.i_ f. (M.); ghod.o (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4516). gur-r-amu horse (Te.); gurram (Kol.); ghurram (Nk.); kurmam, kurrmam (Nk.); gurrol, pl. gurrocil (Pa.); gurram, pl. gurrak (Go.); gur-am (Kond.a); gu_rumi, gurromi (Kuwi)[? < ghot.aka (Skt.)](DEDR 1711b).

1996.Bawd; pimp: kut.ni a female pimp; kut.na a male pimp (Santali.lex.) kut.t.in-i unchaste woman; bawd, procuress (Ta.lex.) kut.t.ani_ bawd (BhP.); kut.t.an.i_, kut.t.in.i_ (Pkt.); kut.n.i_ bawd; kut.n.a_ pimp (P.H.); kut.uni f., kut.une m. pimp (N.); kut.an.i_ f., kut.ana_ m. (A.); kut.ni_ f., kot.na_ m. (B.); kut.un.i_ f., kut.un.a_, kut.un.ia_ m. pimp (Or.); kut.n.i_ (Bhoj.H.); bawd (G.); kut.n.u~ her business (G.); kut.n.o pimp (G.); ku~t.an. m. f., kut.i_n. f. (M.); kurt.ya_n.i_ abusive term for bawd (S.); kurt.ya_n.o pimp (S.)(CDIAL 3240). cf. kun.t.an.i, kun.t.akkam slander, calumny (Ta.Ma.); kun.t.am unchaste woman (Cilap. 10,219, Urai); kun.t.akan- son born in adultery; bastard of an adultress; kun.t.an- son born in adultery (Ta.lex.) kun.t.a-k-kan.ikai prostitute (Cilap. 10,219, Urai)(Ta.lex.) kut.t.un.i intractable, shameless person, as cuffed about by everyone (Ta.lex.) kun.t.an- man low in caste or character (Tiv. Periyati. 2,6,5)(Ta.lex.) kun.t.a slave; dirty woman (Ma.)(DEDR 1690). Naughty: kon.t.i naughty animal; prostitute, concubine (Ta.); unruly woman (Ma.); kot.t.o_ fornication (Kur.)(DEDR 2079). cf. kot.hi_ shop, brothel (L.); kot.t.hi_, kot.hi_ big well-built house, house for married women to prostitute themselves in (P.) (CDIAL 3546).

1997.Image: fornication: kot.t.o_ fornication (Kur.); kon.t.i prostitute, concubine (Ta.); unruly woman (Ma.); kon.t.a viciousness, stupidity; vicious (Tu.); kon.t.e a cunning, mischievous, or prankish person; cunning, etc.; gon.t.u a wicked man; fem. gon.t.i; gon.t.ari a cruel man (Te.)(DEDR 2079). cf. kot.t.am mischievousness (Ta.)(DEDR 2066). kut.a_vu~ to be enjoyed (of a woman)(G.)(CDIAL 3241). khucnu_ to copulate (WPah.); khu_cai pierces (OG.)(CDIAL 3890). Harlot: kuma_ harlot; concubine of Mehtar (Kho.); kumbha_ harlot; kumbhika catamite (Sus'r.); xumba id. (Av.); pa_tar harlot (P.N.H.G. cf. semant. kumbha- pot; pa_tra- pot); kumbha_- is hypochoristic for kumbhada_si_ harlot (Skt.)(CDIAL 3315). kumbhila housebreaking thief (Skt.); thief (Pkt.); kum.bhila fit for digging through (Pkt.); ku_mhal, ku~bhal hole made by a thief in breaking into a house, burglary (H.); ku_mhaliya_ burglar (H.)(CDIAL 3316). kusmbi a prostitute (Santali.lex.)

1998.Coorg: kut.akan, kut.avan Coorg man (Ma.); kod.aga Coorg man (Ka.); kod.ave Coorg man (Kod..); fem. kod.avati (Kod..); kod.age Coorg man (Tu.); ku~r.ux adj. Oraon; ku~r.xas an Oraon man; fem. ku~ruxni_; kurux Orao~_ (?Kur.); kut.akam, kut.aku Coorg (Ta.); kut.akku west, adj. (Ta.); kut.akam, kut.aku, kot.aku Coorg (Ma.); kod.agu Coorg (Ka.); kod.avi Coorg (Kod..); kod.agu Coorg (Tu.); (DEDR 1649). kod.agu, kod.a, kod.avu the Coorg country (Ka.); ku_d.ugu (Te.); kod.agatti a Coorg knife, a kind of broad sword or cleaver shaped like a bill-hook (Ka.Te.); kod.avu the Coorg country (in the language of the Coorg people); kod.ava, kod.aga a Coorg man (in the language of the Coorgs)(Ka.); kudava id. (Ma.); a predal slave; Man:gara_ja makes a distinction between the kod.agas and kod.avas saying in verse 379 of his work as follows: mle_ccharene kod.ava kod.agaru (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Region: kut.t.am expanse, region (Maturaik. 540); kut.t.a-na_t.u the region full of lakes, where a vulgar dialect of Tamil was spoken, corresponding to the modern towns of Kottayam and Quilon in Travancore, one of 12 kot.untamir..-na_t.u (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,9,1); kut.t.uvan- inhabitant of the kut.t.am country (Maturaik. 105)(Ta.); Che_ra king, as ruling over kut.t.am (er..ivur-ar.. tin.ito_ l.iyar-e_rkk kut.t.uvan- : Cir-upa_n..49)(Ta.lex.) kut.akan- Che_ra king as ruler of kut.a-na_t.u: western region (Pur-ana_. 17, Urai); the region where a dialect of Tamil was spoken, probably a portion of modern Malabar (Nan-. 273, Urai)(Ta.lex.) kunt.a_kkan- leader, chief (caman.arkko_r kun.t.a_kkan-a_y : Te_va_. 963,8); kun.t.an- strong, stout person (Ta.lex.)

1999.Image: bier (2 poles + 4 cross-pieces = 6 parts): s.at.khan.d.a consisting of six parts (Skt.); chakhan.d.a bier (consisting of 2 poles and 4 crosspieces) (Or.) (CDIAL 12782).

2000.Tube-shaped: korl, kol.a.y tube (Ko.); kwe.l. tube (To.); kur..al any tube-shaped thing (Ta.); tube (Ma.); kur..a eye of a needle, aperture in the head of an axe or hoe (Ma.); kor..avi, kor..ave, kor..a_yi, kor..ivi tuhbe, blow-pipe (esp. used to blow fires with), tubular stalk (Ka.); ko_vi tube (Ka.); kol.ave, kolave, kola_yi a hollow tube (Tu.); ko_lu, kro_lu tube (Te.); kro_vi tube (Te.); kro_d.u (pl. kro_t.ka) tube, quiver (Kui)(DEDR 1818). kho_li quiver (Skt.); khol sheath, case (P.); covering (Ku.); sheath (N.B.H.); khola_ id. (B.); khol.i quiver (Or.); khol.a_ sheath (Or.); khol.iyu~ quilt (G.); khol. pillowcase, mattress cover (M.)(CDIAL 3944). ku_t.u quiver, sheath (T.)(DEDR 1883). got.t.a quiver (Go.)(DEDR 2059). Pipe: kot.t.am hollow piece of bamboo for giving medicine to cattle (Ta.); kot.t.a id. (Ka.); kon.d.e a hollow piece of bamboo (Tu.); got.t.amu tube, cylinder (Te.); ghot.ang pipe (Go.); ghont.a a section of bamboo used as a receptacle for oil or salt (Go.); got.em a bamboo pipe to keep a cigar in (Kond.a)(DEDR 2059).

2001.A country: kuntal.am country of the Cha_lukyas (Ta.inscr.); kuntal.ar Cha_lukyas, as rulers of Kuntal.am (Kalin.. 193, Putup.)(Ta.lex.)

2002.Image: comb: kundar nakic a comb having teeth only on one edge (Santali.lex.) cf. kir.pa a comb (Kond.a); gir.- (-t-) to comb (Pe.); kirha-ko_dali, kinha kod.d.inai to comb (oneself)(Kuwi)(DEDR 1582). cf. ku_dlu hair (Kor.)(DEDR 1892).

2003.Image: long flowing tresses: ku_ntal long flowing tresses of a woman (Ta.); woman's hair (Ma.); ku_dal hair (of the head or body)(Ka.); kujalu the hair of the head (Tu.); ku_dlu hair (Kor.)(DEDR 1892). kuntala the hair of the head, a lock of hair (Skt.lex.) kuntal.am woman's hair (Te_va_. 107,1); hair crinkles, curls; woman's locks (Ta.lex.) Image: woman's hair coil: kontal.am < kuntala woman's hair; woman's lock of hair or curl; woman's hair gathered in a coil; kontam fine, wavy, dence curls of hair (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,5,8) (Ta.lex.) Image: long-flowing tresses of a woman: kor..utu to cull out, pluck, rend (Ta.); ko_tu to disentangle (as the hair) with the fingers; ko_tai woman's hair (Ta.); ko_tu dressing hair; ko_tuka to dress (hair, feathers, trees)(Ma.)(DEDR 2148). ko_tai woman (beautiful as a garland)(Ta.); go_ti woman (Te.)(DEDR 2214). Image: woman's hair tied in a roll: kur..al woman's hair dressed by coiling and tying up behind in a roll (Ta.); women's hair tied in a knot (Ma.); Image: woman with fine hair: kur..ali woman with fine hair (Ma.)(DEDR 1818).

2004.Image: feathers, woman's hair: kuntala a particular mode of dressing the hair; ku_dal hair of the head or body (Ka.lex.) kural woman's hair (Kalit. 88); one of the five modes in which a woman dresses her hair (Pu. Ve. 9,35, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) kurul. woman's hair; curl, lock of hair, especially on the forehead (Ta.lex.); ku_r..ai woman's hair (Tol. Po. 262); feathers, plumage; peacock's tail; tail (Ta.lex.) kural, ku_ral woman's hair, feathers (Ta.); kurul. (kurul.v-, kurun.t.-) to curl (Ta.); kurul. curls (Ma.); kurul., kurl.u curl, lock of hair, hair (Ka.); kurumbilu curled hair (Tu.); kurulu hair, curls or ringlets of hair (Te.)(DEDR 1794). kurula ringlet; kurala hair of head (Pkt.); kurula curled (of hair)(OG.); karala hair (G.); kur_ul., kural. formed in ringlets, curled (of hair)(M.); kurula lock of hair on the forehead (Skt.)(CDIAL 3327). cf. kur..ai to wag, as a dog its tail (Ta.lex.) gu~r.chi hair of head (Santali.lex.) ku_dal, ku_dala, ku_dalu hair of the head or body (Ka.); kujara (Skt.); kur..al, ku_ntal, ku_ral, ku_r-ai, kontal.a, ko_tai, ko_li (Ta.); kuntala (Skt.); ku_ntal (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Image: woman's hair: kuntal.am woman's hair (Te_va_. 107,1); hair crinkles, curls; woman's locks (Ta.lex.)

2005.Image: tuft of hair: kut.umi crown of the head, tuft of hair (esp. of men)(Ta.); kut.umma lock of hair worn as caste distinction (Ma.); kot. top tuft of hair (Ko.); ku_t.or cock's comb (Pa.)(DEDR 2049). kon.t.ai tuft, dressing of hair in large coil on the head, crest of a bird (Ta.); kon.t.a tuft of hair (Ma.); kon.d. knot of hair at back of head (Ko.); kwid.y Badaga woman's knot of hair at back of head (To.); kon.d.e tuft, tassel, cluster (Ka.); gon.d.e id. (Ka.); topknot, tassel, cluster (Tu.); kon.d.e, kon.d.i knot of hair on the crown of the head (Te.); go~d.a_ cluster, tuft (M.)(DEDR 2081). kun:kat.i, ku~_kat.i a lock or tuft of hair, crest of peacock (Te.); kukur(i), kukur. cock's comb (Go.); kukut.i hair (Kond.a)(DEDR 1634). kuku head (Malt.); kukk id. (Kur.)(DEDR 1630). -kun.d.a clump (e.g., darbha-kun.d.a-)(Skt.); go_d.a_ cluster, tuft (M.)(CDIAL 3266). Image: braid of hair: ku_t.aka a braid or tress of hair (Skt.lex.)

2006.Present, bribe: ghu_s bribe (P.Ku.H.); ghus present, bribe (N.); bribe (B.); ghusa (Or.)(CDIAL 4499). kot.t.aja tribute; ot.t.aja (Ka.); kur-ai (Ta.); ko_r..ai (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Tribute: ku_t.t.u tribute (Pu. Ve. 8,29); ku_t.t.un.n.utal to dine together, as at a feast (Pu. Ve. 9,49); to accept tribute (Par..a. 266)(Ta.lex.) kod.age, kod.ige gift, grant (Ka.); koru, kol.u to give, grant (Kod..)(DEDR 2053). cf. kai-k-ku_li bribe (Ma.)(DEDR 1905). -kod.e- : bilkod.e tolls (Ka.)(EI 28.IEG.) erad.u bilkod.e name of a tax (Ka.)(IE 8-5.IEG.) kod.ai-vad.aikka_y tax on arecanuts brought for sale (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) To give: kot.u to give (to 3rd person)(Ta. Tol.Col.30); bring forth, allow; kot.ai giving away as a gift (Ta.); kot.ukka to give (to 3rd person)(Ma.); kor.- (kot.-) to give to 3rd person (Ko.); kwir.- (kwir.t-) id. (To.); kwar. fine levied by assembly (Tol.); kod.u, kud.u (kot.t.-) to give, allow, emit (as a sound); ko_d.u, kod.u, kod.uvike, kod.uha giving; kod.age, kod.ige gift, grant; kod.isu, kud.isu to cause to give (Ka.); kod.i- (kod.ip-, kod.it-) to give to 3rd person (Kod..); korpini to give; korpa_vuni to cause to give, give through another; korpa_t.a giving; koru, kol.u to give, grant (Tu.); kur.pi_ what is given to a servant above his yearly pay (?Kur.)(DEDR 2053).

2007.Image: extra finger: kut.t.i-viral sixth or extra finger or toe as smaller than the rest (Ta.lex.)

2008.Dancing girl: kut.avan- dancing girl (kut.avar-kun ta_t.t.ikkun. kottit.t.u ma_yvatalla_l : Tan-ippa_. i,87,171)(Ta.lex.) humt.i, kundur. jhagr.a a kind of dance; khan.d., khod a step in dance; ud.malao to dance and wheel round (Santali.lex.)

2009.Species, class: kur-r-am < ku_r-u species, class; division of a country, in ancient times (Purana_. 24, Urai); word (Ta.Ma.); ku_r-u section, division, classification (Ta.Ka.Ma.); part, portion, lot, share; broken pieces of anything; half; ku_r-u-ka_cu share-money; ku_r-u-c-ci_t.t.u deed of partition; ku_r-u-ceytal to distribute in portions or small quantities; to exercise authority, as in the assessment of taxes, etc.; ku_r-u-pa_t.u division, subdivision, classification; portion, section (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ku.r. contribution of a measure (kwa.x) of grain, given by each Badaga house to Toda (To.)(DEDR 1884). Share: ku_r-u section, division, part, share (Ta.); id., party, partnership (Ma.); ku_r-r-am species, class; Yama (Ta.); ku.r- share, share inherited from father (To.); ko_r-u a part, portion, share in cultivation, etc. (Ka.); ko_ru a share, the king's or government portion (Te.)(DEDR 1924).

2010.A stupid lout: gu_t.hu, gu_t.hi a stupid lout; gaus.t.ha coming from a meeting place (Pa_n..gan.a.)(CDIAL 4347). cf. go_s.t.ha cow-house (RV.); meeting place (MBh.)(CDIAL 4356). Dullness: kon.t.a man of dirty habits (Pali)(CDIAL 3507). kundu stupid, slow of understanding (S.)(CDIAL 3290). kundh an unskilled person; unskilful (L.); kuntha_ blunt (Or.)(CDIAL 3293). kun.t.ha dull, stupid, lazy (MBh.); kun.d.hu blockhead (S.); kun.d.h ignorant, unskilful (L.); stupid (P.); kuni_n.o to become blunt (Ku.); kot.u blunt (Si.)(CDIAL 3261). kum.d.ha, kom.d.ha slow, stupid (Pkt.); kom.dhullu owl (Pkt.)[cf. ulu_ka owl](CDIAL 3270). kutha_ blunt (Or.)(CDIAL 3280). ku~r.iya_ lazy good-for-nothing fellow (B.); kun.d.a_ son born in adultery (H.); kun.d.a son of a woman during husband's life by another man (Skt.); kun.d.a_ mutilation (Pa_n..); kun.d.i_, kun.d.i_li widow (Phal.)(CDIAL 3265). ku_r..an- one who is devoid of clear understanding (Perun.. Pak. 732, Ni_lake_ciyurai); ku_r..a_mat.t.i dull, cowardly man; ku_r..ai dullness of intellect, stupidity (Te_va_. 462,9); ku_l.a (Te.); ku_r..e (Ka.); khul.a (M.)(Ta.lex.); ku_r..aiyan- dolt, booby (Ta.); ku.kn foolish man (Ko.)(DEDR 1913).

2011.Barren woman: god.d.i barren woman (Ka.); kot.t.u barren woman (Ta.); god.n. man who has no children (Ko.); god.y barren woman (Ko.); god.d.u state of being barren, sapless; a barren cow, etc. (Ka.); barren (Tu.); barren, empty; barrenness, a barren woman or animal (Te.); god.d.ura_lu, god.ra_luy barren woman (Te.); god.u barren (Kond.a)(DEDR 2074). god.d.u barren (esp. applied to irrational animals)(Kon.lex.) d.an:gua barren (as tree)(Santali.lex.)

2012.Cloth, effigy: gud.d.a cloth, a bit or piece of cloth (Te.); kut.t.ai kerchief, towel, small strip of cloth (Ta.); gud.d.e a piece of cloth, used by men (Ka.); kun.t.u cloth, garment, dress (Tu.); cloth (Kor.); gun.d.er(i) saree, a loincloth for women (Kond.a)(DEDR 1681). gud.o male cloth doll (S.); gud.i_ cloth doll, paper kite (S.); gud.d.i_ paper kite (L.); gud.d.a_ effigy of a man (made of cloth)(P.); doll (H.); gur.iya_ doll (H.); guriya_ doll (N.)(CDIAL 4189).

2013.Achyranthes aspera: apa_ma_rga achyranthes aspera (Car. Su. 2.3, 4.27). [cf. uttaran.i (Ka.)(DEDR 619); kat.ala_t.i (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 1119); cipcir.ip achyranthes asper (Santali.lex.)]. Achyranthes aspera: latjira (H.); apang (B.); kutri (P.); apamarga (Skt.); nayurivi (Ta.); uttareni (Te.); habitat: throughout India upto 3000 ft. as a weed, baluchistan. (GIMP, p.4).

2015.Image: finger: kun.ike a finger (Ka.lex.)

2016.Image: sack: kunikil, kunikilu a sack, a bag (Ka.lex.)

2017.Pain, strain at: kunthati pains, suffers pain (Dha_tup.); kunth, krunth suffer pain (Skt.); kunthana, kunthita groaning (Skt.); ku~tha_, ko~tha_, ko~ta_ to groan, moan, strain in defecating (B.); kuntha_iba_ to moan, groan, strain (Or.); ku~_thna_ to groan, strain at (H.); ku~thn.e~ to make a forced sound as in straining at anything such as lifting or defecating (M.)(CDIAL 3294). kuthna_ti pains (Dha_tup.); ku_thna_ to groan, strain at (H.)(CDIAL 3283). ko~th, ko~t groan, grunt (B.); kuntha_ groaning, straining (Or.)(CDIAL 3292). kut.t.u ache; n. a pricking or piercing pain in the bowels arising from constipation, etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 1672). kuttu pain, ache, acute pain (Ta.); prick, pain (Ma.); kut- aches with pricking sensation (Ko.); kuttaruni to feel a biting or itching sensation, ache; kuttat.a, kutta_t.a pain (Tu.); kuta act of pricking (Kui)(DEDR 1719). Image: pain; to hurt; killing: kun.ati makes a certain noise, is in pain (Dha_tup.); kuna_na to give or feel a throbbing or twingeing pain; kuna_ni a griping pain (B.)(CDIAL 3256). kunakhin having diseased nails (AV.); kunakha a disease of the nails (Sus'r.); kuni afflicted by painful ulceration at the corners of the nails, disease of the nails caused by ingrowing (B.)(CDIAL 3288). kr.n.ati, kr.n.o_ti hurts, kills (Dha_tup.); kr.n.vati (Naigh.); kuran.u to smart (S.); kulna_ to hurt, ache (H.); kr._ hurt (Skt.)(CDIAL 3334). cf. ks.ano_ti injures; ks.an.ute_ hurts oneself (S'Br.); khan.ati destroys (Pali); ks.an.ati, chan.ati, chanati (As'.); chan.ai hurts (Pkt.); chanun to waste away (K.)(CDIAL 3644).

2018.Grief; to sulk: kruddha irritated (RV.); kuddha (Pali.Pkt.); kudho forward (S.); kodowa_ frowning, stern, overcast (of sky)(A.); kur.han.u to be grieved (S.); kur.hn.a_ to pine, envy (P.); ku~r.inu to be angry (N.); kur.hna_ to be annoyed, to grieve (H.); kur.vu~ to be vexed (G.); kud.ha_ sullen; kud.hn.e~ to fret, sulk (M.); krudh be angry (Skt.)(CDIAL 3599). krudhah. 2 sg. is angry (AV.); kruik to be displeased or sulky (Kho.); kuhan.a angry (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3599). krudhyati is angry (AV.); kujjhati (Pali); kujjhai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3600). Sulk: u_t.u (u_t.i-) to sulk, show displeasure; u_t.al sulking; ut.al (ut.alv-, ut.an-r--) to be enraged, quarrel, fight; ut.ar-u (ut.ar-i-) to be enraged at; ut.ar-r-u (ut.ar-r-i-) to provoke, infuriate (Ta.); su_d.u enmity, pique, spite; an enemy; su_d.uka~_d.u an enemy; ud.uku to be annoyed, vexed, or pained, feel jealous or envious; ud.ikil(l)u to feel hurt or annoyed; ud.ikincu to annoy or vex (one) for amusement (Te.)(DEDR 2722). Anger; excess of heat: kro_dha anger (AV.); ko_dha (Pali.As'.); ko_ha (Pkt.); koha fit of anger, grief, excess of heat (Or.); kohu_ anger (OAw.); koh (H.); ko_ (Si.)(CDIAL 3608). kro_dhayati makes angry, vexes (RV.); kroek to cause to grieve (Kho.)(CDIAL 3609). kro_dhin angry (Sus'r.); kro_dhitva (R.); ko_hi, ko_hilla (Pkt.); kohi_ (H.Aw.)(CDIAL 3610). koti (-pp, -tt-) fierceness as of anger (Te_va_. 485,4); to boil, bubble up from heat, be enraged, be offended; fever, rage, grief (Ta.); kotippu, kotiyal fever, rage, anger (Pu. Ve. 8,27, Kol.u); grief; flutter, flurried state of mind (Kampara_. Ilan:kaiyeri. 27); kutampu to get angry (Ta.); kudi to boil, bubble up, boil up, suffer pain or vexation in the mind; n. boiling, etc., grief (Ka.)(DEDR 2084). To bubble up, boil; desire: koti (-pp, -tt-) to boil, bubble up from heat, effervesce, be heated (as the body, ground, etc.), burn with desire; n. bubbling up (as of boiling water or oil), heat (as of fire, weather, etc.), desire; koti-koti to bubble up (as boiling rice); kotippu, kotiyal boiling, bubbling up, heat; kutampu (kutampi-) to boil up, bubble up (as boiling water); kutukutu (-pp-, -tt-) to desire eagerly; kutukutuppu eagerness, desire (Ta.); koti eagerness, greediness; kotikka to be greedy, envious, covet (Ma.); kodc- to quiver (of water about to boil, flesh of animal just killed, eyelid)(Ko.); kwi0y- (water) approaches boiling-point; kwi0yet--, kwi0kyet-- to make (water) boil; kwiy- (kwic-) to bubble, boil (To.); kudisu, kudiyisu, kudasu to boil; kudige, kudiha boiling, etc.; kutakuta, kotakota the noise of boiling water; kudakal, kudapal state of being (partially) boiled; kudugul.i glutton, greedy person; kodi to boil; desire to eat; n. boiling; kodippa_t.u greedy (Ka.); kodi- (kodip), kodic-) to boil with bubbling noise, feel love for, kiss, feel concerned for; kodi love, desire (Kod..); kodipuni, kodiyuni to boil, seethe; kodipa_vuni to cause to boil; kodipelu, kodupelu act of boiling; kodi greediness, eagerness; kudipuni, kudyuni to repent, regret; kudipe_vuni to be desiring, wishing, be anxious (Tu.); goda hunger, goda-goda anger; goda-konu to be excited, be in haste, be hungry; kutakuta bubbling, simmering, the sound produced in boiling; kutakutala~_d.u to bubble, simmer, boil (Te.); xodoxna_ (xuddxya_) to be reduced to pulp by unskilful cooking; to get discouraged, despair; (xodxas) to reduce (by excessive cooking) to a soft uniform mass, cook until they fall to pieces; to worry, deprive of self-confidence, dishearten; xodxna_ to burn by overheating (Kur.); qothge to excite, incline (Malt.); kutuka- curiosity, eagerness, desire for; kutu_hala id., impetuosity (Skt.)(DEDR 2084). Desire, greed: gr.dh desire; gr.ddha longing for (MBh.); gaddha, giddha (Pali); giddha greedy (N.); gi_dhna_ to long for (H.)(CDIAL 4229). gahia covetous of (Pkt.); gihiba_, gehiba_, ge~hiba_ to copulate; giha_iba_ (of a woman) to let a man enjoy her (Or.)(CDIAL 4330). gr.dhya greedy (AV.); gijjha greedy (Pali); gr.dhya_ greediness (MBh.); giju eager for (OSi.); gidu eager for (Si.)(CDIAL 4231). gr.dhyati is eager for (RV.); gijjhati desires (Pali); gijjhai is greedy for, is attached to (Pkt.); gijjhn.a_ to form a habit, become accustomed to (P.); caus. gijha_un.a_ to habituate, tame (P.)(CDIAL 4232); gr.dhra desiring greedily (RV.); giddha greedy (Pali); giddha, gaddha (Pkt.); grad (K.); giddh (P.); giddha (N.)(CDIAL 4233). Greed: kra_d.a (kra_d.i-) to be greedy, avaricious; n. greediness, avarice (Kui)(DEDR 1277). Desire; rejoice: kutu_kalittal to rejoice, to delight in (Kantapu. Vi_rava_ku. 51); kutu_kalam joy, delight, rapture; kutu-kututtal to desire eagerly (Paripa_. 20,13); kutu-kutuppu desire, eagerness (tiruva_ca. 6,34); kutukulam joy (Aricamaya. Patumai. 103); kutu-kalittal to rejoice (Tiv. Na_yc. 5,7); kutukalam joy (Tan.ikaippu. Piraman-cirut.. 83)(Ta.lex.) kutu_hala, kautu_hala curiosity, desire for (MBh.); kutu_hala tumult (Pali); kuu_hala, ko_u_hala, ko_uhalla, ko_hala, ko_halla surprise, eagerness (Pkt.) kuhul excitement, confusion; adj. uncertain (Si.)(CDIAL 3274). kautuka curiosity (Skt.); festivity (BhP.); kutuka (Skt.); ko_yua wonder, curiosity, festival (Pkt.); kod. longing (G.)(CDIAL 3562).

2019.Conessi bark: kut.aja the tree wrightia antidysenterica (the seeds of which are used as a febrifuge)(MBh.); kut.aca (Skt.); kut.aja (Pali); kud.aya (Pkt.); kur.ci coraya antidysenterica (B.); kura_i, korua~_, korei wrightia antidysenterica (Or.); kur.a_ (H.); kar.o the tree; pl. its seeds (G.); kud.a_ echites antidysenterica (M.)(CDIAL 3229). kalin:ga wrightia antidysenterica (Skt.); its seed (Sus'r.); kalin:gaka (Car.); ka_lin:ga (Skt.); kali~ga_ the tree ipomoea turpethum (bark used as a purgative)(H.)(CDIAL 2937). hat. holarrhena antidysenterica (Santali.lex.) phalini a species of herb, echites dichotoma (Ka.lex.) kakubham a flower of the kut.aja tree; kakubha_dani_ food of the sky; a kind of fragrance or perfume (Skt.lex.) cf. pa_la echites scholaris (Ma.)(DEDR 4100). kut.acam, kut.aca-ppa_lai conessi bark, holarrhena antidysenterica (Ta.); kut.aka-ppa_la echites pubescens (Ma.); kod.asige, kod.isigu, korisigu, kurut.iga wrightia antidysenterica (Ka.); kud.eji-mara id. (Tu.); kod.ise, kod.ise-pa_la wrightia tinctoria (Te.); kut.aja, kut.aca wrightia antidysenterica (Skt.)[holarrhena = echites = wrightia] (DEDR 1650).

2020.Breeches: gud.igi breeches (Ka.H.); gud.adhi_ (H.M.); gud.igican.n.a a sort of breeches that go a little beyond the knee (Ka.lex.) gud.gi, gud.ge drawers (Kon.lex.)

2021.Red oleander: kan.avi_ram red oleander (Ta.); nerium odorum (Ma.); kaviram, kayiram red oleander (Ta.); kan.agil, kan.agila, kan.agala, kan.agile, kan.alige, kan.igal, kan.iginu, kan.igil, kan.igila, kan.igili, kan.igile, kan.egile, gan.igalu, gan.igilu, ganne_r-ale fragrant oleander, n. odorum (Ka.); ganneru, ganne_ru id. (Te.); gen.t.ena the oleander flower (Te.); ganne_ri oleander (Go.)(DEDR 1164). karavi_ra oleander, nerium odorum (MBh.Pali); karn.ika_ra pterospermum acerifolium (MBh.); kan.avi_ra (Pkt.); kaler capparis aphylla (L.); karawi_r oleander (A.); karwi_r (H.); karvi_r (G.); karavira (Si.); kan.n.ika_ra pterospermum acerifolium; its yellow flower (Pali); kan.n.ia_ra, kare_n.u, ka_n.ia_ra oleander, its flower (Pkt.); kanhi_ra_, kani_ra (L.); kaner, kanel (P.); ka~ei a shrub with white flowers (WPah.); kan.e_l oleander (N.); kan.iya_ra red oleander (OB.); kan.er pterospermum acerifolium (B.); kan.ia_ra, kan.iara, kan.era cassia, yellow oleander (Or.); kaniara_, kanai~l a partic. flowering tree (Mth.); kaniya_r a species of michelia campaka (H.); kaner oleander (H.); kan.ayara oleander (OG.); kan.er, karen. oleander (G.); kan.vi_r pterospermum acerifolium (G.); kan.her, kan.er oleander, its flower (M.); kana_ri oleander (A.); ka_nar. a kind of blue flower (with which Kr.s.n.a's complexion is often compared)(CDIAL 2800).

2022.Image: gambol: ko_n.an:ki clown or fool in a play (Ta.); ko_n.an:gi (Te.); ko_d.an:gi (Ka.); ko_t.an:ki (M.); ko_n.an:ki-t-ta_cari a ko_n.an:ki belonging to the ta_cari caste (Ta.); ko_n.an:gi-da_sari (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

2023.To take: kombu a verb formed of komba: to seize, to take; komba = kol.uva, kol.l.uva a relative present participle of kol. to take; kombuvike taking; komme a corn-bin; kobbu luxuriance; fatness (Ka.); kor..u, kor..uppu (Ta.Ma.); koppu, krovvu (Te.) (Ka.lex.) komme corpulence (Tu.lex.)

2024.Dumb: gun:ga, gun:gi, gan:gun., gon:ga dumb (Santali.lex.) cf. kondal, ko_ndal dumb (Pa.); kondal, ka_nda_l id. (Go.)(DEDR 2097). cf. u_m dumbness (Ta.); u_mam dumb (Ma.); u_me dumb man (Ka.)(DEDR 746). mu_ga dumb; mu_gatta dumbness (Pali.lex.)

2025.Image: to perforate: kuyil (kuyilv-, kuyin-r--) to bore, perforate, tunnel; n. hole, perforation (Ta.); kuy- (kuyyuv-, kuyj-) (hole) is bored; (kuyp-, kuyc-) to bore (hole), (fly, ant) bites; kuy pain felt from a fly's or bee's sting, a bee's stinging organ; kuyli bee's sting (Kod..)(DEDR 1763). kuyn-, (kuyyuvn-, kuynj), kuynd- (kuyndi-) to feel prickly (Kod..); kuyuluni to inflame, as the eyes or a boil (Tu.)(DEDR 1761).

2026.Image: waterpot: kumbh an earthen waterpot held by a water-bearer, in which some pice are thrown by the bridegroom when entering the threshold of his father-in-law's house; the sign aquarius; kumbh da mela a fair held at Hardwar every 12th year (P.lex.)

2027.Image: a pitcher: xo_ cooking-pot (Br.); kwa.y bamboo pot used at ti. dairy (To.); ko_y vessel for taking out toddy (Ta.)(DEDR 2225). ko_ potter; kuyam (kucam- first member of cmpd.) potter caste; kuyavan-, kucavan- potter; fem. kuyatti, kucatti (Ta.); kuyavan, kus'avan potter; fem. kuyatti, kuyavi, kus'avi (Ma.); ko.v Kota man; ko.ty Kota woman; ko. mog Kota child; ko. ka.l Kota village (Ko.); kwi.f Kota man; kwi.ty Kota woman; kwi. ko.l Kota village (To.); ko_va, kuvara potter (Ka.); kusave id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1762). ko_n.e a pitcher; gal.antige (Ka.lex.) kun.am water-pot, pitcher (Pin..); ka_n.am a measure of capacity, as much as will fill an oil-press (W.)(Ta.lex.) kucam pertaining to the potter's class, always used as the first part of compounds. e.g. kuca-k-karuvi, potter's implements; kuca-k-kalam, earthenware, potter's vessel; kuca-k-ka_n.am, tax on potters (S.I.I. ii.,509); kuca-p-putti; kuyam potter caste; kuyatti female potter (Civap. Pirapan. Piks.a_t.an-a. 6); kucatti a female potter (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kod.a (Tadbhva of kut.a) an earthen pitcher or pot, also one of metal; kod.apa_na a kod.a of copper or brass; kod.apa_l a potful of milk; je_n:kod.a a vessel containing honey (Ka.); kut.a a water-pot, a pitcher (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. kut.t.akam, kut.t.ukam cauldron, large vessel with narrow mouth (esp. for treasure)(Ma.); kut.t.uva big copper pot for heating water (Kod..)(DEDR 1668). cf. gud.a_n.a a large earthen or metal water-vessel, used also for storing grain; alijara, man.ika; an earthen pot used for churning; gud.uvana id. (Ka.); gud.a_na (Tu.); gu_niye, gu_nu, gu_ne (Te.); ku_n-ai (Ta.) (Ka.lex.) ku_n- cauldron (Kampara_. Kin:kara. 40); ku_n-ai large earthen boiler (Kampara_. A_r-ucel. 49); baling bucket (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 28)(Ta.lex.) cf. gud.asu any round thing; the disk of the sun or moon; the round mark used for the vowel 'i' (Ka.); gud.i, gud.usu id. (Te.); gud.asu the round mark used for the vowel 'e' (Ka.lex.) Image: projecting mouth or lip of a vessel: ko_n. < gho_n.a spout or projecting mouth of a vessel, lip; ko_n.an:ki-p-pallu projecting unsightly teeth (Ta.lex.) Nose: gho_n.e, go_n.a, gho_n.a the nose; the nose or nostrils of a horse (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_n.am < gho_n.a nose, snout, nostril (Pin..); ko_n.am horse; cf. gho_t.a (Ta.lex.)

2028.Corn-bin: kan.aja, kalagal.age, gal.ige a corn-bin, i.e. a cylindrical structure formed of bamboo-mats for storing grain, placed either in the house or outside)(Ka.); kan.aga_ (M.); kan.aja, kan.anja, kan.ada, kan.ija, kal.anja (Te.); kal.aciyam (Ta.); kan.aja an enclosure for grain, a granary; kan.a (Tadbhava of khala) a threshing floor (Ka.lex.)

2029.Overseer; rule: ka_n.u_ a surveyor, an officer appointed by government to apprase a field of corn (P.lex.) ka_nu_go < qa_nu_ngo (Arabic) superintendent of village accounts (pat.wa_ris) or an officer who keeps an account of the tenures by which lands are held (P.lex.) ka_nu_nu, ka_nu_ a rule, regulation (Ka.M.H.); ka_nugo_yi a remembrancer or overseer; an officer of a large district acquainted with its customs and with the nature of its landed tenures (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kanun:go_ (H.lex.) kanu_n, ka_nu_n < qa_nu_n (Arabic) rule, law, regulation; canon (P.lex.)

2030.Image: gunny sack: gon.aka in: gon.aka-santhata (of a pallanka) covered with a woollen rug; gon.aka (Skt.BHSkt. gon.ika) a woollen cover with long fleece; gon.aka-atthata spread with a gon.aka-cover (Pali.lex.) gonok a piece of cloth thrown over the shoulder and falling down over the breast and tucked in on both sides to a piece round the waist; worn by women; gogok to wear a piece of cloth hanging from the shoulder covering the breast, by women; lebda gogok, lebda rakap the cloth is bound round the waist as in kaso bande but instead of being brought over the shoulder from behind, is passed over the left shoulder in front and the end hangs down the back (Santali.lex.) For semant. 'breast' cf. kon:kai woman's breast (Ta.)(DEDR 2038). cf. ko_n.i sacks made of jute fibre, gunny bag, sack cloth (Ta.); id. (Ma.); go_n.i id. (Ka.); ko_n.i a measure of capacity = 2 tu_n.i = 8 marakka_l (Tailava. Taila. 135); ko_n.ikai an ancient village cess (I.M.P. Tp. 234)(Ta.lex.) gun:gu a covering for the head and back of leaves pinned together, worn principally by women when planting rice; gun:gut to cover, with cloth, with the wings, with the body; gunpalan panniers and pannier saddle cloth (Santali.lex.) gon:go salaka a doal cloth given by the bridegroom to the bride's (aunt) gon:go; gon:go father's elder brother or brothers; younger brother's or brother's children (Santali.lex.) cf. kogi mother's sister, father's younger brother's wife (Kond.a); koki father's younger brother's wife, mother's younger sister (Pe.); kogle woman (Pe.)(DEDR 2030).

2031.Male buffalo: ko_n.a a male buffalo (Ka.Te.); kol.a a young male buffalo (Ma.); gavala (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ko.n.e male buffalo (Ir.); go_n.e id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2212).

2033.Image: oblique: koce, gonje koca means deviating from the vertical; gonje means deviating from a straight horizontal line; kocole singi of the oblique position of the sun in winter (Mu.lex.)

2034.Image: crest on grain: guni a small crest on the grain of jo_l.a; the husk of paddy etc.; gun:gu id. (Ka.lex.)

2035.Tinsel: gunna_m., gunna_m.pat.t.i paper gilt with tinsel and used for ornament (Ka.); kur-una_ (Ta.); gunna_-, gurna_- (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2036.Image: turning round: ghu_rn.a turning round, whirling, rolling; darpa-ghu_rn.a turning round or being giddy on account of pride; Synonym: moraku, morku to be turnig round, or be giddy, from pride (Ka.lex.) guntur.i-od.on, guntui-od.on, gurtr.i-ur.un, gurtr.i-ur.un to take out by a twisting motion; guntur.i-und.u, guntui-und.u, gurtr.i-und.u, gurtr.i-und.u to bore with a gimlet (Mu.lex.) kindrap- (kindrat-) to make to revolve (Ga.); kindra_ (kindra a_-) to revolve; kindray ki- to make to revolve (Pe.); kindra_- to revolve (Mand..); kindra'a_na_ to put into circular motion (Kur.)(DEDR 1554).

2037.To roar: ghu_rn.isu, gu_rn.isu to gape; to open, to expand; to appear; to rise; gu_rn.isu, gu_rmisu to sound (Ka.); ghur to sound (Skt.); ghuran.a sound; ghu_rn.illu to sound, roar (Te.); ku_r-u to call out things along the streets, to proclaim (Ma.); ku_r-r-u a word (Ma.); gu_rmisu to murmur or roar; to resound as a forest; to roar or bellow as a beast (Ka.lex.)

2038.Image: roe of fish: gun.u one side of a fish's roe (S.)[semantically cf. guru strand of rope, roe of fish](CDIAL 4190). kun.t.i roe of fish (Ta.)(DEDR 1693).Image: roe of fish: kun.t.i roe of fish, spawn (Ta.lex.) Fish: xotor injo_ a kind of fish (Kur.); qotro mnu id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2095).

2039.Heart: kun.t.i heart, kidney, roe of fish (Ta.); gun.d.ige the heart (Ka.); id., the breast (Tu.); gun.d.e courage (Tu.); gun.d.e, gun.d.elu, gun.d.iya the chest, heart, courage, boldness (Te.); gund.er-ka_ya the heart (Pa.); gundur-ka_ia_ kidney; gund.e, gund.ru ka_ya, gund.e kaya, gund.er kaya heart; gund.e chest (Go.); gun.d.a id. (Kond.a); kond.a id. (Malt.)(DEDR 1693). sun.t.age, sun.t.ige that which is chiefly taken for roasting on a spit, the heart (Ka.lex.) hikukur heart (Bshk.)(CDIAL 3392).

2040.Image: string of harp, musical instrument: gun.a_ string of harp, etc. (Or.); wire, string of musical instrument (A.); strand of thread (B.); the plant sanseviera zeylanica from which bowstrings are made (Si.); gun tow rope (B.Mth..); gu_n, go_n tow rope (Bi.); gun.a rope, bowstring (Si.); single thread or strand of a cord, rope (TS.); species, quality, good quality (Mn.); cord, string (Pali.Pkt.); bowstring (Or.); guni vein (D..); gun. bowstring (Pas'.Sh.A.M.); bowstring, strand (G.); gun-d.amat.ik bow-string (Shum.); gun (Gaw.Mth.); rope (H.); gun. bowstring (Bshk.); gu~r. (Sv.); gun., gu_n.u (Phal.); go_n (K.); gu_n.i thread (Sh.); gor.a~_w tethering rope for cattle, boy's anklet (Bi.); gor.a_wan, gor.a_ni_ tethering rope (Bi.); gor.a_r id. (Bi.Gaya); d.l.un.o hemp rope, thread holding beam of balance (WPah.)(CDIAL 4273). cf. kurumpai bow-string hemp, sansevieria zeylanica (Ta.); kurumpa id. (Ma.)(DEDR 1792).

2041.Component, element: kun.am < gun.a attribute, property, quality (Tol. Col. 416); character (Na_lat.i, 56); bow-string (Kantapu. Amararcir-ai. 44); kun.i < gun.in object, as possessing attributes (Kur-al., 53, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ghu~r.a~ a bow string made of hemp; a piece of wood fixed on the neck of a young bullock to accustom him before the yoke is put on (Santali.lex.) gun. good; gun.-kar cure; gun., gun.a_ quality; perfection; attribution; gun.a_tso propitious; of a (good or bad) spirit (Kon.lex.) gun.a (a strand of a rope as) constituent part, ingredient, component, element; with numerals it equals -fold, e.g. paca ka_magun.a_ the 5 strands of ka_ma; ekagun.an once; digun.an twice; catuggun.a four-fold; gun.a-agatta_ state of having the best qualities, superiority; gun.a-ad.d.ha rich in virtue (Pali.lex.) kun.i-ttal < gun. to estimate, calculate, compute, reckon (Kantapu. Acurarto_. 25); to multiply; kun.itam < gun.ita fold, as in two-fold (Caivaca. Potu. 16); kun.ippu estimate, reckoning (Kampara_. Pin.ivi_. 23); investigation, consideration (Tirunu_r-. 23) (Ta.lex.) gun, guna fold, times; to multiply; bar guna two fold, twice; pon guna four fold; gun quality, merit, virtue, magic power (Santali.lex.)

2042.Mason's square: gun.ia_ mason's square (L.); guni_a_ (P.); guniya_, goniya_ (Bi.); guniya~_ (Bhoj.); guniya_ (H.); gu_ni_, guni_a_ (S.); gun.ya_, gun.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 4226).

2043.Image: cudgel: kun.il short stick, cudgel (Ain:kur-u. 87); drum-stick (Pur-ana_. 143,9) (Ta.lex.) Stick: kun.il cudgel, drumstick; kun.ir-u stick (Ta.); cudgel (Ka.); gun.aku, gun.uku, kud.upu stick for beating drums, fiddlestick (Ka.); kon.a drumstick, fiddlestick, club (Skt.); kud.uva a stick for beating drums (Ap.)(DEDR 1684). kon.api a flail (Ka.); gunapamu iron crowbar (Te.); gunpam spade (Kond.a); kun.apa spear (Skt.)(DEDR 2076). ko_n.a a big long stick (Kond.a); carrying-stick (for two people)(Pe.); ko_r.o rod, club (Kui)(DEDR 2210).

2044.Image: circle within an angular figure: ko_n.a-vat.t.am circle within an angular figure (Perun.. Makata. 20,22); ko_n.a_-vat.t.am id. (Tol. Er..ut. 311, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) An emblem of royalty: ko_n.a_vat.t.am an emblem of royalty (Perun.. Ucaik. 46,62)(Ta.lex.)

2045.Shepherd: ko_n-a_n- title of the It.aiyar caste (Ta.)(Vir-alivit.u.703) < go_ (Skt.); ko_na_ri id. (Te.); ko_nicci f. (Ta.lex.)

2046.Fishing net: gha_o fishing net (S.)(CDIAL 4461). kan.n.i net (Ta.)(DEDR 1183).

2047.Image: knot; snare: ken.i snare, trap, stratagem (Ma.); ken.ikka to entrap (Ma.); kan.i knot, tie (Ka.); kan.aya, kan.e the knot which fastens a garment round the loins (Ka.); ken.i trick (Ka.); bird-trap (bent sapling and noose with bait)(Kod..); trickiness, cunning (Kod..); to get stuck, caught; to entangle, get into trouble (Kod..); stratagem (Tu.); kin.i wit, cunning (Tu.); kan.n.i link of a chain, mesh of a net (Ma.); snare, noose, net, knot, tie (Ta.); kan.i snare, gin (Ma.); kan.ikka to lay a snare (Ma.)(DEDR 1183). gan.t.u (Tadbhava of granthi) the knot or joint of a reed, bamboo or cane (Ka.); ga_n.t.ha (M.); gan.t.u a knot (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.)

2048.Image: snare: kan.i, kan.aya a knot, a tie (Ka.); kan.i a snare, gin (Ma.); kan.iya kunikila (of bags that are tied)(Ka.lex.)

2049.Image: basin: kan.i, gan.i, gani (Tadbhava of khani) that is dug: a ditch, a basin; a mine (Ka.lex.)

2050.Goldsmith: kan.a_da a goldsmith; kala_da id. (Ka.); kanaka gold (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) kanaka gold (Vedic.lex.)

2051. Possession; chattels: ka_n.am gold, wealth, riches (Na_lat.i, 372); possession (Ta.); possession, goods, mortgage (Ma.); ka_n.i property, possession (Ka.); ka_ni, ka_n.i a quarter of an anna; a cawny of land (Te.); ka_n.i a measure (Or.); ko.n.y a milk measure ( = 1/2 pin. or 4 acok)(To.)(DEDR 1444). ka_n.ike present, a splendid present; ka_n.e, ka_n:ghe, ka_ne to take (Kon.lex.) ka_n.i gift; property, possession, right of possession, hereditary right (Ka.Ta.); ka_n.a possession, goods (Ma.); ka_n:ke gey to make a present; to give as a present (Ka.lex.) ka_n.ikkai voluntary offering, commonly in money, gold, fruits; gift to a temple or church; present to a guru or other great person (Ce_tupu. Ve_ta_l.a. 34); ka_nuka (Te.); ka_n.ike (Ka.Tu.); ka_n.ikka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Tribute: ka_n.ikka offering, present (Ma.); ko.n:ky offering to Hindu temple or to Kurumba (To.); ka.n:ky payment of vow to god (Ko.); kon.y act of foretelling or of telling the past (To.); ka_n.ik, ka_n.ig present to a superior (Tu.); ka_nuka gift offered to a superior, present, tribute (Te.)(DEDR 1443). ghorko rna goods, property, chattels; nunak hoyok kantaere ho~ enreho~ bae ghorkorna dar.eaka although he gets so much still he can't collect any property (Santali.lex.) Price paid for a bride; to give a daughter in marriage: ka_n.ike a present, a gift (Ka.); ka_n.ikkai (Ta.); ka_nuka (Te.); ka_n.ikegod.u, ka_n:kegod.u to give or make a present; to give as a present; ka_n.ike-gol. to take or receive presents; ka_n.ike-varada a dealer in (costly) articles that are fit for presents: a Jaina (Ka.lex.) gonon., gonon. pon the price paid for a bride [the amount paid as gonon. varies from three rupees to twelve rupees, the higher sum, however, being very seldom given; return presents are made in proportion to the sum paid as gonon.]; gonon. tor.aoni return presents made by the bride's father to the bridegroom's party [these presents vary in value according to the price paid for the bride, but when the lowest rate of gonon., three rupees, is paid, no return presents are given by the bride's father to the bridegroom's party]; gon. to give a daughter in marriage; gon:kedeale manjhi or.akre we gave her in marriage to a member of the manjhi's family; bale kusilente ban.le gon.ledea we were not satisfied and therefore did not give her in marriage; onkoko baplak kan arko gon.efko tabe~kana they were marrying and giving in marriage (Santali.lex.)

2053.Hereditary right to lands: ka_n.uka_ (fr. kan 'enjoy') drinks to his satisfaction; till satisfaction, with satisfaction (RV. viii.77.4); kan to be pleased or satisfied, enjoy (RV. iv.24.9; RV. i.122.14)(Vedic.lex.) ka_n.a_ci (i.e. Ta. a_t.ci = a_l.uvike) hereditary right to lands, fees of office etc. (Ka.Te.); ka_n.i-ya_t.ci (Ta.); ka_n.i a cawney or twenty-four grounds (Ka.Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ka_n.ikka_ran- hereditary proprietor of land, coparcener in village lands held in common; a hill tribe in the Tinnevelly district and Travancore; one belonging to that tribe (G.Tn.D. 7); ka_n.ikkat.an- land-tax (S.I.I. iii,35); ka_n.-y-a_t.ci hereditary right to land, to offices, to fees, to an estate or to a kingdom; domain obtained by inheritance; that which is held free and hereditary property; estate, one's own possession (S.I.I. i,124); ka_n.aya_ci (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ka_n.i land (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 29); landed property, estate, possession (W.); right of possession; hereditary right (Ce_tupu. Ira_mati_. 48); a land measure = 100 kur..i or 1.32 acres approximately (Ta.lex.) ka_n.i pe_ru a cawney or twenty-four grounds (Ka.lex.) Small estate: ko_n.am a small estate (Na_.); remote, obscure place; intermediate directions between the cardinal points (A_ca_rak. 31)(Ta.lex.) Land: ks.o_n.i earth (protecting those who live)(RV. viii.3.10 : yam. ks.o_n.iranucakrade_ 'pr.thivi_'); samu_ha, crowd, host (RV. i.54.1; RV. x.22.9); soma drink (RV. i.57.4); heaven and earth (RV. viii.7.22; RV. ii.16.3)(Vedic.lex.) ko_n.apa a guardian of a point of the compass; Nairr.ita; ko_n.e (Tadbhava of ko_n.a) a point of the compass (Ka.lex.) Imperishable: ko_n.ai imperishability (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

2054.Image: atom: kan.a_da eating atoms or granules; kan.a a grain, a single seed; a particle, a small bit, a granule, an atom; a drop; a spark; small, minute; kan.i an atom, a minute particle; a trifle (Ka.lex.)

2055.A weight: kan.isa proper weight or value (Ka.Te.); kan.icam (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kalaja a particular weight (Bhpr.); kalanda a jeweller's weight equivalent to 20 ma_s.a seeds or 1/12 ounce (Si.)(CDIAL 2913). kan.aju, kan.aju a weight used in weighing coral (Ka.); kan.uju, kal.aju a weight of one pagoda and a half, used in weighing coral (Te.); kar..acu a weight of 2 1/2 pagodas: the 16th part of an ounce (Ta.); a drachm, weight of 2 silver fanams (Ma.); kariju a weight used in weighing camphor (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kar..acu a weight = 1/6 oz. troy (Ta.); a drachm, weight of two silver fanams (Ma.); kar..au id. (Ma.); kan.aju a weight used in weighing coral (Ka.); kan.aja a certain weight (Skt.)(DEDR 1348). cf. ka_n.i a sixty-fourth fractional part (1/64) of any coin (Ka.Te.Tu.Ma.); 1/80 (Ta.Ma.); 1/32 (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

2056.Image: one-eyed: ka_n.a one-eyed (RV. x.155.1); kana_naka pupil of the eye (TS. v.7.12.1) (Vedic.lex.) ka_n.a one-eyed, monoculous; ka_n.ike, ka_n:ke seeing, sight; visit; ka_n.a a man who does not see; kan.u, kan. the eye; kan:ga_n. to perceive or see with the eyes (Ka.lex.) Image: sight: kat.pulam < kan. + sight, vision (Cilap. 30,2)(Ta.lex.) Image: sight: kan.asu seeing, looking, sight; kan.a_ (doest thou not see? is it not?) lo! indeed! (Ka.); kan.i sight, spectacle; ominous sight (Ka.); kani (Te.); kanu to see (Te.); kan.i-garti a female fortune-teller; kan.isu, kan.cu, kal.isu (to appear); to see, consider; kan.u the eye (Ka.lex.)

2057.Image: two rollers; oil-press: gha_n.o, gha_n.ya_ oil-press; gha_n.ea_nt gha_l press oil (Kon.lex.) cf. ka_n.am oil-press (Ta.); ga_n.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) kan.e, kan.i the heavy wooden roller which stands upright in the stone- or wood-mortar of an oil-mill and is turned round by oxen (Ka.); a pair of such rollers used for a sugar-mill (Ka.lex.)