3788.Lover, bridegroom's party: sajjana good man (sant + jana)(Mn.Pali); sajjan.a (Pkt.); sajan.u a benevolent person, friend (S.); sajjan., sajan. freind (L.); sajjan. (P.); sa_jni, sajni female friend (Mth.); sa_jana lover (OAw.); sa_jan lover, paramour (H.); sa_jan.a bridegroom's party (OG.); sa_jan., sajan. lover; sa_jn.i_ lover, mistress (M.); sadana_ good person (Si.)(CDIAL 13090). sa_jan gathering of respectable gentlemen attending a wedding, the bridegroom's party; sa_jnu~ a meeting of caste-members to decide a caste question (G.); sa_janem. association, friendship (OM.)(CDIAL 13330). Marriage: ka_za_r, ka_za_ra_ marriage; ka_za_r kar celebrate a marriage; ka_za_ra_tso, ka_za_rapra_yetso marriageable (Kon.); ka_za_ri, ka_za_r za_llo married; ka_za_kar to marry, give away in marriage; ka_za_r za_ get married (Kon.lex.) saja_ta kinsman (RV.); sia_u male member of a family with which one is connected by marriage (S.); sia_lu a relative (S.); siya_ kinsman (Si.)(CDIAL 13086). saja_tya kinship (RV.); saja_ti (Pali); saja_tya, saja_ti_ya of same caste (Mn.); sa_i_ relatives (Ku.)(CDIAL 13087).

3789.Prepare for a journey; celebrate a wedding: sam.ka_rayati causes to arrange, celebrates (a wedding)(MBh.); san:ga_rno~_ to dispose (e.g. of a dead body)(WPah.); sam.ka_ra a religious ceremony (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12821). cf. sa~_ka_, sa_ka_ straw etc. collected and blocking a stream, dregs, a mixture of copper and inferior gold for soldering trinkets (M.)(CDIAL 12829). cf. sam.kr.ti bringing together (TS.)(CDIAL 12830). cf. sam.ska_ra preparation (Gr.S.); san:kha_ra preparation (Pali)(CDIAL 33038). sa~o, son:ge lon:ge, jomok, jomka jumki, sajha together (Santali.lex.) Preparation for a journey: sakharun to prepare for a journey, busy oneself with (K.)(CDIAL 13037). cf. sakhar immediate preparation before starting a journey (K.); san:khati cookery (Pali)(CDIAL 13040). sat.ka sut.ku to make preparations for cooking (Santali.lex.) Present to bards; food carried by labourers: sa_k, sa_ke, sa_ki_ palm of hand hollowed to hold water or grain, etc. (M.); chaka_in.u to cause to eat (S.); chakk present to bards (P.); chakn.a_ to eat (P.); cha_k anything sufficient for one time, a meal (N.); ready prepared food carried by labourers (H.); cha_knu to drink by letting water drop into mouth (N.)(CDIAL 4957).

3790.Resin; sal tree: sarga emission (RV. ii.30.1); flow, stream (RV. vii.87.1); flow of soma (RV. ix.22.1)(Vedic.lex.) sajjarasa (Tadbhava of sarjarasa) the resinous exudation of the tree vatica robusta; bahuru_pa, sarvarasa, ra_la, ra_l.a (Ka.lex.) ca_run. (prob. carun.) sa_l tree (Pa.); harn., arn:gi, haran:g, arn:g ma_r.a id. (Go.); sargi id. (Kond.a); hergi mar id. (Pe.); jargi id. (Kui); hargi id. (Kuwi); sargi (Halbi)(DEDR 2420). sarjom, jaher, sal shorea robusta (Santali.lex.) For semant. 'flow' ~ 'resin' cf. jha_la_ local rain (H.)(CDIAL 5378). jha_lra_ spring of water (H.)(CDIAL 5380). cf. sarja the tree vatica robusta (MBh.); its resin (VarBr.S.)(CDIAL 13267). cf. a_cca_ shorea robusta (Ta.lex.) ?< ka_s'ya or ka_rs.ya sal [?related to its use in making natron, alkali: ks.a_ra](Skt.lex.) [yaks.adhu_pah- sarjaraso_ (a)ra_la sarvarasa_ = resin (Amarako_s'a. VI.III. 29); sa_le_ sarja ka_rs.ya_ (var. ka_s'ya) are synonyms of sa_l or sak'hwa a common timber tree, polyandria monigynia (but not yet named by botanists)(Amarako_s'a. IV.II. 25); sarjika_ks.a_ra ka_po_ta, sukhavarcaka are synonyms of natron, alkali (Amarako_s'a. IX.109)]. cf. ja_rige-hul.i-mara Mysore gamboge tree, garcinia morella (Ka.); ja_rig garcinia pictoria = garcinia morella (Tu.)(DEDR 2467). Dammar resin: ca_l.am dammar resin; cf. sa_la (Skt.); ca_l.am kun:kiliyam (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) sa_la, s'a_la the timber tree vatica robusta; its resin (Ka.lex.) Lac tree; red dye: ja_la_ri a tree yielding a kind of lac, shorea talura = shorea laccifera (Ka.Te.); kempu-ja_la_ri gid.a a tree yielding a red dye: redness, red colour; kramuka tree (Ka.lex.) ja_la_ri vatica laccifera = shorea laccifera (Te.)(DEDR 2473). cf. sa_la (Skt.); sa_l (H.P.B.M.); kun:kiliyam (Ta.); sarjakamu (Te.)(GIMP, p.226). Weaver: cf. ca_likan-, ca_liyan- a caste of weavers (Ta.)(DEDR 2475). cf. ca_liyan- member of a caste of cinnamon peelers (J.)(Ta.lex.) chal bark of tree (Santali.lex.) Ebony: s'almali wood used to make chariot-wheels (RV. x.85.20)(Vedic.lex.) s'a_la the tree vatica robusta or shorea robusta (MBh.); sa_la shorea robusta (Pali.Pkt.); sa_l (P.N.B.H.M.); xa_l (A.); sa_l.a (Or.); sal, hal the tree vateria acuminata (Si.)(CDIAL 12412). ca_lam sal; Ceylon ebony; tree (Ta.lex.) yamakasa_la_ pl. the two sa_l trees between which Buddha died (Pali); imal pair of sa_l trees (Si.)(CDIAL 10423). cf. karumaram shorea robusta, ebony (Ma.)(DEDR 1282). cf. tumpi Ceylon ebony, diospyros tomentosa (Ta.)(DEDR 3329). cf. ke_ndu a kind of ebony, diospyros embryopteris (SKt.)(CDIAL 3464). Vatica robusta: ca_lam Ceylon ebony; ca_li id. (Ce_tupu. Ce_tuvan. 9)(Ta.lex.) banapu a large timber-tree, terminalia tomentosa, var. coriacea (Ka.)(DEDR 3885). sarja the tree vatica robusta (MBh.); its resin (VarBr.S.); terminalia tomentosa (Skt.); sarjaka (Skt.); sarjya its resin (Skt.)[< Drav. *sa_rc/j in Ta. a_cca_ shorea robusta T. Burrow BSOAS xii 137]; sajju-lasa resin (Pali); sajja a partic. tree (Pkt.); sa_j terminalia tomentosa; pa_ni-sa_j terminalia myriocarpa (N.); sa_j teak tree, plane tree (H.)(CDIAL 13267). sagun tectona grandis (Santali.lex.) s'arapattra the tree tectona grandis (Skt.)(CDIAL 12330). sajjiun the teak tree tectona grandis (N.)(CDIAL 13269). s'a_ka the teak tree tectona grandis (Gr.S.); s'a_ka_ terminalia chebula; s'an:ku a partic. tree (Skt.); sa_ka teak tree (Pali); sa_ga (Pkt.); sa_y, sa_ya_, sa_va_, sa~_va_, sa_yla_ (M.); sakhuwa_ (N.); sa_khu_, sa~_khu_, sakhua_ (N.); sa_gu_ (S.)(CDIAL 12369). sa_yva_n teak forest (M.); sa_gu_n teak (P.); sagwa_n, sa_gun (N.); sa_gua_na, sa_gua_n.i (Or.); sa_gu_n, sa_gaun, sa_gon, sa_gwa_n (H.); sa_gva_n (G.); teak forest, teak tree (M.)(CDIAL 12374). sarja the timber tree vatica robusta, s'a_la, a_su; sarja-rasa the resinous exudation of the tree vatica robusta; resin (Skt.Ka.); sajjarasa, sarvarasa id. (Ka.); sarjaka the tree terminalia tomentosa, sarja (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) s'a_la, sa_la the timber tree vatica robusta or shorea robusta, vanaspati; its resin; a tree in general (Ka.); bevaru-sa_le sweat pimple (Ka.); sa_la bark, rind, husk (H.M.)(Ka.lex.) jaher, jaher than the sacred grove of the Santals; there is one attached to each village and they are principally composed of trees of shorea robusta; jaher dareko the trees that compose the sacred grove; Image: a female deity on the sacred tree sa_l shorea robusta: jaher era a female deity who has a place in the jaher or sacred grove (Santali.lex.) sal a gregarious forest tree, shorea robusta; salbon khon modhubon akaran from a forest of sal trees I have made a forest of honey, i.e. I have reclaimed the land from jungle and made it productive (Santali.lex.) s'arku a kind of evil spirit (AV. viii.6.2) (Vedic.lex.) sarjom shorea robusta common in the Santal country; this is the sacred tree of the Santals; their principal deities are supposed to reside in sacred groves of this tree; bon:ga sarjom a common scandent shrub, ventilago calyculata, tulasne; the bark yields a strong fibre, and the seeds give an oil used for cooking purposes (Santali.lex.) Gurjun balsam is yielded by several trees of the genus dipterocarpus (dipterocarpaceoe family which include vateria indica and shorea robusta) native to India, Siam and other countries of Southern Asia... it is a thick and viscid liquid with an odor resembling it but weaker than copaiba balsam [copahu (Fr.); copaiva balsam (Ger.) found in the tropical regions of South America], and a bitter aromatic taste... oil of turpentine, paraffin oils, castor oil, olive oil are adulterants... Balsam of Illurine or African copaiba is obtained from probably hardwickia mannii, fam. leguminosoe growing in the Niger region; it is dark yellow with a peppery odour ... an adulterant of copaiba balsam. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, p. 435). ja_la_ri shorea or vatica talura or laccifera (Ka.)(DEDR 2473). Synonyms: a_cca_ sa_l shorea robusta (Ci_vaka. 2613, Urai.)(Ta.); a_su, a_ca, a_rse the sal tree, shorea robusta (Ka.) (DEDR 343). e_pi a heavy wood like mahagony, shorea robusta (Ka.lex.); e_pe id., the sal tree (Te.)(DEDR 896). cf. karumaram shorea robusta (Ta.); kar-maru vatica laccifera (Tu.)(DEDR 1282). makka_ the sal tree, shorea robusta (Kur.); make id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4621). matti, maddi, mar..ti shorea robusta [also terminalia tomentosa](Ka.); merdengi the sa_j tree (Pa.); mardi sa_j tree (Kui); maddi sa_j tree (Kond.a); mard sa_j tree (Go.)(DEDR 4718). ya_ a tree (ya_n-ai yot.ittun.t.eciya ya_ : Tol. Er..ut. 229), hardwickia binata (Ta.); e_pe id. (Te.)(DEDR 5150). Hardwickia pinnata: kodapalla (Ma.); enne (Ka.); anjana (M.); kodapalai (Ta.); balsam: used for gonorrhea; yields balsam similar to copaiba balsam; habitat: evergreen forests of the W. ghats from S. Kanara to Travancore (GIMP, p.130). cf. sarja, sarja-gud.a, sarja-da_ru, sarja-rasa, vana-sarja, s'ri_-sarja, cha_ga, ra_la vateria indica (Ganga_dhara's Gandhasa_ra). Shorea robusta: Gudea of Lagash, a Mesopotamian ruler seems to have imported from Magan (perhaps Makran, southern Iran and the Gulf): timber, haluppu wood (ha-lu-ub = tatitu, haluppu, eastern species of oak), musukannu (mis-ma kan. na) or mesu wood, makkanu (gisgis'immar), 'magan reed' (bamboo), magan onion (? or garlic or asafoetida which grows in the Kerman region) (sum.sar.ma.ganki), diorite (na.esi = us'u_; an alternative interpretation is that gis'.es'u may be a wood resembling diorite, and therefore hard and black, perhapys ebony), red ochre, carnelian, semi-precious stones, often beads... haluppu wood was not a wood used for ship-building, but for furniture, chariots, buildings. Mesu wood was used for vehicles and furniture... this is called yaka_ by Darius ('came from Gandara and Karmana) and giss'e-i; dalbergia sissoo (used for ceiling rafters at Mohenjo-daro, boats and agricultural implements) is called yax or jag in Kerman (cf. yaka_ old Persian) (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, pp. 39-41; pp.104-105; Gershevitch, I., 'Sisso at Susa', Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 19: 317-20, 1957). Vatica robusta: Shorea robusta: sala (Skt.); sal (H.P.B.M.); kungiliyam (Ta.); sarjakamu (Te.); mulappumarutu (Ma.); resin: astringent, detergent, used in dysentery and for fumigations and plasters; resin contains essential oil 62%; habitat: Kangra district of the Punjab, from the Kalesar forest in the Ambala district along the sub-Himalayan tract to the Darrang district of Assam upto 5000 ft.; Garo Hills, Kamrup, Khasia Hills, Jaintia Hills, from the Santal Parganas through Chota Nagpur and Orissa to Ganjam, Jeypore, Madhya Pradesh and Vizagapatam (GIMP, p.226). sarji natron (Skt.); sajji_ the sal-sola plant from which alkali is made (L.); sa_ji a kind of medicinal plant (Ku.)(CDIAL 13270). sajji_, sajja_ an impure carbonate of soda, manufactured various plants anabs multiflora; caroxylon foetidum, griffithii, salsola kali. The plants are burned in special pits. The purest sajji_ appears as a liquid which runs away into earthen vessels. From the ashes, coarser kinds of sajji are prepared. The centres of manufacture are Sirsa, Gugaira and Jhang... The best variety is termed lot.t.a_ sajji_ (Gugaira), chuwa_ sajji_ (Sirsa), the second kan:gan kha_r sajji_ (Gugaira) bu_tha_ sajji_ (devil's sajji_ : Sirsa)(Punjabi.lex.) sarja shorea robusta, s'a_la (cf. Amara, II.4.44)(Skt.) The exudation of sarja formed an ingredient of vajralepa and vajrakalka and of certain perfumes.(B.Sam..) sa_la, s'a_la the timber tree vatica robusta or shorea robusta and its resin (Ka.Skt.lex.) cf. ja_la_ri shorea talura, shorea laccifera (Ka.); vatica laccifera (Te.)(DEDR 2473). s'a_la the tree vatica robusta or shorea robusta (MBh.); sa_la shorea robusta (Pali.Pkt.); sa_l (P.N.); xa_l (A.); sa_l (B.); sa_l.a (Or.); sa_l (H.M.); sal, hal the tree vateria acuminata (Si.)(CDIAL 12412). yamakasa_la_ pl. the two sa_l trees between which Buddha died (Pali); imal pair of sa_l trees (Si.)(CDIAL 10423). cf. Semant. hal (Si.)(CDIAL 12412) and haluppu wood imported into Mesopotamia by Gudea of Lagash. sa_l the tree shorea robusta, vatica robusta (dipterocarpaceae) found in the west of the Jammu river, in the Siwalik region below Kangra. The timber is hard, heavy and durable, and is one of the best possible for all purposes where great strength is required and weight is no objection. The resin (ra_l zard) which exudes from the tree is used medicinally and in the arts; a kind of sugar press used in the Simla hills (Punjabi.lex.) Shorea robusta: s'a_la, as'vakarn.a; the resin of shorea robusta, called ra_la in Sanskrit and dhuna_ or ra_l in the vernacular, is regarded as astringent and detergent and is used in dysentery, and for fumigations, plasters etc. The resin thrown over the fire gives out thick volumes of fragrant smoke, and is much used for fumigating rooms occupied by the sick. It is also common practice with natives to burn some ra_l in their rooms every evening, about the time that chirags or lamps are lighted, as also during the worship of idols. In the dysentery of children, ra_l is recommended to be given in doses of about twenty grains, with an equal quantity of sugar or treacle. ra_l enters into the composition of some plasters and ointments. The following is an illustration. Take of ra_l, rock salt, treacle, wax, honey, bdellium, red ochre and clarified butter, in equal parts, boil them together and prepare an ointment (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.121). cf. ka_d.ige collyrium (Ka.lex.) cf. ka_jal collyrium (Or.)(CDIAL 2622).

3791.Image: six: sa_ru_ng, harung, a_ru_, ha_ru_m., ha_ru_ng six (Go.); a_r six (Kol.); a_r-u six (Ka.Ma.Ta.); sa_ji six (Tu.); a_jane sixth (Tu.); s_arvur, sa_vir, ha_rvur, ha_rur-, a_rvur six (Go.); sajgi six (Kui); sa_ja pattu six times twelve dozen = 864 (Kui); saj six; sajgi six things; ha_ja six (Kui); a~_ji six (Tu.); ajipa, ajippa, a_jipa, a_jpa sixty (Tu.); sa_rk six each (Nk.); sa_rung six (Go.); a_r-u (Ta.Ma.Ka.Te.); a.r (Ko.); o.r. (To.); ar-uvar six persons (Ma.); ar-umai six (Ta.); aru-vadi sixty (Kod..)(DEDR 2485). [cf. the short vowel in compounds.] a_kha_ whole, undivided (M.); a_kho complete (Konkan.i); a_khu~ whole, uncastrated (G.)(CDIAL 28). Image: circle with six spokes: s.at.ka consisting of six (Rigveda Pra_tis'a_khya); collection of six (A's'vGr..); chakka set of six (Pali); consisting of six (Pkt.); sixth (Ku.); chako the figure six (S.); chakka_ id. (P.); aggregate of six, the six (at cards or dice)(H.); sak aggregate of six (M.); sakd.a_ id. (M.); sakko the six at cards (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12780). s.at.t.anka weight of six t.anka (Skt.); chat.a_k 1/16 of a ser (about 2 ounces)(B.H.N.P.) (CDIAL 12785). [= s.as. + t.anka]. chakar.a_ throw in dice when all three pieces show two (N.); chakr.a_ six cowries (B.); chaka_ card with six pips (Or.); chakar.i_ calf with six teeth (Mth.); chakko a throw of six (G.); chakiyo cart with six oxen (G.)(CDIAL 12780). s.as. six (RV.); s.as.a (As'.ka_l.); s.o (whence s.odhama sixth)(NiDoc.); s'as (Gy.); s.a (D..); s'e, s'eh (K.); s'a_h, s'a_ (WPah.); s'ov (Gy.); s.u (Ash.); s.o_ (Dm.); cha, chal. in cmpds. (Pali); cha (Pkt.); c.ha_ (Pas'.); c.hoi (Kho.); cha, chi_h (chaho_ sixth)(S.); che~, chi_ (L.); che, chi_ (P.); chai (WPah.); chai (Ku.); chai (chait.au~ sixth)(N.); say (A.); chay (B.); cha (Or.); chao (Mth.); chahum. (OAw.); cha (H.Marw.G.); saha_, sa_ (M.); sa (Konkan.i.Si.); ha, saya, haya (Si.)(CDIAL 12803). chakhan.d.a bier (consisting of 2 poles and 4 crosspieces)(Or.) (CDIAL 12782).

3792.Collected: ce_r (-v-, -nt-) to become mixed, blended, be collected, aggregated, join; (-pp-, -tt-) to join, attach, admix, admit to one's society, insert, gather, assemble; ce_rkkai collecting, gathering, combining, mixing, fellowship (Ta.); ce_rppu place, residence, abode, seashore, mixture; ce_rpu residence, house; village, union, junction, connexion, collection; ce_rvai collection, assemblage (Ta.); ce_rikka to have collected; ce_rkka to make to arrive or join, collect as men, money; ce_rppu joining, assemblage; ce_rppikka to have assembled or collected (Ma.); ce.r- (ce.d-), ce.d- (ce.dy-) to arrive, join, gather; ce.rek a.l., fem. ce.reka.c people between whom verbal taboos do not operate (including people of opposite sex who may marry)(Ko.); so.rc to collect (To.); se_r (se_rd-) to enter, be connected with, join, assemble, be collected; se_ruve, se_rve collection, assemblage, mass, herd of cattle (Ka.); se.r- (se.ri-) to join; ke.r- (ke.ri-) to go up to house; ke.t (ke.ti-) to take (person) into house (Kod..); s'e_runi to be added or joined to, enter as a member of sect etc. (Tu.); ce_ru be connected or related to, assemble, come to hand, belong; ce_rika union, junction, nearness; cendu to get, obtain; centa neighbourhood (Te.); ser- to go (Kol.); s'er id. (Nk.); se_r to arrange, reach (Ga.); se_ra_na_ to occupy a house (Go.); se_rpu neighbourhood (Kond.a); he_rinai to reach; herpinai to deliver (Kuwi); ker- (past stem of ka_na_ to go)(Kur.); ke_b nearness, vicinity; near; ke_b kanning to approach (Br.)(DEDR 2814).

3793.Mensuration: ce_rvai twenty bundles of betel (Ta.lex.) jhu_r.i_ bundle of jute or tobacco leaves (L.)(CDIAL 5258).

3794.Panicum crusgalli: ir.i panicum crusgalli; jan:ga ir.i id. (Santali.lex.) cf. ir-un:ku great millet, sorghum vulgare (Ta.)(DEDR 525). cf. jera janhe panicum flavidum (Santali.lex.)

3795.Rattan: cu_ral common rattan, calamus rotang (Ta.); cu_ral rattan (Ma.); tu.ra cane (Kod..); su_rolu, tu_rolu a kind of rattan, calamus rotang (Tu.)(DEDR 2727).

3796.Musatard: cf. aiyavi mustard (Ta.)(DEDR 921). sars.apa brassica campestris (Car. Su. 4.14,25,271). sars.apa mustard seed (S.ad.vBr.); sa_sapa mustard seed (Pali); sarisava, sa_sava (Pkt.); sarheo~, sarhiu~_, sarho~ the oil seed brassica campestris (L.); saria_ rape seed (L.); sarheo~, sarho~ rape seed (P.); sarhya mustard or sinapis glauca (S.); s'erio mustard; s'i_ras', s'ero_ sinapis dichotoma (WPah.); xariyah the oil seed brassica nigra (A.); sarsyu~_ mustard (Ku.); sarsiu~ (N.); sarisa_, sarsa_ mustard (B.); sorisa (Or.); sariso~, sariso, sarso~ brassica campestris (Bi.); sariso (Mth.); sarso mustard (Bhoj.); sarso~, sarso sinapis dichotoma (H.); sarsav rape seed; sarsiyu~ rape seed oil (G.); s'iri_s, s'iras sinapis dichotoma (M.); s'irs'i_ esculent vegetable like mustard (M.)(CDIAL 13281). sars.apataila mustard-seed oil (Sus'r.); s'irs'el, s'irsel oil made from seed of sinapis dichotoma (M.)(CDIAL 13282). Mustard seed is the seed of sinapis alba(white mustard), brassica nigra (black mustard), brassica juncea... black mustard is employed externally in the form of the ground drug moistened with water as a rubefacient and counter-irritant. It is used internally as a condiment and emetic. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 391-396). a_suri_ sinapis ramosa [Sinapis alba (Ancient Egyptian: Demotic hltm; Coptic ciname or wragtam; Modern Egyptian Arabic hardal) 'Mustard is a branched annual growing to 1 m. the flowers are yellow, and the seeds, set in pods, are yellowish... In medicine it is used as a stimulant. A variety of mustard was included in the Assyrian Herbal as haldappa_nu... Dioscorides says that the Egyptians called it euthmoi.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.148)]. tro~_yak clover (Kal.); torya_ mustard plant (P.); tor.i_ mustard plant; tori_ a kind of mustard (Ku.); tori mustard oil plant (N.); tor.i, t.or.i a partic. leguminous plant (B.); tori an oil seed plant, mustard (Bi.); tor.i_ mustard plant and seed, rape seed (H.)(CDIAL 6080). toriyat.h dry stalks of mustard (Bi.); toriya_t.hi_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 6081).

3797.Swertia chirayta: chirayta (H.); chirata (B.); nelabevu (Ka.); chirogita (M.); kirata-tikta (Skt.); nila vembu (Ta.Te.); habitat: temperate Himalayas between 1,200 and 3,000 m. from Kashmir to Assam; the whole plant: bitter, stomachic, febrifuge and anthelmintic; in fever, diarrhoea. (S.K.Jain, Medicinal Plants, National Book Trust, 1968, pp. 139-140).

3798.Image: temple enclosure: cur-r-r-a_lai (cur-r-u + a_lai hall) temple enclosure; tiru-c-cur-r-a_lai id. (Ta.lex.)

3799.Receptacle: cur..alai receptacle (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,3,1)(Ta.lex.)

3800.Image: pit for the cogwheel: cur..al to whirl, spin, rotate, roll, turn on an axis, as wheel (Perun.. Vattava. 12,205); cur..aluka id. (Ma.); sud.iyu id. (Te.); cur..i-c-cakkaram an ancient gold coin in Madura (Ta.); cur..i-p-pan.am an ancient coin = 2 annas (Ta.lex.) Images: to whirl, spin, rotate; pivot of a door: cur..aluka to surround, be giddy (Ma.); cur..ali whirling (Ma.); cur..alca rotation, giddiness; cur..ar-r-uka to whirl round, brandish, swing, fling; feel giddy; curl hinge or pivot of a door; cur..iyuka to curl, whirl, crouch as before a conqueror, revolve in mind; cur..ivu whirlpool (Ma.); cur..ikka to whirl; cur..ippu whirl, wriggling, untruth; cu_r..uka to encompass, surround; cu_r..a, cu_r..ave_ round about; cu_r..i surrounder, ocean (Ma.); Images: twisting machine; to roam; to turn round: cur..ar-r-i a fan, a twisting machine, a fishing net (Ma.); cur..ar-r-u a swinging, turn, time; cur..ar-r-ikka to cause to swing (Ma.); cur..i circle, whirl, whirlpool (Ma.); n. whirling; whirl, vortex (Ci_vaka. 1096); eddy, curl, curved marks on head or body indicating one's luck (Ta.); cur..i (-v-, -nt-) to become curved, curled, involved, form eddies as on the surface of water, screw up one's face in disgust, be cunning, guileful, be distracted, agitated; (-pp-, -tt-) to whirl as a whirlwind (Tiruva_ca. 4,55); to form whirlpools or eddies (Kampara_. Kukap. 63); to form curls; to cause to roam (Kampara_. Nakarni_n:ku. 49); screw up one's face in disgust (Ta.); to curl, incurve, curve (Kampara_. Cittira. 21); cur..al (cur..alv-, cur..an-r--) to revolve in an orbit (Tiv. Periyati. 9,4,5); to roam, wander (Kampara_. Kan:kaip. 3)(Ta.); to be tossed about, driven to and fro; to be agitated, troubled, distressed in mind (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,48); to droop, faint, languish, be dizzy, swim as the eyes (Tiv. Periyati. 7,4,1); n. whirling, revolving (Ce_tupu. Ve_ta_l.a. 72); curl (Kampara_. Mitilai. 43); eddy, whirlpool; Image: whirligig: machine on an axle turned by the wind; whirligig, kite (Ta.); revolving, vortex (Ma.); cur..an:kur-u-tal to whirl, be tossed about (Ka_cippu. Pan-n-iru. 276); cur..alvan- living creatures, as being in restless activity, dist. fr. nir-pan-a (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,3,10)(Ta.lex.); cur..ar-ci whirling, spinning, rotating, wandering to and fro, trouble, agitation; cur..ar-r-al giddiness; cur..ar-r-i handle as of a spinning-wheel, fan; Image: to brandish (in fencing): cur..ar-r-u (cur..ar-r-i-) to whirl, spin, swing round, turn, roll (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,8,8); to brandish, flourish; [cf. cur..ar-r-u-tat.i a kind of fencing staff (Ta.lex.)]; wave, cause dizziness, make giddy; n. whirling, wheeling, spinning (Ta.); cur..ippu agitation; cur..iyal curling as of hair; cur..iyan- deceitful person; cur..ivu circumvention, anxiety; cu_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to encompass, surround, envelop, go round, hover about, flow round; (-pp-, -tt-) to wind, wrap round, surround, hover about; n. surrounding; cu_r..ttu (cu_r..tti-) to cause to surround, involve; cu_r..vu surrounding, encompassing; cu_r..vo_r bystanders, spectators, neighbours; cu_r..al surrounding, neighbourhood (Ta.); cul.y whirlpool in river; cuyg hair-whorl on person's head, whorls of hair on animal's back indicating by position excellence or badness (Ko.); tl.y deep pool; tud.y- (tud.s-) to move in a circle, lounge, loaf about; (tud.c-) to turn in a circle; t.s- churning stick;(at ti. dairy; lit. to lift or erect the churnstick); t.l me.n. post by which the churstick is held erect with ring-fastenings (To.)[for me.n. tree, post, cf. maram (in cmpds. marattu-) tree, wood, timber (Ta.); me.n. (obl. me.n.t-) tree (To.)(DEDR 4711a)]; t.l got.y ring-fastening which attaches churnstick to post (To.); tor..al (tor..ald-) to move round, go or turn round, revolve, roam or wander about, get perplexed or bewildered, roam over, cross in wandering about, roll; tor..akal act of turning, wandering, etc.; tor..ali moving around; tor..alike wandering about etc.; tor..alicu to cause to roam about, send about; tor..alisu id., surround; tor..aluvike roaming or wandering about; tor..asu to nauseate; tur..i to turn round; sur..i to be turned round, go round, revolve, curl, wander, roam, walk, go, be unsteady, flicker, waver, fluctuate; n. turning round, waving, whirling, curling, moving about, motion, whirl, whirlpool, eddy, the tender still-folded leaf of a plantain, coco- or areca-nut, a vagrant, an idle or lazy man, deception, deceit, fraud; sur..ivu turning or moving about, motion, going, waving, a flickering shine, glimpse; sur..isu to cause to move or go, turn round; sur..uvu, sur..uhu turning round, etc. (Ka.); sulipini, sulipuni to whirl, go round; tulipuni, tuliyuni to churn, make butter; Image: to turn in a lathe: tul.ipuni, sul.ipuni to shake, agitate, turn in a lathe; sul.i an eddy, whirlpool, ominous curve on a person, hinge; sul.iyuni to shake, be agitated as water (Tu.); sud.i a whirl, circlet, whirlpool, whirlwind, curl or twist in the hair, esp. in the hair of horses, mark; sud.iyu to turn round, blow in a wind; sud.ivad.u to turn round, be puzzled, confused, entangled (Te.); d.ur.i rolling, writhing (Kui); d.od.ga (d.od.gi-) to roll on the ground, grovel, sprawl, wallow; n. act of sprawling, etc. (Kui); coe~_da'a_na_ to turn and twist (Kur.); ur..al (ur..alv-, ur..an-r--) to oscillate, swing, be in motion, whirl, revolve, wander, roam about; ur..alai cylindrical beam of wood in an oil or sugar-cane press, by the revolution of which the oil or juice is expressed (Ta.); ur..ar-ci whirling, revolving, roaming, wandering; ur..ar-r-u (ur..ar-r-i-) to drive to and fro, cause to wander, twist, whirl about, pass (time) tediously, writhe about (in pain); n. whirling, revolving; ur..ar-u (ur..ar-i-) to move about, be disturbed, disturb, disperse; ur..i (-v-, -nt-) to wander about (Ta.); ur..aluka to rove, ramble, be fatigued, perplexed; ur..alca vagabond; ur..alikka to vex; ur..ar-uka to be in hurry; ur..ar-r-u haste, agitation; ur..ar-r-uka to urge on; ur..ial a swing, swinging bed (Ma.); ur..al to whirl around, to be unsteady, swing, be loosed and fly away (Ka.); d.ollu to roll; d.ol(u)cu, dolupu id. (Te.); ud. to turn round, revolve, roam; caus. ur.sp-; ud.d. to turn round, wander (Go.)(DEDR 2698). Whirlwind: cur..al-ka_l whirlwind (Nan-n-er-i. 9); sud.iga_li id. (Te.); cur..al-ka_r-r-u id. (Pirapo_ta. 30,75); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cu_r-a_val.i, cu_r-a_va_ri, cu_r-al whirlwind (Nan-n-er-i. 11)(Ta.lex.); surakaruvali, suraga_li id. (Te.); curaga_li id. (Kol.); suragha_l.i id. (Nk.);[cf. cur-r-u to revolve (Ta.)(DEDR 2715); cf. ga_l.(i) wind (Ka.)(DEDR 1499)]; hura ma_t.ya id. (ma_t.ya id.); ur.a-var.i, urga_l id.; su_rga_li id. (Go.); sura-ga_li id. (Kond.a); huza-van.i id. (Pe.); su_jambat.uli id. (Kui); rua-ga_li, ruwa ga_li id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2743). cu_r-ai whirlwind (Tiruva_ca. 3,10)(Ta.lex.)

3801.Image: a hair-knot: cur-ai a kind of dressing the hair in a knot (Ci_vaka. 632)(Ta.lex.)

3802.Image: surrounding wall: sutta_le the surrounding wall of a temple, i.e. a_laya; suttu to surround, to encompass, to inwrap; suttu that surrounds, encloses or is round about; an enclosure; suttago_n.t.e a wall round a town (Ka.lex.) sutta circumference, periphery, bounding space (Tu.); cur-r-u id. (S.I.I. ii,194)(Ta.); cur-r-u surrounding arcade of a temple (Civaraka. Me_ru. 10); fortification, compound wall (Pin..); cur-r-u-matil surrounding wall, as of temple (Cilap. 10,31, Arum.)(Ta.lex.) Image: coil: cur-r-uppe_r..ai coils of the lower part of snake's body as basket-shaped (S.I.I. ii,219); cur-r-um all around (Kampara_. Varun.an-ai. 55)(Ta.); cur-r-uman. outer coating of the clay-mound for receiving molten metal, as in casting brass (Ta.lex.) suttisu to cause to go round; to cause to wind or roll round or up; suttu to go or turn round; to go or walk about; to circumambulate (Ka.); cut.t.u (Te.); cur-r-u (Ta.Ma.); cur-ai (Ma.); suttal, suttalu around, round about (Ka.); cur-r-al (Ta.); cuttu that of being round about (Ka.); a coil, a roll, a cheeroot or cigar (Ka.); curut.t.u (Ta.); suttu a round, a walk round; a turn (of the hand, e.g. in preparing pill on a slab)(Ka.); around, round about (Ka.); suttuvike turning round, being giddy etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cur-r-ilai wrapper or cover-leaf of cigar (W.); cur-r-u-tal to revolve, circulate, turn around, spin, whirl; to go round, to circle (Na_lat.i, 337)(Ta.lex.)

3803.Image: felloe of wheel: cu_t.t.u felloe of wheel (Perumpa_n.. 46)(Ta.lex.) Image: circumference: cur-r-u what is circular, circumference, a ring (Ma.); circumference, circuit, coil (Ta.); cut.t.u a round, circuit, a going round, ring; circuitous, roundabout; adv. all around, on all sides (Te.); cur-a a circle, coil, once round (Ma.); tud-py circle, round place (To.); suttu circumambulate; n. circumference, compass, coil, cheroot, coiled metal ring, a turn (Ka.); sutta circumference, circuit, round, about (Tu.); sunduni to wind, roll, spool (Tu.); sutta mutta all around (Ka.); suttamutta round about (Tu.) cur-r-u-mur-r-um all around, on all sides (T.); tut- mutm all around (To.)(DEDR 2715). To wear round; to wrap on (waistcloth): cur-r-u to wear round (Ta.); cut- (cuty-) to wrap around, coil (rope), twirl (sling), wrap on (waistcloth)(Ko.); tut-- (tut-y-) to whirl, wear (waistcloth)(To.); suttuni to wrap, surround (Tu.); suttu, huttu to wear clothes by tying them round the waist (Tu.); tuttuni to wear, dress, clothe (Tu.); tuttu dressing (Tu.); cut.t.u to wrap (as thread, cloth, turban)(Te.); sut.- (sut.t.-) to wind (turban)(Kol.); cutt to wind round (Pa.); hutt-, utt- to put on, wear; caus. huttih- (Go.); sos- (-t-) to put on (ring,shoes)(Kond.); hucc- to put on cloth (Kui); tusa (tusi-) to gird (Kui); su_tali to roll up (cloth <Te.)(Kuwi); hu_cali to put on clothes (Kuwi); hucinai to dress (Kuwi); hoc-, oc- (-it-) to put on, wear (loincloth)(Kuwi)(DEDR 2715). cf. utuku, uduku to wash (as clothes)(Te.) (DEDR 2667).

3804.Image: to revolve: culavu-tal to revolve, hover about (Nait.ata. An-n-ata. 45); to whirl; to coil round as a cord; to surround (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,4,2); cula_vu-tal id. (Te_va_. 418,1)(Ta.lex.)

3805.Cord: s'ulba, s'ulva string, cord (S'rS.); suvva cord (Pkt.); sub (L.); sub- band on a sheaf of corn (L.); subb, chubb id., twist of tobacco, swab to clean utensils (P.); subba_, chubba_ band of twisted straw, bandage (P.); subbar. id. (P.); su~b, su~bh fibrous integuments of coconut (M.)(CDIAL 12544). curut.t.u a sheaf, a roll (Ma.); curul.al roll (Ta.); surul.i a coil, roll (Ka.); a coil, roll of anything (Tu.)(DEDR 2684).

3806.Luxuriance: survu exuberance, luxuriance; a mass; survu-gid.u luxuriance to be lost; to lose (one's) luxuriance (Ka.lex.)

3807.Plunder: cu_r-ai robbery, dacoity, pillage (Ta.); su.r-y loot (To.); su_r-e plundering, pillaging, ransacking, plunder, spoil (Ka.); su_re plundering, ransacking, pillaging (Tu.); cu_r-a plunder, loot (Te.); juria dacoit (Kuwi)(DEDR 2744). cu_r-ai-k-ka_ran- robber, plunderer (Tiruppu. 170); cu_r-ai-kol. to rob, plunder (Pat.t.in-at. Tiruppa_. Necot.u. 32); cu_rakonu id. (Te.); su_r-ekol. id. (Ka.); cu_r-ai-ko_t.-par-ai robber's drum (Tol. Po. 18, Urai.); cu_r-ai-y-a_t.u to plunder, pillage (Kampara_. Nakarni_. 209); cu_ra_d.u id. (Te.); su_r-eya_d.u id. (Ka.); Image: robber's horn: cu_r-ai-c-cin-n-am robber's horn (Cilap. 12,40)(Ta.lex.)

3809.Peace! Safety! Compliments: sala_m, sala_mu safety, peace (the word used in salutation by and to most people, accompanied with the raising of the hand to the forehead; it well answers also to compliments, respects and thanks)(Ka.); sala_ma (M.H.); sala_mu-, sala_m- ma_d.u to make sala_mu, to compliment by lifting the hand to the forehead (and uttering the term), to greet (Ka.lex.)

3810.Image: boatman's pole: callam boatman's pole (Ma.); jallu id. (Ka.); jalla id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2380). jalle, jar..ave a bamboo pole; a sugar-cane (Ka.); jalle cane of sugar (Kod..)(DEDR 2383). cel. long, round stick, stick of fairly large size (Ko.); sel.e twig, small branch, stick, rod, also one for training or punishing children; to cane with a stick; cal.l.u, cel.u, cel.l.u, sel.l.u a long flexible twig or rod (Ka.); jal.e long thin pliable stick; (jal.ev-, jal.and-) to sway like a long pliable stick; jal.a- (jal.ap-, jal.at-) to make sway (Kod..); cil, s'il a fishing-rod (Tu.); sela twig (Te.)(DEDR 2790). Image: pitchfork, fishing rod; spiked stick: [The image is related to pearl fishery: a forked lance, to hook a mother-of-pearl shell]: salage (Tadbhava of s'ala_ke) a javelin, a dart (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) s'alyas'an:ku spiked stick (Skt.); salhan:g, salhan:ga_, salan:gh, salan:gha_ small pitchfork (P.)(CDIAL 12355). s'ala_ka_ small stake (S'Br.)(CDIAL 12355). cf. sa~_gi_ pitchfork (P.)(CDIAL 12260). [The etyma with consonants csp semantics: oyster shell] and the associated images of the spiked stick and lance cil- clash resulting in the description of the business of pearl fishery]: s'ila_pam pearl fishery (Ma.); sala_pam id. (Ma.); sala_pamu id. (Te.); cala_pam, cila_pam id. (Ta.)(DEDR 2369). cala_pam pearl fishery (S.I.I. iii,145); cala_patturai id. (Ta.lex.) Image: bow: cila bow (Ma.); cilai id. (Ta.)(DEDR 2571). Image: arrow: gi'erri arrow shaft (Kuwi); keeri arrow (Kui)(DEDR 1932). Images: fork; dart: cil.l.u a fork (Te.); cil.l.a bifurcated (Te.); cella, jella branch, bough (Pa.); cil.l.e a fork (Ka.); cil branch of a tree (Ko.); cilla small branch of a tree (Ma.)(DEDR 2587). s'ili_ dart, arrow (Skt.); s'e_lla (<? s'ailya), se_la, se_lla a kind of weapon (Skt.); s'ili_pr.s.t.ha epithet of a sword (MBh.) > sil (Persian.Psht.); sil spear, arrow (Ash.); siu spear (Kal.); s.il id. (Wg.Gaw.); sel arrowhead (K.); sella, silla spear, arrow (Pkt.); se_l spear (Wg.); sel (Kal.); selhu large thorn (S.); sel long spear (P.); sela_ spear (P.); xel dart, stake (A.); sel dart, javelin, spit (B.): sella, helle_ (pl. hella) spear, dart (Si.)(CDIAL 12466). cili_mukam arrow, ampu (cilai-y-itu cili_muka-n-kal.ivai (Parata. Tirau. 31); bee; nipple of woman's breast; battle, fight (Ta.lex.) cili_muka-k-kai hand-pose in which the tip of the thumb touches the first line of the forefinger and the tips of the other fingers touch the palm (Ta.lex.) sili_muha arrow (Pkt.); silimuva_ bee (Si. < prob.Skt.); s'ili_mukha arrow (MBh.)(CDIAL 12469). For semant. 'bee' cf. cil.-van.t.u cricket (Ta.)(DEDR 2588). Image: arrow; lance, javelin, sharp stick to dart a fish: cilukku iron staple, tooth of a saw, barb (Ta.); spike, iron barb, javelin (Ma.); cille_li a sharp stick to dart (sic) a fish with (Tu.); cillako_la lance, javelin (Te.); ciluku, sela arrow (Te.); selago_la goad (Te.); selapandi porcupine (Te.)(DEDR 2568). [cf. s'alyaka porcupine (VS.); sallaka porcupine (Pali); salla_ armadillo (L.); sellaga porcupine (Pkt.); -sayake prob. porcupine (As'.); ka~_t.a_-sariyo hedgehog (G.)(cf. kan.t.aka thorny and ka~_ porcupine (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12353; poss. non-Aryan origin). ey, ey-p-pan-r-i porcupine (Ta.); s'e_d id. (Kol.Nk.); ce_dir (Pa.); e_du, e_du-pandi (Te.)(DEDR 2776). cf. s'va_vidh porcupine (AV.); se_dha, se_ha (Pkt.); seh, si_, si~_h (H.)(CDIAL 12766).] jhi~k the Indian porcupine (Santali.lex.) Image: arrow: s'aru missile (RV.); arrow (AV.); s'ur arrow (Kt.); sari_ straight like an arrow (P.); sara arrow (Or.); sar (Mth.); sara (OAw.); sar (H.); sara (OMarw.); sar (G.); sara, sara-ya (Si.)(CDIAL 12336). s'ara reed from which arrows are made (RV.); the reed saccharum sara, arrow (Mun.d.Up.)(CDIAL 12324). s'arya arrow (RV.); s'e_ra, s'a arrow (Kal.)(CDIAL 12339). s'alya arrow, javelin (RV.); salla arrow, dart, piercing sting (Pali); spear, javelin, thorn in body (Pkt.); s'al spear; s'il (Ash.); s'al (Bshk.); salu hole (S.); sall dart, perforation, hole (P.); xa_l spike, wedge; xli thin long slip of bamboo or iron etc. (A.); sa_l impaling stake (B.); sa_la thin projection of wood fitting into mortise, tenon (Or.); sa_l thorn, pang, pain (Mth.); thorn, pain, hole made in ground by a spike (H.); tenon, cause of pain, impediment (G.); splinter remaining in flesh (M.); sala arrow, spear (Si.)(CDIAL 12352).

3812.Boat: jalibut a sail boat of the Gulf. (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 162). Medium-sized boat: sa_lika_ a medium-sized boat (Jain.Skt.) e_l.e name of a metre (Ka.); e_la a kind of song, a catch used by rowers of boats (Te.); le to sing (Malt.)(DEDR 913). jalla, jal.l.a a boatman's pole (Tu.lex.) jallu, jalle a boatman's pole; a bamboo pole; gar..e, jar..ave (Ka.lex.) callu-tal to sprinkle water (Ta.); tcallu (Te.); cellu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) calan:ku small boat, barge, coasting vessel (W.); calan:ku-kka_ran- pearl-diver; calan:ku-par-i-ttal to unload a boat (W.); calan:kai-kka_rar fishermen; calakai boat, raft (Can.. Aka.); calaku < jala-ja pearl-oyster (I_t.u, 5,1,5); calavar inhabitants of a coastal district, as sea-faring men (Pin..); cala_pa-kkul.i pearl-fishery; diving for pearls; cala_pam id. (S.I.I. III,145) (Ta.lex.) jal.ako the plunge bath at the end of a temple festival (Tu.lex.) cf. cara_n:ku < sar-hang (U.) native boatswain, chief of a lascar crew, skipper of a small native vessel (Ta.lex.) salal water (P.lex.)

3813.Image: mosquito: cala_n:ku gnat, mosquito (Ta.lex.) zala_r mosquito, gnat (Kon.lex.)

3814.Image: gelded boar: calakan--pan-r-i gelded boar (J.); calakan- id. (W.)(Ta.lex.)

3815.Image: entering; current, onward motion: sala entering, entrance, ingress; salavu (Ka.); salu, sal to enter; to be (Ka.); saluha entering; current, onward motion (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3817.Lean; weak: cal.l.u-kka_y tender and undeveloped green fruit (Ta.); cal.l.u unsubstantial, unripe (Ma.); jal.l.u unsubstantiality, emptiness, hollowness, worthlessness, defect; jal.l.uga a weak, feeble man; ja_l.u worthlessness, emptiness, hollowness; jarad.u unsubstantiality, uselessness; sal.ke lean (Ka.); callu, cal.l.u stupid, dull, timorous, imbecile, weak, useless; calla_pini to get weak, become useless; calle a weak or timid man (Tu.); sad.u (pl. sat.ka) an empty ear of corn; an unformed grain, husk with no grain inside (Kui)(DEDR 2415). hat.un to become lean; hut.u that which has become thin, stick, (at end of cmpds.) dried up (K.); sad.h stupid, bewildered, stiff, motionless (G.); sad. stump of sugarcane, etc.; sad.a_ bare, void, standing alone (as a person unmarried)(M.); sa~_t.ho stalk, reed (G.); ho~_t.hu (of women or animals) barren (K.); hand.uru dried and withered rice-straw standing barren in the field (K.); s'am.d.a epithet of horse (castrated) (NiDoc.); san.d.hi adj. barren (S.); san.d.h, sad.d.h, pl. sad.d.hi_ barren (of women and animals)(L.); san.d..h barren (P.); s'ann, s'a~_d. barren cow or buffalo (WPah.); san.d.ha, san.d.a, san.d.ha_, san.d.a_ stout and strong, (of a tree) unfruitful from luxuriant growth, (of woman) incapable of conception, (of man) too corpulent for sexual relations (Or.); sa_d.a_ tall and strong (M.); san.d.a eunuch (Si.)(CDIAL 12270). s'ar.an:ga_, s'ar.in:ga_ thin and long, tall and slender (B.)(CDIAL 12271).

3818.Purse: ca_l.ikai money-bag (Ta.); ca_l.ika id. (Ma.); ja_l.ige id., purse (Ka.); ja_liya, ja_le, ja_leya a sort of purse (Te.) ?< ja_laka (Skt.)(DEDR 2477).

3819.Shop: sa_la, sa_le a man who has a room or shop; s'a_li belonging to a house; endowed with, possessed of, possessing, having (Ka.lex.) A tax on shops: ca_li-pakuti a tax on shops (R.T.); ca_likai toll, customs, duty (Ta.lex.) sa_liga a man who has a room or shop; sa_liti a woman who belongs to a man that has a shop or room; sa_le, s'a_le, sa_li a hall, a room etc.; a school; a man who has a room or shop; sa_like business in a room or shop; s'a_lika belonging to a house; s'a_lika a village of artificers; s'a_like a small house, a room; s'a_li_na attached to the house or to one's own room; s'a_le a hall, a sloon (Ka.lex.) Feeding-house: ca_lai < s'a_la_ alms-house, feeding-house (T.A.S. I,9); sacrificial hall (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 84)(Ta.lex.) ca_lam surrounding wall, fortress; ca_lampam < sa_lamba that which has a support (Ta_yu. Tikruvarul.vi. 3)(Ta.lex.) s'a_la_ shed, stable, house (AV.); s'a_lam adv. at home (S'Br.); s'a_lika_ house, shop (Skt.); sa_la_ shed, stable, large open-sided hall, house (Pali.Pkt.); sa_la house (Pkt.); sal cattleshed (Ash.); s'a_l (Wg.Dm.); sa_l cattleshed on summer pasture (Pas'.); shed, workshop (B.); hall, house, school (.); s'al cattleshed (Kho.); s'eli goat-pen (Kho.); hal hall, house (K.); sa_lh house with thatched roof (L.); xa_l, xa_li house, workshop, factory (A.); sa_l.a shed, stable (Or.); sa_r cowshed (Bi.); cowshed (H.); sa_l. workshop, school (M.); sal-a, hal-a hall, market-hall (Si.)(CDIAL 12414). ka_l family, relationship (Ta.); ka_li herd of cows (Ta.); cow, cattle (Ma.); ka_l pillar (Ma.); trikkal tripod of three sticks on which tent is hung (Br.)(DEDR 1479).

3820.To go: s'at. go (Skt.); s'at.ati goes (Dha_tup.); s'adati goes (Skt.); s'a_dayati drives (cattle)(Pa_n..com.); sad.ai goes (Pkt.); s'a_r., s'a_r, s'ar., s'or., s'ur. to go away, wander, flow (Pas'.); sa_t.e_tar one who drives away or dispels (Pali); s'a_r.ai to carry off, lead away; s'ari to herd (cattle)(Pas'.); apas'a_tayati drives away (AV.); a_s'adati goes (Skt.); satta gone away (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12269). To go; depart: ser- (also stems sa-, se-; past sedd-) to go; serp- (serept-) to let (cattle) get lost (Kol.); ca- (can.d.-, cam-) to go; s'er- (s'edd-) id. (Nk.); ser-/sen-/se- (sedd-) to go, creep (Nk.); cen- (cend-) to go (Pa.); sen- (sey-, send.-), cen- (cey-) id. (Ga.); sonda_na_, son-, handa_na_, han- (hat-), han-, an-, hon- (hott-) to go (Go.);[cf. ottu to make room for (Ta.colloq.); id. (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.); cf. otun:ku to get out of the way (Ta.)(DEDR 973)]; caus. hansta_na_ to cause to be lost or wasted (Go.); son- (soR-) to go, (time) to pass; solp- to pass (time)(Kond.a); hal- (hac-) to go (Pe.Mand..); salba (sas-; imperative sg. or pl. sa) id., depart (Kui); hajjali (hac-; imperative halla), hal- (hacc-) to go; helo permission; hel- (-it-) to be valid, accepted (Kuwi); calrna_ to continue, go on, be current (as coin), wield power, go away, quit, behave; cala_ba'ana_ to set going, guide to a place; cala_ off (Kur.); canu (can.t.-) to go, depart, pass, be fit, proper, becoming; canupa a caravan, a company of travellers (Te.); sanduni to pass (as time, pass from this world, die, be due, indebted, be paid, liquidated, come to pass, be accomplished; sanda_vuni to pay, liquidate, perform, accomplish, retort; sanda_ya delivering over, making payment (Tu.)(DEDR 2781). cuvat.u trace, footstep, sign (Ta.); footmark, vestige, foot, base, step (Ma.); cumat.u, co_t.u id. (Ma.); cuvat.t.uka to track, search after (Ma.)(DEDR 2695). cf. cavt.- (cavt.i-) to step on; cavt.i footprint (Kod..)(DEDR 2387). co_t.u trace, mark, footprint (Ta.lex.) To drive off: se_dhati drives off (RV.); siddha driven off (PacavBr.); sijjhai goes (Pkt.); se_hai drives off (Pkt.); sejhna_ to get out of the way (H.); sidh departure (P.); sidha_u departure (S.); sidha_na_ to go, set out, die (H.); siddha_vvu~ to go, depart (G.); sidh karn.a_ to depart (P.); sidha_ran.u to go (S.); sidha_rna_ (P.); sidha_rnu to depart (N.); sidha_rna_ (H.); sidha_rvu~ (G.); sidh depart, repel (Skt.)(CDIAL 13407). pratis.e_d.ha warding off, prevention (S'rS.); pat.ise_dha warding off (Pali); pad.ise_ha prevention (Pkt.); pil.iseva prohibition (Si.)(CDIAL 8606). To send: sor- to send; so_rta_n he sent (Nk.); codp- (codt-) to send (Pa.); soyp- (soyt-), co_y-, soyp- (soyup-) id. (Ga.)(DEDR 2866). To deliver: cf. ce_r (-v-, -nt-) to become united (Ta.); ce_r(u)cu to cause to reach or be delivered (Te.); se_r- to arrange, reach (Ga.); se_r.a_na_ to invade a country, enter or occupy a house (Go.); he_rinai to reach; herpinai to deliver (Kuwi); ker- (past stem of ka_na_ to go)(Kur.); ke_b kanning to approach (Br.)(DEDR 2814). To move: calati goes away (MBh.); moves (Pali); caleyu, calitaviye practise, perform (dharma)(As'.); calai goes (Pkt.); cal to open (Pas'.); cal to move (Pas'.); calun to move, run away (K.); caln.u to go, walk (K.); calnu_ to flow (WPah.); caln.a_ to go (WPah.); caln.o to move, go (Ku.); calnu to move, walk (N.); saliba (A.); cala_ id. (B.); cal.iba_ to move, go on, pass (Or.); calna_ to move, go on or away, be in use (H.); calab to go, hasten (Mth.); calal to go (Bhoj.); calai starts off, goes (OAw.); goes (OMarw.); calai to shake (Pkt.); cal.vu~ to move away from (G.); calati trembles (Pali)(CDIAL 4715). calana trembling (Pa_n..Pali); calan.a going, conduct (Pk.); calan. circulation (of coin)(P.); calan gait, practice, usage (B.); calan.a walk, gait (OMarw.); cal.an.-val.an. movement, deportment (M.)(CDIAL 4716). callai moves (Pkt.); calan.u to go (S.); callan. to start, go, move (L.); ca_la_ to be moved (B.); ca_lvu~ to move, walk, act (G.); ca_ln.e~ (M.); ca_ln.o to go (Marw.); ca_lai goes (OG.); calta_ moves (Konkan.i); calma_ (H.)(CDIAL 4721). ca_l conduct (N.); gait, behaviour (B.G.M.); trick (OAw.); behaviour (H.P.); ca_la gait, movement (OAw.); ca_li behaviour (S.)(CDIAL 4722). To pass through: cel (celv-, cen-r--) to go, flow, pass, occur, pass (as coin), be suitable, acceptable, pass away as time, disappear in anger, perish, die; n. career, course, payment of debt, period that has elapsed; celavu going, passing, running, flowing, manner or mode of walk, pace (of horse), journey, expedition, way, passage, route, street, conduct, behaviour, expense, charges, provisions needed for consumption, leave; celuttu (celutti-) to cause to go or proceed, dispatch, circulate, deliver, discharge (as a missile), drive, impel, push forward, execute (as orders), administer (as justice), perform, observe, pay as tribute or debt; calikai excessive familiarity, intimacy, indulgent treatment (Ta.); celka to pass through, enter upon, pass on, pass, be current, valid, cost, be required; celavu income, expense; celavan spendthrift, expensive person; fem. celavi; celuttuka to put in, drive in, make to pass on, pay, perform (as promise); cellikka to make to pass in or on (Ma.); cal- (cad-) (prayer) is acceptable to god, (coin) is genuine, (wife) is suitable mate; calc- to pay (debt, vow), inform; calv, celv money for expenses, articles for sale, articles given by Kotas for Toda funeral (Ko.); sal- (sad-) to belong to (e.g. a person's property, a person to a clan, inherited property, etc.); salf expenses, necessities (for family, funeral, etc.); talc- to cause to be well known (to a person), inform (To.); sal (sand-) to enter, engage in, associate oneself to, agree to, accrue, arise, enter upon a course, pass, be current, be in use, pass by general consent, be valid, proper or fit, pass from one person to another, be given, be paid, become agreeable, become well known or famous; sala entering, a coming to pass, a time; salapu, salavu, salahu to forward, foster, tend, preserve, bring up; salavu entrance, validity, force, valid reason; salahuvike fostering; salike delivering over, paying payment; salige, saluge familiar intercourse, familiarity, excessive familiarity, indulgence, improper familiarity, freedom; salisu to cause to enter, execute, perform, use, employ, fulful, give, bestow, show, spend; saluha entering, current, onward motion; sale currently, perpetually, constantly; payment, the sum paid; sallisu to serve up food; selavu leave, permission, order (Ka.); salluni to be valid, fit, proper (Tu.); salaguni to nourish, shelter, succour, take care of; sala_yisuni to clear, liquidate as a debt; salig friendship, amity, familiarity, indulgence, freedom, liberty (Tu.); cellu to pass as time, be over or exhausted as money, die or pass away, come to pass, be accomplished, be current, pass (as coin), be valid, be successful, prevail, be paid or liquidated (as money or a debt), be possible, be proper, fit or becoming; n. payment, return, compensation, equivalent (Te.); calupu, salupu to pass (as time), do, perform, drive (boat, etc.); selavu order, leave, permission, expense, expenditure; selaviccu to order, permit, allow, give leave, give a holiday (Te.) (DEDR 2781). To obtain; to deliver, reach: cf. se_dhati drives off (RV.); sidh departure (P.); sidha_u departure (S.)(CDIAL 13407). zod. obtain; cf. Lat. adipisci; zod., zod.i acquirement (Kon.lex.) eytu (eyti-) to obtain, approach, reach; be suitable (Ta.); eytuka to get, obtain; ettuka to streatch as far as, reach, arrive (Ma.); ettam reach, length (Ma.); ic- to reach, be sufficient (To.< Badaga); aydu, eydu to approach, reach, go to, join, obtain, be suitable (Ka.); ay-tar-, ey- tar- to approach, come, go (Ka.); ett- (etti-) to arrive (Kod..); etta_vuni, etta_d.uni to reach, deliver (Tu.); ettu, ekku to reach (Tu.); ey(i)du, e_du to attain, go to, join, obtain; suit, be proper (Te.); e_tencu to come, arrive, go (Te.); egudu to be obtained (Te.); end- (ent-) to arrive (Kol.); e_d-, e_y- to arrive; epip- (epit-), eypip- (eypit-) to reach (Pa.); ed- to arrive (Ga.); ev, awwa_na_, av- to arrive, reach (Go.); a_wsahta_na_ to dispatch (Go.); avh-/avih- to make to reach, bring, obtain (Go.); i- (-t-) to arive (Kond.a); ika-, ika va_- id. (Pe.); ipka-, ipka va_- id. (Pe. intensive; < ik-pa-); neyka va_- (Mand..); epa (et-) to cause to reach, cause to arrive at, cause to suffice (Kui); ejali to arrive, reach, overtake; egowa_- to arrive (compound with va_- to come)(Kuwi); ega- to arrive; eda- to arrive; ep- (-it-) to cause to reach; e- (-t-), ne- (-t-) to arrive (Kuwi); hining (i.e. stem in-; pres.stem ka_-) to go, depart, disappear, be past, pass beyond, be no longer fit for, flow (Br.)(DEDR 809). hining [(pres. indef. ka_v, ka_s, ka_e, ka_n, ka_re, ka_r; pres.-fut. ka_va, ka_sa, ka_ik, ka_na, ka_re, ka_ra; ka_mbo let us (inc.) go] to go, depart, disappear, be past, pass beyond (Br.); kale (no past tense) to go, come to (Malt.); ka_na_ (past. keras [cf. ce_r (Ta.)(DEDR 2814)]; fut. ka_los, ka_os; imper. kala_; gerund ka_la_) to go, lead to (as a road), progress favourably, go on, continue, perish, pass (of time), come to an end, bring oneself to, be able to (Kur.)(DEDR 1419).

3821.Image: leap: ca_l.eya the act of going by artificial leaps or jumps; the act of skilfully assaulting; ca_l.avisu, ca_l.isu to go; ca_lisu to move to and fro; ca_lu, ca_la moving, walking (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Movement: cel (celv-, cen-r--) to go; n. course, payment of debt; celavu going, running, manner or mode of walk, pace (of horse), journey, expedition, way; celuttu (celutti-) to cause to go or proceed, dispatch, deliver; celka to pass through; celuttuka to drive in, make to pass on, pay (Ma.); sal (sand-) to enter, engage in; sala entering, a coming to pass, a time; salapu, salavu, salahu to forward, foster; salavu entrance; salike delivering over, paying, payment; salisu to cause to enter, employ, spend; saluha entering, current, onward motion; sale payment, the sum paid; sallisu to serve up food; selavu leave, permission, order (Ka.); sanduni to pass as time, be due, indebted, be paid, liquidated, be accomplished; sanda_vuni to pay, liquidate, perform; sanda_ya delivering over, making payment; salguni to nourish, shelter, succour, take care of; sala_yisuni to clear, liquidate as a debt (Tu.); cellu payment, return, compensation, equivalent; canu (can.t.-) to go, depart, pass, be fit, proper, becoming; canupa a caravan, a company of travellers; calupu, salupu to pass (as time), do, perform, drive (boat etc.); selavu order, leave, permission, expense; selaviccu to order, permit, allow, give leave (Te.); ser- (also stems sa-, se-; past sedd-) to go; serp- (serept-) to let (cattle) get lost (Kol.); ca- (can.d.-, cam-) to go; s'er- (s'edd-) id.; ser-/sen-/se- (sedd-) to go, creep (Nk.); cen- (cend-) to go (Pa.); sen- (sey-, send.-), cen- (cey-) id. (Ga.); sonda_na_, son-, handa_na_, han- (hat-), han-, an-, hon- (hott-) to go (Go.); caus.hansta_na_ to cause to be lost or wasted (Go.); son- (soR-) to go, (time) to pass; solp- to pass (time)(Kond.a); hal- (hac-) to go (Pe.Mand..); salba (sas-; imperative sg. or pl. sa) to go, depart (Kui); hajjali (hac-; imperative hallamu_), hannai (hazz [z = ts]; imperative halla), hal- (hacc-) to go; helo permission; hel- (-it-) to be valid, accepted (Kuwi); calrna_ to continue, go on, be current (as coin), wield power, go away, quit, behave; cala_ba'ana_ to set going, guide to a place; cala_ off (Kur.)(DEDR 2781). cf. cal go (Skt.)(CDIAL 4715). halcali movement (S.); halcal (Ku.); halla-calla, halcal (N.)(CDIAL 14017). hallai moves (Pkt.); halan.u to move, shake (S.); halab to put in motion (Mth.); ha_lna_ to move (H.)(CDIAL 14018). alla_t.u, allalla_d.u, allala_d.u to move, shake (Te.)(DEDR 240). a_t.u to move (Ta.); a_t.t.u to move (Ta.); a_t.t.ai turn in a game (Ta.); a.r.- to move (Ko.); a_d.u, a_t.u to be in motion, move about (Ka.); a_t.a, a_t.u motion (Ka.); a_d.u to move, work (Te.)(DEDR 347). To move, shake: hal, hall move, shake (Skt.); alun to shake (K.); hal.an. to move, shake (L.); halahalia shaken (Pkt.); halakna_ to move (H.)(CDIAL 14003).[< Drav. ale, alaku to shake (Ka.)] halla movement (skt.); halla_ tumult, noise (Or.H.)(CDIAL 14017). ha_lta_ shakes, rocks (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 14018). alaku, alagu, aluku, alugu, alungu, al.aku, al.uku, al.ku to move about, shake, be shaky, tremble (Ka.); ale to move about, move to and fro, shake, dangle (Ka.); alaguni to shake (Tu.); la_nga to be fickle, changeable, be changed from good to bad (Kui)[the la_ng- initial in la_ngu_la plough (Skt.) is concordant]; alan:ku to move, shake, be in motion (Ta.); alukka, alannuka to shake (Ma.); alg to shake (Ko.)(DEDR 240).

3822.To follow: sac follow (Skt.); sas'cati (3 pl.) follow, obey, favour (RV.); socik to agree with, be auspicious, come right (Kho.)(CDIAL 13293). za_ become, happen (Kon.lex.) panja to follow (Santali.lex.)

3823.Debt: ca.lm (obl. ca.lt-) debt, loan, account of all debts and credits, account of one's life, piece of advice (Ko.); so.lm assets and liabilities (To.); sa_l, sa_lu to be bound to, become indebted, be placed under a debt, be obliged or under obligation, be required, fit or proper; sa_la debt; sa_liga debtor, creditor; sa_lan:gul.i person who is wont to contract debt (Ka.); sa.la a loan (Kod..); sa_la debt (Tu.)(DEDR 2472). Payment: salike, sallike delivering over, paying, payment (Ka.); sallisu to serve up; to eat (Ka.); sale payment, the sum paid; that is come by: the number resulting from the multiplication of two or more numbers, product (Ka.); salegaja a square yard; sale ma_d.u to find the area by multiplication (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3824.Slacken, abate: cal.l.u (cal.l.i-) to slacken, abate (Ta.); cal.l.uka to slacken (Ma.)(DEDR 2413). s'ithira loose, slack (RV.); s'ithila loose (TS.); languid, feeble (MBh.); sat.hila, sithila loose (Pali); s'is'ila (Dhp.NiDoc.); sad.hila, sid.hila (Pkt.); cicila soft (Ash.); cicil (Wg.); ccil (Kt.); cicil (Pr.); chil (Bashg.); s'i_lu roomy, loose, slack (Sh.); sad.hal. lavish, liberal (M.); lihil loose, slack, soft, simple (Si.); silyo lazy (S.); s'illo, s'ello loose (WPah.); sahil, sail (M.); sad.lu (Konkan.i); d.haila_ lazy, loose (P.)(CDIAL 12601). s'ithilayati loosens (Skt.); sihirna_ to liquefy, dissolve (H.); sahil_vin.e~, saila_vin.e~ to loosen (M.); siliyanava_ to loosen (Si.)(CDIAL 12602). s'ithili_karo_ti loosens (MBh.); s'ilhe_rnu_ to loosen (WPah.)(CDIAL 12603).

3825.Image: hole: randan.u to test precious metals my making a hole in them, refute (S.)(CDIAL 10613). randu cut or hole made in metal to test it (S.)(CDIAL 10612). randhra fontanel (RV. VarBr.S.); cleft, hollow (MBh.); randha opening, cleft, flaw (Pali); ram.dha hole (Pkt.); ra_nh, ra_nhe~ earthen baking plate (esp. one drilled with little holes)(M.)(CDIAL 10617).

3826.To flavour; cook: ar.j- (flavour of something) is perceived (particularly salt, cup ar.joto); ar.cip- (ar.cit-) to add as flavouring (Pa.); al- (at.-, an.-) (tongue) to get the taste of (Kond.a); and.- (-t-) (taste) comes out, is perceived (Pe.); and.- (taste, e.g. of salt) to pervade food, be present, be perceived (Mand..); an.d.na_ to spread throughout, pervade, be felt, tasted in every portion of the mass prepared (of spices and ferments; e.g. salt, be_k an.d.ca_)(Kur.)(DEDR 288). cf. at.u (at.uv-, at.t.-) to cook, roast, fry, boil, melt (Ta.); at.ukkalai kitchen (Ta.)(DEDR 76). randh cook (Skt.); randhi the being cooked (BhP.); randha cooked; randhaka cook (Pali); randha_, randha_-randhi cooking; ra~_dha_ feast (Or.); ra_nh, ra_n a boiling of sugarcane juice (Bi.Mth.); ra~_dha_ cooking, cooked food (M.); randezu fried meat (Kho.)(CDIAL 10614). randhana destruction (BhP.); cooking (TS.com.); ram.dhan.a cooking (Pkt.); ranan (K.); randhin.o cookhouse (S.); randhin.i_ boiling (S.); ra_ndhani cook (A.); ra~_dhan, ra_nna_ cooking, ra~_dhuni cook (B.); ra_ndhan.a_ cooking, cookery; ra_ndhun.i_ cook; ra_ndhun.ia_ (Or.); ra~_dhan.-chat.h 6th day of light half of S'ra_van.a (when food is prepared for the next day, i.e. s'il.i_ sa_tam the cold seventh); ra~_dhn.u~ things to be cooked; ra~_dhn.iyu~ cook-room; ra~_dhn.i_ cook; ra~_dhn.iyo (G.); ra~_dhan. cooking (esp. by boiling), earthen baking plate (M.)(CDIAL 10615). randhayati prepares or cooks food (Ma_nGr..); randhe_ti hurts, cooks (Pali); ram.dhe_i, ram.dhai_ cooks (Pkt.); eranth (Gypsy); ran (D..); ranun to cook (K.); randhan.u to boil, stew; ra~_dho cook (S.); ra_ndhiba to cook (A.); ra~_dha_ (B.); ra_ndhiba_ (Or.); ra~_dhab (Aw.); ra~_dhna_ (H.); randhna_ (H.); ra~_dhvu~ (G.); ra~_dhn.e~ (M.); ra~_dapa cooking (Konkan.i); ranoiki, run.o_nu to cook; run.izo_nu to be cooked (Sh.)(CDIAL 10616). randhayati cooks (Ma_nGr..); razoiki to be cooked (in a pot) (Sh.); rajhan.u to be boiled or stewed, be inflamed or angry (S.); rajhna_ to be cooked or boiled (H.); caus. rajha_na_ (H.); raddha cooked (Pkt.); pp. radu (Sh.); pp. radho (S.)(CDIAL 10611).

3827.To limp: lan:gati limps (Dha_tup.); lang- to limp (Gypsy); langun (K.); lan.n.n.u_ (WPah.); la~gn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 10902). led.go, lempa, lica lace limping; led.hak, led.hok, lecok, lacak lucuk, lencok to be limp; lacak lucuk m., lacuk f. to limp from sore on foot; lencok limping from injury to leg; led.ha, lid.hi to limp (Santali.lex.) Image: somersault: la_gi, lya_pu to jump, leap; la_ga a somersault jump, leap (Tu.lex.)

3828.Shameless: Ílajj be ashamed (Skt.); lazba_nd.o impudent; lazba_nd.pon. impudence; lajis.t. shameful; laz, laje shame; laz, laje, loje to be ashamed (Kon.lex.) lan.d.o shameless (S.); la~_t.h stout, rude; la~_t.ho paramour (G.)(CDIAL 10917). lazband.o shameless; lazband.pon. shamelessness (Kon.lex.)

3829.Image: to laugh: nakla_ kar to make fun, to laugh (Kon.lex.) alkhna_ to laugh, laught at, mock, seduce; alkha_ankhrna_ to laugh together, have unlawful intercourse; alkha_ban'na_ joking relations (Kur.); alqe to laugh; alqro person addicted to laughter (Malt.)(DEDR 254). cf. naku (nakuv-, nakk-) to laugh; nakkal laughing, mockery (Ta.)(DEDR 3569).

3830.To play: nayl.- (nal.c-) to play; nayl.k play (Ko.); na.s-- (na.s-y-) to play (a game); ne.s-k play (To.); nali to dance; naliyutt(e) dancing with delight (Ka.); nali- (naliv-, nalij-) to play (Kod..); nalipuni to dance, leap; nalik dancing, jumping (Tu.); nalna_ to dance, skip or jump about, bound up (as running water amidst boulders); caus. nalta'a_na_, nalda'a_na_, naladna_ (Kur.); lale (lad.a) to dance; lalde to make to dance, lead about (Malt.)(DEDR 3612). lalati sports, dallies (MBh.)(CDIAL 10968).

3831.Image: bowstring: alliya, alle bow-string (Te.); alka id. (Pa.)(DEDR 259).

3832.Image: capacious pot: al.ige, al.age a capacious earthen vessel to hold water or grain (Ka.); alaki an earthen pot (Te.)(DEDR 303).

3833.To melt: li_ melt; lau absorption, devotion (H.); laya absorption (Skt.)(CDIAL 10962). ri_ melt, flow (Skt.); ri_yate_ melts, flows (RV.); ri_n.a melted (Skt.); riik to leak (of contents), drip; rieik to leak (of vessels), let drip (Kho.); rijan.u to water, to irrigate; to melt (S.); ri_n.a leaked, dripped (Pkt.); runna_ pret. of ren.ava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 10753). cf. re_n.i mud (Pkt.); ren.i_ ingot (L.)(CDIAL 10639). aliyuka to melt, dissolve (as salt, heart); alika, aliyikka to melt; aliccal, alivu melting, compassion; ali-ppun.n.u foul ulcer (Ma.); ali- (aliv-, alij-) to dissolve; (alip-, alic-) to dissolve (Kod..); aliyuni to dissolve, decay; eliyuni, e_luni to melt (as any soft substance, butter, lead etc.); elipuni, elpuni, e_la_vuni id. (Tu.)(DEDR 250). Image: to be delivered of a child: allna_ to become clear (of liquids left undisturbed)(Kur.); le to get clear (as water when left undisturbed)(Malt.); alga tidy, clear; alga a_va to be tidy, clear, be delivered of a child (Kui)(DEDR 261). Fluids: al.akam water (Ta.); al.aka, al.l.aka neither thick nor thin, as applied to fluids (Ka.); anuku semiliquid, semifluid (Te.)(DEDR 298). cf. al.acu to agitate (liquid)(Ka.)(DEDR 294).

3834.Image: flying squirrel: s'e~_s.t.ri_ flying squirrel (Phal.); s'ris. stick to (Skt.)(CDIAL 12723). ci_kuru-va_yi bat (Te.); civuka-pit.t.a a bat (Te.)(DEDR 2606). nariccal a kind of bat (Ta.); nariccil, naricci_r a bat (Ma.)(DEDR 3607).

3835.Softness; gum: las'a gum (Skt.); lasi_ka_ serum, sugar-cane juice (Car.); lasika_ spittle (Skt.); lasa-gata sticky; lasi_ brains; lasika_ fluid in joints (Pali); lasaka milk of a tree; lasira sticky; lasua oil (Pkt.); lasyailo sticky, slippery (N.); lasa_, nasa_ pus, juice of tree or fruit; lasi sticky juice (Or.); las viscosity (H.); serum, pus (M.); lahat.u, la_t.u gum, resin (Si.); laso smooth (S.); las glue (P.); la_sa clamminess, juice, gum, birdlime (Or.); lassa_ viscosity (H.); glue (N.); la_sa_ viscous sap of plants, gum, birdlime (H.)(CDIAL 10992). nisge to smooth; nisgro smooth (Malt.); nisigna_ (nisgyas) to besmear with any adhesive substance; refl. pass. nisigrna_ (Kur.)(DEDR 3666). nas soft, gentle; softness (Tu.); naya softness, smoothness, fineness (Ka.); nayan gentle, smooth (Kod..); naya gentleness, polish, fineness, softness; fine, smooth, soft, glossy, gentle, meek (Tu.); naiya soft (Tu.); neyime fine; neyi-muli soft grass; neyi-panti a smooth kind of grass, soft straw; neyyol.i a tender palm-leaf (Tu.); naya beauty; nayamu softness, smoothness, liking, excellence; neyyamu tenderness, love (Te.); neyyapu-r-e~_d.u epithet of Cupid (Te.); neyp- to make smooth (Go.); ne_m smooth (Go.); naya (-pp-, -nt-) to desire greaty, please, love, pleasing; nayam, nayan- desire, joy, love, tenderness, fineness; ne_ love, compassion, grace (Ta.); nayam gentleness (Ma.)(DEDR 3602). navuru, navaru, naviru that is tender, soft, find, thin, as grass, hair, cloth, paper and other articles (Ka.); navuru, nauru soft, delicate (Te.)(DEDR 3618). cf. navir man's hair (Ta.)(DEDR 3615). navu (-v-, -nt) to become soft, be soddened by boiling, rot, decay (as clothes, books, wood), be weary (as the limbs by labour)(Ta.); nav- (navd-) (cloth) becomes damp and chilly; (navt-) to make (cloth) to become damp and chilly (Ko.)(DEDR 3617). nama (-pp-, -tt-), namar (-pp-, -tt-), namu (-pp-, -tt-) to become damp, moist (Ta.); nemmu moisture, damp; nemmukonu to become damp (Te.)(DEDR 3594). To descend; to drop: lasai sticks (Pkt.); las- to be left over (Wg.); lasun to survive, live, live well; pp. luchu (K.); lahan.u to descend, dismount, stop; pp. latho (S.); lahan. to descend; pp. lattha_ (L.); lahin.a_ (P.); lasna_ to be sticky (H.); lasvu~ to slip (G.)(CDIAL 10994). latho descended (S.); lattha_ (L.P.); la_thi_n.o to stick to one another, be dependent on another (Ku.)(CDIAL 10995). elkhrna_ to go down (sun, moon, stars), be well past the meridian (Kur.); elqre to descend (as the sun)(Malt.)(DEDR 841). latth gummy infusion of certain medicinal seeds (P.)(CDIAL 10996). les- to slip, slide; lisay- to loosen, untie (Pas'.); liso (N.); la_sna_ to be sticky or glutinous (H.)(CDIAL 10997). cf. s'lis.yati (Skt.) la_sa broth (Skt.); la_s pea-soup (B.); borht, pea-water (H.)(CDIAL 11040). lase_w to untie (Par.); lasete lets loose (Kt.); la_s- to release (Pas'.); lasim I let fall, loose, release (Kal.); lazoiki to unstring (a bow)(Sh.); la_hin.u to lower; pp. la_tho (S.); la_han. to take down (L.); la_hn.a_ to bring down, unload (P.)(CDIAL 11042). lasati flashes, shines (MBh.)(CDIAL 10993). To squash: naci (-v-, -nt-) to be crushed, bruised, mashed, crumpled; (-pp-, -tt-) to crush, bruise, mash, press, squeeze, demolish, destroy; naciyal anything crushed or mashed; nacivu bruise, contusion, destruction, loss, injury; nacukku (nacukki-) to press, squeeze, crush, subdue; n. bruise; nacun:ku (nacun:ki-) to be mashed, crushed; nai (-v-, -nt-) to be crushed, destroyed, perish; (-pp-, -tt-) to crush, destroy (Ta.); nacak in- (id--) to make noise in cutting through flesh (Ko.); najugu to squash, crush, bruise (as dry ginger); be squashed or bruised; najju a squashed state (Ka.); nasiyuni to submit, subdue; nesipuni to press down, make tight (Tu.); najju crushed, cut up into small bits, minced; a bit, fragment (Tu.); nasa (nasi-) to press, crush; n. act of crushing; nahi, nahiki destroyed, ruined, demolished; nacc- to press (Kui)(DEDR 3574). Be wet: nas' moist, damp, humid; moistness (Tu.); nacai dampness, moisture; nacaivu moisture of the earth; nacunacu (-pp-, -tt-) to be damp as a floor, be continually drizzling; nacu-nacu-en-al expr. signifying dampness, drizzling; naya (-pp-, -tt-) to become damp (Ta.); na.nc- to make to be wetted (Ko.); nenja (nenji-) to water plants etc.; watering (Kui)(DEDR 3630). ras be wet (Skt.); rasa sap or juice of plants (RV.); condiment, taste (MBh.); rasaka meat-soup (Skt.); rasa juice, broth, taste (Pali.Pkt.); ras juice of plant or fruit (K.); raho broth (S.); rau sugarcane juice (L.); raha_ broth (L.); rauh sugarcane juice (P.); ras juice, syrup, soup (Ku.); juice (N.); rah (A.); ras juice, sap, broth (B.); rasa juice (Or.); rasa_ juice, gravy, broth (Or.); ras sugar-cane juice (Bi.Mth.); rasa sap, juice (OAw.); ras juice; rasa_ sauce, soup (H.); ras sap, juice; raso spicy liquid from boiled vegetables (G.); ras juice; rasa_ sauce of pounded spices with water (M.); rassu juice, essence (Konkan.i); raha, ra_, raha juice, flavour, sweetness (Si.); ras, raha taste (Md.); ras, rasai sap, juice (Sh.); rasu juice (S.)(CDIAL 10650). cf. lay boiled rice (Pe.Mand..) (DEDR 5186). rasya_ro one who dresses victuals, cook (Ku.)(CDIAL 10651). rasati is wet (sne_hane_) (Dha_tup. com.); rasayati (Dha_tup.); rasa_yya juicy (RV.); rasa_ moisture (RV.); rasita overlaid with gold (Skt.)[cf. rasa_yana]; rasinu to leak out (N.); rasa_ to be wet (B.); rasiba_ to become juicy, be blinded by love; rasa_iba_ to make lustful (Or.); rasyu_n.o to solder (Ku.); rasa_unu (N.); rasa_na_ (H.); rasvu~ to solder; rasa_vvu~ to gild (G.)(CDIAL 10653). rasayati relishes (Br.A_rUp.); rasyati, rasati (MBh.); rasi_yati relishes, delights in (Pali); rasa_un.a_ to gratify (P.); rasai relishes, tastes (OAw.)(CDIAL 10655). rasavati_ kitchen (Skt.); cooking place (Pali); rasavai (Pkt.); rasya_ (Ku.); rasoi (N.); rasui kitchen, cooking (B.); rasoi, rasui kitchen, cooked meal; rosa_i cooking (Or.); rasoi_ a meal (Bi.); kitchen (Aw.H.P.L.S.); a meal (Marw.); rasavai a prepared dish (OG.); rasoi_ kitchen (G.); rasoyo cook (S.); rasoya_, rasuya_ (Or.); rasoya_ (H.); rasoiyo (G.)(CDIAL 10656). rasavant juicy, tasty (RV.); sweet (Pa_n..); rasamam.ta juicy, tasty (Pkt.); aruswo_ sweet (Kt.); arsem, ero-sto_ (Wg.)(CDIAL 10657). raswa_r.o place where food is cooked and eaten (Ku.); rasor.u~ kitchen (G.)(CDIAL 10658). rasa_la mango tree, sugarcane (Skt.); curds mixed with sugar and spices (MBh.); raza_lu, raza_lo sweet (Sh.); rasa_l juicy (B.); rasa_l.a (Or.); rasa_l (H.); rasa_l. (G.M.Konkan.i); rasa_la mango tree (Pkt.); rasa_l.a id.; rasa_l.i a species of sugarcane (Or.)(CDIAL 10660). rasika_ sugarcane juice (Skt.); lasi_ka_ (Skt.); rasia_ pus, pus and blood (Pkt.); rasi_ thick liquid, pus (G.); ras'i pus (Konkan.i); rahi sugarcane juice (A.); rasi (B.)(CDIAL 10661). rasia_wal, rasia_war, rasia_ur rice cooked in sugarcane juice (H.)(CDIAL 10662). rasin juicy (RV.); rasika tasteful, libertine (Skt.); rasia juicy, voluptuous (Pkt.); rasiya_ jovial (Ku.); rasiyo a partic. sond at rice-sowing (N.); rahiya_ juicy (A.); rasia_ juicy, witty, foppish (Or.); a gallant (Mth.); rasiya_ voluptuary (H.); rasiyu~ merry (G.); resilo sweet (Pas'.); rasila (Shum.); rasyulu sappy, juice (K.); rasilo (N.); rasi_la_ (H.)(CDIAL 10663). rasya juicy (MBh.); blood (Skt.); ras sweet (Dm.); ra_s (Pas'.); ras, gen. rasai sap, juice (Sh.); rasu juice (S.); rassa_ watery discharge from sore (L.)(CDIAL 10664). virasa juiceless, tasteless (A_past.); virasa juiceless, dry, tasteless (Pkt.); verosu (K.); birasa insipid (Or.); viras tasteless, dispirited (G.); viras juiceless, dry (M.)(CDIAL 11849). sarasa juicy (TS.); moist, beautiful (Skt.); having its essential properties (Pali); juicy (Pkt.); saraho pleased, prosperous, in good health; sarahijan.u to be well; saraha_in.u to please (S.); sarasa juicy, fresh, tasty (Or.); saras (Mth.H.); sarsa_i_ wateriness, moisture (H.); sarasa tasty (OG.); saras juicy, excellent; sarsu~ relishing, enjoying (G.); saras juicy, excellent; sarsa_ superior (M.); sarsa_ better (L.)(CDIAL 13255). ni_rasa sapless, tasteless (Skt.); sapless, insipid (Pali); n.i_rasa (Pkt.); nirah slightly dry, slightly wet; niraha_iba to make slightly dry (A.); niras dry, sapless (B.); nirasa_ sapless, defective, bad (Or.); ni_ras deficient, less (Mth.); nirasa_, nirsa_ tasteless, insipid (H.); ni_ras tasteless, insipid, without juice, dry; naras, narsu~ of inferior quality, wicked (G.); niras, naras, nirsa_ of inferior quality; nirsa_ unscalded and unmixed with water (of milk); nirs'i_ tastelessness, disgust (M.)(CDIAL 7556).

3836.Juniper: serec juniper (Kt.); saras, sa_ras (Dm.); sa_ras (Kal.); saru_s (Kho.)(CDIAL 13256).

3837.Elixir vitae: rasa_yana elixir vitae (MBh.); rasa_yani_ channel for fluids in the body (Car.); rasa_yan.a a partic. drug (Pkt.); rasa_in substance (e.g. wax or lac) put in the joint of a water-vessel to prevent it leaking (N.); rahan varnish (A.); rasa_n ingredients in working metals (B.); rasa_n.a substances for polishing metals (Or.)(CDIAL 10659).

3838.Image; yell: ras cry out (Skt.); rasati yells (S'Br.); praises (Naigh.); rasati calls out (Pali); rasai (Pkt.); res- to low (Kt.); rayoiki, 1 sg. ra_m to say, speak, read; razo_nu to tell (Sh.)(CDIAL 10652). ra_sa din, uproar (Skt.); ra_sabha ass (RV.); ra_s, ra_sa_ noise, uproar, affray (H.); ra_sau (Brj.)(CDIAL 10725). virasati cries out (Skt.); virasam.ta screaming (Pkt.); virasn.e~ to be touched in a tender or sore spot (M.)(CDIAL 11850). cf. al.ukku (al.ukki-) to be perturbed, frightened (Ta.); al.ukkuka to start, shrink, cramp of limbs; al.ukkam awe, fear; al.arkka to lament, cry; al.arcca bellowing; al.appu shriek (Ta.); al.ar-, al.aku, al.iku, al.uku, al.ku, al.kar- to fear; al.ar-isu, al.akisu, al.ikisu to frighten; al.ar-, al.aku, al.ku, al.arpu fear, anguish; al.asu sound in coitu (Ka.); alkuni, al.kuni to be afraid, start, shudder; alku timidity; timid, frightened (Tu.); aluku to be afraid; n. fear, dread; al.uku = aluku; al.ukari coward (Te.)(DEDR 306). cf. ar-ai (-v-, -nt-) to speak, sound (Ta.); ar-acu to cry or cry out, shout, clamour (Te.)(DEDR 319).

3839.Image: to jump: la_sa jumping, sporting (Skt.); la_sya dancing (MBh.); la_sa sporting, dancing (Pali); la_hu jump (of an animal)(S.); la_h adornment of the body (A.); la_s sport, dance (B.); laya sport, pastime (Si.)(CDIAL 11039). las move quickly, flash, sport (Skt.); la_sayati sports, dances (R.); la_sna_ to shine (H.); la_se_ti sports, amuses oneself (Pali); la_s- to play a trick on (Pas'.); la_sjan.u to be scorched (S.)(CDIAL 11041). lasati sports (Skt.); shines, sports (Pali); lasai, lhasai (Pkt.); lasai shines, looks beautiful (OAw.); lasna_ to shine, look well, befit (H.); lasvu~, lasa_vu~ to look beautiful, play (G.); lahakan.u to flare up, be kindled (S.); lasakna_ to shine, become (H.); lask flashing (L.); lahakna_ to shine (H.)(CDIAL 10993). vilasati gleams; sports, dallies (Skt.); shines forth, sports, dallies (Pali); vilasai (Pkt.); bil.asiba_ to sport (Or.); bilasna_, birasna_ to be delighted, enjoy oneself (H.)(CDIAL 11894). vila_sa sport, coquetry (MBh.); sport, dalliance (Pali.Pkt.); bil.a_sa (Or.); bira_sa (OAw.); vilasa sport, wantoning (Si.)(CDIAL 11900). vila_sini_ coquette, mistress (Skt.); charming woman (Pali); vila_sin.i_ courtesan (Pkt.); bil.a_sun.i coquette, whore (Or.) vila_sayati causes to dance (Skt.); vila_un.a_, bala_un.a_ to amuse, entertain (P.)(CDIAL 11901).

3840.Image: bait for alligators: naya a bait for alligators (Ma.Tu.)(DEDR 3603).

3841.Load; to heap up: lard load (Skt.); lad, luzu heaped-up load (K.); ladd load (P.); la_d transport of articles, goods (Ku.); an elephant's load (A.); la_d load, burden (H.); lada_, nada_ loading; lada_-ladi loading up (Or.)(CDIAL 10965). lardayati loads (Skt.); ladde_i loads; laddan.a (Pkt.); lad-, ladav- (Gypsy); lady (Dm.); ladun to raise, set up, send, despatch (K.); lad.an.u to load; la_d.u_ carrying a load (S.); lad.d.an., lad.an., pres. part. lad.d.e_nda_, laadun. to load, carry; ladi_vun. (L.); laddn.a_ to load (P.); la_dnu (N.); la_diba (A.); lada_na (B.); la_diba_, ladiba_, nadiba_ (Or.); la_dab (Mth.Aw.); la_dna_ to load, pile up, oppress (H.); la_dai loads (OMarw.); la_dvu~ to heap up, load (G.); la_dn.e~ (M.); lar- to load (Gypsy); lhadu_m I load (Phal.)(CDIAL 10966). alth- to load, saddle (Gypsy); lhadu_ to load (Phal.) (CDIAL 10946). To drive a cart; manage; image: procession: nar.pis- to drive a cart, to cause to run; nar.p- to drive, cause to walk (Kond.a); nad.a, nad.aka movement, walking (Te.); nad.ea passage to shrine of temple (Kod..); nar.t- (nar.ty-) to teach to walk, make to proceed, manage affair (Ko.); nat.a procession, pace; nat.attuka to drive, direct, manage; nat.akka to be carried out, to walk (Ma.); nat.avu (nat.avi-) to cause to go, drive; manage, administer; nat.attu (nat.atti-_ to lead, transact, administer; nat.a (-pp-, -nt-) to proceed, happen, pass, walk, go (Ta.)(DEDR 3582). cf. andu to hand in, hand over (Te.); and- (andit-/ant-) to reach, be within reach (Kond.a)(DEDR 149). cf. at.ukku to heap up in order (Ta.); ad.uku to pile up (Te.)(DEDR 80). cf. at.ai delivering, conveying; at.aiyal reaching (Ta.)(DEDR 79). e_r-u (e_r-i-) to mount, be laden (as cargo); e_r-r-u (e_r-r-i-) to lift up, load (as a cart or ship); e_l (e_r-p-, e_r-r--; e_lv-, e_n-r--) to abound; bear, lift up, carry (Ta.); e_r-r-uka to embark, raise (Ma.); e_r-r-am embarkation (Ma.); o.r-- (o.r-y-) to load (bullock, cart)(To.); e_r-u to mount, climb; e_r-isu to raise, place upon (Ka.); e.r- (e.ri-) (liquor) raises to head (Kod..); e_ra_vuni to load, embark (Tu.); e_t.ava_lu slope, slant (Te.); les- to get up (Kol.); ehi_- to place pot on a fireplace for cooking (Go.); le- to get up, rise (found only in imperative 2 sg. le'e, pl. ledu)(Kond.a)(DEDR 916). Heap: ra_s'i heap (RV.); a measure of quantity = 1 dron.a (S'a_rn:gS.); ra_si heap (Pali.Pkt.); ras' heap of grain (Kho.); rai_ id. (Pas'.); la_, pp. laie heap (Sh.); ra_hi (S.); ra_si principal sum (S.); ra_s stock (P.H.); id. (Ku.N.B.); ra_si (Or.); ra_s heap of grain after winnowing; large milkpail (Bi.); heap (Mth.); ra_si, ra_is large milkpail (Mth.); ra_si_ heap (OAw.); ra_s (H.G.M.); ras-a, raha mass, crowd (Si.); res (Md.); rasya_unu to collect (N.); ra_hi accumulated, saved (A.)(CDIAL 10720).

3842.Seized; found: labdha taken, seized (MBh.); a_labdha (RV.); laddha taken (Pali.Pkt.); ladha (As'.); ladha, ladhaga (NiDoc.); ladyem I obtained (Dm.); la_d found (Wot..); lat.h, lad. he found (Bshk.); la_du, pret. of luw- to find (Sv.); la_du, pret. of lahe- (Phal.); ladu_en.i_ was found by him (K.); ladho pp. of lahan.u, labhan.u (S.); laddha_ (L.P.); ladha_ was taken (OB.); la_dhau pp. of lahai (OG.); lad-a, lat pret. of labanava_ of reach, get (Si.); laddhia obtained (Pkt.); lath-, lat- to find, meet with (Gypsy); laddhn.a_ to be found, seek (P.); laddhiya_ taken; la_dhna_ to take, get (H.); la_dhai finds (OMarw.); la_dhvu~ to be found, accrue (G.); la_dhn.e~ (M.); lac- to find (Gypsy); lajjhn.a_ to be obtained, find, get; caus. lajha_un.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 10946). labdhi gaining, profit (Ya_j.); laddhi religious belief (Pali); gain, peace (Pkt.); la_d peace (Wg.); lad (Pr.); la_t (Ash.); lot (Kt.); la_dhi gain (S.); lad faith; ladi inclined to, devoted (Si.)(CDIAL 10947). lo_ta, lo_ete found (Ash.); lato_ (Wg.)(CDIAL 10937).

3843.Possessions: labdhrima possessed (Skt.); latri_ things, goods (Kt.); letri_ possessions (Pr.); lateri thing (Dm.); lac goats (Sh.)(CDIAL 10938). Image: saddle; load: a_labdha seized (RV.); touched (MBh.); a_laddha joined, touched (Pkt.); alth- to load, saddle (Gypsy)(CDIAL 14281). To apply, touch, lay on: la_yta_ applies, touches (Konkan.i); a_sa_dane_ = la_gayati lays on (Dha_tup.); la_e_i lays on; la_yan.a (Pkt.); laeina to put on (clothes)(D..); la_- id. (Wot..); la_yun to apply, fix; la_weni was attached by him (K.); la_in.u to apply (S.); la_van. to apply (e.g. water to a field); la_vun. (L.); la_un.a_ (P.); la_n.u_ to apply, use; lu_n.a_ to clothe (WPah.); la_n.a_ to put (WPah.); la_n.o to apply, use, put on (clothes)(Ku.); la_eb to apply (Bi.); la_i, la_vai applies, fixes, kindles (OAw.); la_na_ to apply, persuade, beget (H.); la_vvu~ to apply (G.); len.e~ to put on (clothes)(M.); la_vn.e~ to place on, send (M.)(CDIAL 11004). lata_ rag (Pas'.); latta_ clothes (L.); rag (P.); natta_ piece of woollen cloth to wipe out oil-press (P.); lato small rag put in a gun (WPah.); la_ta_, latta_, lata_ pl. clothes (Ku.); latta_ tattered cloth (H.); lattu~ rag (G.); latti_ torn strip (M.); latra_ tattered, torn (H.); laddhar clumsily patched (H.); nantaka shred, rag; n.am.taga cloth, clothes (Pkt.); lantara_ rags (Ku.)(CDIAL 10930). lapet.n.a_ to wrap (P.); lapet.n.o (Ku.); lapet.nu (N.); lapet. a fold (B.); lapt.a_na to fold (B.); lapet.an wooden roller on which cloth is wound as weaved (Bi.); lapet.ai wraps up (OAw.); lapet.na_ to wrap, fold, wind (H.); lapet.vu~ (G.); lapet.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 10942).

3844.Bill; debt: {Echo word} labhana obtaining (BhP.); labh take, obtain (Skt.); labhana gift (Pali); lahan.a gain (Pkt.); lahan.o debt, credit; lahan.an.u to have due (S.); lahna_ debt, loan (L.); lahin.a_ (P.); lahan.o, lahan.i_, lain.o, lain.i_ one's share, luck, fate (Ku.); lahana_ ma_ at interest; lahan-tahan long-dated loan (N.); lahana_ outstanding debt (B.); lahna_ profit, outstanding debt (H.); len., lehen.u~, len.u~ outstanding debt (G.); lahn.e~ bill, order of payment (M.)(CDIAL 10949). labhyate_ is taken (R.); labbhati is permitted (Pali); labbhai is taken (Pkt.); labun to get, gain (K.); labhan.u to be obtained; pp. ladho (S.); labhan.; pp. laddha_ (L.); labbhn.a_ ; pp. laddha_ to be gained, seek, find, get (P.); la_bhai obtains (OAw.); is obtained (OG.); la_bhvu~ to find (G.); la_bhn.e~ to be acquired, accrue (M.); labanava_, pp. lad, lat to reach, get (Si.)(CDIAL 10950). To find; to see; to take; to buy: labhate_ catches, takes (AitBr.); labhe_t (AV.); labhati (MBh.); lahe_i (Pkt.); labhati obtains (Pali); laheyu, lahevu they should receive (As'.); laham.ti (NiDoc.); labhai, lahai takes; pp. laddha, lahia (Pkt.); low- to find, obtain; pret. lo_ete (Ash.); la_-, lawr-, pret. la_toi (Wg.); lay- to find; pret. ladyem (Dm.); lay- to find; to see (Pas'.); le_-, pret. lho_us to find (Gaw.); leik (agent noun lak) to obtain, find (Kho.); la_-ga~_ to receive (Bshk.); lahe- to find; pret. la_du (Phal.); layoiki to obtain, find; lhaunu (Sh.); lahan.u to obtain; pp. ladho (S.); lvan., laihan., lahan. to take, receive (L.); lahin.a_ to find; lain.a_ to take (P.); lain.a_ to take (WPah.); lhia~r.~ (Ku.); laiba (A.); laha_ (B.); laiba_ to take, hold, observe (Or.); lahai obtains (OAw.); lahna_ to find, get, get on well, experience (H.); lahai gets; pp. la_dhau (OG.); lahevu~ to listen attentively (G.); la_hn.e~ to acquire (M.); ada_t, da_tum take (Skt.); la_ti takes, receives (M.); id. (Pali.Skt.); pp. la_ya (Pkt.); la_n.o (Ku.); la_nu (N.); laoya_ (B.); la_iba_ (Or.); la_na_ to bring, buy (H.); de_ti, ne_ti takes (Skt.); le_i takes (Pkt.); 3 sg. pres. lel takes; pp. lino; li- to take, buy (Gypsy); le_na to take (D..); leti_ taking (S.); leva_-devi_ giving and taking (P.); le_wa_-de_vi_ (K.); le_n to take; le_n.a_ (WPah.); lin.o (Ku.); linu (N.); len.a_ act of taking, dues (Or.); lei takes; pp. li_nha, leb (OAw.); lena_ (H.); lei, pp. li_nau and liyo (OMarw.); levu~, pp. li_dhu~ (G.); len.e~ to put on (clothes etc.)(M.); la_nar brings (Gypsy)(CDIAL 10948). endr-, enderp- (endert-) to bring (Pa.); indr- id. (Ga.); ondorna_ (Kur.)(DEDR 802). For semant. 'see', cf. vir..i eye (Ta.)(DEDR 5429). lambha finding, obtaining (ChUp.); lam.bha profit (Pkt.); la~_bhu~ lot, lottery (G.)(CDIAL 10960). lambhayati causes to get, presents (MBh.); gets, finds out (Mn.); lambhe_ti causes to be obtained (Pali); lam.bhai, lam.bhaidavva (Pkt.); lam- to seize, dash (Pas'.); lamoiki to seize, catch, begin; lamo_nu to begin (Sh.); lomina to catch (D..); la~_bhab, lambhab to drive cattle to graze on another's crops (Bi.)(CDIAL 10961). la_bha finding, profit (Mn.); gain (Pali.Pkt.); la_ha (Pkt.); la_ho (S.); la_h, la_hu, la_ha_ (P.); la_hu (OAw.); la_h, la_ha_, la_u-sa_u (H.); la_hu profit (OG.); la_v, la_ha_vo, la_vo fruition, enjoyment of pleasure (G.); la_ho acquisition, gain; la_ho, hla_v greed, covetousness (M.); lab profit (Si.)(CDIAL 11018). la_hn.a_, lha_n.a~_ outstanding debt, loan given to another (L.); laha_n., la_n. profit; laha_n.u~, laha_n.i_, la_hn.u~, la_n.u~, la_n.i_ distribution of presents to members of a community (G.); la_hn.i_, la_n.i_ reaping (M.)(CDIAL 11019). cf. aran.a a nuptial present (Ka.); aran.amu a gift of money to a daughter and son-in-law at the time of marriage (Te.)(DEDR 203). la_han. to pay off a debt (L.); la_ha_vu~, la_vu~ to distribute (G.); la_hn.e~ to acquire (M.)(CDIAL 11020). pralabhate_ seizes (MBh.); cha_la_-thu_ he has found; ca_l 1 sg., aor. calam to find, get (Mai.); calo~ to receive (Chil.)(CDIAL 8751). pralambhayati cheats, deceives; pralambhana (BhP.); palambhe_ti deceives (Pali); polambanava_ to entice, desire, instigate (Si.)(CDIAL 8754). vilambha gift (Skt.); viraha division; virau fixed allowance of food (S.); bilo present of meat (Ku.); share in the spoil (N.)(CDIAL 11888). vilabhate_ consigns, allots (Ka_tyS'r.); bil.ahiba_, bil.ohiba_ to distribute, serve food, choose (Or.); bila_ to distribute (B.)(CDIAL 11889). vilambhayati causes to receive (Skt.); vilha_van. to divide, allot; pass. vilhappan. (L.); bila_iba to bestow, distribute, serve out (food)(A.); bila_na to distribute (B.); bila_iba_ to distribute, give away (Or.); bila_na_ to bestow (H.); vira_han.u to distribute (S.); vara_vvu~ to give (G.)(CDIAL 11899). vilipsate_ desires to distribute (S'Br.); virchan.u to divide, apportion (S.); vilchn.a_ to live extravagantly (P.)(CDIAL 11903). vircha dividing, rations or money in lieu (S.)(CDIAL 11904). X vil. (vil.v-, vin.t.-) to split; vil.kai leaving; vil.l.al separation; vil.avu (vil.avi-) to split; n. cleft, crack (Ta.)(DEDR 5432). cf. vil.ampu (vil.ampi-) to serve food; vir..ampu boiled rice (Ta.); vil.ampuka to distribute food, serve out; vil.ampan one who superintends the distribution, esp. in victualing houses; vil.ampikka, vil.appikka to ask for more food (Ma.)(DEDR 5434). cf. lay boiled rice (Pe.Mand..); lahi id. (Kuwi); la_h'i boiled mand.eya grain (Kuwi)(DEDR 5186). sam.labhate_ takes hold of each other (TBr.); sam.labdha (Skt.); sam.liddha embraced (Pkt.); salhn.a_ to collect, bring together (P.); salha_r.an.u to tie (two animals) together when grazing; salhar.u a pair of animals (S.); salha_r.an. to tie (two animals) together when grazing (L.)(CDIAL 13002). rabh take hold (Skt.); rabhate_ takes hold of (RV.); -zo- to find, get, obtain (Pr.)(CDIAL 10624). rambhati takes hold of (MBh.); ram.bhai begins (Pkt.); rammhana_ (P.); zama learning (Wg.); reme (Kt.); labhate_ learns (Skt.)(CDIAL 10633). cf. harrifing to inquire, ask (Br.); ar-iha knowledge; ar-ime id. (Ka.)(DEDR 314). he_l kanning to learn (Br.); e_lu, elki mind, reason, wisdom (Kui)(DEDR 912). sama_rabhate_ takes in hand (TS.); sama_rabhati undertakes (Pali); sama_rabhai, sama_rahai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13220). To receive, take: e_l (e_r-p-, e_r-r--; e_lv- e_n-r--) to happen, occur, be suitable, convenient, just; to receive, welcome, admit, consent, beg, undertake, engage in; e_l suitability, appropriateness, fitness; e_r-pu id., acceptance, reception; e_r-po_n- beggar; e_r-r-atu that which is fit, proper; e_r-r-am acceptance; e_r-pat.u to come into existence, be produced, be engaged in, agree, consent; e_r-pat.uttu to create, establish, persuade, prepare, arrange, appoint; e_r-pa_t.u arrangement, rule, appointment to an office (Ta.); e_l possibility, reach; preparation, responsibility; e_luka to suit, fit; e_lkka to receive, take in charge, admit, confess; e_lpet.uka to engage in, be responsible for; vb.n. e_lpa_t.u; e_lpet.ukka, e_lpet.uttuka, e_lpikka to entrust with; e_r-r-a admitted, agreed, undertaken (Ma.); e.l- (e.t--) to catch something held up; e.rpa.r.- (obl. e.rpa.t.-) preparation, selection of a man to do something; e.rpar.t- (e.rpar.ty-) to prepare (thing or to do something), appoint (a person)(Ko.); e.f- (e.t-) to receive, take (To.); e_r- to become, be fit, be suitable, be possible, be able; n. state of being fit etc.; e_rpad.u to be arranged, be ready to act; e_rpad.isu to arrange, set in order; e_rpa_d.u, e_rpa_t.u decision, arrangement (Ka.); e_puni to catch (as a ball), take, lift, or toss up a child in the arms (Tu.); e_lu to accept, admit, take; elayu to arise, be produced, increase, be suitable, become favourable; elara_ru to increase; elaru increase; elarucu to arise, be produced or manifested; e_rcu to set in order; e_rpad.u to be arranged, established, determined, appointed; e_rpar-acu, e_rparincu to arrange, settle, establish; e_rpa_t.u arrangement, system, settlement, decision, appointment (Te.); e_k- to take, lift (Nk.); e_p- (e_t-) to get (Pa.); e_p- to receive, take (Ga.); e_ta_na_ to take, accept, receive; erpa_na_ to spread; e_n- to receive, hold both the palms together in the shape of a receptacle (Ga.); [cf. e_ntu (Ta.lex.)]; els- (-t-) to become large, (family) to increase in size (Kond.a); e_n- (-t-), en- (-t-) to beg (Pe.Mand..); e_n.ba (e_t.-) to put forth the hand to receive, accept, accept the word of, obey; n. acceptance, reception; e_n.pa (e_n.t-) to accept, receive (Kui); e_'nai to accept; e_nh'nai to receive; erhali to hold out the hand; e_r.- id.; e_n.- to cup the hand, make cloth, etc. into a container for receiving something (Kuwi); (h)e_ling to spread out (carpet, clothes to dry, table-cloth) (Br.) (DEDR 905). e_ntu (e_nti-) to stretch out the hands, receive or hold in the hands, hold up, support; e_ntal stretching out the hands (as a beggar), holding up, supporting (Ta.); e_ntuka to take up, wield, stretch arms or legs; e_ttam praising, extolling; e_ttuka to praise, extol (Ma.)(DEDR 894).

3845.Relative: lektso, lekcya_ relative, relation; Lat. consanguineus (Kon.lex.) lekko a term employed to effect comparisons having the same meaning like resembling etc. imby a_ya lekkon ul.l.e this man resembles that man (Tu.lex.) legun also, even (Kon.lex.)

3846.Images: to kick; foot: latta_, lattia_ blow with the heel (Pkt.); latedi_ni blow, kick of a horse; lats- to kick (Gypsy); lath, lati kick (K.); lata foot, leg, kick (S.); latt, pl. latta_ leg (hip to foot), kick; lat (L.); latt leg (P.); la_t foot (WPah.); kick (Ku.N.B.); na_t, na_ti (B.); la_ta, la_ti, na_ta (Or.); la_t (Mth.H.); la_ta (OAw.OMarw.); la_t (G.M.); lata_run to trample on (K.); lata_rnu to spurn (N.); lata_r.na_ (H.); latya_unu to kick (N.); latiya_na_ (H.); ler.i heel, spur, blow with the heel (Or.); la_th, la_thi kick (A.B.); la_th (M.); latha_u kicking (H.)(CDIAL 10931). lata_ndi_ foot-end of a bed (L.)(CDIAL 10932). la_t kick (Kon.Tu.lex.) la_ttu to belabour, beat heavily; to seize and jerk to and fro; latta_ < lat (H.) blow, kick; latta_t.u vexation; agitation (Ta.); lata_d.u (Ka.) (Ta.lex.)

3847.Image: whip: ca_t.t.i whip (Ta.); ja_d.i_ (M.); ja_t.i (U.); ca_t.t.ai (Ta.); ja_t.i whip (Te.); ca_t.i (Ka.); ca_t.t.a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) carnao, chir chirau to whip (Santali.lex.)

3848.Image: river: levni river; nevli (Kol.); lavni big river, streamlet; lavd.i_ stream; lavr.i, lavni stream, streamlet (Go.)(DEDR 5192).

3849.Rock cell used by ascetics: le_n.a, le_na rock cell used by ascetics (Pali); le_n.a cave, hole, den of animal (Pkt.); len.e nom. sg. cave (OSi.); len-a (Si.); layana place of rest, house, cell (Skt.)(CDIAL 10963). la~_ga hole, burrow (Te.); alap hollow place underground, cavern; la_ta hole, cavity, den (Kur.); ol.b animal's den, cave (To.); al. cave (Ko.); al.e hole (Kurub.); al.a hole in trees, in the ground; al.l.a_ppu hollow, hole (Ma.); al.ai anthill, hole in the ground, hollow in tree, cave (Ta.)(DEDR 308). nulugna_ to insert a thing into another by a sliding push, thrust or slip into or under lengthwise; nulgurna_ to enter into or under, head foremost, creep into; nu_xrna_ to hide oneself, be kept secret; nur.na_ (nud.d.as) to hide, conceal, screen from sight, veil, mask off (Kur.); nu_r..ai postern, chink, hole, bore, a kind of lattice window, cave (Ta.); no.lan:g- (no.lan:kt-) (snake) crawls (Kol.); r.ug- (-it-) to enter, steal in, get into, enter through a passage (Kond.a); lugnai, ru_gali to hide oneself; ru_ga secretly; ru_khali to hide (Kuwi); lulgre to hide oneself; lulqre to disappear (as in a crowd or jungle); lulqe to thrust in; nud.gre to hide, disappear; nud.e to hide, conceal (Malt.)(DEDR 3714).

3850.Euphorbia antiquorum: s'a_kho_t.a the small tree trophis aspera; s'a_kho_t.aka (Bhpr.); xa~_wla_, xa~_wra_ trophis aspera (A.); seor.a_, sewr.a_ trophis aspera; sahor, sihor a kind of tree (H.)(CDIAL 12378). se_hun.d.a euphorbia ligularia (Ka_s'i_kh.); si_hun.d.a, sihun.d.a euphorbia antiquorum (Skt.); syu_no, si_no a milky plant with a poisonous juice (Ku.); siu~r.i a plant with a juice used for poisoning fish (N.); se~ur.a_ the small tree trophis aspera (B.); se~hur., sihu~r., sehun.d., sehn.d. euphorbia antiquorum (H.); syu_n.o, si_no nettle (Ku.); xizu a variety of euphorbia (A.); siju (B.); sijhu, siju several species of a milky plant (Or.); si_j euphorbia neriifolia, euphorbia antiquorum (H.)(CDIAL 13599). sisun., sisn.o nettle (Ku.); sisnu (N.)(CDIAL 13425). sij euphorbia antiquorum (Santali.lex.) kal.l.i spurge, euphorbia; milk-hedge, euphorbia tirucalli (Ta.)(DEDR 1383). cf. euphorbia resinifera: part used: the dried resinous latex; habitat: Morocco; Uses: vesicant in veterinary medicine and as a constituent of anti-fould paints for ship hulls.

3851.Image: row, line: sa_ha_ crossbars between shafts of bullock carts (Or.); sa_hi line, row, row of neighbouring houses (WPah.)(CDIAL 12376). se_d.hi_ line, row; pase_d.hi id. (Pkt.); s're_d.hi_, s're_t.i_, s're_d.i_, s're_dhi_ a particular progression of arithmetical figures (Skt.)(CDIAL 12724).

3852.Fragrant mango tree: sa_ha_ra mango tree (Pkt.); saha_ra (OAw.); sahayuru, shyuru (Si.); sahaka_ra a kind of fragrant mango tree (MBh.Pali); its juice (VarBr.S.); its blossom (Skt.)(CDIAL 13300).

3853.Image: shark: cor-a a shark (Ka.); cur-a_ (Ta.); cir-a_gu, cur-a_vu, tur-a_vu, s'ra_vu, ir-a_vu (Ma.); cu_r-ai, su_r-ai (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

3854.Cola, a perfume ingredient: co_raka, co_ra the plant trigonella corniculata, a kind of perfume (Skt.); co_raka a plant used for preparing perfume (Pali); cora_, cor-ka~_t.a_ a species of grass (B.)(CDIAL 4932). cf. ko_laka a kind of perfume (Bhpr.); kakko_la (R.)(CDIAL 2586). cola an ingredient in a perfume (Ajay Mitra Shastri, India as seen in the Br.hatsam.hita_ of Vara_hamihira, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1969, pp.241-243). cola perhaps is the same as the popularly known coraka or cora; Utpala gives ka_s.t.haguggula as a synonym of ks.e_ma_ angelica glauca. [coraka angelica glauca (Car. Su.4.48, Ci. 9.52); ks.emaka id. (Car. Ci. 3.267)]. cf. angelica archangelica and other species of angelica. Part used: the dried ripe fruit. Habitat: Northern Europe and Siberia. Constituents: volatile oil containing a terpene with a pepper odor, resin. Uses: stimulant, aromatic, carminative, and ingredient in the formerly official Warburg's pills and tinctures. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 623-625). Seed of mahua: cf. to_la seed of mahua (Pa.); t.olamba mahua tree; d.ola fruit of mahua tree (Pkt.)(DEDR 3561). co_r-r-ilai yellow flowered aloe; co_r-r-uk-kar-r-a_r..ai yellow-flowered aloe, aloe typica (Ta.lex.) co_laippul.i Ceylon gamboge, ire_var-cin-n-i (Ta.lex.) ko_lakam long-pepper, tippali (Malai.)(Ta.); prob. ko_lika_ (Ta.lex.) Angelica glauca: chora, chura (P.) herb: cordial, stimulant; habitat: W. Himalayas, from Kashmir to Simla, 8000 - 10,000 ft. (GIMP, p.19).

3855.A perfume: cua_ a sweet-scented oil (Or.); cuya_, coa_ a perfume (Mth.); cu_a_ amaranthus oleraceus (H.); cuvo a perfumed ointment (G.); cuva_ sandal perfume (M.); zewa, soa sour (Pr.); cu_ta mango tree (MBh.Pali); cu_taka (Skt.); cu_a (Pkt.); cu_o a perfumed oil (S.)(CDIAL 4888). cu_a~_ a kind of pumpkin (P.); cuwa~_ amaranth (Ku.); cuwa_ careya herbacea or clerodendron serratum (N.); sowa_ a kind of sago palm (A.); cuya_ the plant celosia argentea (B.)(CDIAL 4888).

3856.Threshing floor: cali threshing floor (Malt.); ca_li the 3 or 4 feet of free ground immediately in front of a house (Kur.)(DEDR 2476).

3857.Image: hump on bull: cu_r.a hump on bull or other animals (Or.); cu_l.a hump on certain animals (Or.)(CDIAL 4883).

3858.Spindle: su_a_ spit used in fishing (L.); sprout, blade of grass, turner's spindle (P.)(CDIAL 12560).

3859.Oriza sativa: s'a_li oriza sativa (Car. Su. 4.17, 5.5).

3860.Desmodium gangeticum: s'a_laparn.i_ desmodium gangeticum (Car. Su. 21,38); s'a_liparn.i_ id. (Car. Si. 12.17(5). s'a_laparn.i_ desmodium, hedysarum gangeticum (Skt.); s'a_laparn.ika_ a partic. shrub (Skt.); sa_l.van.i_ the shrub hedysarum gangeticum (M.)(CDIAL 12413).

3861.Image: gaur: sal the Indian gaur, gavoeus gaurus; sal sakwa a horn made from a horn of the gaur (Santali.lex.)

3862.Image: a leading animal; a bull: salaga a leading animal, the leader of a herd (especially an elephant); a bull; go_l.i; salagu (Ka.); salaga_ne (Ka.); suli a cow; kine (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3863.Images: a pot; a bullock load: calakai a grain measure = 1/3 poti or a bullock load = 60 to 80 measures; land sufficient in extent for sowing one calakai of paddy (I.M.P.Cm. 74)(Ta.lex.) calg a grain measure (Ko.); solage, solige, sollage, sollige a measure of capacity = 1/4 kud.ava or of a bal.l.a (Ka.); salaka a small sack; 2 1/2 times the measure called tu_mu (Te.)(DEDR 2365). so_le a measure of capacity (Te.); culuka, culaka a small vessel or pot, a gallipot (Ka.); culaka, culuka the palm of the hand hollowed so as to receive or contain a liquid (Ka.); cul.aka_ (M.); culuka (Skt.Te.); cul.uga (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. culuka a small vessel; a mouthful of water or the hand hollowed to hold water or anything (Skt.lex.)

3864.Needle, probe, bodkin; arrow: xala_ pin (of bamboo, wood, or iron)(A.); sala_i_ pin (in spinning yarn)(L.); sal.a_i_ needle in shuttle, spindle (P.); needle, probe, bodkin (H.); coarse needle, short stick (Bi.); sara_i iron or wooden poker (Mth.); sal.a_, sal.ai_, sal.i_ pin, spike, skewer (M.)(CDIAL 12349). salay spike (K.); s'ala_ka_ arrow (Pali)(CDIAL 12349). Engraver's tool; burin: cala_kku burin, engraver's tool; cala_kai needle-like tool of steel (cala_kai nur..ainta man.ittul.ai)(Man.i. 12,66); surgeon's probe; ramrod; spear, javelin; iron rod or stake; lath for roofing; cala_kai-p-pa_rai sharp pointed implement for digging; cala_kai-y-at.i to nail on laths, prepare laths; cala_kai-y-a_n.i lath-nail (Ta.lex.)

3865.Sandalwood: calliyam red sandalwood (Ta.lex.) sala_ki a stem (of the sandal tree)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3866.Image: hawk: sa_l.va, sa_l.uva a kind of bird, a hawk used in hunting (Ka.); sa_l.uva, sa_l.uvamu, sa_l.vamu a species of hawk (Te.); ja_liva-, s'a_liva a kind of hawk (Skt.)(DEDR 2478). Image: falcon: simca_n.a falcon (Pkt.); se_ca_n.a (Ap.); sa_ca_n, seca_n hawk (B.); saca_n.a hawk, falcon (Or.); si~ca_n.o falcon (G.)(CDIAL 13097). Image: kite: ci_l < cilla kite, milvus govinda (Ta.lex.) cf. cilla, culla the Bengal kite, falco cheela (Ka.lex.) pakki-sal.o, pakki-sal.ea_ a hawk (Kon.lex.) kalur..an- < garud.a eagle (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 13)(Ta.lex.)

3867.Image: quail; myna: sa_le_, salle, sa_le quail (Kol.); sa_l.e (sa_r.e) id. (Nk.)(DED 2480). callakan.t.am < jhallakan.t.ha dove (Ta.lex.) ca_rikai myna (karuntalai-c-ca_rikai)(Kalla_.7)(Ta.lex.) sa_liya, sa_liya_ the maina bird (= sa_lika_); sa_liya-cha_pa a young bird of that kind (Pali.lex.) lovo, lovea_ a small quail (Kon.lex.) kurakam myna, starling (Ta.); goravan:ka, goravan:ke the common maina, acridotheres tristis or the pastor (Ka.); goruvan:ka, go_ra, goran:ka, go_rin:ka, go_ruvan:ka myna (Te.); go_ro_d. id. (Go.)(DED 1766). Image: heron: s'ara_d.i a kind of heron; s'ara_li_, s'ara_t.i_, s'ara_ti (Skt.); s'ara_ri_ (Sus'r.); sara_d.i a kind of bird (Pkt.); xara_li the whistling teal (A.); sara_r.i, sara_li (B.); sara_r.i, sara_l.i teal, anas carolinensis (Or.)(CDIAL 12333). s'a_rika_, sa_rika_ graculus religiosa or maina (MBh.); sa_ri maina; a partic. bird (TS.); sa_lika_, sa_l.ika_, sa_liya, sa_liya_ the maina (Pali); sa_lika_ (As'.); sa_ri_, sa_ria_, sa_lahi_, sa_lahia_ (Pkt.); hru (K.); sa_ru caro (N.); sa_ri (B.); sa_ra, sa_ri (Or.); sa_ri_ (OAw.); sa_r, sa_ru_ (H.); sa_ri_ (M.); sla, hla (Si.); sa_lakkia_ (Pkt.); s'a_rak, s'ora_k a talking bird, blackbird (Pas'.); s'areki the maina (Kho.); s'a_rekur.uk a partic. bird (Ash.); s'a_ragur.e'k young blackbird (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12405).

3868.Acacia arabica: ja_li, ja_le the thorny babool tree, acacia arabica; babbul.i, barbu_ra; the thorny shrub acacia farnesiana (Ka.lex.)

3869.Image: a female watching a rice-field: s'a_li-go_pi_ a female appointed to watch a rice-field; s'a_li rice; go_pi_ a cowherd's wife (esp. applied to the cowherdesses of vr.nda_vana, the companions of Kr.s.n.a in his juvenile sports (Skt.lex.) cf. go_pa-rasa gum myrrh; go_paka myrrh (Skt.lex.) ca_lini < s'a_lini_ woman employed in pronouncing oracles under the influence of a spirit (Cilap. 12,7)(Ta.lex.) s'a_labhajike a wooden puppet, a doll (Ka.lex.) s'a_lini_ a mistress of the house, housewife (Skt.lex.) sa_n. oracle; Hindu temple (Kon.lex.)

3870.Village of artisans: s'a_lika a village of artisans; a weaver; a toll, tax (Skt.lex.)

3871.Collection: ca_la-kat.an:kat.ar < s'a_la-ghat.an:ghat.a ra_ks.asas as born of S'a_laghat.an:ghat.a_ (Kampara_. Cu_rppan.a. 50)(Ta.lex.) {Echo word} Semant. 'collection' cf.: ja_la a collection (Skt.lex.) ghat.a, gat.a, gad.a coming to; joining; a collection, bringing or putting together (Ka.lex.)

3872.Image: an interlocking of bodies: ca_li, ca_l.e a form of interlocking of bodies or parts. e.g. that of the fingers intertwined with the ends downwards (Ka.M.); beral.u-ca_l.i id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3873.A herd of cows: ja_la a collection, a multitude, an assemblage; samu_ha (Skt.Ka.); a herd of cows; ja_laka, ja_l.aka a multitude (Ka.lex.) ca_lam multitude, company, flock, herd, shoal (Kampara_. Varun.an-ai. 25)(Ta.lex.) ja_la collection (MBh.Pkt.); ja_liya_ bunch (Pkt.); ja_l, zal, za_r. many (Wg.)(CDIAL 5213). ca_la adv. very well, very much (Tiruva_ca. 16,8)(Ta.); tca_la (Te.); sale (Ka.); ca_la (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Possessor: ca_li < s'a_lin word meaning possessor, used at the end of compounds, as in putti-ca_li, pa_kkiyaca_li (Ta.lex.) s'a_li endowed with, possessed of, possessing, having (Ka.lex.) Great, noble; abundant; fitting: s'a_l to be endowed with; s'a_lin (usu. at the end of cmpd.) endowed with, possessed of, possessing, shining or resplendent with (Skt.lex.) ca_lpul.i adv. in the prescribed manner (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 3,81)(Ta.lex.) ca_l to be suitable, fitting: (intiran-e_ ca_lun. kari : Kur-al., 25); sa_l id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ca_l fullness, abundance (Ta.); ca_la richly, fully (Ma.); (ca_lv-, ca_n-r--) be great, noble (Ta.); ca_lpu excellence, nobility (Kur-al., 987)(Ta.); ca_n-r-o_r the great, the noble (Ta.); ta.r na.t.o.n a Toda of the division that includes the clans of To.r-o.r. and Nir.y (ta.r na.r. = To. to.ro.r.); ta.d- nay ghee brought to the Kota village ceremony by the Todas (of the clan related in the jajmani economy)(Ko.); to.r- important man; clan(s), people of the clan, esp. of the clans of the higher-ranking moiety; the higher-ranking moiety (usually called to.r-0as-); the Todas (in contrast to the Tamilians); to.r-o.r. n. pr. of the chief hamlet of one of the clans (lit. place of the to.r-)(To.); sa_l, sa_lu to be sufficient or enough, suffice (Ka.); ca_lu to be able, capable, bear, endure, be enough, sufficient; n. sufficiency; ca_la abundant, abundantly; ca_lika ability (Te.); sa_l to be able, can (Kol.); ha_lna completely (Go.); a_l to be able (Go.); sa_l- (-it-) to be capable of, be suitable (Kond.a); ha_l to suffice, be enough to (Kuwi)(DEDR 2470).

3874.Image: drain: ca_lakam drain (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

3875.Image: a morbid issue of blood: s'a_lero_ga, sa_lero_ga a morbid issue of blood from the yo_ni (Ka.lex.)

3876.Image: space between fingers and toes: zlu space between fingers and toes (K.)(CDIAL 5213). Furrow; watercourse, line, ridge; image: row, range, line: ca_l track of a sower in passing and repassing while sowing grain (W.)(Ta.lex.) ca_l furrow in ploughing [ca_l furrow in ploughing: ur..uta ceca_l (Ci_vaka. 817)(Ta.lex.)], track of a sower while passing and repassing in sowing (Ta.); furrow, channel, track, line, direction (Ma.); ca_lai street, avenue, road (Ta.); ca.l furrow (Ko.); so.l id. (To.); sa_l a continuous line, a furrow (Ka.); ca.lli line, furrow, one complete ploughing of a field, people related in any way by descent (Kod..); sa_lu furrow made by plough (Ga.); line, row, furrow (Tu.); ca_lu id.,groove, track (Te.); ca_lupu line, row, series (Te.); a_l furrow (Go.); sa_l id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2471). a_li row, range, line (Skt.); a_l.i line, dam (Pali); a_li line, dam (Pal); row (of plants), bed (for plants), old measure of land (Ku.); ridge in a field (N.); embankment across a rice-field, road (A.); dividing ridge in a field (B.); a_li_ line, row (Pkt.); row, embankment (H.); d.ad.d.ha_d.i_ line of forest-fire (Pkt.); a_r.a_ sandhill, highlying land (L.); a_r.i_ id. (P.); ridge in a field (Or.); a_l tract of land (Ku.); ail dividing ridge in a field (B.); a_l.i_ a class (Or.); lane, row (M.); a_l. id. (M.); a_r, a_ri_, a_ri, a_il, a_l boundary of a field (Bi.Mth.); a_ri_ id. (H.); ad.i canal (Si.inscr.); ala, aliya stream, canal (Si.)(CDIAL 1102). ca_t.i furrow: mu_ri tavira mut.ukku mutuca_t.i : Paripa_. 20,54); cat.t.a-p-parampu a kind of roller for smoothing land newly ploughed, harrow, drag (Ta.lex.) Images: joining; line: sa_l, sa_lu to be joined or bound to, to become indebted; sa_l a joining, a continuous line, a row; a furrow; a mass, a multitude (Ka.lex.) sa_lugat.t.u to form a line or row; sa_lu-to_pu a row of trees (along roads); sa_ludale a mass of heads (Ka.lex.) ca_lu a line, row, furrow, track, trace (Te.); ja_d.u, ja_d.e a line, row, furrow; the mark of a footstep, or of a carriage-wheel, a track, a trace (Ka.Te.); a slight or faint notice (Ka.); ca_t.ai (Ta.); ja_d.e (Ma.); a wink, a hint (Ka.Te.); chad.a_ a trace, vestige and indication of a thing sought (M.) (Ka.lex.) ca_t.ai hint, significant gesture (Tiruppu. 572); tja_d.a appearance, feature (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ca_lai avenue, public road shaded by trees (Ta.lex.)

3877.Image: sieve: ja_l.i sieve (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 5213). A kind of covered sieve: ca_lani a sieve, strainer (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) tsa_l., tsa_l.n.e sieve (Kon.lex.) cilli-y-at.ai a kind of covered sieve (Tailava. Pa_yi. 22); cilli-rattam oozing blood; cilli-va_yan- a babbler, as leaky-mouthed (Periyapu. Tirua_n-. 776)(Ta.lex.) Sieve: chanaut.a_ iron sieve with a handle (Bi.); sanaut.a_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 3666). Image: pot with a narrow mouth; sieve: jharjhara a strainer (Bhpr.); jhajhari a large kind of hookah bottom (S.); jhajjhar, jhajjhari_ earthen pot with a narrow neck (P.); jha~_jra_ cullender, strainer (B.); jha~_jhar porous (Bhoj.); jhajjhar large porous water jug (H.); jhajhri_ full of holes, riddled (H.)(CDIAL 5349). Shake: jha_d.an.a sweeping (Pkt.); ja_r. to shake down (Pas'.); za_l. splashing (of water)(Kho.); jha_r.an.u to exorcise (S.); jha_r.an. to thresh, sweep (L.); jha_r.n.a_ to shake off, thresh, sweep (P.); jha_rnu to put down (N.); jha_rinu to be shaken off (N.); za_riba to winnow, exorcize (A.); jha_r.a_ to shake off, thresh, exorcise (B.); jha_rab to sweep (Mth.); jha_r.na_ to shake off, strain (H.); jha_r.vu~ to shake, sift (G.); jha_d.n.e~ to shake, flap, sweep, exorcize (M.)(CDIAL 5328-b). jad.i to wave, brandishn as a sword, etc.; to move to and fro (Ka.); *ja_d.ipuni to shake off (Tu.); ja_d.incu to flap or toss about, shake (Te.); jad.iyu to fly, brandish as a weapon (Te.)(DEDR 2298). jhar.hutta_na_ to shake violently (Go.); sar. to remove dust by shaking, shake off a hand (Kond.a); jar.pa to shake, shake dust off, flap, flick, beat the wings (Kui)(DEDR 2403). Image: sieve: cali, callu to sift (Ta.); calikka to sift (Ma.); jallisu to sift; jalad.e, jarad.e sieve (Ka.); jallincu to sift (Te.); jalor.(a), jalor., sa_lir.i, co_lir., so_lir., jo_li sieve (Go.); ha_n.el id. (Pe.); sa_leri id. (Kui); ha_n.i ki to sift (Kuwi)(DEDR 2370). callat.ai sieve (Ta.); tjalled.a (Te.); jallad.a (Ka.); callat.a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) za_ran a metallic calx (A.); jharana_ iron sieve with handle (Bi.)(CDIAL 5375). jha_rvu~ to sift, wash with hot water, solder (G.)(CDIAL 5376). c.o_rien sieve (Pas'.); ca_rn.i_ sieve; ca_rn.o large sieve (G.)(CDIAL 4759). ca_lan.i_, ca_lan.iya_ sieve, strainer (Pkt.); ca_lana strainer, sieve (Skt.); causing to move (MBh.); caln.i_ iron sieve (P.); ca_lnu, ca_lni sieve (N.); sa_lani_ sieve (A.); ca_lan causing to move, sieve (B.); ca_luni_ sieve (B.H.); ca_lni_ sieve (B.); ca_lun.i_, ca_l.ani_, ca_l.un.i_ sieve (Or.); ca_lna_ grain-parcher's sieve (Bi.); ca_lni_ grain-parcher's sieve (Bi.Mth.); ca_l.n.i_ sieve (G.M.)(CDIAL 4771). ca_layati shakes, jogs, drives away (MBh.); ca_le_ti shakes, scatters, sifts (Pali); ca_le_i moves, shakes (Pkt.); calav to move, touch, strike (Gypsy); ca_l to take out, open (Pas'.); cha_wn.o~_ to strain (WPah.); ca_ln.o to winnow, sift (Ku.); ca_lnu to sift (N.); sala_iba to cause to be sifted (A.); ca_la_ to dispel, sift (B.); ca_l.a_iba_ to sift (Or.); ca_lna_ to shake, sift (H.); ca_lab to sift (Aw.); ca_l.vu~ to turn tiles on roof, to sift (G.); salanava_, halanava_ to move, shake, upset, sift (Si.)(CDIAL 4772). Image: to sift, strain; to flow: chan.in.i_ sifting (S.); chonik to beat down, shake down (Kho.); khayo pp. of khan.an.u to fall (S.); *ks.an.ati is sifted, is strained, falls (Skt.); chanun to be sifted (K.); chan.anu to be strained; to strain (S.); chan.na_ to be sifted (P.); channa_ to be strained (H.); chan.vu~ to filter, strain (G.); ca~r. to pour out (Wg.); cha_n. to pour, sow, throw (Dm.); cha_nun to sift, strain, shake down (K.); cha_n.an. to strain (L.); cha_na_ to knead, mould (B.); cha_n.iba_ to sift, strain (Or.); cha_nna_ to sift (H.); cha_n.vu~ to filter, strain (G.); cha_n.an.a sifting (Pkt.); Image: sieve: cha_n.an.i_ sieve (L.); cha_n.ni_ (P.); cha_nnu (WPah.); channa_ sieve or strainer placed over receptacle for juice in a sugar-cane mill (Bi.); chanana_ strainer (Bhoj.); Image: strainer: cha_n.o strainer (S.); cani, canri sieve (Gypsy); cha_n.i_ metal strainer (S.)(CDIAL 3643).

3881.Image: camel: sa_hnan.i_ properly a she-camel kept for riding, also applied to a male camel; sa_hnan.i_ sua_r a camel rider (P.lex.)

3882.Image: lattice: ca_lakam latticed window (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,4,1); ca_lam id. (Pin..) (Ta.); ja_la (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ja_la, ja_l.a, ja_laka a lattice, an eyelet or loophole, a window; ja_l.a-ar-ive cloth of a web-like or loose, thin, texture; ja_l.aka, ja_laka a loop-hole, an air-hole; ja_like a net (Ka.lex.) ja_lin having a net, having a window (Skt.); ja_li_aum. barred window (OG.); ja_liyu~ (G.)(CDIAL 5218). Image: spider: s'alaka spider (Skt.)(CDIAL 12345). cilampi spider (Perumpa_n.. 236) (Ta.lex.) cilanti spider (Ta.); cilanni (Ma.); seladi, selandi (Ka.); cela~di, celagamu (Te.)(DEDR 2562). kucer dress (Bshk.); kuce_la a wretched garment (Mn.) (CDIAL 3218). qacro broken; torn cloth (Malt.)(DEDR 1100). ce_l cloth; ce_lai id., saree; half a piece of cloth measuring 36 to 40 cubits (Ta.lex.) ci_lai cloth, garment (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,3,1); ci_la id. (Ma.); ci_ra id. (Te.); se_la id. (Ka.); ci_lai woman's cloth; cloth of 2 1/4 cubits; man's forelap, ko_van.am (Ta.lex.) Image: woman's garment: s'a_le (Tadbhava of ce_la), sa_le a woman's garment (Ka.lex.) sa_le, s'a_le cloth; sa_leya a weaver, kuvindaka, sa_l.eya; sa_leyava a weaver (especially of coloured cloth; sa_lehur..a a spider (Ka.); sa_le weaver (Te.)(Ka. lex.) ja_d.a, je_d.a a weaver, belonging to the lin:gavanta sect (Ka.); je_n.d.ra, de_n.d.ra (Te.); ce_t.an- (Ta.); ja_la, s'a_t.a, s'a_lika (Skt.); ja_d.a a spider (Ka.); ja_d.ike a weaver's business; an assemblage or number of weavers (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ca_t.i cloth, clothing (Ta.lex.) cat.t.ai jacket, coat, gown, cloak (Tiruva_lava_. 16,19); cat.t.e (Ka.); cat.t.a (Ka.Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: short drawers: callat.am short drawers (Ta.Ma.); tcallad.amu (Te.); calal.m, cal.m, colal.m, co.l.m perineal cloth (Ko.); cad.d.i, can.aka, can.n.a, cen.n.a breeches which reach only to the middle of the thighs; callan.a, cal(a)n.a, collana, col.n.a drawers or breeches of different length (Ka.); callan.a, calla_na short breeches reaching only to the middle of the thighs (Tu.); calla_d.amu, ced.d.i short trousers reaching only to the knee or the middle of the thigh (Te.); can.d.a_taka-, calanaka- a short petticoat (Skt.); can.d.a_taka- id. (Pkt.); cad.d.i_ short underwear; col.n.a_ short breeches and drawers (M.) (DEDR 2379). Muslin; spider; fibre; spider web; weaver: callam, callakam, callapam fibre; callaki fibre (Ta.); calla_ ?< ce_la muslin: nat.u-c-ca_mattile_ calla_-p-put.avai kul.ir ta_n:kumo_ (Tanippa_.i,240,2); thin mull of loose texture (Ta.); sella muslin (Te.); s'alla (Ka.Ma.); s'alle (Tu.); callari to hack or cut to pieces; calla_ri cloth of loose texture < jala_li_ coloured strips of cloth hanging from buffoon's dress (U.); ca_lar id. (Ta.); calli short pendant in ornaments, hangings (Man.i. 18,46, Urai); ca_likan- cloth manufactured by weavers (Nan-. 289, Mayilai); a caste of weavers; member of a caste of cinnamon peelers; ca_likai armour, coat of mail (Ci_vaka. 2217); ca_liyacci woman of the weaver caste; ca_liyan--ku_r-ai bride's wedding cloth; ca_luvai shawl: tan.t.ikaiyum po_rttit.t.a ca_luvaiyum : Pan.avit.u. 245); sa_luve id. (Ka.); ca_lvai id. (Ta.); ca_lakam < ja_laka net, rope-net; cobweb; bird's nest (Ta.lex.) s'a_mulya thick woollen shirt (RV.); s'a_mu_la (Kaus'.); s'armara sort of garment or cloth (Skt.); halam front skirt of long gown worn by men (K.)(CDIAL 12396). ca_likan-, ca_liyan- a caste of weavers (Ta.); ca_liyan a weaver (Ma.); sa_liga, sa_liya id. (Ka.); ta_lye weaver; spider (Tu.); sa_lye caste of weavers (Tu.); sa_lyetti f. (Tu.); sa_le caste of weavers (Te.); sa_li~_d.u, sa_leva~_d.u a weaver (Te.); sa_le pind.ake spider (Ga.); sa_le pat.t.u spider-web (Ga.); sa_liesi weaver (Kuwi)(DEDR 2475). ja_la net, snare (AV.Pali); collection, lattice (MBh.); net, window, collection (Pkt.); ja_lika_ veil (S'Br.); ja_lika_ chain armour (Pali); ja_li_ spider's web (Pas'.); small net (L.); small net, lattice-work (P.); network, net to carry grass, etc., bullock's muzzle (H.); zal net (Kho.); ja_l net, web (Bshk.); net, snare (P.); net (WPah.Ku.N.); net, snare, lattice (B.); net for catching birds, fish, etc. (H.); za_l net, spider's web (K.); zolu net-work, space between fingers and toes (K.); bizal spider (Dm.)(CDIAL 5213). jalakhri cord net for carrying goods on the head (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 5216). s'a_lu_ fine red cloth (M.) [cf.s'a_lmali_, s'almali_ red silk cotton]; solu a fine red cloth (K.); sa_lu_ a kind of cloth (P.H.); sa_lu (N.B.); sa_l.u (Mth.Or.); fine upper garment worn by women (G.)(CDIAL 13372). sa_hula-ci_vara a coarse cloth (Pali); sa_hunna strip of ragged cloth (Pali); sa_huli_, sa_hulia_ cloth (Pkt.); saur.h, saur. quilt, quilt worn as a cloak (P.); saur. blanket (Ku.); sor.i portion of sa_r.i_ drawn over the eyes as a veil (G.); sor.o upper garment of men or women (G.)(CDIAL 13382). cf. etyma concordant with -ci_vara in Pali form: ci_rai cloth (Ta.); ci_la, s'i_la cloth (Ma.); s'i_re female's garment (Tu.)(DED 2629). ci_val that which is loosely woven (Ta.); thinness of cloth (Ma.)(DEDR 2637). ca_likai (Ci_vaka. 2217), ca_rikai (prob. ja_gara) armour, coat of mail (Ta.lex.) ce_lai cloth, saree (Ta.); s'alla_vu muslin (Ma.); calla_ cloth without a border, as muslin (Ma.); ce_la cloth, esp. of women (Ma.); s'alya, s'alle muslin cloth without a border (Ka.); ce_la, s'alya, s'alle, s'elle, s'e_le, se_le cloth, clothes, garment (Ka.); ce.le belt, sash worn by Kod.agu man (Kod..); s'alya, s'alle, se_le, ce_le a thin upper cloth, generally without border (Tu.); sella_ a cloth without a border (Te.); ce_la, ce_lamu cloth, clothing (Te.); cela clothes, garment (Skt.); s'ela_ a sort of robe (M.)(DBIA 149). cf. ce_la cloth, garment (Pali.); id. (Gaut.Pkt.); cel.a id. (Or.); celet.i_ shirt (Pas'.); cel dress, cloak (Dm.); ceu, ce_l cloak (Kal.); hela carpet (Si.)(CDIAL 4910). ce_l cloth; ce_lai id., saree; half a piece of cloth measuring 36 to 40 cubits (Ta.lex.) Piece-goods, cloth: caval.i cloth, piece-goods (Ta.); any cloth (Ma.); javal.i cloth of any kind (Ka.); cloth (Tu.); cloths, drapery (Te.); jaul.i cloth (Tu.)(DEDR 2394). chavi_ skin, hide (TS.); skin (Pali); chavad.i_ leather (Pali)(CDIAL 5006). s'e_le, se_le (Tadbhava of ce_la) cloth; a garment (Ka.); ce_la, s'alya, s'alle, s'a_le cloth, clothes; a garment (Ka.lex.) calla-vat.t.am a kind of shield (callavat.t.a men-ucul.aka_r-r-avit.uvit.a-p-put.aiyi_re_ : Kalin.. 352)(Ta.lex.) Silk cotton tree: s'almali silk-cotton tree bombax heptaphyllum (RV.)(CDIAL 12351). kukui, kukui-ne:b-en the silk cotton tree (Savara) Synonyms: Kirtikar and Basu, Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol.I, pp.356-357: simul, tula (B.); didu, lepanbin, letpan (Burma); roka (Cambodia); buraga, kempuburaga, dudi, elava (Ka.); boicho, panchu (Garo); vallaiki (Gond); kamba (Khond); chamblero (Lambadi); sunglu (Lepcha); edelsanga (Mundari); edel (Santal); buroh (Saora); quesero, salay, talutu (Visayan.Philippines); shirlan (Sutlej).[The seeds of bombax heptaphyllum are numerous, smooth, and embedded in silky hairs. The fiber is used for stuffing pillows. cf. E. Quisumbing, Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, 1978, p. 599].

3883.Cucumber: hir.ka, ir.ka, hi_rrka_ cucumber (Go.); r.i_ka id. (Kond.a); r.i_la id. (Pe.); cilli, cill a kind of cucumber (Tu.)(DEDR 2583).

3884.Poverty; non-existence: il non-existence, death; illai it is not (in Old Tamil with a complete neg. paradigm); no; illa_mai absence, non-existence, poverty, want; illa_tavan- one utterly destitute; illa_n- poor man; ill-en-al death, negating existence; ilam, ilampai poverty; ili one who is without (at end of cpd.); in-mai total negation of existence, poverty; in-r-iya that which is not (Ta.); illa does not exist, there is not; no, not; adj. illa_; illa_yma not existence, poverty, want (Ma.); il- not to exist, not to be in a place (complete negative paradigm)(Ko.); il- id.; ilo0 not being; id-y which is not (Ko.); illa, illam., illavu is or are not; no, not; ila a man who has not, a place that is free from; illade gerund not being; illada adj. not being; illave state of not being (Ka.); ille be not (for all persons and numbers)(Kod..); ijji, iddi not to exist, not to be (Tu.); le_- (complete neg. paradigm; 3 sg. non-m. le_du) be not; le_ka without, not having; or, else; le_du no, none; le_ni absent, wanting, not having, having nothing, poor, needy; le_baramu nothing; le_mi, le_mid.i absence, non-existence, not being, want, poverty, neediness; -id.i he who has not (Te.); cila does not exist (also inflected for gender and number; 3 sg. m. cilad, neut. cila, pl. m. cilar, neut. cilav); cilaka without (Pa.); sile, sille, hille, hi_lle, hile, ille not no; hill- to be not (complete neg. paradigm; with conjugated forms of sil(l)[); ill- to be not (Go.); sil- not to be (Kond.a); hil-, sil- id. (Pe.); la_- id. (Mand..); sid.a id. (complete neg. paradigm; sid.-nanju poor man; fem. sid.anari)(Kui); hill- to be not (hille'e it is not)(Kuwi); hille is not (Kuwi); cile to forbid (Malt.); illa- poor (Pkt.)(DEDR 2559).

3886.Image: scorpion: so_r kupi scorpion (Kond.a)(DEDR 2888). Image: scorpion: ce_l.u scorpion (Tu.); ce_r..u (Ka.); te_l.u id. (Tu.); te_r..u (Ka.); te_lu id. (Tu.Te.); te_l. (Ta.Ma.); te.l.i black insect with poisonous bite (Kod..); ce_lgon.d.i sting of a scorpion (Tu.); tele scorpion (Malt.); te_lh id. (Br.)(DEDR 3470). ali, a_li scorpion (Skt.VarBr.S.); alina (Pkt.); ali_ (H.); a_li (Pali); a_li_ (H.); aliya (Si.)(CDIAL 716). te_r.., ce_r.., ce_r..u scorpion; te_r..de_ra whose vehicle is a scorpion: Bhairava (Ka.lex.) Image: to sting: te_r-u sting (as of a wasp (Ta.); ter-u (ter-uv-, ter-r--) to burn, scorch, be angry, sting (as wasp), punish, destroy (Ta.)(DEDR 3440). cf. te_l. scorpion (Ta.lex.) cf. semant. 'scorpion' and cordia: viracu, viricu, virucu large sebesten; viriyan- common sebesten (Ta.); viris'u a tree (Ma.); virigi cordia sebestena (Ma.)(DEDR 5408). cf. vr.s'cikapattrika_ the tree basella cordifolia (Skt.)(CDIAL 12082). cf. vrs'cika_ scorpion (Skt.lex.) vitsu, itsu, itsa_ scorpion (Kon.lex.)

3887.Image: crab: ho_ru kuppi crab (Kuwi)(DEDR 2888).

3888.Holy oil: te_l oil; benja_r te_l holy oil (Kon.lex.) benja_r blessed; benja_r kar to bless, consecrate (Kon.lex.)

3891.Gummy matter: ci_p, ci_par. glue, any viscous substance (P.); cipyaru one whose eyes are full of gummy matter (S.); cippn.a_, cipakn.a_, cipat.n.a_ to stick; cipr.a_ having the eyes full of gummy secretion; ci_pla_ sticky (P.); cepr.o gummy secretion in eyes (WPah.); cipro id. (N.); ciplo smooth, slimy; ciplinu to slip (N.); cep, ci_par. gummy secretion in eyes; cepna_ to stick on; cepi_, cippi_ a little piece stuck on (H.); cipr.u~, cipr.o gummy secretion in eyes (G.); cipa~_d., cipd.e~, cipd.a_ id.; cipph resin from pine trees (WPah.); cipn.e~ to have eyes closed by it; cipd.a_ affected by it (M.); ciphlo, cibhlo slippery (Ku.); chep spittle (B.); chipa, chepa spittle with phlegm (Or.)(CDIAL 4819). Phlegm: semha phlegm (Pali); semha, sem.bha, sim.bha, seppha, se_pha (Pkt.); si_pho blubber of fish (S.); s'im mucus; s'i_m (WPah.); sep vaginal secretion of goats and cows in heat (N.); xep spittle (A.); chep (B.); chepa, chipa spittle with phlegm (Or.); se_bha_ rheum, watery humour (H.); s'e~b, s'em mucus (of nose or bowels); s'e~ba_ discharge from horse's nostrils (M.); sem-a mucus (Si.)(CDIAL 12727). s.i_a~_ (Ash.); s.i~_ (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12727). s'immar mucus (WPah.)(CDIAL 12728). Phlegm; spittle: khe_t.a watery humour of the body, phlegm, snot (Car.); ks.ve_d.a poison, snake's poison (MBh.); khe_l.a phlegm, saliva (Pali); khe_d.aya poison; khe_la, khella phlegm, spittle (Pkt.); kel.a spittle (Si.); sond.a poison, snake's poison (Si.)(CDIAL 3759). Phlegm: cal.i catarrh, mucus blown out of the nose; phlegm; (-pp-, -tt-) to catch cold; cal.ippu catarrh (Ta.); cal.i mucus; semen (Ma.); jalubu a cold, catarrh, influenza (Te.); jalbu id. (Ga.)(DEDR 2409). ko_r..ai phlegm, mucus, saliva (Ta.); ko_r..e thick phlegm (Ka.); groho phlegm (Kui); krahu ki- to spit out phlegm (Kuwi); -xo_, in: tuppalxo_ saliva, spittle (Kur.)(DEDR 2249). Phlegm: i_l.ai phlegm, asthma, consumption (Ta.); i_l.a phlegm, saliva, spittle; il.i-ni_r saliva, spittle (Ma.); i.n.m (obl. i.n.t-) snot (To.)(DEDR 551). ci_ pus; mucous matter; ci_kkai phlegm; ci_ttai rottenness; ci_ttai-kkan. blear eyes; ci_r.. pus (Ta.); ci_ putrid matter, secretion of eyelids; ci_ka (ci_nnu) to rot, be spoiled; ci_kka; ci_kku rotten; ci_ccal, ci_yal rottenness, caries (Ma.); kiv pus, ear-wax; kit- (kity-) to rot, (wound, corpse) decays and stinks; gin. snot, dirt, esp. excrement (Ko.); kitil rotten (To.); ki_ to become pus, matter of a sore; kin.i any impurity of the teeth (Ka.); ki.y (ki.yuv-, ki.j-) to become rotten; cela pus (Kod..); ki_vu pus (Tu.); ci_ku, civuku, cimuku to rot; ci_mu pus; ci_mid.i snot; ci_d.a any disease of animals or plants, rot, blight (Te.); sivk- (sivikt-) to become rotten; si.m pus; ci_mur., simu_d nasal discharge; cirmur., si_mud. ear-wax (Kol.); s'i_m pus (Nk.); si_m id. (Go.); hi_ven id. (Mand..); si_vend.i, si_venji, hi_venji pus; sri_va (sri_t-), srihpa (sriht-) to rot, decay (Kui); si_wessi, si_vesi, simesi, si_mesi, si_mu, si_vend.i pus; sirhali, sri_nai to rot; sir- (sirh-) to go bad (Kuwi); kittna_ to rot (Kur.); kite id. (Malt); kitor rotten (Malt.); ki_sh pus, snot (Br.)(DEDR 1606). To rot; rubbish: cet.i bad odour, stench; that which is decayed, faded, spoiled (Ta.); dirty, as ground, dung (Ma.); cet.ikka to be dirty (Ma.); ceyt., cet., cet. ceyr. bad smell (Ko.); sid-y id. (To.); s'et.t.uni to decay, be spoiled; s'et.t.a_vuni to spoil, destroy, ruin; s'et.t.i, s'et.t. spoiled, ruined; tet.t.uni to rot, decay, be damaged, fail; tet.t.a_vuni to cause to be damaged, corrupted or failed; tet.t.u, s'et.t.u, het.t.u bad, rotten; sed.i strong, affecting the smell powerfully (Tu.); ced.u to be rotten; ced.d.a, ced.u rotten (Te.); sen.d.- to decay (Kond.a)(DEDR 2760). cetukku rottenness; cetukkikka to be rotten (Ma.); cetu (-pp-, -tt-) to lose lustre, shrink, be weak; cetukku that which is faded, dried as flowers; cetuval withering (Ta.)(DEDR 2769). cf. ket.u to decay, rot, become damaged, spoiled (Ta.); ket.uka to be spoilt, damaged (Ma.); ket.umpikka to be spoiled by drying up; ket.t.a lost, bad (Ma.); ker.- (ket.-) to be ruined, be lost (Ko.); he_d.inai to mar; hersinai to destroy, pollute (Kuwi)(DEDR 1942). Rotten: kar.ita_na_ to be rotten, rot, decay; kar.i to be rotten, go rotten; kar.ista_na_ to rot, ret (hemp)(Go.); kar.k- to go bad, become rotten (Kond.a); kr.an(g)- (kr.ant-) to go bad, become rotten (Pe.)(DEDR 1360). cettai dry rubbish, dried vegetable matter as grass, leaves, etc., hay, straw; cettal dry, over-ripe coconut on the tree, shrivelled palmyra or other fruit, dried chillies, plantain trees, vegetables or grass; cetuku rubbish, chaff, dried leaves (Ta.); cetta, cer-r-a little sticks or leaves for kindling fire or covering a hut, what is made of it, screen or wicket of wicker work (Ma.); satte, sade, sedage rubbish, dirt, stuff, trash (Ka.); sed sweeping, rubbish (Tu.); sada rubbish (Kor.); cetta id., dirt, trash, refuse; ceda_ramu trash (Te.)(DEDR 2770). cal.i (-pp-, -tt-) to become stale and sour, grow mouldy as food, as liquors in incipient fermentation, rot (Ta.); cal.ikka to grow mouldy, rotten (Ma.); cal.iya state of growing putrid (Ka.)(DEDR 2406). tusai to rot; kusa_p id. (Kon.lex.)

3892.Snow: lekor dew (Pe.); lekur id. (Mand..); liheri id. (Kui); leuri id., snow (Kuwi)(DEDR 5191). Cold: negad.i, nigad.i, nagad.i a cold, catarrh (Ka.); negad.i, negad. id. (Tu.)(DEDR 3731).

3893.Cold: rompa cold, catarrh (Te.); ropa (Kond.a); rumpa cold (in the nose)(Kuwi)(DEDR 5174). bepa_rvai coldness (Kon.lex.)

3894.Cold: s'el.o cold (e.g. water)(Kon.lex.) s'ala (Dm.); s'ale (Tir.); s'le cold (Wg.); s'ile (Wg.); s'ile (Kt.); s'lyu (Pr.); s'e_l (Wot..); s'al fever (Gaw.); s'ala, s'ol cold (Gaw.); s'al fever; s'alo cold (Sv.); s'al fever (Sh.); s'eholu, s'ehulu, s'iholu cool; cool place (K.)(CDIAL 12487). cal.i cold, chillness (Ci_vaka. 1673); tcali (Te.); cal.i (Ka.Ma.Tu.); cal.i catarrh (Ta.); tcali (Te.); cali (Ka.Ma.Tu.); cal.i mucus blown out of the nose (Tiruppu. 90); id. (Ma.); phlegm (W.)(Ta.lex.) nal.i coldness, frigidity; nal.ir (-v-, -nt-) to be cool, shake, tremble; n. cold, fridigidity, coolness, ague, shivering fits, malaria; nal.ukku (nal.ukki-) to shake, tremble (Ta.); al.un.n.uka to shake from damp, fear; al.uppu, al.uppam dampness; nal.ir a cold fit of fever (Ma.)(DEDR 2905). cal.i cold, chilliness; al.i, tal.i coolness (Ta.); cal.i, cali, sal.i coldness, cold, coolness, chill, frost, snow, etc. (Ka.); cal.i, cali, sali cold, chilliness, shivering as in ague; cold, chilly; cavul.i, cavuli cold (Tu.); talli id. (Kor.); cali cold, low temperature, sensation of cold, chilliness; calimiri, caluva, callana, calla~damu coolness, cold; calla cool, cold; calla~ga_ in a cool or cold manner, calmly, gently; calidi rice cooked in the evening and kept for use in the following morning, stale food, breakfast (Te.); talla coolness (Pa.); calandi cold rice serving for breakfast; saldi early morning (Ga.); salan cold, cool; salva breakfast; saldi id., early morning (Kond.a); salma cool; saldi mid-morning (Kuri)(DEDR 2408). sel.za_li make cold; sel., sel.i cold (Kon.lex.) jad.a cold (Skt.); jad.a, jala cold; n. coldness (Pkt.); jar. cold, numb (B.); jar.a (Or.); jar. id. (H.); jar.a_ cold, crost, winter (H.) jad. cold (M.); ja_r.o cold (WPah.); ja_r. cold (B.); zur cool (A.); jur.a_ to grow cool, rest (B.); jur.a cold (Or.); ju_r., ju_r cold (Mth.); ju_r., ju_r.a_ cold; coldness (H.)(CDIAL 5090). ja_d.ya chilliness (Skt.); jad.d.an jad.d.a_ foldness (Pkt.); ja_d.d.a_ cold, chill (O.); ja_r.o coldness (Ku.); coldness, winter (N.); za_r (A.); ja_r., ja_r.a_ (B.); ja_r.a (Or.); ja_r. (Bhoj.); ja_d.a_ (OAw.); ja_r.a_ (H.)(CDIAL 5180). jar.ahan winter rice (Bhoj.); jar.han rice reaped at the end of the rains (H.)(CDIAL 5181). thadhi cold, a cold; thadhi_ cold (S.); t.had.d.h (L.); ta_d.hi (OG.); t.a_d.h (G.)(CDIAL 13677). thaddha slow (Pali); t.had.d.ha blunted, cold (Pkt.); t.had.d.ha_, t.had.a_ cold (L.); thadho (S.); t.ha_r.o rude, gauche (N.); ta_d.hu~, t.a_d.hu~ sluggish, contented, cold (G.); dhandha dull, slow (Pali.BHSk.); than.d. cold; thand.i_ coldness (K.); t.hano cold (Ku.); t.ha~_r.o abusive name for useless cooking pot (N.); t.hand.h, t.han.d.ha_, t.han.d.u_ cold; t.han.d.a_, t.han.d.o_, t.hen.d.yon.u_ to become cold (WPah.); t.han.d.a_ cold (N.); t.ha_n.d.a_ (B.); than.d.a_, t.han.d.a_ (Or.); t.han.d.ha_ (Bhoj.); t.han.d. (Aw.); tha~d.u~, t.ha~d.u~ (G.); than.d., than.d.a_ (M.); tham.d. (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13676). s'u_r cold (Wkh.); s'o_ro ice (Pas'.); s'a_r (Shum.); s'aru cold (Kho.)(CDIAL 12671). s'ya_na congealed (Skt.); dry or hardened (of a sandbank)(Skt.); sa_n.a thickened, congealed (Pkt.); ha_nun to become very cold; hnerun (K.); sa_n.o shrunk up, torpid, wearied, powerless (S.)(CDIAL 12663). s'ya_yant freezing, pres. part. of s'ya_yati (S'Br.); hondu extreme coldness of a liquid (K.); handuru frozen hard (of a lake), very cold (K.); shandur name of a lake of SE of Pi_o_d (Bshk.); haduru pain from piercingly cold wind or frostbite (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12670). can.d.i wetness; wet, moist, humid; saniyuni to become cold, be cool, be softened; san.ipuni, sanipuni to cool, render cool, refresh, set at ease; sanipa_vuni to make cold or cool, pacify, conciliate, comfort; sampu coolness, coldness, sufficiency, competency, plenty, abundance; cool, cold, refreshing, pleasant, mild, sufficient, plenty; coolly, gently; sampa_vuni to become calm or cool; cammi dampness, moisture; can.d.ru cold water (Tu.); tan. cold, cool; grace, love; tan.uppu chilliness, cold; tan.n.i_r, tan.n.i cold water, water; tat.pam cold, coolness, fanning cold and other acts necessary for cooling the body, love, mercy; tan.n.am coldness, coolness; tan.n.-en-al expr. of (a) being cool, refreshing, (b) being merciful; tan.pu coldness, coolness; tan.mai id., calmness, gentleness, agreeableness; tan.al shade, shady spot; tan.i (-v-, -nt-) to be allayed, mitigated, appeased, soothed, abate, go out (fire); (-pp-, -tt-) to relive, appease, satisfy, moderate, put out, extinguish; n. coolness, coldness; tan.ivu abatement, etc. (Ta.); tan. cold; tan.n.i_r, tan.n.i cold water, drinking water; tan.ukka to grow cold, be cool, be refreshed, assuaged; tan.uppu coldness, moisture, appeasing; tan.uppikka to cool, refresh; tan.uvu cold; tan.al shade, shady spot; tan.iyuka to grow cool, be subdued; tan.ikka to cool, subdue, calm; tan.uvu, tan.ma coldness (Ma.); tan. coldness, calmness, satisfaction (e.g. tan.i.r cold water, ta bit. cold food, ta gu. cold cooked grain); tan. in- (id--) to become cool, abate; tayn. (tan.c--) (body) becomes cool (in fever, at point of death); tan.c- to make to become cool, calm; dan.ak in- (id--) to become limp with fatigue (Ko.); ton.f coldness; tod.wi.r- (< ton-twi.r-) stale food; to moz stale buttermilk; to(n.) n.es-of cool moonlight; ton. in- (id--) to give blessings, give prosperity; ton.y- (ton.s-) to become damp, cool, calm; ton.c- to make cool, calm (To.); tan. coolness, cold; tan.n.i_r cold or cool water; tan.asu, tan.isu, tan.n.asa coldness, frigidity, cold, coolness, wetness; tan.i to grow cool, be refreshed, satisfied, calmed, appeased, be subdued, get feeble or fatigued; n. shame, modesty; tan.ipu, tan.isu to satisfy, repress, appease; tan.ivu satiety, satiation; tan.n.age, tan.n.ane cool, cold, cooling, refreshing, in good health, happy, calm, finished (as work), extinguished (as a light); tan.n.itu, tan.n.ittu that is cold, coldness, wetness, refreshing quality, satisfaction; tan:gal.a, tan:gal.u any cold food as rice, bread, etc., stale food; dan.i to grow fatigued or tired, be satisfied or satiated; dan.ivu fatigue, satisfaction, satiety; dan.isu to cause to grow fatigued or tired, satisfy; tad.i wet, damp, moistness; cen.d.i wet (Ka.); tan.i (tan.iv-, tan.ij-) (thing) becomes cold; tan.i, tan.ipi coolness; tan.n.ane comfortably, without trouble (of living); tan-gu.l.i rice cooked previous day (Kod..); tan.u, tanu coolness, cold, quenching, appeasement; tan.n.i_r cold water; tan.asu, tanasu wetness, dampness; wet; tan.ipuni, tanipuni to cool, pacify, soothe, comfort; tan.iyuni, taniyuni to become cool, calm; tan.n.asu, tan.n.i cold; tannena cold, cool; talmena, tan.n.ana, tan.n.umen.a refreshment, revival, relief; tampu coolness, cold; cool, cold; taana rice boiled in the preceding evening, stale food (Tu.); taniyu to be satisfied or contented; taniyincu to satisfy; tanivi satisfaction, contentment; tanupu to satisfy; n. satisfaction, content, coolness (Te.)(DEDR 3045).

3895.Cold: {Echo word} cilucilu (-pp-, -tt-), jilujilu to feel chill, be cool; cilucil-en-al, jilujil-en-al onom. expr. of being cool; cill-it.u, jill-it.u to become chill; cill-en-l, jill-en-al onom. expr. of being very chill; jillu extreme cold; jilu-jiluppu coolness (Ta.); jillu the sensation produced by touching cold water (Ka.); jillum-anu to feel or be very cold or chill (Te.); jila cold (Pe.); jilin (pl.) cold (water)(Mand..); jili cold, chill; jili inba to be cold, cool; jilna coldly, coolly (Kui); julla innai to be very cold (Kuwi)(DEDR 2576). ciso cold (N.)(CDIAL 5044). s'is'ira cold (R.); cold season (AV.); coldness, dew (MBh.); sisira cold; winter (Pali.Pkt.); frost (Pkt.); sisir cold and dewy season January - March (Mth.); sisira cool season (OAw.); sisir cold; dew, hoarfrost (H.); sisara cold (OG.); sisil, sihil, hi_l-a, il- cold (Si.); s'eholu, s'ehulu, s'iholu cool; coolness (K.)(CDIAL 12475). s'ais'ira relating to the cold season (AV.); hl, l cold (Si.)(CDIAL 12617). s'i_tala cold (MBh.); si_tala cold (Pali); si_ala, silha_ (Pkt.); sialli stormy day in winter (Pkt.); s'ilalo < s'il < s'i_ta, silda cold, unhappy (Gypsy); s'ida_l cold (Pas'.); s'idol, seda_l (Pas'.); s'ida_l (Shum.); s'idul (Tor.); s'ida_lo (Phal.); s'ida_lu (Sh.)(CDIAL 12487). s'i_talayati cools (Skt.); sira_vai makes cool, becomes cool (OAw.); si_lna_ to become cool or damp; sila_na_ to cool, moisten, be damp, sweat (H.)(CDIAL 12488). selo cold, shady, damp (Ku.); selu_n.o to let get cold (Ku.); sela_unu to become cold, be disheartened (N.); sera_vai cools (OAw.); sera_b to become cool (OAw.); sera_na_ to become cold (H.); s'el. rice land which keeps humidity and coolness throughout the hot weather (M.); s'eln.e~ to grow stale (M.); s'el.o humid (Konkan.); hl, l cold, frigid, coldness (Si.); sela_pan.u to let get damp (S.); s'ellu coldness (WPah.)(CDIAL 12613). s'aitya coldness (Ya_jc.); secca coldness (Pkt.); s'e_i, s'e_ ice (Wg.); s'e_ ice (Kt.)(CDIAL 12614). s'irol. cool time [e.g. s'irol. ca_ vel. cool time of day): s'il.a_vel., s'ila_val. (M.)](CDIAL 12489). s'i_ta cold (RV.); s'i_taka cool (AV.); si_ta, si_taka cold (Pali); si_a (Pkt.); s'il cold; a cold (Gypsy); s'e cold (Kt.); si_u cold; si_o lighty chilly fever (S.); si_ cold (L.); si_a_ adj. (L.); si_, si~_ adj. (L.); si_u cold, coolness, shivering (OAw.); s'i~_ cold (Konkan.i); s'e_r.o_ cold (WPah.); si_r. dew (H.); si, sis cold (Gypsy); s'i_yate_ is cold (TBr.); s'uh, s'uhu ice frozen solid, frostbite of feet (K.)(CDIAL 12485). Cool, damp, stale: sil cool; cold, coolness; si_la_ cold, dampness; si_llha_, sillha_ damp; sillh dampness (P.); s'ilu coldness (WPah.); s'illu, s'i_l, s'i_lo_ moist; s'ila_ not sunny, a place where sun shines only a short time; s'al.a_ cold, chilly (WPah.); silo damp, moist (e.g. of a cellar)(Ku.); sial.a cold, cool (of weather)(Or.); siyara, si_l (OAw.); si_la_ cool, moist; si_l (H.); s'i_l.u~ cold, stale; shady place (G.); s'il.a_ cold, sluggish, stale (M.); hi_l cold; hiyil (Si.)(CDIAL 12487). Smallpox; hectic fever: sill hectic fever (P.); s'i_tala_ smallpox (Skt.); s'i_tala_ goddess of smallpox (Skt.); si_ari~_ small pox; siaro pock mark (S.); si_l.i_ smallpox (G.)(CDIAL 12490). s'i_to_da name of a lake (Skt.); si_to_daka having cold water (Pali); si_o_a_ name of a river (Pkt.); syodo damp, dampness (Ku.)(CDIAL 12491). Winter: s'i_taka_la cold season (Sus'r.); sia_ro winter (S.); sea_l., sia_la_ (L.); sea_l, sia_l, sia_la_ (P.); siya_la_ (H.OAw.); s'iya_l.o (G.); hl (Si.)(CDIAL 12486). Numb: sid.e, sed.e to become stiff as a limb, rope, etc., become erect from cold as the hair on the body (Ka.); si.d.- (si.d.-) (part of body), gets numb (Kol.); ci_d.- (limb) becomes numb (Pa.); sirum saia_na_ to have pins and needles after a limb has gone to sleep (Go.); d.i_ma numbness, loss of sensation in the limbs (Kui)(DEDR 2613). cf. cit.icit.i the throbbing pain of a boil when suppurating or forming (Tu.)(DEDR 2508). Image: bristle: ilir (-pp- -tt-) to stand erect as the hair stands on end from fright, etc.; sprout, germinate; cilir (-pp-, -tt-) to sprout, shoot, bristle as the hair on the body; cilir-cilir- to get goose-skin from intense emotion; ciluppu (ciluppi-) to bristle; cilumpu (cilumpi-) id., have an uneven surface by the rise of splinters, fibres, etc.; cilumpu, cilukku splinter or fibre rising on a smooth surface of wood (Ta.); sli_nga (sli_ngi-) to stand on end (hair)(Kui)(DEDR 2565).

3896.Grass-hopper: carapam grass-hopper (Ta.lex.) cf. pa_mi grasshopper (Pe.); pa_me id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4084). dempo grass-hopper (Kon.lex.) s'alabha grasshopper, locust, moth (MBh.); s'arabha id. (Skt.); salabha moth (Pali); grasshopper, moth (Pkt.); salaha id. (Pkt.); ha_lav locust (K.); sala_ grasshopper (P.); s'alo locust (WPah.); s'alo~, s'ala_, s'owa_, s'alo_ (WPah.); salau, salau~, sala_u~_, s'awo (Ku.); salaha, salau (N.); sal large green grasshopper, mantis (H.); salam.ba grasshopper (Si.); Lizard: sarabhu_ lizard (Pali); sarat.a lizard (Skt.); sarah grasshopper (H.); saraba-ya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12347). s'alak grasshopper (Dm.Shum.Gaw.Kho.); s'alo_k (Gaw.); s'alako_ (Sv.); s'a_laka (Phal.); go_dha_-s'a_laka (Phal.); Lizard: s'alaka-gok varnus lizard (Kal.); sala_n. grasshopper (Pas'.); s'alagu_ large lizard (Kho.); s'ala_ku lizard; centipede (Yid.)(CDIAL 12345). i_cal, i_yal winged white ants (Ta.); i_yal winged termites; i_ya_mpa_r-r-a moth, winged termite, grasshopper (Ma.); i_cal the white ant when winged (Ka.); isul.l.u winged white ants (Te.)(DEDR 536). cf. i_ fly, bee (Ta.)(DEDR 533). cf. cil.-van.t.u cricket (Ta.); cil.-vi_t.u id. (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 2588). cf. tul.l.an grasshopper; devil-dancer (Ma.); tul.l.u to leap, jump up (Ta.)(DEDR 3364). Image: cricket: cilli < jhila cricket (cilli cillen-r.ollar.a_ta: Tiv. Periyati. 1,7,9); cillikai < jhillika_ cricket; cil.-van.t.u cricket (M.M. 670); cil.-vi_t.u id. (Nar-. 252); id. (Ma.); cil.l.i_t.u id.; cillu_r-u cricket (Ta.); cillai id., cicada cf. cill-en-al shrill sound (Tiv. Periyati. 1,7,9); cil sound,noise (Ta.lex.) Image: cricket: ci_ri_ cricket (Skt.); ci_rika_, ci_ruka_ (Skt.); ci_ri_va_ka (Mn.); ci_ri_, ci_rika_, ci_ril.ika_ (Pali); siruva_ (Si.); siriya_ grasshopper (Si.)(CDIAL 4845). jurrela, jur..ela, ju_rel cricket (Go.); cirra cricket (Go.); jhirra id.; jir.o_la_ the hot-weather cicada bug (Go.); ju_ral id. (Pa.); ju_rol (j = dz) id. (Nk.)(DEDR 2732). ci_kuru-va_yi, ci_kura_yi cricket (Te.); ci_kuru-va_yi cockroach (Ka.)(DEDR 2606). ce_rat.e, co_rat.e, te_ran.t.i, s'e_rat.e_, s'e_ran.t.e centipede (Tu.lex.) Image: cricket: ci_ri, ci_rike a cricket (Ka.); jhi_ruke (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ci_r.. whistle, whistling (Ta.)(DEDR 2638). cf. jhilli_ka cricket (MBh.)(CDIAL 5394). High-pitched sound: cu_l.am a whistle (Ta.); cu_l.a id. (Ma.); tul.y- (tul.c-) to twitter (To.)(DEDR 2739). el. (el.v-, en.t.-) to sound; el.l.al sounding; el.ir (-v-, -nt-) to sound in a high pitch; n. gentle vibrant sound, sound; nel.ir (-v-, -nt-) to make noise; n. voice at high pitch (Ta.); el.l.u imit, sound of crash, burst (Ma.); nil.f- (nil.t-) to whistle; n. act of whistling (To.); nel.l.u to groan, moan; ner..il, nir..i a sound imitating that of breaking (Ka.)(DEDR 2932). cillat.a a creeping animal (Car.); cillaka_ cricket (Skt.); ci_l(h)ar., ci_l(h)ar, cillar., cillar louse (H.); c.yolu a certain insect or worm found in mountain lakes (K.); cilso rice-weevil (N.)(CDIAL 4828). jhilli_ka cricket (MBh.); jhillika_ (R.); jhilli_ (BhP.); a kind of insect (P.); jhillia_ id. (P.); jhallika_ cricket (Pali); zili_ cicada (A.)(CDIAL 5394). Image: cricket: cimili id. (Ta.); simri dragon fly (?Kol.)(DEDR 2541); cil.l.-en-al onom.expr. of being noisy, boisterous (Ta.)(DEDR 2588). Image: beetle: cel.lu flea, tick (Ta.Ma.); a large beetle on coconut trees, palm-worm, wood-worm (Ma.); tel., tel.l.u, tel.ku flea (Ta.); cel.l.i flea (Kod..); cek flea (Ko.); tl. flea (To.)(DEDR 2792). car.ak bhut a dog flea; camki the cow tick (Santali.lex.) s'ili a small earth-worm (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cel.l.u flea, pulicidae (W.)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); cer..ukai a worm (Civataru. 8,88); cer..ukam < jaluka_ leech (Ci. Po_. Pa_. 4,2, Pak. 264); cel.ukai id. (Civataru. 7,56)(Ta.lex.)

3897.Image: a small stick: cilli-k-ko_l a kind of small stick (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 79); cillako_la id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: splinter: laha_ slip of wood used as ticket in distributing food (Si.); laha invitation tablet, label (Si.); sala_ thin stick or bamboo, pin, spit (B.); long slender rod (Or.); s'ala_ka_ any small stake or stick (S'Br.); twig, peg, thin bar, blade of grass, arrow (Pali); s'ala_kala_ any small stake or stick (AV.); s'ala_ya-, sila_ga_ twig, splinter (Pkt.); sala_ wood, tree (Tir.); s'ala_ wood, sticks for fuel (Wot..); wood, tree (Tor.); shala~n wood (Mai.); s'ula wood (Kal.);[cf. s'u_la javelin, trident (Skt.Ta.)]; s'ala wood, roof-board (Bshk.); sara_i_ thin stick (S.); sala_i matchstick (N.); quill or twig to scratch earhole with (Or.); xala_ pin (of bamboo or wood or iron)(A.); sala_i_ short stick, coarse needle (Bi.); sara_i iron or wooden poker (Mth.); sala_i_ needle, probe, bodkin (H.); sal.a_, sal.ai_, sal.i_ pin, spike, skewer (M.)(CDIAL 12349). cf. cilpa chip of wood (Pe.); cilike stick and other small pieces of wood (Ka.); silpa piece of wood (Halbi); cilurka (pl. cilurkel) chips of wood (Pa.); hir.pe fuel; hi_rpe firewood; hirp a chip or shaving (Go.); si_lpa chip of wood (Kond.a)(DEDR 2586).

3898.Cross: silube, s'ilube a crucifix, a cross (Ka.); siluve (Te.Ma.); s'libo (Syriac); s'ali_b (H.); s'alb crucifixion (H.)(Ka.lex.)

3899.Bowl of huka: cilim the bowl of the huka in which the fire and tobacco are placed (the cilim is often smoked without being placed in the huka); cilim sengelte jalapurire hakoko lok a false alarm, a mare's nest (Santali.lex.)

3900.Image: hare: seir.i_, ser.hi_, seiyur., seiyhar., saha_, sa_ha_, sehir, sa~_ hare (L.); s'as'a hare (RV.); s'as'aka little hare (MBh.); sasa, sasaka (Pali); s'as'aka (NiDoc.); sasa, sasaga (Pkt.); s's'oi, pl. s'os'a hare, rabbit (Gypsy); scyun. hare (Wg.); soce (Wg.); si (Kat..); ca_ska (Pas'.); s'as'i_ak, s'e_s'e_k (Phal.); saho, sahyar.o (S.); saha_, saiha_, sayhar. (P.); sahot.a_ leveret (P.); sas'a_, chas'a_ hare (WPah.); saso (Ku.); xaha_ (A.); sasa_ (MB.Or.); sas, sasa_ (H.); saso (G.); saslu~ (G.); sasa_ hare (M.); sa_-va_, ha_-va_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12357). saphon kulai a hare (Santali.lex.) s'as'a_ru hare (MB.)(CDIAL 12358). soso, sosea_ hare (Kon.lex.)

3901.Image: blind in one eye: s.er.o blind in one eye (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12717).

3902.Joining of metal: sala_yi joining of metal pieces by heating them in furnace and striking (Tu.lex.) cf. kala_yi tinning (Te.lex.) sala_yisu to clear, liquidate (Tu.lex.)

3903.Measure: sala_yi a measure of paddy, varying from 5 to 12 muras; a bundle of straw having 100 sheaves (Tu.lex.)

3904.Split pulse: sala_yi split pulse as in tubari; sala_yi split dhal (Tu.lex.)

3906.Bride: tsali, tsalye girl, bride (Kon.lex. esp. among Hindu Konkans). tsalo, tsalea_ boy, used by some for bridegroom (Kon.lex.) cf. ka_sada_ra, ka_saga_r-a a groom (Ka.); kha_sa-da_ra (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ka_za_ri married; ka_za_r, ka_za_ra_ marriage; ka_za_r zata_ marry; ka_za_r kar copulate; Lat. conjunge in matrimonium; ka_za_ra_tso, ka_za_r, ka_za_ra_ bridal (Kon.lex.) khasm a husband, a master, an owner; khas own, particular, private; excellent; favourite (P.lex.)

3907.Bride: se_r.i bride (Kui); cer..umai excellence, splendour, beauty, gracefulness (Ta.); cer..ikka to be fertile; cer..u fine (Ma.)(DEDR 2789). celvi wealthy woman, lady of rank (Ta.); celvi, celve, calumi, caluvi, caluvati, caluve, calvi handsome woman (Ka.); celuva a beautiful woman, a woman (Te.)(DEDR 2786). Companion; servant: cilatan- male companion, associate, servant (Ta.); cilati confidante, female servant or companion (Ta.); celi female friend or companion, woman; celiya woman; celimi friendship; celimari male or female friend or companion; cilika~_d.u friend, companion (Te.)(DEDR 2783). Image: mischievous woman: cillai unruly mischievous disposition (as of a bull), wicked and libidinous woman (Ta.); cille a worthless, mischievous, misbehaving woman (Ka.)(DEDR 2577). ce_t.a slave (Skt.); ce_t.i_ (Mn.); ce_t.aka (Skt.); che_t.ika_ (Skt.); ce_d.a, ce_d.aka, ce_d.i_ (MBh.); ce_d.ika_, ce_la (MBh.com.); bha_ya_ce_la bad wife (Skt.); ce_t.a, ce_t.aka slave boy, rogue (Pali); ce_d.a, ce_d.aya boy, slave (Pkt.); ce_d.i_, ce_d.iya_ gir, slave girl (Pkt.); cera_ servant, slave (P.); ser inferior; seri_ maidservant (A.); cer. male servant or slave; cer.i_ maid-servant (B.); cer.a servant; cer.i maidservant, concubine (Or.); cera_ manservant; ceri_ maidservant (Mth.); ceri (Bhoj.); cera_, ceri_ (OAw.); cer slave (OH.); cer.a_, cera_ servant, pupil; cer.i_, ceri_ maidservant (H.); ced. little girl; ced.a_ boy, son; ced.u~ little child (M.); ced.u~ maidservant (Konkan.i); ced.o boy, manservant (Konkan.i); sal.aya servant (OSi.)(CDIAL 4902). cerd.u~ boy (Konkan.i); ceru_a_ slave (H.); ced.ru~_ little child (M.); maidservant (Kon.); ciruwa_da_r groom (N.)(CDIAL 4903). cf. cen.da young; cet.ra dwarfish (Sant.); cet.e stupid (Wg.); cit. (Pr.); cat.a_ (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4904). Pupil: celvan- Buddha (Ta.); son (Kampara_. Makutapan:ka. 45); celvi daughter (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ce_luka Buddhist novice (Skt.); cellaka a class of novice (distinct from ce_t.aka)(Pali); cella, cellaya, cilla boy (Pkt.); romani-cel the Gypsies (Gypsy); celo disciple (S.); celr.i_ female disciple (L.); cela_, celi_ (P.); celo son, disciple (Ku.); celo pupil, apprentice (N.); cela_ (B.Or.Mth.H.); cela (K.); celi (H.); celo, celi_ pupil (G.); celko boy (G.); celki_ girl (as terms of endearment)(G.); cela_, celi_ disciple; cili_-pili_ pl. brats, children (M.); celli, calli girl, daughter (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4911). cella-k-kaliya_n.am child-marriage; cella-mat.i premature udder of a heifer; celli female child or girl brought up delicately; petted girl (Ira_mana_. A_ran.i. 12); a village goddess; cella_yi id. (Ta.lex.) Sister: celikatte female companion; celli, celliya, cel(l)iyalu, celle, cellelu younger sister (Te.); sellay (? = selle) id. (Kol.); ca_lal (pl. ca_lacil) sister (Pa.); se_lal (pl. se_lasil)(Ga.); cella_l (pl. se_la_hk), se_la_r sister, younger sister (Go.); hela_r. sister (Go.); he_lar. (pl. he_lahk), e_lar. (pl. e_lask) younger sister; se_la_r. (pl. se_la_k) id.; eld a sister (Go.)(DEDR 2783). Young woman, wife: {Echo word} callepille youngsters (Tu.lex.) salige friendship, familiarity (Tu.lex.) tsali, tsalye girl (H.Kon.) (Kon.lex.) celvi wealthy woman, lady of rank, Laks.mi_ (Ta.); cellan- wealthy person (Ta.); calumi, caluvi, caluvati, caluve, calvi, celvi, celve handsome woman (Ka.); celuvik beauty, comeliness; celuve handsome man (Tu.); celuvamu, celuvu beauty, loveliness; celuva a beautiful woman, a woman (Te.); celvam, celvu wealth, beauty, pleasure, happiness, enjoyment (Ta.); celvikkai luxury, affluence (Ta.); callu, caluve, caluvu, calva, calvu, caluvike, calvike, celuvva, celuvu, celva, celuvike, celvike beauty, handsomeness, elegance, grace, propriety, niceness; caluvatana beauty, charming, coquettish behaviour (Ka.)(DEDR 2786). ya_ma_-gi tune played when the bridegroom takes the bride (Sh.); ya_man going, flight (RV.)(CDIAL 10468). juvel, juvli, zuvli, zuli woman, girl; ju_ar, ju_ri woman (Gypsy); yuvati young woman (RV.); juvai, juai (Pkt.); joi woman, female (D..); joi s'uno botch (D..); jo_i_, zu_i_ woman (Wot..); joi wife; joyo effeminate (S.); jo, joi_, joe (L.); jo_, jolli_ (WPah.); joi_, jwe woman, wife (Ku.); joi wife (N.); jo_i (Bhoj.); joi_ (H.)(CDIAL 10504). joila ja_nu to take a wife and maintain oneself at her expense (N.)(CDIAL 10505). joru_ wife (P.WPah.); jaru (B.); joru (Or.); joru_ (H.)(CDIAL 10506). yo_s.it (yo_s.a, yo_s.an) young woman (RV.); jo_sia_ woman (Pkt.); dos'e girl, woman, wife (WPah.)(CDIAL 10536). yuvan young; yu_nah- (RV.); junak child; adj. young, little (Gypsy)(CDIAL 10508). yuvara_ja crown-prince (R.); yuvara_jan (Skt.); juvara_a crown-prince (Pkt.); yuvarad-a viceroy (Si.)(CDIAL 10509). yuva_naka young (Skt.); yuva_na young (Pali); juva_n.a, jua_n.a young man; juva_n.i_ f. (Pkt.); jua_n.u, jua_n.i_ a youth (S.); jua_nu (S.) < java_n (Pers.); java_n., jua_n., jua_n.i_ (P.); juwa_n, jwa_n (N.); zowa_n (A.); juya_n young, strong (B.); jua_n.a young, a youth (Or.); jua_n ( < Pers.); jua_ni_ youth, manhood (Mth.); jama_n young man < Pers. (Mth.); juwa_n a youth (H.); yuvan young, best; yona young woman (Si.)(CDIAL 10510). yauvana youth, puberty (AV.); yobbana (Pali); jo_an.a, jovvan.a, juvvan.a (Pkt.); ya_wun prime or vigour of youth (K.); joban. youth (P.); jo_ba~r.~ (Ku.); joban (N.); jobana (MB.); jo_ban (Aw.); joban, jobana_ i(H.); joban (G.L.); jobhanu (S.); joban woman's breast (M.); yovun youth (Si.)(CDIAL 10537). yobbana, yobbaa youth; yobbanat.t.ha youthful; yuva young man (Pali.lex.) ce_y son, child, juvenility, youth (Ta.); cevala child at the breast (Ma.); je_vu child, lad, youth; jo_vu id., baby, female child; je_vu, jo_vu girl; jo_kulu children; je_ru pariah child (Tu.); ce_pal (pl. ce_pkul) boy, lad (Pa.); se_pal (pl. se_pakil) id.; sa_pal boy (Ga.); jo~_xas lad, youth; servant (Kur.)(DEDR 2813).

3908.To redeem: co_l(l)utal to redeem, as a mortgage (Te_va_. 1040,9); co_r-u-va_yttal to render a suitable return to one who has provided food (Mullaip. 72)(Ta.lex.)

3909.Image: tail: s'e_pha, s'e_pa tail (RV. viii.112.4; VS. xxv.7); s'e_pas skin covering the tail (Vedic.lex.)

3910.Image: penis: s'e_pha, s'e_pa penis (RV. viii.112.4; VS. xxv.7); s'epya_vant having manly power (AV. vii.113.1)(Vedic.lex.)

3911.Image: gambol, sport; handsome: celvu beauty, enjoyment, pleasure, happiness (Ta.); calu, caluve, caluvu, calva, calvu, caluvike, calvike, celuva, celuvu, celva, celvu, celuvike, celvike beauty, handsomeness, elegance, grace, propriety, niceness; caluvatana beauty, charming, coquettish behaviour; calumi, caluvi, caluvati, caluve, calvi, celvi, celve handsome woman (Ka.); celuvik beauty, comeliness; celuve handsome man (Tu.); celuvamu, celuvu beauty, loveliness; celuva a beautiful woman, a woman (Te.)(DEDR 2786). calla, cella great mirth, fun, jest, smiling, laughter; callava_d.u to frolic, sport, gambol (Ka.); calla_t.a, cella_t.a sport, fun (Ka.); cella_t.amu sport, play, toying; cella_d.u to sport, play, frolic; ceral-a_d.u to sport, play, roam about for pleasure; ceral-a_t.amu sport, play, roaming for pleasure (Te.)(DEDR 2378). cf. o_l-a_d.u to sport in water, swim, bathe (Ka.); to sport in water (Te.); o_lal-a_d.u id. (Te.)(DEDR 1068). cf. allala_d.u, allalla_d.u, alla_d.u to move, shake, tremble (Te.); alla_t.u (alla_t.i-) to wander from place to place (Ta.)(DEDR 240). lad.ati sports (Skt.); la_d.ayati courts; la_d.ayate_ desires (Dha_tup.); lalati sports; la_layati fondles (MBh.); lal.ati sports, dallies (Pali); lalai (Pkt.); ler- to desire (Gypsy); la_l.e_ti makes sport (Pali); la_le_i caresses (Pkt.); lar.a_vvu~ (G.); la_l.ile~ fondles (OM.); nalavanava_ to fondle, coax (Si.); lad. dally, fondle (Skt.)(CDIAL 10922). la_d.ana fondling (Skt.); la_laka (Skt.); la_ra husband (K.); lori_ wife (K.); la_r.a_ bridegroom (P.); la_r.i_ wife (P.); le_r.ot.u very young bridegroom; la_r.a_ bridegroom (WPah.); la_r.i_ bride (WPah.)(CDIAL 11012). cf. o_l a_t.t.u to sing a lullaby (Ta.)(DEDR 996). cf. o_l-a_d.u to have affection for, love; o_l-a_t.a affection, friendship (Ka.); or.pa (or.t-) to pine for, lust after; n. desire, lust (Kui)(DEDR 1006). lad.d.ia fondling (Pkt.); la_d.u caressing (S.); la_d. love (P.); la_d.o bridegroom; la_d.i bride (S.); la_d.la_ spoilt (of children)(L.); la_r. (Ku.); amorous dalliance (N.); fondling (Aw.); affection (H.); la_d.a_ darling (H.); la_d.ali_ (OMarw.); la_d. caress; la_d.li_ spoilt darling; la_d.o darling; la_d.i_ bride (G.); la_d. fondling; la_d.akn.e~ to fondle (M.)(CDIAL 11013). Beautiful: lad.aha lovely (Skt.); lat.abha (Skt.); lat.aha (VarBr.S.); lad.aha pleasing, beautiful (Pkt.); lad.ahi adj. beautiful (OG.)(CDIAL 10923). la_d.i_ka boy, servant (Skt.); lat.ati acts childishly; lat.va dancing boy (Skt.); lar.ka_ boy; lar.ki_ girl (P.); larika_ (Bhoj.Aw.); raklo, rakli (Gypsy); lar.ka_ (WPah.); lar.i_k (Ku.); ler.ka_ (B.); lar.ika_, lar.ka_ (Mth.); lar.ka_ (H.); lad.ikka_ spoilt child (P.); lar.ko, lar.ki (N.); la_rika_ (A.); la_d.ku~ darling (G.); la_d.ka_ (M.)(CDIAL 10924). lata_ young woman (Skt.); landa id. (Si.); lai_ term of affection for a woman (S.)(CDIAL 10929). cf. alari beauty (Ta.); alampu, lampu beauty, ornament, pleasure, magnificence (Ka.); alara_ru to shine, glitter; suit well, be proper, fit; rejoice, be pleased; alarincu to please, gratify (Te.)(DEDR 248). Delirium: alat.t.u (alat.t.i-) to tease, annoy, pester, bluster, be boisterous; n. trouble, annoyance, importunity; raving, delirium; alat.t.i bully, blusterer (Ta.); alat.t.uka to importune (Ma.)(DEDR 243).

3912.Pretty; foppish: chai appearance, conduct; chaia_ foppish (Or.); chai_l. beautiful, good (P.); chail, che_l., chail. (WPah.); chail.a, chail.a_ handsome, foppish (Or.); chavilla, chavilla_kara (Skt.); chail, chailla_ handsome (P.); chayalla foppish (N.); chail, chailla_ (Mth.); handsome, foppish, spruce (H.); chel id. (H.); elegant, foppish (G.); cha_illa bright, beautiful (Pkt.); chaila, chailla (Pkt.); chail.a, chail.a_ cunning, clever (Or.)(CDIAL 5006). chavi_ colour of skin, colour (MBh.); beauty (Skt.); ahi-cchavi snake's slough (JaimBr.); chavi skin (Pali); chavi, chai skin, body, beauty (Pkt.); savaya, havaya skin, snake's slough; siviya skin, hide (Si.)(CDIAL 5006). chabi_la_ sprightly, pretty; chabilo foppish (P.); chabi_la_ pretty (H.); chabila_ (M.); cabi_lu~ (G.)(CDIAL 5022). cf. ca.y beauty; ca.yli well; ca.yka.re handsome man (Kod..); ca_yal beauty, gracefulness (Ta.); beauty (Ma.); ca_y beauty (Ma.)(DEDR 2457).

3913.Image: copper vessel for burying treasure: cellam copper vessel as for keeping or burying treasure (Ma.); callam, calla-p-pet.t.i small brass box containing money, and betel (Ma.); cellam, cella-ppet.t.i metallic box for keeping betel leaves and areca nut (Ta.)(DEDR 2787). jeli onom. of jingle of money (Kod..); celucela tinkling noise (Ma.)(DEDR 2784). cf. co_ra milk-pot (Kor.); an earthen pot (Pa.); so_r.a_ a large earthen vessel for holding water, not food (Go.); so_ra pot; so_ra_ pitcher (Go.)(DEDR 2886). Image: vessel with long neck: cf. jha_ri_ metal vessel with a long neck (S.); drinking vessel with spout (H.G.M.); jha_r.i_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 5377).

3914.Image: to beat a drum: cilaittal to beat, as a drum (Pur-ana_. 170)(Ta.lex.)

3915.Image: to retreat: cilaittal to retreat (Pu. Ve. 1,16)(Ta.lex.)

3916.Image: tail: cilai tail (Kalla_. 26,24)(Ta.lex.)

3917.Image: bow: cilai bow (Pu. Ve. 1,10); sagittarius of the zodiac (Vita_n-a. Ya_t. 13); rainbow (Pur-ana_. 61,14)(Ta.lex.) cf. cila bow (Ma.)(DEDR 2571).

3918.Image: mountain: cilampu mountain (Pur-ana_. 143,10); mountain slope (Perumpa_n.. 330); mountain cave, cavern (Paripa_. 15,44); cilai < s'ila mountain, hill (Pu. Ve. 2,12)(Ta.lex.) s'ila_nadi name of a river on the Hima_laya; s'ila_-vr.s.t.i stone-rain: hail; s'ile, sile, sele a stone; a rock; s'aila of stone; stony, rocky; a mountain; s'aila_t.a a mountaineer, a savage; s'ailya rockiness; a mountain (Ka.M.) (Ka.lex.) cilli small broken piece of stone, etc; shivers (Kampara_. Ce_tupan. 22); jalli id. (Ka.); cillu broken piece, as of stone (Tiruppo_. Can. Alan.. 18)(Ta.lex.) cf. cilampan- chief of a hilly tract (Ain:kur-u. 264); Skanda as lord of the hilly tract (Pu. Ve. 12, Irupa_r-. 10, Kol.u.); cilavar chiefs of the desert tract (Tiva_.); people of the desert tract (Tiva_.) (Ta.lex.) calli small pieces of stone or glass, potsherd, small chips as of stone, rubble, small flat shells used for lime, small copper coin (Ta.); chip, potsherds, copper cash (Ma.); chip, potsherd (Tu.); jalli broken stone, metal (Ka.); road metal, broken stone (Te.); broken stones (Tu.); jalub small stone chips (Pa.)(DEDR 2381). Rock, crag: sil a hone, to rub and sharpen on a hone; silau to sharpen, to put an edge on; jhile mile, jilmil shining, polished, burnished, beautiful; jhalkao to shine, to flash, be burnished; jhalmal resplendent, clean and bright; jhalmalao to be trim, clean; neatly executed; jhal jhal to glisten, to glitter (Santali.lex.) s'ila_ rock, crag (AV.); lower millstone (Skt.); sila_ rock, stone, quartz (Pali); sila_ stone (As'.); stone slab (Pkt.); s'il stone for braying things on (Sh.); s'e_l large stone, rock (K.); sira brick (S.); sil (L.); stone slab used for sharpening knives or grinding spices (P.); s'il (WPah.); sili_ whetstone, hone; silo stone for grinding spices on (Ku.); sili whetstone (N.); xil stone, hailstone (A.); sil flat stone for grinding on, hail (B.); sil.a stone, grinding stone; sil.a_ hailstone (Or.); sil rock, flat grinding stone; sili_ stone, whetstone, hone, touchstone (H.); sal., sal.i_ whetstone; sala_r.i_, sala_r.u~ cobbler's whetstone (G.); s'i_l. stone (esp. smooth flat stone)(M.); sal-a rock, mountain (Si.); sillh, silh brick, hone (L.); si_l grindstone; silla_, silli_ barber's whetstone (Bi.); si_l stone (Mth.); silli_, sili_ (H.)(CDIAL 12459). sala_t. stone-cutter (G.)(CDIAL 12460). s'ila_pat.t.a stone slab (for sitting or grinding on)(MBh.); sila_pat.t.a stone slab, stone bench (Pali); sirot.o brickbat (S.); silaut.o stone to grind spices on (Ku.N.); silaut., silawat. (Bi.); sila_wat. (Bi.); silaut. (Mth.); silwat., silaut., silot. (H.)(CDIAL 12461). sira_n.i large whetstone (S.); sara_n. (G.)(CDIAL 12462). s'ila_sana stone-seat (Skt.); adj. seated on a stone-seat (R.); salasun stone seat (OSi.)(CDIAL 12463). s'aila made of stone, rocky; rock, hill (MBh.); se_la rocky; rock, crystal (Pali); se_la, sella collection of stones (Pkt.); s'e_l rock (K.); sel-khar.i soapstone (P.); sel stone slab for washing on (G.); sel-a, hel-a rock, mountain (Si.)(CDIAL 12616).

3919.A fragrance: silhaka a fragrance (Skt.lex.) sihla, silha olibanum, benzoin, Indian incense; sihlaka olibanum, u_da, lo_ba_na (Ka.lex.) s'allaki_-drava incense; s'allaki_ a kind of tree (of which elephants are very fond); sallaki name of a tree (Skt.lex.) callaki < s'allaki_ konkany resin, vel.l.aikkun:kiliyam; cinnamon tree (Ta.lex.) Benzoin: s'aile_ya produced from rocks or in the mountains (Ka.); benzoin or storax (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Olibanum. sallaki, s'allaki the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) The gum of the salai tree of India (boswellia thurifera) is called kunduru in Sanskrit... used as an incense and a local application to buboes. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 133-137). Boswellia serrata: salga boswellia serrata (Santali.lex.) sa_lhe, sa_lhi_ a tree, boswellia glabra (amyrideae) which is found to the west of Jamna in the Siwalik tract within the Punjab, but not in numbers sufficient to render it of much economic interest (Punjabi.lex.) sila_ci_ a partic. medicinal plant (AV.); sulei_ partic. bitter herb (WPah.)(CDIAL 13424). cf. sihla, sihlaka benzoin, incense; sihlaki_, sihli_ the olibanum tree (Skt.lex.) cilan:kam bark of the wood-apple tree, vil.a_mpat.t.ai (W.); cf. e_lava_luka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. silha (Skt.lex.) cf. ci_d.a_ tree from which turpentine is obtained (Skt.); a kind of perfume (Jain.Skt.); ci_d.a pine (Pkt.); cili juniper (Phal.)(CDIAL 4837). Liquidambar orientalis: silhaka (Skt.); liquid storax, rose malloes (Eng.); styra linquide (Fr.); silaras (H.B. G.); id.(Ka.Te.M.); asli, lubhani, meihsila (Pers.); mih sayelaha (Arab.); neri-arishippal, meri-arishippal [neriya_cam = erika_cu, akir-ku_t.t.u (one of five)(Ta.lex.)]; rasamalla (Ma.); is a forest tree of Asia Minor, yielding liquid storax which is an article of import at Bombay. The balsam obtained from the trunk of the tree and purified is called 'prepared storax'... It is stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, antiseptic, disinfectant and astringent. Mahomedan physicians regard it to be tonic, resolvent, and astringent... Liquid storax obtained by boiling the inner bark of the tree in water is an aromatic, semi-fluid, opaque, grey balsam. It is used for perfuming medicinal oils; also useful in bronchitis, chronic coughs of the aged, and pulmonary affections and in chronic catarrh of the genito-urinary organs, as cystitis, pyelitis, gonorrhoea, leucorrhoea etc. (Indian Materia Medica, p. 747). Liquidambar orientalis: Storax... from a small tree found in the south-west of Turkey... Collection and preparation. In the early summer the bark is injured by bruising or by making incisions. After a time the outer bark may be pared off, or the whole bark may be left until the autumn, when it is removed. The pieces of bark are pressed in horse-hair bags... The exhausted bark is used in the East for fumigation. The crude or liquid storax is exported in casks from Izmir... Crude storax is a greyish, viscous liquid with a pleasant odour and bitter taste... characteristic balsamic odour and taste... Uses: Storax is chiefly used in the preparation of friars' balsam and benzoin inhalation. (G.E. Trease and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 12th edn., London, Bailliere Tindall, 1983, pp. 326-327). Hamamelidaceae: Trees or shrubs, often with stellate indumentum... They yield stimulating expectorant balsams... hamamelis virginiana, liquidambar orientale = platanus orientalis, liquidambar styraciflua = liquidambar macrophylla official in many pharmacopoeia. Altingia excelsa: Distribution: Assam, Bhutan, Pegu, Mergui, Java and Yunnan. The resin is bitter, pungent, hot and oily; antipyretic, aphrodisiac; cures leucoderma, bronchitis, biliousness; used in scabies (Ayurveda)... The resin is known as 'storax.'... Rassamala resin contains benzoic and cinnamic aldehydes. Arabic: basiasayal, meaahesayelah; Assam: jutili; Burma: nantayok, nantayop, nantayu; Ceylon: rasamala; Deccan: silaras; Gujarat: silaras; Hindi: silaras; Indo China: to hap binh khang; Malayalam: rasamala; Marathi: shilaras; Persian: aslelubni; Sanskrit: ashmapushpa, chala, chanchalatailaka, dhumra, dhumravarna, java, kalka, kapichanchala, kapinama, kapisha, kapitail, karevar, kritrima, kritrimaka, lepana, muktimukta, pavana, pindatavara, pindita, pinyaka, pishtaka, pitasara, sainhikarasa, shaja, shalakidrava, siddha, silhapindaka, silharasa, sugandhika, tailakhya, tailaparni, turashka, vrikadhupa, yava, yavala; Tamil: neriyurishippal; Telugu: shilarasamu; Urdu: silaras. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 1007-1008).

3920.Image: river: cf. silka, ilka small river (Go.)(DEDR 2569). siliku, siluku to come in contact with, to fall on (as water)(Ka.lex.) cilampam the freshet in the river Ka_ve_ri as in the month of Cittirai; cilampam-a_r-u the sacred stream of the Ar..akar hills, in Madura district (Cilap. 11,108)(Ta.lex.) Tributary stream, rivulet: cir-r-a_r-u rivulet (Ta.); id. (Ma.); tributary stream; cir-r-i-ya_r-u small river (Man.i. 15,82) (Ta.lex.)

3921.Image: a hasp: cilaka a hasp (Ka.); silka a leaf-cup pin (Go.)(DEDR 2561). Image: mixed, joined: {Echo word} hilu mixed (S.); hili-mili unitedly, jointly (N.); hil-mil (H.); hel-mel unitedly (P.)(CDIAL 14119). Image: entangled: silku an object to entangle or catch game; silukisu to cause to be entangled; siluku, siliku, sikku to become entangled; siluku, sid.uku, sillu troublesomeness (Ka.); cilugu, silugu, ceruvu mischief (Te.); cilukku intricacy; trouble, impediment; siluku-gudure a troublesome, vicious, restive horse (Ka.lex.)

3922.Image: churning: cf. ciluku to churn (Te.); ciluppi a churning staff (Ta.)(DEDR 2570). ciluppu-tal to whirl round (Tiv. Periyati. 10,8,2); to churn (Ta. colloq.); to stir, agitate (Ta.lex.) Image: circle, car wheel: cilli < cil circle (Pin..); car wheel (Kampara_. Kat.iman.a. 71)(Ta.lex.)

3923.Image: to distil; drop; stone: jalugu place where water drops or oozes (Ka.); jalug, jalub id. (Pa.); jalla spring (Kuwi); jalka'a_na_ (of the rains) to percolate and soak the ground thoroughly, so that in low-lying spots water oozes out or opens new springs; refl. pass. jalka_rna_ (Kur.)(DEDR 2373). ks.alati flows (Skt.)(CDIAL 3664). gal.a a drop; gal.a_gal.am. gachati goes from fall to fall (Pali); gar.o hail (S.); gar.a_ (L.P.); gad.a large stone (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3969). gad.ati drops, distils, runs as liquid (Dha_tup.); gal.ati drips, trickles, rains, falls (Pali); gar.an.u to drip (S.); gariba to roll (as water)(A.); gar.a_ to ooze out; gar.a_na_ to make slide or roll (B.); gar.iba_ to flow down, fall, wallow, roll, pass (of time)(Or.); gar.hab to be melted, dissolve (Mth.); gar.na_ to sink into (H.); gar.vu~ (G.); gad.n.e~ (M.); galanava_ to ooze (Si.); gal.anava_ to dissolve (OSi.)(CDIAL 3973). gad.ita distilled (Skt.); gar.i rainwater flowing out from a village on to the fields (B.)(CDIAL 3976). kha_ra flowing, dropping (Pkt.); ks.a_ra flowing; juice, essence; treacle (Skt.)(CDIAL 3675). jha_ra_ stream of water from the perforated bottom of a pot to water a plant (B.); dropping of water, water fall (L.); jha_ro diluted with water (S.)(CDIAL 5373). jha_rnu to pour out (N.); jha_riba_ to let fall, drop (Or.)(CDIAL 5376). jha_lra_ spring of water (H.)(CDIAL 5380). jhara waterfall; jhari_ river (Skt.); waterfall (H.); fountain-head (M.); jhar cloud (L.); flow, fall (Mth.); zori ravine (A.); jhar, jhari waterfall (B.); jhara natural spring, waterfall (Or.); jharo fountain, spring (G.); jhar-mar drizzle (G.); jhara_ spring of water (M.)(CDIAL 5343). jharan.a water from a cascade (Npr.Skt.); falling, dripping (Pkt.); oozing or trickling down, spring, cascade (Or.); jharn.o spring of water (S.); jharna_ grating in a waterway, cullender (P.); waterfall (N.); cascade, waterfall (Mth.Bhoj.); jharan an oozing out, dropping (of corn)(B.); jharan. flow of water, leakage, spring (G.)(CDIAL 5344). jharai drips, falls (Pkt.); jharan.u to ooze, trickle, emit semen (S.); falls off (OAw.); jharan. to ooze, leak, drop, fall (L.); jharna_ to have emission of semen in sleep (P.); to ooze, trickle away (H.); jharnu to drip, fall (N.); zariba to ooze out, shed tears (A.); jhara_ to ooze out, drip, fall off (as leaves)(B.); jhariba_ (Or.); jharab to trickle, fall (Or.); jharal to fall (Bhoj.); jharab to fall (of leaves)(OAw.); jharvu~ to ooze, drip, shed, melt (G.); jharn.e~ to trickle, ooze (M.); jharta_ subsides (Konkan.i); jharakn.e~ to run off (M.)(CDIAL 5346). jhara_l, jhala_r excavation by the side of a river from which water is drawn for irrigation (P.)(CDIAL 5347). jhad.ai hastens, makes fall (Pkt.); jar. to fall off (Pas'.); jharan. to drip, ooze (L.); jhar.n.a_ to fall off, be shaken off, be emitted (of semen)(P.); jhar.nu_ to fall (WPah.); jhar.n.o to drop down (Ku.); jharnu to fall (N.); jhar.iba_ to fall (Or.); jhar.na_ (H.); jhad.n.e~ to be shed or cast (of leaves, etc.)(M.)(CDIAL 5328-a). sar.a_na_ to drip (of water from wet clothes)(Go.); ha_r. (leaves) to fall (Pe.); (leaves) to fall off (Mand..)(DEDR 2404). jad.i, jid.i fine continuous rain (Ka.); jhad.i_ continuous rain (Pkt.); long continued rain (M.); jhari showers (N.); zari continuous rain for several days (A.); jhar.i_ continued rain or wind (S.); continued rain (P.); rain (WPah.); incessant rain (Ku.); continuous wind and rain (Or.); showers (H.); continuous heavy rain (Marw.G.); jhar. large cloud (L.); clouds covering sky, heavy rain (P.); storm, high wind (B.); jhur.u heavy clouds (S.); jhur.i_ rainy weather (Si.)(CDIAL 5329). ca_r-u flow, issue (Ta.); ca_ral drizzling rain (Ta.); ca_r-uka drizzle (Ma.); ca_r-al, ca_r-r-al (Ma.); mar..a ca_r-r-al drizzling rain (Ma.); ja_ru drop or ooze out, flow (Ka.)(DEDR 2482).

3924.Image: spring, fountain-head: sela, selaye_r-u waterfall, cascade (Te.); sele spring, fountain-head (Ka.); jela a spring of water (Te.)(DEDR 2785). zar, zari fountain (Kon.lex.) To trickle: co_r.- to trickle (Pa.); ho_r.- (-t-) to drip (Pe.)(DEDR 2893). cf. co_r (-v-, -nt-) to trickle down as tears, fall, drop, exude, ooze out (Ta.)(DEDR 2883). jo_gu waterfall (Ka.); id., cataract (Tu.)(DEDR 2874). To oscillate: jo_l(u) (jo_ld-/jo_t-) to hang down, move to and fro, swing, oscillate, dangle (Ka.); jo_li, jo_le swinging, hanging (Ka.); jo_la_t.a oscillation, hanging; jo_ta_d.uni to wave, move, oscillate (Tu.); jo_la lullaby, cradle song (Te.); ho_l-, o_l- to shake; caus. ho_lh- (Go.)(DEDR 2889). To move: ca_lana causing to move or go; causing to pass through a sieve, sifting; moving to and fro; wagging; making loose; sam.ca_lana the act of causing to move about, that of shaking (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) ca_lita moved to and fro, shaken; ca_lata_ that is in motion (M.); ca_lati-daptara the records required for current business; ca_la, ca_lu the state of being movable or in motion, shaking (Ka.Tu.)(Ka.lex.) salila water, sea (RV.); sarira (VS.); salila water (Pali.Pkt.); salila_ large river (Pkt.); silil-a water (Si.); sal move (Skt.)(CDIAL 13288). cf. salbal restless movement (e.g of insects)(N.); sal.val.vu~ to move (G.)(CDIAL 13284). s'alati moves, goes (Dha_tup.); salana moving, shaking; salayati shakes (Pali); s'al to occur, be found (Ash.); s'al move (Skt.)(CDIAL 12346). cala movement (Skt.); cal spreading out of a river over low lands, flood (L.); cal. deviation from rule or promise, slipperiness (M.)(CDIAL 4714). cala trembling, unsteady (MBh.Pali.Pkt.); col bankrupt (Kho.); sala shaking, moving (Si.)(CDIAL 4713). {Echo word} calana tembling (Pa_n..); adj. calana wandering (MBh.); trembling; excitement (Pali); calan.a, calan.a_ going, conduct (Pkt.); calan gait, practice, usage (B.); cal.an.i (Or.); calan.a walk, gait (OMarw.); cal.an. conduct, currency (G.); cal.an.-val.an. movement, deportment (M.)(CDIAL 4716). [calli small copper coin (Ta.); copper cash (Ma.); jalli metal (Ka.); road metal (Te.)(DEDR 2381) jeli. onom. of jingle of money (Kod..); celucela with a frizzling, tinkling noise (Ma.)(DEDR 2784)]. cal move, tremble (Skt.); calayati causes to move (Pa_n..); cale_ti shakes (Pali); pa~_-cal to chase away (Ash.); ca_li to summon (Pr.)(CDIAL 4717). calavalan.a fidgeting (Pkt.); cal-bal restlessness (N.); cal.val.vu~ to fidget (G.); cal.val. (M.)(CDIAL 4718). cala_cala evermoving (Pa_n.); cara_cara (Pa_n..); movable (Pali); in constant motion, unsteady (Pali.Pkt.); cola_l belongings, property (Pas'.); cal.a_l. excessive trembling through fear; cal.a_ln.e~ to flow copiously (M.)(CDIAL 4719). [cf. celvam, celvu wealth, prosperity (Ta.); cellam prosperity, private treasury (as of a king)(Ta.); wealth (Ma.)(DEDR 2786)]. calita shaking, trembling (MBh.); disordered of mind (Skt.); shaking, wavering (Pali); calia (Pkt.); caryo mad (S.); carya_, caria_ (L.)(CDIAL 4720). sel.e to draw, pull, pull off, rob, pull about, (also sal.e) to rush forward with impetuosity (as the water of a stream or river); n. pulling, pulling off, robbing, force of a stream (Ka.); sel. force (Tu.); celuku to pull out (as the eyes)(Te.)(DEDR 2791). Image: to pour out water; to overflow: cf. jala water (MBh.)(CDIAL 5155). callu (calli-) to sprinkle water (Ta.); callu, cel, cellu, celan:ku to scatter, pour out, shed, spill; callisu, cellisu to cause to scatter etc.; calaku, calan:ku, calan:gu to let go from the hand, discharge, throw away; jellane with a violent gush (of water); cal.e, cal.eya, cal.aka, cal.aya, cal.iya sprinkling (Ka.); cell- (celli-) to throw away (liquid), scatter (grain)(Kod..); calluni to spill, shed; celluni to sprinkle, spill, shed; spill, drop; cella_t.a scattering, spilling (Tu.); callu to sprinkle, scatter, strew, spread, cast or throw loosely, sow; callakamu sprinkling, watering, irrigation; jallu rain, a shower, spray of rainwater etc.; v.i. = callu (Te.); sall- to sprinkle (Nk.); cal- (rain) falls in a shower (Pa.); jall- to sow seed, scatter (Ga.); jal- to strain water from boiled rice; jall- to swill with water; all- to sprinkle (water)(Go.); jallinai to scatter; jal- (-it-) to throw out liquids (Kuwi)(DEDR 2384). jalla_ mass of water, reservoir (H.); jalla moisture, wet dirt, sweat; jallika_ drop of sweat, dirt (Pali); dli dirt (Si.)(CDIAL 5165). jalthal broad sheet of water (P.); flood (N.); sheet of water (H.); jalt.hal id. (H.)(CDIAL 5159). jala_s'aya expanse of water, lake (Mn.); zala_h large expanse of standing water (A.)(CDIAL 5160). al.akam water (Ta.); al.aka, al.l.aka neither thick nor thin, as applied to fluids (Ka.); anuku semiliquid, semifluid (Te.)(DEDR 298). aluku to sprinkle, scatter (rice etc. in a net to lure birds)(Te.); alk- to sprinkle (Kol.); al.k- id. (Nk.); alk- id. (Pa.); r.anj- to bail out (water) by sprinkling (Mand..); la_nja (la_nji-) to sprinkle, scatter around; n. sprinkling; lanj- to bail water with hands (Kui); r.anj- to bail out (pool, by sprinkling action); ra_njali to bail out; lanjinai to scatter, speckle (Kuwi); alavu (alavi-) to spill (Ta.)(DEDR 305). cf. nol. to bale out as water (Ta.)(DEDR 3790). cf. calacala onom. expr. of purling as of water (Ta.); cala-cal-en-al onom. expr. of rustling as of dried leaves, sounding as of drizzling rain; calacala (-pp-, -tt-) to rustle, be talking incessantly (Ta.); calacala the rippling of a current or streamlet, the noise of falling leaves etc. (Te.)(DEDR 2366). chara flood (S.); chalnu to churn (e.g. whey)(WPah.); chalchali mutnu to micturate through fear (N.); sal.n.e~ to boil up (M.); chalakna_ to be split (P.); chalakka splashingly; chalkanu to splash, fluctuate; chachalkinu to be shaken up in a bottle (N.); chalakna_ to be split (N.); chal.ko splash (G.); cha_l jump (K.); chall overflowing of water, very heavy rain (L.P.); chala_r wave (Ku.); cha_l (N.); spray, wave (H.); alla waterfall, rapids (Si.); chalko shower of rain (S.); cha_lak waver (G.); chalka_vu~ to be split (G.)(CDIAL 5002). cf. jala water (MBh.); jad.a (BHSkt. ii,237); jala water (Pali.Pkt.); zal urine (K.); jaru water (S.); jal-thal flood; jal water (N.); zal (A.); jala_-ta_l flood (N.); zali_ya_ river-bank (A.); jal.ia_ watery (Or.); jalua_ (B.); jal water (B.H.); jal. (G.M.); jala_ mass of water, tank, lake (H.); marsh, marshy (B.); jal.a_ watery, moist (Or.); jal.i_ moat, fen, bog (Or.); jol cream (Pas'.); zilar (Dm.); jile_r.i_ (Phal.)(CDIAL 5155). jhal.iba_ to drip, be soldered (Or.)(CDIAL 5353). jha_lra_ spring of water (H.)(CDIAL 5380). jha_l.an. soldering, solder (G.)(CDIAL 5381). jaloiki to throw, sprinkle, scatter (e.g. seed, earth, manure)(Sh.); jha_lan.a_ to gild (P.); za_liba to solder (A.); jha_la_ (B.); jha_l.iba_ to clear out silt from a well, to solder (Or.)(CDIAL 5382). cf. jhillai bathes; jhilli_ wave (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5392). cf. jha_ro diluted with water (S.); jha_ra_ dropping of water, waterfall (L.); stream of water from the perforated bottom of a pot to water a plant (B.)(CDIAL 5373). cf. ca_ral drizzling rain (Ta.); ca_r-r-u mar..a id. ()Ma.); ja_r-a, ja_r-ike, ja_r-uvike flowing, trickling (Ka.); ja_rupad.i, ja_rpad.i running away (Tu.)(DEDR 2482).

3925.Treasure: se_vadhi, s'e_vadhi wealth-receptacle: one of the treasures of Kube_ra; a hoard, a treasure; s'e_va treasure, wealth; hapiness (Ka.lex.) s'e_va_ra treasury (RV. viii.1.22); s'e_va dear, precious (RV. i.73.2; i.69.4; i.58.6); s'e_vadhi treasure, wealth (RV. ii.13.6); s'e_vadhi-pa_ guarding treasure (da_sah s'e_vadhipa_ arih: RV. viii. 51.9); s'e_vr.dha affording delight, dear (RV. v.87.4); s'e_vya dear (RV. i.156.1)(Vedic.lex.) se_v to watch over, guard, protect; se_vita protected, preserved; attended upon; se_vya to be taken care of or guarded (Skt.lex.) cf. celvam, celvu wealth (Ta.); cellam id. (Ma.)(DEDR 2786). ce_maniti riches kept in reserve, reserve funds; deposit to meet one's needs in the future; treasure-trove; ce_ma-vaippu id. (Tiv. Ira_ma_n-uca. Nu_r-. 22); ce_mam stronghold, secure place (Periyapu. Amarniti. 16); hoard, treasure-trove (Pirapulin.. Cittara_. 49); ce_ma-cey-tal to keep covered, protected (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvuyir. 69); ce_ma-vil bow kept in reserve (Cilap. 2,42, Urai.); ce_matte_r war-chariot kept in reserve (Kampara_. Mutar-po_r. 105)(Ta.lex.) ks.e_ma guarding something got, good fortune (Pkt.); habitable (MBh.); ease, happiness (RV.); khe_ma tranquil; peace (Pali); living at ease (Pkt.); khi~_ welfare (S.); khem well-being (G.); khev an evil accident (M.); kema feast, happiness, magic to avert mischief (Si.); semin, hemin softly, quietly (Si.)(CDIAL 3745). s'e_va, se_va happiness; treasure, wealth (Ka.lex.) cemmai goodness, soundness, good condition; ceyya correct, perfect, sound; cevvi season, gracefulness; cevvu rectitude, soundness; ce-ceve_ properly; cevvai correctness, sound condition as of mind, body (Ta.); cemmu straightness, prosperity; cemme_ well, straightly; cevva correctness; cevvu, covvu propriety, straightness (Ma.); say, sey, cey straightness, propriety, merit; saytu straightness, propriety; sayte rectitude; sayda man of rectitude, honest man; saypu propriety, justice, virtue, merit; sasina straightness, rectitude, propriety; sasine straightly, properly, nicely; sa_vagisu to make straight, proper or nice (Ka.); sajji good, proper, healthy; well, nicely (Tu.); sai adv. it is right; sahi proper, correct, right (Tu.); sasi straight, good, proper, well, healthy; soundness, good order (Te.); sasiga_ straightly, well, properly (Te.); saki_ straight (Kol.)(DEDR 2747). ks.e_pan.a putting or placing anything on or in; ks.e_pa throwing, casting; laying on (Ka.lex.) se_ma, ce_ma, ke_ma, ks.e_ma residence, place of rest; well-being (Ka.lex.)

3926.Treasury: cf. s'eva_ra treasury (RV. viii.1.22); s'e_vadhi-pa_ guarding treasure (RV. viii.51.9); s'e_va dear, precious (RV. i.73.2; RV. i.69.4; RV. i.58.6); s'e_vadhi treasure, wealth (RV. ii.13.6) (Vedic.lex.) cf. seur.a_ a Jain mendicant (P.); sevir.o a class of Hindu devotees (S.); sevr.o a Jain monk (G.)(CDIAL 13592). Treasure: cellam private treasury, as of a king (Na_.); cellan- wealthy person (Ta.lex.) celvam wealth, riches (Na_lat.i, 2); immensity, prosperity, flourishing state (Tiruvil.ai. Meykka_. 29); celvu wealth, prosperity, beauty, enjoyment, pleasure, happiness (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 4,7); celvan- wealthy man (Na_lat.i, 298); lord (Cirupa_n.. 97); celvi wealthy woman, lady of rank (Ka_cippu. Talavi. 29); Laks.mi_; celvikkai luxury, affluence; cellam opulence, prosperity (Ta.); cellam wealth (Ma.)(DEDR 2786). cellit.am prosperous circumstances (Na_lat.i, 149); celva-k-kit.appu immense wealth (I_t.u, 1,3,1)(Ta.lex.)

3927.Perfume: ks.e_ma, ce_ma a kind of perfume (ks.e_ma villa diddaru_ he_mada_s'e bid.a = does not give up the desire for gold, though not possessing the ks.e_ma perfume)(Ka.lex.) s'aivalam a kind of fragrant wood; s'aile_ya fragrant resin; benzoin (Skt.lex.) ce_lo_tam sandalwood tree (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ca_yam colour (Ta.) Sandal; aromatic: ce_va-maram Malay sandal; ce_vai Malay sandal, sandoricum indicum; ca_yamaram id. (M.M. 464) Sandoricum indicum = sandoricum koetjape: thitto (Burmese); sevai (Ta.); sevamanu (Te.); root: aromatic, carminative, stomachic, antiseptic, astringent, used in diarrhoea and dysentery; toxic bitter substance; habitat: tropical forests of Pegu and Tenasserim; largely cultivated in the Western Peninsula, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula and Burma (GIMP, p.220). Sandoricum koetjape or indicum or melia koetjape or sandoricum ternatum: santo_l (Philippines); also reported from Siam and Indo-China throughout the Malayan region... the leaves are trifoliate... the seeds are large and are surrounded by translucent or pale, acid, edible pulp of good flavour. Peeled, quartered, and cooked in syrup, santo_ls make delicious preserves... the fresh leaves, applied to the skin are sudorific, and in decoction they are used for baths in cases of fever... Kartikar and Basu state that the roots, which are bitter, are prescribed in Amboina, bruised with vinegar and water, as a carminative and also in cases of diarrhoea and dysentery... the roots are much used in Malayan medicine as a preventive after childbirth and a generl tonic. The pounded bark may be applied to ringworm. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 486-487).

3928.Sandal: ce_va-maram Malay sandal; cf. ca_yamaram < cha_ya_ + Malay sandal, sandoricum indicum (M.M. 464); ca_yappet.t.i small lacquer boxes with compartments; dyed ola-covered baskets with compartments (Ta.); ca_yucciyakka_rar < sa_yujya + Lin:ga_yats as seeking absorption into the deity (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) ce_rvai-c-cantan-am compound sandal paste (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

3929.Gum: cal.i resin (Tailava.)(Ta.lex.) s'e_vala slimy (AV. i.11.4)(Vedic.lex.) silesa gum (Pali.lex.) To stick: jilet to stick to, to adhere, as a plaster; jalat to stick, to adhere, to press against (Santali.lex.) jir gum, any adhesive (Ko.); jerre_ gum, resin (Kur.)(DEDR 2556). Stickiness: s'lis.t.a clinging to (Skt.); silit.t.ha adhering (Pali.Pkt.); embraced, touching (Pkt.); silut.u sticking to, smooth, polished (Si.); silit.u touching (Si.)(CDIAL 12739). s'lis.yati adheres to (ChUp.); lissai, sili_sai embraces (Pkt.); lisinu to adhere to, be sticky (N.); lisna_ to be sticky (H.); lihanava_ to unloose, untie; lissanava_ to slide, cause to untie (Si.)(CDIAL 12740). s'le_s.a adhering to (R.); sile_sa embrace (Pali.Pkt.); le_sa (Pkt.); lhes, les stickiness (H.)(CDIAL 12741). s'le_s.ayati connects (Dha_tup.); s'le_s.ita (MBh.); sile_sai embraces (Pkt.); le_san.a joining (Pkt.); lesn.o to stick together (Ku.); lesi_n.o to be stuck, be entangled, be confused (Ku.); lesnu to stick, besmear (N.); lesiba_, nesiba_ to smear, plaster (Or.); lhesna_, lesna_ (H.); lesn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 12742). se_sia connected, made slippery (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12722). s'ranthayati ties, connects, arranges (Dha_tup.); s'a~_dn.u to attach (a ploughshare) (WPah.)(CDIAL 12680). sisai embraces (Pkt.); abhis'ris. binding together (RV.); a_-s'lis.ati embraces (R.)(CDIAL 12795). sit.t.ha joined (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12706). cf. ca_ttu to anoint (Ta.)(DEDR 2448). Merchants: cile_t.t.ar < s're_s.t.hin merchants; cile_t.t.i member of the Chet.t.i caste (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) s're_s.t.hi, set.t.i the head or chief of a company following the same trade, a president or foreman of a guild or corporation (Ka.); set.t.i, set.t.a a respectful compellation for a banker, merchant or tradesman, and for certain men of the arts of industry (potters and oil-millers); the head or chief of a caste (Ka.); s'e_t.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) Resin; gum; glutinous: s'lis.yati ahders to (ChUp.); lissai, sili_sai embraces; sisai (Pkt.); lisinu to adhere to, be sticky (N.); lisna_ to be sticky (H.); lihanava_ to unloose, untie; lissanava_ to slide, cause to untie (Si.)(CDIAL 12740). s'lis.t.a clinging to (Skt.); silit.t.ha adhering (Pali.Pkt.); embraced, touching (Pkt.); silut.u stiking to, smooth, polished; silit.u touching (Si.)(CDIAL 12739). s'le_s.a adhering to (R.); sile_sa embrace (Pali.Pkt.); le_sa (Pkt.); lhes, les stickiness (H.)(CDIAL 12741). s'lis.t.a clung to, adhered to; s'le_s.a adhering or clinging to; embracing; union, junction, contact (Ka.lex.) cile_t.ai < s'le_s.a pleasing combination of words (Jn-ava_. Ta_cu_ra. 53)(Ta.lex.) Image: joining: pras'lita a type of sandhi (< joining?); s'lis. stick to (Skt.); s'le_s.yati connects (Dha_tup.); s'le_s.ita (MBh.); sile_sai embraces (Pkt.); le_san.a joining (Pkt.); lesn.o to stick together (Ku.); lesi_n.o to be stuck, be entangled, be confused (Ku.); lesnu to stick, besmear (N.); lesiba_, nesiba_ to smear, plaster (Or.); lhesna_, lesna_ (H.); lesn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 12742). s'le_s.man mucus, phlegm (S'Br.); glue (A_past.); sile_suma phlegm (Pali); silemha, silimha (Pkt.); lim mucus from nose (Gypsy); li_ma (D..); lim phlegm, mucus from nose (L.); sile_sa phlegm (Pkt.); les' glue (D..); s.ile_s. (Kal.); s.olos.p (Kho.); lesu mucus from nose, glutinosity (S.); les glue (L.); glutinosity (P.); liso glue, resin (Ku.); liso birdlime (N.); lesyailo, lisyailo sticky, slippery, flexible, soft (Ku.); lehuka_ flexible (A.); lhes, les stickiness, paste (H.); sile_s glue (WPah.); siri_s' (Pers.); salex (Psht.); li_s' small amount left remaining in a receptacle (K.); lesat. oil or other substance left sticking in a pot (M.)(CDIAL 12744). Small portion: le_s'a small portion, bit, atom (ChUp.); le_sa bit, a little (Pali.Pkt.); le_s'a a little (Pas'.); les small portion (Ku.); les a little (N.); littleness (H.); lesa a little (Si.); lis', las', la_s' small portion, fragment (K.)(CDIAL 11117). s'le_s.mala abounding in mucus (Pa_n..gan.a); s'le_s.man.a slimy (S'Br.); lesiru sticky, viscid (S.); s'le_s.mika relating to phlegm (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 12745). lesva_ a common field weed (P.); lisu ficus elastica, fruit of lauranthus, sticky substance made of mistletoe berries (N.); lehu a coarse grass (A.)(CDIAL 12747). Gum: las'a gum (Skt.); las'i_ka_ serum, sugar-cane juice (Car.); lasika_ spittle (Skt.); lasa-gata sticky; lasi_ brains; lasika_ fluid in joints (Pali); lasaka milk of a tree; lasira sticky; lasua oil (Pkt.); lasyailo sticky, slippery (N.); lasa_, nasa_ pus, juice of tree or fruit; lasi sticky juice (Or.); las viscosity (H.); las serum, pus (M.); lahat.u, la_t.u gum, resin (Si.); laso smooth (S.); las glue (P.); la_sa clamminess, juice, gum, birdlime (Or.); lassa_ viscosity (H.); glue (N.); la_sa_ viscous sap of plants, gum, birdlime (H.)(CDIAL 10992). rasika_ sugarcane juice (Skt.); rasia_ pus, pus and blood (Pkt.); rasi_ thick liquid, pus (G.); ras'i pus (Konkan.i); rahi sugarcane juice (A.); rasi (B.;)(CDIAL 10661). lasai sticks (Pkt.); las- to be left over (Wg.); lasun to survive, live, live well (K.); lahan.u to descend, dismount, stop; pp. latho (S.); lahan. to descend; pp. lattha_ (L.); lahin.a_ (P.); lasna_ to be sticky (H.); lasvu~ to slip (G.)(CDIAL 10994). latth gummy infusion of certain medicinal seeds (P.)(CDIAL 10996). les- to slip, slide; lisay to loosen, untie (Pas'.); la_sna_ to be sticky or glutinous (H.)(CDIAL 10997). la_sa broth (Skt.); la_s pea-soup (B.); la_s broth, pea-water (H.)(CDIAL 11040). Loose: slinga (slingi-) to be plucked, untied, loosened; slipka (< slik-p-; slikt-) to loose, untie, pluck off (Kui)(DEDR 2585). s'ithira loose, slack (RV.); s'ithila loose (TS.); sat.hila, sithila loose Pali); s'is'ila (Dhp.NiDoc.); sad.hila, sid.hila (Pkt.); cicila soft (Ash.); cicil (Wg.); cicil (Kt.); cicil (Pr.); chil (Bashg.); s'i_lu roomy, slack, loose (Sh.); lihil loose, slack, soft, simple (Si.); silyo lazy (S.); s'illo, s'ello loose (WPah.); sahil, sail (M.); sad.lu (Konkan.i); d.haila_ lazy, loose (P.)(CDIAL 12601). siliyanava_ to loosen (Si.)(CDIAL 12602). s'ilhe_rnu_ to loosen (WPah.); sahila_vin.e~, saila_vin.e~ to loosen (M.)(CDIAL 12603). lase_w to untie (Par.); laseie lets loose (Kt.); la_s- to release (Pas'.); lasim I let fall, loose, release (Kal.); lazoiki to unstring (a bow)(Sh.); la_hin.u to lower (S.); la_han. to take down (in mng. to pay off a debt)(L.); la_hn.a_ to bring down, unload (P.)(CDIAL 11042). cf. la_ks.a_ lac, red dye (Mn.)(CDIAL 11002).

3930.Image: to be joined: s'ris. stick to (Skt.); a_-s'lis.ati embraces (R.); abhis'ris. binding together (RV.); sisai embraces (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12705). sit.t.ha joined (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12706). se_sia connected, made slippery (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12722). kula-s're_s.t.hi of good family, eminent by birth; the chief of a guild (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) s'le_s.man mucus, phlegm (S'Br.); glue (A_past.); sile_suma phlegm (Pali); silemha, silimha (Pkt.) lim mucus from nose (Gypsy); li_ma (D..); lim phlegm, mucus from nose (L.); sile_sa phlegm (Pkt.); les' glue (D..); s.ile_s. (Kal.); s.olos.p (Kho.); lesu mucus from nose, glutinosity (S.); les glue (L.); glutinosity (P.); liso glue, resin (Ku.); birdlime (N.); lesyailo, lisyailo sticky, slippery, flexible, soft (N.); lehuka_ flexible (A.); lhes, les stickiness, paste (H.); sile_s glue (WPah.); siri_s' (Pers.); salex (Psht.); li_s' small amount left in a receptacle (K.); lesat. oil or other substance left sticking in a pot (M.)(CDIAL 12744). s'le_s.mala abounding in mucus (Pa_n..gan.a); s'le_s.man.a slimy (S'Br.); lesiru sticky, viscid (S.); s'le_s.mika relating to phlegm (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 12745).

3931.Sebestan plum: s'e_lu, cel.l.e the sepistan plum, cordia myxa, cordia latifolia; bon:ke-ka_yi-gid.a id.; s'le_s.ma_taka (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) s'le_s.ma phlegm, rheum, the phlegmatic humour; s'le_s.ma_taka the tree cordia latifolia; cal.l.e, cel.l.a, cel.l.u, cel.l.e, sel.l.a (Tadbhava of s'e_lu) the sepistan plum, of a gummy character, cordia myxa; s'i_ta, udda_la, bahuva_raka (Ka.lex.) cf. Four species of cordia identified in GIMP: c. dichotama; c. rothii; c. vestita; c. walichii, all species containing morphemes in local languages with semant. 'gum'. s'le_s.man (Lat. limus) phlegm, mucus; grease of the axle (TMB. xvi.1.13)(Vedic.lex.) lisu ficus elastica, fruit of lauranthus, sticky substance made of mistletoe berries (N.)(CDIAL 12747). cf. go_l.i all kinds of fig trees which no apparent flowers; banyan; ficus elastica; go_n.i id. (Ka.)(DEDR 2254). Sticky substance; braid; cord: as're_s.man without bands (AV.); s'le_s.man cord (AitBr.); sepha_ fringe of a woman's petticoat; sept.i braid, hem of a garment; sepnu to twine (thread)(N.)(CDIAL 12727). s'le_s.ma_ta cordia latifolia (Skt.); s'le_s.ma_taka (MBh.); s'le_s.ma_ntaka (Ya_j.com.); lesu_r.i_ cordia latifolia (S.); lasu_r.a_ the tree cordia myxa (L.); lasu_r.ha_, lasia_ra_ cordia myxa and its fruit (P.); lisaur.a_, lasaur.a_, lasora_ the fruit (H.)(CDIAL 12746). s'e_lu, cal.l.e the sepistan plum, cordia myxa, cordia latifolia (Skt.Ka.); the sepistan plum, of a gummy character (Ka.); Synonyms: s'le_s.ma_taka, s'i_ta, udda_la, bahuva_raka, bon:keka_yigid.a (Ka.lex.) Egyptian plum: baha_l.u, ba_ha_lu, boa_l.u, bhua~_ra, bhua~_l.a cordia myxa (Or.); bahu_a_r its fruit (H.); bhokar, bho~kar. the tre; its fruit; bhokri_, bho~kri_ the tree (M.); bahuva_ra the tree cordia myxa (Bhpr.); bahuva_raka (Skt.Pali)(CDIAL 9197). cf. nar-uvili sebesten plum, cordia myxa (Ta.)(DEDR 3627). lisu ficus elastica, fruit of lauranthus, sticky substance made of mistletoe berries (N.)(CDIAL 12747). cf. go_l.i all kinds of fig trees which no apparentflowers; banyan; ficus elastica; go_n.i id. (Ka.)(DEDR 2254). Cordia myxa: s'e_lu, se_lu the tree cordia myxa (Sus'r.); se_lu the tree used as a remedy for catarrh (Pkt.); sel.u, sil.u cordia myxa, dillenia speciosa (Or.); seru_, selu cordia myxa (H.); s'elu_ the tree; the fruit (M.)(CDIAL 12610). s'le_s.ma_ta cordia latifolia (Skt.); s'le_s.ma_taka (MBh.); s'le_s.ma_ntaka (Ya_j.com.); lesu_r.i_ cordia latifolia (S.); lasu_r.a_ the tree cordia myxa (L.); lasu_r.ha_, lasia_ra_ cordia myxa and its fruit (P.); lisaur.a_, lasaur.a_, lasora_ the fruit (H.)(CDIAL 12746). s'e_lu, cal.l.e the sepistan plum, cordia myxa, cordia latifolia (Skt.Ka.); the sepistan plum, of a gummy character; Synonyms: s'le_s.ma_taka, s'i_ta, udda_la, bahuva_raka, bon:keka_yigid.a (Ka.lex.) Egyptian plum: baha_l.u, ba_ha_lu, boa_l.u, bhua~_ra, bhua~_l.a cordia myxa (Or.); bahu_a_r its fruit (H.); bhokar, bho~kar. the tre; its fruit; bhokri_, bho~kri_ the tree (M.); bahuva_ra the tree cordia myxa (Bhpr.); bahuva_raka (Skt.Pali)(CDIAL 9197). Cordia vestita: kumpaiman (H.); kumbi (P.); bairola (DehraDun and Garhwal); fruit: demulcent, expectorant, astringent; habitat: Punjab, westwards as far as the Jhelum, sub-Himalayan forests from Dehra Dun and the Siwalik range eastwards to the Sarda river in N. Oudh (GIMP, p.77). val.aku common sebesten, cordia myxa (Kalit. 43)(Ta.lex.) Cordia myxa (Modern Egyptian Arabic muhe_t.) "The tree grows to about 5m, carrying orange fruits. It is found wild in India and is cultivated in Egyptian gardens. The fruit 'sebesten' is used in folk medicine as a laxative and as a soothing remedy for pulmonary ailments... Theophrastus... says that the people of Upper Egypt harvest so many plums that they dry them, remove the stones, bruise the pulp and make cakes of it. Pliny adds that the fruit was used for making wine... Prospero Alpini... considered it emollient and used to treat coughs and tumours..." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.93). Cordia myxa = cordia dichotoma = cordia oblique: lasora, chota-lasora (H.); buhul, bohodari (B.); gondan (M.); naruvili (Ta.); chinna nakkeru (Te.); fruit: astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent, expectorant, used in affections of urinary passages, diseases of lungs and spleen; juice of bark: in grips; decoction of bark: used in dyspepsia and fevers; kernels: remedy in ringworm; leaves: application to ulcers and in headache; bark contains 20% tannin; habitat: common throughout India (GIMP, p.77). Bark used in rope-making: udal a jungle tree, the bark of which yields fibres used in rope-making (Kur.); udali a tree the fibre of which is used in decorating the chamd.a bamboos (Malt.)(DEDR App.14). udda_la the tree cordia myxa or latifolia (Skt.)(CDIAL 1990). nar-uvili, nar-ul.i sebesten plum, cordia myxa (Ta.)(DEDR 3627). cf. viriyan- common sebesten (Ta.); virigi cordia sebestena (Te.)(DEDR 5408). akuli nar-uvili; sebestan species and its varieties: cir-u nar-uvili cordia myxa; peru nar-uvili a variety bearing large fruits: cordia obliqua; na_y nar-uvili cordia monoica; pon- nar-uvili cordia sebestena (speciosa); na_r-u nar-uvili eugenia jambolana (caryophyllifolia); acci nar-uvili cordia sebestena (Ta.)(TED). cf. gondhan (M.) = cordia dichotama = cordia myxa (GIMP, p.77). X semant. 'gum': ko_ndu (Ta.lex.)

3932.Image: fencing: cilampam, cilamam fencing (Ta.); cilampam id. (Ma.); cilampi fencer (Ma.)(DEDR 2564). cilampam practice of the art of using quarterstaff, fencing (Pata_rtta. 1294); cilambam id. (Ma.); cilampam-a_t.u-tal to fence, brandish, parry with quarterstaff (J.); cilampa-k-ku_t.am palaestra, fencing school (W.); cilampa-k-ka_ran- person clever in the use of quarterstaff; cilampan.-ka_t.t.utal lit. to brandish staff in fencing; to menace, threaten (Ta.lex.)

3933.Corner of the mouth: celavi corner of the mouth (Te.); silwi, silvi_, silvi, sivli, hilvi, hivil, ilvi, (h)ilvi, ir.vi, ir.uv lip; sivli_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 2782). cf. cavl, calv to chew (Pa.); cappu (cappi-) to masticate, chew, suck, sip (Ta.)(DEDR 2334). ho_k- (-i-) to chew (Kui); ho_k- (-t-), ho_kali, ho_kinai id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 2873). nol. (nol.v-, non.t.-) to swallow, devour (Ta.); nun.a smack, slaver, greediness; nun.ayuka to eat greedily; nun.accal smacking the lips, greedines; nun.ayan voracious; fem. nun.acci; nun.ekka to smack the lips, have a ravenous appetite (Ma.); non.e to swallow (Ka.); nollu (children) to suck fingers (Te.); nolayeng to swallow (Kol.); ro_pa_na_, lo_p- to swallow, gulp down (Go.); nulxna_ to swallow without chewing, gulp hastily (Kur.)(DEDR 3791). cf. nun:ku to swallow, devour, drink in large draughts (Ta.)(DEDR 3697). Saliva: col.l.u dribbling at the mouth as of a child (Ta.); ca_l.ai dribble, saliva flowing from the mouth (Ta.); jol saliva (Ko.); jollu saliva, slaver (Ka.); saul. the imitative sound of spitting (Ka.); joll, doll, dol.l. saliva, spittle (Tu.); collu, jollu, con:ga slaver, saliva drivelling from the mouth (Te.); zoll saliva (Kol.); jol id. (Go.); col, jol id. (Go.); so_na id. (Kond.a); deoli, deori id., spittle (Kui); huod.i spittle; hu'ur.i slobber, saliva; ho'or.i saliva, dribble (Kuwi); tulgpe, tupgle spittle (Malt.); [cf. tuppu to spit (Ta.)(DEDR 3323)](DEDR 2862). o_l.a saliva; no_l.a slaver; glutinous fluid in fish, fruit, snails, etc. (Ma.); we.l. saliva (To.); lo_l.a, lo_l.i, lo_l.u, lo_l.e, logad.i, lodad.i, lodal.i, lod.al.e, lodle, lo_yi saliva, slaver, tenacious mucus, phlegm; no_l.i sticky (juice)(Ka.); no_n.e saliva, spittle; o_li anything sticky, gummy, glutinous, viscous; saliva; udal saliva, spittle (Tu.); noccil.l.u saliva, spittle (Te.)(DEDR 2937). la_la_ spittle, saliva (Sus'r.); saliva (Pali.Pkt.); la_la (D..); la_l (Sh.K.L.); ra_l, ra_w (Ku.); la_r, ra_l (N.); la_l (A.B.H.); na_l (B.); la_l.a, na_l.a (Or.); la_r (H.); ra_l (H.); la_la_ mucous (H.); la_l. (G.M.)(CDIAL 11027).

3935.Coat of clay on calcinatory pot: ci_lai-man. coat of clay on cloth spread over the mouth of a calcinatory pot (Ta.); ci_lamannu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ci_le (Tadbhava of ki_la) a pin, a peg, any fastening (Ka.Te.); ci_lemannu the luting round a crucible (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

3938.Computation: hisa_bu numbers, practical arithmetic; computation, calculation; an account, a register of debts, costs etc. (Ka.); his'e_ba, his'o_ba, hisa_ba (M.H.); hisse-da_ra a shareholder (Ka.); hisse_-da_ra (M.H.); hisse a share, a part (Ka.); hissa_ (M.H.) (Ka.lex.)

3939.Clearing nut: il, illam, illi, ilavu, cillam clearing-nut tree, strychnos potatorum (Ta.); cilla, cillu, cittu, cali id. (Ka.); cilla id. (Te.)(DEDR 2560).

3940.Anklet ring: cilampu tinkling anklets worn by women (Ain:kur-u. 389); id. (Ma.); oblong hollow ring filled with pebbles and shaken before an idol in worship (W.); cilampu-kar..i-no_n-pu ancient ceremony preliminary to marriage, probably consisting in removing the anklet of a bride (Ain:kur-u. 399, Urai.); cilampu-ku_r-al story of Ko_valan- selling the ankle; cilappatika_ram < cilampu + atika_ram an ancient poem by Il.an:ko_v-at.ikal. dealing with the story of Ko_valan- and Kan.n.aki, one of paca-ka_viyam (Ta.lex.) jelk anklet with bells (Ko.); zilal small bell (one with a string) on strap on bullock's neck (Kol.); ji_la_ small bell tied to the neck of an ox (Go.)(DEDR 2572). cf. zid.nga cattle-bell (Kol.)(DEDR 2515). cf. cilai twang, sound, roar, bellow; cilampu to make a tinkling noise (Ta.)(DEDR 1574). jha~_jh anklet (OAw.); cymbal (H.G.N.B.); jha~_jhu cymbal (S.)(CDIAL 5361). Image: drum: calli, callari drum (Te_va_.89,2) < jhallari_ (Skt.); callikai: (callikaiyen-patu callen-r-a o_caiyut.amaiya_r- per-r-a peyar : Cilap. 3,27, Urai) (Ta.lex.) Drum, cymbals: jharjhara drum (MBh.); jhajjhara drum, cymbals (Pkt.); jha_jhar cymbals (H.); jha~_jri_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 5348).

3941.Image: pair of cymbals: caile a pair of large cymbals (Tu.lex.) callakam < jhallaka large cymbal (Ta.lex.)

3942.Mast tree: ce_lai mast tree, as'o_ka tree (Ta.lex.)

3943.Image: whip: cul.l.ar--ko_l whip (Tol. Col. 53, Il.ampu_.); cul.l.i-k-ko_l id. (Ci. Ci. Al.avai. 1, Mar-aija_.)(Ta.lex.)

3944.Image: band on a sheaf of corn: s'ulba, s'ulva string, cord (S'rS.); suvva cord (Pkt.); sub band on a sheaf of corn (L.); sub, chubb id. (P.); subba_, chubba_ band of twisted straw (P.)(CDIAL 12544).

3945.Gargle: kuli gargling (B.); kul.i (Or.); kuri_ act of rinsing the mouth (Mth.); kul.i_ mouthful of water (M.); kulna_ mouth-wash (Ku.); kulla_ gargling (N.H.); kulli (B.); kuli (Or.); kulkuliba to gargle (A.)[cf. koppal.i (-pp-, -tt-), koppul.i (-pp, -tt-) to gargle (Ta.); koppul.ikka id. (Ma.); koppal.ipuni to gargle, rinse the mouth (Tu.); kupulp- (kupult-) id. (Pa.)(DEDR 2107); kopli mouth (Kol.Nk.)(DEDR 2114)]; kulkula_ gargling (H.)(CDIAL 3344). Handful; mouthful; gargling: culu handful of water (Skt.); culuka hand hollowed to hold water, handful or mouthful of water (Skt.) cu_luka (Skt.); calu mouthful of water (Skt.); caluka (Skt.); culua handful (Pkt.); curu_ hollowed palm of hand (S.); cula_ handful, gargling (P.); cu_l palmful (Ku.); cullu_ mouthful of water (H.); cal.u~ rinsing the mouth after eating; callu~ hollowed hand to hold water (G.); cu_l., cul.i_ (M.); salu handful of water (A.); cal.u (Or.); calu_ mouthful of water (H.)(CDIAL 4875). cf. khakoln.o to gargle (Ku.); kha~ga_l.vu~ to rinse the mouth in the morning (G.)(CDIAL 3762). gar.gar.ao to gargle (Santali.lex.) cf. callu to sprinkle water (Ta.)(DEDR 2384). cf. calacala onom. expr. of purling as of water (Ta.)(DEDR 2366).

3946.Timber tree: cul.l.i the timber tree diospyros (Ta.); cul.l.i, kari-cul.l.i a very prickly under-shrub, barleria buxifolia (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3947.Image: fuel stick; small nail: cul.k long pliable stick, stalk of plant (Ko.); cul.l.i a dry spray, sprig, brushwood (Ma.); cul.l.al a chip, fuel stick; nul.l.i small sticks for firewood (Ma.)(DEDR 2706). cf. oliki a funeral pile (Te.)(DEDR 1001). cul.l.i dry twigs, esp. for fuel (Tan-ippa_. i,277,20); small stick; branch, bough (Kampara_. Yut. Mantirap. 25); smallness (Kampara_. Mutar-po_. 139); cul.l.a_n.i small nail (Malaipat.u. 27, Urai.); small, thin nail; cf. cur..i-y-a_n.i projecting pin of a door serving as pivot to move on (Ta.lex.); a dry spray, sprig, brushwood (Ma.); cul.l.al a chip, fuel stick; nul.l.i small sticks for firewood (Ma.)(DEDR 2706). Image: pikestaff: cul.ikku pikestaff, sharp-pointed stick carried by travellers (Ta.); cul.ike a stout stick to beat cotton with (Ka.)(DEDR 2701). kulleng to measure (Kol.); kull id. (Nk.); kul id. (Nk.); ko_la a measure (Kuwi)(DEDR 1827-b). ko_lu_ (pl. ko_lka) pestle (Kuwi); ko_la_ stick, arrow (Go.); ko_l stick, arrow (Ta.Ma.Ka.)(DEDR 2237).

3948.Image: spot, mark; spotted cow: cul.l.i spot, mark; cul.l.i payyu spotted cow (Kod..); cun.an:ku yellow spreading spots on the body of women (regarded as beautiful); cun.am id. (Ta.); cun.an.n.u id., scales of fish, spots on the skin (Ma.)(DEDR 2659).

3949.Image: membrum virile: culla, culli penis (Te.); con.d.o_ id. (Kur.); tun.n.i, tun.n.e id. (Ka.); cun.n.i id. (Ma.); membrum virile (Ta.)(DEDR 2666). Penis: cusn.o penis (Ku.)(CDIAL 4897). cuy (child's) penis (Pe.); hu_y penis (Mand..); cu_co_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 2681).

3950.To suck: ciu to suck as a child; lunts to suck as an animal; ciuntolo, duda_tso burgo suckling; piye vulgar (Kon.lex.) cu_s. suck; cu_s.an.a sucking (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 4897). cus.ati sucks (Dha_tup.); cu_s.yati is sucked (Sus'r.); cahun to suck (K.); cu_sna_ (H.); cuhan.u (S.); cusn.o (Ku.); cu_siba_ to suck (Or.); cusa_ (B.); cusnu (N.); sohiba (A.); cu~_sna_, cu_hna_ (H.); cusvu~ (G.); cu_san. to absorb; cu_sun. (L.); cus.oiki to suck (Sh.); cu_sa taste (S.); cu_sn.a_ to suck (P.); cut.ho pp. sucked (S.)(CDIAL 4898). co_s.a sucking (Skt.); cah (K.); cos (B.)(CDIAL 4934). co_s.ayati sucks (Sus'r.); cosiba_ to suck (Or.); cosvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 4935). ur-i (-v-, -nt-) to snuff up, sip up; ur-icu (ur-ici-) to sip, suck up, draw into the mouth as in tasting liquids, snuff up, sniff, draw in sharply through the nose, take in, absorb as a sponge (Ta.); ur-icuka to sip, suck (Ma.); r-- (r-0-) to drink (intoxicants)(To.); ur-ita sucking; urpu to drink (Ka.); ujumbu to suck; ujumbun.a sucking (Tu.); u_mburseng to suck (Kol.); uj- (ucc-) id. (Pe.); ju_'nai to imbibe, inhale, sip (Kuwi)(DEDR 709).

3951.Enjoys; attends: jo_s.ati enjoys (RV.)(CDIAL 5271). jus.t.a pleased (RV.); jus.ate_ enjoys (RV.); jut.ho defiled, dirty, enjoyed (of a girl by a man), unchaste (of a girl unmarried after 12 years of age)(N.); jhut.a_ defiled (M.); ju_t.ho defiled from having been used (S.)(CDIAL 5255). jus. enjoy (Skt.); jus.t.i service, satisfaction (RV.)(CDIAL 5256). jo_s.t.r. nom. du. jo_s.t.ri_ loving (RV.); jot.hi_ paramour (Sh.); zotr, zatr friend (Kt.); zat.e (Pr.)(CDIAL 5272). Prostitute: cu_l.ai prostitute (Upate_ca. Uruttira_. 113); cu_l.a (Ma.); su_l.e (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) cu_r-aiyar prostitutes (Tacaiva_. 377)(Ta.lex.) cu.l. woman who as sexual intercourse with men of all castes, prostitute (Ko.); cu.l.e dancing-girl (Kod..); s'u_la_ harlot, prostitute (Skt.); cu_l.acci harlot; cu_l.an whoremonger (Ma.)(DEDR 2741).

3952.Image: fire; fireplace: culha fireplace; sulgao, salgao to light a fire; sen:gel, sokol fire (Santali.lex.) cul.l.ai potter's kiln, furnace; cu_l.ai kiln, furnace, funeral pile (Ta.); cul.l.a potter's furnace; cu_l.a brick-kiln (Ma.)(DEDR 2709). cf. culli_ fireplace (Skt.); culli_, ulli_ id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4879). cf. cul.l.i dry twigs, esp. for fuel, small stick, branch (Ta.); a dry spray, sprig, brushwood; cul.l.al a chip, fuel stick; nul.l.i small sticks for firewood (Ma.); cul.k pliable stick, stalk of plant (Ko.)(DEDR 2706).

3955.Image: eye: lo_cana lighting (BhP.); eye (MBh.Pali); lo_an.a (Pkt.); loin. eye, eye-sight (P.); loyan eye (H.); loan.a (OG.)(CDIAL 11128). Images: to look, glance; watch; eye: lo_k see (Skt.); lo_kate_ sees (Dha_tup.); lulo_ke_ (Skt.); lo_kayati shines (Dha_tup.); sees (R.); lo_cate_ sees; lo_cayati shines (Dha_tup.)[forms with lo_k- esp. cmpds. are much more widely attested in literature than those with lo_c-]; lo- to see (Shum.); le_l visible (Sh.); lo_e_i shines (Pkt.); lo_en:g- (lightning) to flash (Bshk.)(CDIAL 11122). palo_e_i, palo_ai sees (Pkt.); pal.ayta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 8767). lor.iba_, nor.iba_ to search for (Or.); lor.na_ to search for (P.); lol.ik to look for, look at (Kho.)(CDIAL 11080). Seeing: su_r.a (su_r.i-) to see; n. act of seeing, sight; (pl. action) su_r.ka (su_r.ki-)(Kui); hur.- (-t-) to see (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 2735). Likes; deliberates: jo_s.ati likes, resolves (RV.); jo_sai attends (Pkt.); jos. to mind, care (Kal.); jos.ik, 1 sg. jas.um to consider, understand, see (Kho.)(CDIAL 5271). no_kku (no_kki-) to see, look at, behold, view, consider, reflect, regard, pay attention to, arrange, put in order, keep, protect, save, do, perform, resemble, compare, read, desire; n. eye, sight, look, beauty, meaning, intention, knowledge, greatness, mode, style; no_kkam eye, eyesight, look, gaze, glance, view, aspects of a planet, appearance, expression, cast of countenance, beauty, attractiveness, watch, design, object, intention, aim, sense, intelligence, attention, observation, desire, indication, sign (Ta.); no_kkuka to look at, view, observe, look after, examine, be in a certain direction, seek, consider, regard, intend; no_kkam view, beauty, eye; no_kkal a look; no_kku look, watchfulness, sight, beauty (Ma.); no_t.t.am examination of coins, assaying, scrutiny of gems, precious metals, etc., value, criticism as by a rival artist or workman, attempt at wit, endeavour to excel, hinder or baffle another in speech (Ta.); viewing, examination, experienced eye, sharp sight, shroffage, fortune-telling (Ma.); no.t.- (no.c-) to look at, look for, examine, be looked at; no.t., no.t.m (obl. no.t.t-) a sight (Ko.); nwi.t.- (nwi.t.y-) to look at; nwi.t. a sight (To.); no_d.u to look, look on, look at, view, behold, look after, examine, consider, take care, see; no_d.uvike looking etc.; no_d.isu to cause to look; no_t.a looking at or on, viewing, beholding, seeing, examination, a sight, spectacle, sight, the power of seeing, a look, appearance (Ka.); no_t.aka a looker-on, spectator, eyewitness (Ka.); no.t.- (no.t.i-) to look at (Kod..); no_t.a sight, view, vision, aim; no_d.ad.runi, no_d.a_vuni to point at, show; nu_t.a_vuni to show (Tu.)(DEDR 3794). cf. o.l- (o.lt-) to see, look at (Kol.); ol- to see; olip- to show (Nk.)(DEDR 1066). To consider, investigate; to listen: o_r (-v-, -nt-) to consider attentively, examine, know; (-pp-, -tt-) to consider, select, choose, think, regard, listen attentively; o_rcci investigation, wisdom, knowledge, consciousness; o_rppu investigation, clear understanding; o_rppu, o_rvu consideration, research (Ta.); o_rkka to think, remember, expect; o_rmma thought, recollection, memory; o_rkkal, o_rcca, o_rppu remembering, recollection; o_rpikkuka to cause to remember, remind; o_rmikkuka to remember; o_ruvu memory (Ma.); o.rid.- (o.rit.-) to listen (Ko.); wi.rid.- (wi.rit.-) id.; to listen in spite of all difficulties (To.); o_ru to think, ponder, consider, inquire (Ka.); ro_yu, r-o_yu to seek, search, look for; va_r(u)cu to look for, wait, expect, wish (Te.)(DEDR 1059). Rumour: o_mal rumour (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 1055).

3959.Image: back of the house: colla_ back wall or back side of a house (Kur.); cole the back of the house (Malt.)(DEDR 2859). cf. kollai backyard (Ta.lex.)

3960.Raft: cf. suli a raft used to cross flooded rivers and made of pith: suli raft; a kind of raft generally made of sol used to cross rivers when in flood (Santali.lex.) Pith: sol a small bush frequenting marshes, aeschynomene aspera; this plant is valuable for its pith which is put to many uses, not the least of which is the manufacture of sun hats for Europeans; khol hollow (Santali.lex.) ul.umpa, kulla raft; kullan. bandhati binds raft; pp. baddhakulla; kullena ta_reti, pp. kullata_rita crosses by raft (Pali.lex.) ko_l, ko_lam raft, float (Ta.); ko_lam raft (Ma.); ko_l raft, float (Ka.); ko_lamu id. (Te.); kola- boat, raft (Skt.BHSkt.); kulla- id. (Pali)(DEDR 2238). Sailing vessel: cf. tol.l.ai sailing vessel; tol.l.am float, raft (Vina_yakapu. 37,33)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) do_n.i, d.o_n.i (Tadbhava of dro_n.i) a float (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3961.Religious vow: no_l (no_r-p-, no_r-r--) to endure, suffer patiently as hunder, practise, do penance, practise austerities; n. a means of attaining salvation; no_r-pa_r ascetics, those who practise religious austerities; no_r-pu bearing, endurance, performing penance; no_n- (no_n-p-, no_n-r--) to endure, bear, renounce as secular things, practise austerities; no_n-pi ascetic; no_n-pu, no_mpu ceremonial fasting, abstinence, penance; no_n-mai bearing, endurance, tolerance, power, greatness; no_n-r-al patience, endurance (Ta.); no_lkka (no_r-r--) to fast, lead an austere life; no_npu, no_mpu penance, fasting; no_lpikka to cause to fast (Ma.); no.m(b) period when cloak is covered over head of relative of dead person (three days at green funeral, eight days at dry funeral)(Ko.); no_n (no_nt-) to observe a vow or religious obligation, perform anything as a meritorious act of devotion or austerity; caus. no_nisu; no_mpi, no_mpu any religious act or obligation enjoined by thegods, any meritorious act of devotion or austerity (Ka.); namme festival (Kod..); no_mpu any meritorious act of devotion; a festival, esp. the one observed on the 14th day of the 6th lunar month in honour of Ananta; no_mbu fasting among the Mohammedans, fast, penance; no_mbuni to fast; no_hi a meritorious act or vow (Tu.); no~_cu to perform an act of religious merit; no~_ta performing a meritorious act; no_mu to perform an act of religious merit; n. vow, meritorious act (Te.)(DEDR 3800). cf. o_rppu patience, forbearance; o_rmam fortitude, courage, bravery; o_rmi (-pp-, -tt-) to be courageous; o_rmai fortitude, bravery (Ta.); o_r(u)cu to bear, endure, be patient, allow, pardon; o_r(u)pu, o_rmi patience, tolerance; o_r(u)pari one who is patient; o_pu to bear, endure, be patient; n. (also o_pika) patience (Te.); orh'nai to endure; o_rhinai to sustain (Kuwi); o_rna_ to suffer willingly (Kur.)(DEDR 1063).

3962.Prunus armeniaca: chola (Kumaon); khubani (H.); zardalu (H.); gurdlu (P.); dried fruit: used as laxative and refrigerant in fevers; habitat: commonly cultivated in NW India, especially in the hills at 6,000 - 9,000 ft. (GIMP, p.204). el(a)va_luka prunus cerasus (Car. Su. 4.18(20), 24(47); Ci. 15.166). e_la-va_luka a perfume, the fragrant bark of feronia elephantum (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Prunus mahaleb: gavala (M.); priyunger (Skt.); kernels: used as substitute for hydrocyanic acid, tonic, in scorpion-sting; habitat: cultivated in Baluchistan; probably also occurs in NW India (GIMP, p.205). Prunus avium: gilas (K.Kumaon); fruit: tonic, astringent; cultivated in NW Himalayas up to 8,000 ft., especially in Kashmir (GIMP, p.204). Prunus avium: bark of prunus avium, commonly known as sweet cherry... of a light reddish-brown on twigs and reddish-gray on trunk. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 413). Prunus cerasus: gilas, olchi (P.); alubalu (H.); bark: bitter, astringent, febrifuge; kernel: nerve tonic; used for same purposes as hydrocyanic acid; habitat: cultivated in the Himalayas of the Punjab and NW Frontier province upto 8,000 ft. (GIMP, pp. 204-205). Prunus domestica = prunus communis = prunus insititia: alu-bokhara (H.M.); alpogada-par..am (Ma.); fruit: laxative, refrigerant; given in combination with other drugs in leucorrhoea, irregular menstruation and debility following miscarriage; habitat: cultivated in kashmir and the Punjab plains (GIMP, p.205). Prunus insititia: alubokhara (M.H.); viraruruka (M.); aluka (Skt.); fruit: laxative, refrigerant; habitat: Himalayan region (GIMP, p.205). vi_ravr.ks.a the marking-nut plant, semecarpus anacardium (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) 'Bark of prunus cerasus, commonly known as sour or morello cherry. This bark is smooth, darker than either prunus serotina or prunus avium... The lenticles are fewer and larger than those of the prunus serotina bark of similar age... possesses smaller and more scattered groups of bast fibers... contains very few calcium oxalate crystals which occur as rosette aggregates... Prunus cerasus: sauerkirche (Ger.); part used: the liquid expressed from the fresh, ripe fruit; habitat: Asia Minor and probably southeastern Europe; plant: a round crowned tree which suckers readily from the roots. Its bark is gray to grayish brown with prominent lenticles, its leaves ovate to obovate... red fruit with a sub-globular stone; description of cherry juice: a clear liquid with an aromatic, characteristic odour and a sour taste. The colour of the freshly prepared juice is red to reddish orange... Preparation: the unpitted sour cherries are washed, stemmed and coarsely crushed in a grinder so as to break the pits but not to mash the kernels; 0.1% of benzoic acid is dissolved in the mixture and the whole allowed to stand at room temperature until a small portion of the filtered juice forms a clear solution when mixed with one-half of its volume of alcohol; use: Cherry juice is used in the preparation of a pleasantly flavoured syrup which is used as a vehicle (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 414-416). Prunus persica: aru (H.P.Kumaon); pichesu (Ka.); flowers: diuretic, purgative; fruit: stomachic, demulcent, antiscorbutic; considered to be useful as ascaricide; habitat: cultivated in the Himalayas, Kunawar upto 10,000 ft., Nilgiris at 5,000 - 7,000 ft., in the plains of N. India, Manipur and Baluchistan (GIMP, p.205). Prunus undulata: aruwa (Almora); aria (Garhwal); gadharu (Garhwal); kernels: contain an oil similar to bitter almonds; habitat: Kumaon, 6,000 - 8,000 ft., Sikkim, 8,000 - 12,00 ft., Khasia hills, Bhutan and Nepal (GIMP, p.205). a_ruka prunus sp. (Car. Su. 27.133). ?a_luka a kind of ebony (Ka.lex.)

3963.Business; temple; workshop: co_li business, concern, affair (Ira_mana_. A_ran.i. 8); jo_li id. (Ka.Ma.); tjo_li (Te.); co_li-k-ka_ran- man of business; co_li-ceytal to do work or business (Ta.lex.) cf. kole.l smithy, temple in Kota village (Ko.)(DEDR 2133). kollan--pat.t.arai blacksmith's workshop, smithy; kollan-kamma_lai < kollan- + karma-s'a_la_ id. (J.)(Ta.lex.)

3964.Image: bullock with one horn?: hola_ bullock with loose horn (L.P.); holo relaxed, slack (N.)(CDIAL 14179). bala_su loose, slack (Tu.); valavalana loose (Te.)(DEDR 5280). Image: dangling: ulavu (ulavi-), ula_vu (ula_vi-/ula_y-) to move about, walk or ride for recreation, take a jaunt, stroll or ramble, go in procession; ula_ procession; ula_ttu (ula_tti-) to ride about, pass in procession; take out for a walk as a child, lead about as a horse; n. walking up and down for amusement, display or exercise, moving to and fro; culavu (culavi-) to revolve, move round, hover about; la_ntu to walk about, wander about; la_ttu to walk about, ride about; take out for a walk (Ta.); ula_vuka, ila_vuka to take a walk; ula_ttuka to take for a walk (children, etc.)(Ma.); cul- to go round, wander about (Pa.)(DEDR 2693). jo_l(u) (jo_ld-/jo_t-) to hang down, move to and fro, swing, oscillate, dangle; to let hand down; jo_l(u) hanging down; jo_li, jo_le hanging, swinging, dangling (Ka.); jo_lu pendent, flapping; jo_la_t.a oscillation, hanging; jo_ta_d.uni to wave, move, oscillate (Tu.); jo_la lullaby, cradle song (Te.); ho_l-, o_l- to shake; caus. ho_lh- (Go.)(DEDR 2889). lulita shaken (MBh.); lo_d.ayati agitates (MBh.); lo_layati (R.); lo_d.ati (Dha_tup.); lo_lati (Skt.); lo_d.yate_ is set in motion (MBh.); lud. roll, swing, agitate (Skt.); lulai rolls, swings (Pkt.); lur.an.u to shake, swing (S>); lur.-lur. dangling (B.); lul.iba_ to dangle, be wrinkled (Or.); lurna_, lulna_ to swing up and down (H.); lul.n.e~ to roll (M.); lur.ko pendant, tear (S.); lurko pendant; lurkan hanging ear-ornament (N.); lud.an.u to swing (S.); lud.d.an. to be moved; lud.an. to rock to and fro; lud.d.un. to dangle (L.); lu~d.iya_na_ to roll (H.); lo_le_ti shakes (Pali); lo_le_i makes lie down (Pkt.); lol.iba_ to hang, wave (Or.); lolna_ to cause to vibrate, wag; lorna_, rolna_ to roll, rub, winnow, pick out (H.); lol.n.e~ to roll (M.); lel.avanava_ to shake (Si.)(CDIAL 11080). cf. o_r.- to roll (Pa.); to lie down, sleep (Ga.)(DEDR 1072). cf. ku_l.i ox, covering bull (Ta.); gu.l.y bull belonging to a dead man that is released from work until its death (Ko.); ku.l.y stud bull (To.); gu_l.i bull, esp. a bull allowed to roam at liberty and dedicated to a deity (Ka.); gu.l.i a bull (Kod..)(DEDR 1917). cf. pol. bull dedicated to the gods (M.)(CDIAL 8399). cf. po.ry young bullock (Ko.); bo_ri bull, ox (Tu.)(DEDR 4593). cf. por-u to bear, sustain (Ta.); pore a load (Kod..)(DEDR 4565). Image: sack: cf. bori_ sack (Sh.)(CDIAL 9320).

3965.Image: harrow: nolla a harrow; nollu to level, scrape, gather, collect (Te.); lol- (-it-) to level soil in new paddy field (Kuwi)(DEDR 3788).

3966.Image: chignon: colleya, colleha, jolleha the pointed end of a female's bundle of hair at the back of the head (Ka.); jollemu, jol.l.emu a tire formed by weaving the tresses in chains and then coiling them up at the bad of the head; a wreath of Mogili flowers (Te.)(DEDR 2858). co_li a kind of chignon made of some hair of te camari (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

3967.Image: mane: cf. so_r.a a hair (Kui); hora a single hair of the beard; horan.a beard, moustache; ho_d.anga beard; so_n.ayya~_, so_r.a ba_n.aa~_ id.; ho_r.a (pl. ho_r.aya~_) id. (Kuwi); sorkoo man with a beard (Go.)(DEDR 2894). sol.l.e nostril (Ka.); col.l.e id. (Kod..)(DEDR 2863). xolla_ razor (Kur.); qole id. (Malt.); hola'd razor (Santali)(DEDR 2141). cal long hair, mane (Dm.); mane (Kal.); ca_l woman's long hair, mane (Pas'.); mane (Kho.); ca_lo mane (Yid.)(CDIAL 4768). sili a rope made of hair; sili baber a hair rope about 1/4 in. in diameter and 3 or 4 feet long; sili mala beads threaded on twisted hair and worn on the neck; sili a neck ornament of plaited hair and small white beads, worn by females (Santali.lex.) selhi_ hair, rope (Pkt.); selhi_, sehli_ hair rope (L.); selhi_, seli_ necklace of thread or hair (P.); sel, seli_ hair cord tied from neck to feet of calf when milking cow (Bi.)(CDIAL 13591). jhallari_ curl (Skt.Pkt.); jha_lar fringe (N.)(CDIAL 5356). s'iror.a hair of head (Pas'.); sira_l. (P.); s'ira_l., s'ra_h (WPah.); s'irua_l. id. (WPah.)(CDIAL 12456). jha_l tassel of hair (M.)(CDIAL 5357).

3968.Name of a people: co_la name of a people on the Coromandel coast (MBh.); cod.a_ name of a people (As'.); hel.a Ceylon (SriLanka); el.uva the ancient Sinhalese language (Si.)(CDIAL 4924). sim.hala Ceylon; Sinhalese (MBh.); sim.halaka (VarBr.S.); si_hala, si_halaka Sinhalese (Pali); sim.hala, si_hala (Pkt.); (h)el.u pertaining to the language of Ceylon (Si.)(CDIAL 13385). co_l.a the coast of coromandel; the titular name of a dynasty of that country; name of its people (Ka.); co_r..an- (Ta.); co_r..a (Ma.); co_l.a-man.d.ala coromandel (Ka.); co_r..a-man.t.alam (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

3969.Image: grove; thicket; shade: co_lai flower garden (Akana_. 109); grove (Ta.); co_la grove, shade, cool retreat, fresh spring (Ma.); te.l forest (Ko.); te.l uk- to menstruate (lit. enter forest); te.l ul. (lit. the inside of the forest), te.l ul. pay (lit. house inside forest) menstrual house; co.lgn man of a forest tribe living near Bokkapur (Ko.); twa.s- grove, thicket; swa.l jungle (To.); so.le jungle with trees (Badaga); swa.lgn = Ko. co.lgn (To.); ca_la_ grove, sacred grove (Kur.); cle grove (Malt.)(DEDR 2891). Back side of a house: colla_ back wall or back side of a house (Kur.); cole the back of the house (Malt.)(DEDR 2859). kollai backyard, open space behind and attached to a house (Ta.lex.) cha_ye, cha_ya, cha_yi shade; shadow (Ka.lex.) apaccha_ya_ unlucky shadow (Skt.); ocha shade (Dm.); ocha_ (Pas'.); shady side of a valley (Phal.); oce shade (Shum.); wuco (Gaw.); osva_, vasva_, os'et.a_ shade of trees considered as hostile to growth of plants (M.); acewe shade (Ash.); wuca_ (Pr.)(CDIAL 422). ca_yal shadow (Ta.)(DEDR 2457).

3970.Cinnamon peeler: ca_liyan- member of a caste of cinnamon peelers (J.)(Ta.lex.) Bark; exudation, sweat: sa_le bark, rind; sa_la bark, rind; husk; the skin, of man or beast, as rubbed off; the dried rind of the mangosteen (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) coli skin, rind (Ta.lex.) cf. Sweat: bemaru-sa_le a line of sweat; bevaru, bemaru sweat, perspiration; a drop of sweat (Ka.); viyar, ve_r to perspire, sweat (Ta.); viyar (Ma.); bemarcu (Te.); bega, begar (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bodice: co_laka a bodice, a jacket; a cuirass, mail (Ka.); co_la, co_l.a a short jacket, a bodice (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) co_l.a, co_l.aka piece of cloth (Pali); col.a_ long bodice (L.); bodice (M.); co_d.a, co_d.aka jacket (BHSk.); co_la (Nais..); cod.aga, cot.aga clothing (NiDoc.); co_laa armour (Pkt.); col.i_ short bodice (L.); bodice (Or.G.M.); cola_ cloak (P.); bodice, jacket (H.); gown (OAw.); coli_ bodice (P.N.OAw.); tight-fitting bodice worn by prostitutes (Mth.); bodice, jacket (H.)led for oil of cinnamon... Uses: aromatic and flavoring agent. Oleum cinnamomi (cinnamon oil or oil of cassia) represents the volatile oil distilled with steam from the leaves and twigs of cinnamomum cassia, rectified by distillation... produced in the provinces of Kwangsi and Kwangtung in southeastern China. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 364-374). Cinnamomum verum (Ceylon cinnamon) 'the bark as the condiment, cinnamon, is used in food, dentifrices, incenses, and perfumes. Cinnamon bark oil, distilled from chips and bark of inferior quality, used in foods, perfumes, soaps, cordials, and in drug and dental preparations. Cinnamon leaf oil, distilled from dried green leaves, is a powerful germicide, and is also used in perfumes, spices, and in the synthesis of vanillin... Ceylon cinnamon considered aromatic, astringent, carimnative, and stimulant.' (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p.127). tvak-patra laurus cassia the plant and its bark (Ka.lex.) pattra laurus cassia or cinnamomum inens, gandhapatra or sugandha patra much used in perfumes. (B.Sam..) bhr.n:ga woody cassia, laurus cassia (Ka.lex.) co_ca the bark of a kind of cinnamon; cf. tvaca, tvac laurus cassia; togal skin (Ka.lex.) cf. s'alka bark (Skt.); s'e_kar. bark of tree; s'e_kr.o rind, bark; s'a_kr.a_ bark (WPah.)(CDIAL 12350). sak peel of pomegranate fruit (L.)(CDIAL 14815). Cinnamomum cassia = cinnamomum aromaticum: salikha (Arabic); taj (Urdu); bark: tonic, stomachic, carminative, substitute for Ceylon cinnamon; habitat: Burma, and China, introduced into Ceylon (GIMP, p.65). Laurus nobilis: hab-el-ghar (Indian bazaar); berries: emmenagogue, used in diarrhea, leucorrhea, and dropsy; used in Europe to promote miscarriages; essential oil; habitat: S. Europe; planted in Indian gardens (GIMP, pp.150-151). Laurus nobilis (bay, grecian laurel, green bay) 'In biblical times, the bay was symbolic of wealth and wickedness... The evergreen leaves, when broken, emit a sweet scent and furnish an extract used by the Orientals in making perfumed oil... An essential oil, distilled from the leaves, is used in perfumery and for flavouring food products.' (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p.271). cakkai bark; chips (Ta.); cekka (Te.); cakke (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) tvak-patri the leaf of the asafoetida = ka_ravi or the leaf of the laurus cassia (Ka.lex.) tejpat laurus cassia (Santali.lex.) "Cinnamon... In Ormuz, because it is the bark brought for sale from china, they call it darchini, which in Persian means Chinese skin. They send the same to Alexandria... calling it cinamomo, which means odoriferous skin, like amomo brought from China. To the bad kind from Malabar and Java they put another name, which is what it is known by in Java, caismanis, which means sweet skin in Malay... The name for cinnamon in Arabic is querfa or querfe... The Greeks corrupted the word to cassia, and it was caismanis that they called cassia... the Persians call it darcini, those of Ceylon cuuro, the Malays caismao, and the people of Malabar camea... Pliny calls it zegir... cassia lignea or Chinese cinnamon, is the bark of cinnamomum cassia and cinnamomum loureirii of Cochin China, and both also yield the 'cassia-buds' of modern pharmacy..." (G. De Orta, pp.118-127). Cinnamomum tamala: tama_la cinnamomum tamala (Car. Ci. 23.192, Ka. 1.8, Ci. 3.267, 7.117). tvak bark (Skt.); tvak bark of tamala tree (Car. Su. 3.28, 5.21). patra leaves of tama_la tree (Car. Su. 3.29, 5.21). tamalaka (Skt.); darchini (M.); tejput (B.H.); talishappattiri (Ta.); talisapatri (Te.); bark: aromatic, used in gonorrhea; leaves: stimulant, carminative, used in rheumatism, colic, diarrhea; essential oil which resembles cinnamon leaf oil; habitat: tropical and subtropical Himalayas, 3,000-7,800 ft., Sylhet and Khasia Hills, 3,000-4,000 ft. (GIMP, p.66). cf. ta_mbu_la piper betle (Car. Su. 5.77). Cinnamon zeylanicum: tamalapatra (Skt.); dalchini (B.M.H.); ilayangam (Ta.); lavangamu (Te.); bark: aromatic, astringent; stimulant, carminative, useful for checking nausea; cinnamon leaf oil equals clove oil in eugenol content; habitat: wild in the southern coastal regions of western India upto an altitude of 6,000 ft; cultivated in S. India (GIMP, p.66). Leaf of India: "Folio indo... is called cadegi indi, and the betre tambul... Folio indo is called by the natives of India tamalapatra, which the Greeks and Latins corrupted into malabatrum. In Arabic cadegi indi, which means the 'leaf of India'... they look like leaves from an orange tree except that they are sharper, and the colour is dark green... (the malabatron of Dioscorides and malobathrum of Pliny, the Sanskrit tamalapatra (i.e. cassia leaf), and tejapatra (i.e. aromatic leaf), was from the earliest historical ages a renowned article of commerce between India and the countries on the Mediterranean Sea, and has now been clearly determined to be the lea of various species of cinnamomu, of which the principal are: cinnamomum tamala, cinnamomum cassia, cinnamomum zeylanicum. The Arabic kadigi is a corruption of the Indian word tejpat, a vulgar contraction of tejapatra)... the vendors of medicine, called gandis, will understand you if you ask for tamalapatra... All say that it is useful to provoke urine and for foul breath..." (G. De Orta, pp.202-206). Cinnamon: can:kaput.pam cinnamon, cinnamomum (Ta.); cf. san:kha-pus.pa (Skt.)(Ta.lex.). s'an:kha a particular perfume; one of Kube_ra's treasures (Ka.Skt.lex.) cf. can:kaniti one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra (Te_va_. 1230,10)(Ta.lex.) Cinnamomum zeylanicum or laurus cinnamomum. According to Fluckiger and Hanbury, the most noteworthy constituent of cinnamon is the essential oil which the bark yields to the extent of 1/2 to 1 percent... with a powerful cinnamon odor, and a sweet and aromatic but burning taste... The high content of eugenol in cinnamon-leaf makes it useful in the perfume and flavouring industries... Cinnamon-root oil contains camphor... Cinnamon seeds contain 33 per cent of a fat which formerly was made into costly candles, such as are still used in churches. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp.323-324). Apakva karpu_ra (obtained without heat) is the camphor obtained from Borneo from the trunk of dryobalanops aromatica (shorea camphorifera) and pakva karpu_ra, the China camphor is obtained by sublimation from the wood of cinnamomum camphora... oil of camphor is karpu_ra taila... cinnamomum zeylanicum is gud.e_tvak... used as an aromatic adjunct in compound prescriptions. A combination of cinnamon, cardamoms and tejapatra leaves, passes by the name of trija_taka, these three aromatics being often used together... cinnamomum tamala... furnish the leaves called tejapatra... essential in Indian cookery (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 223-225). Dryobalanops aromatica: diaphoretic, antiseptic, stimulant, in hysteria; oleo-resin contains borneol, camphene, terpeniol etc.; habitat: Sumatra and Borneo (GIMP, p.102).

3971.Image: tail: xola_ tail (Kur.); qoli id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2135).

3972.Betel leaf: cu_lin-i betel leaf (Tailava.taila.70)(Ta.lex.)

3973.Image: saddle: cu_r..i saddle; ornamental covering for the elephant's face (Ta.lex.)

3974.Image: ornament worn on the crown of the head; ornamental cloth-cover for elephants, etc.: cu_l.i, cu_r..iyam ornament worn on the crown of the head (Tiruvil.ai.kat.a_takai.16); cu_l < jhu_l ornamental cloth-cover for elephants, horses, etc. (Ta.lex.)

3975.Food prepared from maize: co_l.a-c-co_r-u food prepared from maize (Ta.lex.) Great millet: cf. co_l.am maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Ta.); id. (Ma.); jo_l.a a generic name for several species of millet (Ka.); great millet (Tu.) jo.l.a great millet (Kod..)(DEDR 2896). cf. ko'la, kohala, ko_hala_ panicum miliare (Go.); korra mand.eya corn, eleusine coracana (Go.); kural Italian millet (Ta.); kor-ale, korle a kind of millet, panicum italicum (Ka.)(DEDR 2163). ho_laka half-ripe pulse cooked over a light fire (Bhpr.); hurad.a, hurad.a_ pulse or grain cooked over a light fire or grass (Pkt.); hul.a_, haul.a_ green pods of pulse or peas parched (M.)(CDIAL 14180). cf. kol. horse gram, dolichos uniflorus (Ta.)(DEDR 2153). Maize, great millet: co_l.am maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Ta.Ma.); swi.l.m maize (To.); jo_l.a a generic name for several species of millet (Ka.); great millet (Tu.); jo.l.a great millet (Kod..); (DEDR 2896). The particle co_- is from the morphemes for 'barley':[cf. zo-dha_n (A.)]; jov, zou, jav, jau barley (Gypsy); job oats (Gypsy); zo_, za_, zau, zu_, zo, yo_, ya_, yu_, yo_u, yaw, zo_ (Tor.Mai.Dm.); jau (S.L.P.WPah.N.Bi.Mth.H.); jau~ (Ku.); jo (L.)[obl.pl.java~ whence > yava (RV.Si.Pali); jav (G.M.); java (Pkt.)]; ju_ (P.); ja (B.Or.); jaa (Or.); jo~ (OMarw.)(CDIAL 10431). yo_ (Bshk.); zo-dha_n (A.); yava-vi (<-vri_hi)(Si.)(CDIAL 10431). cf. vi_yam seed;rice(Ta.); bi_ya rice, food (Ka.); biyyamu seeds or grains of oryza sativa without husks, rice (Te.); bi.am rice (Kol.)(DEDR App.60). cf. bi_ja seed (Skt.); bi_a_, bi_ya_ (H.); bi~_, bi_ (M.)(CDIAL 9250).] Linseed: javas linseed plant; n. linseed (M.); javs'i_ the flax plant (M.); yavasa grass (RV.); grass, hay (Pali); javasa grass, wheat and other grains (Pkt.); yu_s (Ash.); yus (Kt.); jos (Kho.)(CDIAL 10436). Stream 1: emphasis on the particle: ka_'wa jo_na millet (Kuwi); co- > jo ; jonna great millet (Te.); jowar, maize (Go.); jona jowar (Go.); jo_nnang id. (Go.); jona_ maize (Go.); janna_ id. (Go.); jandra jowar (Go.); jonnalu great millet (Te.); sonna (pl.sonnal) id. (Kol.); juwari (Nk.); jenna (pl.jennel) small maize, juwar (Pa.); jo_nel maize (j = dz)(Ga.); jonne_l cholam, millet (Ga.)(DEDR 2896). [For -jo_na cf. con-n-al, co_l.am maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Ta.)(DEDR 2896)]. [andropogon sorghum = holcus sorghum = sorghum vulgare.] cf. makku awn (Ka.); awn or bead of greain; adj. bristly, rough (Tu.)(DEDR 4623). mokka jonna maize (Te.lex.) Stream 2: diversions from Stream 1: variations in vowels: j(u/a/o~/i) : jon.n.a_lia_ millet (Pkt.); jod.u_l oats, a weed like oats (L.); juna_lo maize (Ku.); junya_lo, junelo big millet (N.); jana_r a kind of maize (B.Or.); janer(a_), jonhri_, jo~dhri_, jinora_ millet, maize (Bi.); janer tall winter millet (Mth.); junha_r millet (H.); ju_n(h)ri_, jundri_, jo~d.ri_, jo~d.i_ millet (H.); jo~dhl.a_ the grain holcus sorghum (M.)(CDIAL 10434). yaviya consisting of grain (RV.); yavya_ stock of grain (TS.); yavika = yavin (Pa_n..gan.a); jai oats (B.)(semant. cf. ya_va- > S. consisting of barley; jai oats (N.)(CDIAL 10441). ya_va consisting of or prepared from barley (Ka_tyS'r.); ya_vaka a partic. dish of barley (Gaut.Pali); grains of barley (MBh.); ya_vi_ andrographis paniculata (Skt.); ja_o consisting of barley (S.); oats (N.)(CDIAL 10472). pavana_la andropogon bicolor (Skt. a mistake for yavana_la?); panara_ a kind of maize (Or.); punera_ a kind of grain (H.)(CDIAL 7980). Maize: tjonna maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Te.); jo_l.a (Ka.Tu.); co_l.an- maize; Indian corn, makka_-c-co_l.am; co_l.a-k-kon.t.ai ear of the maize; co_l.a-t-tat.t.ai stalks of maize (Ta.lex.) co_l.am maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Pata_rtta. 1399)(Ta.) id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) A variety of millet: co_n.a_cala-k-kampu a variety of kampu (G.Sm.D.I, i,219); co_n.a_calam, co_n.acailam, co_n.a-kiri Tiruvan.n.a_malai hill in south Arcot district, sacred to S'iva (Pat.t.in-at. Ta_ya_rtakan-a. 9); co_n.e_can- S'iva, as the Lord of co_n.a_calam or Tiruvan.n.a_malai (Arun.akiriyan. 25)(Ta.lex.) Maize: cf. jon.n.a_lia_ millet (Pkt.); juna_lo maize (Ku.); jo~dhl.a_ the grain holcus sorghum (M.); junelo big millet (N.); yavana_la andropogon bicolor (Sus'r.); yo_nala (Skt.); jd.u_l oats, a weed like oats (L.); junya_lo big millet (N.); jana_r a kind of maize (B.Or.); janer(a_), jonhri_, jo~dhri_, jinora_ millet, maize (Bi.); janer tall winter millet (Mth.); junha_r (H.); ju_n(h)ri_, jundri_, jo~d.ri_, jo~d.i_ millet (H.)(CDIAL 10434). Sorghum vulgare = sorghum saccharatum: dirghamala (Skt.); joar, jowar (H.P.B.M.); cholam (Ta.); jonnalu (Te.); chavela (Ma.); jolah (Ka.); seeds: diuretic, demulcent; aphrodisiac; widely cultivated in India; deo-dhan (H.M.); tella-jonna (Te.)(GIMP, p.231). cf. jonna jowar, maize (Go.); co_l.am maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Ta.); jandra jowar (Go.); ka_'wa jo_na millet (Kuwi)[For ka_'wa cf. kambu_](DEDR 2896). janhe paspalum scrobiculatum; jera janhe panicum flavidum (Santali.lex.) cf. unna_lu (Ka.); jonnalu (Te.)(Ka.Te.lex.) cf. bajr.a a cultivated grain (Santali. lex. cf. tin-ai Italian millet, setaria italica (Ta.)(DEDR 3265). cf. nuvan.ai black Italian millet (Ta.)(DEDR 3712). kokor jan:ga a cultivated millet (Santali.lex.) na~r.i gha~s panicum vestitum (Santali.lex.) con-n-al maize, great millet, sorghum vulgare (Ta.); swi.l.m maize (To.); jo_l.a a generic name for several species of millet (Ka.); great millet (Tu.): jo.l.a great millet (Kod..); jonna, jonnalu great millet (Te.); sonna (pl. sonnal) id. (Kol.); sonna juwari (Nk.); jenna (pl. jennel) small maize, juwar (Pa.); jo_nel (j = dz) maize; jonne_l cholam, millet (Ga.); jonna jowar, maize (Go.); janna_ maize (Go.); jona, jo_nnang jowar; jona_ maize; jandra jowar (Go.)(DEDR 2896). yava_ka_ra barley-shaped (Skt.); jua_ri, jo_va_ri_ a kind of grain, millet (Pkt.); zua_r the great millet, jowar (Shum.); jua_ri (S.); joa_r (L.); pl. joa_ri_ (L.); jova_r, jua_r, jama_r (P.); jawa_ro a kind of soft grass growing at high altitudes (WPah.); joya_r, juya_r the great millet, sorghum vulgare (B.); jua_ra the great millet; jua_ra_ maize (Or.); joa_r, juwa_r, jwa_r andropogon sorghum, holcus sorghum (H.); jawa_ra_, juwa_ra_ maize, blade of barley (H.); juva_ri millet (OMarw.); juva_r, ja_r a kind of grain (G.); java_ra_, juva_ra_ pl. tender plants of corn grown on the altar before a goddess (G.); java_r, javha_r, javha~_ri_, juva_ri_ millet, holcus sorghum (M.)(CDIAL 10437). Gruel: ya_gu rice-gruel (Pali); yava_gu rice-gruel (TS.); yva_guli_ sour scum of boiled rice (Skt.); ja_u boiled crushed food (B.); overboiled rice, gruel of rice and other grains (Or.); ya_ku rice-gruel (OSi.Bra_hmi_); jaulo gruel (Ku.); ja_ulo pap of soft rice for children or invalids (N.); ja_ur milk cooked with rice and sugar (H.); ja_vri_ rice and pulse (G.)(CDIAL 10438). cf. ca_val rice (H.) Barley: yava_ni_ a kind of bad barley (Pa_n.. com.); ptychotis ajowan (Sus'r.); yava_nika_ (Car.); yama_ni_, yama_nika_ (Sus'r.); yohon.i_, yohan.i_ oats (Phal.); ja_n.i_ ligusticum ajowan and its seed (S.); java_in., jama_in., ajva_in. (P.); jwa_n. dill seed (remedy for stomach-ache)(Ku.); juwa_nu ligusticum ajowan (N.); zani, azani (A.); zaniya_ smelling of this (A.); joya_n, joya_ni, jama_ni carroway, ptychotis ajowan (B.); jua_n.i_ carroway, carum copticum ajowan (Or.); jua_n.ia_ a cornfield weed (Or.); jawa_in, ajwa_in ligusticum or ptychotis ajowan (Bi.); jwa_in, jawa_ni_, ajwa_in, ajwa_n ptychotis ajowan (H.); ajva_n (M.)(CDIAL 10439). yviya consisting of grain (RV.); yavya_ stock of grain (TS.); yvika = yavin- (Pa_n.. com.); ja, jai oats (B.)(CDIAL 10441). ya_va consisting of or prepared from barley (Ka_tyS'r.); ya_vaka a partic. dish of barley (Gaut.); grains of barley (MBh.); ya_vi_ andrographis paniculata (Skt.); ya_vaka a dish prepared from barley (Pali); ja_o consisting of barley (S.); ja_o oats (N.)(CDIAL 10472). A weed among rice: sa_ma_ a weed among rice (N.); millet (B.); panicum frumentaceum (H.)(CDIAL 12667). sa~_wa_, sa~_wa~_ panicum frumentaceum (H.); sa~_va_, sa_va_ panicum frumentaceum or miliaceum (M.); sama_k, samak oats (Wg.); soak a kind of millet (P.); s'ya_ma_ka the millet panicum frumentaceum (VS.); sa~_o~ panicum frumentaceum and its grass (S.); s'a_ma_u a kind of darkish grass (WPah.)(CDIAL 12267). sa_vya_n. straw of panicum frumentaceum (M.)(CDIAL 12668). ca_mya food (Skt.); cam bread (Gypsy); camikani_ pancake (Gypsy)(CDIAL 4752). sa_ma_ a medicinal plant ( = priyan:gu which means a medicinal plant and the millet panicum italicum (Pali); s'ya_ma_ a kind of plant (used for curing leprosy)(Skt.); ha_ma the fodder grass p. colonum (K.); sa_m a kind of autumn millet (Mth.)(CDIAL 12666). sama_xa, samu_xa (Psht.); sua~_ ca_ul.a_ panicum frumentaceum (sua~_ bha_t a dish prepared from it (Or.); sa~_wa~_, sa_ma_, sa~_i~_ panicum mileaceum (Bi.) sa_ma_, sama_ panicum mileaceum (Mth.)(CDIAL 12667). Oats: s'ama_k, s'amk oats (Wg.); sava~_k, sava_k the grass panicum colonum (L.); sa~_vak the grain ophismenus frumentaceus (L.); p. colonum (P.);(CDIAL 12667). Beard of maize: caa~ra beard of maize (Or.)(CDIAL 4677). Millet: kamp-ari holcus spicatus (Ma.); kampu, kampam-pul bulrush millet, Italian millet (Ta.); kampu id. (Ma.); kampam a grain (Ma.); kambu holcus spicatus (Ka.Tu.); kambu_ = kuruvinda (Skt.)[pennisetum typhoideum = panicum spicatum = holcus spicatus](DEDR 1242). kaba_in.u to shrink, yield (S.); ka_ba_ foolish (Or.); kabru, kambu_ka husk of rice (AV.); ka_bu_ feeble, prostrate (B.); feeble (Or.)(CDIAL 2759). Elephant grass: campan.-ko_rai elephant grass; can.pu elephant grass; a species of sedge grass (Ta.); jon.d.u elephant grass (Ka.); jambu a bulrush, sedge; a kind of reed or sedge, typha angustifolia (Te.); campu elephant grass, typha elephantina; sola pith (Ta.)(DEDR 2347). cf. campa_- a prefix to a variety of grains (Ta.lex.) Field of millet: sur.vu~ to cut off or pluck up weeds in a field of millet (G.); su_r. simple, direct, straight (G.)(CDIAL 12562).

3976.Soup, juice: jhor soup (Mth.); ju_li soup (Sh.); jhol (Ku.B.H.); juice, soup (N.); zol soup (A.); jhol.a (Or.)(CDIAL 5416). Image: bag for food; glutton: co_r-u boiled rice (Pur-ana_. 172); id. (Ma.); co_r-r-a_vi vapour emitted by boiled rice or sacrificial offering to the gods (Cilap. 10,144, Arum.); co_r-r-a_latti boiled rice waved before an idol, a married couple, etc., to avert the evil eye (Ta.lex.) twi.r- cooked food (To.); co_r-u boiled rice, food, livelihood, brain, marrow, pith (Ma.); co_cci, con-r-i boiled rice (Ta.)(DEDR 2897). co_r-r-u-p-pakka_l.i, co_ttu-p-pakka_l.i, co_r-r-u-p-pakkarai a glutton, as a bag for food; co_r-r-u-p-pat.i batta; co_r-r-u-p-poti food tied up in a cloth for use on journey; co_r-r-u-k-kat.t.i lump of boiled rice (Pur-ana_. 177, Urai); co_r-r-amalai id. (Perumpa_n.. 224)(Ta.lex.) cf. amalai boiled rice (Tiva_.); rice ball (Malaipat.u. 441); co_r-r-u-t-tat.i lump of boiled rice (Malaipat.u. 441, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. tat.i rice-field (Tiva_. Iraku. Na_t.. 21); plot of a field; tat.i-c-campa_ a kind of paddy maturing in 8 months (Ta.lex.) co_r-r-u-t-tiral.ai lump of boiled rice (Pur-ana_. 33, Urai.); co_r-r-u-p-parukkai grains of boiled rice; (Ta.lex.) co_l.ikai satchel, bag, as of a beggar (Ta.); jo_l.ige (Ka.Tu.); tjo_liya (Te.); co_r..iyappai a large kind of bag used by mendicants (Ta.); djo_le (Te.); jo_l.ige (Ka.); jo_lna+ (H.)(Ta.lex.) jhaulika_ small bag (Skt.); jholun:go swinging cradle (N.); zolon:ga_ beggar's bag (A.); jho_lia_ bag (Pkt.); jhol.i_ skirt used as a bag, lap (L.); jhola_, jholi_ bag (P.); jholo, jholi_ (Ku.); jholi small wallet (N.); zuli bag, scrotum (A.); jholi, jhuli bag (B.); jhola_, jholi_ feeding bag for cattle (Bi.); jhori_ bag (Mth.); jho_ra_ (Bhoj.); jholi_ (H.); jhol.i_, jhorn.o, jhorn.i_ (G.); jhol.i_ mendicant's bag (M.); jhollia_ bag (Pkt.); jhola skirt used to hold anything in; jholi_ fakir's bag, nest of eggs, brood of young birds (S.)(CDIAL 5415). ci_ra, ci_la, ci_lu a bag, a sack (Ka.lex.) Serving food into plates or bowls: co_r-u-pat.aittal to serve boiled rice on plates or leaves (Ta.lex.) xollna_ to serve (rice, meat, potatoes, etc.) out of the cooking vessel, transfer by means of a ladle from the cooking pot into the plates or bowls ready for a meal (Kur.); qole to take up liquids (as with a spoon)(Malt.)(DEDR 2140).

3977.Image: defeat: to_l (to_r-p-, to_r-r--), to_r (-pp-, -tt-) to be defeated, discomfited, vanquished (as in battle, game, dispute etc.), fail in comparison, yield, flinch, give way voluntarily, lose; n. defeat, discomfiture, misfortune, ill-luck, loss; to_lvi, to_lvu, to_r-r-al, to_r-pu discomfiture, loss, defeat; to_rvai defeat (Ta.); to_lka to be defeated, lose in a game, battle, or suit, be cheated in a bargain; to_li defeat, loss; to_lpikka to defeat, beat, baffle, excel (Ma.); co.l- (co.t-) to be defeated, be inferior, fail; co.v- (co.t-) to be defeated (Ko.); twi.l- (twi.-t--) to be defeated, become old (To.); twi.lc- to defeat; swi.l- (swi.t-) to be defeated (To.); so_l(u) to be defeated or overcome, not to win; so_lisu to defeat, overcome, vanquish; so_la, so_lu defeat, loss; so_luvike, so_luve, so_lme id., losing (Ka.); co.l- (co.p-, co.t-) to be defeated (Kod..); to_lpuni, so_puni, so_luni to lose at a game, be defeated, overcome; so_pa_vuni, so_la_vuni to make one lose at a game, defeat, overcome; so_pu, so_lpu defeat, discomfiture; defeated, overcome; so_la defeat, failure, disappointment (Tu.); so_tu, so_ti to be defeated (Kor.)(DEDR 3558).

3978.Images: pair, junction: savad.a, javal.a pair; savad.agat.t.u a double structure or wall; a wall built on the outer side of another to support it (Ka.lex.) savad.i, javal.i a pair; a junction; a confluence (Ka.lex.)

3979.Rival wife: savati (Tadbhava of sapatni) a rival wife (Ka.Te.); savata (M.); savati-maga a step-son; savarimatsara the enmity between rival wives (Ka.lex.)

3980.Stay, rope: cava_y < sawa_'i_ (naut.) stay, rope supporting mast (Ta.lex.) Bow; quiver: ca_pa bow (Mn.Pali.); ca_va (Pkt.); sa_v (Si.)(CDIAL 4746). a_vam quiver, bow-string; a_va-na_r..i, a_va-na_r..ikai quiver (Ta.); a_va-na_r..i id. (Ma.)(DEDR 390). tavar bow (Pa_rata. Tirel.a. 47)(Ta.lex.)

3981.To hear; disciple; celebrity: {Echo word} Ís'ru hear (Skt.); s'ravan.a act of hearing (S'Br.);[cmpd. Ís'ru (Skt.)+ Ívinu hear (Te.)] savana hearing, ear (Pali); savan.a ear (Pkt.); sunu, hunu hearing (Si.)(CDIAL 12688). s'ra_vaka pupil, disciple (Skt.); sa_vaka disciple (Pali); sa_vaya Jain adherent (Pkt.); sav-, savu-va_ schoolboy, disciple, layman (Si.)(CDIAL 12697). s'ra_van.a announcing (MBh.); sa_van.a id. (Pali); sa_van.a, sa_van.a_ (Pkt.); savuna preaching (Si.)(CDIAL 12698). s'ra_vayati proclaims (RV.); sa_ve_ti proclaims (Pali); savite, sa_va_paya_mi pp. (As'.); s'ravakam., sra_va_pakam. connected with a proclamation (As'.); sa_ve_i, sa_vai (Pkt.); ha_wun to explain, show (K.)(CDIAL 12701). s'r.n.o_ti hears (RV.); sun.a_ti hears (Pali); 3 pl. opt. s'run.eyu, srun.a_ru, s.uneyu (As'.); 1 sg. s'runa_mi, absol. s'runiti (NiDoc.); sun.e_di, sun.ai, sun.an.a (Pkt.); s'un, as'un, 3 sg. sinar (Gypsy); us'trun- (1 sg. us'trunum, chinum, sanum < chininum; stem us'tru)(Dm.); s'uni (Nin:g); s'u_ne (Shum.); s'uni- (s'un.d.i-)(Gaw.); s'un- (Mai.); s.un.-, s'un.- (Phal.); hunnu, s'un.n.o_ (K.); sun.an.u, pp. suo (S.); sun.an. (L.); sunana_ (P.); s'un.n.u_, s'un.n.u, s'u_n.no~_ (WPah.); sun.no (Ku.); sunnu (N.); xuniba (A.); suna_ (B.); sun.iba_ (Or.); sunab (Mth.); sunal (Bhoj.); sunab (Aw.); sunna_ (H.); sun.n.o (Marw.); sun.vu~, san.vu~ (G.); caus. sun.a_pe_ti makes hear, announces (Pali); sun.a_ve_di (Pkt.); snauar informs (Gypsy); sun.a_van. (L.); s'un.a_n.a_ (WPah.); sun.u_n.o (Ku.); suna_unu (N.); xuna_iba (A.); suna_na (B.); sun.a_iba_ (Or.); suna_na_ (H.); sun.a_vvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12598). s'ruta heard (RV.); suta heard (Pali); s'ruda, 1 sg. pret. s'rudemi, 3 pl. s'rutam.ti (NiDoc.); s.uta (KharI.); stru_ to hear (Tir.); suo pp. of sun.an.u (S.)(CDIAL 12714). s'ru_yate_ is heard (RV.); su_yati, suyyati is heard (Pali); s'ruyadi (NiDoc.); sujan.u (S.)(CDIAL 12716). s'lo_ka sound, hymn of praise (RV.); stanza (S'Br.); silo_ka fame, verse (Pali); salo_ga, salo_ya, silo_ga, silo_a, sulo_a praise (Pkt.); s'ilog tale (Kho.); s'ulok (Dm.); s'ulug (Phal.); s'ilo_k (Sh.); s'ilo_k (D..); sova singing (Si.); silev, silova, solo_va stanza (Si.)(CDIAL 12748). s'ro_tra ear (RV.); so_ta ear (Pali); so_a (Pkt.); so_ (Si.); s'ro_tas (Skt.)(CDIAL 12730). s'ro_triya learned in the Veda (AV.); brahman so versed (Mn.); sottiya, sotthiya wise man (Pali); soti_ a partic. brahman clan (Mth.H.); set nom. prop. of a brahman (OSi.)(CDIAL 12731). n.isun.e_i, n.isun.ai listens to (Pkt.); nisun.ai, nisan.ai (OG.)(CDIAL 7437). pin.isva_ having instructed (OSi.); pin.isvu_van persons who have been instructed (OSi.)(CDIAL 8531). To hear; listening; celebrity: vin-a_ (vin-a_y-), vin-a_vu (vin-a_vi-) to ask, investigate, give ear to, listen, hear; vin-a_ question (Ta.); vinavuka to ask (Ma.); vent- (veynt-) id. (Ko.); pint- (pinty-) id. (To.); vinu (vin.t.-) to hear, listen, obey; vinukali hearing; vinucu, vinipincu to cause to hear; vin(u)cu to be heard; tell; vin(i)ki, vinikid.i hearing, listening, audience, hear-say; vi_nu the ear; celebrity (Te.); vin- (vint-) to hear (Kol.); vin- id. (Nk.); ven- (vend.-) id. (Ga.); ven- (vett-, vend-) id. (Pa.); ven- (vet.-, vey-), ven- (veyy-) id., ven- (ven.t.-) id.; ven.up- to make to hear (Ga.); ven- to hear (Go.); ven- (veR-) id.; venba- (-t-) to ask (Kond.a); ven- (vec-) to hear; venba- (-t-) to ask, inquire (Pe.); ven- (vec-) to hear; venba- to ask (Mand..); venba (ves-) to hear, listen, ask, question; n. hearing, listening, inquiry (Kui); ven- (vecc-) to hear; venjali (vec-), ven (vec-) to hear, ask; vengali to be rumoured; wennai, wenbinai to hear, question; ven.bu, wenumbu hearing (Kuwi); menna_ (menj-) to hear, listen, obey, question, ask; mendna_ to tell, inform (Kur.); mene (menj-) to hear, ask; mendre to be heard, be rumoured (Malt.); bining (bing-) to hear (Br.)(DEDR 5516). cf. veha_na_, veh- to tell (Go.)(DEDR 5514).

3982.Cloth: caval.i cloth, piece-goods (Ta.); any cloth (Ma.); javal.i cloth of any kind (Ka.); cloth (Tu.); jaul.i id. (Tu.); javal.i cloths (Te.)(DEDR 2393).

3983.Bezel; jewelry: java_ri relating or or produced in one's own country, as wool, cloth, cotton etc. (Ka.M.H.); jawa_hi_ru id. (Ka.); a jewel, gem; jewelry (Ka.Te.M.H.); cavi (Tadbhava of chavi) light, lustre (Ka.); chavi colour, beauty, light, lustre (Ka.Skt.); chavivad.e to bloom (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cavat.i an ornament for the neck consisting of three or more gold cords (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) java_hir < java_hir (Arab.) precious stone; jewel (C.G.); javai bezel, socket or bed for a gem in a jewel, kuval.ai or socket for setting gems; cavai-y-aram, javai-y-aram tenon file (C.E.M.)(Ta.lex.)

3984.Excess by a fourth: sava_i excess by a fourth; having the excess of a fourth (Ka.); sava_i_ (M.); sava_, savva_ having a fourth more; more by a fourth (Ka.M.); sava_se_ru 1 1/4 se_ru (in weight)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. catutthavasena adv. fourthly (Pali.lex.) Plus a quarter: sapa_da increased by a fourth (Mn.); sava_ya plus a quarter (Pkt.); sawa_ (K.); sava_ (S.L.P.); sua_, saua_ (WPah.); sawa_ (N.); saoya_ (B.); saa_ (Or.); sawa_ one and a quarter (Mth.); sawa_u (Aw.); sawa_ plus a quarter (H.); sava_ (Marw.G.M.); sava_y (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13134).

3985.Image: hair of tail: javi, jame, jave the hair of a horse's tail (Ka.); javvi (Te.); javivale a net made of javi (Ka.lex.)

3986.Image: speedy: javi hastening, speedy; a horse, a camel (Ka.); prajavi hastening, rapid, quick (Ka.Skt.); yavana speed, velocity (Ka.); javana fleet, swift; speed, velocity (Ka.lex.) cavan-am < javana (Skt.) speed, quickness (Pa_rata. Pan-n-iran.t.a_m. 59)(Ta.lex.)

3987.Image: to cut off trees: cavr- (cavry-) to cut down a whole collection of standing plants, bushes, etc. (Ko.); savaru to cut off the side branches of a branch of a tree, the branches of a bush or bamboo, or the bark of a tree; diminish prominence of the soil by cutting away a little at a time, chip, cut, cut down; caus. savarisu (Ka.); tavuruni, tauruni to strip off as the leaves of a tree, cut away any leaves or brushwood, clear a bush; taberu, saberu to chop off, trip (Tu.)(DEDR 2390).

3988.Robust man: java_n- < yava_n (Pers.) strong, robust man, peon (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) java_na a peon (Ka.Te.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. yavana an Ionian, a Greek; a Mahomedan, an individual of a foreign race, turuka, turus.ka, jo_nega (Ka.); yavana-de_s'a the country of the yavanas: Ionia, Bactria, Turkishtha_n, Arabia (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ya_vana (fr. yavana) produced or born in the land of the Yavanas (Ka.); incense (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

3989.Hunters: cavari < s'abari_ woman of the hunting tribe (Tiruppu. 1254, Putup.); cavaran- < s'abara mountaineer, hunter (Perun.. Ucaik. 55,68); inhabitants of the desert tract (Tiva_.); a tribal chief of the desert tract (Ta.lex.) s'abara (often s'avara-) a wild mountain tribe in the Deccan (AitBr.); s'abaraka a savage (Ka_v.); savara an aboriginal tribe (Pali.Pkt.); sahara, saara, sara, saarun.i a caste of aboriginal Gar-aja_ts (Or.); savara a savage; habaraya_ archer, a Va_dda_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12296). A country near the Indus: cavvi_ram a country near the mouth of the Indus, one of 56 te_cam (Tiruvil.ai. Naripari. 106)(Ta.lex.)

3990.Great personage; equipage: sava_ri equipage, retinue or train of a great personage (Ka.); sva_ri_ (M.H.); sava_ri, sva_ri riding upon the back of any animal or in a carriage, riding; going, walking; the great personage singly; any person in the customary adulatory or complimentary style (Ka.M.); sava_ra, sva_ra mounted upon or seated in (a horse, a coach, etc.)(Ka.M.); a man on horseback, a horseman (Ka.M.H.); sava_ra-kace_ri the office of troopers or native cavalry (Ka.lex.) sva_ra mounted upon or seated in; sa_di, ra_vuta (Ka.); sva_ra (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. cavaran.ai preparedness, readiness (Ta.); savaran.a (Te.); savaran.e (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

3991.Woman with living husband; wife of a village official: sava_s.t., sava_sn.i_ woman with living husband; wife of a village official (M.); sava_san. woman devoted to husband (P.); sava_sin living together (AV.); sava_s'i_n. woman with living husband; wife of a village official (M.); suva_s'i_n. (M.); sawa_sin married girl living in father's house (Mth.); sua_sin, suwa_sini_ (H.); suva_san.iya woman with living husband (OG.); suva_sn.i_, soha_san. (X soha_g < saubha_gya )(G.); suva_sin.i_ woman, wife (Pkt.); svava_sini a married or unmarried woman living after maturity in her father's house (Ya_j.); suva_sini_ (Gaut.Mn.); term of courtesy for a woman whose husband is alive (Skt.); sowa_se woman whose husband is alive (K.); sisin.i_, si_sn.i_ woman (Ku.); swa_sni woman, wife (N.); sua_sin married girl living in father's house (Bi.)(CDIAL 13912). sustri_ chaste wife (Skt.); sava_n.i_ woman, wife (L.); sua_n.i_ clever woman, woman of good family (among Rajputs)(P.)(CDIAL 13464). Wife: sva_mini_ king's favourite wife (MBh.); sa_mini_ wife (Pali); sa_we_nu lady (K.); sa~_in.i mistress (S.); se_n., sa_in. (S.); sa_man.i (OG.); seni in: gurun.-seni wife of a Gurung (N.)(CDIAL 13931). suja_na intelligence (Kat.hUp.); suna_r.i_, suna_ri_ clever (H.)(CDIAL 13466). suge_hini_ good housewife (Skt.); swain., swen. wife (Ku.)(CDIAL 13457). subhava of high birth (VS.); subhavas (TS.); suhava fortunate (Pkt.); su_hava beautiful (OG.)(CDIAL 13487).

3992.Swampy ground: javal.u, javul.u,javugu, jo_gu swampy ground (Ka.); javuka, jauku to be marshy, to be shaky, unsteady, loose, (wall) becomes weak before falling, lose courage; javajava onom. denoting trembling, softness, weakness; jo_ku to tremble, totter, stagger (Te.)(DEDR 2398). cf. tuval. to quiver, tremble (Ta.)(DEDR 3354). cavadi, cavati mud; cakati mud, mire (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 2266). javaku a swamp (Te.); cavuku to ooze; to become soft; to rot (Ta.); javu-ge_r.. to become morassy; jhala_va swamp (M.) (Ka.lex.) cf. jo_gu waterfall (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 2874). jha_la_ local rain (H.)(CDIAL 5378). jha_lra_ spring of water (H.)(CDIAL 5380). cf. jhirna_ to ooze, trickle away (H.)(CDIAL 5389).

3993.To taste: chaganam. to taste (OH.)(CDIAL 4982). cavi taste (Ta.); cayv taste left in the mouth for food just eaten (Ko.); savi, sam.vi that has taste, that is palatable, savoury, sweet or nice; taste, sweetness; savi, save to test by eating, taste, eat; saviga_r-a a man who creates pleasant feelings, a jocose or witty man, etc.; savisu to cause to taste or eat; saviha taste, flavour (Ka.); sabi, savi flavour, taste; palatable, sweet; sabipuni to taste, try the flavour; savipuni to be tasteful, savoury, sweet; tabi flavour, taste, savoury, delicious; tabipuni to appease (as the appetite); tabat.uni to remain as an aftertaste (Tu.); cavi taste; cavi-gonu to taste (Te.); cuvat.u sweetness, taste (Ta.); savvi sweet (Kol.); savad id. (Nk.); cuvat.an- person of refined taste; cuvai (-pp-, -tt-) to taste, eat, chew, kiss, experience, enjoy; be palatable, agreeable, pleasing; n. taste, flavour, deliciousness, sweetness, that which is pleasing or gratifying to the senses, the sense of taste (Ta.); cuva taste, flavour, unpleasant taste (as in fever), slight after-effects of former troubles; cuvekka to taste, produce a taste, remain as after-taste (Ma.)(DEDR 2396). svad relish (Skt.); svadana act of tasting (Skt.); sva_dana making savoury (RV.); syunu, sinis vegetable sauce, what is eaten with rice (vegetables, meat, fish)(K.)(CDIAL 13899). sva_da taste, flavour (Skt.); sa_ya taste (Pkt.); ispa_ juice of fruit (Sh.); sa_u taste, flavour (S.)(CDIAL 13923). sva_du sweet, palatable (RV.); sa_du sweet (Pali); sa_u (Pkt.); ispa_vu, uspau_, ispa_ sweet, tasty (Sh.)(CDIAL 13924). sav taste, relish (M.)(CDIAL 13900).

3994.Death: ca_ (ca_v-ca_kuv-, cett-) to die, be spoiled or blighted (as crops), be exhausted (Ta.); ca_vu death, ghost; ca_kka_t.u death; cettal dying; ceku (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, kill (Ta.); ca_ka a (catt-) to die; ca_kku death, mortality; ca_vu death, case of death, mourning feast; catta dead (Ma.); ka.r. ca.v person who dies somewhere so that his body is not found (ka.r. jungle)(Ko.); soy- (sot-) to die (of others than Todas); so.f Badaga funeral (To.); sa_y (sattu) to die; sa_vu death, a corpse (Ka.); ca.l.- (ca.v-, catt-) to die; ca.vu corpse (Kod..); saipini, taipini to die, be starved; sail ghost; sa_vu, ta_vu death, mourning feast (Tu.); caccu (ca_-, ca_v-) to die, fade, wither, cease, disappear; adj. dead, vigourless, insipid; ca_vu death; campu to kill, put to death; campud.u killing (Te.); cay- (ca-) to die; ca_ corpse (Pe.); say- (sad-, san-), cay-, sa_- (sa_g-, say- etc.) to die (Ga.); saia_na_ (sa_s-), sa_ya_na_, ha_na_, ha_ to die; sa_na_l corpse; ha_va, sa_ta_l dead (Go.); sa_- (-t-) to die; sap- to kill (Kond.a); ha_- (-t-) to die, to go out (Pe.); ha_tpa to extinguish (fire)(Pe.); ha_ to die, (fire) to go out; ha_t- to extinguish (fire)(Mand..); sa_va (sa_t-) to die, be ill, suffer; n. death, illness, suffering; sa_ppa (sa_pt-) to kill, extinguish; n. act of killing, extinguishing (Kui); haiali (hat-), ha_nai, ha_- (-t-) to die; ha_ki death (Kuwi); khe_'ena_ (keccas) to die, fall out of use (as a law); khi_u_, khi'u_ mortal (Kur.); keye (kec-) to die (Malt.); kahing (past kask-, neg. kas-) to die, die down (of fire); kasifing, kasfing to kill (Br.)(DEDR 2426); s'ava- corpse (Skt.); sava id. (Pkt.); siva_ burnt corpse, funeral pyre (P.); s'au grave (WPah.); xa corpse (A.); sau id. (H.); chava id. (Pali.); sava-ya id. (Si.)(CDIAL 12356). sa_ti end, destruction (Skt.); s'a_ta falling out (Sus'r.); s'a_tita destroyed (MBh.); sa_y end, conclusion, destruction (B.); sa_ya (Or.)(CDIAL 13333). cf. semant. 'to go': '...primary forms alone are employed (in speech) among some people; secondary forms among others. The verb s'avati, meaning to go, is used by the Kambojas only...Its modified form s'ava is used by the Aryans... In this manner, one should explain single words.' (Niruktam 2.2); tapu (-pp-, -tt-) to perish, come to an end, die; (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy; taputi ruin, death; tappu (tappi-) to die; tava (-pp-, -nt-) to cease; tavar-u (tavar-i-) to die; tavu (-v-, -nt-, or -pp-, -tt-) to shrink, be reduced, be ruined; taval diminishing, decreasing, failure, death, poverty; tavvu (tavvi-) to lessen, decrease, shrink, perish, decay, waste away; n. shrinking, perishing, decay; ta_vu (ta_vi-) to perish, decay (usually in neg. forms), be removed, disappear, n. ruin; ta_ decay, destruction, fault, blemish, defect, deficiency (Ta.); tav- (tat-) to die; tavi.r (< tav-ayr-; tavrc- < tav-arc-) to kill; ta.v death, corpse, funeral; ta. pay, ta. vay, ta. vi. house where there is a death; ta. na.r. place where corpse is cremated (Ko.); to.n the deceased (e.g. to.n mox the dead by, to.n wis-e.n the decreased wis-e.n)(To.); taval.isu to destroy, cause to droop or fade; tavir, tavil want, poverty, trouble; tavisu to cause to decrease or be diminished, make an end of, destroy, remove; tavu to decrease, be diminished, waste away, come to an end, perish, diminish, destroy; n. decrease, destruction, ruin, drooping, depressed or humble state; tavuge decrease, end; tavun:ku = tavu vb.; tavun:kal diminution, ruin; tave to decrease, wane, be insufficient; tagusi decrease, want, deficiency; tappudu it will be wasted, it will perish, wane, decrease, come to an end (Ka.)(DEDR 3068).

3996.Junction: java_ junction (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) To go; pass from one state of existence to another; death: s'av, s'avati to go, approach; to alter, change, transform (Skt.lex.) cavati (Vedic cyavate from cyu, Lat. cieo, cio, Goth. haitan = OHG. heizan) to move, get into motion, shift, to fall away, decease, esp. to pass from one state of existence into another (sasaranti cavati upapajjanti); cavana shifting, moving, passing away, cavana-dhamma doomed to fall, destined to decease; cavanata_ state of shifting, removal; caus. ca_veti; pp. cuta shifted, disappeared, deceased, passed from one existence to another; cuta-accuta permanent, not under the sway of death; cutupapa_ta disappearance and reappearance, transmigration; cuti (Skt. cyuti, to cavati) vanishing, passing away, decease, shifting out of existence (opp. upapatti)(Pali.lex.) cyavate_ moves to and fro, retires (RV.); drops from, trickles from (MBh.); falls (R.); perishes (Mn.); cyut trickle (Skt.); cavati moves, falls away, dies (Pali); cavai, cayai goes from birth to birth, dies (Pkt.);[cf. ca_vu death (Ta.)]cu_ to walk, go away, flow (Wg.); -co- in: li-comasem I stand up (Pr.); coy 2 sg. imper. co_ go! (Dm.); co_ di (Shum); co_ (pret. ga_ < gata)(Wot.); co (Gaw.); co_ 1 pl. fut. com (Bshk.); coh (Tor.); co_ rise, go! (Phal.); cavai falls; cavi fallen, reborn (OG.); cavn.e~ to fall into debauchery, become mad (M.); senava_, henava_ to fall (Si.); cua_un.o to cause (water or branches or leaves) to fall; cuun.a causing to fall (Ku.)(CDIAL 4939). cyuta shaken (AV.); fallen (Mn.); cuta fallen (Pali); cua (Pkt.); suwa_ orts (A.)(CDIAL 4943). suwa_ni place where leavings, etc. are thrown (A.)(CDIAL 4944). cya_vayati causes to move (RV.); ca_ve_ti causes to fall, drives away (Pali); ca_ve_i causes to be killed (Pkt.); ca_in.u to raise, lift, carry (S.); ca_van. to remove, lift; ca_vun. to raise (L.)(CDIAL 4941). cya_vita fallen out (Skt.); ca_via destroyed (Pkt.); ca_ya_, ca_ya~_ mange, scurf (N.); ca_i~ mange (H.); ca_i_, cai_ a disease of hair and wool (M.)(CDIAL 4942).

3997.Sublimated mercuric compound: cavvi_ram a mineral poison; strong medicinal compound containing quicksilver, alum, ammonia etc. sublimated (W.); vinegar (Tailava. Taila. 22)(Ta.lex.) Sediment, fuller's earth, natron: cavat.u sediment; fuller's earth, alkaline soil (Ta.); cavar brackishness (Ta.); astringent (Ma.); cavarkka to have an astringent or unripe taste (Ma.); cavul.u, savul.u, saval.u brackishness (Ka.); cavul.u, cavulu brackish, saline; tabat.u unsavoriness, acerbity (Tu.); caud.u fuller's earth; cavaka brackishness (Te.); saul., saul rather brackish (M.)(DEDR 2386). sarji natron; svarji id. (Sus'r.); sajjia_ id. (Pkt.); saz (K.); sajji_ the salsola plant (from which alkali is made)(L.); natron (P.); fuller's earth (WPah.); sa_ji_ a kind of medicinal plant (Ku.); sa_j-ma_t.i, sa_ji natron, fuller's earth (B.); sa_ji_-ma_t.i (Or.); sajji_, sajji_mat.t.i_ (B.); sajji-mat.t.i (N.); sa_ji_-kha_r (G.M.)(CDIAL 13270).

3998.Image: pipal: cuvalai pipal (Ta.); ju_ meri ficus religiosa (Pa.)(DEDR 2697). kecan-ta_ti pipal (Ta.lex.)

3999.Inn, choultry: ca_vat.i inn, choultry (Ira_mana_. Cuntara. 3); id. (Ma.Te.Ka.); sa_vat.i_ (M.); ca_vat.i a public building in a village; police station, office of village magistrate, customs station; open dais in front of a house for general use (Pan.avit.u. 163)(Ta.lex.)

4000.Food ticket: ca_vat.i-c-ci_t.t.u a chit or ticket permitting one to obtain food at a choultry; royal or government grant (Ta.lex.)

4001.Custom-house: cavikkai custom-house (Ta.); cavukkai id. (Ma.); cauki_ (U.)(Ta.lex.)

4002.Witness: s'a_yidi a witness at law; witness, deposition (Ka.H.M.); s'a_hidi_ (H.); s'a_hidi (Te.); s'a_yidida_ra a witness (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) A copy: cava_tu < sawa_d (U.) copy, transcript, duplicate; cava_tucci_t.t.u id. (W.)(Ta.lex.) An authorizing document: ja_bu an answer; a letter of advice respecting a hun.d.i (Ka.M.H.); a letter of correspondence (Ka.Te.); cf. jawa_b reply, answer (U.H.lex.) java_bu, jaba_bu an answer, a reply; java_buda_ra a responsible man (Ka.lex.) cava_l < sawa_l (U.) question, interrogation (C.G.); a sacred song of the moors (W.)(Ta.lex.) ja_bita_ a law, regulation; an authorizing document; a passport (Ka.); ja_bata_ (M.H.); ja_bita_ a memorandum, a list, an inventory, a catalogue (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) japta_, ca_vita_ < za_bita (U.) < za_bta (Arab.) list, inventory (Ta.lex.)

4003.Fuller's earth: ka_i fuller's earth, natron (Or.); ka_vi_ green substance (Pkt.); ka_i coating sticking to the side of a vessel in which milk or other liquid is kept (N.); ka_i_ thin layer or covering (G.); starch (B. < kva_tha-); id. (Or.); green scum on stagnant water (H.)(CDIAL 3109). saji hasa fuller's earth; nar.kan hasa fuller's earth for washing hair (Santali.lex.) cf. cavat.u fuller's earth (Ta.)(DEDR 2386). cf. mashing to wash the head, clean the head with fuller's earth (Br.)(DEDR 4634).

4004.Image: lid: cibbala, cibbalu, cibbil, cibbul a bamboo lid (Ka.); sibbi lid, dish (Te.)(DEDR 2537).

4005.Moss filter: s'eba_l moss (WPah.); sewa_r, se~wa_r filter made of river grass for filtering sugar-cane juice (Bi.); sema_r (Mth.); sewa_r a green mosslike waterweed (Aw.); seva_l. moss (G.); s'el.o (Konkan.i_); s'eva_l., s'eval. vallisneria octandra, moss on ponds and rocks, etc. (M.); se~varu = si~aru blyxa octandra (S.); che_bal a green slimy waterweed (L.); s'i_pa_la the waterweed blyxa octandra (RV.); adj. abounding in it (AV.)(CDIAL 12493). cappal refuse of food, leavings (Ta.); campu leavings, refuse (Ma.); sap to pour away water from hand-washing (Kol.)(DEDR 2332). cavar-u sweepings, rubbish (Ta.); cavar-u, cavar green leaves and rubbish used as manure, sweepings (Ma.)(DEDR 2395).

4006.Thin strip: ci_vu to pare off, shave or scrape off, smooth or polish by planing (Ta.); to cut thin, shave, scrape, peel, pare or trim the nails, polish (Ka.); sigur-, sivar-u, sivur-u that is pared off, rind (Ka.); ci_ka to scrape, smooth, polish (Ma.); civvu to cut, shave, pare, mend (Te.); civva thin strip or shaving of wood (Te.); s'ivva wood (Nk.)(DEDR 2600). civar, ci_var fibre surrounding pulp of breadfruit (M.); ciuri a plant from which fibre is obtained, sterculia coxinia (N.)(CDIAL 4776).

4007.Cucumber: cirbhat.a cucumis utilissimus (Car.); cibbhad.a cucumber (Pkt.); cibbhad.iya_ the plant (Pkt.); cibbhar. a wild creeper among the crops grown in the Rains (L.); a small wild fruit (P.); cibbad.a musk melon (Konkan.i); cibbhid.a cucumber (Pkt.); cibhir.u the small bitter gourd cucumis pubescens (S.); cibhu_d., jibhu_d., jibu_d. the fruit of a creeping plant resembling the musk melon; the plant (M.)(CDIAL 4826). cf. kumpal.am wax-gourd (Ta.); kumr.a_ sp. gourd (Or.); kumhan.d.a gourd (Pkt.)(DEDR App.28). savute, saute, savate, savati, savunte a kind of cucumber, cucumis utilissimus (Ka.); cavte cucumber (Kod..); saute, savute, taute, tavute id. (Tu.); ca_vu, tavnte id. (Kor.)(DEDR 2399).

4008.To suck; tongue: ci_pputal to suck (Ta.); ci_pu id. (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ci_ppu (ci_ppi-) to suck (Ta.); i_mpuka to suck, lick, sip (Ma.); ci.p- (ci.py-) to suck out at one draught; n. ci.p (Ko.); ci_pu, si_pu to suck the substance out of anything, suck (Ka.); ci~_ku, ci_ku to smack, suck, place (as fruit or the like) partly in the mouth and draw in the juice; ci_pu to make a sound with the lips; cibuku, civuku to smack, suck (Te.); ci_pna_ (cipyas) to suck (Kur.); cpe id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2621). jihva_ tongue (RV.); juhu (RV.); jivha_ (Pali); jibbha_, ji_ha_ (Pkt.); chib, cib, dib, jib (Gypsy); jiba (D..); dic (Kt.); jip (Wg.); zip (Dm.); jub (Tir.); jiba-m my tongue (Pas'.); zi_p (Pas'.); zip (Nin:g.); zi_b (Shum.); zib (Wot..); zib, zip (Gaw.); jip (Kal.); jib (Bshk.); ji_b (Tor.); zi_b (Mai.); zip (Kand.); zibale_ (Sv.); jib (Phal.); jip, pl. jibe (Sh.); jib, zib (Sh.); zev, siu_, zeou, zibh, jib (K.); jibha (S.); jibbh, jibh, ji_bh (L.); ji_bh, jibbh, jibh (P.); zibbh, jib, pl. jibba (WPah.); jibh, jibbh (WPah.); ji_bh, jibr.o, jibr.i_, jibar. (Ku.); jib(h)ro tongue; jibri barb of the fish hook, tongue of flame (N.); zibha_ tongue (A.); jib (B.); jibha (Or.); ji_bhi (Bhoj.); ji_bh (A.); ji_b(h) (H.); ji_bh, jibhr.i_ (G.); ji_bh (M.); ji_b(h)a (Konkan.i); diva (Si.); ji_ha_, jiha_ (Pkt.); ji_ha, jiha (Mth.); ji_ha (OAw.); ji_h (H.); kal-ji_ha_ black-tongued (H.); zu_ tongue (Ash.); luzuk (Pr.)(CDIAL 5228). jibhela_ right-hand post passing through roller of looom and preventing it from turning (Bi.); jihela_, jihla_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 5229). jihva_gra tip of the tongue (Sus'r.); jivhagga (Pali); divaga (Si.)(CDIAL 5230). jibbhiya tongue, something shaped like a tongue (Pkt.); jibhi_ flame (S.); [cf. ti_ppi fire (Ta.)(DEDR 3266)]; jibhi tongue scraper (N.Or.); ji_bhi_ (H.); sail hung on foremast (G.)(CDIAL 5231).

4009.A kind of paddy; livelihood: ci_van--campa_ a kind of paddy; ci_van-am water; rice-water (Na_.Pariah.); lifelihood, means of sustenance (Civaraka. Civarakaciyavarala_. 3); ci_van-a-ce_s.am maintenance (S.I.I. iii,47)(Ta.lex.) tixil rice, paddy cleaned of its husk (Kur.); tiqalu rice (Malt.)(DEDR 3271). ci_van-akam < ji_vanaka cooked rice; s'ri_ to cook, dress, boil, prepare (Ta.lex.)

4010.Indian ash tree: ji_vanti_ name of a medicinal plant (AV.Pali); cocculus cordifolius (Skt.); ji_vantika_ cocculus cordifolius (Skt.);[cf. gad.u_chau, amr.ta_ the stem, leaves, roots and watery extract of which are all used in Hindu medicine; The Materia Medica of the Hindus, p.106]; jiam.ti a partic. climbing plant (Pkt.); ji_tei plant giving a black colour (WPah.); jiuti the plant odina wodier (B.)(CDIAL 5245). ji_vala the tree odina wodier (AV.); ji_va_la_ (Skt.); jiul., jiuli the gum exuding from odina wodier (B.); jiul.a, jiul.i, jial.a (Or.); ji_yal odina wodier (used while growing as post to support lever of water-lift)(Bi.); divul feronia elephantum (Si.)(CDIAL 5248). [cf. bela, bel.ala wood-apple, feronia elephantum (Ka.)(DEDR 5509). jin:gin.i_ the tree odina wodier (Car.); jin:gi_, jin:gini_, jhin:gi_, jhin:gini_ (Bhpr.); jigin, jigan (H.)(CDIAL 5223). [cocculus cordifolius = tinospora rumphii : "The Filipinos and Malays in general consider this vine as a universal medicine. It is the most popular of local medicinal plants. Makabhai, the common Tagalog name, means 'to give life'." Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.301].

4014.Perforated rice-strainer: cippal colander, perforated rice-strainer (Ta.); sibbi id. (Te.); cibbalu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

4015.Image: ladle: si_por.i a leaf ladle or spoon (Kui); sipr.i container made from leaf (Kuwi); hipr.i leaf-cup (Pe.); cipr.i leaf-cup (Pa.); hi_pi spoon (Go.)(DEDR 2619).

4016.Wild animal: s'va_pada beast of prey (RV.); sa_pada (Pali); sa_vaya wild animal (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12764). sa_iya wild animal (OAw.); sa_waj savage, wild; wild animal (deer, tiger, etc.)(H.); sa_vaj savage, barbarian (G.); sa_vju~ wild animal, tiger (G.); sa_vaj, sa_vi_j wild animal (M.)(CDIAL 12765). s'vapad, s'va_pad wild animal (AV.)(CDIAL 12751).

4017.Image: afterbirth: ora afterbirth, second crop springing up after reaping (S.); aur afterbirth (L.); aul, a_ul, a~_ul umbilical cord (P.); a~wal, ambal, a~_wal afterbirth, umbilical cord (H.); or (G.); var, va_r caul, afterbirth (M.); avara_ the afterbirth (Pa_rGr..); amara_, amala_ afterbirth, umbilical cord (Skt.); sa_vara together with the afterbirth (S'Br.)(CDIAL 813).

4018.Turpentine: s'ri_va_sa the resin of pinus longifolia, turpentine (Ka.lex.) Pinus palustris and other species of pinus: gum thus, crude turpentine, gum turpentine, lump terpentine; terpentin (Ger.); terebenthine commune (Fr.); part used: the concrete oleoresin; habitat: From Viginia to Florida and Texas; uses: lump turpentine is used as an ingredient in preparing compound rosin cerate and some unofficial plasters. Most of the crude article is distilled for oil or turpentine and rosin; oil of turpentine is used as a stimulant and counterirritant in liniments. Pine oil is a volatile oil composed of tertiary and secondary terpene alcohols obtained by extraction and fractionation or by steam distillation of the wood of pinus palustris and other species of pinus. Uses: to prepare pine oil emulsion concentrate and some disinfectants in pharmacy; to treat cotton, wool and rayon fabrics before dyeing; to make some soaps and insecticides; to devulcanize rubber. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 115-117).

4019.Symplocos racemosa, symplocos theofolia: s'a_bara the tree symplocos racemosa (Skt.Ka.lex.) lodhra, tillaka, srinata, savura (Skt.); loth tree (Eng.); lotur bark, small bark tree (Eng.); lodh (H.); lodhra (B.M.); lodhar (G.); lodhuga chettu (Te.); velli-lothi (Ta.); pachotti (Ma.); balaloddugina-mara, pachettu (Ka.); moogama (Arab.); habitat: this is a small tree found very commonly in the plains and lower hills of Bengal, Assam and Burma, and dry forests of Chota-Nagpur plateau... action: bark is considered cooling and astringent... bark is useful in bowel complaints such as diarrhoea, dysentery etc., in dropsy, eye diseases, liver complaints, fevers, ulcers, scorpion-sting etc... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1186-1187).

4020.Rice: yavaka an inferior variety of s'a_li (Car. Su. 27.12).

4021.To lash: cabuku, cabaku, cabuku a horse-whip (Ka.); ca_bu_ka (M.H.); cavukku (Ta.Ma.); cappuku, cabuku (Te.); camaka_yisu, camakisu to lash soundly (Ka.); camakavin.e_m., camaka_vin.e_m. (M.)(Ka.lex.) camad.a the skin (Ka.); camad.i_, ca_mad.i_, ca_mad.e_m. skin, hide, leather (M.H.); ca_vat.i, ca_t.i (Ka.); camad.a (M.)(Ka.lex.)

4022.Extracting/pressing of soma: s'ravan.a certain sacrificial ceremonies; adhvarabhe_da, yaja bhe_da; s'ravan.a, savan.a a Jaina; s'ra_van.a the ceremony of renewing the sacrificial thread (Ka.); s'ra_van.i_ (M.) (Ka.lex.) savana pressing of soma (RV.); any rite (Ya_j.); cavan-am sacrifice (Ta.lex.) cf. cya_vana in cmpds. causing to fall (MBh.)(CDIAL 4940). cf. pum.savana rite performed in third month after conception (Gr.S.); pusvan. purificatory rite when vitality begins in the foetus (M.)(CDIAL 8245). pucavan-am ceremony performed in the fourth, sixth or eighth month of pregnancy of a woman, with a view to have a male child (Tiruva_n-aik. Ko_ccen.. 14)(Ta.lex.) savanam. extracting the soma juice or drinking it; a sacrifice; a libation, sacrificial libation; bathing, purificatory ablution; generation, bearing or bringing forth children; savah. extraction of soma juice; progeny; savam. extracting the soma juice; making libations (Skt.lex.)[The semant. of 'progeny', 'pressing of soma' indicates that soma 'sacrifice' was a 'production' process].

4026.Flowing: jani to flow, to drop (Ka.); janiyuvike flowing, dropping (Ka.lex.)

4027.Image: born: janita born, begotten; produce, occasioned (Ka.); janus birth, production, origin; janma, januma, jaluma, jalma birth, production, origin; janmi creature, living being (Ka.lex.)

4028.Sacrificial thread: jani, jani, jeni, janiva_ra, jannavira, janniva_ra, jeniva_ra the sacrificial thread (which originally was a leather strap)(Ka.); janni the brahmanical thread (Te.); ja_nave_m. (M.); jannan.i a sacrificial shed or house; janna ( = jani, janni sacrificial thread) (Tadbhava of yaja) a sacrifice; janna-pageya the enemy of (Daks.a's) sacrifice: Vi_rabhadra; janna-val.a Indra; jannige (Tadbhava of ya_jike) that belongs to sacrifice or is suitable for sacrifice, or that is dedicated to be offered to an idol, especially used of cattle and of their milk (Ka.lex.)

4029.Woman: jani a woman; a daughter-in-law (Ka.lex.) cf. ja_ni wife; arundhati_-ja_ni whose wife is Arundhati: Vasis.t.ha; ja_naki_-ja_ni whose wife is Ja_naki_ : Ra_ma (Skt.lex.) Wife: jani woman, wife (RV.); janika_ mother (Pali); janiyo, pl. wives (As'.); janika woman (As'.); jan.i (Pkt.); jin kar- to marry (Bshk.); jhn.i_ (Phal.); zu woman (K.); jan.i_ (S.L.); jan.i_, jan.i_a~_ (P.); zani_ (A.); jani_ (B.Mth.H.); jan.i_ (G.); jan., pl. jan.i_ person (M.); ja_njo_r.a_ girl, grown-up daughter (Pas'.); janrav newly married wife (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5103). jana_ni made for, or suitable to, women, belonging to the harem (Ka.M.H.); a seraglio, harem (Ka.); jana_nakha_na_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ja_ni wife; at end of cmpds. e.g. saptaja_ni, dvija_ni (Skt.); ja_ni-patayo_ husband and wife (Pali); ja_n. expert midwife (Ku.)(CDIAL 5194). de_(v)ara_n.i_ husband's younger brother's wife (Pkt.); de_ra_n, di_ra_n sister-inlaw (i.e. husband's brother's wife)(Gaw.); co-wife (Gaw.); abe_n.i (Dm.); abhi_n.i (Phal.); ben co-wife (Psht.); dera_n.i_ husband's brother's wife (S.); dira_n.i_ husband's younger brother's wife; dera_n.i_, d.era_n.i_ (L.); deura_n.i_, dira_n.i_, dara_n.i_ (P.); dyora_n.(i_)(Ku.); deura_ni (N.); deura_ni_, dyora_ni_, dira_ni_ (H.); derwani_ (Pas'.)(CDIAL 6534). sava_n.i_ woman, wife (L.); sua_n.i_ clever woman, woman of good family (among Rajputs)(P.)(CDIAL 13464). pitra_n.i_, pitren.i wife of a member of one's family (G.); pit.l.ia_n.i paternal aunt (WPah.); pit(i)ya_ni_ father's brother's wife (H.)(CDIAL 8189). ban:gya_ni_ husband's brother's wife (Pas'.)(CDIAL 9456). bha_ma, bha_maka sister's husband (BhP.); bha_vuka (Skt.); bema (K.)(CDIAL 9455). bha_n.i brother's wife (WPah.)(CDIAL 9664).

4030.Image: plough-bullock: za_mali_ plough-bullock; zamala_ bullock; yamela_ ploughing (Pas'.); za~_wale with both hands, forcibly (A.);[cf. sel. force (Tu.)(DEDR 2791)]; ya_mala pair (Skt.); ja_a~l.a, ja_a~la_, ja_a~_l.a_, jua~_la twins (Or.); ja_vl.a_ a twin (f. pl. wives of brothers)(M.); ja_vl.e~ twins (M.)(CDIAL 10469). yamala twin, paired (Sus'r.); m. du. twins (MBh.); yamala twin (Pali); jamala n. pair (Pkt.); jau~la_ m. pl. twins; jo~_ya_ m. pl., jo~_ae f. pl. (Ku.); jau~le, jamle, jau~leha_, jamleha_ twins (N.); jamalau paired (OG.); javal.a_ twins (Konkan.i); yamala a pair (Si.) (CDIAL 10426). yama, yami_ twin (RV.); yamaka adj. (MBh.); yama twin; pair; yamaka double; twin; pair (Pali); je~u~a~_ twins (Bhoj.); java_ exact meeting (e.g. of two pieces of wod), agreement (M.); yama_ a twin (Si.); jaur. pair (P.); jaur.a_, jaur.i_ a twin (P.); javat.a pair, twins (OM.); yaminde twins (Ash.); yamu~_rke (Wg.); yameni_ pair, double (Kt.); jamiz twin (Kho.); ja_wa~_ adj. and m. twin (H.)(CDIAL 10421). upa-yama, upa-ya_ma marriage (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) javal.i, jo_l.i, savad.i (Tadbhava of yamala) a pair; twins; sameness, similarity (Ka.); javal.i-gada double (i.e. folding-) doors or gates; javal.inud.i a pair of words, two words (Ka.lex.) cf. co_t.i < jo_d.i (H.) couple, pair; similarity, match (Ta.lex.)

4031.Agreement; collection: jama_van.i agreement, harmony (in music)(Ka.); jama_, jame receipts, income, revenue (Ka.M.H.0; collected, gathered together (Ka.M.); jama_-kharcu receipts and disbursements (Ka.M.H.Te.); jama_da_ra the head of a body (of peons etc.)(Ka.M.); a commander of a body of troops (Ka.M.); jama_-vasu_lu-ba_ki the collections and the oustanding balances (Ka.M.H.Te.); jama_-bandi the general assessment of lands, etc., settlement of the assessments (Ka.M.); jama_yisu to assemble, to come together (Ka.); jaman.e_m. (M.); jama_yisu to collect (Ka.); to succeed or answer, as a business (Ka.M.); jami_da_ra, jami_nuda_ru a zemindar, a land-holder, a hereditary officer (Ka.M.H.); jami_nu land or ground (Ka.M.H.) (Ka. lex.)

4032.Image: copulation of two animals: joel copulation of two animals (Or.); jolt.inu to be coupled (as dogs when mating), to be united; jolt.e born at a birth, twin (N.)(CDIAL 10489). ya_bha copulation (BhP.); ja_hu id. (S.)(CDIAL 10463). ya_vun. enjoys (a woman)(L.); zeik (Kho.)(CDIAL 10464). ja_hu_ lustful; debauchee (S.P.)(CDIAL 10465). ayabhya_, suyabhya_ to be sexually enjoyed (AV.); ja_bhar.i_ prostitute; ja_bhar.a-kha_no brothel (S.)(CDIAL 10466). yabh copulate (Skt.); yabhati copulates (AV.Pali); zi- (Ash.); yi_v- (Kt.); zaw-, yaw- (Pas'.); zav- (Kal.); zoiik (Kho.); jahan.u, yahan.u (S.); yahan., ye_vun. (L.); jaihn.a_, jahin.a_, yaihna_ (P.); jhavn.e~, jha~vn.e~ (M.); jaha_un.a_ to ravish (P.)(CDIAL 10418). jadho, yadho, pp. of jahan.u copulated (S.); yaddha_ (L.); jaddha_ a term of abuse (P.); jaddho, jaddhar. a wanton; yaddhar. bastard; jaddhn.a_, yaddhn.a_ to copulate (P.)(CDIAL 10416). yaddhi_ rogue (L.)(CDIAL 10417). yabhana copulation (Skt.); jahan.i_ id. (S.); jahin.i_, yahin.i_ id. (S.)(CDIAL 10419). jabhan.u, yabhan.u to be sexually enjoyed, be tired (S.); yabhan. to have sexual relations (L.); yabbhal corpulent but weak (P.)(CDIAL 10420). pratiyabdhum to copulate (TBr. com.); pariya_eb to be covered (by a bull)(Bi.)(CDIAL 8586). prayabhati copulates (TBr.); piyamba copulation (Si.)(CDIAL 8733). armeli pe_r- to mate (animals); armeli period of heat in animals (Kuwi); a_rvam affection, love, desire, hankering, devotion (Ta.)(DEDR 381).

4033.A woman who resides in her father's house: ciran.t.i a woman, married or single, who continues to reside after maturity in her father's house; a young woman (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ciran.t.i_, cirin.t.i_ id. (Skt.lex.) Synonyms: javvane, yavvane, javvani, vadhu_t.i; e_r-um.-javvana risng youth, bloom of youth, prime; e_r-ujavvane a very young woman (Ka.lex.)

4035.Cut in a palm tree to make the juice flow: s'ev cut in a palm tree to make the juice flow (M.); chev, cheo (H.); chehu (S.); chea (Pkt.); cheda (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 412). cf. cekku to cut, to scrape (Te.lex.)

4036.Image: betel garden: ce_rvaikat.t.u-tal to tie scaling pieces in a betel garden (Ta.); to tie the stalks of akatti trees in pairs, for growing betel creeper (Ta.); ce_rvai twenty bundles of betel (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

4037.Extremity: s'ev bank, extremity; s'evat. end (M.); s'evat. chevat. end; chek end; adv. entirely, very (G.); chehu (S.); chee at the end (H.); sevat. extremity, conclusion (H.); cheo anto (OM.)(Bloch, p. 412). cf. civara end (Te.lex.)

4038.Barley: jav barley (M.G.S.H.); jau (G.S.H.); jov (Romany); iabadion name of Java according to Ptolemy; yava (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 334). davasa, tavasa (Tadbhava of yavasa) corn, grain (Ka.Te.); tavacam (Ta.); davasa dha_nya reit. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4039.Soldier, warrior: se_rve, se_ruve connection; company; a herd of cattle (Ka.); ce_ruve assemblage, mass (Te.); to be joined together (Ka.); ce_rvai mixture, commixture (Ta.lex.) ce_rvai a body of soldiers (Ta.); se_rvega_r-a a commander of a body of soldiers (Ka.); ce_rvai-kka_ran- id. (Ta.); se_ruve-ga_r-a the native officer in charge of the public establishment for rearing cattle (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

4040.Image: watchman: ce_val watching (Kalla_. 84,9); ce_vala_l. watchman in corn-field; ce_val-ka_ttal keeping watch over corn-field, protecting it from birds, beasts, etc. (E_rer..u.)(Ta.lex.) For -sa_yika in: sunka-sa_yika customs' officer (Pali) cf. ce_kan- soldier, warrior; veteran (ce_ka_ ... kutiraiyo_ vi_r-iyatu : Kalit. 96); ce_vakan- id. (Tiruva_ca. 2,81); ce_vakan-a_r Aiyan-a_r, as a warrior-deity, vi_rattaivam (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) ce_vakan- < se_vaka servant, peon, attendant (Tan-ippa_. ii,6,12); ce_vakan id. (Ma.); se_vake id. (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Service: ce_vi < s'e_v to serve, as under a master; to render service (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-i_r. 24); ce_kikka id. (Ma.); ce_vai service (Ce_tupu. Ira_man-ar-uc. 114);(Ta.lex.) ce_vakam service, as of soldier, peon: cilatiyara_ki-c- cu_r..ntu ce_vaka ceyya (Tiruvil.ai. At.t.ama_. 7); valour, bravery; ce_vaka-mo_t.i accoutrements of a soldier [mo_t.i military bearing; dignified bearing; style, pomp](Ta.lex.) Temple service: ce_van-ai < se_vana temple serice; ce_van-ai-k-ka_rar pipers and drummers attached to a temple; ce_van-ai playing on drums, pipes, etc., at a festival, wedding, etc. (Ta.lex.) Images: to serve, slanting, bow: se_v wait on (Skt.); se_vaka votary (Skt.); servant (R.A.); se_vaya, se_uya (Pkt.); xeo bowed down, humble, slanting (A.); whence, xeola_ very slanting (A.); sevir.o a class of Hindu devotees (S.); seur.a_ a Jain mendicant (P.); sevr.o, sevr.i_ f. a Jain monk (G.)(CDIAL 13592). se_vate_ associates with (RV.); attends on, serves (Mn.); se_vati associates with, serves, makes use of (Pali); se_vae_, se_vai serves (Pkt.); siwun to wait on, honour, domesticate (K.); sevan.u to serve, worship (S.); sevn.a_ (P.); sewal to serve (Bhoj.); sevai waits on (OAw.); sewna_, syona_ to wait on, incubate, hatch (H.); sevvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 13593). se_vana waiting on (Mn.); se_vana, se_vana_ cohabiting with (Pali); se_van.a_, se_van.aya_ service (Pkt.); sevan (Si.)(CDIAL 13594). se_va_ attendance on, homage (Mn.); service (Pali.Pkt.); se_a_, sevva_ (Pkt.); syo (Ku.)(meri syo form of greeting to a superior)(Ku.); xew humble salutation, whence xewali service, worship (A.); sew obeisance (H.); sev attendance on (G.)(CDIAL 13595). se_vita served (MBh.Pali); se_via (Pkt.); sivi tame, domesticated (K.)(CDIAL 13597). e_vu to command, direct, incite, speak, inspire (as god)(Ta.); e_val instigation, command (Ta.); e_valan-, e_var-ka_ran- a servant (Ta.); e_kuka to say, command; e_kal a command; e_val command, work (Ma.); e_valan a servant, attendant (Ma.); e.lv matter, affair, errand; e.lvga.rn servant (Ko.); o.fil, e.fil a command, order; e.fil o.l., e.f o.l. servant (To.)(DEDR 909). Image: to worship: ce_vi < s'e_v to worship, make obeisance to, render homage to (Ar..akarkalam. Ka_ppu.); to obtain sight, as of a deity, a great person, a sacred place (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 29); ce_vitam service; ce_vai worship rendered to a deity or guru, homage, prostration; obtaining sight, as of god, in devotion (Ce_tupu. To_t. 55)(Ta.lex.)

4041.Image: creeper: s'e_pha_lika_ vitex negundo, nyctanthes arbor tristis (Sus'r.); s'e_pha_li_, s'e_pa_la, s'i_pha_lika_ (Skt.); se_bha_lia_, se_ha_li_, se_ha_lia_ a kind of creeper (Pkt.); xewa_li the flower of nyctanthes arbor tristis (A.); siuli (B.); sia_l.i, sia_ri a wild creeper with a drinkable watery juice (Or.)(CDIAL 12608). ce_pa_likai willow-leaved justicia, karunocci (Ta.lex.) cf. nocci five-leaved chaste tree, vitex negundo; three-leaved chaste tree, vitex trifolia (karu-nocci)(Ta.); nekki, lakki, lakkili, lekki, lokki id. (Ka.); lokki vitex leucoxylon (Te.)(DEDR 3781). cf. nirgun.d.i_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 7308).

4042.Handful: ce_r-ai handful, as of rice; ce_rai, ce_ran.-kai, cir-an.-kai, cir-a_n.-kai quantity that can be held in the hollow of the palm, as a measure, palmful (Parata. Pa_va. 23)(Ta.); ce_rai id. (Pa_lava_. 874); tirkai handful (Tu.); de.r (obl. de.t--) handful (with open hand)(Ko.); ter- handful (To.); sa_re, se_re the palm of the hand bent so as to receive or hold anything (To.); se_re id. (Tu.); ce_ra the hand held so as to contain anything (Te.); ce_re_d.u handful (Te.); Double handful: hera, era mend.u double handful (Go.); hera a handful (Go.); reka id. (<*sreka; but sr- is commonly preserved in Kui)(?Kui); hera handful (Kuwi); hereka one handful (Kuwi); se_ra, se_rend. handful (Go.)(DEDR 2821).

4043.Snake: s'e_va a snake (Ka.lex.) Image: snake: sapola_ young snake (P.); sa~pola_ (H.); sappapo_taka (Pali)(CDIAL 13272). sarpi_ snake (MBh.); sarpa (RV.); sappa (Pali.Pkt.); sap, sa_pi (Gy.); sapu (S.); sapp (L.P.WPah.); sya_p (Ku.); sa_p (N.B.H.G.M.); sa~_p (Mth.H.); sappa_ (Mth.); xa_p (A.); sa_pa, sa~_pa (Or.); sap-a_, hap-a_, sapu, hapu (Si.)(CDIAL 13271). sapehra_, sapera_, sa~pera_ snake-catcher, snake-charmer (H.); sarpadha_raka (Pali)(CDIAL 13273). sarpin.i_ female snake (Ka_s'i_kh.); sappini_ id. (Pali); sapni (Gypsy); sapin.i; (S.); sapn.i_ (L.); sappn.i_ (P.); sa_pun.i (Or.); sa_pini (Mth.); sa_m.pini (OAw.); sa~_pin, sa~_pan (H.); sa_pen., sa_pan. (G.); hpinna female cobra (Si.); sa~_pin. (M.)(CDIAL 13274). jambr.o, kod jambr.o a rock snake; sapaharia snake charmer; buka sobok bin. a large snake (Santali.lex.) Image: foetus: arbuda snake (RV.); long round mass, esp. foetus in 1st or 2nd month (Ya_j.); tumour, polypus (Sus'r.); abbuda foetus in 1st or 2nd month, tumour (Pali); abbuya clot of semen and blood (Pkt.); a_bu wen (B.Or.)(CDIAL 686). cf. aravu, aravam snake (Ta.); serpent (Ma.)(DEDR 2359). Image: snake: saras(u) snake (Kond.a); sra_su (pl. sra_ska), sra_cu id. (Kui); aravu, aravam, ara, ara_ snake (Ta.); aravu, aravam serpent (ma.); tra~_cu id. (Te.); ta_su krait (Ga.); tara_sh, tara_s, taranj (pl. tarask), taras, ta_rs, taras(u) snake; turashee cobra (Go.); ra_c id. (Pe.); trehe id. (Mand..); ra_cu id., in: na_gara_cu cobra (Kuwi); ra_cu snake, snail (Kuwi); sara_haya snake (Pkt.)(DEDR 2359). ce_rai, ca_rai rat snake, ptyas mucosus (Ta.); ce_ra rat snake, amphisbaena or coryphodon (Ma.); ke.r va.b sp. harmless snake (Ko.); ke.r, ke.r fo.b sp. snake (To.); ke_re a harmless snake (Tu.); rat snake, whip-snake (Ka.); ke.re pa.mbi sp. non-poisonous snake (Kod..); karin ge.re pa.mbi rat snake (Kod.. kari black)(DEDR 2011). kos. snake (Wg.); keres' snake (Ash.); kos. dragging or trailing on the ground (Wg.)(CDIAL 2995). ks.o_ to creep (Kt.); kas.alem I creep (Kal.)(CDIAL 2908). cf. kr.s'a lean, thin (RV.); kisa, kisaka lean (Pali)(CDIAL 3441). To slip, slide; creep; moving hither and thither: salati moves (Dha_tup.); salayati moves, shakes (Pali); xala_iba to change (A.); selkye_ to slip, slide (Kt.); silk (Bashg.); salku_n.o to slide, slip in, run along the surface, sew loosely (Ku.); salki absol. with hi_r.nu to creep along (N.); sal.akn.e~ to glide along (M.); ishle_g to slip (Kal.); salbala_n.o to creep, slide (Ku.); salbal restless movement (e.g. of insects)(N.); salbala_unu to move restlessly (N.); sal.val. writhing about; sal.val.vu~ to move (G.)(CDIAL 13284). cf. cala-cal-en-al rustling as of dried leaves (Ta.)(DEDR 2366). chalchala_na_ to move with a rustling sound (H.)(CDIAL 5002). salasala going, moving (Skt.); salsala_unu to move restlessly (N.); salsala_na_ to glide along (H.); sal.sal.n.e~ to throb (M.); sal move (Skt.)(CDIAL 13287). suran.u to creep (S.); soran.u to remove (S.); sursura_unu to creep (P.); sursuri itching (S.); sursure quiet, gentle (of breeze)(N.); sursura_na_ to creep (H.); sursuri_ creeping (H.); surko creeping motion (S.); surkan. to slip (L.); surkn.a_ to move, crawl, creep (P.); surkanu to slip off; surko slip-knot (N.); [curukku to draw tight, as noose, net, string of a purse (Kalit. 106); slip-knot, sliding knot (Ta.Ma.); suluku id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)]; xuruka_ ma_riba to steal away (A.)(CDIAL 13497). sulusulem.ta teeming (Pkt.); sulsule lice on fowls (N.); sulsuli_ creeping (H.); sul.sul.n.e~ to swarm, feel creepy (M.); sulkanu to slip along the ground (N.)(CDIAL 13510). sarasara moving hither and thither (Skt.); sarsar briskly, fast (N.); xaxar smoothly and rapidly (A.); sarsar slipping quickly (G.M.); sasarab to creep (Mth.); sarsara_na_ to creep, glide, tingle, prick (H.)(CDIAL 13257). sar going (Pa_n..); course (VS.)(CDIAL 13247). cari to slip away, slide; carukku to slip (Ta.); cariyuka to slip (Ma.); carkuka to glide, slide; arikka to creep as snakes, worms (Ma.); jarv- (jard-) to slip and fall (Ko.); sari to move, go, slide (Ka.); saraku, saruku to slip, slide (Ka.); jaragu, jarugu to creep, slip, crawl, move on, be slippery (Te.); jara_g- to slip (Kol.)(DEDR 2360). {Echo word}: cara-car-en-al onom. expr. of (a) rustling, as of dry leaves, (b) gliding along, moving quickly without impediment; caracara to rustle, as dry leaves; caracarappu rustling; caruku dried leaf (Ta.); s'ara a rustling sound (Ma.); car cur in-b to make noise as of a snake's motion, glidingly; cor cor in- (id--), cork cork in- (id--) to make noise in walking over fallen leaves (Ko.); sara sara the sound of rustling (produced by snakes, birds, etc., in leaves, bushes, etc. (Ka.); sarasaram. a rustling sound (Pali); sarasara_yate rustles (of garlands)(BHSk.)(DEDR 2355). carakka quickly, speedily (Ta.); sarakkane swiftly; sarasarane quickly, hastily (Ka.); saraga quickly, rapidly, soon; saragu quickness, swiftness, speed (Te.); carkne immediately (Go.); sra_k quickly, speedily, instantly (Skt.)(DEDR 2352a). caccara haste, with haste; ceccara quickness, quickly; caccariga, ceccariga a zealously active, restless, quick man (Ka.); caccara haste, speed, hurry (Tu.); ceccera quickly, speedily (Te.); carat.t.en-al onom. expr. of moving quickly; carat.t.u-carat.t.-en-al onom. expr. of swishing, rushing sound as of air in motion (Ta.); carat. pair-word with cadm sound, noise (cadm carat.)(Ko.); jar-r-ane quickly, rushingly (Ka.); jarra suddenly, quickly (Tu.); jar-una quickly (Te.)(DEDR 2352).

4044.Image: afterbirth: kheri_ afterbirth (H.)(CDIAL 3689). Foetus; to give birth to; outstretched legs: kar- to give birth to (Ga.); gr.a_sa (gr.a_si-) to pass something over or through, pass a thing through the outstretched legs (Kui)(DEDR 1109). tofir afterbirth (of goddess or buffalo)(To.); cavar-u rubbish, sweepings (Ta.); id. (Ma.)(DEDR 2395). cavvu the omentum (Ma.); membrane as of the diaphragm or the eye (Ta.)(DEDR 2400). Image: afterbirth: cavul pregnancy (Ta.); cu_l, su_l id. (Ka.)(DEDR 2733). cavar-u green leaves and rubbish used as manure, sweepings (Ma.); cavar id. (Ma.); cavar-r--ila dried leaves (Ma.)(DEDR 2395). cavar-u-vir..utal abortion; cavar-u (Ta.Ma.) worthless person (Ta.lex.) s'e_j after-birth (WPah.)(CDIAL 12339). savai gives birth to (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13289). cavvu membrane as of the diaphragm or the eye, envelope round the pulp of fruit (Ta.); the omentum (Ma.)(DEDR 2400). jaru, jaura afterbirth (S.); jar (Mth.); ja_r (M.); jeri (S.); jer umbilical cord and placenta (L.P.); je_'r womb (of cattle)(WPah.); jer afterbirth (H.); jara_yu covering of embryo, afterbirth (RV.); snake's slough (AV.); jara_yuga afterbirth (Sa_mavBr.)[MIA. and NIA. forms with -l- possibly X ja_la omentum (Bhpr.), veil (S'a_n:khGr..)(CDIAL 5213).] jalayuga pl. viviparous (Skt.MIA. form)--All other forms are aberrant: jala_bu embryo, placenta, womb (Pali); jala_m afterbirth (B.); dalambuva, dalabuva embryo, womb (Si.)(CDIAL 5152). avara_ the afterbirth (Pa_rGr..); amara_, ala_ra_ afterbirth, umbilical cord (Skt.); [cf. sa_vara together with the afterbirth (S'Br.)]; ora afterbirth, second crop springing up after reaping (S.); aur afterbirth (L.); aul, a~ul, a~_ul umbilical cord (P.); a~wal, ambal, a~_wal afterbirth, umbilical cord (H.); or (G.); var, va_r caul, afterbirth (M.)(CDIAL 813). s'ava young of an animal (MBh.); sa_va, saya boy, child (Pkt.); cu~_ kid (Kt.); saweli_ pregnant (Kt.)(CDIAL 12417).

4045.Rice: cori-kurumpai a kind of paddy; cori-va_y aperture or opening of a receptacle through which paddy can be taken out (Na_.) (Ta.lex.) col paddy (Ci_vaka. 53); con-r-i boiled rice (Pur-ana_. 197,12)(Ta.lex.) cf. copla_ skin or shell of fruits (Kur.); copr.a husk, scabbard (Malt.); sopa chaff of grain, rind of fruit (Kond.a); coppa_ skin of fruits, husk of grain, shell of pulses (Kur.)(DEDR 2846). ca_ula_ pl., cavala rice (Pkt.)[Poss. of ultimately of same non-Aryan origin as tand.ula]; ca~_uru, ca~_varu a grain of rice (S.); ca~_uro pertaining to husked rice (S.); ca_val husked rice (L.P.); ca_vul (L.); ca_var (P.); ca_ul (P.B.); caul (P.); cau (WPah.); cau~l (Ku.); ca~_wo_w (Ku.); ca~_wal (N.H.); ca_mal (N.); sa_ul (A.); ta_ula (OB.); ca_l (B.); ca~_ul.a (Or.); ca_ul.a, ca_ura (Or.); ca_ur (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); ca_wal (H.); ca~_war (H.); ca_vala (OMarw.); ca_val. usu. pl. (G.)(CDIAL 4749). cauret.ha_, caurat.ha_ rice soaked and dried and pounded (Bi.); cauret.ha_ rice ground up with water (H.)(CDIAL 4750). cf. avi to be boiled, cooked by boiling or steaming, swelter; n. boiled rice, food (Ta.); avir.. boiled rice (Ta.); avikka, amikka to boil, digest (Ma.)(DEDR 268). aval rice obtained from fried paddy by pestling it; avaiyal well-husked rice (Ta.); avil rice bruised and dried; avekka to beat rice; aval flattened rice obtained from paddy by pestling it (Ma.); kac av- (avt-) to pestle (millet) second time; aky av- (avt-) to pestle (millet) third time (Ko.); af- (aft-) to pound with light strokes; ofil puffed rice (To.); aval pound, beat; n. pounding, beating in a mortar; (also aval-akki) rice bruised and crushed (Ka.); avl-akki rice fried and each grain pounded flat (Kod..); abepuni, abeyuni, abeccuni to beat or pound rice (Tu.); Mortar: cavli mortar (Kol.); savli id. (Nk.); savli id. (Nk.); cavil id. (Pa.); cavkol (pl. cavkocil) pestle (Pa.); savul mortare; savkol pestle; savvul mortar; savko_l pestle (Ga.); sahki_, sa_hki, sahki, cahki, hahki, ahki, a'ki, ahk id. (?Go.)(DEDR 2391). sonki mortar for pounding, fixed in the veranda floor (Kond.a); henki mortar (Pe.); heni id. (Mand..); seni a bamboo or wooden mortar for pounding rice (Kui); he'ni, henni, heni mortar for pounding rice (Kuwi)(DEDR 2799).

4046.Hollow stalk: cf. ca_van.am kaus grass < s'ara-van.a (Ta.lex.) ca_van.am hollow stalk, as of a lotus (Ta.lex.)

4047.Image: empty corn: cavala empty corn (Ma.); ca_vi empty grain (Ta.Ma.); ca_r..i id. (Ma.); cavalai tenderness, immaturity; cavan:ku (cavan:ki-) to become lean, emaciated, shrink, subside, faint, languish; cavu (-pp-, -tt-) to become weak, be emaciated (Ta.); ca_vi withered crop, blighted or empty grain (Arut.pa_. vi, Apayattir-an-. 13); ca_vat.t.ai withered grain, chaff, emaciated person, dried betel leaves (Ta.); ca_vi, ca_r..i empty grain, blighted corn; cankerworm, palmer-worm (Ma.); cavala hollowness, leanness; ca_t.a seedless, empty as husk (Ma.); jag- (jagy-) to become lean; jalv- (jald-) to become lean and stringy with old age (Tu.); cavul.i old (Tu.); cavile leanness, thinness; cavile-po_yina lean, thin as an infant; sa_vi a blasted stalk of withered corn (Te.)(DEDR 2392). Orphan: saur.e-kur.i orphan (Ash.)[cf. kur..antai child (Ta.)]; cau-kre (Wg.); car (Kt.); cogu, cowu (Kho.); s'orun.d.a (Dm.Gaw.); s'o_run.d., s'o_rin.d. (Bshk.); s'oru_n.d.o (Phal.)(CDIAL 12618). tava.ry orphan (Ko.); tobe.ry id. (To.); taruvali id. (Ka.); tabbali,tabbili, tabli state of child's being bereaved of its mother or parents; a wretched, mean or inferior person or thing (Ka.); tabbilu, tabbuli an orphan; low, vulgar, weak, infirm, cowardly, timid (Tu.)(DEDR 3101). cavalai leanness of an infant not fed on mother's milk (Tan.t.alai. Cata. 97); tcavile id. (Te.); cavalai-pa_ytal id. (Ta.); cavalai sucking child which grows lean for want of mother's milk (Tiruva_ca. 50,5); cavalai-k-kur..antai id.; cavalai-k-kan-r-u young calf (Ta.lex.)

4048.Image: bend: caval. (caval.v-, cavan.t.-) to bend, be supple (as the arms of a fencer); cavat.t.u (cavat.t.i-) to bend, twist (Ta.); caval.uka to be flexible (Ma.)(DEDR 2393). cavalai-mati crescent moon (Ta.lex.) xeo bowed down, humble, slanting; xeola_ very slanting (A.)(CDIAL 13592).

4049.Tailor: Ísiv sew (Skt.); cipiga, cimpiga, simpiga a or (Ka.); s'imbi_ (M.); cippiva_d.u, cippeva_d.u, cippe (Te.); cippiyan- (Ta.); cippigaravanu; cippigiti a female tailor or a female artisan (Ka.lex.)

4050.Image: jump: cimpu to jump (Ta.); cen:gu, can:gu to jump, to skip, to frisk about, to caper; to pass by a leap (Ka.); to run away; cen:gu cen:gane ha_ru to run, jumping (Ka.lex.)

4051.Copper: cembige, cembu, combu, cambu the red metal: copper; tambige id.; cempu (Ta.Ma.); ta_mra (Skt.); cambu_ a goglet (M.); cembu-kut.aga a coppersmith (Ka.); cempon the red metal: gold (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)