5072.Image: bowstring: ˝a_n. string, cord (Mullaip. 63); bowstring (Pur-ana_. 14,9); ˝a_n. string, cord (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

5073.Image: to hang, decline: ˝a_l(l)utal to hang (Ci_vaka. 140); ˝a_luga id. (Ma.); jo_l (Ka.); va_lu id. (Te.); ˝a_llutal to decline, descend, as the sun (Pur-ana_. 82,2); ˝a_l.am flower-stalk (Ja_n-va_. Ur-pa. 30); cf. na_la (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

5074.Image: lute: ˝a_r.. a stringed musical instrument (Perun.. Makata. 6,17); ya_r.. id. (Ta.lex.)

5075.Image: bastion: ˝a_yil breastwork in fortification, bastion (Cilap. 15,217); ˝a_yal id. (Ma.); ˝a_yil-ka_val guarding a town, as keeping watch over its fortress (Ta.lex.)

5076.Image: pedestal: ˝a_n-am a pedestal for seating a lin:ga when bathing it for worship, one of cala_can-am (Caivaca. Potu. 523)(Ta.lex.)

5077.Earth: ˝a_n-am earth; ˝a_lam earth (Pu. Ve. 2,14, Kol.u.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

5078.Intellect: ˝a_n-am intellect, intelligence, wisdom (Na_lat.i, 308); sacred or divine knowledge, spiritual wisdom (Tiruva_ca. 2,74); ˝a_n-a_n-a-k-kan. spiritual vision, inward illumination, opp. to u_n-a-k-kan. (As.t.ap. Tiruve_n:kat.atta. 76); ˝a_n-a-k-ku_ttan- S'iva, as who revels in wisdom (Civappira. 2,31); ˝a_n-a-k-kai spiritual knowledge, as a means of deliverance (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,9,2); ˝a_n-a-kuruparan- spiritual preceptor, guru (Tiruva_ta. Pu. Mantiri. 22); a_n-a-c-cut.ar light of wisdom (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,1); ˝a_n-a-campantar a canonized S'aiva saint (Te_va_. 2,11); an ascetic, the founder of Dharmapuram mutt, and author of Civapo_kaca_ram, Muttiniccayam, etc. 15th c.; a_n-a-t-ta_l.an- wise person, sage (Perun.. Vattava. 15,42); ˝a_n-a-na_yakan- master of spiritual knowledge (Kampara_. Iran.iyan-. 23); ˝a_n-a-p-putalvan- disciple, as spiritual son (Tiruva_lava_. 27,54); ˝a_n-a-p-pu_n:ko_tai goddess of S'ri Ka_l.ahasti (Te_va_. 1099,9); ˝a_n-a-pu_cai worship appropriate to a_n-a stage consisting of studying, teaching, etc. of sacred knowledge (Ci. Ci. 8,23); ˝a_n-a-mu_rtti God, as the embodiment of wisdom (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,7,1); ˝a_n-a-valliyam a treatise dealing with the suitability of sites for sinking wells, tanks, etc. (Perun.. Makata. 12,17); ˝a_n-a-viruttan- one who is ripe in knowledge or wisdom (Cilap. 15,94, Urai.); ˝a_ta_ one who knows (Ci. Ci. 4,29, Civa_k.); a_turu id. (Tiruman. 2381); ˝a_tam id. (Pa_rata. Intirap. 1)(Ta.lex.)

5113.Image: chisel: naiha_ turner's gouge (P.); niha_n.i_ turner's gouge (P.); niha_n. chisel for wood or stone (Ku.); nin chisel (B.); niha_n.a, niha_n.i_, nihan.a (Or.); niha_ni_, nahani_ (H.); niyana (Si.); nikha_dana a particular sharp instrument, chisel (Pali); naha_n. (P.); (CDIAL 7156). cf. a_n.i linch-pin (RV.); id., bolt, peg (Pali)(DEDR App.10). cf. n.ighasa, n.ihasa touchstone (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7170). Image: a tool used in turning: na_ka-va_y tool used in turning (W.)(Ta.lex.) na_ga-yas.t.i, na_ga-yas.t.ika_ a graduated pole or post for showing the depth of water in a newly-dug pond; a boring-rod driven into the earth (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) na_gaha a certain deep place in the Go_da_vari_ (Ka.); na_gahrada name of a ti_rtha of the Go_da_vari_ (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) nikha_ta (pp. of nikhan.ati) dug, dug out (of a hole), buried (of a body); dug in, erected (of a post)(Pali)(Pali.lex.) To pierce: ni_cuni to go through, pierce (Tu.); i~_ gu to enter, penetrate (?Te.); i_keng to pierce, thrust in (knife)(?Kol.)(DEDR 3686). Image: eye of needle: na_ko eye of needle (S.); na_ki eye of a needle (Or.); na_ka_ eye-end of needle (Or.H.); na_ku~ (G.); na_ke~ end of road (M.)(CDIAL 7037). na_ko eye of needle (S.)[semantically, cf. na_thro eye of a needle (N.)(CDIAL 7031).Image: to pierce: ne_n.- to enter (Go.); ne_nga_na_ id.; ne_ngusa_na_ to thrust, pierce; nenga_na_ to intrude; nenga_na_ to enter; necahta_na_ to make to enter; nehta_na_ to shut in (cattle); ne_n.- to enter; ne_h- to push in, thrust in; ne_n:g- to enter; ne_n.- to enter, pierce (Go.); nen:g- to enter (Mand..); neh- to put in (Kuwi)(DEDR 3764). niya place where there is litter and rubbish (Kho.)(CDIAL 7204). nighr.s.t.a rubbed (MBh.); n.ihat.t.ha (Pkt.); nihat.an.em. to rush forcibly (OM.); nehat.n.e~, nehet.n.e~, net.n.e~ to press hard on (M.)(CDIAL 7176). To bore right through: nis.parati comes out (TS.); nis.pa_rayati takes out, rescues (RV.); nis.piparti brings out (RV.); nipharna_ to pierce right through, come right through and out the other side (H.); nipha_rna_ to bore right through, take right through and out the other side (H.)(CDIAL 7512). Íniks. to pierce (AV. xix.29.1; RV. v.2.9)(Vedic.lex.) A blacksmith's tool: nia_rin a tool used by blacksmiths for planing wood? (WPah.)(CDIAL 7198)

5412.Image: harrow: nolla a harrow; nollu to level, scrape, gather, collect (Te.); lol- (-it-) to level soil in new paddy field (Kuwi)(DEDR 3788).

5119.Image: harrow: nikas.a harrow, roller (A_past.); touchstone (MBh.); nikasa whetstone (Pali)(CDIAL 7139). nikas.a wooden implement to level up ploughed field (Sat. xxvi.2); nikr.s. to drag down (TS.)(Vedic.lex.) nisiba_ to whet (Or.); nis'yati sharpens (AitBr.)(CDIAL 7456). nis'ita sharpened (RV.); nisita (Pali); n.isia (Pkt.); nisila_ (OM.); niyu (Si.)(CDIAL 7435). nikas.a the touchstone; the streak of gold or test made on it (Ka.); nikars.a (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) nis.ka a golden coin, a golden ornament for the neck, ornament (RV. vii.47.15; i.126.2; TMB. xviii.1.14); nis.ka-gri_va necklace-necked (RV. v.29.3)(Vedic.lex.) nis.ka gold ornament for neck or breast (RV.); specific weight of gold (Ya_j.); n.ikkha gold; a coin (Pkt.); nik a goldsmith's weight (Si.)(CDIAL 7470). nighr.s.va very brilliant, rubbed off (TA_r.)(Vedic.lex.)

5113a.Anvil: naha_i, niha_i_ anvil(Bhoj.); niya_ri anvil (A.); niha_n, neha_n, neya_n, niha_ni, neha_ni, niha_li (B.); niha_ni_ (-n-?)(Or.); niha_li_ (H.)(CDIAL 7171). nigha_ti iron hammer (Skt.); nigha_ta blow (Skt.); lihi anvil (N.); niha_i, neha_i, neya_i (B.); neha_i, nehi, liha_i (Or.); niha_i, neha_i (Bi.); neha_i_, naha_i_, liha_i, laha_i (Mth.); niha_u iron hammer (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 7172). liha_war large hammer (Mth.)(CDIAL 7173). nehae, ni~ha~i an anvil (Santali) (Santali.lex.)

5107.Image: axle of cart: nin:gha axle of cart etc. (Santali) (Santali. lex.)

5113a.Axle; axle-tree: ni_rsu axle (Go.); hi_rsu_ id. (Kuwi); irucu axle tree (Ta.); irasu, iracu, iricu, irucu, irci, ircu, era-ko_lu an iron axle-tree (Ka.); irusu axle, axle-tree (Te.); i.rcu axle (Kol.); irsu axle (Ga.); irs(u), irs id. (Go.)(DEDR 484).

5094.Image: trough: na_w feeding trough (Bi.)(CDIAL 7081). nipa_na watering place (Mn.); n.i(v)a_n.a watering trough for cattle beside well or tank (Pkt.); nava_n. watering place (G.)(CDIAL 7216).

5184.Image: resemblance: nakhrna_ (nakkhras) aux. vb. with idea of reciprocity, dispersion or severance (Kur.); naqe to act or be one to another (Malt.)(DEDR 3571). nakai resemblance (Tan.t.i. 33); nakal < naql duplicate, copy, opp. to acal (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nakali imitation (Tu.)(DEDR 3569). Battle; enemies: nikarttal battle, fight; nikar id. (Ta.); nikara_r enemies (Kulo_t. Ko_. 384); nikitam army, troops (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nisina_ similar, alike (A.)(CDIAL 7448). Comparison: nikara a term of comparison (Nan-. 367); nikar-ttal to be similar, alike (Tol. Po. 290); to rival (Ain:kur-u. 67); nikar comparison, simile, likeness (Kantapu. Tati_ciyut. 150); equal, parallel, match (Na_lat.i, 64); nika_cam < ni-ka_s'a likeness, similitude; resemblance (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nikar equality (Ma.)(DEDR 3660). Pair: yugma even (Gr.S'r.); pair (S'a_n:khGr..); yugmaka (Skt.); jugga, jumma pair (Pkt.); jug (L.H.); yuga-ya (Si.)(CDIAL 10493). nakkitam two (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

5079.Image;like: na_i~_ like, after the manner of (H.)(CDIAL 5277). Knowing: ˝a_paka-k-karuvi that which serves as a means to knowledge, opp. to ka_raka-k-karuvi (Tol. Col. 74, Urai.); ˝a_pakan.-ku_r-al an art whereby the full content of a su_tra is merely indicated in general terms, one of 32 utti (Tol. Po. 666)(Ta.lex.) j˝a- at end of cmpds. 'knowing' (e.g. sarvaja, aja)(Skt.); j˝apta instructed (S'Br.); j˝apti understanding (Skt.); [- replaced by j- after ja_na_ti etc.:] jata_in.u to inform (S.); jata_un.a_ to remind, warn (P.); jataun.o to inform (Ku.); jata_unu to warn, reprimand (N.); jata_na_ to make known (H.); dat pret. of dananava_ (Si.); jata_vin.e~ to warn (M.); ˝atti announcement (Pali); ja_ta publication (Or.)(CDIAL 5273). ja_ know; ja_ta known (AV.); ˝a_ta (Pali); in cmpds.: ˝ata, ˝ada (NiDoc.); n.a_ya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5274). ja_taputra name of Maha_vi_ra (Jain.); n.a_yaputta (Pkt.); na_ut exorcizer, wizard (H.)(CDIAL 5275). n.a_i knowledge (Pkt.); like, as if (Skt.); n.a_vai id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 5277).  ja_yate_ is known (Skt.); najjai knows (Pkt.); noik, 3 sg. nar to become visible, appear (Kho.)(CDIAL 5284). Acknowledgement of favors: ja_na knowledge (S'a_n:khS'r.); ja_na_ (Skt.); na_i~_ like, after the manner of (H.)(CDIAL 5277). ˝a_n.a (Pali); ˝anam. (As'.); ˝ana (NiDoc.); n.a_n.a (Pkt.); na_rna_ to learn, conjecture (H.); na_n.a knowledge (OG.); na_n.vu~ to know, experience (G.); na_na (Si.); ja_n.a knowledge (Pkt.); za_n (K.); ja_n.u presentiment, inkling (S.); ja_n. knowledge (P.G.); acknowdgement of favours (M.); ja_n knowledge (N.B.H.)(CDIAL 5281). ja_nin having knowledge (Mn.); ˝a_n.in (Pali); -nani the wise one (Si.inscr.); ja_n.i knowing (Pkt.)(CDIAL 5282). ja_pyate_ is made known (MBh.); n.appai knows (Pkt.); na_pn.a_ to measure (P.); na_pn.o (Ku.); na_pnu (N.); na_piba_ (Or.); na_pab (Mth.Aw.); na_pna_ (H.); ja_pan. to become known (L.); ja_pn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 5283). je_ya to be known (Mn.); neya fit to be known, knowledge (Si.)(CDIAL 5285). Representation; binnapa, binna, binnaha (Tadbhava of vija_pana) representing, informing; respectful communication or representation; respectful petition (Ta.); vinnapa (Te.); binnapagey to make a respectful representation or humble petition (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vin.n.appam representation (Ta.lex.) binnavisu, binnayisu, binnaysu (Tadbhava of vija_pisu) to communicate or represent respectfully; to petition respectfully (Ka.lex.)

5080.Deputy: na_yaba a deputy (Ka.); na_i_ba, na_yaba (M.H.); na_yabatirasteda_ra a native head clerk in an assistant collector's office (ka.lex.)

5081.Kinsman: ˝a_ti agnate (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 27); relations; distant kinsman, one who does not participate in the oblations of food or water offered to deceased ancestors (Ta.lex.) ja_ti kinsman (RV.); ˝a_ti kinsman (Pali. As'.NiDoc. KharI.); ˝a_tika kinsman (As'.); na_tikye nom. sg., atika kinsman (As'.); ˝ati (NiDoc.KharI.); ˝atiga, nadiga (KharI.); n.a_i (Pkt.); izna_ri sort (Kho.); na_ related (OSi.); na_ya_ relative (Si.); na~_na_ female cousin (Si.)(CDIAL 5276). na_to acquaintance (Ku.); na_to relationship (N.); na_ta_-gota_ relatives (N.); na_t relative (Aw.); kinsman (H.); kinship, alliance (H.); na_ta_ (H.); na_tara relationship, betrothal (OG.); na_tra_ pl. kin (OG.); na_tru~ widow's relationship as mistress; na_tu~, na_to kinship (G.); na_te~ (M.); na_to (S.); na_ta_ (L.); na_tta_ id., relative (P.); na_to wife's brother; ne_tt.u young relative (WPah.); a_taka kinsman (Pali)(CDIAL 5279). nat.t.lia_n.i wife's brother's wife (WPah.)(CDIAL 5280). a_tighara paternal home (Pali); na_yer, la_ihar, la_ihor wife's father's house (B.); naihar, nahira_ (Bi.); naihar, nehra_ (Mth.); naihar (Bhoj.Aw.H.)(CDIAL 5278). na_ti relation (Tiruvil.ai. Payakara. 41); protector ; na_tiyan- lord, master (Te_va_. 508,1)(Ta.lex.) Relationship: nan.t.u, nen.t.u relationship, friendship; nan.t.a, nen.t.a relative, kinsman, friend; nan.t.ike, nan.t.atana relationship (Ka.); nan.t.u, nan.t.asige, nen.t.asige kin, relationship; nen.t.e a relation (Tu.); nan.t.u friendship, a friend (Te.); nan.t.uka~_d.u friend, companion; fem. nan.t.ukatte (Te.); nan.n.u to be attached to; nan.n.unar friends, adherents; nat.pu, nan.pu friendship, relationship; nat.t.a_r, nat.t.o_r friends, relations; nan.iyan- one who is near (Ta.); nan.n.uka to remember with love and gratitude (Ma.)(DEDR 3588). Sister-in-law: na_ttan-a_r, na_tti, na_ttu_n. husband's sister (Ta.); na_ttu_n id., brother's wife (Ma.); na.tu.n.y sister-in-law, female cross-cousin (woman speaking in all cases)(Ko.); na_dani, na_dini, na_duni husband's sister, brother's wife; husband's younger sister, wife's sister, younger brother's wife (Ka.); andil, tantil elder brother's wife (Pa.); na_nr-a wife's younger sister (Kond.a); na_njar. id. (Mand..); nanjo sister-in-law (Kuwi); na_nja younger sister-in-law (Kui); na_sgo elder brother's wife (Kur.)(DEDR 3644). nana_ndr. husband's sister (RV.); nanandr., nanda_, nandini_ (Skt.); nanandar (Pali); n.an.am.da_ husband's younger sister (Pkt.); nana_nikyem my brother's wife (Shum.); nin.un husband's sister (S.); nina_n. husband's brother's wife, husband's sister (L.); nina_n. his sister (L.); nana_n., nan.ad his sister (P.); nan.a_nu_ his younger sister (P.); nana~d his sister (Ku.); nan.ad (WPah.); nanda (N.); nandi (A.); nanad (B.); nan.a(n)da (Or.); nan(a)di_ husband's sister (Mth.); nana(n)d, nanadi_, nanadiya_, nandi_ (H.); nanadini_ husband's or wife's sister (H.); nan.ad husband's sister (Marw.); nan.am.dara (OG.); nan.a~d, nan.al, nan.di_ his younger sister (G.); nan.a~d, nan.ad, nan.doli_, nan.duli_ his sister (M.); nan.ada (Konkan.i); na(n)di_, nanda_ father's sister, wife's mother (Si.)(CDIAL 6946).

5082.Image: crab: ˝en.t.u crab (Akana_. 176); cancer in the zodiac (Ta.); ˝an.t.u id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

5083.Sweet: napka (< nak-p; nakt-) to be sweet (Kui); r.ak- (-h-) id.; rakhni, lakne sweet (Kuwi)(DEDR 5180). mahka mahki sweet of smell (Santali.lex.) mousa_n. sweetness (Kon.lex.)

5084.Ornamentation: nakasi, naka_s'a, naka_si, naka_su, naks.a, naks.e ornamental representation; figured work, carved or sculptured work; engraving; embroidery (Ka.Te.); nakas'a_, nakas'i_, naka_s'a_ (M.H.); nakasi a picture, a drawing, a map, a plan (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. nakalu, nakali a copy, a transcript (Ka.Te.); nakala (M.H.); nakalu imitation: mimicry, an anecdote; a ludicrous incident (Ka.M.H.) (Ka.lex.) namu_ne a specimen, a sample; a model; a copy (Ka.)Te.); namu_na_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5085.Image: guarding: nigu_t keeping carefully, care, heed, aptitude (M.): nirjugo_pa guarded (Skt.)(CDIAL 7309).

5086.Sail: laka_ra sail (Pali.lex.) layar sail (Malay. Indonesian); ruval-a sail of a boat (Si.)(CDIAL 10964). Wave: lahari_ large wave (Skt.); wave (Pkt.); na_ri wave, rapids, water shooting up (Kho.); lahari wave, fancy; laharo quaver, trill, whim (S.); lahir wave, whim (P.); lahar excitement (Ku.); lahari wave (A.); lahar (B.); nahara_ whirlpool (Or.); lahara wave (OAw.); lahar wave, emotion; lahra_ trill, lively air (H.); lahar.i, lahar.a_ wave (Or.); leher, ler wave, caprice (G.); lahar (M.); ral.a, rlla, rli wave, fold, wrinkle (Si.)(CDIAL 10999). ˝alai-tal to wave, shake (Kantapu. Mutan-a_t.. 50)(Ta.); ala (Te.Ma.); ale (Ka.Tu.); alai wave, billow, ripple (Pin..)(Ta.); ala (Ta.Ma.); ale (Ka.Tu.); alai sea (Nait.ata. Na_t.t.u. 22); alai-y-e_r-u dashing of the waves (I_t.u, 7,2,2)(Ta.lex.) ale that moves to and fro: a wave, a billow (Ka.lex.) Stream: levni rivers (Kol.); lavni big river, streamlet; lavd.i_ stream; lavr.i, lavni stream, streamlet (Go.)(DEDR 5192). Crossing: cf. lan:ghana crossing (Pa_rGr.)(CDIAL 10906). cf. la~_gho fordable; ford (S.)(CDIAL 11010). Oarsman: cf. la_t.h, la_t. large beam, timber, water raising contrivance of three poles (M.); lar.h, lar.hi_ pole (S.)(CDIAL 10991). laur.i a stick which is twirled round on the fingers in much the same way as the Irishman twirls his shellalah, an oar; laur.iye acureda he is twirling his shellalah; laur.ia one who can twirl a shellalah, an oarsman; laur.ia kanae he is a twirler of the shellalah (Santali.lex.) River: na_gur.i river (Pe.); na_gur. id. (Mand..); na_gur.i id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3636). ni_ra water (MBh.); ni_vara water, marsh (Skt.)[< Drav.](CDIAL 7552). ni_r water, sea, juice, liquor (Ta.); ni_ru water (Ka.Tu.Te.); di_r id., flood-water, juice (Br.)(DEDR 3690-a). Image: canal: nahar a canal, a large open drain (Santali) (Santali.lex.) na_vya_ navigable stream, stream (RV.); na_vya (Ka_s'. on Pa_n..); na_va_ canal (Pali); no~_, nu~_, na_wa mill-race (Ash.); nu~_ (Wg.Kt.); nawa_, na_a_k, nu_a_k (Pas'.); nuk (Kal.); na mill-race or aqueduct consisting of hollowed logs (Kho.); n mill-race, gun-barrel, hookah tube; na_i, pl. na_ya_ stream, ravine, pipe of bellows (these WPah. words have same range of meaning as nd.i_ which also provides word for 'mill-race' in Bshk. and Phal.); na_va gutter (Pers.); nx gutter (Par.)(CDIAL 7083). Freight; river: nai, nayi river; no_r, no_ra_ freight (Kon.lex.) na_vya accessible by a boat or ship, navigable (as a river etc.) (RV. i.80.8); boatman (A_pGS. vi.2)(Vedic.lex.) na~i a river, the Damuda river; na~i gad.a the Damuda river (Santali)(Santali.lex.) na_vya_ a navigable river (Skt.lex.) nadi_ river (RV.Pali); n.ai_ (Pkt.); len (Gypsy); nay a hill forest (K.); na~i~ mountain torrent (S.); nai~ natural watercourse, flood from the hills (L.); nai~_, nai river (P.); nei stream (WPah.); nai river (A.B.); small river (Or.); nai_ id. (Or.H.); nai(m.) (OG.); na(h)i_ (M.); nha~i (Konkan.i); niya (Si.); ne~_di_, ne_di_ (Ash.); na~di_ (Wg.); nani_ (Kt.); nali_ (Dm.); nandi_, nadi_ (Pas'.); nandi_ (Nin:g.); nadi_ (Shum.); nyed (Wot..); ne_ndi (Gaw.); ne_eli_ (Sv.); nande (Bshk.); ned (Tor.)(CDIAL 6943). nada roarer (RV.); roaring (Pali); n.ada (Pkt.); na~ho gong (S.)(CDIAL 6942). na_da roaring (RV.); sound, noise (R.); roar, loud noise (Pali); n.a_ya noise (Pkt.); si_-nay lion's roar (Si.); nay, na_ noise (Si.)(CDIAL 7052). To scoop out: na_r- (-t-) to scoop out (e.g. pulp of gourd for making vessel)(Pe.); na_r- (rat, etc.) to excavate, scratch out earth (Mand..)(DEDR 3652).

5087.Tribe; people: lo_k free space, world (RV.); space, territory (S'Br.); people (Mn.); world (Pali); loke the people (As'.); ia-lokam., hida-logam. this world (As'.); loo place (KharI.); lo_ga, lo_a world, people (KharI.); lo_ wide open ground (Wg.); lou tribe, family (S.); loi place of residence, lover's village (S.); lo_ village (L.); loa plural affix (OB.); loi people (OAw.); loe, loi_ (H.); loi the world (OG.); lov, lev, lo_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11119). Metath. kul.i, kul.ye tribe (Kon.lex.) lo_kya pertaining to this or the next world (S'Br.); laukya (AV.); laukika (S'rS.); lo_kiya, lo_kika mundane, worldwide (Pali); lo_ia mundane (Pkt.); lovi_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11125). ulakam < lo_ka the earth (Pin..); any world (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,10,1); country, territory, region (Tol. Po. 5); inhabitants of the world, manking in general (Tol. Col. 57, Ce_n-a_.); created beings (Tirumuru. 1); usage, custom (Ma_r-an-a. 320); ulakiyar-kai custom of the world (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,9,1); ulakiyal-var..akku actual usage of the world, dist. fr. na_t.aka-var..akku, i.e. stage usage (Tol. Po. 53); ulakar people of the world (Civatattuva. 7; Can. Aka.); ulako_r id. (Ko_yir-pu. Tiruvir..a_. 50); ulakurai tradition (Man.i. 27,49); ulaka-no_n-pu observance of religious rites by householders among Buddhists and Jains (Man.i. 5,99); ulaka-nat.ai fashion, custom, usage (Kur-al, 22, Ati. Ava.); ulakatta_r great men, men of eminence (Kur-al., 850)(Ta.); ulahu the earth, any world (Ma.); ulaka-vit.ai-kar..i public passage, as the gateway of a city (Cilap. 10,27); ulaka-viruttam statement that is at variance with public opinion or accepted notion (Man.i. 29,162); ulaka-v-ar-avi any big charitable institution; rest-house established for the benefit of all castes and classes (Man.i. 7,93)(Ta.lex.)

5088.To take the lead: no_k- (-t-) to go first, precede (Pe.); no_ka (no_ki-) to precede, go ahead of; no_ki ahead, in front of, in the van, in advance (Kui); no_kit.i ahead, in front of (Kui); no_kali to advance; no_k-, no_khee hannai to precede; no_ki ahead; no_kiti in front; no_kigattasi the first one; no_kita in front of, before; no_k- (-it-) to go ahead, precede; no_kita, no_ke'e in front of; o_khee hannai to precede (Kuwi); no_l. to precede, take the lead (Ka.)(DEDR 3799). cu_like, cu_l.ike the front, the van (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) luhu cuhu to take precedence (Santali.lex.)

5089.Boat: na_va_ a large ship (Jain.Skt.) Image: drum: na_va_y-p-par-ai drum used in neytal (maritime) tract (Ir-ai. 1, Pak. 17)(Ta.lex.) Image: ship: na_va_y vessel, ship (Pur-ana_. 13)(Ta.lex.) no_danam impelling, driving, urging forward; no_dayitr. one who urges forward or propels (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) nau a ship, boat, vessel; nau-a_ro_hah. a passenger on board a ship; a sailor; nau-karn.adha_rah. a helmsman, pilot; nau-karman the occupation of a sailor; nau-carah., nau-upaji_vanah., nau-ji_vikah. a sailor, boatman; nau-ta_rya navigable, to be traversed in a ship; nau-dan.d.ah. an oar; nau-va_nam navigation; nau-va_hah. a steersman, pilot, captain; nau-sa_dhanam fleet, navy; nauka_ a small boat, a boat in general (Skt.lex.) nauji_vika boatman (VarBr.S.); noi boatman, head boatman (Or.)(CDIAL 7608). na_va_yika [cf. Lat. navigo; Skt. na_va_ja] a mariner, sailor, skipper (Pali.lex.) na_va_ boat (RV.Pali); n.a_va_ (Pkt.); na_o, pl. nawi (Sh.); na_v, na_wi(K.); na_u, na_o (P.); nau (Ku.); na_i_ (OB.); na_, la_ (B.); na_, na_(h)a_ (Or.); na_w, naiya_ boat (Bi.); na_o boat (Mth.); na_u (N.A.Aw.H.); na_v (G.M.); na_vr.i_, na_vr.u~ (G.); nva (Si.)(CDIAL 7081). gharnai_ temporary raft made of waterpots and bamboos (Bi.H.)(CDIAL 4408). pana_i_ very small boat (such as is used on the Narmada_)(G.)(CDIAL 7921). nauka_-dan.d.a, nau-dan.d.a an oar (Ka.); nauka_nayana ship-leading (or building)(Ka.); nauke, nauka_ a small ship, a boat; nau-ta_rya navigable (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) One without a boat: nina_o, nina_i one without a boat (B.)(CDIAL 7335). cf. uru schooner, small vessel (Ta.); uru, uruvu vessel, ship (Ma.)(DEDR 659). lauka a boat, a dinghi (Santali. lex.) ro_ka boat (Skt.lex.) nauka_-ta_n-am present of a boat made of sugar-canes given to a bra_hmin on behalf of a deceased person on the eleventh day after his death (Ta.); nauka_, nau boat, ship (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Cover of a boat: varaka cover of a boat, cloth (Skt.)(CDIAL 11310). cf. varatra_ strap, thong (RV.); varta leathern thong (S.)(CDIAL 11320).

5090.Boat used on the Indus; a liner: na_uk a boat used on the Indus (S.)(CDIAL 7081). na_vr.i_, na_vr.u~ boat (G.)(CDIAL 7081). na_vi vessel, ship (Man.i. 26,85); na_va_y vessel, ship (Pur-ana_. 13); navvi (Lat. navis; E. navy) boat, vessel, ship, dhoney (Kampara_. Pat.aitta. 47); navvu id. (Pa_rata. Ira_. 60); ni_va_n- steersman; ni_vu to pass beyond (Kur-icip. 20)(Ta.lex.) nava_t.a_ boat, dhoney (W.)(Ta.lex.) na_va_ a boat, ship (Pali); na_uh., na_va_ (Vedic); navis (Latin); na_va-tittha a ferry; na_va-sacaran.a (a place for) the traffic of boats, a port (Pali); na_va_ = sa_muddika_ a liner; with '500' passengers; = pota = don.i; 100 cubits long (Pali)(Pali.lex.) na_va_ boat, ship (sa nah. sindhumiva na_vayati pars.a_ 'na_va_'; RV. i.97.8); na_va_ja boatman, karn.adha_ra (S'Br.); nau boat, ship, nauka_ (RV. v.59.2; naurna pu_rn.a_ : TA_r.); nau-man.d.a side of a ship (S'Br.)(Vedic.lex.) na_vikan- < na_vika mariner (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) na_va, nau, na_vu, na_ve a boat, a ship, a vessl; na_va_d.iga a boatman; a helmsman (Ka.); na_va_d.i_, na_va_d.ya_ id. (M.); na_va_ro_ha a passenger on board ship: a sailor etc. (Ka.Skt.); na_vika a passenger on board ship: a navigator, a sailor, the steersman, a pilot (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) na_va- prabhras'ana ship-wreck (AV. xix.39.8) (Vedic.lex.) Boatman: nur., nr.iya_ boatman (B.); na_ur.i (Or.); na_va_d.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 7081). na_vika sailor, helmsman (MBh.); sailor (Pali)[mariner, captain, ferryman (Pali.lex.)]; n.a_via (Pkt.); na_iya (MB.); neye (B.); naiya_ boatman, ferryman (H.); nvi sailor (Si.)(CDIAL 7082). Boat made of reeds: lauka a boat, a dinghi (Santali.lex.) Boat made of reeds: ro_ka boat (Skt.lex.) r.o- (-t-) to fasten, attach, suspend; r.oser bamboo frame for drying things in winter (Kond.a); r.o- (-t-) to hang up (Pe.)(DEDR 5184). nauka_, nau boat, ship (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.); nauka_-ta_n-am present of a boat made of sugar-canes given to a bra_hmin on behalf of a deceased person on the eleventh day after his death (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) niya_maka controlling (MBh.); charioteer, sailor (Skt.); nirya_ma sailor (Skt.); n.ijja_maya, n.ijja_vaya (Pkt.); niya_ma, niya_maka ship's captain, pilot (Pali); n.ia_maya controlling (Pkt.); niyamuva_ pilot, captain (Si.)(CDIAL 7253).

5091.Ship: naga a ship (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) nag, naga_ ship, vessel; naga_ga_r, naga_ga_ra_ sailor; na_ik, na_ika_ captain (Kon.lex.) na_kai a sea-port town in Tanjore district (Kulo_t. Ko_. 173); na_ka-p-pat.t.in-am id. (Perumpa_n.. 37, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Oar: na_kku blade of an oar (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nakuta_ captain of a ship (Ta.); na_khuda_ id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Anchor: nan:ku_rm anchor ((Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 38, Vya_. Pak. 128)(Ta.lex.) id. (Ma.); nan:kuram id. (Ci_vaka. 2231, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) nan:gal, lan:gar id. (Ka.); nan:garu, nan:galu, lan:garu id. (Tu.); lan:garu id. (Te.); na_gara anchor (Skt.); na_gar (M.); la_n:gar (H.); lan:gar (Pers.); cf. Gr. agku~pa (DBIA 222). na_ngor, na_ngra_ anchor (Kon.lex.) na_kara an anchor (Ka.); na_gara, na_n:gara an anchor (M.)(Ka.lex.)

5092.Image: ox treading sheaves on threshing floor: na_val a shout of driving the oxen while treading sheaves on the threshing floor (Nan-. 101, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

5093.Image: shout: na_val a shout of joy made while heaping grain on the threshing-floor (E_rer..u. 59); a shout of victory in the form of na_valo_-na_val (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 1)(Ta.lex.) na_vayati makes shout (Gr.); navate_ shouts, bellows (RV.); naieik to frighten (game)(Kho.)(CDIAL 7080). na_va shout of joy or triumph (RV. viii.25.11; ix.4.5.5)(Vedic.lex.) Learned: na_valar poets, orators, the learned (Tiruva_ca. 34,1); ministers (Ci_vaka. 206); the Brahmins (Te_va_. 297,3); na_va_l. Sarasvati_ (Ce_tupu. Civati_r. 46)(Ta.lex.) Image: to say, declare: navil (navilv-, navin-r--) to say, tell, learn, utter, sound loudly, sing, perform (as a dance); navir-r-u (navir-r-i-) to say, utter, declare with authority; nuval (nuvalv-, nuvan-r--) to say, declare, utter; n. word, saying; nuvar-ci saying, utterance (Ta.); nw voice; song (To.)(DEDR 3616). nivacana invocation (RV.); nivakti reviles (MBh.); niva_cayati (Skt.); neosa_ a curse (A.); neosiba to curse (A.)(CDIAL 7415).

5095.Acampe papillosa: Acampe papillosa = saccolabium papillosum: nakuli (M.); rasna (Skt.Ma.); root: bitter tonic, used in rheumatism; alkaloid, bitter resin; habitat: Bengal and the lower Himalayan mountains from Sikkim eastwards, Assam, Gangetic delta, the Circars (GIMP, p.3) ra_sna_, gandhana_kuli_ (Skt.); ra_sna_ (B.H.); Synonym: cymbidium tessaloides "under the name of ra_sna_, the roots of vanda roxburghii and acampe papillosa, are both indiscriminately used by native physicians... ra_sna_ root is said to be fragrant, bitter and useful in rheumatism and allied disorders, in which it is prescribed in a variety of forms... with gulancha, devada_ru, ginger... with bdellium (ra_sna_ guggulu)... ra_sna_ enters into the composition of several medicated oils for external application in rheumatism and diseases of the nervous system, such as the maha_ma_s.a taila, madhyama nara_yana taila etc." (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 259-260). cf. ra_sne the ichneumon plant = na_kuli (Ka.lex.)

5096.Unguis odoratus: nakhi unguis odoratus; "this nakhi according to Rumphius who describes ten kinds of the odoriferous onyx which serve as the basis of the principal perfumes in the Indian Islands (Herb. Amb. ii.c.17) is the operculum or lid of the shells of purpura and murex. This being flat and something like a nail explains the origin of its name." (Royle's Antiquity of Hindu Medicine, p. 144; loc. cit. Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.15). nakha a particular perfume, apparently a dried shell-fish (Ka.lex.)

5097.Cyperus pertenuis: nagare, na_gara the fragrant root of cyperus pertenuis (Ka.lex.)

5098.Oleander: nakha a fragrant substance used in perfumes (Br.hatsam.hita_. LXXVI. 23-26); nakhara_hva fragrant oleander, karavi_ra (Skt.lex.) na_, na_r-u smell; na_bal.l.i, na_r-ambe_l.e an annual strongly smelling herb, gynandropsia pentaphylla, ajagandhike (Ka.lex.) cf. na.r- smells (Kod..)(DEDR 2918). Oleander: karavi_ra a fragrant oleander, nerium odorum (Ka.lex.) pon.d. raj baha, raj baha nerium odorum (Santali.lex.) aral.i, arali, aralai oleander, nerium odorum; aral.i fetid tree, sterculia foetida (Ta.); aral.i, alari nerium odorum; plumeria acuminata (Ma.)(DEDR 210). cf. kan.avi_ram red oleander (Ta.)(DEDR 1164). karavi_ra (Skt.)(CDIAL 2800). gulanj baha plumeria acutifolia (Santali.lex.)

5099.An incense: nakam an article of incense (kat.inakan te_vatu_pa mutaliya viraika l.it.t.u : Tailava. Taila. 43)(Ta.lex.) nakha a perfume (Ka.lex.) cf. karaja a perfume (Ka.lex.) cf. na_kan.am an aromatic substance; prob. na_gagandha_ (Tailava. Taila. 43, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) na_kam cinnamon, cinnamomum, ja_r..al vakai (Tiva_.); mastwood, pun-n-ai; long-leaved two-sepalled gamboge (Cir-upa_n. 88); cf. curapun-n-ai; punna_ga (Skt.); na_kam cuscus root (Can.. Aka.); white basil (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. na_ga-da_l.e name of a strong-smelling shrub; na_gasampage a middle-sized tree, mesua ferrea; na_gake_sara the tree mesua ferrea; the tree mimusops elengi (Synonym: bakul.a)(Ka.lex.)

5100.Milkwort: nan:kai species of milkwort, polygala glabra; large milkwort, polygala telephoides (Ta.); nan.n.a a herb, polygala (Ma.)(DEDR 3573).

5101.Dalbergia arborea: cf. ka_nagu dalbergia arborea, dalbergia lanceolaria rosewood (Ka.); kr.a_n. mra_nu Indian beech tree (Kond.a)(DEDR 1507). pun:ku rosewood, dalbergia lanceolaria (Ta.)(DEDR 4341). cf. iruvil., iru_l. dalbergia sisu (Ma.); bi_t.i blackwood (Tu.); kari-bi_t.i ebony, dalbergia latifolia (Tu.)(DEDR 483). cf. nu_kku sissoo wood, dalbergia sissoo (Ta.)(DEDR 3721). tinis'a ougeinia dalbergioides (Car. Ci. 1-2.12, 1-3.3). nu_kkam, nu_kku sissoo wood, dalbergia sissoo (Ta.); nu_ke blackwood (Ka.); nu~_ka a kind of tree; nu_ka-ma_nu blackwood (Te.)(DEDR 3721). nemmi dalberga oujeinensis (Ka.); nemmi id. (Te.); nemi id. (Skt.)(DEDR 3744). Ougeinia dalbergioides = ougeinia dalbergioides = dalbergia ougeinensis: tinisha (Skt.); sandan (H.P.); tinis (B.); timas (M.); malavenna (Ma.); narivengai (Ta.); tallamotuku (Te.); bark: ferbifuge; when incised furnishes a kino-like exudation which is used in dysentery and diarrhea; in decoction, given when the urine is highly coloured; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayan valleys and slopes up to 5,000 ft., from the Punjab to Bhutan, Oudh, Bundelkhand, Chota Nagpur, Madhya Bharat, Orissa, and the Circars, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay and Marwar of Rajputana (GIMP, p.183). cf. hulivili dalbergia oujeinensis = ougeinia dalbergioides (Ka.lex.)

5103. A bullock load: naga a load of articles; a bullock load; an ornament; an article, a piece (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5104.Image: number '7': na_ga, naga the number 'seven' (Skt.lex.) naga the number seven, e_r..u (Ka.lex.)

5105.Image: procession; coat of armour: can-n-a_kam coat of armour (Ci_vaka. 2236, Urai.); preparation, preparedness, as for war; royal procession with paraphernalia (Ta.lex.) Armour: sam.na_ha tying on, girding on armour (MBh.); coat of mail (AitBr.); sanna_ha armour (Pali); sam.n.a_ha (Pkt.); sana_ cloak (Ash.); senemno clothes (Kt.); sa_na_ corselet (MB.); sana_h armour, accoutrements (H.)(CDIAL 12928). nah tie (Skt.); nahati binds,. ties (MBh.); nahyati (RV.); nahna_ to bind, tie (H.); na_thn.o to bind, entangle, subdue (Ku.); na_thiba to tie with several coils of rope (A.); nandhiba_ to tie front end of beam of cart to middle of yoke (Or.)(CDIAL 7034). cf. naddha tied; n. band, fetter, trace (AV.) (CDIAL 6044). nandhi thong (Pali); naddhi tying of a knot (AitBr.)(CDIAL 6945). cf. nakai garland of pearls (Kalit. 92,33); jewels (Ta.); naga id. (Te. Ka.Ma.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) can-n-a-vi_ram a garland indicative of victory (Patin-o. Tirukkaila_yaa_. 19)(Ta.lex.) cf. nayhati [Vedic nahyati] to tie, bind; nodus (Lat.); nahu (Vedic); nandhi a strap, thong (Pali)[Skt. naddhri, naddha, pp. of nah to bind]; na_ha armour (Pali); onayhati [ava + nayhati] to tie down, to cover over, envelop, shroud; pp. onaddha bound, tied, put over, covered; unnahana_ [ud + nah] flattering, tying or pushing oneself on to somebody, begging; pil.ahyati [api + nayhati; cf. Skt. pinahyate] to fasten on, put on, cover, dress, adorn (Pali)(Pali.lex.) cf. pin.ai (-v-, -nt-) to entwine; tie, fasten, clasp each other's hands as in dancing (Ta.); pun.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to unite, tie; n. fetters, pledge, security, surety (Ta.)(DEDR 4160). A weapon: can-n-akam a weapon (Ta.lex.) cf. san-na_ha dressing, fastening together; armour, mail; sannayhati [ san + nayhati] to tie, bind, fasten, to arm oneself; pp. sannaddha fastened, bound; put on, clothed; armed, accoutred (Pali.lex.)

5106.Image: dent: nokku dent, impression, pressure, squeeze; to press, squeeze, pinch, indent (Te.); okkuka to indent (Ma.); okku to scratch, make furrows (Tu.); nogulu to be pressed, squeezed, suffer under physical pressure; nogul(u)cu to crush (Te.)(DEDR 3780). lecke dent (Santali.lex.) cf. neku (nekuv-, nekk-) to suffer, be distressed (Ta.)(DEDR 3733). nekku (nekki-) to press, push; push, thrust (Ta.); ekkuka to press, strangle, squeeze, crush (Ma.); nerk- (nerky-) to rub between the hands, twirl; nag- (nagy-) to become dented, slightly hollowed; nagc- to dent (Ko.); naggu a bruise in metal vessels; nekku to be depressed, sink; ner..gu, neggu to be curved or bent inward (Ka.); an.n.u, akku crushing, bruising into a jelly or mass (Tu.); nek- (-t-) to push, push out, kick off (Kond.a)(DEDR 2927). cokr.o, lecke to dent (Santali.lex.) anukrakaca serrated, dentated like a saw; anukrakatam chid indent; anukrakaca indented (Skt.lex.) cf. ner-i curvedness; crooked, curved (Te.)(DEDR 2935).

5108.Image: ring: nikka, nilka, nis.ka a golden ornament for the neck or breast; a weight of gold varying in value at different times; gold (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) nikkha a ring, a golden ornament for neck or breast (Pali)[nis.ka (Vedic); nasc ring (Old Irish); nusca bracelet (Old High German); nikkha (already Vedic) a golden coin or a weight of gold, equal to 15 suvan.n.as; suvan.n.a-nikkha, singi-nikkha; suvan.n.a-nikkha-satan 100 gold pieces (Pali); nekkha a golden ornament, a certain coin of gold; jambonada nikkha (Pali.lex.)

5110.Gap, crack: ni_kka, ni_kku gap, chin, crack; ni_kkal hole, opening; ni_kki leakage; ni_ppu separation, parting; ni_kku separation, removal, opening, cleft, crack, deduction, remainder, balance (Ta.); ni_kki except (Ma.); ni_gu to take away (Ka.); i~_gu to remove; ni~_gu id., get rid of (Te.); ni_mpal interstice; ni_vu to break asunder as a chain (Ta.)(DEDR 3685). Image: to cut: nit.h to cut, shear, clip (Dm.); nya_t. to shear (wool)(Phal.); netun to cut or pluck off hair of an animal, shear (K.)(CDIAL 7138). nikut.t.ana pounding (Skt.); n.ikut.t.e_i cuts, beats (Pkt.); ne~u~t. the block or plank on which a carpenter hews his timber (P.)(CDIAL 7144). nikr.tta cutting off (MBh.); neth, dat. ne_cu removing wool of sheep etc. by cutting or plucking (K.)(CDIAL 7145). nikr.ntate_ cuts oneself; nakha_ni nikr.ntati cuts one's nails (TS.); nikr.ntati cuts off (Ka_tyS'r.); nikantati cuts off (Pali); n.ikim.tai (Pkt.); ne~r. to shave (Pas'.)(CDIAL 7146). nakhut.t.n.a_ to be decreased, be reduced to nothing (P.)(CDIAL 7148). nikreno_nu a horizontal cutting in a hill-side (Kho.)(CDIAL 7152). Image: bit, piece; narrow passage: nukku bit, piece; nukku-tal to break in pieces, grind to powder, crush (Ta.); nuggu (Te.Ka.); nokkuka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) nugul., nusul. to enter a door or a small, narrow passage or opening, to go in with difficulty, to squeeze through, to creep in, to get into, to enter (Ka.); nor..ai (Ta.Ma.); pp. nugul.du (Ka.); nugul.cu to cause to enter a small, narrow passage etc.; nuggu to pass by pressing, to squeeze through, to force one's self into, to enter without permission, as a door, a house, to creep into, as into a hole (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5111.Image: aim, mark: nika_ mark, aim; idea, notion (W.)(Ta.); ni_ga_ (U.); nika_ya (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

5112.Image: trembling: nigha, ni_gha rage, trembling, confusion; anigha not trembling, undisturbed, calm (Pali)(Pali.lex.) nukna_ to shake, cause to oscillate, esp. up an down; refl. pass. nukurna_; nukru_ shaky, tottering (Kur.); nukta'a_na_ to cause another to shake something (Kur.); nuke to shake; nukre to swing, rock, be shaken (Malt.)(DEDR 3696). nimir(ru)-tal to bend, shake (Maturaik. 679)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Image: to shake: ruku to shake; rukum rukum to shake, to shiver; lokoe lokoe to shake, tremble; lukur, lukur lukur to tremble, shake, quiver; lukluk to shiver, to tremble (Santali.lex.)

5114.Exchange: ni_ha_ra a thing that is given in exchange for a thing purchased (Ka_t.haka Sam.hita_. ix.5)(Vedic.lex.)

5115.To bestow; image: piece of cloth wrapped round the waist: Íni_ to bestow (TS. ii.3.12.1); nihr. to offer as a gift or reward (TS. i.8.4.1); niha_ to bow before, yield to (RV. v.57.3); ni_ta brought (RV. ix.6.24); ni_vya_ present, gift (RV. vi.32.4); ni_vi a piece of cloth (or a money-container) wrapped round the waist, petticoat (AV. iii.2.16); ni_vi-bha_rya to be worn in a skirt (AV. viii.6.20) (Vedic.lex.)

5116.Present to a weaver: nin:gr.auni a present given to the weaver by the person for whom he is weaving on finishing the web (Santali) (Santali.lex.) To finish the work: nin:grau to finish, to complete, to exhaust; kamile nin:gharkeda we finished the work (Santali) (Santali.lex.) Price, worth: nis.kr.ta completely made, prepared (RV. v.67.1; TS. iv.3.11.2); nis.kr.ti complete development; price, worth (TS. v.4.2.3); requittal (VS. xxx.9) (Vedic.lex.) Treasure: nikaram treasure, gift (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) na_n.-kot.ai customary offering made to relations, friends etc., on auspicious occasions (Cukkirani_ti. 145)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nigara (Tadbhava of nikara) the uppermost or best of anything, the state of being very charming, beautiful or good, excellence (Ka.); nikara a treasure, the best of anything; a suitable gift (Ka.lex.) nikarili-co_r..aman.t.alam a division of Mysore when it formed part of the co_r..a dominion; nikarilico_r..an- one of the titles of Ra_jara_ja I (I.M.P.Tn. 109)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nigadi fixing (as daily hire, salary, or tribute); deciding, decision (in a discussion) (Ka.H.) (Ka.lex.) Fee, tribute: nikuti fee, tribute (C.G.)(Ta.lex.)

5117.Wild rice: ni_va_ra wild rice; sg. the plant; pl. the grains (TS. iv.7.4.2) (Vedic.lex.)

5118.Image: comb: nakic a comb; rot nakic to comb the hair and tie up; kat. rakic a wooden comb; deren. nakic a comb made of horn; kundag nakic a comb worn in the hair by men; kakri nakic a small toothed comb (Santali.lex.) Image: comb: naki a haircomb; hence the cmpds. darunaki, dirinnaki, jannaki, madnaki, mer.ednaki a comb made of wood, horn, horn, bone, bamboo, iron; d.ulianaki a comb made of bamboo by the D.ulia caste; bur.ianaki a plain comb; sadomnaki a horse comb; pr.naki a weaver's comb; naki a garden rake; a layer of cells in a honey comb, either full or empty (Mu.lex.) nanari comb (Gypsy)(CDIAL 11006).

5120.Image: to subdue: nikr. to bring down, subdue, overcome (RV. i.164.29) (Vedic.lex.)

5121.To besmear, to smooth: nisigna_ (nisgyas) to overlay with a coating of earth carefully smoothed down, stop a hole with earth, besmear with any adhesive substance; refl.-pass. nisigrna_ (Kur.); nisge to smooth; nisgro smooth; nisye to shampoo (Malt.)(DEDR 3666). nimajjati dives in, sinks in (AitBr.); nimujjati dives in (Pali); n.imajjai, n.umajjai (Pkt.); namijoiki to bathe, be washed (Sh.); namoiki to dip (sheep)(Sh.)(CDIAL 7232). nival. clear, pure, limpid (M.)(CDIAL 7236). ne_jaka washerman (Mn.); nio id. (S.)(CDIAL 7585). ne_cakan- washerman (Ta.lex.) Bleaching, dyeing: nikha_r any substance for cleaning clothes (L.); nakha_r soap or potash for bleaching or washing cloth (P.); nikha_r drainage, distillation (Ku.); ebbing of tide (G.); nicha_r investigation (Sh.)(CDIAL 7097). X cf. ka_ram (Ta.Ma.) caustic, alkali, soda (Ta.lex.) nikkharna_ to clear (of the sky), be cleared, be bleached (P.); nikharn.o to flow gently, drip, drop (Ku.); nikhranu to come to an end (N.); nikharal to clean (Bhoj.); nikharna_ to be strained, be settled, become clear, be peeled (H.); nikharvu~ to be strained, be settled, become clear, be peeled (H.); nikharn.e~ to be clean gone (of clouds etc.); nisarn.e~ to slip, slide (M.); nikharvu_ to be washed clean (G.)(CDIAL 7095). nicharab to beat (clothes in washing)(Bi.)(CDIAL 7096). nicharoiki to pick out, separate, investigate (Sh.); nikha_ran. to clean or bleach clothes (L.); nikha_rn.a_, nakha_rn.a_ to cleanse (P.); nikha_rn.o to let fall in drops, distil (Ku.); nikha_rnu to wring out water, take away completely (N.); nikha_riba_ to examine a thing by scratching, examine closely (Or.); nikha_rna_ to strain, clarify, make settle, peel (H.); nikha_rvu~ to bleach (G.); nikha_rn.e~ to clear away (M.)(CDIAL 7098). nikha_r well-washed clothes (P.)(CDIAL 7099). nikha_rab to beat (clothes in washing) (Mth.); nicha_l.vu~ to cleanse an earthen vessel by rubbing it inside with cloth (G.)(CDIAL 7100). To be purified, shine, glitter: nij, ninj to wash (Ash.); nijyate_ washes (MBh.); nij, niz (Wg.); nij, ninj (Kt.)(CDIAL 7185). nigim I wash (Kal.); nigik to wash (hands, clothes, etc.)(Kho.); nigeik to wash something for someone else (Kho.)(CDIAL 7167). nikta washed, purified (RV.); n.ikka clear (Pkt.); nikki lo early dawn (WPah.); nika_ clean (A.); to wipe, plaster with cowdung (B.); sweeping a house clean (Or.); nika_iba to cleanse (Or.); nika fine and clean (only of rice)(Or.); ni_k, nika_h good (Mth.); ni_ka_, neka_ good, beautiful (H.);[cf. ne_k (Pers.)]; ni_k good (Aw.); ni_ka_ adv. well (OMarw.); ni_ku~ clear, pure, fine (G.); nika_ pure, good (M.)(CDIAL 7150). nirjhara waterfall, torrent (MBh.); nijjhara waterfall (Pali); n.ijjhara (Pkt.); nizara_ small hill stream, spring (A.); ni_jhar, nijjhar waterfall, spring (H.); nijhar gentle trickling (M.); nidara cascade (Si.)(CDIAL 7327). nizariba to flow gently, ooze out, drip (A.); nijharn.e~ to drip, leak (M.); n.ijjharan.a waterfall; n.ijjharan.i_ river (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7329). nigra_bhya_ the water which is sprinkled on the soma plants before they are pressed (TS. iii.1.8.1)(Vedic.lex.)

5122.Image: to trample: nighus. to trample down, crush, destroy (RV. viii.50.8) (Vedic.lex.)

5123.Image: procession: ni_ka_si_ bridegroom's procession in the marriage ceremony (OMarw.)(CDIAL 7485).

5109.To throw out: nikkad.d.hati to throw out; pp. geha_ nikkad.d.hita to throw out; ni_hat.a [(pp. of niharate = nirhr.ta (Skt.)] thrown out, removed; ni_haran.a taking out, carrying away; ni_harati to take out, to throw out, drive out (Pali) (Pali. lex.) ni_ (-pp-, -tt-) to separate from, leave, be removed; ni_n:ku (ni_n:ki-) to leave, be released, discharged, be excluded; ni_n:kal removing, separating; ni_kku (ni_kki-) to remove, exclude (Ta.); ni_kkam removal, departure; ni_kkuka to put away, aside, remove, abolish; ni_kkikka to cause to remove, withdraw a complaint (Ma.); ni.k- (ni.ky-) to brush away (dirt)(To.); ni_gu to quit, leave, get rid of, remove, take away, be got rid of; ni_gisu to cause to quit (Ka.); ni.ng- (ni.ngi-) to go aside; ni.k- (ni.ki-) to put aside, remove (Kod..); i~_gu to remove; ni~_gu id., get rid of (Te.)(DEDR 3685).

5124.Images: spring of water; doorway; channel: nika_s, nika_so issue, source, spring (of water)(Ku.); nika_s outlet (N.); nika_s outlet for water (B.); nika_si exit (N.); nika_s main doorway (Bi.); niksa_r main doorway (Bi.)(CDIAL 7485). nire_ti goes out, departs (RV.); ni_i goes (Pkt.); ne_-, ni_- to go out (Pas'.)(CDIAL 7288). ni_t.t.u distance (Tiruva_lava_. 26,8)(Ta.lex.) nirga_t aor. goes out (RV.); n.iggai comes out (Pkt.); nigan.em. (OM.); niga_le m. pl. (OM.)(CDIAL 7303). nirgama departure, outlet (R.); niggama conclusion (Pali); n.iggama going out, road leading out (Pkt.); niga_va_ way out (OM.); niggamana going away (Pali); aor. subj. nirgama_ni departs (RV.); n.iggamama_n.a pres. part. (Pkt.); nigamvu~ to elapse, drop gently (G.); nirgamayati makes set out (BhP.); n.iggamia expelled (Pkt.); nim.gamai, ni_gavai_ loses (OG.); nigamvu~ to get rid of (G.)(CDIAL 7296). nin:gra_ spring of water, hill streamlet (Or.)(CDIAL 7297). nirgi_rn.a vomited out (R.); nin:griba_ to be squeezed out (Or.)(CDIAL 7298). nigrai_n branch of a shallow spring (Bi.)(CDIAL 7300). nirgalita flowed out (Skt.); ni~galno pres. part. coming to an end (of a period of time)(Ku.); nigaldo (N.); ni~_gal.vu~ to drip (G.); n.iggiliya vomited (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7301). niga_r.iba_ to squeeze out juice, pour off liquid to the last drop (Or.)(CDIAL 7302). nicha_l.n.o to throw water, let water drip from (Ku.) (CDIAL 7446). nis'ca_rayati makes issue (Car.); niccha_re_ti emits (Pali)(CDIAL 7445). n.iccalai drips, falls, leaks (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7442). nicarnu to wring out (N.); nicarn.e~ to ooze out (M.); nis'carati comes forth (RV.); niccharati comes out (Pali); niccharan.a emanation (Pali)(CDIAL 7441). Oozing liquid: niga_l water running from a well, right to irrigate from a well (L.); ni~ga_l, nin.a_l expiry, latter part (of a period of time)(Ku.); ni~ga_l.o stream of dripping or oozing liquid; ni~ga_l.a_ pl. sediment (G.)(CDIAL 7305). n.igga_liya melted (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7306). nin.a_rn.o to dissolve, digest, grind (Ku.); nigra_na_ to separate, decide, make clear (H.)(CDIAL 7304). ni~_ghal.vu~ to be ripe and ready to fall (G.); nighal.n.e~ (grist) to pass through the mill (M.)(CDIAL 7316). nigha_r foam on fermented rice liquor (N.); nighal. grist which adheres to pin of mill (and is afterwards let down to grind)(M.)(CDIAL 7317). nigha_ran.u to purify (S.); nighal.n.e~ to let (grist) run through mill (M.)(CDIAL 7318). nigar.a_ squeezing out the juice, liquid squeezed out; nin:gr.a_ spring of water, hill streamlet (Or.)(CDIAL 7292). nin.r.a_na to cause to drip, squeeze (B.); nigir.iba_ to ooze, be squeezed out; caus. nigar.eiba_ (Or.); nigariba to drip, come out; caus. nigara_iba (A.); nigra_ squeezed out in: nigra_ ras thick sugarcane juice (H.)(CDIAL 7293). Image: to polish up; clean: nighan.sati to rub, rub against, graze, chafe; to polish up, clean; nighan.sa rubbing, chafing (Pali); nighars.a (Skt.)(Pali.lex.) Bright: nikar-ttal to shine; to be visible (Tirukko_. 183) (Akana_. 11); nikam brightness, brilliance; cf. nij wash (Skt.); nikar..-tal to shine (Patir-r-up. 49,15, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Purified, clean: ne_ga beauty, nicety (Tu.); niya, niya_t. good (Ga.); nehna_ good, handsome (Go.); nihna_, nehna, ne'na good (Go.); nahnal excellent, good (Go.); negi good (Kond.a); nekri good (Pe.); nehi, negi good (Kui); nehi, nehi_ id. (Kuwi); neke to get well (Malt.)(DEDR 3735). negar..to undertake, engage in, prepare, perform, do, make, cause to act, come, be used, be finished (Ka.); negar..te action, work, practice, rites, conduct (Ka.); negad.u to increase, spread, extend, progress (Te.); neggu to be successful, thrive, prosper (Te.); nikar.. to happen, occur, continue, be performed, enter (Ta.)(DEDR 3661). nege to be purified, become clear, shine (Ka.); niga_su glitter, shining (Tu.); niganiga brilliancy, lustre (Te.); niga_rincu to shine, glitter (Te.); niggu brilliancy (Te.); negad.u to be published, be well-known or famous (Te.); negar.. to become manifest, shine, appear (Ka.); nikar to shine; n. lustre, splendour (Ta.); nikar.. to shine (Ta.); niga, nigi glow (Ka.); niga niga, nigi nigi very glowingly or brightly (Ka.); negar..te fame, accomplishment (Ka.); negad.(i)ta fame (Te.)(DEDR 3659). nikhur pure (of colour), all of one colour (N.); nikharo pure, unalloyed (N.)(CDIAL 7496). Firebrand: negad.i large fire lighted for warmth in cold weather or to keep off wild beasts (Te.); nekit.i id. (Ta.); ekir..i firebrand, piece of wood used for kindling fire by friction, fire, fuel; nekir..i fire (Ta.)(DEDR 2924). Image: potter's kiln: niha~_i potter's kiln (S.)(CDIAL 7206). nia_tau, nia_tu hot (WPah.); nitapti emits heat, consumes by fire (AV.)(CDIAL 7188). niya_nu hot (esp. of weather)(N.); niyan hot dry season (Si.); nidahati burning (RV.)(CDIAL 7193). nigh heat (L.); niggh warmth; niggha_ moderately warm (P.); niggo warm (WPah.); niyaga, niyan:ga, niyan. dry hot season (Si.)(CDIAL 7195). Image: to shine; to melt: neku-tal to melt (Tol. Po. 114) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) nege, nese to be purified, to become clear, to shine (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) niga, nega glow (Ka.); nidha_ (M.); niga-niga, nigi-nigi very glowingly or brightly (Ka.Te.); negar.. to become manifest, notorious, well known; to be finished (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5125.Settlement of accounts; export: nikar.. (-v-, -nt-) to be performed, transacted, carried out; nikar..cci event, business; nikar..pu occurrence, event (Ta.); negar.. to undertake, engage in, be finished; negar..cu to cause to undertake or do, perform, produce; negar..te action, work (Ka.); neggu to be successful, thrive, prosper; neggincu to fulfil, effect; niggu to manage, cope; niggincu to manage, carry through, accomplish (Te.)(DEDR 3661). nika_sa settlement of accounts (Or.); nis.ka_sa egress (R.); nika_s, nika_so export (Ku.); nika_sa_ release; nika_si export (N.); nika_hi the projecting part of anything (A.); nika_s removal of obstacle, settlement, end (B.); nika_si finish (Or.); nika_s exit, export (H.); nika_si output (H.); nika_s export (G.)(CDIAL 7485). nis.ka_sayati drives out (Skt.); n.ikka_siya expelled (Pkt.); nika_sn.o to drive out (Ku.); nika_snu (N.); nika_siba_ to settle, finish (Or.); nika_sab to make (an animal) get up and to drive it along a village road (Mth.); nika_sai drives out (OAw.); nika_sna_ (H.); nika_sn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 7486). For semant. 'to rise' cf. ninginai to rise; nin:g- (-it-) to rise; nik- (-h-) to lift up, raise; nin:g- (-it-) to get up, wake up; nik- (-h-) to lift up; to awaken (Kuwi)(DEDR 3665). Embarkation: neggu to lift; egu embarkation; negapu, negavu to lift up, hold uplifted (Ka.); negi to lift (Kor.); egumati embarkation, putting goods on board of a ship, exportation (Te.); ekarttuka, ekattuka to lift, raise (Ta.)(DEDR 3730).

5126.Image: throat: nikalam nape, pit.ar (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. nip shoulder (To.); nippi id. (Kod..); nipi id. (Kond.a); nepe (Mand..); nipi back of the neck; nippin.a pl. shoulders (Kui); neppu, nipu shoiulder (Kuwi)(DEDR 3671). nigala, niga_la the throat or neck of a horse (Ka.Skt.); swallowing; nigaran.a the throat; swallowing (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) cf. nigr._ to swallow down (AV. v.18.7)(Vedic.lex.)

5127.Image: joining together: nigrahan.a joining together (Sat. vii.2)(Vedic.lex.)

5128.Image: to catch in the mouth: loka to catch in the mouth as a dog anything thrown to it; to catch in the hands as a ball; mase pudi neleme cet lekae lokaede kana come look at the cat, how she is playing with it (a mouse)(Santali.lex.) Images: swallowing: nikaram swallowing (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-ava. 154)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nin:guni, nin:gud.uni, din:guni, din:gud.uni, nun:gu to swallow (Tu.); nun:ku (nun:ki-) to swallow, devour, drink in large draughts, take possession of, capture (Ta.); non:ku (non:ki-) to swallow (Ta.); nun:g- (nun:gy-) to gulp down without chewing (Ko.); nug- (nugy-) to gulp down (To.); nun:gu to swallow, devour (Ka.); nun.udu, nunu to swallow (Kor.); nunuxna_ to swallow without chewing, devour (Kur.); nunge to swallow (Malt.); nughushing to swallow, devour, gulp down (Br.); nun.udu, nunu to swallow (Kor.)(DEDR 3697). nukaruka to swallow (Ma.); no_ru mouth (Te.); nukar (-v-, -nt-) to enjoy, experience as the fruit of actions, eat, drink, do, perform; nukarcci, nukarvu enjoyment, experience of pleasure or pain, as from former deeds; eating, feeding; sensation (Ta.); nukarcca sipping, imbibing (Ma.); no_ru mouth (Te.)(DEDR 3695). nighasa food (Skt.); niya_so leavings of animals' fodder (N.)(CDIAL 7174). niga_ra swallowing (Pa_n..); niya_r, nya_r fodder for cattle (H.)(CDIAL 7166). nigara swallowing (Skt.); ni_ra_ fodder (P.)(CDIAL 7160). ni_rvu~to place grass before cattle as fodder (G.); niga_rayati makes swallow (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 7162). nelan.o to swallow (Ku.); nengalun to swallow (K.); niglan (L.); nigaln.a_ (P.); nilnu (N.); li_lna_ (H.)(CDIAL 7163). nengalan act of swallowing (K.)(CDIAL 7164). nigaran.a eating (Skt.); nigiran.a swallowing (Skt.); ni_ran. grass thrown to cattle as fodder (G.)(CDIAL 7161).

5129.Near: nikat.am, nikat.e, nikat.a_t adv. near (R.); nikat.a near (Pali); n.iad.a, n.iala, n.iad.ia (Pkt.); nyeir, nyaya (Dm.); nyo_r.o_ (Pas'.); nya_r.o (Gaw.); ni_er (Bshk.); nio~ (Tor.); nyer.o (Sv.); niha_r.a (Phal.); adj. nyu_ru, ni_ru (K.); ner.e (L.); ner.a_ vicinity (P.); ner.e near (P.); ne_r.o, ni_r. (WPah.); ner.o adj. (Ku.); nira adv. (N.); niad.i (OB.); niyar. (B.); nia_r.a (Or.); niyar (Mth.Bhoj.); niyara (OAw.); ne_re_ (OAw.); ner.e, nir.e, ni_re (H.); ner.e (G.)(CDIAL 7136). naikat.ya nearness (Skt.); net.i adv. near (M.); nikat.am (Si.)(CDIAL 7598). nikat.t.he_ near (Pali); net.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 7147). nide_s'a vicinity; nide_s'e_ near (Mn.); nis'a postp. near; nis'i than (K.)(CDIAL 7198).

5130.Manured land; cultivation round a village: nia_i~_ midden, cesspool, cultivation round a house or village (P.); nia_i~ manured land near a village (L.); n.ika_ya heap (Pkt.); nika_ya collection (Pali); heap (Mn.)(CDIAL 7140). Stack: nika_ra tossing up, piling up or winnowing corn (Skt.)(CDIAL 7141). nirun, dat. niranas thatching grass (K.); ni_ran layer of straw (P.)(CDIAL 7142). ni_ra_ stack, fodder (in latter sense prob. < nigara swallowing)(P.); nikara multitude (Pali); n.igara, n.iara heap (Pkt.); nikara heap (MBh.)(CDIAL 7137). [cf. nari a kind of reed used as swamp-fodder (K.)(CDIAL 6936).] nivar-u (nivar-i-) to swarm, gather thick (Ta.); nivar-u a throng (Ma.)(DEDR 3677). nigr._ to swallow down (AV. v.18.7)(Vedic.lex.)

5131.Gratitude: nungun gratitude (Santali.lex.)

5132.Cinnamon: na_kam cinnamon, cinnamomum, ja_r..al; mastwood, pun-n-ai (Ta.lex.)

5133.Image: dog: ja_r..al dog (Akana_. 122); jamali dog (Pat.t.in-ap. 140)(Ta.lex.) n~a_l.i, na_l.i, n~el.l.ai, n~amali dog (Ta.); alla_ id. (Kur.); ale id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2916).

5234.Image: dog: nekur., nikur. dog (Pe.); nukur.i id. (Kond.a); nakur.i (pl. nakur.aka, nahur.ka), nahor.i (pl. nahor.ka, nahka) id. (Kui); neh'u_ri (pl. neska), nehud.i (pl. neska), ni'hur.i, neh'ur.i (pl. neska) (Kuwi); na_y (Nahali.Ta.Ma.Ka.); na_i (Ta.); na.y (Ko.Kod..); no.y (To.); na_yi (Ka.Tu.); a.te (Kol.); na_yitana doggishness (Ka.); resn a.te wild dog (Kol.); a_te dog (Nk.); netta (pl. nettel) id.; iric netta wild dog (Pa.); ne_te, nette dog; kope nete wild dog (Ga.); nai, na_i, na_i_, ney dog; rac na_i, rasi ney wild dog (Go.)(DEDR 3650). The element kur.i in Kond.a, etc. is probably connected with kur..antai child (Ta.)(DEDR 2149).

5134.Image: leaf: jemal dry leaf (Akana_. 39,7); jamai a tree (Akana_. 395)(Ta.lex.)

5135.Image: to wander: jemal(lu)-tal to wander, roam about (Paripa_. 8,44)(Ta.lex.)

5136.Image: yoke: nukam burden, power, strength, protecting bar of a door (Ta.); yoke, harness which joins the necks of two oxen (Ma.); nu.n a yoke (Ko.); noga, naga yoke (Ka.); noga id. (Kod..); pole or poles which connect the carriage with the yoke (Te.); nuga, noga yoke (Tu.)(DEDR 3694). nuka-t-ta_n.i stud of the yoke (E_rer..u. 8); nuka-t-tul.ai hole at end of a yoke (Perun.. Ucaik. 32,18); nukattul.a (Ma.); nukam < yuga yoke (Pur-ana_. 102); nukam (Ma.); noga (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. nu_kku (nu_kki-) to shove, push, thrust aside, impel (Ta.)(DEDR 3722). na_kara a plough (Ka.); na_gara, na_n:gara a plough (M.); na_kara-kun.t.e a kind of kun.t.e (Ka.M.); na_kara-ne_gala a kind of plough (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Part of a plough: na_vai the part of the plough that receives the share; lower end of the ploughshare (W.)(Ta.); na_ tongue (Kur-al., 127)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Plough: na_ngor, na_ngra_ plough (Kon.lex.) naeal, nahel, nael the wooden body of a plough; a plough with its share (cf. Pl. XIII,1)(Mu.); na_ngal (H.)(Mu.lex.) cf. nahel plough; nahel pal ploughshare; nahel gad.a a furrow; nahel ar.a ber time to loose the cattle from the plough; nahel jor.ao to yoke the plough; tinak nahelpa jor.aoeda ? how many ploughs have you in use? (Santali.lex.) Interest on debt paid in grain; agriculture; plough: na_n:kar < nan:kar (U.) cultivation, agriculture (C.G.); na_n:ku < na_gha_ (U.) interest on debt paid in grain (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) cf. na_cil plough (Pur-ana_. 19) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) ne_gal, ne_gala, ne_gali, ne_galu, ne_gil, ne_gila (Tadbhava of la_n:gala) a plough (Ka.); na_gali, na_ge_lu (Te.); a_cil, a_yil, na_cil (Ta.); e_o_l, neel (Ma.); na_gara, na_n:gara (M.)(Ka.lex.) a_cil plough (Ta.); e_n.n.o_l, ne_il ploughshaft (Ma.); ne.lg plough (Ko.); ne_gal, ne_gil, ne_gila id. (Ka.); ne.n:gi id. (Kod..); na_yeru id. (Tu.); ne_veri id. (Kor.); na~_gali, na~_gelu, na~_ge_lu id. (Te.); na.n:gli, na_n.eli id. (Kol.); na_n:gar id. (Nk.); na~_gil id. (Pa.); na_n:gal, na_ngal id. (Ga.); na_n:ge_l, na_ngyal, na_n:gel, na_n:gal, na_n:gli (pl. na_n:gisku) id.; na_yna_l, na_n.e_l, na_yn.e_l id. (Go.); na_n:gel id. (Kond.a.Pe.); ne_n:gel id. (Mand..); na_ngeli id. (Kui); nangelli ploughshare (Kuwi); na_n:geli plough (Kuwi)(DEDR 2907). cf. la_n:gala plough (RV.); lin:go_r id. (Iranian)(CDIAL 11006). Plough: nahel a plough; nahel pal ploughshare (Santali.lex.) nan:gala, hala plough; nan:gali_sa_ beam of a plough (Pali)(Pali.lex.) naga, noga (Tadbhava of yuga) a yoke (Ka.Te.); nukam (Ta.Ma.); noga-pat.t.e the broad strap attached to a yoke and passed round the ox's neck (Ka.); kal.enaga the yoke that is fastened round the neck of the bullocks which precedes the chief pair in a team (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) zuga_t.a, zu_gat.a yoke (Gaw.) yugat.o_u (Sv.); yuj in cmpd. 'yoked'; yoke-fellow (RV.)(CDIAL 10494). juharu plough-yoke (S.); ju_la_ upper horizontal bar of bullock yoke (L.); ju_la_ crossbar of yoke (P.); jhu_l yoke (L.)(CDIAL 10491). yugadha_ra the pin which fastens yoke to pole (Ma_nGr..)); ju(y)a_l, joya_l, jol yoke (B.) juha_l.a, jua_l.i, joa_l.i yoke of cart or plough (Or.); ju_a_r, juwa_r yoke; juwa_ra_ yoke of oxen (H.)(CDIAL 10486). juul.i, joal.a nail hooked at both ends and thrust into blade of plough over groove into which ploughshare is fitted (Or.)(CDIAL 10484). Yoke: yo_ga yoking (RV.); yoke (S'Br.); yoking (Pali); yoga (NiDoc.); jo proper time for ploughing or sowing (B.Or.); z.o_et.i_ yoke (Pas'.)(CDIAL 10526). yo_gya fit for yoking (Pa_n..); draught animal (AV.); yogga fit (Pali)(CDIAL 10528). yo_jayati yokes, sets to work (MBh.); yo_je_ti yokes, ties (Pali); jo_e_i yokes, joins (Pkt.); joenda_ to yoke, harness (L.); jon.a_ to yoke (P.)(CDIAL 10531). yuga yoke (RV.); couple (Gr.S'r.); plough-yoke, pair (Pali); jua (Pkt.); yu~_, uyu_ plough (Pr.); yu~_ (Bshk.); yu_ (Tor.); yi-put.u plough-yoke (K.)[cf. pu_t.t.u to yoke (Ta.)(DEDR 4361)]; ju~_ (WPah.); ju_wa_ to yoke (Ku.); juwa_ (N.); ju_ (B.); jua_ (Or.i.); ju_a_, ju_h (H.); ju~v, ju~_ (M.); viya yoke (Si.); zuga_t.a yoke (Gaw.); yugat.o_u (Sv.)(CDIAL 10482). jua_t.h yoke of plough (Bi.Mth.); jot.h bullock yoke with two bars (Bi.); ju_a_t.h, ju_a_t. yoke (H.); yu_wat.i_ yoke (Pas'.); z.o_t.i_ neck of yoke (Pas'.)(CDIAL 10483). juharu plough-yoke (S.); yugam.dhara pole of carriage to which yoke is fixed (MBh.); jhura_ front end of pole of cart fixed to middle of yoke, middle part of yoke where this is fixed (Or.)(CDIAL 10485). niruyo_ga rope for tying cows (BhP.); ni_j, ni_ju_ rope (H.)(CDIAL 7383). jodhan rope tying wooden bars of the yoke (H.)(CDIAL 10488). yugala pair, couple (Skt.); pair (Pali); juala (Pkt.); juwalu couple (Kho.); jolo, joli_ pair (Ku.); joel copulation of two animals (Or.); jol. twins (G.); dula pair, couple (of anything) (K.)(CDIAL 10489). jusri_ yoke (G.); jhusri_, jhu~sri_ (G.)(CDIAL 10490). en:got.o_ yoke (Pas'.); z.o_n:gola_ rope to fasten yoke round bullock's neck (Pas'.); jun:gu pair of waterwheels (S.)(CDIAL 10495). yo_ktra thong, halter (RV.); tie of yoke to plough (Skt.); yo_tra (R.); yautra (Skt.); yota yoke-tie; yottaka tie, rope (Pali); jotta, jottaya thong (Pkt.); jot.ro grass cord (S.); jotra_ single ploughing of a field; jo_tur strap (L.); jotar leather yoke thong; jot yoke, cultivation; jotra_ string attaching parts of loom, one round of the plough = jotta_ (P.); jot.l.r.i tie of plough yoke; jo_c, jo_t.e~_ de_n. to plough (WPah.); jot plough; jutyu_r.o cord tying bullock to plough (Ku.); jot yoke, plough, string of nettle fibre in pellet bow (N.); zo~t cord tying yoke to neck (A.); jot id., a yoke of oxen (B.); jota, juta yoke-tie, farm (Or.); jot breast-strap of horse; jota_, joti_ tie rope of plough yoke (Bi.); jo_ta_ id., yoke (Bhoj.); jo_t yoke (Aw.); jot cord, rope tying yoke to neck; joti_ string of a balance (H.); jotar, jotru~ leather yoke-strap (G.); jot yoke of oxen (M.); jote~ yoke-strap (M.); yota-a cord, string (Si.)(CDIAL 10523). yo_ktr., yo_ktram one who yokes (VS.MBh.); jota_ro rope fastening yoke to bullock (N.); jota_r ploughman (H.)(CDIAL 10522). yo_ktrayati fastens, ties (MBh.); jo_trun. to conspire (L.); jotn.a_ to yoke, plough (P.); jot.l.n.u_, jo_cn.a_, jotarn.a_ to yoke to the plough (WPah.); jotn.o to plough (Ku.); jotnu to yoke, plough (N.); jota_ to yoke, fasten (B.); jotiba_, jutiba_ to yoke, plough (Or.); jotab (Bi.); jotna_ (H.); jotarvu~ to yoke (G.)(CDIAL 10524).

5137.Mungoose-plant: na_kuli the mungoose-plant; gandha-na_kuli, nakule_s.a, ra_sne id.; gandha-na_kuli the ichneumon plant, perhaps ophioxylon serpentinum (Ka.lex.) nakuli_ saffron (Skt.lex.)

5138.Twenty: nakha twenty; naka id. (Ka.lex.)

5139.Female; naked: na_ku youthfulness, tenderness, female of erumai, marai, and per.r.am (Ta.lex.) nagna wanton woman (AV.); girl before menstruation (Skt.); nagnika_ small girl (MBh.); naga_, nan:ga_ younger sister (term of endearment)(Si.)(CDIAL 6928). na_n.al feeling bashful, modest (Tirikat.u. 6); na_n.u shyness (Kur-al., 1011)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) na_cike, na_cikge modesty, shame (Tu.lex.)

5140.Marriage: na_gole concluding ceremony of a marriage among brahmins (Tu.lex.) na_gavali (Tadbhava of na_gavalli) betel-nut: the first chewing of betel-nut at a marriage, that takes place on its last day, before which no guest can depart without giving offence and being severely blamed (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) na_kavalli betel (Pin..); concluding ceremony of a marriage on the fifth day (Ta.lex.)

5141.Image: betel leaf: na_vilai betel leaf (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) Image: betel: na_kin-i < na_gini betel (Ta.lex.) Image: piper betel; betel vine: a_li a hanging tendril of the pepper or betel vine, the common betel vine; ornament for a sword hilt (Ma.); ne_la, ne_langu a hanging rope (Tu.)(DEDR 2912). na_liya betel (Si.); na_galata_ piper betel (Pali); id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 7044). na_ga, na_gavallari_, na_gavalli_ piper betel (Skt.lex.) na~r.i~ a creeping, trailing, twining or scandent plant; nar.i siris a large jungle scandent bush; na~r.i~ nirup a huge jungle climber bearing gorgeous yellow flowers, butea superb (Santali) (Santali.lex.) cf. na_gole concluding ceremony of a marriage among brahmins (Tu.lex.) cf. na_gavali, na_gava_li (Tadbhava of na_gavalli) betel-nut: the first chewing of betel-nut at a marriage, that takes place on its last day, before which no guest can depart without giving offence and being severely blamed; na_gavali nis.t.u_ra; na_gavalli haccad.a a cloth given to the son-in-law on the last day of his marriage (Ka.lex.)

5142.Image: heifer: na_ku-kan-r-u heifer (S.I.I. ii,489,491); na_ku youthfulness, tenderness, juvenility (Ci_vaka. 2102); female of erumai, marai, per-r-am (Tol. Po. 617); female snail, sea-snail (Tol. Po. 618); female calf, heifer (Ta.lex.) na_ku n. pr. of women; a_-na_ku heifer (Ma.); na.g female buffalo calf between two and three years old (Ko.); no.x id. (To.); na_ku female calf (Tu.); ela-na_ga damsel (Te.); na_ti, na_tuka woman (Te.); ne_va female pig (Pa.)(DEDR 3634). cf. navala_ woman (Te.)(DEDR 3619).

5143.Image: hiding: nakku to hide or conceal one's self; to crouch down; to lie in wait (Te.); to prowl (Te.); nakku basale a lewd woman lying in wait (Ka.lex.)

5144.Milkwort: nan:kai species of milkwort, polygala glabra; large milkwort (Ta.); polygala telephoides (Ta.); nan.n.a a herb, polygala (Ma.)(DEDR 3573).

5145.Image: fish: nakarai red mullet; navarai id. (Ta.lex.) nan:ku a fish (Ma.); nan:gu a kind of fish (Tu.)(DEDR 3572). na_ka female fish, sea-snail, female snail, conch, sapling (Ta.)(DEDR 3634). Image: fish: na_kku-mi_n- flat fish, brownish or purplish black, attaining 16 in. in length, psettodes erumier; Indian sole, pleuronectidoe solea (Ta.Ma.); na_lukace_pa (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

5146.Image: elephant: na_ga elephant (Pali); n.a_ya (Pkt.); na_ (Si.)(CDIAL 7039).

5147.A fabulous animal: nagad.ha a fabulous animal called s'arabha (Skt.lex.)

5148.Side of cart: nyan:ka the pieces of wood that hang at the forepart and at the back of a cart to keep its balance when fully loaded; side of a cart (TS. i.7.7.2); rolling fast (TBr. i.7.5) (Vedic.lex.)

5149.Image: mountain: na_ku, na_kam < naga mountain (Kampara_. Ka_rmuka. 32); na_ku < na_ku ant-hill (Ta.lex.) na_ku an ant-hill (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) naviram mountain; a mountain belonging to Nan-n-an-, the hero of Malaipat.ukat.a_m (Malaipat.u. 579) (Ta.lex.) nage_ndra Hima_laya mountain; the Sumeru mountain (Skt.)(Skt.lex.)

5150.Image: monkey: na_kam monkey (Tiruppo_. Can. Alan.. 14); black monkey (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) naga-at.ana a monkey (SKt.lex.) Images: monkey; tail: cf. la_n:gu_la tail (S'a_n:khS'r.); lan:gu_r the langur monkey semnopithecus schistaceus (K.)(CDIAL 11009). lin.un.i_ tail of sheep or goat (WPah.)(CDIAL 11051). Image: tail: nin:gun tail (Pe.); nen:gun. id. (Mand..); d.re_nd.u (pl. d.re_t.ka), d.re_ngoni, d.re_nguni, d.re_onji, d.re_oli, d.re_lu, d.e_d.ru (pl. d.re_t.ka) id. (Kui); len:guni, len.un.i, lengu_ni, lenguni id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5201). laja tail (Skt.); laj, la_j peacock's tail; la_ji_ peacock with a long tail (P.); la~_z, nez tail (A.); lej, nej, neja_ tail; neja_r. crupper (B.); la_ja, na_ja, neja tail; la_ji, na_ji back part of rice-crushing machine; la_jia_ having a tail (Or.)(CDIAL 10915).

5151.Image: snake: nakar..-tal to creep, crawl along (Kampara_. Atika_. 136)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) na_ga, na_gara, na_gala a snake, especially the coluber or cobra capella (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) na_ga snake (S'Br.NiDoc.); n.a_ya (Pkt.); nay, na_, naya_ snake (Si.); na_ga-danta elephant tusk, ivory < snake-shaped tusk (Skt.); na_ga (Pali); n.a_ya (Pkt.); n (Gypsy); naa euphem. term for snake (Or.); na_ng (Bshk.); non. (Kt.Pr.); nhon. name of a god (Kal.)[<? Pers. nahang](CDIAL 7039). na_kam cobra (Man.i. 25,195); serpent (Kampara_. Kalan-ka_n.. 37)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) na_gappa father cobra; na_ga-murige a serpentine bracelet (sometimes with the figure of a snake-hood) worn on the upper arm; na_ga-kan:kan.a who has a snake for his bracelet: S'iva (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5152.Image: platform to sit on: nax floor, platform (for sitting or sleeping on)(Kho.); nax-da_ru roof beam (Kho.); ne_x vestibule (Shgh.)(CDIAL 7036).

5153.River-mouth; pass: na_kka_ river-mouth (P.); na_thro entrance, pass (S.)(CDIAL 7037). na_ neighbourhood (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5154.Image: town-gate: na_ka_ town-gate (Or.); nakka_ edge (L.); na_thro entrance (S.); na_ka_ end of road, passage, gap (H.); na_ku~ (G.); na_ke~, na_ka_ end of road (M.)(CDIAL 7037). nax-daru roof beam (Kho.Mj.); na_ka firmament, vault of heaven (RV.)(CDIAL 7036). nu_kku-va_y a small entrance leading to a garden (Ta.lex.) cf. na_gara relating to a town (MBh.)(CDIAL 7043). cf. nakar house, abode, mansion, temple, palace, town, city (Ta.)(DEDR 3568).

5155.Town; temple: nakar town, city (Pur-ana_. 23); house, abode, mansion (Akana_. 15); temple, sacred shrine (Pur-ana_. 6); palace (Cilap. 27,200); dais for performing ceremonies (Ci_vaka. 2633); a furnished hall or place, decorated for ceremonial functions (Ci_vaka. 701); nakaram city, town, capital, metropolis (Cu_t.a_.); palace; temple (Cilap. 14,9); residence, place (Tiv. Iyar-. Mutar-. 33); nakara-k-ko_yil exogamous section of Na_t.t.ukko_t.t.ai Chet.t.is; nakaratta_r Na_t.t.ukko_t.t.ai Chet.t.ies; nakarattu-c-cet.t.i a sub-caste of Chet.t.ies (E.T. v,92); nakarattu-vel.l.a_l.ar a sub-sect of Ve_l.a_l.as (Ta.lex.); nakar town, city (Ma.); nagaru id. (Tu.); nagaru palace; (Inscr.) nakaramu temple; navaru id. (Te.); nagari-adhika_ri temple manager (Te.); nagara town, city (Skt.)(DEDR 3568). nagara town (TA_r.); nagari_ (Mn.); nagara, nagari_ stronghold, city (Pali); nagaraka small stronghold, small city (Pali); nagares.u, nagalesu (As'.); nagara (NiDoc.); nakara (Dhp.); n.agara, n.ayara, n.ayari_ (Pkt.); nogor fort, castle (Kho.); Alam-nru name of a village (K.); na(h)ara palace, king's harem (Or.); nair town (H.); nayara, nayari_, niyari (OG.); -na_r in place-names (G.); Ner, Nere~, Neri_ names of places in Khandesh (M.); nagaraka town; nakara = nayara (OSi.); nuvara, niyari (Si.)(CDIAL 6924). nagari_ya belonging to a town (Skt.); naaria_ relating to a palace (Or.)(CDIAL 6925). na_gara relating to a town (Skt.); citizen (MBh.); na_garaka police officer (Skt.); na_garika id. (Skt.); na_gara citizen (Pali); nagarakasa inhabitant of Nagara (KharI.); n.a_yara citizen (Pkt.); na_yer, na_yar agent, steward (B.); n.akaraka citizen (OSi.); nuvara_ (Si.); na_garika urbane (Pali); n.a_yaria citizen (Pkt.); niyariya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 7043). nakari city, capital; land belonging to the government (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Temple; town, city: nagara stronghold, city (Pali); nagara town (TA_r.); nagari_ (Mn.); nagari_ stronghold, city; nagaraka small city (Pali); nagares.u, nagalesu (As'.); nagara (NiDoc.); nakara (Dhp.); n.agara, n.ayara, n.ayari_ (Pkt.); nogor fort, castle (Kho.); alam-nru name of a village (K.); na(h)ara palace, king's harem (Or.); nair town (H.); nayara, nayari_, niyari (OG.); -na_r in place-names (G.); ner, nere~, neri_ names of places in Khandesh (M.); nagaraka town; nakara (= nayara) (OSi.Bra_hmi_); nuvara, niyari (Si.)(CDIAL 6924). nan:gar a city, a town, the town or village in which the raja or zemindar of a large estate resides (Santali) (Santali.lex.) naaria_ relating to a palace (Or.)(CDIAL 6925).

5171.Image: lance, dart: n~a_n:kar lance, dart (Nar-. 171)(Ta.lex.)

5102.Image: crocodile: nakra a crocodile, an alligator, kumbhi_ra, mosal.e (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: alligator: negar.., negar..e alligator (Ka.); negal.u id.; negaru a sea-animal, the vehicle of Varun.a (Tu.); negad.u a polypus or marine animal supposed to entangle swimmers (Te.)(DEDR 3732). nakra- crocodile; na_kra- a kind of aquatic animal (Skt.)(CDIAL 7038).

5182.Image: tiger: na~_har tiger (P.); na_har tiger (H.); *nakharin having claws (Skt.)(CDIAL 6921). Image: jackal: nakke a jackal (Ka.lex.) nyan:ka jackal (TS. v.5.17.1; VS. xxiv.27) (Vedic.lex.) Image: claw of a tiger: nakhacche_da nail-cutting (Skt.); nakhacche_dana (Mn.); lauchua_ ceremony of cutting bride's nails (Mth.)(CDIAL 6918). nakhada_ran.a falcon (Skt.); na_har tiger (P.H.)(CDIAL 7919). nakam nail; talon, claw (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvu. 113); extremity or lower part of a hoof; naka_yutam < nakha_yudha lit., that which uses its claws as weapon; lion; tiger; nakai teeth (man.i. 20,49)(Ta.lex.)

5170.Images: above; in front: n~a_n:kar in front, before, forward (Tol. Po. 141); there (Kalit. 50); above, on, over (Perumpa_n.. 196); place, situation, locality (Ta.lex.)

5166.Lead: na_g lead (K.); na_ga id. (Skt.); nan lead (Sh.)(CDIAL 7040).

5156.Chief: na_ga any great or pre-eminent man, modaliga (Ka.Skt.)(Ta.lex.) na_kuta_ < na_khuda_ (Pers.) captain of a ship (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) na_ka-puram the ancient capital of Ca_vakam (Man.i. 24,169); na_kar a powerful scythian race having the serpent as their totem (Man.i. 16,15)(Ta.lex.) nak a naik, a corporal (Santali) (Santali.lex.) na_yakkan- captain, soldier; headman; title of certain Telugu castes; title of certain Tamil castes as van-n-iyar, ve_t.ar, irul.ar; na_yakam headship, superiority (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,10,11); na_yakan- < na_yaka lord, master, chief (Kampara_. An:kata. 21); a person appointed to the headship of ten villages (Cukkirani_ti. 27); na_yan- master, lord (Tiruva_lava_. 54,36); na_yan-a_r title of certain castes as cain-ar, kaikko_l.ar, ut.aiyar and a section of ve_l.a_l.ar (Ta.lex.) na_ya leader (RV. vi.24.10)(Vedic.lex.) na~aiya a semi-hinduized caste of aborigines; na~iyali man a piece of rent free land given to the na~iya priest of a village (Santali)(Santali.lex.) na_ya leader, chief (Skt.); na_yar a caste of Hindus in Malabar (Ta.); na_yan, na_yar the Su_dras of Ke_ral.a; soldiers of all castes (Ma.); na'yamm a Na_yar man; fem. na'yarci (Kod..); na_yare, na_yima_re a Na_yar of Malabar (Tu.)(DBIA 226). nakka-p-par-aiyan- headman of the Paraiyas (G.Tp.D. I, 131)(Ta.lex.) cf. na_val the central annular continent (Man.i. 22,29); na_var-por..il id. (Pu. Ve. 9,38); na_valanti_vu id. (E_la_ti, 56)(Ta.lex.) Steward: na_yer, na_yar steward, agent (B.); n.a_yara citizen (Pkt.); n.akaraka citizen (OSi.); na_gara citizen (MBh.Pali); na_garaka police officer (Skt.); na_garika id. (Skt.); n.a_yaria citizen (Pkt.); na_garika urbane (Pali); niyariya_ (Si.); nuvara_ citizen (Si.) (CDIAL 7043). na_karikam civilization (Perun.. Ucaik. 41,83)(Ta.lex.) Leads; bought: ne_ta_ < ne_ta_ nom. sg. of ne_tr. ruler, master, lord (Ve_ta_ran.i. Piravara. 6); ne_ti routine duty (Tiruppu. 394)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ne_tra leading (AV.); netta guidance (Pali); ne_thar, dat. ne_thras marriage ceremony (K.)(CDIAL 7586). net puri applied to presents brought by invited guess to a marriage (Santali.lex.) nayati leads (RV.); carries off (AV.); neoya_ to take, carry, receive (B.); nayati, ne_ti leads (Pali); n.ayai, n.e_i takes (Pkt.); ni_r, nar leads, sends (Gypsy); ne_ina to take away, carry off (D..); nayh, ne_ to lead, carry away (Pas'.); ni_ to lead (Shum.); ne_ to take away (Wot..); neik, 1 sg. pret. oncitam to take out, put on, wear (Kho.); ni_ to take away, take to wife (Bshk.); ne to take away (Tor.); nyunu (fut. 1 sg. nima, 3 sg. niyi, 3 pl. nin) to lead, take away (K.); nihan.u to take away (S.); nevan. (L.); nen.a_, nena~_ (P.); ne_n.u_, nen.a_, ne_n.o~_ (WPah.); niba to carry from one place to another; caus. niya_iba (A.); neoya_ to take, carry, receive (B.); neba_ to take, remove, spend (time), caus. nia_iba_ id. (Or.); nen.e~ to lead away, take away (M.)(CDIAL 6966). n.ayan.a taking (Pkt.); den. nen. giving and taking (Or.); nen.a_ act of taking, money or anything due (Or.)(CDIAL 6967). na_yayati causes to be led (Mn.); nauar seeks; naun to bring, fetch (Gypsy); ku-na_iba_ to send word (Or.)(CDIAL 7071). ninayati leads to (RV.); nin.an.em. to lead to (OM.) (CDIAL 7210). ni_ta led (RV.Pali); nita, nitaga (NiDoc.); n.ia taken away (Pkt.); nu_ he took away (Tor.); nyu_v 3 sg. m., ni_y 3 pl. (K.); nio (and neo after pres. st. nen.u_)(WPah.); ni_a_, nitta_ (WPah.); nia_ act of taking, buying (Or.); nila bought (B.)(CDIAL 7544). ni_yate_ is led, is taken (RV.); ni_yati, niyyati is led away (Pali); niyati (NiDoc.); nijan.u to be carried away (S.)(CDIAL 7551). Master; newly wed husband: na_ha_ husband, master (A.Or.); na_h husband, lover (Mth.); na_hu husband, master (OAw.); na_hu, na_halu husband (OG.); na_v, na_vlo, na_vliyo newly wed husband (G.); anatha, ana_tha helpless, poor (As'.); na_tha refuge, help (AV.); protector, master (MBh.Pali); n.a_ha (Pkt.); na_h(a_) protector, master (H.); na~_ in: dhoba-na~_ address to a washerman (OMarw.); na_h master (M.); na_ (Si.)(CDIAL 7051). naihar applied to parents' house after marriage (Santali)(Santali.lex.)

5157.Indian turnsole, scorpion: nakir Indian turnsole (Mu_. A.); nakkirai, nakkira_, nakki-p-pu_ Indian turnsole, te_t.-kot.ukki (Ta.lex.)

5158.Image: banyan: nyagro_dha the banyan tree or ficus indica (AV.); nigro_dha banyan (Pali); n.aggo_ha, n.iggo_ha (Pkt.); nigo_ha_ni nom. pl. (As'.); nuga (Si.)(CDIAL 7610). niyac, nyac bent down, downward (RV.); nija_ south (L.)(CDIAL 7248).

5159.Image: claw: naka, nakha a nail of a finger or of a toe; a claw, a talon; nakhara a finger-nail, a claw (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. karaja a finger-nail (Ka.lex.) nakhara shaped like a claw (S'Br.); claw (Skt.); nail-scratch (Skt.); n.ahara nail; n.ahari_ knife (Pkt.); naura pl. fingernails (D..); nawur claw (Dm.); nawar nail; nawari (Pas'.); no_ru, no_r (Sh.); nan.iro claw, nail (Ku.); nan.ro claw (N.); nahor claw; nor scratch made on body with nails (G.)(CDIAL 6920). nakha a claw, a nail of finger or toe (Pali); [Vedic. nakha; Skt. andhgri, foot; Lat. unguis = Oir. inga; OHG. nagal = E. nail]; nakhaka belonging to or consisting of or resembling a claw (Pali) (Pali.lex.) nakha nail (of finger or toe), claw (RV.); n.aha (Pkt.); nai (Gypsy); na~hu~ (S.); nau~h, na~hu~, nao~ (L.); nahi, nahi~, nahu~, nau~h, ne~_ (P.); na_, ne (WPah.); na~, nan. (Ku.); nan. (N.); naha (Or.); nah, nauh (Mth.); no~_h (Bhoj.); naha~ (H.); bagh-na~ claws of tiger worn as necklace (H.); naha (OG.); nahiyu~ skin near nail (G.); niya (Si.); nau~ca (Ash.); nu~_ca (Wg.); nace~_ (Kt.); nau~cikye-m (Shum.); ne_s' (WPah.); nan. (Dm.); nec (Pr.); naweco (Pas'.); na_n:g, no_n:g (Phal.); nam (K.); na_n:gus' (Kal.); n.akkha (Pkt.); nakh (Bshk.); nake_ (Sv.); no_kh (Tor.); nakucik (Pas'.); nekher, neger (WPah.)(CDIAL 6914). nakha_ni karo_ti cuts nails (Kaus'.); nahar nail-cutter (N.); naheri barber (Mth.)(CDIAL 6915). nya_ryunu nail-cutter (K.); na~hern.i (S.); naheran., nahe_run. (L.); naherna_ (P.); nhernu (WPah.); naran.i (Ku.); narun (B.); nahurun.i, narun.i (Or.); lahurun.i (Or.); nahran (Bi.); naharni_, laharni_ (Mth.); naharni_ (Bhoj.); naharna_, nuharna_, naharni_, nuharni_, nahanni_, nahani_ (H.); nara_n.i_, naren.i_, nern.i_ (G.); nar(h)a_n.i_, narn.i_ (M.); n.aharan.i_, n.aharan.i_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6916). Image: tweezers: naharni_ a small instrument containing tweezers, needle for extracting thorns, and knife for cutting nails, carried suspended to a string round the loins (Santali)(Santali.lex.) nahat.t.a_, nuhat.t.a_ scratch with nail or talon (H.) (CDIAL 6917).

5160.Area: nager caker area of village (Santali)(Santali.lex.) Land: nakari-nilam unassessed cultivable land (R.T.); nakari land belonging to Government (R.T.); city, capital (Ta.lex.)

5161.Rent free land: nakhraj rent free land; nankar an allowance of money or land to zemindars etc. for subsistence, land granted to servants for their maintenance; naokar a servant (Santali) (Santali.lex.) noukor, noukra_ servant (Kon.lex.)

5162.Veda: nigamam Ve_das (Civappira. Civaa_. Ne. 21,7); conclusion (I_t.u, 1,8,11)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nigama the Veda or Vedic text; any passage or word quoted from the Vedas, a Vedic sentence; a root (as the source of a word) (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) nyaga_t went down (RV.); nigantavya to be learnt (A_past.); nigacchati acquires knowledge (Skt.); n.iacchai sees (Pkt.); n.iai sees (Pkt.); nin.a_ to know, recognize (Ash.); nin.a_ to understand (Wg.)(CDIAL 7165).

5163.To peep: nin:ku, nilkuni to peep; to reach; ni_kaliyuni to peep (Tu.); ni_ki to peep (Kor.); nilki to peep (Ka.);(DEDR 3662). ni_jh looking closely at (P.); nij peeping (WPah.)(CDIAL 7208). nidhya_yati sees, observes (AitBr.); nijjha_yati meditates; nijjha_pe_ti wins over (Pali); nijhapayitave to reflect on (As'.); n.ijjha_ai, n.ijjha_i looks at, reflects (Pkt.); nijjhon.u_ to peep (WPah.); nijha_na_ to see, pry into (H.)(CDIAL 7209). nis'cino_ti investigates (MBh.); cike_ti observes (TS.); n.icchayai investigates (Pkt.); -nje- to see, look (Pr.)(CDIAL 7440). nibha_layati perceives (ChUp.); n.i(b)ha_le_i sees (Pkt.); niha_la look; naha_l (Mai.); niha_ran.u (S.); nhya_l.n.u to wait for (WPah.); niya_lnu to look (N.); niha_liba (A.); niha_le (MBh.); niha_rab to look toward, spy (Mth.); niha_ral to see (Bhoj.); niha_rab (Aw.); niha_l.vu~ (G.); niha_l.n.e~, neha_l.n.e~ to look at carefully (M.); niha_rna_ to look for, expect (P.); niha_riba to look at (A.); niha_ra_, neha_ra_ to look at (B.); niha_riba_ (Or.); niha_rna_ (H.)[Poss. forms with r have spread from Bi. Mth. area on one hand into H. (whence or fromk S. into P.) and on the other into Or., B. (with older l-form) and A. (with variant l- form)](CDIAL 7228). cf. no_t.am examination of coins, assaying; no_kku (no_kki-) to see, look at, behold, view, consider (Ta.)(DEDR 3794). lol.ik to look for, look at (Kho.); lor.n.a_ to search for (P.); lor.iba_, nor.iba_ (Or.)(CDIAL 11156).

5164.Image: the tusk of an elephant: niggama, niggava the tusks of an elephant : ivory (fr. nid.u-kave); gaja-danta (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5165.Marketplace: nigama marketplace (Skt.) < Drav. (? metathesis, maganma); market town (Pali); n.igama id. (Pkt.); niyama marketplace (OSi.)(CDIAL 7158). niyamgama large village (Si.)(CDIAL 7159). negama the inhabitant of a (small) town; citizen; often combined with ja_napada (pl.) townsmen and country (Pali.lex.); nigama a small town, market town (opp. janapada); often combined with -ga_ma, si_ma (Pali.lex.); ga_ma a collection of houses, a hamlet [vedic. gra_ma heap, collection, parish]; a habitable place, a parish or village having boundaries and distinct from the surrounding country; in size varying, but usually small and distinguished from nigama, a market town; ga_ma nigama ra_jadha_niyo, ga_ma-nigama=nagara-rat.t.ha-janapada; ga_ma-kamma that which is to be done to, or in a village; ga_ma-vara an excellent village (Pali.lex.) Bazaar street; accessories: nigam the way of the traders (Sat. xxvi.9); to come to, get (RV. x.10.11) (Vedic.lex.) nigamam town, city; street, thorough-fare (Kantapu. Tati_ciyut. 83); bazaar; trade; a caravan of merchants (Ta.); niyamam town, city (Ci_vaka. 2601); temple (Cilap. 14,8); bazaar street (Maturaik. 365); street; place, location; a hall (Perun.. Vattava. 2,73); ne_makam hall, residence (Kon.t.alvit.u. 58); ne_makam orderliness (Kon.t.alvit.u. 406)(Ta.); niyama-vican-am < niyama + vyajana necessary accessories (Perun.. Ucaik. 34,171-2)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) [cf. vyajana decoration (RV.); sign (A_pS'r.); vam.jan.a mark (Pkt.); vyajana mark (Pali); viam.jan.a (Pkt.); viyadun distinctive mark (Si.)(CDIAL 12160).] nigama (Skt.Pali) market town; n.igama id. (Pkt.); niyama id. (OSi.)(CDIAL 7158). niyama-gama large village (Si.)(CDIAL 7159). negama the inhabitant of a (small) town; citizen; negama jana people; negama-ja_napada_ pl. townsmen and country-folk; nigama (fr. nigacchati = a meeting place or market) a small town, market town (opp. janapada); nigama-ga_ma; nigama-si_ma; nigama-katha_, setakan.n.ika-nigama; nigama-sa_manta; Asitajana-nigama (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

5167.This (person): nui this, this one, applied to animate objects only; nui hor. this man; nui d.an:gra this bullock; nuigeye hataokeda this (person) took it; nuit.ak this particular one, applied to animate objects only; nukin these two, applied to animal objects only; nukinkin senlena these two went; nukinak or.ak kana it is the house of these two; nu~ku~i this one here, applied to animate objects only; nu~ku~i non.d.e n.elepe this one here is he, look at him; num to name, to call by name, to praise; celepe numkedea? what name have you given him (Santali.lex.)

5168.Mouldy: nulayuka to rot, moulder (Ma.); nubbu mouldy, musty (Tu.); nilk mould on leather (Go.)(DEDR 3713). mu~hu~t mouldy, to become mouldy (Santali.lex.) ba_tello musty; ba_te get mouldy (owing to monsoon-weather) (Kon.lex.)

5169.Image: broken rice; grit: nin:galu, nin:gol.u broken rice, grit (Tu.); nen:g- to grind (Pa.); nen:ga that which has been ground (Pa.); nen.- to grind (Ga.); neng- to rub, grind (Ga.); naggu to be powdered; neccu rice flour, small rice grits (Te.); an.n.u, akku crushing, bruising into a jelly or mass (Tu.); neggu, ner..gu to be curved or bent inward (Ka.); naggu to become bruised (as a metal vessel); n. a bruise in metal vessels (Ka.); nagc- to dent (Ko.); nakal. to be crushed (Ta.)(DEDR 2927).

5172.Image: to stand up; to lift up: nin.- (-it-) to rise up from a sitting position, wake up (from sleep); nik- to lift up, raise, rouse from sleep (Kond.a); nin.(g)- (nin.t-) to rise, get up; nik- (-t-) to raise (Pe.); nin.(g)- to rise; nik- to raise (Mand..); ninga (ningi-) to rise, arise, stand up; n. act of rising, standing up; nipka (< nik-p; nikt-) to raise, cause to stand up (Kui); ningali to arise; nikhali to arouse; ninginai to rise; nikkh'nai to rouse; nin:g- (-it-) to rise; nik- (-h-) to lift up, raise; nin:g- (-it-) to get up, wake up; nik- (-h-) to lift up; to awaken (Kuwi)(DEDR 3665). negapu, negepu, negavu, negahu to raise, to lift up; to hold uplifted or elevated (Ka.); nekku, nempu (Ta.); nigud.incu (Te.); nege to raise (also used of light), to ascend, to go upward (Ka.); er.. (Ka.); egi (Te.); ekkat.iga (Te.); nige (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to stand erect: nikal.am, nigal.am haughtiness; nikal.ikka, nigal.ikka to swell, strut (Ma.); nikkul.isu to bend oneself from coquetry or in coquetish manner; ni_l.ku to stretch oneself upwards, rise up to one's full height, stretch oneself; nil(u)ku to stretch oneself, stretch one's limbs from fatigue etc., stand on tiptoe, rise up to (Ka.); nikku to become or stand erect, rise; be proud, conceited or presumptuous; n. erectness, rising; pride, conceit; make erect, perk, strut; nikku~bo_tu conceited person; nikkud.u act of becoming erect, erectness, erection, rise (Te.); nikk- to stretch forward (Go.)(DEDR 3662). Images: to be erect; to be out-stretched: ni_kku-tal, ni_n:ku-tal to spread out, as the legs, fingers (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nigul., nimir, nimiru to be stretched forth, to be extended, to lengthen out to the full; to spread, to expand; to become erect; to raise one's self, to take an upright position; to rise; to swell; to become proud, to strut (Ka.); nigura tege to make go out to the full length (Ka.); nigurcu, nimircu to stretch forth, stretch out to its full length etc. (Ka.); nigud.incu, nivud.incu (Te.); ni_l. (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) nimir(ru)tal to be out-stretched, as the arm (Kampara_. Kan:kai. 62); to grow tall as a youth; to shoot up (Te_va_. 1160,5); to extend, expand, spread out (Kampara_. Kulamur-ai. 4)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to hold aloft: nimirtti-p-pit.i-ttal to hold erect; to hold aloft, lift up (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mi_kai uplifted arm (Patir-r-up. 40,12)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to run: nimir(ru)-tal to walk, proceed (Pu. Ve. 7,5); to run (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: erect: imir (-v-, -nt-) to be straight, erect; nimir (-v-, -nt-) to become erect, be straightened, stand upright, be outstretched, grow tall; nimirttu (nimirtti-) to straighten up, set upright (as a pot), straighten out, unfold; nimiral straightening out, becoming erect; mu_ri-nimir to stretch oneself as from laziness (mu_ri- shaking off laziness, laziness); emir (-v-, -nt-) to spread, extend (Ta.); niviruka, ni_ruka to rise, stand, erect, revive; nivirikka, ni_rkka to erect, rase, unbend, straighten; nivircca straightness, height of body; nivirttuka to raise, erect, straighten, unfurl; nivirttikka to raise; nivirppikka to refresh; nu_r- to straighten (Ma.); muniv- (munivd-) to stretch and groan when one wakes (Ko.); nimir to be stretched, become straight, stand up to one's full length, become erect, grow high, be lifted up, be unfurled, become extensive, spread; nimirike state of being stretched etc.; nirmircu to cause to be stretched etc.; lengthen, lift up, raise, cause to spread or increase; nigur(u), nigaru to be stretched forth, be extended, lengthen out to the full, spread, expand, become erect, raise oneself, take an upright position, rise, swell, become proud, strut; nigiru to be extended; nigurisu, nigarisu to stretch forth, stretch out to its full length, etc.; nigarike state of being stretched or lengthened out; nigul. to take an upright position, stand erect, expand, increase (Ka.); nimuruni to become straight; nigacuni to stretch (Tu.); nigud.u, nivud.u to extend, stretch, spread, become erect, rise, increas, swell; nigud.(u)cu to stretch, extend, make erect (Te.); nikip- (nikit-) to stretch out (Pa.); nigr.i- (-t-) (body) is stretched full length, become erect; caus. nigr.is- (Kond.a); nde to make straight (Malt.)(DEDR 2922). To extend, expand: nimir(ru)-tal to be excessive (Pur-ana_. 14); to extend, expand, spread out (Kampara_. Kulamur-ai. 4); to be of superior quality as gold (Ci_vaka. 1376)(Ta.lex.)

5173.Image: to return: n.iho_d.ai returns, drives back (Pkt.); nihur. to return (MB.)(CDIAL 7175).

5174.Pilot of a ship; seam of a ship: ni_kkal seam of a ship, pat.akin taiyalin.aippu = sewn joint of a ship (J.); ni_ka_n- pilot, steersman (Paripa_. 10,55)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nikkat.astu_r foresail, kappalin mun-marappa_y (Ta.Naut.)(Ta.lex.) cf. Captain of a ship: mi_ka_n- pilot, captain of a vessel (Tan.t.i, 37, Urai. Uta_.); mi_ka_man- pilot, captain of a vessel, ma_lumi (Maturaik. 321, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5175.To quilt: nigandn.a_ to quilt (Pali); nagandn.a_ id. (Pali); niganda_, naganda_ a stitch in quilting (Pali); nigrantham intertwining (AitBr.)(CDIAL 7168). cf. ga_nd.a women's cloth (Go.); gand.a cloth (Pa.); ganda_ cloth (Kuwi)(DEDR 1180).

5176.Image: anklet: nigal.a bracelet; an (iron) chain for the feet (Pali) (Pali. lex.) ne_vura, nu_pura an anklet (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) [cf. Semant. ke_yu_ra armlet (Skt.)] nu_pura ornament for ankles or toes (MBh.); anklet (Pali); n.e_ura (Skt.);[cf. (as distinct from:) ke_yu_ra armlet (Skt.); sekra sakom an armlet of bell metal (Santali); (thus, ke_yu_ra for the arm; n.e_ura for the ankle)]; lipur anklet (Santali); n.u_ura (Pkt.); nu_ra_ silver anklet (L.); nuruva rings etc. on the hands and feet of dancers (L.); n.e_ura, n.i_yura, n.iura anklet (Pkt.); neur (P.B.H.); bell on necks of cattle (Ku.); newar anklet (N.); newar, nyaur anklet (H.); ankle or pastern joint of horse (H.); neura anklet (OG.); nevar, neval. id. (G.); nevar, neu_r contrivance placed over ankles or pasterns of horses to prevent rubbing (M.)(CDIAL 7577). ni_dhura bracelet, bangle; nivara, ni_yura (Pali) (Pali.lex.) ne_varisu, nivarisu to make straight, smooth or proper by gently rubbing with the hand or by fingering; to rub gently with the hand, to stroke (Ka.); ne_varincu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Image: shackles for legs: nelu, neru, niaru shackles for forefeet of animals (S.); nayal chain for legs of camel or horse (L.); nelo (Ku.); nya_la_ pl. fetters (Ku.); nel (N.); nihal (A.); nia_li_ (B.); neval. (G.); nigad.a iron chain for legs (Skt.); nigal.a fetter (Pali); n.aiad.a, n.aiala fetter, anklet like a fetter (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7157). Image: woman with an ornamental foot-chain: nigad.a, nigala, nigal.a a chain for the feet, especially the chain used to secure the hind feet of an elephant; a fetter or shackle in general; an ornamental foot-chain; nigal.e a woman with ornamental foot-chain (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5177.Image: to jump: negacu, negasu, negisu to cause to jump or jump away; nege jumping etc. (Ka.); negata the act of leaping or having leaped (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) niva (-pp-, -nt-) to rise, be elevated, grow, spread, overflow; nivar (-v-, -nt-) to rise high; nivappu elevation, height; ivar (-v-, -nt-) to rise on high, ascend, spring, leap, rush out, climb over, mount; ika (-pp-, -nt-) to leap over, cross over, transgress, overflow; iya (-pp-, -nt-) to pass beyond, excel, transcend; iyakkam greatness, excellence (Ta.); nikakka to rise; ivaram height; ivaruka to rise up; ivarttuka to lift, raise; ekaruka to ascend, rise; ekarttuka, ekattuka to lift, raise; ekaram height, uphill; ikaykkuka to transgress (Ma.); nege, nese to rise, ascend, go upward, jump; negapu, negavu to lift up, hold uplifted; egarisu to cause to rise, cause to fly, cause to jump; egarisu to cause to rise, cause to fly, cause to jump, shoplift; egarike jumping; egu rising, embarkation; ega_ diga_ up and down; neggu to lift (Ka.); nekkura cliff (Kod..); negiyuni to rise, come up; negipuni to leap, jump, spring up; negapuni to overflow; negattu overflowing (Kod..); negi to lift (Kor.); negayu, egayu, nevayu to fly, go up, rise up, jump; negavu, egavu flying, flight; eguru, evuru to fly, jump up; n. flying, flight, jump; eguva te top; eguvu flying, flight of bird; egupu flight, increase; egu, egud.u high, raised; egayincu to toss up; egacu to cause to fly; egirincu to toss up, cause to fly; ega upwards; ega diga up and down; eydu to fly; egumati embarkation, putting goods on board of a ship, exportation; egudala the upper or high part or region (as of a river); increase, rise (Te.); negay- (negayt-) to fly; negap- (negapt-) to make to fly (Kol.); negay- to fly, rise; negap- to make to fly or rise (Nk.); egur- to jump (Nk.); egr- to dance; egermur. a dance (Go.); egr.i- (-t-) to fly (as a bird)(Kond.a)(DEDR 3730).

5178.Temple manager; merchants; a bullock load: navaru temple; nagari-adhika_ri temple manager; nakaramu temple (Te.); nakar temple (Ta.)(DEDR 3568). nagarta a Vais'ya merchant class (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) naga an ornament; an article, a piece (Ka.M.); nage (Te.Ma.); nakai (Ta.); a load of articles; a bullock load (Ka.Te.) (Ka.lex.) nakai jewels (Ta.); naka (Ma.); naxy id. (To.); naga jewelry (Kod..); jewels, ornaments; goods, property (Tu.); a jewel or ornament, a metal vessel, a bullock load of tobacco etc. (Te.); naga- mountain (Skt.); nag id., rock, precious stone, jewel (H.); nag id., an article or item (as of implements, pieces of apparel, etc., in enumerating them), a piece (M.)(DBIA 221). nukam burden, weight (Ci_vaka. 203)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nakai-na_n.ayam, nakai-nat.t.u jewels and other valuables (Ta.lex.) navuru, navaru, naviru that is tender, soft, fine, thin, small, as grass, hair, cloth, paper and other articles (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) Cash: nagadi ready money (Ka.M.H.); fiscal, financial (Ka.M.H.); nagadi-guma_sta a cashier; nagadi-ya_tu the land revenue which is paid in money (Ka.); nagadu ready money or cash (Ka.); nagada (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5179.Village priest: naeke the village priest of the Santals; kud.am naeke the priest who conducts the worship of the lesser dieties of the villages; naeke era the priest's wife; naeke man rent free land cultivated by the priest; uniko naekekedea they elected him to be priest; naeke khil a sub-sept of all the Santal septs; naeke-khil-God.a a sub-sept of Marn.d.i sept (Santali)(Santali.lex.)

5180.Customary: ne_mo the annual festival of a demon; ne_mo-deccud.u a priest seized with demon (Tu.lex.) ne_ng custom (Go.); ne_keri customary, usual; usually (Kui); ne_g ceremony, sacrificial rite, received custom (Kur.)(DEDR 3763). nikuti method, custom (Ta.); cf. niyati (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. nikka_ marriage among Muhammadans (Ta.); nikka_ (U.); nikka_ remarriage of a widow (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) la_kana, la_ka_nj the sacrifice after a successful hunt (Go.); r.a_k- (-t-) to offer worship, sacrifice; intens. r.a_bga-; r.a_kel ja_ni priest who offers sacrifice (Pe.); r.a_k- to offer worship, sacrifice (Mand..); la_ka (la_ki-) id.; n. a sacrifice, worship; la_ka so_ka a sacrifice, worship (Kui); la_k- to sacrifice; la_kinai to praise; la_kwinaito invoke; la_gu offering to a deity; r.a_k- (-it-) to sacrifice (Kuwi); ale_j sacrifice (in which the patient witnesses the slaughter smeared with the blood)(Br.)(DEDR 297). neg, nege a religious feast (Mu.Sadani.Oraon)(Mu.lex.) Image: offering: nivap to scatter about, sow (as seed); to offer (as oblations), especially to the manes; nivapanam sowing; an offering to the manes, an oblation in honour of one's deceased ancestors; niva_pa seed, grain, seed-corn; an offering to the manes of deceased parents or other relatives, a libation of water etc. as the s'ra_ddha ceremony; a gift or offering in general; nive_danam delivering; dedication; an offering or oblation (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) n.e_vajja, n.e_vijja food offered to a deity (Pkt.); naive_dya offering of food to an idol (BhP.); nive_dya (MBh.); nive_dayati offers (S'Br.); nevaju, neju a kind of cake eaten cold on 7th day of dark of S'ra_van.a (S.)(CDIAL 7606).

5181.Image: large drum: naga_ri a large kettle-drum (Ka.Te.); naga_ra_ (M.H.); bhe_ri (G.); naga_ri-navavattu the naga_ri and eight other instruments; naga_rakha_ne the place in which the drums and other instruments of a band are kept (Ka.M.H.); the place where a band performs (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) nakkara_, nakara_ < naqa_ra_ (U.); naqqa_ra (Arabic) a large kettle-drum (Kon.t.alvit.u. 508); naka_ra_, naka_r id. (Ta.lex.) nagera, nagara, nagra a kettle-drum (cf. Pl.XXVII,A) (Mu.); naka_ra (Sadani. Arabic); nugara a drum (Abyssinian)(Mu.lex.) ne_k- (musical instrument) to sound, be played on; ne_kup-/ne_kp- to play an instrument (Nk.); ne_ka_na_ to sound (of a pot, gong, bell), to ring; ne_k- (musical instrument) to sound (Go.); (bell) to sound; caus. ne_ksta_na_, ne_ksa_na_, ne_kih-; eksa_na_ to beat (drum); eganta (spelled yegant.a) o'clock = 3 sg. neut. pres. (Go.)(DEDR 3762).

5183.Barber: na_pita barber (S'Br.); na_piti_, na_pini_ (BHSk.); sna_paka bath attendant (R.); naha_pita barber (Pali); n.ha_via, n.a_vi(d)a (Pkt.); na_i_ (S.L.P.); id. (Bi.Mth.H.); na_in. his wife (P.); na_i (WPah.B.); na_wi_, na_yan. (WPah.); na_i_ (Ku.); neyo (B.); nha_wi_, na_in (H.); na_vi_ (G.); na_ha_vi_, nha_vi_ (M.); nhvi, nvi (Si.); na_wid, nyid (K.); naha_paka barber (Pali); na_u (N.B.Or.Bi.Mth.B.M.); na_u_ (Bhoj.Aw.H.); na_uni (Mth.); naua_ (Bi.); nauwa_ (H.)(CDIAL 13792). na_vicam the barber's profession (S.I.I. ii,278); na_vican- barber (S.I.I. ii,277); na_vitan- id. (Ci_vaka. 2491)(Ta.lex.)

5185.Image: joking: nakali, nakalu ridicule, joking, jesting, witticism, satire (Ka.); nakali_ diverting, as a story or a story-teller (M.H.); nakali mimicry (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: smiling, laughing: nakal smiling, laughing; rejoicing, gladness (Na_lat.i, 137); nakali id. (Ka.Tu.); naka_ar tooth as appearing in laughter (Cir-upa_n.. 57); naka_al laughter (Kalit. 142,16); naku-tal to laugh, smile (Kur-al., 784); nagu id. (Te.Ka.); nakai-ttal id. (Kalla_. 88,1); nakai laughter, smile (Ci_vaka. 1568); nage id. (Ka.); cheerfulness, delight (Ka.); nakai id. (Patir-r-up. 68,14); contemptuous laughter, sneer, derision, scorn (Na_lat.i, 377); nage id. (Ka.); nakai grinning (Ta.); nage id. (Ka.); nakaippu smiling (Ta.); nagavu id. (Te.); nakai-y-a_t.u-tal to jeer, rail at; to joke (Ain:kur-u. 79, Urai.); nan:ku-tal to deride, mock at (Par..amalai. 50); nan:gu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) nakkal laughing, mockery, brightness, splendour (Ta.); nakekka to laugh (Ma.); nagu (nakk-), nage to laugh, smile, laugh at, deride; n. a laugh, smile, laughter, derision, blooming, blossoming (Ka.); nagega_r-a a man who causes to laugh, a ridiculer, joker (Ka.); nakali ridicule, satire, caricature (Tu.); nakeruni to titter, giggle (Tu.); nagavu a laugh, smile; nagu to laugh, smile; n. a laugh, smile (Te.); naguba_t.u ridicule, derision, mockery; navvu to laugh, smile, joke, ridicule; n. laughter, smile, jest, joke, fun, ridicule, derision; navvincu to cause to laugh, excite mirth in, amuse (Te.); nav- to laugh; nava jeri joke, joking; navip- (navit-) to cause to laugh (Pa.); nag-, nagg-, nag- (nak-) to laugh (Ga.)(DEDR 3569).

5186.Certainty; one's own: nidho, nido confirmation (N.); nidhd.a_, nidha_d.a_ certainty (M.)(CDIAL 7354). nij the original sept from which the sub-septs of all Santal septs have been derived; nij, nije one's own, oneself, special, original; ac nijegeye kamieda he is working himself; nij jot one's own farm cultivated by oneself; nij bhai, nije bhai one's own brother; nijat without any recognized caste, having been out-casted; nayad.ih e nijat hor. menakkoa there are casteless people in Nayadih; nije one's own, oneself, themselves, himself; adren nije hor.ko t.hen to his own people; nijgut for certain, by oneself, at first hand (Santali) (Santali.lex.) nija constant (AV.); innate, of one's own country, one's own (Skt.); nija, niya, niyaka own (Pali); ni- genetive affix (NiDoc.); n.ia- own (Pkt.); nia (Mth.); niya (OG.)(CDIAL 7181). ne_ili~_, ne_ili_n, ne_ili_ always (Wot..)(CDIAL 7182). nitya continual; nityam always (RV.); nicca constant (Pali); nice nom. sg., nica_ pl. permanent, indispensable (As'.); n.icca constant; n.iiya, n.i_ya (Pkt.); nico very nearly, exactly, by all means, constantly (Kho.); nich always (WPah.); nica constant (OM.); nisa-di_, nisa-di always (-di_ < divasa)(Si.); niti always (Si.Skt.)(CDIAL 7190). nitara_m especially (R.); completely (Skt.); nirha~_ completely, extremely (OM.)(CDIAL 7189). Certainty: n.ikkhutta certainty (Pkt.); nikkhu_m.ti adj. absorbed in (OG.)(CDIAL 7155). nikkuva truth, certainty; truly, certainly (Ka.); nikkamu, nikkuvamu, nikkemu truth, fact, reality, certainty; true, real, certain; nik-kala a true dream (Te.)(DEDR 3663). nis'caya enquiry, conviction (Mn.); nis'cayena_ certainly (Mn.); nicchaya discrimination, certainty (Pali); n.iccaya, n.icchaya (Pkt.); nico exactly (Kho.); nihico conference, certainty (S.); nicher.o, nichor.o decision, settlement (S.); ni_hca_ belief, patience (WPah.); nicaya certainty (MB.); nice~ certainly (Or.)(CDIAL 7439).

5187.Firmament: na_ka-lo_ka the heavenly world; na_ka-sadana an inhabitant of heaven, a deity; na_ki a deity, a god (Ka.); na_ka heaven, the sky, the atmosphere; heaven, the abode of the gods (Ka.Skt.); cf. na_ks.atra relating or belonging to the lunar asterism, sidereal; cf. naks.atra star (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) nhon. name of a god (Kal.); non. (Kt.Pr.); nahang (Pers.); na_ga (Skt.)(CDIAL 7039). na_ka-nakar the nether world (Cilap. 1,21, Arum.); na_ka-na_t.u heavenly region; land of the Na_ga race (Man.i. 8,54); the nether world; na_ka-na_tan- Indra as the lord of the celestial world; na_kiyar women of the celestial world (Kampara_. U_rte_. 121)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.)

5188.Image: to be bent inward: nawan, newan bent, curved, to bend, to curve (Santali) (Santali.lex.) neggu to be curved or bent inward, to sink in, to sink; to get a bruise (Ka.); n.n.u (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) neggu to crush, to smash, to break, to destroy (Ka.); kku (Ma.); neru to be ground small (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) naggu, nekku to become bruised, as a metal vessel (Ka.); nokku (Te.); neri to break, to burst, be crushed or smashed (Ta.); naggu, neggu a bruise in metal vessels (Ka.); nekku to be depressed, to sink (Ka.lex.) Image: to be cracked: nekku-vit.utal to be broken, cracked (Nalvar..i. 33); to part at the joint as wood-work (Ta.); neku-tal to be ruined, scattered, broken (Ci_vaka. 426); ne_ka very minutely; ne_kal fine, flinty sand (G.Tp.D. I,175)(Ta.lex.)

5189.To press; to thrust: nu_kku to shove, push (Ta.); nu_ku to shove, push, thrust aside (Ka.); to push violently, shove; n. a thrust (Te.); nu.k to push (Kod..); to push so as to move (Kol.)(DEDR 3722). nur..ai to insert, put (Ta.); nokkuka to pierce, bore through (?Ma.); r.upka to twist something into a cloth, insert (Kui); nulugna_ to insert, thrust (Kur.); lulqe to thrust in (Malt.)(DEDR 3714). nekku, nerukku to press, push (Ta.); neggicu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) niba_dhate_ presses down (RV.); nioiki to press, oppress (Sh.); niezoiki, niajoiki to be pressed, be squeezed, be squashed (Sh.); nimju_n.o to oppress, harass, torment; nimjyu_n.o id. (Ku.); nimaji_n.o to be vexed, get tired, dislike (Ku.)(CDIAL 7224). nihor.an.u to press down (S.)(CDIAL 7227). nigra_bha pressing down, power to press down (TS. iv.6.3.4; KS. i.2.12; TS. i.4.14.2)(Vedic.lex.)

5190.A caste: nan:kut.i-ve_l.a_l.ar a division of the ve_l.a_la caste in Tinnevelley district (E.T. v,246)(Ta.lex.)

5191.Braid stitched on to garments: nakki < nakki_ (U.) a kind of braid ornamentally stitched on to the borders of garments and curtains (G.Tp.D.I,161)(Ta.lex.) naka_cu-ve_lai delicate ornamental work done by goldsmiths; < naqa_si_ (U.) cf. punar-nigrantham intertwining again (AitBr.); nigandn.a_, nagandn.a_ to quilt; niganda_, naganda_ a stitch in quilting (Pali)(CDIAL 7168).

5192.To take the lead: no_l. to precede, take the lead (Ka.); no_k- (-t-) to go first, precede (Pe.); no_ka (no_ki-) to precede, go ahead of; no_ki ahead, in front of, in the van, in advance; no_kit.i ahead, in front of (Kui); no_kali to advance; no_k-, no_khee hannai to precede; no_ki ahead; no_kiti in front; no_kigattasi the first one; no_kita in front of, before; no_k- (-it-) to go ahead, precede; no_kita, no_ke'e in front of; o_khee hannai to precede (Kuwi)(DEDR 3799).

5193.House: nike_tan-am house, habitation (Periyapu. Tiruna_t.. 33); temple (Kantapu. Tiruvi. 119); town, city (Pin..)(Ta.); nike_takam, nike_tam house (Ta.Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

5194.Seasmum: nu_, nu_vu sesamum; no_lai a sesame ball, a preparation of sesame seed (Ta.); nu_vu, nuvvu gingily seed; nu_ne, nu_niya oil; nu~_-bin.d.i flour of gingili seeds; nu_gulu = nuvvulu (Te.); nuvvu_ sesamum, til (Kol.); nu.ne oil (Kol.) nuvv (pl. nuvvul.) sesamum; nu_ne oil (Kol.); u_ sesamum (Nk.); nuvul (pl.) sesamum (Pa.); nu_ ney sesamum oil (Pa.); nuvul (pl.) sesamum indicum (Ga.); nu_n(g), nung sesamum (Go.); nu_ (Kond.a)(DEDR 3720).

5195.Cold: negad.i cold, catarrh (Ka.Tu.); nigad.i, nagad.i a cold, catarrh (Ka.); negad. id. (Tu.)(DEDR 3731).

5196.Rauwofia serpentina: na_kuli_ rauwofia serpentina (Car. Ci. 3.267, 10.34)(Skt.); mukta_ id. (Car. Su. 4.50, Ci. 23.200).

5197.Aristolochia indica: gandhana_kuli aristolochia indica (Car. Ci. 3.267). na_kuli_-dvaya na_kuli_ and gandhana_kuli (Car. Ci. 9.46). Aristolochia serpentaria and aristolochia reticulata: part used: the dried rhizome and roots; constituents: volatile oil containing borneol; bitter principle called aristolochin; use: aromatic bitter. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 289-290).

5198.Tribulus terrestris: nerucil, neruci cow's thorn, tribulus terrestris; akkilu tribulum plant (Ta.); eruil tribulus terrestris (Ma.); neg carduus pycnocephalus, a kind of thistle (Ko.); nex id. (To.); nerigilu, neggil(u), neggali, neggalu, neggulu, naggilu the small caltrops, tribulum terrestris or lanuginosus (Ka.); ne~gilu id. (Tu.)(DEDR 2928).

5199.Regard: {Echo word} najar, najaru, nadaru regard, favourable look; a present to a superior; presents made and received amongst people of rank when they visit (Ka.M.H.); najaru-ga_n.ike, najara_n.i, najara_n.ike id.; naraju mujare presents and obeisance (Ka.); najara_n.i a present to a superior (Ka.); najara_n.a_ (M.H.); najara_n.i a forced tax levied on all the people under the title of free presents, an unjust fine (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) Care: niga_, niga_va_ni, niga_vu, nige, nige_va_ni care in looking after; tending; regard to (Ka.Te.); niga_, nigha_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) mula_ju, mula_ji regard for (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5200.To decay, ruin: naci (-v-, -nt-) to be worn, frayed (as cloth), be reduced in circumstances; nai (-v-, -nt-) to waste away, be frayed (as cloth); nacey disease (Ta.); naital decay (Ma.); nasi, nasiku to wear out, wear away, waste away, wither, wane, decay, spoil, be faint, become poor or poorly; n. wasting, waning, faint twilight (of the morning); nasu minuteness, smallness, fineness, a little, a trifle (Ka.); nasku twilight, dawn, early morning; neyilun to fade, as a bunch of coconuts (Tu.); nasna_ to cause men or cattle to sicken, languish, or die; nasrna_ to be ill or pine away (Kur.)(DEDR 3575). na_s'a destruction, ruin, death (Ka_tyS'r.); na_sa destruction (Pali); loss (Pkt.); nas' miscarriage; nas'yat-prasu_ti woman who has had a still-birth (Skt.); naher.a_ ruin (P.); na_s' destruction (WPah.); na_s loss (Ku.N.B.H.M.); na~_s (Ku.); na_sa (Or.); na_sa_d., na_sa_d.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 7084). na_s'aka destroying, wasting (MBh.); wata-nos'u highway-robber (K.); na_ha_ destroyer (A.); na_s'ana destroying (VS.); destruction, removing (A_past.); na_sana destruction (Pali); n.a_san.a (Pkt.); nas'onu prematurely delivered (of a woman) (Kho.); na_san ruin (H.)(CDIAL 7086). nas' perish (Skt.); nan:ks.yati will perish (MHh.); na_khna_ to destroy, spoil, throw (H.); na_m.khai, na_khai puts, lays, drops, strews (OMarw.); na_m.khan.aha_ra one who throws away (OG.); la_m.khai throws (OG.); na~_khvu~, na_khvu~ to throw, put on, leave, vomit (G.); na~kha_vu~ to be fatigued, to vomit (G.)(CDIAL 6930). nasis'ta most destructive (Av.); nasi_t.h bad omen (H.) (CDIAL 7026). na_s'ayati destroys, drives away, removes (RV.); na_se_ti (Pali); n.a_se_i, n.a_sai, n.a_savai (Pkt.); nas'av- to lose, be lost (Gypsy); nas'a to expel, lose (D..); nashun to waste; nachun t ravage; masshun to ruin; nas'- to throw, put (Wg.); naw- to disappear (Pas'.); na_s'- to kill (Kal.); nas'ik to deceive, decoy away (Kho.); nas'a_o to destroy (Mai.); nayoiki to lose, waste, destroy; nayo_nu (Sh.); naha_wun to pull down, erase (K.); na_snu to destroy (N.); na_sa_ id. (B.); na_siba_ (Or.); na_sna_ id. (H.); na_sn.e~ id. (M.); na_sayta_ id. (Konkan.i); nasanava_, nahanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 7087). na_s'in destroying (MBh.); n.a_si perishing (Pkt.); na_si_ destroying (H.)(CDIAL 7088). nir ani_nas'at drives away, destroys (RV.); n.in.n.a_se_i destroys (Pkt.); nina_san.em. to destroy completely (OM.)(CDIAL 7336). pran.asyati is los, disappears (RV.); panassati is lost (Pali); panas'is.yati (NiDoc.); pan.at.t.ha pp. pan.a_se_i caus. (Pkt.); pansa_unu, pancha_unu to push aside, put on one side (N.)(CDIAL 8528). vinas'yati perishes (RV.); vinassati is lost (Pali); vin.assai (Pkt.); binasna_ to be killed (P.); binasai is destroyed (OAw.); binasna_ to be spoilt (H.); vin.asai dies (OG.); van.asvu~ to perish, be spoilt (G.)(CDIAL 11770). vinas.t.a ruined, lost (MBh.); corrupted (Mn.); vinat.t.ha lost (Pali); vinat.ha, vinat.haga, vinat.ham.ti (NiDoc.); vin.at.t.ha (Pkt.); bin.at.ha_ was destroyed (OB.); bilat.na_ to be destroyed, be lost, become bad (H.); binat.hi_ wretch (OMarw.); vinat.hau destroyed (OG.)(CDIAL 11771). vina_s'a destruction, death (TPra_t.); vina_sa destruction (Pali); vin.a_sa (Pkt.); vin.a_hu murder (S.); van.a_h (P.); bina_s destrution, loss (N.H.); vin.a_sa (OG.); vanasa (Si.)(CDIAL 11777). vina_s'ana destroying (Ya_j.); destruction (MBh.); avina_sana imperishable (Pali); vin.a_san.a destruction (Pkt.); vin.a_san.aha_ra destroyer (OG.); vina_s'ayati causes to be ruined (RV.); vina_se_ti destroys (Pali); vinajis.yam.ti (NiDoc.); vin.a_se_i (Pkt.); viya_es he spoilt them (L.); bina_sai destroys (OAw.); bina_sna_ (H.); vanasanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11779). vina_s'in destroying (MBh.); vin.a_hi_ murderer (S.)(CDIAL 11780). sam.nas.t.a perished, disappeared (R.); sanna_t.o solitary (of a place)(N.)(CDIAL 12925). sanna_t.a_ desolate silence, fearstrickenness; san(n)a_t.a_ loud whistling or whizzing noise; sansana_na_ to whizz, whistle (H.)(CDIAL 14831). na_cam < na_s'a destruction, ruin, dissolution, annihilation, loss, damage (Tiv. Periyati. 1,3,8); na_can- destroyer (Tiruva_ca. 5,51); na_can-an- id. (Pa_rata. Cu_tu. 141)(Ta.lex.) Image: to flee: nas'yati is lost, perishes, runs away (RV.); pp. nas.t.a (RV.); nassati (Pali); nas'yati, nas'ati (NiDoc.); nassai, n.a_sai perishes, runs away (Pk.); nas'- to run away, go away; nasu- to run away, be lost (Gypsy); nas'- to be lost (D..); nas- to flow (of tears, water etc.)(Shum.); nas' to become bad of milk); nas'el bad (of milk)(Wot..); na_s'- to die (Kal.); nas'oiki to be lost; nos'o_nu, nas'o_nu (Sh.); nas'un to be destroyed, disappear (K.); nas'n.o to run (K.); nassn.a_, nhasn.a_ to flee (P.); nassan. to flee; nasun. (L.); nas'n.u_ to run (WPah.); nas's'u pp. nas'n.a_ (WPah.); na_sn.o to perish, leave, go; nasn.o to distinguish from (Ku.); nasiba_ to be destroyed, shrink back in fear (Or.); caus. nasa_iba_ (Or.); na_sai perishes (OAw.); na_sna_ to be lost, escape, flee (H.); na_svu~ to flee (G.); na_sn.e~ to be spoilt (M.); na_sta_ curdles (of milk)(Konkan.i); nasinava_, nahinava_ to die (Si.); pp. and pret. to present stem from nas'yati: nat.t.ha (Pali.Pkt.); nas'to gone away; nas't to flee (Gypsy); natha (D..); nas.t.o he died (Dm.); na_s'ta (Kal.); nas.t.a-ji_re burial feast (Kal.); nat.u_ (Sh.); nu_t.hu, nu~_t.hu (K.); nat.t.ha_ (L.); nat.t.hn.a_ to flee (P.); nat.ha_, nat.hn.u to flee (WPah.); na_t.h lost (A.); na_t.(h) spoilt, corrupted; nat.ha_ to go four (of milk)(B.); na_t.hi she was lost (OAw.); na_t.h destruction; na_t.hna_, na~_t.hna_ to be destroyed (H.); nat.hna_ to be destroyed (H.); na_t.hu~ fled (G.); na _t. lost (M.); nat.a destroyed (Si.); na_t. bankrupt (M.); nat.hiya_ scoundrel (H.); na_t.(h)a_ vile (M.); nat.ha_ra_ bad, useless (M.); nat.ha_ru~ rude, unbecoming (G.) (CDIAL 7027). nas'vara perishing (Pa_n..); destructive (Skt.); n.assara perishable (Pkt.); na_r spoilt, defiled (A.); na_sra_ destrutive (M.)(CDIAL 7028). nas.t.i loss, destruction (BhP.); na_s.t.ra_ destroying, destruction (AV.); we-nat.h palsy (K.); na_t.h flight (P.); na_t. loss, disappearance, childlessness (Ku.); na~_t. (Ku.); na_t.h loss (A.); n(a)ha_t. flight (H.)(CDIAL 7029).

5201.Shade, shadow; lustre; transparent: nisa_ shady side of a valley (Pers.Fars.); nusi_y (Yid.); ni_ce shady, shady side of a valley, shade (Ash.); nichag shady side of anything (Kho.); nica_g (Yid.)(CDIAL 7180). nir..al, ni_r..al shade, shadow, reflection, lustre; nir..al (nir..alv-, nir..an-r--) to cast shadow, give shelter, shine, be reflected; nir..ali lustre, light; nir..ar-r-u (nir..ar-r-i-) to shed radiance, shade, protect; nir..ar-u (nir..ar-i-) to shine; ni_r..ai light, lustre (Ta.); nir..al shadow, likeness; nir..alikka to be reflected, appear faintly (as a tooth through the gums) (Ma.); nerl shade (Ko.); ne.s- shade, reflection, relics preserved for second funeral; ne.l pol.y house in which relics are kept, hut at male funeral place; ne.l kal flin; ne.t-wi.r-- (ne.t-wi.r-y-) to be reflected (lit. to be visible as a reflection); ne.t-wi.k- (ne.t-wi.ky-) to toll bell while mourning over relicts between funerals (lit. to lift bell for/over the relics)(To.)[cf. tu.k to hang, lift up, stir (To.)(DEDR 3376a)]; ner..aql, neral., nel.l.u shade, shadow, reflection (Ka.); nel.a shade, shadow (Kod..); nirelu, irelu id. (Tu.); ni_d.a id., reflection (Te.); ni.d.a shade (Kol.); ni_r.a id. (Pa.); nikir. id. (Ga.); ni_ra_ shadow; ni_r.a, ni_r.ka shade (Go.); ni_r.a shadow, shade, reflection; ni_r.ga shadow (Kond.a); r.i_ga id. (Pe.); r.i_ge id. (Mand..); r.u_ga id. shade, reflection, picture; ru_ged.i shade, shadow (Kui); r.i~_a id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3679). accha clear, transparent (Sus'r.)[poss. shadowless; cf. accha_ya without shade (RV. x.27.14)(Vedic.lex.)]; accha clear, transparent, pure, clean (Pali.Pkt.); ochu thin, weak (K.); acho clear, white (S.); acch_ clean, good (L.); accha_ good (P.H.N.); a_cho (Ku.); a_ccha_ (B.); a_cha_ (Or.H.); a_chyo, a_chi_ (OMarw.); a_chu~ thin, elegant, dim (G.); a_sat., a~_sat. thin, watery, dilute (M.); haccha_ clear (L.); good (P.); haccho good; haccha_ white (WPah.); acha anything spread out over a considerable space (flood, clouds, plain etc.)(S.); a_chi elegance (G.); laco good (Gypsy)(CDIAL 142). apaccha_ya_ unlucky shadow (Skt.); apaccha_ya unshadowed (Skt.); ocha shade (Dm.); ocha_ (Pas'.); shady side of a valley (Phal.); oce shade (Shum.); wuco (Gaw.); osva_, vasva_, os'et.a_ shade of trees considered as hostile to the growh of plants (M.); acewe shade (Ash.); wuca_ (Pr.)(CDIAL 422). praticcha_ya_ reflection (Skt.); pad.iccha_ya_ id. (Pkt.); picha_va~_ shade, shadow (L.); par.cha_i~_, par.cha_va~_ (P.); paricha_hi_m. (OAw.); parcha~_, parcha~_(h)i_, parcha~_wa_ reflection, influence of an evil spirit (H.); par.cha_yo shadow, reflection (G.); peco_u shade (Wg.)(CDIAL 8560). praccha_ya dense shade (Skt.); paccha_ya place in the shade (Pali); paccha_a- very shady (Pkt.); pacha~_o shadow, shade; pa_cho, pa_chuo (S.); pacha_va~_ (L.); parcha_va~_ (P.)(CDIAL 8500). Shade; shadow; ink: ca_yi < siya_hi (U.) ink (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) s'a_yi ink (Ka.M. H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ca_yam < cha_ya_ colour; dye (Ta.lex.) Dye: ca_yam colour, tinge, tint, dye, true colour, real nature (Ta.); colour, dye (Ma.); ca_yal colour, likeness (Ta.); colour (Ma.); ca.yv colour (Ko.)(DEDR 2457). ca_yal colour; ca_ya-p-pan.i work of dyeing with red, distinct from: ni_la-p-pan.i; ca_yam, ca_ya-ve_r dye; chayroot, Indian madder, oldenlandia umbellata; ca_ya-ve_t.t.i dyed cloth worn by men; ca_yam-ka_yccu to dye, colour (Ta.lex.) Beautiful: cha_ya_ shade, shadow, reflection (RV.); complexion (Sus'r.); beauty (VarBr.S.); cha_ya_ shade, shadow (Pali.Pkt.); cha_a_, cha_i_ (Pkt.); cha_di shade (Pali); cha_yopaga_ni pl. giving shade (As'.); caj-ymy (j = y) in the shade (Gypsy); cakara shade (Wg.); ca_ya (Tir.); cha_s' (Sh.); cha~_ (S.L.P.); cha_ (P.); sa~_ (A.); cha_a (OB.); ; chak shade (Kal.); chag (Kho.); chei (Phal.); cha_i (Sh.); cha_y (K.); cha_i_ black spots on moon or face; cha_ya_n:ka moon (L.); choyo marks on skin; chai shade (Ku.); cha_ya_ freckle (N.); cha_i shade, reflection (Or.); cha_i~_ (H.); cha~_i (G.); seya (Si.); cawe~_ shade (Kt.); cave (Bashg.); cha~_va shade (S.); cha~_vilo shadow of a demon (S.); chau~ shade; chaur, cha_ura_ shady place (P.); cha_va shade (OB.); cha_oya_ (B.); cha_vali_ (OMarw.); sa_ul.i_ shade; sa_vat. shady place (M.); sa_vl.i_ shade; sa_vat. shady place (M.); sa_vl.i_ shade (Konkan.i); seya(Si.); cha_ha_ri shade (N.); cha_yr.a_ (B.); cha~_yr.i_ (G.); chaera_ shadow (Or.); cha_illa shady, bright, beautiful (Pkt.); sa_il shade (Wot..); cha_ilat (Gaw.); cojol (Tor.); chail, chailo (Ku.); chel shade, shelter (N.); chayela_ shady (H.); sa_vli_ shade (M.); X Pkt. a_ha_-, paha_- 'light': cha_ha_, cha_hi_, cha_hiya_ shade (Pkt.); cha_ha_ri (N.); cha~_(h), cha_hari shade; cha_hi_ shade over a watchman's platform (Mth.); cha~_h shade (Bhoj.); cha_m.ha_m. (OAw.); cha~_(h) (H.); chahai (OMarw.); chizot., chij (Sh.)(CDIAL 5027). cha_mur.ia_ temporary awning, shelter of branches and twigs (Or.)(CDIAL 5028). ca_y brilliance, light, beauty,colour, fame, reputation; ca_yal beauty, gracefulness, likeness, resemblance, reflected image, shadow; a_y (-v-, -nt-) to be or become beautiful; n. beauty; ai beauty; aitu that which is beaituful, beauty; aiya beautiful (Ta.); ca_y beauty; ca_yal shape, figure, resemblance, beauty (Ma.); ca.y beauty; ca.yli well (adv.); ca.yka.r handsome man; fem. ca.ykarati (Kod..); sa_nja (sa_nji-) to be proper, good, right, beautiful, bright; n. goodness, beauty; adv. beautifully; pl. action sa_ska (sa_ski-) (Kui)(DEDR 2457).

5202.To breathe: nis'vasiti draws in breath (MBh.); nis'vasita breathing (S'Br.); n.issasai, n.isasai breathes (Pkt.); n.i_sasia breathing (Pkt.); nisa~sna_ to pant (H.) (CDIAL 7461). nis'va_sa breathing in or out (R.); nisa_sa inhalation; nisa_siba_ to breathe (Or.); nisa_s breathing (Mth.)(CDIAL 7462). nih-s'va_sa sigh (Mn.); n.issa_sa, n.i_sa_sa sigh (Pkt.); nisa_s sorrow; nisa_si_n.o to sigh after, be melancholy (Ku.); nisa_snu to sigh; nisa_sinu to be suffocated (N.); nisa_sa sigh (MB.); nisa_s(a_), nisa~_s(a_) (H.); nisa_so (Marw.); ni_sa_sa exhalation (OG.); nisa_so respiration, sigh, groan (G.); nisa_s exhalation; nisa_sn.e~ to pant (M.)(CDIAL 7111). nisa_ha_ breathless (L.)(CDIAL 7112). s'vas breathe (Skt.lex. ne_sa asthma (Tu.); ne_(j)- to breathe; ne_al, ne_jkal breath; ne_(j)kud. panting (Pa.); ne_nj- to breathe (Ga.); ne_njkar.(i) breath, pulse which throbs in a child's head; ne_j- to breathe; ne_s breath; ne_sk- to breathe; ne_ska_na_ to pant, to breathe heavily, pant; ne_ska_na_ to breathe (Go.); ne_nz- (-it-) to sigh, respire when exhausted or tired, have hiccups while weeping; to breathe; ne_nzu breath (Kond.a); ne_nj- (ne_nc-) to breathe; intens. ne_cka- (Pe.); ne_nj- id.; intens. ne_cka- (Mand..); ne_nja (ne_nji-) to breathe; n. breathing (Kui); nenjali, ne_njinai to breathe, gasp; ne_nj- (-it-) to breathe, moan with pain; nesteri, ne_steri breath (Kuwi); na_xna_ to breathe, rest, recover oneself; ni~_xca_rna_ to experience a convulsive and somewhat prolonged heaving of the breast, sigh, sob, draw in a long breath (Kur.); ngye to breathe; nge breath (Malt.)(DEDR 3765).

5203.Chaste tree: nocci five-leaved chaste tree (Ci_vaka. 2163); ven.n.occi id., vitex negundo (Pata_rtta. 528)(Ta.); nocci-t-tin.ai major theme describing the defence of a fort by warriors wearing nocci garlands (Pu. Ve. 5, Kol.u); nocci a minor theme eulogising the nocci garland worn by the warriors defending a fort (Pu. Ve. 5,1, Kol.u); defence of a fort (Tol. Po. 68); nocci-ma_lai a poem describing the defence of a fort (Ta.lex.) cf. karu-nocci three-leaved chaste tree, vitex trifolia (Ta.lex.) cf. Vitex negundo: Nadkarni records that the leaves contain a colourless essential oil of the odour of the drug; and a resin; the fruit contains an acid resin... in Mysore, febrile, catarrhal, and rheumatic affections are treated by means of a vapour bath prepared with this plant... Nadkarni continues that the leaves are considered insecticide. They are placed between the leaves of books and folds of silk and woollen clothes to preserve them from insects... (for sprained limbs, contusions, leech bites, etc.) the fresh leaves are put into an earthen pot, heated over a fire, and applied as hot as can be borne without pain... (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 807-808). cf. nekki, lakki, lokki vitex negundo or trifolia (Ka.)(DEDR 3781). cf. nirgun.d.i_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 7308). cf. va_vili vitex negundo (Ka.)(DEDR 5371). ni_r-nocci water peacock's-foot tree, vitex leucoxylon (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Vitex glabrata: goda (B.); sheraz (M.); bhodiya (A.); sengeni (Ka.); luki (Te.); bark and root: astringent; habitat: from Assan and Cachar to Malacca (GIMP, p.256). Vitex leuocoxylon: mayilila (Ma.); nebedda (Si.); nirnochi (Ta.); nevaledi (Te.); hole-nekki (Ka.); bark and root: astringent; root: used in intermittent fever; leaves: smoked in catarrh and headache; habitat: all forest districts of Madras state and W. Peninsula (GIMP, p.256). Vitex pubescens: myladi (Ta.); busi (Te.); muria (Or.); resin: burnt with dhatura seeds to produce lethargy in Malaya; habitat: Deccan Peninsula and E. Bengal (GIMP, p.257). Vitex peduncularis: nagbail (H.); goda (B.); osai (A.); navaladi (Ka.); bark: used for making an external application for pains in the chest; infusion of leaves or of root bark or young stem bark: useful in malarial and blackwater fever; habitat: Assam, Bihar and Bengal (GIMP, p.257). Vitex agnus-castus: panjangusht (Pers.); athlak (A.); seeds: bitter, boiled in ghee and the mixture given to horses for colic; plant: used as a cure for eye diseases and stomachache; used for pains due to chills, one who has caught cold takes a bath in water in which the leaves have been boiled; habitat: Baluchistan (GIMP, p.256).

5204.Chaste tree: nocci three-leaved chaste tree; karunocci willow-leaved justicia, justicia gendarussa (Pais.aja. 50)(Ta.); noccil willow-leaved genderussa (Pata_rtta. 507); karunoccil id. (Malai.); karu-nocci three-leaved chaste tree, vitex trifolia (Ta.); id. (Ma.); a plant, dark-leaved evergreen, planted in gardens by the side of walks, gendarussa vulgaris (W.); ni_r-nocci three-leaved chaste tree, vitex trifolia (Ta.lex.) Justicia gendarussa = pseuderanthemum bicolor = eranthemum bicolor: ... an erect, slender undershrub or half-woody plant usually about 1 meter in height... in the Philippines the roots, stems, and leaves in decoction are used against aphthae and also as a cicatrizant of wounds, ulcers etc. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 891-892). Vitex trifolia: surasa (Skt.); pani-ki-sanbhalu (H.); panisamalu (B.); nirgundi (M.); nirnochi (Ta.); nochili (Te.); nochi (Ma.Ka.); leaves: considered useful as an external application to rheumatic pains, sprains etc.; pillows stuffed with these used to cure catarrh and headache; powdered and given in intermittent fevers; flowers: prescribed with honey in fevers accompanied by vomiting and severe thirst; fruit: used in amenorrhoea; habitat: scattered throughout India in the tropical and subtropical region (GIMP, p.257).

5205.Poison: {Echo word} najom prepared poison (Mu.); nacu poison, evil (Ta.)(Mu.lex.) nacam poison, venom (Kampara_. Nakarni_n:ku. 10); nacun.t.o_n- S'iva (Tiruva_lava_. 30,9); a division of Kal.l.ars (Tiruva_lava_. 30,9, Vice_t.avurai.); nacu_t.t.utal to administer poison (Periyapu. Tiruna_vuk. 103)(Ta.lex.) nanji, nanje poison (Kon.lex.) nacu [perh. nai-] poison, venom (Kur-al., 580); naju (Ka.Tu.); nai-tal to be crushed, bruised; nai-ttal to destro (Pur-ana_. 97)(Ta.lex.) nacukku to crush (Ta.lex.) najugu, naggu, neggu to squash, to crush, to bruise as dry ginger, pepper corns, medicinal roots etc. (Ka.); nacun:ku to be squashed (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) najju a crushed, squashed or bruised state; najju gujju a completely crushed mass; naccu, naju poison (Ma.); naju paralysis of the brain (Ka.Te.); najujo_gi a dealer in antidotes; naju-ro_ga paralysis of the brain (Ka.lex.) ma~hu~r, jahar poison; jahar mahra poison for arrows (Santali.lex.)

5206.Fortress: nocci surrounding wall, fortress (Tan.ikaippu. Ci_pari. 342); village, hamlet (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

5207.Cooked rice: nocci rice cooked with ghee, coconut etc. (Tu.); nicci cooked rice (Kurub.); neccu rice flour or small rice grits (Te.)(DEDR 3782).

5208.Image: placenta: n.a_la covering of foetus (Pkt.); na_l placenta (N.)(CDIAL 7047). noz afterbirth (of human beings)(To.); naji, naju afterbirth (Tu.); nacu afterbirth, placenta (Ta.)(DEDR 3580).

5209.Broth; to lick: leu to lick; tsa_k taste (Kon.lex.) lih to lick (Skt.lex.) cf. lihati licks (MBh.)(CDIAL 11069). jal to lick with the tongue; jal jhel bar.awatfeako they entertained us (Santali.lex.) prale_ha a kind of broth (Skt.); paleha_ juice, sap (L.); palyo a kind of curry made of curds and whey boiled with spices (Ku.); pa_lo gruel (B.); pareh pea soup, sauce (Bi.); paleo, pareh rice soup (H.)(CDIAL 8765). a_le_ha licking (Skt.); a_lihati licks (BhP.); pp. a_li_d.ha (MBh.); a_lihai touches (Pkt.); a_lih salts in the earth (Kho.)(CDIAL 1399). cf. palya, palye, palle, palleya, palleha, pallye [perh. connected with payir; Skt. phala: a flower, a bud] any garden green, any vegetable; a vegetable dish (Ka.); pacal.ai, paciri, payiri, vacal.ai, vayalai spinage (Ta.); pa_la_ leaves, blades, tuft of leaves (M.)(Ka.lex.) nanjrk a small amount of food which will blunt the pangs of hunger (Ko.); naju, nacu to take a little lick, eat a little of anything like pickles and as a relish to the principal food (Ka.); nesaru, nesalu seasoning (Tu.); nanju, nancu to eat in small bits or quantities, eat as a relish to the principal food, take a lick; nanju_d.u flesh; nanjud.u relish, pickle (Te.); nenjen meat, vegetable; na_nju_d., na_n.dzul. flesh (Kol.); nenjur. (j = dz) id.; nenjen broth (Nk.); menjan tidbit (meat, fish, etc.) cooked together with meal to impart relish or flavour to it (?Kur.)(DEDR 3581).

5210.Image: fish; fish bladder: nettali, neytto_li, nettili anchovy, silvery, engraulis indicus (Pata_rtta. 938); nettili-p-pot.i anchovy salted and dried (Ta.) (Ta.lex) Images: fish; conch: nattu conch; snail (Paripa_. 10,85)(Ta.); nattai snail, buccinum (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nantam conch (Ta.); nattam, nattu, nantu conch, snail; natta a shellfish (Ma.); snail (Te.); netka id. (Go.); nattai, nantan-am snail (Ta.); narte a bivalved shellfish, mollusc (Ma.)(DEDR 3591). natti swimming bladder of a fish; netti swimming bladder of a fish (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) na_ta-k-kut.am conch (< na_dam sound (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) neyttirukkai a kind of thorn-back fish (W.)(Ta.lex.) Helix aspera: nakhala (M.G.): this is a fresh water mollusk. The shell is of dark-brown colour and made of numerous plates placed one upon another, just as in bivalve shells. It is hard, bony and opaque, concave on its under-surface where the mollusk resides; the other surface is convex. On this surface the layers are most distinctly marked. The shell is used in the form of a paste, as a perfume and in the preparation of various medicated oils. It is an ingredient of dhupela tela. As a a hair cosmetic it is highly recommended. (Nadkarni, Indian Materia Medica, Vol.II, p.166).

5211.A perfume ingredient: nata bignonia chelonoides, a fragrant ingredient to make a perfume with the fragrance of vakula (Br.hatsam.hita_. LXXVI. 29-30). cf. pa_tiri trumpet-flower tree, stereospermum chelonoides, suaveolens, and xylocarpum (Ta.); trumpet-flower, bignonia suaveolens (Ma.); pa_dari sterospermum chelonoides (Ka.); bignonia chelonoides (Tu.); pa_diri id. (Te.); pa_t.ala_, pa_t.ali_ bignonia suaveolens (Skt)[stereospermum chenonoides = bignonia chelonoides; stereospermum suaveolens = bignonia suaveolens](DEDR 4075). Stereospermum suaveolens: patala, kamaduti, madhuduti (Skt.); paral (H.M.); parul (B.); kalgoripadi (M.Te.); pandan (G.); madan-kamapu flowers of padri; padri (Ta.); hudai (Ka.); kusgol (Konkan.i); flowers contain albuminous saccharine and mucilaginous matters and wax... Ashes are used in the preparation of alkaline water and caustic pastes. (Nadkarni, Indian Materia Medica, Vol. I, p.1168). Stereospermum tetragonum = stereospermum chelonoides: pader (H.); dharmar (B.); padal (M.); patoli (Skt.); kaludi (Ka.); karinkara (Ma.); kural (Ta.); kaligottu (Te.); root, leaves and flowers: used in decoction as febrifuge; juice of leaves: mixed with lime juice used in maniacal cases; flower and fruit: in scorpion-sting; bark contains crystallite bitter substance; habitat: throughout most regions of India (GIMP, p.234). Stereospermum suaveolens: pa_t.ala_ (Skt.); pa_rul (B.); pa_d (H.); this is a middle sized flowering tree, native of Bengal. The flowers are large, of a dark crimson colour and exquisitely fragrant. Steeped in water they impart their fragrance to it. Rubbed up with honey they are given to check hiccup. The root bark is an ingredient of dasamula and is thus largely used in native medicine. It is regarded as cooling, diuretic, and tonic, and is generally used in combination with other medicines. The ashes of this plant are used in the preparation of alkaline water and caustic pastes (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.204). nat.a, nalake, nal.i, nali a kind of fragrant substance, a perfume (Ka.); gu_vaguttige a sort of perfume = kapo_ta_n:ghri (semant. gu_va dove) = nat.a, nali, dhamani, ajanake_ti (Ka.); guvveguttigad.d.i a sort of perfume (Te.)[?grey-coloured](Ka.lex.) ajanake_s'i name of a vegetable perfume (hat.t.avila_sini_-na_makam gandhadravyam yatsam.yo_ga_t ke_s'asya_ti_va kr.s.n.atvam); nakhala_ (M.)(Skt.lex.) cf. nakha a particular perfume (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5212.Lobella nicotianaefolia: nala (B.H.); dhaval (M.); kattuppugaiyilai (Ta.); adavipogaku (Te.); kattupukayila (Ma.); devanala (Skt.); infusion of leaves: antiseptic; leaves and seeds: acrid, poisonous; root: in scorpion-sting; habitat: W. Ghats from Bombay to Travancore at 3,000-7,000 ft., Konkan, Matheran, Deccan, S. Mahrata country, the Nilgiris, Malabar and Mysore. Lobellia excelsa: leaves: smoked in the same way as tobacco; milk of the plant: extremely acrd; habitat: W. Ghats of S. India, the Nilgiris, Pulney Hills and hills of Travancore, above 6,000 ft. (GIMP, p.156). Lobelia nicotianaefolia: This tall, erect, much branched, somewhat hairy herb grows from 1.5 to 3 metres in height. The leaves, resembling those of tobacco, are narrowly obovate-lanceolate... The flowers are large, white... In the Pharmacopoeia of India an infusion of the leaves is said to be used as an antispasmodic. Dymock reports that the dry herb, when handled, is extremely acrid, the dust irritating the throat and nostrils like tobacco. Kirtikar and Basu quote Lisboa, who states that the seeds contain an acro-narcotic poison, and that they are preferred to datura as a poison in India, when a rapid effect is desired (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 952-953).

5213.Cosmetic: pu_tikaraja (Skt.)(Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.315). cf. kecca-kka_y, kar..ar--ka_y, kar..ar-ci, kar..al, kar..an:ku molucca bean, caesalpinia bonducella, bonduc nut (Ta.); kar..acci, kar..aci, kar..ar-r-i guilandina bonducella (Ma.); gajuga, gajjuga, gajiga, gajjiga, gajige, gajaga, kel.ijika_yE molucca bean (Ka.); gajig, kad.eji, kal.eji molucca bean (Tu.); g(r)acca caesalpinia bonducella, bonduc (Te.)[caesalpinia = guilandina](DEDR 1347). gajuga a prickly climbing shrub of which the seeds are used for marbles, the molucca bean, guilandina bonducella; a protuberance from the eye-ball resembling a moucca bean (Ka.); ud.d.i-gajuga a heap or pile, especially a pile of three (with a fourth set on the top) made of the beads of the molucca bean (Ka.); cf. ud.d.i (Tu.); ud.d.e (Te.); kurud.u-gajuga a kind of gajuga plant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Caesalpinia crista = caesalpinia bonducella: Bacon isolated a bitter, resinous substance called bonducin from the seeds and concludes that it is not a glucoside. Bhaduri states that the seeds yield an alkaloid for which he suggested the name natin... Chopra says that it is doubtful whether the natin of Bhaduri is a glucoside or an alkaloid, as details are not available... Greshoff reports the presence of a bitter resin, a bitter principle, and some alkaloid. According to Bruntz and Jaloux the seeds are official in the Mexican pharmacopoeia... in French Guiana as febrifuge. The roots are also used for the cure of gonorrhoea... Kirtikar and Basu and Nadkarni state that the tender leaves are efficacious in disorders of the liver... Dalzeil states that the bark is said to be rubefacient... Kirtikar and Basu and Nadkarni report that the ointment from the seeds, with castor oil, forms an excellent application to hydrocele, acute orchitis and glandular swellings... oil also used as an embrocation in rheumatism... Chopra adds that the fixed oil expressed from the seeds is emollient and is used as an embrocation to remove freckles, as a cosmetic, and also as a means to stop discharges from the ear... Baillon and Chopra say that the seed is a powerful tonic and a valuable febrifuge. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 369-371).

5214.Euphorbia neriifolia: nanda_, gud.a_, snuhi_ euphorbia neriifolia (Car. Ka. 10.8, Su. 1.114,115); nistrims'apatraka id. (Car. Ka. 10.8); maha_vr.ks.a id. (Car. Su. 4.4); sudha_ id. (Car. Ci. 5.107,153,174). cf. kal.l.i spurge, euphorbia; milk-hedge, euphorbia tirucalli (Ta.); id., milk-hedge plant (Ma.Ka.Te.); a sp. tree (Kod..); milk-hedge, opuntia dilenii (Tu.)(DEDR 1383). cf. sudu-sudu common milk sedge, euphorbia neriifolia (Tagalog. Philippines). "... cultivated in gardens... It also occurs in India to Malaya, probably introduced in the latter region... a fluid extracted from the roasted leaves is used for earache... Nadkarni states that the milky juice is used by vaidyans as a drastic cathartic... beneficial in asthma... the root mixed with black pepper is employed in snake bites... root is considered antiseptic. the milky juice is regarded as a purgative internally and a rubefacient externally... Externally the juice is applied to remove warts and similar excrescences... Turmeric powder mixed with the juice of euphorbia neriifolia is recommended as an application to piles." (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 503-504). cf. euphorbia resinifera. Part used: the dried resinous latex. Habitat: Morocco. The Arabs collect Euphorbium from shrubs growing in the mountainous sections of Morocco by cutting incisions dep into the branches of the plants during the rainy season when the flow of latex is abudant... brought to the town of Morocco, then carried to Mogadore from whence it is exported. Uses: vesicant in veterinary medicine, drastic cathartic, and as a constituent of anti-mould paints for ship hulls. Euphorbia pilulifera: euphorbia, pill-bearing spurge, snake weed, cat's hair; part used: the dried plant; habitat: India; use: euphorbia is employed as a constituent of certain asthma preparations, including Hare's elixir. It is an antihistaminic. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 526-527).

5215.Image: to lurk: nar..ukku (nar..ukki-) to evade, slip away; nar..unar..u (-pp-, -tt-) to speak evasively, shuffle; nar..uppu (nar..uppi-) to shrink from, shirk; nar..uvu (nar..uvi-) to steal or skulk away, evade, shift, shuffle; nar..uval evading, skulking; nar..uvi one who gives indirect answers, slippery person (Ta.); nakku to hide or conceal oneseelf, crouch, lie in wait (Te.); nad.i- (nad.it-) to hide, (tiger) crouches; nad.as-, nars- (= nar.s-) to hide (Kol.); ar.k- to lurk, crouch, bend down (Go.); nan.d.- (-it-) to go underneath, hide (Kuwi)(DEDR 3620).

5216.Yellow sandalwood: nandajam yellow sandalwood, haricandanam (Skt.lex.)

5217.Long pepper: nandaki long pepper (Skt.lex.)

5218.Holy basil: nandini_ the holy basil (Skt.lex.)

5219.Image: small water-jar: nandika_ a small water-jar; nanda_ id. (Skt.lex.)

5220.Image: lid: na_ndi_pat.a, na_ndi_kha the lid or cover of a well (Skt.lex.)

5221.Image: a lute: nanda a kind of lute (11 inches long)(Skt.lex.)

5222.Image: to cut: nat.k- to cut wood; net.k to cut (firewood), to cut by splitting (Go.); nad.- (nat.t-) to be torn, severed; nat.- (-t-) to tear, sever (Pe.); nad.- to be broken, snapped (Mand..)(DEDR 3586).

5223.Price, sale; merchandise: not.u-ttal to sell (Pur-ana_. 33); not.ai price (Patir-r-up. 30,12); selling, sale (Cilap. 5,24); merchandise (Cilap. 6,139); not.aimai price (Patir-r-up. 68,11)(Ta.lex.)

5224.Image: bowing; crooked: nata bent, bowed; depressed, sunk; crooked, curved; inclined to; nati bending, bowing; crookedness (Ka.); a bow; a courtesy (Ka.lex.) nat.t.u the bent grass that infests cornfields (having widely spreading perennial roots or underground stems)(Te.); the wide-spreading roots of several kinds of grass and this grass itself (Ka.); no.t.y 0e.d.t the sweeping ceremony (performed with kakar-x grass, eragrostis nigra)(To.)(DEDR 3587).

5225.Image: stooping woman: natagi_ woman with stooping limbs; a woman in general (Skt.lex.) na_t.ya dancing, mimic or dramatic representation; nr.tya (Ka.lex.) nartana, naccan.a, naccana dancing; acting, performing on the stage (Ka.lex.) Stunted; cripple: na_t.a_ dwarf (P.); stunted bullock (Bi.); nat.wa_ id. (Bi.); na_t. dwarf (Mth.); na_t.a_ short, dwarfish, vile (H.); vile (M.); na_t.ha_ dwarfish (Or.); nan.d.ho small, short, low (S.)(CDIAL 6935). non.t.u (non.t.i-) to walk lamely, limp, hobble from lameness or weariness; non.t.al limping; non.t.i lame person or creature; crippled condition as of leg or arm; persons who dance on stilts; nen.t.u (nen.t.i-) to limp (Ta.); non.t.uka to limp; halt (Ma.); non.t.i cripple; non.t.ikka to maim (Ma.); non.d.- (non.d.y-) to limp dragging one leg uselessly; non.d.y lame peron, person who has arm or leg amputated (Ko.)(DEDR 3786). cf. mot.t.ai incompleteness, imperfection (Ta.)(DEDR 5114). ru_lo weak, feeble, useless, worthless (Sh.); lu_lo maimed (S.); lulli_ penis (L.); lull penis puerilis (P.); lu_l thin, tall man; lu_lo lame; luli_ penis (Ku.); lulo maimed, crippled, limp (N.); nul, nula_ handless, lame in hand; arm without hand, arm (in general)(B.); lula_ simpleton, maimed in hand (Or.); nula_ (Or.); lulh one-armed (Mth.); lu_lh armless man (Bhoj.); lu_la_ maimed, handless (H.); lulau lame (OMarw.); lu_lu~ (G.); lula_ maimed (M.); lolo impotent, fat but not strong (Or.); penis puerilis (H.)(CDIAL 11090). nyu_na shortened, wanting, defective (S'Br.); pa_dair nyu_na having a defect in the feet (BhP.); vulva (TS.); n.u_n.a wanting, less (Pkt.); nu_ni paralysed in hands or feet (Ku.); nuni penis puerilis (B.); nu_ni, nunni id., breast of a young woman (Or.); nu_ni_ penis puerilis (H.); nunni_ (M.)(CDIAL 7616). cf. ku_n- bend, curve, himpback (Ta.)(DEDR 1927). u_na deficient (AV.); u_naka (S'a_n:khS'r.); u_na, u_naka (Pali); u_n.a (Pkt.); u~_n.o (S.); u_n.a_ not quite full (P.); un. uneven, odd (of numbers); un.o secluded, lonely (Ku.); un less in size, number or quality (A.); un.a, un.a_ less (Or.); u_n.u~ wanting, faulty, weak (G.); u_na_ less; sword worn down by grinding (H.); un.a_ deficient, mean; un.e~ deficiency, fault (M.); u_n.e less (Konkan.i); unu deficient (Si.)[In composition with numerals with varying degrees of re-formation after the uncompounded form.](CDIAL 2405). u_n-am defect, deficiency as of a member; flaw (Kampara_. Paracura_. 25)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) niyac, nyac bent down, downward (RV.); nija_ south (L.)(CDIAL 7248). cf. cun.n.i membrum virile (Ta.); penis (Ma.); tun.n.i, tun.e id. (Ka.); culla, culli (Te.); con.d.o_ id. (Kur.)(DEDR 2666). cuy (child's) penis (Pe.); hu_y penis (Mand..); cu_co_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 2681).

5281.Image: bent, crooked: lu_lo maimed (S.); lame (Ku.); lulo maimed, crippled, limp (N.); nul, nula_ handless, lame in hand; arm without hand, arm (in general) (B.); lula_ = nula_ maimed in hand (Or.); lulh one-armed (Mth.); lu_lh armless man (Bhoj.); lu_la_ maimed, handless (H.); lulau lame (OMarw.); lu_lu~ (G.); lula_ maimed (M.)(CDIAL 11090). lango, lan.o_, langelo lame (Gypsy); lun. shaven-headed (Kho.); longu, lunju lame (K.); lan.u lameness; lan.o lame, sick (S.); lan:ga_ lame (P.); lan.ro, lan.ar. (Ku.); lan.ro (N.); lan.ar.o (H.); lan.ranu to limp (N.); na_n. paramour (B.); la~gr.a_ lame; la~gr.a_na_ to limp (H.); la~gr.u~, la~gr.a_vu~ (G.); la~g enfeebled (M.); la~gd.a_ paralysed (M.)(CDIAL 10877). lan:ga lameness; lan:g to go lame, limp (Skt.lex.) lang lame (Pers.)(CDIAL 10877). lan:gati limps (Dha_tup.); lang- to limp (Gypsy); langun (K.); lan.n.n.u_ (WPah.); la~gn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 10902). lokbe crooked, bent, twisted (Santali.lex.) lacna_ to bend, give way (H.); lacvu~ (G.); lacn.e~ (M.); lacakn.a_ to yield under a load (P.); lackinu be bent, droop, sway (as a bridge)(N.); lacakna_ to be bent (H.); lacakvu~ (G.); lacakn.e~ to slip down (M.); la~_vu~ to bend down (G.)(CDIAL 10908). Image: dwarf: rugur.ia_ stunted, dwarfish, sickly; ruga_ ailing (Or.); ru~ga_l.a_, ruga_l.a_ lean and meagre (M.)(CDIAL 10759). Image: stiff wrist; disabled arm: lun:ka, lun:ki having a stiff wrist or elbow joint; lun:kar, lun:ker to be stiff; lokore having a stiff disabled arm (Santali. lex.) cf. mu_l.i defect of limb, deformity, one who is deformed or has defective limbs, that which has lost a part or piece esp. at the top, that which is defective, person or thing devoid of the usual ornaments, ugly woman; a term of abuse (Ta.)(DEDR 5049).

5226.Pith: net.t.i sola pith, aeschynomena aspera (Na_mati_pa. 343); net.t.i-k-ko_rai a kind of sedge (Mu_. A.); net.t.i-p-pori garland made of pith-flowers (W.); net.t.i-ve_lai ornamental pith-work; net.ili a kind of grass (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ney-ttal to be glossy, polished (Kampara_. Urukka_t.t.u. 57); to be fleshy, fat, plump (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. sol aeschynomene aspera (Santali.lex.) ?Influenced by co_l.am jowar (Ta.lex.)

5227.Image: cord round neck of oil-flask: neti cord round neck of oil-flask (N.); ne_tra cord of churning stick (MBh.); netra_ (L.P.); ne_t.l.i (WPah.); net cord of churning stick (Bi.); neto (Mth.); neti_ (H.); netru~ (G.); netn.i cord of churning stick (Ku.); netli_ thin cord (H.)(CDIAL 7588). newat, newata_ cord of churning stick; joti_ (Bi.)(CDIAL 7590). Cord of churning stick: cf. tari churning (Te.); tar(u)cu, traccu to churn (Te.); traccana churning (Te.); terip to churn (Pe.)(DEDR 3095). cf. tar-i weaver's loom (Ta.)(DEDR 3140). cf. tar-ikai a chisel, a kind of axe (Ta.); tar-i sharp knife or sword (Ka.)(DEDR 3140). ta_r-u wearing clothes tucked in (Ma.); putting on a cloth in the fashion of a divided skirt (Ta.)(DEDR 3142). Rope: na_d.a_ thong, rope (M.); na_d.i_ tape (M.)--Derivatives: na_rnu to yoke (N.); na_r.vu~ id. (G.); na_ran leather thongs attaching yoke to beam of plough (Bi.); la_ran (Bi.); naraili (Bi.Shahabad); larani (Mth.); na_r.a_ trousers-string (H.); rawhide rope (P.); na_r.o rope or strap tying oxen to yoke, trousers-string (N.); rope attaching yoke to plough (S.); na_r.i_ thong (L.); na_l.a_ trousers-string (L.); na_d.i_ rope (Skt.); strap, rope (Pkt.); na_ro gut or leather strap attaching yoke to plough (N.); na_r., na_r.an. leather thong (G.); na_r.u~ rope, string, tape (G.); na_yr.i_ thin leather thong (G.)(CDIAL 7049). nan:gle the thong which binds the yoke to the plough beam (Santali) (Santali.lex.) no_d.e, no_nd.e rope (Go.); a_n. string, cord, bowstring (Ta.); ne_n.a, ne_n.u bowstring, cord, rope (Tu.)(DEDR 2908). Tied: niyo_jana that with which anything is tied (AV.); nu_an.u rope for tying cow's hind leg when milking (S.); nihni_ forked branch on which pots are hung (L.); ne~hun. rope attaching yoke to tongue of a hackery (P.); nain, naina_ rope round neck or legs of bullock or cow (H.); noini_ tether for cow when milking (OH.)(CDIAL 7259). niyuknati fastens (AV.); niyo_jayati harnesses (Skt.); nowna_, nauna_, nona_ to tether cow's legs when milking (H.)(CDIAL 7260). niyuvati binds on, fastens (RV.); niyut team of horses; niyuta fastened (RV.); n.iua well joined (Pkt.); nu~_ to plough (Pr.)(CDIAL 7256). nibhadhyate_ is bound (Mn.); nojha_n.u~, no~jhn.u~ cord for tying cow's hind legs at milking (G.)(CDIAL 7221).

5228.Red; red sandalwood: netta ca.ci sp. sandalwood which is red (Kod..); neytto_r blood (Ta.); netr id. (Ko.); nots'/nets- id. (To.); nettar(u), nettara, nettra id. (Ka.); netteru blood (Tu.); netturu, netru id. (Te.); netur, nettur id. (Kol.); nettur, ettur id. (Nk.); netir id.; netro red (Pa.); netrat. red; netir, nettu_r blood (Ga.); nettur, netur, nattur blood; nattur ran. red; natral blackish red; netral red (Go.); neter blood (Kond.a.Mand..); neter id.; red (Pe.); nederi balance word with raka blood (which is Or.)(Kui); netori, neteri blood; neteri/netori id.; red (Kuwi); ditar blood (Br.)(DEDR 3748). For -tor in neytto_r blood (Ta.); cf. to_rai blood; co_r (-v-, -nt-) to trickle down as tears, blood, or milk, fall, drop, be dropped, exude, ooze out (Ta.); curring to flow, gush (Br.)(DEDR 2883). ne- to come (down?)(Pas'.); nye_ti comes into (RV.)(CDIAL 7617). ni_rith absol., ne_run to come out, be produced, be completed (K.); nureik to separate (Kho.); nurik to be separated from part, from (Kho.)(CDIAL 7559).

5229.Chief priest: nes.t.t.a one of the chief officiating priests at the soma sacrifice (Vedic); he who leads forward the wife of the sacrificer and prepares the sura_; Tvas.t.r. has been so called (RV. i.15.3; ii.1.5); nes.t.r. the soma vessel of the nes.t.r., the duties or office of the nes.t.r. (RV. ii.1.2); nes.an.i to lead (RV. x.126.3); nes.a guiding, leading (RV. i.141.12); ne_tra guidance (AV. x.10.22); procurer (ChBr. i.7.12); ne_tr. leader (RV. ii.12.7; RV. vii.776.6); ne_ta_ the sun (TS. vi.1.2); ne_to_s to carry (TS. vi.1.3)(Vedic.lex.) nis.t.ha_ decision (Gaut.); firmness (Mn.); nit.t.ha_ foundation, base, conclusion (Pali); nit.h certain (A.); nit.ha_ perseverance; adj. thorough-going (Or.); ni_t.h basis, confirmation (H.); nit.ha_iba_ to do things thoroughly, persevere (Or.); nit.hi certainly (G.)(CDIAL 7503). ni_t. right, proper; ni_t.um, ni_tum indeed, truly (Go.); net.t.age, net.t.a_na, net.t.a_ne, net.t.anna proper (Ka.)(DEDR 3739). Collection: net.hi_ quantity of anything gathered together (P.); nis.t.ya_yate_ crowds together (VS.)(CDIAL 7501).

5230.Relation: nin.ar-u affection, love, benefit, good (Ta.); nenaru affection, love, tenderness, pity (Te.)(DEDR 3669). nan.t.u, nen.t.u relationship; friendship (Ka.); nan.pu (Ka.); nan.t.ugol.uha conciliation; nan.t.iti a female relative; nan.t.a, nen.t.a a relative, kinsman; a friend (Ka.); nan.t.ika_d.u a friend (Te.); nan.n.unan- a friend (Ta.); nan.n.u, nen.n.u to remember with love and gratitude (Ma.); nen.t.aris.t.aru relations and other beloved ones (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) nan.t.ike relationship (Ka.); nan.t.u friendship, a friend (Te.); nan.t.uka~_d.u friend, companion; fem. nan.t.ukatte, nan(u)pu amiability, agreeability (Te.); not. friendship (To.); nan.t.atana, nen.t.atana, nan.t.artana, nan.t.asike, nan.t.ike relationship; nan.pu, nen.pu friendship, affection, love, favour, confidential relationship, delightfulness, charm, pleasantness, agreeability (Ka.); nan.t.u, nan.t.asig, nen.t.asig kin, relationship; nen.t.e a relation (Tu.) nat.t.a_r friends, relations (Ta.); nan.n.u (nan.n.i-) to draw near, approach, reach, be attached to, united with, adhere; nan.n.unar friends, adherents; nan.pu, nat.pu love, attachment, affection, amity, friendship, relationship; nan.pan- friend, companion, associate; nan.mai, nan.i nearness, proximity; nan.iya_n- one who is near; nan.un:ku (nan.un:ki-), nan.uku (nan.uki-) to approach, draw nigh, arrive at, become attached to or united with; nal. (nat.p-, nat.t.-), nal.l.u (nal.l.i-) to approach, join, associate with, contract friendship, befriend, like, accept; nal.l.unar friends, adherents, associates (Ta.); nan.n.uka, nen.n.uka to remember with love and gratitude (Ma.); nan.y gratitude for help given by another (or perhaps 'friendly help')(Ko.); nanucu to like, love, be fond of; nanuvu agreeableness (Te.); nan-, nann- to enter (Ga.)(DEDR 3588).

5231.Gratitude: nan-r-i gratitude; virtue, merit (Kur-al., 994); goodness; help, kindness, benefit, favour (Na_lat.i, 357)(Ta.); nan-r-i-kol(lu)-tal to be ungrateful (Kur-al., 110); nan-r-u that which is good, goodness (Tiruva_ca. 49,8); excellence; greatness, largeness (Tol. Col. 343); virtue, merit (Kur-al., 908); happiness, felicity (Kur-al., 328); good deed (Pur-ana_. 34); benefit (Na_lat.i, 327); prosperity (Kur-al., 379); expr. signifying approval (Ci_vaka. 1932); nan-n-ar goodness; that which is good (Tirumuru. 64)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Festive occasion: nan-na_l. festive occasion, festival day (Man.i. 1,35); nan-r-a_ka well, satisfactorily (Tiruva_ca. 12,16); a term of benediction (Ta.inscr.); nan-ku that which is good (Kur-al., 719); happiness (Tiruva_lava_. 16,6); nan--kot.ai donation, gratuity, benefaction, present; gift with full power of disposal conferred on the donee; nan-mai goodness (Tiruva_ca. 33,5); utility, usefulness (Kur-al., 103); nalme (Ka.); nan-mai happy occasion (S.I.I. iii,47)(Ta.lex.) a_nanda happiness (RV.); a_nandin happy; a_nandita (Skt.); a_nanda (Pali); a_n.am.da (OG.); a_n.a~d joy, satisfaction (G.); a_nandin (Pali); a_n.am.diya (Pkt.); a_n.am.di_u (OG.); a_n.a~di_ (G.)(CDIAL 1172).

5240.Gambling; pleasure garden: nandika joy, pleasure; name of Indra's pleasure-ground; nanda one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra; nandi gambling, gaming; na_ndi_ prosperity; praise of a deity; nandanam name of the garden of Indra, the elysium (Skt.lex.) nit.t.a pleasure, pleasant (Tu.); nit.- to become sweet; nit.ni, (non-masc.) nit.nat sweet (Kond.a)(DEDR 3667). Luxuriant, fertile; prosperity: nantu increase, prosperity (A_ca_rak. 97)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nanta part. a particle of comparison (Tol. Po. 291); nantu to be luxuriant, fertile (Mullaip. 97); to prosper, flourish (Patir-r-up. 69,16); increase, prosperity (A_ca_rak. 97); nantal increase, prosperity (Kalit. 136)(Ta.lex.) nanda joy (RV.); nandi (MBh.); nandi_ (Pali); n.am.di (Pkt.); na~_di_ joy, prosperity, praise (H.); nada joy (Si.)(CDIAL 6949). nandati rejoices (RV.Pali); n.am.dai (Pkt.); na~_dna_ to be happy, live long and well (H.); na_m.dai takes delight in (OG.); na_m.dan.em to stay long, dwell (OM.); na~_dn.e~ to suit (OM.)(CDIAL 6950). nandana gladness (MBh.); rejoicing (Pali); n.am.dan.a (Pkt.); na(n)dana (Si.)(CDIAL 6951). nandin rejoicing (MBh.)(CDIAL 6953). Garden: na_ndana pleasure garden (Skt.); nandana Indra's paradise (MBh.); nam.dan.a Indra's pleasure garden on Meru (Pkt.); nadun (Si.)(CDIAL 7058). nanta-van-am flower garden, especially attached to a temple (Kampara_. Kil.aikan.t.u. 14); nantan-am flower-garden; nantan-a-van-m Indra's flower-garden (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 12,49); flower-garden; grove (Ta.lex.)

5232.Good, delight, pleasure, beauty, prosperity: nal (nar--) good; nalla good, fine, excellent, abundant, copious, intense, severe; nallatu that which is good; nallavar the good, the holy, friends, the learned, women; nallavai good things or deeds; nalla_r the good, the great, the learned, women; nalla_l. woman of noble character; nallo_r the good, women; nala (-pp-, -nt-) to result in good, take a favourable turn; nalappu goodness, benefit, success, efficacy; nalam goodness, virtue, beauty, fairness, profit, advantage, reputation, fame, prosperity, welfare, delight, pleasure; nalavar good, virtuous persons; nalavu goodness; nalku (nalki-) to rejoice; show favour, bestow, grant, give; nar-ku good; adv. well; nar-pu, nar-r-am goodnes; nar-r-u that which is good; nan-ku that which is good, abundance, beauty, health, stability, happiness; adv. well; nan-mai goodness, excellence, benefit, virtue; nan-r-u that which is good, goodness, excellence, greatness, virtue, benefit, prosperity; nan-n-ar goodness, that which is good (Ta.); nal good, fine; nalam, nallam goodness, beauty; nalkuka to bestow, grant; nalpu, nalma goodness; nalla good, right, fine, handsome, real, true; nallatu that which is good; nallan, nallavan a good, happy man; nalla_r fine ladies; nanni goodness; nannu good, advisable; nanma goodness, prosperity (Ma.); nalva.yn one whose mouth (va.y) smells good, who enjoys food and prosperity; na pal teeth that grow straight and regular (Ko.); nas-, nas-O beauty; nas-o. n. pr. man (To.); nal goodness, fairness, fineness; nalme goodness, welfare, prosperity; nalla a good etc. man; goodness, excellence, beauty; nala, nalavu, nalivu, naluvu, nalvu pleasure, delight; nali to be delighted, rejoice, be pleased with, be fond of; n. pleasure; nanni truth, love, affection ( = Ta. nan-r-i, Ka.lex.)(Ka.); nalle good (Kod..); nalu, nala good, cheap; nalm goodness, friendship (Tu.); naluvu beauty, ability; beautiful (Te.); nela_ good (Go.); Nala n. pr. of a man (Skt.) (DEDR 3610).

5233.To kiss, fondle; to pet, to spoil: {Echo word} lad. dally, fondle Skt.); lad.ati sports (Skt.); la_d.ayati courts; la_d.ayate_ desires (Dha_tup.); lalati sports; la_layati fondles (MBh.); lal.ati sports, dallies (Pali); lalai (Pkt.); ler- to desire (Gypsy); lol.ik to look at (Kho.); la_l.eti makes sport (Pali); la_le_i caresses (Pkt.); lar.a_vvu~ (G.); la_l.ile~ fondled (OM.); nalavanava_ to fondle, coax (Si.)(CDIAL 10922). lad.aha lovely (Skt.); lat.abha (Skt.); lat.aha (VarBr.S. com.); lad.aha pleasing, beautiful (Pkt.); lad.ahi adj. beautiful (OG.)(CDIAL 10923). lal fondle (Skt.); lalati sports, dallies (MBh.); lalawun to fondle (K.); lal.vu~ to be in an ecstasy of love (G.); lalakna_ to long for (H.)(CDIAL 10968). la_d.ana fondling; la_laka (Skt.); la_ra husband (K.); lo_ri_ wife (K.); la_r.a_ bridegroom; la_r.i_ wife (P.); le_r.o_t.u very young bridegroom; la_r.a_ bridegroom; la_r.i_ bride (WPah.)(CDIAL 11012). lad.d.ia fondling (Pkt.); la_d.u caressing; la_d.o bridegroom; la_d.i_ bride (S.); la_d.la_ spoilt (of children)(L.); la_d. love (P.); la_r. fondling (Aw.); love (Ku.); amorous dalliance (N.); affection (H.); la_d.a_ darling (H.); la_d.ali_ (OMarw.); la_d. caress (G.); la_d.li_ spoilt darling; la_d.o darling; la_d.i_ bride (G.); la_d. fondling; la_d.akn.e~ to fondle (M.)(CDIAL 11013). la_lana caressing (BhP.); la_lan.a fondling (Pkt.); la_lan-pa_lan caresssing and cherishing; la_lan mistress (H.)(CDIAL 11025). la_lasa eagerly longing for (MBh.); eager desire (Skt.); la_las desire, wanton dance (B.); lalsa_na_ to lust after (H.); la_lac cupidity (H.); lala desiring (Si.)(CDIAL 11020). nalan:ku festive ceremony in a marriage in which the bride and bridegroom daub each other with sandal, saffron and other things (Ta.); nalugu id. (Te.); nalan:kan-ital < nalam + to overflow with love (Ci_vaka. 2060); nalam love, affection; delight, pleasure, gratification (Ci_vaka. 2067); nalan:kit.u-tal to perform the preliminary ceremony of anointing the feet of the bride and bridegroom with oil, soap-pod, turmeric and a powder called nalan:kuma_ (W.)(Ta.lex.) la_litya amorousness; lalita amorous (Skt.); lalca_na_ to lust after (H.)(CDIAL 11029). la_lya to be caressed (Skt.); la_la woman (OAw.); la_l darling, infant son (H.); la_la_ darling (H.)(CDIAL 11030). To kiss: nond.a_na_ to spoil, pet, to kiss; lond.- to caress, to pet, fondle (Go.); non.d.- (-it-) to caress (Kond.a); nond.- (-t-) to kiss; not.kaha a_- to kiss one another (Pe.); nut.ka- to caress (intens.)(Mand..); nond.- to kiss, caress; nonja (nonji-) to kiss; n. a kiss (Kui); notkali, lond.inai to kiss; nond.- id.; intens. not.k- (-it-) to kiss ( = sexual intercourse)(Kuwi); nad.re to caress (Malt.)(DEDR 3787). Lip: lut.i a lip, the lips; cetan lut.i the upper lip; latar lut.i the under lip (Santali.lex.) ta_t.na_ (t.at.t.yas) to lick, kiss; t.at.t.-e_rna_ to taste (Kur.); t.at.t.e to lick; t.at.re to taste (Malt.)(DEDR 2952).

5235.Weaver; net-work: texture; web; to link together: ne_ka_r-a weaver (Ka.); neyiga_re weaver (Tu.); ne_ge, neyige texture (Tu.); ne_ge, ne_yge, ne_yige weaving, a web; entwining or being entwined (Ka.); negc- to make close-woven (?Ko.); ney to weave as clothes, string, link together (Ta.); neyva_r the caste of weavers (Ta.); neyvu weaving (Ta.); necavu weaving, act of weaving, texture, inter-texture, web (Ta.); neyka to weave, plait mats (Ma.); neyttu weaving (Ma.); neyyal weaving (Ma.); nec- to weave (Ko.); nic- to darn (To.); nes- to weave (To.); ne_y, ne_yi, neyyu, ne_, ne_yu to weave, entwine (Ka.); neyi, ne_, ne_yu weaving, a web (Ka.); ne_yika_r-a, neygeka_r-a weaver (Ka.); ne.y- (ne.yuv-, nejj-) to spin (thread)(Kod..); neyv braiding, weaving (Kod..); neyuni to weave (as a spider) (Tu.); neyipini, ne_pini, ne_yuni to weave, plait, braid (Tu.); ne_yu to weave (Te.); ne~_ta weaving, texture (Te.); ne~_taka~_d.u, ne~_tari weaver (Te.); ne~_ta-purugu spider (Te.); ne_cc- to weave (Go.); ney- (-t-) to weave or thatch the roof with leaves (Kond.a); nehpa (neht-) to build a fence (Kui); neh'nai to interweave (Kur.); essna_ (issyas) to weave, entwine into a fabric, furnish or adorn any article with net-work or plait-work (Kur.); ese to plait, do mat-work (Malt.)(DEDR 3745). n.e_vaccha dress, arranging of dress, dressing up, disguise (Pkt.); n.e_vattha (Pkt.); neucha_ adornment (MB.); nichani dressing (B.); neocha adornment (OMth.)(CDIAL 7604). Cloth: ne_tra a kind of cloth (Skt.); veil (R.); net. a kind of fine silk cloth (A.); net a kind of fine cloth (B.); neta a kind of thin silk, banner (Or.)(CDIAL 7589). cf. ne_tra cord of churning stick (MBh.)(CDIAL 7588).

5236.Image: stubble: nand.a, nad.a, nar.a, nr. the haulms of food grains before reaping; their stubble after they have been reaped (Mu.Sadani)(Mu.lex.) net.t.u stalk, peduncle (Ta.); et.t.u, et.t.i footstalk of a leaf or fruit (Ma.)(DEDR 2925).

5237.Image: pincers: la_l.i a pair of tongs, a pair of pincers; tan.d.asa, ikkar..a, ga_l.uka (Ka.); la_gu, la_cu to pull, drag, draw, twitch (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

5238.Image: scorpion: an.drike scorpion (Kod..)(DEDR 2901). tit.or, t.umt.er, t.u_mt.or, t.unt.or scorpion (Kol.); t.it.or, kit.or id. (Nk.); t.it.t.o, cit.u, cit.ukli id. (Nk.); kir.kar., e_t.e kir.kar, e_t.e kikkar., e_t.e kihkar., e_t.okar. id. (e_t.e crab)(Go.)(DEDR 2956). Image: scorpion, Indian turnsole: a_n.t.ai Indian turnsole, te_t.-kot.ukki (Ta.lex.)

5239.Image: crab: ˝en.t.u crab (Akana_. 176); cancer in the zodiac (Ta.); ˝an.t.u id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Image: crab: end.erke, ye_t.e, e_t.e, irid (pl. irdil), crab (Go.); en.d.raka_yi, esad.i, e_d.i, nal.l.i, lal.l.i id. (Ka.); an.d.i id. (Kod..); deji, ed.eji, d.eji, jeji crab (Tu.); dengi id. (Kor.); en.d.ri, en.d.rika, en.d.raka_ya id. (Te.); end.e id. (Kol.Nk.); ende id. (Kol.); ir.di id. (Pa.); an.t.u, en.t.u, nan.t.u, nal.l.i, nal.ir crab, lobster (Ta.); an.t.u, nan.t.u crab (Ma.); nayl.(n.) id. (Ko.); r-e_to id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2901). kul.ira, kakkat.a a crab (Pali.lex.) Image: crab: ni_la-k-ka_li (ni_l.am + ka_l) a kind of crab; ni_la-k-ka_li nan.t.u id. (Ta.lex.)

5241.Image: seat: niti-p-palakai golden seat (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 18,41)(Ta.lex.)

5242.Middle: nar.pi middle, second (child)(Ga.); nad.ave, nad.uve, nad.ive between, an intervening space, the very middle, difference (Ka.); nat.u middle, centre, waist, equity (Ta.Ma.); nad.u id. (Ka.); middle, centre (Kod..); id., waist, loins (Tu.); middle, waist (Te.); nad.i, nad.umu id. (Te.); nar.v middle, centre (Ko.); nat.a very centre (Ko.); nar.y ke.r the centre one of the three exogamous divisions of the Kota village (Ko.); nat.t.a, nat.t.e belonging to the middle, central (Ka.); nad.d.i back of the waist, hollow above the loins (Ka.); small of the back, back of the waist (Te.); ad.d.umta middle (Nk.); ad.mun in the middle (Nk.); nar.ub middle (Pa.); nar.bul in the middle (Pa.); nad.d.um among, middle (Go.); nad.um middle, between (Go.); nar.mita internal (Go.); nar.i-mursu_l waist (Go.)[cf. mutuku (Ta.)(DEDR 4955)]; nar.mu waist, middle (Kond.a); nal. middle, centre (Ta.)(DEDR 3584).

5243.Idol: na_d idol, devil, evil spirit (Kur.); na_das devil-worshipper; rascal, rogue, knave; na_d-xall any field where an idol has been set up (Kur.); nade a stone set up in the name of a deity; nado relating to nade, or a deity; nado-maku the intestines of a slaughtered animal, such as the liver, heart, etc., which are supposed to belong to the gods (Malt.)(DEDR 3645).

5244.Image: perpetual lamp: cf. ananta endless, boundless (RV.Pali); anam.ta (As'.Dardic.Pkt.); nat endless (OSi.)(CDIAL 286). nanta_-vil.akku perpetual or ever-burning lamp kept in the inner sanctum of a temple or in a place (nanta_vil.akku-c-cut.ar nan-man.i na_t.t.a-p-per-r-e_ : Ci_vaka. 3144)(Ta.lex.)

5245.To redeem: na~_r.na_ (nan.d.yas), la~_d.na_ (lan.d.yas) to rescue, free, redeem (Kur.); na~_d.na_, la~_d.na_ to set free, rescue, deliver (Kur.); nd.e, lnd.e to help out of danger (Malt.)(DEDR 3643). nis.kri_n.i_te_ buys back (AV.); nikkin.ati redeems (Pali); n.ikkin.a_i (Pkt.); nikhin.an.o, nikhan.an.o to buy back, redeem, ransom (Ku.); nikhannu (N.)(CDIAL 7493). Poor ryot: na_ta_r poor ryot (< na_ + da_r (U.); na_ta_r-kat.an- amounts due by debtors who have become insolvents; irrecoverable debts; na_ta_r-pa_kki arrears due from por ryots (Ta.lex.) Acquired property: ne_t.u (ne_t.i-) to earn; ne_t.t.am acquired property (Ta.); ne_t.uka to obtain, get; ne_t.t.am acquisition, gain (Ma.); ne.d.- (ne.d.i-) to earn; ne.t.a earning (Kod..); de_r.u_ borrowing of milch animals for their milk, animal borrowed for its milk (Br.)(DEDR 3766).

5246.Inheritance; deposit; stake: nattikam that on which a person stakes his credit (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nya_sa deposit, pledge (Mn.); n.a_sa deposit (Pkt.); na_so (N.); na_s (G.)(CDIAL 7615). nyasta deposited (Mn.); n.atthia deposited (Pkt.); natuva inheritance; natuva_ heir (Si.)(CDIAL 7612). nyasyati throws down, puts down (AV.); nas' to throw, put (Wg.); nis- to send down (Wg.)(CDIAL 7613). Treasury: nakti < naqdi (Arabic) treasury (C.G. 145); nakti-kuma_sta_ treasury clerk, cash-keeper (C.G. 145); nakti-cit.t.a_ account showing cash receipts in a treasury (C.G. 145); nakt-jama_-karcu < naqdi-jama_ + (Arabic) account of cash receipts and disbursements (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) Deposited: niks.ipati puts down, throws, leaves (Ya_j.); nikkhipati puts down, leaves (Pali); n.ikkhivai (Pkt.); ni_m.khi_u thrown away, left (OG.)(CDIAL 7153). niks.ipta deposited, abandoned (Mn.); nikkhitta laid down; nikkhittaka one to whose charge something has been committed (Pali); nikhita_ deposited (As'.); n.ikkhitta put down, abandoned (Pkt.); nikata deposited (Si.inscr.); nakhiddh worthless (L.); nikhiddh, nakhiddh unfit to be touched, of the lowest sort (P.); nikhedan.u to disgrace (S.)(CDIAL 7154). nidadha_ti lays down (RV.); nidahati lays down, accumulates (Pali); n.iha_ya, n.ihe_u put down (Pkt.); nehn.a_ to make (a pot) stand on the ground (P.); nihiba_ to place (Or.); ner.a_eb, nar.a_eb to lay, place, lay aside (Mth.)(CDIAL 7191).

5247.Saving: nista_ra deliverance (Skt.); discharge of debt (Skt.); nittha_ra rescue, payment, acquittance (Pali); n.ittha_ra saving (Pkt.); nita_r clear liquid remaining after all sediment is deposited (P.); nita_r, nitha_r drainage, watershed (Ku.); nitha_r residue, sediment (N.); natara support, sustenance, livelihood (Si.)(CDIAL 7531).

5248.Store: nidha_na place for depositing anything (RV.); store (Mn.); receptacle, accumulation (Pali); n.idha_na, n.iha_n.a store (Pkt.); niha_n.a receptacle (OG.)(CDIAL 7205). nihuran.u to bury (S.); n.ibhua, n.ihua, n.ibhia hidden, still (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7227). nivaha multitude, quantity, heap (Pali)(Pali.lex.) nuhunjik, nihinjik to put to rest, make keep still, establish (Kho.); nuhujik to be at peace, be pleased (Kho.)(CDIAL 7231). nidadha_ti lays down (RV.); nidahati lays down, accumulates (Pali); n.iha_ya, n.ihe_u put down (Pkt.); nehn.a_ to make (a pot) stand on the ground (P.); nihiba_ to place (Or.); ner.a_eb, nar.a_eb to lay, place, lay aside (Mth.)(CDIAL 7191). nidhi setting down (food), hoard (RV.); receptacle, treasure (Pali); n.ihi storehouse (Pkt.); ni_ subterranean treasure-chamber, mine (Si.); niya a place where there is litter and rubbish (Kho.)(CDIAL 7207). nitiyin--kir..avan- Kube_ra as lord of riches; niti-k-kir..avan- id. (Perun.. Vattava. 5,77); niti-k-ko_n- (Tiva_.); niti-pati (Ta.lex.) nitiyam treasure-hoard (Malaipat.u. 575)(Ta.lex.) Treasure: nantam a treasure of Kubera; neti < nidhi treasure, riches (Nar-. 16); netiyam riches (Te_va_. 556,5); neti-y-a_l.an- Kube_ra (Te_va_, 688,7)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5249.Herdsmen: nanta-ko_pa_lan- < nandago_pa_la Nanda, the foster-father of Kr.s.n.a (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 18); Kr.s.n.a, the foster-son of Nanda; nantan < nanda cowherd (i_t.t.in-an- paintot.ai nantarko_n- pan.n.ika_rame_ : Pa_kavata. 10, Ko_vart. 1); Vis.n.u (Ven:kaikko_. 324); a king of the Nanda dynasty, ruler of Pa_t.aliputra (Akana_. 251); a king believed to have issued leather coin; a s'aiva saint; son (Ta.lex.) Hereditary village official: nanti-k-ko_l hereditary village official among Val.l.uvar caste (E.T. vii,310)(Ta.lex.) cf. in.t.ar shepherds (Ta.)(DEDR 450).

5250.Image: snout: n.attha_ nose string (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7031). nathni a nose-ring, to pierce the nose of a bullock to insert a card by which to guide it; nat id.; nathu the snout of an animal, the septum of the nose, to lead by the nose (Santali) (Santali.lex.)

5251.Night: nattam > nakta night (Tiruva_lava_. 38,3)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nendub (pl. nendbul) middle; mendu nal midnight; nend va_v middle of the way (Pa.); nend.in in the middle; nend. gap midnight; nin.d.in in the middle; nin.d.it. vande middle finger (Ga.)(DEDR 3761). naktam night; at night, by night (Skt.lex.) nal. night (Ta.); a.le id. (Kol.); a_l.e (Nk.); a_len (Nk.); nendu nal midnight (Pa.); a_n.d.ek evening (Pa.); na_r.a night (Kond.a); na_n.a night (Pe.); na_lan. night, darkness (Mand..); la'an.a, la'a, la'anga, la_anga, la_l'ana, la_'a night (Kuwi); nan night (Br.)(DEDR 3621).

5252.Night: nhara_tta_, adhra_ta_ night blind (P.)(CDIAL 389). nallam charcoal, blackness, darkness (Ta.); nalupu black, blackness; nalla id., charcoal; nallana blackness; nallani black (Te.); nalam black, dirty; narkam, narka_, narka_m night; nisa narkam midnight (Ga.); narka_, narka, nah-ka night (Go.)(DEDR 3613). hana_ra_ dark; anha_ra_, andha_ra_ dark (L.); anha_ra_ (P.); a_ndha_r dark, darkness (A.); a_nhar (Bi.); anha_r (Mth.Bhoj.); anha_ri_ darkness (Aw.); am.dha_raum. darkness, dark (OG.); a~dha_ru~ (G.); andhaka_ra darkness (R.); aner, andere dark (Kt.); nhe_ri_ storm (P.); anhe_ra_, hane_ra_ (L.); anher, anhera_ (P.); near, nya_ro darkness (WPah.); anya_r, a~dhya_r darkness (N.); anya_ro dark (N.)(CDIAL 386). For nis in nis narkam midnight (Ga.) cf.: nis'a_ night (Gr.S'r.); nis' (Mn.); nisa_ (Pali); n.isa_ (Pkt.); nis' (G.); nis (H.); neh sleep (K.)(CDIAL 7428). nis'a_kara moon (MBh.); nisa_kara (Pali); n.isa_ara (Pkt.); nisayuru (Si.)(CDIAL 7429). nis'itha midnight, night (MBh.); nis'ita_ night (TS.); nisi_ta midnight (Pali); nisi_ha (Pkt.); nisi night (B.Or.Mth.); nis'i (G.)(CDIAL 7436).

5253.To drag a boat using a rope: natta_r-vaittal to warp a vessel (J.); nantai rope for fastening a yoke to the beam of a plough (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. naddha tied; band, fetter, trace (AV.)(CDIAL 6944). cf. nandhi thong (Pali)(CDIAL 6945).

5254.Transplanting: na_t.t.u (na_t.t.i) to set up, fix, plant, place in the ground (as a pole), erect, insert, create; n. position, posture (Ta.); na_t.t.a, na_t.t.i post (Ma.); na.t.y young paddy and ragi plants ready for transplanting (Ko.); nad.u, ned.u to fix firmly, stick or fix in the ground, enter, pierce; na_t.u, na_n.t.u to get within, enter, be pierced or stuck into (as a thorn), fix in the ground (Ka); na_t.i, nat.t.i young plants fit for transplanting (Ka.); na.t.i act of transplanting (Kod..); nat.t.i, net.t.i planting, transplanting (Tu.); transplanting (Te.); na_t.namu transplantation (Te.); na_d.u to enter, penetrate (as an arrow)(Te.); nad.iyuni to be planted or transplanted (Tu.)(DEDR 3583). Sapling: na_t.a, nat.t.i young plants, especially of rice, fit for transplanting (Ka.); na_r-u (Te.); na_r-u, na_r-r-u (Ta.); a_r-u (Ma.); na_r-u to grow up, shoot up, arise, come into existence (Ta.Ma.); na_t.a the act of planting or transplanting (Ka.); na_t.t.a, na_t.t.i (Ma.); na_t.aka the act of planting (Ka.); na_t.u to fix int he ground, to plant (Ka.Te.); na_t.t.u (Ta.Ma.) (Ka.lex.) Image: seedling: na_r-u seedlings reared for transplantation, shoot, sprout (Ta.); young sprouts or plants which are to be transplanted (Te.); na_ru id.; ne_r- (a plant) to rise from the seed (Kond.a); ne_r rice-seedling (Go.); a_r-u young plant fit for transplanting (Ma.); na.t seedlings reared for transplanting (Ko.); na_t.u to sprout (Ka.); na_t.gi a sprout (Ka.); ne_ji nursling, young plant of rice, etc. (Tu.); ne_z to sprout (Pe.); ne_y id. (Mand..); ne_ja to sprout up out of the ground; n. sprouting (Kui); ney to sprout (Kuwi)(DEDR 2919). Image: post fixed in the ground; establish one in life; residence: na_t.t.a, na_t.t.i post (Ma.); nat.ukal memorial stone (for eminent person); na_t.t.am establishing (Tol. Po. 41)(Ta.); na_t.t.u to set up, fix, planjt, place in the ground as a pole (Tiruva_ca. 9,3); establish (as laws, etc.) (Cilap. Pati. 60); establish one in life (Kampara_. Nakarni_. 122); write (with style on palm leaf)(I_t.u. 4,5,2)(Ta.); ned.ige a post or pillar fixed in the ground (Ka.); nad.i- (nat.t.-, nad.ip-) to plant (post, seeds)(Kod..); na_t.a a pole used for a hedge, a pole used for supporting a plantain tree, etc. (Tu.); nat.t.u residence, a place (Te.); na_t.u, na~_t.u transplanting (Te.)(DEDR 3583).

5255.Country: la_t.a, la_d.a, la_r..a name of a people and of the district inhabited by them (Ka.lex.) na.d.i district (Kod..); na_t.u country, district, province (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,7,5; S.I.I. ii,48); locality, situation (Kampara_. Ilan:kaike_. 45); earth, land; world (Kur-al., 1323); kingdom (Kampara_. Ma_ri_can-. 180); state, rural tracts (opposite to nakaram), open place, side, agricultural tract (Cilap. 8,61, Arum.)(Ta.); cultivated land (opposite to ka_t.u), the country (opposite to town), kingdom, province, smaller district (Ma.); na_d.u (cultivated, planted) country (in opposition to ka_d.u), province, district, country (in opposition to the town) (Ka.); district, village (Tu.Te.); na_d.ika, (inscr.) na_n.d.u a country (Te.); na_t.t.am chiefship of a district (Ta.); na_d.iga village superintendent in the service of a sma_rta guru (Ka.); na_d.a_di countryman, rustic, an ordinary common person (Ka.); na_t.t.a_n- inhabitant of a country (Tiruva_ca. 1,90); a revenue officer under native administration whose duty it was to superintend cultivation; na_t.t.a_n.mai office of village headman; soverignty, over-lordship of a country; hereditary overlord of a tribe (Arut.pa_. vi, An-upava. 80)(Ta.); na_t.t.a_n.ma (Ma.); na_t.t.a_r people of a country (Tiruva_ca. 8,6); assembly of country people (S.I.I. ii,514); chief men; title of certain castes as Kal.l.ar, Cempat.avar; an ancient division of cultivators in South Arcot district (G.S.A.D. I,323)(Ta.); the people (Ma.); na_d.ige one of the cultivating classes in northern part of Canara (Tu.); na_t.oki towards home, to the village (Kui); na_t. a place (M.)(DEDR 3638). nd.o at, in, at the place of, in the country of (Kui); no.r. (obl. na.t.) sacred place, dairy complex which is a god (To.); na.r. (obl. no.t.) country, settled area (opposite to jungle), place where dead go (Ko.)(DEDR 3638). naiyu_ (pl. na_ska), na_yu (pl. na_ka) village (Kuwi); na_y (obl. na_t.) village (Mand..); na_ju (pl. na_ka) village, town, hamlet (Kui); na_z/na_s (obl.na_t.) village (Pe.); na_r (obl.na_t., pl. na_hk) village (Go.); nagoo id. (Go.); na_r.u (pl.na_Rku) village (Kond.a)(DEDR 3638). nan.d.o a flock; many (Kond.a); nal. dense (Ta.); nal.i to be vast in extent; n. closeness, density, multitude (Ta.); na_l.i thickening of the skin (Ka.)(DEDR 3622).

5256.Image: nest: ni_d.a, ni_l.a resting place, nest (RV.); seat of a carriage (S'Br.); ni_d.aka nest (MBh.); ni_d.a, nid.d.a nest (Pali); n.i_d.a, n.e_d.a, n.id.d.a, n.ed.d.a (Pkt.); neal ameh nest (Wg.); nyu_ru, dat. ni_ris a meadow (at the foot of or in the midst of mountains)(K.)(CDIAL 7541). ni_d.a shade (Te.lex.)

5257.Pungent smell: net.i pungent odour causing a choking sensation, as of fried chillies; strong pungent smell, stench (Ta.); nid.i a strong, pungent, stifling smell, as that of tobacco or tobacco smoke, of cayenne pepper or its vapour when being roasted (Ka.)(DEDR 3737).

5258.Document writer: net.t.er..uttu-k-ka_ran- document-writer; net.t.er..uttu signature in full; autograph; net.t.o_lai epistle, message (Tiruva_lava_. 26,2)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Alphabet: net.un:kan.akku alphabet (Tol. Er..ut. 94, Urai.); a long account or reckoning (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Account book: nathi a bundle of papers, records of a law suit, an account book (Santali) (Santali.lex.)

5259.Beautiful woman; nice: ni_r-e a fine, beautiful woman, a beauty; a damsel; a gay woman; a courtesan (Ka.); ni_t.u properness, neatness, elegance, beauty, tidiness (Ka.); ni_t.u, ne_t.u (Te.); ne_tti, ne_r-r-i (Ta.); ne_r-r-i (Ma.); ni_t.a (M.) (Ka.lex.) ni_r-a a fine, gay man, a beau; a gallant; a lover; a dear man (Ka.lex.) Image: upright; tallness: net.u long; (-pp-, -tt-) to be long (as time), continue (as rain), become tall; net.umai length, extension, tallness, height as of a person or tree, continuation, protraction, greatness, boundlessness, excessiveness, depth; net.i (-pp-, -tt-) to make delay; net.itu after a long delay; net.ippu long time (Ta.); net.iyo_n- tall person, great person, Vis.n.u; net.il length, long vowel, that which is great or excessive; net.ukku length, as of a wall; net.uka lengthwise, longitudinally, straight on, continuously; net.uku (net.uki-) to extend, be lengthened, grow tall, high or long, be protracted, delayed; net.upam length, height; net.uman- anything long; net.umi tall woman, tall tree (as palm-tree); net.t.a-net.umai great length, excessive tallness or height; net.t.am tallness, length; net.t.a_n:k lengthiness; net.t.a_yam stretchers, piling up bricks perpendicularly or upright; net.t.u length, tallness, long distance, extent, as of the breadth of a pial; net.t.ai tallness (Ta.); net.u long; net.ukkam tallness; net.un:kan tall; net.uppu, net.uppam length, height; net.umpu pride; net.umpan arrogant; net.uman tall man; net.t.a_yam a straight part in a river; a stretcher (brick or stone); nit.u long, tall, straight; nit.iyo_n tall person; nit.uppam tallness; nit.t.al, nit.t.an.-ka_l shin (Ma.); ner.n.er.n. flat on back (of lying or falling)(Ko.); nor.- (nor.y-), nor.x- (nor.xy-) to be or become tall; nor.k- (nor.ky-) to lengthen, let (hair) grow (To.); nid.u, nit.t.u state of being drawn out in length, stretched or extended, that of being long, length, that of being tall, extensiveness, greatness, bigness (Tu.); nit.t.-eluvu backbone; nid.idu that which is extended, long, etc., length, etc. (Ka.); nid.i straight, high, lofty; nid.u long, tall, high; nid.uppa tallness, length; nit.t.-usuru a deep sigh; ned.i long (Tu.); nid.u, nid.uda long; nid.ivi, nid.upu length; long; nid.ucanu to extend; nit.t.-u_rucu to make a deep, long-drawn respiration or sigh (Te.); nit.t.-u_rupu a deep, long-drawn respiration, a sigh (Te.); nir-i straight, long; nir-ikan a tall man (Kond.a)(DEDR 3738). cf. ni_l. to be long (Ta.)(DEDR 3692). Image: length, long line: ni_t.a, ni_l.a length (Ka.); ni_t.t.am (Ta.); ni_t.t.a, ni_d.u (Ma.); ni_t.a-sa_lu a long line or row; ni_t.u straightness; the state of not being curved, that of standing upright; the re_pha (i.e. the embeded r- sound), visarja, gi_t.u (in script); ni_d.u, ni_l. to extend, to stretch out as the fingers, the arms, the tongue etc. (Ka.); ni_t.t.u (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Image: tallness, perpendicularity: net.t.ai tallness (Tiruppu. 1038); nit.ra (Te.); net.t.ane (Ka.); net.ukkam (Ma.); net.t.aiyan- tall man (Ta.); nid.iyan (Ka.); net.iyo_n- tall person; great person (Pur-ana_. 9); Vis.n.u as in his Trivikrama incarnation (Cilap. 11,51); net.uma_l Vis.n.u (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,10,1)(Ta.lex.) net.t.am tallness, length; perpendicularity (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: piling up perpendicularly: net.t.a_yam stretchers, piling up bricks perpendicularly or upright, opp. to kat.t.a_yam (W.) (Ta.); id. (Ma.); net.t.u-kkuttu, net.t.ai-kkuttu perpendicularity; net.umai tallness, height as of a person or tree (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,1,4)(Ta.lex.) Length: net.t.a_n:ku lengthiness (Ta.); net.t.it.ai long distance (Man.i. 3,41); net.t.u id. (Ta_yu. Malaival.ar. 2); net.ittal to make delay (Cilap. 16,21); net.itu after a long delay (Pur-ana_. 296); net.ippu long time (Ce_tupu. Para_vacu. 37); net.uppam length, height (Ta.); nid.upu (Te.); net.uppu (Ma.); net.umai length, extension (Tol. Er..ut. 50)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: camel: net.un:ko_n.i (net.u-mai + ko_n.u = long + curved) camel (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: elephant trunk: net.un:kai elephant, as having a long trunk (Pu. Ve. 7,13); net.u-mu_kku elephant's trunk as a long nose (Te_va_. 1232,8)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Main street: net.un-teru bazaar street (Tiva_.); main street, high road (Kampara_. Nakarni_n:ku. 187)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Large goad: net.un-to_t.t.i a large goad (Ci_vaka. 1835, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: long conch: net.t.u_ti a long spiral conch (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: gateway: net.un:kat.ai lofty gateway, portico (Pu. Ve. 9,2, Kol.u.) (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Voyage; long journey: net.umpayan.am long journey or voyage (Ta.); nid.uvayam (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Long line: net.uvari long row or line (Patir-r-up. 83,2)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: symmmetry, row, column; to classify: net.t.am perpendicular-ity; nat.t.am erectness (Ta.); nit.t.-ena in a standing position, perpendicularly (Ma.); net.t.age straight, upright, properly (Tu.Ka.); net.t.ana, net.t.ane, net.t.anna straightly, straight, erect, proper, orderly, plainly, distinctly (Ka.); net.t.i, nat.t.i niceness, beauty, charm (Ka.); ni_t.a, ni_t.u straightness, state of standing upright; neatness, elegance, beauty (Ka.); ni_t.uga_r.a a tidy man (Ka.); ne_t.u truth, directness (Ka.); nid.pa, nidpa, nit.t.a straight, upright, erect (Tu.); ni_t.a upright, straight, direct (Tu.); nit.t.a, nit.ramu, nit.ra, net.ramu erect (Te.); ni_t.u elegance, beauty (Te.); ni_t.uka_d.u a beau (Te.); ni_t.ukattiya a belle (Te.); net.t.ana adv. straight, clearly (Te.); t.it.t.a straight (Pa.); ni_t. right, proper; ni_t.um indeed, truly (Go.); nit.a koRi a straight pole on which the roof of a house rests (Kond.a); ni_t. straight, fit, proper, right (M.)(DEDR 3739). nisssla_, nissli_a~_ straight (P.)(CDIAL 7123). nira line, row (Ma.); to arrange in order, divide equally (Ta.); nirakka to stand in a line, agree (Ma.); niravu a straight line (Ma.); nerv (nerd-) to stand or be in a line (Ko.); ner row, line (To.); er- (er0-) to sit in rows, walk in a single file (To.); nirappam symmetry, uniformity (Ta.); niral to be placed in a row, arranged in order; n. order, arrangement (Ta.); niravu to lie in rows; nirai to place in a row; be in a row, form a column, be regular, orderly (Ta.); to arrange in order, classify, string together, follow in succession; n. row, column, linel series, order, regularity, arrangement, collection, herd (Ta.)(DEDR 3673). ne_r straightness, row, series, verticality (Ta.); straightness (Ma.); ne_re_ adv. straight (Ma.); ne.re direct, straight (Kod..); ne_re straightness (Tu.); nertama straight ploughing (Tu.)(DEDR 3772). Image: furrow: rad scrape (Skt.); rada scratching, scratch (Skt.); rod furrow, score, incised line, crack, seam (in rock), narrow track on difficult mountain or cliff (Kho.); rod goat track (Yid.); rai long narrow channel made for flow of water from a higher level; rai ka_t.iba_ to cut such a one (Or.)(CDIAL 10610). Footmark, road: radati cuts open (a road or path)(RV.); randu footmark, road, path (S.); rand road, path (P.)(CDIAL 10612). radati scrapes (RV.); randi_tan to scrape (MPers.); rondik to scrape, clear, clean (Kho.)(CDIAL 10613). Image: road, highway: nirattu road, highway (Ma.)(DEDR 3672).

5260.Image: heron; stork: net.ili a large sea heron (W.)(Ta.); net.alai a kind of stork (Nar-. 211, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5261.Image: cricket: net.i cricket (Pu. Ve. 1,3)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5262.Image: finger joint: net.t.i joints of the body; cracking noise of the finger-joints (Ta.); net.ika id. (Te.); net.t.i idleness, laziness (Na_mati_pa. 711); net.t.i-y-et.u-ttal to crack the fingers, knuckles or toes; net.t.i-mur-ittal to stretch oneself, co_mpal mur-ittal; net.t.ai id.; cracking the finger-joints (W.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) not.i crack or snap as of the thumb and middle finger, instant as the time measure of the snap of the finger; (-pp-, -tt-) to snap as the thumb and middle finger; not.ippu instant, moment; not.t.ai smack as a sign of keen relish or anticipation; net.t.i, net.t.ai cracking of the finger joints; net.a-net.-en-al onom. expr. signifying a crashing noise, as of a falling tree (Ta.); ot.i snap of fingers; ot.t.a cracking the joints of the fingers; not.i a snap with the thumb and middle finger, a moment; not.ikka to fillip, snap with the fingers; not.ippu fillipping; not.t.a the cracking noise of the finger joints, smacking the lips, pressing a vesicle; et.a sound of falling, crashing trees; et.t.uka to crash, burst (Ma.); not. sound of clicking the tongue; not. in- (id--) to click the tongue; not.va.yn. man who stutters and splutters when he talks; fem. not.va.c; nocarc- to click the tongue in disapproval or grief (Ko.); nat.ike, nat.aku, nat.ige, nat.uku, nat.t.u, net.ike, net.t.u the cracking noise of the finger and other joints; nat.akkane onom. of cracking or breaking; nat., nat.a sound of cracking the finger joints, that of a faling branch; lot.t.e a smack or cluck with the tongue; net.t.i sound produced by pulling knuckles (Ka.); nat.anat.a with a cracking noise; nat.uku cracking the fingers; net.t.i making a cracking noise by pulling the knuckles (Tu.); net.ika a knuckle, cracking or snapping the knuckles (Te.)(DEDR 2936).

5263.Dipterocarp dammar: net.uva_r--ko_n:ku dipterocarp dammar, hopea racophloea (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ko_n:ku common caung, hopea wightiana; ironwood of Malabar, hopea parviflora (Ta.); ko_n:ku, in: neduva_r go_n:gu hopea parviflora (Ma.)(DEDR 2185). cf. ur-uppa_ a timber tree used in ship-building, hopea decandra (Ta.)(DEDR 717). Gurjun balsam is yielded by several trees of the genus dipterocarpus native to India, Siam and other countries of Southern Asia... a thick and viscid liquid with an odour resembling copaiba balsam and a bitter aromatic taste.

5264.Images: to push; to give birth; to strike: rer. push, shove (Mth.); relna_ to push (H.)(CDIAL 10638). nurugna_ to push back into the fire unburnt ends of logs protruding; nurgna_ to shove in, insert, put fuel or half-burnt bricks into the fire (Kur.); nurge to drag or draw (as a net); nurgre to move onward or slide (Malt.); nu_r-u to force one's way through (Ka.)(DEDR 3711). cf. nugga_d.u to be addicted to passing through by force, as cattle through a hedge or fence; nuggisu to cause to squeeze thorugh or creep in; nugul.u to cause to enter a small, narrow passage (Ka.lex.) cf. ner-r-u (ner-r-i-) to thrust, dash, strike, a mark (as with balls); net.t.u (net.t.i-) to thrust, push, strike as a stone or ball; n. pushing, thrusting, striking, skipping as a stone or ball (Ta.); net.t.- (net.t.i-) to give a sharp shake; (slee) is suddenly broken (Kod..); net.t.u to push, shove; n. push, shove; neppu to push out, thrust (Te.); natta_na_ to dash or throw down, discard, throw away, abandon (esp. a habit), to give birth to, calve; natt- to throw down; nacca_na_, naccha_na_ to cast, fling (Go.)(DEDR 3760).

5265.To give: ni_d.u to hold out, to offer, to present, to give, to serve out, to set (before one, as rice); to put (Ka.); ni_t.t.u (Ta.Ma.); ni_d.u-ka_r-a a man who presents (arrows to a warrior)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5266.Image: crown of head; the forehead: ner-uka crown of the head (Ma.); netti crown of head (Ka.Tu.); nitlu crown of the head (Malt.); ne_c (tala_) the crown of the head (Go.); ner-r-i forehead, front, top, summit; ner-i temples (Ta.); ner-r-i forehead (Ma.); nec forehead (Ko.); nity id. (To.); netti id., head (Ka.); forehead (Kod..); id. (Tu.); front, the peak of a mountain or hill (Tu.); the head (Te.); forehead (Kol.Nk.); nedid.e scalp (Ga.); nir.il, niril pulse in child's head (Go.); neti top of the head; neda vertex (Kond.a); mitil, nitil fontanelle (Kur.); nepe forehead, brow (Malt.)(DEDR 3759).

5267.Platform to store salt: net.t.u platform for the storage of salt (C.G.); net.t.u-k-kan.-palakai lintel, man.ta_n:kippalakai (C.E.M.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5268.High land: nettamu high land or elevated ground, such as the crest or terrace of a hill (Te.)(DEDR 3759).

5269.Bull: nandin S'iva's attendant (MBh.); S'iva's bull (Skt.); na_diya_ bull dedicated to S'iva, image of S'iva's bull (Ku.); na~_diya_, na_diya_, na~_r.iya_ the bull and vehicle of S'iva (H.)(CDIAL 6953). nanti < nandi bull; Nandi, chief attendant of S'iva, having a bull's face; taurus in the zodiac; name of some Pallava kings; a Jaina title; nanti-kalampakam a poem on the Pallava king Nandi III, 9th cent.; nanti-k-kira_mam < nandi-gra_ma village near Ayo_dhya_, where Bharata resided during Rama's banishment (Ta.lex.)

5270.Ragi: natta-ra_ki a kind of ragi called pu_va_t.am ke_r..varaku (G.Sm.D.I, i,218) (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5271.A script: nanti-na_karam < na_garaka (Skt.) a kind of Na_gari script (Civataru. Civaja_n-ta_. 32, Urai)(Ta.lex.) cf. na_nti < na_ndi_ an invocatory verse, as in a drama; prologue (Pi. Vi. 3, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) na_ndi eulogium or praise of a deity; a prayer recited in benedictory verses at the opening of a religious ceremony or of a drama, generally a kind of blessing pronounced as a prologue to a na_t.aka or play; na_ndi_mukha the class of manes of deceased progenitors to whom the na_ndi_mukha-s'ra_ddha is offered; na_ndi-de_vate; the na_ndi_mukha-s'ra_ddha, i.e., a s'ra_ddha or commemorative offering to the manes preliminary to any joyous occasion, as initiation, marriage etc. (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

5272.Image: roof: net.t.a_n:ku-vi_t.u house with a slanting roof supported by a wooden post, but without trusses, standing erect on a beam (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5273.Grease: ne~_ta_ grease, fat, lard (Kur.); nen-ya fat of an animal (Malt.); ney butter, gheee, oil, grease, fat, honey; (-pp-, -tt-) to be glossy, polished, be fat, plump, become greasy, unctuous, or sticky; neyppu unctuousness, oiliness, gloss, polish; ne_yam ghee, oil (Ta.); ney any unctuous substance, grease, fat, oil, lard, ghee (Ma.); nay ghee (Ko.); niy id. (To.); ney, ne_y id. (Ka.); ney id. (Kod..); ne_yi ghee, grease, fat (Tu.); neyyi, ne_yi ghee, oil; nu_ne, nu_niya oil, gingily oil (Te.); ney butter, ghee; nu.ne oil; pa_l nu_ne ghee (Kol.); ney ghee; nu_ne sesamum oil (Nk.); ey oil (Nk.); ney oil, fat; nu_ ney sesamum oil (Pa.); ney, neyyu_ (pl. neygi_l), ney(yu) oil (Ga.); ni_, neyi, nei_, ni_y, ney, ni_y(i), ni_y(y)u id.; ni_y ghee; pa_l ni_ ghee; phuki_ ni_ honey (phuki_ bee)(Go.); niyu oil (Kond.a); ney id. (Mand..); ni_ju id.; pu_ki ni_ju honey (Kui); ni_yu_, ni_yu, ni_yu~ oil (Kuwi)(DEDR 3746). cf. sne_ha grease (S'a_n:khBr.); oiliness (Ya_j.); sine_ha unctuous moisture, sap, fat, affection, love (Pali); sin.e_ha hoarfrost, snow, mist (Pkt.); sin.e_ha, san.e_ha, n.e_ha oil, ghee, affection, love (Pkt.); sineha, s.ineha affection (As'.); nehu, ni~_hu (S.); nehu~, ni~_ (L.); ne~_h, ni~h, nehu~, ne~ho, nihu~, nehur.a_ (P.); neh (Ku.); neha_ (A.); neh, nei (B.); neh, nehu (Mth.); neh (Bhoj.); neha (OAw.); neh, neha_ oiliness, love (H.); neh, ne(h)r.o affection (G.); senehe, sene_, sine_ oil; sanaha, sana_ oil, grease, affection (Si.)(CDIAL 13802). neot.a_ affectionate (B.)(CDIAL 13803). sne_hin unctuous (Skt.); affectionate (Skt.); nehi_ (S.); nehi_, nehi~_ loving; friend (P.); nehi_ affectionate (Mth.H.); snih be wet, be unctuous, be loving (Skt.)(CDIAL 13803). snigdha unctuous, sticky (MBh.); oily (Sus'r.); siniddha wet, greasy (Pali); sin.iddha, san.iddha wet, juicy, greasy (Pkt.); sinidu, sinindu oily, fat, sticky (Si.); thindha_ greasy; thidda_ (L.); thind(h)a_ greasy, containing ghee; thinda_ oil (P.); oily, greasy (WPah.)(CDIAL 13797). snih wetness, moisture (TS.); sne_hiti, sni_hiti pl. waters (RV.); moisture (TA_r.); sni_han, sni_ha_ mucus of nose (S'Br.); sin.ha_ snow, dew, mist, drop of water falling from sky (Pkt.); hin, hi~_n, hinn snow (Sh.); hina (Sv.); he_yan winter (Sv.); hi_n snow, ice (Tor.); hi_n. snow (Mai.); sinnha_ unseasoned wood; sinna~_ moist, wet (L.); sinnha_ wet; sinnhn.a_ to be wet (P.)(CDIAL 13798). cf. iznera, izne_ra winter (Pr.)(CDIAL 14107). cf. hima cold, frost, snow (in himavant-)(RV.)(CDIAL 14096). stimita wet (Nais..); sindo wet (Phal.); stim be wet (Skt.)(CDIAL 13693). For semant. 'affection' x 'smoothness' cf.: naya (-pp-, -nt-) to desire greatly, long for, appreciate, respect, esteem, please, beseech, implore, love, woo, show affection for, be glad, rejoice, be sweet, pleasing, agreeable, be cheap; nayappi (-pp-, -tt-) to induce to love or desire, persuade, win one's compliance; nayappu affection, love, desire, delight, pleasure, cheapness; nayam, nayan- grace, favour, desire, happiness, joy, gladness, goodness, civility, courtesy, love, affection, tenderness, piety, devotion, cheapness, fineness; nayavar lovers, friends; ne_ love, compassion, mercy, grace; ne_cam love, affection, piety, desire as for learning, suitability; ne_can- friend, ally, votary, devotee; fem. ne_ci; ne_ci (-pp-, -tt-) to love; ne_yam love, affection, piety, devotion, good, benefit; nimmati tranquility (Ta.); nayam gentleness, cheapness; ne_s'an friend (Ma.); naya softness, smoothness, fineness, mildness, gentleness, pleasantness, cheapness (Ka.); nayan gentle, smooth (Kod..); naya gentleness, meekness, kindness, fineness, polish, softness, delicacy, cheapness; fine, soft, smooth, glossy, gentle, meek, kind, cheap; naiya soft; nas soft, gentle; softness; neyim fine; neyi-muli soft grass; neyi-panti a smooth kind of grass, soft straw; neyyol.i a tender palm-leaf (Tu.); naya beauty; nayamu softness, smoothness, cheapness, liking, excellence; necceli friend; nemmadi tranquility; tranquil; nemmi love, affection, attachment, happiness, delight, peace of mind; nemmika love, affection, tenderness; neyyama_d.u to be kind or loving; neyyapu-r-e~_d.u epithet of Cupid; neyyari, neyyu_d.u friend; fem. neyyura_lu; ne_yamu friendship, justice; ne_stamu friendship, love (Te.); neyp- to make smooth; ne_m smooth (Go.); ne_'ena_ (ne_cas) to ask for, beg, pray (Kur.)(DEDR 3602). cf. navu (-v-, -nt-) to become soft (Ta.)(DEDR 3617). cf. nama (-pp-, -tt-) to become damp (Ta.)(DEDR 3594). naccu (nacci-) to desire, long for, like, love; n. desire, hankering, liking; nacai desire, eagerness, avarice, love, affection, hope, expectation; (-v-, -nt-) to love, desire; nattu (natti-) to desire, long for, hanker after, love (Ta.); nac- to have great liking for (with dat.), feel desire; nacl desire for a person (Ko.); naccu, narcu, neccu to confide, trust, confide in, rely on, believe, desire, love; n. confidence, trust, faith, belief, reliance, longing, desire, love (Ka.); naccu to trust, be agreeable, be lovable, be trusted, like, be attached to; naccika, nacciga trust, faith, belief; neccili a friend (Te.)(DEDR 3576). nampu (nampi-) to long for, desire intensely, trust, confide in, rely on, believe, have faith in, hope, expect, accept; n. desire, hope; nampikkai hope, trust, faith, vow; nampal desire, trusting, believing; nampakam confidence, trust; navvu (navvi-) to trust unreservedly, expect eagerly (Ta.); nampuka to confide, desire; verbal n. nampikka (Ma.); namb- (namby-) to believe, trust; nambyk belief, trust (Ko.); nob- (noby-) to believe, trust; nobky belief, promise; noby promise (To.); nambu, nemmu to confide, trust, believe; nambike, nambige, nembuge confideence (Ka.); namb- (nambi-) to trust; nambike belief (Kod..); nambuni, nammuni to believe, trust, rely on; nambig fidelity (Tu.); nammu to believe, trust; nammakamu, nammika, nammiga trust, faith, belief, confidence, reliance (Te.); nami- (-t-) to believe (Kond.a); nam- id. (Kui); na_mali id.; na_mminai, nam- (-it-) id., trust (Kuwi)(DEDR 3600).

5274.A class of brahmans: nampu_tiri, nampu_ri a class of brahmans in Malabar (Ta.); nampu_tiri, nampu_ri_ a high class of brahmans (Ma.); nambu_ri a class of sma_rta bra_hman.as in the Malaya_l.a country (Ka.); nambu_ri a brahman of Malabar (Tu.)(DEDR 3601).

5275.Next: nanna_ other; nantara_ elsewhere, in another direction (Kur.); nana, nanala_ yet, still, once more, farther on; nan.a, na_n.a next, further on; nanala, na_n.ala_ yet, still (Ta.); nan other; nane another; nandu again (Malt.)(DEDR 3628). anantara having no interval (S'Br.); anantaram immediately after (R.); an.am.tara (Pkt.); na~tar afterwards, then (M.); anaturu next (Si.)(CDIAL 287). cf. antara inside, interval (Pali); interior, near (RV.)(CDIAL 357). turu postp. till (Si.); a~_tar space between two partic. parts of a weaver's loom (H.); a~_tara intervening space (OMth.)(CDIAL 357). antara different, other (S'Br.); am.tara difference; am.tare_n.a without (Pkt.)(CDIAL 358). antara_la intermediate space (Pa_n..); interior, interval (Pali); am.tara_la (Pkt.); antra_l inner portion of a house, room (WPah.); a~tra_l. space, sky (G.); sky, air (M.)(CDIAL 367). antare_ti comes between, separates (RV.); antarita separated (Pali); am.tare_i separates, puts between (Pkt.); a~_tarvu~ to partition (G.); a~tarn.e~ to pass, omit, outstrip, lose, be lost (M.); a~tara_na_ to separate, set apart (H.); a~tra_vvu~ to separate, intervene (G.)(CDIAL 370). antarya inner (Pa_n.. gan.a); atarye_ within (Wg.); antarika inner, intermediate (Pali); antarika_ inside, interval (Pali); am.tariya_ small interval (Pkt.)(CDIAL 374).

5276.Rice: nais.adha a variety of s'a_li (Car. Su. 27.12, Ni. 4.5).

5277.Bathing: no~_r.na_ (nu~_r.yas) to wash; no~_r.horna_ to wash oneself, one's own hands, feet etc. (Kur.); nr.e to wash anything; nd.re to wash one's hands and feet (Malt.); no_rh'nai, nor- (-h-) to wash (Kuwi); nobga (< nog-b-; nogd-) to wash; act of washing (Kui); noz- (nost-), nuz- (nust-) to wash (Pe.); nuy id. (Mand..); nor-- (noRt-) to wash, clean utensils etc.; refl. nor-ba- to wash (one's own hands, face etc.)(Kond.a); nor- (noh-t-) to wash (hands); norra_na_ to wash (hands or feet); nurra_na_ to wash; nor-, norr- to wash (hands, etc.)(Go.); nor- to wash; norr- (not.t.-) to wash (clothes etc.)(Ga.); nod.- (not.t.-) to wash; nod.ip- (nod.it-) to wash (another)(Pa.); or.- (ot.t.-) to wash (hands, feet, etc.); to wash, bathe (Nk.); od.- (ot.t.-) to wash (body or part of body); o.d.p- (o.d.opt-) to bath (Kol.); nod.i to wash (Bel.); nid.iyuni, nid.ipini, ned.i to wash (Tu.); nut.akku (nut.akki-) to wash, wipe off moisture, destroy, dissolve (Ta.)(DEDR 3783). snapana used for bathing (AV.); act of bathing (S'Br.); n.havan.a bathing (Pkt.); naun. bath (P.); nhavan.a bathing (OG.); naha_van., na_van. bathing, bathing place (G.); na_van.iyu~ bathroom (G.)(CDIAL 13783). snava oozing (Skt.); prasnavana (A_pS'r.com.); naun. artificial reservoir, spring (P.); naun watering place, place with wells; naun. a place for water (WPah.)(CDIAL 13873a). sna_ bathe; sna_ta bathed (AV.); sina_ta bathed, bathing; naha_ta one who has bathed (Pali); sin.a_ya initiated; n.ha_ya bathed (Pkt.); isnar (upper part of) body (esp. with reference to bathing)(Kho.); sanaha act of bathing (Si.)(CDIAL 13785). snati bathes (RV.); sna_yati (Nir.); sna_yate_ (MBh.); sina_ti, n(a)ha_yati bathes (Pali); n.ha_i, sin.a_i, sin.a_yai (Pkt.); naha_n.u_ bathes (WPah.); na_n.o (Ku.); na_oya_ (B.); naha_b (Mth.); nha_il (Bhoj.); naha_b, hana_b (Aw.); n(a)ha_na_, anha_na_ (H.); na_hvu~ (G.); na_hn.e~ (M.); 3 sg. pres. nha_tta_ (Konkan.i); nahanava_, na_nava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 13786). a-sna_tr. not wetting oneself (RV.); isnatri swimmer (Kho.)(CDIAL 13787). sna_tra bathing (Skt.); no_c landing place (as side of river)(Sh.)(CDIAL 13788). sna_na bathing (Gr.S'r.); sina_na, naha_na bathing (Pali); sin.a_n.a, san.a_n.a, n.ha_n.a (Pkt.); n.ha_n.e_i washes; n.ha_n.ia_ bathing (Pkt.); niha_n. (WPah.); na~_r.~e (Ku.); naha_nu (OAw.); n(a)ha_n, hana_n (H.); naha_n. bathing place; na_hn.u~ bathing, ceremonial bathing of bridegroom (H.); nha_n., na_ha_n. bathing (M.); nha_n.a (Konkan.i); nahana-tot.a bathing gha_t. (OSi.); sina_n a bath (Gaw.); s'ina_n (Shum.)[with s'- from Pers. s'ina_); s'ena_n, s'ela_n, s'ilo_n a bath, swimming (Pas'.)(CDIAL 13789). sna_nati_rtha sacred bathing place (Skt.); naha_natittha shallow place for bathing (Pali); sa~_nat.e swimming (Bshk.)(CDIAL 13790). sna_ayati causes to bathe, washes (S'a_n:khS'r.); sna_pana (Mn.); snapayati (AV.); snapita bathed (Skt.); naha_pe_ti bathes, washes; naha_pana (Pali); sin.a_ve_di, nha_vei (Pkt.); na_wun to bathe, scrub, scour (K.); nha_un.a_ to wash; nhauna_ (P.); naha_n.u_ to make bathe (WPah.); nuha_unu, nuwa_unu to bathe (N.); nowa_iba to give a ceremonial bath (to bride or bridegroom or girl after first menstruation)(A.); na_oya_na to bathe (B.); naha_wab to wash (Mth.); nahavanava_, na_vanava_ (Si.); n.have_i, pp. n.havia (Pkt.); pret. (impersonal construction) mi_ nahi_u I washed (WPah.)(CDIAL 13791). na_pita barber (S'Br.); na_piti, na_pini_ (BHSkt.); sna_paka bath attendant (R.); naha_pita barber (Pali); n.ha_via, n.a_vi(d)a (Pkt.); na_i_ barber (S.L.P.); na_in. his wife (P.); na_i, na_wi_, na_yan. (WPah.); na_i_ (Ku.); na_i, neyo (B.); na_i_ (Bi.Mth.); nha_wi_, na_in (H.); na_vi_ (G.); na~_ha_vi_, nha_vi_ (M.); nahavi, navi (Si.); na_wid, noyid (K.); naha_paka barber (Pali); na_u (N.B.Or.); na_u, naua_ (Bi.); na_u (Mth.); na_uni (Mth.); na_u_ (Bhoj.Aw.H.); nauwa_ (H.); na_hu_, nha_u_, na_u (M.)(CDIAL 13792). cf. na_yan-a-ka_ran- player on clarionet; na_yan-am native clarionet (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) sam.sna_payati bath (BHP.); sam.sna_na regular bathing (Skt.); sna_tra bath (Skt.); sanahanava_ to bathe (Si.); sanaha bathing (Si.); sina_ti, sina_ta (Pali)(CDIAL 13054). avasna_payati washes (Kaus'.); avasna_ta bathed in (MBh.); usneik to swim (Kho.); u_nho deep (S.); avan.ha_n.a washing (Pkt.); usna_nu deep water where it is necessary to swim (Kho.); u_nha_r.u (S.); u_nha_n.i_ depth (S.)(CDIAL 876). a_sna_na water for washing, bath (AV.); ahna_na bath (OAw.)(CDIAL 1523). anha_wab to cause to bathe (Aw.)(CDIAL 1524). anha_w flooding a field before planting with rice (Mth.)(CDIAL 1525). pras'na_ti enters water (RV.); pa_n(h)a_ turned yellowish or musty by rain after being stacked or while ripening, uncut (of grain crops)(M.)(CDIAL 8878). nan-d to bathe (Gypsy) (CDIAL 14838). nayuvav I bathe myself; pret. nail'o_m (Gypsy)(CDIAL 14839). cf. nan-ai (-v-, -nt-) to become wet, be moistened, soaked (Ta.); na_ntuka to become wet (Ma.); na_ntu (na_nti-) to become wet (Ta.); na.n- (na.nd--) to become wet in rain (Ko.); nanja wet land (Te.)(DEDR 3630). Swimming: ni_ntu (ni_nti-) to swim in water, overflow, swim, across, cross over, escape from, get over, overcome; n. ocean; ni_ttam flood, depth, sea, abundance; ni_ttu swimming, water of swimming depth, flood; ni_ccu swimming, flood, swimming, depth as of water; ni_ccan-, ni_cca_l. swimmer; ni_cu = ni_nti; to be actively engaged as in a stupendous work, drink to excess, esp. toddy (Ta.); ni_ntuka to swim, sprawl on the ground or in the water; ni_ntam, ni_ntal swimming; ni_ntikka to make to swim (Ma.); ni.nj-, ni.cid.- (ni.cit.-) to swim (Ko.); ni.z,- (ni.j-), ni.d- (ni.dy-), ni.s- (ni.sy-) id. (To.); i_su, i_ju, hi_ju id.; n. (also i_sa) swimming; i_jisu to make swim (as a horse)(Ka.); mi.nd- (mi.ndi-) to swim (Kod..); i_cuni, i_juni id.; ni_nduni id., float; ni_nda_vuni to set afloat, cause to swim; ni_nda_t.a swimming, floating (Tu.); mi_ndi to swim (Kor.); i~_du id.; i~_dula_d.u id., hang; i~_ta swimming; i~_taka~_d.u swimmer (Te.); i_nd- to swim (Kol.); i_tar- id.; i_nta swimming; i_nd- to swim (Go.); iyba- (-t-) to bathe (Kond.a); i_ba- id.; caus. i_tpa- (Pe.)(DEDR 3687).

5278.Small: nanha thin, slim, slight; sharp, high as a tone or note; ad.i nanhageae he is very slim (Santali.lex.) nan-n-i that which is small, short (Ta.); nanna short (Te.)(DEDR 3632).

5279.Fly or flea on dogs: ton.asi a fly on dogs (Ta.); ton.aci, ton.ace, tonaci, tonace, tonase a gadfly, a dog-fly, a horse fly (Ka.)(DEDR 3495). nal.l.u, nallu a kind of flea which infests poultry, cats etc. (Tu.); nalli bedbug (Te.); nand.ke, nan:ke bug (Ga.); nar., nar.(i), nar id.; nar (Go.); nalu (pl. nalku), nar.u (pl. nar.ku), nar. id. (Kond.a); nan:ka, nar.ka id. (Pe.); nakt.a, nukta (i.e. nakt.a), nat.ka, nat.'a id. (nakt.a metath. from nat.ka, originally a pl. form)(Kuwi); nar.ga_ id. (Kur.); nar.ge id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3621A). man:kun.a bug; man:kun.a-bahula buggy (Pali.lex.) matkun.a bed bug (Mn.); makkun.a bug (Pkt.); ma_khun bug, flea (H.); ma_kan. bug (G.); makun.a_ bug, spider (Si.); makunu spider (Md.); bhiku_n. bug (M.); man:kun.a, man:kuna bug, flea (Pali); mam.kun.a, mam.kan.a bug (Pkt.); mo~kun (K.); mun:ghin.u (S.); ma~_gnu~_ (P.)(CDIAL 9747).

5280.Image: sign, penis: lin:ga characteristic attribute (MaitrUp.); penis (Mn.); mark, penis (Pali); lim.ga sign, penis (Pkt.); lin.u limb (S.); lin:g leg (L.); leg, limb, penis (P.)(CDIAL 11051). laur.a scrotum (Orm.); lawu~r. penis (Par.); laur.o penis (S.); laur.a_ (P.); lor.i stick freshly cut from tree (WPah.); lauro stick (N.); lor. penis (WPah.); laur.o penis (Ku.); leur.a_ penis (B.); lahur.a_ penis (Or.); laur.a_ penis (H.); laor.a_ (Mth.); lor.o penis (G.); lavd.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 10875). Loincloth: laja end of cloth tucked in behind (Skt.); lun. loincloth (Kho.); la~_g fold of cloth between thighs (H.); la~_gar. loincloth (P.)(CDIAL 10901). langu_t.i loincloth (K.); lan:got.u (S.); lan.d.oka_ (L.); la~got., la~got.t.a_, la~got.t.i_ (P.); la~gaut.i_ (Ku.); lan.aut.i (N.); len.t.i (A.); la_n:gat., len:gat. (B.); lan:got.a_ (Or.); la~got., la~got.a_, la~got.i_, na~got., na~got.i_ (Bi.); na~gaut.i_ (Mth.); la~got. (H.G.); la~got.i_ (M.); d.an:gat. turban (Wot..)(CDIAL 10903). Cloth: luga, lugr.i cloth, clothing; niate dole lugr.ijon.a with this we will provide ourselves with clothes (Santali.lex.) len.- to be destroyed, demolished; leh- to destroy, demolish (Go.); lenga- (lengi-) to be broken, snap off; lepka (< lek-p-; lekt-) to break, snap off, strike a bargain; n. act of breaking (Kui); r.eng- (-it-) to be broken (Kuwi)(DEDR 5200). cf. nin:gun tail (Pe.)(DEDR 5201). cf. kho_ra limping (SKt.lex.)

5282.Dirty; shameless: nigged.i a shameless (or foolish) person (Ka.); niggu, niggira inelegance, filthiness, nastiness, disgust; niggi_su an unclean man (Tu.); niggad.i cruel (Te.)(DEDR 3664). neku (nekuv-, nekk-) to suffer, be distressed; evvu (evvi-) to cause pain; evvai care, anxiety; evvam affliction, distress, pestilence, dislike; e_val poverty, want (Ta.); neg- (negy-) to suffer from reverse of fortune; caus. negc- (Ko.); negaru to suffer in sickbed (Ka.); neggi, negi shyness, shame; nigaru, negaru to linger as a sick person (Tu.); nevva poverty, calamity, misfortune, distress, peril; nevulu to grieve, be distressed; n. (also negulu) regret, disquiet (Te.)(DEDR 3733). luk stark naked, featherless, unworthy (of person), miserable (of hut); rag, very old clothes (Kho.); lukka_ bad, dissolute (P.); luka_ starveling; lukad. lean, meagre (M.); lugir.o dirty (S.); lugg desolute; lugga_ alone; lugr.a_ empty (of houses)(L.); luga_ clothes (N.); lum.khia dirty (Pkt.); lun. shaven-headed, bald (Kho.); lukka hairless, shaven (Pkt.); lun:gur.a_, nun:gur.a_ lewd, lecherous (Or.); lu~ga_r.a_ lecher; lu~ga_ra_ dissolute, lewd (H.); lu~ga_ diminutive, poor; lu~gn.e~ to become infirm (M.); non.ara_ filthy (B.); nun:gura_ dirty, wicked; refuse (Or.); loku dirty (Sh.)(CDIAL 11072). cf. nagna naked (RV.)(CDIAL 6926). Poverty: alku (alki-) to shrink, diminish, lessen; alkal deficiency, poverty; akku (akki-) to be reduced, shrink, be dejected, become closed (as a flower); nalku_r (-v-, -nt-) to be poor, indigent, destitute; n. poverty (Ta.); akkud.isu to become small, wane (Ka.)(DEDR 252). rocu~ wrinkled, dried up, rustic (G.)(CDIAL 10834). re~ciyo-pe~ciyo weak, cowardly, worthless (G.); re~ji-pe~ji id. (G.)(CDIAL 10812). likar., likr.a~_ piece of cloth, rag (WPah.); lingun to get distorted (K.); le~_g tail (WPah.); len.era_ crippled, lame (A.); len.ur humpbacked and lame (A.); len:ga_ naked, lefthanded; len:gr.a_ limping, lefthanded; len.at., len.t.a_ naked; nen.a_ lefthanded; nen.ar.a_ lame (B.); len:gar.a_, nen:gar.a_ lame (Or.); le~gha_vu~ to limp (G.)(CDIAL 11044). re~gi_-pe~gi_ weak, cowardly, worthless (G.); riga lazy or importunate person (S.)(CDIAL 10732). lo_caka stupid (Skt.); luc, lunj naked (Pers.); lu_ca unembroidered part of cloak (Kal.); luc wicked (K.); lucu blackguard (S.); luco infamous (S.); lucca_ of bad character; luc, lucca_ quarrelsome; lucca_ rascal (L.); lucc lecher; lucca_ profligate (P.); lucpon. debauchery (WPah.); lucca_ miserly; lucr.o lean, mean; luc miser (Ku.); lucco profligate (N.); lussa_ licentious (A.); lucca_ (B.Or.); luc naked, bare; lucca_ profligate; lucr.a_ silly, sycophantic (H.); luccu~ lewd (G.); lucca_ (M.); luj paralysis (of a limb), crookedness (P.); luja_ crippled (P.); lu~j devoid of use of hands or feet, gouty (Ku.); lu~j, luj, luja_ crippled in hands or feet (H.); locca_ profligate, lewd (Or.); lojhva~_ crooked (L.); lojho slack, slow (N.)(CDIAL 11073). Shamless; naked: nagna naked (RV.); nagnaka (AV.); nagga, naggiya_ (Pali); n.agga, n.agin.a (Pkt.); nan.o, nango naked; negal to unclothe; nangoldi (Gypsy); nan naked (Bshk.); na_ano (Phal.); na_l-po barefoot (Phal.); nanu, nonu (Sh.); nonu (K.); nan:gu, nan:go (S.); nan:ga_ (L.P.); nago (WPah.); na~_g, na_n. nakedness; na_gr.o, na_n.r.o naked; na_go a class of ascetics; na_g naked (Ku.); na_n:go naked; na_go debauched or wanton soldier (N.); nan:ginu to be uncovered (N.); la_ga naked (OB.); na_n:ga_, na_n.a_, nen.at., nen.t.a_ (B.); nan:g(h)a_, lan:gha_ naked, unsheathed; nan:gal.a_, lan:gal.a_ naked; nan:gul.i_ lan:gul.i_ naked ascetic; na_ga_ a class of naked ascetics (Or.); na~_gat. naked (Mth.); na_ga_, lan.a_ (Bhoj.); na~g, na~gna_, na~gt.a_ naked; na~giya_na_ to strip; na_ga_ naked mendicant (H.); na_gu~ naked; na_gr.u_ naked, lean, shameless (G.); na_ga_, na_gd.a_, na_kt.a_, na_gva_ naked; nan:ga_ penniless (M.); na_gd.o naked (Konkan.i); n.igin.a naked (Pkt.); nutur.in., lutur.in. (Ash.); ni~git.i in want (Wg.); niton. (Wg.); niptere~ naked (Wg.); ninje~_yigi (Pr.); nicin. (Dm.); lis.t.an (Kal.); nicha_n:g (Gaw.); nican. (Sv.)(CDIAL 6926). nanawru barefoot (K.)(CDIAL 6927). neno_n.o_ naked (Kt.); nenai_n (Pas'.)(CDIAL 6929). ulan:ga naked (A.Or.); ulan:g (B.); ula~g, ala~g (H.)(CDIAL 2097). Image: nakedness: na_n.u, na_n.a nakedness, nudity, the buttocks (Tu.); na_n. that is a cause of shame, an organ of generation (Ka.); na_n., na_n.mai sense of shame (Kur-al., 902); bashfulness, modesty (Tol. Po. 99); na_n.am shyness, coyness (as a feminine quality)(Ta.); shame, modesty, disgrace; na_n.ikka to be ashamed, bashful (Ma.); na.n.d.- (na.n.d.y-) to feel modesty before elder person (Ko.); na.ckm shame (Ko.); na_n. bashfulness, embarrassment (Ka.); a_.n.a shame (Kod..); na_cuni to be ashamed (Tu.); na_na shame, modesty (Te.); na_n.am bashfulness in certain relationships (as the mother-in-law towards her son-in-law, as a man in a gathering of women), embarrassment, delicate, regard, esteem, respect, sensitive dread of evil (Ta.); na_n.u (na_n.i-) to be shy, feel bashful, embarrassed, be abashed, shrink back, feel repugnance or dislike; na_n.al feeling bashful, modest; na_n.i (-pp-, -tt-) to be shy, bashful; n. bashful person (Ta.); na_n.ippikka to make ashamed; na_n.uka to be ashamed (Ma.); kan.a.n.(d.)- (kan.a.n.d.y-) to be modest, abashed, feel self-effacing; kan.a.n.m sense of shake; na.ckm (obl. na.ckt-) shame (Ko.); no.n.- (no.n.y-) to be ashamed, be shy; no.n., no.s'ky shame (To.); na_n. shame, modesty, inherent excellence, grace; that is a cause of shame, an organ of generation; na_n.cu, na_cu, na_cu to become abashed, ashamed or embarrassed; caus. na_n.cisu etc.; na_cike, na_cike, na_cige bashfulness, sense of shame, shame, modesty, decorum, inherent excellence, grace (Ka.); a.n.a shame (Kod..); na_n.u, na_n.a nakedness, nudity, the buttocks; na_cuni to blush, be ashamed; na_cik, na_cig shame, modesty, blushing (Tu.)(DEDR 3639). lajj be ashamed (MBh.); lajja_payati shames (Skt.); lejj to be ashamed (Par.); lajjati is ashamed (Pali); lajjana (Pali); lajjai (Pkt.); laj (Gypsy.Pas'.); laz (Wot..); lajan.u (S.); la_jai (OAw.); la_jna_ to blush, be ashamed (H.); la_jvu~ to be ashamed (G.); la_jn.e~ (M.); lajij to feel ashamed (Phal.); lajja_pe_ti shames (Pali); lajja_ve_di (Pkt.); lazav to be ashamed (Gypsy); laja_in.u to shame (S.); laja_van. (L.); laja_un.a_ (P.); laja_unu to be ashamed (N.); laja_eb (Mth.); laja_i (OAw.); laja_na_ to shame, be ashamed (H.); laja_vvu~ to shame (G.); lajavvu~ to shame, be ashamed (G.); la_ja_vin.e~ to shame (M.)(CDIAL 10909). lajja_ shame, modesty (MBh.); shame (Pali.Pkt.); laj, laji disgrace, shame (Gypsy); laz, la~_z shame (Wg.); las' (Dm.); lajj, laj (Pas'.); laz (Gaw.); lac (Kal.); laj (Bshk.); laz (Sv.); la_j (Phal.); las', las'ai (Sh.); laz (K.); laja (S.); laj (L.); lajj (P.); la_j (Ku.N.B.); id. (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); id. (H. Marw.G.M.); la_ja, na_ja (Or.); la_ja (Konkan.i); lada (Si.); ladu (Md.)(CDIAL 10910). lajja_lu bashful (Skt.Pkt.); laja_ro (S.); la_ja_l.u~ (G.); lajja_lu, lajja_lua_ a species of creeper (Pkt.); mimosa pudica (Bhpr.)(CDIAL 10911). lajjita ashamed (MBh.Pali); lajjia (Pkt.); laji_ (S.); lajji_ (P.)(CDIAL 10912). lajjiri_, lajjari_ the sensitive plant mimosa pudica (Skt.); la_jra_, la_jirva_n.a_ bashful (M.); la_jri_ mimosa pudica (M.)(CDIAL 10913). salajja feeling shame (Skt.); salaja ashamed, modest (Or.)(CDIAL 13283). nirlajja shameless (MBh.); n.ilajja shameless (Pkt.); nilajo (Ku.); nila_z (A.); nila_j (B.); nilajja (Bhoj.); nilaja (OAw.); nilaj, nilajja (H.); ni_laja (OG.); nila_jra_ (M.)(CDIAL 7385). nilja_o, nilja_i put to shame (Sh.)(CDIAL 7406). alajja shameless (Skt.Pkt.); alajj (P.); alaj (H.); alajjin (Pali); alajia_ (Or.)(CDIAL 702). Woman's breast: nakil woman's breast (Kampara_. Mitilai. 45)(Ta.lex.) cf. nakkan- ancient title of dancing-girls attached to temples (S.I.I. ii,261); naked person (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,8, Pan-n-i_.); nakkam < nakka (Pkt.) < nagna nakedness (Te_va_. 91,2); nakku nakedness (Te_va_. 215,6)(Ta.lex.) neno_n.o_ naked (Kt.); nenai_n (Pas'.); na_n.an (P.)(CDIAL 6929). nicin. naked (Dm.); lis.t.an (Kal.); nicha_n:g (Gaw.); nican. (Sv.)(CDIAL 7502).

5283.Hill bamboo: niga_lo, nin.a_lo a small bamboo (Ku.); ni~ga_lo, nin.a_lo the small bamboo arundinaria intermedia (N.); niga_li_ cane stem of hookah (Bi.H.); nirgal, nirgali_, rin:gal the hill bamboo arundinaria utilis (P.); nin.a_wo, nin.ali_ (WPah.); [cf. na_r..i bamboo tube (Ta.lex.)](CDIAL 7178).

5284.Rope; fibre; bow-string: narca a cultivated fibre yielding plant (Santali) (Santali.lex.) na_r fibre, string, cord, rope (Ta.); fibres of bark, strings and ropes from fibre (Ma.); fibre, hemp of plants, cloth made of fibres or hemp (Ka.); na_ri bow-string (Te.); bow-string, the web which surrounds the stripes of a palm-tree branch (Ka.); bowstring, fibrous covering at the bottom of a leaf-stalk, as of a coconut palm (Ta.); na_ram cord (Ta.); na.r thin rope (Ko.); no.r string made from bark (To.); na.ri fibre of plant (Kod..); na_ru fibrous bark or hemp of plants (Tu.); fibrous bark of trees (Te.); na_ra_ rope (Kol.); na_ra id., hanging rope-shelf (Kol.); nari vilu bow with bow-string (Kond.a)(DEDR 3651).

5285.Saccharum sara: rel.l.u a reed used to write with, saccharum sara (Ka.); rellu, r-ellu a reed, s. spontaneum (Te.); relli tuppa bulrush (Kuwi)(DEDR 5171). na_n.al kaus, a large and coarse grass, saccharum spontaneum; penreed grass, s. arundinaceum; bulrush (= ko_rai); lalong grass, imperata arundinacea (Ta.); a reed (Ma.); na_an.a id. (Ma.); na_nal, nal.l.u a kind of reed (Ka.); na_nci bambusa arundinacea (Go.)(DEDR 2909). naruvolu saccharum munja[sic] (Tu.)(DEDR 3624). a_n.al kaus, a large and coarse grass, saccharum spontaneum; bulrush (= ko_rai)(Ta.); reed (Ma.)(DEDR 2909).

5286.Straw: varen. straw of the grain coix barbata (M.)(CDIAL 11329). vari_ asparagus racemosus (Skt.); varaia a kind of rice (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11328). kedar na~r.i~ asparagus racemosus (Santali.lex.) cf. na_r.a_ rawhide rope (P.); na_d.i_ rope; na_yr.i_ thin leather thong (G.)(CDIAL 7049). cf. na_la made of reeds (BhP.); na_d.a hollow stalk (Skt.)(CDIAL 7047). cf. a_n. string, cord (Ta.)(DEDR 2908).

5287.Dealer in ropes; image: bowstring: n~a_n. string, cord (Mullaip. 63); bowstring (Pur-ana_. 14,9)(Ta.lex.) na_n. string (Cu_t.a_.); bowstring (Kalit. 15,2); woman's necklet containing the marriage badge (Kampara_. Nakarni_n.. 49); waist-string (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,2,4)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ne_n., ne_n.u a cord; a rope (Ka.); na_n., na_n.i, a_n (Ta.); a_n. (Ma.); ne_n.a holeya an outcast with a sacrificial cord: a bra_hman.a; ne_n:geyya he who has a rope or noose in his hand: Varun.a; ne_n.uga a man who deals in ropes (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) na_n.i bowstring (Te_va_. 616,4); na_n.er-i-tal to twang the bowstring (Kampara_. Na_kapa_ca. 61)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) niyuta fastened (Skt.); niyuvati binds on, fastens (RV.); niyut team of horses; niyuta fastened (RV.); n.iua well joined (Pkt.); nu~_ to plough (Pr.)(CDIAL 7256). niyo_jayati harnesses (Skt.); niyunakti fastens (AV.); niyo_je_ti urges (Pali); nowna_, nauna_, nona_ to tether cow's legs when milking (H.); n.io_e_di engages in (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7260). niyo_jana that with which anything is tied (AV.); nu_an.u rope for tying cow's hind leg when milking (S.); nihni_ forked branch on which pots are hung (L.); ne~hun. rope for attaching yoke to tongue of a hackery (P.); noini_ tether for cow when milking (OH.); naina_, nain rope round neck or legs of bullock or cow (H.)(CDIAL 7259). Rope: nya_n.an. to tie calf to leg of cow when being milked (L.); nia_n.a_ rope to tie legs of cow when milking, strap with which dasher of churn is twisted (P.); niha_na_ rope to tie legs of cow when milking (H.)(CDIAL 7196). nanga_li, nangali a skein of yarn (Mu.); na_r.kali_ skein (Ta.)(Mu.lex.) nin.a (-pp-, -tt-/-nt-) to tie up, fasten, braid; nin.ar (-v-, -nt-) to tie, fasten; nin.avai tying, bondage, that which is plaited (Ta.); nin. twisted string; ar nin. silver waist-string (ar waist)(To.); nene, nEn.E wick (Ka.); nin., nen., nin a wick (Tu.)(DEDR 3668). a_n. string, cord, bow-string (Ta.Ma.); nu_n.i rope (Kurub.); ne_n.(u) cord, rope (Ka.); non.e rope (Go.); na_su string, rope (Konda.a); no_n.u string, cord made from a forest climbing plant (Kui); no.l. to make rope of bark (To.); no_n.o rope (Kuwi)(DEDR 2908).

5288.Image: bird: na_n.uvam common myna, gracula tristis (Ta.); id. (Ma.)(DEDR 3641).

5289.Fire; hot coal: na_n.i fire (Pe.Kui.Kuwi); na_r.i id. (Kui); na'ni id., hot coal (Kuwi)(DEDR 3640). cf. nala, anala fire (Si.); anala fire (Skt.Pali.); an.ala (Pkt.)(CDIAL 292). an-al fire, heat, glow (Ta.); an-ali fire, sun (Ta.); anal, analca, anacca, anappu fire, heat (Ma.); analu heat (Ka.)(DEDR 327). Wick: nan a wick (Ko.)(DEDR 3631). neruppu fire (Ta.); erippu, nerippu id.; eri heat, burning, pungency (Ma.); nep live coal (Ko.To.); nippu, nippuka fire (Te.); nipp- to kindle; nipka small piece of fire (Kol.); nipka burning coal (Nk.); nir- to blaze; nirkip- (nirkit-) to kindle (Pa.); nirik-, niruk- to light a lamp (Ga.); nirwa_na_ to burn; caus. nirusta_na_ (Go.); dre_ ignition, a flare; dre_ inba to be ignited, flare; dre_na with a flare (Kui); niyu~_r embers, live coals, wood glowing with fire, brand (Kur.); nare flame; narge to rise up in flames; nargtre to blow up a fire, reproach severely (Malt.)(DEDR 2929). cf. eri to burn (Ta.)(DEDR 811). cf. dhi_ splendour (RV. vi.3.3)(Vedic.lex.)

5290.Coin: na_n.aka anything stamped, coin (Ya_jn~.); n.a_n.aka, n.a_n.aga (Pkt.); na_n.o money (S.); na_n.u~ a coin, money, price (G.); na_n.e~ a coin (M.)(CDIAL 7050). na_n.ayam stamped coin (Pan.avit.u. 128); na_n.yamu (Te.); na_n.ya (K.); na_n.iyam (M.)(Ta.lex.)

5291.Rock cell used by ascetics: le_n.a, le_na rock cell used by ascetics (Pali); le_n.a cave, hole, den of animal (Pkt.); len.e nom. sg. cave (OSi.); len-a (Si.); layana place of rest, house, cell (Skt.)(CDIAL 10963). Down, hidden, secret: nin.ya hidden, secret, inner (RV.); nyire down; ni~_r east (Kt.); nye_ra, nyora~ under, below; nyar-pa sole of foot (Dm.); ne~r lower part; ne~runa below (Kal.); nija_ south (L.)(CDIAL 7187). ner(e) down (Sh.); nitara_m downwards (TBr.)(CDIAL 7189).

5292.Image: eye: nayana eye (MBh.Pali); n.ayan.a eye (Pkt.); nen.u (S.); nain.a (OMarw.); nen. (G.); nuvana eye, insight, intelligence (Si.)(CDIAL 6968). nayas'a_lin schooled in political wisdom (Skt.); nesa_la school (OG.); nis'a_l. (G.); nesa_li_u scholar (OG.); nis'a_l.iyo (G.)(CDIAL 6969). cf. ja_na wisdom (Skt.lex.)

5293.Image: bud; sprout: nan-ai (-v-, -nt-) to bud, to appear; n. flower-bud (Ta.); nan a bud (Ko.); leaf-shoot (To.); nane flower-bud, unblown flower, opening bud; vb. flower-buds to come forth, to bud (Ka.); nana flower, bud, sprout; nanayu to blossom; nanucu id., sprout; nan(u)pu to cause to blossom (Te.)(DEDR 3631).

5295.Wet land: nan--cey wet lands, wet cultivation; na_ntu to become wet; nan-ai to become wet, soaked (Ta.); nana moisture, irrigation (Ma.); na.t to make to become wet in rain (Ko.); nane, nene to become wet (Ka.); nele gets wet (Kod..); nena to wet (Kod..); nan.e wet, moist (Tu.); naneri wet rice (Tu.); nanja wet land, land cultivated by artificial irrigation (Te.); nenja to water plants, etc.; n. watering (Kui); nan-ye cold season (Malt.)(DEDR 3630). Image: to liquefy; to become wet: na_ntu to become wet (Ta.); na_ndu (Ka.); na_ntal cloudiness; dampness (Ta.); na_nud.u (Te.); na_ndu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) na_ntuka to become wet (Ma.); nanv- (nand-) to become wet so as to be softened (Ko.); na_n- (na_nd-) to get wet, moist, damp, soaked; na_du to moisten, wet, soak, steep; na_ndu to make damp, cool, etc., liquefy, dissolve, melt (Ka.); na_nud.u moist, wet, soaked, steeped (Te.); na_nd- to be or get wet (Go.); nan-ye cold season (Malt.)(DEDR 3630).

5296.Sarasaparilla: nan-n-a_ri Indian sarasaparilla, hemidesmus indicus (Pata_rtta. 492); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) hemidesmus indicus: ananta (Skt.); magrabu (H.); anantamul (B.M.); uparsara (M.); nannari (Ta.Ma.); gudisugandhi (Te.); roots: used as substitute for sarsaparilla, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic; habitat: upper gangetic plain, eastwards to Bengal and the Sundarbans, and from the Madhya Pradesh to south India (GIMP, p.132).

5297.Image: tip: nun-i point, tip, minuteness, fineness, smallness; (-pp-, -tt-) to sharpen to a point, whet, examine carefully, look intently; nun-ai point, tip, end (Ta.); nuni very thin and meagre (Ma.)(DEDR 3719).

5298.Tuber: na_pa tuber, edible bulb (Kui); napa forest food, edible tuber (Kuwi)(DEDR 3646).

5299.Croton: ne_rva_l.am, ne_pa_l.am croton-oil plant, croton tiglium (Ta.); ne_rva_l.am, ni_rva_l.am id. (Ma.); ne_pa_l.a, ne_pa_la purgative nut plant (Ka.); ne_pa_l.amu croton tiglium (Te.)(DEDR 3776). croton tiglium: jayapala (Skt.); jamalgota (H.M.); jaypal (B.); nervalam (Ta.Ma.); nepala (Te.); seeds and oil: drastic purgative, irritant, rubefacient, cathartic, fish poison; wood: diaphoretic in small doses and purgative and emetic in large doses (GIMP, p.82). kedar na~r.i~ asparagus racemosa (Santali.lex.) danti_ croton polyandrum (yielding a pungent oil)(Sus'r.); dantika_ (Skt.); dam.ti_, dam.tiya_ a big variety of asparagus racemosa, a species of tree (Pkt.); dtta, dti the plant baliospermum axillare (Si.)(CDIAL 6166).

5300.Rice: nakarai a kind of rice (Ta.); navarai a kind of paddy (Ta.); navira, naviri, nakara a rice that ripens within two or three months; navara id.; paspalum frumentaceum (Ma.); navara a kind of grain (Tu.); navare a kind of rice (Tu.); nivari, nivvari oryza (Te.); ni_va_ra wild rice (Skt.)(DEDR 3614). ni_vara wild rice (VS.); ni_varaka (Sus'r.); ni_va_ra wild rice (Pali); niwar a kind of hardy rice growing at high altitudes (K.); nya_r wild rice (H.); nava_r, nama_r rice growing spontaneously (G.)(CDIAL 7571). naiva_ra made of wild rice (TS.); neya_l rice-straw, cord made of rice-straw, straw-rope (B.)(CDIAL 7605). nuvan.ai black Italian millet (Ta.); navan.e, navan.i a small grain, the Italian millet or panic seed, panicum italicum (Ka.)(DEDR 3712). varaku-c-campa_ a kind of paddy, sown in the months of a_n-i, a_t.i, and a_van.i, and maturing in six months (Rd.M.44); varaku-c-cir-u-kur-uvai a kind of paddy, sown in the season of a_van.i to ka_rttikai and maturing in four months (Rd.M. 45)(Ta.lex.) Rice, paddy: neya_l rice-straw, cord made of rice-straw, straw-rope (B.); naiva_ra made of wild rice (TS.)(CDIAL 7605). Straw of paddy: vai straw of paddy, grass; vaikko_l id. (Ta.); straw (Ma.); bai id. (Tu.); ve_vel (pl.) id. (Ga.); bei grass fit for grazing, any shrub fit for grazing (Br.)(DEDR 5553). [cf. me_y to graze (Ta.)(DEDR 5093)]. nihan.a rice plants spread out in rows after reaping (Or.)(CDIAL 7205). ni_va_ra raw rice, paddy; ni_va_ra-ya_gu (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

5301.Intercourse: neut. coming and going, intercourse (B.)(CDIAL 7410).

5302.Image: turning back: cf. nivarta causing to turn back (RV.); n.iat.t.a turning back (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7410).

5303.Wealthy; residence: neva_sika, naivasika, necayika rich, wealthy; nicaya heaping up, accumulation; wealth, provisions; nicita heaped up, full, thick, massed, dense; neva_sika, naiva_sika (fr. niva_sa) one who inhabits, an inmate; living in a place, local (Pali) (Pali.lex.) ni_vara a dwelling, residence; a place fit for the site of a house; ni_vr.t any inhabited country, realm, kingdom (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) niva_ra_ shelter (from wind, rain or sun)(M.); n.iva_raya warding off (Pkt.); niva_raka defender (MBh.)(CDIAL 7417). niva_ta sheltered from wind (Skt.Pali); place so sheltered (S'Br.); niva_taka sheltered place (Pali); nava_ rest; niva_-tana, nava_tana place screened from wind, rest house, rest (Si.); niva_ta safe (VS.); impregnable (MBh.)(CDIAL 7416). niva_sa resting place, dwelling, night quarters (MBh.); stopping-place (Pali); n.iva_sa (Pkt.); neva_su dwelling (OAw.); niva_si stay (OG.); nivasaga neighbour (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 7421). niva_sin inhabitant (Mn.); dwelling (Pali); niva_sika dwelling (Pali); n.iva_si stopping at (Pkt.); niwa_si_ inhabitant (H.)(CDIAL 7422). nive_s'a dwelling place (RV.); encamping (MBh.); nive_sa house, entrance (Pali); n.ive_sa resting-place, camp, entrance (Pkt.); nesad.u hut (OG.); nes, nesr.o, nehr.o shepherd's hut (G.); nivesa dwelling-place, camp, entrance; ni_ya approach (Si.)(CDIAL 7424). nive_s'ana entrance (RV.); nive_sana entrance (Pali); n.ive_san.a resting-place, several houses with only one door (Pkt.); niwesonu piece of wood with which or place where water for mill is turned on or off (Kho.)(CDIAL 7425). Produced: nirvartate_ comes forth, develops (S'Br.); is accomplished, finished (Mn.); nirvr.tta accomplished, produced, ended (Mn.); nirvartayati creates, finishes (RV.); nibbattati comes out of, is produced (Pali); nimat.n.o to end, perish, disappear (Ku.); nibat.na_ to be settled (H.); nivat.n.e~ to come out clear (M.); navatinava_ to stop (Si.); nibbatta existing (Pali); nivut.aspi, nivut.asi attained (As'.); n.ivvatta, n.ivvutta produced, made (Pkt.); nibit.i_n.o, nimit.i_n.o to end, perish, be done for (Ku.); nibbatte_ti produced, performs (Pali); nivat.eti, nivateti attains, accomplishes (As'.); n.ivatte_i, n.ivat.t.e_i produces, makes (Pkt.); nibt.aun.o, nimt.aun.o to dispose (of a contention), decide, exhaust, destroy (Ku.); nibt.a_na_ (H.); nivat.n.e~ to destroy, kill (M.)(CDIAL 7395). nis.patti going forth (Skt.); nipp(h)atti result (Pali); niphatiya_ abl. sg. attainment (As'.); n.ipp(h)atti origin (Pkt.); niput birth (Si.)(CDIAL 7509). nis.padyate_ falls out (S'Br.); comes forth, becomes ripe (Mn.); nis.panna pp. (R.); caus. nis.pa_dayati (MBh.); nipp(h)ajjati is produced, happens (Pali); n.ipp(h)ajjai (Pkt.); nipajan.u to be reared, be cherished (S.); nipajna_ to be produced (H.); nipajvu~ (G.); nip(h)ajan.em. (OM.); nipajn.e~ (M.); caus. nipja_vvu~ to produce (G.); nipadavanava_ (S.); nipp(h)anna accomplished (Pali); n.ipp(h)an.n.a produced (Pkt.); niphano pp. of nipajan.u (S.); niphan complete (H.); ni_panam. befallen (OG.); niphanan.em. to be produced, happen (OM.); nipan born, birth, origin (Si.); nipp(h)a_de_ti produces (Pali); n.ippha_ei (Pkt.); nipa_in.u to rear, support (S.); ni_pa_yam. pp. to produce (OG.); nipa_vvu~ id. (G.)(CDIAL 7511). nivr.tti originating, growth (Mn.); nibbatti constitution, product, rebirth (Pali); nivut.i attainment, success (As'.); n.ivvatti, n.ivvitti, n.ivvutti production, making (Pkt.); nivat birth, existence (Si.)(CDIAL 7401). nirvahati leads out of (RV.); accomplishes (Sus'r.); succeeds (Skt.); nirva_hayati performs; passes (time); nirva_ha accomplishing, completing; livelihood (Skt.); nibbahati leads out (Pali); n.ivvahai passes (time), is finished (Pkt.); nibahan.u to live, pass (time), be ended (S.); nibbhun. to be finished (L.)[cf. nipun.a expert (Skt.)]; nibhn.a_ to be accomplished (P.); nibhan.o to pass time well, go on, live with honour (Ku.); nibahai is completed (OAw.); nibahna_, nibhna_ to last, be accomplished, succeed (H.); nibun to be accomplished (K.); nibhvu~, nabhvu~ to endure, continue, be held on (G.); nibhn.e~ to be accomplished, get through, come well out of (M.); nibba_hati leads out, removes; nirba_dhati removes, wards off (Pali); n.ivva_hia passed (of life); n.ivva_han.a completion (Pkt.); niba_han.u, nibha_in.u to accomplish, pass (time)(S.); nibha_van. to accomplish (L.); niba_hun.a_, naba_hun.a_, nibha_un.a_ (P.); nibhaun.o to manage, maintain, help (Ku.); niba_hal to carry on, pass on (Bhoj.); niba_hai completes, accomplishes (OAw.); niba_hna_ to accomplish, conduct, carry on (H.); nibba_ha_pe_ti causes to be led out (Pali); niba_wun to accomplish, conduct, manage, pass (time)(K.); nabhava_vai accomplishes (OG.); nibha_vvu~ to accomplish, bring safely and well out of, overlook, pass by; nibha_van., nabha_van. act of so doing; nibha_v, nibha_vo, nabha_vo passing through well, endurance (G.); nibha_vin.e~ to accomplish, bring safely through; nibha_vn.e~ to be accomplished, come well out of; nibha_v success (M.); n.ivva_ha completion (Pkt.); niba_hu, niba_ho living, getting on, settlement (S.); niba_h, naba_h, nibha_u accomplishment, sufficiency, concord (P.); niba_h accomplishment, protecting (Mth.); niba_ha success, livelihood (OAw.); niba_h accomplishing (H.)(CDIAL 7397). nim- settle, cease (M.Si.)(CDIAL 7399). Birth; livelihood; settlement; to last; permanence; immovables; site of house: ni_mba (ni_mbi-) to live, survive, revive; n. life, survival; ni_ppa (ni_pt-) to cause to live, give life to; ni_r.e living, alive (Kui); ni_dali, ni_d.inai, ni_d.- (-it-) to live, be alive; ni_t.- (-h-) to make alive; ni_r.eyyu alive (Kuwi)(DEDR 3689). niva_d.a_ settlement, decision (M.); niva_d.a id. (Ka.lex.) nirvr.ta satisfied (Mn.); at peace, extinguished, ceased (Ma_rkP.); nibiran.u to be finished; caus. niberan.u (S.); nibbuta happy (Pali); n.ivvud.a, n.ivvua, n.ivvaya calm; n.ivvad.ai ceases from pain (Pkt.); nibbar.na_ to be finished, be settled; niber.na_, naber.na_ (P.); nimar.no to be finished, be spent, disappear; nima_r.n.o, nima_n.no to consume spend (Ku.); nibr.a_ to be finished; caus. nibr.a_na (B.); nibar.iba_, niba_r.iba_ to accomplish (Or.); nibar.na_ to be accomplished; niba_r.na_, niber.na_ to accomplish, settle, adjust (H.); nivar.vu~, nimar.vu~ to turn out, come up, become conspicuous; niva_r.o, niver.o settlement, decision (G.); nivad.n.e~ to decide; niva_d.a_ settlement (M.); niviya_ pleasant i.e. the contented (Si.)(CDIAL 7392). nibt.ero settlement, agreement (N.); nibt.era_ (H.)(CDIAL 7394).

5304.Profit: napa_ profit, gain, advantage (Ta.); nafa_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) naphe profit, gain (Ka.); napha_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Taking, buying:{Echo words.} nen.a_, nen.i act of taking, money or anything due; den. nen. giving and taking (Or.); n.ayan.a taking (Pkt.); nayana leading (Skt.)(CDIAL 6967). ni_ta led (RV.Pali); nita, nitaga (NiDoc.); n.ia taken away (Pkt.); nu_ he took away (Tor.); nyu_v 3 sg., ni_y 3 pl. (K.); nio, ni_a_, neo, nen.u~ (WPah.); nia_ act of taking, buying (Or.); nila brought (B.)(CDIAL 7544). la_u-sa_u, la_o-sa_o gain (H.)(CDIAL 13332). leva_-devi_ giving and taking (P.); lewa_-de_vi_ (K.)(CDIAL 10948). {Echo word}. labh obtain (NW. W. and SW.); take (C. and E.); lo_ta_, lo_ete found (Ash.); lato_ (Wg.)(CDIAL 10937). labdhrima possessed (Skt.); ltri_ things, goods (Kt.); letri_ possessions (Pr.); lateri thing (Dm.); la_c goats (Sh.)(CDIAL 10938). Find: labdha taken, seized (MBh.); a_labdha (RV.); laddha taken (Pali.Pkt.); ladha (As'.); ladha, ladhaga (NiDoc.); ladyem. I obtained (Dm.); la_d (Wot..); lat.h, lad. he found (Bshk.); la_du pret. of luw- to find (Sv.); la_du pret. of lahe- (Phal.); ladu_en.i_ was found by him (K.); ladho pp. of lahan.u, labhan.u (S.); laddha_ (L.P.); ladha_ was taken (OB.); la_dha pp. of lahai (OG.); lad-a, lat pret. of labanava_ to reach, get (Si.); laddhia obtained (Pkt.); lath, lat to find, meet with; alth- to load,saddle (Gypsy)[cf. a_labdha seized (RV.); touched (MBh.); a_laddha joined, touched (Pkt.)(CDIAL 14281); al.apn.e~ to bind round by wrapping (M.)(CDIAL 1360)]; lhadu_ to load (Phal.); laddhn.a_ to be found, seek (P.); laddhiya_ taken (H.); la_dhna_ to take, get (H.); la_dhai finds (OMarw.); la_vu~ to be found, accure (G.); la_dhn.e~ (M.); lac to find (Gypsy); lajjhn.a_ to be obtained, find, get; caus. lajha_un.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 10946). To find; to see; to take; to buy: labhate_ catches, takes (AitBr.); labhe_t (AV.); labhati (MBh.); lahe_i (Pkt.); labhati obtains (Pali); laheyu, lahevu they should receive (As'.); laham.ti (NiDoc.); labhai, lahai takes; pp. laddha, lahia (Pkt.); low- to find, obtain; pret. lo_ete (Ash.); la_-, lawr-, pret. la_toi (Wg.); lay- to find; pret. ladyem (Dm.); lay- to find; to see (Pas'.); le_-, pret. lho_us to find (Gaw.); leik (agent noun lak) to obtain, find (Kho.); la_-ga~_ to receive (Bshk.); lahe- to find; pret. la_du (Phal.); layoiki to obtain, find; lhaunu (Sh.); lahan.u to obtain; pp. ladho (S.); lvan., laihan., lahan. to take, receive (L.); lahin.a_ to find; lain.a_ to take (P.); lain.a_ to take (WPah.); lhia~r.~ (Ku.); laiba (A.); laha_ (B.); laiba_ to take, hold, observe (Or.); lahai obtains (OAw.); lahna_ to find, get, get on well, experience (H.); lahai gets; pp. la_dhau (OG.); lahevu~ to listen attentively (G.); la_hn.e~ to acquire (M.); ada_t, da_tum take (Skt.); la_ti takes, receives (M.); id. (Pali.Skt.); pp. la_ya (Pkt.); la_n.o (Ku.); la_nu (N.); laoya_ (B.); la_iba_ (Or.); la_na_ to bring, buy (H.); de_ti, ne_ti takes (Skt.); le_i takes (Pkt.); 3 sg. pres. lel takes; pp. lino; li- to take, buy (Gypsy); le_na to take (D..); leti_ taking (S.); leva_-devi_ giving and taking (P.); le_wa_-de_vi_ (K.); le_n to take; le_n.a_ (WPah.); lin.o (Ku.); linu (N.); len.a_ act of taking, dues (Or.); lei takes; pp. li_nha, leb (OAw.); lena_ (H.); lei, pp. li_nau and liyo (OMarw.); levu~, pp. li_dhu~ (G.); len.e~ to put on (clothes etc.)(M.); la_nar brings (Gypsy)(CDIAL 10948). endr-, enderp- (endert-) to bring (Pa.); indr- id. (Ga.); ondorna_ (Kur.)(DEDR 802). For semant. 'see', cf. vir..i eye (Ta.)(DEDR 5429). labhana obtaining (BhP.); labh take, obtain (Skt.); labhana gift (Pali); lahan.a gain (Pkt.); lahan.o debt, credit; lahan.an.u to have due (S.); lahna_ debt, loan (L.); lahin.a_ (P.); lahan.o, lahan.i_, lain.o, lain.i_ one's share, luck, fate (Ku.); lahana_ ma_ at interest; lahan-tahan long-dated loan (N.); lahana_ outstanding debt (B.); lahna_ profit, outstanding debt (H.); len., lehen.u~, len.u~ outstanding debt (G.); lahn.e~ bill, order of payment (M.)(CDIAL 10949). labhyate_ is taken (R.); labbhati is permitted (Pali); labbhai is taken (Pkt.); labun to get, gain (K.); labhan.u to be obtained; pp. ladho (S.); labhan.; pp. laddha_ (L.); labbhn.a_ ; pp. laddha_ to be gained, seek, find, get (P.); la_bhai obtains (OAw.); is obtained (OG.); la_bhvu~ to find (G.); la_bhn.e~ to be acquired, accrue (M.); labanava_, pp. lad, lat to reach, get (Si.)(CDIAL 10950). lambhayati causes to get, presents (MBh.); gets, finds out (Mn.); lambhe_ti causes to be obtained (Pali); lam.bhai, lam.bhaidavva (Pkt.); lam- to seize, dash (Pas'.); lamoiki to seize, catch, begin; lamo_nu to begin (Sh.); lomina to catch (D..); la~_bhab, lambhab to drive cattle to graze on another's crops (Bi.)(CDIAL 10961). Profit: lambha finding, obtaining (ChUp.); lam.bha profit (Pkt.); la~_bhu~ lot, lottery (G.)(CDIAL 10960). labdhi gaining, profit (Ya_j.); laddhi religious belief (Pali); gain, peace (Pkt.); la_d peace (Wg.); lad (Pr.); la_t (Ash.); lot (Kt.); la_dhi gain (S.); ld faith (Si.); ldi inclined to, devoted (Si.)(CDIAL 10947). la_bha finding, profit (Mn.); gain (Pali.Pkt.); la_ha (Pkt.); la_ho (S.); la_h, la_hu, la_ha_ (P.); la_hu (OAw.); la_h, la_ha_, la_u-sa_u (H.); la_hu profit (OG.); la_v, la_ha_vo, la_vo fruition, enjoyment of pleasure (G.); la_ho acquisition, gain; la_ho, hla_v greed, covetousness (M.); lab profit (Si.)(CDIAL 11018). Gain; bill; debt: labhana obtaining (BhP.); gift (Pali); lahan.a gain (Pkt.); lahan.o debt, credit; lahanan.u to have due (S.); lahna_ debt, loan (L.); lahin.a_ (P.); lahan.o, lahan.i_, lain.o one's share, luck, fate (Ku.); lahana_ ma_ at interest (N.); lahan-tahan long-dated loan (N.); lahana_ outstanding debt (B.); lahna_ profit, outstanding debt (H.); len., lehen.u~, len.u~ outstanding debt (G.); lahn.e~ bill, order of payment (M.)(CDIAL 10949). la_hn.a_, lha_n.a~_ outstanding debt, loan given to another (L.); laha_n., la_n. profit; laha_n.u~, laha_n.i_, la_hn.u~, la_n.u~, la_n.i_ distribution of presents to members of a community (G.); la_hn.i_, la_n.i_ reaping (M.)(CDIAL 11019). cf. aran.a a nuptial present (Ka.); aran.amu a gift of money to a daughter and son-in-law at the time of marriage (Te.)(DEDR 203). cf. la_va reaping, cutting (Skt.); lau reaping (Psht.)(CDIAL 11031). la_han. to pay off a debt (L.); la~_ha_vu~, la_vu~ to distribute (G.); la_hn.e~ to acquire (M.)(CDIAL 11020). Harvest: la_ba_ro harvest (S.)(CDIAL 11037). la_vya to be reaped (Pa_n..com.); la_b harvesting (Br.)(CDIAL 11036). la_vayati causes to be cut (Skt.); la_ve_ti (Pali); la_iavva (Pkt.); la_van. row of 40 sheaves in harvest field (one of which is the reaper's wage (L.); la_uni_ harvest (H.); la_n, la_n.i_ reaping; la_hn.i_ reaping, rice or other grain; la_n.i_ sickle (M.); la_n., la_n.i reaping (Konkan.i); la_yana cutting X da_yana (Pali)(CDIAL 11035). la_vaka reaper (Ma_rkP.Pali); la_yaka X da_yati (Pali); la_wa_ hired reaper (P.H.)(CDIAL 11032). Harvest; reaper; sickle: da_ta mowed (Pa_n..com.Pali); dua_ harvested or cut (of rice); harvesting of rice (Or.); dua_-dui id. (Or.); dua_l.i reaper (Or.)(CDIAL 6256). da_ti cuts, mows (RV.); da_yati mows (Pali); da_iba pres. part. da_u~ta_, da~_ti (A.); da_oya_ (B.); da_iba_ to cut rice with a sickle, mow grass (Or.)(CDIAL 6257). cf. da_tra knife, sickle (RV.); let.g sickle (Pr.)(CDIAL 6260). pralabhate_ seizes (MBh.); cha_la_-thu_ he has found; ca_l 1 sg., aor. calam to find, get (Mai.); calo~ to receive (Chil.)(CDIAL 8751). pralambhayati cheats, deceives; pralambhana (BhP.); palambhe_ti deceives (Pali); polambanava_ to entice, desire, instigate (Si.)(CDIAL 8754). vilambha gift (Skt.); viraha division; virau fixed allowance of food (S.); bilo present of meat (Ku.); share in the spoil (N.)(CDIAL 11888). bil.ahiba_, bil.ohiba_ to distribute, serve food, choose (Or.); vilabhate_ consigns, allots (Ka_tyS'r.); bila_ to distribute (B.)(CDIAL 11889). vilambhayati causes to receive (Skt.); vilha_van. to divide, allot; pass. vilhappan. (L.); bila_iba to bestow, distribute, serve out (food)(A.); bila_na to distribute (B.); bila_iba_ to distribute, give away (Or.); bila_na_ to bestow (H.); vira_han.u to distribute (S.); vara_vvu~ to give (G.)(CDIAL 11899). vilipsate_ desires to distribute (S'Br.); virchan.u to divide, apportion (S.); vilchn.a_ to live extravagantly (P.)(CDIAL 11903). vircha dividing, rations or money in lieu (S.)(CDIAL 11904). X vil. (vil.v-, vin.t.-) to split; vil.kai leaving; vil.l.al separation; vil.avu (vil.avi-) to split; n. cleft, crack (Ta.)(DEDR 5432). cf. vil.ampu (vil.ampi-) to serve food; vir..ampu boiled rice (Ta.); vil.ampuka to distribute food, serve out; vil.ampan one who superintends the distribution, esp. in victualing houses; vil.ampikka, vil.appikka to ask for more food (Ma.)(DEDR 5434). sam.labhate_ takes hold of each other (TBr.); sam.labdha (Skt.); sam.liddha embraced (Pkt.); salhn.a_ to collect, bring together (P.); salha_r.an.u to tie (two animals) together when grazing; salhar.u a pair of animals (S.); salha_r.an. to tie (two animals) together when grazing (L.)(CDIAL 13002). rabh take hold (Skt.); rabhate_ takes hold of (RV.); -zo- to find, get, obtain (Pr.)(CDIAL 10624). rambhati takes hold of (MBh.); ram.bhai begins (Pkt.); rammhana_ (P.); zama learning (Wg.); reme (Kt.); labhate_ learns (Skt.)(CDIAL 10633). cf. harrifing to inquire, ask (Br.); ar-iha knowledge; ar-ime id. (Ka.)(DEDR 314). he_l kanning to learn (Br.); e_lu, elki mind, reason, wisdom (Kui)(DEDR 912). sama_rabhate_ takes in hand (TS.); sama_rabhati undertakes (Pali); sama_rabhai, sama_rahai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13220). To receive, take: e_l (e_r-p-, e_r-r--; e_lv- e_n-r--) to happen, occur, be suitable, convenient, just; to receive, welcome, admit, consent, beg, undertake, engage in; e_l suitability, appropriateness, fitness; e_r-pu id., acceptance, reception; e_r-po_n- beggar; e_r-r-atu that which is fit, proper; e_r-r-am acceptance; e_r-pat.u to come into existence, be produced, be engaged in, agree, consent; e_r-pat.uttu to create, establish, persuade, prepare, arrange, appoint; e_r-pa_t.u arrangement, rule, appointment to an office (Ta.); e_l possibility, reach; preparation, responsibility; e_luka to suit, fit; e_lkka to receive, take in charge, admit, confess; e_lpet.uka to engage in, be responsible for; vb.n. e_lpa_t.u; e_lpet.ukka, e_lpet.uttuka, e_lpikka to entrust with; e_r-r-a admitted, agreed, undertaken (Ma.); e.l- (e.t--) to catch in something held up; e.rpa.r.- (obl. e.rpa.t.-) preparation, selection of a man to do something; e.rpar.t- (e.rpar.ty-) to prepare (thing or to do something), appoint (a person)(Ko.); e.f- (e.t-) to receive, take (To.); e_r- to become, be fit, be suitable, be possible, be able; n. state of being fit etc.; e_rpad.u to be arranged, be ready to act; e_rpad.isu to arrange, set in order; e_rpa_d.u, e_rpa_t.u decision, arrangement (Ka.); e_puni to catch (as a ball), take, lift, or toss up a child in the arms (Tu.); e_lu to accept, admit, take; elayu to arise, be produced, increase, be suitable, become favourable; elara_ru to increase; e_rcu to set in order; e_rpad.u to be arranged, established, determined, appointed; e_rpar-acu, e_rparincu to arrange, settle, establish; elaru increase; elarucu to arise, be produced or manifested; e_rpa_t.u arrangement, system, settlement, decision, appointment (Te.); e_k- to take, lift (Nk.); e_p- (e_t-) to get (Pa.); e_p- to receive, take (Ga.); e_ta_na_ to take, accept, receive; erpa_na_ to spread; e_n- to receive, hold both the palms together in the shape of a receptacle (Ga.);[cf. e_ntu (Ta.lex.)]; els- (-t-) to become large, (family) to increase in size (Kond.a); e_n- (-t-), en- (-t-) to beg (Pe.Mand..); e_n.ba (e_t.-) to put forth the hand to receive, accept, accept the word of, obey; n. acceptance, reception; e_n.pa (e_n.t-) to accept, receive (Kui); e_'nai to accept; e_nh'nai to receive; erhali to hold out the hand; e_r.- id.; e_n.- to cup the hand, make cloth, etc. into a container for receiving something (Kuwi); (h)e_ling to spread out (carpet, clothes to dry, tablecloth)(Br.)(DEDR 905). e_ntu (e_nti-) to stretch out the hands, receive or hold in the hands, hold up, support; e_ntal stretching out the hands (as a beggar), holding up, supporting (Ta.); e_ntuka to take up, wield, stretch arms or legs; e_ttam praising, extolling; e_ttuka to praise, extol (Ma.) (DEDR 894).

5305.Individual: naphara a servant for low work (Ka.M.H.); a mean wretch (Ka.); an individual, a poll (Ka.Te.M.H.); naphara-ja_mi_nu personal bail (Ka.Te.); napar-ja_mi_n- id. (C.G.)(Ta.); nafar individual, person (U.)(Ka.Ta.lex.) cf. -na_bhi in a Pali text reference: the Vessa_ (Vais'yas) are said to have sprung from the navel of Brahma (Sumangala-vila_sini_: DA I.254)(Pali.lex.)

5306.Image: seated: nive_s'ayati brings to rest (RV.); causes to sit (MBh.); nive_se_ti causes to enter (Pali); n.ive_se_i, n.ive_sai seats (Pkt.); nivesi_ya seated (OG.)(CDIAL 7426). cf. nis.an.n.a seated (S'Br.)(CDIAL 7464).

5307.Amazement: nivver-a, nivver-agu great surprise, wonder, astonishment (Te.); nivver-a-pad.u to be astonished or frightened; nivver-a-pa_t.u astonishment, great fear, alarm (Te.); nibber-agu forgetting oneself as a result of long or continuous amazement (Ka.)(DEDR 3678).

5308.Images: bend; to stoop, to bow: nipatati falls in ruin (AV.); settles down (MBh.); falls at the feet of (Skt.); nipa_tayati makes fall (RV.); nipatati falls down (Pali); n.iyam.ta pres. part., n.ivaia pp., n.ivad.ai (Pkt.); niur.an.u to bend down, stoop, bow (S.); nivr.an. to bend, stoop; nivar. standing with hands on knees (L.); nyu_r.an.o to stoop (Ku.); niwar.na_ to bend down (H.); nihor.an.u to press down (S.); ni(h)uranu to bend, crouch (N.); nihur.iba_, lehur.iba_ to kneel down (Or.); nihur.na_ to stoop (H.); nivan.u to bow, steep (S.); nivan., nimun. (L.); neun.a_ (P.); niwna_, neuna_ (H.); n.iva_yai, n.iva_d.e_i makes fall (Pkt.); niva_r.an. to cause to bend or stoop (L.); nua_i-cha_n.a_ to squander (WPah.); ni_va_in.u to make bend (S.); niva_van. (L.); niva_un.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 7214). nihurna_ to bow, stoop (P.H.); ni(h)uranu to bend, stoop (N.); nyu_r.an.o to stoop (Ku.); nihur.iba_, lehur.iba_ to kneel down (Or.); nihur.na_ to stoop (H.)(CDIAL 7227). nibhugna bent (MBh.); n.ihutta sunken (Pkt.); nihu~kna_ to bend, stoop (H.)(CDIAL 7229). nibhujati bends (head and knees)(Skt.) (CDIAL 7231). Image: bent: na_mita bent (R.); n.a_miya bent (Pkt.); nmi (Si.)(CDIAL 7069). na_ma-mat.i-k-kol.l.u-tal to double the tongue (I_t.u, 4,8,7)(Ta.lex.) na_mayati makes bend (R.); n.a_me_i (Pkt.); naun.o (pres. na_ma) to cause (somebody to do something)(WPah.); na_ma_na to make bend (B.); na_vai causes to bow, lowers; na_wab to pour (OAw.); na_wna_ to make bend (H.); na_mvu~ to pour out, spill (G.)(CDIAL 7068). namati bends; namate_ bows (RV.); namayati makes bend (RV.); namati bends (Pali); n.amai, n.avai bows, stoops (Pkt.); namun (K.); namarun (K.); na_va~n.u, nu~_n.u (S.); naun.o~_ (WPah.); nuhunu (N.); nuya_ (B.); nai_ba_, lai_ba_ (Or.); navai (OAw.); namvu~ (G.); lavn.e~ (M.); namanava_, navanava_ (Si.); nivan.u to bow, stoop (S.); nivan., nimun. (L.); neun.a_ (P.); niuna_, neuna_ (H.); namandinava_ to bow down, worship (Si.); name_ti makes bow or bend (Pali); n.ame_i (Pkt.); nuwa_unu (N.); nuya_na (B.); nua~_iba_, lua~_iba_ (Or.); nama_eb (Mth.); nawa_na_ (H.); nama_vvu~ (G.); niva_in.u to make bend (S.); niva_van. (L.); niva_un.a_ (P.); niwa_na_, newa_na_ (H.); niva_vai (OMarw.)(CDIAL 6956). namana bowing down (Ma_rkP.); n.aman.a bending (Pkt.); nami humility (K.); non.i, nu~_n.i stooping, low land (S.); neul.a-muha~_, neul.a_ dragging loads with head bent downward (Or.); navan.i salute (OMarw.); namn.u~ bent and well-shaped; namn.i_ rope tied to horns and forelegs of a bull to make him hold his down (G.); lavan. depressed or low spot, hollow; lavn.i_ hollow under bent body or limb (M.)(CDIAL 6957). namas bow, adortation (AV.); namas, nama homage (Pali); n.amo_ hail! (Pkt.); ne_u~ standing with bent head (L.); nua~_ act of bending (Or.)(CDIAL 6958). namaskaro_ti salutes (Skt.); namah. kr.n.o_ti (RV.); namaskr.ta (Skt.); namakaranava_ to salute (Si.); namakal.a worshipped (Si.)(CDIAL 6959). namaska_ra adoration (AV.); n.amakka_ra, n.avaka_ra obeisance (Pkt.); naka_ra (OG.); namakara (Si.)(CDIAL 6960). namasyati pays homage, worships; namasya adj., namasya_ (RV.); namassati honours (Pali); namasyati (NiDoc.); namam.sai (Pkt.); navasn.e~ to consecrate, vow; navas vow (M.); n.amasia, n.avasia request (Pkt.); navasi_ vow (OM.)(CDIAL 6961). cf. nama_s paryer in a mosque (U.lex.) namita bent down (Skt.); in cmpds. bent on, disposed to (Pali); n.amia-, n.avia- bent (OAw.); lai_ stooping, hunchbacked (Or.); naeu bent (OAw.); namyu~ yielding (G.)(CDIAL 6962). namra bent, submissive (RV.); namraka bowed down (Skt.); namrita (Skt.inscr.); n.amira bending (Pkt.); na_m lower part, bottom (A.); n(m.)buru bent (Si.); na_miba to descend; caus. nama_iba (A.); na_ma_ (B.); la_ma_ (EB.); na_mbe (MB.); na_ba_ (B.)(CDIAL 6964). ninna_me_ti bends down, puts out (tongue)(Pali); nirn.a_ma joint of a wing (S'Br.); nirn.ata bent outwards (Skt.); ninauna_ to make bend, lower (H.)(CDIAL 7334). parin.a_me_ti bends to, turns to use (Pali); parin.a_me_i brings to fruition (Pkt.); parin.a_mayati ripens (S'vetUp.) (CDIAL 7822). pran.amati bows, makes obeisance (MBh.); pan.amati bows (Pali); pan.amai (Pkt.OG.)(CDIAL 8524). vinati obeisance (Skt.); binaya request (OAw.)(CDIAL 11763). vinamati bows down (MBh.); vinamita bent towards (Skt.); vina_me_ti (Pa.); vin.amam.ta bowing (Pkt.); binavai bows (OAw.); binauna_ to adore (H.); vinamia bent right over (Pkt.); binai_ bent; suppliant (H.)(CDIAL 11766). sam.nata bent towards (VS.); bent, stooping (Mn.); sannata bent down (Pali); sam.n.aya (Pkt.); sanna thin; sane-ge_n, sana_-ge_ni_ back, side of waist (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12922). For semant. 'thin' cf.: na_mpu (na_mpi-) to become meagre, thin, emaciated; n. anything lean; na_mpal emaciation (Ta.); na_mbu to be slack, devoid of energy, slothful or idle; na_mba an idle or slothful man (Ka.)(DEDR 3648). namai (-pp-, -tt-) to vex, trouble; navai (-pp-, -tt-) to kill; n. blemish, defect, fault, evil, disgrace, meanness, punishment (Ta.); name, nave to become insignificant in bulk or importance, fall away in flesh, become lean or thin, wear away, become less, become poor; navasiga man who harasses, troubles or torments (Ka.); nameyuni to wear away, become poor; nappu injury, degradation (Tu.); navayu, naviyu to languish, sink, perish, fall away in flesh; nava_ta languishing, grief, illness, decline (Te.); name to reproach (Malt.)(DEDR 3598). nama < namas bowing, salutation, obeisance, reverence (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,3,6); nama-c-civa_ya < namas'-s'iva_ya the sacred five-letterd mantra of the S'aivaites (Te_va_. 1182,1)(Ta.lex.)

5309.Cadamba: ni_pa the tree nauclea cadamba (Skt.); nipa (Skt.); ni_pa the kadamba tree (Pali); n.i_va, n.i_ma (Pkt.); ni_v a partic. kind of tree; its fruit (M.); ni_ nauclea (or anthocephalus) cadamba (Si.)(CDIAL 7549). Nauclea cadamba: dhara-kadambo (Skt.); haldee (H.); keli-kadamba (B.); dharkalambu (M.); dharujakaur (Ka.); magulikarimi: a variety of kadamba found in most tropical parts of India, especially in Bengal. It is bitterish acrid, astringent, refrigerant, aphrodisiac, antibilious and beneficial in convulsions and poison. Juice of its capsules is used in Malabar in colic. Its leaves are used for bandaging boils. (Indian Materia Medica, p. 843). Anthocephalus cadamba: kadamba, nipa, halipriya, sisupala (Skt.); wild cinchona (Eng.); kadamba (G.H.); heltege, kadvala, arsenatega (Ka.); vella-kadamba (Ta.); rudrakshkamba (Te.); kalamb (M.); kadam (B.); habitat: all over India; parts used: fruit, leaves and bark; action: bark is tonic, febrifuge and astringent... juice of the fruit is given to children with cumin and sugar in gastric irritabiity... decoction of the leaves is used as a gargle in aphthae or stomatitis... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 118-119). kadam dare anthocephalus cadamba (Santali.lex.)

5310.Image: watering trough: nipa_na watering place (Mn.); n.i(v)a_n.a watering trough for cattle beside well or tank (Pkt.); nava_n. watering place (G.)(CDIAL 7216).

5311.Image: to stroke the hair; to rub gently; to smear: cf. navu (-v-, -nt-) to become soft (Ta.)(DEDR 3617). cf. navuru, navaru, naviru that is tender, soft (Ka.); navuru, nauru soft, delicate (Te.)(DEDR 3618). ni_geng to massage (Kol.); ni_vu (ni_vi-) to stroke, rub gently, handle softly, smooth by passing the fingers over, wipe off, daub, smear; ni_vi wiping (Ta.); niv- (nivd-) to stroke, massage, comb (hair)(Ko.); ni.f- (ni.fy-) to stroke (To.); ni_vu to rub softly, use gentle friction, stroke down any member of the body, make straight or smooth by stroking, as the hair, beard, cloth, etc.; ni_visu to cause to use gentle friction; nivaru to pass the hand gently over, stroke or rub gently; caus. nivarisu; ne_varisu to make straight, smooth, or peroper by gently rubbing with the hand or fingering, rub gently with the hand or stroke (Ka.); ne_varipuni to fondle, caress (Tu.); nivuru, nimuru to stroke, pass the hand over gently and caressingly (Tu.); ne_ra (ne_ri-) to rub, stroke, polish, massage; n. act of rubbing (Kui); nir.na_ to rub down, powder, scrape into bits (as medicinal rock, kitchen nuts etc.); nir.igna_ to besmear, soil with dirt, rub; nin.d.na_ to mark with chalk (Kur.)(DEDR 3691). Write: nive_s' to write (Kho.); nuvis' (Yid.); nuvus' (Mj.); nevis' (Sang.Wkh.); nipista (As'.); novi_sta or nimis'ta kanag to write (SBal.Ir.); pis' carve (Skt.)(CDIAL 7220). Poultice; to smear; to plaster: lipyate_ is smeared (Skt.); lippati is soiled, smears (Pali); lippai is smeared (Pkt.); lipun to plaster (Wg.); li_pim I plaster (a wall)(Kal.); lipva_van. (L.); lipa_i_ plaster (L.); lipeik (Kho.); lippn.a_ to plaster (P.); li_pn.o (Ku.); lipnu (N.); lipa_ (B.); lipiba (A.); lipiba_, caus. lipa_iba_, nipa_iba_ (Or.); nipa_-nipi plastering (Or.); ni_pab to plaster (Mth.); lipal to wash with water (Bhoj.); li_pna_ to smear; lipna_ to be smeared, stick close to (H.); lipvu~ to plaster (G.); lepn.e~ to smear (M.); lepta_ (Konkan.i); lipat.n.a_ to stick (P.); lipat.na_ (H.); laper.vu~ to smear (G.); lipsanu to repair cracks in walls with mud or cowdung (N.); lipikka closely (of sticking) (N.) (CDIAL 11061). limpa one who smears (Pa_n..); le_mbi_ plastering with mud (L.); le~bi_ (P.)(CDIAL 11065). limpati smears (TBr.Pali); lim.pai (Pkt.); limoiki to plaster with mud (Sh.); limban.u to besmear (S.); pp. lito (S.); limban.; pp. litta_; limmun. (L.); limbn.a_, limmn.a_ (P.); li~_bn.o~_ (WPah.); ni_pab (Mth.); li~_pvu~ (G.); li~pn.e~, lipn.e~ (M.); le~pta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11066). le_pana act of smearing (A_s'vGr..); smearing (Pali); le_van.a (Pkt.); liviu a smear (K.); le_n.o mud plaster (for floor or wall)(WPah.); niuni plasterer's wooden trowel for fine work (B.); lewan ashes smeared on cooking pot (B.)(CDIAL 11111). le_pa smearing (Ya_j.); ointment, plaster (MBh.); plaster (Pali); le_va (Pkt.); leh lime (Wg.); liwa in cmpds. plastering (K.); leu coating of mud outside a pot (S.); le_ mud, plaster, le~_ (L.); leu, le plaster (P.); leu old cowdung plaster that is becoming loose (N.); leu plaster, coating of mud outside a pot (A.); leoya_ a smearing (B.); lew, lewa_ ashes plastered on cooking pot to protect it from fire (Bi.); process of flooding a rice field and ploughing to kill weeds, sowing in a wet field (Bi.); leu old plaster off a wall; lewa_ plaster, ashes smeared on cooking pot (H.); leva_ coating (of paint etc.)(M.); lei_ paste (S.); le_vi_ (L.); levi_, lei_ coat of plaster on wall (P.); lei paste (A.); lei gum (B.); le(h)i, neha_i paste (Or.); lei mud mortar (Bi.Mth.); le(h)i_ paste (H.); leur. plaster fallen from a wall (P.); leur.a_ plaster (H.); let.i_ plaster, paste (S.); let.t.i_ thick paste (L.); let.i_ plaster, paste (P.); lyet.o paste of flour and water boiled with salt and spices (Ku.); lit.o paste, flour gruel (N.); let. plaster, paste (H.); li_t. mucus, snot (G.)(CDIAL 11110). le_payati covers (R.); smears with (Sus'r.); le_pe_ti causes to be plastered (Pali); le_w to plaster (Tor.); liwun (K.); le_n.u_ (WPah.); levn.e~ to lay dry sticks and earth etc. over loppings strewed on a piece of ground to be burnt (M.)(CDIAL 11112). leto, ledo sediment (of clay or oil or any liquid substance)(N.); let-ket viscid (A.); neta_ rag used in plastering (B.); let plaster, paste (H.)(CDIAL 11113). le_pya to be smeared (MaitrUp.); plaster (Skt.); leppa, lippa wall (Pkt.); lepu salve applied to the body (S.); lepo plastering, lump of mud for smearing with (S.); lep plaster, ointment, collyrium (L.); lepa_ plaster, daubing (L.); lep a plaster (P.); ointment (N.); salve (A.); lepa_ soft and sticky (A.); lep, nep a smearing, a plaster; lepa_, nepa_ plastered (B.); to plaster (B.); lepa, nepa plaster, unguent, wipings of the hands (Or.); lepa_ act of smearing (Or.); lepar. plaster scaling from wall (L.); lep plastering, unguent (H.); a salve, a plaster (G.M.); lepr.i_ thick coating, poultice (G.)(CDIAL 11114). Image: a vessel containing ghee: vila_pani_ in: a_jya-vila_pani_ vessel containing ghee (S'Br.); bila_uni dregs of melted ghee (N.)(CDIAL 11897). Ointment: vile_pana ointment (MBh.Pali); vilimpati smears over (S'Br.); vile_van.a sweet smelling unguent (Pkt.); vilavun pl. ointments, perfume (Si.)(CDIAL 11909). avalimpati smears (Kaus.Br.); avale_pana ointment (Sus'r.); o_lim.pati (Pkt.)(CDIAL 835). a_lim.pana whitening, painting (Skt.); a_limpati smears (S'Br.); a_limpe_ti smears (Pali); a_lim.pana whitewashing (Pkt.); e_eba~r.~ decoration of walls with lines of rice-paste (Ku.); a_lipan decorative designs on floor with rice-paste (B.); a_lipna_, a_lpana_ whitening of floor on festive occasions (B.); a_l.ipan.a_ luncheon at the bride's house on the arrival of the bridegroom (Or.)(CDIAL 1385). Writing: lipi writing (Skt.); painting, drawing (Skt.); dipi (OPers.); dipi (As'.); limpi writing (Skt.); lipikara plasterer (R.); lipi writing (Pali.As'.); livi~_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11058). lit-a almanac, calendar (Si.)(CDIAL 11060). Ointment: a_le_pa smearing, plastering, ointment (Sus'r.); ointment (Pali); a_le_va smearing (Pkt.); alevuva anointing (Si.)(CDIAL 1396). a_le_pana smearing, plastering, ointment (Sus'r.); anointing (Pali); a_le_van.a smearing, plaster (Pkt.); alevun ointment (Si.)(CDIAL 1397). a_le_payati besmears (Kaus'.); alavanava_, alevuva_ to paste together (Si.)(CDIAL 1398). a_lipta smeared (Skt.); ali_t dirty (Ku.)(CDIAL 1384). upale_payati smears (Mn.); upalimpati (A_s'vGr..Pali); uvalim.pai (Pkt.); uvale_viya smeared (Pkt.); ol.ivn.e~, ul.ivn.e~ to besmear (M.)(CDIAL 2235). pralipta smeared (MBh.); palitta smeared (Pali); palita_ pl. pieces of cake steeped in ghee and allowed to cool (G.)(CDIAL 8760). prale_payati rubs on (MBh.); pale_pana smearing (Pali); paloiki to rub on, apply to (Sh.); pal to rub on (D..); palijoiki to be smeared on, be in contact with, stick to (Sh.)(CDIAL 8764). salata_ slightly wet, cold (Or.)(CDIAL 13007). sa_lan, sa_lna_ curry of meat or fish or vegetables (H.); sam.le_pa mud (Skt.)(CDIAL 13010). a_la_van.a material for binding or tying (Pkt.); a_l.van., al.van. flour used for thickening (M.); a_lan straw and mud mixed for brickmaking, mixture of boiled lentils and dough (H.)(CDIAL 1375). alli_yati sticks to (Pali); a_l.n.e~ to become inspissated (M.); a_li_i is attached to (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1387). lipta smeared (AV.); sticking to (S'Br.); ripta smeared (RV.); liptaka smeared; poisoned arrow (Skt.); litta smeared (Pali.Pkt.); lito pp. of limban.u to besmear (S.); litta_ pp. of limban. (L.); litn.u_ to touch (WPah.); lito close, resolutely bent on; lwe-lito bloodthirsty (of a leopard)(Ku.); neta_ a touch with something; neta_r., neta_r.i, netur. a touch, remainder of anything undone; adj. half-done (B.); lippa smeared (Pkt.); ni_pe plaster (Bi.)(CDIAL 11059). lipyate_ is smeared (I_s'Up.); lippati smears (Pali); lippai is smeared (Pkt.); li_pna_ to smear; lipna_ to be smeared, to stick close to (H.); lipvu~ to smear (G.); lepn.e~ to smear (M.); lepta_ (Konkan.i); lipat.na_ to stick (P.H.); laper.vu~ to smear (G.); lipikka closely (of sticking)(N.) (CDIAL 11061). cf. limpati smears (TBr.)(CDIAL 11066). cf. limpa one who smears (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 11065). Medicine; unguent: bile_n medicine, drug, gunpowder (Sh.); vilayana melting, dissolution (Sus'r.); a partic. product of milk (Gaut.)(CDIAL 11892). cf. vili_n.a melted, destroyed (Pkt.); vili_yate_ is dissolved, melts (AV.)(CDIAL 11996). To melt: virenava_, viri_yanava_ to become liquid, melt (Si.); vira_i melts (Pkt.); buruik (Kho.); vira_vu~, vara_vu~ to be expended, be exhausted (G.); virn.e~ to melt (M.); bireik to melt (Kho.); vara_vvu~ to expend (G.); virun.u, vurun.u liquified by heat, hot, become dry (Si.)(CDIAL 11862). vili_yate_ is dissolved, melts (AV.); vila_yaka causing to melt (VS.); vili_na dissolved (ChUp.); vili_yati is dissolved, melts, perishes (Pali); vilijjai (Pkt.); wili to melt (Ash.); weli_ (Kt.); wel- (Pas'.); bili_u (Kal.); bilizoiki (Sh.); bilinu to melt, disappear (N.); bilijiba_ to be dissolved (Or.); vila_i melts; bilano melted (Gypsy); bila_y to melt (Dm.); bila_joiki, pret. bila_do to become wet, melt (Sh.); bila_n.o to abate, perish (Ku.); bila_unu to melt, disappear (N.); bila_i (OAw.); bila_na_ to disappear (H.); bilav- to cause to melt (Gypsy); biloiki to melt, wet, moisten (Sh.); bilaun.o to melt (Ku.); vili_na refined (of metals, etc.)(Pali); vili_n.a melted, destroyed (Pkt.); vilin-a liquid, clear, mature, ripe (Si.)(CDIAL 11906). cf. vil.akku to solder (Ta.); vil.akkuka id. (Ma.); bolakuni id., weld (Tu.)(DEDR 5496).

5312.Image: stake at play: ni_vi a stake at play, a wager (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5313.Image: junction: ni_vi junction, union (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5314.Image: pair: ni_vi a pair (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5315.Image: saddle: ni_vi a saddle (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ni_vi < ni_vi_ ornamenal plaiting in a saree hanging from the waist (Tiva_.); knot of a saree tied at the wais when dressing (Periyapu. A_n-a_ya. 2); cloth; money or other valuables tied up in a cloth (Tiruva_lava_. 16,11)(Ta.lex.)

5316.Image: sexual intercourse: ni_vi sexual intercourse (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5317.Image: deer: nauvi deer (Maturaik. 275); navvi female deer, hind (Tol. Po. 612); young of a deer (Pur-ana_. 2); youth, tender age, beauty (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. navvi female deer (Ta.); nauvi deer (Ta.); na_vi a kind of deer (Ta.); navala_ woman (Te.)(DEDR 3619). nyan:ku a kind of antelope (Skt.lex.) na_vi a kind of deer; a musk deer (Pirapulin.. Pirapute_. 28)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) na_bhi musk (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) ni_ka, nika, ninga a kind of deer (or pig)(Pali.lex.) nan:ku an antelope (Ka.); cf. jin:ke (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) niyakki deer (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) jhan:kar axis maculatus (Santali.lex.)

5318.Image: crown of head: navir man's hair; naviram man's tuft of hair, crown of head, head (Ta.); navir(u) hair (Ka.)(DEDR 3615). nima_l.a~_ pl. hair (G.)(CDIAL 7420).

5319.Image: eaves of a roof: ni_vra eaves of a roof (Skt.); n.ivva roof, eaves (Pkt.); nev, pl. neva~_ eaves of a roof, streams of water from the roof, tiles (G.)(CDIAL 7573). ni_vra the edge of a thatch, the edge or side of a sloping roof, eaves; a thatch, a roof (Ka.); ni_dhra id. (Ka.lex.) nivara covering (RV.)(CDIAL 7417).

5320.Trade; trader: ni_vara trade, traffic; a trader; a religious mendicant (Skt.); naive_s'ikam any vessel or implement forming part of domestic furniture; a present to a bra_hman.a householder, e.g. a girl or ornaments given with her (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) ni_va_ka the increased demand for grain in times of dearth, competition of buyers in consequence of scarcity; dearth, scarcity (Ka.Skt.); collecting or laying up grain in times of dearth (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5321.Chief; paramount sovereign: na_bhi, na_bhi_ chief, leader, head; near relationship, community (of race etc.) as in : sana_bhi; a paramount sovereign or lord; a near relation; a ks.atriya (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) napa_p, napa_pu, nava_p nabob, Muhammadan official or governor under the great mogul; a title conferred on Muhammadan gentlemen of distinction (W.)(Ta.); nawa_b (U.)(Ta.lex.) nava_b a nabob (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) naib a deputy (Santali)(Santali.lex.) The Prophet: nabi_ Prophet; Muhammad as the Prophet (W.) (U.Ta.Te.Ka.) (Ta.Ka.lex.)

5322.Image: dike: niyara dike, dam between rice-fields; nera abattis (Si.); niva_ra prevention (Pali); keeping off, impediment (Skt.)(CDIAL 7417). niva_rayati wards off, restrains (MBh.); removes (Skt.); niva_re_ti keeps back, obstructs (Pali); n.iva_re_i wards off (Pkt.); newa_run to ward off, prevent (K.); niva_ran.u to prevent (S.); niva_rna_ to remove, accomplish (P.); niwa_ral to protect (Bhoj.); niva_rai wards off (OAw.); niwa_rna_, nawa_rna_ to prevent, surround, forbid (H.); niva_rai keeps back, allays (OMarw.); neba_rab to prevent (Mth.); niva_rvu~ to turn back, ward off, avert (G.); niva_rn.e~ (M.) (CDIAL 7419).

5323.Image: nave of wheel: na_vi navel (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,10,3) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) nabhi, na_bhi a wheel (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) na_bhika_ navel-like cavity (S'Br.); na_bhi navel, nave of wheel (RV.); the centre, focus, chief point (Skt.lex.); na_bha in cmpds. 'navel-like cavity' (Skt.); na_bhi_ navel, nave (Pali); n.a_(b)hi (Pkt.); nya navel (Dm.); na_i (Tir.); nyo_yak (Kal.); nai (Kho.); na~_hi nave (S.); na_i navel; na_i_ (WPah.); na_i (A.B.); na_, la_i (B.); na_(h)i navel, nave (Or.); na_hi navel (OG.); na_ir.i_ nave (G.); na_n, na_ni navel (K.); na_ nave (B.); na~_h, na_ha_ (Bi.); naha~_ (H.); ne_wi navel (Phal.)(CDIAL 7062). nabhya nave of a wheel (AV.); na_bha_ nave (M.); nba navel, nave (Si.)(CDIAL 6955e). naut.o, naut.i_ navel (Ku.); na_it.o (N.); na_bhya_varta navel cavity (Skt.)(CDIAL 7063). Wooden ring: niwa_r wooden ring or wheel at bottom of a well forming foundation for the superstructure of earth or masonry (H.)(CDIAL 7594). neo a foundation; neo basisau to lay a foundation (Santali) (Santali.lex.) ne_ma the foundation of a wall (Skt.lex.) Image: rim; wheel; spokes of a cartwheel; earthen support for jars: ne_mi the circumference, ring or felly of a wheel; edge, rim; a circumference (in general) (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) neiya~_ earthen support for jars (Aw.); ni~_w, neu, nei f., ni_wa_ foundation (H.); ne_mi rim, felly (RV.Pali); framework for well-rope, foundation of wall (Skt.); ne_ma boundary, foundation of wall (Skt.); ne_ma edge, point, root (Pali); n.e_mi felly (Pkt.); ni_u~, ni~_ foundation (P.); niu~ (WPah.); neo (B.); nia~ (Or.); new foundation of a house wall (Bi.); nei~_ (Bhoj.); niu foundation (Aw.); nima iron rim of wheel (Si.)(CDIAL 7592). ne_miya having a rim (Pali); ni_m dhu_ri_ the second pair of spokes of a cartwheel (Mth.)(CDIAL 7593). lewa_ra_ second pair of spokes of a cartwheel (Bi.); neba_ra_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 7595). newnat.h support of a washerman's board (Bi.)(CDIAL 7596). ne_mi circle (Tiva_.)(Ta.); wheel of a chariot (Kur-un. 189); discus (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 9); wheel of sovereignty (Pur-ana_. 3); mythical range of mountains (Paripa_. 15,4); earth; sea, ocean; Vis.n.u as wielding the discus (Kampara_. Pin.ivi_t.. 70); ne_mi-valavan- id. (Tiv. Tiruva_y, 6,10,2); king; ne_miyacelvan- emperor (Ci_vaka. 2417)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5324.Image: fissure: ne_mam fissure; share; upper part; hedge, fence (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ne_ma half; a part; a boundary, limit; an enclosure, fence; ne_madhita divided (Vedic); ve_da-dhiti dividing into two (Vedic)(Skt.lex.) ne_ma half; a part, a portion (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5325.Bread: nippat.i, nippat.t.u a sort of cake or biscuit (Te.); ipat. (pl. ipad.l.) bread (Nk.); ipat.e, ni_pat.e, nipat.e bread (Kol.)(DEDR 3670). nippu fire (Te.lex.) ner-uppu fire (Ta.lex.)

5326.To lick: le_hana licking (Skt.); le_han.a (Pkt.); le_wan (K.); lehna_ cattle fodder (in stall)(Bi.); fodder, pasture (H.)(CDIAL 11118). lihati licks (MBh.); le_d.hi (R.); lihanti (Skt.); re_l.hi, rihanti (RV.); lihai licks (Pkt.); li_ (Kal.); lik, caus. lieik (Kho.); lihiba_ (Or.); le_hati (Pali); le_hai (Pkt.); le_s (Ash.); le_ij (Ash.); lezi (Kt.); le_y (Dm.); lay (Pas'.); le_ (Kal.); lewun, lehnu (K.); lehan. (a calf) to suck milk; le_vun., lehnan (L.); lehiba_ to suck (Or.); le~vta_ (Konkan.i); lovinava_, lo_nava_, pret. levva_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11069). cf. ney butter, ghee, oil, grease, fat, honey; to be sticky (Ta.)(DEDR 3746). ne_k- to lick (Pa.Mand..); nekku, nakku to lick (Ka.); nekkisu to cause to lick (Ka.); nekkuni to lick, lap; nakkuni id. (Tu.); nakku (nakki-) to lick, lap; n. licking; nakkal food taken by licking; nakki a destitute person, as one who licks scrapings (Ta.); nakkuka to lick; nakki a licker, a beggar (Ma.); nak- (naky-) to lick (Ko.); nok- (noky-) id. (To.); nakk- (nakki-) to lick; nakk licking (Kod..); nakka_vuni to cause to lick; nakkele a man who licks, esp. the plate in which food has been served; a greedy man; fem. nakkeldi (Tu.); na_ku to lick (Te.); na.k- (na.kt-) id. (Kol.); na_k- id. (Nk.); na_k- id. (Ga.); na_ka_na_, na_kina_, na_k- id. (Go.); na_k- (-t-), na_n.(g)- (na_n-t-) id. (Pe.); intens. ne_bga (Mand..); na_ka- (na_ki-) to lick, lap (Kui); na_kali, na_k- (-it-) to lick, lap (Kuwi)(DEDR 3570). Chewing the cud: namalu, nevaru to chew, masticate, munch, chew the cud, ruminate; namalu, nemaru chewing the cud (Ka.); nauntuni, naumpuni to chew; nauntu chewing; mauruni to masticate, chew; maura_vuni to mumble, chew softly (Tu.); namalu to chew, masticate; navulu, naulu to chew; nemaru, nevuru rumination, chewing the cud, cud; nemarucu to chew the cud (Te.); nalm- to chew (Go.); namli- (-t-) to munch with noise, ruminate (Kond.a)(DEDR 3595).

5327.Reverence: namasye reverence, respect, worship, adoration (Ka.Skt.); nama_ju, nima_ju worship; divine service (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5328.Recorded: namu_du represented, declared, mentioned, shown; recorded; settled (Ka.Te.M.H.); mentioning, notice (Ka.); namu_du ma_d.u to record, to mention, to show, to bring to notice (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5329.Sectarian mark: na_mam the vais.n.ava sectarian mark, worn on the person in 12 places, reciting the 12 names of Vis.n.u (Kamapara_. Kat.iman.a. 49); na_maca_ttu-tal to wear the vais.n.ava tridental mark (Ta.lex.)

5330.Button-tree: velma anogeissus latifolia (Kol.); ved.ma_, ver.ma, er.ma id. (Go.); ar.ma, ar.ma_, arma_, or.ma anogeissus latifolia (Go.)(DEDR 5510). namai, vel.l.ai-namai, vel.l.ai-na_kai button-tree, anogeissus latifolia; emai a kind of tree ( = namai anogeissus latifolia)(Ta.); vel.l.a-na_va anogeissus latifolia (Ma.); nammi(stem nam(m)-) id. (Pa.); nauka dhaura tree, anogeissus latifolia (Kur.)(DEDR 3599). For -vel- cf. dhava anogeissus latifolia or grislea tomentosa (AV.); dhaura_ anogeissus latifolia (Or.)(CDIAL 6764).

5331.Image: sprout: na_mpu a small climber (Ta.); a sprout; nampu shoot, sprout; the scion of a family (Ma.); na_mu new sprout growing from the stumps of the great millet (Ma.)(DEDR 3649).

5332.Citrus acida: nimba citrus acida or citrus bergamia [elumiccai, elumiccan. ka_y sour lime, citrus medica acida (Ta.); elumicca lemon tree; ilumpicci, irimpicci, irumpicci lime (Ma.); elimic id. (Ko.); us-mic, us-muc, us-mis'ky id. (To.); ilimici lemon (Ka.)(DEDR 836); cf. gaja nimma the large hill orange, citrus bergamia (Te.)(DEDR 1093)]; Lemon peel (limonis cortex). citrus lemon. Habitat: Northern India. Used as flavoring agent, stimulant and aromatic. Bergamot oil (oleum bergamottae) Bergamot oil is a volatile oil obtained by expression from the rind of the fresh fruit of citrus bergamia... It is used in the preparation of perfumed spirit and in the perfume and cosmetic industries. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 503-504). nimba azadirachta indica (Car. Su. 2.7, 3.3); picumarda id. (Car. Vi. 7.17, 8.135). karun.a citrus decumana (Skt.); karuna_ citrus decumana (B.); karun.a_ citrus medica (Or.); karna_, karan-phal a species of citron (H.)(CDIAL 2810).

5333.Image: eyelid: nimai, imai eyelid (Par..a.); nimai-ttal to wink (Tiruppu. 497)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5334.Barer; by means of, owing to: nia, nia~te by means of, through, owing to; am nia~te noan namkeda I got this owing to, or through you; manjhi nia~ten d.an.d.omlena I was fined through the village chief (Santali) (Santali.lex.) nimaya barter, change, exchange (Skt.Ka.); vinimaya exchange, barter (Skt.Ka.); a pledge, a deposit, a security (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5335.Written document; deed: nama joint to another word implies written; written document, a deed; hukum nama a written order or authority (Santali) (Santali. lex.) na_me a deed: letters patent (Ka.Te.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5336.Name; price: na_man name (RV.Pali); n.a_ma (Pkt.); nav, anav, nam (Gypsy); no_m, pl. na_ma (D..); na_m (Ash.); nam (Kt.); nom, neme (Pr.); na_m (Tir.Pas'.); na_mim my name (Pas'.); no_m (Pas'.); na_m (Wot..Shum.); nam (Gaw.); nom (Kal.); nam (Kho.); na_m (Bshk.Tor.); na~_ (Mai.); nou~ (Gau.); no~_ (Phal.); nom, no_m (Sh.); na_m, na_v (K.); na~_u~ (S.); na~, obl. pl. na~va~, na~_, na_ (L.); na~_, na_u~ (P.); nau~, na~_w, na~_, na_ (WPah.); na~_w, no~_ (Ku.); na_u~ (H.); na_m (B.); na_, na~_, na_a~_ (Or.); na~_u (Bhoj.Aw.); na~_u name; na~_wa~_ name, price (H.); na_va name (OMarw.); na_m (G.); na~_v, na_v (M.); na~_va (Konkan.i); nama (Si.); n.a_me_n.a by name (Pkt.); namen (Kho.); nmi (K.); na~_i_ (S.)(CDIAL 7067). na_maka in cmpds. 'having the name of' (Skt.); nmu having a name (K.)(CDIAL 7065). na_makaran.a ceremony of naving after birth (Kaus'.); ceremony of naming a child (Pali); na_u~ra_n, nwa_ran (N.)(CDIAL 7066). na_min named (Skt.); na_mika relating to nouns (Pa_n..); nmi_ famous (K.); -nm having the name of (Si.)(CDIAL 7070). Nameless: nina_u nameless (A.); nina~_wa_ anything unlucky to name, (esp.) cholera, the thrush; nina_ya_ the thrush, bug (H.); nana_mu~ anonymous (G.); nina~_va_, nina_va_, nina_vya_ (M.)(CDIAL 7333). ana_man nameless (S'Br.); ana_maka (Skt.Pali); an.a_miya (Pkt.); anwu (K.)(CDIAL 295). na_macey-tal to give name to (Man.i. 7,35); na_ma-te_yam < na_ma-dhe_ya name, appellation (Te_va_. 650,8); na_mam name, appellation (Kur-al., 360); reputation, fame (Tacaiva_. 7); na_ma-t-ta_li a kind of ta_li worn by the bride in the vil.akkit.u-kaliya_n.am of Ka_rka_tta-ve_l.a_l.ar (G.Tn.D. I,241); na_ma-mo_tiram signet, peyar er..utiya mo_tiram (Ci_vaka. 1040)(Ta.lex.) na_m you, used honorifically (Kamapara_. Cu_rppa. 119); we (Tol. Col. 164); na_vu we (Ka.); nam an affix added to the word ella_m before case suffixes when it is uyirtin.ai (Tol. Er..ut. 190)(Ta.lex.)

5337.Image: saddle cloth: namta_ < namda_ (U.) felt or woollen saddle-cloth (Ta.lex.)

5338.Valley: ni_wa_ low, land fertilized by alluvial silt (L.); neo depressed, low, soft and muddy (of soil)(Bi.); niva_n., nima_n. valley, low ground (P.); niwa_n low (as ground), level (H.)(CDIAL 7548).

5339.Image: duck: ne_mi cakra bird (Kur-un. 227); ne_mi-p-pul. id. (Tiva_.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.)

5340.Image: bait for alligators: naya a bait for alligators (Ma.Tu.)(DEDR 3603).

5341.Desire: naya to desire greatly, long for, be glad, be cheap (Ta.); nayavar friends, lovers (Ta.); nayam gentleness; cheapness (Ma.); naya softness, fineness, cheapness (Ka.); neyyamu friendship (Te.); naya beauty (Te.)(DEDR 3602).

5342.Prawn: ney-m-mi_n- prawn, vel.l.ir-a_l (W.)(Ta.lex.)

5343.Maritime tract: neytal maritime tract (Tol. Po. 8)(Ta.lex.)

5344.Image: funeral drum: neytal funeral drum (Pur-ana_. 194); neytar-par-ai drum peculiar to maritime tracts (Nampiyakap. 34); funeral drum (Kur-al., 1115, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

5345.Image: lamp; to anoint: ney-ta_n:ki a lamp (I.M.P. S.A. 402); ney ghee, clarified butter (Pur-ana_. 166,21)(Ta.); ney (Ka.Ma.); neyyi (Te.); neyyan.i the ceremonial oil-bath taken after the birth of a son (Tol. Po. 147); ney-vir..a_ oil-bath taken on festive occasions (Kampara_. Maruttu. 106); neyya_t.u id. (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,1,5); to anoint, neyya_t.iya ve_l (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5346.To string, to link together; to weave: ney-tal to weave as clothes (Ci_vaka. 3019); ney id. (Ka.); neyka id. (Ma.); ney-tal to string; to link together (neytavai tu_kka : Paripa_. 19,80)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Weaver's instrument: neyyar-kayir-u a weaver's implement (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5347.Cassytha filiformis: narantai, nattai, nantai parasitic leafless plant, cassytha filiformis (Ta.); naranta a creeper used medicinally against asthma and obstruction (Ma.)(DEDR 3604).

5348.Orange: na_rattai, na_ram orange; narantam flower of bitter orange (Ta.); na_ram lemon plant (Ma.); na_riva_n.a, na_rul.i the lime fruit (Ka.); na_ran:ga_yi, na_ren:gi a kind of orange (Tu.)(DEDR 3653). cf. na_ran:ga orange (Skt.)(CDIAL 7073).

5349.Stunted: narun:ku (narun:ki-) to be deficient in growth, decay, grow lean as a child, fail as a business or harvest; narun:kal stunted growth; nara_n:ku (nara_n:ki-) to be stunted in growth (Ta.); narat.u to become deficient or stunted in growth; n. state of being stunted in growth (Ka.); naggu stunted, not fully developed; narad.u stuntedness; stunted; akkat.u, agapat.u lean, thin, stunted, faded; nan.d.u shrunken, shrivelled (Tu.); narma'a_na_ to soften down, render less acute or vehement, render thinner, reduce in point of stoutess; narma_rna_ to decrease, diminish; abate; narma'ana_ to become less, give way, waste (Kur.)(DEDR 3608). cf. rokh, roas hindrance (K.)(CDIAL 10827). udarautsi_t has pushed away (S'Br.); ullakka stopped, broken; ullukka broken (Pkt.); urakna_ to halt, be stopped (H.)(CDIAL 2068). prarun.addhi stops (S'Br.); pa_rukhan.em. to stop (OM.)(CDIAL 8744). nirunddhe_ restrains, wards off (RV.); pp. niruddha (RV.); nirundhati stops (Pali); n.irum.bhai (Pkt.); nirum.dhan.em. to confine, restrain (OM.); niruddha broken up, dissolved (Pali); niludhasi loc. sg. limited (As'.); n.iruddha hindered (Pkt.); niru~d narrow (M.); rudh obstruct (Skt.)(CDIAL 7286). ruddha obstructed (RV.); ruddha blocked, stopped (Pali.Pkt.); ru_du pp. of ro_zun to remain (K.); rudho pp. of rujhan.u to be busy (S.); ruddha_ pp. of rujjhan. (L.); ru_dhiu pp. of ru_m.dhai obstructs (OG.); rudha_ to prevent (B.); ruddhn.a_ to be engaged in, to engage, bring into use (P.); rudhn.e~ to be blocked (M.); rodhna_ to block (H.); rodhn.e~ (M.); rubbha is blocked (Pkt.); rubhan.u to be engaged in, busy (pp. rudho)(S.); rumbhati obstructs, besieges (Pali); rum.bhai blocks (Pkt.); rumbhan.u to set to work (pp. rudho), rumbha, rumbho closeness of weather (S.); rumalnu to engage in work, overwork (N.); run.nu to watch, guard (N.)(CDIAL 10775). rudhyate_ is stopped, is obstructed (MBh.); rujjhati is destroyed (Pali); rujjhai is blocked (Pkt.); ro_zun to stop, remain (pp. ru_du); rujhan.u to be engaged in, be busy (pp. rudho)(S.); rujjhan., rujhan. to be engaged in, be filled up (e.g. of holes in ears for earrings)(L.); rujjhn.a_ to be occupied; rujjana~_ (P.); ru_jhna_ to oppress, harass, tease; rujhna_ to be blocked up, be stopped (H.); rujhvu~ to be healed (of a wound)(G.)(CDIAL 10779). rundhati obstructs (MBh.); run.addhi (RV.); rundhati obstructs, conceals (Pali); rum.dhai blocks (Pkt.); runnhn.a_, runnhana_ to engage, bring into use (P.); ru~dinu to become foggy; ru~d fog, mistiness (N.); rundhiba_ to confine, restrain, hold up (Or.); runhal to enclose (Bhoj.); ru_m.dhai stops (OAw.); ru~_dhna_ to confine, restrict, enclose; rundhna_ to be confined (H.); ru_m.dhai obstructs (OG.); ru~dhvu~ (G.); ru~dhn.e~ to be blocked (M.); ru~_dna_ to tread on, tread out (corn)(H.)(CDIAL 10782). ro_ddhr. one who blocks (Skt.); ro_dhayati fetters (BhP.); zu_tr rope (Ash.Wg.); zet. (Pr.); ru_t rope; ru_ti thin rope (Dm.); aru_ti rope (Kal.)(CDIAL 10842). cf. su_tra string (Skt.lex.) ro_dhayati stops (MBh.); ro_dhati (R.); rohe_i obstructs (Pkt.); ruha_iba_ to cause to stay, settle, restrain (Or.)(CDIAL 10844). a_run.addhi keeps off (RV.); blocks, impedes (MBh.); a_ru~_dhna_, aro~dhna_ to throttle (H.)(CDIAL 1325). uparundhati obstructs; uparun.addhi (S'Br.); pass. uparudhyate_ (Skt.); uparundhati (Pali); uvarum.dhai (Pkt.); urumbhiba_ to obstruct, be pent up (Or.); vara~bha_, vara~ba_, varbha_, ora~ba_ mound or ridge of earth (M.)(CDIAL 2221). cf. varampu boundary, limit, ridge of a field, rim (Ta.)(DEDR 5261). uparujjhati is stopped (Pali); uarujjhadi (Pkt.); urjhan.u to be tangled (S.); aljhiba_ to stop at a place (Or.) (CDIAL 2221). uparo_dha obstruction (MBh.Pali); uvaro_ha, uaro_ha, uaro_a id. (Pkt.); ura_ earthen pot tied o a palm tree to collect toddy juice, cross beam of a thatched house (Or.); urol.i_ bank thrown up in a field by a surveyor to mark the boundary (M.)(CDIAL 2222). virudhyate_ is opposed, is at variance with (MBh.); virujjhati is obstructed; virujjhana (Pali); birijhiba_ to fly into a rage (Or.)(CDIAL 11866). baljhinu to be entangled (N.); vya_ruddha, bya_ruddha obstructed (Pali) (CDIAL 12211). sam.runddhe_ blocks completely (Gr.); sam.run.addhi (MBh.); sam.rudhya (S'Br.); sam.rum.dhai blocks (Pkt.); salanda obstacle (Si.)(CDIAL 12996).

5350.Guilt: ane_nas guiltless (RV. i.129.2); ane_nasya freedom from fault or guilt (S'Br.); e_nas sin (RV. i.189.1; RV. i.24.9); bad luck, misfortune (RV. iv.12.5); e_nasya desiring sin (TBr. ii.4.4); sinful, produced by sin (AV. vi.115.2); sinful (AV. vii.7.3); e_nasvant sinful, wicked (RV. viii.18.12); e_nasvin greatly sinful (TMB. viii.1.10); e_no_muc releasing from sin (MS. iii.15.11)(Vedic.lex.) ane_nas sinless, blameless; ane_d.a, ane_la, ne_la pure (BHSkt.); stupid (Skt.); [assimilation of n.-- n. to n.-- d.]; ane_l.a faultless, pure; ane_l.aka pure (Pali); ani_l spotless (P.); anela_ simple, artless (H.)(CDIAL 346). ne_ram guilt, fault; fine (Ta.); ne_ramu fault, offence, crime, delinquency, misdemeanour, misdeed (Te.); ne_romi fault, guilt (Kuwi)(DEDR 3775).

5351.Malicious: nr.s'am.sa malicious (Ka_tyS'r.); nisa~sia_, nisa~si_, nisa~sei_ cruel (Or.); nisa~s (H.); nis'as evil intent (TBr.); nr.s'am.sa (RV.)(CDIAL 7584). naccu (nacci-) to tease, vex, trouble harass; n. trouble, worry; nacuval one who is always teasing (Ta.); naccu to tease, trouble; n. troubling; naccupet.t.u to annoy, tease, fret (Te.)(DEDR 3577).

5352.Dancers: nirutar < nairr.ta Ra_ks.as (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvu. 79); niruti ra_ks.asa woman (Kampara_. Cu_rppan.akai. 138); but, cf. niruti < nirr.ti regent of the south-west (Cu_t.a_.); a liberal chief, one of seven mutalval.l.alkal.; hence, perh. nirutar were inhabitants of the south-west; alt. consistent with the classification of kin-n-arar and kantaruvar, nirutar may be related to niruttam dancing (Ci_vaka. 682); iruttan- dancer (Te_va_. 194,5); hence, nirutar may be dancers (Ta.lex.)

5353.To scrape: na_r- (-t-) to scoop out (e.g. pulp of gourd for making vessel)(Pe.); na_r- (rat, etc.) to excavate, scratch out earth (Mand..)(DEDR 3652). nirarpayati ruins, destroys (S'Br.); nirapn.e~ to push aside with the hand, scrape off (M.); nerapanava_ to put away, set aside, expel, do away with, persecute (Si.)(CDIAL 7268).

5354.White bull: narai whiteness (Kur-un. 317); nare_ id. (Ka.Tu.); nara id. (Te.Ma.); narai bull, chiefly a white one (Na_lat.i. 186)(Ta.lex.) naraye a grey-haired man; nare greyness (Tu.lex.)

5355.Bull: narai bull, chiefly a white one (Na_lat.i, 186); taurus in the zodiac (Ta.lex.) cf. nahira_, na_hira_ an ox whose horns are straight and project upwards (P.lex.) narad. protuberance (Tu.lex.)

5356.Nerve, tendon: narampu nerve, tendon, sinew, blood-vessel (Na_lat.. 153)(Ta.); arampu, narampu snew, tendon, nerve, pulse; eravu vein (Ma.); narb muscle, sinew (Ko.); narb muscle, vein (To.); nara, naravu sinew, tendon, nerve, vein, artery (Ka.); nara vein, nerve, tendon; narambu sinew, nerve, pulse (Tu.); narmu vein, artery, nerve, tendon (Te.); naram vein (Kol.); nerub (pl. nerbul) id. (Pa.); narub (pl. narbul) vein; narma id., nerve (Ga.); naral (pl. -ku), naram (pl. narask) id. (Go.); naram id. (Kond.a); d.ra_mbu tendon, sinew (Kui); naromi nerve (Kuwi); nari_ pulse (Kur.); nru the veins (Malt.)(DEDR 2903). nru conduit, tube (K.); na_r. vein (L.P.); pulse (Ku.); na_r.i_ vein (P.); pulse (Ku.); na_ri pulse, wrist (N.); na_r.i vein (B.); na_r., na_r pulse (H.); na_r.i_, na_ri_ pulse, vein (H.); na_r. vein, pulse (G.); na_r.i_ pulse (G.); na_d. artery (M.); na_d.i_ pulse (M.)(CDIAL 7047). nha_ru, naha_ru sinew, tendon, muscle (Pali); n.ha_ru (Pkt.); nu_ra vein (Phal.); na_r, pl. na_re sinew, vein, pulse (Sh.); nru tendon, muscle, vein, tough fibre of vegetables (K.); na_ru catgut, bowstring (S.); na_r dried muscle (L.); nahar sinew (N.); nahru (Mth.); naha_ru piece of leather (H.); nahara-ya nerve, sinew, artery; na_ru filaments in pulp of some fruits (Si.); na_ru sinew (Md.); na_rva_ guinea worm (L.P.); naha_ru_, na_ru_, naha_rua_ any threadlike insect, guinea worm (H.); na_ru guinea worm (G.); na_ru_ (M.)(CDIAL 13794). cf. na_r fibre, string, cord, rope (Ta.); nari vilu bow with bowstring (Kond.a); na_ri bow-string (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 3651). sna_van tendon, sinew, muscle, bowstring (AV.); sa_v, sa~_v muscle, sinew, catgut (M.)(CDIAL 13795). asna_vira without sinews (VS.); sa_var sinew, muscle (M.)(CDIAL 13796). snasa_ tendon, muscle (Skt.); n.asa_ vein (Pkt.); istnos, iznos root (Kal.); naso, nasi muscle (Ku.); naso artery, nerve, muscle, fibre (of a cocnut)(N.); nasa, pl. nasaim. sinew, vein, nerve (OAw.); nas muscle, tendon, vein, nerve, penis, fibre; nasaha_, nasi_la_ veined, sinewy (H.); nas vein, nerve, tendon (G.); nas (M.); nasa vein, nerve, tendon (S.); nas (P.); nuc sinew, tendon (Ash.)(CDIAL 13784). ghurnas tendon achilles (H.)(CDIAL 4480). sna_yu tendon, muscle, sinew, bowstring (TS.); sin.a_u sinew (Pkt.); sa_v, sa~_v muscle, sinew, catgut (M.)(CDIAL 13793).

5357.Vein: n.a_la_, n.a_li_ vein (Pkt.); na_r.i_ vein, pulse (S.H.); na_r. vein (L.P.Ku.); vein, pulse (G.); na_r.i_ pulse (Ku.G.); na_l gut (Ku.); na_ri pulse (N.); vein, pulse, gut (A.); na_r.i vein (B.Or.); na_r., na_r pulse (H.); na_d.i_ tubular organ, tube (RV.); pulse (M.); na_ri_ vein, pulse (H.); na_d. artery (M.)(CDIAL 7047). narampu nerve, blood-vessel (Ta.); nerve, pulse (Ma.); arampu id. (Ma.); eravu vein (Ma.); narb vein (To.); nara, naravu nerve, vein, artery (Ka.); nara vein, nerve (Tu.); narambu nerve, pulse (Tu.); naramu vein, artery, nerve (Te.); naram vein (Kol.); nerub id. (Pa.); narub vein (Ga.); naram id., nerve (Ga.<Te.); naral, naram id. (Go.); naram id. (Kond.a); naromi nerve (Kuwi); nari_ pulse (Kur.); naru the veins (Malt.)(DEDR 2903).

5358.Gift; image: pouring out: nirvapan.a pouring out, sprinkling, scattering; libation, oblation; spending, bestowing present; gift, donation (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

5359.Image: chaplet on the head: niryu_ha, nirvyu_ha a chaplet worn on the crown of the head, a crest, a head ornament; cf. ba_siga (Ka.lex.)

5360.Fumigant: ne_rkat.t.i is interpreted as ayir: (irun:ka_ r..akilot.u vel.l.ayir pukaippa : Cilap. 4,35-6), i.e. ayir is a fumigant in combination with akil; ayir vel.ve_lampat.t.ai, the bark of white acacia, acacia leucophloea (Ca_. Aka.)(TED). khayar acacia catechu (Santli.lex.) cf. ve_lampicin- gum arabic (Ta.lex.) ayir an imported white fragrant substance for burning (kut.aticai marun:kin- vel.l.ayir tan-n.ot.u : Cilap. 4,35), i.e. from the west or kut.aticai (TED). Incense: ne_rkat.t.i a kind of incense (Ci_vaka. 534, Urai.); ne_r to be soft; to yield to the touch (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ?ne_r-al a common tree with purple berries, eugenia jambolana, calyptranthes caryophyllata (Ka.lex.)

5361.A fragrance: nar-umpun-n-ai a fragrant substance, one of 32 o_ma_likai (Cilap. 6,77, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) nar-unta_tu a fragrant substance, one of 32 o_ma_likai (Cilap. 6,77, Urai.); nar-umpukai incense, perfume (Ta.lex.) In Caraka, the grouping: pacanirya_sa (Car. Ci. 23.77) or five exudations, perhaps refers to guggulu, sarjarasa, s'rives.t.aka (resin of pinus longifolia, turpentine), turuska, bola (P.V. Sharma, Caraka Sam.hita_, vol.II, p.758). In this grouping nirya_sa connotes exudation of trees or plants, gum, juice, resin; any thick fluid substance.

5362.Incense: nirya_sam may be treated as a synonym of: picin- or nar-umpicin- karumpo_l.am, socotrine aloe (Ta.lex.) Incense: niryu_ha, nirvyu_ha extract, decoction (Ka.lex.) niroh exit for oil from oil-mill together with cavity containing the oil vessel (Bi.); naroh (Mth.)(CDIAL 7290). niriya_cam a kind of resin used as an incense, one of six tu_pavarkkam or articles of incense (Cilap. 5,14) (Ta.); nirya_sa (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) nirya_sa exudation of trees or plants, as gum, resin, juice, milk etc.; marada ban:ke (Ka.lex.); id., extract, infusion, decoction; any thick fluid substance (Skt.lex.) nirya_sa exudation from a tree or plant, resin (TS. ii.5.1.5); go_nda, ra_la (Vedic.lex.)

5363.Aloe: nar-umpicin- socotrine aloe, kariyapo_l.am, aloe succotrina (Pata_rtta. 1051); hepatic aloes, iratta-po_l.am (gum myrrh)(Mu_. A.); a kind of fragrant gum (Cilap. 6,76, Arum. Me_r-ko_l.)(Ta.lex.)

5364.Incense: nar-ai fragrance (Tirukko_. 258); incense (Kalit. 101); spices (Periyapu. Cir-utton.t.a. 66); a fragrant creeper (Pur-ana_. 168); nar-avu odour, fragrance (Na_lat.i, 108); nar-a_ (W.); nar-umai odour, scent, perfume (Ta.); nar-u (OK.)(Ta.lex.) nar-ukku-mu_lam root of long-pepper (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nar-u, nar-a, na_r-u fragrance, odour, scent; smell (Ka.); nar-avu, nar-a_, nar-u, nar-ai (Ta.); nanna, nappu, nar-u (Ma.); nar-ugampu a good smell, fragrance (Ka.lex.) nal to smell; nala a lotus; smell, odour; naladam a fragrant root, us'i_ra (Skt.lex.) cf. nar-u fragrance, odour; fragrant (Ma.); nar-a, nar-avam, nar-avu, nar-a_, nar-ai odour, fragrance, incense (Ta.); na_nta, na_tu, na_ta smell in general, a bad smell (Ka.)(DEDR 2918).

5365.Image: a cutting, a cut: nar-ukku piece cut off; nar-ukku-tal to cut off (Pu. Ve. 3,10, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) nar-ukku (nar-ukki-) to cut off, mince, chop, smash; n. a piece cut off (Ta.); nar-ukkuka to cut off, clip, cut in pieces as paper; nar-ukku a bit of palm-leaf (Ta.); nar-aku, nar-uku, narku to cut, hew, fell, sever, chop; n. a cut, wound; nar-akud.u, nar-ukud.u cutting, a cut (Te.); narka_na_ to cut (but not of meat nor of crops, but generally of wood); narkana_, nar.ka_na_ to cut; nark- to cut (wood); narka_na_ to chop; nar.k- to cut with axe; nar.k- to cut (firewood); nark- to cut (fuel)Go.); naRk- to chop, cut (Kond.a); nan:g- (-it-) to lop off branches (Kuwi); narke to claw, scartch (Malt.)(DEDR 3625). cf. ar-u to be severed, break as a rope (Ta.); ar-ake fragment, piece (Ka.)(DEDR 315). cf. nat.k- to cut (wood)(Go.)(DEDR 3586).

5366.Image: to roar: naraku to groan, etc.; narat.u grumbling; naral, neral.u to groan, moan; caus. naralisu, naral.isu (Ka.); aral (aralv-, aran-r--) to sound, make noise; eral sound, noise; naral (naralv-, naran-r--) to sound, make noise, creak, roar, low (as cows), caw, hum (as many voices), cry; naralvu sounding, roaring, high pitch, vibrating sound of a lute; naralai roaring, sea (as roaring); narar-r-u (narar-r-i-) to cause to sound, produce sound (Ta.); aran.n.uka, naran.n.uka to grumble, groan; arakka, narakkam moan, groan (Ma.); nerak- (neraki-) to groan (Kod..); narakuni, narkuni, naraluni, narluni, nerluni, naral.uni to sigh, groan, moan, grumble; narakele, nargele a grumbler; narat.uni to grumble (Tu.); naraga a drum (Te.); narya'a_na_ to hum, weep and sob loudly so as to attract attention (Kur.); nire to groan; nirqe to growl, roar; nire to sound, roar (as the wind)(Malt.)(DEDR 2904).

5367.Image: hitting with the knuckles: cf. narukku (narukki-) hitting with the knuckles (Ta.)(DEDR 2927).

5368.Cratraeva religiosa: na_r-umbe_l.amara a tree, wild and cultivated, cratraeva religiosa or nirvala (Ka.lex.) crataeva nurvala or religiosa: varuna (Skt.); barun (H.B.); barna (P.); vayavarna (M.); maralingam (Ta.); magalingam (Te.); bark: demulcent, stomachic, laxative; fresh leaves and root bark: rubiefacient; habitat: all over India (GIMP, p.79). cf. makalin:kam weaver's beam, schrebera swietenioides (Ta.); mogalin:gam (Te.)(Ta.lex.) schrebera swietenioides: ghantaparul (B.); mokagantha (M.); moka (H.); ghantapatali (Skt.); magalingum (Ta.); magalinga (Te.); root: used in leprosy; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract from Kumaon eastwards, Madhya Bharat, Rajputana (GIMP, p.223).

5369.Image: coconut: narkol, narkor. coconut (Santali.lex.) cf. na_r fibre, string, cord (Ta.)(DEDR 3651). na_rike_la coconut palm and fruit (MBh.); na_rike_ra, na_like_la (Sus'r.); na_d.i_ke_ri_, na_li_ke_ra (BHSk.)[ < Drav. cmpd. cf. na_ri fibre; ke_l.i coconut palm (Ta.)]; na_l.ike_ra coconut palm (Pali); na_l.ke_raka adj. (Pali); n.a_rie_la, n.a_rie_ra, n.a_lie_ra the nut; n.a_lie_ri_ the palm (Pkt.); nrila coconut (K.); na_relu, na_iru (S.); nare_l (L.); na_rel, naler(a_), laner(a_), laler(a_), nailyar, nariyal, nirel (P.); na_ru_l (Ku.); nariwal (N.); nar.hera, nar.ia_ (Or.); nariyari_ (Bi.); nariar (Bhoj.Aw.); na_riyal, na_riyar (H.); na_rela, na_lera (OMarw.); nariyel., na_riyal. the nut; na_riyal.i_ the palm (G.); na_rel. the nut; the palm (M.); na_rl.i_ the nut (M.); na_rlu (Konkan.i); nrul (OSi.); nerala (Si.); na_ri coconut shell (Md.)(CDIAL 7075). na_rl.el coconut-oil (M.)(CDIAL 7076).

5370.Image: male: na_ra human (Mn.); man (TA_r.); nara human (Si.)(CDIAL 7072). hor. man; hor. manwa human being (Santali.lex.) na_rya name of a man (RV.); nari male; nari-kuku cock (Kho.)(CDIAL 7077). nara man, male (TS.); man, pl. people (Pali); nr. man (RV.); n.ara (Pkt.); ner-kuk cock (Kt.); ner-kuku_ (Wg.); no~-cu~_ he-dog; na~re-gur stallion (Wg.); nar-kru_ku cock (Kal.); naru male (S.); nare people (Or.); nar man (Bi.); nar, nara_ (H.); naraya_, nara_ (Si.)(CDIAL 6970). narapati king (Pa_n..); n.aravai king (Pkt.); naravai (OG.)(CDIAL 6972). nara_dhipa king (Mn.); n.ara_hiva king (Pkt.OG.)(CDIAL 6973). nare_s'a king (MBh.); n.ari_sa (Pkt.); naresu (OG.)(CDIAL 6975). na_ri_ woman, wife (RV.Pali); n.a_ri_ (Pkt.); na_ri (S.OMarw.); na_r (L.P.H.M.); na_ri (G.)(CDIAL 7078).

5371.Gold-dust; scatter: nera_ rubbish of a goldsmith's shop (M.)-- Derivative: nia_rya_ washer of gold and silver filings (P.); nia_ra_ mass of rubbish containing gold or silver (P.); nya_ro dust in a goldsmith's shop which contains atoms of gold and silver (Ku.); niya_ra_ ashes collected by a gold-washer (Bi.); niya_r-dhoa_ gold-washer (Mth.); niya_ra_, nya_ra_ scoria left after refining gold (H.); niya_ria_ a person who picks out different articles from a miscellaneous heap, one who searches for gold dust in a goldsmith's shop (Or.); niya_riya_ gold-washer (Bi.); one who buys ashes and rubbish from a goldsmith's shop for sifting (H.)(CDIAL 7141). nikin.n.a hidden away (Pali); ni_ran., pres. part. nire_nda_ to scatter (L.); ni_rna_ to scatter, sprinkle, water (H.)(CDIAL 7143). Powder, ashes: ni_r-u powder; ashes (Ka.Ta.); ni_r-u, nu_r-u (Ma.); nigur-u, nivur-u, ni_r-u (Te.); ni_r-u, nu_r-u to be reduced to powder (Ma.); ni_r-u to reduce to powder (Ta.); ni_r-r-u, nu_r-u (Ta.); ni_r-u (Ma.); nu_r-u to reduce to powder (Te.)(Ka.lex.) ni_r-u (ni_r-i-) to be turned to ashes or calcined (as metals or stones); n. ashes, dross of any substance after it has been burned, sacred ashes, dust, slaked lime (Ta.); ni_r-r-u to slake (as lime), reduce to ashes or powder, calcine (as metals), calcinate (Ta.); nivar-u to be powdered (Ta.); ni_r-uka burn to ashes (Ma.); ni_r-u ashes (Ma.Kond.a); powder, ashes (Ka.); nigur-u, nivur-u, ni_r-u ashes upon live coal (Te.); i_d ashes (Nk.); ni_d id. (Pa.); ni_r id. (Ga.Go.); ni_z/ni_s id. (Pe.); ni_y-darambu id. (Mand..)(DEDR 3693). [cf. darmu ashes (Pe.); darmbu, darambu_, dharmbu id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3092). ne_ra (ne_ri-) to rub, stroke, polish, massage; n. act of rubbing (Kui.); ni_r.na_ to rub down, powder, scrape into bits (?Kur.)(DEDR 3691).

5372.To level; to fill; to load: nira (-pp-, -nt-) to be full, be thick, crowded, spread, expand (as air or water); nirattu (niratti-) to level up; nirappu (nirappi-) to fill, replenish, cause to abound, complete, spread; n. fullness, completeness, levelness; nirappam fullness, repletion, perfection, excellence; nirampu (nirampi-) to become full, complete, replete, be abundant, end, terminate, attain puberty, mature (as grain); nirampa fully, abundantly; niravu (niravi-) to be filled, become level, full, coveted, spread, expand; level, fill up, equalize (as threads for weaving)(Ta.); nirattuka to lay prostrate, level; niravuka to level ground; nirattu road, highway (Ma.); rombu to become full (Ir.); romba fully (Ta.); nerap levelling (Kod..); nerayu, ner-ayu to spread, extend, be filled; nerayika becoming full; nerapu, ner-apu to spread, fill; n. spreading; adj. much; nera, ner-a full; neravu, ner-avu fullness, spreading, full, much, well-spread, broad; reppamu fullness (Te.); neray- (nerayt-) to spread; nerap- (nerapt-) to spread (grain, chillies)(Kol.)(DEDR 3672). nir-ai (-v-, -nt-) to become full, be replete, abound, be copious, pervade, be satisfied, contented; (-pp-, -tt-) to fill, make full, diffuse, cause to pervade, stuff, cram; n. completion, fullness, copiousness, excellence, splendour; nir-aiya abundantly, plentifully; nir-aivu fullness, completeness, perfection, abundance, filling, satisfaction, excellence; nir-aive_r-u to be fulfilled, accomplished; nir-aive_r-r-u to fulfil, complete, perform, effect; nir-aive_r-r-am fulfilment, accomplishment, performance (Ta.); nir-a fullness; ceremonies for bringing wealth and blessing (beginning by taking home a handful of ears of corn as the first fruits); illan-nir-a the annual cleansing of the house-door with offerings of rice and sticking over it new ears of corn (and 6 or 10 or 16 different kinds of leaves) with cowdung; nir-ayuka to become full, be full; nir-ekka to fill; nir-avu fullness (Ma.); nir-appu filling (Ma.); nerv- (nerd-) (girl) reaches puberty, (affair) comes to fruition; nert- (nerty-) to bring to fruition (Ko.); ner-- (ner-0-) to become full, (girl) reaches puberty, (beard) begins to grow, (moon) becomes full; ner-f- (ner-t-) to fill; ner-f full moon; ner- no.l. day of full moon; ner-il.y full moon (To.); ner-e (ner-ed-, ner-ad-) to become entire, full, complete, accomplished, ready, perfect, mature, arrive at the age of menstruating, be realized, occur, suffice; n. completeness, maturity, etc.; adv. completely, perfectly; ner-ate fullness, comleteness; ner-apu complete; ner-ayisu to make complete, supply; ner-avu, ner-avan.ige, ner-evan.ige fullness, completeness; ner-eyuvike menstruation to take place (Ka.); nere- (nerev-, nerand-) to attain puberty; nera- (nerap-, nerat-) to fill (harvest-festival pot), load (muzzle-loading gun); nere that which fills up something (bag, pot, etc.); bundle of seven leaves, made at the rice-harvest festival and tied on house (Kod..); neriyuni, nerevuni to be full; nirevuni to be ready; dijuni to be filled, full, replete; fill; dija_vuni to cause to fill, load, heap; dija plenty, abundance; full, complete, replete; dijelu fullness, flood-tide; diju, jiju, hiju to fill, load (Tu.); jiju to fill (Kor.); ner-ayu, nerayu to become full, be fulfilled or accomplished; ner-apu, nerapu to fill, fulfil, perform; ner-a, nera full, complete, whole, perfect; ner-avu, neravu full, proper, fit; ner-i fullness; nin.d.u to be filled, become full, teem; adj. full, complete, entire, perfect, copious, ample, abundant; n. fullness, satisfaction, strength, absence of anxiety; nin.d.a abundantly, much, amply, very; nin(u)cu to fill; ninupu, nimpu id.; n. fullness, abundance; nir-u very, much, utterly; nir-r-a-ni_lugu to be very haughty (Te.); nind.- (nind.t-) to become full, (meeting) is convened; nind.p- (nind.ipt-) to fill, convene (meeting)(Kol.); nind.- to become full; nipp- to fill; in- to be filled; indup-/inp- to fill (Nk.); ninda_na_ to be filled (of pots, of a bazaar or assembly); nind-, nind.-, nend.- to be filled; nihta_na_, nih-, ni'- to fill (Go.); ninr-i- (-t-) to be filled, become full; niR- ot fill up; thrust in fully; niRay a_- to become full; nir-- (only in negative) to be filled, become full (Kond.a); neni- (nenc-) to be filled; nec- (-c-) to fill; put in, insert (Pe.); nenja (nenji-) to be filled; nehpa (neht-) to fill in, load up; n. act of filling in; nespa (nest-) to fill, load; nemba (nembi-) to be finished, ended, used up, come to an end; neppa (nept-) to finish, complete, use up, bring to an end; n. act of finishing (Kui); neh- to fill, put in (Mand..); nenjali, nenjinai to become full; nessali (nest-; future neh-) to load; neh'nai, nespi ki_nai to plenish; nejj- (-it-) to be filled; neh- (nest-) to fill (Kuwi); ni_ndna_, nindrna_ to be filled, (river) is full, (bees) spread over (body); nindna_ to fill, pour in up to the brim (Kur.); ninde to fill; nindgre to be filled (Malt.)(DEDR 3682). niro complete (WPah.); pure, unmixed (Ku.); pure, unalloyed (S.); nira_ pure, simple (M.); only, merely (L.P.); pure, unalloyed; adv. completely (H.); n.iraya free from dust, pure (MBh.Pkt.); niru~, naru~ pure, unmixed (G.); niru~ pure, unmixed (M.)(CDIAL 7557). ni_ruja well, in health (MBh.); in good health (Pali); n.irua (Pkt.); narvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 7566). Image: to swarm: nivar-u to swarm, gather thick (Ta.); a throng (Ma.)(DEDR 3677). Fullness: nikaram company, assemblage, flock, multitude (Pa_rata. An.i. 6); heap (Malaipat.u. 516, Urai.); total; treasure; gift (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nikakka, nikal.uka, nikar..uga to fill up as a hole; nikappu filling up, levelling; nikattuka, nikarttuka to fill up, level, mend, perfect; nikar..ttuka to fulfil (Ta.); nigi to fill a hole (Ka.); neggi, neggya, niggyu, niggya full, complete; nigiyuni to be levelled, be filled up as a pit; nigipuni to level; nigipa_vuni to cause to level; nugiyuni, nuggiyuni to be filled up; nugipuni, nugupuni to fill up, as a pit (Tu.)(DEDR 3658).

5373.Image: eel, fish: na_ri the ba_m fish (Nk.); na_r sp. fish (H. ba_mi_)(Go.); na_r.i_ the eel-like ba_m fish (Go.); na_ri_ a kind of fish (Go.)(DEDR 3654).

5374.An aromatic tree: nar-avalu, nar-uval, narval the tree premna spinosa or longifolia (Ta.); naruvolu a kind of aromatic tree, the leaves of which are used for curry or medicine (Tu.)(DEDR 3624).

5375.Image: arrange in order: nira to arrange in order, divide equally (Ta.); line, row (Ma.); nerake, nerike fence or wall of bamboos (Ka.)(DEDR 3673).

5376.Image: roar, bellow (of a leopard): na_da roaring (RV.); roar, loud noise (Pali); n.a_ya noise (Pkt.); nay, na_ noise (Si.)(CDIAL 7052). na_da roaring (Or.); narda bellowing in: go_-narda; a name of S'iva (MBh.)(CDIAL 6981). n.addia noise (Pkt.); nardati roars, bellows (RV.); na~_dn.o~_ to roar (of tiger or leopard)(WPah.); na_diba to roar (A.); na_da_ to bellow (B.); na_diba_ to roar, bellow (Or.); na_dna_, na~_dna_ to roar, bellow, thunder (H.)(CDIAL 6982). el.ir voice at high pitch (Ta.)(DEDR 2932). aral to sound, make noise (Ta.); naraga a drum (Te.)(DEDR 2904). cf. na_vayati makes shout (Gr.); na_vate_ shouts, bellows (RV.); naieik to frighten (game)(Kho.)(CDIAL 7080).

5377.Image: arrow, javelin: narada arrow (Si.); na_ra_ca iron arrow (MBh.); arrow, javelin (Pali); nara_ penis (esp. of horse or bull)(P.); narada plough (Si.)(CDIAL 7074).

5378.Dye, colour: nir-a to take on colour, deepen in colour, be distinguished, brilliant, be bright and fresh in appearance (Ta.); nir-am colour, complexion, dye, tincture, quality, property, temper, lustre, fame, reputation (Ta.); colour, light, splendour (Ma.); nir-akka to shine (Ma.); nerm (obl.nert-) colour (Ko.)(DEDR 3680).

5379.Image: to weigh: nir-u to weigh, balance (Ta.); nir-ukka to weigh (Ma.)(DEDR 3675). nir-ai weighing; scale, balance; weight of 100 palam; measure, standard, degree (Ta.lex.) nir-ai-kal standard weights (Ta.lex.) nir-ai-y-ar-i-karuvi balance; touch-stone; nir-ai-y-urai weight and quality of precious metals; nir-ai-y-et.u to weigh (S.I.I. ii,178)(Ta.lex.) niruti_ to put on the scale of a balance more wares than is necessary to counter-balance the weights (and thus cheat) (Mu.); neoti karek (Sadani)(Mu.lex.)

5380.Mud: nurampu mud, mire (Ta.); nurumbu alluvium (Tu.)(DEDR 3707). ubir, ubra_ mud (Kon.lex.) pulina, pur..il a sandbank; an island of alluvial formation, or one from which the water has recently withdrawn, a small island or bank left in the middle of a river by the subsiding of its waters, an islet (Ka.Skt.); saikata, dvi_pa, mal.alot.t.il (Ka.lex.)

5381.Image: turning of the road: ner-i way, road, path (Ta.); er-i way (Ma.)(DEDR 2934). ner-i turning of the road, bend, curve (Ta.)(DEDR 2935). nirattu road, highway (Ma.)(DEDR 3672).

5382.Sari worn by goddesses and nymphs; image: to bow, bend: ner-y sari worn by goddesses and nymphs (To.); ner-ivu folded front of a Musulman's gown (Ma.); er-i fold, tuck (Ma.); er-iyuka to tuck or fold a cloth, esp. as for idols; wrinkle (Ma.); ner-i, nir-i, ner-ige, nir-ige, nar-ige, ner-e, ni_r-ige foldings, folds of a garment, as of a do_tra or si_re, to be tucked into the waistband in front, plaits of folds made by drawing a thread through cloth, gathers (Ka.); neri, nerige a fold or gather in clothes, wrinkle, crease (Tu.); ner-i the longitudinal folds of the lower cloth worn round the loins, hair, tresses, ringlets or curls of hair (Te.); neri crookedness (Te.); ner-ika petticoat (Te.); niri_ a fold or plait of the dhotar (M.)(DEDR 2935). cf. nel.iyal crookedness (Ta.); nal.i to grow bent or curved, bow, bend (Ka.)(DEDR 2933).

5383.Image: penis of animals; bosom: nar.am penis of animals (?Go.); neravu privities of the male sex (Tu.); ner-u vital organ (Ka.); ner-a vital point, member or organ, a secret (Ka.); ner-m (obl.ner-t-) vital spot (To.); nir-am bosom, breast, middle place, vital spot, body, skin (Ta.)(DEDR 3681).

5384.Image: penis: nipur.o penis (Ku.)(CDIAL 7517). pun.t.ai pudendum muliebre (Ta.); pid. id. (Ko.); pid.y penis (To.); pu_tki male organ (Kuwi)(DEDR 4273).

5385.Image: snake: nerr snake (Kur.); neru id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3752).

5386.Image: sun: ˝a_yir-u solar month (Pan--irupa_. 172)(Ta.lex.) ˝a_n-r-a-a_yir-u sunset (Pur-ana_. 82); ˝a_n-r-u time, day (Kalit. 37); adv. at the time of (Na_lat.i, 14); a_nnu time, day (Ma.); ˝a_n-r-ai id. (Pur-ana_. 378); ˝a_yir-u the sun (Patir-r-up. 88,38); id. (Ma.); ne_sar-u id. (Ka.); ˝a_yir-u solar month (Pan--irupa_. 172)(Ta.lex.) a_r-u sun (in cmpds. e.g., pat.i a_r-u setting sun)(Ma.); ˝a_yir-u (Ta.Ma.); na_yir-u id. (Ta.); no.r- sun (To.); ne.r- id. (To.); ne_sar-(u) id. (Ka.); nesuru morning (Tu.); nir-u sunshine, heat (Malt.); n.esara (Pkt.)(DEDR 2910). ne_ram sun, day, light; time (Perun.. Ucaik. 57,74); opportunity, season (Tirukko_. 290, Tur-aivil.akkam.); a measure of the day - 2 ca_mam = 1/2 pakal = about six hours (Tiva_.); turn (Ma.); ne.ra sun, time (Kod..); ne_rd.e early in the morning (Tu.); de_ sun, sunshine, day, time (Br.)(DEDR 3774). na_l. day, early dawn, forenoon; na_l.ai, na_l.aikku tomorrow; na_n.a_l.um daily (Ta.); na_l. day (Ma.); na_l.a tomorrow; (the n is lost in mar-r-a_l. after tomorrow and atra_l. so many days)(Ma.); na.l. day; tomorrow; na.la.l. any day after tomorrow; nan:ky day after tomorrow (Ko.); no.l. day (Tor.); no.t.o-kos-ym daily, every day (To.); na_l. day, time; na_l.e the very next day, tomorrow; na_d.adu, na_d.idu, na_d.iddu, na_l.iddu, na_l.irdu the day after tomorrow (Ka.); na.l.e tomorrow; na.l.e.ki in the near future (Kod..); na~_d.u (pl. na_l.l.u) day, time, that day, that time; na_na~_d.u, na_na_t.iki day by day, by degrees, gradually (Te.); nal (obl. nat.-) (in nal two days; in nat.un.i for two days only)(Kol.); marner. the day after tomorrow (Nk.); na_r.i_, na_r. tomorrow; na_r.i yesterday (Nk.)[cf. kal yesterday, tomorrow (H.); hilok a day; en hilok the same day (Santali.lex.)]; na_n.d.in. on that day; na_n.d.iRi of that day; na_n.d.iRan.d. from that day onwards (Kond.a); nela_, ne_la_ tomorrow (Kur.); lle id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3656). [Poss. divergence may be as follows: ne_r-r-u-munta_-na_l. yesterday (Ta.) ~~ tr.ti_ya third day; mun before; mu_n-r-a_m third.] munta_na_l. < muntu + a_ + day before yesterday, muntiya-na_l. (Viralivit.u. 501); munti adv. sometime before (Te_va_. 477,8); muntai-na_l. day before yesterday; the past, former time; muntal being first or before; muntal junction of three roads; muntu-tal to be prior in time, place etc. (Kur-al., 715); to take precedence; to take the lead; to be first (Kur-al.. 67); muntu priority; antiquity (Kantapu. Me_rup. 10); beginning (Tiruva_ca. 18,5); muntai antiquity (Ta.); munde id. (Ka.); mundu id. (Te.); muntai the past, former time (Ci_vaka. 545); ancestor (Pu. Ve. 9,33); adv. in front of (Pur-ana_. 10)(Ta.lex.) mu_n-r-u three (ca_rntuvaran- marapin- mu_n-r-u talaiyit.t.a : Tol. Er..ut. 1)(Ta.lex.) naham nuhum dawn (Santali.lex.)

5387.Yesterday: mahnder two days ago; hola yesterday [cf. kal (H.lex.); ka_l (Kon.lex.)]; on mahnder three days ago; mahnder hiloke gocena he died two days ago (Santali.lex.) nan-avu, nan-a_ daylight (Ta.)(DEDR 3629). ma~ha~ a day; barsin pe ma~ha~ two or three days; mahakal many days; endrae 3 days hence; pher endrae 4 days hence (Santali.lex.) ahan loc. day (RV.); ahar (Skt.); ahas-su pl. (S'Br.); aha acc. aham. and aho_ (Pali); aha, aho_ by day (Pkt.); encera_ day (Pr.); anus day, daytime (Kho.); ah day (H.)(CDIAL 993). Next: mayhin. day after tomorrow (Pe.); ma'hin. id. (Mand..); maisi id., a future day; ma'esi tomorrow (Kui); ma'e, ma'asi, ma_'e, mae day after tomorrow (Kuwi)(DEDR 4615). mar.galin. next year (Pe.); mar.getin. id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4755). mar-u next; mar-u-na_l. next day, tomorrow (Ta.); mar-u other, next; mar-u-na_l. the next day (Ma.); mar next, following (Ko.); mar- next in time (day, month etc.); mar-c again (To.); makol tomorrow (To.); mar-u other, next, following, second (Ka.); ma_r-an.a after, following, the next morning or day; ma_r-an.e other, following, next (Ka.); mattiandi day after tomorrow (Kod..); maru following, next (Tu.); mar-i after, next; mar-u-na~_d.u the next day, the next following day; mar-usa next, following; mar-usat.i next, following (Te.); mari thereafter (in past), then (in future); ma.r tolli day after tomorrow (Kol.); mari again; marner. day after tomorrow (Nk.); mari again; mari ok another (Pa.); maRsa the following (referring to time); maRsa na_n.d.u next day (Kond.a)(DEDR 4766). hyas yesterday (RV. viii.66.6)(Vedic.lex.) hyastana yester; hyastya yesterday (Skt.lex.) a_n-r-u, na_n-r-u time, day, at the time of; a_n-r-i at the time of (Ta.); a_nnu day; mini-a_nnu, muni-a_nnu day before yesterday (Ma.); monia.ndi id.; ninna.ndi yesterday (Kod..); ne~_d.u today (Te.); na_n (obl. na_t.-) day (Nk.); ne_nd. (gen. ne_t.a_), ne_nd.u today; ne_r id.; net.al from today; ne_t.ke for today; ne_t.i a day (only as a suffix); itwa_r-ne_t. Sunday (Go.); ne_nr-u today (Kond.a); ne_ci ba_r, ne_njen today; ne_can from today; na_nj day (Pe.); ne_nj(e) today (Mand..); ne_nju id.; ro-nisi, ro-nese one day; ri-nisi, ri-nese two days (Kui); ro ne_cu one day; na_cu day; ninju_, ni_nju, ne_nju today (Kuwi)(DEDR 2920). nerunal, nerunar-r-u, nerunai, nen-n-al yesterday; ne_r-r-u id.; lately, recently (Ta.); innale_ yesterday (Ma.); nagat-t-u, na.t-t-u id. (Ir.); ne.r (obl. ne.t--) id.; amne.r two days before yesteday (Ko.); ine.r- yesterday (To.); ninne id., time lately passed (Ka.); ninna.ndi yesterday (Kod..); eru (Kor.); ninna (Te.); ninne_ (obl. ninne_t.-), ninne_, ninne (Go.); i'en (obl. i'eR-), inen (Kond.a); inelin (Mand..); rii_si, ri_si (Kui); re'e, re'la, re_'ini, re'eni, re'ni (Kuwi); daro_ id.; dare nan night before last (Br.)(DEDR 3758). mun--n-a_l. yesterday, previous day, former days; munta_-na_l., muntai-na_l. day before yesterday (Ta.); munni-a_nnu, mini-a_nnu id. (Ma.); mine.r any day before yesterday (Ko.); mune.r- day before yesterday (To.); monne day before yesterday; the other day, lately (Ka.); monia.ndi day before yesterday (Kod..); moran.i, mora_ni id. (Tu.); monna id.; the other day; adv. monnanu (Te.); manit.i, manne_ day after tomorrow; onne day before yesterday (Go.); munne, monne, manne day before yesterday, day after tomorrow (Go.); mu'e (obl. mu'eR-) day after tomorrow (Kond.a)(DEDR 5020b). cf. a. sid. that day; a_jir that day, day before yesterday; as'id. day before yesterday (Kol.); a_s'ir that day, day before yesterday (Nk.); accir day before yesterday (Nk); a_cin that day, day before yesterday (Ga.)(DEDR 2553). adya, adya_ today (RV.); ajja_ (Pali); aja, aja_ (As'.); aja (NiDoc.); ajja, ajjam. (Pkt.); ajju (Ap.); ajo_ti (Gypsy); a_ze (Wg.); z now (Dm.); az today (Tir.); a_nja (Kal.); aj (Bshk.); az-di_ (Tor.); a_z (Mai.); az (Savi); a_j (Phal.); as' (Sh.); oce (D..); az (K.); aju (S.); ajj (L.P.); az, ajj (WPah.); a_ja, a_ju (N.); a_zi (A.); a_j, a_ji (B.Or.); a_j (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); a_ji_ (OMarw.); a_j (G.M.Konkan.i); a_ji (Konkan.i); ada (Si.)(CDIAL 242). adya_pi even now, still now (R.); ajavi today (NiDoc.); aja_ still, yet (Wg.)(CDIAL 243). ida_ni_m and ida_ ahnah- this very day (RV.); ajjan.ho_, ajjun.ha_ only this day (Pali); ajjan. till today (L.); a_jhun.i even now; aju_n, a_ju_n., ajo (M.)(CDIAL 244). adyaiva even today (Skt.); ji_ yet (Kal.); azi even today (K.); ajja this very day (L.); ajje (WPah.); aje hitherto (P.); a_jai this very day (Ku.); a_je (Mth.)(CDIAL 245). e_ka_ha ceremony lasting one day (S'Br.); period of one day (Pa_n..); id. (Pali); e_ga_ha (Pkt.); e_ka_hika lasting one day (Pali); e_ga_hiya risen in one day, having an interval of one day (of fever)(Pkt.); ekaiya_ returning every third day, tertian (of fever)(A.); ekua_ daily (of fever)(Or.)(CDIAL 2492). tryaha three days (S'Br.); lasting three days (R.); tryahi_na for three days (Skt.); ti_ham. id. (Pali); t.l.i_en.ek intermittent fever every three days (WPah.)(CDIAL 6043). das'a_ha period of ten days (S'Br.); ceremony so lasting (Ka_tyS'r.); dasa_ha period of ten days (Pali); daha_ the first ten days of Muharram (P.)(CDIAL 6237). dasa_hiya_ a partic. ceremony lasting ten days (Pkt.); dasa_ia_ pl. ten days period after marriage during which ten feasts are given at the father-in-law's house (OG.); dasaiya~_ carvu~ to take part in the feasts given to a bride at the father-in-law's house (G.)(CDIAL 6238). dvyaha period of two days, a two days' ceremony (S'Br.); dvaiyahnika (Pa_n.. Ka_s'.); di_ham. for two days (Pali); beha_ food cooked yesterday (L.); behi_ sweetmeats placed before wedding party at the bride's house for the two days after wedding (P.)(CDIAL 6700). pun.ya_ha auspicious day (S'Br.); pon.ha_, pon.ha_o, pun.a_ first day of ploughing (WPah.)(CDIAL 8263). paga_h on the following day, tomorrow (K.)(CDIAL 8917). madhya_hna midday (Mn.); majjhanha, majjhan.ha midday (Pali); majjhan.ha, majjhan.n.a (Pkt.); maddahana, madda_na (Si.)(CDIAL 9818) majhandi early afternoon, midday meal (S.)(CDIAL 9806). ma_dhya_hnika of midday (Ma_rkP.); majjhan.hiya id. (Pkt.); ma~_jha~_do lunch (S.)(CDIAL 10039). sapta_ha period of seven days (S'Br.); satta_ha (Pali); sa_ta_ week (N.); sata_r.o taking of the bride home a few days after the wedding (S.); sa_tere~, sa_tre~ weather lasting for seven days (M.)(CDIAL 13161). bariha_n.i_ new year's day (WPah.)(CDIAL 11397).

5388.Last year: nirud.u last year; nirut.i of the last year (Te.); ernd. last year (Nk.); nird.i id.; next year (Pa.); nird.in last year (Ga.); ni_re_, ni_re, ni_r.e id. (Go.); ni_run.d. id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 3674). parut last year; para_ri the year before last (Skt.lex.)

5389.Image: a bunch that three fingers can hold: nuri a bunch of rice plants and the space required to plant them, what three fingers can hold; nurikka to put some grains, take and put with three fingers; nurippikka to transplant (Ma.); nuli cluster of paddy plants growing in one hole; ni.ri bundle of several paddy seedlings (Kod..); nuru tender shoots in paddy stubble; noru after-shoot from the roots of rice, millet, etc. (Ta.)(DEDR 3708). nirharan.a taking out (MBh.); nehrun weeding (Kal.)(CDIAL 7403).

5390.Smooth; tender: na_l. youth, juvenility, freshness (Ta.); nal.i, nal.anal.ake softness, smoothness, tenderness, beauty, brightness (Ka.)(DEDR 3657). nal.a to become soft or mellow, malleable as gold (Ka.); aju, eju (Ma.); nal.ikever- to become soft; nal.anal.isu to be soft, tender, delicate, pleasant, nice, elegant, bright, glittering etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5391.To smell: nal to smell; nalati smells; nalam smell, odour (Skt.lex.) naladam a fragrant sroot, us'i_ra (Skt.lex.) nali, nat.a, nalake, nal.i a kind of fragrant substance, a perfume; nalada yielding smell or fragrance: nard, spikenard, nardostachys jatamansi (Ka.); nat.i a species of fragrant plant (Ka.); cf. nat.a the tree colosanthis indica (Ka.); the tree jonesia asoka (Ka.Skt.); nalina, nal.ina a lotus, nelumbium speciosus; a water-lily (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) nalam a lotus; nalina a lotus-flower, water-lily; the indigo plant; nalini_ a lotus plant; an assemblage of lotuses; a lotus stalk, the fibres of a lotus; a pond or place abounding in lotuses; a lotus or the stalk of it; the celestial Ganges (Skt.lex.) nala_ lotus stalk (A.); nal id. (Mth.); nal. id. (M.)(CDIAL 6936). nala-kuvara, nala-ku_vara name of a son of Kube_ra (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5392.Image: crab: nal.l.i, lal.l.i a crab (Ka.); ˝an.t.u, ˝en.t.u, nan.t.u, nal.ir, nal.l.i (Ta.); en.d.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

5393.Image: curved: nal.i to grow bent or curved, to bow, to bend (Ka.); nel.i (Ta.); el.i (Ma.); nel.ivu a flexure (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

5394.Image: a rope net-work for pots: nelahu a net-work of rope (or rattan), in which pots and other things are suspended from the beams of the house, or from either end of the pole on the shoulder of a carrier or porter (Ka.lex.)

5395.To work for wages: nalha to work for wages either in money or kind (Santali); nalha jon. hor., nalhaic one who works for wages; nalha jan:kanan. I support myself by working for wages; nalhakatele asulok kana we support ourselves by working for wages (Santali.lex.) nu~ lolo to be possessed of a bare sufficiency; uni do nalha tumalkate nu~ lolo ocoe kan tahe~kanae by working and gleaning he provided him with a bare sufficiency (Santali.lex.)

5396.Image: fullness: nilike fullness (Tu.lex.)

5397.Land: nal land reclaimed and cultivated during a lengthened period; nal khet a piece of rice land which has been under cultivation for a long time; nala a stream, a ditch, a ravine; lala a drain, a ditch, a small water course (Santali.lex.) nela (fr. nil) ground, soil; land; ground, floor; a portion of the earth: a country, a kingdom; the earth (Ka.lex.) nelm ground (Ko.); nela ground, soil, land, floor (Ka.); ground (Kod..); earth, soil, floor, ground (Tu.); nendil, ne_dil earth, ground, floor (?Pa.); nilam ground, earth, land, soil, field, the earth, world, place, region (Ta.); ground, soil, the earth, a ricefield (Ma.)(DEDR 3676). nel, nela_ ground (Kon.lex.) nila, nela ground, floor, earth; nelakara fertility of land (Tu.lex.) a_lam earth, land (Ta.Ma.); ne_la id. (Te.); field (Kuwi); ground (Pe.); ne_'la field (for ordinary cultivation (Kuwi); ne'la field (dry)(Kuwi); ne_la, ne_da a plot of high ground for cultivation (Kui); ne_d.e ground (Kui); na_l low fields, terraced fields (Kur.); e.l earth (Kol.); e_l id. (Nk.); ne_li_, ne_, le_li field (Go.); ne_l land, flat land, ground, plain (Go.); ne_le earth, ground (Kond.a)(DEDR 2913). ju_la_, jola_ tract of land containing 16 bi_si_s (H.); na_la field under cultivation (Skt.)(CDIAL 10489). cf. ila_ earth (Skt.)

5398.Paddy: nel rice, paddy, grain of paddy (Ta.); rice (as growing), rice in the husk, paddy (Ma.); paddy, unhusked rice (Ko.); nel aky husked rice (Ko.); nes- rice (To.); nel, nellu paddy, rice in its husk, rice as growing, a grain of paddy (Ka.); nelli rice, paddy (Kod..); nellu_ru n. pr. a town (Te.)(DEDR 3753).

5399.Indigo: nalina the indigo plant (Skt.lex.) "... the ancient Egyptians early knew indigo which, as its name may imply, is of Indian origin. It has been found on cloth of Dynasty V (about 2500 BC) and on later mummy wrappings, though it did not become common until about 300 BC. The indigo plant, indigofera tinctoria, was then cultivated in Egypt and Syria, but not in Palestine. Classical authors like Dioscorides and Pliny believed indigo to be a mineral pigment. They knew, however, that it originally came from India. Woad, from isatis tinctoria, was well known by 300 BC both in Egypt and in Mesopotamia..." (Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R.Hall, Trevor I. Williams, A History of Technology, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, p. 247). ni_li_ indigofera tinctoria (Car. Ci. 18.87, 26.27); ni_lini_ id. (Car. Su. 2.9, Ci. 3.299). ni_la dark blue, dark green, black (RV.); blue substance (S'Br.); indigo (Ya_j.); dark blue, blue-green (Pali); n.i_la blue, green (Pkt.Gy.); blue, dark-green (D..); nil dark blue (Pas'.); ni_ro blue (S.); ni_la_ (L.P.H.); ni_lo blue (N.); blue, green (WPah.); li_lo blue (WPah.); nil (A.); nila (B.); nil.a (Or.); ni_l dark blue, black (Mth.); li_la_ blue (H.); ni_l.u~, ni_lu~, li_lu~ (G.); ni_l., nil.a_ (M.); nil green, blue (Si.); nu_, nule_ blue (Md.); ni_ru blue colour, indigo (S.); ni_l indigo (L.P.); nira_, ni_l.a_ (Or.)(CDIAL 7563). For sem. ni_ra cf.: nira_li_ indigo dyer (L.); lila_ri_ dyer (L.P.H.); lala_ri_ (P.)(CDIAL 7564). nel.i blue colour (Or.); nel.ia_ blue, bluish (Or.)(CDIAL 7602). ni_lia blue (Pkt.); ni_li_ blue colour (OG.); nili colour of clouds; nilla green or blue colour (Si.)(CDIAL 7567). ni_li_ indigo plant, indigo (Mn.); indigo (Pali.Pkt.); indigo plant (H.); ni_li species of edible mallow (Gy.); ni_l indigo (P.Ku.); nil (N.A.B.); nila (Or.); li_l (B.); ni_l. (M.)(CDIA 7568). ni_la dark-blue or black; dyed with indigo; one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra; indigo; ni_la-gid.a a low under-shrub, indigofera aspalathoides; ni_li the indigo shrub, indigofera tinctoria; ni_li bi_ja the seed of cassia tora used by indigo dyers; ni_li-ga_r-a, ni_laga_r-a a manufacturer of indigo; an indigo dyer; ni_lini the indigo shrub (Ka.lex.) avuri-c-ca_ya-k-kat.t.i = ni_la-k-kat.t.i lumps of indigo dye; ni_l < ni_l < ni_la blue (ni_n-ir-a maeyum : Cilap. 12,34); common indigo, avuri; ni_la-k-ka_li id.; ni_la-maruntu, ni_li, ni_likai, ni_lini, ni_la_ id.; ni_la-p-pan.i work of dyeing with indigo; ni_lam blue cloth (Kalit.115); collyrium; an old coin (Ta.lex.) For ni_l, as a fermented juice: cf. ni_r liquor, water, juice (Ta.); ni_ru water (Tu.Te.Ka.); juice, sap, essence (Kui); di_r water, juice, sap (Br.)(DEDR 369). ni_ra water (MBh.), juice, liquor (Skt.); ni_vara water (MBh.); n.i_ra water (Pkt.); ni_r (L.WPah.); ni_ra_ (H.); ni_ro toddy juice (G.); nira_ (M.); ni_l lake (Ash.); nyile id. (Kt.)(CDIAL 7552). {Extraction of the dye-stuff, indigo: Indican (a glucoside), the oxidized form of Luc indigo or indigo-white, is the product obtained from the fermentation of the fresh green plant, indigofera tinctoria Linn. The oxidized product--chiefly indigotin or Indigo-blue which settles to the bottom is collected, washed, pressed into cakes 3 to 3 1/2 inches square, and finally dried. The yield of indigo may be upto 50 percent. Indigotin is insoluble in water, alcohol and dilute acids; soluble in strong sulphuric acid, forming a sulphate of indigo called 'extract of indigo'.[cf. Nadkarni, K.M.,Indian Materia Medica, Bombay, 1927.] The flowers of the plant are small, reddish or reddish yellow. The plant is a stimulant, alterative, and purgative; is antiseptic and astringent; used to treat enlargement of the liver and spleen, epilepsy, and other nervous afflictions. Leaves and indigo have been used in epilepsy, hepatitis; asthma, whooping cough, some lung diseases and kidney complaints such as dropsy; powdered indigo is also used for sprinkling on ulcers; to reduce swellings in the body, to relieve the bites and stings of venomous insects and reptiles, and also to sooth burns and scalds. Mixed with castor oil, it is applied to the navels of children to promote the action of the bowels. [Quisumbing, E., Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, Manila, 1978, p.409.] Among the Mundas of Chota Nagpur the roots, pounded and macerated in water, are drunk in urinary complaints. As in England, the blue bag is used in China as a domestic remedy for the stings of bees and wasps. In Cambodia, the leaves are given as a decoction for blennorrhagia. In Madagascar, indigo is given as an emeto-cathartic for convulsions in children. [Kirtikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D., Indian Medicinal Plants, 2nd edn., Dehradun, 1933, pp.713-714, Vol.I). Etyma: [Indian Medicinal Plants, p.714.] Tayang-tayungan (Bicol.Philippines); trom (Cambodia); hom nhom, tram (Indochina); tarum (Malay); osma (Turki). erva anil (Brazil); ajara, ajura (Ka.); engitra (Madagascar); amari (Ma.); aklika, asita (Skt.); asitai, avuri, chamundi (Ta.); aviri (Te.) indigofera tinctoria. aramuri, iruppumuri, kattavuri indigofera articulata (Ta.). nil (B.); nil, nilah (Persian); anil (Philippines); nilaj, neyleh (Arabic); nila (G.); gouli, lil, nil (H.); nilli (Konkan.i); nila (Malay); nili (Ma.); nali, nuli, nili (M.); lilbari, japud tasad (Mundari); nila, ili, nilini, ranjani, tuni, tuttha (SKt.) Other indigofera species: vekaria indigofera trifoliata (Bombay); vekhariyo i.glandulosa (G.); vekhariya id. (M.). torki indigofera linifolia (Bombay.H.M.); togri indigofera pulchella (Bhil). jhal (Jhalawan); jhil (Nasirabad); jhilla (Skt.); kondavempali (Saora); kuttukkarchammathi (Ta.) indigofera oblongifolia; siralli, vuyye indigofera pulchella (Saora); sakena id. (H.); narinji id. (Ta.). "Indigo is cultivated for the well-known blue dye. In southern India, indigo is grown as a cover or green-manure crop in coffee-plantation and rice fields. Used as a cover-crop, it is said to be an effective nematicide. Once Indigofera tinctoria was a source of Indian indigo but it was largely replaced by Indigofera arrecta. Leaves are rich in potash, and the plant is palatable to cattle. Root infusion used to kill vermin and a seed tincture to kill lice. Leaf or juice used for cancer or tumours, especially of the ovaries or stomach...Leaves applied with turmeric to bruises, inflammations, and scabies in Indo-China... In Tanganyika, the root is used for syphilis... The plant contains indigotin and a glucoside, indican...Dermatitis is common among indigo dyers but there is no direct evidence that indigo or its derivatives is responsible. Women who shell indigo develop an exceptionally long right thumb..." [Duke, James A., Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Florida, CRC Press, 1985, p.248.] A preparation is made from the ashes of the burnt plant Indigofera aspalathoides to remove dandruff from the hair; the leaves are applied to abscesses; and an oil is obtained from the root whichis used to anoint the head in erysipelas. [Indian Medicinal Plants, p.710. Some colloquial terms used to denote the plant: nila, sivamalli (Ka.); manali (Ma.); raktakohomba, sivanimba (Skt.); raktakohomba (Si.); iraivanvembu, shivanarbembu (Ta.). The epithet civa- may be related to the purple colour of the ageing hairs of the shrub and the dark pink colour of the corolla.]} Blue; indigo: ni_l (Ta.)< ni_l (Pkt.) blue (ni_n-ir-a majaiyum) (Cilap. 12,34); common indigo, avuri; blue nelumbo; ni_lita r..un:kan.n.a_y (Kalit. 33,28); ni_la-k-ka_li common indigo; ni_la_, ni_li, ni_likai, ni_lini indigo plant; ni_li Western Ghats blue nail dye; ni_lan:kat.t.u, ni_lanti_r to dye a cloth with indigo; ni_la-c-ca_l the pot or jar in which indigo-dye is kept; ni_la-p-pan.i work of dyeing with indigo; ni_lam-et.u to extract blue dye from the indigo plant; ni_lam blue, azure or purple colour; blue dye, indigo; black colour (ni_la-k-kuci ni_n:ka_ ta_kalin) (Man.i. 22,154); blue cloth (pu_n:karai ni_lan tar..i_i)(Kalit. 115); an old coin (Ne_mina_.col.10,urai)(Ta.lex.) nira_ indigo (Or.)(CDIAL 7563). ni_la [serves as a general term to designate the 'coloured-black' as opposed to the 'coloured white' (pi_ta yellow), which pairs (ni_la-pi_ta) are both set off against the 'pure' colour-sensations of red (lohitaka) and white (oda_ta), besides the distinct black or dark (cf. kan.ha). Therefore, ni_la has a fluctuating connotation, its only standard combination being that with pi_ta, e.g., in the enumeration of the ten kasin.a concentration practices: the means by which mystic meditation (bha_vana_, jha_na) may be attained: the ten are: earth, water, fire, air; blue, yellow, red, white; space, intellection (or consciousness): pat.havi_-, a_po-, tejo-, va_yo, ni_la-, pi_ta-, lohita-, oda_ta-, a_ka_sa-, via_n.a-. In enumerating the five colours of the Buddha's eye: ni_la pi_taka lohitaka kan.ha oda_ta are used under cakkhuma_; which goes even so far as to be used simply in the sense of 'black and white': e.g. applied to hair loma_ni. (Pali.lex.) ni_la dark blue, dark green, black (RV.); blue substance (S'Br.); indigo (Ya_j.); dark blue, blue-green (Pali); blue, green (Pkt.Gypsy); blue, dark green (D..); nu_, nule_ blue (Md.); ni_ru blue colour, indigo (S.); ni_l indigo (L.)(CDIAL 7563). lil the indigo plant; lil, nil indigofera tinctoria (Santali. lex.) ni_li_ indigo plant, indigo (Mn.); indigo (Pali.Pkt.H.); ni_li species of edible mallow (Gypsy)[cf. nila-t-tutti downy heart-leaved morning mallow, sida cordifolia (Ta.lex.)]; ni_l indigo (P.Ku.M.); nil (N.A.B.); nila (Or.); li_l (Bi.H.)(CDIAL 7567). Indigo dyer: nira_li_ indigo dyer (L.); lila_ri_ dyer (L.P.H.); lala_ri_ (P.)(CDIAL 7564). cf. ni_l indigo (L.)(CDIAL 7563). nil, lil indigofera tinctoria (Santali.lex.)

5400.Three myrobalans: tiripalai fruits of the three myrobalans, kat.u, ta_n-r-i, nelli (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) nelli emblic myrobalan, phyllanthus emblica (Ain:kur-u. 334); fruit of emblic myrobalan, one of tiripalai (Pata_rtta. 672)(Ta.); nelli emblic myrobalan (Te.Ka.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) nel ban. fragaria nilgerrensis (Ko.); nis- ko.y sp. berry (very sour, but when water is drunk immediately, tastes sweet); emblic myrobalan (To.); nelli phyllanthus emblica (Ka.); nellike id. (Kod..); nelli id. (Tu.); nelli premna esculenta (Te.); nella phyllanthus emblica (Pa.); nelli, nalli_ id. (Go.); neli tamarind (Kond.a); ned.i id. (Kui); lelli, leli id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3755). Emblica officnialis = phyllanthus emblica: amla, amlaki (B.); amla, aonla (H.); amalaka (Ka.); nelli (Ma.Ta.); adiphala, amalaka (Skt.); amalakamu (Te.); fruit: acrid, cooling, refrigerant, diuretic, laxative; raw fruit: aperitif; dried fruit: useful in haemorrhage; in combination with iron used for anaemia, jaundice and dyspepsia; fermented liquor prepared from the fruit: used in jaundice, dyspspsia and cough; exudation from incisions on the fruit: used as external application for the inflammation of the eye; root and bark: astringent; common in the mixed deciduous forests in India ascending to 4,500 ft. on the hills (GIMP, pp.106-107). a_malaka the small tree phyllanthus emblica or myrobalan; its fruit (ChUp.); a_malaka, a_malaki_ (Pali); a_malaya the tree, its fruit; a_malai_ the tree; a_mala its fruit; a_mam.d.a wild myrobalan (Pkt.); amuluk a partic. fruit-bearing tree (Kho.); o_mala phyllanthus emblica (K.); a~_uro, a~_wiro (S.); a_vla_ (L.); a~_ula_, a_mla_, a_mli_ (P.); o~_a~ a partic. fruit (Ku.); a_mlo phyllanthus emblica (N.); a~_ola_, a_mla_ (B.); au~l.a_, a~l.a_, a~bra_ (Or.); a~wa~ra_ (Bhoj.); au~ra_ (Aw.); a~_wla_, a_mla_ the tree; a~_wal its fruit (H.); a_malam. (OG.); a_ml.u~, a~_bl.u~ (G.); a~_vla_, a_vla_ the fruit; a~_vl.i_, avl.i_ the tree (M.); a_va_l.o gooseberry (Konkan.i); mbul phyllanthus emblica (Si.); mbilla the plant antidesma (euphorbiaceae) (Si.)(CDIAL 1247).

5401.Four: catur- in cpds., catuh- four times (RV.); caturha, chaturthi fourth (AV.)(CDIAL 4600). na_lvakai-c-ca_ntu four kinds of sandal unguents which are: kalavai, pi_tam, puli, vat.t.ikai (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) pon, ponea, car four (Santali. lex.) [cf. in fraction as a quarter: pa_do_na less by a quarter (A_past.); pa_un.a_ (Or.); pa_un.- in cmpd. (M.); pa_un. (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 8078). paun.o adj. pau~_n.i three quarters (S.); paun.a~_ (L.); paun.e (P.)(CDIAL 7765)]. cf. par..am three quarters (Ta.lex.) catur, catus.t.aya four; catuh- in four ways; caturtha fourth; turya, turi_ya, turya_s'a fourth (Skt.lex.) na_r--canti junction of four roads or streets; na_r--pat.ai the four divisions of an army, viz., ya_n-ai, te_r, pari, ka_la_l. (elephant, chariot, horse and foot)(Kalla_. 37,15); na_r--pa_l the four castes (Pur-ana_. 183); na_r-r-i fourfold (Ci_vaka. 567); na_r-r-icai the four cardinal points (Tiruva_ca. 4,3); na_n-ku the number four (Na_lat.i, 82); na_n--mukan- Brahma_as four-faced (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,33); na_n-mar-ai the four ve_das (Tol. Pa_yi.); na_n-mar-ai-mutalvan- brahmin (Pur-ana_. 93); na_lku the number four (Perumpa_n.. 489)J; na_l the number four (Tol. Po. 75)(Ta.lex.) na_l, na_lu, na_n-ku, na_lku four; na_n-ka_m fourth; na_r-r-i fourfold; na_r-patu, na_ppatu forth; na_n-u_r-u 400; na_l-a_yiram 4,000; na_lvar four persos; na_r-ka_li chair; nanna_n-ku by fours; four times four (Ta.); na_l, na_lu, na_n:ku, na_n (before nasal) four; na_lar, na_lvar, na_luvar four persons; na_la_m fourth; na_lkka_li quadruped; chair; na_lkka_likka to creep on all fours; nanna_n:ku four times four (Ma.); na.ng four; na.ng nu.r 400; na.lvat, na.lat forty; na.r pa.n.y four pa.n.y measures; na.r pa.d forty days; na.n digl four months; na.n mayn. four o'clock; na.n janm four castes; na.n mu.l four directions; na. calg four calg measures; na. na.l. four days; na. nu.r 400; na. na.ng by fours (Ko.); no.ng ((obl. no.ngn-) four; pa.ng fourteen; no.xwa.w four kwa.x measures; no. nu.r- 400; nal po0 forty (To.); na_l(u), na_l(u)ku, na_ku, na_ four; na_lvar four persons; na_lvattu, nalvattu forty; na_lnu_r-u, na_nu_r-u, nannu_r-u 400 (Ka.); na.li four; na. padi forty; na. nu.ri 400; na.ve four persons; nanna.li by fours (Kod..); na_lu four; na_lane fourth; na_lveru four persons; na_lpa forty; na_lunu_du, na_lnu_du 400; na_lkol.u, nalkol.u four times; na_vol.a four seers (Tu.); na_lugu, na_luvu fou; naluguru, naluvuru four persons; naluvadi, nalubadi, nalubhai, nalabhai forty; naluvan.d.ru forty persons; nannu_r-u 400 (Te.); na.lin. four things; nalgur four men; nallav four women; na.l udul four days; na_lgur four persons (Kol.); na_lin. four things; nalgur four men; nallal. four women; na_li four (non-masc.); nalgur id. (masc.)(Nk.); na_lu(k) four things; nelvir four men; nelal four women; adj. nel (Pa.); nalgur, nalvur four (masc.); nandal, nan.d.al id. (fem.); na_lig, na_lug id. (neut.)(Ga.); na_lung four; na_lk four each; na_lvir, na_lvur, na_lgur, la_lur (jhan) four (men); na_lun., na_lung, na_lu_ng, nalung, la_lu~ four (non-masc.)(Go.); na_l'er four (masc.); na_lgi id. (non-masc.)(Kond.a); na_lgi four; na_l pattu four times twelve doze ( = 576); nal four; nalgi four things; na_lgi four (non-masc.); na_lur four men; na_l dina four days (Kui); na_x four things; naib four (indef. masc. or fem.)(Kur.); na_lku, na_lo four (Nahali)(DEDR 3655).

5402.To take up habitation: nelavu to become established; to take up habitation, to settle; to stay, to stand; to obtain (Ka.); nilai (Ta.); nile (Ma.); nele standing; standing place; a place of residence, an abode; an apartment of a house; a story of a house; a place; place; ground; footing; basis; firmness; certainty; certain knowledge; bottom; a mystery; a secret (Ka.); nilai (Ta.); nile (Ma.); nele-ged.isu to destroy one's firm position, station or welfare (Ka.); nele-gol. to take footing, to take root as plants; to occupy as one's place; to touch the ground; to become established or settled; to take up habitation; nele mane an abode, a place of residence; neleyupparige an upper story with its various apartments; nele vercisu to increase (Ka.lex.)

5403.Image: lamp-standard: nilai standard, as of a lamp; pillar (Na_mati_pa. 448); standing, staying (Pur-ana_. 23); nilai-c-ceru continuous engagement in war-operation (Patir-r-up. Ainta_m. Pati.); nialai-t-ta_n-am shrine (Periyapu. Tiruja_n-. 340); nilai-p-pat.t.am absolute title, as to property; permanent interest; nilai-p-pat.ai standing army stationed in the capital of a country;; nilai-pe_r-u pillar or post; firm footing or situation; honour, reputation; nilai-vil.akku lamp fixed to a stand, as in front of a temple (Tiruvicai. Karuvu_rt. 7,5); nelavu standing, staying (Te.); nila id. (Ma.); nele id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) nilaya den, lair, hoke (MBh.); dwelling, lair, nest (Pali); house, resting place (Pkt.); nilaa abode (OB.); nila house (Si.)(CDIAL 7407). nilayam house, abode, seat; temple, palace (Te_va_. 414,5)(Ta.lex.)

5404.Permanence: nilai standing, permanence (Ta.)(DEDR 3675). il to stand still, become quiet (AV. x.7.37); cease (S'Br. iii.7.3.5)(Vedic.lex.) nil (nirp-, nin-r--) to stand, stop, halt, be steadfast, stay, continue, cease, be stopped, remain, wait, delay; nilavu (nilavi-) to be permanent, fixed, stay, exist, be in use, be extant; nila_vu (nila_vi-) to be permanent, fixed; niluvai standing, staying, balance, arrears; nilai standing, staying, firmness, stability, permanence, condition, state, place, stopping place, residence, depth of water allowing one to stand in, usage, custom; (prob. -v-, -nt-) to obtain a footing, be settled, lasting, delay, be just deep enough to allow a man to stand (as a river); nilaippu permanence, continuance, durability, perseverance, persistence; nir-patu the immovables, as the vegetable kingdom; nilaimai condition, state (as of affairs), standing posture, firmness, truth, probity; nin-r-u always, permanently; nir-r-al standing, staying; nir-uttu (nir-utti-), nir-uvu (nir-uvi-) to set up, raise, erect, fix on a firm basis, determine, stop (as a person), defer, put an end to; nir-ai bringing to a stand, stopping, fixed position, strength of mind, self-control; nir-u (-pp-, -tt-) to put, set, place, create, construct, weigh, balance, decide; nir-uppa_n- a balance (Ta.); nilkka to stand, remain, last, stop, cease; nilpu standing, arrears, balance; nilpikka to make to stand, appoint; nila standing, place, position, a stop, station in life, custom; nilama quality, state; nilekka to come to a stand, cease, get a footing, remain; nilavu balance, arrears; nir-uttuka to make to stand, sotp; nir-uttu pause, stop; nir-uttikka to arrest; nir-ukka to weigh (Ma.); nil-/nin- (nind--) to stand, stand still, stop; nilc-, ninc- to make to stand; nel truth; nel truth (Ko.); nil- (nid--) to stand, stand still, stop [kar- nil- (buffalo) stands to be milked, has in negative optionally kar- nis--, e.g. kar- nis-o ir buffalo which does not stand to be milked]; nilc- to stop, erect; nis- a place; nis- muxul.m mist on hills in morning; nelp site of house (To.); nil (nilt-/nind-), nilu, nillu to stand still, stand, stand up, stop, stay, wait, remain, be left, last, remain fixed, cease, rest, endure; nila, nilu standing, that stands upright, remainder, balance, arrears; nilavu, niluvu standing, position, condition, height, that stands upright, cessation, leisure, resting place, place of abode; nilisu, nillisu to cause to stand, stop, cease, stay, etc.; niluvike, nilluvike standing, height; nillisuvike placing etc.; nele standing, standing place, abode, place, basis, firmness, certainty, certain knowledge; nelasu to become established, stay, stand, obtain; nir-isu to put down, place, establish (Ka.); nill- (nipp-, nind-) to stand; nele halting place (Kod..); nilpuni, nilipuni to stay, cease, become quiet; nilagad., nilgad. settlement, conclusion, cessation; nilavu, nila_vu, nilevu balance, arrears, standing, residence; nil, nel firm, fast, abiding, quiet, still, calm; nileppu state, posture, station; nilevuni to be steadfast; nilpu pause, stop, interruption, stay, duration; nilpud.uni to put a stop, cause to stop, make stand (Tu.); nilucu to stand, rise, get up, last, continue, remain, exist, stop, stay, halt, cease, endure, be preserved or saved, survive; nilupu to cause to stand, fix, place, stop, interrupt, restrain, save, preserve, adjourn, keep back, detain; n. standing, halting, cessation, stopping, a halt, stop, pause, rest; nilaka standing, halting; nilukad.a, nilkad.a id., remaining, staying, steadiness, firmness, permanence; nilava, niluva, nilva remainder, balance, standing, duration, continuance; old, long-standing; niluvu standing, stature, height, standing crop; upright, erect, high, tall; nela place; nela konu to become firm, stay, be, stand; nelayu to be established, stay; nelavu place, baode, home, native country; neppu place, home, abode; neppukonu to become firm (Te.); il- (ilt-) to stand (Kol.); il- id. (Nk.); ilup-/ilp- to make to stand (Nk.); nilp- (nilt-) to stand; nitip- (nitit-) to make to stand (Pa.); nil- (nilt-) to stand; nin.up- to make to stand (Ga.); nitta_na_, nilla_na_, nita_na_, nitta_na_ (2 sg. imper. nilla_), nita_na_, nila_na_, nit-, nil- (nitt-) to stand; caus. nilehta_na_ to make to stand, set up (a tent); nilahta_na_, niccahta_na_, nitih-, nipcah-, nilsp- to make to stand (Go.); nil- (niR-) to stand; cease or stop; nilp- to let stand; let stay, rest (Kond.a); nil- (-t-) to stand (Pe.); li- (-t-) id. (Mand..); nisa (nisi-) to stand, stand still, be set; n. act of standing still; nilpa (nilt-) to stand, be set up (Kui); ni_cali, ni_nai, ni'- (nit-), li- (-t-) to stand; niphali, niph'nai to cause to stand; ni'-/li- (nit-/lit-) to stand up; caus. nip- (-h-)(Kuwi); ilna_ (ilcas/illas) to get up, rise to one's feet; ijna_ (Ijjas) to be stationary in an upright position, rise to one's feet, stand on end, stop, halt, pause, maintain a fixed or steady attitude, persist, persevere; ildna_, ilda'a_na_, ilta'a_na_, ijta'a_na_ to erect, set up, rest against (Kur.); ile (ij-) to stand; ilde to make to stand (Malt.)(DEDR 3675).

5405.Image: standing: nele standing (Ka.); nileppu state, posture (Tu.); nilupu standing (Te.); nelavu place, abode, home, native country (Te.); nil to stand, stop (Ta.); nilai standing, staying (Ta.); nilpu standing (Ma.); nil, nilu, nillu to stand still (Ka.)(DEDR 3675).

5406.Price: niraku current, fixed price (Tu.lex.)

5407.Reed tube: nara_ reed tube for winding thread (H.); nari_ spool of weaver's shuttle (Mth.)(CDIAL 6936). na_r..i weaver's shuttle (Ta.); na_l.i tube, weaver's shuttle (Ka.); la_l.i id. (Ka.)(DBIA. 224). Image: tube; lotus: nal.a, nala reed (Pali); nal. a species of reed (RV.); nala (Pa_n..MBh.); na~ri reed (Kt.Dardic); nar.u the reed arundo karka or tibialis (S.); nar.a_ cane; nal bamboo tube (P.); nara_ stubble of rice (A.); nal the reed arundo karka (A.); nari_ hollow cane for blowing up jeweller's fire (Bi.); nar a. tibialis (H.)(CDIAL 6936). cf. ve_r..am a reed, esp. a. tibialis (Ma.)(DEDR 5541). nad.a, nal.a a species of reed (RV.); nala (Pa_n..MBh.); nad.aka hollow of bone (Skt.); nalika_ tubular organ (Skt.); nal.a, nala reed (Pali); n.ad.a, n.ala reed (Pkt.); nei (Sh.Dardic); nar (K.); nar., nal.a_ (L.); nala_ lotus stalk (A.); nar.a reed (Or.); nal. lotus stalk (M.); nal.u pipe (Konkan.i); nal.aya reed (Si.); nali_ tube (Ku.); hollow reed (P.); tube (G.)(CDIAL 6936). nal.aka_ra basket-maker (Pali); nal.a_ra (Si.)(CDIAL 6937). n.alin.a red lotus (Pkt.); nalina lotus flower (MBh.)(CDIAL 6939). nada reed (RV.); no_ reed (Ash.Dardic); nulu_ (Pr.Dardic). el. to become hollow (Ta.); el.l.al hollow, hole, depression (Ta.); nal.l.u a nallah or depression in the ground (Ka.); nol.ale a shell or tube (Ka.); nallige, nalle, nallye a hollow (Tu.)(DEDR 2931). n.ad.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 6936)[poss. through contact with Munda or Drav. cf. nal.l.u reed (Ka.); el. to be hollow (Ta.); na_d.i_ tubular stalk of any plant, tubular organ, tube (RV.); na_ri pulse, wrist (N.); na_ri_ hollow cane for blowing up jeweller's fire (Bi.); la_ri_ id. (Mth.); na_i pipe of bellows, river, valley (WPah.); na_l.u~ rivulet, ravine (G.); na_d. tube, artery (M.)(CDIAL 7047). Image: to hang: a_l(l)utal to hang (Ci_vaka. 140); a_luga id. (Ma.); jo_l (Ka.); va_lu id. (Te.); a_llutal to decline, descend, as the sun (Pur-ana_. 82,2); a_l.am flower-stalk (Ja_n-va_. Ur-pa. 30); cf. na_la (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Measure: na_l.i_ measure of capacity (Pali); n.a_lia_ water-clock (Pkt.); na_li_ wooden vessel for measuring corn, measure of land = 240 sq. yards (Ku.); nai wooden vessel for holding 1 1/2 seers; na_l.ia_ large grain basket (Or.); na_la_ a kind of ladle (N.); naliya a measure of capacity = 3 pints (Si.)(CDIAL 7049). Image: drain, pipe: prana_d.i_ outlet pipe, drain (S'Br.); prana_li_ (Skt.); pran.a_li_ channel (R.); pana_li_ watercourse, gutter, pipe (Pali); pan.a_la (Pkt.); prana_la_ gutter on roof; water channel (L.); gutter, drain (P.); panya_w wooden drain (Ku.); pana_lo drain (N.); pana_r channel (Mth.Aw.); pana_la_, pana_ra_ gutter, drain (H.); parna_l.i water-pipe (G.); parn.a_l.i_ gutter, channel (M.); panhal. pipe, tube (M.); penela, peneli drain, gutter, pit (Si.)(CDIAL 8673). Image: stream; abundance: raya stream, current (MBh.); current, speed (Pali.Pkt.); rava speed (Pali); rau sediment left by river after inundation (S.); rau small stream from the mountains, course or flow of river (P.); rau current, stream, torrent, line (H.); rai_ long narrow channel made for flow of water from higher level (Or.); rer.vu~ to pour, purge (G.); relli stream, current; rellai levels (Pkt.); relo stream; relan.u to overflow (S.); rel flood, abundance (M.); relo torrent, attack; relvu~ to pour down on (G.)(CDIAL 10638).

5408.Image: dance: nayl. to play (Ko.); nali to dance (Ka.); to play (Kod..)(DEDR 3612).

5409.Dense: nal. dense (Ta.); nal.am width, breadth, extent (Ta.); nal.i be vast in extent; closeness, density, vastness, width, multitude (Ta.); nal.ippu over-crowdedness (Ta.); na_l.i thickening of the skin, callosity (Ka.); nan.d.o fat, stout, bulky; many; a flock (Kond.a)(DEDR 3622). To heap up; crowd: rela_ heaping up; reln.a_ to heap up (P.); relo abundance (Ku.N.); relnu to have plenty, heap up (N.); rela_ crowd (B.); rel.a crowd (Or.); rel crowd (H.); rel.n.e~ to crumble down, reel (M.)(CDIAL 10638). Thick; crowd: al. closeness, thickness; al.l.al crowdedness, closeness; al.l.a_t.u (al.l.a_t.i-) to be close; al.l.u (al.l.i-) to be dense, thickly interwoven; al.am density, closeness (Te.); al. narrowness (Ma.)(DEDR 292).

5410.Bedbug: nal.l.u a kind of flea which infests poultry, cats, etc. (Ta.); nalli bedbug (Te.); nar. id. (Go.); nalu, nar.u id. (Kond.a); nan:ka id. (Pe.) nakt.a, nat.ka, nat.'a id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3621A). Image: gnat: nul.ampu, nul.l.al, nol.l.al gnat, eye-fly, mosquito; nilampi gnat; nul.l.a_n- small biting ant (Ta.); nur..ampu a gnat, chiefly an eye-fly (Ma.); nol.a, nol.avu, non.a, non.avu a fly; noraju, noraju a (mosquito or) gnat, an eye-fly; nela a fly; nel.a house-fly; nel.avu id. (Ka.); mu.li gnat, midge (Kod..); nurn:gi mosquito (Kor.); nulle fly (Kol.); nur.i, ur.i mosquito (Pa.); nulle_ a flea, esp. one which damages kodon and kutki flowers; nulle a small insect which bites in the rainy season, gnat; nule_, nu_le mosquito (Pa.); nuto a kind of very small gnat (Malt.)(DEDR 3715). nusi a minute insect that destroys wool, any cloth, and paper; one that destroys grain; eye-fly, gnat (Ka.); nusuma eye-fly, gnat, midge (Te.); nusme mosquito (Go.); nu_si_ flour-weevil, weevil; nusi crop rust (Go.); ucu woodworm (Ta.)(DEDR 3699). cf. no small, tiny, minute, thin, slender (Ta.); nusi small, little, slight; the dust into which wood is reduced by insects (Te.); powder, dust (Ka.)(DEDR 3779). cf. ul.u wood-worm (Ta.)(DEDR 700). no_mbu (pl. no_pku), no_m (pl. -ku) flea, tick (Kond.a); no_m (pl. no_mku/no_pku) id. (Pe.)(DEDR 3796).

5411.To rub: eli to rub one stick on another for producing fire by friction, rub, grate (as bamboos); eli-ko_l piece of wood for producing fire by friction (Ta.); neyj firesticks (Ko.); nis kon. hole in fireboard in which stick is twirled to make fire; nis kwi.l firesticks used at ti. diary (To.)(DEDR 2930). [cf. nal.i coldness, frigidity (Ta.)(DEDR 2905).]

5413.Image: bit: nul.gu to reduce to small fragments; be powdered (Ka.); nuliyuni to be broken, shattered; nuli a bit, fragment (Tu.); nuliyu to be broken, shattered (Te.)(DEDR 3716). nul.l.u (nul.l.i-) to pinch, nip; n. a pinch, nip (Ta.); nul.l.uka to pinch, pluck; nul.l.a a pinch, bit; nul.l.al a pinch, harvest of grains that are picked (Ma.); nul.y- (nul.c-) to pinch (Ko.); nul.l.u to pinch (Ka.); nul(u)cu to pinch, nip off, squeeze; nulumu to pinch (Te.)(DEDR 3717).

5414.Fisherman: nollo_ fishing net, much like the English butterfly net (Kur.); nolpa to ladle out (Kui); nol. to bale out as water, measure out as grain (Ta.); lole to take out with a spoon (Malt.); nul.ai a caste of fisherman; nul.aiyan- fisherman, inhabitant of the maritime tract; fem. nul.aicci (Ta.)(DEDR 3790). nollu a kind of watersnake; nol.l.u a kind of fish (Tu.lex.)

5415.Saliva: o_l.a saliva; no_l.a slaver; glutinous fluid in the fish, fruit, snails, etc. (Ma.); we.l. saliva (To.); lo_l.a, lo_l.i, lo_l.u, lo_l.e, logad.i, lodad.i, lodal.i, lod.al.e, lodle, lo_yi saliva, slaver, tenacious mucus, phlegm; no_l.i sticky (juice)(Ka.); no_n.e saliva, spittle (Tu.); o_li anything sticky, gummy, glutinous, viscous; saliva; udale saliva, spittle (Tu.); noccil.l.u saliva, spittle (Te.)(DEDR 2937). la _la_ spittle, saliva (Sus'r.); saliva (Pali.Pkt.); la_la (D..Dardic); la_l (Sh.K.L.A.B.H.); ra_l (Ku.N.H.); ra_w (Ku.); la_r (N.H.); na_l (B.); la_l.a, na_l.a (Or.); la_la_ mucus (H.); la_l. (G.M.)(CDIAL 11027). nol. to swallow, devour (Ta.); non.e to swallow (Ka.); nolayeng id. (Kol.); ro_pa_na_, lo_p id., gulp down (Go.); nulxna_ to swallow without chewing, gulp hastily, devour (Kur.)(DEDR 3791).

5416.Hair: navir, naviru hair (Ka.); navir man's hair; net.umai woman's hair (Ta.); ner-ulu pl. the hair (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. na_vitan- barber (Ta.lex.)

5417.An annular continent: na_valanti_vu a continent surrounded by the ocean of salt-water (E_la_ti. 56); na_val id. (Man.i. 22,29); na_valam-puvi id. (Tiv. Periyati. 9,10,6); na_var--por..il id. (Pu. Ve. 9,38); na_val-akal-it.am id. (na_val-akal-it.anti_vam po_r-r-i : Pu. Ve. 8,17); cf. na_val jamoon-plum, eugenia jambolana (Tirukko_. 191); Arnott's mountain black plum, eugenia arnottiana (Ta.lex.)

5418.Myrtle: Myrtus communis: {Ancient Egyptian ht-ds? Modern Egyptian Arabic s; myrtle is an aromatic evergreen shrub with glossy dark-green leaves, white fragrant flowers and later bluish berries. It is native to the Mediterranean... The fresh or dried leaves, flowers and fruit are astringent and antiseptic and are used as a condiment and in cosmetics. In classical times it was the plant of Venus, goddess of love, and a bride would wear it on her wedding day... A wreath including myrtle and a spray of the leaves of ancient date has been found... It is often an ingredient in mixed herbs used for fumigation... a hair ointment was prepared from a red mineral, kohl, ht-ds, oil or fat; gazelle dung and hippopotamus fat... Pliny informs us that the myrtle with the most powerful scent grew in Egypt... Theophrastus who says that in that country it was marvellously fragrant (II.8.5) and that the berries tasted like wine. (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., 1989, pp.124-125). Myrtus communis: vilayiti mehndi (H.P.); sutr-sowa (B.); abhulas (M.); kulinaval (Ta.); habulas (U.); leaves: astringent, considered useful in cerebral affections; decoction: employed as mouth-wash in cases of aphthae; fruit: carminative, given in diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhage, internal ulceration and rheumatism; habitat: indigenous from the Mediterranean to NW Himalayas; often grown in gardens throughout India (GIMP, p.173). Syzygium cumini = myrtus cumini: Synonyms: black plum, Java plum; juice is considered as tasty as grape juice... a good source of calcium and a fair one of iron... seeds have come into prominence in recent years on account of their suggested value in the treatment of diabetes... the remarkable physiological property of reducing the quantity of sugar attributed to its seeds... In India the leaves are used for poulticing in skin complaints... Dutt reports that an extract of the seeds is prescribed in India for diabetes mellitus. Bardet also reports the use of the seeds for diabetes (3 to 4 grams per hour). (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 667-670). cf. na_val jamoon plum, eugenia jambolana = syzygium jambolanum (Ta.)(DEDR 2914). cf. na~_d.i eugenia jambolana (Pa.); nendi_ (Go.)(DEDR 2917). Eugenia jambolana: jambu (Skt.); ka_laja_m (B.); ja_mun (H.); a vinegar prepared from the juice of the ripe fruit, is an agreeable stomachic and carminative. It is also used as a diuretic in scanty or suppressed urine... The bark is astringent and is used, alone or in combination with other medicines of its class, in the preparation of astringent decoctions, gargles and washes. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.165).

5419.Image: nine leaves: navadala a new leaf; nine leaves (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5420.Image: trumpet: namari a kind of long trumpet; navuri id. (Kur-r-a_. Tala. 14,15); id. (OKa.)(Ta.lex.)

5421.Millet: navan.e a small grain, the Italian millet or panic seed, panicum italicum; priyan:gu, kan:gu (Ka.); na_r..al, a_r..al (Ta.Ma.); navan.eyakki the seed of the millet (Ka.lex.) ni_va_ram wild rice (Tiva_.); Italian millet (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.)