4329.A country: tan.t.a_ran.iyam an aryan country (tan.t.a_ran.iyattuk ko_t.pat.t.a varut.aiyai : Patir-r-up. 60, Pati.); the forest of Dan.d.aka in Deccan, a famous resort of ascetics (Ci_vaka. 337); Deccan forest: dan.d.aka name of a forest in the Deccan (MBh.); dam.d.aya a forest in the South (Pkt.); dad.aya forest, wilderness (Si.)(CDIAL 6129). dad.ayam hunting (Si.)(CDIAL 6130). tan.n.at.ai country; village in an agricultural tract (Pin-an:ku katiralamarun. kar..an-t- tan.t.ai : Pur-ana_. 285); a small town; forest; tan.t.aka_ran.iyam < dan.d.aka + aran.ya id. (Tiv. Periyati. 11,2,3); tan.t.akai id. (Can.. Aka.); tan.t.akam id. (Uttarara_. Campuvan-va. 65); Ton.t.aiman.t.alam, an ancient division of the Tamil country which included the district of Arcot, Chingleput and Nellore, with Conjeevaram as its capital; ton.t.ai-na_t.u id. (Periyapu. Tirukkur-ippu. 4); tan.t.aka-na_t.u id. (Kampara_. A_r-ucel. 38); tan.t.akan- < dan.d.aka a king, after whom tan.t.aka_ran.iyam and tan.t.aka-na_t.u took their names (Kantapu. Tirunakara. 74); ton.t.ai-ma_n- ruler of ton.t.aiman.t.alam (Pur-ana_. 95, Kur-ippu); title of certain castes, as kal.l.ar, mar-avar, pal.l.i, ce_n.iyar (Ta.lex.) dan.d.aka name of a forest district in the Deccan (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ton.t.ai-man.t.ala-ve_l.a_l.ar a section of the ve_l.a_l.a caste (Ta.lex.) dan.d.aka_ name of a celebrated district in the Deccan situated between the rivers Narmada_ and Goda_vari_ (a vast region said to be tenantless in the time of Ra_ma)(Skt.lex.) dan.d.a_ji_vaka a brahmaca_ri or an ascetic who uses the staff that distinguishes him as such a one, merely to get a livelihood: a hypocrite, a deceiver; a staff-beggar (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4330.Image: horn of ibex: d.an.d.u horn of ibex (S.)(CDIAL 6128). Image: curve of a horn: tesk loop, curve of a horn (To.)(DEDR 3244)[?cf. task to scrape (Go.); tah to scrape, plane (Kuwi)(DEDR 3146).] d.an.d.om a handle, shaft (Santali.lex.)

4331.Image: crow pheasant: tan.t.aka_kam < dan.d.aka_ka (raven) crow pheasant, cempo_ttu (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

4332.Image: bow: tan.t.a_ram bow (Ta.lex.) dan.d.a_rah. a bow or any other instrument (Skt.lex.)

4333.Image: ladder: d.an.d.a_ ladder (L.)(CDIAL 6128).

4334.Image: to pull; extract: tan.d.a_na_ to extract (oil)(Go.); t.and., t.end., tend. to take out, remove; draw (water)(Go.); t.and. to pull (Pa.); tind. to pull; to pull a cart, as oxen (Ga.)(DEDR 3052).

4335.An ancient tax: tan.t.al-ilakkai an ancient tax (Ta.inscr.); tan.t.ar--kat.amai tax on rent-farming (S.I.I. iii,115); tan.t.ar--kur-ippu account of rents, tribute or other dues (Ta.lex.). tan.t.u-va_ram landlord's right (Ta.lex.) tan.d.alu collections of money (Tu.)(DEDR 3054). tan.t.u (tan.t.i-) to collect, levy, recover (as debts, rents, taxes etc.); tan.t.am tax (Ta.); ten.t.uka to obtain; tan.t.uka to collect (Ma.); tan.d.- (tan.d.y-) to win in contest or strife; (debt) is paid; pay off (debt); dan.d.- (dan.d.y-) to work off (a debt); keep up with a person (Ko.); tod.- (tod.y-) to have ability or strength to, be capable of (To.); tan.d.aka_r-a one who amasses, man who has a large amount of (Ka.); dan.d.(i)yuni to put forth the hand to receive anything (Tu.); tan.d.u, dan.d.u to collect or demand (as money due); tan.d.alu collections of money (Te.)(DEDR 3054). Tribute: d.anu tribute (S.); d.an.d.u fine (S.); d.an force (L.); dann, d.ann fine (P.); d.a_n fine, loss (Ku.); d.a~_r. fine (N.); fine, loss (Ku.); d.a~_r.u fine (Aw.); da~_d. fine (H.); d.a~r fine (A.); dad., dand. fine, punishment (OSi.); da~_r., da~_r. fine (B.) d.ann bride-price (WPah.)(CDIAL 6128). da_na giving, presenting; a gift, a present, a donation; ojberality (Ka.); da_nam i_ to grant a gift; da_na ma_d.u to make gifts etc., to be liberal; da_ni giving; liberal, benevolent; a donor (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) danda:n fine, fee (It is of two kinds when levied by the Sora community, bajer-danda: luner-danda (Sora.lex.) [These compounds may be interpreted as: outside fee; inside fee; perh. related to the community (one's own or external) involved). cf. the practices of Toda ~ Kota economic association; mut.ga.rn Kota economic associate with Toda--less formal than kel. (Ko.) relationship; mut. things given by Kotas to Todas, including tools (To.); mut.ga.rn Kota economic associate with Badaga or with Kurumba gives tools, etc. (Ko.)(DEDR 4937).] [If the compensation given is a buffalo, the phrase is: danru-u:l-bon-en (bon-en is a contraction of bonte:len buffalo); if it is cash: danru-u:l-tanka:n; if it is liquor: danru-u:l-sa:l-en. The compound: dan(d)rul (dul- with double infix): compensation; penalty; the term is used generally with ti- to give.](Sora.lex.) dan.d.a control (Mn.)(CDIAL 6128). Customary donation: da_tr. giving, bestowing etc.; a giver, a donor; da_ta_ra (Tadbhava of da_tr.); da_tr.tva liberality; da_da (Tadbhava of ta_ta) a respectful term of address for an elderly man (Ka.); da_da_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) dha_ro law, custom (G.)(CDIAL 6787). dham.mapekha regard for morality (As'.); dhamek name of the stu_pa at Sa_rna_th (H.); dharmya customary (Mn.); endowed with qualities (Kat.hUp.); a customary donation (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 6759). dharma what is established, law, duty, right (AV.)(CDIAL 6753). cf. tarugu brokerage or fees called custom (Te.); taragu customary deduction; fees called customs, brokerage, small allowance or gratuity given by the seller, borrower of money, etc., to the broker (Ka.); taraku customary deduction, brokerage (Ma.)(DEDR 3090). Instalment: tan.t.a_yam < tan.t.u + a_yam instalment (W.)(Ta.lex.) Tax-collector: tan.t.u to collect, levy, recover (as debts, rents, taxes, etc.)(S.I.I. iii,211); tan.t.a-k-ku_r-r-am an ancient tax (I.M.P.Cm. 454); tan.t.a-k-kat.t.u ryot's perquisite of the grains carried away by wind while winnowing (G.Sm.D. I,ii,49); tan.t.an.-kot.u to pay a fine, suffer a penalty (Ta.lex.); tan.t.am tax (?Ta.); tan.d. (debt) is paid paid; pay off (debt)(Ko.); tan.d.u, dan.d.u to collect or demand (as money due)(Te.)(DEDR 3054). tan.tuka to collect (Ma.); tan.d.aka_ra one who amasses, man who has a large amount of (Ka.)(DEDR 3054). tan.t.am impost, tax (I.M.P. II,1240,56)(Ta.lex.) Treasury: tan.t.am treasury, karuku_lam (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) tan.t.i collector of dues, tax-collector (J.)(Ta.lex.) tan.t.ar--ka_ran- collector of village revenue; one who collects amounts due from creditors; a village servant under the headman of a village, employed in collecting revenue; tan.t.al, tan.t.ala_l.an- tax-collector (Tiruva_ta. Pu. Tirupperun. 116) (Ta.lex.) tan.d.alir.-kat.amai fee payable for the maintenance of tax-collectors; or, tax on bill-collectors (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) tan.d.aka_r-a one who amasses; a man who has a large amount of (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4336.Chief of a small vessel: tan.d.e_l the master of a boat, a tindal (Ka.Te.); ta_n.d.e_la (M.)(Ka.lex.) tan.t.al, tan.t.e_l chief of a small vessel or ship (Ta.lex.) tan.t.al a native ship-officer, tindal (Ma.); tan.d.e_l master of a , tindal (Ka.); tan.d.elu, tan.d.ele captain of a native vessel, -man, tindal (Tu.); tan.d.e~_lu a tindal or boat-swain (Te.); ta~_d.el id. (M.)(DEDR 3049). cf. tan.d.e_l (U.)(Ta.lex.) tan.t.ar--ka_ran- chief of a small vessel or ship (Ta.lex.) Iron-pointed pole for punting: tan.t.u, tan.t.u-maram, tan.t.u-k-ko_l iron-pointed pole for punting a boat, a caval.a-maram (W.); caval.am bearded dart or lance (Kalin.. 524)(Ta.lex.) tan.t.u-vali to row, paddle; tan.t.u-k-ko_l oar, paddle; iron-pointed pole for punting a boat (Ta.lex.) tan.t.u-vali to row, paddle; tan.t.u-k-ko_l oar, paddle; iron-pointed pole for punting a (Ta.lex.)

4337.Watchmen; rower: dan.d.apa_s'ika hangman; chief of police (Skt.); dan.d.pa_s'aka policeman (Skt.); dan.d.apa_sika city governor (Skt.); dan.d.ava_sin, dan.d.ava_sika chief magistrate (Skt.); watchman (BHSk.); dam.d.ava_siya, dam.d.apa_si policeman (Pkt.); dan.d.ua_si, dan.d.a_si caste of watchmen (Or.)(CDIAL 6134). dam.d.ia having a stick (Pkt.); dan.d.ika carrying a stick (Pa_n..); dan.d.in id. (S'Br.); rower (Skt.); da~_r.i, d.a~_r.i rower, waterman (B.); dan.d.ia_ collector of market taxes (Or.); d.a~_r.i rower (Mth.); da~_d.i_, d.a~_d.i_, d.a~_r.i_ (H.); da~_d.iyo, d.a~_d.iyo watchman (G.)(CDIAL 6139). d.a~r.eru, d.aneru palanquin-bearer (Ku.); d.a~r.er, d.a~r.el (N.)(CDIAL 6139). Image: watchman: tal.ava_ra, tal.a_ra, tala_ri watchman, beadle (Ka.); tal.ava_re village watchman (Tu.); tala_ri watchman (Te.); tala_ra(ka), talavarga city guard (Skt.); tala_ra town watchman (Pkt.); tal.va_r an officer of a village; tara_l. a man of low caste whose duty it is to protect a village (M.)(DEDR 3129).

4338.Image: pole for carrying a burden: tan.t.a_yam pole for carrying a burden or vehicle, yoke (Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Image: a kind of palanquin: tan.t.i a kind of palanquin (Cu_l.a_. Kal. 23); dan.d.ige id. (Ka.); tan.t.a_ram carriage; tan.t.iya-k-kompu palanquin-poles (Na_.)(Ta.lex.)[perh. dan.d.ika_ stick (Skt.); cf. dan.d.ikah. a staff-bearer, a mace-bearer; dan.d.a_rah. a carriage (Skt.lex.)] tan.t.u cane, staff, stick (Akana_. 274); bludgeon, club, as a weapon especially of Vis.n.u (Tiv. Periyati. 3,9,1); pole of a palanquin or other vehicle (Kampara_. Ka_rmuka. 3); palanquin (I_t.u, 4,6,2); pestle (Pin..); tan.t.u-po_t.u to carry a vehicle by its poles; to row, paddle; tan.t.e_r-u to ride in a palanquin (S.I.I. v,103)(Ta.lex.) dan.d.ige the pole of a palankeen; a kind of soft-going palankeen (Ka.Te.); da_n.d.i_ the pole of a palankeen (M.); tan.t.ikai a palankeen (Ta.Ma.) (Ka.lex.)

4339.Work, business: dhan.da_l business, engagement, work; entanglement; dhan.da_li_ engaged in business, occupied (P.lex.) dhanda_ business, work, employment, avocation, occupation; kar karsa_ne jhad. shaita_ne, karsa_ne chokha_ dhan.da; jinha_n. karsa_ne chhad.d.e bhana_e hal, ohan.da_ man.da_ till the land and quit devilry, it is the best occupation, those who leave it off, their condition is bad (i.e. prefer culivation of land to beggary and idleness)(P.lex.) than thing (Gypsy); dhandho business, perplexing affair (S.); dhanda_ business, work (P.Ku.); dhand(h)a_ household affair, worry (N.); dhand (A.); dha~_da_ (B.); dhanda_ (Or.); dhandha_ craft, way of life (H.); dhando fuss (G.); dhanda_ trade (M.); dha~da_l business, entanglement (P.); dha~_dhal fuss (G.); dham.dha_ shame (Pkt.); dhandha, dha_ndhya awkwardness (Skt.)(CDIAL 6727). tan.t.a_ puzzle, intricacy; squabble, dispute; vexation (Ta.) < tan.t.a_ (U.); tan.t.a-mun.t.a_ id.; tan.t.al collecting as tax; tappu-t-tan.t.a_ misdemeanour; trouble (Ta.){Echo word.}(Ta.lex.) A necessary and troublesome business: tan.t.e a quarrel, a dispute; a troublesome and a necessary business (Ka.); tan.t.a_ (M.H.); tan.t.e trouble, annoyance (Ka.Te.); tan.t.ai (Ta.); tan.t.eyava a troublesome man; tan.t.lama_ri a troublesome person (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4340.Image: cross-pole for the roof of a house: tan.t.iyam under-prop of a bracket (C.G.); lintel (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 12, Vya_.); corbel, pur-ak ku_raiyait ta_n:kun. kat.t.ai, i.e. pole that bears the roof; tan.t.iya-k- kompu cross-pole for the roof sloping towards the back of a house; tan.t.aya-maram wall-bracket, ko_kka_li; tan.t.iya-maram id. (Ta.lex.) tat.ai-maram cross-piece in a loom, used for rolling the cloth when woven (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

4341.Measure of length; numeration: da_d.e, dan.d.a a staff or pole as a measure of length, 4 hastas or 96 finger-breadths (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) jamada_d.e a kind of weapon (Ka.); jamada_d.i, jamuda_d.i, jamuda_l.i, janda_d.u (Te.); camuta_t.u a sword, a cutlass, a dagger (Ta.); jamdhar (H.); javadan.d.a (Tadbhava of yama-dan.d.a) Yama's rod (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) tan.t.atta_n- Yama (Piramo_t. 3,23); tan.t.am pole as a linear measure = the height of a man = 4 cubits = 2 tan-u = a linear measure = 4 karam, as the length of a bow (Ta.)(Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 6)(Ta.lex.) cf. ta_d.- to spread bedding (Kol.)(DEDR 3154). tan.t.a_ka_ram (math.) arrangement of cowries in a straight line representing numbers in calculation, opp. to carppa_ka_ram (serpentine form)(Ta.lex.) tan.t.ava_l.am cast iron, iron rail, girder (Ta.); ta_n.d.ava_l.a cast iron (Ka.)(DEDR 3050). Image: hand, forearm: tan.t.a arm, generally forearm; the upper arm (Ma.); tat.t.u forearm (Tu.); dan.d.a ce_yi upper arm (Te.); dand.a id. (Kol.); dand., d.and. id. (Nk.); d.and.a id. (Pa.); dand., dand.a, d.and. id. (Go.); d.an.d.a id. (Kond.a); d.and.e id. (Kuwi); dor-dan.d.a-, ba_hu-dan.d.a a long arm (Skt.)(DEDR 3048). {There is a clash of semantics which may explain c- ~~ k-: dan.d.a ce_yi upper arm (Te.)(DEDR 3047) and ce_ran-kai, cir.an-kai quantity that can be held in the hollow of the palm, as a measure, palmful (Ta.)(DEDR 2821).} Image: prostration in worship: tat.t.am prostration in worship (Ci. Ci. 12,2, Mar-aija_.); cf. dan.d.a (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Image: obeisance: tan.t.am obeisance, adoration, prostration; tan.t.am-pan.n.u-tal to worship by prostration (Kokko_. Pa_yi. 4); tan.t.an--it.u-tal to make obeisance, by prostration (Cilap. 23,121, Arum.)(Ta.lex.)

4342.Measuring rod; image: stick; bow: tat.i stick, staff, rod, cane (Ta.Ma.); tat.i a piece, as of wood (Paripa_. 4,20); measuring rod (Nan-. 290, Virut.); pestle; bow (Iraku. Ya_ka. 79); tat.i-ka_ran- destroyer, as one with a cudgel (Ta_yu. Cir-cu. 1); tat.i-po_t.utal to measure ground, as in the game of tip-cat (Ta.lex.) Image: pestle: tan.t.am pestle (Tailava. Taila. 56); tan.t.u id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: stick: tayr. wooden shaft of plough (Ko.); dad.i, dan.d.i staff, cudgel (Ka.); Man who bears a club: dad.igaN a man who bears a club (Ka.); tat.i stick, staff (Ma.); tac stick, walking stick, hitting stick in tipcat (Ko.)[For -c-, cf. tarc- to scrape (Go.)(DEDR 3146)]; tor.y pole used at funeral (To.); tad.i stick, staff, cudgel (Ka.); den.t.u a stick (Ka.)(DEDR 3030). Image: rod: tandelu cudgel, club (Tu.); tannu to kick; n. a kick (Te.); dand- (-it-) to kick, beat (Go.)(DEDR 3053). {Semant.: 'arm' X 'holding': dan.d.a ce_yi upper arm (Te.)(DEDR 3047) and ce_ran-kai, cir.an-kai quantity that can be held in the hollow of the palm, as a measure, palmful (Ta.)(DEDR 2821).} Image: plough-handle: dan.d.ala plough-handle; dan.d.a_ roof-beam (Pas'.); kam-d.en yoke pole (Kt.)(CDIAL 6128). Potter's wheel: tan.t.a_ram potter's wheel; tan.t.ataran- potter; tan.t.a-c-cakkaram potter's stick and wheel (Nan-. 297, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Image: stalk: d.ant.ala, d.ant.ila, d.ant.ula the petiole or stalk of a stemless plant, in contrast to karmar.a, kamarkom the petiole of a stem or branch leaf (Mu.); cf. d.a_nt.hal pedicle, stalk (H.); d.anti (Sadani); d.ant.i the petiole and ribs of a tobacco leaf only (Mu.Sadani)(Mu.lex.) thom.t. trunk (M.); t.humt.hu (S.); t.hu_m.t (H.); t.hom.t (B.); thom.t. (O.)(Bloch, p. 348). cf. tan.t.u plantain stalk (Ta.lex.) Image: stalk, stem: dan.d.a stalk, stem (MBh.); d.a~_t.h stem, stalk (H.); d.an.t.ha_ id. (H.); d.a~_t. id. (B.H.); foot stalk of lotus (Mth.); d.an.t.i_ foot stalk of a plant, beam of scales (Mth.); d.a~_d.i_ stalk of flower or fruit (H.); d.at.ha_ stalk (H.); d.a_t.ho fibres and stalk of tobacco leaf (S.); d.i~_t.u~ leaf stalk (G.); t.a_n.d.a_ dry stalk of ba_jra_ (L.); t.a~_d.a_ id. (P.); t.a~_d.ha_ id. (P.); ta_ndro dry stalk or straw (N.); ta~_t. stem (M.); da_n.t.hi hard stalk of a creeper, stalk-like bean (Or.)(CDIAL 5527). d.a~_t.h, d.a~_t.hal, d.an.t.ha_, d.an.t.hal, d.an.t.hla_ stem, stalk (H.); d.a~d.i_ stem of poppy (L.); d.an.t.a_ stick (Bhoj.); d.at.t.hal hull of gram (P.); d.a~_d.i_ stalk of flower or fruit (S.); d.at.ha_ stalk (H.); (CDIAL 5527). d.a~_r.a_ stalk (Aw.)(CDIAL 6128). d.ha_k old decaying stump (M.); d.hamkara branch without leaves or fruit (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5524). Hollow anklet: tan.t.ai hollow anklet, a silver ornament put round the feet of horses (Ta.); tat.t.ai a tinkling anklet (Ta.); tan.t.a a foot ornament of women (Ma.); tan.d.e id. (Ka.); a silver anklet (Tu.)(DEDR 3059). Image: tube: tan.t.u anything tubular, bamboo receptacle (Ta.); what is long and hollow (Ma.)(DEDR 3058). tan.t.u stalk, stem (Ta.Ma.); tat.t.u, tat.t.ai stalk of grain (Ta.); tad., tan.d. stem of plant, trunk of tree (Ko.); tod. trunk of tree (To.); dan.t.u, dan.d.a stalk (Ka.); den.d.e id. (Kol.); dan.d.i id. (Kui); tad.i_ trunk (of tree, body)(Kod..); dan.t.u stalk of certain grains and vegetables; any potherb, as spinach (Tu.); stalk of great millet, etc.; the pith of a plantain tree and the like (Te.); dan.d.u stalk, as of a plantain leaf (Tu.); dad.d.u short stubble left after reaping (Tu.); tan.d.aka trunk of a tree (Skt.); d.a_n.d.a (Pa.); d.and.a (Ga.Kuwi.) sugarcane < Halbi d.a_d.a_ or other IA source)(DEDR 3056). dan.d.a stick, club (RV.), handle (AitBr.); dan.d.ika_ stick (Mn.); dan.d.a stick, handle (Pali); dam.d.a, d.am.d.a id. (Pkt.); dam.d.a (As'.NiDoc.); ran stick (Gypsy); do_n. handle (Ash.); dun., d.un handle (Kt.); du_n. stick, handle; d.u_n.in. stick; den.d.i_ shinbone (Wg.); ban-d.un.d.u hay fork; kun.-d.un.d.u_ = Kt. kam-d.en yoke pole (Pr.); dan.d.a_ roof-beam; dan.d.ala plough-handle; da~_r.i_ stick; d.a_n.i_ (Pas'.); da~r.a stubble (Shum.); d.o_n wood (Wot..); d.an.d.-ba_r large broom (Gaw.); do_n.d.i_k stick; d.en.d.i_ calf of leg, shinbone (Gaw.); dan handle; dun.i shinbone (Kand.); don.u handle (Sh.); d.o_ni_ shinbone (Sh.); dan.d.a_ side-piece of a cart, stick (Or.); dan hilt, handle (of hammer), stalk (of pear), donu churning stick (K.); d.an.d.o club (S.); d.anna~_ carrying pole, small pieces of wood between rafters (L.); d.anni_ wooden handle (L.); handle (P.); d.anno handle of hammer (WPah.); d.an roof-beam (Ku.); d.a~_r.o rafter (N.); d.a~_r.o beam (N.); d.a~_r.i stick, pole (N.); d.a~_r long pole (A.); d.a~_ri fishing-rod (A.); dan.d.a a kind of oar, wood, timber (Si.); da~_r. oar (B.); paddle (Bi.); da~_r.a_ stick (B.); d.a~_r. oar (Bhoj.); stick, oar (H.); staff (Mth.); d.a~_d. stick, oar (H.); dan.d.a_, d.an.d.a_ stake, pole of cart (H.); d.a~_d.o, da~_d.o pole, club, handle (G.); da~_d.i_, d.a~_d.i_ stick (G.); da~_d. stick (M.); da~_d.a_ club, handle, penis (M.)(CDIAL 6128 < Prob. non-Aryan, cf. d.an.t.ha.). Image: club: d.an.d.om a handle, a shaft; kud.i d.an.d.om a hoe handle; t.en:goc d.an.d.om an axe handle; t.amak d.an.d.om a drum stick (Santali.lex.) d.o_n.i club, cudgel (Ka.); don.n.e, d.on.n.e id. (Ka.Tu.); don. big club (Ko.); don.n.e club (Kond.a); don.elu club (Tu.)(DEDR 3502). d. angi, d.ange staff, cudgel, etc. (Ka.); d.anke, t.anke id. (Ka.); t.ankam mace (Ma.)(DEDR 2940). t.in:gri_ bough (L.); t.in:gar contemptuous term for a tall and thin man (N.); t.ikorn.e~ stick (M.)(CDIAL 5460). t.hinga_ stick (P.); t.hi~ga_ stick, block socket for post (M.); t.hi~gd.a_ cudgel (M.); t.hi~_ga_ stick (P.); t.hya~_gro, t.hen.ro stocks, fetter (N.); t.hen:ga_ cudgel (B.Or.); t.he~ga_ bludgeon (H.); stick (M.); t.he~gd.a_ cudgel (M.)(CDIAL 5500). d.aku stick put up to keep a door shut (S.); d.akaru stick, straw (S.); d.akka_ straw (P.); d.akkra_ bit of anything (P.); d.a~_klo stalk, stem (N.); d.an:ga_ stick (Pkt.); d.a_n. thick stick (A.); pole for hanging things on (B.); d.a_n:ga stick (Or.); d.a~_g club (H.)> stick (P.G.); club, mace (K.); d.a~_go, d.a~goro, d.a~goru~ stick (G.); d.a~garn.e~ short thick stick (M.); d.a~_gl.i_ small branch (M.); d.a~_s'i_ (M.)(CDIAL 5520). [cf. dasiku a pointed wooden peg; dasi stake (Ka.); a stake (Tu.)(DEDR 3017).]

4343.Stick: dan.d.a, dan.d.u, da_d.e, da_n.d.a a stick, a staff, a rod; a pole; a cudgel (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) dan.d.a (Vedic dan.d.a, dialectical = *dal[d]ra; (on n.: l cf. gun.a : gul.a) to *del as in Skt. dala, dalati. cf. Latin dolare to cut, split, work in wood; delere to destroy; Middle High German zelge twig; zol a stick.) 1. stem of a tree, wood worked into something, e.g. a handle; 2. a stick, staff, rod, to lean on and as support in walking; the walking-stick of a wanderer (na sakkoti vina_ dan.d.ena a_hin.d.itun); 3. a stick as means of punishment; 4.a stick as a weapon in general, only in certain phrases and usually in combination with sattha sword; dan.d.an a_diyati to take up the stick, to use violence; a_dinna-dan.d.a a_dinna-sattha; opposite of nihita-dan.d.a nihita-sattha using neither stick nor sword; dan.d.a-sattha para_masana taking up arms (stick and sword); dan.d.a-sattha-abbhukkirana drawing a stick or sword; dan.da-sattha-abhinipa_tana attacking with stick or knife; pat.idan.d.a retribution; 5. a fine, penalty, penance in general; dan.d.ena nikkin.a_ti to redeem with a penalty; dan.d.adan.d.a without a stick, i.e. without force or violence, usually in phrase adan.d.ena asatthena na_go danto mahesina_; thus of a Cakkavattin who rules the world peacefully: pat.havin adan.d.ena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjha_vasati. dan.d.'a_da_na satth'a_da_na taking up a stick (weapon) and sword (weapon); dan.d.a-kat.hina kat.hina cloth stretched on a stick for the purpose of measuring; dan.d.a-di_pika_ a torch; dan.d.a-pa_n.in carrying a staff, staff in hand; dan.d.a-va_kara_ a net on a stick, as a snare; dan.d.aka a (small) stick, a twig; a staff, a rod; a handle; ubhhato-dan.d.aka two handled (of a saw)(Pali.lex.)[kat.hina hard, firm, stiff; the cotton cloth which was annually supplied by the laity to the bhikkhus for the purpose of making robes; also a wooden frame used by the bhikkhus in sewing their robes; kat.hina-attharan.a the dedication of the kat.hina cloth; kat.hina-attha_ra the spreading out, i.e., dedication of the kat.hina cloth by the people to the community of bhikkhus. (Pali.lex.)] Army, clad in armour: sannaddha [pp. of sannayhati] fastened, bound; put on, clothed (with); sannaddha-dussa armed, accoutred; sannaddha-dhanu-kala_pa (Pali); sannayhati [san + nayhati] to tie, bind, fasten, to arm oneself; to arry, arm; to arrange, fit; > sanna_ha dressing, fastening together; armour, mail (Pali.lex.) nayhati (Vedic nahyati; Idg. *nedh as in Latin nodus and Vedic nahu] to tie, bind; only in compounds with preposition as upanayhati [cf. upa_hana_ sandal], pilandhati etc.--pp. naddha tied, bound, fastened, put on. (Pali.lex.) kata-sanna_ha clad in armour (Pali.lex.)[kata pp. of karoti done, worked, made].

4344.Image: kneeling down: dan.d.e the position of the knees being firmly put down, or the hands (Ka.); the position of the hands when they hold the bow and push or discharge it (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4345.Boat: dati a very small boat (Jain.Skt.)

4346.Boat, raft: tan.t.a_ram boat (Ta.lex.) tat.t.u-mat.i fishing net used in deep sea, dist. fr. karai-mat.i (Ta.lex.) cf. tan.t.u- in: tan.t.u-k-ko_l oar, paddle; iron pointed pole for punting a boat (Ta.lex.) Rafter, boat: d.a~_r.o rafter (N.)(CDIAL 6128). dan.d.in an oarsman; dan.d.am the oar of a boat (Skt.lex.) Raft,: dan.d.a_rah. a raft, boat (Skt.lex.) cf. tan.t.al chief of a small vessel or ship (Ta.)(DEDR 3049). Hollow; sailing vessel: d.had.haru hollow in tree-trunk, belly of a vessel (S.)(CDIAL 5577).

4347.Image: cork; resistance; stoppage: tan.t.al obstruction, hindrance (Ku_rmapu. Cu_taka_. 33); resisting, opposing (Marutu_ran. 60); tan.t.u (tan.t.i-) to be hindered (Ta.); tat.u (-pp-, -tt-) to hinder, stop, obstruct, forbid, prohibit, resist, dam, block up, partition off, curb, check, restrain, control, ward off, avert; n. hindering, checking, resisting; tat.uppu hindering, obstructing, resisting, restraint; tat.akku (tat.akki-) to be obstructed, impeded, detained, obstruct, hinder, detain; n. obstacle, hindrance, impediment, obstruction; tat.an:ku (tat.an:ki-) to be obstructed; tat.avu prison; tat.ukkal stumbling block, impediment; tat.ukku (tat.ukki-) to obstruct, impede; n. impediment (Ta.); tat.ai (-v-, -nt-) to hinder, stop; (-pp-, -tt-) id.; n. resisting, obstructing, hindrance, obstacle, impediment, objection; coat of mail, guard, watch, door, gate, bund, embankment (Ta.); tat.t.u (tat.t.i-) to obstruct, hinder, ward off, oppose, frustrate; n. warding off, averting, impediment, frustration (Ta.); tat.a resistance, warding off (as with a shield), what resists, resists, stays or stops, a prop; tat.a-ku_t.uka to hinder (Ma.); tat.an.n.al hindrance, stoppage; tat.accal impeding, stop, stumbling; tat.ayuka to be obstructed, stop between, stop; tat.avu what resists, wards off, a prison; tat.assu obstruction, hindrance; tat.ukkuka to stop, hinder; tat.ekka to stop; tat.t.uka to ward off, beat off, oppose (Ma.); tar.v- (tar.t-) to obstruct, stop; tar., tar.v obstruction (Ko.); tar.f- (tar.t-) to delay, prevent, screen; tar. prevention, screen; tad.gil hindrance, obstruction, delay (To.); tad.a impeding, check, impediment, obstacle, delay (Ka.); hindrance, obstruction, prevention (Te.); tad.ata act of restraining, state of being stopped (as water), wearing well (cloth)(Ka.); tad.apa delay, slowness; tad.apu hindrance, impediment (Ka.); tad.avu to stop; n. delay; tad.asu to stay, wait; stop, hinder, keep off; tad.e to delay, wait, stop, detain, restrain, check, keep down, endure, bear patiently, last, wear well (cloth etc.); n. check, impediment, obstacle, restraing (Ka.); to be obstructed (by person or thing)(Kod..); tad.ev-, tad.and- id. (Kod..); tad.i- (tad.ip-, tad.it-) to stop, obstruct, endure; tad.u lateness, delay (Kod..); tad. hindrance, obstacle, a charm of serpents; tad.avu delay, hindrance, impediment; a slowcoach or dilatory person; tad.epa_vuni to hinder, impede, obstruct; tad.epini, tad.epuni to hold off, hinder, keep back, prevent, stop, oppose; tad.eppu stoppage, resistance, anything put up to stop a passage; tad.eyuni, tad.evuni a halt, stopping, tarrying, impediment, hindrance; tad.evon.uni to bear, suffer, be patient; dad. an obstacle, hindrance; tat.t.an:ku id. (Tu.); tad.ayu to delay; tad.avu delay, loss of time; tat.a_yincu to hinder, prevent (Te.); tat.t.i bund, dam (Go.); t.an.d.na_ to prevent, hinder, impede (Kur.); tad. power to resist (Br.)(DEDR 3031). tat.t.i-k-kol.(l.)utal to strike against; to be resisted by an obstacle; to run aground as a ship (Ta.lex.) Image: resisting: tat.ai resisting, obstructing (Kampara_. Atika_yan-. 251); tat.a id. (Ma.); tad.a id. (Te.); tad.e id. (Ka.); tat.ai-tal to hinder, stop (Kalla_. 31,1); tad.e id. (Ka.); tat.aittal id. (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,5,2)(Ta.lex.) Image: to obstruct: tal. (tat.p-, tat.t.-) to hinder, obstruct, stop, dam up (Ta.); impeding, impediment, obstacle, delay (Ka.); Image: floodgate, sluice: tal.ampu floodgate, sluice (Ta.); tal.-poy to obstruct, impede, hinder, oppose; tal.uvu to stop, delay; n. delay; tal.pu to obstruct (Ka.); talepuni to hinder, detain; tal.pu to interrupt, cause to stop (Tu.); talupu door (Te.)(DEDR 3123). tar.an.u to drive off, expel (S.); tar.iba_ to drive away, attack (Or.); tar.vu~ to run to strike, attack, rise in revolt (G.); tar.ka forcibly; tar.as to knock (Pas'.)(CDIAL 5632). Stumble; obstacle; hindrance: t.hed.a_ stumble (P.) (CDIAL 5512). t.okn.a_ to hinder (P.); t.okknu_ to fix in, interrupt (WPah.); t.okn.o to destroy, reprimand (Ku.); t.oka_ to thwart (B.); t.oko prop, obstacle (Ku.)(CDIAL 5476). t.hu_kara stumble (K.); t.hokar stumble (Ku.); t.hokar obstacle (N.); t.hokar stumbling (M.)(CDIAL 5513). tat.ukkal stumbling block, impediment; tat.ukku (tat.ukki-) to obstruct, impede, hit against, trip up; n. impediment; tat.ai (-v-, -nt-) to hinder, stop; (-pp-, -tt-) id.; n. resisting, obstructing, hindrance, obstacle, impediment (Ta.); tat.akku (tat.akki-) to be obstructed, impeded, detained; obstruct, hinder, detain; n. obstacle, hindrance, impediment, obstruction (Ta.); tat.ukkuka to stop, hinder; tat.ekka to stop; tat.t.uka to ward off, beat off, oppose (Ma.); tad.gil hindrance, obstruction, delay (Ko.); tad.ahu stop, cessation (Tu.); tad.eppu stoppage, resistance, anything put up to stop a passage (Tu.); tat.t.an:ku an obstacle, hindrance; dad. id. (Tu.); tad.a hindrance, obstruction, prevention; tat.a_yincu to hinder, oprevent (Te.); tad. power to resist (Br.)(DEDR 3031). Stop; check: dad.an. hiding place (M.); dad.a_ plug (M.); drot.u tough; dro~t.hu hardened (K.); d.at.an.u to bury, cork up (S.); d.at.o cork (S.); d.at.t.a_ stopper (L.P.); d.at.n.a_ to stop (P.); d.a_t.na_ to threaten, check, plug (H.); d.a_t.n.a_ to check, cram (P.); da_t.vu~, d.a_t.vu~ to bury; da_t.o, d.a_t.o cork; da_t. crowd (G.); da_t.i_ crowd (G.); d.a~_t.a_ to threaten (B.); d.a_n.t.iba_ to check (Or.); d.a~_t.na_ to threaten, check, plug (H.); d.a~_t.nu, da~_t.nu to threaten (N.)(CDIAL 6618).

4348.Bare open ground: sthan.d.ila bare open ground (MBh.); such ground prepared for performance of sacrifice (S'a_n:khBr.); sthan.d.ilya (ChUp.); than.d.ila bare hard stony ground (Pali); tham.d.ila, tham.d.illa, t.ham.d.illa clear land free from animals (Pkt.) than.d.il.a sand altar for sacrifice (Or.); t.ha~d.il spot prepared for sacrifice (G.)(CDIAL 13739). Image; place for sacrificial fire: tan.t.ilam < sthan.d.ila place designed for the sacrificial fire (Ci_vaka. 2464, Urai.); place designed for worshipping S'iva (Ka_cippu. Can-r-ku. 20)(Ta.lex.) sthan.d.ila a piece of ground (levelled, squared and prepared for a sacrifice), an altar; sthan.d.ila-sitaka an altar (Skt.lex.) tan.t.ulam place designed for sacrificial fire (Cu_l.a_. Cuyamvara. 277)(Ta.lex.) tat.avu sacrificial pit (tat.ava nimir mutti_ppe_n.iya : Paripa_. 5,42) (Ta.lex.)

4349.Image: goose: ta_d.igya the barred-headed goose, anser indicus (Ka.lex.) cf. ta_r.a_vu duck (Ma.); ta_ra_ duck, heron (Ta.)(DEDR 3169).

4350.4351.Piece of fruit cut for sale: tantam piece of fruit as cut for sale or use (Ta.lex.)

4352.Lineage: tantati < santati lineage (irivi cirikan.t.an- tantatip pirakirutiya_y : T.A.S. ii,175)(Ta.lex.)

4353.Drill plough used for indigo culture: t.a~_r.i_ drill plough used for indigo culture (N.)(CDIAL 5668). Image: hay fork: d.an.d.-ba_r large broom (ba_rik broom)(GAw.); ban-d.un.d.u hay fork (Pr.)(CDIAL 6128). va_ru-ko_l broom (Ta.); va_ri rake (Ta.)(DEDR 5362).

4354.Ficus siela: da~_tur the tree ficus siela; da~_tar ficus parasitica (M.)(CDIAL 6167).

4355.Datura alba: dhu_rta the thorn-apple (Ka.Skt.lex.) dhattu_ra the white thorn-apple (Skt.); dho_tara_ (M.)(Skt.lex.) dhutrel oil of thorn-apple (M.)(CDIAL 6715). datariwathar, datariwatras datur leaf (K.)(CDIAL 6716). dhattu_ra the white thorn-apple, datura alba; dhattu_raka (Sus'r.); dhuttu_raka (BHSk.); dhustu_ra, dhu_stu_ra, dhustura (Skt.); dhu_rta, dhu_rtakr.t (Skt.); dhattu_ra datura; its flower (Pkt.); datu_ro datura (Sh.); daturu datura alba (K.); dha_tu_ro datura fastuosa (S.); dhatu_ra_ datura strmonium (P.); dhaturo, dhatur (Ku.); dhaturo datura fistulosa (N.); dha_tura_ (A.); dha_tura_ datur fastuosa (Or.); dhatu_r, dhatu_ra_ datura alba (hence dhatu_riya_ poisoner, knave, cheat)(H.); dhatura_ trickery (M.); dhatu_ro datura alba (Marw.); dhutra_, dhotra_ (M.); dhatu_ro, dha~tu_ro (G.); dhathu_r (Mth.); dhu~tura_ (A.); dhutura_ (B.Or.H.); dhuthura_ (B.); dhuthur (Mth.); dudura_ (Or.); dhutta (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6714). dhattu_ra datura fastuosa; " dhatura is its Indian native name... consists of the leaves of datura fastuosa, datura alba, datura metel. The leaves of datura stramonium and datura tatula are used as cigatettes in cases of asthma..." (G. De Orta, p.174). Datura fastuosa, datura alba are allied species of datura stramonium... the dried leaf and flowering or fruiting parts with branches are used. Habitat. Asia... Stramonium is chiefly used to relax the bronchial muscle in the bronchial spams of asthma. It is also employed in postencephalitic Parkinsonism, paralysis agitans, and as an anodyne. Its properties are similar to belladonna and it has been used interchangeably with it... possesses scopolamine as the dominant alkaloid ..." (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 766-770). Datura fastuosa = datura metel: dhatura (B.); dhutura (M.); sadah-dhatura (H.); dhustura (S.); vellummattai (Ta.)(GIMP, p.91). Datura metel = datura alba: The leaves are official in the British, Dutch, Japanese pharmacopoeias; and the seeds are official in the British pharmacopoeia. Nadkarni says that the plant as a whole has narcotic, anodyne, and antispasmodic properties analogous to those of belladonna... an overdose acts as a violent narcotic poison... With regard to the toxicity of the plant, Bacon writes that in all parts of the East this plant is considered to be poisonous and in India and Indo-China is used quite commonly with criminal intent... Gross says that when the leaves are dried and burned with a little saltpetre, the fumes give relief to asthmatic attacks. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 840-847). chattraparn.a the tree alstonia scholaris (Skt.); saptaparn.a (MBh.); its flower (Skt.); saptaparn.aka (Car.); chattapan.n.a a partic. tree (Pali); chattavan.n.a, chattivan.n.a (Pkt.); chatiwan alstonia scholaris (N.); cha_tiana (MBh.); cha_tim echites scholaris (B.); chacina_ alstonia scholaris (Or.); chat.iman echites scholaris (Bi.); sa_tvan., sa_tvi_n. alstonia or echites scholaris (M.); sattapan.n.i-rukkha a kind of tree (Pali); sattavan.n.a, sattivan.n.a (Pkt.); atvana, attana the medicinal plant datura fastuosa, ruk-attana alstonia scholaris (A.); sa_tvan., sa_tvi_n. (M.)(CDIAL 4974).

4356.Image: pillar: ta_n.u pillar (Pu.Ve. 4,20); post (Tiruva_lava_. 28,43); prop, support; firmness, stability; category of the immoveables (Kampara_. Miti. 117) (Ta.lex.) Image: to stand upright: d.a~_r.ab to stand upright (Mth.)(CDIAL 6128). Image: standing; upright; in front of: sthita standing, settled (S'Br.); t.hita standing, lasting, steadfast (Pali); thiye~ in front of, in the presence of (K.); thia, t.hiya standing, upright (Pkt.); thiya perpendicular (A.); t.hia_ standing up; upright position, height, stature (Or.); thu_ he was (Tir.); thia_ became (L.); tha_, f. thi_ was (P.H.); thio (WPah.); thiu~ (WPah.); thiyo (N.); thayo (G.); thel to be present, be (Gypsy); tha, f. the_ (Tir.); thu_, f. thi_ is (Wot..Bshk.); thu (K.); thian.u to be, become, grow (S.); thi_(v)an., pp. thi_a_ to be, become, exist, be done (L.); thi_van to be (L.); thi~dai pres.part. being (N.); thiba_ to be (Or.); thi~k 3 sg. became (Pas'.); thi~kun to stand firm (K.); t.hikiba_ to be fixed (Or.); thi~_kab to be (Mth.); tinoi he stayed (Wg.); thana, thini is (Gaw.)(CDIAL 13768). High rank: sthiti standing, upright, continued existence (MBh.); high rank (Mn.); steadiness (R.); t.hiti state, steadfastness (Pali); thii, t.hii- place, condition, conduct (Pkt.); thi~_ steadiness, sense of propriety or shame or religion (P.); t.hia prop, support, prestige (Or.); t.hi_ha_ reliance (Aw.); t.hi_ appointed spot or moment, place in reading or writing reached at moment of interruption, proper method (M.)(CDIAL 13769). t.hitika lasting (Pali); cira-t.hitika long lasting (As'.); -thitika, -thitika_, -thitikya_ (As'.)(CDIAL 13770). sthira firm, hard, strong, durable (RV.); thira solid, firm (Pali.Pkt.); ther, thyoru firm (K.); thiri firm, fixed, permanent (S.); sthiri-bhavati becomes firm (R.); thir firm (P.G.); id., steadfast (A.B.); firm, quiet (Mth.Bhoj.); firm, fixed (H.); thiro lasting (Ku.); thir, thiro firm, steadfast (N.); thira firm, fixed (OAw.); thi_r (M.); tara (Si.); t.hira firm (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13771). cf. t.hi_kun to stand firm (K.); t.hika_n.a_ station (P.); abode (M.); t.hi~ka whereabouts, trace (OMarw.); t.hika_na_ station (B.H.)(CDIAL 5593). sthi_yate_ stands (MBh.); thiyam.ti they are or become (NiDoc.); ti- to be (Kt.); thiik, tiik to remain still or seated or fixed (Kho.); thi_(v)an. to become (L.); thian.u (S.); tiyenava_ to be (Si.); thi~dai pres.part. being (N.); thiba_ to become (Or.)(CDIAL 13773). Permanent; proper: tir-avatu that which is proper, that which is complete (Tol. Po. 521); that which is certain, permanent (Tirikat.u. 72); tir-avitu id. (Ci_vaka. 124)(Ta.); tir-avo_n- person of discernment or discrimination; tira_n.i ability, capacity, strenth, power (Ta.); tir-ava_n- able man (Ta.); tir-am, tir-avu vigour, ability, fine manner, stateliness (Ma.); ter-a way, course, manner, form, sort, kind; ter-avu way, manner; ter-apu manner; ter-aN id., kind (Ka.); ter-a~gu, ter-avu way, manner, mode, fashion, style, condition, state, order, good condition or state (Te.); tir-am, tir-an- way, manner, costume, quality, state, nature, means, method, strength, power, goodness, excellence; tir-amai strength, power, ability, courage, excellence (Ta.); tir-al strength, courage, victory, lustre as of precious stones (Ta.)(DEDR 3260).

4357.Father: ta_ta father (Pali.lex.) tantai father (Ta.); entai my father, our father; my master, lord (Ta.); nantai our father; nuntai, untai your father (Ta.); ar..a_ntai father of Ar..a_n; a_ntai father of a_tan; pur..a_ntai father of Pur..a_n (Ta.); tanta father, also of animals (Ma.); tande father (Ka.); tan.d.ri, (inscr.) tanr-i id. (Te.Kond.a); tanji id. (Kui.Kuwi); tanjeru pl. (Kui); tend (Pa.)(DEDR 3067). Shepherds: an.t.ar shepherds (Ta.Ma.); in.t.ar id. (Ta.)(DEDR 125). Support: an.ai support, prop, protection (Ta.); an.t.ai support (Ta.); an.a support (Ma.); an.a.r by the help of (Ko.); an.d.e support, prop (Ka.); an.d.a support (Te.)(DEDR 123). an.ai a yoke of oxen, with an ordinal number prefixed, as o_ran.ai, i_ran.ai (Ta.lex.) an.ai to join, put close to, as earth to a tree; to tie, fasten, as animals (kat.t.utal); to tie up in a bunch; to produce (Ta.lex.); an.a yoke, pair (Ma.); an.ayam vicinity, neighbourhood (Ma.); on.c ferrule on stick or pounder (To.); an.i joining, fitness, order (Ka.); an.t.u to come or be in contact with (Ka.); an.epuni to come in contact, press (Tu.); an.d.a nearness, support, protection, patronage (Te.); an.t.incu to unite, join (Te.)(DEDR 120); nan.mai, nan.i nearness, proximity (Ta.)(DEDR 3588). Elder; grandfather; father; brother: ta_tai father (Tiruva_ca. 9,3); grandfather; ta_ta_ great man (Ma_r-an-alan.. 140,541)(Ta.lex.) ta_tta_ grandfather (Ta.); ta_ta_ id., father (Ta.); ta_tan father (Ma.); ta_ta grandfather, father (Ka.Te.); grandfather (Nk.); father (Pa.); ta_do father's father (Go.); ta_ta(l) mother's father (Go.); tado grandfather (Go.); ta.t grandfather (Kod..); ta_te id. (Tu.); ta_ta father (Skt.)(DEDR 3160). ta_ta (in voc.) affectionate address to junior (S'Br.); id. to senior (MBh.); father (MBh.); tata father (RV.); ta_ta term of respectful or affectionate address to an elder or younger (Pali); ta_a father, son (Pkt.); tatta father (Gypsy); tata_, ta_t, ta_ti_ father; dus't-t, des't-te father's elder brother (Wg.); tati_ father (Pas'.); tat (Kho.); ta_ya (OG.)(CDIAL 5754). ta_tagu paternal (Skt.); father's brother (Skt.); ta_u father's elder brother; ta_i_ his wife (Ku.); ta_wai father's friend, friend's father (A.); ta_ui brother's or sister's spouse's father (B.); ta_u_, ta~_u_ father's elder brother (H.)(CDIAL 5755). ta_era_ descended from father's elder brother (H.)(CDIAl 5756). ta_tala paternal; senior relative (Skt.); ta_lui brother's or sister's spouse's father (B.)(CDIAL 5756a). ta_yasra_ father-in-law's elder brother (H.)(CDIAL 5757). ta_yas father-in-law's elder brother's wife (H.)(CDIAL 5758). ta_tya fatherly (RV.); ta_e_ pl. uncles; ta_i_ father's elder brother's wife (L.); ta_ia_, ta_ea_ father's elder brother; ta_i_ his wife (P.); ta_ya_ m., ta_i_ f. (H.)(CDIAL 5759). tan-n-ai lord, chief, elder brother (Ta.)(DEDR 3196). da_d father (Gypsy); da_do grandfather (D..); dadi father (Dm.); dada_ elder brother; da_da_ father; da_do father's brother (Pas'.); da_da father (Kal.); da_d grandfather; de_d grandmother (Bshk.); do_do father's father; de_di father's mother (Phal.); da_do grandfather; da_di f. (Sh.); d.a_d.o father's father; d.a_d.i_ f. (S.); d.a_d.a_, d.a_d.i_, da_da_, da_di_ father (L.); da_dda_ father (P.); d.a_dda_, da_ddi_, d.a_ddi_ (P.); da_do (WPah.); da_da_ grandfather, elder brother (Ku.); da_di_ grandmother, elder sister; da_ term of address to an elder brother (Ku.); da_da_ old servant; da_jyu, da_i elder brother (N.); da_da_ elder brother (A.); grandfather, elder brother (B.); da_di grandmother (B.); da_da_, da_di grandfather, father's brother, elder brother (Or.); da_da_ grandfather (Mth.; father's father, elder brother; da_di_ father's mother (H.); da_do father's father; da_di_ f. (G.); da_da_ elder brother (G.); da_di_ f. respectful term for an old woman (M.)(CDIAL 6261). dada_i father's brother (A.); dadei father's elder brother, (among Ks.atriyas) father (Or.)(CDIAL 6262). dadauhra_ wife's or husband's father's father (P.); da_dsusra_, da_dasra_ wife's or husband's father-in-law (H.)(CDIAL 6263). dadehas wife's or husband's father's mother (P.); da_das wife's or husband's mother-in-law's mother (H.)(CDIAL 6264). Brother: tajeriaka, tajeriaru brothers (Kui); taiyi, taii_ brother; tayi brother, parallel cousin; tayi ma_n:ga niece, brother's daughter (Kuwi); tayi mir'esi nephew, brother's son (Kuwi)(DEDR 3018). Sister: didda_ name of a Kashmir princess (Skt.); ded elderly lady, chief wife in a household; dedi respectful term of address to an older woman (K.); de_ddi, daiddi_ elder sister (WPah.); didi_, di_ (Ku.); didi elder sister (B.Or.); grandmother (B.); di_di_ elder sister (H.)(CDIAL 6327). ji_ji_ elder sister; ji_ji husband's brother's wife (Pas'.); ji_ja_, ji_ji_ affectionate term for mother, aunt etc. (S.); ji_jali affectionate term for mother (S.); ji_jja_, ji_ja_ sister's husband, child, bridegroom; ji_ji_ woman's breast for suckling, girl, bride; ji_ja_ sister's husband (P.); jiju great-grandfather (N.); jeji grandfather, grandmother (Or.); ji_ji, jijji_, jiji_, jijiya_ breast, elder sister, wet-nurse (H.); ji_ja_ sister's husband (H.); jiji_ mother; ji_ji_-ma_ grandmother; ji_jo grandfather; ji_ji_-ba_ husband's sister (G.); jiji_ elder sister (M.)(CDIAL 5232). cf. -ji_ a suffix of respect (to elders)(H.lex.) cf. ca_ci mother's milk (Ta.); woman's breast (Te.Ka.)(DEDR 2436).

4358.Image: male cat: d.ha_r.u_ male cat (WPah.); d.ha_r.e male (usu. of cats)(N.)(CDIAL 5575).

4359.Ornaments; goods, articles; pawned goods: tat.ayam ornaments (Ta.Tinn.); goods, furniture, articles, things (Can.. Aka.); recovered stolen property (Ta.lex.) tat.aiyam ornaments (Ta.Tinn.); utensils, articles; stolen property; material object concerned in a crime; pawned goods (Ta.lex.) Chattels {Echo word}: tat.t.u-mut.t.u furniture, goods and chattels, articles of various kinds; apparatus, tools, instruments, utensils; luggage, baggage (Ta.Te.)(Ta.lex.) tat.t.u-mut.t.u kitchen utensils, household stuff (Ma.); tat.t.i-mut.t.u id. (Tu.)(DEDR 3041). cf. mut.t.u tool, instrument, sundry things (Ta.); kut.ga.rn Kota economic associate with Badaga or with Kurumba (he gives tool, etc.); Kota economic associate with Toda (less formal than kel. relationship)(Ko.)(DEDR 4937). [cf. mut.t.u battering, butting (Ta.); mut.t.ikai jeweller's small hammer (Ta.); mut.t.i hammer (Ma.)(DEDR 4932)]. cf. mut.uku bracelet made of lac, ring (Ta.); bracelet, woodbind to tie up sugar-cane (Ma.)(DEDR 4926).

4360.Image: to butt with horns: ta_d.u to butt with horns (Ka.); to strike against (Ka.); ta_n.t.i to hit (Kor.); ta_d.uni to gore, butt; ta_d.u goring (Tu.); ta_d.elu act of goring or butting (Tu.); ta_t.incu to pat, slap (Kor.)(DEDR 3156). Image: to butt with both horns; gore: tav- (tavd-) to butt with both horns, gore (Ko.)(DEDR 3078). Synonym: cf. mut.t.u (mut.t.i-) to dash against; n. battering, butting (Ta.)(DEDR 4932). Image: to quarrel: ta_t.u to strike against (Ka.); ta_n.d.uni quarrel, fight (Tu.)(DEDR 3156). tan.t.alar enemies (Ce_tupu. Man:kalati_rt. 8)(Ta.lex.)

4361.Image:bullock: d.ha_n.d.a_ a bullock, a bull; an ox; a foolish or stupid man; a simple man (P.lex.)

4362.Image: series, line; caravan, herd: ten.d.i herd (Kor.); ta~_d.a_ a train or line (as of cattle), troop, party (M.)(DEDR 3055). taran.d.i_ large herd of bullocks taken about for sale (L.); t.ran.d.ru herd of cattle (S.)(CDIAL 5668). cf. tiral. (tiral.v-, tiran.t.-) to assemble, congregate, collect in large numbers; terul.u to assemble (Tinn.Ta.); tirat.t.u assemblage (Ma.); teral.ke a multitude (Ka.)(DEDR 3245). tandra row, line (VS.S'Br.); t.ran.d.ru herd of cattle (S.); t.ran.d.ro a town built by a chieftain and named after him (S.); taran.d.i_ large herd of bullocks taken about for sale (L.); Image: platform: dan.d.aga, dan.d.iga, dan.d.ige a pole set horizontally in the corner of a room and used as a shelf (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) t.an.d. platform for storing wood above cowstall; can.d. upper part of house used as store-room (WPah.); t.a_n. extra wooden erection on second storey of a house (Ku.); t.a~_r. bamboo platform for sitting on (N.); platform, shelf (H.); Image: line of cattle: t.a~_d.u~ line of bullocks, caravan, head of a series, front, top (G.); t.a~_r.a_ line of cattle (H.); ta~_d.a_ line (of cattle, ants, etc.), troop, company (M.); ta~_d.i_ line or string (of clothes, etc.)(M.)(CDIAL 5668). ta~_ta_ series, line (H.)(CDIAL 5661). a_l. row (M.); a_li_ line, row (Pkt.); row (H.); a_d.i row, line; a_li row, range, line (Skt.); a_l.i, a_li dam (Pali); a_l.i_ row (M.); a_ri_ row (H.)(CDIAL 1102). Image: stick, row, line: da~_d.ol., da~_dal. line, row, long narrow building (M.)(CDIAL 6132). d.a~_r.i line (Mth.); dan.d.aka row, line (S'a_n:khS'r.)(CDIAL 6128). Image: series, line: dan.d.am a form of military array; an uninterrupted row or series, a line; standing upright or erect; dan.d.a-ya_mah. an epithet of Agastya; dan.d.akah. a line, row; dan.d.a_yate_ to stand erect (like a stick); dan.d.avat erect or upright like a stick; dan.d.ika_ a row, line, series; a rope; a stick (Skt.lex.) dan.d.a row, line (S'a_n:khS'r.); d.a~_r.i line (Mth.)(CDIAL 6128). tati extent; a series, a line, a range; a number, a crowd, a troop; sto_ma; a sacrificial act, a ceremony (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) dan.d.a a form of military array; a long line or column of troops (Ka.); dan.d.a-ya_tre a line-procession: a solemn or festive procession in state or with attendants, especially a bridal procession; warlike expedition, conquest of a region (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4363.Image: to tame; castrated bullock: da_n.t.isu, da_t.isu to make one's self to get beyond or the upperhand: to subdue, to tame (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) da_nta tamed (TBr.); tamed ox (Skt.); danta tamed (Pali); dam.ta (Pkt.); danda bull (Gypsy); do_n, pl. da_na castrated bullock (D..Sh.); dn bull (Dm.); do_n, obl. do_ndas (Kal.); do_nu bull; castrated bullock (Sh.); da_nd, da_nt (Sh.); d.a~_du (S.); da~_d, d.a~_d bullock fit for the plough; da~_d bull (L.); da_nd, da_nt (WPah.)(CDIAL 6273). da~_twa_l ploughman (WPah.)(CDIAL 6274). Image: ox: d.ha~_d.ho ox; d.ha~_d.hu~ dead ox or buffalo (G.)(CDIAL 5575). cf. dhavala an old bull, an excellent ox (Ka.lex.) Tamed: danta tamed, controlled, restrained (Pali)[Skt. da_nta, pp. da_myati to make or to be tame; Lat. domitus]; sudanta well-tamed, restrained; danta-bhu_mi a safe place, or the condition of one wo is tamed; dameti to make tame, chastise, punish, master, conquer, convert (Pali)[Skt. damayati, caus. da_mayati to bring into the house, to domesticate; Lat. domare; OIR. dam (ox); Goth. tamjan = OHG. zemman = Ags. temian = E. tame]; dametar one who tames or subdues, a trainer (Pali); dampati master of the house, householder (Pali)[Skt. dampati master of the house; dual; husband and wife; Ved. dama; Lat. domus to build; Goth. timrjan; OHG. zimbar; E. timber]; damma to be tamed or restrained; esp. with ref. to a young bullock (Pali)[Skt. damya grd. of da_myati; cf. damaya (damiya)]; damaka subduing, taming; converting; one who practices self-control; damatha taming, subduing, mastery, restraint, control; damana taming, subduing, mastery; damaya to be tamed; damita subdued, tamed (Pali)(Pali.lex.) dhava a man, a husband (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) da_nti restraint (Skt.); da~_ti trouble, vexation (A.); da~_tiya_iba to control by harsh words (A.)(CDIAL 6275). ta_man.i < da_mani_ long line of rope with halters attached for fastening cattle; headstall of a halter (Perumpa_n.. 244, Urai.); string, rope; sheet in boat tackle; ta_man-i tethering rope for cattle; ta_mai id.; ta_man.i-p-pin.aiyal yoking of five or seven bulls in a long rope for threshing corn; ta_mam < da_mam line to tie cattle; necklace of beads; string as of pearls (Man.i. 1,49); woman's waist ornament of 16 or 18 string of beads; row, line (Ci_vaka. 1358); ta_ma_n- lower back rope of a dhoney sail, back clew line (Ta.); dama_n (Te.); temina_n (Ma.); ta_ma_n-pa_l. sheet, rope for a vessel; ta_ma_n-ile_va_-tal to let a vessel drive before the wind (Ta.lex.) cf. da_man rope (RV.)(CDIAL 6283). dama self-restraint (S'Br.); dama (Pali.Pkt.); subjugation of one's passions (Si.)(CDIAL 6176). damayati subdues (RV.); damita tamed (Pa_n..); dame_ti (Pali); dame_i (Pkt.); dai_ya_na to train, break in (an animal)(B.); damai controls (OG.); damvu~ to tire, trouble (G.); damanava_ to tame, subdue (Si.); damita subdued (Pali); damia (Pkt.); da_mi submissive (Si.)(CDIAL 6179).

4364.Image: basket; hencoop: tir-r-i a sort of basket for catching fish (Te.); tirr hencoop, cage for carrying fowls (Go.); t.ir-i a small fish-basket (Kond.a); ti_ri small bamboo cage to catch fish or crab (Kuwi)(DEDR 3262).

4365.Wicket: did.d.i, jid.d.i, did.d.e a wicket; a hole in a wall expressly made for egress or ingress; a sallly port (Ka.Te.); tit.t.a (Ta.); din.d.a, din.d.i_ (M.); did.d.i-ba_gilu a sally port; a wicket (Ka.lex.)

4366.Those who work with bellows; sea-god: taittiyar; for daitya: cf. taittiya-te_van- Varun.a the Sea-god; alt. since the next class on the list is vaittiyar, by professional classification, the term daitya may relate to those who work with bellows: titti bellows (Yaco_tara. 4,12)(Ta.); id. (Te.Ka.Ma.Tu.); cf. dr.ti (Skt.); titti sacrificial pit (W.)(Ta.); perh. di_pti (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)[cf. Image: rhino: taitilam < taitila rhinoceros (Ta.lex.)]

4367.Clearing nut: te_r-r-an:kot.t.ai clearing nut (Ka.); te_r-r-a_maram strychnos potatorum; te_r-r-uka to make strong; te_r-al clearness, nectar (Ma.); te_r-al clearness, clarified toddy, clarified juice, honey (Ta.)(DEDR 3471).

4368.Clitoria ternatea: vis.n.ukra_nta_ clitoria ternatea [din.d.a clitoria ternatea (Ka.); din.t.ena id. (Te.)(DEDR 3223)](A Concise History of Science in India, pp.348-349). Synonym: apara_jita_ (Skt.B.); apra_jit (H.). The root of clitorea terbatea is regarded as laxative and diuretic, and is generally used in combination with other medicines of the sort in ascites, fever, etc. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.148). Clitoria ternatea: kakkanan (M.); seeds contain a fixed oil and a bitter resinous principle; both seeds and root-bark contain tannin; a common garden plant (GIMP, p.71). girikarn.ika_ clitoria ternatea (Car. Su. 23.195).

4369.Italian millet: tit.t.i Italian millet, tin-ai (Ta.lex.)

4370.Estimate; valuation: di_t.u valuation, estimate (Ka.)(DEDR 3272). tit.t.am < dr.s.t.a that which is perceptible (Pirapo_ta. 43,2); estimate, guess, conjecture; rate, allowance, determined quantity; estimated aggregate of the revenue of a village for the year from investigation of each separate holding; scheme of expenditure; memorandum taken from each ryot of the extent which he intends to cultivate (R.F.); a deduction (from rights) of fixed extent of land originally granted as inam (G.Tn.D. i,311); permanence (Te_va_. 1118,1); cettainty, explicitness (Cevvanti. Pu. Piramate_va. 25); dit.t.a id. (Ka.); dit.t.amu id. (Te.); cf. dr.d.ha (Skt.); tit.t.a-vat.t.am accuracy, precision, exactness, strictness; arrangement, establishment, settlement; tit.t.am-pa_rttal to guess, estimate, conjecture; to verify the sale account on a given date (Ta.lex.)

4371.A snake: tit.t.i-vit.am < dr.s.t.i + vis.a a poisonous serpent whose look is considered fatal (Man.i. 11,100)(Ta.lex.)

4372.Image: mortar: tit.t.ai mortar for pounding (Ta.lex.)

4373.Architect: tit.t.i the celestial architect (Ta.); cf. tvas.t.r. (Ta.lex.) cf. sr.s.t.i creation (TS.)(CDIAL 13579). sit.t.ha created, arranged (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13578).

4374.Batch of 100: tit.t.u batch, unit of number, as of 100 horses (e.g. oru tit.t.u-k-kutirai)(Ta.lex.)

4375.Image: resemblance: di_t.u similarity, equality (Ka.); equality, similarity, resemblance; equal (Te.)(DEDR 3272).

4376.To abuse, revile; vulgar abuse: sit.hin.o marriage song at wedding; sit.han.u to compose abusive verses (S.); sit.t.h satirical poem (L.); an obscene composition (P.); sit.t.hn.a_ to compose obscene compositions (P.); sit.t.hn.i_ obscene song sung by women at weddings (P.); s'it.hr.i_ vulgar jokes made by bride's female friends and relatives at the bridegroom's party; s'it.t.hn.u~ to make faces at (WPah.); sit.hni_, sit.hna_ abuse uttered at weddings (H.); as'is.t.a rude (Skt.)(CDIAL 12481). tit.t.u reviling, scolding; vulgar abuse (Arut.pa_. i, Tiruvarul.. 156); tit.t.ittal < sr.s.t.i to create, fabricate (Ta.); tit.t.a_ntaram < dr.s.t.a_nta fabrication, concoction; tit.t.a_ntam illustration, example (Man.i. 29,61); tit.t.i-k-karukkutal to scold, abuse violently; tit.t.u-mut.t.u mutual abuse (Ta.lex.) tit.t.u (tit.t.i-) to abuse, revile, curse, utter imprecations (Ta.); tit.t.u to abuse, scold; n. abuse, scolding (Ka.); to curse, swear at, abuse, revile, rail at, rebuke, scold, chide; n. a curse, abuse, abusive language; tit.t.a_d.u to revile, abuse, quarrel; tit.t.a_t.a reviling, abusing, a quarrel; tit.t.u~bo_tu a scold, person who habitually uses obscene or abusive language (Te.)(DEDR 3220). ci_ttai want of character, lowness, badness; low, base person (Ta.); ci_tta lowness, badness (Ma.)(DEDR 2616).

4377.Reprimand: s'is.t.i direction (Skt.); punishment (Gaut.)(CDIAL 12481). s'it.ha punishment; s'it.hidavya to be punished (NiDoc.); sit.nu to reprimand (N.)(CDIAL 12479). Disciplined, taught: s'is.t.a taught (AV.); disciplined (S'Br.); learned (Mn.); sit.t.ha ordered, taught (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12479). s'is.ya pupil (S.ad.vBr.NiDoc.); sissa pupil (Pali); sissa, s.i_sa (Pkt.); sis (H.); s'i_s (G.); sisu (Si.)(CDIAL 12482). tit.t.aceytal to bid, order, direct; to settle, arrange (Kuruparam. 476)(Ta.lex.)

4378.To anoint: ti_t.t.u to rub, smear, anoint (Cu_l.a_. Tu_tu. 41); to smooth as the hair (Pur-ana_. 62)(Ta.); ti_d.uni to rub, smear, anoint (Tu.); ti_t.t.u touching (Ci. Ci. Para. A_ci_vaka. 8); ti_t.t.am id. (Ta.); ti_t.t.a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

4379.Image: lighted torch signal for mariners; brazier: ti_-na_ a large lamp lighted on an earthen vessel and mounted on palmyra trunks, used in ancient days as a signal for mariners (Cilap. 6,143, Urai); lighted torch kept on ships or on shore, as a signal; ti_-na_kku flame, as the tongue of fire (Ta.lex.) di_un.i_ brazier on a stand on which pinewood is burnt to give light (WPah.); diyana_ lamp (H.); zyunu firewood (K.); di_van.a lighting (Pkt.); di_pana kindling (MBh.)(CDIAL 6352). dyol, dya_l inner part of pine wood used for torches; diya_lo pine root used as torch (N.); di_pa_lo_ka burning torch (Skt.)(CDIAL 6357). di_vt.ha_n. place where main light of house is suspended (M.)(CDIAL 6356). daipa belonging to a lamp (Skt.); de_w pine-wood torch (Wg.); diwa_ (Ash.); de_wa_ light, brightnes, lamp (Pas'.); de_wa lamp (Gaw.); de_i_ brazier in which pinewood is burnt for light (WPah.)(CDIAL 6567). Image: process of calcination: ti_pa-put.am the process of calcination in which a medicine is covered with mud and heated in an oven for as long a time as it will take to prepare boiled rice; ti_pam lamp, light; lamp-stand; ti_pa-mattikai lamp-stand; ti_pikai lamp; ti_pa-k-ka_l candelabrum used in temples (Tiruvil.ai. Mu_rtti. 28); lamp-stand, candlestick; ti_pa-canta_n-am uninterrupted succession, as of light continuously kept up from lamp to lamp (Man.i. 30,38, Urai); ti_pamattikai lamp-stand; ti_kkat.aital to produce fire by fire-drill (Periyapu. Kan.n.appa. 115); ti_kkat.aiko_l fire-drill (Perumpa_n., 177, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Images: fireplace; implement for smelting; spark: d.i_ba- (-t-) (fire) to crackle (Pe.); (fire) to spark out (Mand..)(DEDR 2961). tikha_ro spark (G.); tikha_rn.e~ to sharpen (M.)(CDIAL 5840). digelu, dikke, dikkelu hearth, fireplace (Tu.); dunkeli oven (Kor.)(DEDR 3212). dhiks.ate_ kindles (Skt.); didhaks.ati is about to burn (MBh.); dhina_ to be hot, be red hot (H.); dhika_na_ to heat (H.); dhi_kvu~ to be heated, be lighted; dhika_vvu~ to light (a fire)(G.); dhi_kr.i_ heat; dhi_kdhi_ktu~ burning (G.)(CDIAL 6809). dhi_khn.a~_ livelihood, means of subsistence (L.); dhiks.ate_ lives (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 6810). dhma_tr. implement for smelting (RV.); dhata_r, dahata_r fireplace (Phal.); da_tar id. (Bshk.); da_ntar-kut.ha (Sv.)(CDIAL 6888). ti_ks.n.a sharp (RV.); tikkha (Pali); tikhin.a sharp, pointed (Pali); tikkha, tin.ha sharp, fine, pure (Pkt.); tikno small (Gy.); ti_'n sharp (Bshk.); ti_n sharp, edge (Tor.); ti_n.u sharp, bright (Sh.); tikho sharp, fiery, quick (S.); sharp (Ku.); sharp, pointed (N.); ti_kha_ sharp, pointed, quick (P.); sharp, pungent (H.); ti_kha sharp (MB.Or.); tikha_ thin sharp-edged metal or grass bracelet (Or.); ti_khu~, ti_nu~ sharp (G.); ti_khe~ steel (M.); tik sharp, fine (Si.); tiyun.u sharp, pricking (Si.); tikkha_lia sharpened (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5839). tigga sharp, pungent (Pkt.); timma_ heat (H.)(CDIAL 5808). To whet, sharpen: ti_t.t.u (ti_t.t.i-) to whet, sharpen, polish, rub, smear, anoint, smooth as the hair, inscribe, draw, belabour, thrash; n. whetting, cleansing, polishing, plastering, blow, stroke; ti_r-r-u (ti_r-r-i-) to smear, rub, polish (as plater), cover and fill up a hole or crevice with mortar or clay, put on an outer coat of mortar or clay, rub and smooth as the folds of a cloth, clean the teeth (Ta.); ti.t.- (ti.c-) to paint, rub on (liquid); ter.v- (ter.t-) to clean up by rubbing (excrement, vomit, pus)(Ko.); ti_d.u to press, squeeze, rub out as fire, rub with the finger as snuff etc., rub, clean, rub or smear on, whet, sharpen; si_n.t.i having wiped out (Ka.); ti.t.- (ti.t.i-) to rub on or off, stroke (Kod..); ti_d.uni to rub, press, irritate; ti_n.t.uni, ci_n.t.uni, si_n.t.uni to scrape, rub, wipe; si_n.t.u, si_n.t.elu scraping, wiping (Tu.); ci_n.t.u to scrape off (vessels)(Kor.); ti_d.u to sharpen, gnash teeth; di_t.u to set right, mend as hair with fingers; gnash teeth (Te.); da_sina di_t.- to rub teeth; nu_ne di_t.- to oil (Kol.); dhi_t.- to wipe (Nk.); t.i_nd.- (-t-) to sharpen (Pe.); ti_ti ki_ali id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3273). Image: spark: ti_n scorching, scorching heat; ti_ru_nk spark (Br.); ti_ fire (Ma.); to burn, scorch, singe, parch; n. fire (Ka.); si_ to be scorched, burnt, singed, parched; n. state of being scorched; si_ku that which is burnt, scorched (Ka.); ti_n.d.ra light, brightness, heat; ti_n.d.ramu heat, light, splendour; hot, bright, fierce; ti_n.d.rincu, ti~_d.irincu to shine; ti_pu severe pain (Te.); ti_ to be burnt, charred, blighted; n. fire, lamp, heat, anger; ti_ppu scorching, blackening by fire (Ta.); ci_cuni to be scorched, burnt; ci_ntuni to burn; tu_, su_ fire, fiery (Tu.); ti.y to be singed, roasted, (flame) burns low (Ko.); to be singed; to singe, roast (To.)(DEDR 3266). cf. -pu- : pu_ spark, as of fire (Ta.); pua embers (Kui); puva, pu_ya spark (Kuwi); puya_ burning coal (Kuwi)(DEDR 4347). Blaze: ziti spark (K.)(CDIAL 6366). di_na_ to be kindled, blaze (H.); di~_pvu~ to shine, be dazzled (G.); dipn.e~, dipa_vn.e~ to be dazzled (M.); di_pyate_ blazes (AV.); dippati shines (Pali); dippai, deppai, d.ippai (Pkt.); d.ipil to be dazzles (Kho.); d.ipeik to dazzle (Kho.); di_piba_ to radiate heat or light (Or.); dipai shines (OAw.); (CDIAL 6362). di_pra bright; fire (Skt.); di_pa brilliant (OMarw.)(CDIAL 6363). dhippai shines; dhippira shining (Pkt.); dhipdhip glimmering light (N.); dhipdhipa_unu to flicker (N.); dhipko gleam (N.); dhipdhipa_iba to palpitate (A.); dhi_pal warm (Mth.); dhipa_eb to set alight, to warm (Mth.); dhuppa faint gleam; dhupdhupa_n.o to glimmer, twinkle, flame (Ku.)(CDIAL 6811). di_pta burning (MBh.); ditta blazing (Pali.Pkt.); zeta ashes with fire still in them (K.)(CDIAL 6360). di_pti brightness, light (S'Br.); flash of an arrow (Mn.); ditti brilliance (Pkt.); zac ray of light (K.); d.iti making much use of the eyes, looking earnestly (S.)(CDIAL 6361). d.ippai melts, falls (Pkt.); d.i_n.a descended (Pkt.); dizoiki to fall (Sh.)(CDIAL 6366). {The clash of morphemes: di_pa small earthen lamp and ti_na_ large mariner's lamp may explain the -pp- inserts. digelu fireplace, hearth and ti~_ga wire are concordant, specific to the smelting operations, for drawing long metallic wires}. Fire: ti_ (-v-, -nt-), ti_y to be burnt, charred, blighted; n. fire, lamp, heat, anger (Ta.); ti_ppi fire (Ta.); ti_ to burn, scorch, singe, parch; n. fire (Ka.); fire (Ma.); ti.c- to singe (Ko.); ti.y- to be singed, roast (To.); si_ to be scorched, burnt, singed, parched; n. state of being scorched, burnt (Ka.); si_kari state of being scorched (Ka.); ci_ncuni to be scorched, burnt (Tu.); ci_ntuni to burn, roast as a fruit (Tu.); tu_, su_ fire; fiery (Tu.); ti_n.d.ra light, brightness, heat (Te.); ti_n.d.ramu heat, light, splendour; hot, bright, fierce (Te.); ti_n.d.rincu, ti~_d.irincu to shine (Te.); ti_pu severe pain (Te.); ti_n scorching, scorching heat (Br.); ti_ru_nk spark (Br.)(DEDR 3266). Image: sun's ray: tirup sun's ray (Nk.); ted to be fierce (of sun's heat)(Pa.); ter to be fierce (heat of the sun)(Go.); tar to be fierce (of sun)(Go.); tars, taris to heat (Go.); ter. to be fierce (heat of sun)(Kond.a); ter.vel sunshine (Kond.a); ter.veli sunshine (Kond.a); tiri_p gleam of sunshine, hot blaze (M.)(DEDR 3440). ti_ fire, heat (Ta.); fire (Ma.)(DEDR 3266). Images: torchbearer; lamp-stand: weaver: d.i_vat., d.i_vat.i_ candlestick, light-holder (L.); diut., d.i_vut. wick (L.); d.i_u~_t., di_ut., di_vat. lampstand (P.); di_u_t.a_ (WPah.); diut.i, deut. lamp, torch (B.); di_wat., di_yat. lamp-stand (B.); d.iyat.i (Bhoj.); d.iat.i (Aw.); di_wat., dewat. (H.); divet. wick (G.); divt.a_, divt.i_ torch made of oiled cloth round a stick (M.); diut.iya_ torch-bearer (B.); di_vat.i_u servant carrying a torch before a king (OG.); d.ia_t.i_ torch, kind of lamp (S.)(CDIAL 6354). diur.a_, diur.i torch, hand-lamp (Or.); divr.o lamp made of wheat-flour (G.)(CDIAL 6348). di_at.hi lampstand (Mth.)(CDIAL 6349). di_parukkha lampstand (Pali); dro_kha_, darokha_ (L.); diarakh, dekhar, diarkha_, de~khra_ wall-bracket for lamp (Bi.); deorkha_ (H.)(CDIAL 6353). di_va_kha_ lampstand (P.)(CDIAL 6355). ti_vat.t.i torch, flambeau: (irul.ar-u ti_vat.t.ika l.en.n.ila mun-cella : Pan.avi_tu. 76); divit.i (Te.); di_vat.i (Ka.Tu.); ti_pat.t.i (Ma.); ti_vaka-c-ca_nti an ancient festival celebrated to propitiate Indra at Ka_viri-p-pu_m-pat.t.in-m (Man.i.1,35); ti_vat.t.i-k-ka_ran- torch-bearer; ti_ve_l. (ti_ve_t.t.al) to perform Ve_dic sacrifice: (centi_ve_t.t.u...puricat.ai pularttuvo_n-e_ : Purana_.251); to marry: (pen.t.iruvai yulakar-iya-t- ti_ve_t.t.a_n- : Tiruva_caka. 12,13)(Ta.lex.) cf. vat.t.i basket made of palm stem fibre (Pur-ana_. 33); vat.t.il measure of capacity (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Il.ampu_.); clepsydra, a time-clock; bat.t.alu cup, plate (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vat.i filter (Ka.); to drip, trickle; filtration (Ta.)(DEDR 5221). cf. vat.i small cane or stick (Ta.)(DEDR 5224). vat.i-k-katir, vat.i-k-karuvi spindle, instrument for twisting threads; vat.i-tan:kam purified gold; vat.i-te_y to polish, as jewels; to burnish, as gold; vat.ivu that which is strained or filtered; vat.ivam form, shape, figure; lustre; complexion, colour (Ta.lex.) Lamp-saucer; torch; lamp; lamp-stand: di_wla_, di_wli_, dewla_, dewli_ small lamp, socket (H.)[whence, de_va_laya temple]; di_ya_ lamp-saucer (Bi.); lamp (H.); diuri_, diyari_, di_ri_ very small lamp-saucer (Bi.); diuli_ small lamp-saucer (Bi.); di_vi_ lamp-stand (G.); di_pa lamp (A's'vGr..Pali.); di_va, di_vaya, di_vi_, di_via_ (Pkt.); di_a (D..); diwa_ torch (of pine wood)(Ash.); de_w (Wg.); d-io lamp (S.); d.iva_ (L.); di_wa lamp (Kho.); d.eva_ (Sh.); di_va_ (P.); di_a_ (P.Mth.); diyo, dyu_ (Kho.); diyo (N.); diya_ (B.); d.ia_ (Or.); dia_ (Aw.); di_wa_ (H.); di_vo (G.)(CDIAL 6348). divai_ festival of lamps on the full-moon day of A's.a_d.ha (M.)(CDIAL 6350). di_pa_vali row of lamps, festival on the new moon of A's'vina (BhP.); di_va_li_, di_va_vali (Pkt.); zuwu_lu festal arrangement of lamps (K.); d.ia_r.i_ the festival (S.); diva_li_, dava_lli_, dua_li_ festival on the new moon of Ka_rtik celebrated by putting out rows of lamps (P.); diwa_li_ (Ku.H.); diwa_li (N.); dea_li (B.); dia_li_ (Or.); dia_ri_ (Bhoj.); dewa_ri_k id. (Aw.); diva_l.i_ (G.M.): deriv. the failure of a merchant being indicated by one or more lamps being attached to his house (G.M.); diwa_liya_ bankrupt (H.); deule pauper (P.); diwa_la_ bankruptcy (H.); dava_la_ id. (P.)(CDIAL 6358). divu_sava new moon of Ka_rtik (Pkt.); deusi festival beginning on the 5th day of Diwa_li (N.); di_po_tsava festival of lights (BhavP.)(CDIAL 6359). divel lamp-oil, castor-oil; divelo castor-oil plant; diveli_ its seed (G.)(CDIAL 6351). cf. di_r.a (pl.di_r.el) castor-oil plant (Pa.)(DEDR 3281). ti_vam lamp: (cempor- r-i_van:ka l.umalitara : Ko_yir-pu. Tiruvir..a_. 30) (Ta.lex.)

4380.Cricket: tid.d.a, tid.d.i_, ted.d.a a grain-eating insect, locust (Pkt.); tid.o cricket, cockroach (S.); tid.i~_ insects such as these (S.); trid.d.a_ an acrid insect; tid.d.a_ grasshopper (L.); locust (P.H.); t.id.d.a_ locust (P.); t.i_r.i_, t.irri_ (Bi.); tid.d.i_, t.id.d.i_, t.i_r.i_ (H.); ti_d., t.i_d. (G.); t.in.d.a_n.a_ firefly (L.); t.id.a_n.a_, t.ad.a_n.a_, tina_n.a_, tan.a_n.a_ firefly; t.in.d.an., t.in.d.a_n.i_ general name for beetles (P.)(CDIAL 6024). ci_t.u, cil.-vi_t.u, ci_vi_t.u cricket (Ma.); cil.-vi_t.u, cil.l.i_t.u, cil.-van.t.u cricket (Ta.)(DEDR 2588).

4381.Beetle: t.rin.d.in.u beetle; t.in.d.in.i_ a kind of small beetle (S.); t.in.d.an., t.in.d.an.i_ insects of the beetle tribe (L.); t.in.d.a_n.a_ firefly (L.); t.in.d.an. general name for beetles; tin.d.a_n.i_ a beetle which eats flowers and leaves of cucumbers and melons (P.)(CDIAL 5928).

4382.A round bale of cloth: di_d. a bale of cloth (M.); tin.t.u id. (Ma.); din.d.u id., a heap, roundish mass or piece, bundle of wood or grass (Ka.); pillow, cushion, bundle, bolster, cylinder (Te.); tin.t.u semicircular cushion, any small construction of brick built as support (Ta.)(DEDR 3224). d.hin.d.a_ anything round (WPah.); lump, handful (Or.); d.hino lump, ball, heap (Ku.); d.he~_n.da_ circular (WPah.); d.hi_r. heap (H.)(CDIAL 5598). [cf. tin.t.u stoutness, thickness (Ta.); din.d.u stoutness, strength, pride (Ka.)(DEDR 3222)].

4383.Partridge: ti_ta bird (Pa.); ti_te id. (Ga.)(DEDR 3275). tittira partridge (MaitrS.); tittiri (VS.TS.); tittirika (MBh.); titiri (Skt.); tittira (Pali.Pkt.); tittiri (Pkt.); ti~_tar (K.); titiru (S.); tittar, tittur, tittir, tittri_, t.it.t.ir (L.); tittar (P.); tittir, tittar (WPah.); titiro, titur (Ku.); titro (N.); titir (B.); titira, titiri, t.it.ira, titer francoline partridge, sandpiper (Or.); ti_tir partridge (Bi.); ti_tar, ti_tari, ti_tri_ (H.); ti_tar (Marw.G.); titar (M.); tala-kiritta_ francoline partridge (Si.)(CDIAL 5809). taittira coming from a partridge (A_s'vGr..); partridge; covey of partridges (Skt.); tettira partridge (Pkt.); tetar (G.)(CDIAL 5953).

4384.Image: span: dis.t.i a measure of length (Kaus'.); dis'ti id. (Av.); dit.hi measure of length (NiDoc.); dis.t. span (Dm.); jis.t. span from thumb to little finger (Kal.); dis.t. (Kho.); span (Phal.); dit., di_s. (Sh.); tes'tik (Werch.); tis.c.i (Bur.); tis.c.i (D..); derist, dris span from thumb to little finger (Ash.); dris.t. (Kt.); dres.t. (Wg.); lic. (Bshk.); dre_s.t., le_s.t. (Pas'.); lis.t. (Gaw.Shum.); les.t. (Sv.); drisht (Bashg.); dus (Pr.); d.hl.it.t.h (WPah.); grit.t., ghrit.t. (WPah.)(CDIAL 6343). kudis.t.i a partic. measure of length (longer than dis.t.i- !)(Kaus'.); kulic. span (from thumb to forefinger, i.e. smaller than lic)(Bshk.); godris.t. (Gaw.)(CDIAL 3285).

4385.Image: to flee: d.ay-, d.aiya_na_ to flee; caus. d.ayh- (Go.); d.eh- (-it-) to flee (Kuwi)(DEDR 2950). Fly: d.i_ fly (Skt.)(CDIAL 5554). [Replacement of di_ fly; di_yati flies (RV.)(CDIAL 6364)? Contamination with dru-, dra_- run; uddra_va going upwards (Pa_n..); vudra to fly (Kt.)(CDIAL 5554)]. cf. ti_ta bird (Pa.)(DEDR 3275). ud.d.ayana flying up (Skt.); ud.d.i_yana (MBh.); ud.d.a_n.a (Pkt.); ur.an flight (B.); ur.a_n.a (Or.); ur.a_n.a jump (OMarw.)(CDIAL 1696). ud.d.i_yate_ flies up (MBh.); ud.d.ayati (MBh.); caus. ud.d.a_payati (Skt.); ury, ori_, ur.i to fly (Gypsy); ud.d.e_ti flies up (Pali); ud.d.e_i flies (Pkt.); wud.un (K.); ud.d.an., ud.an. (L.); ud.d.n.a_ (P.); ur.na_ (EP.); ur.n.o (Ku.); ur.nu (N.); uriba (A.); ur.a_, or.a_ (B.); uriba_ (Or.); u_r.ab (Bi.); u_d.ai (OMth.); ur.al (Bhoj.); ur.ab (Aw.); ur.na_ (H.) u_d.ai (OMarw.); ud.vu~ (G.); ud.n.e~ (M.); ud.ta_ (Konkan.i); ud.iran.u to fly (S.); ud.ran. (L.); caus. ud.a_ran. (L.); ud.d.a_rna_ (P.); ud.arn.u, ud.irn.u (WPah.); ud.aman.u (S.); ud.d.avai causes to fly up (Pkt.); wuda_wun, ud.a_unu (K.); ud.a_in.u to cause to fly, to squander (K.); ud.a_van. (L.); ud.a_un.a_ (P.); ud.a_n.u_ (WPah.); ur.u_n.o (Ku.); ur.a_unu (N.); ur.a_na, or.a_na (B.); ur.a_iba_ (Or.); ur.a_na_ (H.); ud.a_vvu~, ud.a_r.vu~, ura_d.vu~ (G.); ud.avin.e~ (M.); ur.u_m I leave, let loose; wi_ ur.u_m I irrigate (Phal.)(CDIAL 1697). d.ayana bird's flight (Skt.); d.i_na (MBh.); d.ena_, d.a_na_ bird's wing, fish's fin (B.); d.en.a_ wind, fin, arm (Or.); d.en wing, arm (Mth.); d.ain wing; d.aina_ wing, branch (H.)(CDIAL 5535). di_yati flies (RV.); intens. inf. de_di_yitavai to hasten away (S'Br.); dayati flies (Pali); dizoiki to fall (Sh.); di to go (Ash.Wg.Shum.Gaw.); di_ (Kt.)(CDIAL 6364). atye_ti comes upon, goes by (RV.); enters (MBh.); acce_ti goes by, overcomes (Pali); acce_i surpasses (Pkt.)(CDIAL 227). o_di to ascend (Ash.)(CDIAL 1995). cf. o_r.a_ bird (in general)(Kur.)(DEDR 1040). d.ayate_ flies (Pa_n..); d.e_ti (Pali); d.eiba to step over (A.); d.ei~ba_ to jump (Or.); d.ia~_iba_ to toss up (Or.); d.eo jump (A.); d.ia_ jump, throbbing (Or.); d.euka_ a bird's wing (A.)(CDIAL 5534).

4386.Gruel: tel.i gruel, rice-water (Tu.); til.i distilled, transparent (Tu.); tel.l.u refined (as language), to be clear, lucid (Ta.); tel.ippu clearing, refinement, purification, straining off (Ta.); til.i, tal.i to become clear, pellucid, pure; n. clearness, serum-like substance (Ka.); teli white, pure (Te.)(DEDR 3433). te_rgad.e settlement, conclusion (Kod..); te_r-r-am certainty, assurance, luxuriant growth (Ta.); firmness, faith, trust (Ma.); te_r-al clarified toddy, clarified juice (Ta.); [te_kkat. t.e_r-al (Pur-ana_.115) pure, clarified toddy (Ta.lex.)]; te_r-u to be clarified, prove, result, amount to (as profit), trust, confide, decide; n. clearness, certainty (Ta.); te_r-ucu to clarify, settle (Te.); te_lu to be settled or decided, terminate (Te.); te_rsap to clear (as a liquid)(Ga.); te_rs to filter (Go.); te_t.a clearness, purity (as that of water, etc.)(Ka.Te.)(DEDR 3471). thir, thira cold rice gruel (Or.)(CDIAL 13771). Settlement: te_r-u-kat.ai settlement, decision (Ta.); te_rugad.a (Te.); te_rugad.e (Ka.); te_r-u to decide (Kampara_. Ma_ya_ci_tai. 89); to unite with, arrive at (Kur-al., 876); te_r-u-mukam support, comfort (Kantapu. Te_varkal.po_r-. 4)(Ta.lex.) t.harn.e~ to be settled (M.); t.harvu~ to become fixed, be settled (M.); tharia upright (Pkt.); tharai stops, stays (OMarw.); t.ha_rn.o to determine (Ku.)(CDIAL 13742). tari (-pp-, -tt-) to stop, stand still, rest, abide, stand firm, be firm, bear patiently, endure; n. abiding, tarrying, rest; tarippu staying, abiding, remaining, enduring, tolerating, etc. (Ta.); tarahara staying, exercise of patience, forbearance; taraharisu to be or become quiet or patient, be able to endure with patience, bear patiently, hold out patiently (Ka.); tariyuni to stay, stop, tarry, delay (Tu.)(DEDR 3094). stabhi rigidity (Skt.); t.haharun to become fixed, stay (K.); thairn.o to wait (Ku.); t.haharnu to stand firm, stop (N.); t.hahara settled (Or.); t.hervu~ to be settled, stay (G.); t.hahariba_ settled (Or.); t.haharna_ to stop, decide (H.); t.harn.e~ to be settled (G.)(CDIAL 13680). Frost; firm; to be decided: thar rendered stiff by want of motion (A.); t.har frost (P.); tharro firm (NB.); thar steadiness, patience (A.)(CDIAL 13741). thirna_ to freeze (H.); t.hihiro very cold (N.); t.hit.hirna_ to freeze (H.); t.hir extreme cold, frost (H.); t.hirna_ to freeze (H.); t.harvu~ to congeal, freeze, be cold, be firm, be decided (G.); t.hervu~ to decide (G.)(CDIAL 13771). thi_jvu~ to thicken from cold, congeal (G.); thijn.e~ to coagulate (M.)(CDIAL 13772).

4387.Image: throwing off: tir-i throwing off a thing by quick motion, tossing (Ka.); tet-- (tet-y-) (cattle) stray from a herd (Ko.); ter-r-ikka to shoot or throw with a bow; ter-r-uka to shoot with a crossbow; ter-r-u throwing stones, flipping marbles (Ma.); ter-i (-pp-, -tt-) to strike and fly off, start as the eyes, splash as water, fly off as sparks, be scattered as an army, spring, leap, bound, give throbbing pain, twang as bowstring with finger and thumb, thrum as the strings of a lute; n. spattering, splashing; ten-r-u (ten-r-i-) to be scatterd, split to pieces, stray away as from a group (Ta.); ter-i snappish, dashing, clashing; ter-ikka to rebound, recoil, fly in pieces, make to fly off, splash, sputter; ter-ippikka to make to bounce or splash (Ma.)(DEDR 3438). cf. te_ruka to attack, pursue (Ma.); do.t- (do.ti-), de.t- (de.ti-) to drive away (cattle, persons)(Kod..); de_runi to drive, drive away (Tu.)(DEDR 3472).

4388.Image: filter: te_r-r-u to refine; te_r-r-u making clear; becoming clear (Civap. Pirapan. Na_lvar. 28); te_r-al clearness; pure, clarified toddy (Pur-ana_. 115); clarified juice (Tiruva_ca. 5,38); te_r-al clearness (Ma.); te_ra id. (Te.); te_r-utal to be clarified, made clear, as water (Ta.lex.) te_rs- to filter (Ga.); te_rsap- to clear (as a liquid) (Ga.); te_r-u (te_r-i-) to be clarified, made clear a water; te_r-al clearness, pure, clarified toddy, honey, clarified juice; te_t.t.ai clearness, transparency, clear water (Ta.); te_r-al clearness, nectar (Ma.); te_t.a, te_t.e clearness, purity (as that of water etc.)(Ka.); te_t.u pure, clear; te_rgad. settlement, conclusion (Tu.); te_r-u, te_ru to become clear or free from suspended matter, clarify, settle; te_r-ugad.a settlement, conclusion (Te.)(DEDR 3471). Pure, real: sthe_s.t.a most fixed, durable (Pa_n..); the_ta firm (Pali); t.het.h real, genuine (P.Ku.N.); adv. quiet (N.); entirely (Aw.); real (H.); direct, straight (G.); adv. precisely (G.); genuine, pure (Mth.); t.het.ha_ id. (Mth.); then.t.a complete, pure (Or.); adv. wholly (Or.); t.het., thet. genuine (CDIAL 13778).

4389.To entwine; tie a knot: tettu to become intertwined; braid, plait, entwine, weave (Ta.); tettu to intertwine, interweave, twist, be twisted (Ka.); tessna_ (tissyas) to plait, intertwine so as to form a long narrow strip, tie a knot (Kur.)(DEDR 3446). Image: to braid, plait: ter-r-utal to braid, plait, entwine, weave (Kalla_. Kan.apatituti.); tettu id. (Ka.); ter-r-utal to string up, tie together (Perun.. Vattava. 7,26); ter-r-u entwining; ter-r-utal to become intertwined (Te_va_. 622,6) (Ta.lex.) Braid: tiri braid of hair (Te.); tiruku braid as hair (Ta.); tirukkal plaiting the hair (Ma.)(DEDR 3246). To weave; curtain: te.t. (te.t.y) to fold (leaf for drinking-cup)(To.)(DEDR 3446). tirai plait the ends of a cloth as in dressing; curtain as rolled up; ripple (Ta.); tiraippu place screened by a curtain (Ta.); tira curtain (Ma.); tere a wave, curtain (Ka.)(DEDR 3244).

4390.Whetting: ti_t.t.u to whet as a weapon to sharpen or rub knives on a board (Ven:kaikko_. 232)(Ta.); ti_d.u (Te.Ka.); ti_t.t.u to purify, polish (Pin..); cleaning, polishing (Ta.); ti_t.t.u whetting (Perun.. Ucaik. 42,22)(Ta.lex.)

4391.To inscribe: ti_t.t.u to write, inscribe (Tirukko_. 79); to paint, draw pictures (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,112); to express (Kampara_. Nakarni_n:ku. 167); ti_t.t.u ola note, slip (Maturaip. Patir-. 67); ti_t.t.u-k-ko_l brush used in painting (Ta.lex.)

4392.Image: menses: ti_t.t.u woman's monthly course; defilement, pollution, as from catamena, child-birth, death of a relation (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 113)(Ta.lex.)

4393.Acquiring; image: to seek: te_t.u (te_t.i-), te_n.t.u (te_n.t.i-) to seek,. search for, inquire after, acquire, earn, procure, take care of, cherish, provide for, seek, try (as to do a thing); te_t.t.am, te_t.t.u acquiring, earning, accumulation, seeking, search, pursuit, acquisition, that which is earned or hoarded, anxiety, solicitude, earnest desire, appetite, longing (Ta.); te_t.uka to seek, pray, acquire; te_t.ikka to cause to search or hunt; te_t.t.am pursing of game, importunity, coveting (Ma.); tor.k- (tor.ky-) to search for (To.); te_.d.- (te_.d.i-) id. (Kod..)(DEDR 3456).

4394.Image: chaplet of flowers: ton.d.al, ton.d.il a chaplet of pearls worn on the forehead (Ka.lex.) tot.alai garland (Kur-al., 1135); jewelled girdle (Pur-ana_. 339); tot.aval garland (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) tot.ai fastening, tying; tot.aiyal fastening, tying, garland; tot.al, tut.ar chain (Ta.); tut.aruka to be linked; tut.ar, tut.al chain, string (Ma.); t.od.u rope (Pa.); toru, torru rope, string (Ga.); tod.ara a kind of garland (Pkt.)(DEDR 3480).

4395.Image: a pair: tontam < dvandva pair, couple (Ta.lex.) to_d.u a pair; an equal; equality, resemblance (Ka.); dore, ton.i id. (Ka.); jo_d.u, jo_l.i, javal.i (Ka.); to_d.i, to_d.e joint, fellow; with, together; to_ya company; do_yi couple, pair (Te.); to_t.u a crowd; to_r..i a companion; to_y, tuvai to unite (Ta.); to_yu to unite (Ma.); to_d.uvoylu a double blow (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. to_t.t.imai symmetry, harmony (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) tot.t.imai uniformity, union (Ci_vaka. 2047); beauty (Perun.. Ucaik. 50,8)(Ta.lex.) dvitiye (Tadbhava of dviti_ye, dvitaya) a pair, two (Ka.); dviti_ye second; the second; dvitaya twofold, double (Ka.); a pair, two (Ka.Skt.); dvandva a pair, a couple (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

4396.Half: cf. tan:ka_n- slang for half (Tan-ippa_. i,87,171); cost price (Ta.lex.) Image: pair, two: dod.o double (Kon.lex.) dondu a couple, a pair (Tu.lex.) dvam.dva pair (TS.); dam.da pair (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6649). dvam.dvin forming a pair (S'Br.); dvaya double (RV.); pair (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 6650). dva two; dvau (duvau), dva_ (duva_), dve_ (duve_) (RV.); dve_, duve_ (Pali); duvi, duve, dvo, dve (As'.); due, duvi, dui, du, dvi (NiDoc.); do_, be_, duve_ (Pkt.); du_, do_ (Ash.); d.u~_, ba, do, dui, do_ (L.)(CDIAL 6648). cf. ren.t.u, iran.t.u two (Ta.); ran.d.u, ren.d.u two (Ir.); dan.d.i two things; dan.d.ane second (Kod..); rad.d.u two things; rad.d.an second; middling (Tu.); ren.d.u two things; ren.d.ava second, another; ret.t.i twice as much; ret.t.incu to double; ret.t.impu doubling; double; ind.i two things (Ga.); inding two things (Nk.); indin two things; iddar two men (Kol.); eyd.i two (Kor.); erad.u, erd.u, erar.. two (Ka.); eyd- two (Ko.); ran.t.u two (Ma.); id.d.ig two (Ga.); rend. two (Go.); rant.e both, pair (Go.); rund.i two (Kond.a); ri two (Mand..); rind.i two (Kui); e~_r., e_n.d. two things (Kur.); irat. two (entities)(Br.)(DEDR 474). -du two (in cmpds.); dutiya second (Pali)(CDIAL 6402). dujhin. having a second calf; dhu_in, dhu_jin (L.)(CDIAL 6403). d.o~r., d.o~r.i_ fishing net attached to two poles (Bi.); dvidandin (Skt.)(CDIAL 6404). dunda_, d.unda_, d.u_da_ having two teeth (of cattle)(L.); do_dda_ (P.)(CDIAL 6405). duboru having two doors (K.)(CDIAL 6406). duhuro double (S.); dohar doubled cloth (L.); dohar doubling (P.); doha_ro, duharo double, second, other, stranger (Ku.); doharo, dohoro double (N.); dohora_ (A.); doha_ra_ (B.); dohara_ double; duhura_ second time; dua_ra two-pronged weapon (Or.); dohari double sheet (Mth.); doharaun doubling (Mth.); dohar cloth of two folds (H.); dohra_ double (H.); dohro couplet (G.); dohra_ (M.)(CDIAL 6407). dunaya_ junction of two rivers (H.)(CDIAL 6408). dunovu having two names, having an alias (K.); dvina_man (Skt.)(CDIAL 6409). dvibha_rya having two wives (Ka_ty.); duha_jju, duhajan. twice-married; duha_ju_, duha_jar. second husband or wife (P.); duha_ju~ taking a second wife after death of the first (H.)(CDIAL 6416). dumsu two months old (K.); duma_sika (Pali); duma_siya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6417). duit ploughbeam and whole plough (Wot..)(CDIAL 6422). doran:ga, doran:ga_ piebald (Or.); doran:ga_ two-coloured (B.); dura~ga_ of two colours, of two kinds (H.)(CDIAL 6424). dura~dha_ having holes on both sides (H.)(CDIAL 6425). cf. du_a_ the figure 2 (P.); du_o (S.); duwo two (in counting in a game)(N.)(CDIAL 6455). duchiri two year old male castrated goat (Sh.)(CDIAL 6456). d.o_t.a_ double (L.)(CDIAL 6457). dwain.o having borne two calves (Ku.)(CDIAL 6462). doa_h widower married for second time (Bi.)(CDIAL 6463). duhanthi_ smith's bellows worked with both hands (Bi.)(CDIAL 6477). doha_n two year old bullock (H.)(CDIAL 6478). du_be name of a class of brahmans familiar with two vedas (H.); dave (G.); dvive_da (Pa_n.. com.)(CDIAL 6465). Image: double: duna_ double (A.); duun.a double (Pkt.); du_n.a (Skt.); d.u_n.o (S.); d.u_n.a_ (L.); du_n.a_ (P.); du_n.o double (Ku.); du~r.~ twice (Ku.); dunot. multiplication table; duninu to be bent (N.); duna~_ double (B.); dunna_, dun (H.); du_n state of being doubled (H.); du_n.u double (G.); dun.a_ double (M.); du_n. fold in cloth (M.); dun.o double (Konkan.i); du_gu_n.u (Sh.); duun.ia doubled (Pkt.); duni double (Or.)(CDIAL 6390). dvigun.a double (S'Br.); digun.a double (Pali); diguna (NiDoc.); diun.a (Pkt.); biun.a (Pkt.); bi_n.o (S.); diyun.u (Si.)(CDIAL 6677). dzun-za_le heifer in its third year (Wg.)(CDIAL 6484).

4397.Excess of price: tut.t.i dearness, excess of price; dear; dearly, at a high rate (Ka.); tut.t.u loss, failure in mercantile profits (Te.)(Ka.lex.) tun.t.u loss as in trade; balance (remaining, pa_kki)(Ta.lex.)

4398.Image: narrow passage: ton.t.u gap, narrow passage (Ta.); passage between two mud-walls (Ma.)(DEDR 3497). d.on:ka footpath (Te.); d.ong way, road (Nk.); it.an:kar narrow path (Ta.)(DEDR 2981). t.un.t.i to spurt, to issue with force through a small opening; t.uni, t.una small, very small; t.uni t.uni id. (Santali.lex.)

4399.Image: old woman: ton.d.i an old woman; ton.d.e an old man (Tu.lex.)

4400.Image: drum: dad.d.asa the drum of a do_mba (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ton.t.akam a small drum used in kur-ici tracts (Nar-. 104); drum beaten while capturing the enemy's cows (Ci_vaka. 418); tut.umai a kind of drum (Cilap. 3,27, Urai. Pak. 104); tud.umu (Te.); tud.ubu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: drummer: tut.i drummer (Pu. Ve. 1,19, Kol.u)(Ta.lex.) Image: hour-glass drum: tut.i a small drum shaped like an hour-glass (Pur-ana_. 170,6)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ton.t.akam a small drum used in kur-ici tracts (Nar-. 104)(Ta.lex.) Image: a drum: tut.umai a kind of drum (Cilap. 3,27, Urai. Pak. 104); tud.ubu id. (Ka.); tut.i a small drum shaped like an hour-glass, ut.ukkai (Pur-ana_. 170,6); id. (Ma.); drummer (Pu. Ve. 1,19, Kol.u.); a dance of victory performed to the accompaniment of drum-beat by Skanda and the catta-ma_tar, one of 11 ku_ttu (Cilap. 6,51); tut.iya_t.al id. (Cilap. 6,51, Urai.); tut.i-k-ku_ttu id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Dancing girl: ton.t.i dancing girl (Ta_yu. Enna_t.. Ma_taraip. 14)(Ta.lex.) tut.i-nilai theme of arousing the courage of warriors by beating the tut.i drum (Tol. Po. 59); theme of praising the faithful services of a hereditary drummer (Pu. Ve. 1,19); tut.iyan- drummer who beats the tut.i drum (Pur-ana_. 233,7)(Ta.lex.) Image: long drum of A'di Dra_vid.a; hour-glass-shaped drum: dud.i a drum (Ka.Kod..); A'di Dra_vid.as' long drum (Tu.); did.umbu a big drum (Tu.); tud.umu a kind of drum, tomtom (Te.); tud.um a drum (Go.); turam kettle drum (Go.); t.ir.mi a small drum (Kond.a); t.ud.umi a kind of drum (Kui); tud.u_m, tud.u~b a sort of kettle-drum (M.)(DEDR 3297). cf. ut.ukkai small drum tepering in the middle (Ta.); ut.ukka a tabor resembling an hour-glass (Ma.); ud.uka small drum of the shape of an hour-glass (Te.); hud.ukka a kind of rattle or small drum; hud.ukka_ a kind of drum (Skt.)(DEDR 589). Image: proclamation: d.i_n.d.ima a kind of drum (R.); d.i_n.d.ima_ (Skt.); dindima, den.d.ima small drum (Pali); d.im.d.ima (Pkt.) d.e~r.i proclamation by beat of drum (B.); d.au~d.i_ kind of tambourine, proclamation by beat of drum (P.); d.o~r.i_ such proclamation (H.); dava~d.i_ drum beaten by public crier (M.); dal.a_mu~, dala_mu~, dada_mu~ war-drum (G.)(CDIAL 5548). d.an.d.an. sound of the drum called d.avan.e (Ka.); d.an.d.an.u sound of a large drum (Tu.); tan.n.umai a kind of drum (Ta.)(DEDR 2945). Image: hour-glass-shaped drum: tat.a_ri drum shaped like an hour-glass (Poruna. 70); a drum or tabor of the agricultural tract (Pu. Ve. 9,30); a kind of drum (Pin..); tat.t.ar..i a kind of drum (S.I.I. ii,527)(Ta.lex.) cf. tad.it stroke (Skt.); tar.i stroke, beating (Or.); tar.i_ beating (G.H.)(CDIAL 5636). tat.avai time, turn (Ta.); tat. time, turn (To.); tad.ave id. (Ka.); tad.ava a time or repetition (Te.); tad.avu time, period (Te.)(DEDR 3026). Image: time, turn; instalment: tad.aval time, turn (tarumaputtiran- orutat.aval poycolli : I_t.u., 5,5,7); tat.avai id.; instalment (J.)(Ta.lex.) Image: tapping: ta_t.i tapping, patting (Tiruppu. 363); to beat; to beat a drum (Tiruman. 2317); ta_t.an-am < ta_d.ana patting, tapping (Kokko_.); ta_t.am < ta_d.a beating (Te_va_. 699,10)(Ta.lex.) cf. tad.it stroke (Skt.); tar.i stroke, beating (Or.); tar.i_ beating (G.H.)(CDIAL 5636). d.aur, d.avra_ hour-glass tabor (M.); d.amarua drum (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5531).

4401.Image: round vessel: d.ud.umd.hukak, d.umd.hukak an earthenware vessel which before the introduction of glass bottle was employed to hold or carry liquor; round, globular; d.umka round, globular; d.umkuc d.umkuc small (Santali.lex.) d.unt.i a bag-shaped basket for holding fish caught in fishing; d.t.i (Sadani) (Mu.) (Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1267). tudu-den, todo-den, todo.r-en a basket which holds 8 measures (Sora.lex.) Image: handle of a vessel: d.od.oma handle of a vessel (Pa.)(DEDR 3487). twit. handle (made of loop of cane) of bamboo milking-vessel, loops of cane that tie thatch (To.); tot.uka handle (Ma.); tot. handle (of pot or basket)(Ko.); tor.v- (tor.d-) to put arms around (Ko.); tud.uku, tud.iku, tud.un:ku to touch, snatch; tud.uku grasping quickly; tud.ukisu to cause to seize etc. (Ka.); tod.- (tod.uv-, tot.t.-) to touch (Kod..); tot.t.uni, tot.t.on.uni to hold fast (Tu.); tot.t.u to touch, be joined, come in contact with; tod.uku to hold, grasp; tod.ikilu to seize, hold tightly, snatch (Te.); t.od.- (t.ot.t.-) to touch (Pa.)(DEDR 3480). Image: joining: to_d.u joining: putting (an arrow) to (the bow)(Ka.lex.) tot.uvai boat attached to a dhoney (W.)(Ta.lex.) Image: thick-brimmed pot: con.t.u thick brim of a pot or vessel (Ta.); con.t.u-p-pa_n-ai thick-brimmed pot (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. tut.avu, tut.am a liquid measure (Ta.)(DEDR 3292). cf. dutta small earthen pot (Te.)(DEDR 3385). cf. tun.d.a, tun.d.aka mouth (Pali); tum.d.a mouth (Pkt.); tun.d.a mouth (Or.); tud.a mouth (Si.); tom.d.a mouth (Pkt.Konkan.i); to~d. mouth (M.); t.un.d.a mouth (Or.); t.o~t.i_ snout of drinking vessel (Bi.); thothi_ mouth (Mth.); dut mouth (Wg.Wot..Phal.)(CDIAL 5853). Image: spatula, float: tut.uppu spatula, ladle, oar (Ta.); stirrer, spatula, paddle (Ma.); tut.uvai wooden ladle for taking ghee (Tiruvil.ai. Tiruman.ap. 184)(Ta.lex.); tut.ippu boating stick (Ta.); tud.upu oar, flat wooden spoon (Ka.)(DEDR 3299). tur..a to stir as with a ladle (Ta.); tur..avu, tur..a_ to stir with the hand, stir with a ladle, paddle or row a boat (Ta.); tur..ai to propel by oars (Ta.); tur..a paddle, rudder (Ma.); tor..asu to turn round as with a ladle, row (Ka.); sulayi rudder (Tu.); sula_vuni to row a boat (Tu.); tul.apuni, tul.a_vuni to row, paddle, steer (Tu.)(DEDR 3356). su_ri ladle-like spoon (Gu.); sukkur, sukkur., sukur, hukkur, hukur., ukkur.i ladle, spoon (?Go.)(DEDR 2728). ul.unka a ladle, a spoon (Pali.lex.) d.u_n.o small earthen vessel (Sh.)(CDIAL 5568). Milkpot: tu_tai small vessel made of earth, etc. (Tiv. Na_yc. 2,8); toy utensils of wood (Kalit. 59); a small measure of capacity (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Urai.)(Ta.); tu_ta milkpot, cup (Ma.); dutta small earthen pot (Te.); dutta_ earthen pot (Kol.)(DEDR 3385). tut.avu a liquid measure (T.A.S. ii,86); cf. sruva (Ta.lex.) tut.am a liquid measure (Ta.); id., 1/16 of an id.angar..i (Ma.); tut.avu a liquid measure (Ta.); tut.aku a small earthen vessel holding two nar..i, chiefly for toddy (Ma.)(DEDR 3292). cf. d.o_va-, d.o_a wooden spoon or vessel or handle (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5573). tot.u-ttal to seize by surrounding (Pur-ana_. 135)(Ta.lex.) To touch: t.ohn.a_, t.uhun.a_ to feel about, seek out (P.); t.on.u to seek by touch (WPah.); t.ohna_ to feel for (H.); t.oh touch, search; t.oa_ groping (H.)(CDIAL 5486). Milkpail: do_hana milking (RV.); milkpail (MBh.); do_hani_ milkpail (Kaus'.); do_hanika_ (Skt.); do_han.a milking (Pkt.); donik milking vessel (Kho.); dohna_ milkpail (P.); dohni_ small milkpail (P.); dohan act of milking (A.); dohan, dohni milkpail (B.); dohan.i_, dohun.i_ cord tied to leg of vicious cow while being milked (Or.); dohan, dohna_, dohni_ milkpail (H.); dohn.u~ pot for coagulating milk; dohn.i_ milk-trough (G.); dohon.a milkpail (Si.); duhn.a_, duhn.i_ milkpail (P.); duhan.i_, duhun.i_ (Or.); duhni_ (Mth.); du_hni_ (H.)(CDIAL 6593). dunhya_ro, dunero milkpail (N.)(CDIAL 6595). cf. ton-n-ai a cup made of plantain or other leaf pinned up at the forners (Ta.); donne id. (Ka.Te.); ton-n-ai-k-ka_tu prominent ears slightly bent as cup-shaped (Ta.lex.) cf. t.and.i small pot, cup (Pa.)(DEDR 2946). Image: earthen pot: cf. dro_n.i an oval vessel of wood used for holding or pouring out water, a bucket, a basin, baling-vessel; a water-reservoir; a measure of capacity equal to two su_rpas or 128 shers; dro_n.ika sown with a dro_n.a of grain (as a field); dro_n.iki_ a vessel holding the measure dro_n.a (Skt.lex.) cuntu water (Ci_vaka. 2774)(Ta.lex.) cf. sunda, sundi a very small earthenware pot (Kui); sonde earthen pot (Kol.)(DEDR 2844). cf. cut.u-man. earthen vessel (Cilap. 14,146, Arum.)(Ta.lex.) cf. s'un.d.a_ spirituous liquid (Skt.)(CDIAL 12517). cun.t.ai reservoir, tank (Ta.lex.) ton.t.i, ton.t.i-k-kal. toddy made from paddy (Ci_vaka. 1233)(Ta.lex.) kut.a, kut.am a water-pot, a jar, pitcher; name of Agastya; kut.apa a measure of grain (= kud.ava); kut.i_ a vessel with openings used for fumigation; spirituous liquor; kud.ika_ an earthen or wooden water-pot (Skt.lex.) cf. kun.d.a bowl, waterpot (Ka_tyS'r.); go~r.a_ reservoir used in irrigation (H.)(CDIAL 3264). cf. dro_n.i (Skt.) tut.avu a liquid measure (Ta.lex.) Image: pot; to ladle out: to_n.t.i pot of earth or metal used for drawing water (Ta.); small earthen vessel for drawing water (Ma.); to_d.u to take water out of large vessel with a small one, bail out water (Ka.); to.d.- (to.d.i-) to dig (a well)(Kod..); to_d.uni to dig, burrow, mine; to~_d.u to ladle out, dip out, draw up, scoop or scoop out (Te.); t.o~_d.- to draw water from well (Pa.); to_nd.- to bale out (water)(Ga.); to_nd.p to draw water (Ga.); to_r- to draw water from a well (Go.); to_n.t.u (to_n.t.i-) to scoop out, bore, dig, hollow, excavate; tot.u (tot.uv-, tot.t.-) to dig, scoop out, excavate, pierce through (Ta.); to.d.- (to.j-) to dig a deep hole (Ko.); twi.r.- (twi.r.y-) to dig with fingers (To.)(DEDR 3549). Vessel to hold liquid: d.ot.ho hollow trunk, box (Ku.); vessel to hold liquid (N.)(CDIAL 5569). t.or.ko big hole in a tree (N.); t.ot.a_ hollow bamboo tube, cartridge (H.)(CDIAL 5479). Image: small mouth of a vessel: ot.ukku-va_y small mouth as of a vessel; ot.ukku contraction, compression; corner, narrow strip of space; that which is narrow, of little breadth (Ta.lex.)

4402.Sound of plunging into water: tut.um-en-al onom. expr. signifying jumping sound as into water (Ain:kur-u. 61)(Ta.); dud.um, dud.hum imitation of the sound of a body suddenly falling or plunging into water; dud.hum ir..i to plunge (Ka.); dud.m- (dud.umt-) to swim (Kol.)(DEDR 3300). Ladle; oar, paddle: tut.uppu oar; spatula, ladle (Ta.); tut.ippu boating stick (Ta.); tut.uppu stirrer, spatula, paddle (Ma.); tud.upu oar, flat wooden spoon (Ka.)(DEDR 3299). tut.t.u-kkat.t.ai, tut.t.u-ttat.i short club (Ta.); dod.d.e the bat used at tipcat (Ka.); dud.d.u a stout stick, club, cudgel; dud.d.u~-gar-r-a a stout stick or staff (Te.); d.ud.u stick; d.u_d.i id., cane (Go.); d.ud.u stout stick (Kond.a); d.u_r.a stick, staff, rod (Kond.a); d.ud.u carrying-stick (Kuwi)(DEDR 3304). Ladle: tavvi ladle (Ta.Ma.); darvi_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) d.o_va-, d.o_a wooden spoon or vessel or handle (Pkt.); roi, r.oy spoon; do_wi large wooden spoon (Gypsy); d.oi_ spoon (S.); doi_ small wooden spoon (L.); d.oi_ id. (L.); spoon (P.Bi.H.G.); d.ua_ spoon for stirring boiling rice (Or.); d.oi spoon (Mth. used by Muslims ~~ da_bi < darvi- used by Hindus); d.owa_ large ladle (H.); d.oiyo coconut shell used as bowl (G.); d.o_ri big wooden ladle (Sh.); d.ora_ large ladle (H.); d.oilo spoon (S.); d.ori_ ladle (H.); d.oyli_ oil-dipper (made of coconut shell, mango stone or wood)(M.)(CDIAL 5573). darvi ladle (RV.VS.); darvika_ (Skt.); dabbi_ ladle (Pali); davvi_ (Pkt.); d.a_bbi_ wooden ladle used in cooking (P.); da_bi_ ladle (Bi.); da_b, dabiya_ grain-parcher's flat wooden stirrer (Mth.); da_bi spoon for stirring pottage [(used by Hindus) ~~ d.oi (used by Moslems)](Mth.); dabiya_ measure of ten handfuls of corn (H.); d.abbu_, d.abua_ (H.); da_viya spoon (Si.); da_blo piece of bamboo or wood used as a spoon (N.); dabila_ [(Bi. = da_b (Mth.)]; dabi_la_ paddle (H.); dur ladle (Kt.Wg.Pr.); dori (Kho.); da_ba_ ladle for stirring hot syrup in the cooling pan (Bi.); dabba_ ladle (H.); d.abbu big deep cup (N.); d.abbu_ = da_ba_ (Bi.); d.abbu_, d.abua_ large spoon (H.); d.abako large bowl (N.)(CDIAL 6206).

4403.Image: spatula, float: tut.uppu spatula, ladle, oar (Ta.); stirrer, spatula, paddle (Ma.); tut.uvai wooden ladle for taking ghee (Ta.); tut.ippu boating stick (Ta.); tud.upu oar, flat wooden spoon (Ka.)(DEDR 3299). tur..a to stir as with a ladle (Ta.); tur..avu, tur..a_ to stir with the hand, stir with a ladle, paddle or row a boat (Ta.); tur..ai to propel by oars (Ta.); tur..a paddle, rudder (Ma.); tor..asu to turn round as with a ladle, row (Ka.); sulayi rudder (Tu.); sula_vuni to row a boat (Tu.); tul.apuni, tul.a_vuni to row, paddle, steer (Tu.)(DEDR 3356). su_ri ladle-like spoon (Go.); sukkur, sukkur., sukur, hukkur, hukur., ukkur.i ladle, spoon (?Go.)(DEDR 2728). ul.unka a ladle, a spoon (Pali.lex.)

4404.Image: to be poured out; scatter, spill: tundna_ to be poured out, spill, pour into; tundrna_ to be poured out, be spilt (Kur.); tunde to spill, shed, throw out as water; tundgre to be spilt, be shed (Malt.)(DEDR 3321). d.huln.a_ to incline, be attentive (P.); d.huliba to rock to and fro (A.); d.hula_ to stagger, nod, doze (B.); d.hul.a_ drowsing; d.hul.a_iba to doze (Or.); d.hulna_ to slope, slip forward, sink (H.); d.horan.u to pour out (S.); d.holan.a_ to lean towards (P.); d.holn.o to fling, carry; to fall (Ku.); d.holnu to spill; to flow smoothly (N.); d.hol.vu~ to pour out (G.); bdora, bd.ora_ flood (Dm.); d.ullhan.a_ to be poured out (P.)(CDIAL 5593). tor..i-tal to be spilt, scatterd (Ci_vaka. 2673)(Ta.lex.) doriyuni to flow etc. (Tu.); to_r.g- (water) to be spilt (Go.); to_r.a (to_r.i-) to be liquid, flow, trickle (Kui)(DEDR 3523). Image: water-course: to_n.t.u-c-ca_l a small channel to drain the excess water in a seed-bed (Ta.lex.) d.ho_d.a_, d.or.a_, d.o_d.a, d.hor.gi river, nullah; dora running brook (Go.); to_d.u drain, sewer, gutter, brook, canal (Tu.); to_d.a stream (Kor.); to.d.i small stream, drain in paddy fields (Kod..); to_d.u water-course; co_d.i rivulet (Ka.); to_t.u water-course, natural and artificial (Ma.)(DEDR 3543). d.u~r., d.u~r.h wooden or bamboo water-channel, gutter (N.)(CDIAL 5568). dodon to pour off the water from the boiling rice; cf. tundna_ (Oraon)(Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1078.) River Yamuna: tor..un-ai the river Jumna (Akana_. 59)(Ta.lex.)

4405.Image: stand for jars: tor..u stand for toddy jars (tor..uvir- kut.akkan.i_ kon.t.uva_ : Pu. Ve. 1,4) (Ta.lex.)

4406.Image: bend: tun. to curve, make crooked, bend; to be crooked (Skt.lex.) ot.u-tat.an:kal crook, bent, flexure (Ta.lex.) Image: curve, bend: tot.i curve, bend (Cilap. 10,128)(Ta.lex.) Images: to crouch down; to turn the back upon a person: tu_t- (-h-) to stoop, bend down (Kuwi); mud.i tuttad turned the backside to (Kond.a); tu_t- (-t-) to crouch down; hend.ru tu_t- to lower the buttocks (Pe.); tu_spa (tu_st-) to bend down and turn the back upon a person (Kui)(DEDR 3382).

4407.A capital: tun.t.i_-puram Conjeevaram, as the capital of Tun.t.i_ran, an ancient king (Kantapu. Tirunakarap. 73; 87)(Ta.lex.)

4408.Boswellia thurifera: tuduku = tadiku = taduku the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera (Ka.lex.) cf. turukkam < kunduruka Konkay resin (Ta.lex.) tuttam a scent used in bathing (Ci_vaka. 623, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to mark with dots: t.u_r.na_ (t.ud.d.yas) to mark with dots, streaks etc. (Kur.); t.d.e to smear, paint (Malt.)(DEDR 2968).

4409.Image: shaking: dhu_ta shaken (RV.Pali); dhuta (MBh.); dhu_a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6840). tutam motion, vibration, oscillation, agitation (W.)(Ta.lex.)

4410.Image: elephant's trunk: tutikkai elephant's trunk, tumpikkai (Kalin.. 560); tutikkaram id. (Cevvanti. Pu. Ur-aiyu_rar..it. 92); tuti point; sharp edge (Pur-ana_. 353); tudi (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) tudikey the tip of an elephant's trunk (Ka.) (Ka. lex.) Image: trunk of an elephant: ton.d.alu, ton.d.la, ton.d.lu, sun.d.alu the trunk of an elephant (Ka.); ton.t.ala (Ta.); ton.d.amu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. tun.d.a a beak, the mouth (Skt.Ka.lex.) sun.d.alu, sun.d.ilu, sun.d.ila, son.d.alu, son.d.lu (Tadbhava of s'un.d.a_ra) an elephant's trunk (Ka.lex.) Image: elephant: sun.d.a_la, s'un.d.a_la, sun.d.alu, son.d.il an elephant (Ka.lex.) Drum-footed: tut.i-yat.i the young of an elephant, as drum-footed; cf. tut.i a drum shaped like an hour-glass (Te_va_. 1157,4) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Image: trunk of elephant: cf. ton.t.alam elephant's trunk (Kantapu. Amararci. 83); ton.d.il (OKa.)(Ta.lex.) ton.t.ai elephant's trunk (Tiruppo_. Can. Alan:ka_. 18)(Ta.lex.) tun.t.am elephant's trunk; ton.t.ai, ton.t.alam id. (Ta.); sun.d.ilu, son.d.ilu id. (Tu.); ton.d.amu id. (Te.); son.d.am id. (Nk.); ond.i_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 3311). tun.d.ika having a trunk (AV.); tun.d.a trunk (TA'r.MBh.); snout (Pali); t.hu_n elephant's trunk, beak (Ku.)(CDIAL 5853). s'un.d.a_ elephant's trunk (MBh.); sum.d.a_ id. (Pkt.); sunn, sun.d. (P.); su~r. (N.); xu~r (A.); su~r. proboscis, tentacle (B.); sun.d.a eleplhant's trunk (Or); su~_r. (Bi.Mth.H.); su~r.h (Bhoj.); su_r.h (Mth.); su~_r.i id. (Aw.); su~_d. (H.); sun.d. (H.); su~d.i (G.); son.d.a_, son.d.a (Pali); som.d.a_ (Pkt.); su~_d.i id. (S.); so~d. (M.); sond.aya, hond.aya (Si.)(CDIAL 12516). [Prob. < Munda.]. to:d-en mouth (of animals and vessels); jaw (Sora.); troti Te.); tond (M.); thotna (Mundari); thor jaw (Birhor); tomod (Kharia); tamar (Juang); sa:rmo, tummo (Gutob); to.t (Pareng); tontha beak (Santali). Lip; beak: tut.i lip (Ta.Ka.); cot.i id. (Ma.); tuc id. (Ko.); tod.i lip (Ka.); dud.i id., snout of an animal (Tu.); ton.d.i lip (Kor.); t.ot.e id. (Go.); tod.d.i_, pl. tor.k mouth, face (Go.); t.o_d.a lip (Kui); toro mouth (Malt.); toto beak, bill (Malt.)(DEDR 3296). Lip, beak: turu_t.i lip (Sh.); thuru_t.i, thuru_t.u beak (Sh.); tro_t.i beak, fish's mouth (Skt.)(CDIAL 5853). Bill, beak: cun.t.u a short beak or bill, lips, snout (Ma.); bill, beak, lower lip (Ta.); con.t.u id. (Ta.); ton.n.a, tol.l.a mouth (Ma.); cun.d.u a bird's beak (Ka.); jul.l.i beak (Kor.); salla mouth, face (N.); cond. mouth, beak (Pa.); sollu, sol(lu) mouth (Ga.); sond.i beak (Ga.); sond.e lip (Go.); cond.i beak of bird (Pe.); sud.a mouth, beak, brim (Kui); hond.i mouth (Kuwi); colo_ pointed (said of the mouth of animals)(Kur.)(DEDR 2664). tun.d.a beak, snout (TA'r.MBh.); beak, mouth (Pali); tum.d.a mouth, front part (Pkt.); lips, mouth, beak (Or.); tud.a beak, snout, mouth (Si.); to~_th beak (K.); t.u~r.o mouth of animal, beak, point of ploughshare (N.); t.un.d.a lips, mouth, beak (Or.); thunn thick lips (opprobrious term)(L.); thun lips (L.); thutunu nose, snout (N.); thu_thun mouth of animal (Mth.); thu_than snout, mouth (H.); thor.i lower lip, chin, beard (Or.); t.hu_n beak, elephant's trunk (Ku.); t.hu~d.i_ chin (G.); then.t.a, than.t.a beak (Or.); t.hu~r.o beak (N.); t.hun.d.i lip, chin (Or.); t.hud.d.a_ beak of a paper kite (P.); t.ho~t. beak (A.B.); t.hun.t.hi lip, chin, beak (Or.); t.ho~t.h beak (H.); dunn, dun wild pig's snout (L.); d.o.nd.u front of face (K.); dut mouth (Wg.Wot..Bshk.); lip (Dm.); du_t lip (Tor.Sh.)(CDIAL 5853). tut.i lip (Ta.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) 4423.Image: elephant's trunk: tun.d.a trunk, beak, snout (TA_r.)(CDIAL 5853).One-armed person: t.hum.t.han. trunk, amputated member (M.); t.hum.t.hum. trunk, one-armed person, to break off a piece (G.); t.hut.hu leaf-less, dry (S.); t.hot.h stupid (P.); t.hu_m.t.h trunk, leafless branch, amputated arm (H.); t.um.t.o chinnakarah- (OM.)(Bloch, p. 340).

4411.Image: cross-beam: tut.ai a long cross-beam, vit.t.am (Ta.lex.)

4412.Bale, bundle: tun.t.u bale of tobacco consisting of four small or two large cippam (J.); a bale of betel leaves containing 20 kavul.i, packs of betel leaves, number varying in different places (Ta.lex.) cippam parcel, bundle; a man's load of tobacco leaves (Ta.); piece, bundle (Ma.); cippamu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. dondi, donde bundle of sticks, grass, rags etc. used as a torch (Ka.); dondi small torch made of a rag (Tu.)(DEDR 3508).

4413.Piece: tun.t.am piece, fragment, bit, slice (Ta.Ma.); tun.t.i to cut, sever, tear up, divide, separate, cut (Ta.); tun.t.u piece, bit, fragment, slice, section, division, strip, chit, ticket, small piece of cloth, towel (Ta.); tun.t.ikka to cut to pieces, cut off as the throat (Ma.); tun.d. piece (Ko.); tun.d.isu to cut or break into pieces, make piecemeal (Ka.); tun.d.u fragment, piece, bit, a little (Ka.); tun.d.- (tun.d.i-) to break (Kod..); tun.d.i piece (Kod..); tun.d.u, sun.d.u piece, slice (Tu.); tun.t.a, tun.d.amu piece, fragment (Te.); tun.d.incu to cut, sever (Te.); tun.d.u, tun.d.e, tun.d.emu piece (Te.); tur.ge to break (as a stick)(Malt); tur.gre to be broken (Malt.); tut.gro broken (Malt.)(DEDR 3310). tun.ta_yam gold sand, pon-man.al; gold fanam (Ta.lex.) cf. tud. piece; cloth worn from armpits to knees by Badaga woman (< tun.d.u Badaga)(To.); t.und.a strip of cloth used as bandage (Pa.); tun.t.u small piece of cloth, towel (Ta.); tun.t.am piece, fragment, small piece of cloth (Ta.); piece, bit, slice (Ma.); tun.d. to break (intr. thread, rope, flower-stem, tip); tun.d.i piece (Kod..); tun.d.u, sun.d.u piece, slice (Tu.); tun.t.a, tun.d.amu piece, fragment; tun.d.incu to cut, sever; tun.d.u, tun.d.e, tun.d.emu piece (Te.)(DEDR 3310). tun.iyal, tun.ukku small piece, as of flesh (Ta.); tunuka (Te.); tun.aku (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) tol.ukku to tie loosely, wear or attach loosely (as clothes) (Ta.) (DEDR 3529). tun.iyal, tun.ukku small piece, as of flesh (Ta.); tunuka (Te.); tun.aku (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) tub to do work; to divide, to share, to apportion; to keep in reserve; deriv. tenub-en a share, a piece; bar-tub two parts, er-tub three parts, tub-en a part, a piece (Sora.) Classifier: clothing or dress; ornaments (worn around the belly): tun.d.u cloth (Kor.); tun.i cloth for wear, hangings, pendants, decorations as of cloth, flag of a car, bark-cloth (Ta.); cloth (Ma.Kod.); tun.y priest's cloak (worn only at the milk-placing ceremony); Toda priest's garment (Ko.); dairyman's black garment of a single cloth (To.)(DEDR 3307). tun.i flag of a car; tun.ip-p-pantam torch made of rags (Ta.lex.) dan.d.aka staff of banner (MBh.)(CDIAL 6120). tud.ige, tud.age, tud.uge, tod.age, tod.ige, tod.uge, tod.a, tod.avu, to_d.a certain clothing or dress, ornaments (Ka.); tod.ige clothes, dress, ornaments (Tu.);(DEDR 3482). cf. tumda belly (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5858). To wear, put on (as adapted to the body): tot.u (tot.uv-, tot.t.-) to put on (as a ring, clothes), wear (as shoes); (-pp-, -tt-) to wear (as clothes); tot.akku (tot.akki-) to wear, put on; tot.alai leaf-garment; jewelled girdle (Ta.); tud.u/tod.u (tot.t.-) to put on (as ornaments or clothes adapted to the body); tud.isu, tud.iyisu, tod.asu, tod.isu to put on another; tud.ige, tud.age, tud.uge, tod.age, tod.ige, tod.uge, tod.a, tod.avu, to_d.a certain clothing or dress, an ornament (Ka.); tod.ig clothes, dress, ornaments (Tu.); tuz- (tust-) to wear, put on (Pe.); tuy- to wear (Mand..); tubga (<tug-b-; tugd-) to fasten a necklace; n. act of fastening (Kui); tur- (-h-) to put on, wear (shoes); turh-/truh- (-it-) to put on, wear (shoes, clothing etc.)(Kuwi); turh'nai to wear (Kuwi); tud.ige, tod.age, tod.uge, tod.a, to_d.a certain clothing or dress, an ornament (Ka.); tod.(u)gu, tod.(u)vu to clothe, invest (Te.); tod.ugu konu to put on, wear; tod.igincu to cause to wear or put on; tod.avu ornament, jewel; tod.upu armour; tod.u, tot.t.u to put on, wear (Te.); tod.- (tot.t.-) to put on (shirt); tor.- to put on (shoes, etc.); tod.a anklet; tord.yal anklet (Kol.); tor.- (tot.t.-) to wear (bodice or shirt)(Nk.); tod.g- to wear (clothes); tut.t.- to wear, put on (Ga.); toR- (-t-) to wear, put on (as saree); toRay a_- to get dressed (Kond.a); tubga (< tug-b-; tugd-) to fasten a necklace; n. act of fastening (Kui); tod.aka- an anklet (Jaina Skt.)(DEDR 3482).

4414.Image: scorpion: t.unt.or, t.u_mt.or, t.umt.er, tit.or scorpion (Kol.); t.it.or, kit.or id. (Nk.); t.it.t.o, cit.u, cit.ukli id. (Nk.); kir.kar., e_t.e kir.kar., e_t.e kikkar., e_t.e kihkar., e_t.okar. id. (e_t.e crab)(Go.)(DEDR 2956). dro_n.ah. a scorpion (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

4415.Wealth: tut.t.u money of the value of 2 or 4 pies, money (Ta.); tut.t.u a copper coin - 20 cash or 1/2 pice (Ma.); dud.d.u a copper coin, 1/3 of an anna; money (Ka.); dud.d.i 4 pice (pies); money (Kod..); dud.d.u a copper coin worth 4 pies, copper coin in general, money (Tu.); a coin of the value of 2 pies, and in some places of 4 pies; money, wealth (Te.)(DEDR 3303). d.hapuwa_ pice, money (Ku.); d.hau_a_ copper coin of 2 pice (P.); d.habu_a_ id. (P.); d.hepuwa_ pice, money (Ku.); d.heuwa_ pice, money (N.); d.hebuwa_ pice, money (N.); d.hebua_ pice (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5580). d.hebua_ unstamped lump of copper equal to one paisa_ (H.); d.habbu_, d.habua_ unstamped lump of copper (H.); d.hi_p, d.hi_pa_ lump, clump (H.); d.hipal., d.hipu_l. lump, clod (M.); d.hibua_ unstamped lump of copper (H.); d.hibka_ lump, protuberance (H.); d.hep, d.hepa_ lump (H.); d.hepu~, d.hephu~, d.heplu~ clod (G.); d.hep clod (M.); d.hepn.e~ to close and get firm (M.); d.he~p clod (M.); d.he~pal. clod (M.); d.hebri_ lump (H.); d.he~bu_s lump, bump (M.)(CDIAL 5580). {The middle joint of a finger constitutes a fractional count of 2 in duo-decimal numeration based on 12 phalanges or joints on four fingers; hence the value assigned to dud.d.u : 2 paisa_. Since the tip of the thumb is used to reckon the joints of the other four fingers, the joints of the thumb are not counted to reach the landing-point: '12'.] [For etyma related to paisa_ cf. paspa to divide, distribute (Pe.); pacu, pasu to divide, distribute, share; be divided (Ka.); pasuge dividing, separation, division (Ka.); pasalu the share of the fisherman (Tu.); pay to divide (Kol.); to divide into shares (Ga.); payk to distribute (Nk.)(DEDR 3936). These etyma are perhaps a confluence of two semantic streams: Stream 1: d.e part, share (Tor.)(CDIAL 5580). Stream 2: pa_yuni to be diffused as molten metal, etc. in a mould (Tu.)(DEDR 4088). payal share, half (Ta.); pasalu the share of the fisherman (Tu.); pampa equal share or division (Ka.); pampu share (Te.)(DEDR 3936). pakir share, section, piece (Ta.)(DEDR 3808). pa_ya_ parting of the hair (Go.)(DEDR 4089). pa_ti half, a share (Ma.); pa.dy half (Ko.)(DEDR 4074).}

4416.Established rate; device; goods: to_tu established rate; connection (Ta.); to_du connection (Te.)(Ta.lex.) to_tu device, means (Ta.); to.d trick (Ko.); twi.0 cunning, trickery (To.); to_du expedient (Ka.)(DEDR 3550). za_nt.o skilful (Kon.lex.) Cleverness, skill: tot.pam cleverness, skill; ot.pam intelligence, prescience; wisdom (Kur-al., 404); tut.i acuteness of intellect, cleverness; industry; superiority; speed, quickness (Ar-ap. Cata. 31); dud.uku id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Clever; quick: toch power, ability, power to endure (K.); tukhar. strong, clever (B.); tukhar.a strong, active, clever; quarrel (Or.)(CDIAL 5849). tum.tukkhud.ia quick, hasty (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5849). dad.avad.a quick; attack (Pkt.); daror.o attack by a band of robbers (G.); darod.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 6127). tot.an:ku-tal to undertake, enter upon, engage in (Ta.); tod.an:ku id. (Ka.); tod.aguni id. (Tu.); tod.ar-tal to form (Kampara_. Vira_tan-. 14); tot.uttal to create (Ta_yu. En:kunir-ai. 4); to undertake (Ka_cika. Kan.apati. 1)(Ta.lex.)

4417.Girdle (worn around the thigh/hip): tot.alai leaf-garment, jewelled girdle (Ta.); tor.dyal anklet (Kol.); tod.a anklet (Kol.); tod.aka an anklet (Jaina Skt.) (DEDR 3482). Image: bracelet: tot.i bracelet (Pur-ana_. 77); armlet (Nar-. 136); armelet, warrior's armlet (Maturaik. 720)(Ta.lex.) Armour: tod.upu armour (Te.); tod.ugu konu to put on, wear (Te.); tot.alai leaf-garment; jewelled girdle (Ta.); tud.u, tod.u (tot.t.-) to put on (as ornaments or clothes adapted to the body)(Ka.) (DEDR 3482). Shoes: tot.t.atu shoes (Ta.)(DEDR 3482). Ear-jewel: to_t.u ear-jewel (Ta.); to_t.a ear-ring of women (Ma.)(DEDR 3545). Thigh: d.ond.o thigh (Kui); tot.ai, tut.ai thigh (Ta.); tut.a id. (Ma.); twar. thigh (To.); tod.e id. (Ka.Kod..); tud. thigh, shank, side piece (Tu.); tod.a thigh; tun.t.i hip, haunch (Te.); dut. (pl. dut.l) hip (Kol.); d.ond.o thigh (Kui); tuntu hip (Kuwi)(DEDR 3302). Image: thigh: tot.ai thigh (Ta.); tod.a (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: hip, loins, waist: son.t.a hip, loins, waist (Ka.); son.t.a, on.t.a id. (Tu.); ton.t.i loins, hip (Te.)(DEDR 2840).

4418.Image: roundness: dun.d.u roundness (Ka.lex.) Image: a round chisel: dun.d.a-ul.i a round chisel (Ka.lex.) Image: wristlet: t.od.or a wristlet worn by males; pitar t.od.or a brass wristlet; ran. t.od.or a pewter wristlet; rupa t.od.or a silver wristlet (Santali.lex.) Image: bracelet: tot.i bracelet (Pur-ana_. 77)(Ta.)(DEDR 3482); armlet (Nar-. 136); armlet, warrior's armlet (Maturaik. 720); circular projections in stone-walls serving as steps (Ta.); ring, ferrule, ornamental knob of an elephant's tusk (Pur-ana_. 243)(Ta.); tod.i id. (Te.); tot.u to put on as ring, clothes (Kalit. 84,23); tod.u id. (Ka.); tot.u to fasten, insert (Pur-ana_. 77) (Ta.lex.) to_t.a_ < to_ra_ (U.) an armlet; gold bracelet as a reward of merit (Ta.lex.) Circularity; bracelet: dun.d.age, dun.d.ige, dun.d.uge roundly, round, roundness, state of being without corners, well-proportioned, regular etc. (Ka.); dun.d.u id., a female's hollow, plain bracelet; dun.d.ane, dun.d.anna, dun.d.a_ne round; dun.d.isu to become round, form round masses, move circularly (Ka.); dun.d.u round, globular (Tu.)(DEDR 3309).

4419.Bundle of sticks; image: stout stick: dondi, donde bundle of sticks, grass, rags, etc., used as a torch (Ka.); dondi small torch made of rags (Tu.)(DEDR 3508). dud.d.u a stout stick, club, cudgel (Te.); dud.d.u-gar.r.a a stout stick or staff (Te.); dud.u stick (Go.); d.u_d.i id., cane (Go.); d.ud.u stout stick (Kond.a); carrying stick (Kuwi); d.u_ra stick, staff, rod (Kui); dod.d.e the bat used at tipcat (Ka.); tut.t.u-k-kat.t.ai, tut.t.u-t-tat.i short club (Ta.)(DEDR 3304). Image: to wave a torch: d.un.d.uk to wave a firebrand to give light (Santali.lex.)

4420.Images: upper arm: raised arm: dondo to put up one's hand or some object at arm's length; to brandish a weapon; to raise a weapon as if ready to strike; okoeokoe ne kajirepe he_jada, ti_ dondoepe: those who agree with this, let them put up their hand; dondo-o to be raised at arm's length, to be brandished; do-n-ondo the extent to which something is put up or brandished: miad d.and.a donondoe dondola, mutule turubuteria, he brandished a stick so high that it touched the ridge beam; dondo-idi to carry away in one's hands with raised arms; dondo-parom to raise at arm's length and carry across; gomkea baisikal dondoparomi_am, carry the master's bicycle across (the river)(Hoffmann, John and Emelen, Arthur Van, Encyclopaedia Mundarica, New Delhi, 1990, vol. IV, p. 1082) ; dand.a upper arm (Go.Kol.); d.an.d.a id. (Kond.a); tan.t.a arm, upper arm (Ma.)(DEDR 3048). Upper arm: tan.t.a arm, generally forearm, the upper arm (Ma.); tat.t.u forearm (Tu.); dan.d.a ce_yi upper arm (Te.); dand.a id. (Kol.Pa.Go.); d.an.d.a id. (Kond.a); d.and.e id. (Kuwi); dor-dan.d.a a long arm (Skt.)(DEDR 3048). Image: staff banner: dan.d.aka staff of banner (MBh.); kam-d.en yoke pole (Kt.); d.anna~_ carrying pole (L.)(CDIAL 6120).

4421.Whip: tuta_ti_ thong of a ploughman's whip (M.)(CDIAL 5967). tot. to slap (To.); tar-at.u, tarat.u to whip; n. whip, whipping (Te.); teh to strike (Mand..); tassali to slap (Kuwi)(DEDR 3138). ti_r, ti_ra_ thong; a strip (Kon.lex.)

4422.Image: to seize with the mouth: tur-r-u to eat, seize with the mouth, lie close; n. boiled rice, food, ball of boiled rice as a mouthful, crowd, multitude (Ta.)(DEDR 3367).

4424.Cardamom: tut.i cardamom plant (Ta.); cardamoms (Ma.); trut.i small cardamoms (Skt.)(DEDR 3298).

4425.Image: thumb held up as a sign of rejection: t.hut.hyo thumb held up in representation of penis (S.); t.hut.t.h thumb held up as a sign of rejection (L.)(CDIAL 5506).

4426.Image: small pebble; dust, powder; to winnow: tu_tu small pebble (Kalit. 56,16); tu_tun.am a dove that eats pebbles; weaver bird; tu_tun.ampuravu id. (Pat.t.in-ap. 58)(Ta.lex.)

4427.Image: pericarp of a lotus: tutturu ornament like the pericarp of a lotus; tuttu-k-kammal ear ornament worn by women (Ta.); duddu the inner pulpy mass of a cucumber or pumpkin that contains the seeds (Ka.); pericarp of a lotus; a sort of ear ornament worn by women (Te.)(DEDR 3318). Bud: d.u~_d.i bud (Pa.); d.und.i id. (Ga.); d.ind.a, d.ond.a id. (Go.); d.und.a bud (of flower or fruit)(Kond.a); d.und.i bud; d.hu~_d.i_ id. (Halbi)(DEDR 2963). cf. tul.ir to bud (Ta.)(DEDR 3362). Image: a spoon: tud.upu an oar (Ka.Ta.); a flat wooden spoon (Ka.); tut.uppu a stirrer (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

4428.Push; pierce; hurt: tujanti 3rd pl. pushes, urges (RV.); tuan.u to darn (S.)(CDIAL 5851). tujjati is struck (Pali); tujai wastes away (of a body) (OMarw.); tudyate_ hurts (of a wound)(Car.)(CDIAL 5857). tud strike (Skt.); tudati strikes, pierces, hurts (RV.Pali); tuae_ hurts (Pkt.); tim I beat (Kal.)(DEDR 5856). tund piercing, sharp, keen, strong, pure (P.); nitundate_ pierces (RV.) (CDIAL 5859). Image: to pierce through; to dig: tot.u-tal to pierce through (Kalit. 106)(Ta.lex.) tu_r (-v-, -nt-) to enter (Ta.); tu_r-u to enter, enter a hole as a mouse, go through a hole or eye as a thread, etc., penetrate, pierce; n. penetrating, etc. (Ta.); tu_r-isu to cause to enter, make go through as a thread through the eye of a needle (Ka.); tu_r-u to enter, penetrate; tu_r-ucu, tu_rcu to insert, put in, thrust, introduce, push in; du_r-u to enter, penetrate, pierce, force a way, rush in; tu_r(u)pu east ( < tu_r-u to enter); d.u_yu, du_yu, d.uyyu, duyyu to enter, penetrate, pierce, pass through as an arrow or bullet; tu_-konu to enter, etc. (Te.); turs- to prod, poke (fire); turrv- to thrust into (Go.); dursa_na_ to push; duriya_na_ to press; dursa_na_ to stir, to thrust in; durra_na_ id.; durs- to push; dorra_na_ to penetrate (Go.); du_h- (du_st-) to pierce, go right through (Kuwi); turdna_ to pass through any narrow aperture, slip through a narrow passage of any form, fall through a hole, ooze out; turda'a_na_ to pass (a thread, string, etc.) through a hole, let pass an animal, help or allow someone to pass through any narrow aperture (Kur.); tuthr-kat.e to pass through a place, pass through (as an arrow)(Malt.)(DEDR 3399a). To push; cram: thecn.o to crush; thecr.o footmark (Ku.); theccinu to be pressed down, squat; thicnu to press on (N.); t.hes stumble, blow (Ku.); t.hesnu to ram, thrust in; t.hessinu to stumble; t.hes stumble, knock; t.hesan additional weight placed on a load to balance it (N.); t.heha_-t.hehi crammed, crowded (A.); t.hes leaning against, push; t.hesa_na to lean against (B.); t.hesiba_ to bruise, beat; t.he~siba_ to jostle, crowd (Or.); t.hes stumbling (Mth.); t.hesna_ to ram in; t.hes knock (H.); knock (G.); t.hesan.iyu~ anything that helps in pushing (G.); t.he~s knock (M.); t.hu_sna_ to stuff, cram, eat (P.); t.hosn.o to strike into, strike, shake (Ku.); To poke, chide: t.hu_s quarrel (K.); t.hosn.o to poke, chide (N.);[cf. du_s.an.a abuse (Skt.); tu_r-al abuse (Ta.lex.)]; t.husa_ to cram (B.); t.hosna_ to press down (H.); t.hoso blow (G.); t.hosro blow (G.); t.hosra_ (M.); t.hau~so blow (S.); t.ho~svu~ to cram (G.); t.ho~so blow (G.)(CDIAL 5511). du_ku, du_ki, du~ku to push (Ka.); tukkna_ to give a push to, shove (Kur.); tuke to push, remove (Malt.) (DEDR 3286). To drive in: te_sna_ to drive in by surrounding when hunting or fishing (Kur.); tse id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3455). tas- to be suffocated (Gypsy); tasav to throttle (Gypsy); tasnauar throttles (Gypsy); t.ha_sun to hammer into; t.ha~_s crash, bang (K.); t.hasn.a_ to be forced in; t.ha~_sn.a_ to force in (P.); t.ha~_sn.o to thrust, cram (Ku.); t.hos-t.ha_s poking (N.); t.ha_siba_ to cram; t.hasa_ a mould (Or.); t.ha_sna_, t.ha~_sna_ to press down; t.has closely pressed (H.); t.ha~_svu~ to cram; t.hasvu~ to sink in; t.has(s)o impression; t.has closely (G.); t.ha_sn.e~, t.ha~_sn.e~ to cram (M.); t.hasn.e~ to sink in deeply (M.); t.ha_s, t.ha~_s closely rammed (M.)(CDIAL 5499). tha_so heap (usu. of dung)(N.); tha_sa_ to ram down (B.)(CDIAL 6094).

4429.Blue vitriol: turu rust, verdigris, flaw; turucu, turuci blue vitriol, spot, dirt, blemish, stain, defect, rust; turicu fault, crime, sorrow, affliction, perversity, blue vitriol; tukku, tuppu rust (Ta.); turis'u blue vitriol; turumpu, turuvu rust (Ma.); tukku rust of iron; tutta, tuttu, tutte blue vitriol (Ka.); tukku rust; mair(u)suttu, mairututtu blue vitriol (Tu.); t(r)uppu rust; trukku id., verdigris (Te.)(DEDR 3343). tuttha, tutthaka blue vitriol (used as an eye ointment)(Sus'r.); tu_taka (Skt.); dhu_rta iron filings (SKt.); tutho blue vitriol or sulphate of copper (N.); tuth (B.); thoth, thothas (K.); thotha_ (P.); tu_tio (S.); tutiya_ (A.); tu~te (B.); tutia_ (Or.); tu_ta_, tu_tiya (H.); tutiya_ (M.); tota_ (M.)(CDIAL 5855). tuttam < tuttha a prepared arsenic, vitrio, sulphate or zinc or copper (Cu_t.a_.); tutty, blue or white vitrio, used as collyrium (Tailava. Taila. 69); tutta-na_kam < tuttha-na_ga zinc (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

4430.Image: water-snake: dundhubha non-venomous water-snake (AitBr.); dun.d.ubha (MBh.); dho_d.a a sort of snake (Skt.); du~duh a kind of water-snake (H.); dum.d.ubha , dum.d.uha a kind of snake (Pkt.); d.un.d.u non-venomous water-snake (Or.); the footless lizard amphisboena, a kind of snake (H.); ded.d.ubha, ded.d.ubhaka water-snake (Pali); ded.uba_ (Si.); de~d.vu~ a small water-snake (G.); d.un.d. (H.); d.o~_r. water-snake (Bhoj.); d.o~r., d.o~r.a_ footless lizard (H.); d.aud.ha non-venomous water-snake (OB.); dhor., dho~r.a_-sa_p (B.); dhor.a (Or.); d.ho~r.h (Mth.); dhor. a species of water-snake (H.); dhen.d.ua (Or.); d.e~r.ha_ (H.); dhan.d.a (Or.)(CDIAL 6411). d.ond.ya_ water-snake (Kol.); d.ond.ul(i), dho_ndi_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 2985).

4431.Image: two hind legs cut from the trunk: d.und.i the two hind legs when they form one whole cut from the trunk at the waist; one hind leg of a slain animal, when it is sundered from the other; to sunder the hind legs from the trunk at the waist; merom d.und.ipe, taeomtee gedoka, cut off the hind quarters of the goat, let the rest be cut up in small pieces afterwards; kula birre miad hor.oe d.und.ikia, the tiger in the forest has left uneaten one leg or the two legs of a man; d.und.i-o to cut asunder at the waist; d.u-n-und.i the extent to which animals are cut asunder at the waist (Mu.)(Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1265).

4432.Seek: d.hun.d.hati seeks (Skt.); dhun.d.hiba_, dhun.d.iba_, dhundiba_ to search (Or.); d.hun.d.vu~ (G.); dhu~d.n.e~, dhu~d.a_l.n.e~ (M.); d.hum.d.hullai, d.ham.d.hullai, d.ham.d.ho_lai wanders round, seeks (Pkt.); rod- to seek; lor- to find (Gypsy); d.hu~_d.han.u to seek (S.); d.hu_n.d.han., d.hu_d.an. (L.); d.hu~_d.hn.a_ (P.); d.hunn.o (Ku.); d.hu~r.a_lnu (N.); d.hu~r.a_, d.ho~r.a_ (B.); d.hu~_r.hab (Aw.); d.hu~_d.hna_ (H.); d.hu~d.hvu~, d.hu~d.vu~ (G.); d.hu~d.ha_l.ne~, d.ha~_d.hul.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 6839). turuvu (turuvi-) to seek; searching (Ta.); turuval searching; turu-ppit.i to detect, trace, search; turappu (turappi-) to seek; turavu spying (Ta.)(DEDR 3347).

4433.Image: large black ant: d.u_nd.u, d.u_nd.uri a large black ant (Kui); dondori, d.und.unu orla_ ant (black); d.ond.o'or.i big black ant; dond.odi ant (Kuwi)(DEDR 2969).

4434.Image: length of a furrow: d.un.d.ak the length of a furrow (Santali.lex.)

4435.Image: calf: du_d.a a calf (Te.); d.ud.d.e female young of buffalo (Go.); du_r.a calf (Kond.a)(DEDR 3378).

4436.Image: bullock with one horn: d.u~_d.a_ bullock with one horn (H.); d.u_r.iya_ hornless bullock (Bi.); d.udeste_i blunt (Ash.); d.u_d.e, d.ur.u (Kt.)(CDIAL 5560). t.hut.o hornless (N.); t.hu_t.ha_ hornless bullock (Bi.)(CDIAL 5506). d.und.ula, mund.ula adj. without a top-knot, whether the hair be clean shaven, close cropped; d.und.ula (Sadani) a bullock with only one horn (Mu.)(Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1267). Image: bullock with a loose horn: hola_ bullock with loose horn (L.P.)(CDIAL 14179). Image: long-necked bullock; erect: tun.t.in name of the bull of S'iva (Skt.lex.) donda adj. of bullocks, long-necked: donda har-a harauipe; also used as adj. noun: donda harauipe; dondorcod var. of domcorod used of animals which have neither crest nor raised tuft of hair, in the meaning of: to raise the head and stretch the neck to its full length: sadom dondorcodla (Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1082.) t.oet.oe erect, upright (Santali.lex.) d.on.d.on. erect, applied to tall persons (Santali.lex.)

4437.Image: naked; corpulent: tun.t.urut.t.i-k-ka_l.ai fat bull (Ta.lex.) Image: naked; bareheaded: d.umd.a naked (Kond.a.Pe.); having only loincloth (Kuwi); d.umal bare-headed (Go.)(DEDR 2966). Image: female organ: t.oe a part of the female organ, the clitoris (Santali.lex.) Belly: tunda belly, pot-belly (Pa_n..)[Possibly of same origin as tun.d.i, tundi navel, esp. prominent or swollen navel < Munda < Dravidian; and tun.d.a beak, trunk, snout (MBh.) < Prob.Munda.]; tumda belly (Pkt.); tonu belly below the navel (K.); tu~_d pot-belly (H.); tu~d fat, plump (M.); to~d pot-belly (P.N.H.); dud. id. (G.); dhun.d.a_ corpulent man (Or.); dhodh pot-belly (Mth.)(CDIAL 5858). tumdila, tumdilla pot-bellied (Pkt.); to~di_la_ (H.)(CDIAL 5862). unti navel, belly (Ta.); navel (Ma.); tunti navel, belly (?Ta.)(DEDR 624). Image: pregnant: tu_dri pregnant; t.u_t.i stomach; tu_dri aiyali to be pregnant (Kuwi); t.u_d.ri a_- to be pregnant (Kuwi); t.u_t.u (pl. t.u_t.ka) stomach, abdomen, belly, seat of understanding (Kui)(DEDR 2967). dondi big belly (Ta.); tonti large belly, abdomen, fold or collop of fat, obesity (Ta.); pot-belly (Ma.); tonde big, distended (Tu.); tonde baji a big belly (Tu.); doddu one who is pot-bellied (Te.)(DEDR 3507). tumra big, strong (RV.); trum, trom to dare (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5873). tot.t.a big (Ta.); tut.am stoutness, plumpness (Ma.); dod. big, great (Ko.); dod.- (dod.y-) to grow big (Ko.); dod.d.a big, large, stout, thick, great, extensive, spacious, respectable, eminent, important, chief, principal, loud; dod.d.atana greatness etc. (Ka.); dod.d.itu, dod.d.ittu that is large etc. (Ka.); dod.d.a big; dod.d.astig greatness, loftiness, riches, power, ostentaion, pride (Tu.); dod.d.a, dod.d.u big (Te.); doo big, great, elder; dood big thing; dod.a_nd big (Kol.); dor.a big, elder; dohon big (Nk.); d.o_r.a big, stout (in: d.o_r.a pot.t.eta pregnant; pot.t.a belly)(Pa.); tot.o vande thumb, big toe (Ga.); d.hod.d.hal, dho_dal, dho_da_l stout; do_dra_l ur.u_m the very largest cattle tick (Go.); d.od.ori distended, swollen, pregnant (Kui); d.ot.a vanju thumb (Kuwi); d.ond.a_ potta_ large-bellied (Kur.); d.ud.o id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3491). d.umma with the belly fat from eating (of children and cattle)(N.); d.umn.a_ fat-bellied (M.)(CDIAL 5562). Image: belly below navel: tonti large belly, abdomen, fold or collop of fat, obesity; dondi big belly (Ta.); pot-belly (Ma.); tond big, distended; tond baji a big belly (Tu.); doddu one who is pot-bellied (Te.)(DEDR 3507). tunda belly, pot-belly (Pa_n..); tum.da belly (Pkt.); tonu belly below the navel (K.); tu~_d pot-belly (H.); tu~d fat, plump (M.); to~d pot-belly (P.); to~, taun (N.); ton (Mth.); to~_d (Aw.); tona_il pot-bellied (Bhoj.); to~di_la_ (H.); to~del (M.); dud. pot-belly (G.); dundi (G.); do~d, adj. do~di_, do~di_l (M.); d.un.d. (G.); dhun.d.a_ corpulent man (Or.); dhudhla_ corpulent (Or.); dhodh pot-belly (Mth.); dho~dha_il pot-bellied (Bhoj.); dho~dha_ pot-belly, hillock (H.)(CDIAL 5858). tundila pot-bellied (S'a_n:khGr..); tum.dila, tum.dilla (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5862). tundi_ pot-bellied (H.); tundika id. (Pa_n..gan.a)(CDIAL 5861). dodoro, d.od.oro, d.or.oro, d.ar.ara, d.ar.ari a long and broad belly; adj. with a long and broad belly; dodoro-n to cause one's own corpulence; dodoro-o to become corpulent; dodran, dodran-dudrin, doran-durin impolite and indecent term; adj. of women, naked or clothed in tatters (Mundari); cf. thotha_ entirely naked (Oraon); cf. dodoro corpulent (Sadani); dhodho (Or.); dhondha_ (H.)(Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1078.) dumer.ae stout (Santali.lex.)

4438.Fat; flesh: tid.g flesh (Ko.); tid.x piece of flesh (To.); tat.i flesh (Ta.)(DEDR 3226). thutba, thutma, thothma thick; thutma, thutmi stout (Santali.lex.) tonti < tundi fold or callop of fat; obesity, enteroptosis; large belly, abdomen (Tiruva_lava_. 27,36)(Ta.); tondi (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) tundi gorbellied, corpulent; having a prominent navel; tonti-k-kan.apati big-bellied Gan.e_s'a (Tiruppu. 136) (Ta.lex.)

4439.Image: child-birth: to_r.a_ blood which precedes the birth of a child (Go.); to_r.g-(water) to be spilt (Go.); to_r.a to be liquid, flow, trickle (Kui); tor..i to be spilt (Ta..)(DEDR 3523). dvandve a menstruating woman; a woman recently delivered (Ka.lex.) co_r to trickle down as tears, blood, or milk (Ta.); to_rai blood (Ta.); so_r to drop, drip, trickle (Ka.); co_ruka to flow, ooze, trickle, leak (Ma.); joru trickling, flowing (Ka.); curxna_ to let fall in drops; trickle (Kur.); curgtre to tap a tree (Malt.); cort.o blood (Nahali)(DEDR 2883). tul.an:ku to move, shake, be perturbed (Ta.); tul.aku to be agitated, shake (Ka.); tol.ki to be shaken (as water or oil in a pot)(Ka.); tola_ku slight agitation or motion in a liquid (Te.)(DEDR 3359). olku to shake, move, wave (Ta.); ulayuka to be agitated (Ma.); ole to swing, wave, shake (Ka.); uliyu to move, shake (Te.)(DEDR 1003). o_la trickling (Ma.); olivu flowing (Ma.); o_lo_la falling in drops, trickling (Ma.); oluku to be spilled, run, flow, overflow, gush out (Te.)(DEDR 999). va_li drizzle (Ta.); va_luka to drip, be strained, be distilled (Ma.); o_luka to flow, ooze; va_l spittle; va_r-r-u straining, distilling (Ma.); ba_luni to run over, go out (Te.)(DEDR 5367). or..uku to flow, leak, trickle down (Ta.); or..ukku leaking, dripping, flowing (Ta.); or..ukal; flowing (Ma.); ok to ooze (Ko.); or..ku to flow (Ka.); ugguni to spurt (Tu.)(DEDR 1010). tol.e, tol.i to wash, remove by washing (Ka.); tul.ai to disport in water, be immersed (Ta.); torapuni to wash superficially (Tu.); tola_cu to wash (Te.)(DEDR 3530). holn.e~ to wash (Konkan.i); hulai rubs, cleans (Pkt.)(CDIAL 14178). oli to wash as clothes, remove as dirt (Ta.); to wash (clothes)(Kod..); olumpuka to wash clothes by shaking them in water, rub off, shake off, cleanse; ulampuka to rinse (Ma.); olapu, olampu, olpe cleanliness, purity (Tu.); lumbuni to wash, plunge, rinse (Tu.)(DEDR 998).

4440.Malabar glory lily: ton.t.i Malabar glory-lily (Tailava. Taila.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ka_ntal. malabar glory lily, red or white species, gloria superba; ka_rttikaippu_ (Na_lat.i, 283); the flower sacred to Skanda (Pu. Ve. 6,9)(Ta.lex.) la_n:gali_ gloriosa superba (Car. Su. 27.108, Ci. 7.109). ka_ntal. Malabar glory lily, gloriosa superba (Ta.); id. (Ma.); kondale id. (Ka.)(DEDR 1451). to_n-r-i, to_t.t.i Malabar glory lily, gloriosa superba (Ta.); me_tto_nni (Ma.); tot.il (Ka.)(DEDR 3565). Petal of ka_ntal.: tut.uppu petal of ka_ntal. as resembling a ladle (Malaipat.u. 336)(Ta.lex.)

4441.Image: hole: t.ot.a_ hollow bamboo tube (H.); t.or.ko big hole in a tree (N.)(CDIAL 5479). cf. tor-alu hole (Ka.)(DEDR 3533). ton.t.i hole (Ta.); don.d.i id. (Te.) (Ta.lex.) d.od.d.o pit; d.hod.d.o_ id.; d.ho_d.hur hole in a tree; t.o_t.i_ the hole-entrance to the nest of the bee called mas-phuki (Go.); dod.a a pitted surface, pitted sore (Kui); tol.e hole, bored hole (Ka.); tol.kai perforating; tol.l.al hole; tol.l.ai hole, perforation, pit; tol.ai hole (Ta.)(DEDR 3528). Image: holes: dodoro holes in a leaf, basket or other receptacle; adj. of a receptacle of some kind with several holes: dodoro t.unkir.e baba alom doea; to cause to get holes; to get holes: ne t.unki dodorotana; dodoro-o to get holes; dodoroange, dodoroge with holes in it (Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p. 1078.) d.on.d.hor a hole, a hollow; dare d.on.d.hor a hollow in a tree; dondorpak a cavity, hollow; dongad.a a small pit or hole; any water course etc. that cannot be stepped over, but must be jumped (Santali.lex.) Hole; hollow: tun- hole, cavity; eli-ttun- rat-hole (Ta.); tu_tu, tu_ntu hole (Ka.); tu_ntu to make to enter (Ka.); tu~_t.u hole; tu~_t.a_d.u to bore, make holes (Te.); tu_thali to bore (Kuwi); ttro hole (Malt.); du_n well-shaft, well, pit (Br.)(DEDR 3399b). d.hun.ro hollow stem, funnel (N.); d.on. hole (Bshk.)(CDIAL 5606).

4442.Image: to jump over: du_n.t.u, du_t.u to walk on one leg, hop, rock; dun.t.u having uneven legs, rocking, unevenness (Ka.); du~_t.u to jump over, run away (Te.)(DEDR 3381).

4443.Image: shell of a fruit: to_t.u shell of a fruit, as of a wood-apple; sheath of grain (Ta.); shell (of various fruits), husk, pomegranate rind (Ma.); to_t.e, togat.u, togat.e bark, rind, peel, pod (Ka.); to_ta_ outer skin of the mahua fruit (Go.)(DEDR 3544). cf. to_l skin (Ta.)(DEDR 3559).

4444.Image: to resemble: tot.t.imai uniformity, unison (Ci_vaka. 2047); beauty (Perun.. Ucaik. 50,8)(Ta.lex.) cf. od.d.amne beautiful (Kuwi)(DEDR 967). tot.an:ku-tal to resemble (Nan-. 8)(Ta.lex.)

4445.Gold: tot.ukkam gold (Ta.lex.)

4446.Image: yoke carried by two persons: tot.t.a_ppu yoke for carrying a load (J.); tut.t.a_ppu carrying a load hung on a pole between two persons; a kind of pole; cit.t.ai-maram, yoke for load carried on the shoulders between two persons, dist. fr. ka_-maram carried by a single person (J.)(Ta.lex.) tot.t.a_t.t.u-man.iyam minor domestic duties as of menials (J.)(Ta.lex.)

4447.Image: water-trough: tot.t.i water-trough, tub, cistern, reservoir (Paripa_. 20,51); manger, crib (Ta.lex.) tot.t.i refuse bin (Ta.); trough of stone or wood, manger, font (Ma.); trough, font, tub (Ka.); bucket (Kod..); bucket, trough, tub (Tu.); tub, trough, manger (Te.)(DEDR 3484). Image: cradle: tot.t.il cradle, cot for infant (Ta.); cradle (Ma.Ka.); tot.t.ilu id. cot (Tu.); tot.la, tot.liya, tot.le cradle (Te.)(DEDR 3486).

4448.Insignia of kings: to_t.t.i an insignia of kings (Ta.lex.)

4449.Image: throat: t.od.ra neck (Go.Pe.); d.u_t.ra id. (Mand..); t.ot.ro, to_tro, t.o_t.ra throat (lower)(Kuwi)(DEDR 2984). tond. mouth, face; tond.a_tso of the mouth (Kon.); tond.pa_s'i oral (Kon.lex.) tot.i throat (Or.); t.ot.o throat (G.)(CDIAL 5853). ton.t.ai throat, gullet; windpipe, larynx (Ta.); ton.d.a (Ma.); d.on.d.e (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ton.t.u gap, narrow passage (Ta.Ma.); tol.kal perforating; tol.l.ai anything tubular (Ta.lex.) Image: throat: don.d. throat (Tu.); ton.t.ai throat, gullet, windpipe, larynx, voice, singing voice; don.t.e throat (Ta.); ton.t.a windpipe, throat, gullet (Ma.); tod. throat (inside and outside)(Ko.); don.d.E, don.d.e throat (Ka.); ton.d.e (Kod..); to_r.sa, to_sa, tosu, so_sa id. (G.); tn-r-e id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3498).

4450.Image: bison: dod.d.u a bison (Tu.lex.)

4451.Image: nipple: tottu nipple (Ma.); tot.t.u id., point (Ka.); tot.t.u nipple of a breast (Tu.)(DEDR 3488).

4452.Image: extremity; a sort of horn: tutta_ri a kind of bugle-horn (Ta.); horn, trumpet (Ma.); tutu_ri a long trumpet (Ka.); tutta_ri, tuttu_ri a long trumpet (Ka.); trumpet, horn, pipe (Tu.); tuta_ra_ a kind of trumpet (Te.); tuta_ri a wind instrument, a sort of horn (M.)(DEDR 3316). tudi, tutta an extremity, an end, a point, a top, a tip; tude, sude (Te.); tuti, tuy, toci, topi (Ta.); tuccha, tuja, tunbi, tumbu, tuyya (Ma.) (Ka.lex.) tuti point, sharp edge (Ta.); tut.t.atudi, tuttatudi the very point or end (Ka.); tudi point, end, extremity, top (Tu.); tuda end, extremity, tip; tudi end, termination; tut.t.a-tuda the very end or extremity; suda end, tip, point (Te.); tota point, pointed (Malt.)(DEDR 3314). Pointed: t.od.a the sharp point of a wooden plough in which the share is fixed; t.un.d.i the point where the shafts of a bullock cart unite, and where the yoke is attached (Santali.lex.) Trumpet: tu_ra a musical instrument (Yas'.); tu_la (BHSk.); tu_rya (Pa_n..Mn.); tu_ra, turu (Pkt.); turhi_ trumpet (P.); turar.i (B.); tura (Or.); turahi, turai (N.); turhi_, turai (H.); tu_r, tura_i_ (G.); turu drum (Si.); tujja a musical instrument (Pkt.); tu_riya (Pali); tu_ria (Pkt.); tu_ri_ trumpet (K.); turi (Ku.); turi_ (S.H.G.)(CDIAL 5901). ta_rai large brass trumpet, long reed instrument (Ta.); ta_ra a large trumpet (Ma.)(DEDR 3172).

4453.Bark: to_t.i, togat.u, tigat.u, togat.i bark, rind; peel; a pod, legume (Ka.); tugal, ton.d.u, to_d.u, to_li, to_l (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) ta_t.i skin, bark (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. to_t.u sheath of grain (Ta.)(DEDR 3544).

4454.Image: beehive: tod.d.e, tod.ve a large kind of bee or its hive (Tu.lex.) Image: honeycomb: tot.aiyal honeycomb (Ci_vaka. 1198)(Ta.lex.) Image: beehive: cf. tod.d.uv beehive, honeycomb (Tu.); tot.t.e a bee's empty cell (Ka.); tot.t. honeycomb (Tu.); tot.aiyal honeycomb (Ta.); tot. wax in honeycomb (To.)(DEDR 3490). Image: beehive: t.o_t.i_ the hole-entrance to the nest of the bee called mas-phuki_ (Go.); d.olla hollow (Te.); t.ol.l.e cavity, hollow (Ka.)(DEDR 3528). Image: honeycomb: tot.aiyal honeycomb; fastening, tying, weaving; flower-garland worn over shoulders (Ta.lex.) cf. ti_n-tot.ai beehive (Ta.)(DEDR 3268b). Homonymous compound: ti_n corcordant with ti~_ wire; tot.ai concordant with tor.dyal anklet (Kol.); tot.alai leaf-garment, jewelled girdle (Ta.)(DEDR 3482). Fastening: tot.ai fastening, tying (Kalit. 37); string (Paripa_. 6,16); cluster, bunch (Ci_vaka. 2708); flower-garland; bunch of fruits; lute-string; tot.aiyal fastening, tying, weaving (Ci_vaka. 464); flower-garland worn over shoulders; a kind of garland; succession, continuation (Poruna. 18)(Ta.lex.)

4455.Affairs of a person: service and wealth or service and religious vow or cultivation and irrigation: {Echo word} tondu to work hard (Tu.lex.) ton.t.u-turavu service; movements, concerns, affairs of a person, as watched by a thief or spy (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Literally, ton.t.u-turavu may be interpreted as garden and kine, with semant. extensions: (i) 'service' and (ownership of) 'kine' or 'service and wealth' or as (ii) 'service and religious vow' : cf. etyma for the terms in the compound: to_n.t.a garden; turavu sultan-well, large well for irrigation purposes; i.e. cultivation and irrigation. cf. dot.t.e a device for lifting water from wells, tanks etc., for irrigational purposes (Tu.lex.) Homonyms: ton.t.u devotedness to a deity, devoted service (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 5); slave, devoted servant (Na_lat.i. 224); tol.t.u (OK.)(Ta.lex.) -turavu may mean 'kine' or 'religous vow. For semant. turavu 'kine' cf. tur-u cow, kine; tor-u, tur-upu, turuhu = tur-u; tur-uka_r-a cowherd, owner of cows; tur-uval.a, tur-uva_l.a cowherd; fem. tur-uval.ti (Ka.); tor-r-u cow (Te.); tor-u, tor-uvu herd of cows, cattle-stall, shepherd caste, crowd, multitude, host; tor-uvan- shepherd; fem. tor-uvi, tor-utti (Ta.)(DEDR 3534). For semant. tuRpa 'religious vow' cf. Image: to worship, fulfil a vow: tuRpa- to invoke gods, fulfil a religous vow, adore, worship (?Kond.a)(DEDR 3525). Priest: tlo_mba mi_d.a a Kond boy through whom the offering is made to the earth god at the meriah sacrifice (Kui); thr.omba priest; tro_mba, trombeesi id.; fem. trombe_ni; tromba priest of the village (Kuwi)(DEDR 3567). cf. tod.(u)vu to invest (Te.)(DEDR 3482). Redness: cf. to_mpu redness, red dye (Ta.); to_peri red, rosy (Kui); to_pu a red-coloured cloth; red (Tu.)(DEDR 3553). cf. turavu a large well (Ma.); doruvu id., a tank, a dock for ships; doravi, doravu a large well (Te.); turavu sultan-well, large well for irrigation purposes (Ta.)(DEDR 3341). Image: gimlet: cf. turappan.am auger, drill, tool for making holes; turuvu (turuvi-) to bore, drill, perforate (Ta.)(DEDR 3339). cf. tor-alu, tor-al.e hole; tor-e, d.or-e hollow, hole (Ka.); tor-a, tor-at.a, tor-r-a hole, cavity in a tree (Te.); dora hole in tree (Go.)(DEDR 3533).

4456.Image: copper vessel: tonduru a copper vessel for baking cakes by steam; tondareta kara an earthen vessel used in preparing a kind of pudding called tondareta ad.ye, a kind of pudding cooked in steam (Tu.lex.)

4457.Image: entanglement: tondare entanglement, trouble (Tu.lex.) tontaravu trouble, vexation, difficulty (Ta.); tondara (Te.); tondare (Ka.); tontaram (Ma.); tontarai id. (Tiruppu. 623)(Ta.lex.) Distress, vexation: tontaravu, tontarai trouble, vexation, difficulty; tontari (-pp-, -tt-) to trouble, vex, annoy (Ta.); tontaram intricacy, vexation (Ma.); tondarv (obl. tondart-) act of troubling or disturbing a person; tonda.rm (obl. tonda.rt-) persistent trouble or pressure put upon a person (Ko.); tondare, tondaru, tondre intricacy, embarrassment, entanglement, difficulty, trouble, vexation, molestation, impediment, drawback (Ka.); tondare trouble (Kod..); tondar entanglement, confusion, perplexity, annoyance, trouble, vexation, misfortune, distress (Tu.); tondara trouble, annoyance, vexation, haste, hurry, confusion, perplexity, embarrassment (Te.)(DEDR 3506). ta_nta fainting, languishing (S'Br.); tam.ta distressed, wearied (Pkt.); ta_ta_vn.e~ to be worried (M.)(CDIAL 5763). ta_nti suffocation (A_pS'r.); tam.ti harassed thought (Pkt.); ta~_tad., ta_tad., ta~_td.i_, ta_td.i_ urgency, flurriedness (M.); ta~_tad.n.e~ to be in a flurry (M.)(CDIAL 5764).

4458.Authority: to_t.t.i authority (Paripa_. 8,86)(Ta.lex.) to_t.t.i watch, guard (Patir-r-up. 25,5)(Ta.lex.) ton.t.u service (Ta.lex.) Office; appointment; image: to investigate: todarok, todarot, todonto to investigate, to enquire into; tondehi, tondohi id.; tondori id.; tondari office, appointment (Santali.lex.) cf. tor..il act, action, deed, work, office, calling, profession, order, command, workmanship, verb (Ta.); tonduni, dunduni to work hard (Tu.)(DEDR 3524). Labourer; village messenger: t.o_t.al, to_t.a labourer (Pa.); to_t.t.i sweeper (Ma.); menial servant of a village, scavenger; fem. to_t.t.icci (Ta.Ma.); to_t.t.imai occupation of village messenger or scavenger (Ta.); to_t.i an inferior village servant, esp. one who performs the lowest offices, a sweeper, scavenger (Ka.); scavenger, sweeper (Tu.); a pariah (Te.); to.t.i scavenger; fem. to.t.t.ici (Kod..)(DEDR 3546). to_ce, to_t.i, to_t.iga scavenger etc. (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

4466.Elephant's hook: tuda striking, pricking, stinging (Ka.lex.) t.ror.an.u to pluck (S.); t.l.or.nu_ to pluck a flower (WPah.)(CDIAL 6079). to_d.ai breaks (Pkt.); tor.a_, tur.a_ to break (B.); tor.na_ to break, pluck (H.); tor.al id. (Bhoj.); tor.nu id. (N.); tor.n.o (Marw.); tror.vu~, tor.vu~ (G.); tod.n.e~ (M.); tro_t.ayati breaks, tears (Skt.)(CDIAL 6079). trun.d.un. to pluck (L.)(CDIAL 6066). turo_t.t.i elephant's hook; gardener's crook; tur-at.t.u-k-ko_l pole with an iron hook fixed at one end to pluck fruits and leaves; trut. break (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Goad; crooked instrument to pluck fruits: tur-at.t.i, tur-at.u, tur-o_t.t.i iron crook, elephant goad, pole with iron hook to pluck fruits, entanglement (Ta.lex.); cor-at.u a rod for plucking coconuts (Ta.); tur-at.u a hook, crook (Ma.); tor-ad.u crook, hook, crooked instrument for taking down fruits from trees (Ka.)(DEDR 3366). cf. tro_t.i (Skt.); tur-at.t.u-k-ko_l id. (Ta.); tur-at.t.u-mul. iron hook for hook-swinging, cf. cet.il (Ta.lex.) to_t.t.i An insignia of kings (Ta.lex.) to_ttra goad for cattle or elephants (SBr.); tutta (Pali); totta, tutta (Pkt.); tutta (Si.)(CDIAL 5966). to_da driver (RV.); to_daga one who hurts (Pkt.)(CDIA 5969). to_ya pain (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5968). Image: pole with an iron hook: t.o_r.o_ a long stick with an iron hook; a pole with an iron hook or branch curved down at one extremity (Kur.); t.o_r.na_ to hook in (Kur.); tu~r.i_ a variety of the native rake or t.o_r.o_ (Kur.); to_t.t.i elephant hook or goad, hook, clasp, sharp weapon planted in the ground to keep off enemies (Ta.); hook for driving an elephant, hook for plucking fruit (Ma.); do_t.i, lo_t.i pole with a hook for plucking fruit, gathering flowers (Ka.); do_n.t.i long pole with hook to pluck fruit (Tu.); do_t.i long pole with hook for cutting off fruit from high trees (Te.); t.o_t.al bamboo rake (Pa.)(DEDR 3547). Image: elephant hook or goad: to_t.t.i elephant hook or goad (Man.i. 27,47); sharp weapon planted in the ground to keep off enemies (Tol. Po. 65, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) to_da driver (RV.); to_daga one who hurts (Pkt.)(CDIA 5969). codeti, pp. codita to goad (Pali.lex.) d.o_n.i a particular thing or article of a peasant's cart (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Fish-hook; to goad: cu_n.t.a, cu_n.t.al fishing hook (Ma.); tu_n.t.il fish-hook, fishing tackle, hook (Ta.)(DEDR 3379). Spear: s'o_un.t.h, s'o_o~t. bow (for arrows)(Phal.); sot.a_ staff, cudgel (K.); so~t.h long bamboo (Bi.); sot.a_, so~t.a_ stout short stick (Bi.); sot.o staff, cudgel (G.); sot.iya, hot.iya spear (Si.); s'ota_ sharp stick (WPah.)(CDIAL 12622). Image: elephant hook: do_n.t.i long pole with hook to pluck fruit (Tu.); do~_t.i long pole with hook for cutting off fruit from high trees (Te.); to_t.t.i elephant hook or goad, hook, clasp, sharp weapon planted in the ground to keep off enemies (Ta.); hook for driving an elephant, hook for plucking fruit (Ma.); to_t.t.uka to pluck fruit with a to_t.t.i (Ma.); do_t.i, lo_t.i pole with a hook for plucking fruit, gathering flowers (Ka.); to_t.al bamboo rake (Pa.); t.o~_r.na_ to hook in; t.o_r.o~_ a pole with an iron hook or branch curved down at one extremity; tu_r.si_ a variety of the native rake or t.o_r.o~_ (Kur.); t.o_r.o_ a long stick with an iron hook (Kur.)(DEDR 3547). tu_r- (-t-) to shake down (mangoes)(Pe.); du_r- id. (Mand..); tu_r- to fall down (Go.)(DEDR 3391). tur-at.u a hook, (Ma.); tor-ad.u crook, hook, crooked instrument for taking down fruits from trees (Ka.)(DEDR 3366). tur-at.t.i, tur-at.u, tur-o_t.t.i iron crook, elephant goad, pole with iron hook to pluck fruits, entanglement (Ta.lex.); cor-at.u a rod for plucking coconuts (Ta.)(DEDR 3366). cf. tu_n.t.il fish-hook, fishing tackle, hook (Ta.); cu_n.t.al, cu_n.t.a fishing hook (Ma.)(DEDR 3379). tu_n.t.u (tu_n.t.i-) to shoot, discharge, propel an arrow, command, direct, incite, goat, remind, suggest, bring to notice as by word or signal, trim a lamp; n. exciting, rousing (Ta.); cu_n.t.uka to shoot with a cross-bow, catch fish, trim a lamp (Ma.); tu.n.d.- (tu.n.d.y-) to force to an action (Ko.); du_d.u to push, thrust, shove away or aside, throw out, as out of a village, caste; du_d.isu to cause to push, etc., cause oneself to be pushed, etc. (Ka.); du_d.uni to thrust, push, reject (Tu.); du~_t.u to butt, push, thrust (Te.); ct.e to cast, throw; cut.are to spirt (Malt.)(DEDR 3380). to_ttiram < to_tra goad fo driving cattle (Ta.lex.)

4459.Image: hand-to-hand fight: to_t.i a hand-to-hand conflict, an affray; a scuffle, a struggle; fight, a quarrel; tod.aku, hod.aku (Ka.); tod.aru = po_ra_d.u, yuddhamu ce_su (Te.); to_t.agey to come to a hand-to-hand fight (Ka.); to_t.a-ka_r-a a hand-to-hand fighter (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) tonta-yuttam duel, hand-to-hand fight (Ce_tupu. Ci_taikun.t.a. 12)(Ta.lex.) tot.ar-tal to assail, attack (Ta.); tod.aru id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) dvandva strife, dispute, contest, fight; dvandva-yuddha a duel, a single combat (Ka.lex.)

4460.To compund medicines: tontittal to compound, as medicines, mix (Pan.avit.u. Pak. 22)(Ta.lex.)

4461.Image: wolf: to_n.t.a_n- wolf (Ta.); to_l.a id. (Ka.); to_l.u, to_l.e id. (Tu.); to~_d.e~_lu id. (Te.); to_la jackal (Br.)(DEDR 3548). Image: wild cat: togot a kind of wild cat; t.ot.ok id.; toyo the jackal, canis auerus (Santali.lex.) on.t.an- jackal (Ta.lex.)

4462.Invocation: to_t.ayam (perh. tro_t.aka) song at the beginning of a drama invoking the aid of the gods (Ira_mana_. Pa_laka_. 1); to_t.aiyam id. (Ta.lex.) tro_t.akam a species of drama, e.g. Ka_lida_sa's Vikramorvasiyam; an angry speech; sto_tr. a praiser, panegyrist; sto_tavyam fit to be praised, laudable, praiseworthy (Skt.lex.) stunvanti 3 pl. praise (BhP.); stunva_na pres. part. (Up.); thunati praises, proclaims (Pali); thun.ai praises (Pkt.); chants hyumns (OG.)(CDIAL 13700). stuti praise (RV.); thuti praise (Pali); thui (Pkt.); hymn of praise (OG.); tiyu, tivu praise, thanks (Si.)(CDIAL 13698). sto_tram praise, eulogium; a hymn of praise, panegyric (Skt.lex.); stu praise (Skt.); stavana praise (BhP.); stavanya to be praised (Skt.); thun.n.a proud, puffed up (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13689). sta_va praise (Skt.inscr.); stava (RV.); ista-kaun praise; ista_o entreating (Wg.)(CDIAL 13691). sto_ma praise, hymn (RV.); tho_ma praise (Pali)(CDIAL 13726). sto_mayati praises (Dha_tup.); tho_me_ti praises (Pali); temanava_, temum praise (Si.)(CDIAL 13728). sam.sta_va hymning in chorus (ChUp.); place where this is done (S'Br.)(CDIAL 13045). to_ttiri-ttal < sto_tra to praise, extol, belaud (Vina_yakapu. 75,336); to_ttiram words of salutation (Tiruva_ca. 20,4)(Ta.lex.) To begin; work: tot.u (tot.uv-, tot.t.-) to begin, occur, happen; come into being; (-pp-, -tt-) to commence, undertake; tot.akku (tot.akki-), tut.akku (tut.akki-) to begin; tot.akkam, tut.akkam origin, beginning; tot.an:ku (tot.an:ki-), tut.an:ku (tut.an:ki-) to begin, originate, undertake, engage in; tot.an:kal beginning, first creation, attempt; tot.uppu commencement (Ta.); tot.uka to commence; tot.ukka to commence a work; tot.t.u beginning from; tot.an.n.uka to begin, commence, undertake, do; tut.an.n.ikka to cause to commence or undertake; tut.akkam beginning; tut.aruka to commence, undertake, do (Ma.); tot.l. te.l first menses (Ko.); tod.aku, tod.an:ku, tod.agu to engage (as in work), begin, commence, undertake; tod.agisu to cause to commence or undertake; tod.aguha beginning, undertaking; tod.avu the beginning, the bottom; tod.u to begin, start with (Ka.); tod.aguni to begin, commence, undertake; tod.agelu beginning (Tu.); tot.t.u to commence; tod.a~gu, ton.a~gu to begin, commence; tod.aru to undertake (Te.); t.o_n.d.a (t.o_n.d.i-) to begin, initiate, attempt; n. beginning, attempt; pl. action t.o_t.ka (t.o_t.ki-) (Kui); tor.ge to be in readiness for action (Malt.); durring, durre_nging to dare, venture (Br.)(DEDR 3481). d.arun to begin (K.); a_raddha begun (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 1305).

4463.Garden and fruit store-house: {Echo word} to_t.a tud.ike dupl. a garden and what belongs to it (Ka.); Fruit store-house: tud.ike a fruit store-house (Ka.lex.)[cf. ton.t.u-turavu service (Ta.lex.)]; to_t.ava_l.a a gardener (Ka.); to_t.iga, to_n.t.iga, to_t.aga_r-a a gardener, a florist (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Todas of the Nilgiris: tut.avai grove, garden (Man.i. 13,10); cultivated field (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,1,5)(Ta.lex.) tut.ari a hill in Tinnevelly district (Ma_r-an-alan.. 96,157)(Ta.lex.) tot.t.iyan- person of a Telugu caste of cultivators, settled in the western portion of the Madura district, who assume the title of Na_ykkar (E.T.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ton.t.iyo_r the Cholas (Cilap. U_rka_n.. 107); the Cheras (Patir-r-up. 88)(Ta.lex.) Toda man: ton Toda man (< *tod-n); tody Toda woman (Ko.); toz,-mox Toda woman (To.); toda, todava a Toda (Ka.); tut.avar, to_t.ar Todas of the Nilgiris; the words are made on the basis of English pronunciation (Ta.)(DEDR 3504). t.ud.u a Santal sept; tur.i a semi-Hinduized caste of aborigines, by profession drummers (Santali.lex.) d.und.un name of a sept of Mundas (Mu.)(Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1267). Garden: tot.u garden (Ta.lex.) to_t.a, to_n.t.a a garden (Ka.); to_t.e (Te.); to_t.t.am (Ta.Ma.); tod.i, tod.ige (Ma.); tot.u (Ta.); tod.uge, tod.uve an enclosure, compound (Ma.); to_t.a, tot.uvu an enclosed ground adjoining a house; tut.avai a cultivated high ground; a flower garden (Ta.); to_n.t.avesan:geya to cultivate a garden (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) to_t.t.am garden, orchard, plantation (Perun.. Ucaik. 39,63); grove; backyard, enclosure; to_t.t.a-va_riyam supervision of gardens (T.A.S. iii,78); to_t.t.akka_ran- gardener, husbandman; proprietor of a garden (Ta.Ma.); to_t.aga_r-a (Ka.); to_t.t.akka_l garden lands watered by means of a well and rendered fit for the growth of vegetables, tobacco, fruit-trees, crop of grain (W.G.)(Ta.lex.) tot.t.i fence, yard, pound (Ta.); dod.d.i (Te.); dot.t.i (Ma.); tot.t.i enclosure for selling timber, fire-wood; small village (Tan-ippa_. 8,142,37)(Ta.lex.) tot.u (tot.uv-, tot.t.-) to dig, scoop out, excavate, pierce through; n. field, garden; tut.aval garden, cultivated field (Ta.); tot.i garden (Ma.); to.t.m (obl. to.t.t-) fenced field (Ko.); twi.t.m (twi.d.t-) garden; to.t. = twi.t.m: tot.is 0o.r- man on an estate, i.e. European (To.); to.t.a garden (Kod..); tud.a bored, scooped out; to_t.a garden, orchard, plantation (Tu.); to_t.ige a class of brahmans working in plantations (Tu.); to~_t.a garden, grove, tope; to~_t.ava~_d.u, to~_t.i~_d.u gardener (Te.); to_nt.a garden (Ga.); t.o_n.t.a garden, grove (Kond.a); t.ot.a mango grove; t.o_t.a garden, grove (Kuwi); tot.a_ pleasure-garden, mango-tope (Or.)(DEDR 3549). cf. tu.d.e hill mango, meliosma pungens and wightii (A_lKu.); tod.e, tu.d.e id. (Ka.)(DEDR 3377). Image; spying; service; field: tot.u to undertake (Ka_cika. Kan.apati. 1); field, agricultural land; garden (Ta.lex.) ton.t.u-turavu service; movements, concerns, affairs of a person,as watched by a thief or spy; ton.t.i-va_ram cultivator's share in the produce (R.T.)(Ta.lex.)

4464.Advance: co_ntai interest, concern, connection; advance in coin or kind given by a land-owner to his cultivating tenant in order that the latter may remain continually attached to him (Ta.lex.) tun.t.a-k-ka_n.i-me_rai fees in kind paid to the village officers calculated from the number of ka_n.i in a village and the average produce per ka_n.i (M.N.A.D. I,173); tun.t.am a small plot of field (Ta.lex.) For semant. 'thief' in ton.t.u-turavu affairs watched by a spy or thief (Ta.) cf. tud.ugu, tud.i theft; tud.uga thief; ton.d.a id. (Ka.); tor.kenji thief (Kui)(DEDR 3483). cf. turuval searching (Ta.)(DEDR 3347).

4465.Gateway: to_t.t.i door (Maturaik. 693); gateway, gate (Ta.lex.)

4467.Kinsman: tungre to be collected, assemble (Malt.); tunge to collect (Malt.); ton.e a person's support (physical or another person)(Kod..); likeness, parity, equality (Ka.); tun.a match, companion, help, assistance, guard, convoy (Ma.); tun.ar to cluster as flowers (Ta.); tun.aivan husband, friend, companion, minister, helper, assistant, brother, cousin (Ta.)(DEDR 3308). tun-r-unar friends (as being near)(Ta.); tunniya_r, tunninar friends, relations, adherents (Ta.)(DEDR 3367). [cf. to_r..an friend (Ta.); to_nd. kinsman (Ga.); tor., tor, to_r.o_ with, help (Go.); torata_ ma_naval partner, fellow (Go.); to_r.u help, company, assistance (Kond.a); t.o_n.d.a friendship (Kond.a); to_r-e friend, friendship (Ka.); to_r.u friendship (Kui); to_r.u companion (Kuwi); to_r.a-a_ to accompany (Kuwi)(DEDR 3563). cf. tun.ai association, company, help (Ta.)(DEDR 3308).] Married life: tor..u married life (Ci_vaka. 856)(Ta.lex.)

4468.Image: to worship, adore, pay homage to: tudi < stuti praise, eulogy (Ven:kaikko_. 62); tutittal to praise, eulogise (Tiruvaca. 7,10); to worship (Uri. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) stu praise (Skt.); stuti praise (RV.)(CDIAL 13698). tor..u-tal to worship, adore, pay homage to (Kur-al., 828); tor..uga id. (Ma.); tul.il id. (Ka.); tor..uvu worshipping, adoration (A_ca_rak. 63); tor..ukai worshipping, adoration (Tiruva_ca. 20,4); tor..u-taku-tal to esteem, admire (Ci_vaka. 2076); to love, desire (Ci_vaka. 2807)(Ta.lex.) Image: to worship: tor..uvu worshipping, adoration (Ta.); tor..uka to salute by joining the hands, acknowledge superiority (Ma.); tur..il salutation, obeisance, bow (Ka.); to- (topp-, tott-) to salute (Kod..); turli obeisance; solma, solme salutation (Tu.); dor.i_ to bow (Go.); t.od. (t.ot.t-) id. (Pe.); t.ud. to bow head (Mand..); tuRpa to invoke gods, fulfil a religious vow, adore, worship (?Kond.a)(DEDR 3525).

4469.Image: cage for wild animals: tor..u cage for wild animals (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 181)(Ta.lex.) Image: cattle-pound: tor..u stable (Ma.); married life (Ta.); tor..uti multitude, crowd, herd, flock of birds (Ta.); to_r.., to_r..am cattle-stall (Ta.); ton.t.u cattle pound (Ta.); tor..uttu stable, sheepfold, pen for goats (Ma.); to.y buffalo pen (Ko.); twi. corral, pen (To.); -tol in cakur-tol cattle shed (Pa.)(DEDR 3526). [cf. tot.t.i fence, yard, pound, small village (Ta.)(DEDR 3485).] tor-u, tor-uvu herd of cows, cattle-stall, shepherd caste, crowd, multitude, host (Ta.); tur-u cow, kine (Ka.); tor-u, tur-upu, turuhu = tur-u cow, kine (OKa.); tor-r-u cow (Te.)(DEDR 3534). tor..uvan shepherd (Ta.); tur.uka_r.a cowherd, owner of cows (Ka.); tur-uval.a, tur-uva_l.a cowherd (Ka.)(DEDR 3534). d.od.i back-yard of house (for plants, etc.)(Kond.a.); id., used for kitchen garden (Kuwi); cow-pen (Go.); d.od.i_ id. (Go.); tot.t.i fence, yard, pound, enclosure for selling timber or firewood, small village (Ta.); long narrow garden, loft in a house (Ma.); building with a square open court at the centre, the court itself (Ka.); dot.t.i cattle-pound (Ma.); dod.d.i backyard, stable for cattle (Te.); cow-pen, cattle-pound, fold, stable (Ka.); dad.d.i id. (Ka.); tod.ia small garden adjoining a house (Kod..); dud.d.i cattle-pound (Tu.)(DEDR 3485). Manger: tor..u cattlestall, manger (e_r-u-tor..u_up pukuttan-ar : Kalit. 101); pound; stocks; prison (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,2,3); tor..u-k-kat.t.ai pound (Ta.); tor..uku cattle-stall, manger; tor..uvam cattle-stall, manger (Kur-un. 190); tor..uttu id. (Ma.); torrupat.t.u id. (Te.); tor..uvar-ai cattle-shed (Akana_. 253); tor..uti multitude, crowd; herd (Pur-ana_. 44); denseness, fullness as of a bird's feather (Ci_vaka. 1187)(Ta.lex.) Herd: t.ola any clan of high-caste Hindus (K.); t.oro flock of sheep, herd, gang (S.); t.ola_ herd (of bulls); t.oli_ pack (of wolves or jackals)(L.); t.oli_ party; t.olko herd, flock (Ku.); t.ol division of a town, party, gang (N.); t.ol premises (A.); shed, school (B.); hamlet, party (H.); t.oli_ group, band (H.); t.ol.u~ flock of sheep; t.ol.ki_ bank (G.); t.o_l.i_ flock of sheep (M.); t.olo party; t.oli_ band of musicians (S.); t.olla_, t.ola_ clan, quarter of a town (P.); t.ola Sanskrit school; t.ula_ hamlet, part of a village (Or.); t.ol village, quarter of a town (Mth.); tul herd of cattle, company, society (A.)(CDIAL 5483). tor..ukulatto_r brahmins (Cu_t.a_.); tor..ukular id. (Pin..); tor..ukulam the brahmin caste, as worthy of worship (Tiruvil.ai. Ya_n-ai. 32); family deity (Tiruva_ca. 6,28); persons who make their family worthy of being worshipped (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,7,8)(Ta.lex.) tor-u herd of cows (Ci_vaka. 474); tor-r-u id. (Te.); tur-u id. (Ka.); tor-uvu herd of cows (Te_va_. 628,2); tor-u cattle-stall (Pin..); shepherd caste (Ci_vaka. 477); crowd, multitude, host (Kantapu. Yutta. Mutan-a_t.. 15); tor-utti shepherdess (Ci_vaka. 488); tor-uvan- shepherd; tor-uvi shepherdess (Cu_t.a_.); tor-u-v-it.am cattle-stall (Ta.lex.) Distribute suffix of place, time: tor-u part. a distributive suffix of place, time; ta_n-pun.arnta mor..iyin- porun.maiyin-aip palava_kki at.uttat.uttu a_n:ka_n:ku en-pan-a pat.a nir-kum o_rit.ai-c-col (navir-or-um nu_n-ayam po_lum : Kur-al., 783; Nan-. 420, Mayilai.)(Ta.lex.)

4470.Image: heap; pile: dondad.i, dondan.a, dondan.i, dondul.i mass, crowd, throng, squeeze, tumult, fray; dodde mass, heap, crowd (Ka.); dondad.i crowd, throng; dontara, donti pile, heap (Te.)(DEDR 3505). Image: to press together: tutai-tal to be crowded, thick, close, intense (Akana_. 82); tutai-ttal to press together (Ta.lex.) tutai (-v-, -nt-) to be crowded thick, close, intense, abount, be copious; (-pp-, -tt-) to press together; n. closeness, crowded state; tatai (-v-, -nt-) to be thickset, crowded, densely-packed; (-pp-, -tt-) to be full, abundant; tatumpu (tatumpi-) to become full (Ta.); tod- (tody-) to cook (grain or flour) into solid mass by compressing it with a stick (Ko.)(DEDR 3315). dumhe to heap, to collect together, to assemble; ad.i hor.ko dumhe akana: many people are assembled; tudra to assemble together, to crowd together; to cluster (Santali.lex.)

4471.Image: bull: tor..u-ma_t.u bull trained for the baiting sport; sport of bull-baiting (E.T. iii,89)(Ta.lex.)

4472.Image: entanglement: cf. tod.aru entanglement (Tu.)(DEDR 3480). cf. tondar entanglement (Tu.)(DEDR 3506). To build, tie, bind: tot.t.a_ < tvas.t.a_ nom. sg. of tvas.t.r. one of tuva_taca_tittar (Nal.l.iru l.er-i tot.t.a_ : Ku_rmapu. A_tavarcir-ap. 2); tot.t.a_cci, tot.t.a_ycci godmother, ja_n-atta_y (Ta.lex.) [The twelve manifestations of Sun, tuva_taca_tittar < dva_das'a_ditya are: ta_tturu, cakkaran-, ariyaman-, mittiran-, varun.an-, acuman, iran.iyan-, pakava_n-, tivaccuvan-, pu_t.an-, cavitturu, tuvat.t.an- according to Tiva_karam; vaikattan-, vivaccutan-, va_can-, ma_rtta_n.t.an-, pa_r-karan-, iravi, ulo_kappiraka_can-, ulo_kaca_t.ci, tirivikkiraman-, a_tittan-, tiva_karan-, an:kicama_li according to Pin:kala-nikan.t.u; ta_ta_, ariyama_, mittiran-, varun.anna, cakkaran-, vivaccuva_n-, pu_ta_, parccan-n-iyan-, acan-, pakan-, tot.t.a_, vit.t.un.u according to Ku_rmapura_n.am (Ta.lex.) dohta_na_ to bind, tie, build a house, weave a fish-trap; tohta_na_, to'-, do'-, toh-, doh- to tie (Go.); toR- (-t-) to tie, bind, build (Kond.a); tohpa (toht-) to tie, bind, fasten; n. act of tying, binding (Kui); do_ssali, do_h'nai to bind, tie; doh- (-t-) to tie, build (Kuwi)(DEDR 3536). tot.uttal to bind, fasten, enchain, tie, continue as a series (Mullaip. 12); to link together, to string as beads (Na_lat.i, 393); to store, preserve (Kalit. 40)(Ta.lex.)

4473.Image: sexual intercourse: tontan-ai sexual union (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Kavur-can-a. 26)(Ta.lex.) Collection, assemblage; accompanying: tot.u (tot.uv-, tot.t.-) to touch, come in contact with, feel or perceive by the touch (Kur-al., 1159); to handle, take hold of, use (Kantapu. Vi_rapat. 38); to be connected, united with or joined to; to feel, use, have illicit intercourse (as with another's wife); (-pp-, -tt-) to connect, join, bind, fasten, fix (as arrow on bow), enchanin, tie, surround; tot.t.al touching, tying, binding; tot.t.u touching, concerning, in reference to; tot.akku (tot.akki-), tut.akku (tut.akki-) to catch hold of (Kalla_. 62,28); to tie; get entangled, obstructed (Periyapu. A_n-a_ya. 4); n. tying, binding, entanglement (Perun.. Makata. 2,13); bondage (Tiruva_ca. 37,10); connexion, attachment (Kampara_. Carapan.. 27); tut.an:ku shackles; tot.uppu continuity, fastening, linking, tie, chain, illicit connexion, paramour, concubine; tot.uvai that which is joined or appended, man and woman living in concubinage; tot.ai fastening, tying (Kalit. 37); series, succession (Kalla_. 39,10); joints of the body (Pur-ana_. 78); surrounding wall; tot.aiyal succession, continuation (Poruna. 18); fastening, tying (Ci_vaka. 464); garland; tot.ar (-v-, -nt-) to follow uninterruptedly, be linked, pursue, persist in with energy; to connect, tie, bind (Nar-. 220); n. following, succession; chain (Pur-ana_. 74); fetters (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,7,1); friendship, connexion, touch, relationship, friendship, series, chain; tot.arnto_r friends; tot.al, tut.ar chain; tut.ar (-v-, -nt-) to follow one after another; to_t.u collection, assemblage; tot.arcci association, connection, touch (Periyapu. Can.t.e_cu. 13); friendship, intimacy (Tirikat.u. 1); series, train, range, row, chain (Kalla_. 26,30); effort; tot.arppa_t.u connection, attachment (Kur-al., 345); tot.arvu effort (Tiruva_ca. 8,120); tot.arar dependants; tot.arit.utal to work at continuously (Ta_yu. Malaival.ar. 4); tot.alai garland (Kur-al., 1135); jewelled girdle (Pur-ana_. 339)(Ta.lex.); tot.al touching, being close, a chain; tot.uvikka to make to touch; tot.t.u concerning, about; tot.ukka to bring into contact, put together, put the arrow on the bow; tut.a connexion (as of an arrow with a bow); tut.aruka to be linked, continue, pursue; tut.ar, tut.al chain, string, woman's waistchain; tut.arcca continuation, friendship; tut.ara unremittingly (Ma.); twad.- (twad.0-) to be polluted; twad.f- (twad.t-) to pollute; twir.f- (twir.t-) to entangle (To.); twir.k hook, link of chain; to.t.- (to.t.y-) to bring up (child), take (woman of the other moiety) as concubine; to.t.yfoy mox concubine (To.); tud.u/tod.u (tot.t.-) to join, put to or on, put (arrow) on (bow); n. putting on etc.; tud.uku, tud.iku,tud.un:ku to touch, touch with some force, grasp quickly, snatch; tud.uku grasping quickly etc.; tud.ukisu to cause to seize etc.; tod.aku, tod.an:ku to get entangled, caught; entangle, involve; n. (also tod.agu, tod.aka) entangling, impediment, hindrance, perplexity; tod.akisu to cause to join, bring in contact, involve; tod.acu to put on (as arrows on the bow)(Ka.); tod.ar, tod.ru, ton.d.ar to be linked to, connected with or tied to, join, enter, meet, be bound, arrested, entangled, caught, wind oneself round; n. joining, connexion, a tie, chain, impediment; tod.arcu to tie, link, fasten, insert; tod.ambe cluster, bundle, bunch; tod.arpu entanglement, connection, impediment, obstacle (Ka.); tod.- (tod.uv-, tot.t.-) to touch (Kod..); tot.t.uni, tot.t.on.uni to embrace, hug, hold fast; tod.aru entanglement, obstacle; tod.umb a cluster of flowers (Tu.); tot.t.u to carry a child (Kor.); tod.u, tod.(u)gu, tod.(u)vu to put arrow on bow; tod.aru to follow, accompany, happen, occur; endeavour, attempt; reach, obtain, hold, copulate with, attack; tod.arika following, accompanying; tod.aruvu endeavour, attempt; tod.usu business, affair, connection; tot.t.u to touch, be joined, come in contact with (Te.); t.od.- (t.ot.t.-) to touch; t.od.ip- (tod.it-) to make to touch; t.od.u rope (Pa.); toru rope (Ga.); torru string, rope (Ga.); to_r.ha_na_ to sleep with, have intercourse with (only in marriage song); turs- to gather, collect (Go.); tor.sogna_ (tur.sygyas) to touch slightly with foot (Kur.); tr.e to string the bow (Malt.); tod.ara a kind of garland (Pkt.)(DEDR 3480). dhou thread (wool or cotton)(WPah.); dhautakat.a bag of coarse cloth (Skt.)(CDIAL 6883). Joints: tot.ai joints of the body (Pur-ana_. 78) (Ta.lex.)

4474.Expenditure: tu_r-u, tu_r-r-u to scatter; to squander or waste a property (Ta.); dundu excessive expenditure, waste, prodigality (Ka.Ta.); dundavutana a sumptuous dinner prepared without an adequate occasion; dundud.a_yisu to scatter squanderingly, to squander; dundu ma_d.u to squander; dunduga_r-a a male spendthrift, a prodigal; dunduga_rti a female spendthrift (Ka.lex.)

4475.Block of wood: ton.t.u block of wood suspended from the neck of an animal to prevent it passing through hedges (Ta.); log of wood (Ma.); tor.pa wooden log (tied to the necks of refractory cattle)(Kuwi)(DEDR 3496). Image: latch, bolt: tu_nda_m the bar of wood which secures a screen door at night (Go.); t.und.a (t.und.i-) to shut, close, stop up; n. act of shutting; pl. action t.ut.ka (t.ut.ki-); t.ond. = t.und.a (Kui); tund.inai to close; dundinai to shut; d.undinai to latch; talomi d.undinai to lock; thundamu bolt; sund.- (-it-) to shut; su_ndali to close, shut; s'und.- to close; sut.- to shut (door), block up hole (Kuwi)(DEDR 2962).

4476.Funeral dinner: tod.ale funeral dinner, hardship (Tu.lex.)

4477.Stammer: todal(u), todal., todul., toval faltering, stammering, speaking inarticulately or indistinctly, lisping; untruth; dodde indistinct or inarticulate speech connected with stuttering (Ka.); todale stammerer; todal. stammering, indistinct pronunciation, untruth; dodd lisping, stammering; dojjuni to stammer; dojje stammerer (Tu.); totr- to stammer (Pa.); tothali to mumble, stammer; toth'nai to stammer (Kuwi); todli stammerer; todlqot.e to stammer, lisp (Malt.)(DEDR 3503). totla_ stammering (P.); totl.a_ lisping (WPah.); tote babbling, lisping (N.); totla_ stammering (B.); total.a_, totala_ (Or.); totra_h (Mth.); totar, totla_ (H.); totl.u~, totlu~, totr.u~ (G.); totl.a_, totra_ (M.); totla_un.a_ to stammer (P.); tutla_n.o to talk wildly (Ku.); thotha_, thotar.a_, thutra_, thathra_ stammering; thota_ idiot (Or.); tho_ta_ stammering (A.); tho~ti_ babbler, garrulous (Mth.)(CDIAL 5965). todale a stammerer; todal.e stammering (Tu.lex.) ter-r-u (ter-r-i-) to stammer, stutter, stumble, be obstructed, hindered, mistake, commit a fault, do wrong; n. tripping, mistake, wrong (Ta.); ter-r-u slip, stumble, mistake, something aside or out of order; ter-r-uka to slip, fail, mistake, err, be asunder or aside; ter-r-a aside, not in array; ter-r-al slippery place, mistake etc.(Ma.); ter-r-ikka to make to slip, err (Ma.); teri- (terip-, teric-) to totter about (as a child or through weakness)(Kod..); dat.t.u stumbling, tripping (Ka.); dan.t.uni, s'en.t.uni to stumble (Tu.); dan.t.i id. (Kor.)(DEDR 3445). tikku (tikki-) to stutter, stammer, err or hesitate as in recitation, reading etc.; n. stuttering, halting in speech; tikku-va_yan- stammerer, stutterer (Ta.); tikk stuttering; tikkuka to stammer (Ma.); tekva-yn. stammerer, stutterr (Ko.); tikkalu stuttering (Ka.)(DEDR 3210). tar-uku to stammer (Ta.)(DEDR 3143).

4478.Image: creeper: tun.d.ika_ momordica monadelpha (Skt.); tun.d.ike_ri_ (Sus'r.); to~d.ya_, to~d.a_ an esculent herb (M.); to~d.li_, to~d.ol.i_ momordica monadelpha; to~d.le~, to~d.ol.e~ its fruit (M.)(CDIAL 5854). ton.t.ai a common creeper of the hedges (= ko_vai bryonia epigaea)(Ta.); ton.t.i b. grandis (Ma.); ton.d.e, ton.d.i, don.d.e, kon.d.e the gourd momordica monadelpha = b. grandis (Ka.); don.d.a coccinia indica, bryonia, m. monadelpha (Te.); t.und.a creeper (Pa.); t.ond.a id. (Go.); t.ond.ri tondla vegetable (Go.); t.o_nd.o_ri coccinia indica (Go.); d.on.d.a c. indica (Kond.a); d.o_nd.i pumpkin (Kui); tun.d.i_ a kind of gourd (Skt.)(DEDR 3499). o_s.t.hi_ the plant coccinia grandis (with the red fruit to which lips are compared)(Skt.); o~t. a partic. tree; its fruit (M.)(CDIAL 2564). cf. ko_vai coccinia indica (Ta.)(DEDR 2247). tori_ a small gourd (P.); toriya~_ autumnal fruit of a creeper of which vegetable food is made (Ku.); toriyo, toriu~, pl. toriya_, toriya~_ gourd (eaten as a vegetable)(N.); tora_ pottage (B.)(CDIAL 5977).

4479.Pumpkin: duddhia pumpkin (Pkt.); duddhin.i_, duddhin.ia_ gourd (Pkt.); dudhi_n. gourd (M.)(CDIAL 6399). cf. d.o_nd.i pumpkin (Kui); don.d.e the gourd momordica monadelpha (Ka.)(DEDR 3499).

4480.Image: creeper: ton:ki_n- < tonquin Rangoon creeper, quisqualis indica (Ta.); ton:kippu_ Indian cowslip creeper, kot.i-c-campan:ki (Ta.lex.) Image: creeper: dolu a creeper plant, shrub, pl,ant of shoot height (Kond.a); dol plant; stem, trunk (Pe.); dul plant; sapling (Mand..); ku_d.i-d.od.u rice plant; d.od.u tree (Kui); ku_li-dolu rice plant; dulomi plant (Kuwi)(DEDR 3517). Image: shrub: dod.li a large shrub or small tree, atalantia monophylla (Ka.); dod.d.al, dod.l wild orange (lime), atalantia monophylla (Tu.)(DEDR 3493). New shoot of creeper: d.uku girl's breast when it begins to swell (S.); d.uku new shoot of a creeper (N.); d.oki_n.o to be satiated (Ku.)(CDIAL 5556).

4481.Image: chameleon: t.on.d.o chameleon (Kond.a); d.on.n.e, ton.d.e, ton.n.e chameleon (Ka.); ton.d.a id.; blood-sucker (Te.)(DEDR 3501). donda calotes versicolor, the blood-sucker or garden-lizard (Encyclopaedia Mundarica, p.1082.)

4482.Produce of a single dive at pearl-fishery: to_t.ai produce of a single dive at a pearl-fishery (W.)(Ta.lex.)

4483.Image: squatting: dondhor.o, dondkor.o squatting, cowering, sitting close to the ground; dondkor.o kulaiye obor akana: the hare is sitting cowering (Santali.lex.)

4484.Small quantity: to_ttai small quantity, as can be held in the hollow of the hand (J.)(Ta.); to_de (Ka.); to_d.emu (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

4485.Gyrocarpus jacquini: tan.akku whirling nut, gyrocarpus jacquini (Ta.); tan.akku id. (Ma.); tan.uku id. (Te.)(DEDR 3046).

4486.Gong: t.an.n.-en-l onom. expr. signifying the sound of a bell (Ta.); t.an., t.an.a sound of a gong being struck, of a metal vessel falling and striking hard things (Ka.); d.han.a, d.han.al, dan., dan.a, dan.al, dan.-dan.a_-dan.a a sound to imitate that emitted by a gong when struck (Ka.); t.an.t.an.u a noise made in sounding a brass vessel, etc., with the knuckles, the striking of a clock (Tu.); d.an.d.an.u sound of a gong (Tu.); d.an.a-d.an.a sound of a large bell (Tu.); dan.alu sound of a bell (Tu.)(DEDR 2944). t.han.akn.a_ to jingle (P.); t.han.a_ka_ jingling (P.); t.han-t.han clanging (B.H.); t.han.a-t.han.a (Or.); t.han.t.han.vu~ to clank; t.han.akvu~ to beat, throb (G.); t.han.-t.han. with the sound of hammering (M.); t.han.t.han.n.e~ to clank, beat, throb (M.); t.han:ka_vin.e~ to ring (of a vessel)(M.)(CDIAL 5494).

4487.Until: tanaka, tanka, anaka upto that measure; till, until, as far as (Ka.); danake, da_ka_, da_ke (Te.); tane (Ma.); tan-ai quantity, number, measure (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. tan-ai a particle denoting quantity and time-limit (Ta.)(DEDR 3147). ittun till, until (Kon.lex.) dhabic, habic, dharic till; enec not till then (Santali.lex.)

4488.Revenue: tankega_r auditor, reviser; tankeka_l novitiate, time of trial; tanke ka_ga_d proof-sheet; tanki, tanke inquiry, trial; mona_ tanki examination of conscience; tanki kar inquire into, audit, discuss, revise (Kon.lex.) tanakhe an assignment on the revenues, an order for money; a standard rent-roll of villages (Ka.); tanakha_ (H.M.); tanakha_, tanikhi (Te.); tanaki ascertaining, examination (Ka.); tanqih (H.); tanaki, tanakki, tanikhi (Te.)(Ka.lex.) tankhah wages, pay; a fine among the Sikhs, for breaking any of the religious precepts laid down by Guru Gobind Singh, i.e. for cutting hair, eating kut.t.ha, meat killed according to Moslem rite, smoking and cohabitation with a woman of another religion; tankha_hia one to procure money to pay wages; one who is fined among the Sikhs on account of a breach of religious principles (P.lex.) tan.ikkai < tanqiya (Arabic) inspection, inquiry, supervision; tan.iki id. (C.G.); tan-ikkai, tan-iki, tan-ikki < tanqi_h (U.) audit, investigation (Ta.lex.)

4489.Female breast; udder; nipple: stana female breast, nipple, udder (RV.); thana woman's breast, cow's udder (Pali); thanaka girl's breast (Pali); than.a breast (Pkt.); than udder (of cow etc.)(K.); than.u (S>); than. teat (L.P.); than (P.); than teat, udder (N.); thana (MB.); than (of animals only)(Aw.Mth.); than breast, teat, (usu. of animals only) udder (H.); tana-ya female breast, coconut (as holding milk)(Si.); thaun.o breast, teat; tho~_r.~ (of animals only)(Ku.); thun teat, udder (N.)(CDIAL 13666). than.ilo, thaun.ilo abscess in a woman's breast (Ku.); thunelo (N.); thanela_ (H.); thanaili_ inability to suckle owing to pain in and hardness of breast (Bi.)(CDIAL 13670). thanauro cow's udder (N.)(CDIAL 13671). stana_gra nipple (Skt.); stanya milk (MBh.); thaa milk (Pali); than.n.a (Pkt.); thau woman's milk (S.); thaj (L.); thana woman's milk, breast (Or.); tha_n udder (Bhoj.); woman's breast (G.M.); thana_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13673). sr.a_ngu (pl. sr.aka, sr.a_kaka), sr_n:gu (pl. sra_kaka) breast (Kui); harva udder; rawa id. (Go.); jra_mbu (pl. jra_pka) id. (Kui); ran:gu, ra_ngu_, ra_ngu id. (Kuwi); sakka_ breast; sakk chest (Kol.)(DEDR 2364). ciu breast, nipple (Kon.lex.)

4490.Image: to be put to bull: dhan.i_van. to be put to bull (of cows); dhan.a_van. to put to bull (L.); dhanayati sets in motion; dhanayate_ hastens (RV.); dhana_yati strives for, desires (Pali); dhan.e_o_ cow in heat, milch cow (L.); dhan.n.a_ to mount (of bull on cow), subdue (P.)(CDIAL 6719). daniyu to join, copulate (Te.); danivu copulation; danuku to touch, affect; tanuku to touch, reach, occur, befall, (fear) arises in mind (Te.); tan-n-u (tan-n-i-) to approach (Ta.)(DEDR 3148).

4491.Herd of cattle: ta_n-aiyam herd of cattle; ta_n.aiyam flock, herd; ta_n.aiyam-po_t.u-tal to camp; to tarry, overstay as guests in one's house; tan-am < tarn.a calf (Ta.lex.) cf. tarun.a young, tender (RV.); tarun. young man (Ku.); terno young (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5712). Head of cattle: tha_n head of cattle (e.g. bis tha_n bhai~si = 20 buffaloes)(N.)(CDIAL 6095). Unit of counting: tha_n unit (in counting)(H.)(CDIAL 6095). tana measure (Ma.); tanaka until, as far as (Ka.); danuka, da~_ka until, up to, as far as, to (Te.); tan-ai a particle denoting quantity and time-limit, as ittan-ai (Ta.)(DEDR 3147).

4492.Image: thin: tanu thin, delicate (S'Br.); tanuka (Pa_n..); tanu, tanuka thin, small (Pali); tan.u, tan.ua (Pkt.); tonu thin (K.); tan.uwa~_ sparsely, thinly (Ku.); tanu_ thin (A.); tunu thin, fine (Si.); tanuk, tanak, tanik small (H.); tonuk thin, delicate (Kho.); tanuk (Pers.)(CDIAL 5654). tu~reke thin, flat (of stone slab etc.)(Kt.); tuni thin, fine (Md.)(CDIAL 14552).

4493.Dowry: da_n, da_na_ dowry; alms, charity (Kon.lex.)

4494.Wealth: dhna contest, prize, booty, property (RV.); dhana wealth (Pali.Or.); dhan.a (Pkt.); don herd of goats (Sh.); dhan.u herd of cattle, flock of sheep (S.); dhan. herd of cattle, wealth (P.); herd (WPah.); flock of goats and sheep (WPah.); herd of cattle (G.); dhan wealth in cattle (B.); cattle (H.); enrichment (M.); wealth (A.B.Mth.H.Ku.G.M.); dhanu id. (S.); dana possessions (Si.); wealth (K.) (CDIAL 6717). dhanapa_la guardian of possessions (AV.); dhan.a_ru, dhana_ru, dhara_ru cowherd, goatherd (A.); dhan.n.va_l, dhan.n.va_lin., dhan.va_l, dhanva_l cowherd (L.)(CDIAL 6718). dhan.a_i_ cowherd (L.); dhan.n. his wife; dhana_i_ (L.)(CDIAL 6720). dhanin rich (RV.); creditor (Mn.); dhanika (Skt.Mn.Pali); dhaniya creditor (Pali); dhan.ia rich; master (Pkt.); dhan.i_ master; dhaan.i_, dha_ya_n.i_ mistress (S.); dhan.i_ rich; rich man (WPah.); master (M.G.); dhani (N.); rich (A.B.Mth.); dhani_ moneylender (Bi.); master (Aw.); rich; owner, creditor (H.); husband (H.); dhanya_ni_ mistress (H.); dhan.i~_ owner (M.); dhan.iya_n.i_ mistress (G.); dhan.i_n. mistress (M.); dhan.i_ husband (G.)(CDIAL 6722). dhanika_ virtuous woman, wife; dhanika virtuous; husband (skt.); dhan.ia praiseworthy (Pkt.); having or bringing good fortune (MBh.); rich (RV.); virtuous (Skt.); dhanya_ name of Dhruva's wife (Skt.); dhan.ia_ praiseworthy wife (Pkt.); dhani lady (Bi.Mth.); young woman (H.); dhania lady (Mth.)(CDIAL 6721). Owner: dhani, dan.i possessing wealth, opulent, rich; a rich man; the possessor of anything; an owner, a master; Kube_ra; dhanika rich; a wealthy man; a money-lender; an owner; dhana_dhipa Kube_ra; dhanapa, dhanapati id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) tan-i (-v-, -nt-) to abound, be profuse, increase in size, grow fat; tan.icu picking up, putting on flesh (Ta.); tani to thrive, develop, become full-grown; n. state of having thriven, full, strong, fully develooped, complete, matured, abounding in agreeable quantities, rich etc. (Ka.); tanaru, tanara_ru, tanar(u)cu to increase, rise, shine, be well, good or excellent; tanar(u)pu increase, progress, advancement, height, width, breadth; taniyu to thrive, flourish (Te.); tanyare to become rich (Malt.)(DEDR 3047). Augmenting, granting: ta_ti augmenting, granting; s'iva-ta_ti = s'ivan:kara causing happiness; ta_ti offspring, a son (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4495.Portion of a village inhabited by Gonds; abode: dha_na_ the portion of a village inhabited by Gonds (H.)(CDIAL 6775). stha_naka a place; an abode (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Site of habitation: dha_ni_ site of habitation (Skt.); dha_ni_- in: ra_ja-dha_ni_ royal town (Pali); dha_nnu to support, maintain, manage to do (N.)(CDIAL 6775). d.uma_n.o D.om settlement (Ku.)(CDIAL 5572). ga_mahan.a, ga_man.aha site of a village (Pkt.); gauha_n village made over to anyone as a permanent settlement (H.); < * gra_madha_na site of a village (Skt.)(CDIAL 4372). Dry land: dha_nu dry land (Skt.); dhanu_ id. (AV.); dhnvan desert (RV.); dha_n, da_n hillside (Phal.)(CDIAL 6724). ?dhanhar rice-land, land which has been under rice (Bi.)(CDIAL 6781). cf. dha_na corn, grain (esp. parched grain)(RV.)(CDIAL 6777). Hamlet; lowest level portion of a house: ta_n.i to ram down, make firm, to hammer down; to ply hard, as in churning (Ta.lex.) ta_r..vu depth, as of a pit; shortness (Akana_. 23); ta_vu valley, depression (Ta.Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) t.ha_o_, theu~ lowest level portion of a house (WPah.); tha_ma steadfastness (Pali); place, strength (Pkt.); stha_man station, place (RV.); tha_u~ place, station (S.); tha~_ (L.); place, room (P.); t.ha~_ id. (P.); t.ha_u hamlet (WPah.); place (N.); t.ha_w (A.Bi.Bhoj.H.); ground smoothed for eating on (Mth.); t.ha~_i place (B.Bhoj.); place, situation, residence (H.); t.ha_um. place (OAw.); tha_w (H.); tha_a~_ place, place for eating in (Or.); t.ha_i~ place, direction (Or.); t.ha_m place (G.); tha_m.va strength, bottom (OM.); t.ha_v place, free space (M.); tha~o~ from (L.); tha_u~ instead of (P.); t.heie in place of (WPah.); tha~ from (WPah.); thai~ near, from, by, with (Ku.); tha_i~ near, to (N.); t.ha_i~ in (Or.); eit.ha_i~, eit.hi~ here (Or.); eit.hau~_, eit.hu~, eit.hu from here (Or.); ketha~_, ketha_i~_ where (H.); jait.ha, je~t.hai where (OMarw.)(CDIAL 13760). stha_tavya to be stood in (MBh.); t.ha_yavva to be waited for (Pkt.); tha_ba dwelling place, room, shelter, receptacle (Or.); t.ha_vku~ steady, firm, discreet (G.)(CDIAL 13751).

4496.Rank, position; place: stha_na place of abode (RV.); t.ha_na place, condition (Pali); tha_n.a place (Pkt.); tha_n.aya seed bed, watch (Pkt.); than region, place, post (Gypsy); thenav place, market, village (Gypsy); tha_n house (Tir.Pas'.); place, stable, manger (H.); ta_n place, home (Pas'.); t.han place (Gaw.); thon (Kal.); tha_na dwelling place (K.); t.ha_n.u stall in stable (S.); tha_n.o place, station (S.); tha_n. place (P.); place, stable (M.); horse-stall; posture of mare on heat (G.); t.han.a_ residence, niche, apporpriate place (Or.); tha_n.o police station (Ku.); tha_na_ police station (A.H.); post, resort of thieves, police station (B.); t.ha_n. place for tying up an animal, stall (H.); t.ha_n.u~ place, police station (G.); t.ha_n.e~ place, police station (M.); t.ha_n.a camp (Konkan.i); t.a_na place (OSi.); tan-a (Si.); tana, ta~_r.a place (Ash.); sta_n place, abode (Wg.); tha_n place, land (of farm or field)(Dm.); tha_n stall (P.L.); shrine (Ku.N.); tha_nak rank, position (G.); tha_nko (N.); tha_nak (H.); tha_nn.a_ to settle, determine (P.); tha_nn.o (Ku.); tha_nnu (N.); t.ha_nna_ (H.)(CDIAL 13753). t.ha_ya place (Ap.); t.ha_i (A.); tha_, tha_a~_ (Or.); t.ha_ (H.); t.ha_i_ (H.); t.ha_y (M.); stha_ya station; stha_ya_ earth (Skt.); jala-stha_ya pond (MBh.)(CDIAL 13762). tha_et permanence (Or.); stha_yitva permanence (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 13763).

4497.Protection: ta_n.a protection (Pali.lex.) ta_n.a protection (Pali.lex.) Watch: tha_n.aya watch (Pkt.); tha_na_ watch-house (B.); tha_n shrine (Ku.N.); t.ha_n.a_ sentinel's post (Or.)(CDIAL 13753). tat.ai guard, watch (Periyapu. Tirua_n-a. 647)(Ta.lex.) Garrison; police station: ta_n.aiyam garrison; military camp; flock, herd; ta_n.aiyam-po_t.u to camp; ta_n-ai army (Pur-ana_. 110); weapon in general; a kind of sledge-hammer, a weapon; ta_n-ai-nilai theme describing the heroic stand of infantry holding the enemies in awe (Tol. Po. 72); theme of the warrior whose valour compels the admiration of the contending armies in battle (Pu. Ve. 7,22); ta_n-ai-mar-am theme of the warrior who appears between the armies in battle and saves them from further destruction by bringing them to terms (Pu. Ve. 7,3); theme describing the heroism of a king who regardless of consequences rushes forward at the call of battle (Pu. Ve. 7,4); theme of compassion for foes because they have to meet a valiant army (Pu. Ve. 7,5); ta_n-ai-ma_lai martial poem describing the van of an army in a_ciriyappa_ (Ilak. Vi. 869)(Ta.lex.) Position; station under the civil authority: ta_n.a = ta_n.a ca_vad.i, station; a dwelling-place, an abode, a house; a country, region, district; a town, city (Ka.); t.ha_n.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) t.ha_n.a_, t.a_n.eya, t.ha_n.e, t.ha_n.ya (Tadbhava of stha_na) the head station of a district (Ka.); t.ha_n.e_m (M.); t.ha_n.a station under the civil authority (Ka.M.); the establishment of peons etc. maintained there (Ka.Te.M.H.); an encampment (Ka.); a police station; a garrison (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. stha_na firm stance (AV.); place of abode (RV.); stha_naka position, place (MBh.)(CDIAL 13753). cf. t.ha~_i~_ place, situation, residence (H.); t.ha_u~ place (N.)(CDIAL 13760).

4498.Employment; post or office: stha_na_ntara another place (Skt.); t.ha_nantara a partic. post or office (Pali); tanatura employment, occupation (Si.)(CDIAL 13754). stha_payati causes to stand, establishes (S'Br.); appoints (Mn.); causes to be, makes (S'vetUp.); t.hape_ti establishes (Pali); t.hapaicam. (KharI.); sthavem.ti 3 pl. pres., thavides-i 2 sg. pret. (NiDoc.); t.ha_ve_i, t.ha~_vai (Pkt.); thov to place, lay, plant, set up (Gypsy); thav- to place, lay; tauar puts, places, pays (Gypsy); the_ina to place, put down (D..); tiw to place, put, send (Ash.); te- (Kt.); ty-, tawun (Wg.); thay to place (Dm.); tha_ 2 sg. imper. put (Tir.); tho_ye to place (Shum.); tho_- to be placed (Shum.); the~- (pret. tha_u) to lay, leave (Wot..); thow- to put (Gaw.); them I place (Kal.); tha_ w sg. imper. (pret. tha_u)(Tor.); tha_um, tha_m, thu_m I make, do (Phal.); thoiki, 1 sg. tham or the_m, tho_nu, thyo_nu (Sh.); tho_n.a_ (pret. tho_ya_) to find out (P.); tha~_wun to place, put by, lay; tho_yiu_ w sg. imper. (K.); tha_n.o to support, endure (Ku.); thaiba to place, keep (A.); thuoya_ (B.); thoiba_, thuiba_ (Or.); tiyanava_ to place, set; tiyenava_ to be (Si.)(CDIAL 13756). stha_yin standing (MBh.); lasting (A_s'vGr.S.); -t.ha_yin- in cmpd. 'being in a state of' (Pali); tha_i-, t.ha_i- stopping still (Pkt.); tha_i permanent (Or.)(CDIAL 13764). tavircci abiding, staying (Ir-ai. 32)(Ta.lex.) Firmly fixed: stabdha firmly fixed (S'vetUp.); stiff, paralysed, dull (MBh.); solidified as water (Skt.); thaddha hard, firm (Pali); thaddha, thad.d.ha, thad.d.hia fixed, firm (Pkt.); tardo upright (Gypsy); ta_r.e adv. above, up (Shum.); thodu high, erect (K.); t.had.d.a_ boundary pillar (P.); t.ha_d.ha_ upright (P.); t.ha_r.o_ standing; t.ha_d.a_ boundary pillar (WPah.); t.ha_r.o upright, ascent (Ku.); t.ha_r.o upright (N.); tha_ru straight (A.); t.ha_r.a, t.ha_r.a_ upright (B.); t.ha_d. erect, standing (Or.); t.ha_r.hab to remain, stay (Bi.); t.ha_r.h standing (Bhoj.); t.ha_d.ha standing up, pret. he stood up; t.ha_r.h standing; t.har.hiya_wab to make stand up (OAw.); t.ha_r.h, t.ha_r., t.ha_r.a_, t.har.ha_ fixed, stationary, erect, steep; t.ha_r.hna_ to be fixed, stand up; t.had.d.a_ erect (M.); tada firm, hard (Si.)(CDIAL 13676). tda bond, covenant (Si.); stabdhi fixedness, stupor, numbness (Skt.)(CDIAL 13677). stabhayati makes firm, stops (RV.); t.ha_han.u to appoint, make agree, get ready; t.haha_in.u caus. whence t.hahan.u to agree, be made ready (S.)(CDIAL 13678). stabhita fixed (RV.); thaya fixed, firm, settled, ascertained, still; fixity, etc. (Or.); t.hai_ firm, solid (H.)(CDIAL 13679). Semant. firm--sluggish--cold: cf. thaddha slow (Pali); t.had.d.ha blunted, cold (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13676).

4499.Image: lever beam: tan-i lever beam for starting a temple-car (I_t.u, 3,10,2, Arum.)(Ta.lex.) cf. can-n-ai timber used as a lever to help the movement of temple car (Ta.); sanne-ko_lu a lever (Tu.); sanne, sonne id. (Ka.)(DEDR 2425).

4500.Category of immoveables: ta_n.u category of the immoveables (Kampara_. Miti. 117)(Ta.lex.) Capital sum; ancestral property; birthplace: tha_t ancestral property (Ku.); place (N.); tha_ti birthplace (Ku.); postponement, stake in gambling (N.); deposit (Or.); thattia rest (Pkt.); tha_thi_ capital sum (P.); money laid by deposit (H.); tha_thi_ id. (H.); (CDIAL 13758). Any stationary object; real estate; immovable property: ta_vara-can:kamam the category of the movable and the immovable (Kampara_.Kuka.1); movable and immovable property; ta_varam category of immovables, opp. to can:kamam (Tiruva_ca.1,30); immovable property, as house; the vegetable kingdom; basis, foundation; ta_vari to lodge, abide, obtain shelter; to protect, shelter, maintain, preserve; ta_varan- God; ta_vara-lin:kam Lingam set up in temples for general worship (Ta.lex.) stha_yin standing (MBh.); lasting (A's'vGr.S.); -t.ha_yin in cmpd. being in a state of (Pali); tha_i-, t.ha_i stopping still (Pkt.); tha_i permanent (Or.)(CDIAL 13764). stha_vara stationary, fixed (TS.); firm, constant (R.); any stationary object (MBh.); thavara (Dhp.); tha_vara firm, strong (Pali); stationary, fixed (Pkt.); Mountain range: ta_n.u mountain (Ta.lex.) tha_wur, tha_waras mountain, mountain range (K.); t.hawa_r stationary, fixed, unbendable (Ku.); tha~_varu inanimate (S.); t.ha_war fixed (A.); t.haur certainty, firmness (B.); t.ha_ura_na, t.ha_hara_na to stop, consider, ascertain (B.); t.haura stable, firm, certain; firm footing, certainty (Or.); t.hauriba_ to remain fixed, be determined, be guessed (Or.); tha_war., tha_wal any inanimate object (H.); tha_var inanimate (G.); t.ha_var a renewed boil or tumour (M.); t.ha_r outright, completely (M.); tavara, tavura strong, firm, solid (Si.)(CDIAL 13767). Residence: t.ha_r firmness of mind, frost (H.); tha_ri calm (Or.); t.ha_r cold (L.); tha_ra_ residence (M.)(CDIAL 13765). cf. t.ha_ru cold (S.); t.ha_r frost (G.); t.ha_ra hoarfrost (Ka_tyS'r. com.) (CDIAL 13765).

4544.Table-land: tappala si_me a table land; tappal, tappala, tappalu, tar..pal a level expanse round the foot of a mountain, level ground on the top or edge of a mountain, table-land (Ka.lex.) cf. temar rising ground, hillock; dimba bank of a river (Ka.); dimma any elevation or eminence, mound (Te.); demma elevated ground; ni_r demma island (Pa.); damaka flat ground on top of a mountain (Kuwi)(DEDR 3239). cf. tippai mound, elevated ground (Ta.)(DEDR 3229).

4550.Image: peak: tembet., tembet.i peak; tip of a finger (Kon.lex.) cf. dibbu eminence, hillock (Ka.)(DEDR 3229)

4501.Image: receptacle for frankincense: da_ni (Tadbhava of dha_ni); u_du-da_ni = u_dubatti-gid.a a receptacle for the u_dubatti made of metal in the form of a tree; u_da, u_du frankincense; u_dabatti a thin stick covered with frankincense (Ka.); u_dubatti id. (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) dha_na putting, placing; holding, containing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) dha_ni anything which holds or contains, a receptacle, a place where anything is kept, seat (Ka.); an:ga_ra-dha_nike a portable fireplace (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) cf. aggit.t.ha_na fireplace (Pali); a~_than (Shum.)(CDIAL 66). Compound terms with -dha_na semant. 'receptacle': agnidha_na receptacle for the sacred fire (RV.); agya_n. tinderbox (WPah.); aghya_nu, agenu a fire for sitting round (N.)(CDIAL 60). Image: mousetrap: dha_na in cmpds.: receptacle (RV.); dha_ni_ id. (Kaus'.); dha_na receptacle (e.g. of dust, ashes, etc.)(Pali); da_n earthen fireplace (K.); dha_n.ik mousetrap (Ku.)(CDIAL 6775). an:ga_radha_ni_, an:ga_radha_nika_ portable stove (Skt.); an:garan, an:garani_ fireplace (Pas'.)(CDIAL 127). khara_ni ashes (N.); <* ks.a_radha_nika_ receptacle for ashes (Skt.)(CDIAL 3677). khaladha_na threshing floor (Skt.); khale_dha_ni post of a threshing floor (Skt.); khulha_n threshing floor (P.); khaliha_n granary, farmyard (N.); khariha_n, khariha_ni_ threshing floor (Bi.Mth.); khariha_na (OAw.); khali_ha_n, khaliya_n (H.); khale_dha_ni_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 3839). tila_ni a pot to keep a mixture of sesamum, water, barley and kus'a grass for use in ceremonies (N.)(CDIAL 5831). poya_n potter's kiln (B.); pa_kastha_na kiln (Skt.)(CDIAL 8023). achya_n dust-hole, rubbish-hole (N.); rasa_n.e~ glowing embers (M.)(CDIAL 10554). richa_han., raccha_n.i_, richa_hn.i_ barber's case of tools (L.); racha_ni_ (P.)(CDIAL 10608). cita_dha_na funeral pile (Skt.); caha_n.i_ cremation ground (L.); ciha_n grave (N.); ciwa_na_, ciha_ni_ cremation ground (H.)(CDIAL 4797). culya_n. hearth, kitchen (Ku.); cula_n. fireplace (M.); cula_n.e~ small fireplace (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4881). jut.hya_n dunghill (N.)(CDIAL 5257). dhurya_n, dhuren dunghill, midden (N.)(CDIAL 6836). ta_n.adi_vige = t.a_n.adi_vige (Tadbhava of stha_na) a lamp that always stands in the same place before an idol and is constantly kept burning (Ka.); stha_nadi_pike (Ka.); ta_n.adi_vige-vel.agu light of the ta_n.adi_vige (Ka.); stha_na standing, staying; a place; office, rank, dignity (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. divt.ha_n. place where main light of house is suspended (M.)(CDIAL 6356).

4502.Weaver: ta~_ti weaver (A.B.); Hindu weaver (Bi.); ta~_ti_ weaver (H.)(CDIAL 5665). tra~_s'e spider (Wg.)(CDIAL 5665). cf. tam.tukkho_d.i peg in a loom (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3748). Thread, warp: ta~_t warp in the loom, cloth being woven (A.); cord (B.); tantu thread, warp (RV.); thread, cord (Pali); tam.tu (Pkt.); ton warp (Kho. <*tand whence tandeni threads between wings of a spinning wheel); tand (pl. tandu~) yarn, thread being spun, string of the tongue (L.); thread (P.); tandua_, tandu_a_ string of the tongue, frenum of glans penis (P.); ta~_tu_ thread (M.)-- with -o-, -a to retain original gender: tando cord, twine, strand of rope (S.); ta~_do bowstring (N.); ta~_to thread (G.); ta_mtan.au thread < *ta_mtad.au (OG.); ta~_tn.o (G.)(CDIAL 5661). To prepare woof, weave, work hard: tan.an. to prepare the woof (L.); to arrange the cotton threads for forming the warp (whence tan. warp); tan.un. to stretch (L.); tan.na_ to prepare the woof, stretch, pull (P.); tan.n.a_ to weave, work hard (P.); tano_ti stretches (RV.Pali); tan.ai spreads out, makes (Pkt.); tan.a_vu~ to be dragged (G.); tan.n.e~ to draw tight (M.); tanakka tensely (n.); tankanu to stretch (N.); ta_nn.o to stretch, write in detail, fix (Ku.); ta_nn.e~ to stretch (M.)(CDIAL 5659). ta_nna_ to lie at full length (H.)(CDIAL 5669). ta_n.a_ woof; ta_n.i_ prepared woof (both in error for warp?)(CDIAL 5761). ta_n.ia stretched (Pkt.); ta_n.an.u to pull, drop (S.); ta_n.an. to spread, to prepare the warp (L.); ta_nana_ to stretch (P.); ta_n.n.o to stretch (Ku.); ta_nnu to pull (n.); ta_nab to pull, tighten, pitch (a tent)(Mth.); ta_nai stretches (OAw.); ta_nna_ to stretch, pull, tighten (H.); ta_n.vu~ to stretch, pull (G.); ta_n.n.e~ (M.); ta_n. (Konkan.i); tananava_ to make, do, build, rear (Si.)(CDIAL 5762). ta_n of strong texture (of cloth)(M.)(CDIAL 5765). ta_nu a web or piece of cloth (Ka.); tha_na (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) than piece of cloth (P.lex.) Warp: ta_na fibre (Sus'r.); ta_n thread, fibre, rigid bar, beam of a house (K.); warp (N.); expanse ((B.); string braces to keep awning of litter steady (Bi.); ta_n.o warp (S.); ta_n.a_ warp (L.B.Bi.M.); ta_n.a_ warp (P.); ta_n.i unsewn woollen cloth (Wah.); ta_n.o tape or string for fastening clothes (Ku.); ta_ni_ warp, strings of a balance (Bi.); warp, price paid for weaving (H.); warp (Mth.); tana warp (H.); ta_na_-ba_na_ warp and woof (H.); apparatus (N.); ta_n.o warp (G.); ta_n. strain (G.M.)(CDIAL 5761). To pull; pull tight: t.a_n.i warp (Or.); t.a_n.iba_ to pull tight (Or.); t.a_n.an.u to pull tight (S.); t.a_niba id. (A.); t.a_na_ to tighten (B.); t.a_nna_ to pull tight (H.): t.a_n.n.e~ (M.); t.ha_nab to drag (Mth.)(CDIAL 5443). t.and. to pull (Pa.); tind. id. (Ga.)(DEDR 3052). Strings for fastening clothes: tanika_ cord (Skt.); tuu string of a garment (K.); tan.i_ (L.P.); tani_ (H.); taniya_ narrow strip of cloth for the loins (H.); tan.a~_ clothes-line (L.); tan.a_va~_ cords of scales (L.); tan.a_ tapes or strings for fastening clothes (Ku.); tunu (N.); tuna cord, string (Si.)(CDIAL 5652). ta~_ti weaver (A.B.); ta~_ti_ Hindu weaver (Bi.); weaver (H.)(CDIAL 5666). tantava_ya weaver (Pali); tantrava_ya weaver (R.); spider (Skt.); tra_mbu, tra_hambu spider (Phal.)(CDIAL 5664). tantuva_ya weaver (Mn.); spider (Pa_n..Ka_s'.); tamtuva_ya weaver (Pkt.); ta~_twa_ Hindu weaver (Bi.)(CDIAL 5662). {Consistent with the -tc- phonetic nexus: cf. ce_n.t.iravar weavers (Ta.)(DEDR 2809). sendra cloth (Ga.)(DEDR 2770). cen.t.u ball of thread (Ta.)(DEDR 2766).} Thread, loom: ta~_t thread, loom (H.); thread (M.); cord, leather thong (Ku.); thin leather thong tied round horse's hocks (Bi.); gut (Bhoj.); line, string (N.B.); ta~_ti id. (N.); ta_nti_ (OB.); ta_i~t (B.); tanti cord, string (RV.Pali); string of ginning machine (WPah.); tamti string, leather thong (Pkt.); to~_th (dat. to~cu) thread (K.); tand, tandi_ catgut (P.); tamta catgut (Or.); tandi_ dried gut, strip of buffalo hide, bowstring (L.); string of cotton-carder's bow (L.); ta~_ti_ leather thong (Mth.); link, series, posterity (H.); ta~_ti string (Bhoj.); thread, catgut (G.); tant thread, string, wire (H.); tata string, cord (Si.)(CDIAL 5660). tantra web (RV.); loom (Pa_n..Ka_s'.); weaving, thread (Skt.); tanta loom, string (Pali); tantaka loom (Pali); tamta loom, string (Pkt.); tru_tr loom (Kt.); ut.ak (<*tutr-)(Pr.); tran weaving, loom (Dm.); trun (stem. tro_nd-) loom (Kal.); tra_nd spider's web, weaving (Phal.); ta~_t loom (A.B.); tanta (Or.)(CDIAL 5663). Image: covering of a horse; roll of cloth or silk: tha_n complete roll of cloth or silk (Sh.K.); a web of cloth (P.Ku.); piece of cloth, piece, bundle (used in numbering), whole piece of cloth (A.B.); piece of cloth, covering of a horse, piece (of corn, etc.)(H.); piece of cloth (G.M.); than cloth, bed (Gy.); tha_nu a web of cloth (S.); tha_na whole piece of cloth (Or.); tha_n.u piece of cloth (S.); tha_n. (M.)(CDIAL 6095). tanula spread, expanded (Skt.); talun.a think (Sh.); tanulo thin (of cloth)(Sh.)(CDIAL 5655). cf. tanika_ cord (Skt.); tu string of a garment (K.)(CDIAL 5652). Image: lute; string: ta_mti string of a musical instrument (OAw.); tant (H.); tata string of a lute (Si.); tantri_ string of a lute (S'a_nkhS'r.); tanti lute (Pali); tam.ti_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5667). tatu id. (Si.)(CDIAL 5661). tan.t.u lute (Ta.); tan.t.i a musical instrument (Ma.)(DEDR 3057). Image: lute: tanti < tantri_ wire (Tailava. Pa_yi. 22); catgut, string of a musical instrument; tanti < tantrin lute; tanti-k-kampi string of a lute; tantiram wire or string of a lute (W.); tantirar celestial musicians, as lute-players (Iraku. Ayan-e., 17); tantiri lute (Tiruva_lava_. 57,24); holes of a lute (Periyapu. A_n-a_ya. 27); tantiri string of musical instruments (Piramo_t. 2,62); tantirikaram a part of cen:ko_t.t.iya_r.. (Cilap. 13,107); tantirikai < tantrika_ wire (Tailava. Taila. 41)(Ta.lex.) Tune: ta_n.a tune (Pkt.); ta_na id. (MBh.); ta_na_ tune (N.); ta_n tune (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5761).

4503.Honey; fragrance: te_r-al honey (Te_va_. 94,3); clarified juice (Tiruva_ca. 5,38); ta_vi fragrance; tittippu (Ta.); te_r-al palm-tree juice, nectar (Ma.Ta.); te_r-u palm wine; sweetness (Ta.); je_n honey (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) te_n- fragrance, odour (Ta.); swwet juice (Kampara_. Na_t.. 9); honey (Kur-al., 1121)(Ta.lex.)

4504.Image: honeycomb: te_n- honey-comb (Ain:kur-u. 272); te_n-ir-a_l id. (Ain:kur-u. 214)(Ta.lex.)

4505.Bee, fly: i_ fly, bee; te_n--i_ honey bee; i_ccal fly; i_cco_ppi fly-flapper (Ta.); i_cca fly (Ma.); i.ppi id. (Ir.); i.pi id. (Pa_kKu.A_lKu.); i.p id. (Ko.); i.py (To.); ippi eggs laid by a fly, usually in ulcers (Tu.); i~_ga id. (Te.); te~_t.i a large black humble-bee, bombinatrix glabra (Te.); ni.n:ga fly (Kol.); ni_n:ga id. (Nk.); phuki_ bee (Go.); pu_ki id. (Kui); i_pu maggot (Kuwi); ti_ni_ fly; e_xa_ gadly, horsefly (Kur.); tni bee (Malt.); hi_lh fly (Br.)(DEDR 533). cf. i_cal winged white ants (Ta.)(DEDR 536).

4506.Coriander: Coriandrum sativum (Ancient Egyptian s'3w; Coptic bepwrhoy; Greek xotiannon; Modern Egyptian Arabic kusbara) "This umbelliferous herb is cultivated throughout the world... It is a stimulant, carminative and digestive and is used for coughs and in bandages for rheumatism... Prospero Alpini... it was added to a lukewarm bath to expel fever... to treat fever and flatulence... Pliny refers to treatment of spreading sores... burns, carbuncles, and sore ears, fluxes of the eyes, too, if woman's milk be added... taken in drink with rue for cholera... used in bandaging a broken bone... Coriander was included in unguents, among others one to treat herpes... Coriander was among the herbs offered to the temple by the king. Some seeds were found in the tomb of Tutankhamum (1567-1320 BC)..." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.94). Coriandrum sativum: dha_nyaka (Skt.); dhane (B.); dhanya, dhania (H.); kothamalli (Ta.); dhaniyalu (Te.); kothumpalari (Ma.); fruits: aromatic, stimulant, carminative, tonic, stomachic; seeds: chewed to correct foul breath; essential oil seeds contain 19-21% of a fatty oil (GIMP, pp.77-78). Coriandrum sativum dha_nya, dha_nyaka_phala was used in cosmetic preparations in ancient India (B.Sam..) dhanya_ka coriandrum sativum (Car. Ci. 5.69); dha_nya(ka) id. (Car. Su. 3.8, 4.29,42). Coriandrum sativum: coriander-seed, koriandersamen (Ger.); coriandre (Fr.); part used: the dried ripe fruit; habitat: Mediterranean and Caucasian regions... cultivated in India... exported to the USA... Uses: aromatic stimulant, corrective purgative preparations and source of oil of coriander, condiment in bread, cake and pastry, and flavouring agent in cordials, confectionery and tobacco... coriander oil... stimulant and flavouring agent. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 629-632).

4507.Image: ear of corn: tene (a point); a spike, an ear of corn (Ka.); cin-ai to branch out (Ta.); cane id. (Ma.); cen-ai (Ta.); cine, cane branching out as an ear of corn (Ma.); tellu a point (Ma.); tene-po_gu to get ears; tene-gid.a the Indian millet, panicum italicum (Ka.lex.) Italian millet: tin-ai Italian millet, setaria italical wild Bermuda grass, panicum burmanni; little millet ( = ca_mai); paddy-field grass, panicum fluitans (Ta.); tina p. italicum (Ma.); tene ear of corn, a spike (Ka.); tene-gid.a Italian millet, panicum italicum = setaria italica); ten ear (of any grain)(Ko.)(DEDR 3265). Food, victuals: ti_n- food, victuals; ti_n-an- glutton (Ta.); ti_ni food, eating (Ka.); ti_n any food besides rice, a meal (Ma.); ti.nj food in general (Ko.); ti_n-i light refreshment; food for animals, fodder; rich food (Ta.)(DEDR 3263).

4508.Poor: hi_na abandoned (RV.); inferior, poor (Pali); hi_n.o emaciated, lean (S.); hi_n.ati privation (OMarw.); ka_m-hi_n unemployed (H.)(CDIAL 14124). cf. di_na scanty (RV.); poor, miserable (Pali); depressed, sad (Mn.); di_n.a (Pkt.); dinilo, dilino foolish (Gypsy); dyu_nu wretched, depressed (K.)(CDIAL 6347).

4512.People; tribe, family: tin.ai tribe, caste, race, family (Kur-un. 224); tin.ai-nilai-p-peyar noun denoting class or caste; name of the chieftains of aintin.ai (Tol. Po. 22); tin.aippeyar names of the peoples occupying aintin.ai (Tol. Col. 167)(Ta.lex.) Friendship: ti_n-am friendship (Ta.lex.) adhi_na dependent on (Mn.MBh.Pali); ahi_n.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 266). tin.ai conduct, custom (Malaipat.u. 401); conventional rules of conduct laid down in the Tamil works, of two classes, viz., aka-t-tin.ai and pur-attin.ai (aintin.ai ner-iyal.a_vi: Kampara_. Cu_rppan.akai. 1); tin.ai-k-kal.am department (S.I.I. ii,412); tin.aikal. people (Perun.. Vattava. 2,45); tin.ai-p-pa_t.t.u a poem dealing in general terms with a particular tin.ai (Ilak. Vi. 603, Urai.); tin.ai-mayakku harmonious blending of the features of one tin.ai with those of another (Tirukko_. 4, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) [ain-tin.ai love between man and woman as manifested in five situations pertaining to the five tracts of land (Nampiyakap. 4, Urai.); the five tracts of land (Tiva_.): viz., (i) kur-ici [hilly tract (Ci_vaka. 1563)]; (ii) pa_lai [arid, desert tract (Cilap. 11,6506)]; (iii) mullai [forest, pastoral tract (Tol. Po. 5)]; (iv) marutam [agricultural tract (Tol. Po. 6)]; (v) neytal [maritime tract (Tol. Po. 8)](Ta.lex.)

4513.Wooden ladle; wooden trough; ship, boat, float: dron.a a particular wood used to make sacrificial ladle used for pouring clarified butter on the fire (RV. vi.2.8)(Vedic.lex.) dro_n.a wooden trough (RV.); dro_n.ya pertaining to a trough (RV.)[In meaning 'boat' perh. X *d.o_n:ga- of separate non-Aryan origin; but for semantic relationship of 'trough--boat' cf. na_w (Bi.) < na_va.]; do_n.a wooden pail (Pali); dro_n.i_ a measure of capacity (MBh.); do_n.i_, do_n.ika_ wooden trough, roughly shaped canoe (Pali); do_n.a a measure (Pkt.); do_n.i_ boat (Pkt.); duni wooden trough, canoe (B.); don long log of wood hollowed like a spoon to act as irrigating lever (Bi.); wooden trough or channel used in irrigation (H.); d.on_ small trough, small boat, boat shaped receptacle of leaves for ghee (H.); don. trough (M.); d.on. scooped out tree as trough (M.); d.on.i_ small trough, canoe (M.); d.on:ge~ wooden trough (M.); den.iya trough (Si.); den.a canoe (Si.); do_i boat (Md.)(CDIAL 6641). to_n.i boat, dhoney (Ci_vaka. 967); ship (kat.an- man.t.u to_n.iyil : Pur-ana_. 299,3); float, raft, canoe (Pin..); water-trough (Aric. Pu. Viva_ka. 293)(Ta.lex.); trough, bathing tub, boat (Ma.); do_n.i, d.o_n.i id. (Ka.); do_n.i boat (Tu.); do_ne a large boat, a small vessel or ship, a trough (Te.)(DBIA 220). turo_n.i boat (Ilak. Aka.); to_n.i-k-kuttakai contract for a whole to_n.i without reference to the number of trips or weight of cargo; to_n.i-tal.l.utal to launch a boat (W.); to_n.i-ta_n:ku-tal to punt a boat; to_n.i-k-ka_ran- boatman (Ta.lex.) Image: wooden trough: d.oni_ small trough, canoe (M.); do_n.ika_ wooden trough, roughly shaped canoe (Pali); don. trough (M.); dro_n.a wooden trough (RV.); dro_n.ya pertaining to a trough (RV.); do_n.a wooden pail, a measure (Pali); do_n.i_ wooden trough, roughly shaped canoe (Pali); do_n.a a measure (Pkt.); duni, dunari small basket containing rice etc. and carried in a procession to fetch water at a marriage (A.); duni wooden trough, canoe (B.); don long log of wood hollowed like a spoon to act as irrigating lever (Bi.); don wooden trough or channel used in irrigation (H.); d.oni_ small trough, small boat, boat-shaped receptacle of leaves for ghee (H.); d.on. scooped out tree as trough (M.); d.on.i_ small trough, canoe (M.); d.on:ge~ wooden trough (M.); den.iya trough (Si.); den.a canoe (Si.); do_ni boat (Md.)(CDIAL 6641). don.a a wooden pail, vat, trough; usually as measure of capacity (4 a_l.haka generally)(Pali)[dron.a Skt. conn. with *dereuo tree, wood, wooden; cf. da_ru and Skt. drun.i_ pail]; don.ika measuring a don.a in capacity; a hollow wooden vessel, tub, vat; doni_ a (wooden) trough, a vat; teladoni_ an oil vat; doni_ a trough-shaped canoe (cf. Mara_thi d.on a long flat-bottomed boat made of und.i wood and Kanarese d.oni a canoe hallowed from a log; doni_ = gambhi_ra maha_na_va_; a hollow, dug in the ground (Pali.lex.) donwa_h man who works the hollow irrigation log (Bi.)(CDIAL 6643). Indigo plant; indigo vat: dronika (Skt.Ma.); tu_li_, tu_n.i, dro_n.i_, do_la_ the indigo plant (Monier-Williams.lex.) Image: water-vessel: tonnai cup made of plantain or other leaf (Ta.); donna id. (Ma.); donne, jonne leaf-cup (Ka.); donne id. (Tu.); dona id. (Ga.); d.ona id. (Go.); done id. (Kond.a); duna id. (Mand..); d.ono, d.oho, d.ono id. (Kui); dunno_, dono id. (Kuwi); t.ono id. (Kuwi); dona_ leaf-cup (H.B.); dun.o id. (Ku.); dunu id. (N.); d.on.a_ leaf-cup (L.M.G.); d.u_na leaf plate (K.); dona_ id. (Bi.)(DEDR App.45.) dron.a cup-like container made of leaves (Skt.)(CDIAL 6641).

4514.Measure: turo_n.am a measure of capacity = 2 marakka_l (Pin..; Ce_tupu. Can:kara. 75) draun.ika containing one dron.a (Pa_n..); do_n.ika (Pali); duni_ya_ holding one don or five ser (A.)(CDIAL 6647). ju_n. a grain measure = 16 pa_tha_s (WPah.); don., du_n. a grain measure = 32 ser (Ku.); don a grain measure = 5 ser, one bigha_ of land (A.)(CDIAL 6641). dro_n.am a measure of capacity, either the same as an a_d.haka or equal to 4 a_d.hakas or 1/16 of a kha_ri_, or 32 or 64 shers; dro_n.i_ a measure of capacity, equal to 2 s'u_rpas or 128 shers (Skt.lex.) dro_n.a a measure of capacity (MBh.); do_n.a a measure (Pali); a measure (Pkt.); tu_n.i (Ta.Ma.) a measure of capacity = 4 marakka_l; cf. dro_n.a ; patakkumun...tu_n.i-k-kil.avi (Tol. Er..ut. 239)(Ta.lex.) [duni_ya_ holding one don or five ser (A.); do_n.ika id. (Pali)(CDIAL 6647)]. Halige and koda were used as measures of oil in Karna_t.aka inscriptions (MIAI, p.85; EI.III, p.23). Hara is used as a corn measure in Kathiawar, perhaps a variant of hala (MIAI, p.47.). Hala is mentioned in the inscriptions of S'a_tava_hana, Pallava, Ra_s.t.raku_t.a, Ca_lukya, Parama_ra, Kalachuri and Ca_hama_na dynasties (loc.cit.MIAI, pp.46-47. "...the lands were allotted to agriculturists, who had to give 1/6th of the produce from the land to the Sangha. The Sangha had to provide bulls, the land for cultivation, etc., but was not responsible for any other requirements." [Beal Samuel, Si-yu-ki, I, p.61.] "...In a copper plate of Candella Madanavarmadeva, 7 1/2 dro_n.a of seed are stated to have been used for sowing 10 hala i.e., one hala required 3/4 dro_n.a of seed. [IA, XVI, p.206.]... In the Sunak grant of the Ca_lukya king Karn.a, it is stated that 4 hala of land, required 12 pa_ilam of seed corn for sowing. Hence 1 hala required 3 pa_ilam or 12 seer of seed. [EI, I, p. 316].") These equivalences establish a rough equation: One hala of land: (sowing) grain measure-- 3/4 dro_n.a = 3 pa_ilam = 12 ser; a_d.haka = 50 pala (King's measure in Arthas'a_stra : dro_n.a = 200 pala). A variant: 5 prastha = 1 a_d.haka (S'ukra).[It may be seen that hala was a variant of kalam [cf. MIAI, pp.73,83.]: 2 a_r..a_kku = 1 ur..akku; 4 a_r..a_kku = 1 uri (800 c.c.); 8 a_r..a_kku = 1 ciru-na_r..i; 4 ciru-na_r..i = 1 id.angar..i; 8 na_r..i = 1 mara-k-ka_l; 4 ciru-na_r..i = 1 prastha; A possible Synonym: ciru-na_r..i = kud.ava; cf. MIAI, p.90: 4 kud.ava = 1 prastha.] 16 ciru-na_r..i = 1 a_d.haka; 16 na_r..i = 1 padakku; A possible Synonym: padakku = prastha; 32 na_r..i = 1 tu_n.i; A possible Synonym: tu_n.i = dro_n.a; 40 na_r..i = 1 parra or parai; 64 ciru-na_r..i = 1 dro_n.a; 96 na_r..i = 1 kalam (3 tu_n.i); A possible Synonym: kalam = hala; 80 ciru-na_r..i = 1 podhi; 21/24 mara-k-ka_l = 1 ko_t.t.ai (or 168/192 na_r..i); 4 dro_n.a = 1 ma_n.i (cf.MIAI, p.90); 8 dro_n.a = 1 kulya (Bharata Kaumudi, Part II, p.947; MIAI, p.73.); 4 ma_n.ika/bol.l.a = 1 kumca/kolaga; 16 dro_n.a = 1 kha_ri (MIAI, p.83); 20 dro_n.a = 1 kumbha (MIAI, p.90); 4 kumca/kolaga = 1 tu_mu; 20 kumca/kolaga = 1 khanduga; 20 tu_mu = 1 pella put.t.i; 400 kumca/kolaga = 1 malaca put.t.i; (Karna_t.aka Inscription [IA, VIII, p.236.]: Vikrama_ditya II 752 A.D.): ma_na, peru, vi_sa and bhanda peru. 5 vi_sa on each bhanda peru (heru = 60 ser or 1 sack of corn. In Karna_t.aka, 1 ma_na = 16 ser; cf. MIAI, p.96.); 1 vi_sa = 40 pala = 5 ser = 1/8 maund; 1 bisi = 1/12 kalasa = 1/4 ma_na = 1/16 panti (Alberuni's India, I, p.166; cf. MIAI, p.95..); In a Gujarati commentary on Pa_tigan.ita: 1 ma_n = 24 pala. (JNSI, VIII, p.146; MIAI, p.96.); [cf. Gan.itasa_ra of Sridhara; loc.cit. MIAI, p.78.]; pa_vala = pa_li; 4 pa_li = ma_na; 4 ma_na = sei; 3 sei = padaka; 4 padaka = ha_ri [cf. 64 ma_n.i or 16 dro_n.a = 1 kha_ri.]; 4 ha_ri = ma_ni; [cf. Bhandarkar's equations based on local enquiries at Godwad; loc.cit. MIAI, p.78.]; 4 pa_ila = pa_yali; 5 pa_yali = ma_na; 4 ma_na = sei; 2 sei = man; [This table is perhaps traceable to practices of antiquity since it combines both gan.d.a and kur.i -- '4` and '20` as landing-points in numeration.] suvarn.a (gol) ma_s.a = maca_t.i = 5 kunri or guja (abrus precatorius); 320 guja = 1 pala (cf. MIAI, p.106); 16 ma_s.a = 1 kars.a.

4515.Float, raft: to_n.t.u-tal < tol.- to dig, hollow, excavate (Ta.); to_n.t.uka id. (Ma.); to_d.u id. (Te.Ka.); to_d.uni id. (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) tol.(l.u)-tal to perforate, bore with an instrument (Ta.lex.) dhodro, dhotro hollow (N.); dhond hollow in a tree (A.)(CDIAL 6882). tot.u-tal to dig, scoop out, excavate (Pur-ana_. 6)(Ta.lex.) Image: hollow trunk; vessel to hold liquid: dot.ha hollow trunk, box (Ku.); d.ot.ho vessel to hold liquid (N.)(CDIAL 5569). Boat: dundi a boat with a slightly convex bottom and upturned stern, with a square sail on a mast placed far forward; cf. sketch from Mohenjo-daro of a river (?) boat. (Mackay, E., Further Excavations at Mohenjo Daro, 1938,pl. LXIX-4). dundun to rise and fall like waves; dun:gi a small boat; dun:gi dhiri a stone trough; duni a trough lever for lifting water for irrigation (Santali.lex.) Ferry boat: d.o_n.d.a_ boat; d.u_n.d.a_, d.u~_d.i_ boat (L.); d.u~_d.o, d.u~_d.i_ boat (S.); d.u~r., d.u~r.h trough, wooden or bamboo water-channel, gutter (N.); d.on.a, d.un.i canoe, boat (B.); dun.o ferry boat (Ku.)(CDIAL 5568). cf. to_n.i < dro_n.i boat, dhoney (Ta.Ma.); to_n.t.u to unload as a ship (Pur-ana_. 30)(Ta.lex.) cf. d.on:gu hollow in a tree (Te.)(DEDR 2990). tol.l.am float, raft (Vina_yakapu. 37,33); tol.ku excavation, pit (Ta.); tol.l.ai pit (Pur-ana_. 333); sailing vessel (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) Boat: tot.uvai-val.l.am boat attached to a dhoney; tot.uvai that which is joined or appended; to_n.t.u to unload as a ship (Pur-ana_. 30)(Ta.); cf. to_n.i boat, dhoney; ship (Pur-ana_. 299,3)(Ta.lex.) cf. val.l.am boat made of trunk of a tree, canoe (Ta.); vallam ola basket (Ta.); val.l.am canoe, boat of one trunk, large bamboo basket holding 200-400 par-a of rice; vallam large basket to hold grain, grass, charcoal (Ma.); pol.m (obl. pol.t-) a bamboo vessel (To.)(DEDR 5315).

4516.A seaport: to_n.i-t-tur-ai harbour, port (Ta.lex.) ton.t.i an ancient seaport of the Cholas in Ramnad district (Cilap. 14, 107, Urai.); an ancient seaport of the Cheras in Malabar (Ain:kur-u. 178); ton.t.i small arm of the sea (Tj.)(Ta.lex.) Image: junction: tot.uva_y confluence or junction as of two rivers or of a river with the sea (J.)(Ta.lex.)

4517.Cholas; Cheras: ton.t.iyo_r the Cholas (Cilap. U_rka_n.. 107); the Cheras (Patir-r-up. 88)(Ta.lex.)

4518.Big club: don. big club (Ko.); don.n.e, d.on.n.e, d.o_n.i cudgel, club (Ka.); don.n.e club (Kod..); don.n.e, d.on.n.e cudgel, club (Tu.); don.elu club (Tu.)(DEDR 3502). lumen.d. stick (Bshk.); *drumadan.d.a(CDIAL 6638).

4519.Quiver: tu_n.a, tu_n.i quiver (MBh.); tu_ni_ id. (Ka_tyS'r.); tu_n.i_ (Pali); tu_n.a (Pkt.); to_n.a (Pkt.); tu_na (OAw.); tu_n (H.)(CDIAL 5898). tu_n.i_ra quiver (MBh.Pali); to_ni_ra (Pkt.); tu_ni_ra (OAw.); tuni_r (H.)(CDIAL 5899). tu_n.i quiver (Patir-r-up. 45,1-2)(Ta.); id.; tu_n.i_ra id. (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) tu_n.i quiver (ampu-p-pat.t.il)(Ta.lex.) don-si to carry in the hand (as a club, or sword)(Sora.)(Sora.lex.)

4520.Image: bow: dro_na_k bow (Pas'.); dron bow (Kho.); dro_nha_nu rainbow (Kho.); d.l.un.o string of balance, hemp rope (WPah.); drun bow (Dm.); dro~_, dru~_ (Ash.Wg.); dro~_ (Kt.); uru~_ bow; duru-s'tar bow and quiver (Pr.); dret. pellet-bow (Pr.); dre_n, lu_n bow (Pas'.); lyen (Shum.)(CDIAL 6636). ora quiver, scabbard (Pa.); sheath, quiver (Ga.)(DEDR 723). *dru~ + wot. = dret. pellet-bow (Pr.)(CDIAL 6636). -wot. < Drav. vat.t.il quiver for arrows, measure of capacity (Ta.)(DEDR 5231). dhanu, dhanus, dhanur, dhunus. a bow; an arc or part of a circle (Ka.)((Ka.lex.) tan-u bow (Kalin..); a linear measure = 4 karam as the length of a bow (Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 6)(Ta.lex.) cf. dhanus bow (RV.); dhanu bow (Pali.Pkt.); da_nu (Sh.); dhan.uk (OP.); dhan.u (WPah.); d.han.a (Or.); dhan, dhanua_ (H.); dhan.um. (OG.); dunna, dunu (Si.); dhunwi_ cotton-carding bow (H.)(CDIAL 6726). danuwa_ bowman (OSi.)(CDIAL 6725). dhamma bow (Pkt.); dhanvan (RV.MBh.); thum, tha_m (Kal.); danvare (Av.)(CDIAL 6728). turo_n.am bow (Tiva_.); turo_n.an a brahmin warrior who taught archery to Pa_n.d.avas and Kurus (Pa_rata. Patin-o. 2); turo_n.a_-ca_riyan- id. (Kalit. 101, Urai.); to_n.i arrow (Iraku. Tikkuvi. 103)(Ta.lex.)

4521.To be joined: tun-r-utal to be close, thick, crowded together (Kampara_. kukap. 28); to get attached to; to lie (Tiruva_ca. 17,10); tun-n-utal to be fitted, joined, attached; to be thick, crowded; to press close (Na_lat.i, 167); to approach, approximate, adhere to (Pur-ana_. 23); to join; to undertake (Kur-al., 316)(Ta.lex.) Image: bunch: tun.ar bunch of flowers; to cluster, as flowers; tun.ari bunch of flowers. tun.i piece, slice, fragment; cloth for wear (tun.i-c-citar : Man.i. 11,109); hangings, pendants, decorations, as of cloth; bark-cloth; tun.ikkai small piece, slice (Ta.); tunuka (Te.OKa.); tun.ai to string, as a garland (Maturaik. 551); tun.aiyal garland, wreath of flowers (Te_va_. 562,2); tun.ai-y-ar-ai ornamental hangings (Ta.lex.) tun.i piece, slice, chop, fragment, bit, morsel (Ta.); tunke half portion (of bread)(Nk.)(DEDR 3305). To darn, mend, patch, sew; goad, needle; image: tailor-bird: tunna struck (RV.Pali); goaded (R.); goad, needle (Pali) (CDIAL 5863). tun-n-u_ci needle, shoemaker's awl: (kor-ce_ri nun.t.ul.ai-t- tun-n-u_ci vir-pa_rin- : Ain. Aim. 21)(Ta.lex.) tun-n-aka_rar, tun-n-a-na_yakar tailors (Cilap. 5,32); tun-n-am seam, sewing, needle-work: (ir..aivalanta pa(h)r-un-n-attu : Purana_. 136); eye of a needle; tun-n-am-pey to be stitched, sewed; tun-n-ar tailors, cobblers; tun-n-al sewing (Ta.); tunnal id. (Ma.); tun-n--vinaiar tailors (Man.i. 28,39); tun-n-u to sew (Arut..pa_. i, Ka_t.cipperu. 4); tun.i to be sundered, cut, severed; to be torn; piece, slice, chop, fragment, bit, morsel; tun.ikkai small piece, slice (Ta.); tunuka id. (Te.OK.)(Ta.lex.) tun.n.a darned, patched (Pkt.); tun.n.an.a patching (Pkt.); tun.n.a_ya patcher, darner (Pkt.); tunan.u to darn, mend (S.); tunu darning (S.); tuu id. (S.); {tuan.u to darn X guu wrinkle; or < tujanti 3rd. pl. pushes, urges (RV.)(CDIAL 5851)}; toik to stuff, cram into, pack (Kho.); tunvu~ to darn (G.)--[altern. < nitundate_ pierces (RV.); ton.a_ to stuff (P.)(CDIAL 5970)]: tunnn.a_, tunnana_ to stow, stuff (P.); t.uni, t.unt.uni tailor-bird (B. perhaps, onom. cf. t.unt.un ticking noise); --X granthayati ties (MBh.)(CDIAL 4353): tun.d.hn.a_ to darn (P.); t.un.d.hn.a_ to sew a patch on (P.);--X vina_ti weaves (Skt.)(CDIAL 11773): tunnava_ya tailor (Mn.Pa.); tun.vu~ to darn (G.); tun.n.e~ id. (M.); tunna struck (RV. Pali.); goad, needle; tunna-kamma patching (Pali); goaded (R.); tun.n.ia darned, patched (Pkt.); tun.n.an.a patching; tun.n.a_ya patcher, darner (Pkt.); tunan.u to darn, mend; tunu darning (S.); tunnu to patch, darn; ta_n-tun darning (N.); tuniba_ to sew torn cloth (Or.)(CDIAL 5863). tun-n-u to sew, stitch; tun-n-am sewing, needlework; tun-ar tailors, cobbers (Ta.); tunnuka to sew, stitch; tunnal sewing; tunnikka to get clothes made (Ma.); tunna_ to plait or repair baskets, mats, etc. mend, repair (Kur.); tunye to sew (Malt.)(DBIA 215 ?NIA *tun to mend, darn). tuniya piece, fit, fragment; tuniyu, tunu~gu to be cut or broken to pieces (Te.); tun(u)mu to cut (Te.); tun.i to cut, be torn; n. piece, slice, fragment, morsel (Ta.); piece (Ma.); tunke half portion (of bread)(Nk.); tunki_ a piece (Go.); tuns to be broken in pieces; become worn out (as a cloth)(Kond.a)(DEDR 3305). {Tailor-bird: porke (Malt.); put.ki_-pitte_ (Go.)(DEDR 4267) makes its nest in a leaf sewn cup or by sewing teak leaves together: cf. poru to join, unite; poruntar weavers, makers of mats and baskets (Ta.)(DEDR 4541). po_ra joint (Pkt.); por hollow bamboo for drilling seed (P.); por space between two joints (H.); per joint, articulation (M.)(CDIAL 8406). cf. t.unt.uni tailor-bird (B.)(CDIAL 4353). tonnai cup made of plantain or other leaf (Ta.)(DEDR App.45). tr.n.a blade of grass, straw (RV.); tin.a small piece of silver or gold leaf (P.)(CDIAL 5906). tr.n.n.a pierced, cracked (S'Br.); tronu dark hole, chasm (K.); tinakna_, tinakhna_ to prick, break into passion, throb (H.)(CDIAL 5908)}.

4522.Image: joined: ton.e, ton.i (the state of being joined)(Ka.); tun-n-u to come near, to be close together, to sew (Ta.); tul.i to solder; tunnal sewing (Ma.) (Ka.lex.)

4523.Image: the body of a lute: doni_ the body of a lute, the sounding board (Pali.lex.) cf. dhvani sound (Skt.lex.) Image: string of a lute: ti_n-tot.ai string of a lute, lute (Ta.)(DEDR 3133). tot.ai bowstring (Ci_vaka. 2320); lute string (Ta.lex.) t.an:ka_ram < t.an:ka_ra twang of a bowstring (Ta.lex.)

4524.Image: crow: turo_n.am, turo_n.a-ka_kam < dro_n.a-ka_ka a species of crow; crow, raven; turo_n.am a fabulous eight-legged bird (Ta.lex.)

4525.Image: projections: to_n.i projections, bastions in a fortress wall (Pin..) (Ta.lex.)

4526.Instrument: tun.ai-k-karuvi implement, tool, instrument (Nan-. 297, Virut.) (Ta.lex.) tun.ai sharp end of an instrument or a weapon (Ta.lex.)

4527.Image: small drops of water: tun-n-al small drops of water (i_t.u,6,2,10); tun-i river (Ta.lex.)

4528.Image: to miscarry: tu_na_ to leak, fall, miscarry (of foetus or child) (H.); tu_n.a_ to miscarry (P.); tuia~ aborted (of cattle)(Ku.); trupati hurts (Dha_tup.); t.ruijan.u to miscarry (only of animals)(S.); taru_n.a_ (L.); tarva_vu~ to miscarry (only of animals)(G.); tuhunu to have a miscarriage, die in the womb; tuha_unu to miscarry, cast young (N.)(CDIAL 6067). t.l.oi gei (the cow) aborted (WPah.)(CDIAL 6083). duvet. miscarriage (M.); duvet.n.e~ to miscarry (M.)(CDIAL 6450). tro_phati miscarries (Dha_tup.); tru_un. to give still birth to (L.); tuhunu to have a miscarriage, to be still-born; tuha_unu to miscarry, cast young (N.)(CDIAL 6069). turban. to drop young prematurely (L.); pass. t.rumbijan.u to abort (of cattle (S.)(CDIAL 6070).

4529.Gum of the fig: tu_n.iyan:kam gum of the cluster fig, attippicin- (Mu_. A.)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

4530.To touch: t.ohn.a_, t.uhun.a_ to feel about, seek out (P.); t.on.u to seek by touch (WPah.); t.ohna_ to feel for (H.); t.oh touch, search; t.oa_ groping (H.)(CDIAL 5486). thukr.au to grope with feet; tahao groping as with stick (Santali.lex.) tat.avu (tat.avi-) to grope, feel one's way with hands and feet as in the dark, seek (Ta.); tar.mbar.- (tar.mbat.-) to make one's way in the dark by groping; tar.va.t- (tar.va.ty-) to explore with hand something out of sight or in dark; tar.k- (tar.ky) to search for (Ko.); to.d.bor.- (to.d.bot.-) to feel way in dark (To.); tad.avu to feel one's way with the hands, grope (K.); tavd.- (tavd.i-) to feel way in dark, search for in dark (Kod..); tad.avu, tad.amu, tavud.u to grope, feel about with the hands, feel for something in the dark, touch; tad.avud.u searching (Te.)(DEDR 3025). hatr.a hatr.i, hutr.a hutr.i groping; t.amd.ao, hat.rao to grope (Santali.lex.)

4531.Milkpail: do_hana milking (RV.); milkpail (MBh.); do_hani_ milkpail (Kaus'.); do_hanika_ (Skt.); do_han.a milking (Pkt.); donik milking vessel (Kho.); dohna_ milkpail (P.); dohni_ small milkpail (P.); dohan act of milking (A.); dohan, dohni milkpail (B.); dohan.i_, dohun.i_ cord tied to leg of vicious cow while being milked (Or.); dohan, dohna_, dohni_ milkpail (H.); dohn.u~ pot for coagulating milk; dohn.i_ milk-trough (G.); dohon.a milkpail (Si.); duhn.a_, duhn.i_ milkpail (P.); duhan.i_, duhun.i_ (Or.); duhni_ (Mth.); du_hni_ (H.)(CDIAL 6593). dunhya_ro, dunero milkpail (N.)(CDIAL 6595). cf. ton-n-ai a cup made of plantain or other leaf pinned up at the corners (Ta.); donne id. (Ka.Te.); ton-n-ai-k-ka_tu prominent ears slightly bent as cup-shaped (Ta.lex.) cf. t.and.i small pot, cup (Pa.)(DEDR 2946).

4532.Image: cord to carry a pot: tu_n.am < tu_kkan.am cord with a loop or rings to carry a pot (Ta.); tu_n.i < dro_n.a a measure of capacity = 4 marakka_l (Na_lat.i, 387); tu_n.i id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. tu_kku suspended net-work of rope supporting a pot, ur-i; tu_kkan.am id., pendant, anything suspended (Ta.lex.) duna to carry in a sling (Mundari) (Sora.lex.)

4533.Image: projecting pin: t.huni a projecting pin to prevent anything slipping or coming off (Santali.lex.)

4534.Image: hole: tun hole, cavity (Ta.); du_n well-shaft, well, pit (Br.); tu_tu hole (Ka.); tu_t.u hole (Te.)(DEDR 3399-b).

4535.Image: a crack: timmna_ to bungle at husking paddy, break the grains in the process of pounding; timmrna_ (paddy grains) to be brittle (Kur.); teme to prove false (as an arrow not going off)(Malt.)(DEDR 3241). tappai bamboo splints for a broken bone, bamboo splits for roofing (Ta.); dabbe, debbe, d.abbe, d.ebbe a slip, slit, split, strip, esp. of a bamboo, the half of a split bamboo; dambe slice of bamboo, arecanut, etc., used to lead water (Ka.); dabbu a crack, break; dabb, debb a splinter, slip of bamboo, etc.; cracked, split; dabbelu a split, cleft, chink; cracked, split; damb the hollow slip of a palm or bamboo used as a drain (Tu.); dabba a slip, strip, piece of split wood, thin rafter (Te.)(DEDR 3076).

4536.Sound of tabor, when struck: t.apa_r-en-al onom. expr. signifying cracking sound; t.api_r-en-al onom. expr. signifying the sound produced in firing a gun; t.apa-t.apav-en-al onom. expr. signifying the sound of a drum (Ta.); d.aba.r in- (id--) to make noise as of gun shooting or bamboo joints exploding in fire; d.ab d.ab in- (id-) to make noise of the big flat drum (tabat.k-); d.ab d.ob in- (id--) to make noise of gun shooting (Ko.); d.abbu sound emitted by a hollow box, a sort of tabor etc., when struck (Ka.); d.abbu noise of a drum (Te.)(DEDR 2947). Blow, slap: tabir.i, tabr.i a slap; a stroke with the palm of the hand (Mu.); tupto_ (Greek); tapper (French); thappar. (H.); thapr.a (Sadani); thapr.i (Oraon)(Mu.lex.) taputi ruin, death (Tol.Po. 72); tavudi id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. tu to injure, hurt, strike; to have authority or power, to be strong (Skt.); tauti, tavi_ti (Skt.lex.) tuppul.i armoury; tuppu means, instrument (Cilap. 14,176); weapon; tuppan- mighty, powerful person (Tiv. Periyati. 7,10,6); tuppu effort, activity; ability, dexterity (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,7,5); zeal (Ta.lex.) tappu (tappi-) to strike, beat, kill; tappai a blow (Ta.); dabbe, debbe, d.abbe, d.ebbe a blow, stroke (Ka.); dabbad.incu to slap; debba blow, stroke, attack (Te.); tapp- to strike, kill; tapor. a slap (Ga.); tapr.i a slap (Go.); tap- to strike, hit (Kond.a); tapu_r vecali to slap (Kuwi)(DEDR 3075). thepco flattened (e.g. of nose)(N.); thebra_ flat-nosed (B.); thebar.a_ flat (Or.); t.hibba_ club-footed (P.)(CDIAL 6107). thaphan.u to pat (S.); thapthapi slapping (S.); thappan. to slap, pat; thapp slap (L.); thapa_ slap (A.); thappn.a_ to hammer, beat, fix (P.); tha_p beating the ground (Ku.); tha_pa stroke of whole palm on a drum (Or.); tha_pi flat piece of wood used by potters for patting clay (Or.); tha_pi_ wooden mallet (Bhoj.); tha_pna_ to pat (H.); tha_p slap (G.); tha_pn.e~, tha_p id. (M.); tha_pa_ wooden instrument for breaking clods; tha_pi_ mason's patter (M.); tha_pur slap (K.); thapar.a (S.); thappar. (P.); thapar. slap (Ku.); thappar. (N.); thapar slight thud; thapariya_iba to slap (A.); tha_par., thapr.a_ slap (B.); tha_par.a, tha_pur.a (Or.); thapara_ (Bhoj.Aw.); thappar. (H.); tha_par. (G.); tha_pad. (M.); tha_pat. (G.M.); tha_ba_ to slap (B.); tha_ba_ paw (Or.); tha_bar.vu~ to pat (G.); tha_bn.e~ (M.); tha_bo trip, stumble (S.); thipun to slap, pat (K.); thapa seal; thpu patting (K.)(CDIAL 6091). t.hapan.u to beat out (metals); t.hapo seal (S.); t.happan. to close a book; t.happa_ stroke, stamp (L.); t.happn.a_ to strike, close a book, stamp, print (P.); t.happa_ stamp, mould (H.); t.ha_p thumb impression, seal (Ku.); t.happa_ a partic. rhythm in music (N.); t.ha_pa_na to press home (in copulating)(B.); t.ha_p so doing (B.); t.hapko rebuke (G.); t.hapka_rn.e~ to strike (M.)(CDIAL 5495). dhappa_ blow with both hands (L.); slap (P.Ku.); dha_p striking the earth with the hand in cursing (Ku.); slap (N.); leap (B.); dha_pa oppression, attack; dha_par.a slap (Or.); dhappa_ slap (H.); dhappo, dha_plu~ (G.); dha_p panting (M.); dhapyon.o to force to run; dhapkan.o to leap (Ku.); dha_pinu to be strained (N.); dhapa_unu to drive away (N.); dha~_pna_ to be weary (H.); dhapvu~ to proceed (G.); dha_pn.e~ to pant (M.)(CDIAL 6729). t.happa_ a die, a stamp, a wooden stamp; a print, a mark, a handful of earth put on a grain heap, to prevent the grain from being secretly stolen; t.hapa_ a wooden seal used for marking heaps of corn in the threshing floor. It is a flat slip of wood with marks cut on it. The person responsible for the security of the heaps places a number of lumps of mud on each heap and marks them with the t.hapa_; t.hapa_i_ embossing or ornaments; the price of stamping; calico-printing; beating; price of beating cloth, price of stamping a book (Punjabi. lex.) Rebuke; stamp: drabel to press down (Psht.); dap(p)at., d.apat. rebuke (P.); dapat.n.a_, d.pat.n.a_ to rebuke (P.); dapka_unu to rebuke; dapot. hiding (N.); da_piba to control, reprove; dapa_liba to rebuke (A.); da_pa_ to stamp (B.); da_pab to press, squeeze (Mth.); da_p stamping forcibly, strength; dapat.na_ to rebuke (H.); da_pn.e~ to menace; dapn.e~ to lie hid; dapat.n.e~ to cram in, menace (M.); dappa force (Pkt.); d.rapu fear (S.); d.rp to copulate (of man)(Wg.)(CDIAL 6619). Blow; press down: dab blow, kick; daber to pummel (Gypsy); dab- to bury (Mai.); dabun to press into (K.); daban.u, daba_in.u to press down (S.); dabban. to press, bury; daban. to be pressed down, be buried (L.); dabb pressure; dabbn.a_, daba_un.a_ to press down (P.); dabn.a_, dabi_rn.a_ to press back (P.); da_bn.o to press, force, bury; dabn.o id. (Ku.); da_bnu to press down; daba_unu to crush, bury; dabinu to be put out of sight (N.); da_biba to sink; daba_iba to press (A.); da_ba to press down (B.); da_biba_ to press down; dabiba_, dabakiba_ to shrink back (Or.); da_b pressure; da_bna_ to press, rule (H.); dabna_, dabakna_ to be covered, be hidden (H.); da_b restraint; da_bvu~ to press; daba_vvu~ to press (G.); da_bn.e~ to press; dabn.e~, dabakn.e~ to bend under a weight (M.); d.aba_iba to press down (A.); d.a_biba_ to cover (Or.); d.aba_vvu~ to press (G.); daphe_ik to crush (Kho.)(CDIAL 6173).

4537.Amulet: tabit an amulet; tabij < tawiz (Arabic) an amulet worn by Hindus and Muhammadans, a charm; jadu tawij a magic square; tabitia one who writes amulets (P.lex.) cf. ta_yiti, ta_ti, ta_yata a small box or tube worn round the neck or arm, also tied to the waist-band, containing an amulet and occasionally small gold coins (Ka.); ta_yitu, ta_yete (Te.); ta_yittu (Ta.); ta_yi_ta (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ta_yittu small gold or silver case worn on the person as amulet; cylindrical talisman; an ornament (Ta.); ta_yitu amulet (Te.); ta_yattu id. (Ta.); ta_'it (U.)(Ta.lex.) Protector: ta_yati v.t. to protect; pp. ta_yita; ta_yana, ta_n.a protection; ta_n.abhu_ta protective; ta_yaka protector (Pali.lex.) Praise: tavam < stava praise, adoration (Ko_yir-pu. Iran.iya. 81)(Ta.lex.) cf. stavana praise (Bhp.); stavanya to be praised (Skt.)(CDIAL 13689). ni_thun.a without pride (OG.)(CDIAL 7133).

4538.Image: left side: d.avva left (Pkt.); d.abri left side or hand (Or.); d.a_va left hand (Pkt.); d.a_o left (S.); d_a_var.u left-handed (S.); d.awa_ left (H.); d.a_va_ id. (M.); d.a_vra_ lefthanded (M.); d.a_bar.u lefthanded (S.); d.a_bau left (OG.); d.a_bu~ id. (G.); d.ibba_ left hand (H.); d.ebre left (N.); d.ebra_ left-handed (B.); d.ebiri pertaining to the left (Or.); dewra_ left (H.); debre left (H.); debra_ left (H.)(CDIAL 5539). it.ai, it.am left side; it.an one on the left side (Ta.); it.am, et.am left side (Ma.); er. id. (Ko.); ed.a left, left side (Ka.); yad.a id. (Tu.); ed.anku on the left side (Tu.); yad.ambu left side (Tu.); damma, datta left (Tu.); ed.ama left, left-hand, the left-hand side (Te.); d.a_, da_ left (Te.); edamakei left (i.e. left hand <Te.)(Kol.); d.a_kiyan ki_ left hand (Nk.)[cf. daks.in.a right hand (RV)(CDIAL 6119); daks.in.a_ fee to priest (RV)(CDIAL 6120)](DEDR 449). d.avva crosswise, lefthand (Non-Aryan < Drav.)(Skt.)(CDIAL 5539).

4539.Image: tiger's cub: d.ambaru, d.ammaru tiger's cub (N.)(CDIAL 5533). dvi_pya spotted (living on an island)(VS.); dipr.o panther, tiger; dipr.u~ small panther, small tiger (G.)(CDIAL 6695). ti_pi tiger (Me_ruman. 366); ti_vi tiger (Uri. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) cf. d.imba child (Skt.); d.imbha new-born child, young animal (Skt.); silimba child (Pkt.); d.im.bha child (Pkt.); d.im.bhiya_ small girl (Pkt.); d.i~b son (M.); d.i~bhi_ sprout (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5553).Image: leopard: ti_pi tiger (Me_ruman. 366); ti_vi < dvi_pin tiger (Uri. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) Image: leopard: dvi_pin tiger, panther, leopard (AV.); di_pin, di_pika panther (Pali); di_vi, di_via leopard (Pkt.); dewio young leopard (Pas'.); di~_(h) tiger; di~_ leopard (Sh.); di_n. (D..); diviya_ leopard (Si.)(CDIAL 6694). Image: leopard: tarup an animal of the tiger kind, a leopard; napr.ak tarup, maran. tarup a tiger; pot.ea tarup a small species of leopard; sona cita tarup a leopard; kurse baha tarup a panther (Santali.lex.)

4540.Arrogance: darpa arrogance (Mn.); dr.pra, du_pra strong (Skt.); dappa arrogance (Pali.Pkt.); da_p arrogance (B.); da_pat. might (B.); da_pa, da_pat.a arrogance, oppression, strength (Or.); da_p pride, anguish (Mth.); da_p arrogance, strength (H.); dapa pride (Si.)(CDIAL 6200). dr.p to be excited, inflamed, arrogant (Skt.); darpayati makes arrogant (Skt.); inflames, kindles (Dha_tup.); da_pnu, da~_pnu to sharpen, whet (N.); dappita arrogant (Pali); dappia (Pkt.); dpiya arrogance (Si.); dpi < darpaka god of love, Kandarpa (Si.)(CDIAL 6202). dr.pyati is mad, is wildly excited (S'Br.); dr.pta pp. (S'Br.); ditta arrogant (Pali.Pkt.); dippai is pleased (Pkt.); dru_pem I eat something hot (Kal.)(CDIAL 6512). Strength, bravery: tempu, ten-pu physical strength, daring, bravery, arrogance, energy (Ta.); tempu boldness; tempari a brave, etc., man; tegu, tega~-bad.u, tegincu to dare, venture; teguva daring, boldness; te~_kuva courage (Te.)(DEDR 3416). Image: opposing power; to conquer: tev- enmity, hostility; war, battle, fight; opposing power, enemy (Kampara_. Pal.l.iyat.ai. 59); tevvu id. (Tol. Col. 346); tevit.t.u to conquer (Ce_tupu. Man:kala. 69); tevvin-ai battle, war, fight; tevvan- foe, enemy (Perun.. Makata. 14,28); tevvam enemy (Tirukko_. 304); tevvar-mun-aippati camp of an invading hostile army (Ta.lex.) To gather in a crowd: tevit.t.u to gather in a crowd, assemble (Kur-icip. 217)(Ta.lex.) d.imba affray (Skt.); obstacle (Pkt.); d.imba_, d.imma_ hard blow with the palm (N.); d.im.ba obstruction (OG.)(CDIAL 5552).

4541.Image: pot: taburi a pot (Tu.lex.) taba_k dish, tray (Kon.lex.) dabare a kind of brazen pot (Tu.lex.) tabak a cover, a plate, a leaf, a dish; a story of a house; d.abba_ a leather oil vessel with a large mouth; d.abbi_ a very small round wooden or metallic box, a casket in which gems are deposited (P.lex.) tampikai a kind of small water-pot (Pirapo_ta. 11,31); tambuga (Te.); tambige (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

4542.To smear: tappal.am smearing, rubbing as oil; tappal.am-po_t.utal to smear profusely as oil; tappu-tal to smear as sandal paste; to put on and rub as cooling ingredients (Ta.lex.) tapa_lya name given to the community of oil-mongers (Tu.lex.)

4543.Image: large-mouthed vessel: tapale a large-mouthed metallic vessel (Tu.lex.) tapalai a kind of metal vessel (Vir-alivit.u. 747); tapela (Te.); tapala (Ka.); tavalai (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

4545.Image: bowstring: tebbu a bow-string (Tu.lex.) tiru bow-string (Tu.); tiru, tiruvu, tirpu, tirbu, tibbu id. (Ka.)(DEDR 3248).

4546.Image: to jump: tebbu to fly or jump about (Ka.lex.)

4547.4548.Image: fish: tebat.e a kind of fish (Tu.lex.)

4549.Image: drop: tembo, tembea_, thembo drop; tembe pod.ta_t drop (Kon.lex.)

4551.Image: needle: dabban.a, dabbal.a, d.abbal.a a pack-needle (Ka.); dabbana (Te.); da_bhan.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) dabban.o a large packing needle (Tu.lex.) dabban., dabban.a_ a long packing needle (Kon.lex.) tappan.am tacking needle (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) cf. tippili, tirpul.i a kind of boring instrument (Tu.)(DEDR 3246). cf. dimmu giddiness (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 3240). cf. tamar hole made by a gimlet (Ma.); tavar to bore a hole (Ta.)(DEDR 3078).

4552.Image: turning: trippu to turn, to change the direction of; n. a turn (Te.); tirivu change, alternation, variation, motion, ruin (Ta.)(DEDR 3246). tr.i_m- (-t-) to turn round; intens. tri_mba-; tr.i_p- (-t-) to turn round (Pe.); tli_pa (tli_t-) to twist (Kui); t.in.- (Kuwi)(DEDR 3256).

4553.Image: monkey: timman- male of a species of monkey (Ta.); timmad.u (Te.); timma (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

4554.Marriage party: dibban.o a bridal party (Tu.lex.) dibban., dibban.a_ a number of people going together to a marriage-feast (Kon.lex.) cf. dibban.a a nuptial procession, esp. of the friends and relatives of the bridegroom; nibban.a a marriage festival with all its display, esp. with its processions and gifts, the display of the gifts or the gifts themselves; nibban.iga the friend or attendant or companion of a bridegroom (Ka.)(DEDR 3230). nirvapan.a gift, donation (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. tiruman.am marriage (Ta.lex.) cf. tarpan.am offering (Skt.lex.)

4555.Post, pillar: sthu_n.a_ post, pillar (RV.); thu_n.a_ post, pillar (Pali.Pkt.); thu_n.ira house-top, gable (Pali); thun.a pillar (KharI.); thu_n pillar, post (D..Pas'.Sh..Bshk.); ustu~ (Ash.); us'tu_n (Wg.); s'tyu~ (Kt.); ustyu~ (Pr.); us'tun (Dm.); uthu_n (Par.); thu~ (Shum.); thun (Wot..Gaw.Kho.); thu~r (Kal.); ton. (Mai.); thu~r.u (Sv.); thu_n.i, thu_ni (Phal.); thu_n.i_ stake, bridge of nose (S.); thun., thun.i_ post, stake (L.); t.hun a tender and small stem (A.); Stand: thu_nu_ stand supporting fringe-maker's hook (Bi.); thu_ni_ small pillar (OAw.); thu_hn., thu_hn.i_ post, stake (L.); thu_hn.i_ pillar, prop, blind man's staff (P.); thu_nhi_ prop (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 13774). tu_n., tu_n.am pillar, post, column, mainstay, support (Ta.); du_n.u pillar (Ta.); tu_n. post, pillar (Ma.); tu_na stake, post (Ka.); tu_n.a, tu_na id. (Tu.)(DEDR App.44). ta_n.u pillar (Pu. Ve. 4,20); post (Tiruva_lava_. 28,43); prop, support (Ta.lex.); cf. stha_n.u (Skt.); tha_n.a_ < tha_na_ (U.) < stha_na_ (Skt.) police station (U.)(Ta.lex.) tu_n.am pillar, post, column (Man.i. 1,48); sthu_n.a_ (Skt.); tu_n. pillar, post, column (Pur-ana_. 86); id. (Ma.); mainstay, support (Kur-al., 615); tu_n.a_-nikan-an-a-niya_yam < sthu_n.a_ + nikhanana + nya_ya of firmly setting a pillar, illustrating the principle of establishing a matter once for all by examining it critically from all points of view (Ci. Po_. Ti_. Va. 25)(Ta.lex.) tu_na (Tadbhava of sthu_n.a_) a stake, post (Ka.Tu.); ko_na a yam (M.Kon:kan.i); tu_na-gen.asu the west Indian yam, a climbing plant, dioscorea alata (Ka.); tona-keren:g (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Mound: thube stu_pa (As'.); thuba, thuva (KharI.)(CDIAL 13702). thoba round piece of earthenware (K.); thobunu short and thick tree (K.); thubu tuft (S.); thuba_ bunch (B.); tubu tail of an animal (Si.); thobi_ flagstone placed over fire for baking bread on (S.); thoba_, thobi_ lump of mud used in building a wall (L.); thobba_ lump of mud (P.); thob, thubi bud (A.); thoba_ bunch, cluster (B.)(CDIAL 13703). thum ridge of a mountain, space round a hilltop (N.); thu~_ba_ lump of earth (H.); thumr.u~ a collection of ears of corn (G.); tho~b clump (M.)(CDIAL 13705). us'tum pillar (Wg.); thumi wooden or masonry pillar to support roof (Ku.); thumar.o, thumar.i prop, pillar; thumi post for churning curds (Ku.); thum pillar (A.); thu_m, thumbha_ pillar supporting the wood which supports the woof; thu_mhi_ support of a broken wall (Bi.); thu_mhi_ wooden pillar supporting roof (Mth.)(CDIAL 13707). stu_pa tuft of hair, crest (RV.); mound (Skt.); main beam of house (A_pGr..); thu_pa tomb, stu_pa; thu_pi-kata heaped up (Pali); thu_va heap (Pkt.); s'tu pillar, post (Wg.); thu_a thorn of date tree (L.); thu_a_ boundary pillar of mud, heap, clod (H.); t.hul(h)u tower (S.); t.hulh, thu_l tower, walled village (L.)(CDIAL 13710). thu_ha_ pillar, prop (P.); thoa_ tethering post (WPah.); tube stu_pa (Si. inscr.) (CDIAL 13712). thobhan. support, prop (G.)(CDIAL 13724). Image: upper storey: dubbil.i, dubbul.i, dobbul.i a beautiful upper storey (Ka.); toppa_ra, tomba_ra a large building (Ta.); du-majili_ of two stories, as a house (M.)(Ka.lex.) Large building: toppa_ram large building (W.)(Ta.); tcapparamu id. (Te.); tomparam id. (Ta.); tompa_ram id. (Ta.lex.) Image: a crown: toppa_ram a kind of crown (Tiruva_lava_. 4,12)(Ta.); tapa_ramu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Testered bedstead: capparam < cappar (U.) testered bedstead, i.e. upper-canopied decorative bedstead (Tan-ippa_.i, 385,36)(Ta.lex.); capparamu (Te.); cappara (Ka.); capparam (Ma.); canopied car-like vehicle in which idols are carried during festivals (Ta.); cappira-macam id. (Ta.); cappara-macam id. (Civaraka. Paca_cu)(Ta.lex.); id. (Ma.); capparamaca (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) chaparu grass thatched on a frame and put up for covering (S.); chapiri_, chipiri_ framework of reeds (S.); chappar thatched roof; chappur (L.); chappar thatched roof; chappri_ thatched hut (P.); chapar temporary hut (K.); chappar straw hut, thatched roof (WPah.); cha_pro hut; cha_pri trap consisting of a pit covered with twigs etc. (N.); cha_par thatched roof, bedstead with a frame for curtains (B.); chapara, chapara_ thatched roof (Or.); chappar, chapra_, chapri_ shed over watchman's platform (Bi.); chapri_ (Mth.); chappar, chapra_, chapri_ sloping thatch, hut (H.); cha_pru~ thatched roof, cottage; cha_pri_ small thatched roof, small cottage (G.)(CDIAL 4976). Thatched roof: tepesa thatched roof (Kui); tepori, temberi id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3415). Image: pinnacle: tu_pi < stu_pa pinnacle, as of a tower, temple, palace, etc.; finial (Ta.); tu_pi id. (Te.); tower (Caivaca. Potu. 127); mountain peak (Kantapu. Nakarar..i. 5); tu_pikai pinnacle; < stu_pika_ (Kantapu. Nakarar..i. 22); tu_pai id. (Ci_vaka. 3003); tu_ma-mu(Ta.lex.) Heap: thu_bha, thu_ha heap; thu_biya_, thu_bhiya_ga_ little heap (Pkt.); thu_ho camel's hump (S.); thu_ha_ pillar, prop (P.); tha_ tethering post (WPah.); thu_ha_ heap (H.); tube nom. sg. stu_pa (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 13712). Collected; heap; crowd: stu_pyati heaps up (Dha_tup.); thu_p heap (Ku.); thup heap, multitude (A.); thupa_ heap of straw (A.); thupur.o dunghill (Ku.); thupro heap, crowd; thupa_rnu to heap up (N.); thupuri collected (A.); thop cluster, bunch (A.B.); thopana_ (B.); thopa bunch of flowers; thopa_ bunch, tuft of thread (Or.)(CDIAL 13711). Image: bush: topy shrub, bush (To.); tuppa small bush (Te.); bird's nest (Kol.); tuft of reeds or similar plants (Pa.); shrub (Ga.); nest (Go.); tupa, dubu bush, shrub; dupa shrub (Kond.a); small thick bushes (Kuwi); relli tuppa bulrush (Kuwi); duba bush, tuft, cluster, clump of trees (Kui); dubbu bunch or tuft of grass, small shrub (Te.); dopeli a small bunch (Malt.)(DEDR 3322). tho~b clump (M.)(CDIAL 13705). thop cluster, bunch (A.B.); thopana_ (B.); thopa bunch of flowers; thopa_ bunch, tuft of thread (Or.)(CDIAL 13711). thob, thubi bud (A.); thoba_ bunch, cluster (B.)(CDIAL 13703). stamba tuft or clump of grass, cluster, bunch (AV.); thambha, thambhaka clump of grass (Pali); tham.ba bunch, tuft of grass etc.(Pkt.); istam first blossoms of spring (Kal.)(CDIAL 13681). stabaka cluster of flowers, tuft (MBh.); quantity (Skt.); thavaya cluster of flowers (Pkt.); thok clump (H.); cluster, bunch (A.); thol.a_, thola_ cluster (Or.)(CDIAL 13675). stibhi clump, cluster, bunch (Ka_tyS'r.); stimbhi (Skt.)(CDIAL 13695). tup, tu a bunch of feathers worn on the head or turban (Sora.) cf. t.o_pika_ turban (Skt.); t.o_pia_ helmet (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5481). Grove: to_ppu clump of trees, tope (Ta.); to_ppu grove, clump of trees (Ma.); to_pu id. (Ka.Tu.); to~_pu garden, grove, tope (Te.)(DEDR 3551). tumpai assembly, crowd (Ta.); thumba much (Ir.); tub- (tuby-) to be filled full; tubc- to fill; tumn full (Ko.); tumbu to become full, filled up, complete, abound, be amassed, become plump and strong; n. becoming full; tumbisu to fill; tumbike repletion; tombe multitude, assemblage, host, cluster, etc.; tomba_ra mass, heap (of grain); timbu to fill (Ka.); tumbuni to be filled; tumba_vuni to cause to fill; tumukuni, timukuni, timuruni, dimuku to throng, crowd; tombara abundant, much (Kod..); tumd.i to fill (Kor.)(DEDR 3331). toppan much, plenty; to_na much, greatly (Ma.); toppane greatly, much, thoroughly; to_lu much, plenty (Ka.); tappena much (Kor.)(DEDR 3509). tuppe a heap of grain (Ta.); tupe granary (Kon.lex.)

4556.Treasure: thovo, thovya_ treasure (Kon.lex.) tombara abundant, much; to_va_l.e a gardener, cultivator (Tu.lex.) to_pu, to_hu a clump of trees, a grove, a wood (Ka.Te.); to_ppu (Ma.); tokuppu, to_ppu a crowd; a grove (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) tomba_ra a mass, a heap (of grain); tombe a large, high, bamboo basket for storing corn (Ka.); toppai-k-kot.u (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

4557.Image: bird-trap: dabba_ a bird-trap of ka_na_n. reeds. One side rests on the ground; the other is raised and supported by a stick to which a string is attached. The other end of the string is held by a concealed person who, on seeing birds come under the trap, pulls the string, and the trap falls on them (P.lex.) tu_pi rat-trap (Kond.a); tu_pi trap for fish, rats, etc. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3386). t.apok, t.epok a bird trap; dhar.ap to be caught in trap (Santali.lex.)

4558.Image: spot: d.abb a spot, a mark; d.abb pai ja_n.a_ to become spotted (P.lex.) d.obu spotted (K.); d.abb spot (P.); d.abba_ spotted (P.); d.a_bar spot, small swelling (N.); d.abko drop, bolt (G.); d.ribur.u mark of sting or bite (S.); dhabba_ spot (P.); dhabbo stain, spot (N.); dhabba_ (H.); dha_bu~ (G.)(CDIAL 5529). Spotted deer: d.uppi spotted deer (Ga.); deer (Kol.); duppi spotted deeer with branching horns, the axis (Ka.); d.uppal, duppi, luppi, lu_pi spotted deer (Go.); d.upi axis deer (Kond.a); ur.up (pl. ur.pul) spotted deer (Pa.); duppi deer (Te.); ure, ule, ul.e deer (Tu.); ur..ai deer (Ta.); ur..a-ma_n, ur..al-ma_n porcine deer (Ma.); duppi stag (Ga.)(DEDR 694).

4559.History, annals: taba_ri_kh < tava_ri_k (Arabic) history, annals (P.lex.)

4560.Bier: ta_bu_tu a bier, especially that which is carried about in the Moharam by Muhammadans (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) tu_mb, tu_mba_ bier, a frame for carrying corpses on to the grave (Kon.lex.) Ladder: ta_pa a ladder, rung of a ladder, steps, stairs (Te.); ladder (Go.); da_pa ladder, steps, stairs (Kond.a)(DEDR 3160A). dhap a stair, a step; t.ahuc with long steps; d.ebe with short steps (Santali.lex.)

4561.Company: ta_pe, ta_phe a set or company as of dancing girls and musicians (Ka.); ta_pha_ id. (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

4562.Gong: ta_su an hour (Ka.); ta_sa id. (M.H.); ta_su a gong (Ka.M.H.); ta_sina bat.t.alu the metal vessel by the sinking of which in water the house is measured (Ka.lex.) ta_ppu [cf. ta_s (U.)] expected moment, appointed time, wished-for occasion (Ta.); ta_pu (Ka.); ta_ppu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

4563.Clarified butter: tuppa clarified butter, ghee (Ka.); ghr.ta, va_ja, a_jya (Skt.); tuppakam, tuppu (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

4564.Image: shaken; rinsed: dhu_ shake (Skt.); dhuvati shakes (AV.); dhu_vati (Skt.); dhu(v)ai shakes (Pkt.); dhuvan.a adj. (Pkt.); d.uwun to sweep (K.); dhuban.u to shake (S.); dhu~n.u_ to sweep (WPah.); dhuvai to shake (S.); dhuvvai washes (Pkt.); dhu_ta rinsed (of soma)(RV.)(CDIAL 6832). dhu_ta shaken (RV.Pali); dhuta (MBh.); dhu_a (Pkt.); dhu_i_ jowar chaff (L.)(CDIAL 6840). dhu_na shaken (Pa_n..); dunu agitation (Si.); jhu_n.a_ shaking a tree (P.)(CDIAL 6842). dhujo piece, shred (N.); dhujj heap (P.)(CDIAL 6862). dhuta cleansed (R.); dhu(v)ai washes (Pkt.); du_wa_y to wash (Dm.); du (Bshk.); dhu_v (Phal.); d.uwun to sweep (K.); dhu_n.u to wash (WPah.); dhu_n.a_ (WPah.); dhu(v)n.e~ (M.); dhutta_ washes (Konkan.i); dhuvan.a washing (Konkan.i); dhuan.u (S.); dhunu (N.); pp. dhoyo (S.); pp. dhoyo (N.); dhuppn.a_ to be washed (P.); dhupn.e~ to be washed, to wash; caus. dhupavin.e~ (P.); dhuccn.a_ (P.); duhend they washed off (Gypsy); duwam I washed (Dm.); dhu_we_li (Phal.); pp.dhuho washed (WPah.); dhua_ bleached (Or.)(CDIAL 6833). cf. uddhu_ta, uddhuta shaken, shaken off, thrown up (MBh.); uddhu_no_ti (RV.); uddhuta (Pali); uddhu_da, uddhuya shaken, scattered (Pkt.); uduhu_ shaken, kicked up (Si.); udhui~_ to tear asunder (Kal.)(CDIAL 2026). To wash: to_, to_yu to become wet or moist, be dipped in; wet, moisten, dip, soak, steep (Ka.); to_kul.i act of dipping, steeping (Ka.); toy, tuy, toyyu to be or become wet or moist (Ka.); toyisu, toyyisu, to_yisu to cause to become wet, steep in water (Ka.); to.y- /to.t.-(to.c-) to wash clean (cloth)(Ko.); twi.y- (twi.c-) to wash (clothes)(To.); to_y- (-v-, -nt-) to become wet, soaked, temper by dipping in water (as heated metal); (-pp-, -tt-) to dip, soak, temper as iron, dye, tinge, stain, imbue, wash, cleanse (Ta.); to_yccal, to_yppu tempering heated metal (Ta.); to_ykka to temper metal (Ma.); to_yuka to dip, soak (Ma.); toyal.i, toyili washerwoman (Tu.); toipuni, toyipuni, to_yipuni to wash (as clothes)(Tu.); to~_gu, do_gu, do~_gu to become wet or moist; to bathe, sink in water (Te.); to~_cu to sink, bathe, dip in (Te.); to_nj to dive, submerge head under water while bathing (Go.)(DEDR 3555). toya- water (Skt.)(CDIAL 5974). dat.t.iyuni to rub out, obliterate; wash off (Tu.); dat.t.isu, dad.isu to rub out, obliterate (Ka.) (DEDR 3037). cf. dat.t.i waistband or girdle of cloth (Te.)(DEDR 3038). dhu_ta rinsed (of soma)(RV.); du to wash (Bshk.); dhu_v (Phal.); dhuhend they washed off (Gypsy); dhuwam I washed (Dm.); dhuho washed (WPah.); dhua_ bleached (Or.)(CDIAL 6833). tho_v, thov (Gypsy.); do (D..); do_ (Tir.); do_y (Shum.); do_a (Gaw.); dhoeb to beat (clothes in washing)(Bi.); to wash (Mth.); dho_ (Kal.); dhovan. (L.); dhauta- washed (Skt.); dho_vati washes (Pali); dho(v)ai (Pkt.); dhuan.u (S.); dhon.a_ (P.); dho a washing (P.); dhunu (N.); dhoiba (A.); dhoiba_ (Or.); dhowan act of washing (A.); dhuya_, dhoy, dhoya_ (B.); dhowal to wash (Bhoj.); dho_ab (Aw.); dhon.o (Marw.); dhowna_, dhona_ (H.); dhovu~ (G.); dho a wash (G.)--Forms with b originated in the East from MIA., pass.dhovvai: dhob a washing (A.); dhoba_ washerman (A.B.Or.); dhoba washed clean, a washing (Or.); dhobala_ white ((Or.); dhob a wash (H.); dhobi_ washerman (H.); dhobin his wife [(H.) > into all languages: dhobi_, dhoba_ (P.) > do.bu (K.) > dubu, dubi (Sh.); dhobi_ (S.G.M.etc.)](CDIAL 6886). dha_vati rinses, washes, polishees (RV.); cleans, washes (Pali); dha_vai (Pkt.); dauar washes (Gy.); dha~_van.uu to washy one's body (G.); dha~_van. id. (L.); dho_n.u_ to wash (WPah.); dha_vayati washes (Mn.); dha_vita purified (MBh.)(CDIAL 6803). dauni soap (Gy.); dha_vana washing (Pali); dhaun. water that has been used for washing (P.); dhaun water in which rice has been washed (H.)(CDIAL 6805). dhon. water that has been used for washing (P.); dhowan id. (H.)(CDIAL 6886). cf. to_n.i water (Ta.lex.) Pure, clean: tuyya pure, holy; conclusive, certain; tuppu cleanness; tu_ purity, cleanliness, immaculateness, that which is pure, brightness, whiteness; tu_cu cleanness; tu_ytu that which is pure, clean, immaculate, holy; tu_ymai, tu_mai purity, cleanness, immaculateness, holiness, truth, salvation, goodness; tu_ya clean, pure, holy; tu_yavan-, tu_yan- pure an dholy man, sage, ascetic; tu_ya_l. pure, spotless woman (Ta.); tuyya fair, spotless; tu_ pure, bright; tuyma, tu_ma purity, perfection (Ma.); tu_be_ moon (Br.)(DEDR 3338). Purity, cleanliness: tuppuravu purity, cleanliness (Te_va_. 577,10); tupparavu id.; tuppu cleanness, purity (Kampara_. Etirko_t.. 2); tuyya pure; holy (Kampara_. Pirama_ttira. 189); id. (Ma.); tuyyan- holy, sacred person; sand containing silver ore; tu_ymai purity, cleanness, immaculateness, holiness (Kur-al., 298); tu_ya clean, pure, holy (Tiruva_ca. 2,112); tu_yam purity, cleanness (Tiruman. 2451); tu_ma id. (Ma.); tu_ytan-mai impurity, uncleanness, as of body (Na_lat.i, Ati. 5); tu_y-ner-i spiritual path; path of virtue (Tiruva_ca. 51,4); tu_yan- pure and holy man, sage, ascetic (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,9,6); tu_yavan- id. (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvuyir. 54); tu_ya_l. pure, spotless woman (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 199); Sarasvati_ (Ta.lex.)

4565.Armoury; weapon: tuppak a gun, a cannon (P.lex.) tuppul.i (prob. tuppu + ul.) armoury; tuppu vigour, strength, valour (Akana_. 105); ability, dexterity (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,7,5); effort, activity; zeal; greatness, eminence (Kampara_. Urukka_t.. 15); means, instrument (Cilap. 14,176); weapon (Ta.lex.) tuppuravu ability, cleverness (I_t.u, 1,5,3); experience (Upate_caka_. Uruttira_k. 179); tuppan- mighty, powerful person (Tiv. Periyati. 7,10,6); tuppu enmity (Kur-al., 1165); tumpan- wicked person (J.); tumpi, tumpicci wicked woman; tumital to be cut off, severed (Pur-ana_. 211); to perish, to be rushed (Akana_. 254); tumittal to cut off (Tiva_.) (Perumpa_n.. 266); to keep off, obstruct (Kalit. 116,5); tumi cut, severance (Kantapu. Acamukico_. 2); tuy sharpness (Tiruva_lava_. 38,35) (Ta.lex.) To obstruct: tumi (-v-, -nt-) to be cut off, severe, perish, be crushed; (-pp-, -tt-) to cut off, saw, keep off, obstruct; n. cut, severance (Ta.)(DEDR 3325). Image: small bit: tumuru a small piece or bit; tuttumuru small bits or fragments, powder, dust (Te.)(DEDR 3325). cf. tupak musket, gun (Turk.) [For -ul.i in tuppul.i cf. ul. inside, interior of a place; that which is private, secret, esoteric; place; ul.i place; part. 'in, at', a loc. ending (Tirumuru. 95); by or along, a particle having the force of an instr. ending (Kur-al., 545, Urai.); an expletive suffix (Malaipat.u. 153, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. also ul.i chisel (Net.unal. 119); id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.); uli id. (Te.); ul.i battle-axe; burin, engraver's tool; barber's instrument for paring nails (J.); ul.i-t-talai-k-ko_l crowbar (Kantapu. Val.l.i. 28); ul.i-p-pa_rai id. (Ta.); ul.i-vaittal to split wood with an iron tool; ul.i-k-kompu stump of a horn (W.)(Ta.lex.)]

4566.Wool: tuppat.a, tubat.a wool (Ka.); tuppar..u wool, fine soft hair as of cats (Ka.); tuy cotton (Ta.); toppa wool, animal's hair (Ma.)(DEDR 3393). tu_la cotton (SKt.)(CDIAL 5904). Fine soft hair: tu_val feather; tu_vi feather or down of birds, swan's down, swan (Ta.); tuy cotton (Ta.); toppa animal's hair (Ma.); Image: rabbit and bush: tuppur.. the fine soft hair of rabbits (Ka.); tuppar..u wool, fine soft hair as of cats (Ka.); tuppat.a, tubat.a wool (Ka.); toppit.a feather (Kod..); tuyi, suyi feather, the plume of birds (Tu.); truppud.u hair, down (Te.)(DEDR 3393). tu_la cotton (Skt.)(CDIAL 5904). Veil: tuppat.t.i (Ta.Ma.) duppat.i (Ka.) < dvi-pat.i_ a coarse cloth used to cover oneself in cold; veil, cloth used by Parava women for covering themselves on public occasions; sheet, table-cloth; cotton-blanket (Ta.lex.) Small headgear: davat.t.i_ small headgear (P.); dupat.t.ika_ two cloths (Skt.); daur.o folded double, sewn in two layers (Ku.); dviput.a (Skt.) (CDIAL 6413).

4567.Red: tuppu red coral (Ci_vaka. 550); gum lac; red, redness (Ta.lex.) Red-coloured cloth; red dye: to_pu a red-coloured cloth; red (Tu.); to_mpu red dye, redness (Ta.); to~_pu a red-coloured cloth, red (Te.); t.o_peri red, rosy (Kui)(DEDR 3553). To dip cloth in dye: tuvai (-pp-, -tt-) to dip in, soak, temper (steel)(Ta.); (-v-, -nt-) to be dipped (as cloth in dye), be moistened with starch, be tempered (as steel)(Ta.); tuvekka to steep, soak in water, temper (iron)(Ma.); tuva overflowing, running over (Tu.)(DEDR 3355). Red: tudr-n seed of abrus precatorius (Sora.lex.) Red ochre: tuvar coral, red colour, scarlet, red ochre (ka_vi); to be red (Ta.); (tuvarur-ukinr-a va_t.ai yut.alpo_rttu : Te_vva_. 608,10); tuvari salmon colour (as of an ascetic's dress), flower of silk-cotton tree; to dye with salmon colour (Ta.); tuppu red coral, gum llac, red, redness (Ta.); to_rai pale reddish colour (Ta.); togaru red colour, scarlet (Ka.); red colour, thread of a red colour; red (Te.); do_ra reddish, half-ripe (Te.); tukir red coral, coral seaweed (Ta.)[pon-n-un tukiri muttum (Pur-ana_. 218)(Ta.lex.)]; tu_gu blood, bloody fluid (?Kui)(DEDR 3284). tun:karikam < prob. gairika red ochre, ka_vi-k-kal. tun:kam cleanliness, purity; victory; height, breadth; tip, edge; dignity, exaltedness, excellence; tun:kan- eminent man; tun:ki_can sun, S'iva, Vis.n.u, moon < tun:gi_s'a (Ta.lex.) to_mpu redness, red dye (Ta.); to_pu id. (Te.); t.o_peri red, rosy (Kui)(DEDR 3553). Thread of red colour; silk-cotton: tuvari flower of silk-cotton tree, ilavam-pu_ (Ta.); (-pp-, -tt-) to dye with salmon colour (Ta.)(DEDR 3284). tukir--pi_cam cotton seed; tukin-u_l white thread (Ci_vaka. 235)(Ta.lex.) togaru thread of a red colour (Te.)(DEDR 3284). Cloth dyed in ochre: tuvari to dye with salmon colour; (tuvaritta vut.aiyavarkkum : Tiv. Periyati. 5,6,8); tuvan.t.ai cloth dyed in ochre (ka_s.a_ya)(Ta.lex.) <perhaps tuval. to be flexible, supple, as a tender tree (Kampara_. Pu_kkoy. 11); to be rumpled, as a new cloth; tuvara_t.ai salmon-coloured cloth (Kalit. 102,35)(Ta.lex.) tuvarai loin-cloth (Ta.lex.){Possibly tuvar > *daurs'ika cloth-seller; daus.ika, daus.yika (Skt.); do_sia id. (Pkt.); dosi_ (OG.)(CDIAL 6602). du_rs'a some kind of coarse cloth (AV.); du_s.ya fine cotton cloth (BHSkt.); du_s'ya tent (Skt.); dussa woven material, clothes (Pali); dusa_ni n.pl. clothes (As'.); du_sa cloth (Pkt.); dussa_ coarse woollen stuff (H.)(CDIAL 6502).} Cloth: tu_cu cloth, garment, cotton (Ta.); tu_car washermen (Ta.); du_su, du_sa, du_s.ya cloth, cotton, calico (Ka.); du_s.ya a tent; cotton, cloth (Skt.); dussa cloth, clothes (Pali); du_sa id. (Pkt.)(DBIA. 216). tu_r cleaned cotton (Bi.); cotton wool (Mth.); tree-cotton (G.)[Poss. < Drav. tu_val painter's brush, shoot (Ta.)]; tu_la cotton (MBh.Pali); cotton-wool (Pkt.); tu_laka cotton (Skt.); tu_la_ cotton, wick (Skt.); tu_da the cotton tree (Skt.); tulca spindle (Pas.); tulu iron spindle on which bobbin is placed (Sh.); tu_l cotton wool (K.); tula_ ginned cotton (A.); cotton (B.)(CDIAL 5904). du.dy silk-cotton tree (Ko.); du_di cotton after being cleaned (Ka.); silk of the silk-cotton tree used as tinder (Ka.); du_di cotton (Te.); dudli down (of birds)(Go.); lu_di_ silk-cotton tree (Go.)(DEDR 3383). cf. tun.t.a-ke_ri cotton (Ta.lex.) [ke_ri kiln, dust, pounded bricks (P.)(CDIAL 3468). kern.a_ to scatter, spread, pour; kera_na_ to sift, winnow (H.)(CDIAL 3467).] tu_riyam a kind of fine cloth (Cilap. 14,108, Urai)(Ta.lex.)[?cf. du_s.ya] du_rs'a some kind of coarse cloth (AV.); du_s.ya fine cotton cloth (Skt.); du_s'ya tent (Skt.); dhu_rs'a, dho_rs'a cloth (Skt.)[Prob. non-Aryan]; dussa woven material, clothes (Pali); dusa_ni clothes (As.); du_sa cloth (Pkt.); dussa_ blanket (L.); dussa_ coarse woollen stuff (H.); dusa a kind of stuff (OM.); juhun (spelling for duhun < du_rs'a_ni) garments (Si.); dhuso woollen mantle (S.); dhussa coarse blanket (L.); dhussa_ id. (L.); blanket or rug (of fur or soft and fine hair)(Ku.); coarse woollen stuff (H.); a fine woollen stuff (P.); dhussar. coarse cotton cloth (P.); dhusso blanket (N.); dhusa_ a grey woollen stuff (B.); coarse woollen stuff (H.); dhusa_ coarse thick woollen wrapper (Or.); dhu_s a thick blanket (Bi.); dhu_so coarse woollen stuff (G.); dhosa_ coarse woollen cloth (B.H.); dho~so id. (G.)(CDIAL 6502). do_sia cloth seller (Pkt.); dosi_ id. (OG.); *daurs'ika id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 6602). Picked, ginned cotton: tul.i cotton (Or.); tul.a_ picked cotton (Or.); tula_ ginned cotton (A.); cotton (B.); tola_ id. (B.); tu_l cotton wool (K.); tu_la tuft of reeds, panicle of flower or plant (AV.); cotton (MBh.); tuft of grass, cotton (Pali); cotton-wool (Pkt.); tu_laka cotton; tulec thread (Pas'.); tu_r cleaned cotton (Bi.); cotton-wool (Mth.); treee-cotton (G.)(CDIAL 5904). tu_da the cotton tree; silk-cotton tree (Skt.); tu_ta mulberry tree (Bhpr.); tu_t, tuti_ id. (M.); tu_la mulberry (Skt.)(CDIAL 5900). toli, tolpu = suli to peel off, remove as the bark or skin; tollu to pluck out (as feathers, etc.)(Tu.); coli to strip off, peel off (Ta.)(DEDR 2856). chollai skins (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5973). chila bark, skin (S.)(CDIAL 5952).

4568.To stitch; pin: te_pe, tya_pe a patch (Ka.); tai (-pp-, -tt-) to sew, stitch, nail (Ta.)(DEDR 3473). Decoration, sewing, stitching, embroidery, needlework: taiyal sewing, stitching, needlework, embroidery, lace, that which is adorned or decorated (Ta.); sewing (Ma.); taippu needlework (Ma.); tacali, ta_cinai, ca_c to sew (Kuwi); tai sewing, decoration, embellishment; to weave as a wreath, string as beads, adorn, decorate, set, enchase, wear, put on, paint, join, pierce, penetrate, plait, sew, stitch, nail, fasten beams with nails, spikes or pegs, pin or stitch leaves into a plate, prick as a thorn or arrow, tie (Ta.)(DEDR 3473).

4569.Image: sitting cross-legged; stool: palyan:ka sitting cross-legged (Skt.); pallan:ka id. (Pali); palan:ga id., stool (Si.)(CDIAL 7964). { cf. cappal.a_m, cappan.am act of sitting flat and cross-legged; cappal.ittiru to sit flat and cross-legged; cappal.i to flatten (Ta.lex.)

4570.Cloth: cappal.a~ci cloth from Sappal.am near Conjeevaram (Ta.lex.) Piece-goods, cloth: caval.i cloth, piece-goods (Ta.); any cloth (Ma.); javal.i cloth of any kind (Ka.); cloth (Tu.); cloths, drapery (Te.); jaul.i cloth (Tu.)(DEDR 2394). chavi_ skin, hide (TS.); skin (Pali); chavad.i_ leather (Pali)(CDIAL 5006).

4571.Image: finger breadth: {Echo word} t.ep a finger breadth; t.epa t.epe small,little; t.epen., t.epen. t.epen. narrow in width and short when worn round the waist (Santali.lex.) To contract and dilate: t.eph-t.ephrna_ to contract and dilate alternately (as a worm in its progress), go up and down in quick succession (as the shoulder-stick of native carriers)(Kur.); t.ep-t.eptre to flap the wings (Malt.)(DEDR 2973).

4572.To wipe: cf. te_y to rub off, cleanse by rubbing; to rub between the hand and fingers, as millet, rice etc. (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) de_- to wipe; de_sk- id., clean (Kuwi); tai-ua_ to shampoo, rub, massage, wipe off (Ta.); tacc-, cacc- to wipe (Pa.); tas- id. (Ga.); ta_ja (ta_ji-) id.; n. wiping (Kui)(DEDR 3019). te_l- (-it-) to wipe off (as tears)(Kond.a); de_lka- to wipe (intens.)(Mand..)(DEDR 3466). cf. tila sesamum indicum (AV.)(CDIAL 5827). cf. tellia oilman (Pkt.); teli_ (S.L.P.); id. (WPah.); teli (N.A.B.Or.)(CDIAL 5963). cf. te_jate_ is sharp, sharpens (RV.); te_jayati sharpens, incites (R.); t.ewna_, pp. t.ewa_ to sharpen (H.); tevn.e~ to shine, burn (M.)(CDIAL 5945). tappu (tappi-) to grope, feel about (Ta.); tappuka id.; tappal groping; tappikka to make to grope (Ma.); tabbuni to feel, grope (Tu.)(DEDR 3072). te_y (-v-, -nt-) to wear away by friction, be rubbed, wane as the moon, wase away as oil in a lamp, be emaciated, grow thin, become weakened, pass away (time), be effaced, erased, obliterated, destroyed, die; (-pp-, -tt-) to rub, rub away, waste by rubbing, reduce, destroy, scrub, scour, polish, efface, erase, obliterate, pare, shave, rub in (ointment); te_y-ma_n-am loss by wear and tear; te_yvu wearing away, lessening, abrasion, diminution, emaciation, decay, decline; te_yvai fragrant unguent made by trituration (Ta.); te_yuka to be rubbed off, be worn out, waste; te_kkuka (te_cc-) to rub, smear, clean, polish, sharpen; caus. te_ppikka; te_ccal waste from rubbing; te_ppu rubbing, scratch, polishing; te_ma_nam waste from rubbing (Ma.); te.y- (te.c-) to become worn down, lean; rub, wear down; te.v leanness; te.vn n. pr. man; fem. te.vy (Ko.); te_, te_y(u) to grind, triturate or macerate in water on a slab, waste by use, wear away as a metal vessel, be chafed or galled as the foot; te_ma_na waste from rubbing, esp. metals; tege to grind one substance on another, as sandalwood on stone (Ka.); te.y- (te.yuv-, te.j-) to wear off; (te.p-, te.c-) id., smear, white-wash (Kod..); te_puni to rub, polish; te_pu rubbing, whetting, polishing as a precious stone; te_pa-kallu a polishing stone, whetstone; te_pan rubbing, polishing as a precious stone; te_ma_na loss in assaying metals, waste by polishing; te_duni to grind, macerate; se_juni to sharpen, whet, polish (Tu.); te_gad.a worn out, wasted; te_yu to be worn or wasted; wear by use, handling or rubbing (Te.); de_-, jejali, je_nai to wipe (Kuwi)(DEDR 3458). To grow thin: te_mpu (te_mpi-) to fade, wither, droop, be tired, faint, grow thin, be emaciated, be in trouble, suffer, perish; te_mpal fading, being faded, reduced or diminished state, difficulty, faded flower (Ta.); te_mpuka to waste, grow thin (M.)(DEDR 3457). To pick up one by one: t.epun to fill a receptacle forcibly (K.); t.ipan.u to squeeze (S.); t.ipn.o to pluck (Ku.); t.ipnu (N.); t.ipiba to squeeze, pinch (A.); t.ipa_ to pinch (B.); t.ipiba_ id. (Or.); t.i_pna_ to squeeze, press (H.); t.i_pvu~ to pick up one by one (G.); t.ipn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 5464). To sprinkle, to ooze: cf. tip to sprinkle; to drop, distil, ooze, leak; te_p to sprinkle; to ooze (Skt.lex.) tippili-y-a_t.t.am < dabbili (Te.) a kind of play in which one teases, pinches, pulls the ears of another; puzzles, riddles; tippila_t.t.am id. (J.)(Ta.lex.)

4573.Heap of corn or rice; heap: thumr.u~ a collection of ears of corn (G.)(CDIAL 13705). cf. dhu_i_ jowar chaff (L.)(CDIAL 6840). cf. tus.a chaff of grain (AV.); toh, tuh chaff (K.); tuhu (S.)(CDIAL 5892). tupp heap of corn or rice, stack (Tu.); tip rubbish heap (Ko.); tippe heap (Ka.); tipp heap (Tu.); tube a heap of filth or sweepings (Malt.); tippa heap (Te.); di_be heap (Go.); d.ibba heap (Te.); d.ippa heap (Pa.)(DEDR 3229). thabba_ heap, pile (of grass, paper, etc.)(P.); thok heap (P.H.); t.hoka heap (Or.)(CDIAL 13765). thu_pi-kata heaped up (Pali); stu_pa tuft of hair, crest (RV.); mound (Skt.); thu_va heap (Pkt.); thu_a_ heap (H.)(CDIAL 13710). thu_p heap (Ku.); stu_pyati heaps up (Dha_tup.); thup heap, multitude; thupa_ heap of straw (A.); thupur.o dunghill (Ku.); thupro heap, crowd (N.); thupa_rnu to heap up (N.); thupuri collected (A.)(CDIAL 13711). thu_bha, thu_ha heap; thu_bhiya_, thu_ya_ga_ little heap (Pkt.); thu_ha_ heap (H.)(CDIAL 13712). toma clump of growing corn (Si.); sto_ma heap, mass (Skt.); riches, head, corn (Skt.)(CDIAL 13727).

4574.Food laid out for the dead; spirit of the dead: du_p food laid out for the dead (Tu.); du_ba spirit of the dead (Kond.a); duben a sacrifice for the ancestors (akor duben)(Pe.)(DEDR 3387).

4575.Mess prepared for many: tomparam a mess prepared for many, an open table, as in a palace (W.)(Ta.); dommaramu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

4576.Image: spy: to_pu, so_vu spying, watching; trace, mark; secret information (Tu.lex.) tuppan- spy, secret agent, detective; tuppa_l. spy; tuppu investigation (Ta.); tubbu id. (Ka.Tu.); tuppu spying; sign, trace, evidence as of a crime; tuppu-k-ku_li wage of an informer or spy; remuneration of a detective (Ta.lex.) tumpu-po_t.u to probe, spy out; turnutu (turunti-) to explore, examine (Ta.); tubbu to point out a thief or spy out a thief and make him known; be found out or discovered; n. state of being found out or detected (Ka.); tubbu discovery of stolen property, detection as of an offence (Tu.); turuvu (turuvi-) to seek, inquire into, search out, trace, pursue; n. searching; turuval searching; turu-p-pit.i to detect, trace, search; turappu (turappi-) to seek; tuppu spying, investigation, sign, trace, evidence, as of a crime (Ta.)(DEDR 3347). tur-tur to watch, to guard (Sora.lex.) turavu spying; turital to search after (Tiruman. 2454); turuvu searching (Ta.Ka.); turuvutal to seek, enquire into, search out, trace, pursue (Kur-al., 929); turumu id. (Te.); tur-avu private affairs, secrets (Ci_tak. 41)(Ta.lex.) tirakku (tirakki-) to search, inquire (Ta.); tirayuka, tirakkuka to seek; tiraccal a search; tirayikka to cause a search to be made (Ma.)(DEDR 3242).

4577.Image: boring instrument, drill; to bore a hole: tavar to bore a hole (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,9,1); tamar hole, as in a plank, commonly bored or cut (Tiruvil.ai. Ma_n.ikka. 61); tavan.ai joint, in carpentry (Ta.lex.) Image: groove or mortise: tavan.ai-p-poruttu a groove or mortise on the top of a gate or door-post (Ta.lex.) Image: gimlet: tamar boring instrument; gimlet, spring awl (Ta.); tavar (-v-, -nt-) to bore a hole; n. hole in a board (Ta.); tamar hole made by a gimlet; a borer, gimlet, drill (Ma.); tamiru gimlet (Tu.); tamire, tagire the pin in the middle of a yoke (Te.)(DEDR 3078). tau~ri giddiness, dizziness (Ku.); tavar id. (M.)(CDIAL 5688). ta~v, tav, tava_ giddiness (M.)(CDIAL 5689).

4578.One who gives a bride away in marriage: tamer one who gives a bride away in marriage (Tu.lex.) To entrust: cf. ta_be possession; ta_ben kar subject; ta_ben di entrust (Kon.lex.)

4579.Image: pot: taur.a_, ta_ur.a_ an earthen cooking pot; a pot with a broad mouth used for water; ta_ur.i_, taur.i_ a small earthen pot for cooking; tawa_ an iron griddle; a thin plate of iron convex on the upper side on which bread is baked; daur an earthen vessel with a wide mouth; a circular pot round trees for watering them; dauri_ a small earthen vessel with a wide mouth (esp. in which spices are bruised) (P.lex.)

4580.Images: creeper; crooked tail: t.aur the name of a vine or creeper, the leaves of which are very broad and long, and used for making umbrellas; the crooked tail of a lion or bull (P.lex.)

4581.Counsellors: tamar counsellors, men guiding one's affairs (tammir- periya_r tamara_ vor..ukutal : Kur-al., 444); friends, well-wishers (Pur-ana_. 157); relations, kindred (Pu. Ve. 3,6)(Ta.); tamar relations, kindred (Ka.Ta.); tamarmai friendship (Kur-al., 814, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) tamar, tavar, tavaru, tavuru those who are his, hers or theirs = tamavar one's own people (Ka.); tamaru, ta_ru (Te.); tamar (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) tavar mane a woman's native house; tavaru the house of a woman's own people (Ka.lex.)

4582.Family: tabbar a family, a house-hold; a husband, a wife; children; tabbardan a man who has a wife and children, the mother of children, a person who has a family; tabbarda_ri_ the married state, the condition of having a family; tabbari_ a wife (P.lex.) Kindred: tavaru the house of a woman's own people; tavarmane a woman's native house (Ka.lex.) tamar relations, kindred (Pu. Ve. 3,6); id. (Ka.Ma.); tamar counsellors, men guiding one's affairs (Kur-al., 444); servants (Te_va_. 907,1); tamarmai friendship (Kur-al., 814, Urai); tamal. a female relative or friend (Nan-. 276, Urai); taman- a male relative or friend (Cu_l.a_. Araci. 182)(Ta.lex.) Own: ta_m (obl. tam; before vowels tamm-) they themselves, you (hon. pl.); ta_n:kal. you (hon. pl.); tamar one's own people, relatives, kindred, friends, servants; tamarmai friendship; taman- a male relative or friend; fem. tamal.; tami solitude, loneliness, destitution; (-pp-, -tt-) to be alone, lonely; tamiyan- solitary, lonely man, destitute person; fem. tamiyal.; tam-appan- father (Ta.); ta_n:kal., tan.n.al. they, themselves; you (hon.); ta_m (obl. tam-, tamm-) themselves; tamar one's own people; tam-appan father (Ma.); ta.m (obl. tam-) themselves (Ko.); tam id. (To.); tadam each his own, separate, different; tada(m) ma.r- seaprately (To.); ta_m (obl. tam-), ta_vu (obl. tav-) they, themselves; you (hon.); tamtu, tamattu, tammatu, tammutu, tammadu theirs; tamar, tavar those who are his, hers or theirs, one's own people (Ka.); tanga themselves (Kod..); ta_mu (obl. tam-, tamm-), tamaru, ta_ru they, themselves; you (hon.)(Te.); obl. tam- they, themselves; tamne their own; tam ba.n his, her, their own father (Kol.); ta_m they, themselves (Nk.Pa.Ga.); tamma_, tammat. id. (Go.); ta_m id. (Kond.a); ta_ru (masc.), ta_i (neut.)(obl. ta_r.an-) id. (Kui); tambu_ (obl. tam-), ta_mbu (obl. tam-) id. (Kuwi); ta_m (obl. tam-) id. (Kur.); tm, tmi (obl. tam-) id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3162). ta_nva one's own (son)(RV.); tan own (Kho.); ta~_, tai_ (Mai.); tanuvaka, tanuvaga, tanu own (NiDoc.); tanuvaka, tanuvaa (KharI.); tanu (Ash.); tan (Wg.); ta_nu (Dm.Tir.); ta_nuk, to_nuk (Pas'.); ta_nu_ (Wot..); ta_nu, tanu (Gaw.); tanu (Tor.); ta_ni (Bshk.); te_n.i (Phal.); tan.u~, tan.i_ postp. of (G.)(CDIAL 5766). tan self (RV.); tanaya offspring (RV.); son; tanyha_ daughter (Mn.); tanaya son (Pali); tanuya (Pali); tan.ayes.u pl. (NiDoc.); tan.aya, tan.aya_ (Pkt.); tan one year old child; tana-mana boy, small children (Wg.); tene_ son (Si.)(CDIAL 5651). tanu_ body, person, self (RV.); tanu (AitBr.); body (Pali); tan.u_ (Pkt.); tan body; tan-nano naked (Sh.); tan, tani body; tonu belly below the navel (K.)[cf. tondi navel (Ta.)]; tan., tan.a_ side of belly (P.); tan-man with mind and body (N.); tanu body, skin (B.); tan body (H.); tunuva body, shape (Si.)(CDIAL 5656). tanu_ja born of the body (AV.); son (MBh.); tanuja (BhP.); tan.u_a son (Pkt.); tanu_ (H.)(CDIAL 5657). tanu_pa_ protecting life and body (epithet of Indra and Agni)(RV.); tanuo_ friend (Wg.)(CDIAL 5658). tannavu one's own, his own; tanna_te, tanna_tegu for oneself, himself, itself; of one's own accord, by itself; tanna_ye one's own man, a dependent, friend, favourite (Tu.); ta_ one's own, his (Pe.); tanne (?tane) his own (Kol.); tanwa_ his own (Go.); te_na_i_ that which belongs to self etc.; brotherhood, friendship (Br.); tan-atu that which is one's own, friendship, amity, intimacy; ta_n- (obl. tan--; before vowels tan-n--) oneself; tan-ata_l. one's own permanent servant, associate, mate; ta_n-e_ himself, only, just; tan-i singleness, seclusion, solitude, independence; (-pp-, -tt-) to be alone, single, solitary, be separate, detached from company, have no equal or match, be deserted; tan-icci woman separated from her husband; tan-itti lonely woman forsaken and left helpless; tan-itta_l. single man or woman as a bachelor or widow; tan-itar persons in solitude; tan-imai singleness, seclusion, solitude, retirement, incomparableness, matchlessness, forlorn condition, helplessness; tan-n-an-tan-i quite alone; tan-n-o_r one's kith and kin, relatives or dependants (Ta.); tan-mai nature, essence, property, inherent or abstract quality, character, temper, disposition, state, condition, position, circumstances; ta_n (obl. tan-) self, oneself; ta_num notwithstanding; ta_ne_ by himself; tani, taniccu by itself, alone; tanima loneliness; tanikku to himself, to oneself (Ma.); ta.n (obl. tan-/ta-) oneself; -dan also, even (concessive), ever (indefinite)(Ko.); to.n (obl. tan-) oneself; -ton (-0on, -don) only, just ( = Skt. eva); atton just that much, in that same way (To.); ta_n (obl. tan-) he, she, it, in the refl. or reciprocal sense; tanatu, tanattu, tannadu, tandu his, hers, its (Ka.); ta.ni (obl. tan-) oneself (Kod..); ta_nu self, oneself; ta_nu (hon. pl.) (Tu.); ta_nu (obl. tan-) one's self, he or himself, she or herself; tanantu, tanantat.a, tanakuta_nu of one's self, of one's own accord, voluntarily, of itself, spontaneously, automatically (Te.); ta.n oneself; tannad.i by himself alone, just by itself, accidentally (Kol.); ta_n (obl. tan-) oneself, self (Pa.Ga.); tana_, tanna_, tanai, ta_na_, ta_n (obl. tan-) self (Go.); ta_n he, himself; gen. ta_ one's own, his; acc. dat. tangen (Pe.); ta_nu (obl. ta_r.an-) himself or herself (Kui); tanu_, ta_nu (obl. tan-) self, oneself (Kuwi); ta_n (obl. tang-) refl. pron. of the 3rd pers. himself (Kur.); tn, tni (obl. tan-g-) himself, herself, itself (Malt.); te_n self, myself, thyself, himself, ourselves etc.; te_n-pa-te_n among ourselves, yourselves, themselves (Br.)(DEDR 3196).

4583.Image: overflow: tamel, hamel to overflow (Tu.lex.)

4584.Term of endearment: tampi younger brother or male parallel cousin; empi my younger brother; numpi, umpi your younger brother; tan-mun- younger brother; nampi the elite among men, a term of endearment, a title of inferior priests (Ta.); ampi younger brother (Ta.); tampi, tampa_n younger brother (Ma.); tamma younger brother (Ka.); tamman.e (voc. tammayya.n) younger brother (Kod..); tammaiya an affectionate form of addressing a younger brother (Tu.); tammu~d.u younger brother; (inscr.); tabunr-u, (inscr.) tambul, tammu id. (Te.); tammur, (hon.) tammur.a_l, tammor, tammun (pl. tammur) younger brother; tamma_l id.; tammun.d.u (pl. tammask) id. (Go.); tamber-i id.; tamber-si id. (referring to 3rd person)(Kond.a); ambesa, tambesa id. (Kui)(DEDR 3085). tampi younger brother (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,9,1); younger male cousin who is the son of a paternal uncle or maternal aunt (Ta.lex.)

4633.Image: fish: timi a fish in general; a fabulous fish of an enormous size; timin:gila swallowing even the timi: a large fabulous fish; timin:gilagila a large fabulous fish (Ka.lex.) timil a kind of big fish (Kantapu. Umaivaru. 20); cf. timilar fishermen, inhabitants of the maritime tract (Te_va_. 532,2)(Ta.lex.) timilam < timila a kind of big fish; timi < timi an aquatic animal of enormous size (Ta.); timin:kilakilam an aquatic animal believed to be large enough to swallow a timin:kalam (Kampara_. Kat.r-a_vu. 38); timin:kalam id.; whale, cetaceac; timitimi id.; timi-ko_t.am sea; timilai sea-fish, dull reddish olive, attaining 10 in. in length, astrape dipterygia (Ta.lex.)

4585.Tamil: tambar..a, tamir..a the Tamil language; Tamir.. (Ka.); tamir.. (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) dravil.a, dravid.a The Tamil country; name of a people and district of the east coast of the Dekhan: Tamil, tigul.a; dra_vid.a relating to Dravid.a: a Tamil man; Tamil (Ka.lex.) tamir.. Tamil language (Ma.Ta.); the Tamils, the Tamil country (Ta.); tamir..an- a Tamilian (Ta.); tamir..a, tambar..a Tamil language (Ka.); tobil. id. (To.); tamul.u, tamul.u, tambul.u Tamil (Tu.)(DEDR 3080). damila, david.a, davila name of a people, Dravidian (Pkt.); demel. Tamil (OSi.); demal.a_ (Si.); dramid.a, dra_vid.a (MBh.); dravid.a (Mn.)(CDIAL 6632).

4586.Name of a people: tammad.i an attendant of an idol (Ka.); nambi a Malabar brahman (Kod..); a Vais.n.ava priest (Tu.); nambi a class of priests employed in Vaishnava temples (Te.); nampi the elite among men, a term of endearment, a title of inferior priests; nampan- = nampi; nampiya_n- the title of officiating temple-priests (Ta.); nampi Vais.n.ava priests, inferior brahmans, actors; fem. nampicci; nampiya_n a title of princes; the steward of a pagoda (hon. nampiya_r)(Ma.); tambal.a a certain caste (of temple priests), a caste of S'aivaite priests (Te.); tambal.i a member of that caste; (inscr.) tammad.i, tammalava_r priest of a S'iva temple (Te.)(DEDR 3085). tampira_n- master, lord, king (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 3,5); title of Travancore kings (Na_.); non-brahman monk of S'aiva mutt; overseer of monks (Ta.lex.)

4587.Attendant of an idol: tammad.i an attendant of an idol (Ka.); tambal.ava_d.u, tambal.i, tammad.i, tammali, tammal.ava_d.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.) tampira_n- god (Periyapu. Il.aiya_n-kut.i, 1); tambura_n (Ma.); tampira_n- master, lord, king (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 3,5); title of Travancore kings (Na_.); non-brahman monk of s'aiva mutt; overseer of monks; tampira_n--ma_t.u leader of the herd of cattle brought by the Ka_ppiliyar when they originally migrated to the Kambamvalley in Madura district (Ta.lex.) Chief: tamma_n- lord, chief (Te_va_. 973,1); tammo_n- id. (Nar-. 88)(Ta.lex.) cf. dasma a sacrificer; beautiful; extraordinary; destroying, destructive; a thief, rogue (Skt.lex.)

4588.Merchants: to_n-r-ikar Chetti merchants (Ta.lex.) tu_n.ikar < dravin.aka vais'ya caste, the caste of merchants (Nikan.t.u.)(Ta.lex.) dravin.a property, wealth; a thing; gold, silver, money (Ka.lex.) dhan.i_ wealthy, rich, a rich person (P.lex.) Treasure: dirve, dirvya_ treasure, riches; dirvest rich; diva_l.i bankrupcy (Kon.lex.) dravyam wealth (Skt.lex.) turai abundance, plenty, increase (Tiruva_ca. 15,14; Ci.Ci. 2,32, Civaja_.)(Ta.lex.)

4589.Medicine: drava dropping, dripping, oozing; flowing, fluid; liquid; a liquid substance; moisture, juice, essence; decoction (Ka.); druta melted, dissolved, liquid, fluid (Skt.Ka.); dra_va liquefaction; distilling; dra_vaka a drug prepared by distillation; a flux to assist the fusion of metals; dravi_karan.a cuasing to drop or drip, making wet; dravisu to become liquid, to melt (Ka.); drava-dravya a fluid substance; a fluid; a substance having juice; dravan.a dropping, flowing, exuding (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) dravya a drug (Ka.lex.) drab, drap drug, poison, herb, root, tobacco (Gypsy); dru yeast (Wg.); d.rabhu medicine for the eyes (S.); d.a_ba medical prescription (Or.); dva, da~_, deya, de_ thing (Si.); davviya (Pkt.); jaba_ti, zaba_t.i medicine (Sh.)(CDIAL 6625). tiraviyam substance (Ja_n-ava_. Te_vapu_. 52); property (Ta_yu. Para_para. 233); gold (Ta.lex.) tiraviyapa_n.am the Indian cupid's arrows, opp. to pa_va-pa_n.am; aravintam, ma_mpu_, aco_kampu_, mullai, ni_lo_r-palam constituting the arrows (Ci_vaka. 706, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) tiravam < drava flowing property of liquids; oozing of liquids; juice, essence; liquid, tira_vakam (Tailava. Taila.); tiravattuvam < dravatva flowing property of liquids (Pirapo_ta. 42,2)(Ta.lex.) dra_vayati causes to run, makes flow, melts (RV.); drives away (MBh.); da_via dropping, dripped, made soft (Pkt.); dreik to pour out, put in or down, lay (an egg), sow, cut down (a tree), shave (Kho.); dri_ to pour out, shave (Ir.Yid.)(CDIAL 6634). cf. drava running (RV.)(CDIAL 6623).

4590.Property: dravya substance; property (MBh.); drug (Sus'r.); dabba material, property (Pali); davva, davia, davvia (Pkt.); jap, jab property (Sh.)(CDIAL 6625). tiraviyava_n- < dravyava_n nom. sing. of dravyavat wealthy man (Ta.lex.) dravyavanta a man having property, a rich, wealthy man; dravya a substance, a thing, an object; wealth, money (Ka.Skt.); dravin.a property, wealth; a thing; gold; silver; money (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) dravin. wealth, goods, property (RV. i.94.14); dravin.as movable property, property (RV. iv.34.5); bestowing wealth (RV. iii.7.10); dravin.asyu desiring wealth (RV. vi.16.34; VS. xxxiii.9); dravin.asvant possessing wealth (RV. ix.85.1); dravin.o_da_ Soma (TS. iv.4.7.1); dravitnu giver (RV. x.11.9); dravya-parigraha earning of wealth (Sat. xxvii.3); dravya-vatta_ inheritance (Sat. iii.1)(Vedic.lex.)

4591.Wedding present; image: betel leaf: tambilo an ordinary offering to demons (Tu.lex.) tambol a wedding present; a due record is kept of the presents made, when any who have given are married the man who has received tambol, refunds with with something extra. It is, therefore, a loan rather than a wedding present in the ordinary sense; betel leaf; tambolan., tamboli_ the wife of a betel-nut seller, a seller of betel-nut (P.lex.) cf. ta_be possession (Kon.lex.) tampal red spittle caused by chewing betel (Kampara_. Varaikka_. 49); tampar id. (Ma_r-analan.. 470, Uta_.); tampalam id. (Tirukko_. 396); tamma id. (Te.); tampalam betel with arecanut (Kalit. 65); cf. ta_mbu_la (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) tumpai betel leaf (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) ta_mbu_la betel, betel leaf (Sus'r.) < Austro.as.; tambu_la, tambu_li_ (Pali); ta_mbul.a, ta_mbal.a (Or.); tamu_l (OH.); ta~_bu_l. (M.); bulat, tabala (Si.); tim.pura, drim.pura (NiDoc.); tam.bo_la betel leaf (Pkt.); tam.bo_li_ the plant (Pkt.); tambol, tammol (P.); ta~bol, tamol (N.); ta_mol (A.); ta~_bola_ (OB.); ta~_bul (B.); tam.bora (OAw.); tambol, tamol, tamor (H.); ta~bol. (G.)(CDIAL 5776). bilat betel (Md.)(CDIAL 14562). tiraiyal roll of betel prepared for chewing (Cilap. 16,55); betel (Ta.lex.) ta_mbu_lika seller of betel (R.); tam.bo_lia (Pkt.); tamboli_, tambolan. (P.); tamoli (N.); ta_muli attendant who prepares and serves betel (A.); ta_muli_ betel nut seller (MB.); ta~bo_li_ (Aw.); ta~boli_, tamoli_, tamolin, tamori_ (H.); ta~bol.i_ (G.); ta~_bol.i_ (M.); ta_mli (B.); ta_mal.i (Or.); ta_moli_ (Mth.); tamoli_ (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5777). ta_mpu_lan.-kot.u-ttal to offer betel as a courtesy; to give betel as a signal for the dispersion or dismissal of a company; to dispense with one's services; ta_mpu_la-caruvan.am < ta_mbu_la + carvan.a finishing ceremony of a marriage, when betel leaf is first chewed by the bridegroom and bride; ta_mpu_la-ta_ran.am chewing betel and areca (Ar-ap. Cata. 34); ta_mpu_lam betel leaves and areca nuts, pansupari (Ce_tupu. Ce_tupala. 91); ta_mpu_lam-vai-ttal to invite to a wedding by the distribution of betel; ta_mpu_la-ma_r-r-u-tal to settle a marriage solemnly by exchanging betels; ta_mpu_la-valli betel pepper, piper betle (Cu_t.a_.); ta_mpu_li id. ; ta_mpu_la-va_kakan- valet employed to give betel and areca for chewing; ta_mpu_likan- betel dealer (Ta.lex.) Image: leaf; betel leaf: tama_lam leaf (Ta.lex.) cf. tamol, tamor betel leaf (H.)(CDIAL 5776).

4592.To pull by jerks: ta_mpu rope (Pin..)(Ta.); da_vu (Ka.); ta_mpu rope to tie cattle, tether (Kalit. 111); ta_mpukkayir-u id.; ta_mpun-to_n.t.i-y-um-a_tal lit., to be like drawing rope and pitcher; to be familiar, intimate, hand and glove with (Ta.lex.) ca_mpu (ca_mpi-) to pull in by jerks, haul, draw in, pump (Ta.); ca_mbuni to lift with a lever; ca_pan. a lever (Tu.)(DEDR 2454). Image: capstan: tavar-ai capstan, machine for winding up a cable in small craft (Ta.); dabara id. (Te.); tavar id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) da_van.a, da_man.i_ tethering rope (Pkt.); d.a_van.u, d.a_n.u forefeet shackles; d.a_vin.i_, d.a_n.i_ guard to support nose-ring (S.); d.a~_van., d.a~_van.i_, d.a_un.i_ hobble; da_un.i_ strip at foot of bed, triple cord of silk worn by women on head; da_vun. picket rope (L.); da_un., daun., daun string for bedstead, hobble for horse; da_un.i_ gold ornament worn on woman's forehead (P.); daun.o, daun.i_ peg for tying cattle to; do~r. place for keeping cattle, bedding for cattle (Ku.); dan long cord on which a net or screen is stretched, thong; dana_ bridle (A.); da_mni rope (B.); daan.a string at the fringe of a casting net on which pebbles are strung; da_un.i rope for tying bullocks together when threshing (Or.); da_wan girdle (H.); da_wani_ rope; da~_wani_ a woman's ornament (H.); da_man., d.a_man. tether, hobble (G.); da_mn.u~ thin rope, string; da_mn.i_ rope, women's head ornament (G.); da_van. picket-rope (M.)(CDIAL 6283). ta_van.i a piece of cloth worn generally by girls over their petticoats; pieces from the shroud kept as relic of the deceased (Chr.); saddle cloth (Ta.lex.) ta_van.i long rope to tie cattle in a row; cattle-fair; cattle-shed (Ta.lex.) da_ma-, inst. da_me_na rope, fetter, garland (Pali); da_ma- (Pkt.); da_m rope, thread, bandage (Wg.); rope (Tir.Shum.); thick thread (Pas'.); du_m net snare (Pas'.); do_mo twine, short bit of goat's cord; do_m thread (Sh.); do_n. thread (D..); gu-dmu cow's tethering rope (K.); da~_u, da_va~_ hobble for a horse (P.); dau~, dao~, da_ma_ peg to tie a buffalo-calf to (A.); da_m, da_ma_ cord (B.); da~_w rope to tie cattle (WPah.); dua~_ tether; da_i_ long tether to which many beasts are tied (Or.); da_m tether (G.); rope, string, fetter; da_ma_ id., garland (H.); da_ve~ (M.); dama chain, rope; dam garland (Si.); damat.a_, damat.i_, damat.k rope (Pas'.); d.amat.ik (Shum.); damo_r. (Wot..); damor.i_ (Sv.); da_mlo tether for cow (N.); da~_wali, da_u~li, da_mli bird-trap of string; da~_wal, da_mal coeval (< tied together)(N.); da~_vli_ small tie-rope (M.)(CDIAL 6283). Thread; rope: ta_ram cord, rope (Pirapulin:k. It.t.avil. 20); da_ramu id. (Te.); ta_r cord (Patin-o. Pat.t.an.at. Ko_yin-a_. 16); ta_r-ira_t.t.in-am reeling machine; ta_r-in--va_r..nan- weaver, as living by bobbin (Perun.. Vattava. 2,48)(Ta.lex.) to.rm (obl. to.rt-) one string of bead necklace with several strands, one thread of skein hanging from woman's armlet (To.); da_ra string, thread (Ka.Tu.); da_ra- waistband, girdle (Pkt.); davara(ka)- string (Skt.)(DEDR 3167). cf. davara string (Skt.); davaraka (Jain.); do_raka leather strap (Ka_tyS'r.); d.o_ra thread, string, mat fibre (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6225). daye~ro the man who drives the animals treading out rice (N.)(CDIAL 6282). da_vur, da~var, d.a~_var spider (L.)(CDIAL 6281). Image: a necklace: ta_vad.a a kind of necklace formed of lotus beads hanging as low as the navel, worn by men (Ka.Ma.); ta_r..vat.am (Ta.); ta_vad.a, ta_val.a, ta_l.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.) To shackle; to tie: da_mvu~ to tie with a cord (G.); da_e~ tying a number of bullocks together for treading corn (H.)(CDIAL 6285). d.a_vara_van., d.a~_vara_van. to hobble (L.); da_mri long rope for tying several buffalo-calves together (A.); dau~ra_, dara_ rope (Or.); dau~ri_ rope to which threshing bullocks are tied (Bi.); da~_mar, dau~rar. rope to which the bullocks are tied (Mth.); da~_wri_ id., rope, string (H.)(CDIAL 6283). da_in.u to shackle (the forelegs of an animal)(S.); da_un.a_ to hobble horse or ass (P.)(CDIAL 6289). Image: to drive bullocks treading out grain: da~_wab to drive bullocks treading out grain (Bi.); da_wna_, da~_na_ (H.); da_uni threshing (N.); dauni_ treading out corn (Bi.); da_uni (Mth.); dai~ driving oxen or buffaloes to tread out grain (Ku.); da_i, da~_i (N.); dawa~_hi_ (Bi.); dama_hi_ (Mth.); da_e~ the treading out, the unthreshed corn (H.)(CDIAL 6285). dau~ri_ rope to which threshing bullocks are tied, the act of treading out the grain (Bi.); da~wri_ the act of driving bullocks round to tread out the corn (H.)(CDIAL 6283). cf. tukai to trample; tuvai to tread down (Ta.); doy- to tread on, trample (Kuwi)(DEDR 3539).

4607.Tinsel: ta_bulu a tinsel; the cut as of a precious stone; ta_bulu ka_ji an artistic bangle; ta_mba_n.o a metallic dish (Tu.lex.) ta_mbt.i coppersmith (Kon.lex.) d.abbu a dub or copper coin, four pays (Ka.Te.); t.appu (Ta.); d.habbu_ a double pice (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. tampit.i, tampat.i < damri (H.) cash, a small coin = 1/12 anna (Ta.lex.) cf. damad.i, dammad.i a ka_su, the fourth part of a dud.d.u or paisa (Ka.); damad.i_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ta_mra copper (Skt.lex.)

4593.Image: tortoise, turtle: ta_mbeli, he_mbi tortoise (Kuwi); se_mbi id. (Kui); ya_mai, a_mai turtle, tortoise (Ta.); a_ma id. (Ma.); e.m(b) tortoise (Ko.); a.my id. (To.); a_me, a_ve, e_ve, e_me tortoise, turtle; ta_be_lu, ta_mbe_lu a sea or land turtle; a_lve tortoise (Ka.); a.me id. (Kod..); e_me turtle (Tu.); ta~_be_lu, ta_me_lu id., tortoise (Te.); he_mul, e_mul, samel, hamul, hemu_l tortoise; emilee, ya_mo_l id. (Go.)(DEDR 5155). horo tortoise; t.an.d.i horo, buru horo, lapr.a horo, t.ukuc horo, t.oklak horo varieties of tortoise distinguished by the Santals; kat. horo, kumd.hia horo, kachim tortoise (Santali.lex.) cf. ku_rma, kamat.ha, kacchapa tortoise; d.uli female of tortoise (Skt.lex.) d.uli, duli female tortoise, hen.d.a_ve (Ka.lex.)

4594.Image: neck: dhn., dhaun. nape of neck; dhaun., dhaun.i_ neck (L.); dhaun., dhaun nape of neck (P.); dhamani vein, nerve (AV.); throat, neck (Skt.); dhamani vein (Pali); dhaman.i_ (Pkt.); gerek-deme adam's apple (Kt.); damre~, dame~r neck (Wg.); lumu, lmi_ (Pr.)(CDIAL 6733).

4595.Bellows: dhamani_ bellows (Ka_tySm.); sort of perfume (Bhpr.); dhaman.i_ bellows (Pkt.); dha_van.i (S.); dhauni_ (H.); dhaman.i (G.); dhaman.vu~ to blow with bellows (G.); daman, damu bad smell (esp. of stale curd or other bad food)(K.)(CDIAL 6734). dhau~kan. to blow (with bellows)(L.); dhauk(h)n.a_, dhau~k(h)n.a_ to blow (with bellows), bellow, brawl (P.); dhau~kn.o to blow, breathe; dhau~kalo bellows (Ku.); dhau~kna_ to blow (with bellows), breathe on, pant (H.)(CDIAL 6731). damun bellows (K.); dhamana blowing with bellows (Skt.); domo_ wind (Ash.); dumu_ (Pr.); dyi_mi (Kt.); damu~_ (Wg.); damu (Bashg.); da_ma_n (Pas'.); domon, damu_n rain (Pas'.); dhama_n wind (Par.)(CDIAL 6732). dhma_ta blown (RV.); dhwa~_ being out of breath, panting (Ku.); dha_i_ panting, asthma (A.)(CDIAL 6887).

4596.Wormwood: damana wormwood, artemisia indica (Skt.); damanaka (VarBr.S.); dranna artemisia (Br.); dramnak, dramnag wormwood (Pahl.); daman.aka, daman.aga, daman.aya, davan.aya a plant with fragrant leaves (Pkt.); dona_ the shrub daphne oleoides (infusion of bark and leaves used medicinally for colic and gonorrhoea), artemisia elegans (P.); damana_ artemisia indica (N.); damana_, dawana_ (A.); dona_ (B.); dayan.a_, daan.a_ artemisia indica, artemisia chinensis, artemisia latifolia, thyme (Or.); dauna_, dona_ artemisia indica or lactifolia (H.); na_g-daun asparagus (H.); daman. a fragrant medicinal plant; damro, d.amro artemisia indica (G.); davan.a_ artemisia abrotanum (M.); dramun a species of grass (K.); dre~ a kind of artemisia (Wg.); dro_n wormwood, kinds of small scrub used for firewood (Kho.); ju_n a kind of shrub (twigs of which are ground and given as vermifuge for children)(Sh.); duru~ga_ artemisia elegans (P.)(CDIAL 6620). tamanakam southernwood (taman-akkato_t.u pa_tirippu_c cu_t.t.avara_y : Tiv. Periya_r... 2,7,3)(Ta.lex.) davana, javana, damana the plant artemisia indica and its flower, southern-wood (Ka.Te.) (Ka.lex.) marukkor..untu southern wood, artemisia abrotannum pallens; kor..untu id. (Kantapu. Intiran-ka. 42) (Ta.lex.) macari_kam southernwood (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) ban.sin. artemisia parviflora (Santali.lex.) mdiri-ya name of a tree (Si.); kal.u-mdiri-ya diospyros oppositifolia (Si.); majari_ a particular tree (Skt.)(CDIAL 9716). cf. artemisia absinthium: wormwood, absinth, maderwort, mugwort, mingwort; wermut, alseikraut, magenkraut, bitterkraut (Ger.); part used: dried leaves and flowering tops; uses: aromatic bitter, diaphoretic and flavoring agent. Wormwood: ban.si artemisia parviflora, a medicinal herb (Santali.lex.) Artemisia persica: pardesi dawano (M.); shih (Arab.Pers.); davana (M.); plant: tonic, febrifuge, vermifuge; habitat: W. Tibet, 9000-10,000 ft. (GIMP, p.26). Artemisia scoparia: dona, jhan (P.); churisaroj, danti (M.); infusion of plant: purgative; plant: used as cure for pain in the ear and smoke is considered good for burns; habitat: W. Himalayas from Kashmir to Lahul at 5,000-7,000 ft., in Sind, Punjab, Upper Gangetic Plain and W. Tibet at 7,000-12,000 ft. (GIMP, p.26). Artemisia siversiana: dona (B.); afsantin (Arab.); downa (M.); damro (G.); dauna (H.); damana (Skt.); plant: tonic, febrifuge, deobstruent, anthelmintic, emmenagogue, applied externally as a discutient and antiseptic; habitat: W. Himalayas, from Kashmir to Lahul, at 8,000-10,000 ft. and W. Tibet at 12,000-14,000 ft. (GIMP, p.26). Artemisis absinthium (Modern Egyptian Arabic afsantin). "Wormwood... has a hairy stem and aromatic leaves covered in down... It grows wild in central Europe, North America and Asia... the bitter leaves are used to flavour vermouth and absinth... aids digestion, stimulates the appetite and is anticeptic... Dioscorides quotes it as being used to expel intestinal worms... used to cure inflammation of the skin... Prospero Alpini quotes... (its use) to expel a bilious fever." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.80). Artemisia absinthium: vilayati afsantin (H. Deccan); damar (Skt.); afsanthin (Pers.Arabic); flowers: vermifuge, tonic in intermittent fevers; habitat: Kashmir and Kurrum agency at 5,000-7,000 ft. (GIMP, p.25). Artemisia absinthium: wormwood, absinth, maderwort, mugwort, mingwort, absinthe grande (Fr.); wermut, alseikraut, magenkraut, bitterkraut (Ger.); part used: the dried leaves and flowering tops; habitat: Europe, Asia and Northern Africa; uses: aromatic bitter, diaphoretic and flavouring agent... used for flavouring beer and for the manufacture of a liquor termed 'absinthe'. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 873-875).

4597.Image: a cloak: tama_n long trousers; a kind of cloak worn by moors (Ta.); tama_n (U.)(Ta.lex.)

4598.Mysore gamboge: paccilai Mysore gamboge, garcinia xanthochymus (Ta.); paccila xanthochymus pictorius (Ma.); pacca_ri name of a tree [= Ta. paccilai, according to Ta. lex.][garcinia xanthochymus = xanthochymus pictorius](DEDR 3832). tama_la_ the tree xanthochymus pictorius (with very dark bark and white flowers)(MBh.); tama_laka (Skt.); tama_la xanthochymus pictorius (Pali); a partic. tree; its fruit (Pkt.); tamalu xanthochymus pictorius (Si.); tavi_r xanthochymus ovalifolius (M.)(CDIAL 5690). cf. ta~wa_la_ darkness befor the eyes (H.)(CDIAL 5691). tama_la a tree bearing dark blossoms, xanthochymus pictorius; ka_laskandha, ta_piccha, gahvara a tree with a very dark bark, xanthochymus pictorius (Ka.lex.) garcinia xanthochymus: dampel (H.); tamal (H.B.); jharambi (M.); dampel (M.); tamala, tapinjha (Skt.); kulavi (Ta.); sitakamraku (Te.); fruit: antiscorbutic, cooling, cholagogue, emollient, demulcent; bark: astringent; oil: soothing, used in skin diseases; habitat: east Bengal, east Himalayas, N. Circars, Ganjam, W. Peninsula on the ghats from Bombay to N. kanara, Mysore, Coorg, Nilgiris, Travancore and the Andamans (GIMP, p.123). Mysore gamboge tree: tama_lam Mysore gamboge (campaka ma_tavi tama_lan. karumukai : Cilap. 8,45)(Ta.lex.) tama_la a tree with very dark bark, but white blossoms, xantochymus pictorius, gahvara, kadda_l.i gid.a, ka_laskanda, hon:ge, ta_piccha; tama_lapatra id. (Ka.lex.) cf. hon:ge the tree xantochymus pictorius; the Indian beech, pongamia glabra; the tree dalbergia oujeinensis (Ka.lex.) pun-ku Indian beech, pongamia glabra (Ta.)(DEDR 4341). paccilai a fragrant ceeper, nar-aikkot.i (Pur-ana_. 168, Urai.); a fumigating substance (Cilap. 5,14, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Mysore gamboge tree: o_t.e the tree garcinia pictoria, the Mysore gamboge tree; o_t.e-pul.i its fruit (Ka.); o_n.t.e-pul.i, o_t.e-pul.i the sour fruit of garcinia cambogia (Tu.)(DEDR 1044). ja_rige-hul.i-mara Mysore gamboge tree, garcinia morella (Ka.); ja_rig garcinia pictoria (Tu.) [garcinia morella = garcinia pictoria](DEDR 2467). "Guttiferae (gamboge family): Tropical trees (garcinia spp. including the Mangosteen, Mamey and Gamboge), rarely shrubs, containing resinous principles in schizogenous resin canals found in cortex, pith of stems, leaves, and in mesocarp of fruits... Synonyms: Pipe Gamboge, Gutta Gamba, Cambodia; gummigutt (Ger.); gommegutte (Fr.); part used: a gum resin: botanical origin: garcinia hanburyi; habitat: Siam, Cochin China and Annam... garcinia hanburyi, the Siam Gamboge tree, is a spreading tree with orange-brown bark, opposite, ovate, leathery leaves... the fruit is an orange-green, oily berry... production and commerce: the gum oleo-resin constituting the drug occurs as a yellowish juice in schizogenous resin canals... the juice is collected in hollow internodes of bamboo stems, allowed to harden, the stems then heated until they crack, when the gamboge is readily removed... Uses: Gamboge is employed medicinally as a hydragogue cathartic. It is also used by violin makers in preparing a stain for their wood... (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 572-574).

4599.Image: to tame: da_miya tamed (Pkt.); dmi submissive (Si.)(CDIAL 6286). da_myati is tamed (S'Br.); tames (MBh.); dama_ to subside (B.); damiba_ to be subdued (Or.); damvu~ to become tamed (G.); damn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 6287). da_unu to break in (bullock or horse); halo da_unu to plough (N.); da_wna_ to subdue, destroy (H.); damanava_ to tame, subdue (Si.)(CDIAL 6284).

4600.Hurt: dabh hurt, deceive (Skt.); dabhati hurts (RV.); d.ahan.u to torment (S.)(CDIAL 6174). Image: to butt with both horns: tav to but with both horns, gore (Ko.)(DEDR 3078). dabdhi hurting (TS.)(CDIAL 6172). dabhno_ti hurts, deceives (RV.); dubbhati hurts, deceives (Pali); du_bhai is unhappy (Pkt.); du_bhna_ (H.); dubhvu~, dubha_vvu~ to tease, vex (G.)(CDIAL 6175). du_d.abha, du_l.abha hard to deceive (RV.)(CDIAL 6486). dambha deceit (Mn.); dam.bha, d.am.bha deceit (Pkt.); d.a~_b (K.); dambh deceit, arrogance (H.); da~bh, d.a~bh hypocricy (M.)(CDIAL 6181). dambhayati hurts (RV.); damijoiki to suffer (pain etc.); damija_r trouble, discomfort (Sh.); dambhn.a_, d.ambhn.a_, d.ammhn.a_ to taunt (P.)(CDIAL 6182). dambhin hypocrite (Ya_j.); d.am.bhia deceiver, gamester (Pkt.); dambhi_ deceitful, arrogant (H.); da~bhi_, d.a~bhi_ hypocrite (M.)(CDIAL 6183). tappu (tappi-) deception, falsehood; fault, error (Ta.); tappar-ai < dabbar-a (Te.) falsehood, deception, irregularity, error (Ta.); tap- (tapy-) to make mistake (Ko.); tappal stumbling, erring (Ka.); tabbarisu to slip, stumble (Ka.); tappu fault (Tu.); tappu error, mistake (Te.); tappud.u erring (Te.); dabbar-a a lie; false, dishonest; dabbu to lie; n. deceit, lying (Te.); tap- (-t-) to miss or fail, falter (Kond.a); dapa lie; false (Kui); tappu ki_nai to misdo; tapu wrong, sin, error (Kuwi)(DEDR 3071). d.adhi incorrectness (S.)(CDIAL 6172). Treachery: {Echo word} ka_vo-da_vo treachery (G.); [cf. ka_pat.a fraudulent (VarBr.S.); ka_vr.u~ roguish, ungrateful (G.); ka_val fraud (G.)(CDIAL 3037)]; da_bha hurting (TS.)(CDIAL 6280). Intimidation: da_bna_ snub (B.); da_br.i intimitation (B.); da_biba_ to prohibit, reprimand (Or.); da_bna_ to snub (H.); daba_vvu~ to intimidate (G.); d.a_bi threat (A.); d.aba_vvu~ to intimidate (G.); d.abko, d.apko fear, apprehension (G.)(CDIAL 6173). Terrorized; bewildered: tabbarisu to be overcome by terror, grief etc., be amazed or bewildered; tabbibbu state of being overcome by terror etc., bewilderment, maze (Ka.); tabbibbu, tapputippu, tabbudibbu distraction, confusion, variation, difference; irregular (Tu.); tabbibbu faltering, confusion, embarrassment (Te.)(DEDR 3074). adabn.e~ to be oppressed, be overwhelmed (M.); a_avvai shakes, trembles (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1141). d.rapu terror (S.); drap terrified (Bal.) (CDIAL 6200).

4601.Image: pillar; prop: tampam pillar, column (Pa_kavata. 1,1,31); post to which elephants are tied; lamp-post; flagstaff, mast, temple flag-pole (Tirunu_r-. 22); support (Uttarara_. Ira_van.anpir-a. 31)(Ta.lex.) stambha pillar, post (Skt.); stambhaka is. (Skt.); thambha pillar (Pali); thabha, loc. thabhe top; tham.bhe, t.ha(m.)bhasi (As'.); tham.bha, tham.bhaya, tam.bha, t.ham.bha (Pkt.); s'to_ma stem, tree (Wg.); s'tom (Kt.); s'tyobu (Pr.); t.am tree (Bshk.); tha_m (Tor.); tham pillar, post (K.); thambhu (S.); thamm, thamma_ prop; tham, thama_, thamba_ (L.); thamb(h), thamm(h) pillar, post (P.); tha_m (Ku.N.B.); thamba (Or.); mar-thamh upright post of oil-mill (Bi.)[cf. maram tree (Ta.)]; tha~_bh, tha_m, thamba_ prop, pillar, stem of plantain tree (H.); tha_ma pillar (OMarw.); t.am.ba (Si.); tambu, tabu pillar, post (Md.); thambhir.i_ inside peg of yoke (S.); tha_n.ro prop (N.); tha~bhara_ post (Aw.); tha~_bhlo, thablo post, pillar (G.)(CDIAL 13682). stambhate_ supports, arrests (Dha_tup.); stambhant supporting (Skt.); stambhayati supports (MBh.); astabhna_t imperf. tastambha perf. (RV.); upa-stabha_yati (RV.); pratistabdha (MBh.); upatthambhe_ti makes firm; pat.itthambhati stands firm against (Pali); tham.bhai, t.ham.bhai stops; is stopped (Pkt.); thamun, tha_mun to be stopped, be at rest (K.); thambhan.u to support; thaman.u to stop, subside; t.hambhan.u to numb, make torpid (S.); thannan. to make firm by pressing in (L.); thammun. to hold (L.); thambhn.a_, thambn.a_, thambhn.a_, thammhn.a_ to support, restrain (P.); tha~_bhn.o~_ to catch, hold, conceive; tha_mbhn.u to hold (WPah.); tha~_bhn.o, tha_mn.o to prop, hold, stop (whence thamn.o to stop)(Ku.); tha_mnu to support, hold, stop, wait (N.); thama_-dai solid curd (A.); tha_ma_ to stop, be silent (B.); tha_miba_ to stop (whence thambiba_, thamiba_ to come to a stop)(Or.); tha_m(h)ab to hold up; to stop (Bhoj.); tha~_bhna_, tha~_bna_, tha_m(h)na_ to prop, stop, resist (whence thambhna_ to stand still)(H.); tha~bhvu~ to stand firm (G.); tha~_bn.e~, tha_mn.e~, thamn.e~ to stop (M.); tabanava_ to fix, place, preserve; tibanava_ (Si.); thamakiba to come to a sudden stop (A.); thamka_na to stand still from surprise (B.)(CDIAL 13683). stambhana stopping (MBh.); stiffening (Sus'r.); means of making stiff (Skt.); thambhana_ firmness (Pali); tham.bhan.a, tham.bhan.aya_ act of stopping (Pkt.); thambhan.u glue (S.); thambhan. (L.)(CDIAL 13684). Place, land, neighbourhood: t.ha_ma formation, make, build (Or.); t.ha_m fixed, firm, settled (M.); them place, land, neighbourhood (Gypsy)(CDIAL 13761). sthe_man stability (TS.)(CDIAL 13761).

4602.Made of copper: tampikai a kind of small water-pot (Ta.); cempu metal vessel, liquid measure (Ta.); copper vessel (Ma.); cambu, cembu, combu globular copper or glass vessel used for drinking water (Ka.); cambige, tambige, tambuge id. (Ka.); cembi small metal pot (Kod..); cembu goblet, pitcher, ewer (Te.); small copper or brass pot (Tu.); tambige small, round, metal vessel (Tu.); tambuga a sort of drinking-vessel (Te.); ca~bu_ a metal vessel with a belly and a tapering neck, a goglet (M.)(DEDR 2775). ?Influenced by Pkt. tamba and Skt. ta_mra copper? t.ra_mir.o a kind of cooking pot (S.); t.ra_mir.i_ copper pot (S.); sunburnt, red with anger (S>); ta_mra_ copper vessel (Bhoj.); ta~_bar., tra~_br.i_, ta~_br.i_ copper pot (G.)(CDIAL 5779). tamher.i_ copper vessel (Bi.)(CDIAL 5782). tamaha_ drinking vessel made of red alloy (Bi.)(CDIAL 5785). tamoi copper vessel for water (Ku.); ta_mrapa_tra copper vessel (MBh.); ta_mar.a_, ta_mr.a_ copper vessel (Bhoj.); tarbha_n.u~ copper dish used in religious ceremonies (G.)(CDIAL 5789). ta_mrika coppery (Mn.); tambiya an article of an ascetic's equipment (a copper vessel?)(Pkt.); tra_mi_ large open vessel for kneading bread (L.); tra_mbi_ brass plate for kneading on (L.); ta_mi copper plate (Ku.); copper vessel used in worship (A.); ta_mi_, tamiya_ large brass vessel for cooking pulses at marriages and other ceremonies (B.); tambiya_ copper or brass vessel (H.)(CDIAL 5792). Copper plate (for inscribing): ta_mrapat.t.a copper plate (for inscribing)(Ya_j.); ta_mra-pattra id. (Skt.); tamoti copper plate (Ku.); ta~_bot.i_ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick (M.)(CDIAL 5786-7). Coppersmith: ta_mbara_ coppersmith (Or.)(CDIAL 5780). tamaut.e, tamot.e coppersmith (N.); ta_mrakut.t.a coppersmith (R.)(CDIAL 5781). tamher.a_ brass-founder (Bi.)(CDIAL 5783). Copper; gold: compu copper (Ta.); combu (Ka.Tu.); cempu (Ta.); cambu_ (U.); cembu copper, cuprum, as reddish (Ka.Ma.); id. (Cilkap. 14,174); cempu gold; metal vessel (Ta.); cembu id. (Ka.Tu.); cempu-tat.t.i, cempu-kot.t.i coppersmith (Cilap. 5,28, Urai)(Ta.); cembu-kot.t.i (Ma.); cembukut.t.iga (Ka.); cembukut.t.i (Te.); cempu-t-ti_kkal copper pyrites, sulphide of copper and iron (Ta.); cempu-p-par-r-u alloy of copper in gold (Ta.); cempir--poruppu Mt. Potiyam, as containing copper (Kalla_. 51,11); cempu-varai id. (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Tiruma_l. 9)(Ta.lex.) Property, wealth: com < svam neut. nom. sing. of sva property, wealth, one's own goods (com man-aivait teppat.i nat.appi_r: Kumara. Pira. Ka_cik. 34); com-pa_ti owner's share of produce; comma_l.i heir, owner; commet.uttal to inherit (Ta.lex.) sovan.n.a, sovan.n.aya, suvan.n.a [suvarn.a (Skt.)] golden; suvan.n.a-ka_ra goldsmith; suvan.n.a-gabbha a safe (-room) for gold; suvan.n.a-guha_ golden cave; suvan.n.a-pat.t.a a golden (writing) slab; suvan.n.a-pan.aka a golden diadem (Pali.lex.) Gold: co_n.am gold (Tiruva_ta. Pu. Tiruvampala. 51); cf. svarn.a (Ta.lex.)

4603.Image: whiskers: thobha_ pl., thobhiyo whiskers (G.)(CDIAL 13725).

4604.Image: lump of metal: thobbhi_ lump of metal (P.)(CDIAL 13725). thu_a_ clod (H.)(CDIAL 13710). Clod: d.hi_m, d.hi_ma~ clod (L.); d.him lump (L.); d.hi_mh, d.hi_m f., d.hi_ma_ m. clod (P); d.hima_ pebble, rubble; d.hi_m, d.hi_ma_ lump, clod (H.); d.hi_mu~, d.hi_mr.u~, d.himn.u~ big swelling or bump, block of wood (G.); d.hima_ lump (M.); d.hem clod (L.); d.hemh (P.)(CDIAL 5591). d.epla sod (Kol.Kuwi); d.opla clod (Kuwi); d.ema sod (Kuwi)(DEDR 2974). it.avan- clod, lump of earth (Ta.); it.appu clod of earth thrown out by ploughing (Ta.)(DEDR 432). thu~_ba lump of earth (H.)(CDIAL 13705). thoba_, thobi_ lump of mud used in building a wall (L.); thobba_ lump of mud (P.)(CDIAL 13703). thok lump (B.); thoka lump (Or.)(CDIAL 13675). Lump of copper: tampit.i, tampat.i cash, a small coin = 1/12 anna (Ta.); < damri (H.)(Ta.lex.) dud.d.u a coin of the value of 2 pies, and in some places of 4 pies (Te.); money, wealth (Te.Tu.); dud.d.i 4 pice; money (Kod..); tut.t.u a coper coin + 20 cash or 1/2 pice (Ma.); money of the value of 2 or 4 pies, money (Ta.)(DEDR 3303). d.hapuwa_ pice, money (Ku.); d.hau_a_ copper coin of 2 pice (P.); d.habu_a_ id. (P.); d.hepuwa_ pice, money (Ku.); d.heuwa_ pice, money (N.); d.hebuwa_ pice, money (N.); d.hebua_ pice (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5580). d.hebua_ unstamped lump of copper equal to one paisa_ (H.); d.habbu_, d.habua_ unstamped lump of copper (H.); d.hi_p, d.hi_pa_ lump, clump (H.); d.hipal., d.hipu_l. lump, clod (M.); d.hibua_ unstamped lump of copper (H.); d.hibka_ lump, protuberance (H.); d.hep, d.hepa_ lump (H.); d.hepu~, d.hephu~, d.heplu~ clod (G.); d.hep clod (M.); d.hepn.e~ to close and get firm (M.); d.he~p clod (M.); d.he~pal. clod (M.); d.hebri_ lump (H.); d.he~bu_s lump, bump (M.)(CDIAL 5580). {The middle joint of a finger constitutes a fractional count of 2 in duo-decimal numeration based on 12 phalanges or joints on four fingers; hence the value assigned to dud.d.u : 2 paisa_. Since the tip of the thumb is used to reckon the joints of the other four fingers, the joints of the thumb are not counted to reach the landing-point: '12'.] [For etyma related to paisa_ cf. paspa to divide, distribute (Pe.); pacu, pasu to divide, distribute, share; be divided (Ka.); pasuge dividing, separation, division (Ka.); pasalu the share of the fisherman (Tu.); pay to divide (Kol.); to divide into shares (Ga.); payk to distribute (Nk.)(DEDR 3936). These etyma are perhaps a confluence of two semantic streams: Stream 1: d.e part, share (Tor.)(CDIAL 5580). Stream 2: pa_yuni to be diffused as molten metal, etc. in a mould (Tu.)(DEDR 4088). payal share, half (Ta.); pasalu the share of the fisherman (Tu.); pampa equal share or division (Ka.); pampu share (Te.)(DEDR 3936). pakir share, section, piece (Ta.)(DEDR 3808). pa_ya_ parting of the hair (Go.)(DEDR 4089). pa_ti half, a share (Ma.); pa.dy half (Ko.)(DEDR 4074)}.

4605.Red lotus: ta_marasa a lotus (Skt.Ka.); ta_mare, ta_vare a lotus (Ka.); ta_marai (Ta.); tammi, ta_mare (Te.); ta_r (Ta.Ma.); synonyms: kamala, ra_ji_va, pun.d.ari_ka, pus.kara, sarasija, kumuda, ambuja, amburuha, nalina, aravinda, padma, pan:kaja; ta_vare-gol.a a pond abounding with the lotus; ta_vare-yaral a lotus flower (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ta_maracam red lotus (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) Lotus: tammi lotus (Kampara_. Er..ucci. 30); tammi id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ta_marasa red lotus (MBh.); copper (Skt.); ta_marasa lotus (Pkt.); tambara red lotus (Si.); taburu (Md.)(CDIAL 5774). ta_marai lotus, nelumbium speciosum (Kur-al., 1103)(Ta.lex.) ta_mara id. (Ma.); ta_mare, ta_vare id. (Ka.); ta.vare id. (Kod..); ta_mar lotus flower, nymphaea pubescens (Tu.); ta_mara lotus (Te.); ta_mar id. (Pa.Go.); da_mera_ flower (Go.); ta_mel bond.a lotus bud (Kuwi); tamberi lotus (Kuwi); ta_marasa id. (Skt.)(DEDR 3163). ta_maracam red lotus; copper; gold (Ta.lex.) ta_marai-k-kan.n.an- Vis.n.u as lotus-eyed (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,3,1); ta_marai-k-kan.n.a_n- id. (Kur-al., 1103); ta_marai-c-cir-aki a kind of teal in lotus-tanks; ta_marai-na_tan- sun as the lord of the lotus (Civap. Pira. Ven:kaiyula_, 40); ta_marai-na_yakan- id. (Kantapu. Ka_ppu. 1); ta_maraiya_l. Laks.mi_ as seated on lotus (Tiv. Iyar-. Mutar-. 67)(Ta.lex.) Tawny-coloured bull: ce-, cem-, cevv-, ceyya, ce_takam, ce_ttu red (Ta.); ce_kil tawny-coloured bull (Ta.); ken, ke.t red (Ko.); ke-, kem.- red (Ka.); co.nde red (Kod..); cem.- red (Te.); kempu red; redness (Te.); redness; ruby (Tu.); key dark red, reddish-brown (Pa.); gende a reddish-coloured ox (Tu.); xe~_so red (Kur.); qeso red (Malt.)(DEDR 1931).

4606.Copper: tambesar, tamesar a variety of copper; ta_mba_ copper; ta_mbar.a_ a copper-coloured gem of inferior value; a copper vessel with a wide mouth; money given in connection with certain rites to the barber's wife on the fourth day after the death of the master of a family (P.lex.) ta_mra copper (Kaus'.); ta_mraka copper (Ya_j.); ta_m copper (Bshk.); ta_mba copper (Phal.); ta_mba_ copper (Sh.); tra_m copper (K.Sh.); t.ra_mo (S.); tra_ma_, tara_ma~_ (L.); ta_mba_ (P.); t.l.a_m (WPah.); ta~_bo_ (WPah.); ta_mo pl. young bamboo shoots (N.); ta_m (A.); ta~_ba_, ta_ma_ (B.); tamba_ (Or.); ta_m, ta_ma_ (Mth.); ta_ma_ (Bhoj.); ta_m in compounds, ta~_ba_, ta_ma_ (H.); tra~_bu~, ta~_bu~ (G.); ta~_be~ (M.); ta_mbe copper (Konkan.i); tama, tam copper (Si.)(CDIAL 5779). ca_mba, cambo copper (WPah.)(CDIAL 5779). Made of copper: ta_ram a copper coin, 12 pice of 13 fanam (Ma.); ta_ra a copper coin of 2 ka_su (Ka.); two pie (Tu.)(DEDR 3168). teb copper (To.); cambu, cembu, combu copper (Ka.); cembi copper (Kod..); cembu brass, copper (Tu.); cempu copper (Ma.); copper, gold (Ta.)(DEDR 2775). cempan- brown-coloured cow or bull (Ta.)(DEDR 2775). ta_mra dark red, copper-coloured (VS.); tamba red, copper (Pali); tamba adj. and n. (Pkt.); tra_mba red (Dm.); tamba reddish, copper (Si.); ta~_be rust, redness of sky (M.); tam.bira copper-coloured, red (Pkt.); ta_mra_ copper-coloured (of pigeons)(L.); ta~_br.a_, ta_mr.a_ copper-coloured, dark red; stone resembling a ruby (H.); ta_m.bad.a_ red (OM.)(CDIAL 5779). tambavan copper-coloured, dark red (Si.); ta_mravarn.a copper-coloured (TA'r.)(CDIAL 5790).

4608.Wet mud; soma: tr.pala ep. of soma (RV.); tr.pra, trapis.t.ha (most) satisfying (Skt.); trupal wet, wet mud (Ash.); trupala wet (Wg.); trewele (Kt.); tapaliwo_ (Pas'.); phyo_ wet (Par.)(CDIAL 5929). d.ahar lowlying land (L.P.); d.ahar, d.ahra_ deep water, lake (B.); d.ahura_ water-hole (M.); d.ahara, d.aa_ra deep pool made by eddy in river-bed (Or.); daha pond, lake (Pali.Pkt.); da deep water (A.); da(h) tank, lake, deep pool, eddy (B.); daha lake, deep water, marsh, mud (Or.); dah deep pool (H.); daha very deep water (OMarw.); lake, pond (Si.); daha_ muddy (Or.); dahala mud (Or.); dahala_ muddy (Or.)(CDIAL 6627). dammu mud, mire, wet ground (Te.)(DEDR 3083).

4609.Slap: thaph, thapi grasping with the hand (K.); thapa seal (K.); thopu patting (K.); thapthapi slapping (S.); thappan. to slap, pat (L.); thapp slap (L.); tha_p beating the ground (Ku.); thapa_ slap (A.); tha_pna_ to pat (H.); tha_p slap (G.M.); tha_pur slap (K.); thapar.a (S.); thappar. (P.N.); thapar. slap (Ku.); thapar slight thud; thapariya_iba to slap (A.); tha_par. slap (B.G.); thapr.a_ slap (B.); tha_par.a, tha_pur.a (Or.); thapara_ (Bhoj.Aw.); thappar. (G.); tha_pad. (M.); tha_pat. (G.M.); thapka_un.o to tap (Ku.); tha_ba_ to slap (B.); tha_bar.vu~ to pat (G.); thipun to slap, pat (K.)(CDIAL 6091). t.aph, t.apas blow, kick; t.a_ph, t.a_pi slap (K.); t.apur.a tapping (S.); t.a_p step (Ku.); horse's hoof (N.); t.a_b horse's hoofprint (A.); t.a_par slight stroke (B.); t.a_pu horse's hoof; t.a_para_-t.a_puri poking at each other (Or.); t.a_p sound of a horse's hoof, hoof (H.); t.aplo slap; t.apa_rvu~ to beat (G.); t.a_p kick from a horse; t.a_parn.e~ to hammer; t.apla_ smack (M.); t.rapura tapping (S.)(CDIAL 5445). tappu to strike, beat, kill (Ta.); dabbe, debbe, d.abbe, d.ebbe a blow, stroke (Ka.); dabbad.incu to slap; debba blow, stroke, attack (Te.); tapp to strike, kill (Pa.); debba cut, blow (Ga.); tapr.i a slap (Go.); tap to strike, hit (Kond.a); tapu_r vecali to slap (Kuwi)(DEDR 3075). cf. tappu to err, mistake (Ta.Ma.Ka.Te.Tu.)(DEDR 3071). cappal.isu, capparisu to slap, pat (Ka.); cappat.e clapping the hands (Ka.); cappat.a a slap of the hand (Te.); cappat.incu to clap, slap (Te.); camaru, camuru to slap with the open hand (Te.); capat. a slap (Nk.); capur, ca_pt.a, ca_por. a blow with the hand, slap (Go.); japka japka ve_pa to slap, beat with open hand (Kui); sapor. a slap (Kuwi)(DEDR 2335). cape_t.a slap with open hand (Skt.); cape_t.a_ (Pa_n..); cavid.a_, cave_la_ slap (Pkt.); camer.n.a_ to slap (P.); ce_r.e slaps pl. (WPah.); sawar slap on cheek (A.); car. (B.); caper. slap (P.); caper.n.a_ to slap (P.); capet.a blow (S.); capet., capet.a_ slap (P.); capet.o (Ku.); capet.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 4673). capa slap (Kt.); capo palm of hand, hand-breadth (S.); capilu_ slap (Pas'.); capa_t.a slap (S.); ca_par. open palm, slap (B.)(CDIAL 4696).

4610.Hardening of ricefields; irrigation: tampal hardening of rice-fields after heavy rain (Ta.); tampal-a_t.utal to water a field and turn it soft and muddy by trampling; tampal-at.ittal to plough a field after it has been hardened by rain; to become even and hardened after rain (Ta.lex.) dammu mud, mire, wet ground (Ta.); irrigation (Ta.); dampa-na~_gali, dampa-na_gali plough used in wet fields (Te.)(DEDR 3083). ca_p solidified clod (B.); ca_por.o flat clod of dried earth (S.); ca_par. flake of sun-dried mud (P.); capari clod of earth, turf (N.); ca_pr.a_ square or oblong clod (B.); ca_par. flattened, level (H.); capar.vu~ to flatten (G.); capd.a_ flat (M.); capat., capt.u~ low and flat (G.); capt.a_ flattened, compressed (P.); c.apt.a_ flat (M.); cape_r. flat of hand (Ash.)(CDIAL 4696). tappal, tappala, tappalu, tar..pil a level expanse round the foot of a mountain, level ground on the top or edge of a mountain, table-land; tappala-si_me a table-land (Ka.lex.) cappal, cappat.i, cappat.t.ai flatness (Ta.); cappad.i id. (Ka.) (Ta.lex.) Flattened: cibu dent, bruise (S.); cibo dented; ciba, cibiro owl (S.); cibba_ crooked, paralysed, having facial paralysis; cibr.i_ spotted owlet (L.); ci_bu~, pl. cibr.u~ flat-faced; ci_br.i_ owl (G.); ci~ba_ flattened (M.)(CDIAL 4821). cipit.a flat, flatnosed (Pa_n..); flattened (Pali); civid.(h)a, cimid.ha flattened, flatnosed (Pkt.); cyu_r.a_ parched and flattened rice (Ku.); ciura_ (N.); sira_ (A.); cir.a_ (B.); cur.a_ (Or.); ciuri_ unripe parched barley (Bi.); cauri_ (Mth.); cyu_r.a_ rice boiled in the husk and pounded (H.); cu_r.a_ rice boiled in the husk and pounded (H.Mth.); cival. flattened (M.); cival.n.e~ to flatten, squeeze (M.); civd.a_ medley of parched grains (M.); civad.n.e~ to crush (M.); cepr.o flat (Ku.); c.e_mboru flatnosed (K.); c.epot.u flatnosed (K.); cept.o flat (N.); cept.a_ flattened (B.); cipt.a_ (Or.)(CDIAL 4818). Flat; pressed: cappat.t.ai flatness, anything flat; cappat.i anything flat; cappal.i to flatten, be crushed, pressed out of form; cappai that which is flattened (Ta.); cappat.a flat; cippu what is smoothed, flat (Ma.); cappat.e, capat.e, appat.e flatness, flat; cappad.i a large flat stone; cappe that which is flattened or pressed down (Ka.); cappi flat, not projecting; cappid.i flat, not projecting, snub (Te.); sapat. flat (Kol.); sapat.am ki- to crush (Kond.a)(DEDR 2331). jappa_ attachment, lust (Pali); jappati longs for (Pali); ja_pt.a_ to hold tight, embrace (B.); ja_piba_ to press, squeeze; ja_pat.iba_ to hold tight (Or.); dapa sexual union (Si.)(CDIAL 5122). carpat.a lying flat to the head (of ears)(VarBr.S.); carpat.i_ flat cake (Skt.); cape_r. flat of hand (Ash.); capr.i_ small flat piece of wood (L.P.); caplet.i flat (N.); ca_par.a, ca_par.a_, ca_pur.a_ flat palm (Or.); ca_par. flattened, level (H.); capar.vu~ to flatten (G.); c.apd.a_ flat (M.); capt.a_ flattened, compressed (P.); capat., capt.u~ low and flat (G.); c.apt.a_ flat (M.)(CDIAL 4696). To press: cappai presses (Pkt.); copik to gather, pick (Kho.); ca_pan.u to shampoo the limbs (S.); cappan. cover (P.); cya_pnu, cepnu to press, squeeze (N.); capet.nu to press, follow, goad to work (N.); sapiba to be contracted (A.); ca_pa_ to press, get upon, cover (B.); ca_piba_ to press down; capiba_ to sink into (Or.); capna_ to be pressed (H.); capni_ flat lid (H.); ca_pr.o clasp (G.); ca_pn.e~ to press (M.); cam.pai pressed (Pkt.); ca~_pvu~ to press (G.); ca~_pab to press, squeeze (Mth.); ca_m.pai (OAw.); ca~_pna_ to pound (H.); cipyate_ is crushed; -cippitaka crushed (BHSkt.); cippiyama_na crushed flat (BHSkt.); chipallun to squeeze (Wg.); cip to bite off (Pas'.); cipi~ punching (K.); cipan.u to press, stamp (S.); cipo bruised, flattened; cipu silence (S.); sepiba to press, squeeze (A.); cipa_ (B.); cipiba_ (Or.); ci_pvu~ (G.); cipn.e~, cepn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 4674). To cram into: capayati kneads, pounds; capati caresses (Dha_tup.); caw to cram into (Pas'.)(CDIAL 4671). kappu (kappi-) to gorge, cram into mouth (Ta.); kava.l.m offering of plantain fruits to gods by stuffing them into diviners' mouths (Ko.)(DEDR 1222). To put: tap- (tapt-) to put (spell on buffalo), turn upside down (bo.d.la tap-), jump down (urki tap-)(Kol.); tap- to put (Nk.); to make to lie down, add (fuel), put on (shirt)(Nk.); tapp- to put, plant (seeds), (cow) gives birth (Pa.); tap- to put, add (salt etc.) to food (Ga.)(DEDR 3073).

4611.Image: bull calf: damr.a m. a steer; damr.i a heifer f.; damkom a bull calf (Santali.lex.)

4612.Image: sun: dha_man- sun (Skt.); ta_man- id. (Pa_rata. Mutar-po_r. 42)(Ta.lex.)

4613.A perfume: dhamani a sort of perfume (Skt.Ka.lex.) cf. taman-akam southernwood, marukkor..untu (Ta.); damanaka (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. tama_lam Mysore gamboge, paccilai (Cilap. 8,45)(Ta.lex.) cf. paccilai Mysore gamboge, garcinia xanthochymus (Ta.)(DEDR 3832).

4614.Gum-lac: tamaram lac, gum-lac, sealing-wax (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

4615.Gold: taman-iyam gold; taman-iya-p-potiyal public hall roofed with gold (Man.i. 28,66); taman-iya-k-ku_t.am id. (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,101)(Ta.lex.)

4616.Image: throat: dhamani the throat (Skt.Ka.lex.) tamarakam windpipe, trachea (Ta.lex.)

4617.Averrhoea carambola: tamaram, tamarattai carambola tree, averrhoea carambola (Pata_rtta. 743)(Ta.lex.) cf. tamarta id. (Te.)(DEDR 3079). Averrhoa carambola: karmal, kamrakh (H.); kamranga (B.); karamara (M.); tamarattai (Ta.); tamarta (Te.); dried fruits: cooling, antiscorbutic, used in fevers; ripe fruit: remedy for bleeding piles and useful in relieving thirst and febrile excitement; cultivated in gardens throughout the hotter parts of India (GIMP, p.31).

4618.Drum: it.ama_n-am double drum carried on the back of an animal; t.ama_yi kettle-drum mounted on an ox (Ta.); t.ama_ram, t.ama_n-am, t.amma_ram, t.amma_n-am a kind of drum (Ta.); t.ama_nam, d.hama_nam kettle-drums beaten before princes (Ma.); d.ama_ra, d.ama_n.a a pair of kettle-drums (Ka.); d.ama_ra, d.ama_na a kettle-drum (Tu.); d.ama_ramu, d.ama_yi id. (Te.)(DEDR 2949). d.amaru drum (Skt.)[Perh. < Mu.]; d.amarua (Pkt.); d.auru_ tabor, small drum (L.P.); d.au~r, d.au~ru drum (Ku.); d.aur, d.avra_ hour-glass tabor (M.); d.auri_ itinerant musician (M.); d.ambaru, d.amaru small drum (N.); d.amru_ (H.); d.amru (G.M.); d.a_buru large drum used for proclamations (K.); d.empha shallow kettledrum (Or.); d.amphu, d.ampho small drum or tambourine (N.); d.amphu drum (B.); d.a~phr.i_ drum (Ku.); d.aphulo, d.aphuwa_ small drum (Ku.); d.aph a partic. musical instrument played during Holi (N.); d.aph a kind of tabor (G.); d.amko drum (G.)(CDIAL 5531). tappu a small tomtom (Tiruva_lava_. 58,6); tappit.t.a one-headed drum (Ma.); tappet.a id. (Te.); tappat.e id. (Ka.); tappai tabret used by Ta_cari mendicants; tampat.t.am a small drum, tomtom (Tiruppu. 18); tappat.t.ai one-headed drum (Ta.); tammat.amu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) dhamadhama_ with the noise of bellows or trumpet (Skt.); dhamadhama_yate_ roars (Skt.); quakes (Skt.); dhamadhamai makes a noise (Pkt.); dhama_dham noise of beating (P.Ku.); dhama_dham incessantly (N.); with a thump (Or.); noisily, suddenly (H.); scuffle (G.); dhamdhama_iba to roar (A.); dhamdham blowing repeatedly (B.); dhamari tumultuous movement; dhamadhama tumult (OAw.); dhama_dhami_ (M.); dhammar.dhussa_ noisy stamping (P.); dhamardhus fat, stalwart (N.); dhamdhu_sar (H.)(CDIAL 6735). Image: tumult: d.amara riot (Skt.); quarrel (Pkt.); d.ambara sonority (Skt.); tumult (Skt.); d.abara quarrel, riot (Si.)(CDIAL 5532). Image: kettle-drum: damaur.a a very large drum; damana a kind of large drum (Santali.lex.) d.ama_ra, d.ama_n.a a pair of kettle-drums (Ka.); d.ama_, d.ama_na, d.ma_ra, d.amma_na, d.amma_ra (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. it.ama_n-am double drum carried on the back of an animal (Ta.); d.hama_nam kettle-drums beaten before princes (Ma.)(DEDR 2949b). t.amma_ram a kind of drum (Vir-alivit.u. 67)(Ta.lex.) d.ama_n-am a kind of drum (Tan-ippa_. i,320,12)(Ta.lex.) tamaram noise, din, sound (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 126)(Ta.lex.) tamarukam kettle-drum (Kalin.. 100)(Ta.lex.) tampat.t.am small drum, tomtom; tappat.t.ai, tappat.t.am a kind of drum (Ta.); tappit.t.a tabret, cymbal; tammit.t.am large drum, tambourine (Ma.); tabat.k a big, flat drum (Ko.); tomk/tobk wad.- to beat drum, publish by drum (To.); tambat.a, tambat.e, tapat.e, tappat.e, tabat.e, tamat.e, tammat.a, tammat.e large tambourine beaten with sticks (Ka.); tambat.a, tambat. tambourine, war-drum; tambad.a a large drum; tamat., tabit.e tambour, a little drum (Tu.); tammat.amu large drum; tappet.a a kind of drum; tamuku drum, tambourine (Te.); tappa id. (Nk.); tappat.e small drum (Nk.)(DEDR 3082). Image: proclamation: d.i_n.d.ima a kind of drum (R.); d.i_n.d.ima_ (Skt.); dindima, den.d.ima small drum (Pali); d.im.d.ima (Pkt.); d.e~r.i proclamation by beat of drum (B.); d.au~d.i_ kind of tambourine, proclamation by beat of drum (P.); d.o~r.i_ such proclation (H.); dava~d.i_ drum beaten by public crier (M.); dal.a_mu~, dala_mu~, dada_mu~ war-drum (G.)(CDIAL 5548).

4619.Slow: ta_macan- slow, inactive person; ta_macam dilatoriness, delay; slowness, dullness (Ira_mana_. Pa_laka_. 9); ta_matam id.; ta_mati-ttal to delay; to be tardy (As.t.ap. Tiruvaran:katta. 12)(Ta.lex.) tavan:ku (tavan:ki-) to be hindered, impeded, be in distress, be dejected; tavakkam impediment, hindrance, destitution, delay; tavakku sense of shame; tavan:kam sorrow, grief (Ta.); tamak delay, procrastination (Tu.); tamaku to hesitate, draw back; fail, recede (Te.)(DEDR 3107). Tired: ta_myati gasps for breath, is exhausted (TBr.); tamat aor. sbj. will exhaust (RV.); tammai is tired (Pkt.); ta_mab to dig, dig up weeds before ploughing (Bi.); kama_eb to weed a field (Mth.)(CDIAL 5778).

4620.Anger: ta_mas an attack of anger (K.); ta_masa dark (Skt.); ignorant (Mn.); andha-ta_masa darkness (Skt.)(CDIAL 5775). tamak anger (P.); tamakhai to be angry (Bhoj.); tamakna_ to become red in the face, be angry (H.)(CDIAL 5791). Desire: ta_maca-ve_l.ai time when one is in anger or passion; tamai passion, desire; tami id. (Te.); tamam id. (Kaival. Tattuva. 9)(Ta.lex.) tabakuni to desire, wihs, covet, be allured, enticed, tempted; tabepuni to long, eagerly desire (Tu.); tamaka-pad.u to be eager, impatient, hurry, be enamoured; tamakamu eagerness, impatience, hurry, haste, love, desire; tamaki one who is eager or impatient, one who is enamoured, a lover; tamakincu to hurry, hasten; tami love, desire (Te.)(DEDR 3077). tavaka, tavaku love (Ka.); tamaka, tamaga, tami (Te.); tamba_na, ta_ti (M.); tavaka desire (Ka.Te.); ta_r..til (Ta.); tam to wish, desire (Skt.); tavaka eagerness, ardour; haste, hurry; tavaki a person full of desire; tavakiga a man full of eagerness; tavakisu to desire; to be eager; to hasten (Ka.lex.)

4621.Darkness: tamam < tamas darkness, gloom (Kampara_. Mitilaik. 132); tamacu darkness; mental blindness, delusion; tamam id. (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 60); moon's ascending node (Ta.lex.) tamisra_ dark night (RV.); tamisra darkness (MBh.); tamisa darkness; timisika_ darkness, dark night (Pali); tamissa, tamisa dark night (Pkt.); tremis', trems'i_ evening (Kt.); trmis', tramas' darkness (Wg.); tremchuk lamp time (Bashg.); trimshihi evening (Pas'.); tromis' darkness; tramas'un. late evening (Kal.); tami, tami_ night (Si.)(CDIAL 5692). tamo_vant gloomy, dark (R.); tamasvant (AV.); tamasvan (TS.); tomowa_ darkened, dark, darkness (Pas'.)(CDIAL 5693). tu~wa_lo, tu~ya_lo heat haze, fog (N.); ta~wa_r dizziness; ta~wa_la_ darkness before the eyes (H.); tava_lo swoon (OMarw.)(CDIAL 5691). tamlo dark, obscure (Gypsy); tamra darkening (RV.); tambalun to be perplexed (K.); tam blindly (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5694). cf. timiram darkness, obscurity, gloom (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 161)(Ta.lex.) tami night (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) tama-p-pirapai a hell of darkness, one of er..u-narakam (Ci_vaka. 2817, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Darkness; giddiness: taimira dimness of the eyes (Sus'r.); tyu_ro state of being dazzled (Ku.); tewar darkness before the eyes, giddiness; tewra_na_ to be giddy (H.); te~ur faintness; te~uriya_ adj. fainting (A.)(CDIAL 5955). tembar pl. cataract of the eyes (K.); timira dark, gloomy (MBh.); dark; darkness (Pali.Pkt.); timar darkness (P.); timiri-ge_, timbiri-ge_ lying-in room or hut (Si.)(CDIAL 5817). Mistiness; dazzle: tirviri dazzling, dimness, greasy spots on water (S.); tirvira_ pl. a disease of the eyes in which things appear indistinct, particles of dust in the air (S.); tirimiri dazzle, mistiness; tirmir dazzling light; tirmira_unu to be dazzled; tiribiri sound of dripping water (N.); tirbir sparkle (A.); tirimiri_ giddiness (H.M.); tirmira_na_ to be dazzled (H.)(CDIAL 5824). timira-ka_cam darkness of the eyes, gutta serena producing an affection of the optic nerves; timiram darkness, obscurity, gloom (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 161); blackness, dark colour (Kampara_. Varaik. 56); timira_karan- fool, idiot, as being a mine of darkness and delusion (Tiruppu. 189); timira_ri sun as the foe of darkness (Cu_t.a_.) (Ta.lex.) Giddiness: dimmu giddiness, confusedness (Ka.); dimmu, dimma giddiness; dimmari, dimmari~_d.u a giddy-headed person (Te.)(DEDR 3240).

4622.Platform: tamukkam place where elephants are sent together for battle; summer house, royal pavilion, as the Na_yak building at Madura (Ta.); place where elephants fight (Ma.); taman:ga, tavaga, tavan:ga platform, stage (Ka.); tamagamu platform, tabernacle or summer house, having no walls but a roof on pillars (Te.); taman:ga platform (Skt.Pkt.)(DEDR 3081). cetiyan:gan.a platform around a pagoda (Pali.lex.)

4623.Image: to seize: da_m to seize, reach (Ash.); dam- (Kt.Bashg.); da_m to seize, bite, sting (Wg.); to seize (Gaw.)(CDIAL 6284). Dragnet: tevvalai < tevvu- + dragnet that spreads to a distance of about 80 yards, requiring for its use 20 men, who gradually form a semi-circle and then capture fish (Ta.lex.) Image: to seize: tevvu-tal to seize, grasp, steal (Vina_yakapu. 80,131)(Ta.lex.)

4624.Goddess: dya_mi, de_mi, de_vi, dya_mavva, de_mavva Durga_ (Ka.lex.)

4625.Image: drum: timilai a kind of drum (Cilap. 3,27, Urai.)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); timila_ a musical instrument (Skt.); timila, timila_ id. (Pkt.)(DEDR 3237).

4626.East Indian kino: timicu east Indian kino, ve_n:kai (Ci_vaka. 1901); timil id. (Ta.lex.)

4627.Image: hump of a bullock: timil hump of bullock (Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 144)(Ta.)(DEDR 3239). cf. imil hump on the withers of an Indian bull; hump on the zebu (Ci_vaka. 2437); cimir.. hump (Ta.lex.) thu_ho camel's hump (S.)(CDIAL 13712). tam.ba dew-lap of a bullock (Si.)(CDIAL 13681). d.ubari, d.ubba, d.ubbu the hunch on the back of a camel; the state of having a curved form, roundness (Ka.lex.)

4628.Image: rammer: timicu rammer (Ta.); dimisa (Te.)(Ta.lex.) thapi a wooden implement for beating down earth etc. (Santali.lex.)

4629.Image: male monkey: timman- male of a species of monkey (Ta.); timma_d.u, timmanna, tippa-trimmari a monkey (Te.)(DEDR 3238). timma male of a species of monkey (Ka.); timma-k-kuran:ku id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: monkey: timma a monkey (Ka.Te.Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

4630.Catamaran; small boat: timil catamaran, small boat (Pur-ana_. 24); vessel, ship; timilar fishermen, inhabitants of the maritime tract (Te_va_. 532,2); timil-va_r..nar fishermen, as boatmen (Cilap. 7,11, 'Kayaler..uti')(Ta.lex.)

4631.A measure: thimi_ a measure amounting to eight seers kachcha_ (P.lex.)

4632.A woman; wife: ti_mat, ti_mi_ a woman, a wife (P.lex.) timmali, timmili stout, strong woman (Ta.lex.) timmappa name also of Vis.n.u's idol at Tirupati; timmarasi name of Vis.n.u's wife; vara_ha-timmappa the Ven:kat.araman.a of Tirupati (Te.)

4634.Decoy: di_hade_n.a a decoy antelope; di_hada miga, di_hada mr.ga a decoy animal or decoy antelope (Ka.); di_va a decoy: a bird, an elephant, an antelope etc. trained as a decoy (Ka.); di_m., di_mamu, di_mu (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

4635.Image: body; tree-trunk: d.imba body (Skt.); d.imbha (Skt.); d.im body (D..); body, belly, tree-trunk (Kho.); body, person, tree-trunk (Sh.); d.imburu belly (K.); d.a_mu belly (Sv.); d.ombu stomach, womb (K.)(CDIAL 5551). toppai abdomen, paunch, protruding belly (Takkaya_kap. 229); dobba id. (Te.); toppul. navel (Takkaya_kap. 110, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

4636.Image: cork: t.hipi a cork, a stopper, anything used to stop a bottle etc.; t.hipitet lagaoakme put in the stopper (Santali.lex.) cf. dibban.a wooden stopple or cork (Ka.); dimm wedge, stopple, plug (Tu.); dibbad.amu lid or earthen cover for a jar; dimme wooden cork or stopple; dimmu wooden stopple for a leathern bottle (Te.)(DEDR 3231).

4637.Unguent: timir, tiguru, tivir an unguent, perfume; temar to rub, rub out, destroy; tevaru to rub, tease, thwart (Ka.); timir (-v-, -nt-) to throw or scatter as on one's body; (-pp-, -tt-) to beat; tuvar (-v-, -nt-, -pp-, -tt-) to smear (Ta.); timir to rub and clean the skin; tiguru to rub, annoy, rub on as an unguent (Ka.)(DEDR 3234). ti_vi pu_suvudu smearing; vile_pana, anule_pana, udvarta, an:gara_ga (Ka.lex.) te_yvai fragrant unguent from sandalwood, formed by trituration (Tirumru. 33); te_yan-am < te_jana lustre, brilliance (Te_va_. 838,2)(Ta.lex.) tempa_n:ku a kind of sandal paste (Ta.lex.) tivviyam a kind of sandal (Ta.lex.) timir-tal to smear as sandal paste (Man.i. 19,86); to rub (Pur-ana_. 258); to apply to, as a flower to the skin (Ain:kur-u. 347); timir-ttal to rub, besmear (Ta.lex.) Rub, polish: tikku to rub, scour, treat harshly (Ka.); tikkisu to cause to rub,etc. (Ka.); tikkuni to rub, brush, polish (Tu.)(DEDR 3211). ti_ks.n.adha_ra sharp-edged (Skt.); sword (MBh.); tin.hadha_ra sharp-bladed (Pali); tikha_rn.o to sharpen (Ku.); tikha_rnu (N.); tikha_r pungent; n. steel (M.); tikha_rn.e~ to sharpen (M.)(CDIAL 5840). tig- (-it-) to press down hard, lay pressure on (Kond.a); tig- to push (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 3205). tirakkuka to press (Ma.); tirge to press, shampoo (Malt.)(DEDR 3243). cf. tikar.. to shine (Ta.)(DEDR 3200). Synonyms: vile_pana smearing over, besmearing, plastering, spreading over, anointing; smearing or spreading on; anointing the body with fragrant oils etc.; an:gara_ga, udvarta, ti_vi pu_suvudu; unguent for perfuming the body; go_mukha, anule_pana; vile_pita smeared over, besmeared, smeared, plastered, anointed; vile_pisu to smear over etc.; anule_pana, anule_pane anointing (the body); unguent, ointment; anule_pisu to smear to or on; haccu (Ka.lex.) udvarta rubbing and cleansing the body with fragrant unguents; the unguents used for that purpose; varn.a, tol.evudu, tod.evudu; urbu (i.e. to be puffed up) (Ka.lex.) go_mukha spreading unguents, plastering, smearing; ointment, unguent; vile_pana, anule_pana; purity, purification (Ka.lex.) Image: square or round platter: go_mukha a square or round platter of wood, metal or stone, to which a snout or spout is attached and which is used to put idols on; go_mukha-su_tra the snout or spout of the go_mukha platter; pran.a_li (Ka.lex.) tij a thing, an article, property, goods; tij darib, tij basut goods and chattels; khube tij akata he has much moveable property (Santali.lex.) tiguri, tivir, tiguru, timir an unguent, a perfume; paccedimir gold-coloured unguent (Ka.lex.) tevar, temar to rub; to tease; to thwart; tigura-nikkuvudu = udvartana, utsa_dana; tigurina aracina = kal.avajal.a a kind of superior turmeric; tiguru, timir, ti_d.u, tikku to rub; to rub on, as an unguent etc., on the body (Ka.); timir, tuvar (Ta.); tigurida anule_pana; paccekarpurada pud.iya meye tiguridod.e; timir, timiru, temar, tiguru to rub and clean the skin; te_ma, te_va, te_vu, tya_va, tya_vu, tya_ve becoming wet; wetness, damp, moisture; te_mana, te_vana moistening, moisture; a sauce, a condiment; te_vu-gol.l.u to become damp or moist (Ka.lex.) te_, te_y, te_yu to grind, triturate or macerate in water on a slab (Ka.); ca_du (Te.); te_ to waste by use, to wear away, as a metal vessel; to be chafed or galled as the foot (Ka.); te_y, te_mpu (Ta.); te_yu, te_mbu to be rubbed off; to be worn out, waste, grow thin etc. (Ma.); te_y to rub off, cleanse by rubbing; to rub between the hand and fingers, as millet, rice etc. (Ta.); te_ma_na waste from rubbing, especiallly metals (Ka.); te_gad.e (Te.); te_ma_na loss in assaying metals (Ka.Ma.); te_yma_n-am (Ta.); te_y to grind on a stone etc. (Ka.) tim, tin, timmase to rub an itching; timara, tim, timaru, timira, timiru, ti_t.i, tevalu, tevulu irritation in the skin, itching; the itch (Ka.); timiri (Te.); tevalu an itching desire, an inordinate addiction (Ka.); tevaluga_r-a a man who is inordinately addicted to (Ka.lex.) Desire: tevalu, tevulu an itching desire (Ka.); tevalu desire, wish, attachment (Tu.); tivuru to desire; tivut.a desire (Te.)(DEDR 3431). Relish: ti_bu the clove tree; cloves; ti_pu sweetness, taste, relish (Te.); ti_vu (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) tivviya-kantam < divya-gandha cloves (Ta.lex.) tireor. boreor. smooth, soft, delicious; tir.goc tor.goc smoooth, slippery; tirhol to rub in the hands, to rub the eyes, to twist by rubbing in the palms of the hands (Santali.lex.) tivviya sweet (Ci_vaka. 581); ti_viya adj. < ti_m sweet, delicious (Kalit. 19); ti_m sweetness, pleasantness (Ci_vaka. 2419); nectar; adj. sweet (Akana_. 239); te_m sweetness, pleasantness (Ci_vaka. 12); fragrance, odour (Pu. Ve. 12,7); honey (Na_lat.i, 239); oil (Kur-icip. 111); te_m, te_mam wetness (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ti_mpu_ a fragrant substance; a tree (ti_mpu_marak karppu_racco_lai : Ci_vaka. 1497); ti_mpur..al mahua flower, iruppaippu_ (Akana_. 171)(Ta.lex.) cf. matkom bassia latifolia = madhuka indica (Santali.lex; GMIP, p.159). madhu_kam a flower of the madhu_ka tree; liquorice; madhu_li_ liquorice; madhuka sweet; the as'oka tree; the liquorice root; name of a tree = madhu_ka; madhukam liquorice (Skt.lex.)

4638.Image: dancing: timi-timi syllables sung to keep time in dancing (Ta.); timi-timi-y-en-al onom. expr. of (a) keeping time in dancing or music, (b) repeated sounds in rapid succession (Ta.); dim a sound in imitation of tingling or ringing; dimi sound produced by the quick motion of the feet in dancing (Ka.); dimidimi dancing nimbly, agility; dimma the sound of a small finger-drum (Tu.); dimidimi, dim.dim., dhimindhimin dingdong (Te.)(DEDR 3232). Work song: ti.m ik- (iky-) to sob; ti.va.p panting (Ko.); ti.m song sung by women when pounding grain, any work-song (e.g. of Badagas when digging)(To.); ti_mpuni to snort, breathe heavily, snivel; ti_mpele sniveller (Tu.)(DEDR 3276)

4639.Image: to turn round: tr.i_m- (-t-) to turn round; intens. tr.i_mba-; tr.i_p- (-t-) to turn round (Pe.); tli_pa (tli_t-) to twist (Kui); t.in.- id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3258). cf. tiri (-v-, -nt-) to turn, revolve, be twisted (Ta.); tirumpu (tirumpi-) to turn, turn back (Ta.)(DEDR 3246).

4640.Stupefied: timir numbness, stiffness from cold, dullness, sluggishness, anaesthesia; (-pp-, -tt-) to be numbed as a limb, be paralysed, be stupefied; timircci, timirppu numbness etc.; timiran- dull, slow, inactive person (Ta.); timir numbness (Ma.); timuru, timiri, timmiri numbness, palsy (Te.); tame to tingle (as a limb when asleep)(Malt.)(DEDR 3235). Slow: dhi_ma_ slow P.); dhi_mo (Ku.); dhima_ (N.A.B.Or.); dhi_ma_ (H.); dhi_mu~ (G.); dhim(m)a_ (M.)(CDIAL 6814).

4641.Hurt; deceit; arrogance: timir (-v-, -nt-) to grow, increase, become more intense; (-pp-, -tt-) to grow stout from obesity; n. obesity; wantonness; timir-u (timir-i-) to grow tall and big (Ta.); timiruka to swell, grow, be angry; timirkka triumph, arrogance (Ma.); timuru to be proud, abound, increase, bubble with desires, hasten; n. pride, arrogance, excessive or superabundant strength, vigour or spirits, pruriency, haste; tivuru to hasten, increase, abound, swell (as the sound of war drums etc.), rage (Te.)(DEDR 3233).

4644.Ear of millet: dumb ear of millet (L.)(CDIAL 6419). dumb an ear of the grain called jua_r (P.lex.) dumber, dumbi_r < dabi_r (Pers.) the person who divides the grain at the threshing floor. He is paid usually from one to four t.opas per path of grain weighed or measured. Under the Sikh government the revenue was taken in kind. A portion was kept apart for dumbi_r's pay. The government appropriated one-half and the dumbi_r the other half. After annexation pat.wa_ri_s were appointed, but the word dumbi_r is often used for a pat.wa_ri_ (P.lex.)

4645.Image: to leap; jump: dumuku, dumiku to leap or jump down from above; dum, dhum sound in imitation of that produced by a body going or coming down suddenly from above; dumikku, dummikku, dhummikku to leap or jump down with the sound of dum, etc.; dhummene with the sound of dhum (Ka.); dumukuni to jump down, alight quickly (Tu.); dumuku, du~_ku to leap, jump, leap over, leap down from; n. a leap, jump; dumukul-a_d.u to leap or skip about, caper, frisk (Te.); dum- (-t-) to ascend, climb; caus. dup- (-t-) (Pe.); dum- to ascend, climb (Mand..)(DEDR 3326). Image: jump, leap: don to leap over, to jump across: ne huan doneme; they leap for joy: sukuteko dontana; don-o to be crossed by a jump: ne huan donoa ci ka_ donoa? Can this pit be cleared or not with a jump?; do-n-on the extent of jumping: donone donkeda, kat.ikano cupadre kae tonjana, he jumped so high over the scrub that he did not touch it even lightly; dodon to jump (Encyclopaedia Mundarica, pp. 1078-1082.) don to leap, to jump, to frisk; don bar.ae kanae: he is frisking about (Santali.lex.)

4646.Image: process of lengthening gold or silver threads: tuma_la_ a final process in lengthening gold or silver threads (W.)(Ta.lex.)

4647.Globular pendant in marriage badge: tumpu small globular pendant suspended from the ta_li of Vallampar and Na_t.t.u-k-ko_t.t.ai Chetti women; tumpai-man.i a kind of ta_li worn by women of certain Mar-ava sub-caste (G.Tn.D. I,136)(Ta.lex.) Dust: tumuru a small piece of bit (Te.); tuttumuru small bits or fragments, powder, dust (Te.)(DEDR 3325). Fine sand: tumpu dust (Ta.); dumbu id. (Ka.); dummu, duma_rumu, duvva id. (Te.); tu_va, tuva, tuvva, dubba fine sand (Te.); dubba small dust cloud; dust (Kol.); duba_ dust; d.uba id., earth; dumu, dumul dust; dubba_ dirt (Go.); du_mburu id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3332). dhu_pa incense (Skt.); du_villa dust (Si.)(CDIAL 6847). Chaff: tavit.u bran, minute particle (Ta.); bran (Ma.); tavud.u, tavad.u id. (Ka.); tavd.i inmost skin of rice grains (Kod..); taud.u bran, husk (Tu.); tavud.u bran (Te.); tavr. chaff (Nk.)(DEDR 3111). thusa bran, chaff (Pali.lex.) tus.a bran (Skt.lex.) cf. tuh, tuha_, toh, toha_ chaff (P.); tus.a chaff of grain (AV.)(CDIAL 5892). Thin; to scatter away in particles: durmbu to drizzle (Kor.); tu_ru id.; tu_ra, tuvvara raindrop, drizzling rain; tuppara drop of water, thin or drizzling rain, drizzle; tumpara a particle or drop of water etc., a particle of spray, esp. spittle accidentally ejected from the mouth in speaking; tumpil.l.u thin or drizzling rain, drizzle, spray, rain driven by wind (Te.); tu_l- (tu_R-) (water etc.) to be splashed, scatter away in particles (Kond.a); tu_th'nai to speckle, intersperse, powder (Kuwi); tu_r-u (tu_r-i-) to drizzle; tu_r-al, tu_r-r-al drizzling; tuvar-r-u (tuvar-r-i-) to scatter drops, sprinkle; tuvar-al raining, drizzling, sprinkling; tuval (tuvalv-, tuvan-r--) to drip as water, sprinkle, drizzle; tuvalai water particle, drop, spray, drizzle; tivalai small drop, spray, raindrop, rain; tumi (-pp-, -tt-) to drizzle, sprinkle; n. raindrops, light drizzling rain, drop of water, spray; tumitam raindrops (Ta.); tu_r-r-al drizzling rain (Ma.); tu_r-u to fall in fine particles, drizzle, cause to drizzle or drop; n. falling in fine particles, drizzling; tu_r-alu to drizzle; tuntur-, tuntur-i drizzling, spray, a drop; tu_par-u to drizzle; ju_par-a, ju_par-u thin, drizzling rain, spray (Ka.)(DEDR 3398).

4648.Border, fringe; cleaning cotton; rope: tumpu frayed ends as of a gut; border, fringe; rope (Ta.); rope (Ma.); end of a rope or string (Ma.); tunpu id. (Ma.)(DEDR 3333). tuy cotton (Pur-ana_. 158); soft end of cotton thread (Kur-icip. 37, Urai.)(Ta.); a soft part in the ears of corn, in the petals of flowers, etc. (Kur-icip. 37); softness (Malaipat.u. 418); fibre (Ci_vaka. 559); fibre covering the tamarind pulp (Malaipat.u. 178); tuyya_ a kind of lace-braid stitched on the border of curtains (G.Tp.D. I,161); imitation lace; braided cord; tuyya_ppat.t.ai imitation lace (Ta.lex.) tumpi-k-kayir-u rope of coconut, palmyra or other fibres; halter, tethering rope (Ta.lex.) To card: tu~_bna_, tu_mna_ to pull cotton or wool to pieces and separate with the fingers before combing (H.); tu~bn.e~ to accumulate through being obstructed (M.); tummun. to card cotton (L.); tumn.a~_ carding (L.); tummana_ to clean cotton (P.); tu_mab (Bi.); tu_mal (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5870). tuppa-n to tease (wool)(Wg.); tombun to card cotton (K.); tumban. to re-pick old cotton, be strung repeatedly by wasps (L.); tumbn.a_ to tease cotton (P.)f(CDIAL 5867). tu~_biya_, tu_miya_ thread made of cotton separated before combing (H.)(CDIAL 5871). To rub: ho_mb to rub, stroke (Kui); hombali, ho_mbinai to scour, scrub (Kuwi)(DEDR 2879). to_mu to rub, clean (Te.); do_m- to wash and clean by rubbing (Ga.)(DEDR 3552). To strike, hurt, distress: tup, tub strike (Skt.)(CDIAL 5867). tumbati distresses (Dha_tup.); lib- (Mj.); demb (Sang.); dum (Kho.)(CDIAL 5870). tumpati hurts (Dha_tup.); tumban.u to beat (S.);(CDIAL 5867). prastumpati strikes, obstructs (Pa_n..gan.a); stubhna_ti 'ro_dhane_'(CDIAL 13723). skubhna_ti hinders, stops (Pa_n..); skubhno_ti (Ka_s'.)(CDIAL 13657). kubbhai dives into, sinks down (Pkt.); khubb(h)an., khub(h)an. to stick in mud, penetrate, prick (L.); khubbhin. morass (L.); khubbun. to stick in (L.); khubbhun.a_ to sink into, penetrate, affect (P.); khobhn.a_ to pierce (P.); khubbhan., khobha_ marshy ground (P.); khubhna_, khubna_ to pierce, enter, affect, adorn (H.); metath. bhukna_ to be pierced (H.)(CDIAL 13657).

4649.Nettle: tumpai white dead nettle, leucas; bitter toombay, leucas aspera (Ta.); tumpa phlomis or leucas indica (Ma.); tumbi phlomis indica; the very common weed leucas linifolia (Ka.); tumbe, tumbi phlomis indica (Tu.); tummi leucas cephalotes (Te.)(DEDR 3334). Leucas aspera: chota-halkusa (H.B.); tamba (M.); tumbai (Ta.); tummachettu (Te.); plant: antipyretic, insecticide; flowers: useful in cold; juice of leaves: applied in psoriasis, scabies and chronic skin eruptions; leaves: considered useful in chronic rheumatism; found throughout India in the plains. (GIMP, p.153). Image: thorn: thu_a thorn of date tree (L.)(CDIAL 13710).

4650.Image: quail: tumba quail (Kui.Kuwi); tu_mba id. (Kuwi); tumma id. (Pa.); tumme a kind of bird (Ga.)(DEDR 3328).

4651.Boat: tumba a very small boat prepared by filling up a net (ja_la) with a number of bottle-gourds (ala_bu)(Jain.Skt.) tumbi_, ala_bu lagenaria siceraria (Car. Su. 27.112; Ci. 26.15, Ka. 3.3); pin.d.aphala_ id. (Car. Ka. 3.3). cf. tumpi calabash, lagenaria vulgaris (Ta.)(DEDR App.43). cf. tumba lagenaria vulgaris (Skt.)(CDIAL 5868). Image: gourd vessel; narrow-necked, big-bellied: tumpa_ < tumba hollowed gourd or rind of a gourd, used as a vessel; a kind of drinking vessel (Ta.lex.) For shape, cf.: tumar.i_, tumur.i_ bagpipe made of a narrow-necked big-bellied bitter gourd (Or.)(CDIAL 5868). Gourd: tumba the gourd lagenaria vulgaris (Skt.); tumbika_ (Sus'r.); go_d.umbika_ a kind of cucumber; go_d.imba watermelon (Skt. < Austro.-as.); tumba calabash (Pali); tumbi_ l. vulgaris (Pali); tum.ba,tum.bi_ gourd (Pkt.); tumba, tombu l. vulgaris (K.); tumbo gourd for supporting swimmers (S.); tumbi_ small hollowed gourd to keep water in (S.); tumba_, tumma~_ the creeper colocynthus citrillus (L.); tomba_ hollowed gourd for water (L.); tumma_ c. citrillus (P.); tu_mba_ l. vulgaris (P.); gu_mbar. a hollow gourd (P.); tu_mbi_ small hollowed gourd for drinking water (P.); tomr.i_ the gourd cucurbita lagenaria (P.); tumr.o, tumr.i_ gourd (Ku.); tumbo large dried gourd; tumbi, tummi_ small dried gourd for drinking water (N.); tumba_, tumbi gourd (B.Or.); tuma_ l. vulgaris (Or.); tumar.i_, tumur.i_ bagpipe made of a narrow-necked big-bellied bitter gourd (Or.); tu_ma_ gourd (Bi.Bhoj.); tumr.i_ gourd (Bi.Mth.); tumba_, tumma_ mendicant's gourd (Bi.); tum.bari (OAw.); tumba_ (H.); tumbi_ (H.); to~ba_, to~bi_, tu~_br.a_, tu~_br.i_, to~br.a_, to~br.i_ l. vulgaris (H.); tomr.a_ dried gourd (H.); tu~br.i_, tu~br.u~ gourd (G.); tu~_ba_, tu~_bi_, tu~bd.i_ (M.); tumba the long gourd momordica (Si.)(CDIAL 5868). tumpi calabash, lagenaria vulgaris (Ta.); tumbam a long gourd, lagenaria (Ma.); tumbi, tumba l. vulgaris (Ka.); tumbamu, tumbi, tummi gourd vine (Te.); tumma gourd, gourd vessel (Te.)(DEDR App.43). tumpa_lai calabash, curai; tu_mpal id. (Ta.lex.) Image: climber: tummat.t.i country cucumber, climber, cucumis trigonus; sweet water-melon; bitter water-melon; tummit.t.i a kind of small cucumber; cultivated date-palm, pe_ri_ntu; tummut.t.i country cucumber (Ta.lex.)

4652.Image: footstalk of a leaf: tumbu, tod.ambe the footstalk of a leaf, flower or fruit, a stalk (Ka.lex.)

4653.Image: to be full: tumbu to become full, to be filled up, to become full or complete; to abound (Ka.); tuvalu, tugaru, tu_ru (Ta.Ma.); tuvalu to be close pressed together; tuppu plenty; tumpai host (Ta.); tumbu the becoming full; tumbisu to fill (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) tuppe a heap; a heap of grain (Tu.lex.) t.omba, t.ombao to accumulate, as water in a hollow etc., full; dak t.omba akana water has accumulated; tombr.e to gather together, to assemble, to huddle; tomboe tomboe to go in a crowd (Santali.lex.) tumra stout (RV. iii.50.1)(Vedic.lex.) A mesure of capacity: tombe a large, high bamboo basket for storing corn (Ka.); toppai-k-ku_t.u (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) tu_mbu (SITI) Ta., a measure of capacity; tu_mu (EI 27) a grain measure (IEG, p.345). tu_mu a measure (Pa.); tum hollowed trunk of tree for draining water (Go.); tu_m a measure of grain equal to four seers (Kond.a); tu_mu a measure varying in capacity for different localities (Te.); tu_mpu tube, bamboo, bamboo flute, a measure of capacity for grain, leathern bucket for bailing water, path, way, narrow or difficult path, defile, pass; tu_m a dry measure of capacity (Ta.); tumba measure (of paddy)(Ir.)(DEDR 3389). dumber, dumbi_r < dabi_r (Pers.) the person who divides the grain at the threshing-floor. He is paid usually from one to four t.opa_s per path of grain weighed or measured. Under the Sikh Government the revenue was taken in kind. A portion was set apart for the dumbi_r's pay. The government appropriated one-half and the dumbi_r the other half. After annexation pat.wa_ri_s were appointed, but the word dumbi_r is often used for a pat.wa_ri_. cf. d.u_m the name of a caste of Muhammadan musicians and bards (P.lex.) t.um small, insignificant, frivolous; tumal to glean; tumal tasan., tumal tosan. gleaning, poor, indigent; tumal tasan.teko asulok gana they live by gleaning; t.uman. an earthen pot larger than a celan. and smaller than a t.ukuc (t.ukuc t.ukuce daka akata she has cooked several pots of rice); tumba, tumbr.i a water bottle made out of a hollowed gourd; tumba dak fig. urine; tumbri a small drum used by snake charmers and made out of a hollow gourd (Santali.lex.) t.omt.ombao to the brim, full to the brim; band perec t.omt.ombacena the tank is full to the brim (Santali.lex.)

4654.Image: vessel with a wide mouth: tippi shallow earthen vessel with a wide mouth; piece of a coconut shell used as a ladle (Ta.); cippa (Te.)(Ta.lex.) thoba round piece of earthenware (K.); thobi_ flagstone placed over fire for baking bread on (S.); thobba_ lump of mud (P.)(CDIAL 13703). Image: a tub: to_mpu a tub (Ta.); tombe large high bamboo basket kept for storing grain (Ka.); toposhee a basket-work receptacle for grain (Go.)(DEDR 3511). Measure of grain: tumba a measure of capacity, esp. used for grain; maha_tumba; = 4 na_l.i; a kind of water vessel (udaka-tumba), made of copper, wood or a fruit (like a calabash, cocoanut, etc.); loha-tumba, kat.t.ha-tumba, phala-tumba; tumba-kat.a_ha of gourd (Pali); tumra swollen (of shape)(Skt.); tumeo, tumulus, tumultus swelling (Latin)(Pali.lex.) cf. tu_mu a measure of grain equal to four seers (Kond.a)(DEDR 3389). ud.umbara a kars.a, a measure of two tolas; copper (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) cf. tut.aku a small earthen measure holding 2 na_r..i, chiefly for toddy; tut.am a liquid measure (Ma.)(DEDR 3292).

4655.Image: pack: toppa_ram a large bundle of things tied in a cloth, as carried over the shoulders; pack; a large truss of grass; tompai grain bin, high wicker-basked used as a receptacle for grain (Pacatan. Mittira. 183); tombe id. (Ka.); tompai-k-ku_t.u id. (Vir-alivit.u. 824); tompai-k-ku_n.t.u id. (Ta.); tommai id. (Carva_. Cir-. 17); tomman-ai id. (Ta.); tommai bulkiness, corpulence (Ta.); tompai-ma_lai a kind of cylindrical cloth-ornament hung about a chariot or pandal (W.)(Ta.)(Ta. lex.) Bundle: cippam parcel, bundle, a man's load of tobacco leaves (Ta.); bundle, bale, chiefly of tobacco (Ma.); cippamu a bundle or parcel (Te.)(DEDR 2534). jhu_r.i_ bundle of jute or tobacco leaves (L.)(CDIAL 5258). Grain bin: tompai, tommai grain bin, high wicket basket used as a receptacle for grain; to_mpu a tub (Ta.); tombe large high bamboo basket kept for storing grain (Ka.); toposhee a basket-work receptacle for grain (Go.)(DEDR 3511). Image: moneybag: t.o_para small bag (Skt.); *tu_braka (Iranian); to_bra, tu_bra nose-bag [Persian.Psht. > tobra_ (P.H.) > tobr.a_ (Bi.); tobro (M.); tobra_ (M.)]; tu_ra (Br.); turba (Bakhtiyari); tu_rik (Kurd.)(CDIAL 5972). t.or.a_ bag hung round a cluster of dates (L.); tor.a_ leather moneybag (H.Or.B.N.); moneybag (P.); tor.o bag (esp. of rupees)(Ku.); leather moneybag (G.); tod.a_ bag (M.); tora_ purse (B ?< Bi.)(CDIAL 5972). tobra_ a share of grain taken by the proprietor of land on the pretence of feeding his horse, in addition to his rent (P.lex.) Leaf-cup; basket: d.oppe, doppe cup or dish of leaves (Ka.); d.oppa, doppa cup formed of leaf or leaves (Te.); d.ompa_, d.ompa leaf-cup (Kol.); d.oppa id. (Nk.Pa.); d.oppo_ a small leaf-cup (Go.)(DEDR 2986). t.opara small bag (Skt.); t.upa_ big basket (Or.); t.opri_ basket (WPah.); t.opro deep basket (Ku.); t.upli_ little basket (Or.); t.oplo basket (G.); t.opla_ (M.)(CDIAL 5482). Clothes-bag: ur-uppa large bag chiefly for clothes (Ma.); uripe small bag in which the makings of betel-quid are carried (Kod..)(DEDR 716).

4656.Land gifted; free of assessment: to_mpu public register of lands (W.)(Ta.lex.) tumpa_l < dumba_l (U.) inam land held free of assessment or at a favourable rent (W.); tuma_l, tuma_la_ id. (Ta.lex.) tumpa_la-ma_n-iyam Inam land held free of assessment or at a favourable rent, ma_n-iya-pu_mi (W.G.); tumpa_la_-ina_m id. (R.T.); tumpa_la_-ma_n-iyam id. (R.T.); tumpa_la_ an order giving up the government share of produce (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) cf. in-a_m < ina_m (U.) gift from a superior to an inferior, present, reward; grant of land made by government for religious or charitable purposes or for services rendered, sometimes given rent-free and sometimes with a light quit-rent, ma_n-iyam; in-a_m-can-a_m < ina_m (U.); redupl. small gift, present, baksheesh; in-a_m-ta_r < ina_m + da_r holder of land granted rent-free; in-a_yat-na_ma_ < ina_yat + na_ma deed of gift; grant in writing; written order or patent from a superior (R.F.)(Ta.lex.) cf. en-a_ti an ancient title conferred by a king on his minister (Man.i. 22,205); general; soldier, warrior (Ta.lex.) Distribution of honours and rewards: tumpai-y-aravam theme describing a king distributing honours and rewards to his troops after a victory (Pu. Ve. 7,2)(Ta.lex.) Warrior: tumpai major theme of a king or warrior heroically fighting against his enemy (Tol. Po. 70); tumpai-t-tin-ai id.; tumpai battle (Kampara_. Pirama_. 113)(Ta.lex.) Valour: tumpai flower toombay [cf. ka_ci-t-tumpai]; a garland of flowers worn by warriors when engaged in battle, as a mark of their valour (tod.iyan.ito_ l.a_t.avar tumpai punaiya : Pu.ve. 10,2)(Ta.lex.); tumpai-y-aravam theme describing a king distributing honours and rewards to his troops after a victory; tumpai-ma_lai panegyric on a warrior who has fought valiantly against his enemy, wearing a tumpai garland (Ton-. Vi. 283, Urai.)(Ta.); tumilam < tumula din, tumult (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,8,3); tumulam confusion (Ta.lex.) tumula tumultuous, noisy; fierce, raging; excited; perplexed, confused; an uproar, tumult, clang; a confused combat, melee; tumbu_ to distress, trouble; to kill, hurt (Skt.lex.) timilam great noise, tumult (Tiruva_ca. 29,4)(Ta.lex.)

4657.Image: to bore: top to bore; to prick, to thrust (Kon.lex.) to_pad.e (a pusher): a carpenter's plane (Ka.); to_pad.e, to_pud.u (Te.); to_pu a push; to_pudz.u id. (Te.)(Ka.lex.) tumbu, tu_bu a bore, a tube: the nave of a wheel through which the axle passes (Ka.); tu_mpu perforation; a pipe or tube (Ta.Ma.); tu_mu a bore, hole, fissure (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

4658.Image: nave of a wheel: tumbu, tu_bu a bore, a tube: the nave of a wheel through which the axle passes (Ka.); tu_mpu perforation; a pipe or tube (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Image: a bore: tu_mu a bore, hole, fissure (Te.)(Ka.lex.) d.ombu a hole or deep part in a river or tank (Ka.); d.o_ha (M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: hole: tu_mpu small hole in a wall (Tu.); narrow or difficult path, defile, pass (Ta.); tu_bu hole or eye of an axe, hoe etc. into which the handle goes (Ka.); tumbu a bore, tube (Ka.); tu_mbara eye of a spade; tu_mbaru big hole; tu_b hole; sumb small hole in a wall (Tu.); tu_paramu hole (Te.); tu_mu bore, hole (Te.)(DEDR 3389). do_pa to put within, insert, introduce, plunge into (Kui); do' to put hand into something (water, etc.)(Kuwi); do~_pu to put or thrust in, insert, introduce (Te.); do~_gu to enter into, make a passage in the wall (Te.)(DEDR 3554). Image: sluice: tu_bu sluice (Ka.)(DEDR 3389). t.obha an unwalled tank, a pond, a pool; a diver (P.lex.) tumbu an outlet, a sluice, a floodgate, a water-course (Ka.); tu_mpu (Ma.); tu_mu (Te.); tumbuvariyisu to cause (something) to overflow a floodgate (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) tumb, tumba_ a drain, a covered sluice (Kon.lex.) sumbe a small hole in a wall (Tu.lex.)

4659.Image: bull-necked: tombrot short-necked, bull-necked; tombrote mot.a akana he is so fat as to be short-necked (Santali.lex.) thom thorok bull-necked, corpulent (Santali.lex.) dhumr.a~, dhumr.i~ stout, fat, corpulent (Santali.lex.)

4660.Image: bier: tumb, tumba_ bier (Kon.lex.) tumbu, sumbu, humbu to bear, to carry as a load (Tu.lex.)

4661.Image: knots tied for accounts: d.hompo lump, knot; gira d.hompo the knots tied on a string to keep accounts with (Santali.lex.)

4662.Mound: d.hompo mound; ot d.hompo lepidagathis cristata, a plant found on elevated dry situations, with inflorescence resembling a ball; non.degen. ar.e d.hompo no_ga I shall raise a ridge (or an embankment) there (Santali.lex.) cf. dampa-na_gali a plough (Te.lex.)

4663.Image: gateway; sluice: tu_mpu gateway, doorway; sluice, outlet; vent in a sluice; channel for irrigation; drain, gutter (Man.i. 28,5); tu_mpu-va_y id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Tube: tu_mpu tubularity (Pur-ana_. 19); bamboo tube (Patir-r-up. 81,21)(Ta.lex.) tu_bu nave of a wheel, sluice, etc., of a tank, hole or eye of an axe, hoe, etc., into which the handle goes, tube of an ear-ornament; tumbha nave of wheel (Or.); tu~ba_, tu~ba_d.a_ plug, back of axe, nave of wheel (M.)(CDIAL 5869). tu_mpu sluice, floodgate, drain, spout, perforation (Ma.); tumbu a bore, tube, nave of the wheel through which the axle passes, outlet, sluice, watercourse (Ka.); tu_mbu outlet for a tank, sluice (Ka.); tu_mbara eye of a spade; tu_mbaru big hole, sluice, gutter; tu_b hole; tu_mbu, tu_mb, su_mbu, sumbu sluice, gutter; sumb small hole in a wall (Tu.); tu_paramu hole; a sluice, floodgate, drain, watercourse, outlet, bore, hole (Te.); tum botta, tum bukka hollow trunk of the tree used for draining water off fields (Halbi tum); tumbra tube, tunnel; tombra tube (Malt.); tu_b the nave of a wheel (M.)(DEDR 3389).

4664.Image: root: dumpa a root (Ka.); a bulbous root (Te.); d.umpa root, tuber (Ga.)(DEDR 3326A).

4665.Image: incense holder; smoke; incense; dust: dhu_n. incense-holder (WPah.); dhu_ni_ burning of incense, smoke, smoky fire (H.); dhu_n.i_ fire kindled before an ascetic (Ku.); dhuni (N.); fire which is kept burning (A.); ascetic's fire, incense-pot (B.); ascetic's smoky fire (Or.); dhun.i_ ascetic's smoky fire (G.M.); dhu_pana incensing, fumigation (Ka_tyS'r.); incense (Mn.); dhu_payati fumigates (VS.); dhu_pana burning of incense (Pali); dhu_van.a (Pkt.); dowan to expose to smoke, let smell smoke (Pas'.); du_u smoke-fire over which an ascetic sits and inhales (K.); dhu_n.i_ smoky fire (S.); dhu_n.i~_ (L.); dhu_n.i_ exorcising with aromatic smoke (P.); dun-kud.u snuff (Si.); dun-kola tobacco (Si.)(CDIAL 6848). dun smoke (Md.)(CDIAL 14653). da_ntar fireplace (Gaw.); dadan (Tor.); de_gda_n (Psht.Pers.)(CDIAL 14654). door.hi dust (Kal.)(CDIAL 14651). Image: censer: tu_pa-mut.t.i, tu_pa-k-kin.n.i, tu_pa-k-kut.am, tu_pa-kalacam, tu_ma-k-kut.am, tu_ma-mut.t.i censer, thurible (Ci_vaka.558); tu_pam incense, fragrant smoke, aromatic vapour (Te_va_.946,6); fire; tu_mam smoke; perfume; censer; potter's kiln; a deity first met with on the way to the world of the manes (Ta.lex.) dhu_ma smoke, vapour, mist (RV.); dhu_mika_ smoke; fog (Skt.); dhu_mya_ thick cloud of smoke (Skt.); dhu_ma smoke (Pali.Pkt.); thuv smoke; dif tobacco (Gypsy); du_m smoke (D..); du_m (Ash.); dum (Wg.); dyu_m (Kt.); ulyu_mo (Pr.); dum (Dm.); dhung (Tir.); dhu_m, du_m (Pas'.); du_m (Shum.); dum (Wot..Gaw.); thum (Kal.); thumar.a dust-storm (Kal.); dhu_m smoke (Kal.); dum, du_m, d(h)u_m, d'u_m (Sh.); udum dust (Sh.); dhu~_ smoke (L.); dhu_a~_ small lighted, heap of rubbish, place where such rubbish is kept (L.); dhu_a~_ smoke (L.); dhu~_, dhu_a~_ smoke (P.); dhuwa~_, dhu~w (Ku.); dhuwa~_ (N.); dhu~wa_, dho~wa_ smoke (A.); dhu~ya_, dho~ya_ (B.); dhua~_ (Or.Mth.Bhoj.); dhu_am. (OAw.); dhu_a~_, dhuwa~_ (H.); dhu_m, dhu~vo dhuma_r.o (G.); duma (Si.); du~_ho~ (S.); dhu_mia_ fog, mist (Pkt.); di_mi_ smoke (Bshk.); dhimi_ smoke (Tor.); dhu_mi_ (Phal.); dhume_ (Sv.); dhu_i~_ small heap of burning chaff round which Moslems sit while listening to praises of Pir Sayad Ahmad (P.); dhu~i an ascetic's fire (B.)(CDIAL 6849). dumol.osu ladle filled with incense (Si.)(CDIAL 6850). dhu_magandhi smelling of smoke (RV.); dhua~_ya_dh smelling of smoke (H.)(CDIAL 6851). dhu_ma_ka_ra having the form of smoke (Skt.); du~_ha_ro smoky (S.); dhu~a_ri mist (WPah.)(CDIAL 6856). dhu_r smoke, haze (M.); dhuvo_ru smoke (Konkan.i); dumburu tawny (Si.)(CDIAL 6852). tu_mpiram < dhu_mra purple, dark red (Ta.lex.) dhu_ri_ fumigation (M.); dhu~var, dhumar fog, mist (G.); dhu_mari_ fog, mist (Skt.Pkt.) (CDIAL 6853). dumbul smoke, soot (Si.); dhu_mala smoke-coloured, purple (Skt.)(CDIAL 6854). dhu_mra smoke-coloured, grey, purple (VS.); dhumma smoke-coloured (Pkt.); smoke (Pkt.); dhumro brown, dusky, reddish or yellowish, mild (of sunshine)(Ku.); dhumala smoke-coloured (B.); dhuma_ smoky, smoke-coloured (Or.); dhumn.e~ to smoulder (G.)(CDIAL 6861). tu_malam purple, dark red; tu_miram id. (Ta.lex.) du~_ho~ smoke, vapour (S.); du~_hi_ slight smoky fire (S.); dah, duh smoke (K.); du~_ha~_in.u to smoke, be smoky (S.); dhu~_s embers, cinders (B.); dhumas smoky (G.); dhua~_h soot (L.); dhava~_h, dhua_ha~_, dhama_ha~_ (P.); dhuwa~_so smoky, soot (N.); dhuwa~_sa_ smoky (H.)(CDIAL 6855). dhwa~_ro chimney (Ku.); dhu~a_ra_ ventilator (Aw.); dhua~_ra_ smoke-hole in roof (H.)(CDIAL 6857). dhu_ma_yati smokes, smoulders, chokes, is obscured (Pali); smokes, is smoky (S'a_n:khBr.); dhu_ma_ai smokes, is smoky (Pkt.); dhuwa_unu (N.); dhua~_na_ (B.); dhua~_na_ to be smoked (H.); duha~_in.u to be smoky (S.)(CDIAL 6859). dhu~ga_r, d.hu~ga_r smoking a milk vessel with fumes of ghee (P.); dhu~ga_rna_, d.hu~ga_rna_ so to do (P.); dhu_mo_dga_ra ascending of smoke (Skt.)(CDIAL 6860). dhu_mandha blind with smoke (Pali); dhu_ma_ks.a dim-eyed (AV.); dhundhu mist; dhundha_ro dust-storm (S.); dhund mist, haziness; dhundla_ misty (P.); dhu~_dh daytime fog (Bi.); dhum.dha mist, gloom (OAw.); dhund(h) purblindness, haze (H.); dhu~dhl.u~ misty (G.); dhu~d purblind, misty (M.)(CDIAL 6858). du_na burnt, inflamed; pained, distressed (Ka.); du_ pain, distress (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Incense: tu_pa-varukkam are six: ne_rkat.t.i cente_n- iriya_cam paccilai a_ra makilur-uppo_ t.a_r-u (Cilap. 5,14, Urai.)(TED). dhup incense; to burn incense; dhup dhuman, dhup dhunan to offer incense; dhudup to burn incense; dhup dan incense holder; dhuman to offer incense (Santali.lex.) dhu_pa, du_pa incense, frankincense, perfume; aromatic vapour or smoke that proceeds from fragrant gum or resin; dhu_pada mara the white dammer tree, vateria indica; dhu_paka a perfumer; dhu_pa-dhu_ma-niro_dha-kriye aromatic vapour and smoke being shut in or unable to escape; dhu_pa-vartti a thin stick covered with frankincense; dhu_pa_yita incensed, perfumed, fumigated; dhu_pa_rati an a_rati in which incense is burning: a censer; dhu_pisu to incense, to set on fire or burn (any incense); to perfume, to make fragrant; dhu_ma, du_ma, du_ve smoke, vapour; dhu_ma-ke_tu whose sign is smoke: Agni, fire; dhu_mala of a smoky hue; a colour composed of black and red; purple; dhu_mra; dhu_mra, dhu_mala smoke-coloured, of a smoky hue, grey; dark-red; purple (Ka.lex.)

4666.Resin used as incense: dhu_n.a gum or resin esp. of shorea robusta (Skt.); dhu_naka, dhu_rn.a (Skt.); dhuna_ a kind of resin of canarium bengalense or artemisiaindica (A.); dhun, dhuna_ resin (B.); jhun.a_ resin (used as incense)(Or.); dhu_na_ gum, resin of shorea robusta (H.); dun-gaha the large resinous tree doona zeylanica (diptero-carpaceae)(Si.)(CDIAL 6838). Dhup: Canarium strictum: kala-dammar (H.B.); dhup (M.); karupu-damar (Ta.); nalla rojanamu (Te.); karuttukungiliyam (Ma.); raladhupa (Skt.); gum used with gingili oil in rheumatic pains; in chronic skin diseases; habita: forests of the west coast from Konkan southwards through Kanara, Malabar, Coorg, Mysore to Travancore and Cochin up to about 5,000 ft. (GIMP, p.48). 'Dammar is one of the harder resins and is usually secured in the form of clear, pale-yellow beads, melting at about 1400 C. Various other coloured varieties are obtained from the dammara orientalis, which is indigenous to Malaya and the East Indies... Excellent varnishes can be made from the solution in alcohol... This resin in combination with nitro-cellulose enabled the formulation of rapid-drying lacquers.' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 210A). Canarium strictum: Piper cubeba: cubebs, cubeb-berries, tailed pepper; kubeben (Ger.); cubebe (Fr.); part used: dried, nearly full-grown, unripe fruit; habitat: Java, Sumatra and Borneo... cultivated in Ceylon... Uses: diuretic, expectorant and genito-urinary antiseptic. 'Canarium commune or strictum or bengalensis... Balsimoferous trees which yield oleo-resins known as elemi... A native of the Moluccas. Introdced and planted in India and the Malay peninsula... Cambodia, romdeng; Canarese, kagga libija, kaglimaram, javabadami, sambrani; Cutch, jangali bedana; French, canari, canaris; Hindi, jangali badam; Malayalam, canari, karaichingasi; Papua, keanee; Sinhalese, ratakakana, rakakekuna; Tagalog, pilipilauay... canarium strictum: Bengal, Gujarat, Hindi kala dammar; Canarese, halemaddu, karedupa; Malayalam, karuttukungiliam, kungiliam, kunturukkapayam; Sanskrit, mandadhupa, raladhupa; Tamil, attam, karungundurukkam, karunkungiliyam; Telugu, nallarojanamu' (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp.530-532). cavi_, cavi piper chava (Skt.); chavika_, cavika (Sus'r.); cavya, cavya_ (Sus'r.); cavia_ (Pkt.); sai (A.); cai (B.); cai_-ka_t.ha, ca_i-ka_t.ha (Or.); cai_ (H.); siviya (Si.); ca_b, ca_bh a kind of pepper plant, scindapsus officinalis (H.)(CDIAL 4726). Piper cubeba, the source of 'cubebs', the kubaba of the Arabs, is also a native of the Indian archipeago... Cubebas. Those of Goa and Calicut, the Guzeratis and Arabs here it called cumuc, which they corrupt into cubabchini because the Chinese bring it... kumunkus (Javanese)... 'carpesium' is, with the older pharmacists a synonym of 'cubebes'. " (Note in G. De Orta, p.276; pp. 169-173). kan:kola, kakkola piper cubeba (Car. Su. 5.77; Ci. 26.210, 28.153). kat.uka a variety of kakkola (Car. Su. 5.77; Ci. 23.66). katturika_ma a kind of drug and perfume, va_luka (Ka.lex.) kattu_rikai cubebs, va_lmil.aku (Tailava. Taila. 135)(Ta.lex.) are_n.ukam cubebs, va_lmil.aku; flat-branched pepper (Ta.lex.) takko_lam cubeb, va_lmil.aku (Ta.); takko_la (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) According to Brown, (v.2, p.244), the name 'elemi' is a term applied to a variety of resinous products obtained from different countries and having different origins. All belong to the family burseracea. The spanish term is 'brea blanca' (white pitch) for the resin (oleoresin) from canarium luzonicum. Brea is sticky, opaque, slightly yellow, has a very agreeable resinous odour, and burns with a smoky flame. It is used as a varnish, for caulking boats, and for torches (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.476). Canarium bengalense: nerebi, dhuna (Assam. Sylhet); dhuna (B.); leaves and bark used externally for rheumatic swellings; resin; habitat: Assam, Sylhet and North Bengal up to 3000 ft. (GIMP, p.48). Canarium commune: jangli-badam (H.); jangli-badana (M.); kagli-mara (Ka.); karaichingasi (Ma.); resin in form of ointment applied to indolent ulcers; substitute for mistura amygdalae; cultivated in India particularly in Travancore (GIMP, p.48).

4667.Wood-oil tree: en.n.ey Malabar wood-oil tree, having oil in the pores of the wood, dipterocarpus indicus (L.)(Ta.); oil; gingili oil (Ta.); en.n.e (Ka.Tu.); en.n.a (Ma.); en.n.ai-var..ukku oleaginousness, greasiness; oily brightness (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Dipterocarpus alatus: garjan (B.); garjan-ka-tel (H.); yennai (Ta.); habitat: several species of dipterocarpus plants grow in Chittagong, Burma and Siam; part used: essential oil; plant yields an oleoresinous extract popularly known as 'gurjanbalsam' or 'wood-oil'; oil has a pale grey or light brown colour and may be as thick as honey. It resembles copaiba balsam; preparation: balsam... a substitute for oil of copaiba... the 'gurjan oil' procurable in Indian bazars, is chiefly the product of dipterocarpus laevis and dipterocarpus alatus (Indian Materia Medica, p. 455). Dipterocarpus tuberculatus: eng (Burmese); found in Chittagong and Burma, which yields as oleo-resin is used with asafoetida and cocoanut oil as an application for large ulcers... Dipterocarpus turbinatus, dipterocarpus incanus, dipterocarpus laevis, dipterocarpus alatus: gurjun-oil, wood oil (Eng.); garjan (H.B.) tihya-garjan, teli-garjan (H.B.); horatel (Si.); gurjun (M.); kanyensi (Burm.); duhun-el-garjan (M.); yennar, challani (Ta.); habitat: forests of eastern India from Bengal, Burma to Singapore; parts used: oleo-resin (balsamic exudation from the trunk). This thick honey-like oleo-resin or liquid is known as garjan balsam. It is usually found in the bazars in three principal varieties: the pale, the red or reddish brown and the black or dark-brown... has copaiba-like odour and taste without the persistent acriditiy of copaiba... balsam... used in chronic bronchitis... oil... used in gonorrhoea... oleo-resin is applied to indolent ulcers, psoriasis, leprosy etc., in the form of an emultion or ointment... Dipterocarpus indicus: ennei (Ta.) resin is used in rheumatism (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 455-457). Shorea tumbuggaia: kala-damar (H.B.M.Deccan); karappu-damar, tumbugai-pishin (Ta.); nalha-damar (Te.); kara-kundurukam (Ma.); is a tree of the western peninsula found in forests of Cuddapah, Palghat and Mysore. Resin is an external stimulant, a good basis for some plasters and ointments... Resin is used as a substitute for burgandy pitch. (Indian Materia Medica, p. 1133).

4668.Image: to frown: duma-gut.t.u to be fuming, frowning or grim as the look of one's face (Ka.); dumaduma an angry look, frown; duma-dumal-a_d.u to be or look angry, frown, scowl (Te.)(DEDR 3324). Hurt: tura ill or wounded (RV.); a_tura ill (RV.); turyate_ hurts (Dha_tup.); turan.u to hurt (S.)(CDIAL 5876). cf. tumbati distresses (Dha_tup.); demb (Sang.); lib- (Mj.); dum (Kho.); tummun. to card cotton (L.)(CDIAL 5870). turuvu to harass (Ta.); cf. durv hurt (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) du_rvati hurts (Dha_tup.); dubbn.u_ to close (e.g. a bullock's nostrils in taming)(WPah.)(CDIAL 6500). du_da afflicting (Skt.); duta pained (Skt.); du_taka name of Agni in the form of forest-fire (Gr.hyaS.); dutaga burnt (NiDoc.); duya_, do in pain, hated (B.)(CDIAL 6489). d.ua_ri illness; d.ua_ri_ ill (S.)(CDIAL 6490). du_na afflicted (AV.); exhausted (Pkt.); dun.o state of being burnt in cooking, smell of burnt food (G.)(CDIAL 6491). du_maga producing pain (Pkt.); du_mai, dummai troubles, hurts (Pkt.); du_man.a hurting (Pkt.); koi-dum work, worry (Wg.); dumvu~ to distress, trouble (G.)(CDIAL 6493). {Echo word} du_yate_ is burnt, is consumed with sorrow (MBh.); dujjai is tormented (Pkt.); du_- to ache (Wg.); -lu- to hurt, ache in: ji_ wulumaso my head aches (Pr.); du_an they become frozen (Kal.); dayun, pp. doyu to regret (K.); du_jvu~ to suppurate, exude pus (G.)(CDIAL 6494). duno_ti torments (AV.); caus. da_vayati (Skt.); udda_van.aya distress, disaster (Pkt.); uddanava_ to give pain (Si.)(CDIAL 1993). tun-pan- person in distress (Pirapulin.. Ma_yaiko_. 73)(Ta.); tun-pur-uttu-tal to cause suffering; to afflict (Ta.lex.) tun-pam, tun-pu pain, disease, misfortune, calamity, penury; tun-mai harm, evil; tun-i (-pp-, -tt-) to loathe, abhor, be angry at, displeased with, be sulky as in love-quarrel; n. disgust, dissatisfaction, loathing, anger, displeasure, affliction, sorrow, distress, disease, sin, trouble, poverty; tun-ippu aversion (Ta.); tunpam affliction (Ma.)(DEDR 3372). duno_ti distresses (AV.); is consumed with internal heat or sorrow (MBh.); dunik to think, meditate (Kho.); du_n.vu~ to pain with harsh words; du_n.a_vu~ to be burnt, bear malice, be pained by harsh words (G.)(CDIAL 6410).

4669.Image: motion: tu_n-am < dhu_na motion (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) tu_n.a, tu_l.aga, tu_l.u violent agitation, frenzy, demoniac possession (Ka.); tuval. to shake, be agitated; tu_n.am hatred; tu_n.t.u to stir, as the fire; to irritate, to incite; to spur on as horses, to goad as oxen; tun.avu haste, swiftness (Ta.); tun.uku, tun.aku, tul.aka_yisu, tul.aku to shake or be agitated as water (Ka.); tut.uppu a stirrer, an oar; tut.ippu palpitation (Ta.); tud.i to splash violently (Ma.); tone to swing, to wave, to move to and fro (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. dhu_na shaken (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 6842). cf. dhu_n.a shaking (S.)(CDIAL 6845). dhu_ shake (Skt.); dha_vayati causes to be shaken (Skt.); thav a shake (Gypsy); thavyer, tab to shake (Gypsy); da_- to winnow (Pas'.)(CDIAL 6806). cf. dhuvati shakes (AV.)(CDIAL 6832). dhuvati shakes up (AV.); dhavati (Dha_tup.); uddhuno_ti (RV.); uddhun.iya, uddhu_n.iya blown by the wind, scattered (Pkt.); uddhuvvai shakes, fans (Pkt.); udhavan.em. to scatter, rise up; udhavan.i_ chimney (OM.)(CDIAL 2024). vidhu_no_ti shakes about (RV.); vidhuno_ti destroys (MBh.); vidhuna_ti shakes, removes, skins (an animal) (Pali); vihun.ai shakes, makes tremble; vihuya crushed (Pkt.); bhin.iba_ to scutch cotton, tear to shreds; bhin.a_ carding, tearing, splitting up (Or.)(CDIAL 11757). To scutch cotton; agitation: dhu_ni agitation, shaking (Skt.); dhu_n.a shaking (S.); dhun. agitation, eagerness (Ku.); dhun agitation, ardent desire (H.); dhun. (P. Ku.); dhu_ni deep thought (G.); dhun. absorbing thought (P.)(CDIAL 6845). dhu_no_ti shakes (RV.); dhuna_ti shakes (Pali); dhun.a_i (Pkt.); dun to card wool (Pas'.); danun to shake (K.); do_nun to scutch cotton (K.); dhu_n.an.u to shake (S.); dhun.ya~_ cotton-carder (P.); dhunnu to scutch cotton (N.); dhuniba (A.); dhuna_, dhona_, dhunan (B.); dhuniba_ (Or.); Carding bow: dhun carding bow (Or.); dhu_nab (Bi.); dhunia_ cotton-carder (Mth.); dhuna_i_ carding (Bhoj.); dhunai scutches cotton (OAw.); dhunna_ to scutch cotton, make strenuous effort, beat (H.); dhuniya_ carder (H.); dhu_n.vu~ to shake (G.); jhun.iba_ to shake (Or.); dhun.ak(k)n.a_ to scutch cotton (P.); dhunki carding bow (Or.); dhunakna_ to scutch (H.); dhunki_ carding bow (H.); dhun.akn.e~ to scutch (M.); dunik to consider (Kho.); dhuna~r.~ to scutch cotton or wool (Ku.)(CDIAL 6846). dhu_yate_ is shaken (AV.); dhujvu~ to tremble, be shaken (G.); dhuja_vvu~ trembling (G.); dhrujvu~, dhruja_vvu~, dhruja_ro (G.)(CDIAL 6863). dhu_na shaken (Pa_n..); dunu agitation (Si.); jhu_n.a_ shaking a tree (P.)(CDIAL 6842). dhunait.h, dunet.hi_ machine for carding cotton (Bi.); dhunait.h, dunahat.h id. (Mth.)(CDIAL 6844). dhuna_ri, dhunuri cotton-carder (B.)(CDIAL 6843). To pull: tu.n- (tu.nd--) to pull along (something or someone), rape (Ko.); tuyi (tuyid-, tu_d-) to pull, draw, stretch (Ka.); d.uyyu, duyyu, d.u_yu, du_yu to draw as a sword out of the scabbard, remove or strip of leaves, etc., as a twig by drawing it through the hand or between the fingers (Te.); d.uy- to strip (leaves of bough)(Go.)(DEDR 3337).

4670.Image: wasp: tumpi male bee, dragon-fly, bee (Ta.); a black beetle flying at night, dragon-fly (Ma.); a large black bee resembling the humble-bee (Ka.); flying beetle (Kod..); the black bee (Tu.); tummeda a large black humble-bee (Te.); dumdi beetle (Pa.); tuhmeli_ hornet (Go.); tumber-i bee (Kond.a); dumba_ wasp, hornet (Kur.); tumba_ black wasp; tumbil wasp (Kur.); tumbe wasp (Malt.); tumbr.are black wasp (Malt.)(DEDR 3328). Honeycomb: tumbilli_ honeycomb (Pkt.)(DEDR 3328). For black: cf. tumpi black ceylon ebony, diospyros tomentosa (Ta.)(DEDR 3329). d.e~bhu~ a kind of wasp, hornet (S.); d.ihmu~_, d.e_mbhu_ wasp (L.); d.ehmu_, d.ehmu~_ yellow hornet (P.); d.ebara_, debara_ hornet (Si.)(CDIAL 5065). do_me mosquito, gnat (Ka.); do_ma id. (Te.); d.o.me mosquito (Kol.); d.ome blind bee (Kol.); d.o_ma mosquito (Kond.a)(DEDR 2991).

4671.Image: a fish: tumpi a genus of fish, pterois; a sea-fish, reddish, attaining 11 1/2 in. in length, pterois rusellii; tumpili a sea-fish, brownish, grey, attaining at least 1 ft. in length, saurida tumbil; tumpai a genus of fish, pterois; tumpai-p-pa_rai the large tumpai fish; tumpaiyan- a fish (Par-a_l.ai. Pal.l.u. 16)(Ta.lex.)

4672.Olibanum: tumbi-hu_ synonym of kunda olibanum, the resin of boswellia thurifera, one of Kubera's nine treasures (Ka.lex.)

4673.Country fig: tumparam < udumbara country fig, atti (Ta.lex.) timilo wild fig tree (Ku.N.); timiru the tree avicenna tomentosa (S.); taremal, tiamle, timbal ficus roxburghii macrophylla (P.)(CDIAL 5819). tumburu zanthoxylum alatum (Car. Su. 2.3, 27.171). cf. ra_man.a diospyros embryopteris (Skt.)(CDIAL 10627).

4674.Glue; wild mangosteen: tumburu, tumaki, tumari, tumbara, tumbari, tu_pare, tu_bare the wild mangosteen tree, diospyros embryopteris, embryopteris glutinifera, the fruit of which contains a powerful glue; tinduka, titisa_raka, ka_laskanda, sphu_rjaka (Ka.); tumpi (Ta.); tumburu the fruit of diospyros embryopteris (Skt.); tumburuti_rtha name of a lake at Tirupati; tumbura name of a gandharva (Ka.lex.) makar.kenda diospyros embryopteris (Santali.lex.) Diospyros embryopteris, diospyros glutinosa, diospyros cordifolia, diospyros urginiana: tinduka (Skt.); Indian persimon, gab, wild mangosteen (Eng.); gaba (B.); taindu, gab (H.); timar, temburani (M.); bandarooku (Konkan.i); temru (G.); tumika, tumbilik-kay (Ta.); bandadamara (Ka.); tumil (Te.); tumikichettu (Te.); panichhi maram (Ma.); plaque-miner visqueux (Fr.); habitat: throughout India, especially in Bengal; parts used: fruit, bark, and dried seeds (Indian Materia Medica, p. 452). Ebony: tumpi ceylon ebony, diospyros ebenum; diospyros tomentosa (Ta.); tumpili coromandel ebony, diospyros melanoxylon; diospyros tupru; tumpai diospyros tomentosa (Ta.); tumaki, tumari, tumbara, tumbari, tumburu, tu~pare, tu_bare wild mangosteen tree, diospyros embryopteris = embryopteris glutenifera (Ka.); tubiki, tumiki diospyros embryopteris; tumida diospyros melanoxylon (Te.); tumki id. (Kol.Nk.); tumik, turmig tendu tree (Nk.); tumbri (stem tumbr-) diospyros melanoxylon (Pa.); tumur ebony (Ga.); tumri_-mar.a_, tumri, tumri_, tumir, tumeri, tumer id., tendu tree, diopsyros melanoxylon (Go.); duri, dureni, du_ri coromandel ebony (Kui); du_ri ebony (Kuwi)(DEDR 3329). timbaru diospyrosembryopteris, strychnos nux vomica (Pali); ti~_bar, ti~_bru_ xanthoxyion hostile (K.); timbar, timmal id. (seeds and bark used as a drug, twigs for cleaning teeth)(P.); timu_r a partic. thorny tree (Ku.); timur xanthoxyion acanthopodium, xanthoxyion alatum (N.); timbiri diospyros embryopteris (Si.); tumburu fruit of diospyros embryopteris (Pa_n.. Ka_s'.); tumbara name of a tree (Kaus'.); its fruit (Skt.); tum.buru, tum.baru a tree (Pkt.); timbarukkha, timburu_-saka diospyros or strychnos (Pali); t.imbaru, t.imbarua, t.imbarun.i_ diospyros embryopteris (Pkt.); t.imur = timur, t.immur id. (N.); t.i~bru~ diospyros embryopteris (G.); t.i~barva~_ pl. its fruit (G.); t.e~burn.i_ diospyros glutinosa, t.e~bru~_, t.e~bhru~_, t.e~bhre~ its fruit (M.)(CDIAL 5872). udumbara wood used to make three types of bedsteads: talpa, pros.t.ha and vahya (RV. vii.55.8; AV. v.17.12). udumbara (Pali); ud.umbara (AV.) the tree ficus glomerata (TS.)[Prob. <Austro-as.]; udumara (Dhp.); udumbara, uumbara, umbara (Pkt..); umar a particular kind of tree used for burnt offerings (Ku.); u_mar, u_mari_ ficus glomerata (H.); u_mbara (OG.); umro, u~_bro, umarr.o wild fig tree (G.); umarr.u~ its fruit (G.); u~bar ficus glomerata; its fruit (M.); u~bar ficus glomerata (M.); umbar (Konkan.i); du~bur (H.); ur.umara ficus glomerata (Or.); du~bur (H.); dim.bul, dum.bul (Si.); d.umri (N.); d.imaru (A.); d.umur (B.); d.umara, d.dambura, d.imbiri (Or.); d.u_mri (Mth.); du_mari (Bhoj.); d.u_mar (H.)(CDIAL 1942). tinduka the tree diospyros embryopteris; its fruit (giving a resin used for calking)(MBh.); tindu, tindula, tinduki, tindini_ (Skt.); tindu_ diospyros lanceolata (P.); tinduka, tin.d.uka (Pali); tim.duya (Pkt.); t.in.d.a_ diospyros melanoxylon (H.); tem.du, tem.duya, tem.d.ua the tree; its fruit (Pkt.); t.endu_ diospyros lanceolata (P.); tendu_ resinous fruit of the tree diospyros embryopteris or diospyros glutinosa (H.)(CDIAL 5814). tainduka derived from the tree diospyros embryopteris (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 5954).

4675.Elephant's trunk; snout of an animal: tumpi-k-kai, tumpiccan.-kai, tumpicci-k-kai elephant's trunk; tumpi-kkai elephant's trunk (Ma.); tumbikay id.; ba.-tumbi bird's tail (ba.li tail)(Kod..); tumbi elephant's trunk (Tu.)(DEDR 3330). stuva snout of an animal (Skt.)(CDIAL 13709). stuva a partic. part of a horse's head (Skt.); thol snout, lips (Ku.); thobn.o snout, lips (Ku.); thobana_, thubna_ face or mouth of animal (B.); thobr.a_ snout, muzzle (H.)(CDIAL 6109). cf. tun.d.a beak, trunk, snout (Skt.MBh.); contemptuous term for mouth (Skt.); tn.d.ika having a trunk (AV.)(CDIAL 5853). Elephant's trunk: tu_mpu-k-kai, tumpikkai elephant's trunk (Mu_turaik. Ka_ppu); id. (Ma.); tumpi elephant (Kampara_. Va_livatai. 51)(Ta.lex.) tumpi elephant's trunk (Ta.lex.) Image: face of an animal; mouth; snout: thobn.o snout, lips (Ku.); thobana_, thubna_ face or mouth of animal (B.); thobr.a_ snout, muzzle (H.)(CDIAL 6109). stuva particular part of a horse's head (Skt.)(CDIAL 13709).

4676.Fishermen; celestial musicians: dombisva_dhya_ya a vain repetition or study of the ve_da (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) to_mam < sto_ma group of sa_ma ve_dic chants (Ka_cippu. Tiruve_ka. 12)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) sto_ma praise, eulogium; a hymn; a sacrifice, an oblation; a heap, collection (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) do_bi a washerman (Ka.); dho_bi (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) d.ombaragi a particular thing or article of a peasant's cart (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) dombara gan.e a tumbler's pole (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) tompai a paraphernal article carried before an idol (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) tomparai a vagabond; tompan- a person belonging to the tribe of tumblers, acrobats and pole-dancers (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 88); tompa-k-ku_tta_t.i, tompan-ku_tta_t.i id. (Ta.); dombam pole-dancing (Ka.); tompam (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) temma_t.i, temma_n.t.i senseless person, fool, incompetent person (Ta.); temma_t.i vagabond, debauchee (Ma.)(DEDR 3417). d.omba, d.ombara, domba, dombiga, dombara a caste of tumblers and merry-andrews (Ka.Ma.Ta.); kollat.aga (Ka.); domme, dombare, dommare (Te.); d.o_mba_ri (M.); d.ama, d.umba, d.o_ma, d.o_mba a man of low caste, a Dom (Skt.M.); d.o_ha a ca_n.d.a_la (Ka.); d.o_mba (M.); d.omba (Skt.); d.o_hara kakkayya, d.o_hara kakkade_vayya a name (Ka.); d.o_mbara hur.. an insect used by children to perform tumbling feats (Ka.); d.omba var-ai a tumbler's drum; dad.d.asa (Ka.); dombiti, d.ombaragitti a woman of the d.ombas (Ka.); dombara po_ri a domba girl: a harlot; dombara_t.a tumbling act (Ka.); dombi-da_sari one of a company of stage players (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) d.o_mbini_ f. [connected with Mu. words for 'drum']; d.om.ba, d.um.ba-, d.om.bilaya (Pkt.); d.o_mba man of low caste living by singing and music (Skt.); rom man, husband (Gypsy); romni woman, wife (Gypsy); r.om a Gypsy; do_m a Nuri Gypsy; lom a Gypsy; damini woman (SEeur.Gypsy); d.o_m pl. d.o_ma a D.om (D..); d.o_mb barber (Pas'.); d.om musician, bandsman (Kho.); d.om a Dom (Sh.); d.u_mb, d.u_m m., d.u_mbi f. (K.); d.u_mu m., d.u_mr.i_ caste of wandering musicians (S.); d.u_m m., d.u_mn.i_ f.; nat.-d.u_m menials (L.); d.u_m, d.omra_ m., d.u_mn.i_ strolling musician; d.u_mn.a_ a caste of basket-makers (P.); d.um a very low-caste blackskinned fellow (WPah.); a low caste (N.); d.u_m m., d.u_man an aboriginal hill tribe (Ku.); d.om m., d.umini f. fisherman (A.); d.om, d.am m., d.umni f. [d.ombi_ (OB.)] a D.om (B.); d.oma m., d.oman.i_ f., d.uma, d.uman.i_, d.amba, d.ama, d.aman.i_ a low caste who weave baskets and sound drums (Or.); d.o_m a low caste of musicians (Bhoj.); d.omb, d.om, d.omr.a_, d.uma_r m., d.omni_ f. (H.); d.u_ma m., d.umar.i_ f. (OMarw.); d.o~b, d.om m. (M.); romano_ adj. Gypsy; romano_ rai m. Gypsy gentleman; romani_ cib Gypsy language (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5570). d.umaur.o habitation of the D.oms (Ku.)(CDIAL 5571). d.uma_n.o D.om settlement (Ku.)(CDIAL 5572). Turbulent man: dombe, dombi, d.ombi, d.ombu crowd, mob, disorderly riotous mob, fray, quarrel; dombiga_r-a man that belongs to a riotous mob, rioter (Ka.); dombi, d.ombi, d.ombe mob, rabble, riot, uproar; dombiga_re rioter, turbulent man (Tu.); dommi mingled or confused noise, crowd, throng, mob, rabble, mle, affray; dommul-a_d.u to squabble, scuffle (Te.)(DEDR 3510). to_mam < sto_ma crowd, company, multitude (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

4677.Image: lute: tumpuru a celestial musician (Tiv. Tiruppal.l.i. 8); a kind of lute (Kalla_. 81)(Ta.lex.) tumbarah. name of a Gandharva; tumbaru, tumburu id. (Skt.lex.) t.humiri_ a tune (S.); sto_bhati chants (RV.); t.humri_ a tune (P.); t.humri (N.); t.hu~bri_ (H.); t.humri_ (H.G.M.); t.hu~bri_ (M.)(CDIAL 13706). thumthumya_unu to lull (N.); thoma_l.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 13708). t.oyela stringed instrument for music (Pa.); t.oyli id. (Go.); t.oyla id. (Kond.a); t.oyela id. (Pe.)(DEDR 2987). A guitar; tampuru < tambr (H.) a kind of guitar producing the key-note (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 13); tampuru id. (Kon.t.alvit.u. 511)(Ta.lex.)

4678.Fishermen: ti_yan, ti_van the caste of the palm-cultivators, toddy-drawers, sugar-makers, etc. (said to be 'islanders' from Ceylon)(Ma.); ti_yar a caste in Malabar (Ta.); fem. ti_yatti (Ma.); ti.ye Tiyan fem. ti.yatti (Kod..)(DEDR 3277). dhi_vara a partic. mixed caste (Gaut.); fisherman (MBh.); a caste of fishermen (Pkt.); dhi_vari_ a woman of this caste (MBh.); fisherman's wife (L.); ti_vara caste of hunters (offspring of a Ks.atriya with a Rajput woman)(BrahmavP.); d.hi_vur cook (L.); dhi_war, dhi~_war, dhi_mar caste of fishermen (H.); dhi_mar (G.); d.hivar, d.hi~var (M.); divaru (Konkan.i); ti_vara_ name of a people (Pali); tiyar sub-caste of fishermen (B.); tiara (Or.)(CDIAL 6819). cf. timilar fishermen (Te_va_. 532,2); timil catamaran, small boat (Pur-ana_. 24)(Ta.lex.)

4679.Island: tivaram country or rural tract (Ta.); tivara (M.)(Ta.lex.) ?< dvi_pa island (RV.); di_pa island (Pali); di_va (Pkt.); -di_ya_, -de in cmpds. (B.); di_v island, name of a partic. island (G.); diva, du_va island (Si.); zuwu (K.); juve~, ju~_ island in a river (M.)(CDIAL 6691); bire_ti_ sandy island (L.); dia_ra_ land newly formed by the recession of a river (Or.); di_yar field on island in a river (Bi.Mth.); diya_ra_, dia_r.a_ island formed in the middle of a river, alluvial land (H.)(CDIAL 6693). Sandy soil: For -re_ti_ in bire_ti_ sandy soil (L.)(CDIAL 6693): ret.u sandbank (S.); re_t sand (L.); re_tur. sandy soil (L.); ret, reti~ sand (P.); retta_ sand, sandy land (K.); sekh sand (K.); retar sandy soil (K.); ret, letar sand (WPah.); ret, reto sand (Ku.); reti sand, sandy beach (N.); ret, reti_ sand (H.G.); reta sand (OMarw.); reti_ sand (M.)(CDIAL 10816); et.a_r plain, open field (Ta.); ed.a_ri a desert (Te.)(DEDR 781); rethal. desert (G.)(CDIAL 10825); rew sand (H.); rev, re~v fine sand or gravel (M.); re~va sand (Konkan.i); rer.o sand and stones, debris washed down by a stream (Ku.); revar.o dunghill (OMarw.); revd.a_ fine sand or gravel (M.)(CDIAL 10821).

4680.Image: drum: to_maram drum (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

4681.Image: lance: to_maram < to_mara lance, javelin, dart (Pin..)(Ta.); large club (Patir-r-up. 54,14)(Ta.lex.) to_mara lance (MBh.Pali.Pkt.); spear, lance (Pali); tomuru lance (Si.)(CDIAL 5973).

4682.A bond: t.ombu_ a note, a small letter, an order, a draft; t.ombu_ karna_ to give an order in writing; t.ombu_ ta_rn.a_ to pay a bill (P.lex.) tamassak a note of hand, a bond, a receipt; a written acknowledgement (P.lex.) tamacu_k < tamassuk (Arabic) bond, note of hand (W.) (Ta.lex.) tamasu_ku a note of hand, a bond (Ka.); tama_su_ka (M.H.) (Ka.lex.)

4683.Throw in dice: da_v stroke, move in a game (Pers.); turn, opportunity, throw in dice (K.); d.a~_u mode (S.); da_ direction (L.); d.a_, d.a~_ way, manner (L.); da_u ambush (P.); da~_w turn, opportunity, bet, throw in dice (Ku.); da_u (N.); da_u, da~_u turn, opportunity (B.); da_u, da_u~ opportunity, revenge (Or.); da_u trick (in wrestling, etc.)(Mth.); da_u opportunity, throw in dice (OAw.); da_u_, da~_w turn (H.); da_v turn, throw; d.a_v throw (G.); da_va_ revenge (M.); da_ya gift (MBh.); aks.-da_ya playing of dice (Nais..)(CDIAL 6258).

4684.Image: dice: da_ya a kind of backgammon (Ka.); ta_yam (Ta.Ma.); da_ya a throw of dice (Ka.); d.a_va a game at chess etc.; a throw of dice; a hand at cards (M.H.); cauka-duga four times (a throw of) two dice of which both exhibit the number one; cauka-da_ya a throw of dice that exhibits the even numbers from 4-12, one exceeding the other at the rate of four (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: squares for playing dice: ta_yakkat.t.am squares for playing dice; ta_yama_t.utal to play dice; to play the child's game of ta_yam (Ta.lex.) ta_yam a fall of the dice (Kalit.136,Urai); cubical pieces in dice-play; number one in the game of dice; a child's game played with seeds or shells on the ground; ta_yan:ku_r-utal to call out the required number in throwing dice; ta_yakkat.t.ai dice (Ta.lex.)