3392.Dried; withered: sus'ka dried (RV.); s'us.kaka (R.); sukkha dry (Pali); sukka, sukka, sum.kha (Pkt.); s'ukha, s'uka epithet of wine (NiDoc.); s'uko dry, thin; s'ka dry, hard (Gypsy); s'uki_ dry (Dm.); seka (Tir.); s'uk dry, hay (Wot..); s'ukha dry (Gaw.); s'ukh (Bshk.); s'ukho (Sv.); s'uko (Phal.); s'u_ku, s'u_khu~, s'uku (Sh.); hokhu, ho~chu (K.); suko (S.); suka, suki_ drought (S.); sukka_, sukha_ dry (L.); sukka_ (P.); sukkar. lean, emaciated (P.); su_kho_ dry (WPah.); sukho, suko, s'ukh dry (Ku.); suko (N.); sukha_ (B.); suk dry, waterless (Or.); sukha_ rukha_ dry and rough (Or.); su~kh dry (Aw.); su_kha_, su_ka_ dry (H.); su_ku~ dry, lean (G.); suka_ dry (M.); xuka_n (A.); sukkha_n.a (Pkt.); sukha_ rukha_ dry and rough (M.); sukkhe~ dry (Konkan.i); siku, hiku (Si.); hiki (Md.); s'ugil dry (Tor.); sukhila_ dried, withered (Or.); sukut.e emaciated (N.); sukt.iya_ dried up (B.); sukt.a_ (Or.H.); sukat. (M.)(CDIAL 12548). s'us.i drying (Skt.); s'es' summer (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12546). s'un:ga_r summer (Dm.)(CDIAL 12557). s'o_s.a drying up, dryness (MBh.); summer (Skt.); so_sa drying up (Pali. Pkt.); s'o_s' summer (Wot..Kat..); s'u_s., s.u_s. (Gaw.); s.os. (Sv.); so_ (P.); xoha_ the quantity drunk at one time (A.); sosa thirst; sosi thirsty (Or.); sos thirst, desire (G.); desire (M.)(CDIAL 12643). s'o_s.an.a drying up; drying, draining, suction (MBh.); so_sana causing to dry (in surgery)(Pali); so_san.a drying; so_san.a_, so_san.aya_ (Pkt.); xohani drying, sucking (A.)(CDIAL 12644). s'o_s.ayati makes dry (AV.); so_se_ti id. (Pali); so_se_i (Pkt.); s'uvoiki, 3 sg. s'u_ei (Sh.); s'os'n.u to suck (WPah.); sosn.o to dry, drain of water, absorb, drink in (Ku.); s'was'a~r~. to sip up (Ku.); sosnu to soak up (N.); xohiba to aborb, suck (A.); sosa_, susa_ to dry, absorb, suck (B.); sosiba_, susiba_ (Or.); sosvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12645). s'os.u drought, thirst (Skt.); susu-bu_m steppe; susu-ste dry (Ash.); susuwa_, sosew dry (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12646). sosu miserliness (S.); as'o_s.ya not drying up (VarBr.S.); sos loss by weight in drying (L.); dry (P.); susik dry (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12647). Deficiency: sosan.u to lessen, diminish (S.); sosi deficiency (S.)(CDIAL 12648). coccam deficiency, balance, arrears (Ta.); soccemu a small remainder or balance (Te.)(DEDR 2833). coccam odd, a term appended to number, sum, weight, etc. (Tailava. Taila. 97); interest on principal; remainder, as in subtraction, division (Ta.lex.) soki drying-up of a crop; soku dried up (of crops), hard baked (S.); s'aus.kala living on dried flesh or fish (VS.); soka_, sokr.a_ dryness, drought (L.); sok, sokka_, sokr.a_ (P.); soka_ sugarcane blight due to drought (P.)(CDIAL 12652). ucat.t.ai leanness, thinness (Ta.); u~_ca withered, lean, thin; u~_ca-pad.u, u~_ca-po_vu to become withered, lean or thin; u_saramu lean; u_sarillu to become lean or reduced (Te.); u_- to dry up, become emaciated (Pa.)(DEDR 735). avas'us.yati becomes dry (Skt.); avasussati withers (Pali); o_sukka dried (Pkt.); o_sukkhai makes dry (Pkt.); osukik, usukik to wither, cease suckling (a child), come to an end (Kho.)(CDIAL 852a). ucchus.ka withered (Skt.); ucchus.yati dries up (ChUp.); ussassati (Pali); us'kyo dry (Pr.)(CDIAL 1854). cf. baccuni, battuni to become lean, dry up (Tu.); vacahta_na_, wahcahta_na_ to dry up; vas- to dry up, wither (Go.); vasa to dry, wither (Kui); vac- to dry up, wither (Pe.Mand..); ba_run dry, shrivelled up (Br.)(DEDR 5320). vatakkam fading, withering (Ta.); vatan.n.uka to wither; vatakkam withering (Ma.); po0x fallen leaves (To.)(DEDR 5242). o_l- to dry (Pa.Ga.); o_r.a_na_ id.; o_r.- id. (Go.); to dry (clothes, etc.)(Kond.a)(DEDR 1073). cf. cun.t.u to dry up (Ta.); s'un.t.h- to become dry (Skt.)(DEDR 2662). cf. s'un.t.hi dry ginger (S'a_rn:gS.)(CDIAL 12515). curun:ku (curun:ki-) to shrink, contract, shrivel, wrinkle, lessen, dwindle, be reduced, curtailed, be puckered, creased, be furled, closes as a flower, etc.; curun:kal anything shrunk, wrinkled, wrinkle, crease; curukku (curukki-) to curtail, reduce, lessen, compress, contract, furl, close, epitomize; n. contraction, reduction, wrinkle, fold, crease, slipknot, noose, epitome; curukkam brevity, conciseness, abbreviation, epitome, shortness, contraction, decrease; cukku (cukki-) to get dry; curul. (curul.v-, curun.t.-) to shrivel, shrink (as leaf), droop (as from heat, hunger), be reduced to severe straits; curi (-v-, -nt-) to wrinkle; (-pp-, -tt-) to get dried, contract, shrink, wrinkle; draw in (as tortoise its head)(Ta.); curun.n.uka to shrivel, shrink, be contracted, wrinkled, decrease; curukkam contraction, shortness; curukku sliding string, noose; curukkuka to contract, furl (sails), wrap, fold, reduce, shorten; cukkuka to grow dry, shrivel; cukku dry; cun.n.uka to grow dry or lean, be reduced; cu_l.uka to shrink, contract; cu_l.al shrinking; con:ku withered (Ma.); curg- (curgy-) to stint oneself to support family; curk- (curky-) to make small, draw up (legs, fingers), shrink; cug- (cugy-) to be creased; cort.y state of a hoe being worn short by much use (Ko.); tu.r.- (tu.r.y-) to shrink; tu.l.- (tu.d.-) to pull legs close to body (e.g. while sleeping)(To.); surku, sukku to contract, shrivel, shrink, fade; surku, sukku, sun:ku, sokku contracting, shrivelling, shrinking, a wrinkle; soragu to wither, grow dry or sapless, sink away, grow lean (Ka.); sorat.u state of being contracted, shrivelled, as a leaf; surul. to contract, shrivel, shrink, fear; surut.u, surun.t.u to become shrivelled or contracted; surul.cu to cause to contract, etc.; cirn.t.elu shrunken (Ka.); surun.t.uni, surut.uni, sirn.t.uni, sirnduni to shrivel, contract, shrink; surn.t.u, surut.u contraction, shrivelling; surugu sinking, sliding; sirkuni, tirkuni to fade, shrivel, become weak, lean, fall off; sirka_vuni, tirka_vuni to cause to fade, make lean, weaken; sirku fading, shrivelling, weakness; jurun:guni to hesitate, be reluctant;[cf. jan:ku to fear, hesitate (Te.)(DEDR 2281)]; nurluni to wind up, fold, shrink (Tu.); suru~gu to disappear, flee, shrink, fade; srukku to shrink, fade, become weak; sorugu a dead or dry leaf (Te.); suk- (sukt-) to fade, wither (Kol.); curk- to shrivel, (cheeks) sink in; curkip- (curkit-) to make to shrivel (Pa.); su_r dry pulled stalks of san-hemp (Go.); cog're_ person with sunken cheeks (Kur.); kurring, kurre_nging to shrink from, contract, keep back, withhold (hand, property); surkutn.e~ to corrugate or wrinkle (M.)(DEDR 2687). cun.an:ku to be jaded (Ta.); jun.ugu to shrink, contract, withdraw; a shrunk, crippled body (Ka.); jud.u~gu, jun.u~gu, jugu to lurk, slink, shrink, withdraw (Te.)(DEDR 2660). s'us'uks.ati wishes to dry (Skt.); cum.cha dry; cum.chia dried up (Pkt.); cuchu dried (of fruit); cucik (Kal.)(CDIAL 12508). sukha_r scarcity of rain (Bi.)(CDIAL 12550). suked. dry side or part (Bi.)(CDIAL 12550). sukkhati dries up (Pali); sukkhana (Pali); sukkhai, sukkai (Pkt.); sux- (Shum.); hokhun (K.); sukan.u, pp. suko (S.); sukhan., sukun. (L.); sukkn.a_ (P.); sukhn.o, sukn.o (Ku.); suknu (N.); sukhiba_ (Or.); su_khab (Mth.); su_khal (Bhoj.); su_kai (OAw.); su_khna_ (H.); su_kai dries up, becomes lean (OMarw.); sukvu~ to dry up; suka_vu~ to become emaciated (G.); sukn.e~ to dry up (M.); sukta_ (Konkan.i); sukkha_pe_ti (Pali); sukkha_ve_i (Pkt.); sukha_un.a_ (P.); s'kon.u to dry (grain in the sun)(WPah.); suka_unu (N.); xuka_iba to dry; to dry up, heal (A.); suka_na (B.); sukha_iba_ (Or.); sukha_na_ (H.); sukavvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12552). s'us.kapattra dried or withered leaf (Skt.); suk(h)vat dried plantain leaf or part of one (M.)(CDIAL 12553). s'us.ka_pa having water dried up (R.); dried-up pond, mud (S'Br.); sukve~ a parched or dried crop (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12554). xws'ty dried (Pahl..); s'tu dry (Kt.); s.us.t.a (Kal.); sot.u dried up, dry and hard (S.)(CDIAL 12555). s'us.n.a demon (of drought?)(RV.); sun, fire (Skt.)(CDIAL 12556). s'us.yati becomes dry (AV.); sussati dries up (Pali); sussai, su_sai Pkt.); sus (Ash.); shechaun to dry up; sheshi-sta barren (of woman)(Wg.); sus- to dry up (Pas'.); s'is'a_l dry (Bshk.); s'is'e_lo (Chil.); s'us'oiki, 3 sg. s'u_s'ei, pp. s'u_ku, s'is'yo_nu (Sh.); susan.u (S.); sussan. (L.); susa_ (B.)(CDIAL 12559).

3393.Dry: cun.t.u (cun.t.i-) to dry up, be evaporated by heat; boil, stew, simmer; n. sediment, that which adheres to a pot when boiling (Ta.); cund-- (cund-y-) to boil away; to starve oneself for one's children's sake (Ko.); sun.d.u to evaporate; sun.d.isu to make evaporate, reduce in boiling (Ka.); cun.d.u to be evaporated or dried up (Te.); s'un.t.h- to become dry (Skt.)(DEDR 2662).

3394.Eighty: s'i_th, s'i_t eighty (K.)(CDIAL 911). sau~s whole (Mth.); sau~se complete (EH.); saman:ga having all the limbs (AV.)(CDIAL 13174). am.s'a share, part (RV.)(CDIAL 2). as'i_ti eighty (Skt.); asi_ti (Pali); asi_i (Pkt.); asii (Skt.); asi_ (S.); assi_ (L.P.); a_si_, as's'i_ (WPah.); assi_ (Ku.); asi (N.); a_si (B.); asi (Or.); asi_ (Bhoj.Aw.); assi_, asi_ (H.); e~si_ (G.); ais'i~_, e~s'i_ (M.); asu_ (owes its final vowel to anu_ 90)(Si.)(CDIAL 911). ci_ttuvam < s'ri_-tva prosperity (Pan.avit.u. 158)(Ta.); ci_ttana id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) asi_ti a great many (Pali.lex.) Eight: at.t.ha eight (Pali);[Vedic as.t.au, old dual, pointing to a system of counting by tetrads; nava 'nine' may be connected with nava new, fresh (Pali)[Lith. navas; Lat. novus; Goth. niujis; E. new; Skt. navya ; Lat. novius] because in counting by tetrads (octo = 8 is a dual!) a new series begins with number nine... Av. as'ta, Lat. octo, Goth. ahtau = OHG. ahto, Ger. acht, E. eight] The number has objective significance, based on natural phenomena: see cmpds. -angula, -nakha, -pada, -pa_da... quite conspicuous is the meaning of a 'couple' in the phrase satt-at.t.ha 7 or 8 = a couple, e.g. sattat.t.ha divasa_ a week or so... used as a measure of quantity and distance, where it also implies the respectability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that may be given decently; thus freq. as at.t.ha kaha_pan.a_... at.t.ha kari_sa_; at.t.ha-pada a chequered board for gambling or playing drafts, etc., lit. having eight squares, i.e. on each side (Pali.lex.) {Since octo = 8 is a dual, as.t.au it should be made up of two 'fours'. This compound embeds the morpheme for four which traverses a phonemic spectrum: caturam square (Ta.); catva_rah. pl. four (RV.)(CDIAL 4655); catus.ka set of four (RV.)(CDIAL 4629).} cf. et.t.u eight (Ta.); ar.mur, ar.mu, armur, yermud eight (Go.); en.mar, en.var eight persons (Ta.)(DEDR 784). en. calculation, mathematics, number (Ta.); en.n.u (en.n.i-) to think, count, reckon, compute, set a price upon, consider, determine; en.n.am mathematics, thought, idea; en.n.alar, en.n.ar mathematicians; en.n.ikkai numbering, esteem, reverence; e_n.i number (Ta.); en. number, thought; en.n.am number, counting; en.n.uka to count, number, esteem, relate; en.n.ikka to get counted, account for; n. counting (Ma.); n.- (n.y-) to count; n.m (obl. n.t-) counting, numbers (To.); en.ike, en.n.ike counting, number, thinking, observation; en.isu, en.asu, en.usu, en.n.isu to add together, enumerate, count, estimate, appreciate, consider, think, plan, compare; en.n.u to count, think (Ka.); n.n.- (n.n.i-) to say, tell (Kod..); en.n.uni to count, think, presume, expect; en.n.ige, en.ike, en.e, en:ke calculation, estimation (Tu.); ennu to count, reckon, think, believe, esteem, care for, criticize; ennika counting, number, esteem, regard, opinion, hope; encu to count, reckon, enumerate, think, consider, believe, judge, esteem (Te.); eja number; eja ca_j- to count (ca_j- to do)(Pa.); eja ki- id. (Pe.); eji ki- id. (Mand..); eji ki_nai id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 793). {It is significant that 'enumeration' is distinct from 'division'. Ancient numeral systems have included multiple sets of vocables. One set, for e.g., to count upto four; from then on, count in 'fours' until five 'fours' or a super-set 'twenty' is reached, as a terminal point in counting. Another set is used for 'division' arithmetic. Eighty connoting the whole can be divided in a binary sequence of measures, e.g. ma_ (1/20, i.e. the whole is divided into four 'parts'); ka_n.i (1/80, i.e. each ma_ is further divided into four 'parts'); cf. cmpd. ma_ka_n.i ( = ma_ + ka_n.i, i.e. 1/16). It is notable that there is a morpheme for the fraction 1/320 when the 'whole' is to be broken down to its miniscule part, again dividing in 'fours', (i.e. 320 becomes 80; 80 becomes 20): muntiri (muntiri me_r- ka_n.i mikuvate_l: Na_lat.i, 346)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(DEDR 4964). A later evolution into the decimal system is apparent from the multiple uses of the morpheme: vi_s'-: e.g., vi_cam (Ta.) is a unit of 'division', a fraction 1/16 or ma_ka_n.i. It takes 20 vi_cam's to arrive at a set of four 'eighties'. This arithmetic leads to the use of the phoneme, vi_s'- to connote '20'. The usage of this morpheme, vi_s'- relates to a stage of evolution of numeration systems to continue counting beyond four, upto ten and then up to twenty by adding units to the ten as a base}.

3395.Four; market; image: cross-roads:s'to four (Bashg.)[cf. the 'dual' of four: as.t.au (Skt.)= 8, et.t.u = 8 (Ta.)]; cawwa_, cauwa_ aggregate of four (H.); caturvaya fourfold (RV.)(CDIAL 4619). {Since as.t.au 'eight' is dual, it should be made up of two 'fours'. This compound embeds the morpheme for four which traverses a phonemic spectrum: catus.ka set of four (RV.)(CDIAL 4629). caturam square (Ta.); catva_rah. pl. four (RV.)(CDIAL 4655)} catva_rah. pl. four (RV.); catva_ri pl.; caturah. acc. pl. (Skt.); catta_ro_ acc. (Pali); catpa_ro (As'.); catta_ro_ acc. (Pkt.); s'tar, cetar (Gypsy); cata_ (Ash.); ctva, s'tva (Kt.); cata_ (Wg.); cpu_ (Pr.); satara, hatara (Si.); catta_ri acc. (Pali.Pkt.); cata_li (As'.);[the abnormal phonetic development from caturah. to cata_li may be connected with X na_l'er four (Kond.a); na_r-r-i fourfold (Ta.); na_lgi four (Kui)(DEDR 3655)]; ca_ri (Skt.); ca_r (Sh.); cia_r (Sh.); ca_ri (S.); ca_r (L.P.Ku.N.); sa_ri (A.); cia_ri (OB.); ca_ir, ca_r (B.); ca_ri (Or.Mth.Aw.OH.); cya_r (OH.); ca_r (H.); cya_ri, cya_ra (OMarw.); cya_ri (with i from bi, trini)(OG.); ca_r (G.); cya_r (M.); ca_r (M.); cya_ri (Konkan.i); cara, catu, co_ra (NiDoc.); caro_, cahim. (Pkt.); caur (D..); co_r, cu_r (Dm.); cower (Tir.); co_r, ca_r (Pas'.); cuo_r (Nin:g.); co_ur (Shum.); cau_r (Shum.); cawu_r, sawu_r (Wot..); cu_r (Gaw.); ca_u (Kal.); chor (with aspiration from choi six)(Kho.); co_r, co_er (Bshk.); co_u (Tor.); co_r (Kand.); saur, co_ur (Mai.); cor (Gau.); co_r (Sv.); co_u (Phal.); ca_r (Sv.Phal.); co_r (K.); caur, ca_ur, co_r, co_ur (K.); caur (P.); co_ur, cr, co_u_r, caur (WPah.); cahum. obl. pl. (OAw.)(CDIAL 4655). cao_r.a_ fourfold (L.); covr.u~ id. (G.)(CDIAL 4624). catukkam junction where four roads meet (Tirumuru. 225); platform (Tailava. Pa_yi. 44); catura-c-canti junction of four roads (Perun.. Ucaik. 50,7) (Ta.lex.) caukha_ place where boundaries of four villages meet (H.)(CDIAL 4634). cf. hat.t.i a petty market or fair (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) caumuha_na_ junction of four streams or roads (H.)(CDIAL 4618). causi~ha_ place where the boundaries of four villages meet (H.)(CDIAL 4593). cahat.t.a, cahat.t.aya bazar (Pkt.); cauhat.t.a_ place where two market streets cross (P.H.); cahot.a_, cahut.a_ cross-roads (M.)(CDIAL 4626). cf. cowotu cross-roads (K.)(CDIAL 4620). catus.patha cross-roads (S'Br.); catuppatha (Pali); cappaha (Pkt.); saupantha_ (A.); caupath (H.); cauma_tha_ (B.); caumatha_ (Or.)(CDIAL 4642). caukhu~r.o square (N.); caukhun.t.a_ (Or.); caukhu~_t.a_ (H.); cokhu~_t. on all sides (G.); caukhu~t. on all sides; caukhu~t.a_ square bit of cloth (M.); caukun.d.o, caukun.d.ya_ro square (S.)(CDIAL 4635). catus.pa_da four-footed (S'Br.); catus.pa_dika_ verse of 4 lines (Skt.); caupa_ia_ quadruped (P.); caupa_i_ quadruped (S.); caupa_yo four-footed (N.); pl. caupa_ya_ cattle (N.); four-footed, stool (B.); four-footed, cot (Or.); caupa_, caupa_ya_ four-footed (H.); caupa_yi~_ with all four feet or legs; caupa_yi_ four-footed (M.); siyupu quadruped (OSi.); sivpa_ (Si.); catuppa_dika_ stanza of 4 lines (Pali); caupa_i_ (P.H.); caupa_i (N.); copa_i_ (G.)(CDIAL 4646). caupakha_ surrounding wall (H.); catus.paks.a having 4 posts (AV.)(CDIAL 4637). saupat. game of dice (A.); capat.a (Or.); cpat. a game like blackgammon (L.); caupat., cau~pat. dice cloth (P.); copat. dice board (G.); caupat. (M.)(CDIAL 4639). catus.put.a having 4 folds (A_pS'r.); cappud.a having 4 folds (Pkt.); caupar.i a game played on a cloth divided into 4 compartments (S.); co_par. a game like chess (L.); cau~pur. dice cloth (P.); copar. a game played on a board with 4 divisions (WPah.); caupar. cloth or board divided into 4 squares on which a game is played (H.); caupad.i_ (OMarw.); copr.i_ this game (Marw.); caupud.i_ having 4 compartments (of box, wallet etc.)(M.)(CDIAL 4648). ca_vat.i open dais in front of a house for general use (Pan.avit.u. 163)(Ta.); inn, choultry (Ira_mana_. Cuntara. 3); id. (Ma.); ca_vad.i id. (Te.Ka.); sa_vat.i_ (M.); ca_vat.i-c-ci_t.t.u a chit or ticket permitting one to obtain food at a choultry (Ta.lex.) cowotu cross-roads (K.); cauva_t.o (infl. by simplex va_t.a road); cauvat.i adv. on all sides (S.); cauba_t., cauba_t.a_ cross-roads (Ku.); cauba_t.o (N.); caubat.iya_ place where boundaries of four fields meet (Bi.); covat. open space where four or more roads meet, market-place; caut.u~ market-place; cova_t, cova_t.e on all sides (G.); cauva_t.a_ cross-roads (M.); caupat. square open space (N.); caupat.t.a_ (M.); comt.a_, co~pt.a_ mound where boundaries of 4 villages meet (H.)(CDIAL 4620). caturas'ri quadrangular (RV.); caturas'ra (Kaus'.); caurasi, caura_si (S.); siurs (Si.); caturassa, caturassaka (Pali); carassa (Pkt.); caursa_ (L.); caursa (P.); coras' flat, level (WPah.); co_ras square (Ku.); cauras (N.); square, level, flat (B.Or.); square (Bi.); caursa_ a broad file (Bi.); cauras square, level (H.); coras square; a square (G.); cauras (M.)(CDIAL 4598). On all sides: caturdis'am on all sides (MBh.); catuddisam., catuddisa_ in all directions (Pali); caturdis'e, cadudis'i belonging to the four quarters (of the San:gha)(KharI.); caddisam., ca_uddisim. on all sides (Pkt.); caudisi, caudis (Mth.); codis', codas' (G.); caudis (H.); catudisa (OSi.Bra_hmi_ inscr.)(CDIAL 4609). Image: boundary: catir boundary, limit (Ta.); atir id. (Ma.); adiri border (Ka.); adiru, aduru a limit, boundary wall (Tu.)(DEDR 2325). cohodi, sarhad boundary (Santali.lex.) catus.ka consisting of four; set of four (Mn.); quadrangular courtyard (Skt.); catukka set of four, junction of four roads, village square (Pali); caukkka set of four, cross-roads, square (Pkt.); caukkia_ courtyard (Pkt.); coku rectangular frame; cokh, cokas house built round a court-yard (K.); cau~ku frame of door, square; cau~ko figure 4, smearing with cowdung; cau~ki_ stool (S.); cauk four cowries; cauka_ cooking place; cauk square (L.); cauk open square where 4 roads meet; caukka_ cooking place; cauka_ figure 4, cauki_ chair (P.); cauk courtyard (Ku.); cauk courtyard; cauko eating place (N.); sauka_ supports for cooking pot; saki_ stool (A.); cauk square courtyard; cauka_ adj. square; cooking place (Or.); cauki_ long low bench for sitting on (Mth.); cak increased by four (Bhoj.); caka_ cooking place (Bhoj.); cauk square, market (H.); cauka_ aggregate of four, cooking and eating place (H.); cauki_ square low seat (H.); caukho, cauko wooden seat (Ku.); cauki chair (N.); cok square, market, number four (G.); coko quadrangular spot, cooking place; coki_ square low seat (G.); cokiyu~ waggon drawn by four bullocks (G.); cauk courtyard, number four; cauka_ cooking place; cauki_ aggregate of four, stool (M.); cauku market (Konkan.i) (CDIAL 4629). catus.ko_n.a quadrangular (Skt.); catuko_n.a four-cornered (Pali); cakko_n.a, ca_ukko_n.a (Pkt.); cauku_n.a, cuku_n.a (P.); co_ku~r.~ (Ku.); caukuna_ four-cornered (N.); caukon.a_ (B.); cakon.a_ (Or.); cakun.a_ (Or.); caukon, caukona_ (H.); caukon., caukon.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 4633). cakkat.t.hi_ doorframe (Pkt.); cauka_t.h doorframe (L.); caukt.ha_ picture-frame (L.); cauka_t.h, caukhat. doorframe (P.); cuka_t.h frame of anything (P.); cuka_t.h wooden doorframe (WPah.); caukhat. (N.); sauka_t.h (A.); cauka_t.h (B.); cauka_t.ha (Or.); caukat.h (Bi.); caukhat.h, caukhat., caukhat.a_ (H.); cekt.hu~ rectangular frame (G.); caukat. (M.)(CDIAL 4631). Fourth: turi_ya fourth (RV.); a quarter (AV.); turi_yaka (Ya_j.); turya (Pa_n.. Va_rtt.); turia 4th (Pkt.); truyu votive oblations made on behalf of a woman on the 4th day of delivery (K.)(CDIAL 5881). turi_ya a quarter, a fourth part; (in ve_da_nta phil) the fourth state of the soul in which it becomes one with Brahman or the Supreme Spirit (Skt.lex.) turya_s'ra 4-cornered (Skt.); turyavah cow 4 years old (TS.)(CDIAL 5881). caturtha fourth (AV.); catuttha (Pali); cauttha, cattha, caut.t.ha (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4600). cautha_ri_, caut.ha_ri_ untying of bracelets 4 days after marriage ceremony (Bi.)(CDIAL 4603). cautha_i_, cotha_i_ a quarter (S.); cautha_i_, cutha_i_ (P.); cautha_i (N.); cautha_i_ (Mth.H.M.); cotha_i_ (G.)(CDIAL 4602). caturttam fourth (Tan.d.i. 95)(Ta.lex.) Custom-house: cavikkai custom-house (Ta.); cavukkai id. (Ma.); cauki_ (U.) (Ta. lex.) Wedding pavilion: caturam < catur-as'ra square (Perun.. Ucaik. 42,29); id. (Ma.); catura-p-pa_t.u id. (Kur-al.. 235, Urai)(Ta.lex.) catura square; caturika_ square court (Skt.); caraya meeting place in a village (Pkt.); cauri_, cauriya_ wedding pavilion (Pkt.); caura_ raised platform on which the Tulasi plant is worshipped (H.); cori having four sloping roofs, quadrangular (B.); cauri_ courtyard surrounded by houses; caura_ place where sati_ is performed (H.); coro village meeting place (G.); cori_ square enclosure in which marriage ceremony is performed (G.)(CDIAL 4595). caupa_ri_ assembly hall (OAw.); caupa_r. vestibule, assembly room (H.)(CDIAL 4644). catvara quadrangular place (MBh.); caccara quadrangular space (Pali); cattara, caccara (Pkt.); ca_tar expanse of water (B.); ca_ta_l enclosed space, paved floor (B.); ca_car courtyard (G.)(CDIAL 4654). cavukkai square shed; raised square platform for sitting (Vir-alivit.u. 112)(Ta.); caukka (Pkt.)(Ta.lex.) caturvim.s'ati twenty-four (VS.); catuvi_sati (Pali); cavi_sai, cavi_sa, cauvvi_sa (Pkt.); cowuh (K.); covi_h (S.); cvi_, cavvi_ (L.); cauvi_ (P.); cbbi (WPah.); caubis (N.); saubix (A.); cabbis' (B.); cabis'a (Or.); caubis (Aw.); caubi_s (H.); covi_s (G.); cavvi_s, covi_s (M.)(CDIAL 4623). ca_r-a a line, a streak (Ka.); ca_r-apoppul.i a checkered female garment (Ka.); ca_ra four (M.); ca_rkha_ne-si_re a female's cloth with small coloured squares in it (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3396.Trousers: suta_n, suto_n, su_tan (Pas.); sutha_n (Phal.); sutha_n. (Phal.); suthan.a pantaloons, drawers (S.); sutthan women's drawers (L.); su_tthan. trousers (L.); suthan. pyjama trousers (L.); sutthan., sutthun. women's loose trousers (P.); su_than trousers (H.); su_thna_ men's trousers (H.); su_thni_ women's trousers (H.); suntha_na trousers (Tibetan-Skt. lexicon); su_tha_m.na (Khotanese-Skt. bilingual); s.atu_ a kind of trousers (Ash.); sota, sonta (Wg.); seta_n (Tir.); som.stani trousers? (NiDoc.); sosten trousers, drawers (Gypsy)(CDIAL 13468). cu_t.i cloth; cu_r-ai loin cloth, short drawers, callat.am (Ci_vaka. 632)(Ta.lex.) cf. semantic extension: cu_t.u to wear, esp. on the head (Ta.)(DEDR 2721).

3397.Aniseed: madhuraka seed of anethum panmorium (Sus'r.); madhurika_ (Skt.); mahuraga (NiDoc.); mari aniseed (B.)(CDIAL 9794). kan.t.il-ven.n.ai chinese anise, peruci_rakam (Kampara_. A_r-r-up. 13)(Ta.lex.) Pimpinella anisum: aniseed, pimpinella anisum, seeds [shetapusapa (Skt.); saonf (H.); muhuri (B.); sonf (M.); shombu (Ma.); cultivated in north-west India, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Orissa (GIMP, p.193). Pimpinella anisum (Ancient Egyptian inst; Modern Egyptian Arabic janso_n) 'Aniseed may be indigenous to Egypt and Asia Minor... The seeds have a strong aromatic flavour reminiscent of liquorice and very similar to fennel... is employed internally for various stomach ailments and is chewed for toothache (in pharaonic medical texts)'. (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p. 135). chattra fennel; mushroom (Skt.) s'atapus.pa_ peucedanum graveolens (Car. Su. 4.25,26) s'atapus.pa having 100 flowers (MBh.); anethum sowa (Sus'r.); s'atapus.pika_ (Skt.); s'atam.hima, s'atahima (AV.); satapuppha_ anise (Pali); sayapuppha_ (Pkt.); sapa (Or.); sauph (H.); sopha_ pl. (G.); s'ep, s'epu_ (M.); s'orum (Kho.); sau~pha (S.); sau~ph (P.); su~p (N.); sau~ph (Bi.H.); so~p, sop (M.); soe pl. (P.); soa_ (H.)(CDIAL 12283). catakuppi dill, anethum sowa (M.M. 852); bishop's weed, o_mam; cata-kuppai id. (Pata_rtta. 1046); cata-put.pi id. (Tailava. Taila. 59)(Ta.lex.) sada_pa, sada_bu, sabbasige, so_pu a kind of fennel, anethum panmori or sowa; sada_bu a strong-smelling herb, the common rue, ruta graveolens; sada-guppe a sort of fennel; s'atapus.pe a sort of dill or fennel, anethum sowa; sabbasige id. (Ka.lex.)

3398.Carroway, parsley, cummin: ajamo_da, ajamo_da_, ajamo_dika_ carroway, parsley, ligusticum ajwaen (Sus'r.); ajamo_ja cummin-seed (Pali); ajmo parsley (G.); o~va_ ligusticum ajwaen, sison ammi and its seed (M.); ada_ anethum sowa; adimoda a kind of parsley, carum copticum (Si.)(CDIAL 152). aja_ji_ cuminum cyminum, ficus oppositifolia, nigella indica (Sus'r.); o_jo_z caraway (Kho.)(CDIAL 156). ajas ointment, mixture (RV.); a~_za_ curry, pottage (A.); vyajana condiment (MBh.)(CDIAL 172). Cummin-seed: ji_raka cummin-seed (Sus'r.Pali); ji_raya (Pkt.); zyuru carroway seed, cummin-seed (K.); ji_ro, ji_ri_ cummin-seed (S.); ji_ra_, ji_ri_ (P.); jiro, jir (Ku.); jiro (N.); zi_ra_ (A.); ji_ra_ (B.Or.Bi.); ji_r (Mth.); ji_ra_ (H.); ji_ru~ (G.); jiri~_, jire~ (M.); duru cummin-seed, fennel (Si.)(CDIAL 5234).

3399.Yellow orchid: s'a_li_na_ anethum panmorium (Skt.); s'ali_l yellow orchid with edible roots (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12416). Anethum sowa = peucedanum graveolens: satapushpi (S.); sowa (H.B.); surva (M.); sata kuppi (Ta.); fruits: carminative, stomachic; essential oil from the seeds: carminative; useful in flatulence of children; seeds yield 3-3.5% essential oil; habitat: throughout India, often cultivated (GIMP, p.19). Anethum graveolens, peucedanum graveolens: garden dill, dill seed, anet; dill (Ger.); fenouil puant (Fr.); part used: the dried ripe fruit; habitat: southern Europe; uses: stimulant, aromatic and carminative; in the flavouring of dill pickles, salads, meat and fish sauces, soups etc. (Heber, W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, p. 634). {anethum graveolens (Ancient Egyptian imst; Coptic amici; Modern Egyptian Arabic s'abat) Dill is used primarily as a condiment... Oil from the seed is used chiefly as a scent in soaps and perfumes. (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p.42). 'Dill is an umbelliferous annual with feathery aromatic leaves and umbels with yellow flowers. Dill leaves and, to some extent, dill seeds are widely used in cooking, particularly in Scandinavian countries, where it accompanies shellfish, and the unripe flower head is an important flavouring agent in pickled gherkins... Dioscorides says that it was called arakhou in Egyptian... In ancient Egypt dill was an ingredient in a pain-killing mixture... The seeds were used in an unguent for headache along with bryony, coriander, donkey's fat and two unidentified plants, and in a poultice for the 'vessels' of the shoulder including myrrh, frankincense, chaste-tree, grass, sawdust of fir, sycamore figs, fermented plant juice and three unidentified items... Dill stems with leaves and flowers were found on the mummy of Amenophis II (1567-1320 BC).' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p. 74).

3400.Mango: cu_ta the mango tree, mangifera indica (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

3401.Image: fish: cot.t.ai-va_l.ai fresh water fish, silvery, attaining more than 2 ft. in length, notopterus kapirat; butter-fish, fresh-water fish, silvery shot with purple, attaining 1 1/2 ft. in length, callichrous bimaculatus (Ta.lex.)

3402.To cut to pieces: sond.a (sond.i-) to cut to pieces, chop up, hack; pl. action sot.ka (sot.ki-)Kui); hu_ndali, hun.d.- (-it-), hond.- to cut to pieces (flesh)(Kuwi); hond.- (-t-) to cut up (meat); intens. hot.ka- (Pe.); en.d.- to cut meat, carve (Go.)(DEDR 2841). kud.keakud.ke kar make pieces; gutki, gutke chop-house (Kon.lex.)

3403.First shower: co_takam first shower of the season; drizzle at the close of a shower (Ta.); cf. so_daka (Ta.lex.) zhod., zhod.a_ shower (Kon.lex.)

3404.Bag for food: co_ttu-p-pakka_l.i, co_r-r-u-p-pakka_l.i, co_r-r-u-p-pakkarai a glutton, as a bag for food; a bag containing food (Ta.lex.)

3405.Image: rag: sotthiya a childbirth rag (Pali.lex.)

3406.A climbing plant: co_tiyam < jyo_tis.mati_ climbing staff plant, va_lul.uvai, celastrus paniculata (Ta.lex.)

3407.Bouquet: cen.t.a_yutan- Aiyan-a_r, as bearing the weapon cen.t.u, a kind of bouquet (Tiruva_ca. 9,18)(Ta.); cen.d.u (Te.); cen.t.alari double-flowered oleander, nerium odorum (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3408.Fine: cen.n.am beautiful form (Perun.. Ucaik. 3,75); fine, delicate work (Ci_vaka. 1333); can-n-am fine plaster (Ta.); sanna fineness (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: fine, thin: sido fine, smooth, thin (Gypsy)(CDIAL 14836). cf. syodu straight (K.); sidho straight (S.)(CDIAL 13401).

3409.Image: a large drum: can-n-ai a large temple drum (Ta.lex.) sam.na_dayati causes to resound (MBh.); sanna_na_ to resound (H.); san(n)a_t.a_ loud whistling or whizzing noise (H.)(CDIAL 12927). cintu_ram a kind of drum (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Image: large drum: cen.t.ai a kind of large drum (Kampara_. Pirama_t. 5); cen.t.a (Ma.); cen.d.e (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cen.t.a kettledrum (Ma.); can.d.e a kind of drum (Ka.); can.d.i id. (Kor.); cen.d. a large drum (Tu.)(DEDR 2767). svana noise (RV.); svanati sounds (R.); ava_svani_t, pl. svanayan (RV.); sanati, san.ati sounds (Pali); san.a sound (Pkt.); san.ia sounded (Pkt.); sana whizz (B.); san whistling, whizz, shooting pain (H.); sansan with a whizz (N.); sansana_hat.i humming in the ears (Mth.); sansana_na_ resound, whistle, whizz, be excited; sunsuna_na_, sansana_hat. whizzing, etc. (H.); san.san. with a whizz (G.); san.an.an. (M.); san:kijan.u to be blasted (S.); sankanu to get very angry (N.); sanakna_ to have a ringing in the head, be tipsy (H.); san:ko whizz (G.); san:ka_ (M.)(CDIAL 13901). sva_na noise (RV.); twang (of bowstring)(Skt.); sa_n trill in music (P.); san-a sound (Si.)(CDIAL 13926). avasvanati flies down with noise (RV.); avas.van.ati smacks the lips (Pa_n..); vasan.n.e~, vasn.a_vn.e~, vasn.avn.e~ to talk in sleep or delirium, rave (M.)(CDIAL 880). nisva_na sound (MBh.); nisvana (Ya_j.); n.issan.a, n.i_san.a (Pkt.); nisa_na music (MB.); nisa_n.a large drum (OM.); nisa_n (Bhoj.); ni_sa_n kettledrum (H.); ni_sa_n.a, ni_m.sa_n.a announcing drum (OG.)(CDIAL 7537).

3410.Camphor; image: sun, fire: cut.ar fire, brightness (Ma.); cu_d.- singeing, searing, heating (Skt.)(DEDR 2654). cut.ar burning lamp; flame; spark; sun; sunshine; light, brilliance, lustre (Ta.lex.) ce-cut.ar sun, fire (Ta.); kecod.ar sun, fire (Ka.); ce-cut.-p-pakavan the fire-god; the sun-god (Ta.lex.) cut.ar burning lamp (Perumpa_n.. 349); sod.ar (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cu_t.u that which is heated, burnt, roasted (Pat.t.in-ap. 63); id. (Ma.); heat, warmth (Ta.); tcu_d.u (Te.); cu_t.u (Ma.); cu_d.u (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cu_t.t.at.uppu a kind of domestic oven (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_t.. Pil.l.ait. 23); cu_t.at.uppu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Images: sun; lamp: co_ti < jyo_tis light, splendour, lustre, brilliancy, effulgence (Tiruva_ca. 3,20); ray or streak of light; lamp, torch; fire; sun; the supreme being; S'iva; lit. camphor; vermilion; co_ticu brilliancy (Ci. Ci. 8,21, Civa_k.); co_tit.ar the heavenly bodies (Cu_l.a_. Tur-avu. 206); co_tiyan- god, as radiant (Tiruva_ca. 1,72); co_tiya_n- the sun, as luminous (Kampara_. Tirumut.i. 34)(Ta.lex.) Astrologers: co_tit.am < jyo_tis.a astrology (Na_lat.i, 52); co_tit.avar astrologers (Pu. Ve. 4,8, Urai.); co_ti-nu_l astronomy (Ce_tupu. Kantama_. 17)(Ta.lex.) Image: sun: u_r.. time, turn, sun (Ta.); en-r--u_r.. sun, summer, sunshine (Ta.)(DEDR 869); ur..i regular order (Ta.); u_t.u time, turn (Ma.); u_r..am turn, turn of duty (Ma.); u_r..i earth, world (Ma.); u_r..ukka_ran undertaker of a lottery (Ma.); su_r.. time, turn, season (Ka.)(DEDR 2736). sus'ka dried (RV.)(CDIAL 12548). su_ra sun (RV.Pali.Pkt.); su_riya (RV.); surya (Pali); sujja (Pkt.); suj (L.); sivi the sun's ray (Si.); siju sun (S.); sijjh, sijh, sejj (L.); su_ria (Pkt.); su_ri (Tir.Kand.Phal.); sun, sunshine (Sh.); suri_ (Nin:g.Shum.); su_ri_ (Gaw.); surya (Sv.); su_re, siri_, siri sun (K.); (h)ira, (h)iri, (h)iru, (h)ira (Si.); iru (Md.); sur (Pas'.); si_r (Bshk.); si_ (Bshk.); swi_r (Mai.); sir (Wot..); so_, suo (Ash.); so_i so_ (Wg.); su_ (Kt.); ser (Dm.); sa~_ (Gmb.)(CDIAL 13574).

3411.Medicinal oil: cut.al a kind of medicinal oil (Ta.); sod.al (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) sod.d.al.a, sod.d.a_l.a, sod.d.al.a lin:gade_va S'iva (Ka.lex.)

3412.Muddy; wet: jodo bodo to be covered with mud (Santali.lex.) cf. cotta mud, mire (Ma.)(DEDR 2843). cota-coten-al expr. signifying the state of being mashy, as overboiled rice, or of being soaked as with oil or other fluid (Ta.lex.) s'a_da mud (Skt.lex.) sa_dal.n.e to be damp and cold (M.); cha_dla_ moss, slime (B.)(CDIAL 12387). sa_rdra wet, moist (MBh.); sall well-watered and moistened (of land)(Ku.)(CDIAL 13368). a_rdra wet (RV.); adda wet, slippery (Pali); wet (Pkt.); atere wet (Tir.); z mud (Tor.); adj. wet (Tor.); azu wet (Sh.); oduru (K.); a_d.roko moist (S.); ada wet (Si.); alla moist, freshly gathered (Pali); alla wet (Pkt.); ya_lo fresh, uncooked (Gypsy); all, a_l wet (Bshk.); a_lo (S.); alla_ unripe, half-parched, imperfectly healed (P.); a_lo wet, fresh (Ku.); a_lo freshly picked (N.); a_la_ damp (H.); a_lo (OMarw.); a_la_-li_lu~ half-wet and half-dry (G.); a_la_-pa_la_, a_le~-pa_le~ mere greens and roots (M.)(CDIAL 1340).

3413.Image: crooked: sed.e crookedness (Ka.); sed.avu the state of being crooked or bent (Ka.); sed.e, sat.i, set.e to grow crooked or bent, to bend (Ka.); tat.uku shrinking, shrivelling (Te.); cer-ugu (Ma.); cir-ugu to shrink (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) kad.u crookedness; kad.u-vil, kad.u-bil a crooked, bent bow (Ka.); kud.u, kud.a, kud.i the state of being crooked, bent, hooked or tortous (Ka.); kod.aku crookedness (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kat.i bending, curvature (Skt.); scelus crooked deed (Lat.); scheel squint (Ger.); kat.i hip, waist (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

3414.Image: to convey, carry: ced.e to convey, carry (Malt.); cer.na_ to raise a burden to one's shoulders, undertake, suffer (Kur.)(DEDR 2762). Shoulder-blade; collarbone: sat.t.a shoulder-blade (Kol.); shoulder (Kol.); back (Nk.); sat.t.a_, satta_, hat.t.a, at.t.a, at.a jaba shoulder; set.t.a_ shoulder-blade (Go.); cat.t.uvam shoulder bone (Ma.)(DEDR 2303). cet.t.ai wing, feather, plumage, fin, shoulderblade (Ta.); cet.t.upa, cat.t.upa wing (Te.)(DEDR 2764). jatru pl. collarbone (RV.); jatruka (Ya_j.); jattu (Pali); jat- shoulder (OSi.10th cent.); dat- shoulder (OSi.13th cent.)(CDIAL 5096). had.d.a bone (Si.); hajhi_ shoulder-blade (S.); ha~ji_ (L.); ha~_s collar-bone (H.); ha~_sr.i_ collar (G.); am.salaga shoulder; ham.sala sort of ornament (Pkt.); hasli_ gold or silver collar (P.); ha~_suli collar (N.); ha~sli_ (H.); ha~_sl.i_ (M.); hasu silver collar (S.); hassi_ collar-bone (L.); has neck-bone (L.); hass, hasi_ shoulderblade (P.); am.sa shoulder, shoulder-blade (RV.); shoulder (Pali.Pkt.); aj-vaj m.pl. limbs; aj-ba~_ (L.); as shoulder (Si.)(CDIAL 6). had.d.a bone (Skt.Pkt.); had.d. (Par.); har bone (Gypsy); hari finger-nail (Gypsy); ho_t., pl. had.a bone (D..); had. (Gaw.Bshk.); had.-mio_ marrow (Phal.); had.d.un:g bone (Phal.); ad.a pl. bones (esp. of forearm and shin); ad.yulu large bone; ad.iju small bone (K.); had.u bone; had.o bone of an animal; had.i_ small bone (S.); had.d., had.d.i_ bone (L.P.); had.d.a_ spavin (L.P.); had. bone (L.); had.d., had.d.o_, pl. had.a~_ (WPah.); ha_r. (Ku.N.B.Bhoj.H.); ha_r (A.); ha_r.a (Or.); ha~_r. (Aw.); had.d.a_, had.d.i_ (H.); ha_d.i_ (OMarw.); ha_d. (G.M.); ha_d.a (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13952). a_s.u_r.a_ collar-bone (Pas'.)(CDIAL 33).

3415.Tuft of rice plants; bundle of sheaves: su_d.i a small bundle of grass (Ka.); cu_d.i a bundle of faggots (Tu.); su_d.i sheaf, bundle (Tu.); hu_r.i bar.ga stick for carrying sheaves (Kuwi); cu_t.u bundle of sheaves (Ta.); cu_t.t.u bundle, sheaf as of transplanted rice (Ma.); su_d.u a bundle as of grass, etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 2723). kud bundle (Ko.); bundle of firewood or grass (To.)(DEDR 1866). jhu_r.i_ bunch, bundle (G.)(CDIAL 5412). ju_r.i_ bundle, bunch (G.); small knot of hair (L.)(CDIAL 5258). cu_d. tuft of rice plants (M.); cud.i torch of wisps (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4883). xot.a_ bundle of grass (A.); s'u_n.t.i torch (Phal.); s'ol. reed (Kho.); s'u_i white stem of seedling (Sh.); s.o_lu small branch (Sh.)(CDIAL 12622). Skein, bundle: cu_t.at.ittal to thresh sheaves of corn by treading with cattle (W.)(Ta.lex.) su_t.e a torch of wisps etc. (Ka.); cud.i_, cu_d.a (M.); tu_t.e, su_t.e (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) cu_t.t.u a kind of ola torch (Na_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ut.u skein, bundle (K.); ace id. (K.)[cf.accu weaver's stay or reed (Ma.)(DEDR 48)]; at.t.a_ skein (P.); at.t.i_ skein (L.P.); a_t.i bundle, sheaf (Or.); a_t.i_, an.t.i_ skein, bundle, sheaf (H.); a~_t.i_ skein of thread (G.); a~_t.ho, a~_t.hi plait of hair, bundle, sheaf (Ku.); at.t.ha_ handful (Pkt.)(CDIAL 181). Net; lump: ut.a leaves or grass used for thatching (Skt.)(CDIAL 1681). un.d.uka net, chignon, part of the body (Skt.); un.d.e_rakasraj balls of meal on a string (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 1699). u~d.a_ lump of kneaded dough (M.); unnu_ hoop-shaped mat under a head-burden (L.)(CDIAL 1699). Roll of cloth: in.d.va two coverings made of munja grass to protect the hands from fire (S'Br.); an.d.uva, an.d.uka a roll (of cloth, hairs, or the like)(Pali); an.d.u_paka circular roll of cloth used as a stand for a vessel (Pali); Knob of oven: in.d.a_ knob of an oven (Or.); innu_ hoop-shaped mat put under a head-burden (P.); e~r.ua_ seat of hemp or grass (Aw.); i~_d.wa_, i~_d.huwa_ roll of grass or cloth to put under a head-burden (H.); i~_d.wi_, i~d.uri_ small roll of grass or cloth to put under a head-burden (H.); i~dua_ head mat (H.)(CDIAL 1559). vit.t.i_ bundle (Pkt.); bir.a_ roll of betel, sheaf, packet, coil, rest for a pot (B.); vi_t.o roll (G.); bit.o sheaf (Ku.); bi~_d. coil of coarse rope in a well (P.)(CDIAL 12045). {Concordant with the cu_d.a ~~ in.d.va transforms meaning coil-pad, it is possible that the ancient unit of measure for a skein of thread was: ci_d.u: cen.t.u ball of thread; cet.t.ai short lace-border in cloth (Ta.lex.); cit.t.ai short striped border of a cloth (Ta.); cit.t.e a coloured border or edge of a cloth (Te.)(DEDR 2514)}.

3416.Image: crack: co_ti crack in walls, dams or banks (Ta.); co_ti-vir..utal to be cracked, dimpled (Ta.) cf. che_da (Ta.lex.)

3417.Anus; vulva: cu_ttu anus, buttocks, private parts, pudendum muliebre; cu_r-u anus (Ta.); cu_ttu testicles, penis (Ma.); suti female urinal passage (Kui)(DEDR 2724). cu_ta, cu_ti anus; cyuti vulva (Skt.); cul penis (Pers.); coth, coti anus, vulva (K.); cuti, cutar.u anus, rump (S.); cu_ti vulva (S.); cut anus, bottom (L.); cuttar., cutr.i_ buttock; cutt bottom (of a lamp); cut vulva (L.); cutt, cu_t vulva; cuttar. rump; cittar. buttocks (P.); cu_t vulva (Ku.H.G.); cu_tar. haunch, thigh, hip (Ku.); cutar. anus, buttocks (N.); cutal anus, buttocks (Or.); c.uta~_d. vulva (M.); cu_tar. rump (H.); c.u_t vulva (M.); cud.u id. (S.); cud.d. (L.P.); cur. (P.H.); c.uk (Kho.)(CDIAL 4860). so_tr. engendering (Skt.); savitri_ mother (Skt.); su_tri~_ genital organ (AV.); female (Phal.); so~_c.i adj. female, so_c., pl. so_c.i (of animals)(Sh.); sot vulva (of animals)(M.); so~ti_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13604). zadah podex (Av.); zlu vulva (Pr.)(CDIAL 5097).

3418.To wear on the head; be crowned: cu_t.t.u wreath, garland (Perun.. Ucaik. 46,233); investing; adorning as with crown, head-dress (Ta.); cu_t.t.u-k-kattikai a kind of garland (Ir-ai. 2, Pak. 42, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cu_t.am < cu_d.a_ crown of the head (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-i_r. 7)(Ta.lex.) cu_t.u (cu_t.i-) to wear esp. on the head; be invested as with a title, be crowned (Ta.); cu_t.t.u (cu_t.t.i-) to crown; adorning as with crown, garland, crest (Ta.); cu_t.uka to wear on the head (Ma.); cu_t.ikka to crown (Ma.); su_d.u to put on the head as flowers, etc., receive, obtain (Ka.)(DEDR 2721). Image: a type of men's hair style: su_t.e a type of men's hair style (Ga.); cu_t.u hair tuft, crest, comb (Ta.); cu_nd. to tie hair in knot (Pa.); cu_t.a woman's hair tied in knot (Pa.); sund. to roll up and tie hair in bunch (Ga.); cu_d.a_ hair tuft, cock's comb (Skt.)(DEDR 2721)(CDIAL 4883). Image: crest, topknot: chim.d.a, chem.d.a_ crest, topknot (Pkt.); s'e~d.a_ head, tip, top (of anything); s'e~d.i_ tuft left at tonsure (M.); s'em.d.i (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12434). cen.t.u tassel (Ma.); ce_d.u_ ball (M.); cen.d. ball on man's hair-cord (Ko.); cen.d.u cluster of flowers, bouquet (Ka.)(DEDR 2766). Image: tuft: cin.t.u hair-tuft (Ta.); s'in.t.i id. (Ma.); cit.t.u-k-kut.umi small hair-tuft on the crown of the head (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Images: hairtail worn by men; mane; chignon: su_nd gat. knot of hair at back (Go.); cundi_ the hairtail as worn by men (Kur.) (DEDR 2670). cu_l.a knot, crest (Pali); cu_l.a_ topknot, cockscomb (Pali); cu_d.a_, cu_la_, cu_liya_ topknot, hair tuft, cock's comb, tiger's mane (Pkt.); cur.ya curls (Gypsy); co_ru, cu~r peak, high mountain (Dm.); cul hair of head, curl (B.); cula_ hair of head, lock, headdress (B.); cu_l.a hair on head, lock (Or.); cu_la_ dome on top of a building (Or.); suli hair on head (A.); culo mountain peak (Ku.); cu_l.i conical peak of hill (Or.); cu_r.a_ topknot (H.); cu_r. tenon (L.); crest, top, forehead (Mth.); topknot, ceremony of tonsure (H.); sil.u top, head, lock of hair, peacock's crest (Si.); cu_n knot of hair (Pas'.); cot.o topknot (S.); cot.u cone (S.); cot.i_ peak (L.); top, topknot (S.); cot.t.a_ topknot, top, peak (P.); cut.i topknot (Or.); cut.iya_ (H.); cot.lo hair of head (G.); cundi topknot (Or.)(CDIAL 4883). caud.a relating to tonsure; n. the tonsure ceremony (Mn.); caula (A's'vGr.); co_laa shaving the head (Pkt.); col.e~ tonsure of a child's head (M.)(CDIAL 4936). cu_l.war a grown-up woman wearing all her plaits of hair (Kho.)(CDIAL 4886). colleya, colleha, jolleha pointed end of a female`s bundle of hair at the back of the head (Ka.); jollemu, jol.l.emu a tire formed by weaving the tresses in chains and then by coiling them at the back of the head; a wreath of mangrove flowers (Te.)(DEDR 2858). ju_t.a twisted hair (Skt.); ju_d.a (Pkt.); ju_r.o hair tied in a knot on crown (S.); ju_r.a_ (L.); Sikh's knot of hair (P.); hair tied in a knot (Or.Mth.H.); jura_ id. (Mth.); ju_r.i_ small knot of hair (L.); juro woman's knot of hair, crest of bird, hood of snake, hump of bullock (N.); zuri wisp of grass tied round a tree (A.); jul.i_ bundle of leaves (M.); jud.a_, jud.i_ knot of hair, bunch, bundle (M.); jun.d.a_ short hair (S.)(CDIAL 5258). jhun.t.ri_ woman's queue of hair (WPah.); jhu~t. chignon, bird's crest, protuberance on back of ox or camel (B.); jhun.t.i (Or.); jhu~t.iya_ lock of hair on crown of head (H.); jho~t.i_ queue of hair (Mth.); jho~t.a_ tuft of hair (Bhoj.); jho~t. knot of hanging hair (M.); jhut.u top knot (S.); jhu~r.o knot of hair (S.); jhu_r.a_ (L.); jhur.o bunch of false hair for making up a woman's hair (G.); jhot.o tuft of hair on crown (S.)(CDIAL 5401). jus hair (Pas'.); jhu_s beard of barley (Ku.); jhus fine hair, hairs on a plant or caterpillar, shavings (N.)(CDIAL 5412). {cu_l.a (Skt. cu_lika_, cf. cu_d.a_) swelling, protuberance; root, knot, crest; kan.n.a-cu_l.a the root of an elephant's ear; ad.d.ha-cu_l.a a measure; cu_l.a_ (Vedic cu_d.a_) = cu_l.a, usually in sense of crest only, esp. denoting the lock of hair left on the crown of the head when the rest of the head is shaved; chot.ali (G.); mark of distinction of a king; a cock's comb.(Pali.lex.)} jhot.a fibre of corchorus capsularis, jute (Or.); ju_t. jute (prob. < Eng. jute); jut.hi (NiDoc.); jhut.o, jhot.o (B.)(CDIAL 14524). cu_d.i a coil of rope (Tu.)(DEDR 2723). jut.t.u tuft of hair on shaven head (Ma.Tu.); long lock or tuft of hair, crest of a bird such a peacock (Te.); jut.t.i tuft of hair (Kol.); topknot, cock's comb (Go.); jot.t.u hair-knot (Ka.); jut.t.a, jut.t.u, jut.lu the tuft of hair left on the crown of the head at the ceremony of tonsure, crest, tuft growing on an animal's head (Ka.); jit.t.i tuft of hair as worn by brahmans, etc., woman's backhair (Kod..); cut.t.i_ bristles, mane; hair (of man or animals)(Kur.); cut.t.i tuft of hair (Ta.)(DEDR 2655). ju_t.a- twisted hair of ascetics and S'iva (CDIAL 5258); cu_t.u to wear, esp. on the head; be invested as with a title, be crowned;n. hair tuft, crest, comb (Ta.); cu_t.t.u to adorn as with garlands, crown, invest with honours; crest, cock's comb, snake's head, fellow of a wheel (Ta.); cock's comb, mark on the forehead of cattle (Ma.); su_d.u to put on the head as flowers, etc., receive, obtain (Ka.); cu.d. (cu.d.i) to stick (flower) in hair (Kod..); cu_nd. to tie hair in knot; cu_t.a woman's hair tied in knot (Pa.); sund. to roll up and tie hair in bunch (Ga.); cu_t.al putting on the head (Ma.); cu_t.ikka to make to wear, crown; cu_t.t.uka to put on the head, tie a bundle like a hairlock (Ma.)(DEDR 2721). Cap: kho_la a kind of hat; helmet (Skt.)[cf. xaoda (Av.); xo_l (Psht.)]; kur cap (Kt.); kur. (Par.); kereti (Av.); zuka-kui (Kt.); wol.ik (Pr.); kho_lat.a_, xolat.ek cap (Pr.); khru (Kal.); kho_i pointed cap (Kho.); khe_e (Tor.); kho_i (Sh.D..); kho_i_ cap (Sh.); khol. hooded cloak (M.); holu cloth cap covering the cheeks, helmet (S.)(CDIAL 3942). kulla_ < kula_h (U.) a kind of cap, skull-cap, nightcap, fez (Ko_yilo_. 36) (Ta.lex.) Image: hair worn with plaits in front by virgins: cu~_d.a_ hair worn with plaits in front (by virgins)(L.); cur plait of hair (Gypsy); curn, co_rn lock of hair (Gypsy); cur.uk long hair (Wg.); cu_ri_ long hair (Kal.); cul. plait, woman's hair (Kho.); cul (Kal.)(CDIAL 4883). cundi_ the hairtail as worn by men (Kur.)(DEDR 2670). su_t.e a type of men's hairstyle (Ga.); tu.t. front tuft of hair (To.)(DEDR 2721). cu_d.a_ topknot on head (Skt.); co_d.a (TS.)[< Drav. cf. cu_la_ ceremony of tonsure...it may belong eventually to the group of words for 'hair' (< Munda) including ju_t.a twisted hair (Skt.); ju_r.a_ Sikh's knot of hair, broom (P.) (CDIAL 5258)]; cu_l.a knot, crest (Pali); cu_l.a_ topknot, cockscomb (Pali); cu_d.a_, cu_la_, cu_liya_ topknot, tiger's mane (Pkt.); cur.ya curls (Gypsy); cur plait of hair (Gypsy); co_rn lock of hair (Gypsy); cur.uk long hair (Wg.); cu~ri id. (Kal.); cul. plait, woman's hair (Kho.); cul (Kal.); suli hair on head (A.); cul (B.); cula_ hair on head, headdress, lock (B.); cu_l.a hair on head (Or.); cu_r. topknot, ceremonyy of tonsure (H.); cu_r.a_ topknot (H.); sil.u head, lock of hair (si.); cu_n knot of hair (Pas.); cu~_d.a_ hair worn with plaits in front (by virgins)(L.); knot of hair, cockscomb (P.); co~d.a_, co~r.a_ head, topknot, coil of woman's hair (H.); cot.t.i_ topknot, crest (Pkt.); cot.o topknot (S.); cot.t.a_ topknot (P.); cundi topknot (Or.)(CDIAL 4883). cu_r.a hump on bull or other animal (Or.)(CDIAL 4883). cu_l.war a grown-up woman wearing all her plaits of hair (Kho.); cu_d.a_vati having locks of hair (Skt.)(CDIAL 4886). Image: tiger's mane: cu_d.a_, cu_la_, cu_liya_ tiger's mane (Pkt.); cur.ya pl. curls; cur plait of hair; curn, co_rn lock of hair (Gypsy); cur.uk long hair (Wg.); cu~_r.i_ hair on temples (L.); suli hair on head (A.); cot.i_, cot.li_ tuft of hair (G.)(CDIAL 4883). ul.ai mane, hair of head (Ta.); ul.a mane of horse or lion, man's hair (Ma.)(DEDR 701). carcara- curled or woolly hair (RV.) = caran.as'i_la- (Sa_y.); carcari_ (Skt.); ca~_car curled (of hair), a curl (B.); ca_cara, ca_cera (Or.); ca~_car (Mh.)(CDIAL 4693).

3419.Image: bracelet: cf. ci~dup (pl. ci~dpul) bracelet (of men)(Pa.); cinup (pl. cinpul), sinup (pl. sinpul) bracelet (Ga.); sinnu_m id. (Go.)(DEDR 2531). cf. kindrap- (kindrat-) to make to revolve (Ga.); kindra_- (kindra a_-) to revolve; kindray ki- to make to revolve (Pe.); kindra_- to revolve (Mand..); kindra'a_na_ to put into circular motion (Kur.)(DEDR 1554). su_d.aga, su_d.iga, cu_d.a_lu, cu_d.a_bal.e a bracelet (Ka.); su_d.iga (Te.); cu_r.., cu_r..u to environ, surround, encompass (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cu_d.e, cu_d.a_bal.e a bracelet with a hinge and lock (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cu_t.akam bracelet (Perun.. Vattava. 12,210)(Ta.lex.) cu_d.a, cu_laa bracelet (Pkt.); cu_r.o (S.); cu_r., cu_r.a_ (L.P.B.); cur.o (Ku.); cu_r.a_ ring on elephant's tusk, bracelet (H.); cu_r.i_ bracelet (Mth.Or.); bangle (H.G.); cu_r.o (G.); cu_ra_ anklet or bracelet (OAw.); cu_r. bangle (G.); cud.a_ id. (M.); cu_r, cu_ri_ bracelet (Bi.); suri_ a kind of ornament (A.); curo, curi bracelet (N.)(CDIAL 4884). cu_t.a_ bracelet, sacred eleocarpus bead enclosed in gold and hung round the neck in a gold band (Ta.); su_d.aga, su_d.iga bracelet (Ka.); cu_d.a, cu_d.aga a kind of gold bracelet (Tu.); su_d.igamu a kind of bracelet (Te.); su_r.a, cu_r.a_ bracelet (Go.)(DEDR App.39). Bracelet: cu_rppu bracelet (Pur-ana_. 153,3)(Ta.lex.) churi_ a bracelet of gold or silver, a bangle made of lac, or ivory, or glass worn by women on forearm; churigar one who makes or sells bangles of lac (P.lex.) tsud.o, tsud.ya_ simple bracelet (Kon.lex.)

3420.Image: protuberance on brick: cu_d.a protuberance on brick (S'Br.); cu_l.a swelling, protuberance, knot (Pali); cur point, tip (Kt.); sula_ knob on a wooden sandal, any knob, protuberance (A.)(CDIAL 4883). Image: to mark with dots: t.u_r.na_ (tud.d.yas) to mark with dots, streaks etc. (Kur.); t.d.e to smear, paint (Malt.)(DEDR 2968). Image: knobs; hollow: d.opt.ho bones projecting at the joints like knobs, a knob or excrescence on a tree etc.; d.opot hollow, flaw as in an earthen pot; the shell can be pressed in because hollow as an India rubber ball (Santali.lex.) Image: dent or depression; bend: ot.ukku dent or depression in a metal utensil (Ta.lex.) cf. tol.l.i a drop (Ma.)(DEDR 3361). Image: knob or ornamental dot: cot.t.ai a knob-like contrivance for hanging anything (Ta.); cot.t.a boss, knob or ornamental dot on knife-handles, etc.; knob into which the blade of a knife and a style are fixed (Ma.)(DEDR 2839). cot.t.ai dent (Ta.lex.) Adorning: co_t.ittal < jo_d.na (H.) to adorn, beautify, decorate, as a town, a street, a dwelling, a person; to prepare carefully, concoct, arrange; co_t.ippu adorning, decorating; co_t.in-ai adorning, decoration, attire for play; beauty due to decoration (Vir-alivit.u. 375); co_t.an-ai id. (Ta.); jo_d.an.e (Ka.Tu.); co_t.in-ai-k-ka_ran- maker of costumes for actors in a play; one who dresses actors for the stage; co_t.al saree; co_t.t.u-p-pal.l.i a kind of saree; co_t.u a kind of legging for warriors (Kan-a-var..i. 9); coat of mail (Ku_l.appa. 43)(Ta.lex.)

3421.Image: spider; weavers: makers of cloth: je_d.a, ja_d.a a weaver belonging to the Lingavanta sect; spider (Ka.); ja_d.e, ja_d.ye weaver, spider (Tu.); je_n.d.ra, de_n.d.ra a caste of weavers (Te.)(DEDR 2809). cf. ja_ju, ja_du colour of red ochre, red colour (Ka.); redness (Te.); dha_tu ore (Skt.)(DEDR 2437). ce_n.ikan- an illustrious Jain king; a class of weavers (Nan-. 289, Mayilai)(Ta.lex.) ce_n.iyan (E.T. vi,361), ce_n.t.iravar weavers (Ta.); je_d.aru (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Cloth: sendra cloth (Ga.Go.); hendra (Pe.); handra, hendra (Mand..); hendra_ (Kuwi); se_ndara_ (Gutob. and similar words in the Munda languages)(DEDR 2771). d.erenga_ weaver (Kui); d.e'ra_ id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2975). d.hera_ crosspiece of wood for threading yarn on (H.); instrument for twisting yarn (P.)(CDIAL 5474). d.her heap, large quantity (Ku.); much, many (L.); d.e_r heap, store, granary (K.); d.erhi surplus, excess (A.)(CDIAL 5599).

3422.Resin: ce_t.i a glutinous earth put on walls to keep off the rain, esp. red (Ma.); je_d.i a sort of pipeclay (Ka.); je_d.i, se_d.i glutinous clay, chalk, a kind of white earth (Tu.); s'ed.i_, s'ed.u_, s'a_d.u_ pipeclay (M.)(DEDR 2806).jid.d.u oiliness, grease or greasiness, unctuousness (Te.); a substance that is smeary, greasy or oily, as ghee or oil (Ka.); jit.kip- to stick to (Nk.); cin- to stick, adhere (< cin.-/cin.d.-); caus. cinip- (cinit-)(Pa.); sit.pa, (sit.t-), sir.pa (sir.t-) to be sticky, tacky; si_nd.u, si_nd.ru, ji_nd.ru gum, resin (Kui); hind.ru resin (Kuwi)(DEDR 2516). cf. ci_n.t.u stench (Ta.)(DEDR 2523). cf. jir gum (Ko.)(DEDR 2556). cf. sin.d.u fetid smell (Ka.); cin.d.i scent (found by dog in hunting, etc.)(Kod..)(CDIAL 2523). Affecting the smell powerfully: cet.i bad odour, stench; that which is decayed (Ta.); ceyr., cet., cet. ceyr. bad smell (Ko.); sid.y id. (To.); s'et.t.uni to decay, be spoiled; s'et.t.a_vuni to spoil, destroy, ruin; s'et.t.i, s'et.t. spoiled, ruined; tet.t.uni to rot, decay, be damaged, rupted, or failed; tet.t.u, s'et.t.u, het.t.u bad, rotten; sed.i strong, affecting the smell powerfully (Tu.); ced.u to be rotten; ced.d.a, ced.u rotten (Te.); sen.d.- to decay (Kond.a)(DEDR 2760). cetukku rottenness; cetukkikka to be rotten (Ma.); cetu- (-pp-, -tt-) to lose lustre, shrink, be weak; cetukku that which is faded, dried as flowers; cetuval withering (Ta.)(DEDR 2769). Vegetable matter: cettal dry rubbish, dried vegetable matter as grass, leaves, etc., hay, straw (Ta.); cettal dry, over-ripe coconut on the tree, shrivelled palmyra or other fruit, dried chillies, plantain trees, vegetables or grass; cetuku rubbish, chaff, dried leaves (Ta.; cetta, cer-r-a little stick sor leaves for kindling a fire or covering a hut, what is made of it, screen or wicket of wicker work (Ma.); satte, sade, sedage rubbish, dirt, stuff, trash (Ka.); sed sweeping, rubbish (Tu.); sada rubbish (Kor.); cetta id., dirt, trash, refuse; ceda_ramu trash (Te.)(DEDR 2770). For semant. 'ripe' cf. hen- (-t-) to ripen, become ripe, be ripe (Pe.Mand..); ser.nba (ser.t-), ser.pa (ser.t-) id.; senpa (sent-) to be ripe; semboli mature, ripened; senburi old, too ripe (Kui)(DEDR 2765). gadad.u, gadaru the fetid smell of cattle urine; the smell of sheep and goats; the disagreeable smell of burning chillies or tobacco (Ka.); kasat.u dirt, foulness, odour, gust, etc. (Te.); gadal.a foulness of a liquid; dregs, refuse (M.)(Ka.lex.) jad.d.u, jid.d.u the disagreeable smell of sheep's milk (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. kacat.u dregs (Ta.)(DEDR 1088). cf. kasat.a nasty (Pali)(CDIAL 2615). jibaru gummy excretion of the eye (Ka.); jipad.apa, jid.a_, jivad.e_m. (M.); jibbu stickiness, sliminess; the sap or milk that issues from the stalk of the mango after it is cut from the tree (Ka.); ji_d.i (Ka.); jibal.ad.ike, jibbad.ike a young good areca nut cut into two pieces and boiled, whereby it becomes soft and nice (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3423.A region: ce_ti < ce_di_ the region round Bilaspur and Jubbulpur, one of 56 te_cam (Pa_rata. Tiraupati. 42); nat.una_t.u in Tamil country, having Tirukko_valu_r as its capital (Periyapu. Meypporu. 1); ce_ti-na_t.u id. (Ta.); ce_ti the dynasty that rules Che_di (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 104); ce_tipan- the kind of Che_di (Pa_rata. Ira_cacu_ya. 152); the king of Ce_ti-na_t.u (Pura_n.a-ca_ram, 8, Periyapu. Patip.)(Ta.lex.)

3424.Image: to kill; destroy: cer-r-al killing; destruction; cer-uppu killing (W.)(Ta.); cer-r-alar enemies (Tan-ippa_. i,27,49); cer-r-a_r enemies (Kur-al., 446)(Ta.); cer-r-avar id. (Te_va_. 476,3); cer-r-o_r id. (Patir-r-up. 82,12); cer-al killing, destroying (Tol. Col. 72, Ce_n-a_.); cer-u-tal to kill, destroy (Te_va_. 476,3); cer-u-ttal to kill (Kalit. 104)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kerpini to kill, murder, slay (Tu.); kerpina_ye murderer (Tu.); qerme to destroy, massacre; qermre to die in numbers (Malt.); cer-u (cer-uv-, cer-r--; -pp-, -tt-), cer-i (-pp-, -tt-), cer-r-u (cer-r-i-) to kill, destroy; cer-uppu, cer-al, cer-r-al killing; ceru (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, ruin (Ta.)(DEDR 1981). ket.u (ket.uv-, ket.t.-) to perish, be destroyed; (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, squander; ket.t.a ruined (Ta.); ke_t.u death, adversity, ruin (Ta.); ket.u ruin (Ma.); ke_t.u destruction, damage, loss, hurt (Ma.); ker.- (ket.-) to die, be ruined, be lost; ker.c- to ruin, destroy, lose; ke.r. (obl. ke.t.-) ruin, harm, danger, loss, funeral, corpse (Ko.); kd.c- to destroy (To.); ked.u, kid.u (ket.t.-) to be destroyed, be ruined, be spoiled, become bad, cease (as sorrow, etc.); ked.isu, kid.isu to destroy, ruin, spoil, extinguish; ket.t.a ruined; ket.t.e ruin, evil, misfortune; ked.aka, ked.ika, ked.uka, kid.uka man who destroys, one who is ruined, a bad, wicked, mean man; fem. ked.aki, ked.ike, ked.uki; ked.akatana, ked.akutana, ked.ukutana a corrupt, bad, lewd nature or conduct; ked.aku, ked.uku corruption, ruin, evil; ked.uvike being destroyed, etc.; ked.uha ruin, disappearance; kid.a man who is ruined, etc.; kid.i, kid.uka one who ruins or destroys; ke_d.u ruin, destruction, evil, loss; ke_d.i, ke_d.iga, ke_d.uga one who ruins or is ruined; ke_d.itana, ke_d.igatana state of being a destroyer or being destroyed; ki_d.iki a vile, unchaste woman; ki_t.akatana, ki_t.ale mischief-making (Ka.); kd.- (kt.t.-) to be spoiled, ruined, extinguished; kd.it- (kd.iti-) to spoil, ruin, extinguish; spoil; ked.uku, ked.a, ked.aku damage, loss; ked.ake oppressor; ket.t.a bad, vile; ke_d.u mischief, evil, danger, disaster, loss, perdition; ke_d.age, ke_d.in:ge mischief-maker (Tu.); ced.u to be spoiled, destroyed, become bad, useless, be a loser or sustain a loss; ced.d.a, ced.u bad, wicked, wrong, spoiled, damaged; cet.t.a evil, harm; wicked; ced.ipa an unchaste woman; ced.ugu evil, harm, calamity; ced.d.atanamu badness, vice, enmity, odium; ce_t.u ruin, misfortune, destruction; ked.ayu to die; ked.ayika death; ked.apu to kill; ki_d.u evil, harm, danger; git.t.u to die, perish; cer-ucu, cer-acu, cer-upu, cer-apu to spoil, destroy, ruin, ravish, rape (Te.); kit.- (kit.t-) to be extinguished; kit.ip- (kit.ipt-) to extinguish (Kol.); kit.- to be extinguished; kit.ip- to extinguish; kir.- (kit.t.-) fire to go out; kit.up-/kit.p- to put out fire (Nk.); cit.- (fire) goes out; cit.ip- to put out (fire)(Pa.); sit.- (fire) goes out; sit.p- (sit.t-) to make (fire) go out; cit.t.- to be put out as fire (Go.); he_d.inai to mar; hersinai to destroy, pollute (Kuwi); ket.t.o-kama- to put out (fire)(kama- to do, make)(Nahali)(DEDR 1942). Conquer: je_tr. victorious, triumphant; a victor (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) jiddu perverse opposition, refractoriness; affront; contention; an obstinate resolution (Ka.); jidda spite, hatred (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cin-avun-ar enemies, adversaries (Perun.. Makata. 14,174); cin-avu-tal to fight, wage a war; cin-am battle, war (Tiva_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) jayati conquers (RV.); je_ti (Pali); jayai (Pkt.); jayam.ta, jeyam.ta victorious (NiDoc.); 2 sg. imper. jaya (NiDoc.); je particle of respect (G.M.)(CDIAL 5143). jita won, conquered (RV.Pali); jia (Pkt.); ji_n.em to win (OM.); jitta (Pkt.); zyutu unexpected gain [cf. dyu_ta gambling (Skt.)](Ka.); jitta_ unexpected gain (pp. of jin.an.)(L.); jittn.a_ to conquer (P.); zi_tn.u_, jittan., jittn.a_, jitn.a_ (WPah.); ji_tn.o (Ku.); jitnu (N.); zi_tiba (A.); jita_ (B.); jitiba_ (Or.); ji_tab (Mth.); ji_tai (OAw.); ji_tna_ (H.); ji_tan.u (S.); ji_tvu~ (G.); ji_tn.e~ (M.); ji_pai wins (OG.); zikiba to conquer (A.); ji~kn.e~ (M.); jikta_ (Konkan.i); dina victory (Si.); jin.n.a conquered (Ap.)(CDIAL 5224). jiti gaining, victory (RV.); ziy victory, earnings, profit (K.)(CDIAL 5225). jina_ti overpowers (RV.); conquers (Pali); jin.ai, pp. jin.iya (Pkt.); ze_nun, pp. zyu_nu to conquer, earn (K.); jin.an., pp. jitta_ (L.); jin.nu_ (WPah.); ziniba (A.); jina_ (B.); jin.iba_ (Or.); jin.iu conquered (OG.); jin.an.em. (OM.); dinanava_, dananu victory (Si.)(CDIAL 5226). Ruin: kher.o loss, waste (Ku.); khero destruction (N.); kher.o end (G.)(CDIAL 3661). ghat.t.ai is ruined (Pkt.); ga_t. to want, wish (Dm.); gha_t. (Kal.); gat.un to become less; got.u insufficient (K.); ghat.an.u to become less (S.); ghat.ero a little less (S.); ghat.t. few (L.); ghat.t.an. to decrease (L.); ghat.t. diminished; ghat.n.a_ to decrease; ghat.t.an.a_ to belittle (P.); ghat.n.o to decrease (Ku.); ghat.nu (N.); gha_t.iba to be less, be defeated (A.); gha_t.a_ to be wanting; gha_t.i shortcoming, fault (B.); ghat.al to decrease (Bhoj.); ghat.na_ (H.); ghat.ai decreases; ghat.a_vai belittles (OMarw.); ghat.vu~ to decrease (G.); ghat.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 4415). cf. cat.ai to be stunted in growth (as trees, plants) (Ta.) (DEDR 2301). cat.t.u destruction, injury, waste; cat.t.i (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, ruin, kill (Ta.); cat.t.u destruction (Ka.); end, dissolution, death, ruin, extinction (Tu.)(DEDR 2307). s'ata falling out, decaying (of hair, nails etc.)(Sus'r.); sa_d.a rotting (Pkt.); sa_r., sa_r.a_ burning, a burn, heat, anguish, envy; sa_r. burnt thing (L.)(CDIAL 12382). sa_d.e_i makes rot, destroys (Pkt.); sa_r.an.u to make rot (S.); sa_r.an. to burn, cremate, scold; sa_r.un. to burn (L.); sa_r.na_ to rot, burn (P.); hel.anava_ to let fall, throw, throw away (Si.)(CDIAL 12383). cf. s'at. fall off, disintegrate, be destroyed, be depressed, be ill; parn.a-s'ada falling of leaves (AV.); pan.n.a-sat.a heap of fallen leaves (Pali); sar.o putrefaction (G.)(CDIAL 12267). s'at.ati disintegrates, is ill (Dha_tup.); sad.ai falls to pieces, rots, is ill; sad.an.a (Pkt.); sar.an.u to rot (S.); sar.an. to be burnt (L.); sar.un., sar.r.an. to burn, inflame, destroy (L.); sar.na_ to rot, be burnt (P.); s'ar.nu_ to rot; s'ar.a_no~_ to corrupt (WPah.); sar.n.o to rot (B.); sar.iba_ (Or.); saral rotten (Mth.); sar.na_ to rot, ferment (H.); sar.vu~ to rot (G.); sad.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 12268). ks.aya loss, waste (Mn.); khaya waste (Pali); khae nom. sg. (KharI.); khaya waste, phthisis (Pkt.); cai danger, risk (Kho.); chei compensation (Sh.); khau destruction, loss, danger (P.); kho destruction (G.); chayak ill; chek illness, pain (Kho.)(CDIAL 3661). To destroy: cati (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, kill; cata_vu (cata_vi-) to be shattered or broken, be rotten, decayed; catai (-v-, -nt-) to be bruised, crushed; (-pp-, -tt-) to crush, bruise, mash; tatai (-v-, -nt-) to be shattered, made fruitless; tatar (-v-, -nt-) to be crushed (Ta.); cata a bruise; catayuka to be bruised, squashed; catekka to squash, crush, pound, bray; catun.n.uka to be crushed, compressed, beaten into another shape; catukkuka to bruise, macerate; catukku a bruise (Ma.); cady a murder; pair word with cudy news (cudy cady); cac- to hammer with heavy blows, pat, stroke, kill (animal); cac a blow (Ko.); to0x- (to0xy-) to be squeezed or smashed flat, (person) gets into difficulties; to0k- to squeeze or smash flat; toc- to beat (To.); sadaku to beat; sade, sadi to pound to some extent, bruise, squash, crush; caccu, ceccu, jajju to strike, bruise, crush; tadaku, taduku, tade to strike, beat (Ka.); cade severe fighting, destruction of life; sadi striking, beating; sadevuni to get hardened, wear away as an earthen vessel; jajjuni to bruise, squash, pound (Tu.); cadiyu to be crushed or broken; cadupu to crush, kill; cadumu to strike; cadunu even, level (Te.); catip- (catit-), cacip- (cacit-) to trample, kick (Pa.)(DEDR 2322). cer-u-tor..il evil deed, reprehensible (Pu. Ve. 8,10, Kol.u.)(Ta.lex.) To slaughter: tat.i (-v-, -nt-) to hew down, cut off, kill; tat.ivu cutting, killing (Ta.); tat.iyuka to tear, cut off (Ma.); tar.ing to cut, cut off, cut down, slaughter (Br.)(DEDR 3029). Quarrel; rage: ceru battle, fight, love-quarrel; cirar-u (cirar-i-) to sulk, disagree; cirar-r-u (cirar-r-i-), cirattu (ciratti-) to be angry with (Ta.); ceru battle (Ma.)(DEDR 1961).

3425.Enraged: keral. to become angry, begin to rage; keral.cu to make a noise by slapping or clapping the arms (as done by combatants); enrage; kel.ar to become angry (Ka.); cira_ku anger, displeasure, crossness; ciramara sullenness, moroseness; a disagreement; keralu to be angry, enraged (Te.)(DEDR 1961). Rancour: cir-ukku (cir-ukki-) to be angry with; cer-u (-v-, -nt-) to hate, dislike, detest, be angry with; cer-r-am love-quarrel; cirar-r-u (cirar-r-i-) to be angry with (Ta.); cirv- (cirt-) id. (Ko.); kir-k violent anger, madness; kir- tot.-. kir-k 0ot.- to become mad with anger (lit. anger strikes him); ker-n gwil.- to murmur in protest (Ko.); ki_r-u to rage, burn with rage or great desire; keral. to become angry, begin to rage; keral.cu to enrage (Ka.); cir-r-a, cir-r-u anger, displeasure; cir-acir-a sullenness, ill-humour; cer-acer-al-a_d.u to be angry or furious; keralu to be angry or enraged (Te.); kireni sullen, surly, out of temper (Kui); kire_ng abuse; kire_ng tining to abuse (Br.); kirk grudge, rancour (Br.)(DEDR 1597). Frown: cit.ucit.uppu knitting the brow in anger, frowning; cit.ucit.u-ttal to knit the brow in anger, scowl, frown (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 16)(Ta.); cit.umu_ci frowning face; one having a frowning face (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Scorn: ki_t.u disregard, scorn (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 1609). (Tadbhava of ki_t.a) an expression of contempt (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ki_t.a insect, worm (S'Br.)(CDIAL 3193). Anger; passion: sit.t.u anger, passion, wrath, rage (Ka.); si_sa, cindu (Te.); sit.t.u baru anger etc. to arise; sit.t.u-ga_r-a a passionate man (Ka.); se_d.u anger (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cir.an.u to be huffy (S.); cir.na_ to be provoked (P.); cirko disturbance; curini to be enraged; cir.nu to be annoyed (N.); cir. vexation; cir.a_na to provoke (B.); cir.iba_ to be angry (Or.); cir.na_ to be provoked (H.); cir.a_vu~ (G.); cid.n.e~ (M.); cir.he_llu peevish (WPah.); cir.hna_ to be provoked (H.); cer.an.u, cer.a_in.u to taunt, irritate (S.); cher.an. to provoke (L.); cher.na_ (P.); to touch, irritate (H.); cher.nu to taunt (N.); cher.vu~ to irritate (G.)(CDIAL 4794). set.ikka to be angry, frown, disrelish, be tired (Ma.); cet.ippu loathing (Ma.); ced.i, cod.i anger (Kod..)(DEDR 2757). sen.asu anger, wrath; to be envious or jealous, to be filled with envious feelings; to envy; sen.asa_t.a unwillingness to be excelled (Ka.); cin-am, cir-ukku to be angry; cin-am anger, wrath (Ta.); sen.e to be or become angry (Ka.); san.e to cause to assume an expression of displeasure or anger (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cin-an- tavirnto_n- Buddha as one devoid of anger (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.); cin-attal to be enraged, to be very angry (Ta.); kinisu (Ka.); cinikka (M.); cin-am anger, fury (Paripa_. 5,73); kinuka (Te.); kinisu (Ka.); cinam (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Anger: jhin:kan.u to fly out against, threaten (S.); jhim.khan.a raging against (Pkt.); jhanko outburst of anger (N.); jhanakna_ to tinkle, be angry (H.); jhan:ka_ smart, gust of passion (M.)(CDIAL 5331). jhanka_rna_ to tinkle, chirp (H.); jhan:ka_r, jhan:ka_ra_ twang, smart, gust of passion (M.); jhin:ka_ra rebuff (S.)(CDIAL 5332). cf. si_tar- anger, wrath (Ka.); ci~_dar-a disgust, dislike, abhorrence, trouble, vexation, annoyance (Te.)(DEDR 2615). cin-a (-pp-, -nt-) to be enraged, be very angry, become red with inflammation (as tumour); cin-appu anger, fury, inflamed condition; cin-am anger, fury, war; cin-avu (cin-avi-) to be angry, indignant, fight; cin-aval battle; ci-avar, cin-avunar enemies (Ta.); cinam wrath; cinikka to be touchy; cinippu anger; cinippikka to irritate; cinan.n.uka to be touchy (Ma.); sinm anger, grudge (To.); kinisu to be or become angry; n. anger, wrath (Ka.); kiniyu to be angry, displeased or irritated; kinuka, kinka anger, displeasure, wrath, rage; kinupu anger (Te.)(DEDR 1600). Whining: jenephene, genephene whining of a child (Santali.lex.) cin.un:ku (cin.un:ki-) to whine, whimper; cin.ukkam whining, whimpering; cin.ukkan- worthless person, as always whining; cin.ukku-ccin.ukk-en-al onom. expr. of worrying with frequent crying (Ta.); cinan.n.uka to be touchy, to repine, whine, whimper; cinakkuka to mutter, neigh (Ma.); jinugu to mutter, murmur, hum (Ka.)(DEDR 2521). Envy; deliberation: ke_n.a, ki_n.a envy, grudge; greediness after; anger, passion; deliberation, consideration, restraint (Ka.); ke_n.agol. to become envious etc. ke_n.ambad.e, ke_n.asara envy, stubbornness (Ka.); ke_n.aka_r-a a grudger (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Crooked; deceit: kuhana envious, hypocritical; kuhana_ envy; kuhanika_ jugglery (Skt.); kuhana_ deceit (Pali); kohana crooked, awry, crooked-natured (K.); kohon cheat, cheating (Si.); kuh deceive (Skt.)(CDIAL 3387). kuha cheat, in: akuha no cheat (R.); kuhaka cheat, juggler (MBh.); kuha, kuhaka deceitful (Pali); kuhaya conjuring; kuhad.a crooked, humpbacked (Pkt.); kohr.o, koyr. puzzle, riddle (G.); kuhd.e~, kohd.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 3385). Shake; tremble; grating of teeth; anger: kit. fear (Skt.); kit.akit.a_yate_ grates the teeth (Sus'r.); kid.ikid.ia_ grating of teeth, sound of dry bones (Pkt.); kiri_r.n.a_, kirar.n.a_ to grind the teeth; kir.kir.a_un.a_, kir.kar.a_un.a_ to speak angrily (P.); kirik-kirik, kirin.-kirin. grating noise (as of teeth)(N.); kir.kir., kirkir, kir.mir. (B.); kir.ikir.i (Or.)(CDIAL 3154). ke_t.ati is afraid (Dha_tup.); kit.a_iba to be alarmed, take up arms for defence (A.)(CDIAL 3158). kit.ukit.u quaking, trembling (Ta.); kit.ukit.en-al expr. signifying (a) tremor (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 80); (b) rapidity, quickness (Ta.); kit.ukit.a_ytal to tremble with fear; kit.ukit.uttal to tremble, shake; to chatter, as the teeth with cold; to shiver, quake (Ta.); kit.ukit.u id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Anger; envy; rancour: cer-u anger (Tirikat.u. 14); cer-al anger, open hatred (Pur-ana_. 15,8); cer-umpu rancour, hatred (Ci_vaka. 947)(Ta.); kar-umbu id. (Ka.); cer-u-tal to hate, dislike, detest (Kur-al.. 1245); to be angry with (Na_lat.i, 134)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cer-r-am rancour, hatred (Tirumuru. 132); aversion (Tirunu_r-. 20); irrepressible anger (Pin..); cer-u-ttal to be angry at (Paripa_. 12,66); to detest (Tiva_.) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) keral., keral.u to become angry, to begin, to rage (Ka.); kempu (Ta.); keralu (Te.); cerecere hotly, fiercely (Te.); cer-ukku to be angry (Ta.); keral.icu, keral.cu to enrage (Ka.); keral.cu to make a noise by slapping or clapping of arms, as done by combatants; to enrage (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kar-u (-pp-, -tt-) to resent, get angry with; n. rancour, vengeful enmity; kar-ukar-u (-pp-, -tt-) to rage; kar-utto_r enemies; kar-uppu anger, displeasure; kar-umu (kar-umi-) to show signs of anger, be enraged; kar-uvam anger; kar-uval sign of anger; kar-uvu (kar-uvi-) to exhibit signs of displeasure; to rankle, entertain malice, implacable hatred; n. anger, wrath; enmity, hostility, hatred (Ta.); kar-ukka to rage; kar-ukar-ukka id., be beside oneself; kar-ukar-e_ fiercely, intensely; kar-avu rage (Ma.); kar- enmity, anger (To.); kar-upu, kar-uhu envy; kar-ubu, kar-umbu to envy; n. envy; kar-uba an envious man; fem. kar-ubi; kar-ubatana the state of being an envious person, envy (Ka.); kar.vita_na_, kar.wita_na_ to envy (Go.); ka_r.bi anger; kar.bigattasi a bad-tempered man (r. = r)(Kuwi); xar angry (Br.)(DEDR 1396). jharko anger; jharkanu to be irritable (N.)(CDIAL 5327). ris. injure (Skt.); injury (RV.); reh burning heat (K.); ris anger (Ku.N.); jealousy (B.); risa anger, envy (Or.); ris anger (H.); ri_s. (G.M.)(CDIAL 10746). i_rs.ya envy (AV.); issa_ jealousy, anger (Pali.); isa_ envy (As'.Pkt.); isa (Si.); hirs greed (L.P.)(CDIAL 1615). i_r-al grief (as of a broken heart), deep-seated sorrow (Ta.); i_r-a, i_r-u anger, fury (Ma.); i_r-uka, i_r-ekka to be angry; i_r-ikka to rage, be in a huff; i_r-ippikka to provoke; i_r-r-am displeasure (Ma.)(DEDR 553). ci_r-u (ci_r-i-) to hiss as a serpent, snort as a horse, sniff, be infuriated, swell with rage, roar and blaze forth as a flame, get angry with; n. anger; ci_r-r-am anger, fury; ci_r-u-ci_r--en-al onom. expr. signifying violent anger; ci_ntu (ci_nti-) to be angry with, hiss (as a serpent)(Ta.); ci_r-uka to hiss, puff as a snake, foam, rage; ci_r-ikka to make to hiss, enrage; ci_r-r-am rage; ci_r-r-u a hiss, puffing; ci_r-r-uka to hiss, rage (Ma.); si_r-u to grow enraged, become angry, be very contentious or quarrelsome; n. raging, fierceness; si_varisu, si_var-isu to hiss, puff, pass the proper temper, show disgust or disdain; se_r-u to rail at, treat with derision; sit.t.u anger, rage (Ka.); ci.r- (ci.ri-) to grumble, answer back grumblingly (Kod..); si_runi to hiss; s'it.t.u anger, displeasure (Tu.); ci_ru to hiss like a serpent (Te.); hic- (hicc-) to threaten (Pe.)(DEDR 2639). ris.yati, aor. aris.at, re_s.ayati hurts (RV.); ulus.ik to be torn, be torn in pieces (Kho.); ales.ik to tear, cut open (Kho.)(CDIAL 2062). isa_l. emulation; isa_l.a_, visa_l., visa_l.a_ id. (M.); i_rs.ya_lu envious (Skt.); i_sa_lu (Pkt.); isa_l.u (Or.); isa_l.u_ emulous (M.)(CDIAL 1616). Conceit: kir-ukku craziness, lunacy, passion, conceit, arrogance (Ta.); kir-ukkan- conceited, arrogant fellow; crazy fellow, lunatic; kirucal obstinacy (Ta.); kir-ukka to be insolent; kir-utu, kir-uvu insolence; kir-ukkan lunatic; ker-uvu pride; ker-ukka to be proud, opposed, defy (Ma.); kird act of disobedience, doing opposite of what one is told to do (Ko.); kir-k violent anger (To.); keccu pride (Ka.)(DEDR 1596). krw- (Sogd.); karvati, kharvati, garvati is haughty (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 3833). garva pride, arrogance (R.); gabba (Pali); gavva (Pkt.); ga_va (Ap.); ga_b boast (B.); ga_ba_na to vaunt (B.)(CDIAL 4064). garvara haughty (Skt.); gavvira (Pkt.); gabbar proud, rich (P.); gabbar (H.)(CDIAL 4065). karuvam haughtiness, arrogance, pride (Ta.lex.) kauravam < gaurava dignity, eminence, honour; pride (Cilappira. Potu. 30)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3426.Tax: so_dige payment: tax (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3427.Remission of debt: so_d.i, jo_d.i remission of a debt etc.; the sum remitted, abatement (Ka.); sot.a (M.); so_d.i release from bondage, freedom granted (Ka.); sot.a (M.)(Ka.lex.)

3428.Short span: jut.t.i, jutte = pra_de_s'a (Te.); occut.u a span measured by the distance between the extended thumb and forefinger; pra_de_s'a (Ka.); cut.u, co_t.u the small span of the thumb and forefinger (Ka.); cot.t.acca_n. (Ma.); co_t.agala a span's breadth; co_t.udda a span's length or height (Ka.lex.) cf. sut.t.u to point at with the finger (Ka.); cun.t.an viral forefinger (Ma.)(DEDR 2658).

3429.Property given at marriage: yautaka property given at marriage, a woman's dowry, a nuptial gift, presents made to a bride at her marriage by her father and friends, also to the bridegroom (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) joila ja_nu to take a wife and maitain oneself at her expense (N.)(CDIAL 10505). yuvati young woman (RV.); juvai, juai (Pkt.); juvel, juvli, zuvli, zuli woman, girl; ju_ar, ju_ri woman (Gypsy); joi woman, female (e.g. joi s'uno bitch)(D..); jo_i_, zu_i_ woman (Wot..); joi wife; joyo effeminate (S.); jo, joi_, joe (L.); jo_, jolli_ (WPah.); joi_, jwe woman, wfe (Ku.); joi wife (N.); jo_i (Bhoj.); joi_ (H.)(CDIAL 10504). joru_ wife (P.WPah.); jaru (B.); joru (Or.); joru_ (H.)(CDIAL 10506). yuvan young; gen. sg. yu_nah- (RV.); junak child; adj. young, little (Gypsy)(CDIAL 10508). yuva_naka young (Skt.); yuva_nam acc. of yuvan (RV.); yuva_na youg (Pali); juva_n.a, jua_n.a young man; juva_n.i_ f. (Pkt.); jua_n.u, jua_n.i_ a yough (S.); jua_nu (S.) < java_n (Pers.); java_n., jua_n.i, jua_n.i_ (P.); juwa_n, jwa_n (N.); zowa_n (A.); juya_n young, strong (B.); jua_n.a young, a youth (Or. < jua_n (Pers.); jua_ni_ youth, manhood (Mth. < jama_n young man (Pers.); juwa_n a youth (H.); yuvan young, best; yona young owman (Si.)(CDIAL 10510). cf. celuva a beautiful woman, a woman (Te.)(DEDR 2786). Bestowing wealth: s'ri_da bestowing wealth: Kube_ra; s'ri_da_na giving a female in marriage (Ka.); stri_-dhana a woman's peculiar property, property belonging to a woman over which has independent control (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

3430.Consecrated money: yekke_ri gan.t.u consecrated money (Tu.lex.) ? yekta_r communion, power (Kon.lex.) yekkandelu, yakkandelu being beyond reach; that which cannot be reached; want, insufficiency [< ekku to reach] (Tu.lex.) ye_vura greed, excessive desire (Tu.lex.)

3431.Image: fish: yekku balya_ru a kind of fish (Tu.lex.)

3432.Companion: sa_ni a second: a companion: a fellow, an associate, a colleague (in an office)(Ka.Te.H.); e.g. doresa_ni; sa_niguma_sta a fellow guma_sta (Ka.lex.)

3433.Image: overflow: Ösyand move quickly (Skt.); syandana flowing (Nir.); water (Skt.); sam.dan.a flow, water (Pkt.); sadan-a water (Si.)(CDIAL 13870). sam.syandayati causes to run together (A_pS'r.); sam.sande_ti joins, affixes (Pali); sasanda to put together (Si.)(CDIAL 13061). syandate_ moves quickly, flows (RV.); trickles, drips, oozes (MBh.); sandati flows (Pali); sam.dai (Pkt.); sadna_ to leak (as a ship), sink (H.)(CDIAL 13869). vis.yandate_ flows out (VS.); vis.yandayati pours out (S'Br.); vissandati overflows (Pali); vissam.dai flows out (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11993). sadil. loose, e.g. hairs, shoes; sadil.a_i, sadil.ye looseness, e.g. of clothes; sadil. za_un umkal. to flow (Kon.lex.)

3434.Army: s'an.d.a, s.an.d.a a multitude; an encampment; nive_s'a, s'ivira, pa_l.eya (Ka.lex.) can.t.ai conflict, quarrel, fight, war (Ta.); can.t.a quarrel (Ma.)(DEDR 2318). Image: quarrel; entanglement: cf. semant. 'quarrel' X 'grove': jhamela_ entanglement, quarrel (N.); wrangling (H.); jhamat.u grove of trees (S.); jhamaku entangling of branches (S.)(CDIAL 5340). ?caccat.i crowding, thronging of people (J.)(Ta.); cantat.i bustle, stir, clamour, uproar, tumult; dense crowd of people (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 20); sandad.i id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. s.an.d.a, s'an.d.ha, s.an.d.ha a multitude; a place where two things are joined into one; two trees being joined; a thicket, a wood (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) se_na much (Kond.a); he_ni many (Pe.); sa_na a lot (?Te.)(DEDR 2824). sa_ne = s'a_ne (Tadbhava of se_ne) an army; a great many (Ka.); ce_n-ai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) se_ne, se_na_, s'a_ne, sa_ne a host, an army, an armed force (Ka.); s'a_ne (tadbhava of se_ne) much, many (Ka.); se_na_n:ga a component part of an army; se_na_dhipati the leader of an army, a general; se_na_ni the leader of an army, a commander, a general; Skanda, the god of war; se_na_pati an army-chief, a general (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) se_na_ army (RV.Pali); sen.a (Dhp.); sena (KharI.OAw.); sen.a_ (Pkt.); si_ (Sh.); si_na (K.); sen (H.Si.)(CDIAL 13587). s're_n.i_ line, row, troop (RV. metr. often s'rayan.i); se_n.i guild, division of army (Pali); collection (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12718). se_na_n:ga component part of an army (VarBr.S.); senan:ga, senaga multitude, army (Si.)(CDIAL 13588). [cf. Pali lex. (Rhys Davids): sen.i (Classical Skt. s'ren.i in meaning 'guild'; vedic = row); a guild; their number was eighteen; -pamukha the head of a guild; a division of an army sen.imokkha the chief of an army (Pali); sena_ (vedic sena_ perhaps from si to bind); an army; -gutta a high official, a minister of war, only in cmpd. maha_-na_yaka a general; -pacca the position as general; -pati a general; -patika a general; -byu_ha massing of troops, grouping and fitting up an army.] se_na_pati leader of an army (AitBr.); general (Pali); se_na_patika (Pali); se_n.a_vai (Pkt.); s'en.vai_, s'en.vi_, s'en.ai a class of Brahmans (M.); s'en.vi (Konkan.i); senevi general (Si.)(CDIAL 13589). ce_n-ai-k- kut.aiya_r, ce_n-ai-t-talaivar commander, leader of an army; chief of Vis.n.u's hosts; men of Kaikko_l.ar caste (cf. ce_n-ai-mutaliya_r, ce_n-aiyar-ko_n-); men of ilai-va_n.ikar caste; ce_n-ai-t-talaivar commander (Na_lat.i,2); ce_n-a_varaiyan, ce_n-atipan-, ce_n-a_pati general, commander of an army (Tiv. Iyar-.4,24); ce_n-a_tira_yan- Skanda; ce_n-a_-camuttiram army, vast as an ocean; immense crowd; ce_n-a_n:kam component division of an army; ce_n-a_-mukam front army (Cilap. 25,192); division of an army comprising 3 chariots, 3 elephants, 9 horses and 15 foot-soldiers; ce_n-ai army comprising four-fold divisions: ya_n-ai (-c-ce_n-ai), te_r (-c-ce_n-ai), pari (-c-ce_n-ai), ka_la_l. (-ce_n-ai); [cf. sena_ an army described as consisting of hatthi_ (elephant), assa_ (horse), ratha_ (chariot), patti_ (foot-soldier)(Pali.lex.)] ce_n-ai-p-peruva_n.ikan- chief purveyor of an army (Perun.. Ucaik. 40,344); ce_n-a_varaci wife of a commander-in-chief; ce_n-a_pattiyam office of a commander, commandership (Ta.lex.) sainya belonging to an army; soldier; army (MBh.); sainika id. (MBh.); sem.niga (NiDoc.); se_n.iga (Pkt.); xena_ soldier (A.); sena, sena_ (Or.); sena_ general, official who collects revenue in a village (H.); sen.n.a, sin.n.a army (Pkt.); sen (G.); se_niya soldier (Pali); seniya, seni (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 13602). cf. cayam triumph, victory (Tiruva_ca. 2,58); sun; collection, assembly (Ta.lex.) jaya victory (AV.Pali.Pkt.); jau (Ku.); diya (Si.)(CDIAL 5141). Chief army astrologer: ce_n-ai-p-perun:kan.i chief astrologer attached to an army (ce_n-ai-p-perun:kan.i ceppiya nan-n-a_l.)(Perun.. Makata. 22,185); ce_n-ai-k-kan.imakan- astrologer attached to an army (Perun.. Ucaik. 36,199)(Ta.lex.) Royal army herald: ce_n-ai-y-ul. pat.unan- royal herald who proclaims with a trumpet the king's commands to his army (Cilap. 8,13, Urai)(Ta.lex.) General of an army: a_r..i-tot.t.a_n- General of an army, as one wearing ena_ti-mo_tiram (Ci_vaka. 2167); e_n-a_ti < prob. se_na_di an ancient title conferred by a king on his minister (Man.i. 22, 205); general; soldier, warrior; ca_n.an- warrior, as having scar, ca_n.am (Tamir..na_. 107)(Ta.lex.) se_na_ army (Pali.); sena id. (.OAw.); si_na id. (K.); sen id. (H.Si.)(CDIAL 13587). se_na_n:ga component part of an army (VarBr.S.); senan:ga, senaga multitude, army (Si.)(CDIAL 13588). senevi general (Si.); se_na_pati leader of an army (AitBr.); general (Pali); se_n.a_vai (Pkt.); (CDIAL 13589) cf. se_na_ army (RV.)(CDIAL 13587). < s're_n.i line, row, troop (RV.) (CDIAL 12718). cf. semant. se_d.hi_ line, row (Pkt.); he_r ladder (K.)(CDIAL 12724). sainya belonging to an army; soldier, army (MBh.); sainika id. (MBh.); sem.niga (NiDoc.); se_n.iga (Pkt.); xena_ soldier (A.); sena, sena_ (Or.); sena_ general, official who collects revenue in a village (H.); sen.n.a, sin.n.a army (Pkt.); sen (G.); se_niya soldier (Pali); seniya, seni (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 13602).

3435.Exudation: cina, cuna juice as of mango stalk after the fruit is broken off (Ma.); sona juice that exudes from plants (Te.); cunekka to ooze out, be acrid (Ma.); tun., tune, sune gummy juice exuding from the stalk etc. of certain fruits (Tu.)(DEDR 2717). cf. ken mo, moe xen, ee xen thick buttermilk, thick mass of buttermilk (To.); kene cream of milk (Ka.)(DEDR 1987). cf. ken densely (of shade)(To.); kan-a to be heavy; kan-am thickness (Ta.)(DEDR 1404). cyo_tati flows, tickles, oozes, causes to stream forth (Skt.); covan. to milk (L.); con.a_ to leak, milk, extract milk from a plant (P.); cuai drips (Pkt.); culav (Gypsy); cuan.u to leak, ooze (S.); cu_n.o to leak (Ku.); cuhunu (N.); cuya_, cu~ya_ (B.); cuiba_, cui~ba_ to drip, ooze, leak (Or.); cual (Bhoj.); cuval (OAw.); cu_na_ to drip, leak, drop (as ripe fruit)(H.); cuvu~ to drop, leak (G.)(CDIAL 4948). cona_ urine (esp. of cattle)(B.); cona_ exit for juice in sugar mill (Bi.)(CDIAL 4949). cf. sen land irrigated by percolation from underneath (L.)(CDIAL 13582). cf. jir gum, any adhesive (Ko.); jerre_ gum, resin (Kur.)(DEDR 2556). cure birdlime, gum (Malt.); curra_ vegetal sugar, sweet juice which drops from mango flowers or from the new leaves of sa_l tree (Kur.)(DEDR 2711). cf. ceruku sugarcane (Ka.)(DEDR 2795). cf. cut.t.i-c-cun.n.am perfume (Ta.lex.) cf. cu_rn.am powder (Skt.lex.) To exude: sandati, (sedo) muccati v.i., sandita pp.; muttaseda exude (Pali.lex.) seda sweat; sedan. moceti; sedo muccati to sweat; mocitaseda, muttaseda pp.; sedatinta sweaty; sedakilinnatta sweatiness (Pali.lex.) cf. sa_dik smearing (Tu.); ca~_du to rub into a paste; ca_tu-pad.i sandal paste (Te.); candana sandal (tree, wood, paste)(Skt.); candanamu (Te.); todon.m (To.); sa_tana a kind of sandal (Skt.)(DEDR 2448). Image: menstrual discharge: ca_n.t.u menstrual discharge (Ta.); semen (Ma.); sa~_d.u id. (Te.); sa_n.d.(u) the fluid ejection from the female or the male genital organ (Kond.a)(DEDR 2447). Fragrance: cente_n- a kind of frankincense, one of six tu_pa varkkam (Ci_vaka. 534, Urai.); te_n- fragrance, odour (Cu_l.a_. Kumara. 17); sweet juice (Kampara_. Na_t.. 9)(Ta.lex.) je_n, je_, je_nu, te_nu honey; je_n-ney honey-ghee, i.e. honey; te_n (Ta.Ma.); junnu, te_ne (Te.); te_n, te_m honey; sweetness; smell; palm juice (Ta.); te_r-al palm-tree juice, nectar (Ma.); te_r-al palm wine; sweetness = tittippu (Ta.); ta_vi fragrance (Te.); jennon.a a bee (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to fall in drops: cin.ukku to yield in small quantities, issue in drops, ooze, drizzle (Ta.); cin.ukku-cin.ukk-en-al onom. expr. of issuing in drops; cin.un:ku to drizzle (Ta.); jinugu, jinun:gu to rain slightly, drizzle (Ka.); cinan.n.uka id. (Ma.); jinigisu to liquefy (Ka.); cinuku a drop, a thin or drizzling rain; vb. to fall in drops (Te.); cinkip to drip (Pa.); sinkul raindrops (Ga.)(DEDR 2520). s'i_yate_ falls (AV.); s'ijoiki, 3 sg. s'i_jei to fall, (flowers, leaves, etc.), to be shed (Sh.); s'ioiki to let fall (Sh.); s'i~_n.u, pp. s'i_o to fall (of snow)((WPah.); senava_, henava_ to fall; sena falling (Si.); si_na fallen off, destroyed (Pali); sinu corpse (N.); s'i_n. exhaustion (M.); hun.u fallen (Si.)(CDIAL 12494). Rotten: s'i_rn.a broken (S'Br.); fallen out (MBh.); withered, rotten (Mn.); sin.n.a decayed (Pkt.); si_na fallen off, destroyed (Pali)(CDIAL 12496). canxna_ to turn stale (of cooked things, meat or vegetables), turn mouldy (as bread)(Kur.); cange to be or become rotten (of cooked food); cangro rotten (Malt.)(DEDR 2424).

3436.Irrigation by percolation: sen land irrigated by percolation from underneath (L.)(CDIAL 13582). seba_ moisture by percolation, cultivation in ground so watered (L.); sebba_, seba_ irrigation by percolation (P.)(CDIAL 13584). Land irrigated by water-lift: seo land irrigated directly by water-lift; si_u_ inundation from canal or river; se_ wet (L.)(CDIAL 13580). Baling out; sprinkling: se_cana effusion, sprinkling (Sus'r.); bucket (Skt.); se_canaka shower-bath (S_rn:gS.); se_canaka adj. sprinkling (Pali); se_an.a sprinkling (Pkt.); se_an.aya one who waters (Pkt.); siuni bucket for throwing water (B.); sen.a_ bamboo basket for raising water (Or.); sevana water bucket (Si.)(CDIAL 13582). Jug, jar: syo_ jug, jar (Kt.); s'u_ bucket (Pr.); se_ka pouring out (RV.); sprinkling (MBh.Pali); se_a id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13580). Baling vessel: se_cayati causes to pour out, sprinkles (MBh.); se_ce_ti causes to be sprinkled (Pali); se_ai sprinkles (Pkt.); se_am.ta pres. part. (Pkt.); xeo~t, xeo~ta_ scoop, baling vessel (A.); se~uti baling basket (B.); sevan. to moisten; seun. (L.); seun.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 13583). Falling down: cyuti falling down (Gaut.); cuti vanishing, passing away (Pali); cui death (Pkt.); siyu decease (Si.)(CDIAL 4945). cya_vana in cmpds. 'causing to fall (MBh.); expulsion (Skt.); cyu move (Skt.); ca_vana_ moving away (Pali); cauna_ the place where men emptying buckets at an irrigation well stand (H.)(CDIAL 4940). Cultivation: cf. se_dya cultivation, farming (Ka.); se_dyamu id. (Te.)(DEDR 2811). se_vita cultivated (Skt.); se_vayati tends (plants)(Skt.); se_vita served (MBh.Pali); fostered (Skt.); se_via served (Pkt.); sivi tame, domesticated (K.)(CDIAL 13597). cf. se_de fatigue, weariness, distress (Ka.); se_da, s'a_da fatigue, weariness (Te.); seda- sweat (Pali)(DEDR 2810). Plot of ground: ce_ttu field, plot of ground (Ta.); cf. khetta (Pkt.); ks.e_tra (Skt.); ce_takam < s'a_da mud, slush (Kampara_. Varaik-ka_t.ci. 56); ce_r-u mud, mire, sluch, loam (Pur-ana_. 249); id. (Ma.); kesar-u id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Ground, earth: xe_xel ground, earth we tread on, soil, floor (Kur.); qqlu the earth, the world, land (Malt.)(DEDR 1993). kai-val.am fertility, luxuriance, richness of soil; kai-val.arttal to be carefully tended (Kampara_. Ko_lan.. 18); kai-va_y-k-ka_l small channel branching out from the main one (Tol. Po. 1, Il.ampu_ra.) (Ta.lex.) kaiva_ram equal division of crop; kai-vitai cultivation without the process of transplantation; kaivitaippu sowing in dry earth (Ta.lex.) [cf. nan-ai to become wet (Ta.); nan--cey wet lands, wet cultivation (Ta.); nanja wet land, land cultivated by artificial irrigation (Te.); nenja watering (Kui); nan-ye cold season (?Malt.)(DEDR 3630)]. Wet, moist: se~ta_, se~t-se~tiya_, se~ta_niya_ damp, moist (B.); se~ta_na moistened; sa~_ta_na to be wet (B.); santia_ wet; santa_iba_, santeiba_ to be wet (Or.)(CDIAL 12891). sindo wet (Phal.); stimita wet (Nais..)(CDIAL 13693). sti_myati is wet (Dha_tup.); thim drop (L.); them, the~b (M.)(CDIAL 13696). cf. te_ma wet (Te.lex.) Irrigation: cu_a_ irrigation (L.)(CDIAL 4946). cyo_ta oozing, sprinkling (Skt.); coi_ weir (for catching fish)(S.); co_ha_ spring; cohr.a_ giving little water (L.); co_a_ spring water (L.); co rivulet; coa_ trickle down a rock, water oozing from a hole (P.); coi_ small stream, defile; co spring (P.); coya_ a sprinkling or spilling (of water, etc.)(B.)(CDIAL 4947). coi_ produce of dairy (S.)(CDIAL 4950). d.on.e a small natural pond in rocks; a hollow, a hole; d.on.egan.n.u a sunken eye; d.on.e po_gu to get holes (Ka.lex.) cf. dro_n.i the valley or chasm between two mountains; an oval vessel of wood (Skt.lex.) Image: pit for the cogwheel of a waterwheel: cui_ pit in which cogwheel of a waterwheel works (S.)(CDIAL 4945). cf. turavu sultan-well, large well for irrigation purposes (S.I.I. ii,509); id. (Ma.); doruvu id. (Te.); turavu well made by excavating sand, unwalled well (Ta.lex.) Well; reservoir: curi_ small well or reservoir near a well (Skt.); cura_ small hollow (L.); cur hole in the ground for fire (P.); curi small well (B.); curi_ (H.); cara, cari_ ditch; caro cavity, pit (S.); carhu_ hole in ground for fire (P.); car trench, trench for fire (G.); car moat; cari_ trench (M.); ca_ri_ long trench for fire (G.); car sandbank (H.)(CDIAL 4873). cu_ hole (Wg.); su_ra (Av.); su_ra_x (Pers.); su_rai (Psht.); s'vabhra (Skt.)(CDIAL 12570). Well; reservoir: cun.t.i_, cun.t.ika_ small well (Sus'r.); cun.t.a_, cun.d.hi_, cun.d.ya, cu_d.a_, cu_d.aka, cu_taka small well (Skt.)(CDIAL 4873). To ooze; mountain spring; rock water; weir: cin-aiya_r-u pat.ukai oozing of water in a river-bed indicative of the coming freshet (I_t.u, 1,6,2, s'ri_.)(Ta.lex.) cun-ai mountain pool or spring, tank, reservoir, pasture ground with tanks and shady trees; cun-aivu rock water (Ta.); sonp swampy place where water stands (To.); d.on.e, don.e a small natural pond in rocks, a hollow, a hole (Ka.); dona a pool on a hill (Te.); cun.d.hi small pond (Skt.); cun.d.hi_ natural pool (Pkt.); son.d.i_ a natural tank in a rock (Pali); cun.t.i well (Skt.)(DEDR 2716). ucnik spring (Shum.); uhani a place with many springs (A.); uncar.ek spring (Pas'.); utsadhi receptacle of a spring (RV.)(CDIAL 1872). cf. tsa spring of water (RV.); utsya, utsi_ya coming from a spring (of water) (AV.); u_c spring (Wg.); unco (Kt.); u_c (Dm.Phal.Bshk.); u~_c, wu~_c (Gaw.); uc (Kal.Kho.Pas'.); u_ic (Pas'.); u~c (Sh.); uh (A.); ucha (Or.)(CDIAL 1869). u_e~r, u_;in. dam, dyke (Wg.)(CDIAL 1926). utsicati causes to flow over (RV.); ussicati bales out (Pali); ussim.cai irrigates, empties (Pkt.); usuncn.u_ to throw out water from a pool (WPah.); usewna_ to pour off (H.)(CDIAL 1883). Irrigated field; field for shifting cultivation: kay, key, key(y)i field (Ka.); kaitai paddy field (Ta.); cey field, esp. wet field (Ta.); ceyi rice-field (Ma.); kette wet mud, mire (Kod..); ce_nu (pl. ce_lu) field; (inscr.) kayya a rice-field (Te.); kaili field (Te.); ke_n id. (Kol.); field for shifting cultivation (Pa.); ken. id. (Kol.)[cf. ken a kind of pulse, cajanus indicus (Kond.a.Pe.); ka_'anga_ (Kui); kha_na raher (dhal)(Kuwi)(DEDR 1934)]; xajj earth, mould, clay, mud, corpse (Kur.); qaju earth, mud (Malt.)(DEDR 1958). nan--cey wet lands, wet cultivation (Ta.); nan-ai to become wet, be moistened, soaked (Ta.); nanja wet land, land cultivated by artificial cultivation (Te.); nenja watering (Kui)(DEDR 3630).

3437.Part of the whole: cin-aippeyar noun denoting part of the whole as kan. (eye)(Nan-. 132); name formed from noun denoting part of the whole as kan.n.an- (Nan-. 281); cin-ai member, component part (Tiva_.); cin-aiya_kupeyar (Gram.) synecdoche in which part is put for the whole (Nan-. 290, Urai.); cin-ai < jena (Te.) embryo or foetus of animals (Paripa_. 7,38); branch of a tree (Pur-ana_. 11,4); cin-ai-vin-ai (Gram.) verb relating to part of the whole, dist. fr. mutal-vin-ai (Pur-ana_. 9, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cen-u < janus birth place (Pa_rata. Patin-o. 37)(Ta.lex.)

3438.Daily expenditure: cen-n-at.ai (cel + nat.ai) daily expenditure in temple service (TAS. II, 1,23)(Ta.lex.)

3439.Image: a bird: cen-n-am an aquatic bird (Kampara_. U_rte_. 151)(Ta.lex.)

3440.Eminence: cen-n-i Chola king (CIlap. 7,2, Pak. 205); eminence (Kantapu. Ka_mata. 28); cen-n-i head (Kalit. 81); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

3441.Hempen cloth: ca_n.am article made of fibres (Nan-.266, Mayilai); ca_n.ai, ca_n.ai-c-ci_lai swaddling clothes; ca_n.a-p-pil.l.ai infant in swaddling clothes; ca_n.ai-k-ku_r-ai new clothes given by bridegroom's parents to the infant bride at the time of betrothal in marriage; can.am, can.al sunn-hemp, crotalaria juncea; can.ampu id.: can.ampo_t.u parutti (Ka_cika.Piramaca.14); can.appai, can.appu id., Indian hemp; can.al-valai a hemp net to catch big fishes; can.appana_r, canar-pana_r fibres of flax (Ta.); janapana_ra id. (Te.); can.ar-puri flax cord, hempen rope; can.appan- member of a Telugu caste whose profession was flax dressing (Ta.lex.) son kudrum crotolaria juncea; kudrum the name given to several fibre-yielding plants (Santali.lex.) sa_n.a hemp; sa_n.amaya hempen; sa_n.ipasibbaka hempen sack (Pali.lex.) Crotolaria juncea: sana (Skt.); sunn (H.); shonpat (B.); ghore sun (B.); santag (M.); sannappu (Ta.); janumu (Te.); wuckoo nar (Ma.); seeds: used to purify blood, in impetigo, psoriasis, emmenagogue; cultivated throughout India (GIMP, p.81). Crotalaria mucronata: sen, san (H.); jhunjhunia (Assam); seeds: sometimes used as substitute for coffee; leaves contain an alkali; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.81). cf. masi_n, masi_na_ a vetch, pulse (H.); masi_na_ linseed, linum usitatissimum (Skt.)(CDIAL 9923). s'a_n.a hempen, flaxen (S'r.); s'a_n.i_ hempen cloth (MBh.); sa_n.a hempen (Pali.Pkt.); sa_n.i_ hempen cloth (Pkt.); hempen cloth, screen (Pali); seni curtain (Si.)(CDIAL 12384). s'an.a hemp (AV.Pali.Or.); s.am.n.a (NiDoc.); san.a, sin.a (Pkt.); sin.i_ (S.); sin.i~_ (L.); san. (P.Ku.G.M.); san (N.B.Bi.Mth.H.); xan (A.); chan.a hemp flax (Or.); son (Mth.); sani_ fine hemp (H.); sana, han.a (Si.); chan.i hempen (Or.); san.iyu~ hempen cloth (G.)(CDIAL 12272). sana_t.hi_, sanait.ha_ stalk of hemp (Bi.); sansana_t.hi_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 12273). s'an.asu_tra hempen cord (Gr.S'r.); han.ahu~ hempen string or thread, cord (Si.)(CDIAL 12275). s'an.ika_ crotalaria of various species (Skt.); xani, xeni inner stalk of rice straw (A.)(CDIAL 12276). kin:kin.i, kin:kin.i crotalaria pulcherrima; rattlewort, girdle of small bells (Ta.); gin.igin.ike the plant crotalaria and its various species of which the seeds rattle (Ka.))(DEDR 1545). kin:kin.i_ small bell (MBh.); kin:kan.ika (Pali); ki~kini_ girdle of small bells (H.); kikini id. (Si.)(CDIAL 3152). kin:gari_ indented figure traced on the border of a garment (P.)(CDIAL 3151). ci_n-i false hemp tree, tetrameles nudiflora (Ta.); ci_ni id. (Ma.)(DEDR 2641). Nettle: jhu_n.i_ nettle (Phal.); jot string of nettle fibre (N.)(CDIAL 10519). yu_na band, cord (Ka_tyS'r.); ju_n.a a kind of reed (Or.); ju_na_, junna_ grass-rope (Bi.); junna_ (Mth.); ju_na_ (H.); juinu rope for binding sheaves (N.); juina_ grass-rope (OH.)(CDIAL 10518). cf. ka_con-r-i climbing nettle, tragia involucrata (Ta.)(DEDR 1435). Sack; covered with a woollen rug: go_n.a-sam.thata covered with a woollen rug (Pali); go_n.aka woollen rug with a long fleece (Pali); goni sack (NiDoc.); go_ni bag, purse; gono sack (Gy.); go~_ carpet (Ash.); groi~, gre~_ (Wg.); gu_ni (Dm.); Saddlebag: go_ni_ saddlebag (Pas'.); guna pair of large saddlebags usually of goat's hair for carrying grain (K.); gun.i_ coarse sackcloth (S.); gu~_n.i~_ sack (L.); gu_n. hair cloth, hempen sacking (P.); gu_n.i_ sack (P.); gun sacking (B.); gon.i_ sackcloth (Or.Ma.); sack, corn measure, ragged garment (Or.); gon grain sack (Bi.); sack (H.); gu_n.i sacking, sack (G.); gon. sack (M.); gon.a large grain sack (Ma.)(CDIAL 4275). ko_n.i, ko_n.ikai, ko_n.iyal sacks made of jute fibre, gunny bag (Ta.); ko_n.i gunny bag (Ma.); gon.y in tingon.y bag in which old coins are put for use at funerals (To.); go_n.i sack (Ka.); gunny bag (Tu.); coarse sackcloth (Te.); go_niya, go_ne sack, gunny bag (Te.)(DEDR App.33). Mail armour: koja mail armour = kavaca; kojava a rug or cover with long hair, a fleecy counterpane (pa_va_ra-kojava); gon.aka is explained as: di_gha-lomaka maha_kojava (Pali.lex.)

3442.Images: leaf; tender shoot; shoot of betel vines: kan.n.i sprout, shoot, tender leaf (Ta.); shoot of betel vines, palm leaves (Ma.)(DEDR 1185). kail sprout, shoot (H.); kari_ra shoot of bamboo (Sus'r.); karir tender shoot of bamboo (B.); kal.i_ra top of coconut palm eaten as a vegetable (Pali); karira, karir.a, karar.i, kard.i_ bamboo shoot (Or.); kari_l, karil, kair, kalla_ bamboo shoot (H.)(CDIAL 2804). kari_ram sprout, shoot; shoot of the bamboo (Tailava. Taila. 35)(Ta.lex.) cf. katir ear of grain, spear of grass (Ta.); ear, spike of corn (Ma.)(DEDR 1194).

3443.Image: ear of corn: s'en (pl. s'enkul) head of jowar (Nk.); cennu, sen ear of corn or paddy (Ga.); sen:k corn (pl.)(Go.); san head of jowar (Go.); hennu ear of wheat or jowari (Go.); e_n-al ear of corn (Ta.); ennu, vennu id. (Te.); enn(i) head of grain (Go.); en ear of corn (Go.); ser-en (pl. ser-eku) ear of corn (Kond.a); canu pod (Malt.)(DEDR 2798). Head of paddy: han head of paddy (Go.); hessu cannu head of rice (Kur.); s'en head of paddy (Go.); cen head of paddy (Kol.Pe.)(DEDR 2798). cinekka to branch out, rice to sprout (Ma.)(DEDR 2592). Millet: c.i_n. millet harvest; a kind of millet (Sh.); cena_ panicum miliaceum (H.); ci_na panicum miliaceum (Skt.); ci_naka id. (Skt.); a kind of bean (Pali); ci_n.aka a partic. grain (Skt.); ci_na_ka fennel (Skt.); cinna, cinnaka panicum miliaceum (BHSk.); ci_n.o the millet panicum italicum (S.); ci_n.a~_ p. miliaceum (L.); ci_n.a_ (P.); cin.a_ (Ku.); ci_na_ (B.H.); panicum frumentosum (P.); ci_nh, cinna_ id. (P.); ci_n p. italicum, panicum frumentosum (Mth.); a kind of grain (Bhoj.); cinei a kind of minute grain (WPah.); cina_ millet (Or.); cin panicum miliaceum (P.); cin. a grain like wheat but bigger (Kho.)(CDIAL 4842). tin-ai Italian millet, setaria italica; wild Bermuda grass, panicum burmanni; little millet (= ca_mai); paddy-field grass, p. fluitans (Ta.); tina p.italicum (Ma.); ten ear (of any grain) (Ko.); tene a spike, ear of corn; tene-gid.a Italian millet, p.italicum [s.italica = p.italicum](Ka.)(DEDR 3265). cin-ai bud, branch out on all sides; n. embryo, foetus, flower bud, branch of a tree (Ta.); canaccam smaller branch of a tree or antler; cina branching out as an ear of corn; jane yoke of an egg (Ka.); jena id. (Te.)(DEDR 2592). Rice: jengene, jingini a long-grained variety of rice, the earliest among the kinds sown in caor.a fields (Mu.); jengne (Sadani)(Mu.lex.) Maize: jond.ra, jonra maize or Indian corn; gur.u'u jonra id. which ripens with panicum miliare; gor.a jonra which ripens with rice of the high fields; locon jonra which ripens with the rice of the low fields; jond.ra-coka, jonra-coka the sheathing leaf of the fruiting spike of maize; koca id. (Mu.); jawa_ra_ maize (H.)(Mu.lex.)

3444.Image: back: jen back (Pe.); je_nu, je~_o (loc. je_co) id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2825). cf. cer-na_ to raise a burden to one's shoulders (Kur.); ced.e to convey, carry (Malt.)(DEDR 2762).

3445.Acquaintance: can-u favourite, acquaintane (Kumare_ca. Cata. 60)(Ta.); tcanuvu (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

3446.Silver box containing a charm: cajjai silver box containing the S'iva lin:ga, suspended from the neck by Lin:ga_yats (Ta.); sejje (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ?seza_ri neighbour, i.e. living close (Kon.lex.)

3447.Image: pregnancy: cana pregnancy; canekka animals to conceive (Ma.); jane yoke of egg (Ka.); cin-ai embryo, foetus, pregnancy (Paripa_. 7,38); spawn, eggs, member, component part (Ta.lex.); branch of a tree (Pur-ana_. 11,4); tane, tene embryo of beasts, pregnancy (Ka.); tan, san conceiving, breeding as cattle, sheep, etc. (Tu.); taneyuni cattle or animals to be big with young (Tu.); jena yolk of an egg (Te.)(DEDR 2592). cin-ai (-pp-, -tt-) to form, rise, come into being (Kur-al., 1203); be impregnated (Ta.lex.) janyate_ is born (Pa_n..); jan to be born, bears (Gypsy); dn having been born (OSi.)(CDIAL 5117). ja_ne_ti begets (Pali); jan- to bear (Kho.)(CDIAL 5192). Person: jana race, person (RV.); person, people (Pali); jan.a (KharI.); jan.a person (Pkt.); jeno person (also used as numerative) (Gypsy); jan.a_ person, husband (S.); jana_ use in plural as numerartive: persons (N.); person (B.); zan person (A.); zana_ respectable person (A.); jan.a plural affix (OB.); jan person, labourer (B.); jan.a, jan.e person (Or.); jan person, agricultural labourer paid in kind (Bi.); jan, jana_ person, labourer (Mth.); jan person (Bhoj.); jan.o (Marw.); jan. (G.M.); jan.a, zan. (Konkan.i); dana_ (Si.); dena (OSi.10th century)(CDIAL 5098). janapada a people (S'Br.); country (MBh.); inhabited country (opp. to town)(Pali); jan.avaya (Pkt.); ja_napadasa living in the country (As'.); janapade (As'.); danavuva inhabited district (Si.)(CDIAL 5101). can-am people, community (Ci_vaka. 116); relations, one's own people; crowd, herd (Pa_rata. Campava. 47); can-a-pati king, emperor (Kalin.. 361); can-a-k-kat.t.u family circle (Ta.lex.) Living being: jantu offspring, creature, man (RV.); any animal of lowest order, insect, worm (Mn.); living being (Pali); jam.tu (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5110). To grow up: cand- to grow up; candip- (candit-) to make to grow up, bring up, rear (Pa.); sand- to grow; sandup- (sandut-) to make to grow; sand- to grow (plants, etc.)(Ga.)(DEDR 2329). jama_ra age, length of life (S.); jama_ra birth, life (OG.)(CDIAL 5111). janmada progenitor (Skt.); jama_n birth (Pas'.)(CDIAL 5112). can-mam birth (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,10,1)(Ta.lex.) janman birth, creature (RV.); zama_n (Wkh.); za_men (Psht.); jamman, jammana birth (Pali); janma, gen. janmas-a (NiDoc.); jamma, jamman.a (Pkt.); jamu birth, age (S.); jam birth (L.); jamm birth, offspring, growth (P.); ja_ma birth (OB.); ja_m son, seed (H.); anja_ma_ barren; jamr.a_ father; jamr.i_ mother (H.); jammai is born (Pkt.); jaman.u to be born, take root (S.); jamman., jaman. to be born, grow (L.); jaman.a_ birth (L.); jammn.a_ to be born, to come into existence, grow; to bear; jama_un.a_ to act as midwife (P.); jamn.a_ to be born, bear; jakn.o~_ to grow (WPah.); ja_mn.o to germinate (Ku.); ja_mai to grow (Bhoj.); ja_mna_ to germinate, sprout (H.); jama_na_ to plant (a tree, etc.)(H.)(CDIAL 5113). jammia born (Pkt.); jammi_ born, flourishing (P.)(CDIAL 5115). Progeny: can-akan- father, progenitor (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Kavur-can-. 84); can-a-k-kat.t.u family circle; family tie; unity among the people (Ta.lex.) janana birth (Mn.); jan.an.a (Pkt.); janani family, race (B.); dananaya birth, production (Si.)(CDIAL 5099). janani_ mother (S'a_n:khS'r.Pali); jan.an.i_ (Pkt.); jan.n.i_ (P.)(CDIAL 5100). janitri_ mother (RV.); janetti_ mother (Pali); jan.ti_ (G.); dinitiya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 5106). janita born (Skt.Pali); jan.ia (Pkt.); dini, dunu (Si.)(CDIAL 5104). janitra origin, birthplace (RV.); procreative matter (VS.); pl. parents (AitBr.); [cf. ca_n.t.u semen (Ma.); menstrual discharge (Ta.)(DEDR 2447)]; janitta birthplace (Pali); jan.tar giving birth, infant (G.); zotr kinsman, friend (Kt.); za_te (Pr.)(CDIAL 5105). janayati causes to be born (AV.); begets (S'Br.); janati begets (RV.); jane_ti bears (a child)(Pali); jan.e_i, jan.ai (Pkt.); jan.an.u (S.); jan.an. to bear (a child), to foal (L.); jan.na_ to give birth to (P.); janna_ to bear, be born (H.); jan.vu~ to bear (G.); jan.a_inu to cause to bring forth (S.); jana_un.a_ to deliver a child (P.); jana_na_ (H.); jan.a_vvu~ (G.); danavanava_ to produce (Si.)(CDIAL 5102). janiman birth (RV.); dinim birh (Si.)(CDIAL 5107). janus birth, race (RV.); dunu_ (OSi.); dunu birth, origin (Si.); junn relation (Wg.)(CDIAL 5108). jama_ndru_, jama~_dru_ congenital (L.); janma_ntara former life (MBh.); jama_ndaru_ natal; adv. from birth (P.)(CDIAL 5114). ja_tya of the same family (S'Br.); of good family (R.); ja_ti_ya in cmpds. of the race of (Ka_tyS'r.); jacca in cmpds. of the family of (Pali); of good birth, best, beaitiful (Pkt.); jai good, in good health (Wg.); an-ja_i_ hybrid (of animals)(H.); -da_ being of the rank of (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 5190). ja_ti birth (AitBr.); position fixed by birth (Mn.); birth (Pali); jati, jadi (KharI.); ja_i (Pkt.); za_y birth, festival at a birth (K.); jay birth (OSi.); da_ births, sorts, kinds (Si.); ja_ti kind (Ka_tyS'r.); dayak thing, matter (Si.)(CDIAL 5185). ja_ta born; son (RV.); born (Pali); ja_taka son (Pali); ja_te was born (As'.); ja_ta disposition (As'.); -ja_ in family names, e.g. Basuja_ (B.); ja_ya_-jama~_ birth-place (P.); ja_ya_ born (H.); ja_yu~ born (G.); ja_la_ pp. of verb 'to be', jaha_la, ja_hala_ (OM.); jha_la_ (M.); da_ born, son (Si.); da_va pret. of dananava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 5182). ca_ti birth (Tol. Po. 307, Urai); kind, class, species; that which is superior, genuine; group, multitude; ca_ti-kulam high caste; ca_ti-c-carakku article of good quality, genuine article; ca_ti-p-pan-mai plural number denoting the entire genus or class (Ci_vaka.901,urai); ca_ti-p-pil.l.ai Pal.l.ars, as 'servants of the caste' (G.Sm.D.I,i,187); servile caste attached to a particular community (Ta.lex.)

3448.Image: hill, hill pasture: sa_nu, inst. snuna_ mountain top, ridge (RV.); sa_nu mountain ridge (Pali); sa_n.u (Pkt.); so~ hill pasture (Kt.); sa~_ (Wg.); san hill (Dm.); sun high hill, hill pasture (Kal.)(CDIAL 13340). sa_niwa_r dark clouds (Dm.); sa_nuwa_r (Phal.)(CDIAL 13341). ?cf. ca_ral drizzling rain from clouds gathering on hill-tops; mountain; ca_rar--kat.t.u gathering of clouds over the hills during the monsoon (Kon.t.al vit.u. 651)(Ta.lex.)

3449.Climber of date-palm; mountaineer; toddy-drawer: ce_nti < se_ndi_ < s'un.d.a_ toddy (Ta.); s'e_ndi (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) ce_n.o_n- mountaineer (Maturaik. 294)(Ta.lex.) ca_n.a_n, ca_nna_n a caste of palmyra cultivators in Travancore (Ma.); ca_n.an- member of the Sha_n.a_r caste whose occupation is toddy drawing; ca_n-r-a_r Sha_n.a_rs (Ta.)(DEDR 2446). cf. e_n-a_ti name of a division among sha_n.a_ns (whose occupation is toddy-drawing)(Tj.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ti_yan, ti_van the caste of the palm-cultivators, toddy-drawers, sugar-makers etc. (Ma.)(DEDR 3277). cf. ti_rre sweet (Kol.); tiren id. (Ga.)(DEDR 3254). cf. ti_m sweet (Ta.); semba sweetness (Kui); henu id. (Kuwi); ti_nna_ to have a sweet taste, be a relish for, please (Kur.); ti_yana sweet (Te.)(DEDR 3268). cad.ai rises, sits on; caus. cad.a_ve_i, chad.ai rises, mounts (Pkt.); carun to increase (K.); car.han.u to rise, mount (S.); car.han. (L.); car.hn.a_ (P.); car.hn.o (Ku.); car.nu, caus. car.a_unu (N.); sariba to mount, increase, surpass (A.); sara_iba to put on, clothe (A.); car.a_ to mount, increase (B.); car.hiba_ to climb (Or.); car.hab to rise, mount, sit (Mth.); car.hal to rise (Bhoj.); cad.hai rises, attacks (OAw.); caus. cad.ha_vai raises, offers (OAw.); car.hna_ to climb (H.); caus. car.ha_na_ (H.); car.hn.o (Marw.); cad.hvu~, car.vu~ (G.); caus. cad.ha_vvu~, car.a_vvu~ (G.); cad.hn.e~, caus. cad.havin.e~ (M.); cad.ta_ (Konkan.i); sd.a, snd.a a climb (Si.); ca_run to pick up, collect (K.); ca_r.han.u to lift (S.); ca_r.han., ca_r.un. (L.); ca_r.hn.a_ (P.); ca_hr.n.a_ (WPah.); ca_r.ho climber (S.); ca_r.ha climber of a date-palm (L.); ca_r. a pushing up (B.); ca_r.a_ prop (B.); ca_r.i_ punting pole, lever (B.)(CDIAL 4578). ?To surpass: kat.a to excel (Ta.); kat.akka to surpass (Ma.); kad.apuni to cross, surpass (Tu.); kad.acu, gad.acu, gad.ucu to exceed, cross (Te.); kat.t.na_ to surpass, go to excess, overtake and go beyond, pass over or above, to cross (Kur.); kat.p exceedingly, much, very (Malt.)(DEDR 1109).

3450.Founder of a race; first-born: ce_n-an-, ce_n- an ancient title (Te_va_. 859,4) (Ta.lex.) Indra: ce_n.iyan- Indra (ce_n.iyan-u man-r-e_ terintu)(Tan-ippa_,i,60,120); ce_n. height, loftiness; sky (Kampara_. Cu_rppan.akai. 20); heaven (Kantapu. Tirunakara. 105); ce_n.am heaven (Te_va_. 857,4); ce_n.a_t.u heaven (Ta.lex.) ce_n.iyar a class of celestials (Ce_tupu. Ve_ta_l.a. 14)(Ta.lex.) indra the god Indra (RV.); inda (Pali); im.da (Pkt.); i~_dr name of a god (Kt.); indr (Pr.); in, gen. indras (Kal.); i~d.ra-lat.hi rainbow (S.); i~_da (OMarw.); indu (Si.)(CDIAL 1572). im.dajjhaya a large flag (Pkt.); indradhvaja Indra's banner (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 1578). ce_n-an- an ancient title (Te_va_. 859,4)(Ta.lex.) se_na_ni Skanda, the god of war; a general (Ka.lex.) se_na_l old man, senior; fem. se_no_; sena_l (masc.) aged; seno id. (Go.); ser.al (masc.) old; se_r.o old woman; he_nor old, senior; se_no old woman; se_r.o (pl. -sku) id. (Go.); send.a first-born, eldest; send.enju founder of a race, early settler (Kui)(DEDR 2808). X ja_nin having knowledge (Mn.); a_n.in id. (Pali)(CDIAL 5282): saja_n.a clever (Pkt.); sia_n.o (S.); sia_n.a_ sensible, discreet, wise (L.); siya_n.a_ id. (P.); saya_n.o wise, experienced, old (Ku.); siya_na_ adult (N.); xiya_n clever (A.); siya_na_, seya_na (B.); sia_n.a, sia_n.a_, siha_n.a_ (B.); saya_n full-grown (Mth.); saya_na_, siya_na_, seya_na_ intelligent, adult (H.); s'en., s'a_n.u_ wise, discreet, courteous (G.); sia_ni_ clever; pl. si_ni~_ clever (WPah.); saya_ni_ (OAw.)(CDIAL 13088). s're_n.ya *tribesman (nom. prop. BHSkt. ii, 536); s.i_n., pl. s.i_n.i a Shina man; s.in.o f., s.in.i adj. (Sh.)(CDIAL 12719). Revenue officer: se_na an officer who collects the revenue in a village (Ka.); se_na_ (H.); having a lord, possessing a master or leader (Skt.); se_na-bo_va, s'a_nabho_ga, s'a_nabhava, s'a_nabha_ga, s'ya_nabho_ga, sa_naba_ga, sa_nabo_ga the clerk of a village or of some villages, ka_yastha (Ka.); s'a_na_ya the portion of a crop which a s'a_nabho_ga received from villagers as his fees (Ka.lex.) Holy presence: can-n-ati holy presence; can-n-atam-ar..aittal to invoke a deity for inspiration and assistance (J.); can-n-atam temporary possession by a spirit (Tan.t.alai. 34); oracle, utterance of oracles; can-n-iti < san-nidhi nearness, proximity (Pi. Vi. 19, Urai.); presence of a deity, guru or some great person; temple; entrance or advent of divine spirit; temple; can-n-ita_n-am < san-nidha_na presence; sacred presence of a deity; entrance or advent of divine spirit (Civaraka. Paca_cumo_. 11); a term of respect, used in addressing or referring to great personages, especially in mutts; can-n-iro_tan-am circumscribing the divine presence to a particular spot or place (Civaraka. Paca_cumo_. 11); can-n-i-pir-attal < san-ni-pa_ta being in a state of delirium; sanni id. (Ka.); can-n-i-k-ko_t.t.i convulsions (Ta.lex.)

3451.Image: watch: ce_n.o_n- one who keeps watch over a field from a platform on a tree (maramicaic ce_n.a_ n-ir..aitta ... itan.am)(Kuricip. 40)(Ta.lex.) cf. ce_nu (pl. ce_lu) field (Te.); ke_n, ken. id. (Kol.); ke_n id. (Nk.); field for shifting cultivation (Pa.); cey field, esp. wet field (Ta.); ceyi rice-field (Ma.); key, key(y)i, kay field (Ka.)(DEDR 1958). cf. ten-n-u to rise (Ta.)(DEDR 3450). ce_n. height, distance (Ta.); ce_yan-, ce_yo_n- one who is at a distance (Ta.); ce_n. height, breadth, strength (Ma.); ce_m palat. far away (Go.); je_k, je_ka, je_ke far, distant (Go.); seko distant, far, far away (Kui); hekko distant; hego_ far; heggo, heo id.; heotasi a man who is distant; hek, heko far (Kuwi); geccha_ distant, far off (Kur.); gece, geci far (Malt.)(DEDR 2807).

3452.To lie down; to do: ke_ to lie down, to repose; to copulate with (Ka.); ge_ to perform (Ka.); ghe_n.e_m. to do (M.); keyha doing, performing (Ka.); caikai action, performance (Ta.); keyta, kaita, geyta doing, performance ; an act (Ka.); ke_da_t.a copulation (Ka.); key, kay, keyi, gey to perform, to do, to make, to work (Ka.); cey (Te.Ta.Ma.); ce_ (Te.); keyme, kaime, geyme, ge_me doing, performance; work; achievement; dexterity, cleverness (Ka.); kaime power, authority (Ma.); kayamai villainy (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Rest: say to cease, be quieted, be stilled; saytu cessation, ceasing from action, rest, ease, quiet, stillness, silence; saypu cessation, quiet, stillness; saddu (sg.), saddi (pl.) cease! stop! (verb used in the imperative only); sasane, sasine still, uttering no sound, motionless; sa_vagisu to cease, become quiet, still (Ka.); sairu, hairu, tairu, airu to wait, stop, be patient (Tu.)(DEDR 2351). s.u_ rest, repost (Sh.); s.oi near (Kho.); s'raya refuge (Skt.)(CDIAL 12684). s'rayati places (TS.); betakes oneself to (MBh.); s'rayate_ is placed, lies (RV.); caus. s'ra_yayati; ucchra_payati (VS.); sayanava_ to cause to remain, fix on (Si.)(CDIAL 12686a). Lying; bed; cowshed: sena_sana [sayana + a_sana] sleeping and sitting, bed and chair, dwelling, lodging; sena lying, sleeping; couch, bed; seyya_ (Skt. s'ayya_) a bed, couch (Pali.lex.) hayana covered palanquin (Skt.); hayi_n low bed (Bshk.); hai_n chair; hayi_n.i f. small stool (Phal.)(CDIAL 13977). s'a_en cowshed (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12323). s'ayana bed, lying down (S'Br.); s'i_na_ cradle (Par.); sayana, se_na lying down, bed (Pali); sayan.a (Pkt.); sen bedstead (Tir.); s'en (Kal.Tor.); s'e_n (Phal.); s'i_n (Phal.); s'a'n (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12323). e_n.ai cloth-cradle hung from a cross-piece or branch; children's hammock: e_n.ainin- r-et.utta kai-p-pil.l.ai (Arut.pa_, vi. Par-r-utal,2); firmness, stability (Arut.pa_, vi, Apayani. 1)(Ta.lex.) s'a_yayate_ causes to lie, places (R.); sayanava_ to cause to remain, fix on (Si.)(CDIAL 12399). Image: raised seat: an.ai raised seat, couch; cushion, mattress; bed, sleeping place (Ta.lex.) an. upper part (Ta.)(DEDR 110). cf. kalan.ai horse-saddle (Tiruppu. 405); kalan.ai-k-karat.u pommel of a saddle; kalan-ai-va_r girth of a saddle; kalan-ai horse-saddle (Ka_cippu. Nakara. 17) < khali_na (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

3453.Hawk, falcon, eagle: s'ye_na hawk, falcon, eagle (RV.); se_na, se_naka hawk (Pali); se_n.a (Pkt.); s'en. kite (WPah.); xen falcon, hawk (A.); sen.a_ id. (Or.); sen, se~ (H.); s'en, s'eni_ (M.); sen falcon, eagle, kite (Si.)(CDIAL 12674).

3454.Bouquet: cen.d.u cluster of flowers, bouquet (Te.)(DEDR 2766).

3455.Image: Indian fox: cen.d.aka, cen.d.akanari the canis (vulpes) rufescens; cen.d.akin nari the Indian fox, vulpes bengalensis (Ka.lex.)

3456.Five: e_nu five (things)(Te.); ayn five (Go.); se_ngi five (Kui)(DEDR 2826).

3457.A tree: ja_ni-gid.a a small tree, grewia abutilifolia; ja_na grewia asiatica; tad.a-ja_n.a grewia tiliaefolia; kari-ja_n.a, grewia orbiculata (Ka.); ja_n.a a kind of tree; ja_na grewia orbiculata; nalla-ja_na, pedda-ja_na grewia asiatica (Te.)(DEDR 2451). ga_n:ge_ruka grain of the plant uraria lagopodioides; ga_n:ge_ruki_ the plant (Sus'r.); ga_n:ge_ya root of scirpus kysoor or of a cyperus (Sus'r.); gan:ger grewia betulaefolia, sageretia brandrethiana, ehretia aspera, lycium europaeum; ga~geru_, ga~geran urarir lagopodioides (used as a drug), ga~geruwa_ a hill tree with fruit like myrobolans used against phlegm (H.); ga_n.o, ga_n.i_ the shrub and fruit of two species of grewia (S.)(CDIAL 4110).

3458.Adenanthera pavonina: je_ne the tree adenanthera aculeata; je_nehan.n.u (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. maca_t.i red-wood, adenanthera pavonina (Ta.)(DEDR 4636). Adenanthera pavonina: rakta-kambal (B.); thorligunj (M.); barigumchi (H.); anai-kundumani (Ma.); gurivenda (Te.); decoction of leaves: in chronic rheumatism, gout, haematuria; seeds: for boils, inflammation; habitat: eastern sub-Himalayan tract, W. Ghats, Andamans; often planted along roadsides, especially in S. India (GIMP, p.6). cf. gur-guji seed of abrus precatorius (Tu.)(DEDR 1865). cf. guja_ abrus precatorius (Skt.); ghughci_ (H.lex.)

3459.Chick-pea: Cicer arietinum (Ancient Egyptian hrw bik, 'falcon's head'; Coptic eiwriwr or big nebwk 'falcon's eye'; Modern Egyptian Arabic hummus.). "Chick-peas a favourite dish in Egypt today, especially soaked, crushed and mixed with sesame paste and spices. In India they are ground to make gram flour for bread and batters. They were also part of the ancient diet. Tutankhamun (1567-1320 BC) was given a basket of chick-peas to sustain him in the Hereafter... Copts, like Dioscorides believed them to be stimulating for milk production." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.87). Cicer arietinum: chana (H.M.); chola (B.P.); kadalai (Ta.); sanagalu (Te.); chanaka (Skt.); acid exudation: astringent, used in dyspepsia, constipation; largely cultivated in most parts of India (GIMP, p.63). cf. kat.alai Bengal gram, cicer arietinum (Ta.)(DEDR 1120). can.aka cicer arietinum (Car. Su. 27.28, Ci. 3.189). cf. kanti dhal (Ta.); pigeon pea, cajanus indicus; pl. kandulu (Te.); ka_ndula pigeon-pea (Or.)(DEDR 1213).

3460.Frost: s'i_na frozen, congealed (Pa_n..); ice (VS.); si_na congealed (Pali); s'i_n snow, ice (K.); sinu corpse (N.); hi_n snow, ice (Tor.); hi_n. (Mai.); hin (Sh.); s'yai congeal, freeze (Skt.)(CDIAL 12492). ki_ba_ frost, ice (Kur.); kiwe cold, cool; kiw-kiwre to feel cool or cold (Malt.)(DEDR 1618). hi~w snow, hoarfrost, dew (H.); hiv, iv, yiv snow (Gypsy); hi~v, hi~_v cold, ague (M.); i~v cold (Konkan.i); hima cold, frost, snow (RV.); snow, hoarfrost (S.ad.vBr.); hima_ winter (RV.); himika_ hoarfrost (Skt.); hima cold; snow (Pali.Pkt.); zi_m id. (Ash.Kt.Wg.Bashg.); ji_m (Kt.Wg.); zima (Pr.); hi_m, i_m, yi_m (Pas'.); im (Nin:g.); i_m (Wot..Shum.); hi_m (Gaw.); him (Kho.Bshk.Tor.); hi_n (Sh.); hi_n., hi~_ (Mai.); heyo~ (Gau.); hina (Sv.); he_yan winter (Sv.); him (Sh.); himun to become snow (K.); hiu~ snow (P.); heu~, hyu (WPah.); hyu~ (Ku.); hiu~ snow, ice (N.); him hoarfrost, dew (G.); hima frost, cold, dew (Si.)(CDIAL 14096). hent drift of snow in a gorge or ravine; hint drift of snow (L.)(CDIAL 14097). hi~va_l.a_ winter season (M.)(CDIAL 14098). himchari avalanche (Gaw.)(CDIAL 14099). iml, im'l avalanche of snow (Dm.); hima_l (Bshk.Tor.Phal.)(CDIAL 14100). hyu_muna_ snowflakes (Ku.)(CDIAL 14101). himro_t snow water (Kho.)(CDIAL 14102). hi~wa_r, hiwa~_r snow, hoarfrost, dew, great cold (H.)(CDIAL 14103). hima_cala Himalaya (Skt.); hima_yala snow-covered mountain (Pkt.); hima_l lofty snow-covered peak (N.); hima_la (Skt.); hima_l.u~ cold (G.)(CDIAL 14104). hia_n. avalanche (of snow only); hya~_n.oi_ (WPah.); mu great collection of snow, snowdrift, piled up snow on mountainside, avalanche (K.); hima_ni_ mass of snow (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 14105). hima_nta end of the cold season (MBh.); hi~vat, hi~vat-jami_n wild land ploughed up and left unsown till the Rains (M.)(CDIAL 14106). he_man winter (TS.); he_manta winter (RV.); yevend, yavent, vend (Gypsy); yeman (Shum.)(CDIAL 14164). hem avalanche, fall of snow (L.)(CDIAL 14171). he_mam.tia produced in winter (Pkt.); he~wti_ a dwarf variety of cotton (Bi.)(CDIAL 14170). hem snow, frost, cold (Si.); haima covered with snow (MBh.); snow, hoarfrost (Skt.)(CDIAL 14169). hin, hinn, hi_n snow (Sh.); hina (Sv.)(CDIAL 14845). Cold: kinani, kina_m cold (Kol.); kinan, ki_nd id. (Go.); kinna_n wet, cool; kinni_ta cold (Go.)(DEDR 1601). kid.a_ng- to be cold (Go.); kirin-, kirng- id. (Go.); kirn- to become cool (Go.)); ki_rna_ to be cold, feel cold (Kur.); girgira cold (Pa.Ga.)(DEDR 1568). Wetness; mucus of nose: snih wetness, moisture (TS.); sne_hiti, sni_hiti pl. waters (RV.); sni_hiti moisture (TA_r.); sni_han, sni_ha_ mucus of nose (S'Br.); sin.ha_ snow, dew, mist, drop of water falling from sky (Pkt.); hina snow (Sv.); hi_n snow (Sh.); hi_n snow, ice (Tor.); hi_n. snow (Mai.); sinnha_ unseasoned wood; sinna~_ moist, wet (L.); sinnha_ wet (P.); sinnhn.a_ to be wet (P.)(CDIAL 13798). hinal, pl. hinale avalanche of snow (Sh.)(CDIAL 13799). sine_ha grease (S'a_n:khBr.); oiliness (Ya_j.); blandness, love (MaitrUp.); sine_ha unctuous moisture, sap, fat, affection, love (Pali); sin.e_ha hoarfrost, snow, mist (Pkt.); oil, ghee, affection, love (Pkt.); san.e_ha, n.e_ha id. (Pkt.); senehe, sene_, sine_ oil; sanaha, sana_ oil, grease, affection (Si.)(CDIAL 13802). cf. ney ghee, oil (Ta.lex.)

3461.To blow the nose; mucous matter; sneeze: s'r.n:kha_n.ika_ mucus of the nose (A_past.); s'in:gha_n.a, s'in:gha_n.aka, s'in:ghan.a (Skt.); s'im.ha_n.a, sim.ha_n.a mucus (Skt.); upas'im.hana, upasim.hana something for smelling (Sus'r.); sin:gha_nika_ mucus of the nose (Pali); sim.gha_n.a, sim.gha_n.aya (Pkt.); si~ga_n.o (Ku.); sin.a_n (N.); xen:gun (A.); sikni (B.); sin:gha_n.i, sin:ga_n.i mucus of nose, iron rust (Or.); sikni_ mucus of nose (H.); sin:ghiru sniveller (S.); s.i_a~ mucus (Ash.); s.i~_ (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12582). Smells: s'in:ghati smells (Dha_tup.); upas'in:ghati kisses (Skt.); upas'in:ghana a thing to be smelled at (Sus'r.); sin:ghati smells (Pali); sim.ghai, sum.ghai (Pkt.); sung, s'ung (Gypsy); s'u~_khim 1 sg. (Kal.); s'un:khik (Kho.); sin:ghan.u, sun:ghan.u (S.); sin:ghan. (L.); se~_hga_ smeller-out of old wells (L.); sugghun. smells (L.); sin:ghn.a_ (P.); sun:ghana_ (P.); s'i~n.n.u_, s'in:ghn.o~_ (WPah.); s'i~ghn.u (WPah.); su~gn.o, sun.n.o smells (Ku.); sun.nu (N.); xun.iba (A.); su~ka_, su~ga_ (B.); sun:ghiba_, sun:giba_ (Or.); sun:ghab (Mth.); su~_ghab (Aw.); su~_ghna_ (H.); su~_ghvu~ (G.); su~gn.e~ (M.); s.u~_ thoi_ki to smell (Sh.)(CDIAL 12579). kun.un:ku smell of cattle, butter, etc. (Ta.); kun.ukku-na_r-uka, kun.ukku-man.am sweaty smell, smell of soiled linen steeped in water (Ma.)(DEDR 1687). ca_'(a)na_ (ca~_cas) to stink, give forth an offensive smell; to smell in general (Kur.); cen-ye (cen-ca) to emit odour; cen-yro scented, smelling (Malt.) (DEDR 2264). Mucus: ci_ntu (ci_nti-) to blow, as the nose; ci_ntal mucous matter of the nose; cintu (cinti-) to blow the nose (Ta.); ci_ntuka, ci_r-r-uka id. (Ma.); si_n (si_nt-, si_nd-), si_nu (si_t-) to sneeze; n. sneezing, a sneeze (Ka.); hi_ntruni, hi_mpuni, si_mpu to blow the nose (Tu.); ci_mpu to clear the nose (Kor.); ci~_du to blow the nose (Te.); sindeng id. (Kol.); ti~_d- to clear the nose (Pa.); ci_nd- (c =ts) to sneeze; si_nd- to blow the nose (Ga.); hi_nd-, i_nd- id. (Go.); si_nd- (-it-) id. (Kond.a); sri_nda (sri_ndi-), hi_nd- id. (Kui); sindali, hi_nd-, si_nd- (-it-) id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2618). ks.auti sneezes (Gaut.); pres. part. ks.uvant- (Mn.); ks.uta- pp. (MBh.); a sneeze (Ya_j.); ks.ut (Ma_rkP.); ks.uti (Skt.)[X 'to spit, expectorate': ks.i_vyati]; khuya, hcua, khui sneeze (Pkt.); cewani_ sneezing; cey- to sneeze (Pas'.); chi_ama_n.a pres. part. sneezing; chi_a, chi_a_ (Pkt.); chi_h, chi_s'u (K.); chyu~_ (Ku.); chiu~ (N.); khipita expectoration, sneezing (Pali)[cf. khipa spittle ejected when chewing betel (Or.)]; kivisanava_, pp. kivut.u to sneeze (OSi.)(CDIAL 3754). cne to sneeze (Pr.)(CDIAL 3758). semilu to sneeze (Ka.); cimili id. (Kor.)(DEDR 2774). Sneeze: chikka_ sneeze (Skt.Pkt.); chikka id. (Pkt.); chikkai sneezes; chikkiya sneezing (Pkt.); cik, pl. cikka sneeze; cikni sneezing; cin. (Pas'.Shum.); cik (Gaw.); chikk (P.); chekki (WPah.); chi~_k (Ku.); chi~k, chi~knu (N.); chikka_ sneeze; chikkan sneezing (B.); chikka, cin:ka, chik(k)iba_, chin:kiba_ (Or.); chi~_k, chi~_kna_ (H.); chi~_k, chi~kvu~, chi~kn.i_ snuff (G.); s'i~_k, s'ikn.e~, s'i~k (M.); s'i_m.ki (Konkan.i); ca_s', co_s to cough; ca_s'a coughing (Pas'.); ca_sik (Gaw.)(CDIAL 5032). semilu to sneeze (Ka.); cimili id. (Kor.)(DEDR 2774).

3462.Image: plait, fold into long strips: cun.vu~ id. (G.); cin.vu~ to fold into long strips (G.); cun.n.e~ to plait (M.); cun.an.u to plait, fold (S.); cun.an. to crumple, choose (L.); cuna_ to plait (B.); cun.n.a_ to plait (P.); cunai_ threads (pearls) (OAw.); cunna_ to plait, crimp (H.)(CDIAL 4814). Transposed words: cun.n.amor..i-ma_r-r-u constructing a cun.n.am verse by suitable transposition of words (Nan-. 412, Mayilai.); cun.n.am a mode of constructing a stanza in which the words in a pair of four-footed lines are transposed from their natural order (Tol. Col. 406) (Ta.lex.) Image: heap-up, collect, build-up in layers: cino_ti heaps up, collects (AV.); collects (MBh.); gathers up (Mun.d.Up.); cina_ti collects, heaps-up (Pali); cin.e_i id. (Pkt.); cin.n.a_ to pile up, lay (bricks), gather (clothes), arrange (P.); [cf. sena even, straight, level (Kui); han:ku straight (Pe.)(DEDR 2316)]; cin.n.o~_ to build (e.g., a terrace)(WPah.); cinnu id. (N.); cinna_ to build up (a wall), gather, pick, crimp (H.); cin.vu~ to fold into long strips; can.vu~ to build, make, erect (G.); cin.n.e~ to build up, fill a hole by ramming stones (M.); cun.ai pecks up (Pkt.); cun.an.u to plait, fold, build up (an entrance)(S.); cun.an. to pick, gather, choose, crumple; cun.un. to select (L.); cun.an.u to build up (an entrance); cun.an. to pick, gather, choose (L.); cun.n.a_ to build up in layers (P.); cunnu to pucker (N.); cuna_ to pick out, choose, plait, pucker (B.); cunal to choose (Bhoj.); cunai threads (pearls)(OAw.); cunna_ to pick up, gather, plait, crimp, build (H.); cun.vu~ to fold in long strips (G.); cun.n.e~ to pile up orderly, fold, plait; choose (M.); cunvu~ to pick up, glean (G.)(CDIAL 4814). cf. kinn- (kinni-) to tear into strips (rags, plantain or screwpine leaves)(Kod..)(DEDR 1604).

3463.Birch: cin-n-i Indian shrubby copper-leaf, acalypha fruticosa (Ta.); cinni birch-leaved acalypha, acalypha betulina (Ka.)(DEDR 2597). cf. me_n-i acalypha indica (DEDR 1737).

3464.Lagerstroemia: cinnaci lagerstroemia parviflora (Ta.); cimaci id. (Ma.); cannan:gi, cennan:gi id. (Ka.); cannan:gi, ci_maci id. (Te.)(DEDR 2595). Lagerstroemia indica: phgurush (B.H.); dhayti (M.); tindiyam (Ta.); chinagoranta (Te.); bark, leaves and flowers: considered hydragogue and drastic purgative; bark: stimulant, febrifuge; habitat: throughout India, common in gardens (GIMP, p. 149).

3465.Image: gold coin: cinm gold (Ko.); sin gold, ear-ring (To.); cinnam goldcoin, coin (Ta.); cinna gold (Ka.Tu.); cinnamu a weight (of gold) equal to 1/30 of a tola; cinnidamu, ci_namu gold (Te.)(DEDR 2596). cf. cin.ot.t.hi_ abrus precatorius (Skt.); cf. cici_; ka_ka-cica_; kan.ed.d.hia_ (Pkt.); canot.thi_ abrus precatorius and its berry (used as a measure of weight)(G.)(CDIAL 4795).

3466.Image: junction: sin point where boundaries of three villages meet (P.)(CDIAL 13435). cf. cinha identification mark (Skt.)

3467.To be curdled: styana coagulated (Sus'r.); density (Skt.); stye_na nectar (Skt.); cho_n, co_n cheese (Bshk.); styu_n. thick milk (Kt.); cun:gu_ (Pr.); cha_na_ a kind of soft cheese (B.); thi_na stiffness, obduracy (Pali); thi_n.a, thin.n.a, t.hi_n.a coagulated, hard (Pkt.); chena_ a kind of soft cheese (B.); curd, cheese (Or.); thick curdled milk, cheese (H.)(CDIAL 13731). cun.uth cheese (Tor.)(CDIAL 13732). tha_ya_ little pool (of milk, blood, spilt water etc.)(M.)(CDIAL 13733). icu (ici-) to be curdled (as milk), get thick (as ghee)(Ta.); ez, ez,e xen thick mass of buttermilk ( = moz,e xen; moz, buttermilk)(To.); in:gisu to evaporate by boiling, etc. (Ka.); in:ku, inuku, i~_ku to dry up or evaporate (as water)(Te.) (DEDR 430). ken moz, moz,e xen, ez,e xen thick buttermilk, thick mass of buttermilk (To.); kene cream of milk (Ka.)(DEDR 1987). ken densely (of shade) (To.); kanam compact, hard (Ma.); kan- to be heavy; kan-am thickness, heaviness (Ta.)(DEDR 1404).

3468.To clothe: co'ona_ (co_cas) to put on (cloth)(Kur.); cuye (cc) to put on, dress; cuypo a woman's dress consisting of one piece of cloth; cuytre to clothe, dress another (Malt.)(DEDR 2827).

3469.Sublimated mercuric compound: cun.n.am, cun.n.akam, cun.n.appot.i aromatic powder mixed with saffron and gold or silver dust, used for sprinkling over guests on festive occasions (W.); cun.n.a-k-kur-r-i a small casket for keeping aromatic bathing powder (Perun.. Ucaik. 38,168); cun.n.ama_t.u-tal to sprinkle scented powder on festive occasions etc. (W.)(Ta.lex.) carakku-c-cun.n.am peroxide compound of mercury, sulphur, etc., cavvi_ram (Ta.lex.) cf. jharana_ iron sieve with handle (Bi.); za_ran a metallic calx (A.)(CDIAL 5375). Quick-lime: cu_rn.a quick-lime, mortar (Skt.); cun-n-am (Ta.); cunna (Pkt.)(Ta.lex.)

3470.Lime-plaster: cun.n.a lime-plaster; cun.n.aka lime used as face powder (Pali); cun.n.a lime (Pkt.); cu_na (K.); cunu (S.); cu_na_ (L.P.Aw.H.); su_n. (A.); cuno (Ku.); cun (Ku.N.); cu_n. (B.); cu_n.a_ (Or.); cu_n (Bi.Mth.H.); cu_no (G.); cuna_ (M.); cunno (Konkan.i); sunu, hun.u (Si.)(CDIAL 4889). cun.a_ri_ lime-burner (MB.); cu_rn.aka_ra (Pa_ras'Paddh.); cuna_ri (B.); cu_nara_, cunura_ (Or.)(CDIAL 4892). cunha_ lime-box (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 4893). cunauti box for lime eaten with betel (Ku.); cunaut.i (N.); cuna_ti, cunati, cunat.i (B.); cunaut.i_ (Bi.); cunaut.a_, cunaut.i_ (H.)(CDIAL 4895). cun.n.am lime, oxide of calcium; cun.n.a-c-ca_ntu plaster, mortar; cun.n.a_mpu lime burnt in the kiln, quicklime (Ta.Ma.); slaked lime (Va_yucan.. Kiriya_. 23); macerated lime, lime specially prepared as fine plaster; cun.n.a_mpu-k-ka_rai mortar; dried plaster of chunam; cun.n.a_mpu-k-ka_l.ava_y lime-kiln; cun.n.a_mpu-k-kut.t.a_n- toddy-drawer's small basket for lime; cun.n.a_mpat.aital settling of lime in sweet toddy; cun.n.a_mpu-t-tut.uppu small metal rod for taking slaked lime from its casket; cun.n.a_mpu-kuttutal to pound lime with sand and water and make it into mortar; cun.n.a_mpu-c-cippi lime-shells; cun.n.a_mpu-p-paravar a sub-sect among Parava caste; cun.n.a_mpo_r chunam-burners, chunam-sellers (Cin-e_n. 141); cun.n.a_mpu-p-par-aiyar id. (Ta.lex.)

3471.Dog: san [Vedic s'va, gen. s'unah.; Av. spa_; Lat. canis; Old Irish. cu_; Goth. hunds = hound] dog (Pali.lex.)

3472.Red; brown-coloured dog:: co.- (co.p-, co.nd-) to become red; co.nd red; co.pi red, redness; co.m bullock (in song); kem.- red (in a few cmpds.: ken-denge brown coconut; coconut; ken-na.y wild dog; ke-jeri red squirrel; kem-butti red anthill; ke-jo.pi a dull red)(Kod..); ce-, cem-, cevv-, ceyya, ce_takam, ce_ttu red; cekkam, cekkar, cekkal, cekil, cemmai, cey, cevvu, cevval, ceve_r-en-al, ce_, ce_kkai, ce_ku, ce_kai, ce_ntu, ce_ppu, ce_y, civven-al, civappu, cive_r-en-al redness; ceccai id., ixora coccinea (with scarlet blossoms); ceppal red colour (as of dawn); ceyyavan-, ceyyan-, ceyya_n-, ceyyo_n-, ce_yan-, ce_ya_n-, civappan- person of red or brown complexion (Ta.); ceval, cevalai, civalai ruddy person or animal; cival Indian partridge; ce_ (-pp-, -nt-) to redden, get angry; ce_kil tawny-coloured bull; ce_t-a_ tawny-coloured cow; ce_yttu, ce_ytu that which is red; civa (-pp-, -nt-) to redden, blush, become angry; cekka-cciva (-v-, -nt-), cekka-ceku to be deep red; cekka-ccive_ren-al, cekka-cceve_ren-al deep redness; cen-na_y brown-coloured dog, canis dukhunensis; kempu ruby (Ta.); ce-, cem-, ce_ya red; cemma, cevva, cona, covva redness; cekkal dawn; cekki-ppu_, cetti-ppu_, cecci-ppu_ ixora coccinea (Ma.); cen.n.uka, cempikka, conekka, cuvakka to be red; cemappu redness; cemakkuva to redden; cuvappu, co_ppu red; red colour; ruby; cecca a kind of ruby; cenna_yi wolf or rather canis primaevus; kempu ruby (Ma.); ken, ke.t red; kep red, redness; kep a.v, ken a.v red cow; ke na.y wild dog; keky red clay; keb gal flint; ke. kat.y clinkers (i.e. red lumps) from smithy place; kepn n. pr. red bullock or male dog; fem. kepy; kepn n. pr. man; kempy n. pr. woman (Ko.); k- red (e.g. k mon. red soil; kmo.s- n. pr. reddish buffalo); ke no.y wild dog (To.); ke-, kem-- red; ken:ka, ken:gal, keccane, keccu, kecage, kecane, kendu, kebbe, kempu, ke_su, kisu redness; kekkarisu, ken:galisu to become red; keca a red man; fem. keci; kemba_ra, kemba_re redness of evening; ke_pala, kevala, kisga_ra ixora coccinea; (a few compounds with ce- and ca-)(Ka.); kem-, keca, keci red; kempu redness, ruby; ke_pul.a, ke_pula, ke_pal. ixora coccina; genda redness; gende a reddish-coloured ox; fem. gendi; canna red; canna-na_yi wolf (Tu.); cem-- red (in a few cpds.); cen:ga_vi reddish colour; reddish; (ka_vi id.); ke-, kem- red (in a few cpds.); kempu red; redness; a ruby (Te.); key dark red, reddish brown (Pa.); xe~_so red; blood; xe~_s blood; anger (Kur.); qso red; qslo reddish; qesu blood; qsolre to redden (as the eyes, face, or fruit when ripening)(Malt.); xi_sun red; gold (Br.)(DEDR 1931). Red; auspicious; Rudra: civappu, cikappu (colloq.) red (Ta.lex.) s'iva auspicious (RV.); a name of Rudra (A_s'vS'r.); siva S'iva (Pali.Pkt.); siu (H.)(CDIAL 12472). s'iva_laya shrine to S'iva (Skt.); siva_la_ shrine or temple to S'iva (P.)(CDIAL 12473).

3473.Blood: s'o_n.ita blood (Gr.S'r.); so_n.ita blood (Pali); so_n.ia (Pkt.); son.i (Or.)(CDIAL 12625). Red: s'o_n.a crimson, red, purple (RV.); yellow (Skt.); so_n.a red (Pkt.); sun.este za~r gold (Ash.); so_n.e red (Ash.); s.o_n.a_k red; s'o_nek, s'on.ek, su_n.ek (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12623). co_n.appu_ red cotton (Perun.. Makata. 17,133); co_n.itam red, crimson (Kampara_. Makarakkan.. 7)(Ta.lex.) co_n.i < s'o_n.ita blood (Ta. Ni. Po_. Potumaip. 144)(Ta.lex.) To clean, adorn: suva_rn.a_, sava_rn.a_ to adorn, improve, prepare, adjust (P.); swern.o to sweep (Ku.); soharnu, sohornu to clean, sweep (N.)(CDIAL 12628).

3474.River Sone: co_n.ai the river So_n., which falls into the Ganges near Pa_t.ali_putra; co_n.am id. (Kampara_. Akalikai. 1)(Ta.lex.) s'o_n.a, s'o_n.a_ the river Son (MBh.); xon id. (A.); son (B.); son.a(Or.); son (H.)(CDIAL 12624). co_n-am cloud (Patin-o. A_l.u. Mum. 12); co_n-a_-me_kam clouds incessantly pouring rain (Pa_rata. Patin-e_r..a_m. 135); co_n-ai-ma_ri id. (Kampara_. Pirama_ttira. 59); co_n-ai-me_kam id. (Pa_rata. Campava. 79) (Ta.lex.) co_n-ai dark moisture-laden clouds, incessant downpour of rain, constant drizzle from clouds gathering on hilltops; co_n.am cloud; co_n.a_-ma_ri incessant rain (Ta.); so_ne a thin, light but long-continued rain, incessant drizzle, incessant rain (Ka.); so_na rain, drizzle, thin but long (Te.)(DEDR 2899).

3475.Image: membrum virile: cf. cun.n.i membrum virile (Ta.); penis (Ma.); tun.n.i, tun.n.e id. (Ka.); culla, culli (Te.); con.d.o_ id. (Kur.)(DEDR 2666). cun-n-attu circumcision, as the practice of the prophet (Ta.); sunnat (Arabic)(Ta.lex.) cuy (child's) penis (Pe.); hu_y penis (Mand..); cu_co_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 2681).

3476.Gilt; gold: sonna_ra gilt, gilding (Ka.); so_ne_ri (M.H.); sonnega_r-a a goldsmith (Ka.); so_na_ra (M.H.); sonna, sonne (Tadbhava of svarn.a) gold, svarn.a, suvarn.a, kasavara; sonne-varada a dealer in gold, a money-changer; sonne-vet.t.u the mountain Me_ru; sonne-vet.t.u-villa S'iva (Ka.lex.) svarn.a-ks.i_ri a kind of so_ma or moon-plant with yellow juice (Ka.lex.)

3477.Image: dot: sonne (Tadbhava of s'u_nya) a cypher or dot representing anusvara, bindu; a cipher or zero; sonnalige, sannalige roundness, what is round (Ka.lex.) Image: empty: s'u_nya empty (S'Br.); sua empty; emptiness (Pali); sun.n.a empty; empty place (Pkt.); su_na empty (Dm.); s'u~_, s'uu, s'i, s'iu empty space (K.); suu, suo barren, desolate (S.); suj deserted; suja_ barren, poverty-stricken; su~j desert (L.); sunn desolation; sunna_ desolate, quiet (P.); suno empty, deserted (Ku.); sun nothing (N.); su_na (MB.); suna empty, lonely, still (Or.); su_n empty (Bhoj.); su_na, su_na_ (OAw.); su_n empty; vacuum, naught; su_na_ empty, hollow (H.); su_no empty (Marw.); su_n emptiness, numbness, nought; su_nu~ empty (G.); [For semant. 'numbness' cf. jommu (Ka.)(DEDR 2882)]; suna_ (M.); sonne~ nought (Konkan.i); sun, hun empty, emptiness (Si.); cuni empty (Ash.); cu_ne-, cu_ne-sto_, co~_-s'ta_ (Wg.); cui~_ (Kt.); s'uni_ (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12567). Image: swollen: s'u_na swollen, grown (Sus'r.); emptiness (RV.); su_na swollen (Pali); su_n.a (Pk.); cune- to churn (Pr.); honu swollen, dropsical (K.); su_n.o (pp. of sujan.u to swell)(S.); suninu to swell; caus. sunya_unu (N.); sun.vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12565). s'une_i inflated skin (Wg.) (CDIAL 12566). s'u_yate_ is swollen (Car.); s'uv- to swell; pp. s'uvlo swollen (Gypsy); s'uzoiki, 3 sg. s'u~_zai, s'u_jei (Sh.); sujan.u, pp. su_n.o (S.); sujjan., sujun., sujan. (L.); sujjn.a_ (P.); su_j a swelling (P.); s'ujn.u to swell (WPah.); su_jan swelling of limbs (Ku.); suj swelling (N.); su_jna_ to swell (H.); sujvu~ (G.); sujn.e~ to swell, crave intensely for (M.); idenava_ to suppurate (Si.); soji a swelling (S.); soj (L.P.); s'oja_ (WPah.); sojo (G.)(CDIAL 12568). Sign, token; title: sonne (Tadbhava of sam.je) sign, token, signal; an appellation, a name, title, designation, term (Ka.lex.) Image: lucky fall of dice: co_n.a_lu, co_n.ai a lucky fall of dice or cowries, as in the game of ta_yam, dist. fr. pa_n.a_lu; co_n.i cowrie (Ta.lex.) Image: circular mark: cun-n-am cipher, circular mark (Ta.); sunna (Pkt.); s'u_nya (Skt.); cun-n-at.i, cun:kat.i a kind of dyed saree with undyed spots (Ta.); tcun:gud.i (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: swelling; hole: cun.t.u sediment, that which adheres to a pot when boiling (J.)(Ta.lex.) cf. cu_n.a_-vayir-u pot-belly (Ta.lex.) cun.an:ku yellow spreading spots on the body of women (regarded as beautiful)(T.); cun.ai to be inflamed; pustules (Ta.); cun.an.n.u scab, spots on the skin (Ma.); cul.l.i spot, mark (Kod..); cul.l.i payyu spotted cow (Kod..); cun.n.ai scab, scurf (Tu.); jonne_ wart (Kur.)(DEDR 2659). cf. tun- hole,cavity (Ta.); tu_ntu hole (Ka.); du_n well-shaft, well, pit (Br.)(DEDR 3399). cf. kan-n-am hole made by burglars in a house-wall (Ta.); kannomi a hole (Kuwi)(DEDR 1412). Empty space: cu_n- withering, as of a limb (Ta.); [cf. cun.an:ku to be jaded (Ta.); jun.ugu crippled body (Ka.)(DEDR 2660)]; cu_n-ai that which is decayed; blemish, fault; a piece of unoccupied land (Ta.); cu_n-iyan- lame person, cripple (Ta.lex.) cu_n-iyam < s'u_nya non-existence, vacuity, vacuum, non-entity, nothingness (Ci. Po_. 7); cu_n-iya-man-ai deserted house, house in ruyins; bewitched ground, ground in which bewitched articles are buried (Ta.lex.) Grow fat: cin-ai (-pp-, -tt-) to rise in pimples as prickly heat, grow stout (Ta.); cin-aippu becoming pregnant, fatness (Ta.); taneyuni cattle or animals to be big with young (Tu.)(DEDR 2592). su_a swollen (Pkt.); s'uvlo (Gypsy); sumlo swelling after a blow, weal; sumlinu to swell, grow fat; sumi_ya_unu to beat severely (N.)(CDIAL 12563). cf. ku_n- hump on the back of the body; ku_n-al id. (Kampara_. Varaik. 34); ku_n-ai large earthen boiler (Kampara_. A_r-ucel. 49); ku_ni id. (Ka.); gu_na id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 1927). cu_n- swelling; cu_n-am swelling of the abdomen (Tj.) (Ta.lex.)

3478.Bride: tu_n- to be suitable (Pa.); tu_na_na_ to be possible, esp. of a girl to be lawful as a bride, to be done, be managed; tunva_ bad, evil (Go.)(DEDR 3403).

3479.Old, decayed: ju_rn.a old, decayed (RV.); jun.n.a old, worn-out (Pkt.); junn time (P.); juna_ old and worn-out (Or.); ju_na ancient (OAw.); ju_n old; time, age; ju_na_ old, worn, thin (H.); ju_nu~ old (G.); ju_n fully mature (of plants, fruits, etc.); juna_ old (M.); ju_na old, ripe (Konkan.i); dun.u old (Si.)(CDIAL 5260). Ripe: hen- (-t-) to ripen, become ripe, be ripe (Pe.Mand..); ser.nba (ser.t-), ser.pa (ser.t-) id; senpa (sent-) to be ripe; semboli mature, ripened; senburi old, too ripe (Kui) (DEDR 2765). juner, junere~ old article of apparel (M.)(CDIAL 5261). junvat mature leaves, esp. of na_gavalli_ (M.)(CDIAL 5262). junvan mature (of leaves), old (of tree or plant)(M.)(CDIAL 5263). cf. cul.l.i dry twigs, esp. for fuel (Ta.)(DEDR 2706). su_r.. time, turn, season (Ka.); u_r.. that which is pristine, of long date (Ci_vaka. 1452); rule, established usage, long standing custom (Pur-ana_. 29); u_r..ilai dead, dry leaves (Ja_n-a_. 28,12); u_r..mai established rule, regulation (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,6,9); u_r.. maturity (Malaipat.u. 133); u_r..ttal to decay, as flesh, as fruits; to become putrid; to be spoiled; to rot, to fade (Malaipat.u. 174-180); u_r..pa_t.u coming to an end (Man.i. 30,37); u_r.. end, completion, termination (Man.i. 30,118)(Ta.lex.) Aeon: u_r..i time of universal deluge and destruction of all things, end of the world (Ci_vaka. 1157); aeon (Ci_vaka. 2581); very long time (Pu. Ve. 8,7); life-time (Pur-ana_. 135)(Ta.lex.) yuga_nta end of a generation, destruction of the world (MBh.); yuganta end of an age (Pali); yuyat (Si.)(CDIAL 10492). u_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to grow old; (-pp-, -tt-) to grow old (Ci_vaka. 1560); pass the prime of life; n. that which is of long date, karma, fruit of karma, time, turn, occasion, end, sun (Ven:kaikko_. 90)[cf. en-r--u_r.. summer, sunshine, sun (Ta.); en-r-u sun (Ta.) (DEDR 869)]; u_r..ttal opportunity, seasonable time; u_r..mai established rule; u_r..i end of the world, very long time, lifetime, world, fate, regular order; u_r..iyan- one who lives to a great age; God, who will live through the final destruction of the world; ket.al u_r.. evil fate (Ta.); u_r..ukka_ran undertaker of a lottery; u_r..am turn of duty, turn; u_r..i earth, world; u_t.u time, turn (Ma.)(DEDR 2736). u_r..iya_n- one who lives to a great age (Kampara_. Nat.pukko_t.. 4); God, one who will live through the final destruction of the world (Te_va_. 270,5)(Ta.lex.)

3480.A long knife: ge_n. a long knife, sword (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ce_n-ai weapon (Ta.lex.)

3481.Image: stand of a pot-shaped lamp used in temples: ce_n-ai-k-ka_l stand of a pot-shaped lamp used in temples, ko_yir-kut.ati_pakka_l (Ta.lex.) cf. ka_l pillar (Ma.)(DEDR 1479). cf. ka_l.al high flame (Ma.); ka_l to smart (Pa.)(DEDR 1500).

3482.Smallness: ki_na smallness (Ka.); want, deficiency, kur-ai (Ta.); ki_na_s'a small, little; niggardly (Ka.lex.) Image: timber as a lever: can-n-ai timber used as a lever to help the movement of temple car (J.); sanne, sonne id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: chip of wood: jhinu fine, small; chip of wood (N.); jhi_na_ thin (OAw.) (CDIAL 5395). sanne-ko_lu a lever (Te.)(DEDR 2425). cf. can-n-am minuteness, smallness (Ta.); sanna id. (Te.Ka.); can-n-am covert hits, hidden meaning; thin timbre (Ta.lex.) cf. cappai a spar of wood placed for the wheel of a car to run smoothly in a sandy road, rafter, a chip of wood (Ta.)(DEDR 2340). cf. ten-n-u (ten-n-i-) to rise, lift with a lever (Ta.); tend- to rise, be raised; tetip- (tetit-) to raise (Pa.); t.et.p- (t.et.t-) to raise, lift; te_t.p- (te_t.up-) to lift (Ga.); te_d-, te_d.a_na_ to rise; tehta_na_ to cause to rise, build a house; te_h- to lift, rouse; te_(h)- to make to rise; teha_na_, ta_ha_na_ to lift; teh- to rouse from sleep, revive to life (Go.); te_tna_ (te_tcas/tettas) to assist a woman in raising a load to her head (Kur.)(DEDR 3450). te_r temple car (Ta.lex.) kene kene gently; kenek silent (Go.); kin silence; kin inba to be silent; kin ispa to silence (Kui)(DEDR 1988). Image: to tear, crack knuckles: cf. kinn- (kinni-) to tear into strips (rags, plantain or screwpine leaves)(Kod..); kini- (kinit-) to break into pieces; kink- (kinikt-) id. (Kol.); kinup- to break, crack knuckles (Nk.)(DEDR 1604). cf. ce_nu crop-land (Te.lex.) Image: support for vine: s'en support for vine, pergola (Kho.); s'en garden (D..); s'e_n (Wot..)(CDIAL 12323). sa_nkou, sa_nkva_ bridge (Kon.lex.) Smooth; delicate; small; child: san.ha smooth, gentle (Pali); sakhina gentle (As'.); san.ha, lan.ha, sahin.a smooth, fine, small (Pkt.); sano fine, thin, small (Gypsy); sana thin (Pas'.); s'rnu, srnu soft, damp (K.); sanho fine, thin, minute (S.); sa_han, sa_na_, laha_n, laha_na_ small (M.); sa_nu (Konkan.i); sihin fine, thin (Si.); cha_nha_ mean; slave (P.); sya_no young, childish (Ku.); s'laks.n.a slippery, smooth, soft, tender, gentle (AV.); thin, small (Skt.); s'laks.n.ika_ (AV.)(CDIAL 12732). Fine; thin; fine cloth: jin.agu, jin.ugu, jinagu, jinugu fineness or thinness (as of texture, thread, powder, written letters, etc.)(Ka.); jiluvu fine cloth; small, slight, fine, delicate (Te.); jilu~gu id. (Te.)(DEDR 2519). cil fine, nun.maiya_na (Tiru-k-ko_. 196, Urai)(Ta.lex.) jhi_n.a thin (OMarw.); thin, wasted away (Pkt.); jhi_n.a_ weak, feeble (P.); jhi_n.o gentle, slight, weak (S.); jhinu fine, small; chip of wood (N.); jhi_na_ thin (OAw.); jhi_na_ thin, wasted (H.); jhin.a_ rubbed fine (M.); jhi_n.u~ fine, small, thin (G.); jhin.n.a thin, wasted away (Pkt.); jhina thin and delicate (Or.)(CDIAL 5395). kin small (To.); kinkin.i beral.u little finger (Ka.); kin.n.e boy (Kod..); kinni small, young; the young of an animal, smallness; kinyavu the young of an animal, a little thing; kinyapp mother's younger sister; kinyamme father's younger brother; kinkana, kin:kan.a a little kinuru, kinaru, kinalu a bit, trifle (Tu.); kinnige younger one; kinyo small (Kor.)(DEDR 1603). cin-n-a small, little, inferior, mean, low, young; cin-n-am smallness, minuteness, anything small; cin-n-i small child, little thing, a small measure (Ta.); cinna small (Ma.); cinnan a short man; cinampu a little; cinakku a bit (Ma.); cin.i, cin.n.i, cin.n.e smallness, shortness; cin.n.a a little one, a boy; cina smallness, small pieces; cinna, jinna smallness, etc. (Ka.); cin.n.i small; cenna a little (Kod..); cinna small, little, young, younger, petty, mean, trifling, trivial; cinna~danamu smallness, childhood, youth; cinnadi girl, lass; cinnava~_d.u boy, young man, one who is younger; cinni small, little, pretty (Te.); sinnam small, young, younger; cinni small (Kol.); s'inna(m) little (Nk.); cin little; cind, cind. son (Pa.); sini vande little finger; sind. son; cind.u, sind.u (pl. cind.i_l, sind.i_l) id.; cin makil children (Ga.); cini and.ki little finger (Go.); cunak small; cuna_ child (Br.); cinka_ small, tiny; cimka_ (M.)(DEDR 2594). cunut. narrow (Dm.); cun.n.o thin (Phal.); cun.d.ati becomes small (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 4859). ci_na a little of anything, a short time (Gypsy); cun.a thin, smooth (Dm.); cun, cin narrow (Tor.); cun.n.o small (Phal.); cun.u, cni, cini small (Sh.); cu_na, cu_ni (D..); cuna_ (B.); ci_no small (Par.)(CDIAL 4889). Small; smooth; minute; to make very small as beads: nannha_, nanna_ small, young (P.); na_no (Ku.); sa_nu small; sa_khine dwarfish; na_ni little girl (N.); nanna_ tiny (B.); sa_na small, youngest (Or.); nanua_ young, child; na_nhit.a_ childhood (Mth.); na_nh, na_nha_ small, light; nan(n)ha_ small (H.); na_nhu_m. small, light (OG.); na_hnu_, na_nu~ small (G.)(CDIAL 12732). For semant. 'smooth, minute' cf.: nun. minute, fine, etc. (Ta.); nun.pu, nun.mai, nun.uku, nun.n.imai minuteness, smallness, slenderness, sharpness, refinement, nicety, exquisiteness (as in workmanship), acuteness, subtlety, discrimination, precision, accuracy, delicacies, dainties, mystery; nun.n.iya_n- person of acute intellect, quick parts or subtle discrimination, minister; nun.akkam sharpness, minuteness, subtlety, fineness; nun.an:kiyo_r persons or subtle or sharp intellect; nun.an:ku (nun.an:ki-) to be thin, minute, attenuated, be subtle, fine, refined; n. minuteness, subtlety, fineness; nun.i (-v-, -nt-) to waste away, be thinned down; (-pp-, -tt-) to sharpen to a point, powder, examine carefully; n. a point; nun.ukkam fineness, minuteness, sharpness, acuteness, acumen, subtlety, exquisiteness (as of work), niggardliness; nun.ukku (nun.ukki-) to make very small (as beads), powder, pulverize, pound, grind, shatter to pieces, write a small hand, be niggardly, stint, sharpen to a point, sharpen the wits, execute minutely or finely (as a work); n. smallness, fineness, subtlety, any small or minute thing, small handwriting; un.ukku to powder ( = nun.ukku); nun.uku (nun.uki-) to be slender, delicate (as a woman's waist), be minute, become thin, be sharp, keen, acute (as one's intellect); nun.un:ku (nun.un:ki-) id., be powdered, pulverized, sing softly, as a tune; n. powder; nun.avai flour of rice and other grains, a ball of sesame confection; nuvan.ai minuteness, fineness, flour; nut.pam minuteness, fineness, subtlety, insight, acuteness, precision, accuracy, an invisible planet, minute point of time, a figure of speech which expresses an idea by implication, a critical commentary; nut.an:ku (nut.an:ki-) to be fine, thin, attenuated; n. thinness, smallness; nur..ai (-v-, -nt-) to be minute, fine, be keen, acute, make innuendoes; n. minuteness, fineness, intellectual sharpness; nur..aivu minuteness, fineness, keen understanding or perception; nu_r..ai acuteness, fineness, minuteness (Ta.); nun.ma minuteness; nuppam fine texture of cloth (Ma.); nunk- (nunky-) to cut a small piece from dried meat to make broth (implies poverty)(Ko.); nun. smoothness, softness, fineness, niceness, neatness, subtlety, gentleness, etc.; nun.upu, nun.pu, numpu smoothness, delicateness, fineness; nun.n.age, nun.n.ane smooth, smoothness, state of being powdered, state of being smooth by shaving, baldness, bald; nun.n.itu, nun.n.ittu that is smooth, etc. (Ka.); non.n.a, non.n.ag soft, nice (Tu.); nunu- smooth, gentle; nunupu smoothness, smooth; nunupari smooth, polished; nunna, nunnani smooth; nunnana smoothness (Te.); nunana softly (Kond.a)(DEDR 3700).

3483.Small: cinagu, jin.agu, jin.ugu, jinugu fineness or thinness, as of texture, thread, powder, written letters (Ka.); cayikka (Ta.); jinaka_, jinula_ small-sized, small and tiny, as a child (M.)(Ka.lex.)

3484.Deliberation: ki_n.a consideration, deliberation (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3485.Cultivating: ki_na_s'a cultivating the soil; a servant, kin:kara (Ka.); killing animals for one's food (Ka.); Yama (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

3486.Yama's residence: ki_na_s'a-nagari Yama's residence; ki_na_s'a-na_s'a S'iva (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3487.Image: saddle: ji_na, ji_ni, ji_nu a saddle (Ka.); ji_na id. (M.H.); ji_n (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) ci_n-i < zi_n (U.) saddle; cin-i-kat.t.utal to saddle a horse (Ta.); cf. ce_n.am saddle of cloth or leather (Ta.lex.)

3488.Salutation: Öji win (Skt.); cf. jina_ti conquers (Pali)(CDIAL 5226). jin.em. to win (OM.)(CDIAL 5224). jio said when returning the salutation of a younger person or an inferior (Santali.lex.) -ji (adj. -suffix) [From jayati to conquer] winning, victorious; sanga_ma-ji victorious in fight; sanga_maj'uttama greatest of conquerors; sabba-ji (Pali.lex.) jiti victory (RV. x.53.11; jinva to quicken, excite, support (RV. viii.84.7); jis.e_ victorious (RV. x.111.3)(Vedic.lex.) jayati (jeti, jina_ti) [Skt. jayati, ji to have power, to conquer] to conquer, to surpass; jeyya, jine; 3rd pl. jineyyun (opp. para_jeyyn); ppr. jayan; fut. jessati, jinissati; aor. jini; pl. jininsu (opp. para_jinsu); inf. jinitun; grd. jeyya; jinitabba, jetabba; pass. ji_yati; caus. jaya_peti to wish victory to, to hail (as a respectful greeting to a king); jita [pp. of jayati conquer] conquered, subdued, mastered; victory; jitatta mastery, conquest; jina [pp. of jayati] conquering, victorious, often of the Buddha, 'victor'; magga-jina conqueror of the Path; jina-cakka the Buddha's reign, rule, authority; jina-putta disciple of the Buddha; jina-bhu_mi the ground or footing of a conqueror; jina-sa_sana the doctrine of the Buddha; ja_payati to cause to rob, to incite, to plunder; pp. jina, jita; jaya vanquishing, overcoming, victory; jaya-ggaha the lucky die; para_aya victory and defeat; jaya-pa_na the drink of victory, carousing; jaya-sumana victory's joy (Pali.lex.) jina~u to cause to recover, to revivify, to reanimate, to succeed; jind, jid to endeavour, to persevere; uniak katha jindgetaea his word has got the victory (Santali.lex.) jina victorious, triumphant; very old; a generic term applied o a chief Bauddha or Jaina saint; name applied to Arhats of the Jainas; a very old man; an epithet of Vis.n.u; jina-sadman a Jaina temple; ji_rn.a old, ancient (Skt.lex.) ja_yin conquering (S'Br. xiv); ja_yu victor (RV. i.67.1) (Vedic.lex.) jina, jinna, jinne victorious, triumphant; steady, brave; a guru, a worthy person; a saint of the Bauddha sect or a Jain asaint, an arhat, a chief saint of the Jainas, who count 24 jinas; vis.n.u or kr.s.n.a; jinayati, jinamuni ascetic, devotee, a Jain saint; jinapa, jine_ndra, jine_s'vara an Arhat; {Echo word} jina gina Arhats and others; jina gr.ha a Jaina monastery; a Jaina temple; jina pratime image of a jina; jina samaya a member of the Jaina congregation (Ka.lex.) jinne_ de_va dharma-ra_ja, jina, buddha; jinna, jinne (Tadbhava of jina)(Ka.lex.) Syonym: arhat a Jaina saint or divinity (Ka.Skt); a_rhata, a_ruhata belonging to the doctrine of ji_na or Jainas; a follower of jina; a Jaina (Ka.lex.) For semant. 'old' cf. a_rs.e_ya relating to r.s.iss; very ancient (Ka.lex.) cf. ce_n.ikan- < s're_n.i an illustrious Jain king; Indra (Nan-. 289, Mayilai.)(Ta.lex.) cin-kar < jinaka Jains (Te_va_. 859,6); cin-akaran < jino + gr.ha Jaina temple (Ci_vaka. 1248); temple (Kantapu. Tiruvara. 11); palace, royal residence (Kantapu. Iran.t.a_m. Yut. 386)(Ta.lex.)

3489.A particle: cin- particle: an expletive generally used in poetry (Tol. Col. 277)(Ta.lex.)

3490.Image: pudendum muliebre: cin.n.am pudendum muliebre (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

3491.A metal: ci_n-accet.t.i a kind of metal (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

3492.Image: fryig pan: ci_n-i-ccat.t.i frying pan (Ta.lex.)

3493.Landed property; moist soil: ji_va_l land granted (OSi.)(CDIAL 5251). jiol always moist, as soil; jiar. id., retentive of life; noa sod.ok jiar.gea the bottom of this ravine is always moist; jiar. khet kana it is a field that is always moist (Santali.lex.) ks.i abode; ks.ita_ the earth; ks.iti the earth; a dwelling, an abode, a house; ks.it ruling, a ruler (Skt.lex.) ks.iti an abode; the earth (Skt.Ka.); earth, soil; a field; a certain high number, kharva (Ka.lex.) ji_vala living, full of life (AV. vi.59.3); ji_va_ livelihood (AV. xix.69.1)(Vedic.lex.)

3494.Image: a horn: ks.idra a horn (Skt.lex.) ji_va-vis.a_n.a horn of a living animal (A_pGS. xxiii.6)(Vedic.lex.) cinnan:ga_l.e, jinaga_l.e a small ka_l.e or trumpet usually blow in pairs by one person (Ka.lex.) ci_ni-va_dya a pipe played by Muslims (Tu.lex.) cin-n-am a kind of trumpet (Tiruva_ca. 7,7); cin-n-amu_ti royal herald who proclaims by trumpet king's commands to his army (Cilap. 8,13, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

3495.Image: wolf: cenna-na_ya a wolf (Tu.lex.)

3496.A game: cenne a kind of game with cowries; cenne-mane a board with two rows of seven pits with which the game is played (Tu.lex.)

3497.Image: fish: jhin:ga_, jhi_n:ga_ a shrimp, a cray fish (P.lex.) cinai a large sea-fish (Kantapu. E_ma. 25)(Ta.lex.) jiol hako a species of fish (Santali.lex.)

3498.Image: sieve: jinjri a kind of fish trap, lattice work, pierced with holes as a sieve; jhimbri a fish trap made of finely split bamboo; this trap is baited and set. It has a small door which a fish can push open to admit of its entering, but which cannot be opened to afford egress (Santali.lex.)

3499.Wares, goods: jinasu, jinisu, ji_nasu, dinasu, dinisu, dinusu an artlcle; wares, goods; a thing in general (Ka.); jinnasa (M.H.); jinissu (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Property, article: jinis a thing, an article, property, goods, wealth; bese jinis akata he has gathered much wealth; mitt.an. jinis akguin calak kana I am going to bring a certain article (Santali.lex.) jins articles, goods, merchandise, moveables; grain, corn (P.lex.) cf. jina, jinisu, jinusu, ji_nasu, dinasu, dinisu, dinusu an artlcle; wares, goods; a thing in general (Ka.); jinnasa (M.H.); tinuju (Te.); jinissu (Ma.); jindagi, jindaga_ni, jindagi_n.i goods and chattels, one's estate; articles of property and animals as distinguished from lands (Ka.M.H.); jindaga_n.i_ (M.H.); jindaga_ni (Te.)(Ka.lex.) jinos, jinsa_ manner; yeka jinsa_tso uniform, the same (Kon.lex.) jinsa_ various, of all kinds (Kon.lex.) ja_ne, da_ni, da_ne what pron. (Tu.lex.)

3500.Grain: jinasi, dinasi grain (Ka.lex.) tin-ai Italian millet, cereal, setaria italicum (Kalit. 108,33); a very small measure, as a grain of millet; a trifle (Kur-al., 10); tin-aippun-am millet field; tin-aiyarici husked millet (Pata_rtta. 831); tin-ai-yal.avu very small quantity, as much as a grain of millet (Kur-al., 1282, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cinni minute particles of togari given as food to cattle (Ka.); cu_n.a husks and fragments given as food to cattle (M.)(Ka.lex.)

3501.Family, race: jins genus, kind; species; family, race (P.lex.) jinis genus, kind, speceis, sort, condition; dhalu jinis benaome make it sloping; oka jinisten calaka? how shall I go? (in a straight line, or round about, or how?) (Santali. lex.) tin-icu < jinis (U.) kind, sort, grade (Tailava. Taila. 22) (Ta.lex.)

3502.Fee; fine: je~o fee, in paddy, paid to blacksmith, barber etc. (Santali.lex.) jayati to pillage, rob, to overpower; For semant. 'rob' cf. janti in jantiya_ (for ja_niya_) = ha_ni abandonment, giviing up, payment, fine; ja_ni deprivation, loss, confiscation of property; plundering, robbery; using force, ill-treatment (Pali.lex.) ji_na [pp. of ji_yati] diminished, wasted, having lost; robbed of their possessions; ji_na_dhana_ (Pali.lex.)

3503.Wife: jani wife = gna_ (RV. i.85.1); jani-ka_ma wishing for a wife (AV. ii.30.5); janiyati seeks a wife (AV. xiv.2.72); jani-vant married (RV. v.44.7); jani_ woman, a daughter-in-law; jani_yant (RV. iv.17.16); ja_ya_ wife (RV. i.66.5)(Vedic.lex.) ja_ni wife; ja_nipatayo pl. wife and husband; ja_yampatika_, ja_ya_pati_ pl. wife and husband; ja_ya_, ja_yika_ [from jan] wife; janani_ mother; janetti_ mother [genitor (Eng.); genetrix; Skt. janitri_] petti-janetti_, pitri-janetti_ (Pali.lex.)

3504.To accumulate: cina_ti [Skt. cinoti, cayati, ci, to which also ka_ya; cf. caya, cita] to heap up, to collect, to accumulate; inf. cinitun; pp. cita; pass. ci_yati] caus. cina_peti to construct, to build; cina_ti to weave (?vina_ti); pacinati to pick, pluck, gaher, take up, collect, accumulate; ci_yati to be gathered, to be heaped up; cita heaped; line or faced with (Pali.lex.) chin.n to arrange, pile up, lay (bricks); chin.a_i_ laying bricks, arranging; compensation for brick laying (P.lex.)

3505.Performed: cin.n.a done, performed, practised; su-cin.n.a well performed, accomplished; cin.n.a-vasin one who has reached mastership; cin.n.atta custom, habit (Pali.lex.) ci_rn.a done, performed, observed; studied, repeated (Skt.lex.)

3507.Lineage; life, livelihood: cinparco to establish relationship by declaring name and lineage; cinha monda, cinha munda, cin mun.d. vestige, proof; a portion, a horn, a hoof etc. of an animal, which has been devoured by wild beasts rescued and shown to the owner as proof thereof; cinman ho~ ban. namok kana not a vestige even is forthcoming (to show that the animal has been devoured by wild beasts); cinha, cin a sign, a mark; cikhna a sign, a mark, a remembrance, a memento; horok cikhna to betroth; cikhnawakme mark it; uni hor. do noa khan.d.a cikhnai doho ot.o adina he left this thing with me as a memento; horok to put on the person, as a coat, ring, earrings, bracelets, a hat etc. horok cikhna betrothal ceremony; horok den:ganak, horok bandenak clothes in general (Santali.lex.) cf. cihna mark, spot, stamp, symbol; emblem, badge, symptom; stamp, print, impression; cihnita marked, signed, stamped, bearing the badges of an office (Skt.lex.) jin.i, jin.iye, ji_n. life (time of life); ji_vit life; jin.iye bora_p biography (Kon.lex.) cf. ji_n. life (WPah.); jiuni livelihood (Or.)(CDIAL 5243). jantu [Vedic jantu] a creature, living being, man, person; janati to (be able to) produce; ji_vati [Vedic ji_vati; Dhp. 282; Lat. vi_vo; Goth. ga-quiunan; MHG. quicken; Eng. quicken] to live, be alive, live by, subsist on; imper. pres. ji_va very frequently with ciran live long..., as a salutation ad thanksgiving; ciran ji_va, ciran ji_va_hi, ciran ji_vantu; ppr. ji_van, ji_vama_na; inf. ji_vitun; ji_vare; ji_vana, ji_va_na living, means of subsistence, livelihood; ji_vama_naka living, alive; ji_vika_ living, livelihood; ji_vika_n kappeti to find or get one's living; ji_vita (individual) life, lifetime, span of life; living, livelihood; ji_vita-da_na the gift of life, saving or sparing life; ji_vin living, leading a life (of...) (Pali.lex.) jan janwar a living creature, an animal; janwar an animal; bir janwar a wild animal; ato janwar a domesticated animal; jivi life, soul (Santali.lex.) jin.da_ < zin.dagi_ (Pers.) life, life-time (P.lex.) jin.jara_ra_ the ceremony of second marriage of a woman (P.lex.)

3508.Image: stubble: jin.dh, jin.dha_ the stubble in a cornfield (P.lex.)

3509.Image: quickness: cin:gi cin:gir quickly, briskly, nimbly (Santali.lex.)

3510.Image: a partridge: ji_van-ji_vaka, ji_vaji_vaka, ji_vaji_vaka onom. name of a bird, a sort of pheasant (or partridge?) which utters a note sounding like ji_van ji_va; ji_vanji_ven.a gacchai ji_vanji_venan cit.t.hai [Jain phrase translated as: 'living he goes with life' or 'he goes like the bird?'] (Pali.lex.) jion the tailor bird; jian., jiam id., orthotomus sutorius, so called from its note (Santali.lex.) chin.agi_ a kind of partridge; chi_n. chi_n. a scream, a shriek (P.lex.)

3511.Intelligence: cinnidhi, cinnidha_na a treasure of intelligence; cinmaya, cinumaya intelligence; cf. chit (Skt.) (Ka.lex.) ja_na adj. knowing,knowable, understandble [to ja_; cf. ja_na_ti to know (Pali); nosco, notus, (i)gnarus (Lat.); i-gnorant (Eng.); kunnan (Gothic); kennan (OHG.); ena_wan to know (Ags.); cf. Vedic roots ja_na_ti, ja_na_ti]; ja_nana knowledge, cognizance, recognition, intelligence; vija_na understanding (Pali.lex.) ja_n.e a skilful person m. and f. (Tu.lex.)

3513.Ghost: jinn one of the genii, a ghost; jinnat < jannat (Arabic) paradise, heaven (P.lex.) jin a spirit, a ghost; jiu id. this is usually inanimate, except when supposed to appear; t.hakur jiu the god spirit, creator spirit; sonot jiu the holy spirit (Santali.lex.)

3519.Polish: sapa_yi polish, gloss (Ka.); sapha_i_ (M.H.); sapa_yi smoothness; cleanness, neatness, elegance (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

3520.White: saphedu white or clear and bright white (Ka.); saphe_ta, saphe_da (M.H.0; saphe_ta_ ceruse or white lead (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

3521.Image: bird trap: jampa generic term for certain bird traps (Mu.); jha_pa_ (H.); campa_ (Oraon)(cf. Pl.VI.)(Mu.lex.)

3522.To manage: samba_l.isu, sama_l.isu to manage, to use address in bringing about a purpose (Ka.); sambal.incu, samba_l.incu (Te. <); sambha_lna_ (H.); samba_l.isu to support, to preserve, to take care of, to uphold (Ka.); sambha_l.an.e_m. (M.)(Ka.lex.) sambal.a, sambala pay, salary (monthly or yearly)(Ka.); sambal.adava a man who receives a monthly or yearly pay (Ka.lex.)

3523.Mutter; pray: jalp mutter (Skt.); jalpa talk (MBh.); jappa muttering esp. prayers and incantations (Pali.Pkt.); ja_p muttering, incantation (Ku.N.B.); ja_pa (Or.); ja_p (H.P.G.); utterance, petition to an idol (M.)(CDIAL 5162). jalpati mutters (S'Br.); jappati (Pali); jalpita, jalpidemi (NiDoc.); jappai, jam.pai speaks, talks, abuses (Pkt.); jam.ph, japh (Khot.); zapun to pray (K.); ja_pab to mutter, recite (Mth.); ja_pn.e~, ja~_pn.e~ to tell, say, cry out (in confession or promise)(M.); dapanava_ to utter incantations (Si.)(CDIAL 5163). jalpi muttering (of prayers)(RV.); low-voiced speech (AV.); jam with, esp. good wish, blessing; jan curse (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5164). capam recitation of mantras, prayer (Piramo_t. Civayo_ki. 4); capatam < s'apatha asseveration by oath, vow (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 57)(Ta.lex.) To declare, say; incantation: jon.u, pres. part. juto to say (WPah.); jap mutter (Skt.); japati mutters (RV.); mumbles, recites (Pali); javai (Pkt.); zi declarative conjunction annexing substance of a speech, etc. to the principal sentence (lit. 'having said')(K.)(CDIAL 5120). capittal < s'ap to curse, utter an imprecation (Uttarara_. Tikkuvi. 94); capittal < jap to recite, as mantras; to pray; ca_pam curse, imprecation (Kampara_. Akalikai. 7); ca_pa-mo_can-am deliverance or release from a curse (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Tiriku_t.amalai. 46)(Ta.lex.) japita muttered (MBh.); javia id.; recitation (Pkt.); zo_ it was said (K.); jou~ what was said (WPah.); divi vow, oath (Si.)(CDIAL 5121). zapun (pp. of zo_ < japita) to say (K.); zabunu, zabn.o_ (K.)(CDIAL 5123). con--a_n-am (col +) words of wisdom (Na_lat.i, 311); con--makal. Sarasvati_, as the goddess of speech (Pu. Ve. 9,48, Urai.); con--mat.antai id. (Pu. Ve. Kat.avul.. 1); con--ma_lai encomium, eulogy, praise; laudatory poem, panegyric (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,1); cor-r-a_mam (col + ta_mam < da_man rope, string) id. (Tirut. Pu. Ca_. 43)(Ta.lex.) col word, term (Tol. Col. 158); saying, speech (Na_lat.i, 100); proverb, maxim (Cilap. 20, Ven.pa_.); declaration, promise, assurance (Kampara_. Kukap. 15); praise, encomium, panegyric (Kur-al., 387); id. (Ma.); incantation (Pu. Ve. 12, Ven-r-ip. 9); curse (Kampara_. Ta_t.akai. 72); command, direction (Kampara_. Nakarni_n:ku. 140); Sarasvati_, as goddess of speech (Tol. Col. 57, Ce_n-a_.)(Ta.); collutal to say, speak, tell, mention, utter, express (Kur-al., 664); to recite, repeate, relate, quote (Ta.); to inform (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,9,7); to praise (Kampara_. Ma_ri_ca. 73); collatika_ram section dealing with etymology (Tol.); col-l-ilakkan.am etymology; cor--porul.-virittal elaborating the etymological significance of a word in a treatise, one of 32 utti (Nan-. 14); collar-pa_t.u speaking, mentioning (Tol. Po. 310, Urai.); colla_t.u to speak, talk (Kur-al., 405); colavu saying, telling (Mutu. Ka_. 87); colle_r-ur..uva lit. those who plough with words; king's ministers (Kur-al, 872); col-vakai classification of words into parts of speech (Nan-. 21); col-van-mai eloquence, command of language (Kur-al., 65, Ati.); cor--cer-ivu wealth of words (Cilap. 3,67, Urai.); cor--patam state of being described in words (Tiruvil.ai. Varakun.a. 23); implication, suggestion (Tirukko_. 61); cor--pa_t.u agreement, mutual understanding (Te_va_. 677,7); cor-pu speaking, saying (Kampara_. Nakarni_. 16); cor-r-al saying, telling (Kampara_. Por..ilir-ut. 58)(Ta.lex.) cf. col (colv-/colluv-, colli-) to say, speak (Ta.); col word, command, advice, praise, fame; colluka (colli-, conn-), celluka to say, declare, order; collikka to cause to say, repeat, read (Ma.); col command (Ko.); sol, sollu to say, speak, tell; n. word; sollisu to say, speak, tell; cause oneself to be said, be said, cause to speak, have said or told (Ka.); colli name (Kod..); cul- to say (Pa.); jo_l-, jo_linai to speak; jo_lali to answer; jo_lki aiyali to discuss, talk; jolpu speech (Kuwi)(DEDR 2855). Praise: s'la_ghate_ values (S'Br.); vaunts (A_past.); praises (MBh.); sila_ghati praises (Pali); sala~_hai, la_hai, ger. sila_han.ijja-, sa_han.i_a- (Pkt.); sara_han.u, sa_ra_han.u (S.); sala_hn.a_, sara_hun.a_, sra_uhna_ (P.); sar(h)a_unu to thank; sar(h)a_inu to be praised (N.); sara_hai praises (OAw.); sara_hna_ (H.); sara_i (OMarw.); sara_hvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12734). s'la_ghya to be praised (MBh.); saggha praiseworthy (Pkt.); sara_hi_ admirable, charming (G.)(CDIAL 12737). s'la_ghana boasting (MBh.); sala_han.a praise (Pkt.); sarha_ni, sara_ni (N.); sara_han (H.)(CDIAL 12735). sala_ha_, sila_ha_, sa_ha_ praise (Pkt.); s'la_gha_ boasting, praise (MBh.); sa_ra_ha (S.); sara_h (H.G.)(CDIAL 12736). Sound; cry, shout, voice: s'ravas renown (RV.); sound (BhP.); sava renown (Pkt.); s.o information (Ash.); s.u_ (Pr.Kt.); sova singing (Si.)(CDIAL 12689). s'ra_va hearing (Skt.); s'ra_vaka a sound audible from afar (Skt.); ca_ cry, shout, voice (Wg.)(CDIAL 12696). ca_ voice, cry, call (Ash.); ca_ la_ to call (Ash.); ca_ li- to call out (Pr.); ca_ kro~i called out (Wg.)(CDIAL 14823). cf. car-r-u (ca_r-r-i-) to publish, announce, explain in detail, speak, praise; n. proclaiming, declaring, sound (Ta.)(DEDR 2486).

3524.Canopy: cappara, capra a frame thrown over houses to form the roof (Ka.Te.); chappara (M.); cappara a shed (Ka.Ma.Te.); a temporary hut (M.); a court-yard (Ka.); a thatched or tiled roof (Ka.M.Te.Ma.); a trellis (Ka.Te.); the canopy of a bedstead (Ka.Te.Ta.Ma.M.); cappara-maca a canopied bedstead; nad.a-cappara, nad.e-cappara a litter with a canopy over it (Ka.lex.)

3525.Insipid: cappai that which is insipid or tasteless; capp-en-al onom. expr. signifying insipidity; cappat.t.ai flatness, emptiness, hollowness (Ta.); cappat.t.a vapid, flat, insipid (Ma.); cap, capi.l.y tastelessness of broth without salt (Ko.); cappage, sappage, sappane flat, vapid, insipid, full, inert; insipidity, etc.; cappe, sappe flatness, insipidness, state of being spiritless, dull, flat, inert, etc. (Ka.); cappe tasteless, insipid (Kod..); cappat.u tasteless, insipid, bad, worthless; capp tasteless, unsavoury; jaul., jemb tasteless, insipid (Tu.); cappa tasteless, insipid, vapid, flat, dull; cappa~ga_ tastelessly, insipidly; cappana tastelessness, insipidity; cappani tasteless, insipid, flat, dull; cappid.i insipid, tasteless, saltless (Te.); sappe tasteless, insipid (Nk.); capre id. (Pa.); sapre id.; sapre_t.i, sapra_, sappan id. (Ga.); sapra insipid (Kond.a); hapili, hapli id., saltless (Kuwi); capat.a arasah- (Skt.); sapak insipid, unsavory, wanting the requisite saltness or sweetness (M.); cappo flat, insipid (Konkan.i)(DEDR 2337). cappo insipid, without salt; cappepon. insipidity (Kon.lex.)

3526.Shoe: ceruppu sandal, slipper, shoe (Ta.); cerippu id. (Ma.); kevr id. (Ko.); kerf id. (To.); kera, keravu, kerahu, kerpu id. (Ka.); ceppu id. (Te.); kerri shoe (Kol.Nk.); boot (Nk.); keri (pl. -gu), kerig shoe, slipper (Nk.); cerup, cerpu sandal (Pa.); serpum, sarpum, sarpo, sarpu (pl. -hk), herpunj, harpunj (pl. harpusk), erpunj (pl. erpusk), erpum shoe, sandal (Go.); sepu shoe (Kond.a); seppu, seppu_ shoe; cepunga sandals (Kuwi); kharpa_ straps (without sole) crossed over and worn round the ankle (Kur.); cappu_, cappal sandal, capora_ (H.)(DEDR 1963).

3527.Recommendation: s'ipa_rasu recommendation; patronage (Ka.Te.); s'ipha_rasa (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

3528.Image: oyster-shell: simpe, simpi, cimpi [Tadbhava of s'impa_ (M.)] an oyster shell; simpi a pearl-oyster etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cippi shell (Ta.); s'ippi (Pkt.); s'ukti (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) simpi, simpye shell (of fishes); kongo shell of molluscs; simpi ka_d. to shell (Kon.lex.) Shell: khubo, khubea_ a kind of shell-fish (Kon.lex.) kirpi shell (Mand..); kirpa_, girpa skull (Kuwi); kipra a snail's shell (Pa.); kipri shell (of snail, etc.); skull (Pe.)(DEDR 1555). [cf. Image: oyster shell kil.incil oyster-shell, bivalve, mussel (Ta.); kil.ici a shell-fish (Ma..); kil.iil oyster shell (Ma.)(DEDR 1585).] sippi_, sippika_ pearl oyster (Pali); sippi_ (Pkt.); sipa (S.); sipp shell (L.); sippi_ shell, spathe of date palm; sip, sippi_ bivalve shell (L.); sipp, sippi_ shell, conch (P.); si_p, si_pi shell (Ku.); sipi shell, snail shell (N.); sipa oyster shell, mother-of-pearl, shells burnt for lime (Or.); si_pi_ mussel shells for lime (Bi.); si_pa bivalve shell (OAw.); si_p (H.); half an oyster shell (G.); chi_p shell (G.); s'i_p, s'i~p a half shell (M.); sippiya oyster shell (Si.); s'i~pa_ oyster shell (M.)(CDIAL 13417). ippi pearl-oyster, shell (Ta.); cippi shell, shellfish, coconut shell for measuring out curds (Ta.); ippi, cippi oyster shell (Ma.); cippu, sippu, cimpi, cimpe, simpi, simpu, simpe oyster shell, mussel, cockle, a portion of the shell of a cocnut, skull, a pearl oyster; cippi coconut shell (Ka.); cippi coconut shell, oyster shell, pearl; tippi, sippi coconut shell (Tu.); cippa a shell; (kobbari cippa) coconut shell; (mo_ka_li cippa) knee-pan, patella; (tala cippa) skull; (muttepu cippa) mother-of-pearl (Te.); ipi shell, conch (Go.)(DEDR 2535).

3529.Image: crawfish: coppo_, coppo_ injo_ crawfish (Kur.); cope-minu cuttlefish (Malt.)(DEDR 2848).

3530.Treasure; image: casket; a swift canoe; image: a libation pot: sip libation pot; chip a kind of swift canoe (B.)(CDIAL 13417). ceppu casket, little box of metal, ivory or wood, a kind of water-vessel, toy utensil (Ta.); a small round box of any material to hold jewelry, metal cover of the breasts, treasure (Ma.); ceppi small round metal box with lid (Kod..)(DEDR 2772). For semant. 'swift' cf. ks.ipra springing (of a bow)(RV.); quick (S'Br.); ks.ipram. quickly (AV.); chippa (Pkt.); khippa (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 3688). cappuna quickly, at once, promptly (Te.); japne, jhap, jappe, japi quickly (Go.); capna_ (cappyas) to hurry (Kur.)(DEDR 2336).

3531.Red colouring arnotto: Bixa orellana: latkan (H.B.); sinduri (Skt.); shendi (M.); japhar (Ta.Te.); fruit: astringent, purgative; root bark: antiperiodic, antipyretic; seeds: cordial, astringent, febrifuge, good remedy for gonorrhea, antiperiodic, antipyretic; leaves: in jaundice and snake-bite; colouring matter, bixin; habitat: cultivated to a small extent in Mysore and is grown in Indian gardens as a hedge plant; occurs as an escape in Travancore, Coromandel and Malabar coasts and in some districts of Bombay, Bengal and Assam (GIMP, p.38). The seeds are used locally for colouring food. The colouring matter of the fruit, annatto, is employed commercially for colouring butter and in the preparation of various polishes for russet leather. According to Burkill, the roots impart to meat the taste and colour of saffron. A fairly good fiber may be obtained from the bark. Etti reports that the colouring matter in the seeds is bixin. The leaves and dye are official in the Dutch and Mexican pharmacopoeias... The red, resinous substance of the seeds is considered an efficient remedy for certain skin diseases... The leaves are a popular febrifuge in Cambodia. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp.623-624).

3532.Root of lotus: s'ipha_-kanda the root of a water lily, karaha_t.a: the bulbous root of a lotus (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

3533.Image: boa constrictor: sabara ban.igi ha_vu the rock-snake, the boa constrictor, python molorus (Ka.lex.)

3534.Image: spear: sabal.a (Tatsama) a spear, a lance, a pike; pra_sa, kunta, konta, d.on:kan.i; i_t.t.i (Ka.lex.)

3535.Anethum panmorium: sabbasige a sort of fennel, anethum panmorium; s'a_le_ya, s'i_tas'iva, bhatre; a sort of dill or fennel, anethum sowa; s'atapus.pe; sadaguppe, sada_pa (Ka.lex.)

3536.Sago: sabbu sago (Ka.); sa_gu, sa_gu_ (M.H.); saggu, sabbu (Te.); cavvu (Te.); sabbakki sago (Ka.); cavvarici (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. yava barley (Skt.lex.)

3537.Soap: saba, sabu, sabbu, cavu soap (Ka.); sa_ban.a, sa_bu_ (H.M.); s'a_bu_n (Arab.); cau, sabbu (Te.); cavu (Ta.); cava (Ma.); cavu-ka_ra country-made of European soap (Ka.Ta.Te.)(Ka.lex.) sa_bu, sa_ba_ soap (Kon.lex.)

3538.Image: all sorts of beasts: s'aba all sorts of beasts; na_na_mr.gan:gal.; akhilamr.ga (Ka.lex.) saba_r many, much (Kon.lex.) s'abali a spotted cow; the ka_madhe_nu (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) s'amb, samb to collect, heap together (Skt.lex.) capa_ka_riyam business transacted by an assembly (T.A.S. i,249); capikar < sabhika members of an assembly (Ta.); capai < sabha_ assembly, meeting, congregation, society, association (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) campam < jambha (M.) < d.ambha ostentation, show, it.ampam (Ta.lex.) sabbava an assembly, a gathering; mirth, jest, fun (Ka.); sabban.d.u a jumble, omnium gatherum (Ka.lex.) capja_t.a_ < sa_fja_d.a_ completely (Ta.lex.) capa_can-am < sabha_jana honour done to a person (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) capaiya_r members of an assembly or society; a class of vad.ama brahmins (G.Tj.D. I,78)(Ta.lex.) Assessor: sabha_ assembly, hall (RV.); council (MBh.); assembly room; sabha_ya (Pali); sabha_, saha_ assembly (Pkt.); sabaya assembly, council (Si.)(CDIAL 13167). sabhika keeper of a gambling house (Ya_j.); sahia gambler (Pkt.); sahia_r keeper of a gambling house (Mth.)(CDIAL 13170). sabhya being in an assembly (AV.); polite (Skt.); assessor, judge (Mn.); a-sabbha unrefined (Pali); sabbha- assessor (Pkt.); sa_bhd.a_, sa_bd.a_, sa_bhl.a_, sa_bl.a_ plain, simple, of unobstrusive manners (M.)(CDIAL 13171). sa_bha_r place-name in Dacca district (B.)(CDIAL 13172). subha_ a province; the governor of a subha_ (M.H.); sube id. (Ka.); sube_da_ra the chief native officer of a taluk (Ka.); a native officer in the army (Ka.lex.) suba_- province (Arabic); suba_da_r Indian military officer whose rank corresponds to that of captain (U.); id. (R.T.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) sabha_ gathering for deliberation, sacrifice or gambling (RV. viii.4.9); sabha_ga going into an assembly (ChUp.); sabha_-vant with kith and kin (RV. iv.2.5; RV. i.167.3); sabha_vin keeper of a gambling-house (TBr. iii.4.16); sabha_-sad sitting in an assembly; sabha_-sa_ha superior in an assembly (RV. x.71.10); sabha_-stha_n.u one who sits like a post at a gambling table (VS. xxx.18); one who sits like a post on a gambling table (TBr. iii.4.16) (Vedic.lex.) ?sap to serve or honour a god, obtain the favour of a god (RV. ix.97.3; RV. vii.83.8); to perform a holy rite (RV. i.67.8); tended (RV. vii.43.4); cherishing or fostering r.ta; attentive, obedient; to cohabit (VS. xxxvii.20)(Vedic.lex.)

3539.Image: procession: s'abagastu = saragastu nocturnal procession, especially of a marriage (Ka.); s.abgas.t (H.)(Ka.lex.) sa_va_ procession (Kon.lex.)

3540.Wild lodhra: s'abara-lo_dhra the wild lodhra tree (Skt.lex.)

3541.Diviner, priest: supar.i holy; vowed, devoted (Kui); supari ma.s diviner, priest; supari shaman (Kol.)(DEDR 2671).

3542.Soup: su_pa soup, broth (MBh.); broth, curry (Pali); su_pika cook (Pali); supa, su_pa curry (As'.); su_va split lentils (Pkt.); su_ soup, sauce (Si.)(CDIAL 13571). su_paka_ra cook (MBh.Pali); su_aya_ra (Pkt.); sua_r menial cook employed in a sacrificial ceremony (WPah.); cook (H.M.); sua_ra cook (Or.H.); sua_ra_ (A.); su_a_ra (OG.); suvaru (Si.)(CDIAL 13572). suwi_, su_ soup (Wg.); su_pya suitable for soup (Car.); su_pi_ya id. (Pa_n..gan.a.); chop a sauce or relish (N.)(CDIAL 13573). s'rapayati heats (VS.); cooks (AitBr.); makes sweat (Skt.); s'rapyate_ is cooked (S'Br.); s'rapun to be digested (K.); hapun to become exhausted or worn out by delay (K.)(CDIAL 12681). s.e_ to boil (Kt.); sein.u to cook by steaming (S.)(CDIAL 12681). Broth; leaf: cop broth made of plants, plants used in making broth (Ko.); sup leaves (To.); cappala leaf (Kod..); coppu, soppu, tappu leaf, foliage, greens (Tu.)(DEDR 2673).

3543.Liquor: sura_ spirituous liquor (RV.Pali.Pkt.); su_r (WPah.M.); su_ra (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13503). Gruel: juru gruel (Kuwi); surpu re'- to suck in, slurp, eat food noisily (Kuwi); surupna_ (surpyas) to drink with a noisy sucking of the lips (Kur.); sur-, sur-a the sound produced when supping liquids; sur-i to drink with a supping noise (Ka.); sur-uku the sound produced by supping (Ka.); juru juru the sound produced when a child sucks with force (Ka.); juri to sip (Je_nu Kuruba); surasurane drinking liquids wih a sipping noise (Tu.); jur-r-a a soup of liquid or semi-liquid food (Te.); jur-r-u to drink, sip or sup with a noise, as a liquid or semi-liquid food (Te.); curpip to suck (Nk.); zur-i (-t-) to suck up (any liquid food with a noise)(Kond.a); suru-suru-ka_rakam after the manner of making hissing sounds when eating (Pali)(DEDR 2712). Vegetal sugar: curra_ vegetal sugar, sweet juice which drops from mango flowers or from the new leaves of sa_l tree (Kur.); cure birdlime, gum (Malt.)(DEDR 2711). cu_r pungency (Ta.); bad smell (Ma.)(DEDR 2726).

3544.To smear with oil: cuppa oily (Pkt.); coppad.a ghee, oil; coppad.ai makes greasy; covvad.ai, copphucca greasy (Pkt.); copar.an. to smear with oil or butter (L.); copar. grease; cupr.a_un.a_ to smear with oil (P.); copr.i_ greasy (L.); copar. oil, ghee; cupr.o oily; cupar. smooth (Ku.); tel-cupar anointing with oil; cupa_rnu to smear with oil (N.); supi oil vessel (A.); cu_par., copar. oil, grease, butter; cupar.na_, cuparna_ to smear with oil (H.); copr.u~ greasy; copar.vu~ to besmear (G.); copad. greasy; n. ghee, butter, oil (M.)(CDIAL 4865). savaru to rub in or apply to (as water, oil, medicine, polish or ashes), convey with a stick, knife, etc., any sticky substance to a vessel by rubbing the substance off on its brim; savarisu to have applied to, etc. (Ka.); camuru oil, any oily or unctuous substance; (also carumu) to smear, daub, rub as with an oil, etc., apply; javaru to apply, put on (medicine, etc.); (inscr.) samaru ghee (Te.)(DEDR 2389). tuvvu to eat, enjoy; n. food, gratification of the senses, enjoyment, experience (Ta.); tuppu food, ghee; tuppam ghee (Ta.); tuppa ghee (Ka.)(DEDR 3282). tuppa greasy, smeared with ghee; n. ghee (Pkt.); tuppia, tuppavia, tuppalia smeared with ghee; uttupiya oily (Pkt.); tu_p ghee (G.M.); tupat. oily (M.); tr.pra (RV.) = puro_d.a_s'a (Sa_y.); ghee (Skt.)(CDIAL 5864). Curds: chop cheese (Dm.); churba (Khot.); phyurba prob. cheese (Tib.)(CDIAL 13729). co_t cheese (Phal.)(CDIAL 13730). kojapu sour milk, curds; kujelu, in: nirkujelu to curdle, coagulate (Tu.); korop, korrop, kurrop, korrup buttermilk (Go.)(DEDR 2162). kajali to be congealed, become curdled (Kuwi)(DEDR 1102).

3545.Talk: sappal.a, sappul., soppal., soppul., soppul.a a sound, a noise (Ka.); cappud.u id., cappud.incu to make a noise (Te.)(DEDR 2333). gaph, gapas joke (K.); gapp tittle-tattle (P.); gappi_ boaster (P.); gaph absurd news (Ku.); gaph tittle-tattle; gapphar boaster (N.); gap boast (A.); gappa tittle-tattle (B.); gapa (Or.); gap (H.G.M.)(CDIAL 4022).

3546.Relationship or connection by marriage: plos'u_r father-in-law (Gaw.); pas'u_r father-in-law (Wg.); psu_r (Bashg.); pas'ur (Dm.); is'pas'ur (Kal.Kho.)(CDIAL 12753). is'pairi_ wife's brother; paeri_ wife's or husband's brother (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12757). is'pas'i husband's or wife's mother (Dm.); s'ips (Ash.); ispre_s (Kal.); is'pres.i (Kho.); pais. (Tor.); pras', pras. (Sv.); pres. (Phal.)(CDIAL 12759). podu relationship or connexion by marriage; podde a relative, kindred; podv a relative (Tu.); podal (pl. podasil) mother-in-law (Kol.); podal. id.; podn (pl. podl) father-in-law; pod(d)a mother-in-law (Nk.); podal (pl. podacil) wife's elder sister; podid (pl. podinkul) wife's elder brother (Pa.); po_dal mother-in-law; podund. father-in-law (Ga.); po_r.a_l, po_ra_r., po_ya_r, po_y, po_yar. mother-in-law, wife's mother; po_ra_r., po_ye mother-in-law; po_ye father's sister (Go.); potlen (pl. potku) father-in-law; po_da mother-in-law (Pe.); putlen father-in-law; pu_dar. mother-in-law (Mand..); po_ra wife's elder sister; potad.eenju, potad.enju (pl. potka) father-in-law (Kui); poiya (pl. poiyasika), po_ya mother-in-law; po_tlesi (pl. potka), potheleesi, potle'esi (pl. potka) father-in-law; potleyu wife's father; po_ra wife's mother (Kuwi); putalvan- son; putalvi daughter (Ta.)(DEDR 4508). s'vas'ura husband's father (RV.); wife's father (Skt.); husband's or wife's father (Skt.); s'vas'uraka a poor or dear father-in-law (Skt.); sasura father-in-law (Pali); sasura, susura (Pkt.); sasura (D..); s'ipasu (Ash.); cestyr, cre (Kt.); cj (Pr.); sxar (Tir.); ( -m = my) s'airi_, s'airiem, s'airie_m, s'i_riem, sansura_, s'es'ura, s'e_riem, s'e_rem (Pas'.); s'a_s'urem (Shum.); s'u_s'ur (Bshk.); s'azo (Tor.); xwu_r (Mai.); s'ur (Sv.); s'u_r (Phal.); s'aiur, s'a_ir, s'e_r (Sh.); hihuru (K.); sahuro (S.); sauhra_, saura_ (L.); sahura_ (P.); sasur (H.); s'ohur, s'aura_ (WPah.); sasur, saur, sauro, hauro (Ku.); sasuro (N.); xahar (A.); sasar (B.); sasura (Or.); sasur (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); susar, susra_ (H.); sauhra_ (WH.); susara (OG.); sasro (G.); sa_sra_ (M.); sosro (Konkan.i); suhuru (Si.); feminines formed from s'vas'ura- for his wife: sasuri_ (Pali); s'eri_, sansuri_, saseri_, sa(n)suri_, s'a~_s'uri_ mother-in-law (Pas'.); s'a_s'uri (Shum.); s'ers' (Wot..); sahuri_ (P.); susri_ (H.)(CDIAL 12753). hohawuru, ho_wuru wife's father's house (K.); saure father-in-law's house (L.)(CDIAL 12754). surya_l relatives of a man in whose house a boy's wedding is observed (P.); sorel. kinship (on both father's and mother's side)(WPah.); sasura_s, saura_s father-in-law's house (Ku.); sasura_li wife's father's family and house (N.); sasura_r father-in-law's house (Bi.); id., gaol (because well-fed there)(Mth.); sasura_ri id. (Mth.); susra_l, susra_r, susra_ri_ wife's father's family and house (H.)(CDIAL 12755). s'vas'urya father-in-law's son (Skt.); husband's younger brother (Skt.); s'va_s'urya (Skt.); s'ari_ wife's brother (Mai.); s'a_s'ir (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12757). s'vas'uri_ya belonging to the father-in-law (A_pS'r.); surhe_j father-in-law's house (L.)(CDIAL 12758). s'vas'ru husband's or wife's mother (RV.); sassu_ id. (Pali.Pkt.); sa_su_, sa_suya_, sussu_ (Pkt.); s'as'uy, sas'uy, sasuy (Gypsy); s'us. (D..); s'ips (Ash.); co_der (Wg.); cuc (Kt.); st (Pr.); s'airu_, s'iri_m, s'i_ru_, s'erwo_ (Pas'.); cis' (Bshk.); ico_s. (Mai.); s'as. (Sh.); has' (K.); sasu (S.); sass, sas (L.); sass, sassu_ (P.); s'ikh, s'ikkhu_, s'exu, s'as's'u_, s'as' (WPah.); sa_su_, ha_su_, s'a_s'u (Ku.); sa_su (N.); xa_hu (A.); sa_s, sa_sur.i (B.); sa_su (Or.Mth.OAw.G.); sa_su (Bhoj.); sa_s, sa_su_ (H.); sa_su_ (M.); sa_su_s (Konkan.i); suhuru-hus father-in-law and mother-in-law (OAwi.); suhul (Si.)(CDIAL 12759). s'va_s'ura wife's or husband's brother (Skt.); s'va_s'ura dependent (son, pupil) of father-in-law's grandson (s'va_s'uri-); pertaining to a father-in-law (Skt.); hahar wife's brother (K.); hu_ra_ wife's or husband's brother (Si.); sa_sura father-in-law (Pkt.); sas'tro, sasro, sastro (Gypsy); sa_vre pl. parents-in-law (L.); sa_sur father-in-law (H.); sa_sra_ (M.); sa_sura father-in-law's house (Pkt.); sasura_ father-in-law's house (Bi.); sa_huro pertaining to a father-in-law (S.); pl. his family (S.); sa_hvare pl. his family (L.); sa_hvare~ his house (L.); sa_sur husband's father's house (Mth.); sa_sura father-in-law's house (OAw.); sa_sur, sa_sra_ (H.); sa_sara (OMarw.); sa_sru~, sa_sri_, sa_vriyu~ id. (G.); sa_sriya~_ pl. husband's relatives (G.); sa_su_r, sa_sar, sa_sre~ (M.)(CDIAL 12767). s'va_suri father-in-law's son's son (Skt.); s'a_s'ir husband's brother (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12768).

3547.Flesh, meat: cep, ceppu flesh, meat (Nk.); cep (pl. ceppul) flesh, game (Pa.); seppul (pl.) meat, game (Ga.)(DEDR 2773). Metath. pisita flesh; mansa-pesi_ muscle (Pali.lex.) ciyya flesh, muscle; jigili plump, fleshy (Te.); seg muscle, flesh (Ga.); sikahk flesh (Go.); jey id. (Pe.)(DEDR 2549).

3548.Image: lid: cf. sibbi lid, dish (Te.)(DEDR 2537).

3549.Image: broom: ci_ (-pp-, -tt-) to sweep off, brush away, wipe off, cleanse (Ta.); ci_y (-pp-, -tt-) to sweep; ci_vu (ci_vi-) to sweep clean (as floor), clean (as teeth); ci_kku rubbish; ci_kam-pul, ci_ku, ci_r..ku broom-grass; ci_pra_ a broom (Ta.); cu_l broom, besom (Ma.); ki.p broom (To.); ci_pari id. (Ka.); ci.pe broom made of grass, palm-leaves, etc. (Kod..); tippi to sweep (Kor.); ci~_kili, ci~_puru a broom (Te.); sabdi id. (Kol.Nk.); ce_pid id. (Pa.); se_pet., ce_pe_d., se_pe, se_pe_t. id. (Ga.); saiya_na_, saitta_na_, he_ya_na_, hey, hay, heyy, ey, e_y to sweep; he_pur, hepur, e_por, e_pur broom; hepa_ thysanolaena agrostis (a grass)(Go.); sipa (-t-) to sweep; hipos broom; siper broom (Kond.a); hi_p- (-t-) to sweep; hipos broom (Pe.); he_p- to sweep; he_pur broom (Pe.); se_pa (se_pi-) to sweep; n. sweeping; se_peri broom, brush (Kui); hepali, he_pinai, he_p- (-it-) to sweep; hepori, he_pori, herpori, he_pori (pl. he_porka), hapuri broom (Kuwi); ci~_cna_ to rub with something soft for cleaning or drying, wipe away, dry; ci~_crna_ to wipe off (Kur.); cice to wipe, clean (Malt.)(DEDR 2599).

3550.Straw: coppu straw (Ir.); soppe straw of various kinds of millet (Ka.); coppa straw (Te.); stalk of millet (Kol.)(DEDR 2847).

3551.Image: sitting cross-legged: cappal.am, cappal.a_m, cappan.an:ka_l act of sitting flat and cross-legged; cappal.ittiruttal to sit flat and cross-legged (Ta.lex.) camman.am, cappan.am sitting cross-legged (Ta.); camman.am id. (Ma.)(DEDR 2350). paryastika_ sitting on the hams (Sus'r.); pariyatthi, pallatthi, palhatti squatting position (Pkt.); palthi_ sitting with the feet crossed under the buttocks (S.H.); palatthi_ (L.P.); palathi_ (Mth.); pala~_thi_, palo_t.hi_ (G.)(CDIAL 7939).

3552.Image: thigh: sa~_pr.i_ leg of goat or sheep killed for meat (Ku.); sa~_pro thigh (of animals; only contemptuously of humans)(N.)(CDIAL 12941). cappai hips, haunch, shoulder blade; ceppu hip; appu thigh (Ta.); cappe the hip bone; jabbe the outer side of the thigh (Ka.); jabba shoulder, outer side of the thigh (Te.); jabba shoulder (Pa.); jaba, in: at.a jaba shoulder (Go.); zeba id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2339).

3553.Jaw; jaw-bone: jambha tooth, eye-tooth, tusk; pl. jaws (RV.); jambhya incisor tooth (VS.); pl. jaw (TPra_t.); cam jaw, cheek (Gypsy); jamin. jaws (D..); cham cheek (Gypsy); zami_ back tooth (Ash.); zumpi_ (Wg.); za_mi chin, jaw (Dm.); jam jaw; ja_n-da_n back tooth (Pas'.); ja_mi chin (Phal.); za_mu-da~_t back tooth (A.); jabhr.a_, ja_br.a_ lower jaw-bone, jaw (H.); jabha_ jaw (H.); ja_r.ha (S.); ja_r.h molar (P.)(CDIAL 5137). jabhr.a_, ja_br.a_ jaw-bone, lower jaw (H.); ja~_bha_d., ja_bha_d., ja_ba_d., ja~_bha_d.e~ jaw, cheek (M.)(CDIAL 5139). f. kavil. cheek (Ma.); kaul.u cheek (Tu.); gauda cheek (Te.); gavla, galva jaw (Pa.); ku_lu cheek (Kui)(DEDR 1337). kapola (Ya_j.); kapo_la (Pali); kavo_la (Pkt.); kopola, kopula cheek, jaw (Si.); with metath.: bogul cheek (Tor.)(CDIAL 2755). kavul. jaw of elephant (Pur-ana_. 30,8); cheek (Ta.)(DEDR 1337). Gills; cheek: cen-n.i, cen-n-ai cheek (Ta.); cenni, kenni temple (Ma.); konni cheek (Ma.); cennam jaw, cheek; ceppi cheek (Ma.); cel.l.a id.; cekil.a, cel.ukka, ce_l.a gills (Ma.); keyn. cheek just in front of ear (Ko.); kenne the upper cheek; kekke cheek; kenda_re temples; keppe temple; keppat.e cheek (Ka.); kenni, kenn cheek; kepp, kebbu cheek, temples; keppad. swelling of the cheeks; gebbu temples (Tu.); cekku, cekkili, cen:ka, cempa, cera~_pa cheek; ce_pa cekkulu gills (Te.); cempa temple (Kol.); ko_rwi, kor.wi_, korvi cheek; cempa temple; kreteri, kret.er.i, kert.er.i jaw (Kuwi); kena_ra temples, upper part of cheek; kandola the cheek (of the cheek and temple)(DEDR 1989). kavul. temple of elephant (Kur-al., 678)(Ta.); kavun.d.rasa, kavud.rasa cancer of the cheek (Tu.)(DEDR 1337). cf. calpor.i temple (of head)(Pe.); halpur.i id. (Mand..)(DEDR 2376). Jaw: avud.u, avun.d.u jaw; lower lip (Ka.); avud.u, avd.u under lip (Te.); navt.on chin; navurka lip (Pa.); namut.u, namit.u lower lip (Ta.); ammit.t.am id. (Ma.); laond.a chin (Go.); laut.o_ lips, chin (Kur.); narmat.ha chin (Skt.)(DEDR 3596). Yawning: jr.mbh yawn (Skt.); jr.mbhan.a yawning (Sus'r.); za_mam yawning (K.); ja_mani (WPah.)(CDIAL 5264). jr.mbhate_ yawns (A_s'vGr.); jambhayati opens mouth wide (Pa_n..); hamzembay to bite (Av.); za_mbyn yawn (Oss.); jambhati yawns (Pali); jambhai, jambha_i, jambha_ai, jamha_ai, jim.bhai, jim.bha_ai (Pkt.); jamizoiki to open the mouth, yawn (Sh.); za_mun to yawn (K.); jama_n.o~_ (WPah.); jamaun.o (Ku.); jamha_yal (Bhoj.); ja~bha_na_, jamha_na_ (H.); zomeik to yawn (Kho.); zim (Wkh.)(CDIAL 5265). ja~bha_i_ yawn (H.); jam.bha_ia (Pkt.); za_mai (Dm.); ja_ma_i, ja_ma~_e (Phal.); jamha_i_ (P.H.); jamhai~, jamai~ (Ku.); jama_i (N.)(CDIAL 5266). Tongue: an:gal.a, an:gal.u, an:gul.a, an:gul.i, an:gul.e palate; an:gilu, nan:gilu uvula (Ka.); an:gili palate (Te.); angul, angur.(u) tongue (Nk.); naqlu uvula (Malt.)(DEDR 33). Image: mockery, open-mouthed; having the face turned upwards; yawn: a_kal.isu, a_kul.isu, a_gul.isu to yawn, gape; a_kal.ike, a_kul.ike, a_gal.ike, a_gul.ike yawning, gaping (Ka.); a_vi to gape, yawn, open the mouth so as to express loudly; n. yawn (Ta.); a_vi it.- to yawn (Ma.); a.vaj a yawn (Ko.); o.pl.y- (o.pl.c-) to yawn (To.); a.val.ic- to yawn (Kod..); a_valu a yawn (Tu.); a_v.id.- to yawn (Tu.); a_val.u id. (Kor.); a_valincu, a_vulincu to yawn, gape; a_vulinta a yawn (Te.); a_m-, a_v- to yawn; a_mkud., a_vkud., a_kub a yawn (Pa.); a_m- to yawn; a_mk- id.; a_mkun a yawn (Ga.); a_vi a yawn (Go.); aula'a_na_ to yawn (Kur.); wole id. (Malt.); a_va_ning id. (Br.)(DEDR 392). cf. ka_k- (-t-) to keep open (mouth)(Kond.a); to open (mouth)(Pe.); ka_u ru_ja (ru_ji-) to yawn; n. yawning, a yawn (Kui); ka_wa orjali to yawn; ka_wa breath; ka_'va o_jli- to yawn; ka_kha~_ open-mouthed, gaping (Kuwi)(DEDR 1421). an:ka_ to open the mouth; n. opening the mouth [an:ka_ muyar-ci (Nan-. 86)((Ta.lex.)]; an:ka_ppu opening the mouth (Ta.); anga-v to look upwards (Ko.); anga_ta having the face turned upwards (Ka.); an:ga_vuni to yawn, gape, open the mouth; an:guni to open the mouth (Tu.); angasi a yawn (Kol.); anga_si id. (Nk.); analp to open the mouth wide (Pa.); angal gaping, yawning; alng/alin to open (mouth)(Go.); anla_ id. (Mand..); angalanga with mouth agape, with foolish appearance (Kui); angal angal with one's mouth open (in surprise)(Kur.); angle to gape; anglo open-mouthed (Malt.)(DEDR 34). an.aka mockery, derision, abuse (Ka.); an.akasan.aka quarrelling (Tu.); ad.akincu, an.akincu to ridicule; an.akamu ridicule (Te.); anar.eye to affront, mock (Malt.)(DEDR 111). a_kat.iyam mockery, ridicule, mischief, cruelty (Ta.); a_gad.a sport, jesting, mockery, insult (Ka.); a_gad.amu mischief, wantonness, prankishness (Te.)(DBIA 28). avakat.am mischief, danger (Ma.); avakat.a opposite, contrary (Skt.)(DBIA 23). a.n (a.d.) to open mouth wide; (mouth) is wide open (Ko.)(DEDR 8). Chew: cappe_ti chews (Pali); c.apa_y (Dm.); capoi_ki, capo_nu, capyo_nu (Sh.); c.a_pun to eat (k.); c.opu bite (K.); c.a_pn.u_ to chew (WPah.); capon.o (Ku.); capa_unu, capka_unu (N.); sapanava_, hapanava_ to chew, bite, gnaw, crush (Si.)(CDIAL 4675). cappu (cappi-) to masticate, chew (as betel or tobacco), mumble in eating, munch, sip, suck; cavat.t.u to chew, masticate; cavai to chew, munch, suck mother's milk (Ta.); cappuka to smack the lips, suck, sip, eat whilst working; cava chewing, the sound of it; cavekka to chew; cavaccal chewing (Ma.); cap- (capy-) to suck repeatedly (Ko.); ayv- to chew (Ko.); sop- to suck (To.); capparisu to chuckle or cluck to an animal to urge it on, smack the lips in sipping or supping, produce the peculiar sound of chewing, chew with a noise (Ka.); capparan.e the peculiar smacking of the lips by which the peasants stop their cattle, chuckling; jabbu, jabbisu to suck (Ka.); caven- to chew (Kod..); caymp chewing (Kod..); capparipuni to smack the lips; capacapa a noise made with the mouth as a pig in eating (Tu.); capparincu to smack, suck with a noise (Te.); cappu to smack, suck, smack with a noise (Te.); savseng to chew (Kol.); savs (Nk.); cavi, cal, calv- (Pa.); savl- (Ga.); alv- (Go.); jalu_ (Go.) cap-captre to smack, chomp; copye to chew (as sugarcane)(Malt.); cap-ca- kanning to smack the tongue against the roof of the mouth in eating (Br.); capucapuka_ra making the sound of chewing (Pali)(DEDR 2334). kavali giva to chew the cud (Kui)(DEDR 1222). hafan to chew (Md.)(CDIAL 14485). Eating continuously: jauar bites (Gypsy); jabhate_ opens the jaws; aor. subj. jambhis.at snap at (RV.); javi_dan to eat (Pers.)(CDIAL 5125). jam eat (Skt.); jamati eats (Dha_tup.); ja_jamat consuming continuously (MBh.); jhamati, chamati eats (Dha_tup.); jam, jham eat (Pali); jammai eats (Pkt.); jamvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 5126). jambhate_ snap at (Dha_tup.); camb to chew, gnaw off (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5138). jamana eating (Skt.); jaman. eating, feasting; jamn.u~ right (not left) from jamn.o ha_th eating hand, right hand (G.); kha_ne ha_t (N.)(CDIAL 5127). Network muzzle: jebo~, pl. -u muzzle for cattle (WPah.); ja_bi network muzzle (N.); ja_b, ja_ba_ id., jabra_ small grain store (Bi.); ja_bi_ (Mth.); ja_b, ja_bi_ (H.); jha_bu_ muzzle for horse or ox; cha_bbu_ id., small basket (P.)(CDIAL 5124). Broth: jomma broth (Kol.); jammo_ meat-soup, curry (Go.)(DEDR 2851). jyu_n.a_r feast (Ku.); jiuna_r (N.); jevana_ra (OAw.); jewna_r, jiona_r, jauna_r, je~wna_ra_ (H.)(CDIAL 5269). je_mati eats (Dha_tup.); je_mai eats (Pkt.); jeun.a_ to eat, dine (esp. when a Brahman is invited on a religious occasion)(P.); je~wal to take food (Bhoj.); jem.vai feasts (OAw.); je~wna_, jemna_, jewna_ to eat (H.); jevn.e~ to dine or sup (M.); je_ma_viya given food (Pkt.); jema_eb (Mth.); jiva_un.a_, jima_un.a_, jama_un.a_ (P.); jewa_na_, jiwa_na_ (H.); jimai eats (Pkt.OG.); jamvu~ (G.); jimmai eats (Pkt.); ji_mna_ (H.); ji_mai (OMarw.); jimon.o to feed, feast (Ku.); jima_na_ (H.); ji_ma_vai (OMarw.)(CDIAL 5267). je_mana eating (BhP.); je_man.a right (eating) hand (Pkt.); jeman making a meal, food (B.); jem.vana serving of meals, feast (OAw.); jewan eating (H.); jevan. making a meal (M.); jevn.i_ grain given to threshers as part wage (M.); jevan.a a meal (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 5268). jevan.vat. leaf used for eating off (M.)(CDIAL 5270). Food, meal: cappa_t.t.u-ra_man- glutton (Ta.); ca_pa_t.ura_mud.u id. (Te.); ca_ppa_t.u food, meal, especially of human beings (Tiruven.. Cata. 29); id. (Ma.); sa_pa_t.u id. (Te.); ca_ppit.utal to eat, drink; to consume, misappropriate (Ta.); sa_pad.u to eat, drink (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. camai (-v-, -nt-) to be consumed (Ta.); same, save, savi to be consumed (Ka.)(DEDR 2343). s'va_tra (RV. x.46,7 s'va_tara_so?) invigorating (of soma); invigorating food (RV.)(CDIAL 12762). cf. sattu barley meal (Pali); saktu coarsely ground meal (RV.)(CDIAL 13070).

3554.To equip, prepare: sambha_van. to decorate, make ready (L.); sambhan. to get oneself ready; sabha_vun. to make ready (L.); smbanava_ to make, form (Si.); ambavanava_ to mould (SI.)(CDIAL 12967). semer. to prepare, start (Ash.); smr.a_ to prepare, decorate (Ash.); samar to start (Bashg.); samati_ she started (Wg.); semya_ sent (Kt.); samr.ta met together (RV.); samiyarti brings together, hastens together towards; samara meeting (RV.); samarpayati sends, despatches (R.)(CDIAL 12970). Collection: sam.bharan.a collection (RV.); arrangement (Skt.); so.mbaran collecting, levelling (K.); xa_maran putting away with care (A.)(CDIAL 12960). To store with care: sa~_un.t.iba_ to collect, arrange; sa_ut.iba_, sa_it.iba_ to store with care (Or.); sa~_t.hab to arrange (Mth.); santha_vu~ to be engaged or employed, be betrothed (of boy or girl)(G.); sa~_t.hn.e~, sa~_t.n.e~ to enter, be contained in, be collected (M.)(CDIAL 13050). Putting away with care: sam.bhr.ta collected (RV.); sam.bhata collected, stored; store of food (Pali); sam.bhiya nourished (Pkt.); sambhu_r.o got ready (S.); sa_ma_ apparatus (N.); samr.ta met together (RV.)(CDIAL 12970). sam.bharati brings together, prepares, rolls up (RV.); sambha_rayati causes to bring together, prepares, maintains (R.); sam.bharai collects, supports (Pkt.); samaroiki to apportion, divide (Sh.). so.mbarun to collect (K.); samrun. to collect (L.); xa_mariba_ to put away (clothes), keep with care (A.); samharal to support (Bhoj.); sa~_bharvu~ to collect, gather (G.)(CDIAL 12961). sam.bhr.ta collected (RV.); sam.bhata collected, stored (Pali); n. store of food (Pali); sam.bhiya nourished (Pkt.); sambhu_r.o pp. of sambhiran.u got ready (S.); sa_ma_ apparatus (N.)(CDIAL 12970). Seasoning materials: sam.bha_ra bringing together (S'Br.); materials (AV.); sambha_ra accumulation, preparation, ingredients (of food)(Pali); fullness, materials (Or.); sam.bha_ra collection, spices (Pkt.); sambha_r care, attention (N.); xambha_r provisions, ingredients (A.); samha_r support (Bhoj.); sam.bha_ra care (OAw.); sa~bha_r powdered salt and spices for stuffing pickles (G.); sa~_bha_r, sa~_ba_r prepared seasoning of pulse with spices drived over a fire (M.); sam.bara crowd (Si.)(CDIAL 12966). sambara, samba_ra, camba_ra (Tadbhava of sambha_ra) ingredients of seasoning used in cookery, seasoning materials, as pepper, cloves, cinnamon, nugmeg, coriander etc; Synonyms: ve_s.ava_ra, masa_le, ve_sava_ra, upaskara; samar-u trim, decoration; to make proper, fit, neat or beautiful, to trim; samba_rabi_ja coriander; samba_rasoppu the coriander plant; sambha_ra bringing together, collecting; preparing, preparation, equipment, provision; apparatus, materials, necessaries, constituent parts, ingredient, requisite, assemblage of things required for any purpose; multitude, number, quantity, heap; fullness, completeness; wealth; maintenance, support; sambha_rakabal.a, sambaragaval.a a bolus of ingredients or seasoning materials (Ka.lex.) campai, campai-c-carakku inferior or rejected goods; perishable articles (Ta.); cambu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) campa_ram curry-stuffs (Tan-ippa_. ii,19,41); campa_l a kind of savoury dish or preparation (Ta.); samba_ru id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. sam.bhr.t.a collected (RV.); sam.bhata collected, stored (Pali); store of food (Pali); sambhu_r.o got ready (S.); sa_ma_ apparatus (N.); samar meeting (RV.)(CDIAL 12970). sam.bhr.ti equipment (A_pS'r.); sambhui_, sambhuhi_ fisherman's poled net (S.)(CDIAL 12971). s'ambhali, sambali, samba_l.i a procuress, a bawd (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Goods; totality; concord: sa_magrya complete, collections, goods, baggage, the whole bag of tricks (MBh.); sa_magri_ (Skt.); sa_maggiya, sa_maggi_ completeness, concord (Pali); sa_magg(iy)a totality (Pkt.); sa~_wagi_ ga_r.i two-wheeled cart; sa~_wgi_, sau~gi_ net forming bottom of seat at back of bullock cart (Bi.); smn:gin with concord (Si.)(CDIAL 13347). samagra all, complete (AV.); samagga harmonious, pl. all together (Pali); samagga all, complete; samaggala all, additional (Pkt.); samage united (As'.); sama(n.)gi united; sama(n.)ga with; samagin (Si.)(CDIAL 13178). sa_magri entireness, wholeness, etc.; a collection or assemblage of implements or materials, apparatus, goods and chattels, furniture, effects, year; sa_magrisanna_ha preparation of all materials or things (Ka.lex.) Suitable: cavaran.ai preparedness; cavatari (-pp-, -tt-) to get ready, acquire; camai (-v-, -nt-) to be made, gety ready, preapre (oneself)(Ta.); camayam equipment, dress and ornaments, preparation, mien and manner, stocking a garden; camayuka to get ready, dress well, assume a shape, become; camekka to preapre, cook, produce an effect; camayikka to equip, stock a garden (Ma.); sama getting ready, preparation, readiness; samarisu, savanisu to grow ready or prepared, be acquired, found, got or gained, be brought about, come about, occur, become; prepare, cause to get, apply to; samantu beauty, grace; beautifully, nicely; samar-u, savar-u to make proper, fit, neat or beautiful, trim; n. trim, decoration; savasu to make ready, prepare; same, save to be made ready, be prepared, be carried out, be made; make ready, prepare, make; savaran.e, savaran.e, sauran.e preparing, making ready, procuring of materials (Ka.); sama-kat.t.u to be ready; make ready; savara good, suitable, flat, level; savaran.a, savarana, savaran.amu equipment, stuff, material, beauty, elegance, neatness, correction, rectification, setting right; savaran.incu to set right, put in order, rectigfy, equip; savarani beautiful, elegant, neat; savarincu, savarucu to adjust, trim, put in order, arrange, correct; savarinta, savarimpu putting in order, etc.; savarillu to be proper or suitable (Te.); savaril- (savarilt-) to make oneself ready (Kol.)(DEDR 2342). cf. amarttu to establish (as one in life)(Ta.)(DEDR 161). avucu neatness, trimness (Ta.); avusu properness, neatness (Ka.)(DEDR 271). cf. campa_ a superior kind of paddy (Ta.); sa_mba, sambaru a fine sort of rice (Te.)(DEDR 2346). Suitable: amar (-v-, -nt-) to get close to, be suitable; amai (-v-, -nt-) to crowd together, be suitable, appropriate; n. fitness, beauty (Ta.); amar (amard-) to be closely united, be fit or agreeable, be nice or becoming, embrace; amarike, amarke fitness, agreeing with (as a ring with the size of the finger); amarisu, amarcu to prepare, do fitly, make ready (Ka.); ama_runi to suit, fit, embrace (Tu.); amayu to be useful or serviceable (Te.); amaran:ga_, amara(n) properly, fitly, duly, agreeably; amarika fitness, suitability, appropriateness; amaru to suit, be fit, suitable, or agreeable, be prepared or ready; amarincu, amar(u)cu to prepare, make ready, adjust, arrange, provide (Te.); ambrinai to suit (Kuwi)(DEDR 162).

3555.To castrate: kampa_d. to castrate an ox or buffalo (Tu.lex.)

3556.Image: rake: ka_ypul, ka_ypula_ rake (Kon.lex.)

3557.Image: leaf: ka_yal, ka_yal. a folded tender leaf of a plant (Tu.lex.)

3558.Provision for journey: satu sambar provision for journey (Santali.lex.) cf. sattu barley meal (Pali); saktu coarsely ground meal (RV.)(CDIAL 13070). cf. sambaru paddy (Te.)(DEDR 2346). s'ambala, sambala, sambal.a provender or provisions for a journey (Ka.); sambal.a pay, salary (Ka.lex.) sambha_ra bringing together, collecting; preparation, provisions, necessaries, requisites, apparatus; an ingredient, a constituent part; sambhr. to collect, hoard, place or bring together; to give, offer, present; sambhr.ta brought together, collected, concentrated; got ready, prepared, provided, equipped; furnished or endowed with, possessed of; produced, caused; sambhr.ti collection; preparation, equipment, provision; sambhali_, s'ambhali_, s'ambali_ a procuress (Skt.lex.) sam.bha_ra materials (AV.); sambala provisions (Pali); sam.bala (Pkt.); samaru provisions for journey (S.); samal, sa_mal (L.); sa_mal (N.); xambal, xamal (A.)(CDIAL 12315). campal.am food for journey; stock for travellers; wages, salary (Tiruppu. 22); sambal.amu id. (Te.); sambal.a (Ka.); cambal.am (Ma.); campal.am-po_t.utal to fix wages or salary; to pay wages; campal.ava_l. labour or servant on fixed salary; campal.antin-n-utal to enjoy the benefit of a salary (Ta.); sambal.atinnu id. (Ka.); campal.appat.t.i pay-bill; acquittance roll (Ta.lex.) sambala provender, stock of provisions for a journey; samba_l.i multitude, number (Ka.lex.) s'ambala, sambala provisions for journey (Skt.); sam.vara (BHSkt. ii, 539); sam.badhna_ti furnishes, supplies (Skt.); am.balaya red ant (< collecting provisions)(Si.)(CDIAL 12315). ca_ma_n- < sa_ma_n (U.) goods, furniture, articles; ca_makkiri, ca_makkiriyai < sa_magri_ things or materials needed for an occasion; foodstuffs, provisions (Ta.lex.) kambala an agricultural ceremony (IA 23.IEG.) kabal.m communal work in one man's garden (Ko.); kambal.a feast given in field at transplantation time; picnic (Kod..)(DEDR 1238). kamaria_ a working man (Mth.); ka_bl.ya_ common labourer (M.)(CDIAL 2773). kambal.a daily hire or wages (Ka.)(DEDR 1238). To guard; accumulation: sm.bharati brings together, prepares, rolls up (RV.); sam.bharai collects, supports (Pkt.); sambhiran.u to get ready (S.); sombarun to collect (K.); sa~_bharvu~ to collect, gather (G.); somba_run to collect (K.); sambha_ran.u to guard (S.); sam.bha_rai takes care of (OAw.); sa~bha_rna_, samha_rna_ to sustain (H.); sa~bha_l.vu~ to guard, take care of (G.)(CDIAL 12961). samarthayate_ resolves (RV.); comforts (Skt.); samat. to guard, herd, graze (Wg.); sumot.e to guard, keep (Pr.); samat. to collect, send off, pasture (Phal.) (CDIAL 13190). Treasury: sambhara heap, treasury (RV. iv.17.11)(Vedic.lex.) sambharan.a good sustainer (TS. iv.3.8.1); sambharan.i_ a kind of sacrificial brick; sambharan.a a vessel for storing soma; sambharan.am heap (RV. vii.25.2); sambha_ra collection, preparation; requisites to be collected for a ya_ga: udakam, hiran.yam, u_s.a_, a_khukari_s.am, s'arkara_ (five ingredients, paca sambha_ra_h-); sambha_ra-yajus the verses beginning with agniyajurbhih- (MS. i.9.2); a_khukari_s.a mole-hill (S'Br.); a_khu mole, mu_sa_ (RV. ix.67.30); u_s.a_ particles of salt ground; salt ground (Vedic.lex.) cf. so_ma, assem (op. cit.) interpreted as electrum, the refining of which may use these five ingredients, mole-hill, salt, granulated sugar etc. in particular as oxidizing agents.

3559.Emblic myrobalan: cf. s'ambara name of the trees: citraka, lo_dhra and arjuna (Skt.lex.) s'ambhu emblic myrobalan, a_malaki_ (Skt.lex.)

3560.Deed of gift to temple: ca_mpira_n.i-p-pat.t.ayam deed of gift to temple, etc. preserved with smoke-perfume (Ta.lex.) Sa_mbra_n.i: Canarium commune: Official: the resin from canarium spp.; canarium commune; canarium luzonicum. Canarium commune: Distribution: a native of the Moluccas; introduced and planted in India and the Malay Peninsula. The gum is applied in the form of an ointment to indolent ulcers. The fruit is fattening and laxative. Cambodia: romdeng; Canarese: kagga libija, kaglimaram, javabadami, sambrani; Cutch: jangali bedana; English: Java almond tree; French: canari, canaris; Hindi: jangali badam; Malayalam: canari, karaichingasi; Papua: keanee; Sinhalese: ratakkana, ratakekuna; Spanish: arbol de la brea; Tagalog: pilipilauay. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 531-533). sambra_n.i a Malayan tree, the Java almond, canarium commune (Ka.lex.)

3561.Business, trouble: jamba_ra affair, business (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 2345). sam.pa_rayati brings to the other side, brings to an end, accomplishes (S'Br.); sampa_rna_ to complete (work already begun)(H.)(CDIAL 12939). sapa_r honesty, success (N.); sapa_rnu to cause to flourish (N.); sapa_r.u~ favour (G.); sam.pa_d.e_i accomplishes (Pkt.); sapa_r.n.o to accomplish, ameliorate (Ku.)(CDIAL 12930). sampatti acquisition (AitBr.); prosperity (R.Pali); sam.patti (Pkt.); sambati readiness, preparation (S.); sapata, spata happiness, good fortune (Si.); sampat prosperity (M.)(CDIAL 12931). sam.pad success (Ya_j.); sam.pada_ (Skt.Pali); sam.paya_ (Pkt.); sam.pai (Skt.); sapuva happiness (Si.)(CDIAL 12932). sapyo~ right, proper (Ku.); sapya~_ a proper manner (Ku.); sabiu~, sabbiu~ right side up (N.)(CDIAL 12933). sam.padyate_ turns out well (AV.); is effected, is produced (MBh.); pp. sam.panna (AV.); sampajjati happens, succeeds (Pali); sam.pajjai is completed (Pkt.); sabaj to make, arrange, build (Pas'.); sapazun to be made, become (K.); sapadun id.; samuznu to become; sapuzun, samuzun (K.); sapajan.u to be found (S.); xampaziba to be born, be produced (A.); sampanna successful, well-cooked, sweet (Pali); sam.pan.n.a completed (Pkt.); samun arrangement (Kho.); suban righthand (Tor.); samponu effected, made, happened (K.); pres. st. sampanun, sapanun, so~_panun (K.); sapan, hapan superior, wealthy, fortunate, powerful (Si.)(CDIAL 12934). sam.pa_dayati completed, provides with (S'Br.); brings about (MBh.); sampa_de_ti procures, strives to accomplish (Pali); sam.pa_(d)e_i completes (Pkt.); saba_ prepare, arrange, get in order (Tor.); sapayanava_ to produce, procure, make (Si.)(CDIAL 12938). campatti attainment, acuisition; wealth, prosperity (Cu_ta. Ja_n-ayo_. 5,3); campattu id. (Ta.); campan-n-an- prosperous or wealthy man (Pat.t.in-at. Tiruve_kampa. 21); campiratam < sam-bhr.ta that which is caused; effect, result (Par..a. 327); campira_tti < sam-pra_pti anything obtained; blessing, acquisition (T.A.S. i,280)(Ta.lex.)

3562.Agreement; gift; accountant: campirati public accountant; accountant in a temple or a zemindary (I.M.P. Mr.225)(Ta.); samprati id. (Te.); campirati assistant to a village accountant; writer, clerk (C.G. 82)(Ta.lex.) samprati the present time; sampratipatti agreement, concurrence, admission; sampratipanna gone near; agreed; brought about, performed; samprada, samprade a gift, a present (Ka.lex.)

3563.Pack-saddle: sabara a pack-saddle for bullocks; kavudigal. (Ka.); ?sabhara (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) s'aba cloth, clothes; nivasana, vastra, s'uka (Ka.lex.) cf. cappal.aci cloth from Sappal.am near Conjeevaram (Ta.lex.) cf. campat.am cloth (Pin..); camparam < ambara cloth; campuka_n-a_ < jamka_na (U.) carpet (Ta.lex.) Clothes: campat.am very dirty cloth (Ma.)(DEDR 2344). ambara clothes (MBh.Pali); cloth, upper garment (Pali); clothing (Si.); am.bara cloth, garment (Pkt.); a_m.bara expensive clothes (OG.)(CDIAL 573). amparam clothes, apparel, garment amparame_ tan.n.i_re_ co_r-e_ : Tiv. Tiruppa_. 17)(Ta.lex.) amparca_ kind of women's printed cloth (Ta.lex.) cf. ca_yam colour (Ta.lex.)

3564.Betel pouch; bag: campal.i betel pouch; sambel.a (Te.); sambal.ige (Ka.); campal.i bag, wallet (Ta.lex.) samudga; sambal.ige (Tadbhava of samput.aka) a covered box made of o_le (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Image: hemispherical bowl: sam.put.a hemispherical bowl (Sus'r.); round casket (Skt.); sam.put.aka, sam.put.ika_ (Skt.); samput.a hollow of the hand (Pali); sam.pud.a collection, mass (Pkt.); xa~phuro covered tray for betelnut (A.); sa~_pur.a_ casket (MB.); sa~_pur (Mth.); sapri_ box for vermilion (Mth.); sa~_par. cavity formed by two bowls placed together (G.); sa~_pd.a_ frame (M.)(CDIAL 12941).

3565.Image: rows: sapura_ the rows in a betel plantation (Bi.)(CDIAL 12941).

3566.A country: sambu, s'ambhu being for or causing happiness; a happy, prosperous man; s'ambhu-dvi_pa a resting place for S'iva; sambu-gimbu reit. (Tadbhava of s'ambhu) S'iva (Ka.lex.) s'ambara-mathana, s'ambara-su_dana, s'ambara_ri Ka_ma (Ka.lex.) s'abara, s'ambara name of a wild mountaineer tribe (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) sauvi_ra (fr. suvi_ra) name of a country in the west of India; a man of that country (Ka.lex.) capariyai < saparya_ worship (Tiruvil.ai. Tiruman.ap. 60); capari id. (Ve_ta_ran.i. Ira_mana_ta. 12)(Ta.lex.) s'apatha, sapata an oath, swearing, asservation by oath or ordeal (Ka.lex.) s'ambara a rite or religious observance (Skt.lex.) sambara a kind of religious observance (with the Buddhists)(Skt.lex.) s'ambu_ka name of a S'u_dra who practiced penance though forbidden to his caste and was in consequence slain by Ra_ma (Skt.lex.) campo_r goblin (Aka. Ni.); prob. s'ambara (Ta.lex.) India: jambu_dvi_pa India (Pali); central of the seven continents surrounding Meru (MBh.); jam.budi_pasi (As'.); jam.budi_va (Pkt.); dambdiv (OSi.10th cent.); dambadiva (Si.)(CDIAL 5134). campu the tutelary goddess of Jambu_dvi_pa (Man.i. Pati. 8); campa_pati the tutelary goddess of Jambu_dvi_pa (Man.i. 6,190); Ka_viri-p-pu_m-pat.t.in-am, as the abode of Campa_pati (Man.i. Pati. 8); campu, campu-nati a river; campu, campu-t-ti_vu one of the annular continents (Man.i. 17,62)(Ta.lex.)

3567.Offering to a deity: campa_ boiled rice mixed with pepper powder, cumin, etc., offered to deity in temples; campa_-k-kat.t.al.ai provision for oblations of campa_ rice in a temple (Ta.lex.) A wild rice: sa~_wa_ a wild rice (Aw.); sua~_k, sa_u~k, sau~k wild rice (P.); sa_mo inferior kind of self-sown grain (G.)(CDIAL 12667). Paddy: campa_ a superior kind of paddy (Ta.Ma.); samba_vu, sa_mba (samba, sa_mbam), sa_mbaru (sambaru-, sambhava-, sambha_vu-) a fine sort of rice (Te.); sambe-nellu superior kind of paddy (Ka.)(DEDR 2346). Paddy: kavari-c-campa_ a kind of campa_ paddy, sown in a_n-i-purat.t.a_ci, maturing in five months (Rd.)(Ta.lex.) cf. sambaru paddy (Te.)(DEDR 2346). Husked rice: ca_ula_, pl. cavala rice (Pkt.); ca~_uru, ca~_varu a grain of rice (S.); ca~_uro pertaining to husked rice (S.); ca_val husked rice (L.P.); ca_vul (L.); ca_var, ca_ul, caul (P.); c.a_u, pl. cau (WPah.); cau_l, c.a~_wo_w (Ku.); ca~_wal, ca_mal (N.); sa_ul (A.); ta_ula (OB.); ca_ul (B.); ca_l (B.); cau~l.a, ca_ul.a, ca_ura (Or.); ca_ur (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); ca~_wal, cawal, ca~_war (H.); ca_vala (OMarw.); ca_val. usu. pl. (G.)(CDIAL 4749). cauret.ha_, caurat.ha_ rice soaked and dried and pounded (Bi.); cauret.ha_ rice ground up with water (H.)(CDIAL 4750). aval rice obtained from fried paddy by pestling it (Ta.Ma.); pound, beat; n. pounding, beating in a mortar (Ka.); avil rice bruised and dried (Ma.); kac av- to pestle (millet) second time (Ko.); avl-akki rice fried and each grain pounded flat (Kod..); abepuni, abeyuni, abecuni to beat or pound rice (Tu.)(DEDR 2391).

3568.Millet: ka_'wa jo_na millet (Kuwi)(DEDR 2896). [For -jo_na cf. con-n-al, co_l.am maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Ta.)(DEDR 2896)]. A weed among rice: sa_ma_ a weed among rice (N.); millet (B.); panicum frumentaceum (H.)(CDIAL 12667). sama_k, samak oats (Wg.); soak a kind of millet (P.); sa~_wa_, sa~_wa~_ panicum frumentaceum (H.); sa~_va_, sa_va_ panicum frumentaceum or miliaceum (M.); s'ya_ma_ka the millet panicum frumentaceum (VS.); sa~_o~ panicum frumentaceum and its grass (S.); s'a_ma_u a kind of darkish grass (WPah.)(CDIAL 12267). sa_vya_n. straw of panicum frumentaceum (M.)(CDIAL 12668). ca_mya food (Skt.); cam bread (Gypsy); camikani_ pancake (Gypsy)(CDIAL 4752). s'ya_ma_ a kind of plant (used for curing leprosy)(Skt.); sa_ma_ a medicinal plant ( = priyan:gu which means a medicinal plant and the millet panicum italicum (Pali); ha_ma the fodder grass p. colonum (K.); sa_m a kind of autumn millet (Mth.)(CDIAL 12666). sama_xa, samu_xa panicum frumentaceum (Psht.); sua~_ ca_ul.a_ panicum frumentaceum (sua~_ bha_t a dish prepared from it (Or.); sa~_wa~_, sa_ma_, sa~_i~_ panicum mileaceum (Bi.) sa_ma_, sama_ panicum mileaceum (Mth.)(CDIAL 12667). Oats: s'ama_k, s'amk oats (Wg.); sava~_k, sava_k the grass panicum colonum (L.); sa~_vak the grain ophismenus frumentaceus (L.); p. colonum (P.);(CDIAL 12667). Beard of maize: caa~ra beard of maize (Or.)(CDIAL 4677). Millet: kamp-ari holcus spicatus (Ma.); kampu, kampam-pul bulrush millet, Italian millet (Ta.); kampu id. (Ma.); kampam a grain (Ma.); kambu holcus spicatus (Ka.Tu.); kambu_ = kuruvinda (Skt.)[pennisetum typhoideum = panicum spicatum = holcus spicatus](DEDR 1242). Echinochloa frumentacea = panicum frumentaceum: bavto (M.); sanwa (H.B.); shyama (Skt.); chamalu (Te.); sawank (P.); kudraivali pillu (Ta.); samul (M.); plant: useful in biliousness and constipation; cultivated over the greater part of India (GIMP, p.103). Echinochloa stagnina = panicum stagninum: dul (B.); banti (M.); kadu dabhai hullu (Ka.); bontha oddu (Te.); decoction of pith: used in Philippines as diuretic; found throughout India in stagnant pools and marshes, on banks of lakes and tanks and in cultivated fields (GIMP, p.103). cf. varaka echinochloa colonum (Car.); varuvu panicum miliaceum (Te.)(DEDR 5260). Panicum miliare: shamai (Ta.); nellashamalu (Te.); gondula (B.); warai (M.); kutki (P.H.); plant: nervine stimulant, tonic, sometimes used as a substitute for panicum miliaceum; cultivated or naturalized throughout India (GIMP, p.185). Echinochloa crus-galli = panicum crus-galli = panicum crus-corvi: burashama (B.); samak, sanwak (H.); jalsamoka (Skt.); peddawundu (Te.); oothupul (Ta.); barasanwak (P.); sarvank, banti (M.); plant: used in diseases of spleen and to chek haemorrhage; common throughout the greater part of India, especially in wet places and rich soils, and up to elevations of 6,000 ft. (GIMP, p.103). kaba_in.u to shrink, yield (S.); kabru, kambu_ka husk of rice (AV.); ka_ba_ foolish (Or.); ka_bu_ feeble, prostrate (B.); feeble (Or.)(CDIAL 2759). Elephant grass: campan.-ko_rai elephant grass; can.pu elephant grass; a species of sedge grass (Ta.); jon.d.u elephant grass (Ka.); campu elephant grass, typha elephantina; sola pith (Ta.); jambu a bulrush, sedge; a kind of reed or sedge, typha angustifolia (Te.)(DEDR 2347). cf. campa_- a prefix to a variety of grains (Ta.lex.) campu elephant grass, campan:ko_rai (Nalvar..i, 38); tjambu (Te.); jambu (Ka.); campu sola pith (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) Field of millet: sur.vu~ to cut off or pluck up weeds in a field of millet (G.); su_r. simple, direct, straight (G.)(CDIAL 12562).

3569.Trap: jhimbri, jhinjri a fish trap (Santali.lex.) imir.. (-v-, -nt-) to bind as by order, restrain; (-pp-, -tt-) to bind, entrap; n. small round jewel box, small casket; cimir..ppu bondage, tie (Ta.); cimir.. small box (Ma.); imud.u to be contained within; imud.(u)cu to put in, thrust in (Te.)(DEDR 2542). Entrap, bind: cimir.. (-v-, -nt-) < imir.. to bind as by order, restrain (Vina_yakapu. 17,14); (-pp-, -tt-) to bind (Pirapo_ta. 5,5); entrap (Kur-al., 274); imir..ttal to fasten or tie (Ci_vaka. 1835); imir.. cord (Ci_vaka. 1091); cimir..ppu bondage, tie (Ku_rmapu. Intira. 30)(Ta.); cimir.. small box (Ma.); imud.u to be contained within; imud.(u)cu to put in, thrust in (Te.)(DEDR 2542). cimir.. small round jewel box, small casket (Tan-ippa_. ii,160,399)(Ta.lex.) imir..-tal to sound (Pur-ana_. 15,4); to make a low continued sound as the string of a ya_r.. (Pin..); imir.. sound, hum, roar (Malaipat.u. 296)(Ta.lex.)

3571.Copper: ta_mra copper (Kaus'.); ta_mraka copper (Ya_j.); ta_m copper (Bshk.); ta_mba copper (Phal.); ta_mba_ copper (Sh.); tra_m copper (K.Sh.); t.ra_mo copper (S.); tra_ma_, tara_ma~_ (L.); ta_mba_ (P.); t.l.a_m (WPah.); ta~_bo_ (WPah.); ta_mo pl. young bamboo shoots (N.); ta_m (A.); ta~_ba_, ta_ma_ (B.); tamba_ (Or.); ta_m, ta_ma_ (Mth.); ta_ma_ (Bhoj.); ta_m in compounds, ta~_ba_, ta_ma_ (H.); tra~_bu~, ta~_bu~ (G.); ta~_be~ (M.); ta_mbe copper (Konkan.i); tama, tam copper (Si.)(CDIAL 5779). ca_mba, cambo copper (WPah.)(CDIAL 5779). ta_ram a copper coin, 12 pice of 13 fanam (Ma.); ta_ra a copper coin of 2 ka_su (Ka.); two pie (Tu.)(DEDR 3168). teb copper (To.); cambu, cembu, combu copper (Ka.); cembi copper (Kod..); cembu brass, copper (Tu.); cempu copper (Ma.); copper, gold (Ta.)(DEDR 2775). Copper, red: cempan- brown-coloured cow or bull (Ta.)(DEDR 2775). ta_mra dark red, copper-coloured (VS.); tamba red, copper (Pali); tamba adj. and n. (Pkt.); tra_mba red (Dm.); tamba reddish, copper (Si.); ta~_be rust, redness of sky (M.); tam.bira copper-coloured, red (Pkt.); ta_mra_ copper-coloured (of pigeons)(L.); ta~_br.a_, ta_mr.a_ copper-coloured, dark red; stone resembling a ruby (H.); ta_m.bad.a_ red (OM.)(CDIAL 5779). tambavan copper-coloured, dark red (Si.); ta_mravarn.a copper-coloured (TA'r.)(CDIAL 5790). Tawny-coloured bull: ce-, cem-, cevv-, ceyya, ce_takam, ce_ttu red (Ta.); ce_kil tawny-coloured bull (Ta.); ken, ke.t red (Ko.); ke-, kem.- red (Ka.); co.nde red (Kod..); cem.- red (Te.); kempu red; redness (Te.); redness; ruby (Tu.); key dark red, reddish-brown (Pa.); gende a reddish-coloured ox (Tu.); xe~_so red (Kur.); qeso red (Malt.)(DEDR 1931). Made of copper: tampikai a kind of small water-pot (Ta.); cempu metal vessel, liquid measure (Ta.); copper vessel (Ma.); cambu, cembu, combu globular copper or glass vessel used for drinking water (Ka.); cambige, tambige, tambuge id. (Ka.); cembi small metal pot (Kod..); cembu goblet, pitcher, ewer (Te.); small copper or brass pot (Tu.); tambige small, round, metal vessel (Tu.); tambuga a sort of drinking-vessel (Te.); ca~bu_ a metal vessel with a belly and a tapering neck, a goglet (M.)(DEDR 2775). ?Influenced by Pkt. tamba and Skt. ta_mra copper? t.ra_mir.o a kind of cooking pot (S.); t.ra_mir.i_ copper pot (S.); sunburnt, red with anger (S>); ta_mra_ copper vessel (Bhoj.); ta~_bar., tra~_br.i_ copper pot; ta~_br.i_ copper pot (G.)(CDIAL 5779). tamher.i_ copper vessel (Bi.)(CDIAL 5782). tamaha_ drinking vessel made of red alloy (Bi.)(CDIAL 5785). tamoi copper vessel for water (Ku.); ta_mrapa_tra copper vessel (MBh.); ta_mar.a_, ta_mr.a_ copper vessel (Bhoj.); tarbha_n.u~ copper dish used in religious ceremonies (G.)(CDIAL 5789). ta_mrika coppery (Mn.); tambiya an article of an ascetic's equipment (a copper vessel?)(Pkt.); tra_mi_ large open vessel for kneading bread (L.); tra_mbi_ brass plate for kneading on (L.); ta_mi copper plate (Ku.); copper vessel used in worship (A.); ta_mi_, tamiya_ large brass vessel for cooking pulses at marriages and other ceremonies (B.); tambiya_ copper or brass vessel (H.)(CDIAL 5792). Copper plate (for inscribing): ta_mrapat.t.a copper plate (for inscribing)(Ya_j.); ta_mra-pattra id. (Skt.); ta~_bot.i_ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick (M.); tamoti copper plate (Ku.)(CDIAL 5786-7). Coppersmith: ta_mbara_ coppersmith (Or.)(CDIAL 5780). tamaut.e, tamot.e coppersmith (N.); ta_mrakut.t.a coppersmith (R.)(CDIAL 5781). tamher.a_ brass-founder (Bi.)(CDIAL 5783). Copper; gold: compu copper (Ta.); combu (Ka.Tu.); cempu (Ta.); cambu_ (U.); cembu copper, cuprum, as reddish (Ka.Ma.); id. (Cilkap. 14,174); cempu gold; metal vessel (Ta.); cembu id. (Ka.Tu.); cempu-tat.t.i, cempu-kot.t.i coppersmith (Cilap. 5,28, Urai)(Ta.); cembu-kot.t.i (Ma.); cembukut.t.iga (Ka.); cembukut.t.i (Te.); cempu-t-ti_kkal copper pyrites, sulphide of copper and iron (Ta.); cempu-p-par-r-u alloy of copper in gold (Ta.); cempir--poruppu Mt. Potiyam, as containing copper (Kalla_. 51,11); cempu-varai id. (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Tiruma_l. 9)(Ta.lex.) cf. ta_mpa_l.am salver of a large size (Pirapo_ta. 11,31)(Ta.); ta_mba_l.amu (Te.); ta_mba_l.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ta_mparam < ta_mra (Pata_rtta. 1170); ta_mira-cintu_ram calcinated red powder of copper; ta_mirapar-pam calcinated white powder of copper; ta_mirai copper (Can. Aka.); ta_miram copper (Pin..); ta_mira-ca_can-am < ta_mra + copper-plate grant; ta_miraparun.i < ta_mraparn.i_ chief river of Tinnevelly district (Ta.lex.)

3572.Caterpillar: ka_ml.iyo hairy caterpillar (G.); kamla_ id.(H.); < kapana_ worm, caterpillar (RV.)(CDIAL 2773). sun:g hair of caterpillar (B.); sun:ga_ id. (Or.)(CDIAL 12599).

3574.Image: tail: s'e_pa tail, penis (RV.); s'e_pas (AV.); s'e_pha (TS.); s'e_va (Skt.)(CDIAL 12606). s'e_pya_ skin on tail (Kaus'.com.); s'e_pya_vant tailed (AV.); cheppa_ tail (Pali); cheppa, chippa, chippa_lua (Pkt.); s'ep, s'e_p (M.); chipa_r.o, chipr.o lizard (Ku.); chepa_ro lizard (N.); chepa_ri calf of leg (N.); chipki_ lizard (H.); chipkali_ (P.H.)(CDIAL 12607). javi, jave, jame the hair of a horse's tail (Ka.); javvi id. (Te.)(DEDR 2397). cf. toppa animal's hair, wool (Ma.); tu_vi peacock's tail (Ta.); cippud.u feather (Kor.); su_vi feather (Tu.)(DEDR 3393). si_viri a chowrie (Te.); jiperi a fan (Kui); civir-i a fan (Ta.); si_guri, si_gud.i a kind of chowrie (Ka.)(DEDR 2580). cf. metath. vicir-i fan (Ta.lex.) cf. ce_val male of birds and fowls, excepting peacock (Tol. Po. 603); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cavari < camari_ yak; chowry (Pin..); false hair used by women in toilette; coir; cavaram < camara chowry (Pa_rata. Patin-a_r-a_m. 21)(Ta.lex.) javi, jave, jame the hair of a horse's tail (Ka.)(DEDR 2397).

3575.Image: tiger: camu_ra a tiger, pun.d.ari_ka, huli (Ka.lex.)

3570.Image: fish: caparam carp, silvery, attaining 5 inches in length, barbus chola (Ta.lex.) ? ce~_pa fish (Te.)(DEDR 1252). cf. ke-, kai- in ke_vat.t.a- (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3469). ca_va_l.ai sabre-fish, attaining at least 3 ft. in length, trichiurus haumela (Ta.); sa_vad.a (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. s'abala spotted (RV.)(CDIAL 12297). Carp: s'abara the fish cyprinus saphore (VarBr.S.); a kind of fish (BhP.); s'aphari_ (Skt.); sabhara, sahara a kind of fish (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12295). maha_s'aphara species of carp (Bhpr.); ma_hshe_r species of river fish (L.); maha_ser, maha_si_r the fish barbus mosul or tor or megalepis (H.)(CDIAL 9961). s'aphara, saphara a kind of carp; a kind of small glittering fish, cyprinus sophore; s'aphari the female s'aphara; cf. pro_s.t.hi (Skt.Ka.lex.) s'ambara a kind of fish (Skt.lex.) campai fish (Ta.); campa a fish, boat-load of fishes (Ma.)(DEDR 2348). campai fish, mi_n-po_tu (Na_.); cf. s'ambara water (Ta.lex.) campai-k-kuttakai fish-lease (W.)(Ta.lex.) Conch; shell: kambu a conch, a shell; a ring or bracelet (made of shells or perhaps gold) (Pali.lex.) kambu conch, shell, bracelet (Pali.MBh.); conch (Pkt.); kabala shell (of snails, etc.)(CDIAL 2775). s'ambu bivalve shell; s'ambuka id. ; sam.bukka a shell (Pkt.); sa_muk bivalve shell, snail, cockle (B.); sambuka a shell (Pali); sa_mba oyster shell (Or.)(CDIAL 12316). kampu conch-shell (Iraku. Ilavan.a. 75) (Ta.lex.) s'ambu_ka a bivalve shell; a small conch-shell (Skt.lex.) cokak, coklak shell; jhinuk bivalve (Santali.lex.)

3760.Image: ox-antelope; markhor; sambar (deer): sa_raga, sa_ran:ga a spotted antelope, a sort of deer; kempu-ban.n.ada hulle_ ho_ri, s'ambara (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) [ For semant. 'ox-antelope' cf. the compound: hulle_-ho_ri = sa_raga red-coloured male antelope: hulle, pulle a male or female antelope or deer; ho_ri a bull calf, an uncastrated young male of the ox kind, a young bull (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)] cirmol (cirmocil), cirmul sambar (Pa.); sirmul, cirmul id. (Ga.); cibd.a/sibd.a id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2555). Horned animal; image: markhor: so_ markhor (Ash.); co_w male markhor (Wg.); cerau_ (Yid.)(CDIAL 12715). cervus horned animal (Lat.); co_ the mountain goat or markhor (Wg.)(CDIAL 12341). kuran:ga antelope (MBh.); kulan:ga (MaitrS.); kulun:ga (TS.); kuran:ga, kurun:ga (Pali); kuram.ga (Pkt.); kuran:g (P.); karam.gi (OG.); kura~g, kura~gi_, kura~gn.i_ (G.); kurun:ga (Si.); kiran:gu the elk rusa aristotelis (Si.)(CDIAL 3320). Image: markhor: s'arabha a kind of deer (AV.); sarabha, sarabhan:ga (X s'a_ran:ga-) a deer (Pali); sarabha-, saraha- a wild animal (Pkt.); s'uru the wild goat or markhor (Kt.); s'aro_, s'aru, saro_ (Pas'.); s'a_ru ibex (Shum.); sa_ro_u, sa_ri_ markhor (Gaw.); s'a_ra (Kal.); s'ara (Kho.Bshk.Sh.Dardi); s'arai (Phal.); sarahu a kind of mountain goat (S.); xara the swamp deer (A.); salha_ wild goat (L.)(CDIAL 12331). cf. so_ the mountain goat or markhor (Ash.)(CDIAL 12341). For -kur. in kakur. barking deer (L.)(CDIAL 2585): cf. kulai to bark (as a dog)(Ta.); talk incoherently (Ta.); kula_kula_ imit. of barking (Ma.)(DEDR 1811). Image: antelope: ku_ran- dog; kuran:kam, kuran:kan- deer, antelope (Ta.lex.) gor-r-e barking deer, cervulus muntjac (Te.); goria deer, antelope (Kol.); gorre four-horned antelope (Go.); gore deer (Go.)(DEDR 2165). cf. kambara variegated (Skt.)(CDIAL 2770). ca_ran:kam deer (Kumare_.Cata.19)(Ta.lex.) s'a_ran:ga spotted (AV.S'Br.); a kind of deer (Skt.); sa_ran:ga a spotted deer (Pali); sa_ram.ga (Pkt.); sa_ra_g deer (Mth.); sa_ra~ga_ dark-bay (of horses)(M.); saran:ga_, saraga_ the spotted deer, axis maculata (Si.)(CDIAL 12401). ?An austro-as. prefix to: karam.gi_ antelope (OG.)(CDIAL 3320). cf. s'a_rn:ga made of horn (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 12409). s'ambara, s'abara, sambara a sort of deer (Ka.); sa_mbara (M.)(Ka.lex.) s'a_ra variegated, speckled (Pa_n..va_rtt.); hru speckled, piebald (K.); ha_r copper-red or dark markings on a white or other ground; ha_ryulu a partic. white-mottled bird (K.); s'a_ro spotted (of animals)(WPah.)(CDIAL 12400). Image: fabulous creature: camparam < sambara cf. s'arabha a fabulous eight-legged creature; carapam id. capable of killing the lion (Ta.lex.); camel; mountain sheep; woolly sheep; camel [cf. karabha camel (MBh.)(CDIAL 2797)]; mountain sheep; woolly sheep (Ta.lex.) s'a_mbara relating to s'ambara (RV.); coming from the deer s'ambara (Bhpr.); sa_bar deerskin (B.H.)(CDIAL 12396a). s'ambara a kind of deer (Skt.); s'abara (Skt.); s'abala dappled (used of demonic dogs)(RV.); dappled (used of serpents)(MBh.); s'ambara a serpent demon (RV.); sam.bara a kind of deer (Pkt.); sa_bar elk (P.); sa_mbar, sa_bar large kind of stag (H.); sa_mara_ pl. deer (OG.); sa_bar stag (G.); sa_bri_ doe (G.); sa~_bar, sa_mar a sort of elk, cervus elephas, cervus hippelephas,cervus aristotelis (M.)(CDIAL 12314).

3784.Image: deer: saram the sambar stag, rusa aristotelis (Santali.lex.) cf. cervus horned animal (Lat.); so_ the mountain goat or markhor (Ash.); cow, co_ (Wg.)(CDIAL 12341). cf. sru_ horn (Av.); ucu_ horn (Pr.); s.o_ horn (Tor.)(CDIAL 12715). cf. srun:g, s'run:g horn (Kho.); s.ugo (Sh.)(CDIAL 12714).

3573.Image: a deer: s'ambara a sort of deer (Ka.Skt.); sa_mbara (M.)(Ka.lex.) s'ambara, sambara a kind of deer (Skt.lex.) samu_ru, camu_ru a kind of deer (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: braid of hair; yak: camara, camari_ the yak bos grunniens; camara its tail (MBh.); yak (Pali); camari_ a kind of antelope (Pali); camari yak (NiDoc.); camara (Pkt.); camar (K.); cau~ru, cau~ri_ flyflap; cau~ro having a white tail (of cows)(S.); ca~vari_ flywhisk of hair or leaves; cauri_ (L.); ca_var, camar, ca_vari_, cauri_ yak's tail; caur lion's tail raised over its head (P.); cau~riya_ having a tail with hair of different colour from the body; co~r yak's tail (Ku.); ca~war, camar yak's tail; cau~ri ga_i yak (N.); so~war chowry; su~wari_ yak (A.); camar yak's tail (B.); caa~ra yak's tail, flywhisk (Or.); caor flywhisk (Mth.); ca~war (Bhoj.); ca~vara (OAw.); ca~war, cau~r yak (H.); cau~ri_ its tail used as flywhisk (H.); co~ri_ (Marw.); camri_ (G.); ca~var, cavar, ca_vri_, cavri_ (M.)(CDIAL 4677). cavari yak (Uri. Ni.); chowry; false hair used by women in toilette; coir; ca_maram chowry, bushy tail of the yak, used as a fly-flapper for idols or as royal insignia; ca_marai id. (Kampara_. Nintan-ai. 12)(Ta.lex.) cavuri-kkayir-u cord of coconut fibre (W.); cavari coir; cavari-mettai coir-mattress (Ta.lex.) kavari yak, bos grunniens; kavarima_ id. (Kur-al.. 969); kavari-ma_n- id. (Perun.. Ucaik. 50,2); kavari-ma_n--mayir chowrie or bushy tail of the camari_, the Tibetan yak set in a decorated handle, used as a fly-flap or fan before an idol or great personage; the bushy tail of the yak used as false hair (Ta.lex.) kavari chowrie (Ta.); kavaram hair-plait (Ma.); kavari id., woman with fine hair; yak; yak's tail, chowrie (Ma.); kabari, kavari braid of hair, knot of braided hair (Ka.); kabari tufted hair of females (Tu.); kavara, kabara, kavari_, kabari_ braid of hair (Skt.)(DEDR 1327). cf. kavari < gavala buffalo (Kalla_. 53,30)(Ta.lex.)

3576.Tinman's anvil; crow bar; iron ring: sabra_, sabri_ tinman's small anvil (made of a bent piece of iron)(Bi.); sarvala_, sarvali_ iron club or crowbar (Skt.); sabbala, savvala, savvala_ spear (Pkt.); sabbal crowbar (used by thieves)(P.); sa_blo iron bar (Ku.); sa_bal crowbar (N.B.); sa_bal.a (Or.); sa_bar, sa_bra_ round-headed anvil (Bi.);  sa_bal (Mth.); crowbar (esp. one used by burglasr), lever, small anvil (H.); sambal crowbar (K.); sabal. crowbar (M.); sa~bbal crowbar (used by thieves for digging through a wall)(L.); sa~_plo iron bar; s'a~_baw, s'a~_paw (Ku.); sa~bal. large bickern (M.)(CDIAL 13279). ka_mi_ iron ring of a cartwheel, iron lining to nave (Or.)(CDIAL 2775). sa_mo iron ring of a pestle (Ku.); sa~_bi (N.); sa~_b iron ferrule on stick (G.); sa~_belu~, sa_melu~ wooden pestle for flailing ice (G.); sa_mi small iron ring (Or.); sa_m, sa_mi_ iron ring fastening in blade of weeding knife, ferrule on bottom of pestle (Bi.); ferrule (H.); sa_m head of pestle (G.); sa_mi, sa~_pi ferrule (B.); sa_mi small iron ring (Or.); sa_m, sa_mi_ iron ring fastening in blade of weeding knife, ferrule on bottom of pestle (Bi.); sa_ma_, sa_mma_ short metal tube strengthening inside of axle of ekka_ (Bi.); sa_m id. (Mth.); s'eb, s'e~bi_ ferrule, ring round end of anything, tip of arrow (M.)(CDIAL 12311). s'amba weapon used by Indra (RV.); iron head of pestle (Skt.); s'ambin rower (AV.); sam.ba thunderbolt (Pkt.); ham punting-pole (K.); samm ferrule (P.)(CDIAL 12311). Crowbar: sama_t.h, sama~_t.h peg in the beam of the husking machine which acts as a pestle (Bi.); sama_t.h pestle for crushing bricks (Mth.); s.amut wooden lever, crowbar (Sh.)(CDIAL 12312). Sledge hammer: cammat.t.i smith's large hammer, sledge (Ta.); cammat.t.i-k-ku_t.am hammer for beating metal into plates or thin leaves (Ta.); cammat.t.iku_t.am (Ma.); somot.y hammer (To.); cammat.(t.)ige sledge hammer (Ka.); camat.ige id. (Tu.); sammet.a (Te.)(DEDR 2349). kappacu a blacksmith's tool < perhaps karman + aks.a. s'amba weapon used by Indra (RV.)(CDIAL 12311). Metal bar: ka~_b longitudinal division of a bamboo, etc., bar of iron or other metal (M.); kambi branch or shoot of bamboo (Skt.); kam.bi, kam.bi_, kam.ba_ stick, twig (Pkt.); ka_m.ba (G.)(CDIAL 2774). ka~_bi_t., ka~_bat., ka~_bt.i_, ka_mi_t., ka_mat. split piece of bamboo etc., lath (M.)(CDIAL 2760). kambi flat bar of iron; a wire; borders of a cloth (Tu.); iron band, bar of iron; stripe or stripes running parallel with the border of a cloth (Ka.); kampi wire of gold, silver, iron or other metal; bit of a horse's bridle; narrow stripe along the border of a cloth (Ta.); wire of lute; bar of iron; stripe in the border of a cloth (Ma.); kammi a bar, the line or border at the end of a cloth (Te.)(DEDR 1241). Stem: kamba, ka_mba handle (Kuwi); ka_mpu flower-stalk, flowering branch, shaft, haft (Ta.); stem, stalk, stick of umbrella (Ma.); ka.v handle (Ko.); ka_mu, ka_vu stalk, culm, stem, handle (Ka.); ka_ma stem, stalk, stick, handle (of axe, hoe, umbrella, etc.) shaft (Te.); ka_me_ stalk of a spoon (Go.); ka_me handle of ladle (Go.)(DEDR 1454). Image: yoke pin: s'amya_ stick, wedge, peg (RV.); yoke pin (S'Br.); samma_ yoke pin (Pali); samm, sam horizontal stick of a yoke which passes under bullock's neck (L.); s'am, pl. s'amma~_ yoke pin, handle of blacksmith's bellows (WPah.)(CDIAL 12317). samaila_ inner pins joining the two bars of the yoke of a plough (Bi.); samail pin of a yoke (Mth.); sa_mel, sa~_bel iron nail fixed at each end of a yoke (G.); soilo yoke-pin, any wooden pin, door-hinge made of withies (N.); sail.a, saul.a, saal.a pin at end of yoke of plough (Or.); sail, saila_ outer pin joining the two bars of yoke, tiller of rudder (Bi.); s'iva_l., s'ivi_l., s'ivu_l. peg bars connecting two members of yoke and confining it to animal's neck (M.); savi_l. (Konkan.i); s'ele~ thill-yoke (M.)(CDIAL 12318). cf. s'ail wooden bolt (WPah.); saila_ sliver, small peg or stick, any bit to stuff a hole with (H.); sayala fragment (Pkt.); s'akala chip, fragment, log (TS.)(CDIAL 12243). s'amya_garta hole for the yoke pin (S'a_n:khGr..); s'amar., s'aman. yoke pin (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12319). semver yoke (Wkh.); s'amar-gunu strap joining yoke-pins under the necks of plough-oxen (Kho.)(CDIAL 12320). yugas'amya yoke with its pins (S'Br.); s'ama_i~o yoke (on plough); s'ama_i_ yoke (WPah.); samaiya_ inner pins joining the two bars of yoke of plough (Bi.)(CDIAL 12321). s'ame_s., pl. s'ami_z.e yoke-pin (Sh.); s'ameg (D..)(CDIAL 12322). s'amba, s'ambhu the thunderbolt of Indra; the iron head of a pestle (Skt.lex.) Ploughing: s'amb to collect, heap together; s'amb to go, move; s'amba ploughing 'with the grain' or in the regular direction; s'amba_ku to plough twice; [cf. campat.i to plough field a second time during the season of cultivation (Ta.lex.)]; s'ambara wealth; s'ambala provisions for a journey, viaticum (Skt.lex.) sambam the second ploughing of a field (Skt.lex.) s'amba_kr.ta twice ploughed (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3577.Rower: s'ambin rower (AV.); ham punting-pole (K.)(CDIAL 12311). Boat: sambuk an oared boat in use in the Indian Ocean and the Gulf for pearl-fishing. (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 160). s'amba a ship (Ka.); Indra's thunderbolt (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) s'aba, s'ava, s'rava, saba, sava a dead body, a corpse; mr.ta, sa_vu = death (Ka.lex.) cf. s'amb, samb to go, move (Skt.lex.) campo_kku < sumbuk (Pers.) sambook, fleet of ships (Ta.lex.) safina a large craft of 9 to 24 metres long with a capacity of 50 tons, with a single mast carrying a lateen sail on Iraqi rivers. (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 180).

3578.Seat: ja_mba_ low stool or platform (Kuwi); jo_mba stool, seat, pillow (Kui); jo_mba chair, wooden seat (Kuwi)(DEDR 2880). sopo, sopea_ a kind of raised terrace in a house; a platform (Kon.lex.) so_pa_na stairs, steps, a staircase, a ladder (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

3579.To become related: campanti to connect, blend, mix; to become related (Ta.lex.) Consanguinity: va_vi, va_ve consanguinity, affinity, relationship (Ka.); va_vi = varase (Te.); ja_mi related by blood, blood-relationship, consanguinity (Vedic.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) < sam-bandha (Skt.) janya belonging to a race; friend of bridegroom (RV.); jaa of noble race (Pali); jan.n.a_ bridegroom's procession (Pkt.); jaa_ (S.); jaj (L.P.); jane_i_ (WPah.); ja_n (G.)(CDIAL 5116). janet the procession (P.H.); jane_tar. a member (WPah.); janta the procession (N.); janti a member (N.); janeta the procession (OAw.); ja_natra (OG.)(CDIAL 5118). janwa~_sa_ lodging the wedding procession (Bi.); janma_sa_ (Mth.); janava_sa place at the bride's home where the groom's party is received (OAw.); janwa_s the groom's party (OAw.); the place where it is received (H.); janavsa_, janivsa_ lodging of the groom's party (M)(CDIAL 5119). ja_i_ member of groom's party (S.); ja~_ji_ (L.); ja_ji_ (P.)(CDIAL 5197).

3580.Image: breadth of four fingers: campa_ breadth of four fingers, hand-breadth (Ta.lex.) campa_ a game with four little shells on circles drawn on a board or on the ground; one of the falls of shell in the campa_ game (Ta.lex.)

3581.Image: spoon: camba, camasa a spoon; a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking the soma; a ladle or spoon; camasi id. (Ka.lex.)

3582.Core of tree: campam < s'amba close grain; core as of a tree (Pin..); thunderbolt, the weapon of Indra, vaccira_yutam (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Mantama_. 99) (Ta. lex.) s'apham the root of a tree (Skt.lex.)

3583.A perfume: campe, campa a perfume (Ka.lex.)

3584.A tree: campa mountain ebony; camarika the tree bauhinia variegata (Ka.lex.) campa bauhinia variegata (Skt.); the tree michelia campaka (Pali); its blossom (MBh.); cam.paya (Pkt.); cambo (S.); camba_, campa_ m. campaka (P.); ca~_p name of various kinds of michelia (N.); ca~_pa_ m. campaka (B.); campa_ (Or.H. whence campi_ yellow); ca~_p michelia kisopa (H.); ca~_pa_ the tree (M.); ca~_pu~ (G.); ca~_pe~ its flower (M.); ca~_mpe the flower (Konkan.i); sapu the tree (Si.)(CDIAL 4678). campa_ran name of a district in East Bihar (Bi.); campaka_ran.ya name of a place of pilgrimage (MBh.)(CDIAL 4679). can.pakam, cen.pakam michelia champaca (Ta.); cempakam, campakam (Ma.); sampage, sampige, campaka (Ka.); cappaye-mara campaka tree (Kod..); cappayem-pu. campaka flower (Kod..); sampige, sampayi (Tu.); sampe~ga, campakamu, canupakamu (c = ts)(Te.); can.paka (BHSk.)(DEDR 2321). champa, champaka (H.B.); champa (M.); champaka (Skt.); kudchampa (M.); champakam (Ma.); shampangi (Ta.); champakmu (Te.); bark: ferbifuge, stimulant, expectorant, astringent; dried root and bark: purgative, in form of infusion useful emmenegogue; flowers and fruts: considered stimulant, antiseptic; mixed with sesame oil forms an external application in vertigo; oil from flowers: useful application in cephalalgia, opthalmia and gout; seeds and fruit: used for healing cracks in feet; essential oil 0.11%; habitat: wild in the eastern sub-Himalayan tract and lower hills up to 3,000 ft., Assam, W. Ghats and S. India; much cultivated in various parts of India (GIMP, pp. 166-167). cf. campakam michelia champaca (Ta.)(DEDR 2321); campaka (Skt.)(CDIAL 4678).

3585.Weighing an in-laid jewel: campa_t.am (Ta.); sampa_t.amu (Te.) weighing a jewel with inlaid lac, precious stones, etc. (Ta.lex.)

3586.Neighbouring: ca_mantan- feudatory prince, petty ruler (Pa_rata. Mutar-po_. 24); captain of an army (Tiruva_lava_. 59,16); king's minister (Ta.lex.) samanta neighbouring (RV.); samam.ta neighbouring (Pkt.); ha_t around (Si.)(CDIAL 13183). sa_manta being on all sides (Ka_tyS'r.); neighbour (Skt.); vassal, chief of a district (Mn.); neighbourhood (Mn.); neighbouring (Pali); sa_mam.ta (As'.Pkt.); neighbouring vassal king (Pkt.); sa_anta prince, husband; sa_a_nta_n.i lady (Or.); sa~_want, sa_want brave; leader (H.); sa_mat, sa_mad petty chief (G.); sa_vam.tu neighbour (OM.)(CDIAL 13348). sa~_tra_ nom. prop. (B.)(CDIAL 13350).

3587.Agreement, contract: samaya agreement (TS.); rule (AV.); meeting (S'Br.); coming together, intercourse (Pali); agreement, contract (NiDoc.); samiyen covenant (Si.inscr.); samu thotki to collect (Sh.); samai certainly (H.)(CDIAL 13185). camayam agreement, contract; camaya-pattiram deed of agreement (S.I.I. i,84)(Ta.lex.) cf. same_ together (Wg.)(CDIAL 13174). sam.mata agreed, approved (MBh.); sammata agreed (Pali); sam.maya (Pkt.); samataya approved (OSi.); samu agreement, permission (Si.)(CDIAL 12973). sam.bhid.an.a striking, contact (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12969).

3588.Time: samaya time (MBh.); time, point of time (Pali); time (Pkt.); samaa time (Pkt.); sama_ season, good season, prosperity (L.); samo time, occasion, season (G.); save at the moment of (dawn)(M.); save~c immediately, spontaneously (M.); sama_, seme time (Si.); sama_ time (H.)(CDIAL 13185). camayam critical moment; suitable or proper opportunity (Ta.lex.)

3589.Mimicry: sava~_gi_ mimic (P.); swa~_gi mimicking (N.); mimic, actor (H.); swa~_gilo buffoon (Ku.); humorous (N.)(CDIAL 13204). saman:ga a partic. game (Skt.); sava~_g, sa~_g mimicry (P.); swa~_g (Ku.); swa_n. (N.); sua_n:ga (Or.); sawa~_g, suwa~_g, swa~_g, sa~_g (H.); suva~_g, so~ disguise (G.); so~g part in a drama (M.)(CDIAL 13203). ko_ma_l.am romping as of fat bullocks; ko_ma_l.i buffoon, jester; kumma_l.am jumping, romping, moving sportively (as children, calves, etc.); kummat.t.i romping, jumping (Ta.); ko_ma_l.am jesting; ko_ma_l.i jester (Ma.); ko.ma.l.y buffoon in drama (Ko.); ko_pa_ro jesting, buffoonery (Tu.)(DEDR 2222).

3590.Apple: se_vi, se_va, se_vita fruit of zizyphus jujuba, apple (Skt.); se_b or se_p (Pahl.); se_ (Ma_zandara_ni_ (Pers. se_b apple); seb (P.H.); seba (Or.); seb, sep (G.); se apple (P.); fruit of prosopis spicigera (P.); seu, syau apple (N.); seu, seo (Or.); s'ev (obl. s'evi_) name of a fruit tree (M.); seu_ ber a grafted zizyphus jububa; seun. f. (P.)(CDIAL 13596). cf. van-n-i prosopia spicigera (Ta.)(DEDR 5330).

3591.Jasmine: cambeli_ jasminum grandiflorum (S.); ca~beli_, cameli_ (P.); cameli jasminum sambac (N.); j. grandiflorum (Bi.); cambeli_, ca~_meli_ (Or.); cameli_ (Mth.); cam.beli_ (OAw.); ca~beli_, cameli_ (H.); ca~peli_, ca~beli_, cameli_ (G.); c.a~beli_, c.ameli_ the plant (M.); c.amel its flower (M.)(CDIAL 4680). camba_ yellow jasmine (L.)(CDIAL 4679). mullai arabian jasmine, jasminum sambac (Ta.); mulla j. sambac (Ma.); molle j. multiflorum or pubescens (Ka.); molla jasmine (Te.)(DEDR 4987). mallika_ j. sambac (MBh.); jasmine (Pali); mallia_ (Pkt.); malli_ (H.); ma_lati_ j. grandiflorum (Skt.)(CDIAL 9913). se_vanti, sa_manti, sa_mantige a kind of jasmine, jasminum auriculatum, ma_gadhi, yu_dhike (Ka.); se_mantika_, se_manti_, se_vati_ the Indian white rose, rosa glandulifera (Skt.); se_vantige, se_vanti jasminum auriculatum, ma_gadhi, gan.ike, yu_dhike, ambas.t.he, endad.e se_vantige (Ka.); the garden flower chrysanthemum indicum (Ka.); ca_manti (Ta.): ce_manti, se_vanti, se_manti (Te.); ca_manti, cevvanti, ce_manti (Ma.); cevvanti chrysanthemum indicum with red flower (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Garden chrysanthemum: se_manti_ the Indian white rose rosa glandulifera; se_mantika_ (Skt.); se_vati_ (Bhpr.); se_vani (Skt.); xeuti_ rosa glandulifera (A.); seu~ti, se~oti, siu~ti (B.); se~o~ti_, sewti_ id. (H.); s'evti_, s'evti_ the tree; s'evte~ the flower (M.)(CDIAL 13590).

3592.Wet, distil: cemmal water (Ta.); s'ima moistness, cold (Tu.); sima cold, chill; simma cold; temma a cough, cold (Tu.); cemma moisture, damp; moist, damp; cemmagincu, cemmagilu, cemmagillu to become damp or moist, sweat; cemmat.a, cemat.a, cemaru sweat; cemaru to melt, become wet in sweat; cemar(u)cu id.; temma wetness, moisture; temm-era cool breeze, zephyr [cf. eral wind, air (Ka.); temm-eral south wind (Te.)(DEDR 810)] ; temad.a phlegm, mucus (Te.); jimbri pi_yu drizzle (Kuwi); simdha_rna_ to become damp (Kur.)(DEDR 2539). Cough: cerumu (cerumi-) to hem, cough; cerumal clearing the throat; cer-umu (cer-umi-) to hem, grunt, sob agitatedly (Ta.); cuma cough; cumekka to cough (Ma.); kemmu to cough; n. coughing (Ka.); kemm- (kemmi-) to cough (Kod..); kemma a cough, cold; temmo, hemmo cough; temilu, semilu sneezing (cough)(Tu.); kre_t.u to clear the throat by coughing (Te.); kom- to cough (Pa.); kodm- to cough; kodumkur a cough, coughing (Ga.)(DEDR 1964). cf. sitta sprinkled (Pali); wetted (RV.)(CDIAL 13388). cf. sikta, uks.ita wet (Skt.lex.)

3593.Swampy land; marsh; to ooze: si_m, sima_r swampy land (Ku.); simailo marshy (Ku.); sim marsh, bog (N.); syomu, syombu sediment, silt (K.); siman.u to ooze (S.); sima ooze (S.); semo leakage, spring of water (S.); simman. to ooze (L.); sem oozing (L.); simmn.a_ to ooze (P.)(CDIAL 13419). Sneeze: semilu to sneeze (Ka.); cimili id. (Kor.)(DEDR 2774). tummu (tummi-), tumpu (tumpi-) to sneeze; tummu, tummal sneeze, sneezing (Ta.); tummuka, tumpuka to sneeze; tumekka (cattle) snort; tuvekka to sneeze, snort (Ta.); tub- (tuby-) to sneeze (Ko.); tub- (tuby-) id. (To.); timm- (timmi-), tumm- (tummi-) id. (Kod..); tumbilu sneezing, sneeze (Tu.); tummu to sneeze; n. sneeze (Te.); tum- (tumt-) to sneeze (Kol.); tum a sneeze; to sneeze (Nk.); tumm- id. (Pa.); tumkud. a sneeze, sneezing (Pa.); tum-, tumm- to sneeze (Ga.); tum a sneeze; tuhka_na_, tuh-, tuhk-, tukha_na_ to sneeze; tuhka_na_ to cough (of cattle in the rainy season); tuhk a sneeze (Go.); tup- (-t-) to sneeze; tumbu (pl. tupku) a sneeze (Kond.a); tum- (-t-) to sneeze (Pe.); tumm-, tu_hmali, tu_minai id.; tu_mu a sneeze (Kuwi); tum'na_ (tummyas) to sneeze (Kur.); tum'ta'a_na_ to cause one to sneeze (Kur.); tume to sneeze (Malt.)(DEDR 3336). cf. cemmal water (Ta.)(DEDR 2539). tinta wet (Pali); tim.ta (Pkt.); tindo, cindo, kindo_ (Gypsy); tita_ (A.); tita (MB.); tita_ (B.); tinta_ (Or.); ti~_tal wet, limp (Mth.); ti_ta_ wet (H.); tet wet (Si.); teta wetness (Si.); thindar wets (Gypsy); titiba to be wet (A.) tita_ to become moist (B.) tita_na to moisten (B.); tin.n.a wet (Pkt.); tino (Ku.)(CDIAL 5812). timita wet (Skt.); stimita (Nais..); tiowa_ soaked or washed in water (A.)(CDIAL 5816). timyati,ti_myati becomes wet (Dha_tup.); timmama_n.a becoming wet (Pkt.); timmia wet (Pkt.); ti_man.em. to be wet (OM.); ti~bn.e~ to wet, be wet; timn.e~, ti~bn.e~ a partic. kind of dish of rice etc. (M.)(CDIAL 5820). te_ma the becoming wet (Skt.); tem act of wetting (Si.)(CDIAL 5048). te_mana moisture, moistening (Skt.); wetting (Pali); temana cooked food, stewed or boiled flesh (Si.)(CDIAL 5949). te_me_ti wets (Pali); tiya_iba to soak in water (A.); tevn.e~ to become moist, dissolve (M.); temanava_ to wet, water (Si.); temi wet (Si.)(CDIAL 5951). tem wetness (H.)(CDIAL 5956). t.rehan.u to damp (S.); t.reha damping (S.); t.emn.a_ to moisten the surface of a piece of bread (P.)(CDIAL 6072). tre_l. dew (L.); tel (P.)(CDIAL 6073). t.riman.u to ooze (S.); t.rimin.o leaky (S.); trimman. to drop, distil, leak (L.); trimmo leaking, distillation (L.)(CDIAL 6039). Drizzle; simmer: simasima_yate_ bubbles, simmers (Ma_rkP.); s'imis'ima_yati simmers (Skt.); simisima_yate_ quivers (Skt.); simasima_yai, simisima_yai simmers (Pkt.); simsim falling in light showers; simsime drizzling (N.); ximximi_ya_ (A.); simsim, sumsum sizzling (H.)(CDIAL 13418). te_ma wetness (Te.)

3594.Paddy field: kampo, gampo a swampy field (Tu.lex.) kambal.o a big paddy field where buffalo race is held (Tu.lex.) cf. kampalai agricultural tract (Ta.)(DEDR 1237). cf. kabal.m communal work in one man's garden (Ko.); kambal.a feast given in field at transplantation time; picnic (Kod..)(DEDR 1238). kambal.ota ko_ri festive celebration of the last ploughing of the field before transplantation (Tu.lex.)

3595.Swampy ground: javal.u, javul.u, javugu, jo_gu swampy ground (Ka.); javuku, jauku to be marshy (Te.)(DEDR 2398). Inhabitants of an agricultural tract: kampalai agricultural tract (Ta.); kampal.ar inhabitants of an agricultural tract (Ta.); men of Tot.t.iya caste (Ta.lex.) kampan.a a district (Ka.); kampan.amu zan administrative division (Te.): kampala, kampan.a an administrartive division (ASLV); kampan.a (IE 8-4.IEG.) a small territorial unit like a Pargana_. kampanah (Skt. Mayrhofer)(DEDR 1237). kampal.ar inhabitants of an agricultural tract (Ta.)(DEDR 1237). Fisherman; toddy-drawer: kabbila huntsman, fowler, rustic; kabbiliga, kabbeya boatman, fisherman (Ka.); kabbili toddy-drawer; gamal.l.ava~_d.u man of the toddy-drawer caste; gavun.d.lava~_d.u a toddy-drawer (Te.)(DEDR 1227). Female demon: kampalai-ma_ri female demon worshipped especially by Veddahs; termagant, scold (Ta.lex.) ka_mpili, ka_mpiliyam name of an ancient kingdom in N. India (ka_mpili-k-ka_van-man-n-an- (Ci_vaka. 611); kampili a city in Northern India (Kalin.. 190, Putup.)(Ta.lex.) ka_mbiru coming from Ka_mbar, epithet of a particular kind of rice; ka_mbar a town in Ca_ndika_ (S.); kampilla a town in Punjab (Pkt.); ka_mpi_la name of a town (VS.); ka_mpilya a city of Paca_las (MBh.); ka_mpilla a country in the NW of India (Skt.)(CDIAL 3047). Peasant; peasantry: ka_p Parja (i.e. speaker of Parji)(Go.); ka~_pu a cultivator, farmer; pertaining to the farmer, rustic (Te.); ka~_pata, ka~_pudi a peasant woman (Te.); ka~_pu~danamu the peasantry (Te.); ka~_puramu residence, abode, domicile (Te.); ka_ppiliyar [cf.ka_mpiliya] a caste of Kanarese cultivators, found chiefly in Madura and Tinnevelly districts, using the title kavan.d.an (Ta.lex.) ka_pu a cultivator, farmer; pertaining to the farmer, rustic (Te.); ka_p Parja (i.e.speaker of Parji)(Go.); ga_mpa, ga_n.pa a rustic; a simpleton, vulgar or vile man (Ka.)(DEDR 1456). Grant of village for wife: kammattam zemindar's or inamdar's land which he cultivates with his own labourers; grant of a village for a wife's pocket expenses (M.M. 249)(Ta.lex.) kampatta-k-ka_ran- one who owns landed property (Ta.); kammatamu (Te.); kampattam agriculture, cultivation by the owner with his own stock; agricultural land (Ta.); kammatamu (Te.); kampal.am, kampal.atta_n- the Tot.t.iya caste; man of the Tot.t.iya caste (Ta.); kampal.ar men of the Tot.t.iya caste (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) kampat.i plot of land on the outskirts of a village set apart for growing bulrush millet (G.Tn.D. i,159)(Ta.lex.) Agriculture: kamam cultivation, agriculture; field, farm (Ta.); cf. karman (Skt.); kamampulam lands and fields (Ta.); kamava_ram share of the produce of land given in return for agricultural implements loaned for its cultivation (Ta.lex.) kaman, khamna forest; kamna t.a_li nilgai (Go.); kaman forest (Pe.); kaman. id. (Mand..); kambor.i, kamboni forest, jungle (Kui); kamn.a park, grove; forest (Kuwi); kambare uncultivated ground (Malt.)(DEDR 1228). ka_maru_a name of a people in West Assam (Pkt.); ka_maru_pa (Skt.); ka_m.varu_ (OB.); ka_n.ura (MB.); ka_u~ri (Or.); kawa~ru_ (Bhoj.); ka_m.varu_ name of a country famous for its magic: pop. etym. from ka_maru_pa assuming any shape at will (MBh.)(CDIAL 3043). Mud; agricultural tract: jamba_la mud (Pkt.); jamba_li_ muddy pool at entrance to village (Pkt.); jam.ba_la mud, slime (Pkt.); jamba mud (Skt.); zamba-wa_r pile of encrusted or solidified mud (K.)(CDIAL 5128). cf. kampalai agricultural tract (Ta.)(DEDR 1237).

3596.Load-pad: cumma_t.u load-pad for the head (Tiruva_lava_. 30,9)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); cumat.u id. (Perumpa_n.. 159); burden, load (Kalit. 109); id. (Ma.); cumat.ai id. (Ta.); cumma_t.u-ko_lutal to coil a cloth as load-pad for the head; cummai burden, charge; bundle (Kampara_. Ilan:kaika_n.. 33); stack of rick or reaped paddy (Ta.); cuma to bear, carry a burden, as a beast (Kalit. 80); id. (Ma.); mo_cu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) su~_thiu~, su~thiyu~ circle of rope or rags as a stand for a vessel with convex bottom (G.); sut.t.hia well-placed (Pkt.); sutthiya id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13538).

3597.Soma; electrum; silver ore; gold: somnakay gold (Gypsy); sovnakay, so_nakai (Gypsy); son (D..); sun (Ash.); su~_n (Wg.); sun (Kt.); s (Pr.); so_n (Dm.); su~_wan (Pas'.); so_'n (Gmb.); so_n., su_n. (Phal.); son (Sv.); sonu, so_n., le_lo swa~_r.e gold (Sh.); su~_r.a, su~_r (Kal.); so_no golden (Sh.); so_n.u beautiful (Sh.);[cf. compu beauty, grace (Ta.); sompu id. (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 2850)]; son gold (K.); so_nu, sonn, so_n.n.a (K.); so~nu gold (S.); son~o~ golden (S.); sona_ gold (L.P.); soina_, seona_, siuna_ (P.); sunno_, sonnu, su_no_ (WPah.); suno, sun (Ku.); sun (N.); xon, xona_ (A.); sona_ (B.); suna_ (Or.); son, sona_ (Mth.); sonu (Aw.); sona_ (Bhoj.H.); sauno (OMarw.); sovana, sonam. (OG.); sonu~ (G.); sone~ (M.); sona_ golden (M.); sovan.a (OSi.Bra_mi_); sovan.a (OSi.); suvan-na (Si.); swa_ren, surun gold (Pas'.); suarin (Shum.); sorum (with -m from droxum silver; Yid. suwo_rum)(Kho.); so_van.n.a, so_van.n.aya golden (Pali); so_(v)an.n.a (Pkt.); so_van.a (Skt.); suvan.n.a of good colour; gold (Pali); son.n.a golden; gold (Pali): suvarna gold (NiDoc.); su(v)an.n.a, son.n.a gold; suvan.n.ia golden (Pkt.); suvarn.a of bright colour, golden (RV.); gold (AV.); suvarn.aka golden (Skt.); sauvarn.a golden (S'r.S.); gold (MBh.)(CDIAL 13519). so~nahari_ having gold leaf, golden, reddish yellow (S.); sunahira_ golden, gilded (P.); sunahra_, sunaihra_ (H.); soneri_, suneri_ (G.); soneri_ (M.)(CDIAL 13522). suvarn.amaya made of gold (Skt.); suvan.n.amaya made of gold (Pali); sovanmuva_ (OSi.)(CDIAL 13523). suvarn.avarn.a gold-coloured (Skt.) suvan.n.avan.n.a gold-coloured (Pali); suvanvana bright yellow (Si.)(CDIAL 13524). sauvarn.ika goldsmith (Skt.); soni jeweller (Bi.)(CDIAL 13623). suvarn.aka_ra goldsmith (Mn.); suvan.n.aka_ra goldsmith (Pali); suvarnakara (NiDoc.); suvan.n.aa_ra, sun.n.aa_ra, sun.n.a_ra (Pkt.); sunia_r (Sh.); sonar, sonuru (K.); sona_ro (S.); suna_ra_, sunia_ra_ (L.); sunea_r, sunea_ra_ (P.); suna_r (Ku.N.); xona_ri (A.); suna_ra, suna_ri (Or.); sona_r (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); sona_r, suna_r (H.); sona_r (G.M.); sona_ru (Konkan.i); suvaru (Si.) (CDIAL 13520). Property, wealth: com < svam neut. nom. sing. of sva property, wealth, one's own goods (com man-aivait teppat.i nat.appi_r: Kumara. Pira. Ka_cik. 34); com-pa_ti owner's share of produce; comma_l.i heir, owner; commet.uttal to inherit (Ta.lex.) sovan.n.a, sovan.n.aya, suvan.n.a [suvarn.a (Skt.)] golden; suvan.n.a-ka_ra goldsmith; suvan.n.a-gabbha a safe (-room) for gold; suvan.n.a-guha_ golden cave; suvan.n.a-pat.t.a a golden (writing) slab; suvan.n.a-pan.aka a golden diadem (Pali.lex.) Gold: co_n.am gold (Tiruva_ta. Pu. Tiruvampala. 51); cf. svarn.a (Ta.lex.) Indra: so_mapati a name of Indra (RV.); somaiyo the god Somna_th (G.)(CDIAL 13609). Sand containing silver ore; earth, soil: sum earth, soil (Gaw.Bshk.Tor.Phal.Sh.)(CDIAL 13493). cummai village, town; country, district (Ta.lex.) co_ma-man.al sand containing silver ore (W.); co_man- id. (Mu_. A.); co_man-, co_man-uppu a prepared arsenic (Mu_. A.); co_ma-ticai < so_ma + dis'a_ north, as Kube_ra's quarter (Tiva_.); co_man.am cleansing after evacuation (prob. s'o_dhana); so_maya_ji < + ya_jin brahmin who has performed the so_ma sacrifice (S.I.I. iii,110)(Ta.lex.) so_ma Kube_ra; S'iva, so_madhara (Ka.lex.) so_macuntaran- < so_masundara S'iva worshipped in Madura (Tiruvil.ai. Mu_rtti. 34); co_ma_ci-ma_r-a-na_yan-a_r a canonized s'aiva saint, one of 63 (Periyapu.); co_ma_r--kantan- S'iva with Pa_rvati_ and Skanda (Civaraka. Kan.apatiyu. 1); co_ma_skantan- < sa + uma_ + skanda id.; co_mi Durga_ (Tiruva_ca. 9,1); co_mu a kind of sacrifice at which soma juice is offered to gods (tu_ya na_n-mar-aiya_l.ar co_muc ceyya : Tiv. Periyati. 2,10,1) (Ta.lex.) so_mya soft, good, amiable; resembling or shaped like soma; saumya having the properties of soma; gentle, soft, mild, placid; bright, brilliant; a bra_hman.a (Skt.lex.) saume_cakam gold; saume_rukam relating to or coming from Sumeru; saume_rukam gold (Skt.lex.) so_mi a performer of a soma sacrifice (Ka.lex.) cavurar < saura sun-worshippers (Vina_yakapu. 68,36)(Ta.lex.) co_makar < so_maka Pa_ca_la kings (Kampara_. Ula_viyar-. 48); so_make_s'ar id. (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 79)(Ta.lex.) cf. saura_s.t.ra so_maya a name; saura_s.t.raka bell-metal, brass, kancu; saura_s.t.ra so_me_s'vara So_me_s'vara of Surat; so_me_s'vara S'iva or his lin:ga; so_ma-su_tra a channel for conveying the water with which a lin:ga or another idol has been bathed (Ka.lex.) co_masu_ttiram < so_masu_tra a spout attached to the inner shrine of a S'iva temple (G.Sm.D. I,i,112)(Ta.lex.) cf. semant. kapparai brass vessel; karppu_ram gold (Ta.lex.) so_mapa, so_mapa_ a drinker of soma juice; a bra_hman.ana; so_mapi_ti a drinker of the soma juice; so_maprama_dhi one who crushes the stalks of the soma plant between stones, sprinkles them with water, and places them on a sieve or strainer (whence, after further pressure, the acid juice trickles into a vessel (Ka.lex.) Wealth: so_ma (as the last member of a compound) chief, principal, best; as in nr.so_ma; so_ma vikrayin a vendor of soma juice; so_ma-sut a soma distiller; so_ma-su_tra-pradaks.in.a_ circumambulation around a s'iva lin:ga so as not to cross the so_masu_tra (Skt.lex.) com < svam property, wealth, one's own goods (Kumara. Pira. Ka_cik. 34); compu, cempu copper, cuprum, as reddish (Cilap. 145,174)(Ta.); combu id. (Ka.Tu.); cambu_ (U.); cempu gold (Aka. Ni.); metal vessel (Ta.); cembu id. (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Red cow: cuman-ai < sumana_ red cow (Tan.ikaippu. Akat. 486)(Ta.lex.) soma interpreted as 'electrum' is concordant with a remarkable listing of synonyms for soma: kappara, sa_ran:ga, so_ma (according to S'abdasan:graha by Gurura_va Vit.hala Mo_hare, 1874; loc. cit. Ka.lex.): sa_ran:ga camphor, gold; so_ma camphor (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. so_ma interpreted as electrum, silver-gold ore, op.cit. cf. karppu_ram < karbu_ra gold (Pin..); camphor (Ta.); karpu_ra (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Semant. karbura greyish, variegated; a variegated colour; gold; sa_ran:ga of a variegated colour, variegated; sa_ran:ga ban.n.a a variegated colour (Ka.lex.) cf. co_ma-man.al sand containing silver ore (W.); co_man- id. (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) vasanta-so_maya_ji a name (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) so_maya_ji a family name of Tuluva brahmins; so_mapa_dya_ya id. (Tu.lex.) vasanta o_kul.i or saffron water (Ka.Te.Ta.); basanti_ of a yellow colour (M.H.); vasanto_tsava any festive occasion on which vasant (o_kul.i) is sprinkled or squirted (Ka.lex.) Electrum: "Electrum (Egyptian assem) was by the ancients considered as a distinct metal -- just as silver and gold were distinct metals. It is supposed that it was first known to the Egyptians in the form of an alloy, either native, or as the product of the working of a naturally occurring ore... In Pliny's time, the word was also in use, though recognized as an alloy of gold and silver. In all gold, says Pliny, there is some silver... an 'artificial' electrum, he says, is made by mixing gold and silver... he considers the native quicksilver as different from that obtained by heating 'minium' (cinnabar)... Pliny, lik all other ancient Latin writers, uses but one term 'aes' to designate copper, bronzes, and brass... Gold, as obtained by the Egyptians, was often especially rich in silver, so that the color was notably light, and was considered by them as a different metal -- a white gold or 'asem'. Beads and gold leaf of the twelfth dynasty (perhaps 2000 BC), analyzed by Berthelot, gave 82.94 per cent gold to 16.56 per cent silver, and 85.92 per cent gold to 13.78 per cent silver." (John Maxson Stillman, The Story of Alchemy and Early Chemistry, New York, Dover Publications, Inc., 1924, pp.64-65; p.7). "... Egyptian recipes in the Leyden Papyrus (discovered in a tomb at Thebes in Egypt; written in Greek at c. 300 AD) deal mainly with the production of imitations of an alloy of gold and silver which is called by its old Egyptian name asem (the Greek elektron and Roman electrum), which was regarded as a separate metal... and were even ,better than the real'." (J.R. Parrington, A Short History of Chemistry, London, Macmillan, 1960, p.17). Jeweller: soni jeweller (Bi.); suvarn.ika goldsmith (Skt.)(CDIAL 13623). Gold; red: sun.esti za~r gold (Ash.); s'on.a red, crimson, purple (RV.); yellow (Skt.); so_ne green (Ash.); so_n.a red (Pkt.); so_n.e red (Ash.); s.o_n.a_k red (Pas'.); s'o_n.a bignonia indica, red sugar-cane (Skt.)(CDIAL 12623). cf. co.- (co.p-, co.nd-) to become red; co.nd red; co.pi red, redness (Ta.)(DEDR 1931). Gold: suvarn.a gold (Skt.) co_n.am gold (Tiruva_ta. Pu. Tiruvampala. 51)(Ta.lex.)

3598.Wild buffalo, bison: homa bison (Pe.); hama id. (Mand..); soma a wild buffalo = bison (Kui); homma bison (Kuwi); ho_ma sambar (Kuwi)(DEDR 2849). ?cf. kom horn (Kol.); komm id. (Nk.); koma, komo id.; (Pe.)(DEDR 2115).

3599.Image: snake: sapola_ young snake (P.); sa~pola_ (H.); sappapo_taka (Pali)(CDIAL 13272). sarpi_ snake (MBh.); sarpa (RV.); sappa (Pali.Pkt.); sap, sa_pi (Gy.); sapu (S.); sapp (L.P.WPah.); sya_p (Ku.); sa_p (N.B.H.G.M.); sa~_p (Mth.H.); sappa_ (Mth.); xa_p (A.); sa_pa, sa~_pa (Or.); sap-a_, hap-a_, sapu, hapu (Si.)(CDIAL 13271). sapehra_, sapera_, sa~pera_ snake-catcher, snake-charmer (H.); sarpadha_raka (Pali)(CDIAL 13273). sarpin.i_ female snake (Ka_s'i_kh.); sappini_ id. (Pali); sapni (Gypsy); sapin.i; (S.); sapn.i_ (L.); sappn.i_ (P.); sa_pun.i (Or.); sa_pini (Mth.); sa_m.pini (OAw.); sa~_pin, sa~_pan (H.); sa_pen., sa_pan. (G.); sa~_pin. female cobra (M.); hpinna (Si.)(CDIAL 13274). Image: foetus: arbuda snake (RV.); long round mass, esp. foetus in 1st or 2nd month (Ya_j.); tumour, polypus (Sus'r.); abbuda foetus in 1st or 2nd month, tumour (Pali); abbuya clot of semen and blood (Pkt.); a_bu wen (B.Or.)(CDIAL 686).

3600.Black, dark-blue; dark brown: s'ya_ma black, swarthy, dark-blue (AV.); s'ya_maka (VarBr.S.); sa_ma black, dark, golden-coloured (e.g. suvan.n.a-sa_ma_)(Pali); sa_ma black, dark-blue (Pkt.); s'a_ma_k, s'amec black; sa_mek, s'a_ma_k (s.- after s.o_n.a_k red)(Pas'.); s'mu dark blue, dark brown; hmu dark grey (K.); ha_m dirtiedness (K.); sa~_va_ grey, greyish, green (P.); sa_u~ dark-coloured (N.); xa_u~, xa~_o swarthy, lightish dark (A.); sa_m black, dark (G.); sam-van black-colour (Si.)(CDIAL 12664).

3601.Yam; kales: ke_save, ke_su, kesa, kesavu taro, colocasia antiquorum, arum colocasia (Ka.); ki_bi (pl. ki_bul) a. colocasia (Pa.); kiyub colocasia antiquorum (Ga.); kisgo_ yam (Kur.); ce_mpu, ce_mpai Indian kales, colocasia antiquorum (Ta.); a garden plant, c. indica (Ta.); ce_mpu, ce_mpa caladium esculentum (Ma.); ce_vu, te_vu a kind of yam, a. colocasia; caladium esculentum (Tu.); ce_ma colocasia antiquorum (Te.)(DEDR 2004). ke_muka cossus speciosus, colocasia antiquorum (Skt.); ke_vuka (Car.); ke_cuka (Sus'r.); kacu, kacvi_ (Skt.); ke_lu_t.a (Npr.); also a kind of potherb (Car.); ke~u costus speciosus (B.); kaukaua (Or.); keu~a_, keua_ (H.)(CDIAL 3465).

3602.Prosopis spicigera: san:gara fruit of prosopis spicigera; s'an:kari_ prosopis spicigera, mimosa suma, rubia munjista (Skt.); sam.gariga_, sam.galiya_ pod of prosopis spicigera (Pkt.); san.aru (S.); san:gar (L.P.); san:gari_ (P.); sa~_gar (H.); sa~_gri_ (G.)(CDIAL 13082). s'ami_ the tree prosopis spicigera or mimosa suma (used in kindling fire)(AV.); s'a_mi_la made of this wood (Ka_tyS'r.)[The tree has leguminous pods: it may therefore be the same as s'ami_ pod, legume (VarBr.S.); s'imi (Skt.); se~i pod, legume (A.); sai~, chui~_ (Or.)(CDIAL 12309)]; sami, chami_ a partic. tree used for kindling fire (Pkt.); samr.i_ a kind of tree; samr.o a small thorny tree (G.); sa_mia burnt (Pkt.); sa~_i mimosa suma (B.); sa_i~ prosopis spicigera, acacia suma (Or.)(CDIAL 12308). jan.d. prosopis spicigera (L.P.); jan.d.i_ a small variety (L.P.); ja~_t. prosopis spicigera (H.)(CDIAL 5092). s'ami_-dha_nya pod-grain: any pulse or grain growing in pods (Ka.Skt.lex.) s'ami_ prosopis spicigera (Car. Su. 25.49, 27.160). van-n-i prosopia spicigera (Ta.); vanni id. (Ma.); banni a prickly tree with an eatable pod, prosopis spicigera, acacia ferruginea (Ka.); vani-mra_nu prosopis spicigera (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 5330). banni a portion of grain given to a labourer in requital of his services; tax (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mijar flower of prosopis spicigera (L.); majari cluster of blossoms (MBh.); branching flower-stalk, sprout (Pali); mam.jari_, mam.jaria_ new tender sprout (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9716). majar, majri_ cluster of blossoms (H.); ma~_jar (G.); ma~jiri_ (M.)(CDIAL 9716). macari cluster of flowers (Tiv. Iyar-. Periya. 26)(Ta.lex.)

3603.Sarcostemma acidum: soma (Pa_n.. 4.3.144)[cf. soma is included in: s'ara_di gan.a or s'ara and allied coarse grass species in Pa_n.ini: s'ara, balwaja, vam.s'a (3.3.120)] soma (Skt.M.); somlata (H.B.); kondapala (Te.); somam (Ma.Ta.); dried stem: emetic; plant: bitter, cooling, alterative; habitat: arid rocks in Konkan, Deccan, N. Circars, Carnatic and Horsleykonda upto 4,500 ft. and Bengal. Reported from Ranchi (Horhap forest), Singhbhum and Puri; Sarcostemma intermedium: soma (Ka.); jivatib (Ma.); kodikkalli (Ta.); somalata (Te.); use same as sacrostemma acidum; habitat: Western Peninsula; Sarcostemma brunonianum: use same as of sarcostemma acidum; habitat: south India; Sarcostemma stocksii: use same as of sarcostemma acidum; habitat: S. Mahrata country and Sind. (GIMP, p.222). kot.ikkal.l.i moon-creeper, sarcostemma brevistigma = sarcostemma acidum; sarcostemma intermedium (Pata_rtta. 124)(Ta.lex.) ?Synonyms: kal.l.i spurge, euphorbia (Ain:kur-u. 323); fir, deal-tree; kal.l.ippa_l spurge milk; kal.l.ippet.t.i deal-wood box, ca_tikka_y pet.t.i (Ta.lex.) Euphorbia heterophylla: This is an erect, branched, smooth, half-woody herb or shrubby plant, 0.5 to 1.5 meters in height... leaves are variously lobed, sinuate, dentate, or subentire, and the uppermost ones are often blotched with red at the base... Wehmer records that the leaves contain red colouring matter, porcetin. The flowers are official in the Mexican pharmacopoeia. According to Burkill, a decoction of the roots and bark is used for ague in Kedah. Martinez states that in Yucatan the juice of the stem is applied against erysipelas. cf. euphorbia neriifolia: According to Nadkarni, the following constituents are found: euphorbon, resin, gum caoutchouc, malate of calcium etc... occurs in India. Euphorbia pulcherrima: This is an erect, sparingly and laxly branched shrub, 2 to 4 meters high... the upper leaves are uniformly bright-red... the bracts contain resin, a yellow and red colouring-matter... Standley states that the bark is said to contain a red colouring principle, and the bracts to yield a scarlet dye. The flowers are official in the Mexican pharmacopoeia... Hoene adds that the latex is very caustic and is extremely dangerous to the eye... The plant is considered as an emeto-cathartic. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 502-507). Tinospora cordifolia: gud.u_ci tinospora cordifolia (Car. Su. 2.12, 3.2). gud.u_ci_ the shrub cocculus cordifolius (Sus'r.); gud.u_cika_ (Car.); gud.uci_, gud.aci_ (Skt.); galo_ci-lata_ (Pali); galo_i_, galo_ya_ a kind of creeper (Pkt.); gilo cocculus cordifolius (S.); gilo, galo menispermum glabrum (P.); gilau, gilo, gulo menispermum glabrum or cordifolium (infusion used as febrifuge); giloy a partic. kind of creeper (M.); gal.o a bitter medicinal herb; gul.-vel the twining shrub menispermum glabrum or cocculus cordifolius (M.)(CDIAL 4188). gud.aci, gud.u_ci the plant cocculus cordifolius; amr.ta, ji_vanti, so_ma, amaravalli (Ka.lex.) Synonyms: cocculus indicus, fish berry, Indian berry, Levant berry; kokkelskorner, fishkorner (Ger.); coque du Levant (Fr.); botanical origin: anamirta cocculus or paniculata; part used: the dried ripe fruit; habitat : eastern India and the Malay archipelago; uses: to stupefy fish after which the fish are readily caught by hand; in poisoning by barbiturates. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 358-360). Cocculus laurifolius: Jungle tribes of the Malay peninsula use the plant to poison their arrows and darts; bark and leaves contain coclaurine with a curare-like action; habitat: subtropical Himalayas from Nepal to Jammu upto 5,000 ft., W. Ghats of Madras State, E. Bengal (GIMP, p.72).

3604.Premna tomentosa: chambara (M.); kattutekka (Ma.); podaganari (Ta.); naguru (Te.); oil from root: aromatic, used as remedy for stomach disorders; habitat: Madhya Pradesh, N. circars, Deccan and Carnatic down to S. Travancore in deciduous forests upto about 4,000 ft. (GIMP, p.203). pi_na_r-i woolly-leaved fire-brand teak, premna tomentosa (Ta.lex.) kad.a me~t premna herbacea; d.an:gra sea premna latifolia (Santali.lex.)

3605.Guava: jamrukh a guava; jamrukhi_, jamrukhr.i_ guava tree (G.)(CDIAL 5135). ja_mu the guava (psidium pyriferum)(S.); ja_mbu, ja_ma (Or.); zumb, zamb-chule prunus padus (K.)(CDIAL 5131).

3606.Pandanus odoratissimus: jambula pandanus odoratissimus (Skt.); jamru_l jambosa alba and its fruit (H.)(CDIAL 5136). cf. ke_taka pandanus tectorius = pandanus odoratissimus (GIMP, p.184).

3607.Jamoon plum: jambu_ syzygium cumini (Car. Su. 4.28,32). Szygium cumini = eugenia jambolana: bark: astringent, used in the preparation of astringent decoctions, gargles and washes; fresh juice given with goat's milk in diarrhea of children; juice of leaves used in dysentery; juice of ripe fruit: made into a vinegar used as a stomachic, carminative and as diuretic; fruit: useful astringent in bilious diarrhea; seeds: used in diabetes; essential oil in seeds; habita: throughout India (GIMP, p.238). phale_ndra_ a species of rose-apple tree eugenia jambolana (Bhpr.); phare~_d.a_ rose-apple tree (Aw.); phare~, phare~da_ (H.)(CDIAL 9061). jambu, jambu_ the rose-apple tree, eugenia jambolana (Kaus'.); jambu (Pali); jam.bu_ (Pkt.); jamu~_ the tree and fruit (S.L.); jammu_ (P.); jemmu a tree with a black fruit; jammu (WPah.); ja_mu eugenia ramosissima (N.); za_mu_ eugenia jambolana and its fruit (A.); ja_m (B.); ja_mba, ja_ma, ja_mu_ (Or.); ja_m (H.); ja_m, ja~_bu the fruit; ja~_bur.i_, ja~_bur.o the tree; ja~_bur.u~ dark purple (G.); ja~_b(h) eugenia jambolana and its fruit (M.); ja~_mba (Konkan.i); damba eugenia jambolana (Si.); dan the fruit tree eugenia or syzygium caryophyllaea (Si.)(CDIAL 5131). jamwat., jamot. wooden base of the cylinder of a well made of wood of eugenia jambolana (Bi.)(CDIAL 5133). jamburukkha eugenia jambolana (Pali)(CDIAL 5135). a_val syzygium jambolanum (Ma.)[eleusine jambolana = syzigium jambolanum]; na_val jamoon plum, eugenia jambolana; Arnott's mountain black plum, eugenia arnottiana; nampu, navval, nalavai, na_kai jamoon plum (Ta.)(DEDR 2914). jambula eugenia jambolana (Skt.Pali); jambu_la e. jambolana (Skt.); jam.bula (Pkt.); ja~_bul. the fruit tree calyptranthes jambolana (M.); ja~_bhu_l. its fruit (M.); za_mbal. e. jambolana; its fruit (Konkan.i); ja~_bl.i_ the fruit tree syzygium jambolanum or calyptranthes jambolana or caryophyllaea (M.); dimbul (Si.); jammu_n. syzygium jambolanum (P.); ja_man. (P.KU.); ja_mun. a partic. fruit tree (Ku.); ja_mun a tree with a bitter purple fruit (Mth.); edible black berry (Bhoj.); e. jambolana (N.H.); ja_mnu (N.); ja_man (H.); s. jambolanum (H.); ja_mrul e. alba and its fruit (B.); ja_mrula (Or.)(CDIAL 5136). ne.rl eugenia arnottiana (Ko.); ne_r-al, ne_ral.u, ne_r-ale, ne_r-al.e, ne_r-il, ne_rile, ni_r-alu, ni_rlu eugenia jambolana (Ka.); ne_ru pan.n.u nevel fruit (Kod..); ne_rolu, ne_rol.u the newel fruit, syzygium jambolanum (Tu.); ne_red.u, ne_re_d.u id. (Te.); na~_d.i, pl. na_d.kul e. jambolana (Pa.); ne_nd.u, ne_d. ma_re jambu (Ga.); ne_nd.i, nendi_, le_nd.i_, le_nd.i e. jambolana (Go.); lo_nd.ru the jambu tree, calyptranthes jambolana = e. jambolana = s. jambolanum = c. caryophyllata (Kui); a_r-al, e_r-al c. caryophyllifolia (Ma.)(DEDR 2917).

3608.Image: ant: ci_ma ant (Te.); si.ma, sime id. (Kol.); s'i_ma id. (Nk.); si_ma, hi_ma id. (Kuwi); si_ma id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2623). si_mika_ ant; si_mika anthill (Skt.); si_vi_ mite, weevil (S.); sivvi_ white ant; sivi_ (L.)(CDIAL 13439). si_vi_ weevil (S.) (CDIAL 13398). cf. cimili cricket (Ta.); cimat.a, cimit.a, cimmat.a, cimmet.a the grave cricket that destroys clothes; moth, bookworm, cockroach (Te.)(DEDR 2541). cimt.i-pipiri collective noun for creeping and flying insects (Mu.); cimt.i ant; pipir flying ant (Sadani)(Mu.lex.)

3609.Image: pincers: cimt.a the smaller black-smith's tongs which are held with one hand, contrasted with sand.asom the larger one's for the use of which both hands are required (Mu.); tongs, nippers (H.Oraon.Sadani)(Mu.lex.) cimut.i a pair of tongs, pincers (Tu.lex.) cimut.u, civut.u, cigat.u to press together, to squeeze, to pinch; civut.u to cut or cut off with the nails, to pluck or pinch off with the nails (Ka.); cidupu, cidumu to squeeze, pinch (Te.); cimat.ige a pair of tweezers, pincers, nippers (Ka.); cimat.a_, cimit.a_, cimmat.e (Te.); cavan.e, cavin.e, ca_man.a, ca_van.a, s'ravan.a (Ta.); cimat.ige ha_r-isu to use the tweezers (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) jambura pincers wherewith to draw out nails; to pull out nails by means of pincers (Mu.); cf. zambu_r nippers, forceps (H.Sadani)(Mu.lex.)

3610.Image: long-haired tail: jand.u with seta, a dog with a long-haired tail; with cadlom a long-haired tail as that of jackals and hyenas (Mu.); jabur (Sadani) (Mu.lex.)

3611.A shop bill: ci_t.u a note, a short letter, a stamp; a shop bill (Tu.lex.)

3612.Terraced field: caor.a adj. with loeon, a terraced rice field of the third class (Mu.); caur low land (H.); caur.a (Sadani); there are five kinds of terraced rice fields: (1) t.oa loeon, always covered with water; (2) ikir loeon, low fields in which the same varieties of rice as in t.oa loeon may be sown; (3) caor.a, caor.a loeon, the lower fields on the slopes; (4); badi, badi loeon, the higher terraced fields; (5) cut.badi, the highest terraced fields (Mu.lex.)

3613.Field; boundary: si~_ postp. till (S.); si_va~_, si~_ boundary (P.); adv. si_ve~ near (P.); si~_wa_, si~_w boundary (H.); s'i~_v, s'i~v boundary of village or field (H.); si~_a boundary (S.); sia~_i_ next door neighbour (S.); si~_, pl. si_a~ boundary (L.); si_m boundary of village or field (G.); sim-a, him-a (Si.); si_man boundary (Ya_j.); si_ma_ id. (Mn.Pali.Pkt.); field (Pkt.); si_ma_nam acc. sg. boundary (Skt.); simam.mi (NiDoc.); si_maa_ boundary, field (Pkt.); sum boundary, bridge (K.); sian. boundary (WPah.); sin boundary (P.); sima_na_ boundary, landmark, coast (N.); sima_n boundary (Mth.); siwa_na_ (H.); sima_r.o (G.)(CDIAL 13435). si_mo_llan:ghana passing of the borders (Skt.); s'ila_gan. passing of the borders in pompous procession on the festival of Dasara_ (M.)(CDIAL 13440). si_manta boundary; si_mantaka (MBh.); si_manta boundary (Pali); si_mam.ta, si_mam.taya outskirt of village (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13436). si_ma_nta boundary (Ya_j.); boundary of a village (R.); sewa_t deep furrow (esp. at edge of a field) (Bi.) (CDIAL 13437). si_ma_ntarika_ interval between the boundaries (Pali); si_ma_ntara boundary of a village (MBh.); sia~_diri_ next door house; next door neighbour, one whose fields adjoin (S.); sava~_dri_ neighbour (L.)(CDIAL 13438). Neighbourhood: cengat.a(n) near, closeby; cengali nearness, neighbourhood (Te.); cekkal near (Pa.); caxa_ around, near, in the vicinity of (Kur.)(DEDR 2753). Limit, bound: ikal limit, bound (Ja_n-a_. 50,5); ikam < iha this world (Kantapu. Tiruvil.ai. 105)(Ta.lex.)

3614.To suck; kiss: cumb kiss (Skt.); cumba kissing (Skt.); cumba_ (VarBr.S.); cumb, cumi kiss; cu_mer to kiss (Gypsy); cumi_ to kiss (S.); cumma_ (L.P.); cum (Ku.); cumma_ (N.); suma_ (A.); cumba_, cuma_ (B.Or.); cu_ma_ (Mth.); cu_m (Bhoj.); cumba_, cumma_, cu_ma_ (H.); cumi_ (G.)(CDIAL 4868). cumbati kisses (MBh.Pali); cum.bai (Pkt.); cumev, cum (Gypsy); cumun to fawn upon (K.); cumn.o to drink (K.); cuman.u to kiss (S.); cumman. to kiss, suck (A.); cuma_ to kiss (B.); cumbiba_ (Or.); cu~bab (Mth.); cu_mbai, cu_mab (OAw.); cu_mna_ (H.); cum(b)vu~ (G.); cu~bn.e~ to suck; cu~bn.e~ to kiss, suck (M.); sim.binava_, im.binava_ to kiss, smell (Si.); cucumiba_ to suck (milk); cucuma_ sucking with tongue and lips, baby's comforter (Or.)(CDIAL 4870). cumbana kissing (Skt.); cum.ban.a (Pkt.); cumin.i_ (S.); cu_mn.a_ (L.)(CDIAL 4871). cu_ppu to suck, sip; cu_ppi artificial nipple for a child to suck; cu_mpu (cu_mpi-) to suck, fondle with the lips; u_mpu (u_mpi-) to suck; umi (-v-, -nt-) id. (Ta.); u_mpuka to suck, eat; umma a kiss; umikkuka to sip, suck (Ma.); ub- (uby-) to suck penis (Ko.); ummu a kiss (Ka.); u.t- (u.ti-) to suck penis (Ko.); jumbuni to suck, sip, lick; jumbu, jimbu to suck (Tu.); jumbu id. (Tu.); u_mburseng id. (Kol.); [cf. ur-icu to suck up (Ta.); ujumbu to suck (Tu.)(DEDR 709)]; cu_k-, cu_v- to suck (Pa.); cupk- (cupt-) to suck, smack (Ga.); suhka_na_, u'k- to suck; u_t- id. (Go.); su_b- (-it-) id., kiss (Kond.a); ju_b- to suck (Mand..); ju_mba (ju_mbi-), ju_pa (ju_t-) to suck, absorb; n. suction, absorption (Kui); ju_pali to suck, kiss (Kuwi); conkhna_ (cunkhyas), cun:kna_ to kiss (Kur.); cumqe to kiss; cumqrse to sound with the lips in calling animals (Malt.); cu_ping to suck (Br.)(DEDR 2621).

3615.To pierce; sink, immerse: chup wound (Wg.); chuba wounded, cut (Wg.); cup(p)i dagger (N.); cupa_na to cut to pieces (B.); cupvu~ to thrust (G.); copn.o to dip (Ku.); copnu to pierce, sink in; copalnu to dive into, penetrate (N.); sop blow (A.); cop blow (B.); copsa_ letting water sink in (B.); copvu~ to pierce (G.); copn.e~ to beat a floor, fall in and look flat (M.); cum.pita cut, chopped (NiDoc.) (CDIAL 4863). cubhan.u to pierce, prick (S.); cubhan. to be pricked, prick (S.); cubbhun. to prick (S.); cubhn.a_ to be pierced; cubha_un.a_, cubbhi_ immersion (P.); cubhn.o to be pricked (Ku.); cu_bhai is pricked (OAw.); cu_bhna_ to be pierced (H.); cu_bhi_ diving (Marw.); cubhal.ya_ having promiscuous sexual intercourse (M.); cobhnu to pierce, sink in; cobhalnu to immerse (N.); cobhn.a_ to pierce (P.); cobha_ prick (H.); gubha_na_ to pierce (H.)(CDIAL 4867). To sink: kr.umba (kr.umbi-) to sink beneath, dive, plunge into; n. diving; kr.u_va (kr.u_t-) to sink down, sink into; n. subsidence, sinking into, setting of the sun (Kui); klu_pu depth (Kuwi)(DEDR 1826). suba_iba to immerse (A.); cuba_ to plunge into (B.); cubliba_ to spoil, water by dipping hand into pot (Or.); cobn.o to dip (Ku.); cobnu to sink in (N.); cobalnu to immerse (N.); cubukna_ to pierce (H.); cubakn.e~ to pierce, puncture (M.); cobnu to pierce, sink in (N.); cobal sudden bite (B.); cobvu~ to brand; cobo puncture, drumstick (G.); hobanava_, obanava_ to press, imprint (Si.); co~bn.e~ to stuff in; coman. penis (M.)(CDIAL 4866). Penis: kumpi penis (Ma.); kumbi id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1749). To pierce: ku_mpuni to peck, strike with the beak; kumpu to pierce (Tu.); kummu a butt, goring; gummu to butt, pierce, gore; n. a butt, thrust (Te.); gup- to pierce (Go.); gup- (-it-) to knock against; grup- (-h-) to bang against (Kond.a)(DEDR 1850c).

3616.Image: pipal: cuvann-a_l ficus infectoria (Ma.); cuvalai pipal (Ta.); cuvi white fig, ficus infectoria; stone fig, ficus gibbosa parasitica (Ta.); juvvi mara wavy-leaved fig tree, ficus infectoria (Ka.); juvi pipal, ficus religiosa (Kol.); juvvi ficus tsiela (Te.); ju_ meri sp. ficus (prob. religiosa)(Pa.)(DEDR 2697).

3617.Image: splinter: cimpu small splinter or fibre rising on a smooth surface of wood or metal, chip, flake from beaten iron, frayed ends of a worn cord, bamboo splits, twig; cimpal splinter, rough nap (Ta.); cimpu splinter, bamboo slip (Ma.)(DEDR 2546). cappai a spar of wood placed for the wheels of a car to run smoothly in a sandy road, rafter, a chip of wood (Ta.); cappa a wedge, a spar of wood placed for the wheels of a car to pass over in a sandy road (Te.)(DEDR 2340).

3618.Image: shutter of a sluice: ci_ppu shutter of a sluice (Ta.); bolt (Ta.Ma.); wooden brace to a door, driven into the ground in bolting (Cilap. 15,215) (Ta. lex.); weaver's reed frame having parallel flat strips of metal or reed between which the warp threads pass (Ta.lex.) ci_rppu a bolt, bar (Ma.); ci_mpi a bolt, bar, latch (Tu.)(DEDR 2622).

3619.Land-owner: janmi land-owner (Ma.); can-mi land-owner, opp. to kut.iya_n- (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. jami_n land (H.lex.) tin.ai house (Paripa_. 16,7); earth, land; place, region, situation, site (Ta.lex.)

3620.Ashed: ca_mpal ashes (Ma.); id. (Ta.)(Pu. Ve. 9,43, Urai); ca_mpal-uppu potash, salt of tartar, maravuppu; ca_mpal-ot.t.i madar, as being of ash-like dull-grey colour (Ta.lex.) cha_ur ashes (Bi.); ashes, dust (Mth.); chauro ashes; chaura_t.h ash-heap (Mth.)(CDIAL 5021). cha_di-mus.t.i handful of ashes (JaimBr. i,52); ci_ ashes (Bshk.); chi_ (Phal.); cha_i_ (S.L.P.); sa_i (A.); cha_i_ (B.); cha_i cha_i heba_ to be reduced to ashes (Or.); cha_i_ ashes (H.)(CDIAL 5020).

3621.Image: accoutred; fastened: sannaddha pp. of sannayhati fastened, bound; put on, clothed; armed, accoutred; sannaddha-dhanu-kala_pa (Pali.lex.) can-n-attam preparedness, readiness (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 28,39); can-n-attan- person clad with armour (Kampara_. Nakarni_. 126); one who is ready for any emergency; one armed and prepared for war (Pirapo_ta. 26,99) (Ta.lex.) sannaddha bound or fastened together; bound or girded on or round, fastened on, girth, bound; dressed or clad in, armed, accoutred; harnessed; arranged, arrayed, prepared, provided; ready for battle; prepared, ready (in general); well provided and furnished with anything; closely attached or connected, in close contact with, contguous, bordering, near (Ka.lex.) sanna_yo preparation; materials required for a specific purpose (Tu.); sanna_ha (Skt.)(Tu.lex.)

3622.Image: bowing down: sannati bowing down, reverential salutation; reverence, humility (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3623.Grant, charter, document creating rights: sanadu, sannadu a grant, a diploma, a charter, a patent, a commission or warrant (Ka.); sanada (M.H.); sanadu-patra a document conveying to an individual emoluments, titles, privileges, offices, or the government rights to revenue from land etc., under the seal of the ruling authority (Ka.); sanadi relating to a grant etc., held by a grant (Ka.M.H.) (Ka. lex.) can-n-atu < sanad grant, charter, patent, document creating rights and given under the seal of the ruling authority; can-n-attu-ma_n-iyam rent-free land granted under a sanad (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) sanda_yo making a repayment, making payment; sanda_vu to pay, to repay (Tu.lex.) sanad, sanadi diploma of vakils (Kon.lex.) A document: sanad a signature, a deed, a document; sanadi_ held by written deeds, authentic, trustworthy (P.lex.) can--ma_n-am gifts; camma_n-am < sam-ma_na compliment; gift, reward; present (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 27); land exempt from tax (Ta.lex.) cf. campa_van-ai < sam-bha_vana_ honour; offering, gift (Ta.lex.) samma_na [san + man] honour; san acc. of sa reflex. pron. 'own' [Vedic sva, svayan; P. sayan; Av. hava, hva own; Lat. sui, suus; Goth. swe_s own; Ger. sik, sich himself] (Pali.lex.) can-mi land-owner, opp. to kut.iya_n- (Na_.)(Ta.); janmi (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) can-man- < s'arman- title of Brahmins (Pa_rata. Ve_ttiraki_ya. 44)(Ta.lex.) na_thate_ seeks aid (TS.); na_thayati grants a request (BhP.); sana_thi_-karo_ti protects (Skt.); sanahay absol. having comforted (OSi.)(CDIAL 12926). sam.bha_vayati produces, makes (AitBr.); fosters, honours, supposes possible (MBh.); sambha_ve_ti produces, undertakes, honours (Pali); sam.bha_ve_i (Pkt.); sa~bha_vin.e~ to receive or treat respectfully (M.)(CDIAL 12967). Room: sam.ma_ti is contained in (Skt.); sam.mimi_te_ combines (AV.); sam.mimi_hi construct, grant (RV.); sam.mita of the same measure (TS.); sammita id. (Pali); sam.mai is contained in (Pkt.); samu_m I build, arrange (house, bed)(Phal.); sama_ijan.u to be contained, find room (S.); sama_un.a_ (P.); xoma_iba to enter into (A.); sama_i (OB.); sa_ma_y enters (MB.); sama_yati (Skt.); sama_eb to fit into, enter (Mth.); sama_i is contained, fits, enters (OAw.); sama_na_ to be contained, fit into; sama_u space, room; sama_u_ roomy; sama_i_ capacity (H.); sama_vu~ to be contained, be accommodated, ingratiate oneself with (G.); sa~_ma_vn.e~, sa_mavn.e~ to be contained (M.); sa_mb(h)a_y enters (MB.); samb(h)a_iba_ to be able to be contained, suffice for, be contained in (Or.)(CDIAL 12975). samu_n.o to hold, accept, take (Ku.); samu_n. present (Ku.); sama_unu to hold, seize (N.); sa_ma_i holding (B.); sama_vvu~ to make room for, accommodate, include, put (G.); xuma_iba to thrust in (A.)(CDIAL 12977).

3624.To tread on, destroy; consume: ks.apita destroyed (BhP.); khavia, khaia destroyed, lost (Pkt.); khoyo maize cob after removal of grains (N.); khoya_ thrown away, lost (B.); khoi_ refuse of sugarcane; khoya_ thrown away, lost (H.) (CDIAL 3653). cavat.t.u (cavat.t.i-) to destroy, ruin (as a town), kill, beat, tread upon, trample; camut.t.- to tread on (Ta.); cavit.t.uka to kick, tread; cavit.t.ikka to cause to tread on; cavit.t.u, cavat.i a kick (Ma.); cavt.- (cavt.i-) to step on; cavt.i footprint (Kod..); [cf. cuvat.u (Ta.)(DEDR 2695)](DEDR 2387). ks.apyate_ is ruined (MBh.); chap to become worn out (Pas'.); chapun to pass time unprofitably, be concealed (K.);[cf. kappu to surround (Ta.); to conceal (Te.)(DEDR 1221)]; khapan.u to be expended, be wearied (S.); khappan. to be wasted, be destroyed, be dried up (L.); khapn.a_ to be destroyed (P.); khapnu to last (of clothes)(N.); khapiba to wait (A.); khapiba_ to be spent, wither, be angry (Or.); khapna_ to be destroyed, be lost (H.); khapvu~ to be consumed (G.);[cf. kappu to gorge into mouth (Ta.); kappuni to eat greedily (Tu.)(DEDR 1222)]; khapn.e~ to be consumed, to work, die (M.); khapa_in.u to expend (S.); khapa_un.a_ to destroy (P.); khapa_unu to make last (N.); khapa_na_ to destroy (H.); khapa_vvu~ to use up (G.); kha_po expenditure (S.); kha_pa_ consumer (L.)(CDIAL 3655). camai (-v-, -nt-) to be consumed, destroyed, finish; (-pp-, -tt-) to kill, destroy; camaivu destruction (Ta.); cavati consumption (Ma.); cam- (camd-) to be finished, spent; (camt-) to finish (Ma.); same, save, savi to be destroyed, be consumed, wear away, be abraded, pass away (as time), decline in strength; samisu, samayisu, savisu, savayisu to make to wear away, etc.; savar to perish (Ka.); savipuni to abrade (Tu.); samayu to die, perish, be destroyed; samayincu to kill, destroy; camaru to kill (Te.); javuka_na_, havk-, hovk-, avk- to kill; houkto id. (Go.)(DEDR 2343). cf. avical that which is decayed (Ta.); savva_na_ to be rotten (Go.)(DEDR 2341).

3625.Lethargy: co_mpu (co_mpi-) to be idle, indolent, slothful, lethargic, apathetic, dull, droop, fade (as persons, plants), be spoiled, marred; n. sloth, idleness, inactivity, lethargy, dullness; co_mpal sloth, drowsiness, stupor; co_mpe_r-i, co_ma_r-i sluggard, idler; co_ma_r-u (co_ma_r-i-) to be lazy, shirk; co_ppu (co_ppi-) to cause to droop, laguish; co_pam fainting, swooning, langour, lassitude, fatigue, prostration, drowsiness, heaviness, indolence; co_palam laziness, sluggishness (Ta.); co.ma.ry, co.mbe.ry idle fellow (Ko.); jompisu, jo_mpisu to get intoxicated, bewildered, stupefied; jompu, jo_mpu inebriation, stupor, suspension of sensibility, paralysation; jommu id.; sound used of the sensation of numbness of a limb kept long in one position (also jo_mu)(Ka.); jo_ba, jo_badara a dull, lazy man; so_ma_ri sluggard, idler; so_ma_ritana sluggishness, laziness; soppisu to cause to slacken, languish, sink away; soppu to slacken, repress, check; n. slackness, weakness, languishing, sinking away (Ka.); so_ma_ri lazy man, lazy, indolent (Tu.); somma swoon, fainting, faintness, torpidity; so_ma fatigue; so_mari, so_ma_ri an idle person, idler, sluggard; jo_mu torpidity, stupefaction or silliness with pride (Te.)(DEDR 2881). jiv jiv in- (id--) (limbs) become numb from cobra's bite, from sitting in a cramped position, or from extreme exertion (Ko.); jum, jum.y, juma, jumu, jummu imit. sound used in the sensation of coldness or chill, of the taking effect of poison, of horripilation, of the pain of a wound, (also jommu, jo_mu) of the numbness of a limb kept long in one position; juvvu a sound to express the sensation of fatigue and pain in the feet after walking (Ka.); jumjum numbness, 'sleeping' of the limb; a throbbing pain; horripilation; jumma a sudden stunning or smarting sensation; jiva jiva numbness of limb (Te.); junjuni numbness, pins and needles (Pe.)(DEDR 2578). cf. ro_ma_ca horripilation (Skt.lex.); ro_man hair (RV.)(CDIAL 10851). To be bashful; agitation: chobha_vu~ to be bashful; chobhu~, chobhi_lu~ ashamed (G.)(CDIAL 3752). co_h becoming zealously engaged in a task, pleasure (K.); choh agitation, fear, passion, anger (H.); choha id. (OAw.); ks.o_bha agitation (MBh.)(CDIAL 3751). To rest; to be idle: jo_m- (-t-) to stop, rest, cease (Pe.); ja_mba (ja_mbi-) to rest, cease, subside (Kui); jo_mali, jo_minai, jo_m, jo_m- (-it-) to rest; re_mb- (-it-) id. (Kuwi); roma_na_, rom to rest; ro_ma_na_ to rest after labour; roma rest, repose (Go.); ro_mb- (-it-) to rest, take rest; caus. ro_mbis- (Kond.a)(DEDR 5178).

3626.Forget; remeber: smr. remember (Skt.); cf. smr.ta remembered (A_s'vGr..); mua-, sua- remembered (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13867). sma_rta relating to memory; recorded in the smr.tis; a bra_hman.a skilled in jurisprudence or traditional law; smarisu to remember, to recollect; soran.e, smaran.e the act of remembering; smara remebrance, recollection; loving recollection, love; ka_ma (Ka.lex.) mo_dhrna_ to forget (Kur.); mthre id. (Malt.)(DEDR 5137). vismarati forgets (MBh.); vissarati forgets (Pali); vismaridaga pp. (NiDoc.); vimharai, vim.bharai, vibharai, visumarai, vissarai, vi_sarai (Pkt.); biser-, bister- (Gypsy); visur 2 sg. imper. (L.); vissarn.a_, bissarna_ id., to be forgotten (P.); bisarn.o to forget, err, misunderstand (Ku.); birsanu to forget (N.); bisara_ (B.); bisariba_, bisoriba_ (Or.); bisrab (Mth.); bisral (Bhoj.); bisarab (Aw.); bisarna_ (H.); visarvu~ (G.); visarn.e~ (M.); visiran.u to be forgotten (S.); vissaran., visran. (L.); vissarn.a_ have become (P.)(CDIAL 12021). sma_ra remembrance (TA_r.); visa_ra forgetfulness (P.); visa_r, visa_ro (G.); visar (M.); visar, isar (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12022). visma_rayati causes to forget (Skt.); vimha_ria, vissa_riu_n.a, vi_sa_re_i, visa_ria forgotten (Pkt.); visa_ran.u to forget; vesa_ro forgetful (S.); visa_ran. (L.); visa_rn.a_, bisa_rn.a_ (P.); bisa_rn.o (Ku.); bisa_rai leaves, deserts (OAw.); bisa_rna_ to cause to be forgotten, efface (H.); bi_sa_ri_ pp. forgotten, deserted (OMarw.); visa_rvu~ to forget, ignore (G.)(CDIAL 12023). sam.smarati remembers (Mn.); sam.salanasi loc. sg. remembrance (As'.); sam.saran.a memory; sam.bharai, sam.bhalai remembers (pp. sam.bharia-, samharia-)(Pkt.); sambhiran.u to recollect (a thing long past)(S.); sa~_bharvu~ to remember (G.); samaranava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 13057). sam.sma_ran.a counting over (cattle)(MBh.); sa~bha_rn.u~ token of remembrance (G.)(CDIAL 13058). sam.sma_rayati causes to remember (MBh.); sam.bha_ria remembered, reminded of (Pkt.); sambha_ran.u to recollect (S.); sama_rna_ (P.); samha_rna_ (H.); sam.bha_rivaum. (OG.); sa~bha_rvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 13059). sam.smr.ta remembered (Skt.); samal.a_ remembered pret. of samaranava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 13060).

3627.Image: peak: cimai summit of a mountain, hair-tuft (Ta.); cimaiyam top, summit of a mountain, peak, mountain, hill (Ta.); civara end, point, tip, extremity (Te.); cum'a_, cup'a_ projecting point on a hill or mountain, peak, crag (Kur.)(DEDR 2544).

3628.Image: to catch hold of; buy: sum- (sumt-) to catch, seize, buy (Kol.); sum- id., lay (Nk.); to buy, catch, hold (Nk.); cumm- to seize, catch hold of (Pa.)(DEDR 2679).

3629.Image: cream: sa_yi cream; any cream-like laver (Ka.); sa_-i (M.); kalya_n.i-sa_yi a kind of marble-shaped sweetmeat-ball (Ka.); ka_ra-sa_yi a kind of vermicelli made of kad.le (gram) flour and rice flour mixed with chillies, salt, etc. and fried in oil or ghee (Ka.lex.)

3630.Image: square pond with steps on all sides: kalya_n.i a square pond with steps on all sides; happy, lucky; a blessed, fortunate, illustrious or good man; such a woman; kalya_n.a a festival (marriage); gold; beautiful, happy, lucky; good; prosperity, welfare (Skt.Ka.); kalya_n.a-de_va (Ka.lex.) kaliya_n.an- man of excellent character, of noble dispositio (Tiruva_lava_. 27,85)(Ta.lex.)

3631.Image: drum: ja_yi, jha_yi a kind of drum (Ka.lex.)

3632.Image: beautiful woman: toyyali, to_yali woman (Te.); taiyal beauty, woman (Ta.); a beautiful woman (Ma.); tayal woman (Ta.)(DEDR 3475). toyal.i, toyili washerwoman (Tu.)(DEDR 3555). cf. juvai, juai young woman (Pkt.); juvel, juvli, zuvli, zuli woman, girl (Gypsy)(CDIAL 10504).

3633.Dye: to_y to dye, tinge, imbue, wash, cleanse (Ta.); to_yppu, to_yccal tempering heated metal (Ta.); to_, to_yu to wet,dip, soak, steep (Ma.)(DEDR 3555).

3634.Cold: saradi coldness, dampness (as of climates, air, etc.), coldness (as in drugs, articles of food, etc., the implication being of insalubriousness or injuriousness); id. (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) s'arad, s'arada, sarada autumn, the season of autumn (the season of two months succeeding the rains, fluctuating from August to November)(Ka.lex.) s'arad autumn (RV.); s'arada in cmpd. (Pa_n..); s'arada_ (Skt.); sarada, acc. pl. sarado_ (Pali); s'aradam.mi loc. sg. (NiDoc.); sara, sarada, saraya (Pkt.); soro_ (Ash.); s'are_, s'oro_ (Wg.); s'ire (Pr.); s'are (Dm.); s'arai, sarai (Pas'.); s'arau (Shum.); s'are_i (Gmb.); s'a_ru (Kal.); s'oro (Kho.); s'arai autumn (Bshk.); s'are_ (Sv.); s'aro, s'areo_, s'ereo_, s'aru (Sh.); s'e_r, s'aru_o_ gha_s hay left on ground for use in winter (WPah.); sara_ autumn, year (Si.); sarau autumn (S.); sarali_, s'arali_ id., year (Pas'.); s'arel, s'aril (Gaw.); s'aril (Sv.); s'aral autumn, year (Phal.); s'ordo-mo autumn (Pas'.); s'arad (Wot..); s'arada (Kat..); s'ed (Tor.)(CDIAL 12329). s'a_rada autumnal (Pa_n..); sa_radika autumnal (Pkt.); sa_rha_, sa_hra_ autumn, fever season, malaria (L.); saraya_ a partic. sort of rice (H.); sara_ autumnal (Si.)(CDIAL 12402). s'a_radika autumnal (Pa_n..); sa_radika autumnal (Pali); sa_radia, sa_raia, sa_laia (Pkt.); s'areg green corn, sprout (Kho.); autumnal, young millet crop (Kho.)(CDIAL 12403).

3635.Cursory: sara_sari in a cursory manner; anyhow; conjecturally, upon a loose estimate; in the average, average (Ka.Te.); cara_cari (Ta.); s'ara_s'ari (Ma.); sara_sari (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

3636.Images; straightness; opposite; likeness: sarisa straightness; exactness, propriety, exact measure, measure, exact place, the state of being in direct line with, opposite or standing in front; equality (Ka.lex.) cf. sari_ka a man of equal position (Ka.); sarikha_ like (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. saru, sari sameness, equality (Ka.lex.)

3637.Glue: sarisa glue (Ka.); sarasa (M.H.); sare_su, sari_su (Te.H.)(Ka.lex.)

3638.Image: strainer: sa_ran.ige a sieve, a strainer (Ka.lex.)

3639.Image: small bank; bridge: sa_ruva a small bank, a bridge, scaffolding (Te.); ca.rm (obl. ca.rt-) beams on which floor of attic is laid (Ko.); hara bridge (Pe.); sa_ra id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2463). ca_ram scaffolding, sheers, sticks tied to the smaller branches of a flower-tree, as a scaffold for picking flowers (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Tarumaca_. 70)(Ta.lex.) sa_ra, sa_rave scaffolding (Ka.)(DEDR 2463). Image: bridge: ca_r-u small dam of mud across a channel with a row of bamboo splits planted on it, put up in fishing (Ta.); cf. sa_ruva (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: causeway; dam: se_tu causeway, bridge (Pali); dam, bridge (RV.); boundary (R.); se_u dam, bridge, seedbed, basin round tree (Pkt.); se_w bridge (Ash.Wg.); syu_ (Kt.); se_wa (Dm.); seu, se_war. (Pas'.);[cf. va_ru (pl. va_rka) water-channel, stream, torrent (Kui); var irrigation channel (Go.); va.ry ditch around fields, acting as moat outside embankment and fence (Ko.); va_ri channel for draining off rain-water from roof, sluice, waterway (Ta.)(DEDR 5356)]; si_u bridge (Wot..Shum.); se_u (Gmb.Gaw.); siu (si_l-), ser (Kal.); ser (Kho.); sa_, s (Bshk.); se_ (Tor.); si_ (Mai.); se_u (Sv.Phal.); si_u ()Phal.); sau (Sh.); pl. seve, se_u, sao, seu_, se_o (Sh.); seo (P.); seya, heya, he_ dam in a ricefield, bridge, e_- in: e_-dan.d.a log across a stream as a bridge (Si.)(CDIAL 13585). cf. o_ shutter or other means to stop the flow of water (Ta.); o_ku, o_vu floodgate, sluice, drain; o_tti open gutter, drain (Ma.)(DEDR 1027). ce_tu < se_tu causeway, bridge, dam (Pin..); Adam's bridge, a reef of sunken rocks connecting the north of Ceylon with the mainland of India, 30 ft. wide with 3 or 4 ft. of water above it at high time, said to have been constructed to enable Rama's forces to cross over to Lan:ka (Kampara_. Ce_tupa. 66); the island of Ra_me_s'varam (Ce_tupu. Avai. 1); ce_tu-ka_valan- guardian of the Adam's bridge (Ta.inscr.); ce_tu-pati hereditary title of the Raja of Ramnad, as being guardians of Adam's bridge (Orutur-aik.)(Ta.lex.)

3640.Scaffolding: s'ero_n roof (D..); s'aran (Dm.); s'ara_n courtyard of a house (Kho.); s'ara_n.u fence (Sh.); s'en roof (Wot..); s'an (Bshk.); s'a_n (Phal.); s'anni_ small room in a house to keep sheep in (WPah.)(CDIAL 12326). cf. ca_ram scaffolding (Ta.); sa_ra, sa_rave id. (Ka.); saruva id. (Te.)(DEDR 2463). dha_ran.a supporting (VS.); prop (Skt.); dharun.a adj. and n. (RV.); dharan.a in cmpd. 'supporting' (Pali); support (Pkt.); the sitting by a creditor fasting at his debtor's door to enforce payment (Pkt.); dharn.o id. (S.Ku.); dharna_ basnu so to sit (N.); dharna_, dhanna_ (B.); dharan.a_ (Or.); dharna_ (H.); dharn.u~ (G.); dharn.e~ (M.); dharan. timber (Ku.); dam (G.M.); dharan.-kha~_b the main post reaching from ground to roof (G.M.);[cf. ka_mpu flower-stalk, shaft, haft (Ta.)(DEDR 1454)]; dharan large beam (N.); dharna_ beam (A.); dharni cross-beam (A.); dharan.a_ prop (Or.); dharan cross-beam supporting ridge-pole (Bi.); beam for pressing indigo (Mth.); dharna_ beam over well on which drawer stands (Bi.)(CDIAL 6742). Image: roof: s'aran.a protecting; shelter, home (RV.); saran.a protection, shelter, house (Pali.Pkt.); sero_n roof (D..Sh.); saran (Dm.); saran. protection, asylum (P.); saran (H.); sarn.u~ help (G.); saran.a defence, village, town (Si.); sara_n courtyard of a house (Kho.); sara_n.u fence (Sh.); sen roof (Wot..); san (Bshk.); sa_n (Phal.); s'anni_ small room in a house to keep sheep in (WPah.)(CDIAL 12326). Thatched roof: ca_r thatched roof (Mth.); sa_l roof of a house (A.); ca_l thatch of a house (B.H.); ca_l.a sloping thatch of a house (Or.)(CDIAL 4770). ca_rppu sloping roof (Ta.); ca_ral leaning against (Ma.) (DEDR 2460). ca_yppu slope, slant (Ta.); ca_yippu id. (Ma.); ca_y-tal to cause to incline, bend or stoop (Kalit. 78); ca_y-tal to incline, hang down (Poruna. 31) (Ta.lex.) Image: sloping: catta_r < satta_r (U.) oblique, slanting or sloping direction (Ta.lex.)

3641.Sling: sr.ga a sling; a sort of arrow or javelin, bhindipa_la (Skt.lex.) run:gal sling (Pa.); run:ga, run:gil(i) id. (Go.)(DEDR 5168). sr.k arrow, spear, thunderbolt (RV. i.32.12); sr.ka_yin having a spear (MS. ii.9.3); sr.ka_vin (TS. iv.5.3.1); sr_ka_vant (TS. iv.5.11.2; MS. ii.9.9); sr.j to discharge (RV. ix.100.3)(Vedic.lex.)

3642.Image: mark for arrows; target: s'aravyam a butt or mark (for arrows), target (Skt.lex.) caraviyam target or aim of an arrow (Ta.lex.) cf. ca_r a tree of the reed kind which grows to a height of 7 or 8 feet (its wood is very hard and serves to make pen-holders and arrow-shafts); arrow-shaft, arrow (Kur.); cru arrow (Malt.)(DEDR 2469). cf. sa.r (pl. sa.d.l), ca_r (pl. ca_d.l) thorn (Kol.)(DEDR 2468).

3643.Knife: suri, surye a common knife; suriyega_r knife-maker (Kon.lex.) Metath. ro.si, ru_ci large knife (Kol.); ro_si dagger (Nk.); ru_si large knife (Go.)(DEDR 5179). churika_, churi_ knife (Skt.lex.) cf. chirnu to pierce (N.)(CDIAL 5049). cf. curi (-pp-, -tt-) to bore (Ta.); cu_r (-v-, -nt-) to pierce, bore (Ta.)(DEDR 2685). Sting; sharpness: cur-u-cur--en-al onom. expr. signifying stinging (as thorn)(Ta.); curu a sound in imitation of the burning caused by the bite of an ant, the sting of a scorpion, the touch of fire, etc. (Ka.); cur-r-am anu to feel a smarting, burning, or sharp pain or sensation (Te.)(DEDR 2688). cur-ukku sharpness (Ta.); sharpness, quickness (Ma.); cur-uku, cur-aku, curku pain, sharpness of a knife etc. (Ka.); cur-uku sharpness, sharp pain (Te.); cur-ukkuna sharply, so as to cause a burning or sharp pain (Te.)(DEDR 2713). curi hole, aperture (Ta.); perforation through the leaves of an ola book (Ta.Ma.); curi-ttal to bore, perforate, as in an ola leaf or book (J.); curi-po_t.utal to bore a hole, as in a plank (Ta.lex.) Image: instrument to pierce a hole: cu_r (-v-, -nt-) to bore, pierce, scoop out; cu_rvu piercing, boring (Ta.); curi round hole pierced through olas to thread them, the instrument which makes the hole (Ma.); suri to string, as flowers (Ka.); suri to string, bore (Tu.)(DEDR 2685). Image: sharp: ku_r (-pp-, -tt-) to be sharp (as the edge or point of an instrument), be keen (as the intellect); n. sharpness, pointed edge, cutting or sarcastic speech, pivot on which door swings; ku_rcci, ku_rppu, ku_rmai, ku_riyam sharpness, keenness, pointedness; ku_rccu id., pointed stick; ku_riyan- sharp, clever person; ku_ccu sharp point (Ta.); ku_r sharpness, point of an arrow; ku_ruka, ku_rikka, ku_rkka to be sharp; ku_rppikka to sharpen; ku_rppu, ku_rccam sharpness; ku_rmma id., edge of sword, wit (Ma.); ku_r sharpness, acuteness; ku_rike sharpness, pointedness; ku_ritu, ku_rittu that which is sharp; ku_rahu sword; ku_rida a sharp, acute or brave man; ku_rpu sharpness, valour, a keen, penetrating look; ku_pi a barber's knife (Ka.); ku.t. (ku.t.i-) to sharpen (Kod..); ku_t.uni id.; kurpu sharpness as of a cutting instrument (Tu.); kru_ru sharp; ku_ci sharp, pointed, tapering (Te.); ku_camu a peg (Te.)(DEDR 1898). Horn of a bow; crest of a roof: kol.pu, koppu, koppat.a the notched extremity or horn of a bow (Ka.); koppu tip or end of a bow, ridge or crest of a roof (Te.)(DEDR 2156). Image: short sword: curikai dirk, short sword (Perumpa_n.. 73)(Ta.) < churika_ (Skt.); curikai knife; curi-y-u_ci instrument for boring ola leaf or book (Ta.lex.) churati cuts off, incises (Dha_tup.); ks.urati cuts, scratches, digs (Skt.); khurati scrapes (Pali); churai breaks (Pkt.); chorvu~ to dig up with a sharp spade (G.); khurr.an.u to scrape; khurr.i scrapings (S.); khurka itching (S.); khurkan. to scratch (L.); khurkn.a_ (P.); khurkanu to scrape (N.); khurcn.a_ to scrape (a pot)(P.); khurca_ pl. scrapings (M.) (CDIAL 3729). khurni_ a kind of spade (Bi.)(CDIAL 3728). cf. ks.ura razor (RV.); sharp barb of arrow (R.); ks.uri_ knife, dagger (Skt.); ks.urika_ (Skt.); ch- forms esp. in sense of 'knife' are wide-spread outside dial. bound: chu_ri_ knife, dagger (Skt.); churika_, chu_rika_ (Skt.); churika_ (Pali); ks.ura (NiDoc.); chura knife, razor, arrow; churi_, churia_ knife (Pkt.); ciri knife, razor; churi knife (Gypsy); curi (D..); curi_, cui_ (Kt.); churi dagger (Dm.); chu_ri knife (Kal.); chur dagger, knife (Bshk.); chu_ (Tor.); chu_r (Phal.); cu_r small knife (Sh.); churi_ knife with a hooked blade (S.); churi_ knife (L.); chura_ (L.); large knife (P.); churi_ small knife (P.); churo, churi_ (Ku.); chura_ razor; churi knife (N.); suri knife (A.); churi (B.); chu_r, chu_ra_ razor (Bhoj.Aw.); chura_ dagger (Or.); churi_ knife (Or.); chu_ra_ razor (Bi.); chura_ dagger, razor; churi_ knife (H.); charo large knife (G.); chari_ small knife (G.); sura_, suri_ (M.); siriya dagger (Si.); cir dagger (Wot..Psht.); khura razor (Pali); knife, razor (Pkt.); khu_ru razor (K.); khuryo grass-scraper, tip of silver at the bottom of a scabbard (S.); khuro razor (WPah.); khuro-mun.d.o the shaving of heads (Ku.); khuro head of a spear, ferrule of a stick, pin at the top or bottom of a door (N.); khur razor (A.B.); khura_iba to shave (A.); khura (Or.); khu_r razor; khura_, khuri_ spiked part of the blade of a chopper which fits into the handle (Bi.); khura_ iron nail to fix ploughshare (H.); karaya razor (Si.)(CDIAL 3727). ks.urapra sharp-edged like a razor (BhP.); sharp-edged arrow (MBh.); sharp-edged knife (Skt.); a sort of hoe (Skt.); khurappa arrow with a horseshoe head (Pali); khurappa, khuruppa a kind of arrow, knife for cutting grass (Pkt.); khurpo a pot-scraper (S.); sickle (N.); khurpi weeding knife (N.); khurpa_ spud for grubbing up grass (B.); khurapa, khurapa_, khurapi, khurupa_, khurupi (Or.); khurpa_ blade of hoe (Bi.); khurpi_ small hoe for weeding (Bi.); khurpa_, khurpi_ scraper (Mth.); khurpa_ weeding knife (H.); khurpi_ small weeding knife (H.); kharpo scraper; kharpi_ grubber; karpi_ weeding tool (G.); khurpe~ curved grubbing hoe (M.); khurapn.e~ to grub up (M.); khurpi_ grub-axe (M.); khurapna_, khurupna_ to scrape up grass (H.); kharapvu~ to cut, dig, remove with a scraper (G.)(CDIAL 3730). ks.urabha_n.d.a razor-case (Skt.); ks.uradha_na (S'Br.); chura~_r.i_ razor-case (H.)(CDIAL 3731). kurappam currycomb (Ta.); kurappam, kurappan id. (Ma.); korapa, gorapa id. (Ka.); kurapamu, kor-apamu, gor-apamu id. (Te.)(DEDR 1771). chorna_ to cut (H.); khorvu~ to stir up; chorvu~ to dig out (G.)(CDIAL 3753). ks.aura performed with a razor (VarBr.S.); shaving (Skt.); ks.o_ra (Skt.); ks.auri_ knife (Skt.); co_i, co_ sickle (Wg.); cho_ra knife (Dm.); chor (Kal.); khaura razor (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3756). cikhura_i_ wages for weeding (Bi.); cikhurni_ weeding by hand (Bi.); cikhurna_, cikharna_ to weed (H.)(CDIAL 4783). kurelna_ to poke (P.); to dig (H.); kuredna_, kurodna_ to scrape (H.); kuracn.e~ to nip off with the nails (M.); kur ploughshare (L.); (CDIAL 3319). Knife: ku_r.am knife, small knife (Kond.a); ku_r.e knife (Kui)(DEDR 1912). To thrust: ku_r-u-kol. to stuff, cram (Ta.); kukkap- to stuff in; ku_rap id. (Ga.); kur-ummuka to eat greedily, cram in (Ma.); kuluku to fill with force, cram into, stuff (Ka.); ku_ru to stow into an insufficient space, cram, stuff, thrust; k(r)ukku to stuff, cram, pack or stow too closely, push, thrust; krukkud.u stuffing, cramming (Te.)(DEDR 1923).

3644.Image: slip-knot: curukku slip-knot, sliding knot (Ta.); tying (Iraku. Irakuvur-. 7); suluku slip-knot (Ka.); curukku (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

3645.Image: a ladle: curukku < sruk nom. sg. of sruc ladle made of mango leaves, wood or metal, used for pouring clarified butter on the sacred fire (Civaraka. Naimi. 44)(Ta.lex.) sruc a wooden ladle (RV. vi.11.5); sruga_da_na the stanza reciting which the ladle is taken up (Sat. xv.4); sruk-sam.ma_rjana kus'a grass used in cleaning a ladle (S'Br.)(Vedic.lex.)

3646.To gild: curukku to gild (S.I.I. ii,419)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3647.Large house: harmiya large house (RV.); hammiya large building with an upper story (Pali); hammia (Pkt.); hamiya palace (Si.)(CDIAL 13998). s'arma refuge, protection; a house; at the end of names of bra_hman.as (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Protection; fort: aran.am protection (Yaco_tara. 2,61); hedge, enclosure; fort (Tol. Po. 65); coat of mail; dart, javelin; aran.amvi_cutal to put on a coat of mail (Ci_vaka. 777); aran.ittal to fortify, defend; aran.iya defended (Pa_rata. Ira_. 67); aran.iyan- one who is a refuge (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 2); aran. defence, four kinds, viz., nilavaran., ni_raran., malaiyaran., ka_t.t.aran. (Kur-al., 742, Urai.); fortress, castle; forest, as a defence; spear;[cf. s'ara reed from which arrows are made (RV.)(CDIAL 12324)]; aran.man-ai royal palace; royal zenana; stately mansion (Ta.lex.) caran., caran.am shelter, refuge, asylum; caran.am a town in agricultural tract, maruta-nilattu nakaram; house; caran.-puku-tal to take refuge in (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 54); caran.a_katan- refugee; caran.a_kati taking shelter, seeking refuge (Man.i. 30,5); caran.iyan- saviour (As.t.ap. Ar..akar. 47); caran.ar Vi_ras'aiva devotees (Pirapulin.. Tuti. 10); caran.atta_r members of a vedic school (T.A.S. I,8); caran.am section of branch of the ve_da (Ta.lex.) ara-mana king's house, palace, court (Ma.); arman palace (Ko.); ara-mane royal dwelling, palace, court, government (Ka.); aramane palace (Kod..); aramane, arantad.e palace, royal residence (Tu.)(DEDR 201). Thatched covering of boat or cart: chai thatched covering of boat or cart (B.); sai palm-leaf covering of a boat, cover of basket (A.)(CDIAL 4980). chadana cover (R.); leaf (Sus'r.); thatch, foliage, a leaf (Pali); siyana roof (Si.); c.han leaf (Kho.)(CDIAL 4979). sevani shade, roof (Si.)(CDIAL 5017). cha_dya to be sheltered (Skt.); cha_jo shed (S.); chajja_ eaves, balcony (P.); eaves (L.); veranda, balcony (H.); roof, balcony (Ku.); cha_ja_ straw spread over bricks round saltpetre vat (Bi.); cha_j thatch, a kind of grass used in thatching (G.); cha_ju~ thatched lean-to shed (G.); sa_j a kind of grass (M.); cha_diya thatch, straw (Pali); cha_i thatch (Or.); cha_yu~ (G.)(CDIAL 5023). cha_jai is thatched (OAw.); cha_jan thatch, shed (N.); cha_jna_ to thatch (H.); cha_jan thatching (H.); chaja_vvu~ to get thatched (G.)(CDIAL 5024). sa_ja_ra_ load or bundle of thatching grass (M.)(CDIAL 5025). Image: roof: ceccai resting-place with roof of foliage (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Kavur-can-a. 90)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cecca a house of leaves (Ma.)(DEDR 2754). cucu a projecting ledge on a house (Ka.); cuncu-midde an overhanging turret or tower (Te.)(DEDR 2650). Eaves: cha~_ca_ eaves of thatch (B.)(CDIAL 12865). Shelter: ca_t.u a refuge, shelter (Ka.); cover, shelter, screen (Te.); sa_t.u hiding, secret place (Kond.a); sa_t. to cover up, block out light (Kuwi)(DEDR 2441).

3654.Chieftain: sarada_ra a chieftain or chief; a prince or a leader; an officer (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

3655.Lizard: aran.ai typical lizard, lacertidae; smooth streaked lizard, lacerta interpunctula (Ta.); aran.a green house lizard, lacerta interpunctula (Ma.); aran.e, ra_n.e, ra_n.i greenish kind of lizard which is said to poison by licking, lacerta interpunctula (Ka.); aran.e id. (Tu.)(DEDR 204). sarat.a lizard, chameleon (Mn.); sarat.u id.; saran.d.a id. (Skt.); sarad.a lizard (Pkt.); sad.d.ar chameleon (L.); sarr.o (G.); sarad., sard.a_, sard.ha_ (M.)(CDIAL 13248). Grass-hopper: carapam grass-hopper (Ta.lex.) cf. pa_mi grasshopper (Pe.); pa_me id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4084). s'alabha grasshopper, locust, moth (MBh.); s'arabha id. (Skt.); salabha moth (Pali); grasshopper, moth (Pkt.); salaha id. (Pkt.); ha_lav locust (K.); sala_ grasshopper (P.); s'alo locust (WPah.); s'alo~, s'ala_, s'owa_, s'alo_ (WPah.); salau, salau~, sala_u~_, s'awo (Ku.); salaha, salau (N.); sal large green grasshopper, mantis (H.); salam.ba grasshopper (Si.); Lizard: sarabhu_ lizard (Pali); sarat.a lizard (Skt.); sarah grasshopper (H.); saraba-ya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12347). s'alak grasshopper (Dm.Shum.Gaw.Kho.); s'alo_k (Gaw.); s'alako_ (Sv.); s'a_laka (Phal.); go_dha_-s'a_laka (Phal.); Lizard: s'alaka-gok varnus lizard (Kal.); s'alagu_ large lizard (Kho.); s'ala_ku lizard; centipede (Yid.); sala_n. grasshopper (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12345). i_cal, i_yal winged white ants (Ta.); i_yal winged termites; i_ya_mpa_r-r-a moth, winged termite, grasshopper (Ma.); i_cal the white ant when winged (Ka.); isul.l.u winged white ants (Te.)(DEDR 536). cf. i_ fly, bee (Ta.)(DEDR 533). cf. cil.-van.t.u cricket (Ta.); cil.-vi_t.u id. (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 2588). cf. tul.l.an grasshopper; devil-dancer (Ma.); tul.l.u to leap, jump up (Ta.)(DEDR 3364).

3656.Heron: s'ara_d.i a kind of heron (Skt.); s'ara_li_, s'ara_t.i_, s'ara_ti (Skt.); sara_d.i a kind of bird (Pkt.); xara_li_ the whistling teal (A.); sara_r.i (B.Or.); sara_li (B.); sara_l.i teal, anas carolinensis (Or.)(CDIAL 12333). saran.d.a bird (Skt.); s'aran.d.a id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 13248).

3657.Kingfisher: cf. ciral kingfisher (Ta.); cira_l a kind of bird (Go.)(DEDR 2551). kikir, d.uc kikir the kingfisher (Santali.lex.)

3658.Image: resemblance: ce_rkkai resemblance, equality (Ta.)(DEDR 2814). Image: similarity: e_r-tal to be like, similar (In-i. Na_r-. 2); to rise; e_rppa, e_ra an adverbial word of comparison (Tol. Po. 286, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ce_r-tal to resemble, equal, correspond with (Marutu_. 25); ce_rppu_t.t.u well-matched pair (Ta.); ce_rtti resemblance, equality (Tiv. Tiruvirut. Vya_.); ca_yai < cha_ya resemblance, likeness (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) sa_ru_pya resemblance (Mn.); sa_ruppa equal state; adj. suitable, proper (Pali); sarup (Si.)(CDIAL 13362).

3659.Prosperity; superiority: cir-appu pre-eminence, superiority (Tol. Po. 28) (Ta. lex.) ci_r prosperity, wealth; greatness, excellence, superiority (Pur-ana_. 1) (Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. s'ri_ light, beauty (RV.); welfare, riches (AV.); siri_ prosperity (Pali.Pkt.); si_ prosperity (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12708).

3660.Festival: cir-appu periodical festival in a temple (Kur-al., 18); wealth, prosperity (Pur-ana_. 64,5); honours, privileges (Cilap. 16,109); regard, esteem (Kur-al., 195); courtesy, hospitality (Na_lat.i, 159); present, gift (Kur-al., 590); feeding of brahmans at a temple festival (Madu.); foodstuffs provided for the marriage parties at a wedding; a ceremony observed by Na_t.t.u-k-ko_t.t.ai chetty community; heaven, heavenly bliss (Kur-al., 31); pomp, grandeur; that which is special, distinctive, peculiar, opp. to potu (Kur-al., 972); figure of speech which consists in magnifying the excellence of an object; cir-appan.i id.; figure of speech in which a reason is given for differentiating two similar objects taken up for comparison (An.iyi. 82)(Ta.); cer-apu periodical festival in a temple (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

3676.Image: drum: calli, callari drum (Te_va_.89,2) < jhallari_ (Skt.); callikai: callikaiyen-patu callen-r-a o_caiyut.amaiya_r- per-r-a peyar (Cilap. 3,27, Urai)(Ta.lex.) jharjhara drum (MBh.); jhajjhara drum, cymbals (Pkt.); jha_jhar cymbals (H.); jha~_jri_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 5348).

3677.To ooze: jhillai bathes (Pkt.); jhilli_ wave (Pkt.); jhil lake, pool (N.B.); jhila lake, pool, swamp (Or.); jhi_l marshy land (Bi.); jhi_l lake, marsh (Mth.H.P.); deep reservoir of water (G.); rill; swampiness (M.)(CDIAL 5392). jhirna_ to trickle away, ooze (H.)(CDIAL 5389). cf. jharai drips, falls (Pkt.) (CDIAL 5346). ciluppu (ciluppi-) to churn, stir, agitate; cilumpu (cilumpi-) to be agitated, shaken; ciluppi a churning staff (Ta.); cilku cilku noise of milk in churning; silbu to churn (Ka.); ciluku to churn (Te.)(DEDR 2570). Drizzle; river; spring: cilucilu (-pp-, -tt-) to rain gently; cilu-ni_r raindrop dripping from leaves; cilumpu (cilumpi-) to flow out, gush out (Ta.); cilk ir.- (it.-) to drizzle (Ko.); cilkuni_ru water in fine drops; jilipu to ooze (as water from a new pot)(Ka.); cilbi to splash water with the finger (Kor.); ciluku to sprinkle, spirt, shed; be spilled; cilikincu, cilukarincu to sprinkle; cilacila imit. of flowing; cilupu a pond; cin:ka a small water-channel (Te.); silka river (Kol.); small river (Go.); s'ilka brook, river (Nk.); cilva brook, rivulet (Pa.); hilka, ilka rivulet (Go.); silk- (-it-) to splash (Kuwi); cilicilia_- a shower; cilicilla- wet (Pkt.)(DEDR 2569). sele spring, fountain-head (Ka.); selaye_r-u, sela waterfall, cascade; jela a spring of water (Te.)(DEDR 2785). [For -e_r-u cf.: ya_r-u, a_r-u river, brook (Ta.); e_r-u river (Te.); ye_r water (Go.); e_r water (Go.); e_r-(u) (obl. e_R-) water (Kond.a)(DEDR 5159)].

3678.Rustling, hissing: cur-u-cur--en-al, cur-i_r-en-al, curi_r-enal onom. expr. signifying hissing (as water when in contact with fire); curu-curu (-pp-, -tt-) to hiss (as dry combustibles when ignited); curu-cur-en-al expr. signifying rapid burning (as of dry combustibles); cuk-r-u, cuk-r--en-al, cuk-k-r--en-al onom. expr. of rustling, as of palmyra leaves, spreading fire, etc. (Ta.); curcurn boiling hot (of water or bath); cur cur in- (meat) makes noise when roasting; cur in- (fire) makes noise of burning (Ko.); cur-u cur-u the hissing or sputtering of heated oil or ghee or of a thing frying; curcu, cuccu to burn, consume with fire; curcu burning (Ka.); curucuru a hissing noise caused by frying, burning, etc. (Tu.); cur-acur-a, cur-r-una with the crackling noise of fire (Te.); sorro sorro in- to hiss (snake)(Kuwi)(DEDR 2714). sura sound (MBh.); suru tone, melody (S.); sur (L.P.N.); xur (A.); sur sound, words, tune (Mth.H.); modulation of voice, tune (G.); su_r musical note (M.); surilo shrill (N.); suri~_la_ melodious (H.); suru-suru-ka_rakam. hissingly (Pali); surasura whizz; surasuram.ta whizzing (Pkt.); sursur rustling (H.); sursur whizzing; sursurn.e~ to make a whizzing sound (M.)(CDIAL 13498). susvara melodious (MBh.); sussara id. (Pali.Pkt.); susara, sasura (OG.)(CDIAL 13542).

3679.Narrow and difficult path: curam narrow and difficult path (Ta.); difficult road, pass, ghaut (Ma.)(DEDR 2683).

3680.Desert: curam desert tract (Tol. Po. 216); jungle (Pu. Ve. 2,3)(Ta.lex.)

3681.A district in Kathiawar: cu_rattu the country of Surat, north of Bombay; cu_rattu-k-ken.t.ai gold or silver lace from Surat; cu_rattu-t-ta_t.t.uppattiri a kind of saree; cu_rattu-muttu artificial pearl from Surat; cu_rattu-kka_vi red ochre from Surat; cu_rattu-kkat.ukka_y a kind of myrobalan from Surat; cu_rattu-nila_virai african senna, cassia acutifolia (Ta.lex.) sura_s.t.ra having good dominion (TS.); a country in the west of India (MBh.); surat.t.ha name of a country (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13504). saura_s.t.ra coming from Sura_s.t.ra; pl. its people (VarBr.S.); sorat.h a district in Kathiawar (G.M.)(CDIAL 13621). caura_s.t.irar a class of silk-weavers, immigrants from Gujarat into Tamil country in the days of the early Nayak kings, speaking a corrupt dialect of Gujarati (E.T.)(Ta.lex.)

3682.A variety of paddy: sarappal.i-c-campa_ a campa_ paddy sown in a_n-i-a_van.i and maturing in six months (Tj.)(Ta.lex.)

3683.Land surveying: jari_bu a land-measure; land-surveying (Ka.M.H.Te.); measurement (Ka.lex.)

3684.Image: gold necklace: jaru gold (H.Te.); jara, jari brocade (Ka.M.H.); jari worked with gold or silver threads; gold or silver threads (Ka.M.H.Te.); jari_-pat.aka the streamer of the grand ensign of the Peshwa (Ka.); jari_-pat.aka_ (M.H.); jari_-pat.aka a grand flag; a golden girdle or belt (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) sarapol.i gold neck-chain inlaid with diamonds (Tu.); sarapal.i id. (Ka.); sarappal.i id. (Ma.); carappal.i gold necklet; gold neck-chain inlaid with diamonds (Cilap. 6,99, Urai.); carappan.i id. (Ta.); sarapan.i id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cari-man.i a kind of girdle set with gems; cari-man.i-k-ko_vai id. (Ta.lex.) carpeyl.g woman's neck-chain (Ko.); sarapan.i, sarapal.i, sarpal.i a chain, a kind of collar or necklace (Ka.); sarapal.i, sarapan.i, sarpal.i, sarapol.i a chain of any metal (Tu.); sarapan.i, sarapin.i, sarapen.i, saraphan.i an ornament of gold chains of two or more folds (Te.)(DEDR 2358). Gold or silver wire; twisted wire; thread: sarika_ string of pearls (Skt.); sara string [in pratisar string round neck or wrist as amulet; man.i-sara, mauktika-sara (Skt.)]; sarat (Skt.); sara_, sari_, saria_ string, garland, necklace (Pkt.); sara fold or string of beads in a necklace (S.); sari_ thin leather thong, whiplash (P.); sari, sara_ string (of garlands, etc.)(Or.); sari_ wire of gold or other metal; sariya_ chain of twisted gold or silver wire (H.); sari string of beads, etc. (OG.); sar string, necklace; seri (G.); sar necklace, garland; sari_ wire, necklace of twisted wire (M.)(CDIAL 13260). sari_ bar of iron (P.); thin iron bar (Ku.); sariya_ gold or silver wire (S.); sariyo bar, rod (G.)(CDIAL 12324). carat.u twisted thread, cord, twine, a necklet of plaited gold thread, gold, silver, or cotton thread, nose-ring of bullocks, chain as of mountains, row; stratagem, trick (Ta.); cord, string (esp. nuptial), bowstring, measuring line (Ma.); ta.d. rope (Kol.); ta_r. id. (Nk.); card. flat neck-band closely fitting (Ko.); tra_d.u cord, rope, twine, string, thread (Te.)(DEDR 2356). Jewelry; things: ha_rka (pl. also harkunga); harku_ jewelry, thing (DEDR 2353).

3685.Image: resemblance: sa_ru_pya resemblance (Mn.); sa_ruppa equal state; adj. suitable, proper (Pali); sarup (Si.)(CDIAL 13362).

3686.Image: stringed lute: caram < sara (Pkt.) < svara musical note (Tiruva_lava_. 57,31); cara-vi_n.ai a kind of stringed lute (Can.. Aka.); sara-pattu < sarod (U.) a kind of guitar with catgut strings; caral.i the seven notes of the gamut in various combinations (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 63); saral.i id. (Te.Ma.); saral.e (K.); cf. svara + a_vali (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

3687.Image: little fish; fish bait: cariku, caru a little fish (Ma.); caru, caruva a small fish (Tu.); taru a small kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 2361). ca_r fish bait (B.); ca_ro food for animals, bait (N.); ca_ra fish bait (Or.); ca_ra_ bait (H.) (CDIAL 4755). cf. saru fine (skt.); xaru small, fine, younger, inferior, childhood (A.); saru fine, thin, slender (B.Or.)(CDIAL 13264).

3688.To slap: car-acu to slap or strike with the open hand or with something broad, clap, pat; car-apu a slap or clap with the open hand (Te.); jah- to beat, fight, strike with hammer (Go.); saR- (-t-) to slap with hand, clap hands, thrash (as clothes against a rock in washing)(Kond.a); hah- (hast-) to beat (Pe.); sahpa (saht-) to beat, thrash, belabour, slap; n. beating, thrashing (Kui); hah- (hast-) to thresh with flail; hassali (hast-), hah'nai id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2421). cf. ar-ai to slap, beat, hammer (Ta.)(DEDR 320). har.as in a clap; tayo sar.ap, tayo to clap hands (Santali.lex.)

3689.To assign; deliver possession: cara_yam < shra_yam (U.) land held on a progressive rent for a term of years; additions, made to the assessment, of a sum equal to the amount of temporary remissions (M.N.A.D. I,285); cf. s'ra_yah. shelter, protection, refuge, asylum (Skt.lex.) s'ra_ya belonging to s'ri_, i.e. prosperity; s'raya (Tabhava of s'ra_ya) improvement of land by cultivation; depreciated land, land let at a rate below its original value, to which it is expected gradually to rise again; s'raya-bhu_mi a land fertilized by cultivation; s'raya-sa_guval.i farming land on a rent below its original value and progressively rising to it; s'raya-sa_guval.i-ci_t.u lease of land let below its value (Ka.lex.) ucchraya (ud-s'raya) rising; height, elevation; growth, increase; ucchra_ya (ud-s'ra_ya) rising; height, elevation (Ka.lex.) ca_ri < ja_ri (U.) free from attachment or legal seizure; ca_ri-ceytal to exempt from revenue; to assign, as a land; to reinstate in office; ja_ri < ja_ri_ (Arabic) free from attachment; exempt from revenue; that which is issued (C.G.); ja_ri-makamai a percentage contribution made from the sources of revenue towards the support of certain temples and choultries under private management (Rd.); ja_ri-man-ai house site assigned to a person by the revenue authorities (C.G.); ja_ri-mit.t.a_ estate held under permanent settlement; ja_ri-ceytal to assign; to deliver possession (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cari-me_rai established rights or privileges of individual ryot (R.T.); cari rightness, propriety; suitability, agreement, exactness (Ta.); cari-va_ram equal division of produce between the landlord and the ryot (I.M.P.Sm. 92)(Ta.lex.)

3690.Images: series; juice: ca_ri side, wing, row or series; ca_ri time, turn (Ta.); sa_ri id. (Te.Ka.Tu.); ca_ram sap, as of plants; juice (Ar..akarkala. 67)(Ta.lex.)

3691.Image: dice: sa_ri piece at chess (Skt.); s'a_ri (SKt.); s'a_ra, sa_ra dice (Skt.); s'a_rika playing at chess (Skt.); sa_ri piece at chess (Pali); sa_ra piece in a game, die (Pkt.); sa_ri, sa_ri_ piece in game of caupa_r (S.); sa_ri dice (OAw.)(CDIAL 13360). s'a_ri piece at draughts or chess (Skt.); sa_ri chessman (Pali.Pkt.); dice (OAw.)(CDIAL 12406). ca_ri < s'a_ri dice (Ta.lex.)

3692.Image: procession: sa_ra course, motion (Skt.); component (Sus'r.); sa_ra-sa_rin running races (TBr.); sa_ro removal of loads, load to be carried (Ku.); sa_rn.o to convey, remove (Skt.); sa_r defile, pass (K.); sa_r procession of Hindu women (L.); sa_r, sa_ri, sa_ir row, series (B.); sa_ri row, line, tier (Or.)(CDIAL 13354). ca_rikai onward movement (Paripa_. 6,36); ca_riyai pace of a horse in a circle (Pu. Ve. 12, Ven-r-ip. 13); course, onward movement, as of a warrior (Perun.. Ucaik. 37,30) (Ta.lex.)

3693.Image: long stripe: ca_rai < dha_ra_ long, straight, direct course or line; stripe (W.); ca_rai-va_lan- bullock with a long tapering tail (J.)(Ta.lex.)

3694.Image: slant: carital to lean, incline; to be aslant, to slope (Ta.lex.); to slide down (Tiruvicai. Karu. 5,10); sari id. (Ka.); cari declivity, slope of a mountain (Tirukko_. 156); tcari id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

3695.Image: street: ce_ri assemblage, village street (Ma.); town, village, hamlet; street, quarters of the Pariahs (Ta.); se_ri_ street, quarter (Pkt.); s'e_ri_ lane, alley (M.); ke_ri street,lane (Tu.); street (Ka.); ke.ri hamlet (Kod..); ge_ri street, passage (Te.); ke.ry, ke.r street, exogamous division in Kota village (Ko.); ke.ry street of Badaga village (To.)(DEDR 2007). Field: khe_r field (Bshk.)[phonetically, no reason to assume that this is a loan]); khe_t.a village (MBh.); khe_t.aka small village (Skt.)[at end of compound expresses depreciation Pa_n..]; khe_d.a town with an earth rampart (Pkt.); khe_d.aya small village (Pkt.); kherav town (Gypsy); kher.a_ town, village, village in ruins (P.); small village (H.); khed.e~ hamlet (M.); kher.u~ village (G.); kher.a enclosed space (Or.); khera_ village (OAw.)(CDIAL 3916). Bank of river: gwo_r.a bank of river (Psht.)(CDIAL 4459). kwar mud (To.); kor manure, filth, mud (Ko.); kurai mire, mud, fine clay (Ma.) (DEDR 2123). Mud, mire: xe_r open gravelly ground at the foot of a hill (Br.)(DEDR 2020). [cf. 12 keda_ra = one hala (3.4 acres); MIAI, p.48; Sylhet.][7 yas.t.i = 1 poa_; 4 poa_ = 1 keda_ra or keya_r (7/8 bigha); MIAI, p.61.] [cf. yatthi (Pali) staff = 7 ratanas or 84 angula; MIAI, p.18.] yas.t.i or dhanurdan.d.a = 96 angula; MIAI, p.18. 2 vitasti?] Shallow tank; wet soil: ce.r mud (Ko.); ce_r-u (in cmpds. ce_r-r-u-) mud, mire, slush, liquid of thick consistency (Ta.); mire, wet soil (for transplanting rice)(Ma.); ceyyal mire, slush; ce_val mud, mire (Ta.); ke.r shallow tank, puddle (Ko.); ko.r-(obl. ko.t--) lake, tank formed by dam; sor- mud (To.); kesar- wet soil, mud, mire (Ka.); kesar-ige drain of a bathroom (Ka.); ke_du mud, soft clay (Tu.); xe_r open gravelly ground at the foot of a hill (?Br.); kesaru mud, mire, dirt (Tu.)(DEDR 2020). ce_r-u-kutti an instrument for removing mud (Pur-ana_. 61, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Field; agriculture: ke_tu < khe_t (U.) < ks.e_tra (Skt.) field, tract of land especially fit for cultivation; ke_tu-ma_lam western portion of Jambu_-dvi_pa, between the Gandhama_dana range and the sea, one of nava-kan.t.am (Civataru. Ko_pura. 53); ke_tuma_l id. (Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 37); ke_tuma_l-varut.am id. (Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 36)(Ta.lex.) khetta field (Pali); ks.e_tra land (RV.); ks.etra (NiDoc.); khetta, khitta, chetta, chitta, khe_a (Pkt.)[cf. ke_da_ra field (Mn.) (CDIAL 3463)]; c.hetr (Kal.); c.hetur, c.hetro (Kho.); c.hi_tru (Phal.); c.ec. field (Sh.)[cf. cer..ippu fertile (of a field)(Ta.lex.)]; c.e_c. (D..); khet.ru field (S.); khetar, khet (P.); khetu (S.); khetru (P.); khettar (P.WPah.); c.het.l. (WPah.); khet (N.B.Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); id. (H.Marw.G.); kheta (Or.); khetar (G.); s'et (M.); s'eta (Konkan.i); keta field, house (Si.)(CDIAL 3735). cf. se_dyamu agriculture (Te.lex.) khetiyak agriculturist (A.); s'eti_ owner of a field (M.); ks.e_trin, ks.e_trika owner of a field (Mn.); khetti, khittia (Pkt.); kheti_ peasant (M.)(CDIAL 3736). ks.e_triya meadow grass, pl. environs of a place (AV.); khettia, khittia pertaining to fields (Pkt.); khe_tri_ crop (L.); kheti_ agriculture (P.); khi_ti (K.); kheti crops (Ku.N.A.); khe_ti_ agriculture (H.G.M.); s'eti_ crops (M.)(CDIAL 3737). kher.a_n. arable land (G.); kher.an. cultivator (G.); kher.vu~ to plough, drive (G.); khe_d.ai ploughs (Pkt.); khe_d.ia, khe_d.an.a ploughing (Pkt.); kher.an.u to plough (S.); kher.iba_ (Or.); khe_t.ita ploughed (Skt.)(CDIAL 3882). ke_da_ra field (esp. one under water)(Mn.); irrigated field (Pali); a basin of water round the root of a tree (Skt.lex.); ke_a_ra field (Pkt.); ke_a_ria_ field (Pkt.); kia_ra_ large plot in a field (L.); bed in a field or garden (P.); kia_ri_ small plot in a field (L.); bed in a field or garden (P.); khia_ra_ small bed in irrigated land (L.); kea_ra_ bed in a field or garden (P.); kero, kya_ri_ bed of creeping plants, etc., ground near a house (Ku.); keya_ri flowerbed (B.); kia_ri cultivated field (e.g. of sugarcane) (Or.); kiya_ri_ bed formed in a field for irrigation (Bi.); garden-bed (Bhoj.); dhan-kiya_ri_ rice-land (Bi.); kiya_ra_ large garden-bed (Mth.); kea_ri_ smaller garden-bed (Mth.); keya_ri_ garden-bed (Aw.); kya_r basin made round a tree (H.); kea_ri_, kiya_ri_, kya_ri_ plot under cultivation, garden-bed, bank, hedge (H.); kya_ro, kya_rr.o plot of ground to keep water in (G.); kya_ri_, kya_rr.i_ small plot of ground to keep water in (G.); ka_rr.o rice plot (G.)(CDIAL 3463). {keda_ra an irrigated field, prepared for ploughing, arable land in its first stage of cultivation: keda_re pa_yetva_ karissa_ma we shall till the fields after watering them; as square-shaped (i.e., marked out as an allotment) caturassa keda_ra, catukkan.n.a keda_ra; surrounded by a trench, denoting the boundary keda_ra mariya_da_. The spelling is sometimes keta_ra. The prefix ke- suggests an obsolete noun of the meaning 'water', as also in kebuka, ke-vat.t.a; perhaps Skt. ks.vid, ks.vedate, to be wet, ooze? ke would then be k(h_)ed, and kedara = ked + dr., bursting forth of water = inundation; kebuka = kedvu(d)ka (udaka); kevat.t.a = ked + vr., moving on the water, fisherman; kaivarta name of an officer on board a trading vessel. (Pali. lex.)} ke_da_ra-khan.d.am. a small dyke, earth raised to keep out water (Skt.lex.) Field; artificial tank: cer-u to prevent the passage (as of water); n. tank, field, garden plot (Ta.); cir-ai dam, bank, tank, boundary (Ta.); ker-f (water) is dammed (To.); ker-e tank (Ka.); kere tank (Kod..); kere, kire, kedu an artificial tank (Tu.); kide cowpen, stall (Tu.); cer-uvu, ceruvu artificial lake, tank (Te.); ker to fence (Kuwi); keh to dam (stream) (Go.); ket. to shut (Ga.); kedp to shut (Pa.); ceru tank (Kol.Pa.); saru id. (Nk.); eru pond, tank (Go.); keR to shut, build a wall (Kond.a); keRpi door; ser-u tank (Kond.a); gehpi door (Mand..); geh to shut (Mand..)(DEDR 1980). cf. e_ntal irrigation tank; ce_ntu to draw, as a rope running over a pulley (Ta.); se_du, se_ndu to draw up (water from a well); se_du drawing, etc. (Ka.); se_duni to draw water (Tu.); ce~_du, ce_du to draw up as water from a well; ce~_da, ce_da bucket; ce~_-tra_d.u rope used in drawing up water from a well with a small bucket or vessel (Te.); cnde to remove in small quantities from a heap (Malt.)(DEDR 2812). Men of the maritime tracts: kar..a_l weeding, rooting up (Pur-na_. 120,5); kar..a_-nilam, kar..a_lai saline soil; kar..i backwater, shallow-sea-waters, salt river, marsh (Pur-ana_. 48,3); salt-pan (Ta.Ma.); kar..iyavar men of the maritime tracts (Periyapu. Tirukkur-ip. 44)(Ta.lex.) kar..an-i field, paddy-field (Pur-ana_. 13,11); agricultural tract; mud (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

3696.Army; captain: ce_rvai army (Ta.lex.); collection, assemblage (Ta.); se_rve, se_ruve id. (Ka.); s'e_rrige, s'e_rve union, inclusion (Tu.); ce_rika union, junction (Te.)(DEDR 2814). ce_rvai, ce_rvaika_ran-, ce_rvai-k-ka_ran- caste title of akampat.iyar and of certain other sub-castes, viz., mar-avar, kal.l.ar, van-n-iyar [cf. ce_ralan (Ta.) = ke_rala (Ma.) chera king, one of the three Tamil kings (Akana_.149); ce_ran- id. (Cilap. 29, U_calvari, 2); captain, commander of a division of army (Ta.); s'e_ruga_re id. (Tu..)(Ta.lex.) Troop: jha_ru~ troop (G.); jha_ri flock of birds (S.)(CDIAL 5374). cf. seragu calamity, evil, mischief, sin, crime (Ka.); calamity, misfortune (Te.)(DEDR 2777).

3697.Army: ceru battle, fight (matantapak kat.antu ce_rume_mpat.t.a : Paripa_. 1,27); ceruttal to destroy, ruin (Te_va_. 139,4)(Ta.); cerucu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ceruppat.ai army of tired soldiers (Pu.Ve. 9,31); ceruppat.i-na_yan-, ceruppat.i id.; cerunar soldiers, warriors; enemies (Kalin.. 548); ceruttor..ilo_r id.; cerumakal. Durga_, as the War Goddess; cerumun-ai field of battle (Pu.Ve. 1,6); fighting army (Pu. Ve. 4,7, Kol.u); ceruvacey to attack (Paripa_. 8,87); ceruvit.ai-vi_r..tal theme celebrating the heroic death of the warriors who defended the moat round a city and the adjoining forest (Pu.Ve. 5,4); cerutti banner of victory; badge of distinction; cerukkot.u to give battle (Kampara_. Atika_ya. 177); cerukku haughtiness, pride, arrogance, self-conceit (Kur-al., 759); sed.aku id. (Ka.); daring, intrepidity, courage, as of an army (pat.ai-c-cerukku : Kur-al., 78, Ati.); cerukkutal to be proud, vain, self-conceited (Poruna. 140); sokku id. (Ka.); to be elated with self-pride (Ira_mana_. A_ran.iya. 4); s'la_gh (Skt.); cerukkal.am field of battle (Kampara_. Va_liva. 116)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); cerukkal.avaci battle-piece, a poem in akaval verse describing the field of battle (Ilak.Vi. 869)(Ta.lex.)

3698.Oxhide: carsa_ raw oxhide; caras leather bucket (P.); carsa_ hide (N.); raw oxhide (Bi.H.); caras, tarsa_ leather bucket (H.); carsa_ raw oxhide (M.); car.su~ a contrivance for lifting water from well or tank (G.)(CDIAL 4688). cf. cad.ai rises, sits on (Pkt.); car.han.u to lift (S.); ca_r.han., ca~_r.un. (L.); ca_r.hn.a_ (P.); ca_hr.n.a_ (WPah.); chad.ai, cad.a_ve_i rises, mounts (Pkt.); car.hab to rise, mount, sit (Mth.); car.hal to rise (Bhoj.); cad.hai rises, attacks (OAw.); car.hna_ to climb (H.); ca_run to pick up, collect (K.); ca_r.ha_ climber of a date-palm (L.); ca_r.ho climber (S.)(CDIAL 4578). harta hide; ghasi curers' hide; camt.a strap of raw hide (Santali.lex.) cat.t.akam corpse (Ja_n-a_. 6,10)(Ta.lex.) carmamna tanner (RV. viii.5.38); carman skin, hide, bark (RV. i.85.5)(Vedic.lex.) carumam skin, hide, leather (Tol. Col. 402, Urai.); bark of a tree (Ta.lex.)

3701.Courtesan: ce_ripparattai prostitute, courtesan living in quarters set apart for her class (Tol. Po. 151, Urai.); ce_ri quarters of the pariahs (Ta.lex.) se_riga_ra community of pipers (Tu.lex.)

3702.Image: trough: sura_ spirituous liquor (RV.Pali.Pkt.); su_r (WPah.M.); su_ra (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13503). Image: pot: co_ra milk-pot (Kor.); an earthen pot (Pa.); so_r.a_ a large earthen vessel for holding water, not food; so_ra pot; so_ra_ pitcher (Go.)(DEDR 2886). go~r.i_ long feeding trough of sun-dried mud (Bi.)(CDIAL 4258). Metallic plate: ko_rika iron ladle (Ma.); ko_rikai, ko_rakai ladle (Ta.); ko_ri a kind of ladle to serve rice (Tu.)(DEDR 2231). ko_ram, ko_rakam metallic dish or plate (Ta.); ko_rakai begging-bowl of the Buddhist ascetics (Ta.); ko_ra cup, tray (Te.); khora almsbowl (Skt.); khoraka_ pot (Pkt. Ardhama_gadhi_); khoraya a kind of round pot (Skt.)(DEDR 2228). ko_ru to gather with a sweep of the arm (Ta.); ko_ruka ladle out, take in heaps; go_ra a drill plough (Te.)(DEDR 2231). ko_r-k-kalam crockery, earthen vessel; ko_rvai a kind of metallic vessel for taking and serving rice (Ta.lex)

3703.Image: body: s'ari_ra body (RV.); s'ari_raka small body (Skt.); sari_ra body (Pali); s'arira (NiDoc.); sari_ra (Pkt.); sari_r (WPah.); saira, sayara (OG.); siriru, sirura (Si.)(CDIAL 12335). cari_ram body (Pin..); individual person (S.I.I. III,3) (Ta.lex.)

3704.Image: to jump: saral.isu to jump, to jump about (Ka.lex.)

3705.Image: arrow: saral., saral.u, saral an arrow; an iron rod, a bar; sarad.u (Te.); s'ara (Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

3706.Agathotes chirayta: kira_tatikta, kira_tatiktaka the plant agathotes chirayta (Sus'r.); kariya_tu~ (G.); kirata the small plant gentiana chirayta (Si.); cirya_to agathotes chirayta (the wood of which is used medicinally)(S.); caraita_ ophelia cheretta (used for purifying the blood)(P.); ciraito swertia purpurascens (N.); sirata_ gentiana chirayta (A.); cira_yita (OB.); cira_ta_, cireta_ (B.); cira_ita_ (Or.); cira_yta_, cira_ta_ (H.)(CDIAL 3174).

3707.Saccharum sara: s'ara a sort of reed or grass, saccharum sara (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3708.Cumin: vesan.a cumin, ji_raka (Jain.Skt.) Cumin cyminum (Ancient Egyptian tpnn; Coptic tamn; Greek xuminon; Modern Egyptian Arabic kammu_n) "This annual umbelliferous herb is indigenous to Egypt. The seeds are stimulant and carminative and are widely used for flavouring (particularly curries) and in perfume industry.... Pliny refers to a wild variety called.. Thebaic cumin... used as a draught in case of stomach ache... The Egyptians in the days of Apicius used to flavour marrows and fish with cumin, along with coriander... Pliny says that cumin was strewn under (!) bread and used to flavour an Alexandrian sauce. Cumin was among the offerings presented by Ramesses III to temple of Re at Heliopolis (1200-1085 BC)... used to treat digestive problems... in an unguent to ease headache made of moringa oil, myrrh, lotus flowers, juniper berries and two unidentified ingredients... The Assyrian Herbal recommends the use of cumin in anointing, eye poultices and for insect stings." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, pp.97-98). Cuminum cyminum: jiraka (Skt.); jira, zira (H.); jira (B.); shiragam (Ta.); jiraka (Te.); jorekam (Ma.); fruit: stomachic, stimulant, carminative, useful in dyspepsia; seeds: in snake-bite; essential oil; cultivated throughout India except Bengal and Assam; chief areas are reported to be Uttar Pradesh and Punjab (GIMP, p.84). ji_raka cuminum cyminum (Car. Ci. 2-1.44, 24.16).

3709.Black cumin: (Coptic ctikimme black scent; Modern Egyptian Arabic: plant s'u_ni_z; seeds: kamu_n eswid black cumin; or habb so_da black seed) "The spicy seeds of this plant are used in India and other eastern countries to encourage lactation and to improve the shape of the breasts. It is also used to flavour bread and other dishes. Remains of the plant were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun (1567-1320 BC)... the plant was mentioned in the Bible and in the Assyrian Herbal (black 'tin-tir') as a remedy for ears, eyes and mouth and when taken, for the stomach. The Cops included the seeds in a remedy for itching skin... Prospero Alpini... used black cumin and vinegar to treat skin ailments. The seeds were used as a vermifuge for children." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.125). Nigella sativa: upakucika_ nigella sativa (Car. Sa. 8.41) krishnajiraka (Skt.); kalijira (B.); kalonji, kalajira (H.); kalenjire (M.); karunjiragam (Ta.); nullajilakara (Te.); karunshiragam (Ma.); seeds: stimulant, carminative, diuretic; in puerperal fever; powder used as an external application in eruptions of the skin; habitat: Punjab, Bihar and other parts of India; cultivated and an occasional weed of cultivation (GIMP, pp.176-177).

3710.Image: gizzard: sirsa bird's crop or gizzard (Kond.a); hirha id. (Pe.); sirsa id. (Kui); hirsa id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2558). kun.d.i gizzard (Santali.lex.)

3711.Zizyhus oenoplia: srigalakoli (Skt.); makai (H.); siakul (B.); purgi (Ka.); kottavalli (Ma.); suraimullu (Ta.); paraki (Te.); decoction of root bark: used to heal fresh wounds; fruit: used as an ingredient of stomachache pills; throughout the hotter parts of India (GIMP, pp. 261-262). cf. badara fruit of the jujube tree, zizyphus jujuba (VS.)(CDIAL 9125). zizyphus (used for mortar); [cf. cu_rai zizyphus oenoplia (Ta.)(DEDR 2730); image: eaves: cu_ru eaves, edge of roof (Te.)(DEDR 2729). Zizyphus rugosa: suran (H.); turan (M.); bhand (DehraDun); mahigotte (Ka.); malantutali (Ma.); kattilandai (Ta.); pinduparighamu (Te.); flowers: with equal quantity of the petioles of the betel leaf and half as much lime, given in 4-grain pills twice a day for menorhagia; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p. 262). cu_rai, cu_ral oblique-leaved jujube, zizyphus oenoplia (Ta.); suri-mul.l.u id. (Ka.); tu_ri-mul.l.u id. (Tu.); cu_ra zizyphus rugosa (Pa.); su_re-mar.a the churni_tree, zizyphus rugosa; u_retonde id.; su_re_ oblique-leaved jujube, zizyphus oenoplia (Go.)(DEDR 2730). sekra zizyphus rugosa; karkat. zizyphus xylopyra; kur.it rama zizyphus oxyphylla (Santali.lex.) karkandhu zizyphus nummularia (Car. Su. 4.24,25). {Zizyphus spina-christi (Ancient Egyptiasn nbs; Coptic: tree noybc; fruit kennape; Modern Egyptian Arabic: tree sidr; fruit nabq) 'Zizyphus is a shrub or tree with glabrous branches. The wild variety has spikes below the greyish-green tough leaves... favoured in pharaonic times, and dried fruits have been found in predynastic graves. Some were included in the burial equipment of Tutankhamun... Athenaes says that he has been served the fruit in Alexandria... Zizyphus appears to have been part of the pharaonic diet... Almost all parts of the tree were used, even sawdust from the wood, which was otherwise used in carpentry... The fruits were sometimes made into bread... A hole was dug in the ground and covered with leaves of the mudar plant (calotropis procera). A fire was lit in the hole and the gourds (with zizyphus kneaded powder) left there in the warmth all night... The wood was blended with a liquid ingredient and used as an unguent for a male urinary disease. Zizyphus fruits were a component of an unguent with 'fruits' of sycamore and willow, and emmer grains ground to a mass with an unidentified ingredient and mixed with gum water. The resulting remedy was applied to any swollen member.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., pp. 157-158)}. Calotropis procera: alarka (Skt.); akada, madar (H.); ak (P.); mandara (M.); vellerukku (Ta.); properties same as calatropis gigantea; e.g. tincutre of leaves used in intermittent fevers; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.46). Calotropis gigantea: arka (Skt.); ak (H.); akanda (B.M.); arkkam (Ta.); jilledu (Te.); erikku (Ma.); root bark: in dysentery; tincture of leaves: used in intermittent fevers; latex: irritant, in combination with euphorbia neriifolia used as purgative; powdered flowers: in colds, coughs, asthma and indigestion; common throughout India (GIMP, p.46). prata_pa (calotropis gigantea)cf. erukku calotropis gigantea (Ta.); arka (Skt.)(DEDR 814). arka calotropis procera (Car. Su. 4.4,22). alarka calotropis gigantea (Car. Vi.7.17). taran.i calotropis gigantea, aloe perfoliata (Skt.Pkt.); tare~ barberry (Wg.)(CDIAL 5701).

3712.Image: to trickle: co_r.- to trickle (Pa.); ho_r.- (-t-) to drip (Pe.)(DEDR 2893).

3714.Juice from trees: ks.i_ra milk, thickened milk (RV.); khi_ra (Pali.Pkt.); chi_ra (Pkt.); kihr milk (Gypsy); kir cheese, milk (Gypsy); c.hi_r milk (D.. Dm. Pas'. Phal.Shum.Bshk.); sour milk (Wg.); udder (Bshk.); xi_r (Pas'.); c.hir (Gaw. Kal. Sv. Kho.); c.hi_ milk (Tor.); khi_ru milk (S.); khi_r (L.); ga_-khi_r cow's milk (A.); khir inspissated milk (B.); khira milk,juice from trees (Or.); khira_ inspissated milk (Or.); Beestings: khi_ru~ beestings (G.)[ks.i_ba, ks.i_va drunk, excited (MBh.); khi_va intoxicated (Pkt.); chi_u (Kho.); khio (S.); khi_va_ drunk, proud (S.); chiwun to be intoxicated (K.); khi_wan, khi_wani intoxication (H.)(CDIAL 3694)]; s'ire~ caudle for puerperal women of coconut milk, etc., decoction of boiled lac or certain grains (M.); s'i_r phut.n.e~ milk to be set flowing (in the breast)(M.)(CDIAL 3696). khirwara_, khiraura_ cake of rice flour prepared in hot water (Bi.)(CDIAL 3699). c.irman milky (Kho.); khi_ra~ti_ milch (A.); ks.i_ravant furnished with milk (AV.); c.hi_ru udder (Phal.); khi_ravai_ adj. giving much milk (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3700). ks'i_rs'a_ka cream, curds (Bhpr.); khirsa_ a dish usu. of curds made with beestings (H.)(CDIAL 3702). ks.i_rin yielding milk (Skt.); khi_ri (Pkt.); c.i_ri udder (Pkt.); khi_ri_ (L.P.H.); kiri-geri milch cows (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 3704). ks.i_ri_ a dish prepared with milk (Bhpr.); khi_ri_ a dish of cooked rice (Pkt.); chiri milk of goat or sheep, thin stream of milk issuing at one pull of the udder (K.); chir in cmpds. a dish of cooked rice (K.); khi_r rice boiled in milk (P.Ku.H.G.Bi.Bhoj.M.); khir (K.N.); khi_ri (Mth.); khi_ri (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 3705).cf. curra_ vegetal sugar, sweet juice which drops from mango flowers or from the new leaves of sa_l tree (Kur.)(DEDR 2711). kar-a to milk, yield milk (as a cow)(Ta.); kar-akka milk to flow out (Ma.); kar-i to milk (Ka.); karap milking (Kod..); kar-a_vu milking (Ka.)(DEDR 1385).

3715.Chironji tree: ks.i_ravr.ks.a common name of four trees (Sus'r.); kiriruka the tree buchmania latifolia (Si.)(CDIAL 3698). sire, ci_re chironji tree (Kol.); s'i_re id. (Nk.); ci_r chironji nut (Pa.); sare_ka_ chironji tree, buchanania angustifolia [buchanania latifolia]; sar.e_ka, re_ka chironji; sirka mara_ id.; serka_ id. (Go.); re_ka mar buchanania latifolia (Pe.); re_ko id. (Mand..); sre_ko a species of forest tree (Kui); re_ko buchanania latifolia (Kuwi)(DEDR 2628). cf. mur-al.ai hermit's tree, buchanania latifolia (Ta.)(DEDR 5006).

3716.Pomegranate: cerukkam pomegranate (Ta.); cf. karaka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

3717.To scrape: korni_ dried portion of food stuck to a pot (Ku.); kura_uni id., milk boiled till nearly solid (N.)(CDIAL 3529). ko_rita scraped out of the ground (Bhpr.); pounded (Skt.); koroina to dig (D..); ko_ri to bite; kro to chew (Wg.); ko_r, ku_r to dig (Pas'.); koran.u to scrape or scoop out (S.); korna_ to dig, excavate, cut (P.); kora_, kura_ to scrape, grate, scratch out, powder, gnaw (B.); koriba_, kuriba_ to scrape, rasp, comb (Or.); korna_ to dig or scrape or scoop out (H.); korvu~ to scoop, carve, bore a hole (G.); korn.e~ to scoop, engrave, cut gradually off (M.); kornu to scratch, tear, comb (N.); koriba to hoe (A.); korokiba to scoop out (A.); kakorna_ to scrape (H.)(CDIAL 3530). cur-an.t.u-tal to scrape (Ta.); curan.t.u (Ma.); keran.t.u (Ka.); curan.t.u-tal to scratch, scrape with finger-nail or instrument, erase (Ta.); curan.t.i scraper (Ta.lex.)

3718.Image: feather: ke_ndid (pl. ke_ndil) feather (Pa.); kendit., kendut. (pl. kendukul) id.; kendi_ (pl. kendiki_l, kendiku_l), kendit. hair (Ga.)(DEDR 2002). kerngl, kergl feather, wing (Ko.); kedi feather; kedun:k, kedan:k tip of a bird's wing; thin layer (Tu.); gern(g) feather; girru id. (Go.); gurgil(i) id. (Kond.a) (DEDR 1983). cir-ai, cir-aku, cir-akar wing; ir-ai, ir-aku, ir-akar, ir-akkai wing, feather (Ta.); ir-aku, cir-aku wing (Ma.); rek wing, feather (Ko.); er-ake, er-an:ke, r-akke, r-ekke wing; r-at.t.e, r-et.t.e wing, upper arm (Ko.); rekke wing; rat.t.e upper arm (Kod..); edin:ke, ren:k wing (Tu.); er-aka, r-ekka, rekka, ner-aka, ner-i id. (Te.); red.apa, reppa_ id. (Kol.); rer.apa id., feather (Kol.); rekka, reppa wing (Nk.); rekka id. (Pa.); wing-feather (Go.); reka feather, wing (Go.); r-eka wing, upper arm (Kond.a); rekka wing (Kuwi)(DEDR 2591). tarkili wing (Kurub.); tergy id. (To.); terake id. (Kod..)(DEDR 3424).

3719.Digestion: ci_ran.am digestion; ci_ran.ittal to digest (Ta.lex.) ji_rati is digested (Pali); ji_ravai digests (Pkt.); ji_rna_ to be absorbed (of water)(P.); jeravvu~ to digest (G.); jirn.e~ to be absorbed, be digested (M.); ji_varan., ji_uran. (water) to be absorbed (L.); ji_varna_, ji_urna_ (P.)(CDIAL 5235). ji_re_ti, ji_ra_pe_ti works out (e.g. wages), digests (Pali); jira_na to rest, repose (B.); jireiba_ to rest after a meal (Or.); jiravvu~ to digest (G.); zirni rest (A.); jiren (B.)(CDIAL 5236). jin.n.a digested (Pkt.); zi_n digested (A.); ji_rn.a digested (MBh.)(CDIAL 5237). jarati is dissolved, is digested (Ya_j.); jariba_ to be dissolved (of salt), be absorbed (of water, oil, et.), be digested (Or.); jarvu~ to be absorbed, subside, be digested (G.)(CDIAL 5150). ja_ran.a digesting (Or.)(CDIAL 5208). jarayati causes to be digested (MBh.); ja_ra_ to dissolve, digest (B.); ja_riba_ to dissolve, digest (Or.)(CDIAL 5209).

3720.Platform to keep watch: cir-a_mpu a loft or platform for keeping watch (Ta.lex.)

3721.Image: chip, splinter: cir-a_y chip, splinter (I_t.u, 3,6,8)(Ta.lex.)

3722.Image: side-look: cir-a-k-kan.ittal to cast a side-look (Cu_t.a_.); to squint one's eyes and glance (Kur-al., 1095); cir-a_n:kan.ittal id. (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 6,3, Vya_.)(Ta.lex.) ciran:kan.ittal to squint one's eyes and glance (Cilap. Ka_n-al-vari, 1, Pa_t.al, 7)(Ta.lex.) Image: to cast a benignant glance: cir-iya-no_kku-tal to cast a benignant glance; to ogle (Ci_vaka. 1568); cir-itu that which is small, trifling or insignificant (Na_lat.i, 99); cir-umai smallness (Tiruva_ca. 5,9)(Ta.lex.)

3723.Sandalwood: s'ri_kha, sirikan.d., siriganda, s'ri_gandha sandalwood, santalum album (Ka.lex.) cf. s'ri_-va_sa turpentine; s'ri_pus.pam a fragrant wood, padmaka_s.t.ha (Skt.); s'ri_vr.ks.a the bilva tree (Skt.lex.) s'ri_phala aegle marmelos; its fruit (Mn.); coconut (Garud.aP.); s'irah-phala coconut palm (Skt.); sirihala fruit of aegle marmelos (Pkt.); s'aha_l.e~, s'a_l.e~ coconut (M.); s'iya_l.e~ tender coconut (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12711).

3724.Image: head: s'iras head (RV.); s'ir head (WPah.M.); s'i_r (M.Pas'.); sir head (L.P.Ku.); id. (N.B.Mth.Aw.); id.(H.G.); sar (G.); sira (Pali.Pkt.); s'ero, siri (Gypsy); cyur, min-cir upper part of fore-head; pci~r on the head (Gypsy); ji_ head (Pr.); siru head (S.); siri_ head and neck, corpse (S.); head of an animal decapitated for eating (P.); s'iri_ head of sacrificed goat or sheep (WPah.); xir head (A.)(CDIAL 12452).

3725.Satisfy; feed: se_r satisfied (Pers.); s'rti to feed (Lith.); caci_r to satisfy (Kal.)(CDIAL 12418).

3726.Old: cir-a_mputal to grow lean, become emaciated (I_t.u, 6,1,11); to shrink, look small (I_t.u, 2,6,1)(Ta.lex.) ci_ne old (Tir.)(CDIAL 3690). Grey, white: narai grey hairs (Pur-ana_. 191); nara id. (Te.Ma.); nare id. (Ka.Tu.); narai whiteness (Kur-un. 317); nara id. (Te.Ma.); nare_ (Ka.Tu.); naraittal to become grey-haired; to grow grey, as hair (Tirikat.u. 67); nariyu id. (Te.); nare id. (Ka.); narekka id. (Ma.); cf. jara_ old (Skt.); narai old age (Na_lat.i, 11); naraimai grey-haired old age (Man.i. 20,44)(Ta.lex.) Old age: ci_r weak condition (Ta.lex.) jr._ grow old, waste away (Skt.); jara wearing out (RV.); ajara not agint (RV.); jaran.d.a old (Skt.); jarat.ha old (BhP.); jara in cmpds. 'worn out, old' (Pali); jara, jari_, jarad.a, jaram.d.a old (Pkt.); jaru, je_ri, zaru (Sh.); jara (Or.); jard.i_, jara~d.i_ old woman (M.); diriti decrepit old woman (Si.); jahra_ old man; jahri_ old woman (L.)(CDIAL 5145). jaran.a old (RV.); zirin old man (K.); dirin.i decrepit old woman (Si.)(CDIAL 5146). jaran.a_ old age (RV.); jaran. patience (G.)(CDIAL 5148). jarati makes old, grows old (RV.); jarati grows old, decays (Pali); jarai becomes old or worn out (Pkt.); jara_ to become worn out (B.); jariba_ to be worn out (Or.); jarijjai becomes old (Pkt.); jarizoiki (Sh.)(CDIAL 5150). jara_ old age (RV.Pali.Pkt.); jara (KharI.); jar decrepitude (B.); jara wearing out (Or.); daraya old age, decrepitude (Si.)(CDIAL 5151). jarjara decayed, torn, broken (MBh.); jajjara feeble with age, withered (Pali); jajjara worn out, in holes (Pkt.); jejala ill (Wg.); zozuru decayed, withered; zazuru withered grass or leavees or vegetables (K.); ja_jara_ old, infirm, worn out (H.); ja_jaram old (OG.); ja_jru~ poor, wretched (G.); ji_jaro, jijaro old, worn out, shattered, leaky (Ku.); dduru rent, crack (Si.)(CDIAL 5154). ja_ran. incantations to produce disease or death (G.); causing decay, condiment, oxydizing (Skt.Or.)(CDIAL 5208). ja_rayati makes old, wears out (RV.); jarayati wears out (RV.); jra_ to cause to waste (B.); ja_riba_ to make powerless (Or.)(CDIAL 5209). ji_ryati grows old (AV.); ji_rati grows old (Pali); ji_rai becomes old or worn out (Pkt); diranava_ to decay, rot; caus. diravanava_ (Si.); zirin old man (K.); dirin.i old woman (Si.)(CDIAL 5235). ji_rn.a old, worn-out (AV.); jin.n.a, jin.n.aka decayed, decrepit, frail (Pali); jin.n.a old, worn-out (Pkt.); jino old, shrivelled, stiff; jinin.o to become shrivelled (Ku.); zi_n worn-out, digested (A.); ji_na old, worn-out (B.); very old, dilapidated (Or.); ji_n old; old man (H.); jin.a decayed (OSi.); dun.u (Si.)(CDIAL 5237). ji_rn.avastra worn-out clothes (Skt.); dunuvat old clothes (Si.)(CDIAL 5238). Tiny; thin: khi_n.a, chi_n.a weak, thin (Pkt.); khi_n.u emaciated (B.); khi_na thin, weak (Or.); chi_n slender, lean (Mth.); chi_n wasted, thin (H.); khi_na thin, tiny (OAw.)(CDIAL 3690). ks.ainya leanness (Skt.)(CDIAL 3746). Tired: ks.i_n.a worn away (S'Br.); feeble (Mn.); khi_n.a exhausted, destroyed (Pali); khi_n emaciated (Bhoj.); worn away (H.); khinna to be worn away (H.); khi_n.a exhausted (OG.); s'i_n. weariness (M.); s'in.n.e~ to be weary (M.)(CDIAL 3690). khi_n.a, chi_n.a destroyed, tired (Pkt.); khino tired (Gypsy)(CDIAL 3690). khinauri an old or worn plough, a plough with a small worn block (Bi.)(CDIAL 3691). khi_n.a_sava Buddhist saint (Pali); ks.i_na_s'rava id. (BHSkt.); kin.asavaya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 3692). ks.i_n.o_pa_ya destitute of anything to rely on (Skt.); chinvu poverty (esp. when caused by loss of savings) (K.) (CDIAL 3693). ks.ain.ya wasting away (Skt.); khen consumption; hindrance (G.) (CDIAL 3746). Tired; angry; vexed: ks.i_yate_ is worn away, is injured (RV.); khi_yati, khiyyati wastes away, is exhausted, is dejected, is vexed, takes offence (Pali); khi_yai is destroyed; khijjai is destroyed, is tired, is annoyed; chijjam.ta becoming thin or weak (Pkt.); khi_jjun. to fret (L.); khijan.u to fret, be peevish (S.); khijn.a_ to be tired (WPah.); khiji_n.o to be grieved (Ku.); khiinu to be worn away (N.); khijinu to be agitated (N.); khija~r.e pres. part. (Ku.); khijiba_ to be annoyed (Or.); khiya_el to be rubbed away (Bhoj.); khiya_na_ to be worn away (OH.); khi_jna_ to be irritated (H.); khijai (OMarw.); khi_jvu~ to take offence (G.); khijn.e~ to be vexed (M.); khijhn.a_ to be vexed (P.); khijha_na_ to vex (H.);[poss. X krudhyati is angry (AV.)(CDIAL 3600)](CDIAL 3695). Anger; vexed: si_tar- anger, wrath (Ka.); ci~_dar-a disgust, dislike, abhorrence, trouble, vexation, annoyance (Te.)(DEDR 2615). Weak, tired; thin: sikro sickly, weak, dry (of a tree)(N.); sikat.e, sikut.e sickly, weak, thin; a thin man (N.); sikur.a_, sukr.a_, sakr.a_ shrivelled (H.); si_k ill (G.); sim.ga weak, thin (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13387). cin:ku (cin:ki-) to diminish, wane, decrease, faint, fail, droop, decay, perish, elapse, pass away (as time); cikku (cikki-) to become lean or emaciated; cikal (cikalv-, cikan-r--) to diminish, decrease, perish; n. want, ruin (Ta.); cikk- (cikki-) to become tired; cikki numb sensation of mouth produced by areca-nut (Kod..); tirkuni to be lean, weak; sirkuni to fade, shrivel, become weak, lean, fall off; tirku, sirku fading, weakness, faintness; tirkot. a lean or weak man (Tu.); si_ra_na_, sira_na_ to grow thin; si_rtor weak; sir thin (Go.); cikku to become lean or thin (Te.); cing- (sun) declines after midday (Pa.); sik- (-t-) to be reduced (as body), fail (in flesh), pine in fear, etc. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2503). Weak; lean: cak lean (of meat); cakn lean man; fem. caky (Ko.); cakku, cekku stunted, short, lean; cakke a weakling, lean person (Tu.)(DEDR 2268). Image: skeleton: kan:ka_la skeleton (MBh.); at.t.hi-kan:kala skeleton (Pali); kam.ka_la (Pkt.); ke~kar (WPah.); kan:ka_l.a skeleton (Or.)(CDIAL 2603). ka~_gu~ weak, delicate (G.)(CDIAL 3005). kan:ka_l.an- S'iva who wears garlands of bones; kan:ka_l.am skeleton (Ta.lex.)

3727.A kind of paddy: ci_raka-c-campa_ a superior kind of paddy sown in September and maturing in five months (Pata_rtta. 814); a red variety of paddy; ci_ran:ki a kind of paddy (Ta.lex.)

3729.Images: crab; hog: a_ru a hog; a crab (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3730.Image: iron dross: cor-i-k-kit.t.am iron dross; cor-i roughness of surface (Ta.lex.)

3731.Image: neck: cu_r-ai hollow in the nape of the neck (Ta.lex.)

3732.Image: supporting stakes in wall: cu_r..i, cu_r..iyal supporting stakes in wall or the eaves of a house; cu_r..iyar--kampu id.; cu_r..iyar--pat.ai sloping cornice of a house-wall; cu_r..iyar--pat.ai-tat.t.utal lit. to knock off cornice and slightly raise the wall; to plagiarise (W.); cu_l.ikai open terrace (Te_va_. 324,3); cu_r.. to encompass, surround, envelope (Na_lat.i, 230); to wind, wrap around (Paripa_. 10,80); to surround, hover about (Tiruva_ca. 5,16)(Ta.lex.) Eaves of a house: cu_r..ika the wall-plate that supports the cross-beams of a roof (Ma.)(DEDR 2737). cu_ru, su_r, su_ru the part of a sloping roof that projects a little beyond the walls, eaves (Ka.); su_ri eave line (the border of a roof)(Tu.); cu_ru eaves, the edge of a roof, cornice (Te.); munju_ru eaves (Te.); muir id. (Pa.); munzuru id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2729).

3733.Image: menses; blood: co_ri, co_ra blood (Ta.); to_rai blood; -to_r (ney-tto_r blood)(Ta.); coriccal (rudhiram coriccal) menses of women, bloody flux; co_ri,co_ra blood (Ma.); co.re blood (Kod.); joree the flowing of a liquid (Go.); cort.o blood (Nahali)(DEDR 2883). Image: child-birth: to_r.a_ blood which precedes the birth of a child (Go.); to_r.g-(water) to be spilt (Go.); to_r.a to be liquid, flow, trickle (Kui); tor..i to be spilt (Ta..)(DEDR 3523). Pregnant woman: cu_l conception, pregnancy (Pur-ana_. 130); to become pregnant (Cir-upa. 75); egg (Perumpa_n.. 132); wateriness of clouds (Paripa_. 20,3)(Ta.lex.) cu_li pregnant woman (Tirukkaivar..akkam. Kan.n.i. 12); cu_l-ul.aital to travail in labour (Nait.ata. Na_t.t.up. 5); cu_lai-k-kat.t.i venereal swelling; cu_lai a class of diseases including arthritic complaints, stiffness or contraction of the muscles or nerves, scrofula, rheumatism, gou, colic, spasmodic pain, complaints from irregular menses (Periyapu. Tiruna_vuk. 48); cu_lai-k-kat.t.u id. ; cu_lai-ni_r whites, diseased discharge from the urethra; ill-humours of the body causing cu_lai diseases (Ta.lex.) Image: pregnancy, female urinal passage: te.l forest; menstrual blood; te.l uk- to menstruate (lit. enter forest); te.l ul. (lit. the inside of the forest), te.l ul. pay (lit. house inside forest) menstrual house (Ko.)(DEDR 2891). cu_li child, offspring (Te.); cu_l (cu_lv-, cu_n-r--) to become pregnant; n. conception (Ta.); cu_l pregnancy (Ma.Ka.); su_l id. (Ka.); su_lagitti midwife (Tu.); cu_lu pregnancy; child, offspring (Te.); cu_la_lu a pregnant woman (Te.); cu~_d.i pregnancy (Te.); tu_l pregnancy (of animals)(Ga.); su_l pregnant (animal)(Kuwi)(DEDR 2733). Midwife: soiya_n.i_, suya_n.i_ midwife (G.); suen., sui_n., suven., suvi_n. (M.)(CDIAL 13558). cu_t.u to bear, sustain (Ta.)(DEDR 2721). cu_l (cu_n-r--) to become pregnant; n. conception, pregnancy, egg (Ta.); pregnancy (Ma.); cu~_d.i id.(Te.); cu_li child, offspring (Te.)(DEDR 2733). su~va_l.u~ pollution caused by delivery (G.)(CDIAL 13555c). cu_l.ai-pirittal to purchase pots from a kiln and distribute them to the poor in memory of a woman who died in pregnancy; cu_r--ka_ppu bracelet put ceremonially on the arms of pregnant women in the 5th or 7th month after conception; cu_r--ca_tam feast given by relatives to a woman in her first pregnancy (Tj.); cu_r--pen.t.u pregnant woman (I_t.u. 2,10,2)(Ta.lex.) soer, soiri, saur, sauri the room in which a child is born and child and mother are kept for 12 days (Bi.); soiri (Mth.); soar, sauri_ (H.)(CDIAL 13557). Image: to miscarry (of foetus or child): t.ruijan.u to miscarry (only of animals)(S.); taru_n.a_ (L.); tu_n.a_ (P.); tuia~ aborted (of cattle)(Ku.); tu_na_ to miscarry (of foetus or child), leak, fall (H.); tarva_vu~ to miscarry (only of animals)(G.)); tuhunu to have a miscarriage, die in the womb (N.); tuha_unu to miscarry, cast young (N.)(CDIAL 6067). tro_phati miscarries (Skt.); tru_un. to give still brith to (L.); tuhunu to have a miscarriage, to be still-born (N.)(CDIAL 6069). t.rumbijan.u to abort (of cattle)(S.); truban., turban. to drop young prematurely (L.)(CDIAL 6070). cu_tam birth (Periyapu. Tiruja_n-a. 1043)(Ta.lex.) zut birth (Kt.); zwa_t, zo_t lying-in house (Pr.)(CDIAL 5109). su_taka birth, calving (Gr.S.); impurity caused by childbirth or miscarriage (Ya_j.); su_a_ calving (L.); young of an animal (P.); su_ta engendered, born (Skt.); su_aya impurity due to birth or death (Pkt.); su_ai, su_i disgrace (OG.)(CDIAL 13553-4). su_a_ woman who has given birth (Pkt.); in full milk (L.); su_ta_ having borne young (Mn.); su_staka_ (Skt.); su_ia_ woman who has given birth (Pkt.); sua_ animal which has lately given birth (S.); su_i_ preterite. gave birth (L.); suva_ in suva_-rog phthisis in a lying-in woman (G.)(CDIAL 13555). sua~_jo lying-in of a woman after childbirth (S.)(CDIAL 13555a). suva_vr.i_ woman just delivered (G.)(CDIAL 13555b). su~va_l.u~ pollution caused by delivery (G.)(CDIAL 13555c). su_ti birth (TBr.); su_i birth (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13556). su_tika_ lying-in woman (AV.)(CDIAL 13559). su_te_ bears, gives birth to (RV.); su_van. to bear young, calve (L.); su_vun. (L.); su_n.a_ (of animals)(P.); su_wn.u, sun.u to bring forth (WPah.)(CDIAL 13560). suva_na bringing (children)(AV.)[pres. part. of su_te_ bears (RV.)]; sawo~n pregnant (Pas'.); sava_n.e a_vvu~ to be on heat (of animals)(G.)(CDIAL 13528). savati bears, gives birth to (Skt.); savitave_ (AV.); prasavati (MBh.); savai gives birth to (Pkt.); son.u_ (of cow or woman)(WPah.)(CDIAL 13289). cf. su_nu son (RV.Pali); daughter (Mn.H.); su_n.u son (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13569). su_na born (Pa_n..com.); su_na_ daughter (Skt.)(CDIAL 13568). co_n.an:ki lean person or animal; co_n-i thin or lean person (Ta.lex.) Image: afterbirth: tofir afterbirth (of goddess or buffalo)(To.) (DEDR 2395). cavvu the omentum (Ma.); enevelope round the pulp of fruit (Ta.); thin scales on a healed wound (Ta.)(DEDR 2400).

3734.Image: hair: so_r.a a hair (Kui); hora a single hair of the beard (Kuwi); horana beard, moustache; ho_d.anga beard; so_n.ayya~_, so_r.a ba_n.aa~_ id.; ho_r.a (pl. ho_r.aya~_) id. (Kuwi); sorkoo man with a beard (Go.)(DEDR 2894). sol.l.e nostril (Ka.); col.l.e id. (Kod..)(DEDR 2863).

3735.Image: scorpion: so_r kupi scorpion (Kond.a); ho_ru kuppi crab (Kuwi)(DEDR 2888).

3736.Image: hill: so_ru hill, mountain (Kui); ho_ru_ hill (Kuwi); ho_ru mountain, rock (Kuwi)(DEDR 2887).

3737.Image: dove: co.r dove (Ko.); ma.n. co.r pigeon (Ko.); twar fil. wood pigeon (To.); co_rE pigeon (Ka.); to.re pakki dove (Kod..)(DEDR 2885).

3738.Image: pitcher: co_ra milk-pot (Kor.); an earthen pot (Pa.); so_r.a_ a large earthen vessel for holding water, not food; so_ra pot; so_ra_ pitcher (Go.)(DEDR 2886). sonde earthen pot (Kol.); sunda, sundi a very small earthenware pot (Kui)(DEDR 2844).

3739.Rice served in temples; used; remnants, leavings of food: mad.a-gu_r.. the rejected leavings of food (Ka.); mad. orts, refuse, crumbs or remnants of victuals (Tu.)(DEDR 4643). cf. ku_r.. a_- to be overboiled (as rice)(Ta.); ku_r.. boiled rice (Ma.); ku_r..am rice, as eaten in temples (Ma.); ku. kud.ike rice pot (Kod..); ku_d.u boiled rice, food (Te.)(DEDR 1911). jus.ate_ remnants of a meal (Skt.); jut.t.ha used (Pkt.); jut.t.ha_, ju~t.ha_ polluted; leavings of a meal (P.); ju_t.ho leavings (Ku.); jut.ho remains of a meal (N.); jhu~t.a_ tasted, defiled (B.); jut.ha_, jut.a_, jhut.a_ leavings (Or.); ju_t.h, ju_t.ha_, jhu_t.h, jhu_t.ha_, jhu_t. (H.); jut.hu~ (G.); ju_t.ab to grow fat (Mth.)(CDIAL 5255). ju_t.hi remnants of food (S.); jut.h, ju_t.h leavings of a meal (L.); ju_t.h (P.)(CDIAL 5256). litan pl. leavings of food (Pe.); lita (Kuwi)(DEDR 5188). cf. coccam deficiency, balance, arrears (Ta.)(DEDR 2833). Stale (food): su_di stale (of cooked rice)(Kol.); su_R- (food) to become stale, sour (Kond.a); suhnadi stale (Kuwi)(DEDR 2745).

3740.Image: climbing nettle: cor-i (-v-, -nt-) to itch; n. climbing nettle (Ta.); nettles (Ma.); toyr, toyrv urtica heterophylla (causes itching and rash)(Ko.); cur-aci, cur-uci, tur-aci, tur-ice, tur-uci, tur-uce mucuna pruriens (Ka.); so_hta_na_ to itch; sohale_-ja_t.a_ the ko_nch or cow-itch, mucuna pruriens (Go.); tur-ike gid.a the Neilgherry nettle, urtica heterophylla (Ka.)(DEDR 2865). se_k-- (-t-) to itch (Kond.a); he_k- (-t-) id.; he_pkor cow itch, mucuna pruriens (Pe.); he_k- to itch;  scratch (Mand..); se_pka (< sek-p; se_kt-) to itch (Kui); he_nguli the itch; hengu_li aiyali, he_pk-, se_k- (-h-) to itch (Kuwi)(DEDR 2800).

3741.Boiled rice: caru boiled rice; oblations of rice, barley or pulse, boiled with butter and milk, offered to gods or manes (Maccapu. Pirama_n.t.a. 1); caru id.; it is often boiled in milk and is called: payas'-caru (Skt.lex.)(Ta.lex.)

3742.Hero: s'u_ra strong, valiant; hero (RV.); su_ra bold; hero (Pali.Pkt.); hero (Kal.); adj. (OAw.); s'ur, s'u_r-moc hero (Kt.); s'u_ra quick (Dm.);[cf. semant. cur-ukku quickness (Ta.); curuku vigorous (Tu.)(DEDR 2713)]; s'u_ro hard, too heavy (WPah.); s'u_r renowned (Kho.); su_ro hero (S.Ku.G.); su_r, su_ra_ (P.); adj. and sb. (H.); su_r hero (Ku.); suro brave (N.); xur hero (A.); su_ru~ brave; su_ri_ wife who immolates herself on husband's death (G.); suru adj. and sb. (Si.)(CDIAL 12569). cu_ran- warrior, man of valour, hero (Kampara_. Tailama_t.t.u. 30)(Ta.); cu_r valour (Kampara_. Pirama_t. 76); cu_ri Durga_ (Aric. Pu. Pa_yi. 9); goddess of the forest (Ta.lex.)

3743.To pine: jharnu to pine (N.); jharai withers (OAw.); jharvu~ to languish (G.); jharn.e~ to waste away (G.); jharta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 5346a). khirai drips, drops, falls (Pkt.); kherna_ to flow, pass away (H.); khirn.e~ to flow (of semen or urine), pine away, to cause to flow through, strain, sift (M.); khiriya fallen (Pkt.) (CDIAL 3689). Grief: jurant pres. part. wastes away (RV.); jhuran.u to be hurt (by blow, fall, etc.); jhoran.u (S.); jhuran. to pine with grief (L.); jhurinu to become parched (N.); jhurna_ to wither, grieve (P.); jhuriba_ to lament (Or.); jhurab to wither, parch, burn (Mth.); jhurai wastes away (OAw.); jhurna_ (H.); jharvu~ to pine away, languish (G.); jhurn.e~ to waste away, drip, ooze (M.)(CDIAL 5405). jhurn.e~ to drip, ooze (M.)(CDIAL 5404a). jhu_rai wastes away (Pkt.); ju_rai withers, regrets, is angry (Pkt.); ju_lai is angry (Pkt.); jhu_rna_ to repine (P.); jhuriba_ to lament (Or.); jhu_rna_ to waste away, dry up (H.); jhu_rai repents (OG.); jhurvu~ to languish (G.)(CDIAL 5409). jhu_jn.a_ to be tired out (P.); ju_ryant pres. part. is worn-out (RV.)(CDIAL 5411). jhirn.e~ to waste in labour and in pain (M.)(CDIAL 5390). jhijjai wastes away (Pkt.) jhi_jhna_ (H.); jhijn.e~ (M.); jhijo worry, care (N.)(CDIAL 5396). jhin.n.a wasted (Pkt.); jhina thin and delicate (Or.)(CDIAL 5397). ji_ryati grows old, wears out (AV.)(CDIAL 5398). jha~_jar emaciated (N.); jharjharita worn out (R.)(CDIAL 5350). jharn.u~ becoming old, old age (G.)(CDIAL 5345). jhu_ru old, ancient (S.); jhuro brittle (N.); dry leaves for fire, crumb (N.); zur-zur fine particles (A.); jhura_ crumbled; crumb (B.); jhura crumb (Or.); jhu_r burnt, disgusted (Mth.); jhu_ra_ withered, dried up (H.); jhu_r small particles of rice (when husking)(M.)(CDIAL 5408). Shrunk; sorrow; withered; dried: koragu to become deprived of juice or sapless, shrivel, be emaciated, wane, sorrow; n. sorrow; korat.u, koran.t.u the state of being checked in growth or stunted (Ka.); kurun.t.uni, kuran.t.uni, kurluni to contract, shrivel, sink in; kurun.t.u, kurlu contraction; koraguni to wane, sorrow (Tu.); kruyyu to grow lean, diminish, droop, shrink (Te.); kurumne a_ya_na_ to wither, to dry up, perish; kurrumne aia_na_ to dry up completely, of crops (Go.); krusu withered, sere (Kui); kuruma_n.a faded, withered (Apabhram.s'a)(DEDR 1778). sam.kut.ati bends oneself together (Skt.); sam.kut.ana contracting (Skt.); san:kut.ita doubled up, shrunk; san:kun.d.ita distorted (Pali); sam.kud.ia contracted (Pkt.); su~gr.an. to shrink, dwindle; sun:gur.un. (L.); [cf. curun:ku (curun:ki-) to shrink, contract, shrivel, wrinkle, lessen, dwindle, be reduced, curtailed, be puckered, creases, be furled; curul. to shrivel, shrink; curi to wrinkle (Ta.)(DEDR 2687)]; sun:gar.na_, sun:gur.n.a_, san:gar.n.a_, sukar.na_ to contract (P.); sa_n:kur.iba_, sa_n:kul.iba_ to contract, draw in one's limbs (Or.); sa~kar.na_, sakar.na_, sukar.na_, sikar.na_ to be contracted (H.); sakul.anava_, hakul.anava_, akul.anava_ to curl up, fold, roll in (Si.); kilenava_ to shrivel, roll oneself up, shut oneself (Si.); caus. akul.avanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12825). Sink: kun:kutal to decrease, diminish, sink; to be humbled (Ta.Te.); kun:gu (Ma.); kuggu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) krun:ku, gun:ku, gu_ku to sink, plunge, set (as the sun), die; n. a plunge; ku_ru to sink, be drowned (Te.); kr.un(g)- (kr.unt-) to sink, submerge; kr.uk- (-t-) id.; kr.u_- (-t-) to sink into (mud)(Pe.); kr.ung to sink; kr.uk- to submerge, make to drown (Mand..); kr.umba- (kr.umbi-) to sink beneath, dive, plunge into; n. diving; kr.u_va (kr.u_t-) to sink down, sink into, (sun) sets; n. subsidence, sinking into, setting of the sun (Kui); kru_iyali (kru_t-) to sink; verra kru_pu_ sunset; kr.ung- (-it-) to be submerged; kr.u_- to be deep; klu_pu depth (Kuwi)(DEDR 1826). Contracted; shrunk: kucita contracted, curved (Skt.lex.) kus'iyuni, kus'ipuni, kusipuni to contract, shrink in; kuskuni to shrink, give way, sink in (Tu.); kusi to sink, settle (Ka.); kudiyu to sink, go down, decrease (Te.)(DEDR 1636).

3744.To be distributed: sa_rai puts right; sa_ravai makes tidy (Pkt.); sarcn.a_ to be distributed so that each may get a share; caus. sarca_un.a_ (P.); sartn.a_ to be distributed, be disposed of; caus. sarta_un.a_ (P.); sarasanava_, sarahanava_, harahanava_ to adorn (Si.); rac fashion (Skt.)(CDIAL 12991). cari rightness, propriety, regularity; equal measure or quantity (Pan.avit.u. 232)[cf. sari (Pkt.) < sadr.s'a similarity (Skt.)]; cari-k-kat.t.u to act agreeably (Ira_mana_. A_ran.i. 11); to adjust; cari-k-kuc-cari like for like, measure for measure (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cakat.t.iya_ka adv. < sagat + by the lump, at a sweep; on an average; cakat.t.ile_, cakat.t.u-me_n-ikku id.; carat.t.u-me_n-ikku adv. in a lump, on an average (Ta.lex.)

3745.Jalap: saral.am < sarala_ Indian jalap; civatai id., ipomoea turpethum (Ta.lex.) Operculina turpethum = ipomoea turpethum: dudh kalmi (B.); nisot (P.); nishotar (M.); nisoth (H.); triputa (Skt.); sivatai (Ta.); tellategadda (Te.); rochani (Ma.); root: purgative; resin: similar to jalap resin; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.181). exogoniums purga: ipomoea purga: purgative action, jalap resin; habitat: grown in the Nilgiris and Poona; found as a garden escape in the Upper gangetic plain (GIMP, p.116).

3746.Difficult road; jungle: curam narrow and difficult path (Ta.); difficult road, pass, ghaut (Ma.)(DEDR 2683). curam desert tract (Tol. Po. 216); jungle (Pu. Ve. 2,3)(Ta.lex.) cf. tur-u to be thick, crowded, full, be closed (Ta.)(DEDR 3367). sruti road, path (RV.); stream (Skt.); sru_ stream (RV.); s.u_i_ ravine, valley, cleft (Wg.)(CDIAL 13887). To send: sor- to send (Nk.); so_rta_n he sent (Nk.); codp- (codt-) to send (Pa.); soyp- (soyt-), co_y, soyp- (soyup-) id. (Ga.)(DEDR 2866).

3747.Image: swordfish: cur-a_, tur-a_vu, s'ra_vu, cir-a_ku shark (Ma.); cor-a (Ka.); cor-a, sor-a, co_r-a id. (Te.)(DEDR 2710). cur-a shark (cur-avar..n:ku mirumpel.avattu : Poruna. 203); cur-avam id. (Tiruvil.ai. Valaivi_ci. 37)(Ta.); cur-avu id. (cur-avin-at tan-n-a va_l.o_r moyppa : Pur-ana_. 13,7); cur-avukkur..ai an ear-ornament shaped like fish (Ilak.Aka.); cur-avu-k-ko_t.u jaw-bone of the swordfish, worshipped by the people of the coastal regions (Pat.t.in-ap. 86,87, Urai.); cur-a_-k-kompu id.; cur-avu-va_y an ornament shaped like a shark's mouth, worn by women on the head (Perumpa_n.. 385); cur-a_ shark, selachoidei, makarami_n-; swordfish, xiphis gladius, ko_la_mi_n-; capricorn of the zodiac (Tiva_.); cur-a_-k-kal.ir-u male shark (Pin..); cur-a_-c-cir-ai shark fins, an article of export to China; cur-a_-mul. shark bones, sometimes of monstrous size (Ta.lex.)

3748.Spirituous liquor: ca_ra_yam spirituous liquor, arrack (Ta.Ma.); sa_ra_ya (Te.Ka.); sa_ra_yi (Tu.)(Ta.lex.); ca_ra_ya-k-kit.an:ku arrack shop, tavern; ca_ra_yan:kat.t.u to distil arrack; ca_ra_ya-p-pa_va_lai vessel for receiving distilled spirits; pa_ drinking; purity, holiness (Ta.lex.) ba_ve layer on boiling rice (Ka.); ba_ve the cream of milk, the pulpy kernel of a tender coconut, a film on the eye (Tu.)(DEDR 4109). Clarified butter: sarpis clarified butter (RV.); sappi id. (Pali.Pkt.); hapi, sap (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 13275). sa_r essence (N.Mth.); sour cream (Sus'r.); essence, cream (G.); pith, sap, cream (M.); sa_ra essence, vigour (OAw.); sa_ra_ crust on curds gone bad (M.)(CDIAL 13355). sajwa_ curdled milk (Mth.)(CDIAL 12988). s'aras cream, skin on boiled milk (VS.); s'ara upper part of cream or of slightly curdled milk (A'pS'r.); har cream, scum on curdled milk or oil (K.); xar cream (A.); sar (B.); sara cream, thick milk (Or.); sar cream, curds (H.); saraya coagulum of curds or milk (Si.)(CDIAL 12332). saha_ cream (M.); sa_ha cream on curds (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13377). sam.stya_na coagulated (Nir.); cuco_n. boiled thick milk (Ash.); seyun. (Kt.); sacon:g (Dm.); sacum (Gaw.); sacu~r cheese (Kal.)(CDIAL 13047). sa~_t.ho mixture of powdered rice and ghee (N.)(CDIAL 13049). Toddy, broth: ca_r-u broth or soup, infusion, decoction, sap as of a palm tree (Ma.); juice, sap, water in which aromatic substances are infused, pepper water (Ta.); ce_ru toddy, juice, sap, sweetness, tastiness, honey, treacle (Ta.); broth, sap, juice, relish in a liquid state, well-seasoned sauce, pepper water (Ka.); sa_r-u id. (Ka.); ca_ru a kind of pepper water (Tu.); sa_ru broth, soup, sap (Tu.); ce_ru tamarind broth or soup (Te.); ca_ru a kind of curry (Te.); ke_d broth (Pa.); jau dhal, gravy, soup (Kui)(DBIA 166); jaiyu_ curry (Kuwi); ja_yu curry, sauce; cooked pulse; ja_yu kuca vegetables (Kuwi); sa_r a dilute mixture of tamarind, etc. (M.)(DEDR 2484). Gruel: sari gruel used as paste, paste; starch (Te.); cari id. (Te.); sar-i paste (Ka.)(DEDR 2418). Bread: sa_ru pancake (Ga..); sa_ri, sa_r-i_, sa_r-i, sa_ri_, ha_ri, a_ri bread (Go.); ha_ri bread, cake (Pe.)(DEDR 2465). Food: a_ha_ra taking food, food (MBh.); food (Pali.Pkt.); food, meal (esp. the feeding of its young by a bird)(Or.); a_ha_le food (As'.); aha_ru (S.); aha_r (P.Ku.); a_ha_ro, a_ro meal (of animals, esp. birds)(N.); a_ha_r food (B.M.); meal (H.); food eaten at one sitting (G.); ha_r, a_r id. (G.); ahara food (Si.); a_ha_ri_, a_ri_, a_riyo glutton (G.)(CDIAL 1544). Bread, cake: he_'ra, he_ra bread, cake (Kuwi)(DEDR 2465).

3750.Image: little fish; fish bait: cariku, caru a little fish (Ma.); caru, caruva a small fish (Tu.); taru a small kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 2361). ca_r fish bait (B.); ca_ro food for animals, bait (N.); ca_ra fish bait (Or.); ca_ra_ bait (H.) (CDIAL 4755). cf. caru, caruva a small fish (Tu.); caru, cariku a little fish (Ma.); taru a small kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 2361).

3751.Image: minute: saru thin, fine, minute (AV. v.25.1)(Vedic.lex.) cf. saru fine (skt.); xaru small, fine, younger, inferior, childhood (A.); saru fine, thin, slender (B.Or.)(CDIAL 13264).

3752.Image: of the same appearance; likeness: cariga an equal, a man of equal power; sarika-tana, sari_katana equality of position; sari_ka a man of equal position (Ka.); sarikha_ like etc. (M.); saru sameness, equality (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cari-ka_n.utal to be exactly equal; to check, examine the accuracy of; to compare (Ta.lex.) cari similarity (Kumara. Pira. Civaka_mi. Irat.. 16); suitability, agreement, exactness; cari-k-kat.t.u to equalize, balance (Ta.); cariva_- to be alike, equal; to agree, tally cariya_tal to prove right or correct (Ta.); sariya_gu id. (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) sadr.k nom. sg. n. of sadr.s'- like (RV.); sari like (Pali.Pkt.); saria like, equal (Pkt.); sari adj. and postp. like (N.); xari (A.); sari (Or.)(CDIAL 13118). sadr.ks.a like (VS.); sarikkha, sarikkhaka like (Pali); sarikkha, sariccha adj., sa_rikkha, sa_riccha adj. and n. sb. (Pkt.); sarkho like (S.); sari_kkha_, sarkha_ (H.); sa_rikhna_ to liken, resemble (H.); sa_rikho like (OMarw.); sari_kha (OG.); sarkhu~ (G.); sarsa_ (M.); sa_rikha_, sa_rkha_ (H.); suruka (Si.)(CDIAL 13119). sadr.s'a of the same appearance, like (TS.); sa_dr.s'a (S'a_n:khS'r.); sadisa, sarisa like (Pali.Pkt.); satris'a (NiDoc.); sarisa_ (Or.); sarsia_ coeval, rival (Or.); saris, saras like (H.); si_rasa (OMarw.); sarsa_ (M.); -sey like (OSi.); se_ likeness, manner (Si.); sa_disa like (Pali); sa_risa, sa_lisa like; sa_ri(s)sa likeness (Pkt.); halu like; sari likeness (Si.)(CDIAL 13120). Image: gimlet: cur..ar-r-i brace and bit, tul.ai-y-it.um karuvi (C.E.M.); cur..ar-r-i-t-turappan.am gimlet (C.E.M.); cur..at.t.i-t-turappan.am id. (C.E.M.)(Ta.lex.) cf. turappan.am auger, drill, tool for boring holes (Ta.); id. (Ma.); turappan.a-v-alaku drill-bit; turappu driving, hammering (turapamai-y-a_n.i : Poruna. 10); tura-ttal to drive, as an elephant (Pur-ana_. 14,4); to shoot, as an arrow (Kalla_.4); to drive in, hammer down, as a nail (Poruna. 10); to tunnel, bore (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. cur..i-accu goldsmith's matrix; cur..i-y-a_n.i projecting-pin of a door serving as pivot to move on; cur..an--maram wooden machine for grinding corn (Akana_. 393)(Ta.lex.)

3753.A piece of land: sa_rige a complex: a piece of land (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ha_r cultivated land round a village (H.); ha_ level plain along a river (WPah.); ukhar.-ha_l small pieces of field not touched by plough (Bi.)(CDIAL 14066). cf. ka_ri brackish ground (Ma.Ka.); ka_ri-ne_la brackish soil (Te.); -ka_ri (second member of place names)(Te.)(DEDR 1471). cf. kha_ri_ka sown with a kha_ri_ of grain (Pa_n..); kha_rika (Skt.); xo_ir cultivated field, meadow (Pas'.)(CDIAL 3876). kha_ri grain measure (Skt.lex.) Vicinity: sa_rincu to extend, spread (Te.); sa_r- (-it-) to spread (Kond.a)(DEDR 2466). aruku vicinity, neighbourhood, place, border (Ta.); ariku neighbourhood, side, adjacent place (Ma.); aragu, arigu, arugu vicinity (Ka.); arugu approach (Te.); ar-u nearness (Te.); ar-uta(n), aruta(n) near, close by (Te.); arbar-parbar neighbours (Kur.)(DEDR 222). a_r., a_r.i boundary between fields (Mth.)(CDIAL 189). cf. ke_b nearness, vicinity; near (Br.); here near (Ga.); ce_rika contiguity, nearness (Te.)(DEDR 2814). Region; boundary: carakam, carakattu boundary (Ta.); < sarhad (U.); carakam cara_kam region, quarter, district; straight road without ramifications or turnings (W.)(Ta.); saraka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) saraka a continuous line of road (Skt.lex.)

3754.Image: scissors:gahi_ goldsmith`s pincers (M.); gaha planet (Si.); gahua_ pincers (H.); gahi clutch, handle of sword (P.); gah handle (H.)(CDIAL 4363). ga_vi_, ga_hi_ smith's pincers (M.)(CDIAL 4382). gahua_ smith's tongs (Bi.Mth.); gahwa_ pincers, forceps (H.); --Extension -lla-: gahuli_ jeweller's pincers (Mth.)(CDIAL 4384). sarautha_, sarauthi_ betel nutcrackers or scissors (P.); sarauto (N.); sarauta_ (Bi.); sarota_, saroti_ (H.); sarota_ (M.)(CDIA 13357). Seize: kariju, karicu to lay hold of, to seize (Ka.lex.) Image: pincers: ka_ru pincers, tongs (Ka.Te.Ga.)(DEDR 1473). kur-at.u crab, pincers, forceps (Ta.)(DEDR 1843). cf. ul.i chisel, burin, barber's instrument for paring nails (Ta.)(DEDR 699). cf. pat.aka_ru tongs, pincers (Ka.Te.); pat.aka_r-u id., large pincers (Te.)(DEDR 3864). [pat.t.u- to grasp (Te.lex.)] Grip: ga_ha grip (Pali); hilt of sword (S.); gra_ha handle of sword (Skt.)(CDIAL 4382). gidho taken (S.); ghidda_ (L.); gid.yem I took (Dm.); ghred.a pret. of gim and grhi_m (Kal.)(CDIAL 4235). gr.bha_yati takes, seizes (RV.); gr.hn.a_ti, gr.bhn.a_ti takes, seizes (RV.); buys (Mn.); gahai siezes (OAw.); gahin.a_ to grasp (P.); gahna_ to seize, put on (H.); ghen.e~ to take (M.); grahvu~ to seize, comprehend (G.)(CDIAL 4236). Trap for birds: gr.bh seizing (RV.); grih a small trap for birds (Kho.); gruhi_ small trap, net (Kal.)(CDIAL 4237). griik to catch in, stick in (e.g. a tree)(Kho.); gr.hate_ is taken (RV.)(CDIAL 4241). grahan.a seizing, holding (S'Br.); gahan.a seizure (Pali.Pkt.); garahan., garahin., gahin., gaihn. seizure (P.); gahan seizing (H.)(CDIAL 4364). gat, git took (Wot..); guto_ seized (Ash.); ghepna_ to take up with the fingers (H.) (CDIAL 4509). Tongs; vice in a turner's lathe: kir.kar. (Nk.) > ?it.t.it.ai vice in a turner's lathe (Ta.)(DEDR 444). cf. kot.iru pincers (Ta.); kot.il tongs (Ma.); kut.ilika_- smith's tongs (Skt.); kor. hook of tongs (Ko.)(DEDR 2052).

3755.Image: back of neck: se_rki the back of the neck (Kui); he_rki, herki neck; herki shouder (Kuwi)(DEDR 2816). kr.ka_t.ika_ joint of neck (Sus'r.); kr.ka_t.a (AV.); kr.ka throat, neck (Skt.); kia_d.ia_ upper part of neck (Pkt.); kiya_d.iya_ upper part of ear (Pkt.); kia_r.i_ back of the head, the hair on it (S.); ki_a_r.i_ nape of neck (L.); kia_r.i_ nape of neck, back of head, jaw; adv. behind (P.); kia_r.i_ back of neck (WPah.); kiri_k back of neck (Wg.); kaker.ik throat (Ash.)(CDIAL 3419). sr.kkam, sr.kkan.i_, sr.kkan, sr.kkin.i_, sr.kkin, sr.kvam, sr.kvan.i_, sr.kvan, sr.kvin.i_, sr.kvin the corner of the mouth (Skt.lex.)

3756.Image: horn: srun:g, s'run:g horn (Kho.); s.ugo (Sh.)(CDIAL 12713).

3757.Image: coat of mail: ca_rikai coat of mail, armour (Ta.lex.) cf. ja_gara (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

3758.Duty, toll: ca_rikai duty, toll (Pin..)(Ta.); sa_'ir (U.)(Ta.lex.) Excess: ha_ri ki_nai to spare; ha_ra, ha_reka many, much; ha_rinai to remain; ha_r- to remain, be left over (Kuwi); ha_r- (-t-) to be left over (Pe.); sa_ra (sa_ri-) to be in excess, exceed; n. excess; adv. exceedingly; sra_ppa (sra_pt-) to cause to exceed; sra_psi move, excessively (Kui)(DEDR 2461). cf. ce_r-ve_n- excess in quantity of the grain measured and stored up in a granary (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Crop set apart for a village servant: cara_cari-me_rai proportion of the crop set apart for a village servant (W.G.); cara_cari medial estimate; average (Ta.); sara_sari_ id. (U.); cf. sarra_f shroff, teller employed by banks and commercial firms; treasury assistant; banker, dealer in precious metals; cara_ppu-k-kat.ai a place of business where precious metals are sold (Ta.lex.)

3759.Term affixed to names of relationship, to denote respect: saraku esteem, regard, care (Ka.Te.); sarakugol. to regard, to care for, to take care of (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) jaran in: ta_k-jaran father (Nk.); haral a term affixed to names of relationship when referred to 3rd person, to denote respect; fem. hari (Go.)(DEDR 2357). avvai mother, old woman, woman ascetic (Ta.); ava_, avva mother; awwal (pl. awwa_hk) mother, dam of man or beast; awha_r.i_ mother, dam of man or beast; awhari, avha_ri_, avahari mother (Go.); avva_ mother (Pkt.); ava_, ava_ji term of courtesy in addressing a S'u_dra woman (DEDR 273). cf. (CDIAL 904). hr.daya_lu affectionate (Pa_n.. va_rtt.); hiye_lu brave (Sh.); hia_l.i charming (Or.)(CDIAL 14153). hr.dya in the heart, dear (RV.Pa_n..); hizu own, full (of brother or sister)(Sh.); ha_zi friend (A.); heja affection (OG.)(CDIAL 14154). yilo heart, spirit; hri heart, breast (Gypsy); hiad.ulla heart (Ap.); wur.e (Tir.); zir, zira (Pr.); hir.o_ (Phal.) id-em my heart (Shum.)[cf. itayam heart (Ta.lex.)]; hia_o courage (S.); ha~_u heart, mind (S.); ha~_ above (L.); hiya_u daring, spirit (N.); hiya_u, hiwa_u courage (H.); hiya_ above (H.); hiyya_ (M.)(CDIAL 14152). aragdi, a_rgli chest of body (Kol.); aragli id.; argil id.; argil id. (Nk.); arayul, aril, aru_li, ariyul id.; ar.i_l udder (Go.)(DEDR 200). cf. ayya_ respectable man (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ayal, acal neighbourhood, adjacent place, being foreign or alien; acalar neighbours, strangers (Ta.); ayal neighbourhood (Ma.)(DEDR 189). cf. ayyan-, aiyan- father, sage, priest, superior person (Ta.); a_rya (Skt.); ayya (Pali)(DEDR 196). hara name of S'iva (Skt.)(CDIAL 13979). sarpa-dha_raka snake-catcher (Skt.); sapehra_, sapera_, sa~pera_ id., snake-charmer (H.)(CDIAL 13273). cf. ir-ai anyone who is great (Ta.); ir-a_n, ra_n sire, used in addressing princes (Ma.); er-e state of being a master or a husband; er-eya master, king, husband (Ka.); er-a lord (Te.7th-8th cent. inscr.)(DEDR 527).

3761.Salt: sa_mbhara a kind of salt; s'a_mari salt obtained from lake Sambhara in Rajputana (Ku.)(CDIAL 13352). ca_rakam rock-salt, intuppu (Mu_. A.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3762.A caravaneer: sa_rava_na a camel-driver, a caravaneer (Ka.M.H.) (Ka.lex.) Chief of the maritime tract: ce_rppan- chief of the maritime tract (Ir-ai. 1,Urai.); Varun.a (Tiruvil.ai. Na_n-ma_. 4); ce_rppu place (Kampara_. Maruttu. 53); seashore, coast (Pur-ana_. 49,6); ce_yam shore, bank (Ta.); ce_y chief, lord (Nal.a. Cuyamva. 137); juvenility, youth (Tiva_.); ce_y-marapu youth (Tirikat.u. 84); ce_yo_n- Skanda (Tol. Po. 5); ce_y-kun-r-am Tirupparan:kun-r-am as a residence of Skanda (Paripa_. 6,69)(Ta.); ce_yavan- Skanda (kantapu. Teyvaya_. 58)(Ta.); ce_rvaikka_ran- captain, commander of a division of army (Ta.); s'e_ruga_re (Tu.); ce_ruvaika_ran- id. (Vir-alivit.u. 1001); ca_yapu < sa_hib (U.) title of Muhammadans and Maha_ra_s.t.ras (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ca_rama king of ce_ra (kon:gu or ke_ral.a)(Ka.); ce_rama_n (Ma.); ca_rama_ni name of a country; ce_rama_ni, ce_rama_d.i (Ka.lex.) ce_rvu arriving, joining; residence, abode (Te_va_. 171,5); ce_rpu id. (As.t.ap. Tiruve_n.. Ma_. 7); ce_ppu-tal to abide, remain (Patir-r-up. 62)(Ta.lex.) Caravansary: cara_y < sara_ (U.); mansion, rest-house for travellers, caravansary (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) ca_r to reach; place, side; ca_rpu place, support, refuge, shelter, birth, nearness; ca_rvu place, residence, pial, refuge; ca_rnto_r relatives, friends; ca_rppu sloping roof; ca_ri row, series, side (Ta.); ca_ruka to lean against, rely upon; ca_ra close; ca_rnnavar kinsmen; ca_rcca relation by blood (Ma.); ca.ry near (Ko.); sa_r to approach, become near, join; sa_re being near, proximity, union; sa_rke approach, nearness, proximity (Ka.); ca.ce relationship, kinship (Kod..); sa_rti encountering, meeting (Tu.); ta_r(u)cu to bring together, join, procure (Te.)(DEDR 2460). se_ra_na_ to occupy a house; here near (Go.); se_rpu neighbourhood (Kond.a); ce_rika union (Te.); s'e_runi to reach, be joined to, enter as a member of sect, etc. (Tu.); ce_rvva mixture (Ma.); ce_rnta_r dependants, persons under one's protection, partisans, relatives; ce_rppu place, residence, abode, seashore, mixture (Ta.)(DEDR 2814). Tribe, family: caravat.i tribe, family; caram string of pearls, gems, etc. < sara (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) sarn.o to descend (Ku.); sariba_ to come to an end, be finished (Or.)[cf. caramam end, finality (Ta.lex.)] (CDIAL 13250). To join; associate with: ce_r to become united, incorporated, joined together, become mixed, blended, have connexion with, be in close friendship or union, fit, suit, be collected, aggregated, join, associate with, be in contact with, belong to; to join, attach, admix, admit to one's society, add, insert, gather, assemble; ce_rkkai collecting, gathering, combining, mixing, compound, fellowship, company, union; ce_rtti combining, union, fellowship, suitability, fitness, resemblance, equality; ce_rnta_r dependants, persons under one's protection, partisans, relatives; ce_rppu place, residence, abode, seashore, mixture, supplement; ce_rpu residence, house; ce_rvu arriving, joining, residence, town, village, union, junction, connexion, collection; ce_rvai fellowship, association, union, mixture, compound, collection, assemblage; ce_ra altogether, wholly; along with, in company with (Ta.); ce_ruka to approach, come close, join, belong to, fit, suit; ce_ra close, over against; ce_rikka to have collected; ce_ruma_nam assemblage as for a riot, party; ce_rkka to make to arrive or join, collect as men, money; ce_rcca adherance, union, harmony, fitness; ce_rppu joining, mortising, assemblage; ce_rppikka to have assembled or collected; ce_rvva mixture (Ma.); ce.r- (ce.d-), ce.d- (ce.dy-) to arrive, join, gather; ce.t- (ce.ty-) to make to gather or enter a place; ce.rek a.l., fem. ce.reka.c people between whom verbal taboos do not operate (including people of opposite sex who may marry)(Ko.); so.r- (so.d-) to arrive; so.rc- to cause to arrive, bring someone to his destination, allow someone to join oneself, collect; so.t- (so.ty-) to make to join with others; so.- (only negative forms, translated as positive) to be envious (in songs)(To.); se_r (se_rd-) to become or be close or near, go to, approach, reach, come, belong to, enter, be included, be connected with, join, side with, assemble, be collected, agree, concur, suit, agree, be agreeable (Ka.); se_rike meeting, union (Ka.); se_risu to join, put together, put to, attach, cause to reach, put into, make enter, insert, fix, assemble (Ka.); se_ruvike joining, etc. (Ka.); se_ruve, se_rve collection, assemblage, mass, herd of cattle (Ka.); se.r- (se.ri-) to join; ke.r- (ke.ri-) to go up to house; ke.t (ke.ti-) to take (person) into house (Kod..); s'e_runi to arrive, reach, be added or joined to, be included in, enter as a member of sect, etc., be in harmony, agree together, be relished, liked, agree with, adhere to, be attached (Tu.); s'e_ra_vuni to join, combine, mix, include, etc. (Tu.); s'e_rige, s'e_rve union, inclusion (Tu.); s'e_risuni, s'e_risa_vuni to cause to arrive, join (Tu.); ce_ru to join, unite or combine with, approach, draw near or close to, reach, arrive at, enter or join as a class, etc., for a part or portion of, be attached to, be connected or related to, assemble, be received, come to hand, be included or added, belong, appertain (Te.); ce_rika union, junction, contiguity, nearness, proximity, familiarity, access (Te.); ce_rugad.a nearness (Te.); ce_r(u)cu to put, place or bring together, join, unite, combine, mix, add, include, enclose, admit, enrol, add or sum up, reach, cause to reach or be delivered; ce_rupu nearness (Te.); ce_va_t.u near (Te.); cendu to get, obtain, suffer, feel, enjoy, happen to, befall, belong, refer to, reach, meet (Te.); centa neighbourhood, proximity (Te.); ser- to go [cf. cel to go (Ta.)(DEDR 2781)](Kol.); s'er- to go (Nk.); se_r- to arrange, reach (Ga.); se_r.a_na_ to invade a country, enter or occupy a house (Go.); here near (Go.); se_rpu neighbourhood (Kond.a); serna clingingly (Kui); serna ad.a cleave to (Kui); he_rinai to reach; herpinai to deliver (Kuwi); ker- (past stem of ka_na_ to go)(Kur.); ke_b nearness, vicinity; near; ke_b kanning to approach (Br.)(DEDR 2814). cf. ca_r to reach, approach; n. joining, uniting, place, situation, side (Ta.); ca_rttu joining, assemblage (Ma.)(DEDR 2460). ca_r (-v-, -nt-) to unite, be related to, resemble, lean on; n. joining, uniting; ca_rpu place, support, refuge, attachment, birth, nearness; ca_rvu place, residence, pial, refuge, basis, help, support, means, attachment, vicinity, partiality; ca_rnto_r relatives, friends; ca_rttu (ca_rtti-) to cause to lean, support, join, unite, connect; ca_rcci leaning, uniting, connexion, approach, support; ca_ral drawing near (Ta.); ca_ttu (ca_rttu); a_r (-v-, -nt-) to combine with, belong to (Ta.); ca_ruka to rely upon, be attached to, put on; ca_ra nigh, close, bending sideways; ca_ral support; ca_rnnavar kinsmen; ca_rcca relation by blood; ca_rttu joining, assemblage; ca_rttuka to join, as wood (Ma.); ca.ry near; ar. ca.ry left side; val ca.ry, val ka ca.ry right side; o ca.ry one side; val ca.rym all around (Ko.); so.ry near (To.); sa_r to come or go near or to, join, associate oneself to; sa_ran. nearness, proximity; sa_re being near, nearness, proximity, union; sa_rke approach, nearness, proximity; sa_rcu to make oneself come or go near or to, go near, approach; make go or come near to, apply to, put on, or or in, put; a_r to be united (Ka.); ca.ce relationship, kinship (Kod..); sa_rti encountering, meeting, happening, occurring (Tu.); ta_ru to move about, wander, stroll, approach, go near; ta_ru-konu to approach, meet, attack; ta_r(u)cu to bring together, join, procure (as a procurer)(Te.)(DEDR 2460).

3763.Sandal; smearing: sa_ran:ga sandal (Skt.lex.) ca_rakantakam, ca_rakantam < sa_ra-gandha sandalwood (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) sa_ran.e, sa_ravan.e applying to, plastering, smearing, smoothing (with cow-dung, water etc.); sa_ran.egey to plaster, to smooth (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) s'r.n.a_ti crushes, breaks (RV.); s'enik to crush (Kho.)(CDIAL 12597). sa_ran.am a kind of perfume (Skt.lex.) cf. ca_ram < sa_ra sap as of plants, juice (Ar..akarkala. 67); medicine, elixir; hard inner part or heart of a tree (Pin..)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ca_r a tree (Tol. Er..ut. 363)(Ta.lex.) Smearing the body with sandal and other unguents: carci, cerce smearing the body with sandal and other unguents, perfuming the body (Ka.); carcita smeared, perfumed, anointed; carcike the state of being smeared or covered with anything; cleaning the person with perfumes; covering, smearing (Ka.); ca_rcikya smearing the body with sandal and other unguents (Ka.Skt.); ca_ru-karan.a embellishing (Ka.); ca_ra the tree buchanania latifolia (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ca_risu to grind, to triturate as sandal; to mix by rubbing or triturating as medicine; cf. ca_r-u, sa_r-u sap, juice, broth (Ka.); ca_r-u, ce_r-u (Ma.); ca_ru, ce_ru (Te.); ja_yu a medicament, a medicine (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ca_y < cha_ya_ beauty (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,2,1); ca_yin-am bevy of beautiful ladies (Patir-r-up. 60)(Ta.lex.) carca_ repetition; carcana laying on (an unguent); vicarcita rubbed, anointed; vicarci_, vicarcika_ itch, scab (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 4695). gharmacarcika_ prickly heat (Skt.); gha_mosi (A.); gha_ma_ci (B.)(CDIAL 4446).

3764.Boat: zaruk a sail boat of the pirates of the Trucial coast. (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 162). Captain: cara_n:ku native boatswain, chief of a lascar crew, skipper of a small native vessel (Ta.); < sar-hang (U.)(Ta.lex.) sa_ro removal of loads, load to be carried; sa_rn.o to convey, remove (Ku.)(CDIAL 13354). sa_run to transport gradually from one place to another (e.g. grain from threshing floor to house)(K.); sa_rna_ to remove, make an end of, complete (H.); sa_rn.e~ to move aside, despatch, finish (M.); sa_rayate_ has oneself driven in a carriage (As'vGr..) (CDIAL 13358). sa_ran.ika travelling, journeying; a traveller, wayfarer (Skt.lex.) sara_ga (Tadbhava of saraka?) (proceeding), unobstructed, easy, without impediment or obstruction (Ka.Ma.Te.); cara_kam (Ta.); saraga_-ma_rga a road without any difficulties, an easy road (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) saraka going, moving; sarakat.isu to rush forward (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3765.Course, motion; turn: sa_ra course, motion (Skt.); component (Sus'r.); sa_ra-sa_rin running races (TBr.)(CDIAL 13354). Image: procession: sa_r procession of Hindu women (L.)(CDIAL 13354). Image: row, series: sa_ri time, turn (Ma.Ka.Tu.); repetition, occasion (Te.); sa_re time, turn (Ka.); sarti id. (Tu.); ca_ri id. (Ta.)(DEDR 2464). sara going or moving; saran.a going, moving, flowing; saran.i a path, way, road, course; s'aran.i_ a road, path; a row, line (Skt.lex.) sara going (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 13247). Image: road: cari way, road (Periyapu. Kan.n.appa. 142)(Ta.lex.) Image: way, road: ca_rika_ journey (Skt.Pali); pilgrimage (Pali); sri saran.ava_ to walk about (Si.); ca_rikam. carati (Pali)(CDIAL 4763). ca_la movement in: danta-ca_la looseness of teeth (Sus'r.); ca_la_ movement (P.); movement, journey, auspicious day for setting out, first journey of bride to husband's father's house (H.Mth.)(CDIAL 4769). sa_r defile, pass (K.)(CDIAL 13354). Image:path; walk; track; road: caran.i path (Ar..akarkala. 25)(Ta.lex.) ca_ra motion, course (ChUp.); motion, walking (Pali); wandering (Pkt.); ca_ro footpath (S.); ca_ra_ cattle-path through fields (L.); ca_ro mode of living (G.)(CDIAL 4755). Image: opening in hedge; road: sr.ti road, path (RV.); xar track in jungle, opening in hedge or fence (A.); sar.ak road (L.B.Or.H.N.Mth.G.); sat.ak (N.); san.d.ak (Mth.); sad.ak (M.)(CDIAL 13577). Road: sarri_ road, walk (Go.); sari, harri, harr, ar-(i), har, hari, ar road (Go.); sar-i (pl. saRku) way, path (Kond.a); hazi id. (Pe.); ji_yu, ji_ru id., road (?Kuwi); sa_di id. (?Tu.); a_di track, way (?Ka.)(DEDR 2417). a_ru way, road, path, means, manner, method (Ta.); way, manner (Ma.); o.yn.-a.r (obl. o.yn.-a-t-) path (Ko.); o.r- (obl. o.t--) way, entrance ino thicket (To.)(DEDR 405). Image: road: cf. dar.v path, way (Ko.); tat.am road, way, path, route, gate, footstep (Ta.); dad.d.a road (Ir.)(DEDR 3024). cf. ta_ri way, road, path (Ta.); da_ri way, road (Ka.Tu.Te.)(DEDR 3170).

3767.Image: quickness: sarga-takta speeding with a rush (RV. iii.33.4); sarga-pratakta dashing forth with a rush (RV. i.65.6); saran.yu speedy, quick (RV. x.61.23); sari_ speeding; sari_man going, course (RV. iii.29.11)(Vedic.lex.) sarakkane swiftly; sarakkane sari to move quickly aside; sara, sara sarane quickly, hastily (Ka.); jar-r-ane quickly, rushingly (Ka.); jar-r-una (Te.)(Ka.lex.) sarin hastening, approaching, coming to aid (RV. i.138.3)(Vedic.lex.) ca_rin moving (MBh.); sara moving, quick (Si.); sa_raya speed (Si.)(CDIAL 4765). cur-ukku quickness, rapidity; cur-ukkan- active, diligent person; hasty, irritable person; cur-ucur-u (-pp-, -tt-) to be in a hurry; cur-ucur-uppu hurrying; cur-uti swiftness, alacrity (Ta.); cur-ukku quickness; cur-ucur-uppu alacrity and dispatch (Ma.); curk fleetness of foot (Ko.); cur-uku, cur-aku, curku quickness, speed (Ka.); curiki speed (Kod..); curuku quickness, speed, haste; quick, vivid (Tu.); cur-uku briskness, quickness (Te.)(DEDR 2713).

3768.Image: rivulet: sarayu name of a river (RV. v.53.9)(Vedic.lex.) saran.a running (Pa_n..); salna_ rivulet (H.); salana moving, shaking (Pali)(CDIAL 13285). sarayu name of a river (RV.); river on which is Ayo_dhya_ (R.); sarau_ name of a river (Pkt.); s'ar-mu_w source of the Sarju river at the Pin.d.a_ri_ glacier (Ku.)(CDIAL 13251). carayu a river on which stands the ancient city of Ayo_dhya_ (Kmpara_. Pa_laka_. A_r-r-up. 12)(Ta.lex.) Stream: sa_ran.i stream (Skt.); sa_ran. watercourse from a well (G.); watercourse (M.); sa_rn.i_ small river, canal, drain, gutter (M.)(CDIAL 13356). cf. calacala onom. expr. of purling water (Ta.)(DEDR 2366). sari cascade (Skt.); sariva_ya heavy shower (Pkt.); sarva_ pl., sarvar.iya~_ pl. showers of rain coming at intervals (G.); sarva_ shower of rain (M.)(CDIAL 13262). sarit stream (RV.); sarita_ river (Pali); sari, saria_ (Pkt.); se_ri_ spring (Sv.); sari wheel-rut (Or.); seri stream of liquid, jet of water (G.); sari_ water-channel (M.)(CDIAL 13261). sarika_ pond (Skt.) se_ri_ fountain, spring (Phal.)(CDIAL 13361). cari (-v-, -nt-) to tumble, stumble down (Ta.); car-iya, car-i cliff, precipice, side of a hill or mountain (Te.); jarqe to be dropped, fall; jarqtre to drop, let fall (Malt.); sar-i steep precipice; sari deep ravine, precipice (Ka.); jari ravine (Ka.)(DEDR 2360). karnali dhan lands lying in a sloping hollow; kar.nda, kar.ndan. steep, precipitous (Santali.lex.) sarasvati_ name of a river, the river goddess (RV.); sarasvant a river god (RV.); sarassai_ goddess of speech and learning (Pkt.); sarsai_ (H.)(CDIAL 13258). Image: water-channel; stream: sarit stream (RV.); sarita_ river (Pali); sari, saria_ (Pkt.); se_ri_ spring (Sv.); seri stream of liquid, jet of water (G.); sari_ water-channel (M.); sar sudden forceful gush (M.)(CDIAL 13261). sarva_n.i_ spring of water (G.)(CDIAL 13263). sa_ran.i stream (Skt.); sa_ran. watercourse from a well (G.); watercourse (M.); sa_rn.i_ small river, canal, drain, gutter (M.)(CDIAL 13356). Image: gush: cf. sarga gush, draught of air, race, host (RV.); creation (MaitrUp.); sagga release, creation (Pkt.); sagun to irrigate garden or field; sagawun to sprinkle water (on a plant etc.)(K.); sarga chapter of an epic poem (Skt.); saga chapter, part of a literary work (Si.)(CDIAL 13266). cf. jar-r-ane quickly, rushingly (Ka.); jarra suddenly, quickly (Tu.); jar-r-una quickly (Te.)(DEDR 2352d). carat.t.-en-al onom. expr. of moving quickly; carat.t.u-carat.t.-en-al onom. expr. of swishing, rushing sound as of air in motion (Ta.); carat. pair word with cadm sound, nose (cadm carat.)(Ko.)(DEDR 2352c). cf. saraga quickly, rapidly (Te.)(DEDR 2352a). Udder; breast; chest: harva udder (Go.); rawa id. (Go.); jra_mbu (pl. jra_pka) id.; sr.a_ngu (pl. sr.a_ka, sr.akaka), sra_n:gu (pl. sra_kaka) breast (Kui); ra_n:gu, ra_ngu_, ra_ngu breast (Kuwi); sakka_ breast; sakk chest (Kol.)(DEDR 2364). Rain: sarva_ shower of rain (M.); sariva_ya heavy shower (Pkt.); sarva_ pl., sarvar.iya~_ pl. showers of rain coming at intervals (G.)(CDIAL 13262). sar.a_na_ to drip (of water from wet clothes), dribble (of saliva); sara_na_ (tears) to be shed; sad.a_na_ to dribble (of sore eyes); har.- to fall in drops; ar.- to drain off (water from boiled rice)(Go.); har.- (-t-) (leaves) to fall, (hair) to fall out (Pe.); (leaves) to fall off (Mand..)(DEDR 2404). sa_rika_ pond (Skt.); se_ri_ fountain, spring (Phal.)(CDIAL 13361). sira stream (OG.); sira_, si_ra stream (RV.); sira_ vein, nerve, tendon (Pali); se_r bleeding at the nose, bleeding (K.)(CDIAL 13421). sara_ brook (AV.); cascade (Skt.); sar sudden forceful gush, shower, fit of tears (M.)(CDIAL 13259). jar-r-ane quickly, rushingly (Ka.); jarra suddenly, quickly (Tu.); jar-r-una quickly (Te.)(DEDR 2352).

3769.Image: row, series: sa_r, sa_ri, sa_ir row, series (B.); sa_ri row, line, tier (Or.)(CDIAL 13354). ca_ri side, wing, row, series (Ta.)(DEDR 2460). ca_rai stripe (Ta.); ca_r-a line, streak (Ka.); ca_r-a, ca_r-ika line, streak, stripe (Te.)(DEDR 2481). ha_ri line (G.); ha_r row (N.); line; garland (M.); a_ra necklace (K.)(CDIAL 14059). ca_r-ika line, streak, stripe (Te.); ca_r-a line, streak (Ma.); ca_rai stripe (Ta.)(DEDR 2481). ca_rai <? dha_ra_ long, straight, direct course or line; stripe (Ta.lex.) Images: line; image: half: cf. arak, areke half-filled; are half (Tu.); arake state of being half (Ka.)(DEDR 229). dha_ri_ deep furrow (Bi.); dha_r line (Mth.); curved blade of mattock (Bhoj.); dha_ri_ line (OAw.); dha_r edge, line, boundary; dha_ri_ line, groove (H.); dha_ra sharpness (Konkan.i); daraya edge, sharpness (Si.); dar ridge-pole (Kal.); dha_ri line, row (A.)(CDIAL 6793). dharko stripe, line; dharcho, dharso streak, line, shred of cloth, long narrow piece of land (N.); dhar.a_ field boundary (L.); dhar.i_ line (P.); dhar.i_ line (H.)(CDIAL 6708). Image: row: taram row, series (Kampara_. Kat.iman.a. 42); id. (Ma.); tara id. (Ka.); ta_rai row, range, line, series; stripe, streak; order, arrangement, regularity (Kampara_. Cu_rp. 137); dha_ra_ (Skt.); taram time, turn (Tailava. Pa_yi. 65); taramu id. (Te.); taram company, assembly, party, gang, herd, drove (Marutu_. 89)(Ta.lex.) taram-taram generation after generation (Ta.lex.) taram-vit.t.a-ta_ya_ti agnates beyond the fourteenth remove who do not observe pollution on occasions of birth or death in the house of the propositus (Ta.lex.)

3770.Image: torn: care to cut as with the teeth or scissors (Malt.); car- to be torn (cloth, etc.); carip- (carit-) to tear (Pa.); sarra_na_ to be split as wood, be torn (of clothes, shoes, paper, etc.); sarrahta_na_ to tear; har-, ar- (ah-t-) to be torn (Go.); ri_- (-t-) id.; rip- (-t-) to tear (Pe.); carrna_ to tear, rend, dilacerate with the teeth, plough for the first time in the year (Kur.); cartre to cause to cut with the scissors (Malt.)(DEDR 2416). hejer, hatar to cut off (Santali.lex.)

3771.Image: stem of a leaf: a_rkku stem of a compound leaf, ilai-k-ka_mpu (Ta.);; a_rkkai shred of a palm leaf taken off lengthwise (J.)(Ta.lex.) cf. caruku dried leaf (Ta.)(DEDR 2355). Image: leaf: caruku dried leaf (oliya_lacaiyac caruker..a : Ven:kaikko_. 173); betel leaf (Ta.); taragu dried leaf (Ka.); carukarittal lit., to gather dry leaves; to toil hard without enjoying the resultant advantage; caruka_-tal lit., to become dried as leaves; to be dried, emaciated, as body; carai cover made of dried plantaing leaves, straw or ola (J.)(Ta.lex.) cf. sr. move (Skt.lex.) cara_can-am pipal (Ta.); < kujara_sana pipal (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ca_ri grazing grass (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4762). Image: wing: cf. er-ake, er-an:ke, r-akke, r-ekke wing (Ka.); cir-aku, cir-akar, cir-ai wing (Ta.); cir-aku wing (Ma.)(DEDR 2591). cf. kerngl, kergi_ feather, wing (Ko.); gern(g) feather (Go.)(DEDR 1983). Rustling: sarasara moving hither and thither (Skt.); sarasara_yate_ (Skt.); sarisrara flowing apart (TBr.); prasarsr.te_ extends (RV.); sari_s.arti strides to and fro (Skt.); sarsar briskly, fast (e.g. of walking)(N.); xarxar smoothly and rapidly (A.); sarsara_na_ to glide, creep, tingle, prick (H.); sarsar slipping quickly (G.M.); sasarab to creep (Mth.); (CDIAL 13257). cara-car-en-al onom. expr. of (a) rustling, as of dry leaves, (b) gliding along, moving quickly without impediment; caracara to rustle, as dry leaves; caracarappu rustling (Ta.); s'ara a rustling sound (Ma.); car cur in- to make noise as of a snake's motion; carn, cari.l, curi.l with the noise of a snake's motion, glidingly; cor cor in- (id--), cork cork in- (id--) to make noise in walking over fallen leaves (Ko.); sara sara the sound of rustling (produced by snakes, birds etc., in leaves, bushes etc.) (Ka.); sarasaram a rustling sound (Pali); sarasara_yate rustles (of garlands) (BHSkt.) (DEDR 2356). cf. taras(u) snake (Go.)(DEDR 2359).

3772.Image: side or lower part: saraku the side-part, the lower part; sarakudege to slip or run away (Ka.lex.) cari to slide or slip, as a garment; to roll down as corn from a heap; to fall down as little stones from a wall; to lean, bend, be in a bending posture, incline, slope; ca_y (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Image: slope: jari a sloping hollow between hills, a ravine worn by a stream (Ka.); cari, jari, dari, cariye (Te.); carivu (Ta.); sar-i a steep, a precipice (Ka.lex.)

3773.Frankincense-paste: sar-i-y-u_du frankincense-paste; sar-i paste, gum, glue (Ka.); cari (Te.); sar-igol. to become sticky; sar-igon.d.udu, jigildu id.; sar-imin.d.i a female who has not had her first course (Ka.lex.) cf. u_da, u_du frankincense; silha (Ka.M.H.); u_da-batti a thin stick covered with frankincense (Ka.); u_du-batti (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Resin: sar-i paste, gum, glue (Ka.); cari, sari starch; paste or glue used as paste (Te.); sadali gum, resin (Kui)(DEDR 2418). jer gum; siris glue (Santali.lex.) cf. jir gum (Ko.); jerre_ gum, resin (Kur.)(DEDR 2556). ca_r-u water in which aromatic substances are infused (ca_r-u ce_r-u neyyu malarum : Paripa_. 6,41)(Ta.lex.) cf. ca_r-u water in which aromatic substances are infused (Ta.); sap as of a palm tree (Ma.); sap, juice (Ka.); sa_r-u id. (Ka.); sa_ru sap, soup (Tu.); ca_r-u infusion (Ma.); sa_r a dilute mixture of tamarind etc. (M.)(DEDR 2484). ca_r-u sap, juice, broth (Ka.); ca_r-u, ce_r-u (Ta.Ma.); ca_ru, ce_ru (Te.); ca_r-u to run off or out, to drizzle (M.); ca_risu to grind, to triturate, as sandal; to mix by rubbing or triturating as medicine (Ka.lex.) Perfumier: saraiyo perfumier (G.); surabhi fragrant (RV.); name of various plants (Skt.); surabhi fragrant (Pali); surahi (Pkt.); surahe (S.); surahi (OG.); surai_ aromatic (of spices)(M.); surahi name of various trees (Pkt.); sire name of two varieties of grass or reed imperata arundinacia (used for thatching) and imperata latifolia (N.); surhi_ a kind of grass (H.)(CDIAL 13502). cf. na_n.al bulrush ( = ko_rai); lalong grass, imperata arundinacea (Ta.)(DEDR 2909). Sweet juice from leaves of sa_l tree: cf. cure gum, birdlime (Malt.); curra_ vegetal sugar, sweet juice which drops from mango flowers or from the new leaves of sa_l tree (Kur.)(DEDR 2711). cf. cu_r pungency (Ta.); bad smell (Ma.)(DEDR 2726). cf. za_l pungency, heat of fire (A.); jha_l hot, pungent, pungency (B.); jha_l.i pungent preparation of raw mango pickle with mustard and salt (Or.); jha_l pungency, pungent (Or.); heat, pungency (H.)(CDIAL 5379). cf. ks.a_ra alkali (Skt.); kha_r pungent fumes from burning ghee (N.); cha_r pungent fumes (N.)(CDIAL 3674).

3775.Letter: ciri a letter (P.lex.) cit.ha a note, a written order; hat cit.hae emadina he gave me a written order; hat cit.ha menaka ona iate poesa reak botor banukan there is a written order so there is no fear about the money; cit.hi_ a letter, an epistle (Santali.lex.)

3776.Long-lived: ciraji_vi long-lived; ciraji_va, ciraji_vi a term of address in a letter to any male person younger than the writer; ciraji_vi (Ka.lex.) cira-ci_vi < ciram + ji_vin long-lived person; a term of blessing, prefixed to names of males persons either in speech or writing; cira-ci_viyar persons blessed with immortality, seven in number, viz., accuvatta_man-, maka_pali, viya_can-, an-uma_n-, vipi_s.an.an-, kirupa_ca_riyan-, paracura_man- (W.)(Ta.lex.) ciram long (RV. v.56.7)(Vedic.lex.)

3777.Lasting many days; perpetual; long lasting: cirat.t.hitika perpetual, lasting long, opp. to pariya_pajjati; cira long (of time); cirena after a long time; cira_ya dat. for long; cirataran for a (comparatively) long time, rather long; cir-a_-ciran continually; cira-dikkhita having long since been initiated; cira_yati to be long, to tarry, to delay (Pali.lex.) ciratna, cirantana ancient (Pa_n..); cira_na_ lasting many days (OAw.)(CDIAL 4825). ciraka of old time, of long duraton, requiring a long time; cirokn.a_ of old time, of long duration, requiring a long time (P.lex.)

3778.A young woman: ciran.t.i a woman, married or single, who continues to reside after maturity in her father's house (Ka.Skt.); a young woman; javvane (Ka.lex.) ciran.t.i_, cirin.t.i_ a woman married or single who continues to reside after maturity in her father's house; a young woman in general (cire_n.a at.ati pitr.gr.ha_t bhartr.ge_ham at. ac pr.s.o ... (Skt.lex.)

3779.Image: coconut shell; begging bowl: cirat.t.ai coconut shell (Ta.); cirat.t.a (Ma.); cirat.t.ai begging bowl, the hard shell of the coconut (Ta.); cirat.t.ai-k-kaicci, cirat.t.ai-k-kaiyil half of a coconut shell (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3780.Image: centipede: jar-i a centipede; a scolopendra (Ka.); jer-r-i (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ce_rat.e, co_rat.e, te_ran.t.e, s'e_rat.e, s'e_ran.t.e centipede (Tu.lex.)

3781.Image: scorpion: s'arko_t.a scorpion (AV. vii.56.5)(Vedic.lex.) cf. karko_t.aka name of a na_ga or serpent (Ka.lex.) cf. karkat.a, karkat.aka a crab (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3782.Image: bee: saragh bee (TMB. xxi.4.4)(Vedic.lex.) sa_ran:ga a large bee (Ka.lex.)

3783.Image: a fiddle: sa_ran:gi a kind of fiddle (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.)

3785.Image: saddle: saraj a saddler, one who works silk and tinsel on shoes; saraja the tinsel and silk embroidery with which shoes are ornamented; the business of a saddler; saraji karna_ to embroider; sarajgi, saraji the business of a saddler; sarajn.i_ a saddler's wife (P.lex.)

3786.Marriage offerings: sarajan materials, elements, used mainly with regard to marriages, offerings and sacrifices; bapla sarajan the materials required for the proper celebration of a marriage (Santali.lex.) sarabara_yi furnishing supplies, preparing things (Tu.lex.) cf. bapla marriage (Santali.lex.) Materials for marriage: sajbaj, samagiri, sarajan materials; bon:ga samagiri, bon:ga saranjam materials for sacrifice; san.jok materials for marriage; solo san.jok requirements for marriage; juktau to accumulate; jawa~e to be married to a husband; san:gha, sa~oha~ to marry a second time (Santali.lex.) Drugs; goods; valuables: sa_raka having as most essential; a-sa_raka rotten (said of wood); sa_ra essential (Pali); sa_ra-maju_s.a a box made of choice wood; sa_ra-maya being of hard or solid wood; sa_ragavesin searching for hard wood; sa_ra-gandha the odour of the heart of a tree; sa_ra-gabbha a treasury; sa_ra-da_ru strong, durable wood; sa_ra valuable; sa_ra-su_ci a needle made of hard wood; candana-sa_ra essence of sandalwood; sa_ra the heart or pith of a tree (Pali.lex.) sa_ra-gra_hi extracting the essence or best part of anything; sa_ran:gid.u sap or essence to be lost (Ka.lex.) Image: bundle of firewood: cer-aku in: van.t.acer-aku firewood for cooking (Te.); herk a bundle of firewood (Go.)(DEDR 2794). sarku, saraku (Tadbhava of saraka going, i.e. movable things?) goods, things, commodities, merchandise, cargo; different valuable articles as cloths, minerals etc. (Ka.); saruku (Te.); carakku (Ta.Ma.); saraja_mu materials, apparatus, utensils, tools, furniture, goods and chattels (Ka.M.H.); sara_pha a shroff, a money-changer, a banker (Ka.M.H.); a cash-keeper (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) sarka_ra, saraka_ra the government of a state; the supreme power; the state (Ka.); saraka_ra (M.H.); a comprehensive term applying alike to the judicial court of the king or ruler, the collector's cutcherry, the courts of the ma_maleda_ra etc.; saraka_radavaru government officers; saraka_ri relating to the government, state or court (Ka.M.); saraku esteem, regard, care; saraku-gol. to regard, to care for, to take care of (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Movables: sarakisu, sarikisu, sarukisu to push or move on, aside, away or back (Ka.); saraka_vin.e_m (M.)(Ka.lex.) caram category of movables; cara-ra_ci one of the four signs of the zodiac, viz., me_t.am, kar-kat.akam, tula_m, makaram, auspicious for activities involving movement (Vita_n-. Marapi. 5, Urai.); cara_caram the categories of movable and immovables (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 10,10); cara + a-cara (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) harku implements; thing, instrument, furniture, jewels; ha_rka things (pl. also harkunga); harku_ jewelry, thing (Kuwi); cark spices for curry (Ko.); saraku, sarku goods, things, commodities, merchandise, cargo, different valuable articles as cloths, minerals, etc.; saraku esteem, regard, care (Ka.); saraku articles, goods, commodity; caraku merchandise, articles, goods, cargo (Tu.); saraku an article, commodity, thing, ornament, jewel, trinket; care, heed, regard (Te.); sarku materials (Kond.a); carakku goods, articles of merchandise, gold, solid worth, ability, spices (Ta.); merchandise, cargo, different movables or valuable articles as cloths, jaggery or drugs (Ma.)(DEDR 2353). ?metath. cf. ce_karam acquisition (Ta.); s'e_kharam assemblage, heap (Ma.)(DEDR 2801). Goods; treasury: carakku goods, articles of merchandise (Perun.. Makata. 17,152); gold; solid worth, ability; curry-stuffs, spices etc. (Ta.); saraku id. (Te.Ka.Tu.); carakku id. (Ma.); medicinal substance, especially arsenic, alkalies and acids; arrack liquor, toddy; carakku-k-kat.t.u-tal, carakku-p-pit.i-ttal to pack and forward merchandise; to buy up goods wholesale for trade; to solidify liquids, as mercury for medicinal purposes; carakku-k-kat.ai toddy shop; carakku-p-par-i-ttal to unload cargo (Maturaik. 85, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cara_sti < cara + movable property (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) cf. sarku materials (Kond.a); harku thing, instrument, furniture, jewels (Kuwi)(DEDR 2353). carajindigi, carajindige moveable property (Kon.lex.) carakkar-ai storehouse (Te_va_. 1198,5); treasury (Tiruva_lava_. 39,4); jewel-house (Cilap. 5,7,Urai.) (Ta.lex.) Load to be carried: sa_ro load to be carried, removal of loads (Ku.); sa_rn.o to convey, remove (Ku.); sa_ra course, motion (Skt.); component (Sus'r.); sa_rasa_rin running races (TBr.); sa_r defile, pass (K.); procession of Hindu women (L.)(CDIAL 13354). cf. sor- to send (Nk.)(DEDR 2866). cf. sarri_ road, walk (Go.); sar-i (pl. saRku) way, path (Kond.a)(DEDR 2417). caram moving, going; category of movables (Ta.); cf. cara (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_caram for the sake of, on account of (Ta.); o_suga, o_sugara, o_skara cause, reason, sake (Ka.); ko_saramu, ko_samu for the sake of, on account of (Te.)(DEDR 1034). sarjayati causes to let go, causes to create (Skt.); visarjayati releases (A_s'vGr..); creates (BhP.); sajje_ti sends out (Pali); sadanava_, hadanava_ to make, complete (Si.)(CDIAL 13268). sara going (Pa_n..); course (VS.); sr. move (Skt.)(CDIAL 13247). salana moving, shaking (Pali); salna_ rivulet (H.)(CDIAL 13285). To collect; to transport grain from one place to another: sa_rayati makes move, removes (Skt.); sarayate_ begins to flow (RV.); sa_rayate_ has oneself driven in a carriage (As'vGr..); sa_re_ti causes to move (Pali); sa_re_i, sa_ra_ve_i (Pkt.); seroiki (1 sg. sa_umus) to bring in, fetch (water, grass, crops)(Sh.); sa_run to transport gradually from one place to another (e.g. from threshing floor to house), collect (K.); sa_ran.u to compare (S.); sa_rna_ to fill up, repair, accomplish (P.); sa_rn.o to convey, remove, transplant, copy, separate grain from dirt (Ku.); sa_rnu to move (N.); sa_ra_ to repair, finish, ruin (B.); sa_riba_ to make move, remove, squander, finish, exhaust, complete (Or.); sa_rai applies, cuts, paints (OAw.); sa_rna_ to remove, make an end of, complete, make (H.); sa_rvu~ to fill the place of, serve the purpose of, accomplish (G.); sa_rn.e~ to move aside, despatch, finish (M.); harinava_ to dismiss (Si.); sara, sari, sira_ to loosen, release (Wg.)(CDIAL 13358). saran.yu quickly moving (prob. ep. of wind)(RV.); wind (Skt.); sari_man rush (as of wind)(RV.); sariman wind (Skt.); saran blast of wind (H.); sira~_ wind (Kal.)(CDIAL 13249). sarati runs, flows, glides (RV.); goes, flows (Pali); sarai moves, slips aside (Pkt.); saran.u to move, be completed (S.); sarna_ to be performed (P.); sarn.o to move, attack, descend (Ku.); sarnu to move (N.); sara_ to move, glide (B.); sariba_ to pass by, come to an end, be finished (Or.); sarna_ to move, advance, be performed, live, come to an end (H.); sarai is completed (OMarw.OG.); sarvu~ to move (G.); sarn.e~ to move, slip, yield, advance, succeed (M.); saria_ moves (Konkan.i); serik to glide, slip, slide (Ash.); serik (Wg.); sarkn.a_ to move, get out of the way (P.); sarkan.o to move, disappear (Ku.); sarkanu to go the wrong way (of food)(N.); sarkinu to move a little, withdraw (N.); xarkiba to go through, flee (A.); saraka_iba_ to move to one side (Or.); sarakna_ to retire (H.); sarakvu~ to move, slip, slide (G.); sarakn.e~ (M.); si_run to go round, circulate (S.); s'irn.e~ to enter, go in forcibly or smartly (M.)(CDIAL 13250). siran.u to flow, glide (S.); seran.u to move, put on one side (S.); sirra spoutingly (of blood or water flowing)(N.); s'irn.e~ to enter, go in (usu. forcibly or smartly); caus. s'iravin.e~ to insert (M.); sirko flowing, gliding (S.); sirko a rush or stream (of milk)(N.); s'irakn.e~ to enter; s'irkavin.e~ to thrust, pierce (M.)(CDIAL 13420).

3787.Image: ornaments; equipment: cf. sajjana preparation, equipment (Skt.); equipping (Pali); xa_zani clothes and ornaments (A.); sa_jan dressing, fitting (B.); sa_jani (OMth.); sa_jan preparation (H.); sadum ornament (Si.)(CDIAL 13089). sajjayati equips, prepares (MBh.); sajje_ti equips (Pali); sajje_i (Pkt.); xa_ziba to build, prepare, make (A.); sa_ja_ to make ready, dress (B.); sa_jab to adorn (Mth.); sa_jvu~ to clean (G.); sa_jai prepares, decorates (OAw.); sa_jai adorns (OMarw.); sa_jna_ prepares, decorates (H.); sadanava_, hadanava_ to make, construct (Si.); sajja_pe_ti causes to be prepared (Pali); sajavanae (NiDoc.); saja_van. to adorn (L.); saja_un.a_ to prepare (P.); sajaun.o to make repay, adorn; s'ajo~r.~ arrangement (Ku.); saja_unu to mend (N.); xaza_iba to arrange (A.); sa_ja_na to make ready (B.); saja_iba_ to put in order, decorate (Or.); saja_na_ (H.); sajavin.e~ to equip (H.)(CDIAL 13091). sajjita equipped (MBh.); prepared (Pali); sajjia (Pkt.); sadi equipped, ready, adorned (Si.)(CDIAL 13092). sajjyate_ is equipped, is prepared (HParis'.); sa_jiba_ to be dressed, dress oneself (Or.); sa_jna_ to be prepared (H.); sa_jvu~ to suit (G.)(CDIAL 13093).