5574.Image: to be on heat (of cows): va_s'ita_ cow desiring bull (AV.); vahura desire of cow, goat etc.for male; vahurjan.u to desire the male (S.); va_hran. to be on heat (of cows)(L.); va_haran.a_ to be on heat (of animals); bahiria_ heated with sexual desire (of cat, lion, elephant)(P.); va_s' cry of animals (Skt.)(CDIAL 11590). va_hate_ bears down (Car.); makes an effort (Dha_tup.); va_hayati makes labour (Skt.); prava_hate_ bears down (of a woman in labour)(Sus'r.); ba_hab (of animals) to copulate (Bi.); va_han.u to cause to labour (S.)(CDIAL 11609). Desire: veh-kal excessive desire; avarice, greed; veh-kutal to desire ardently (arul. veh-ki : Kur-al., 176); to covet (ilamen-r-u veh-kutal ceyya_r : Kur-al., 174); veh-ka_mai absence of desire; absence of cupidity or covetousness (Kur-al.. A_ti. 18, Talaippu)(Ta.lex.) vegan. to be on heat (of a mare)(L.); veg intense sexual desire, venereal orgasm (P.)(CDIAL 12090). ve_ (ve_v-/ve_kv-, vent-) to be distressed by grief or passion (Ta.)(DEDR 5517). ve_t.kai < ve_l.- (Ta.) desire, want, appetite (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,9,9); ve_t.ka id. (Te.); ve_t.ci (Tiruman. 437); ve_t.am desire (Pur-ana_. 214)(Ta.); ve_t.a id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ve_t.kai amorousness, one of ten avattai (Nampiya_kap. 36, Urai.)(Ta.); ve_t.kai-no_y desire, appetite (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,6,7); morbid appetite or longings of wome during pregnancy (Pur-ana_. 20,14, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Rut: vekul.ikka to rut; vekul.i excitement (Ma.); vekul. (vekul.v-, vekun.t.-) to be angry, be enraged at, hate, dislike; vekut.t.u (vekut.t.i-) to make angry; vekul.i anger, wrath, dislike, hate; vekut.ci wrath (Ta.); bigad.uni to take offence; bigad.u taking offence (Tu.); vegat.u repulsiveness, disgust, dislike (Te.)(DEDR 5464). For semant. 'anger' cf. ve_ka_l.am anger; heat; ve_kam anger (Kalit. 103); semen (Ta.); force (Tiruva_lava_. 7,6)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5575.Image: elliptical space: ohara_, ora_ a bout of the plough, the elliptical space ploughed (M.)(CDIAL 12174). pa_k bend, twist, eddy, rounds of a field in ploughing (A.B.)(CDIAL 7618).

5576.Image: riverbank: bagar. riverbank (Ku.); bagar shore, sandy place, shingly place; bagarya_n land on riverbank (N.); vagr.o waste land (G.); vagad.a_ fence, hedge (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11190). Image: water channel: pagar a water channel; paghrao to bring, as rain (Santali.lex.) Swampy land: a.k swamp (Ko.); a.(k) ka.r. swampy land (Ko.)[as opposed to ve.gad. burnt field for shifting cultivation (Kol.)(DEDR 1438)(cf. vey to be burned (forest, fuel)(Kui)(DEDR 5517); cf. gad.d.e island (Ka.)(DEDR 1148). ghat.t.a landing-place, quay (Skt.); gha_t. mountain pass (P.N.B.G.M.)(CDIAL 4414); vayar--ka_t.u paddyfield (Ta.); ka.r. (obl. ka.t.-) jungle without trees, uncultivated ground, unfenced field (Ko.)(DEDR 1438)]; a.ka biggest flat land of a man's holdings (Kod..)(DEDR 336).

5577.Agricultural tract: akam agricultural tract (Ci_vaka. 1613); tree; mountain; earth (Ta.); ah.kam grain (Cin-e_n. 425); akki (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) a~_khn.e~, a~_kn.e~, a~kn.e~ sloping divisions of a flat earth roof for water to roll off (M.)(CDIAL 102). akan.i agricultural tract (Ma.)(DEDR 7). agam land kept for self-grown grass, stubble (Kho.)(CDIAL 1048). kat.a bank of river (Pe.); gat.u (pl. gat.ku) bund, bank (of river, tank, etc.)(Kond.a); boundary, beach, shore; end of a table, field, etc. (Kuwi); ket.t.u bank, dam (Ta.); kat. bank of river (Go.); gat.t.u bank (Ga.); dam, embankment (Ka.Te.); bund of field (Kuwi); pl. gat.ka id. (Kuwi); ga_ttu_ (pl. ga_ttu_na, ga_tka) boundary; ka_dagattu bank of river (Kuwi); kat.t.e id. (Ka.); bund of tank (Kod..); kat.t.a dam, embankment (Te.Go.); bund of field (Kol.Pe.); id., dam, dike (Nk.); kat.t.a_ a dam in the river for catching fish (Go.)(DEDR 1147). Bank round field; trench; ditch: paga_r. trench, ditch, trench and bank, bank round field (B.); paga_r id. (B.); paga_ra ridge round field (Or.); paga_r mound, bank (H.); pagar fence (Sant.)(CDIAL 8464). Field; herd: bagr.o field; bagr.i_ small field (WPah.)(CDIAL 11331). baga_r pasture (H.); baga_l flock, herd, crowd (N.)(CDIAL 11332). cf. gad.d.a hole (Pkt.); ga_ra_ deep hole (A.); ga_n. small embanked field within a field to keep water in (L.)(CDIAL 3981). Ditch, moat: pahan.i ditch, water channel (Or.)(CDIAL 8461). pa_i_ trench round a tent (M.)(CDIAL 8462). cf. pra_ka_ra wall, rampart (Mn.Pali.)(CDIAL 8914). akar.. to excavate, dig out; moat, tank, reservoir (Ta.); akar..i moat; akar..a_n-, akar.. eli field rat; a_r.. to dig; a_r..i to dig deep (Ta.); akar..uka, akir..uka to dig out, excavate; akir.., akar..i moat, ditch, trench; akil., akil moat, earth wall (Ma.); av- (avd-) to dig hole with tool (Ko.); ad.- (ad.0-) to dig (To.); agar.. (agar..d-), agur.. (agur..d-) to dig; agar.. what ha been dug; agar..te digging, pit, ditch; agar..ata, agar..ate digging, ditch, moat; agalte ditch, moat; agi, age to dig, burrow, make a hole in the ground (Ka.); agaru, agal.u ditch, trench, moat; agate overturning the soil by spade (Tu.); agad.ta ditch, moat, trench (Te.); agul- (agult-) to dig (Kol.); agul-/agl- id. (Nk.); agulmur digging (Nk.); ad.g-, ar.g- to dig (Ga.); arxna_ id. (Kur.); arge id. (Malt.)(DEDR 11). Unploughed land: akk- to make, do (Nk.); a_kku to effect, make, create, arrange; n. creation (Ta.); a_kkan- that which is artificial (Ta.); a_gisu to bring about, perform (Ka.)(DEDR 333). akit.t.ha unploughed (Pkt.); akr.s.t.a unploughed land (AV. cf. kr.s.t.a ploughed land (S'Br.)(CDIAL 3449); a_it.ho fallow land, farm (S.); a_et.ha_, a_t.hia_, a_it.hia_ land round a well, part cultivated, part left fallow (L.); a_kr.s.t.a drawn (MBh.); ploughed (Skt.); a_kassati ploughs (Pali); a_git.t.hi drawing (Pkt.)(CDIAL 14). git.t.e lump of earth (Ka.); a clod or lump, usually of earth (Tu.)(DEDR 1539).

5578.Wall, rampart; neighbourhood: pa_ka_r fort-wall; place (Ta.); pa_gal id. (Ka.) (Ta.lex.) pra_ka_ra wall, rampart (Mn.); pagar fence (Sant.); cf. paga_r ditch, bank (H.); pa_ka_ra wall, rampart (Pali); pa_ya_ra-, pa_a_ra-, pa_ra fort (Pkt.); fauru wall (Md.); pa_ra a layer (as of bricks on a wall)(M.)(CDIAL 8914). Image: rampart: pa~_cil rampart (B.); pra_ci_ra enclosure, fence, wall (Kull.)(CDIAL 8921). pa_garo, pa_ga_ro an enclosure (Tu.lex.)

5579.Neighbourhood: pa_n:kar side, neighbourhood, place, location; pa_n:ko_r friends (Tol. Po. 41); pa_n:ku side, neighbourhood, place, companionship (Ta.); pa_n:kan- friend, companion (Ta.); pa_n:ku, pa_n.n.u side, party, propriety, means (Ma.); pa_n.n.an companion, friend (Ma.); pa_n:gu manner, form, shape, likeness (Ka.); pa_ni in: giton.i pa_ni temple of head (Kond.a)(DEDR 4053). pa_yasa_ neighbourhood (OH.); pa_r.os (G.); pa_r.osi_ neighbour (S.); pa_r.os'i_ (G.); pa_d.ive_siya-, pa_d.o_sia- neighbouring (Pkt.); pra_tive_s'ya neighbouring (Ya_j.); neighbour (Mn.)(CDIAL 8936). pakkam side (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 5,5); neighbourhood, nearness; side of the body extending from the shoulder to the hip; pakkatta_r neighbours; countrymen; partisans (Ta.lex.) Side: paks.a side (RV.); paks.as side (RV.); paks.aka side (Skt.); pakkha side (of body or house), faction (Pali); side (Pkt.); obuc side (Pr.); pach faction (K.); pakhu partiality (S.); pakkh side (P.); pa_kho slope, upper part of building, roof (Ku.); pa_kho side (N.); pa_kha_ side wall (A.); pa_kho hill-side (N.); pakkhur. mountain-side; plateau (L.); pa_kha_ side; pa_kha side, nearness; pakha_ side, shoulderblade (Or.); pa_kh(a_) gable and wall of house (Bi.); pa_kh side; pa_kha_ side-wall, shed; pakhu_a_ side, gable-end (H.); pa_kh side, party (G.); side of roof (M.); pa_kha_ side of roof or bodice (M.); pa_khe~ side of roof or udder (M.); pa~_kh side (G.); pa~_khu~ branch (G.); pa~_kh wing, side of roof (M.)(CDIAL 7627). pakhero precipitous slope (N.)(CDIAL 7629). pakhwa_r.a_, pakhwa_ra_ side, gable-end of house (H.)(CDIAL 7632). Image: side beam of roof: pasel, pl. pasela~ side beam of roof (L.)(CDIAL 8119). cf. pa_n:kar side, neighbourhood, place (Ta.)(DEDR 4053). cf. pa_kkam seaside village (Ta.)(DEDR 4047). cf. pakkam side, nearness; pakkal side, one's class or tribe (Ta.); pakkam, pakkal, pakku side (Ma.); pak in phrases: tan paka.r. by himself, of his own accord, tam paka.r. with one another etc. (Ko.); pak side (To.); pakka, pakke, pakku id., proximity (Ka.); pakka near (Kod..); pakk side (Tu.); pakka side; near, adjacent; pakkiya side (Te.); prakka side, part, direction (Te.); paki side (Ga.)(DBIA 233a). Covered terrace: pakha, pukra races in a wall; pacri an enclosing wall (Santali.lex.) paghan.a a covered terrace before a house (Pali); praghan.a (Skt.)(Pali.lex.) pa_ka_ra an encircling wall, put up for obstruction and protection, a fence, rampart (3 kinds: made of bricks, of stone, or of wood, viz. it.t.haka_-, sila_-, da_ru-); pa_ka_ra-it.t.haka_ brick or tile of wall (Pali)(Pali.lex.) pra_ka_ra an encircling wall, a surrounding wall elevated on a mound of earth, a rampart, a fence, an enclosure; pa_gara, pa_gala, pa_ga_ra, pa_gal id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pra_ka_ra wall, rampart (Mn.); pagar fence (Santali); paga_r bank, ditch (H.B.); pa_ya_ra, pa_a_ra, pa_ra fort (Pkt.); pa_ka_ra wall, rampart (Pali); fauru wall (Md.); pa_ra_ a layer (as of bricks on a wall)(M.)(CDIAL 8914). cf. pa_ravd.a_ quarter of a village (M.)(CDIAL 8915). Fenced plot of ground: pa_ka_yati < ba_ga_yat fenced plot of ground fit for garden cultivation (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) Ploughed land ready for sowing: ba_haj ploughed land ready for sowing (P.); va_hya to be driven, etc. (BhP.)(CDIAL 11614).

5580.Image: astride: bakkar, bakka_r a stride (Tu.lex.)

5581.Image: enclosure; cluster of houses: pakka_ < pakka_ (U.) adj. built of brick and mortar (Ta.); pa_kkal paving stones, slabs for flooring (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) bakher, bakhri bakhol a homestead, a collection of houses belonging to one family; bese bakher akata he has made a fine homestead (Santali.lex.) bari, bar.i house, household; cas bari, cas bar.i farm and stock; bat.e court-yard of a house; bathan a temporary enclosure for cattle when taken to a distance to graze, a sheep fold (Santali.lex.) Collection of houses in one enclosure: ba_khar cluster of cattlesheds, collection of houses in one enclosure, enclosure, house (H.); vakkhala covered (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12215). bakkhar, ba_khar house (H.)(CDIAL 11189). Abode: bhavana place of abode (Mn.); dwelling (Pali); bhavan.a (Pkt.); bha~_, bha_ house (Mai.)(CDIAL 9417). pavan-am house, dwelling, abode (Tiruva_lava_. Nakara. 8); palace, castle (Iraku. Irakuvu. 30)(Ta.lex.) Quarter; side: vakkal side (Ma.); van:ka direction, side, quarter (Te.); va~_ka quarter, side (Te.); va_kku side, direction (Ta.)(DEDR 5208). Class or tribe: pakkal one's class or tribe (Ta.Ma.) (Ta.lex.) Hut; village: pakkan.a hut of a Can.d.a_la, village inhabited by barbarians (MBh.); paka_n.a woodman's hut, hamlet of woodmen's huts (Or.)(CDIAL 7620). Cell: cf. pa_n:ku cell for prayer (Ta.); id. (< Pers.)(Ta.lex.) Horse stable: pa_ga_ a horse stable (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pa_ka hut, hovel (Te.)(DEDR 4047). cf. pa_n:ku place, location (Man.i. 1,61); side, neighbourhood (Cu_l.a_. Na_t.. 2)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_n:ku-tu_kki-vaittal to put up hut etc. as a preliminary to the penning of sheep for manuring a field (Ta.Na_.)(Ta.lex.) bha_ti_ messmate, fellow-resident (S.) (CDIAL 9428). Inside; house: akam inside, house, place (Ta.); house, room, inside, abode (Ma.); akatta_n master of the house; akatta_l. mistress of the house (Ma.); akatta_n- householder; o_r-akatti husband's brother's wife (i.e. she who is in one and the same house with oneself)(Ta.); o_ragitti, va_ragitti id. (Ka.); akan.i inside, interior; akampu inside; akal inner part of town or village; aka_, aka_yi inside of house, room (Ma.); akna (pl. -n) room of a house (Go.)(DEDR 7). a_gvu~, a~ga_u one's own (G.)(CDIAL 114). cf. aga_ra house (A's'vGr..Pkt.)(CDIAL 52). Woodman's hut; village: pakvas'a name of a barbarous tribe, a cha_n.d.a_la (Skt.lex.) pakkan.a hut of a Can.d.a_la, village inhabited by barbarians (MBh.); paka_n.a woodman's hut, hamlet of woodmen's huts (Or.)(CDIAL 7620). pakvas'a = pulkas'a (Ka.lex.) pukvas'a, pukvasa low, vile; name of a degraded mixed caste, the offspring of a nis.a_da by a s'u_dra woman (Skt.lex.) pulkasa = pukvaka (MS. i.6.11 pulkaka) a man born of a brahmin and a ks.atriya_ woman (Vedic.lex.) pakkuvi < pakvin competent person (Ta.lex.) pulakar < pulaha one of ten praja_patis (Ta.lex.) praja_pati ten personages or ancient r.is.is first created by Brahma_ : mari_ci, atri, an:gi_ras, pulastya, pulaha, kratu, prace_tas, vasis.t.ha, bhr.gu and na_rada (Ka.lex.) pakkan.am quarters of ve_t.ar caste; town, village; place where foreign goods are sold (Ta.); ve_t.an- man of the pa_lai tract (or arid, desert tract)(Tiva_.);[For pa_lai cf. Cilap. 11,6506 (Ta.); pa_laikkir..atti Durga_, goddess of desert tracts (Kalla_. 17,45) (Ta.lex.)]; ve_t.ai street where merchants live; va_t.ai row of houses as in a street; street where herdsmen or hunters reside (W.); village, hamlet (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) pa_kkam seaside village, town, village (Ta.); pa_kkana_r n. of a famous low-caste sage (Ma.); pa_ka-na_d.u jo_gi a kind of S'u_dra beggars (Ka.); pa_ka hut, hovel; -pa_ka (village name suffix); pa_ka-na_d.u one of the Telugu districts under the Reddi kings (Te.); pa_ka hut (Kond.a)(DEDR 4047). pa_kai < pa_kkam village, town (Ta.lex.) Sea-side village; royal residence: pa_kkam sea-side village (Pat.t.in-ap. 27); town, village (Maturaik. 137); pa_ka id. (Te.Ka.); pa_kkam royal residence (Patir-r-up. 13,12, Urai.); pa_kkai sea-side village; town, village (Patin-o. Tiruve_. Tiruvan. 74); pa_n:ku side, neighbourhood (Cu_l.a_. Na_t.. 2); pa_n:gu id. (Ka.); pa_n.n.u id. (Ma.); pa_n:ku place, location (Man.i. 1,61); pa_n:ku-tu_kki-vaittal, pa_n:ket.uttu-vaittal to put up hut, etc., as a preliminary to the penning of sheep for manuring a field; pa_n:ku-pirittal to divide the respective sheep of shepherds who have jointly penned them up for manuring a field (Ta.lex.) pakkad.i the side or flank (Ka.); pakke, par..ke, hakke a place for reposing: a dormitory (Ka.Te.); the lair of a wild beast; a nest; a cow-pen or a herd of kine; pakkevane a dormitory (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Place: cf. pa_ka_r fort-wall; place (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Seaside village: cf. pa_kkam seaside village, town, village (Ta.); pakkan.a hut of a Ca_n.d.a_la, village inhabited by barbarians (MBh.)(DEDR 4047). cf. paka_n.a woodman's hut, hamlet of woodmen's huts (Or.)(C1DIAL 7620). pakkan.a the hut or abode of a savage (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) pa_karipu Indra; pa_kas'a_sana Indra, punisher of the daitya Pa_ka; pa_ka-s'a_sani Arjuna, Indra's son Jayanta; pa_ka_ri Indra (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pa_ka-na_d.u jo_gi a sort of S'u_dra beggars, who hunt, sell palmyra writing-leaves and drugs, and are fortune-tellers (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pakvas'a name of a barbarous tribe, a Ca_n.d.a_la (Skt.lex.) pa_can.t.an- heretic (Vina_yakapu. 83,77); person of heterodox conduct; pa_can.t.i id. (Ar-aner-i. 17) (Ta.); cf. pa_s.an.d.a (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) pa_khan.d.i, pa_khan.d.a heterodox, heretic (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Burning bricks: pa_ka burning (as bricks), baking (Skt.lex.) cf. pa_kad.o heated, purified (OMarw.); pakva cooked, ripe (RV.); pakka ripe, cooked (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 7621). pa_ka-dha_na kiln (Skt.)(CDIAL 8023). pa_ka baking (of bricks)(Mn.)(CDIAL 8022). pa_ka-put.i_ potter's kiln (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) pakva baked, burned, annealed; pakva-is.t.aka_ the baked brick; pakva-is.t.aka_-citam a building constructed with baked bricks; pac to bake, burn (as bricks); to melt (as metals); paci fire (Skt.lex.) pe_ci_ heat (Kal.); pec hot (Kho.); peci heat; peceik to heat (Kho.)(CDIAL 7641). cf. payun to bake (earth or bricks), heat red hot, scorch (K.)(CDIAL 7650). cf. paini earthen vessel in which rice-spirit is distilled (N.)(CDIAL 7651). cf. pa_en brazier's flux or borax (Bi.); panawa_la_ (Mth.); pa_canaka dissolvent (Car.); borax (Skt.)(CDIAL 8027).

5582.Treasury: bakkasa, bokkasa a treasury (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) [bakha_ri_ granary (P.) X Synonym: ko_s'a (Skt.)] Warehouse: bauka a large-sized basket plaited out of pretty broad bamboo lamellae, generally about 5 ft. high and 4 ft. wide. Like the d.ilingi it is used for storing cereals (cf. Pl. XXII.4) (Mu.lex.) vakha_ra warehouse (S.); vakkha_ra granary (Pkt.); vakkha_raya women's quarters (Pkt.); bakha_ra_ basket, granary (P.); bakha_ri_, bukha_ri_ granary (P.); vaks.aska_ra basket; portions of Jaina works; cf. pit.aka-vaks.aska_ra (Jain Skt.); bakha_r, bakha_ri_ straw or brushwood granary in the open (Bi.); bakha_ri_ (Mth.); bakkhar, ba_khar house; bakha_r, bakha_ri_ storehouse, granary (H.); vakha_r (G.M.); vakha_ri_ warehouse-keeper, merchant (G.)(CDIAL 11189). cf. ar-a treasury (Ma.); ar-ai room, square on a chess-board (Ta.)(DEDR 322). Warehouse-keeper; granary: vakha_r warehouse, depot (M.G.S.); ba_kha_r (H.B.); vakkha_rayam. rati-gr.ham., antah-puram (OM.)(Bloch, p. 391). Basket for storing grain: bhaka_r large wooden box to hold grain (Ku.); bhaka_ro small shed (N.); bhaka_ri basket for storing grain (N.)(CDIAL 9345). Store-house: vaippur..i store-house (Kur-al.. 226)[ur..i place, site (Nan-. 163, Virut)](Ta.lex.) vaippu deposit, treasure (Ta.); veppu placing, deposit, treasure; vayin place (Ta.); vaikkam what is laid down, deposit, alluvial ground (Ma.); bay, baycu, baccu, oy to deposit; bay(a)ke deposit, treasure, hoard (Ka.); vaicu, vayicu, ve_yu to place, put (Te.)(DEDR 5549). vai to put, place (Ta.); vekka to deposit; oje to keep (Malt.); uina_ (uyyas) to put down; retain, keep back (Kur.)(DEDR 5549). vaippu place; earth, land, world, town (Ta.)(DEDR 5549). Treasure; stores: pokkaca-vaippu treasure trove; hidden treasure; pokkacam, pokkis.am treasure; stores (Ta.); bokkasamu id. (Te.); bokkasa id. (Ka.); pokkis.akka_ran-, pokkis.a-ta_r treasurer; rich man; pokkis.a-ca_lai, pokkis.a-vi_t.u treasury; pokkis.a-p-pet.t.i coffer; chest for money and other valuables (Ta.lex.) po_kku-vaittal to make underground cellar for hiding treasure; to find out ways of expenditure (Ta.lex.) Royal revenue: po_kkiyam royal revenue spent on coinage, jewels, army, artisans, etc. (Cukkirani_ti. 98); felicity, wealth; use, usufruct; object of enjoyment; mortgage with possession (Ta.lex.) Land revenue: pa_ka-pat.ai a system of land revenue in which a fixed share of the produce is collected (Ta.lex.) Pay, salary: paga_ra pay, salary (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) aprug of rare value (Santali.lex.) Settlement; transfer of ownership: po_ka_r-u expenditure of money (Kur-al., 478)(Ta.lex.) po_kku-varavu settlement, a revenue term; transfer of pat.t.a_ (Ta.lex.)

5583.Image: city; gate: bha_gol., bha_gal. gate in wall of town or village, precincts of a village (G.)(CDIAL 9352). Courtyard: va_cal < va_yil gateway, portal, entrance (Kalit. 97, Urai); open courtyard within a house; king's court (Kuruparam. Pan-n-i_. Pak. 176); va_kili gateway (Te.); va_gil (Ka.); va_cikai residential quarters of vais'yas (Ta.lex.) Outside; view from a high place: bayul open space of ground (Go.); bail plain (Go.); baylu open space (Kond.a); maidan (Kuwi); bayalu field (Kuwi); baga.l conspicuous (of a view from a high place), wide-open (of a door)(Ko.); bayal, bayil, baylu conspicuousness, celebrity (Ka.); bayilu, bailu adj. public (Tu.); bayalu outside, exterior, sky, publicity; public, evident, known (Te.)(DEDR 3940). pa_vu path (Nk.); pa_b road, path, journey (Kur.); pawu way, path, road (Malt.)(DEDR 4108). Door: val door (Ga.); vel doorway, gateway (Pa.); bali_ door, screen made of bamboo mats (Kur.); bali matted screen for a door (Malt.)(DEDR 5277). [burda balla doorpost (Kuwi); bar.da bamboo door (Pa.)(DEDR 4009)]. va_ri door, path, entrance; income, produce (Ta.)(DEDR 5270). va_yil, va_yal, va_cal doorway, entrance, gate, place, king's court (Ta.); va_ytal doorway, entrance (Ta.)[cf. talupu door (Te.)(DEDR 3123)]; Image: doorway: ba_kilu door, gate (Tu.); ba_dhal.a door (Tu.); ba_gil, ba_gal, ba_kal, va_kkil (inscr.) gate, doorway (Ka.); va_yil, va_cal, va_yal doorway, entrance, gate, place, king's court (Ta.); va_ytal doorway, entrance (Ta.); va_til id., gateway (Ma.); va.l entrance door (Ko.); va.gl entrance (Ko.); kava.l ground in front of house (Ko.); va_kili door, doorway (Te.); va.kal outside (Kol.); va_kal id. (Nk.); va_l id., menses (Pa.); va_l outside (Ga.)(DEDR 5354). va_yil doorway, gate, king's court (Ta.); va_til doorway, gateway (Ma.); ba_gal gate, doorway (Ka.); va_kili door, doorway (Te.); ba_gil, ba_gal, ba_kal, (inscr.) va_kkil gate, doorway (Ka.); ba_kilu door, gate (Tu.); ba_dhal.a door (Tu.); poxol entrance (To.)(DEDR 5354).

5584.Image: arm: pa_khura_ upper arm (B.); pa_khuro upper arm (N.); pa_khor. arm (H.); pa_khar. arm (H.); pha~_khur-o arm (Ku.); paks.a shoulder (RV.); pa~_khr.i_ hand, arm, petal (G.); pakhu_a_ arm (H.)(CDIAL 7627). pakhot.u~ arm (G.)(CDIAL 7630). pakhaur.a_ shoulder-blade (H.)(CDIAL 7633). bar.i_ arm (Kur.Malt.)(DEDR 3855). cf. pa_kna_ (pakkyas) to take up into one's arms (Kur.)(CDIAL 4080). cf. ba_kna_ to thrown in,put in with the hands (Kur.); bke to take up (as earth)(Malt.)(DEDR 4051).

5585.Image: bracelets; armour for the arms: ba_hula armour for the arms (Skt.); ba_hulaga arm (Pkt.); baula_ bracelet (Gypsy); bohli_, ba_hvli_, ba_lhi_ action of the arms in swimming (L.); ba_hul.a armour for the arms (Or.); ba_hul.a_, ba_vl.a_ region of the shoulder-joint (M.)(CDIAL 9233). ba_hutra arm-armour (Skt.); ba_hati armour for the arms (A.)(CDIAL 9231). bhayu_r.i bracelet (Phal.)(CDIAL 9230). ba_huraks.a_ armour for the upper arm (Skt.); baurakh wrist (Ku.); bahirakhu, bahirakhau bracelet (OG.)(CDIAL 9232). ba~_h, ba~_ha_, ba~_i_ bangle (N.); ba_ha_ arm; ba_hi set of bangles from wrist to elbow (Or.); ba~_hu, ba~_hi_ bangle (Bi.); ba_m.hu_ ornament on arm (OAw.); ba_hut.a_ upper arm (M.); ba_ut.a_ armlet owrn by Hindu women (H.)(CDIAL 9229). ba_hupu_raya, ba_puri, ba_hupuri, ba_huli a bracelet worn on the upper arm; ke_yu_ra; ba_huvalaya, ba_hubal.e an arm-ring (Ka.lex.) Images: circle; bangles, bracelets; to surround: val.ai to surround; circle, surrounding region, bangle, bracelet (Ta.); val.aical, val.aippu enclosure, courtyard (Ta.); val.aiyam bracelet (Ma.); ring, circle, bracelet (Ta.); val.aiyal bangle (Ta.); val.a ring, bracelet (Ma.); val. bangle (Ko.); pal. ring at head of churning stick (To.); circle, bangle (To.); bal.e ring, armlet, bracelet (Ka.); bracelet, hoop (Tu.); balayu to surround, besiege (Te.)(DEDR 5313). val to turn, turn around (Skt.); valaya bracelet (MBh. Pali. Pkt.); ring, girdle, circle, circumference (Skt.); val.a_ turn, twist (P.); balaya_, baraya_ pl. bracelet (OAw.); bala_ bracelet, armlet (H.); val.u~ circle, hoop, plot of land (G.); val.e~ ring (M.); val.ai ring, enclosed space (for keeping chaff, cattle, etc.)(M.); val necklace; vala bracelet (Si.); valate_ turns, turns to, speeds towards (Skt.); vallate_ turns, covers (Skt.); valai turns (Pkt.); varan.u to turn, return, bend (S.); valan. to return (L.); valai_ returns (OG.); val.vu~ to turn, turn round, bend (G.); vara_in.u to turn back (S.); vala_van. to return, refund (L.); bala_iba to turn, wind (thread round a bamboo reel)(A.); vale_ti twists, turns (Pali); walun to roll up in, encircle, bind (K.); va_le_i, va_lai turns, twists, makes return (Pkt.); va_ran.u to make return (S.); va_l.vu~ to fold, twist, turn, send back (G.); vallai turns, covers (Pkt.); vallan. to twist, surround (L.)(CDIAL 11407). valaiya twisted, turned round (Pkt.); balai covered (Mth.); valayita encircled (Skt.)(CDIAL 11408). va_laka bracelet; finger-ring; va_lika_ ear ornament (Skt.); wolu large earring (K.); wail ring (K.); va_l.a_ large ear-ring (L.); va_la_ (P.); ba_la_ (P.); ring on wrist (Bi.); bracelet (H.); ba_lu_ nose-ring (WPah.); ba_lo bracelet (A.B.); ba_li bracelet, ear-ring (B.); ba_l.a_ bangle (Or.); ba_ri_, ba_li_ small ear-ring (H.OMarw.); ear-ring worn by men (Bi.) kan-ba_la_ ear-ring worn by men (Bi.); ba_lea_ ring on wrist (Bi.); ba_lo bracelet worn by Hindus (S.); va_l.o wire; pl. ear ornament made of gold wire (G.); va_l.a_ ring (M.); va_l.i_ nose-ring (M.)(CDIAL 11573).

5586.Incrustation of an exudation on the bark of a tree: hakkal.i an incrustation, a crust or coat, as that of an exudation on the bark of a tree, of cowdung smeared on a floor, of lime applied to a wall, of serum on a wound, etc. (Ka.M.); vakku (Ta.Te.); hakku (Ka.); hakkal.i lac or stick-lac incrusting small sticks (Ka.); cf. laktike, alaktike lac (Ka.); hakkal.eye_r..u an incrustation to rise or come off (Ka.); hakku crusted or dry mucus or rheum; a scab (Ka.); hagaru, agaru, adaru, aduru the dandruff of the head (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Condiments; oil seeds: ba_khar burnt milk sticking to a saucepan (N.); upaskara condiment, spice (Skt.); vakkhar oil seeds in general (L.P.); bakkhar id. (P.)(CDIAL 2265). Condiments, groceries, drugs: vasa_n.u~ condiments, groceries, drugs (G.)(CDIAL 11954). To spice; season food: cf. pagha_riba to flavour curry with condiments and ghee or oil (A.)(CDIAL 8485). bagha_rna_ to season food (P.); to brown onions and spices in heated oil (H.); bagha_r.o (Ku.); baga_rnu (N.); bagha_riba_ to flavour water-boiled curry by frying it with spices in oil or ghee (Or.); vagha_rvu~ to season (G.); vaggha_ria seasoned (Pkt.); vagha_riya~_ pl. seasoned, mixed with spices (G.); vagha_ru seasoning (S.); bagha_r (P.Bi.H.); baga_ra cooking oil (K.); baga_r (N.); vagha_r (G.)(CDIAL 12191). oggaran.e, aggaran.e a kind of seasoning (Ka.); oggarisu to season, spice (Ka.); oggaran.e seasoning (Tu.)(DEDR App.17). paskan.o to distribute cooked food (Ku.); paskanu to take out food out of the pot, deal out (a meal)(N.) (CDIAL 8841). Drug used as a ferment: ba_khara fungus added to boiled rice to ferment it (Or.); ba_khar drug used as a ferment (H.)(CDIAL 12215). Physician: pakkuvar physicians; persons devoted to ve_dic practice, of three classes, viz., karuma-ka_n.t.ikar, patti-ka_n.t.ikar, a_n-a-ka_n.t.ikar (W.)(Ta.); pakkuvava_l.i physician; pakkuvi < pakvin competent person; competent woman (Ta.lex.) To smear: vakanava_ to smear (Si.)(CDIAL 2286). upa_kta smeared (TS.); upatta id. (Pali)(CDIAL 2285). upa_n:ga smearing (Car.); va~_g oil for greasing woodwork (L.); va~_gu oil or soap for axles (P.); ba~_gn.a_ to grease axles (EP.); u~_gna_, au~gna_ id.; u~gan act of greasing (H.); u~gan. axle-grease (G.); va~gan. id., va~gavin.e~ to grease axles (M.)(CDIAL 2293). wazawun to moisten (K.)(CDIAL 2295). upa_jana anointing (Mn.); uvam.jan.a smearing (Pkt.); u~jan. greasing, sticky substance into which axle-grease changes, a thing with which a spell is thrown on a child (G.); va~jan. materials for smearing pots with (M.); vadana unguent (Si.)(CDIAL 2297). um.jissai will wet (Pkt.); um.jia sprinkled (Pkt.); upa_nakti, pl. upa_janti anoints, greases (a wheel)(TS.); u~jvu~ to oil, grease (G.); va~jn.e~ to smear a pot with oil or marking-nut (M.)(CDIAL 2296). cf. isun:g oil (Kur.); isgnu id. (Malt.)(DEDR 422). Image: sediment: baggad.a sediment, settlings, dregs as of oil, the mud or mire in a well, cow-dung mixed with water (Ka.); pagal.a refuse, dregs (M.); van:gal.a bad, foul, nasty (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ban:ga_ra, van:ga_ra gold (Ka.); van:ga_ru, van:ga_ra (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) sila_-ba_k a kind of lichen or moss (H.)(CDIAL 11417). Scum; moss: pa~_kud.u moss, mossiness, scum or greenness on putrid water (Te.); pe_kola fungus, moss on water; pe_kor. duckweed (Kond.a); pa.n. moss (To.)(DEDR 4052). cf. a.ka biggest flat land of a man's holdings (Kod..); a.k swamp (Ko.); a.(k) ka.r. swampy land (Ko.)(DEDR 336). cf. baggad.a sediment, dregs of oil (Ka.); pagal.a refuse, dregs; van:gal.a bad, foul, nasty (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ban:ke gum, glue, resin (Ka.lex.) cf. paginu, pagina, hagisu gum, resin, exudation of trees; pagininol. (Ka.lex.) cf. pakku fracture, break, crack; outer bark of a tree (Ta.); scab of a sore (Ta.Te.); dried mucus of the nose (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pakku scab (Te.); dried portion of any bodily secretion, scab (Ga.)(DEDR 3811). pakku outer bark of a tree; tartar on the teeth (W.); scum formed on a prepared dish (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pakkar-ai (corr. of par-kar-ai) artificial blackening of the teeth (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Resin: pagil to be sticky, viscid, glutinous, or adhesive, to adhere, to join (Ka.); jigil id. (Ka.); pacai, payin-, picin- resin (Ta.); panda, paye, pas'e (Ma.); pase viscous matter, gum, resin (Te.); pagale, payale the pulp inside the shell forming the coconut (Ma.); pagina, paginu, haginu gum, resin, exudation of trees, rasa (Ka.); bagi dividing, tearing etc.; bagisu to cause to scrape or scratch and remove, as the filth of a drain (Ka.); bagaru to scratch with the nails or claws (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ban:ke, bon:ka, bon:ke gum, glue, resin (Ka.); par..uppu slipperiness, glue, mucus (Ma.); var..ukku to slip, slide (Ta.Ma.); var..ukkai the tender pulpy substance inside a young coconut (Ta.); var..ikke id. (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) pacai stickiness, tenacity, adhesiveness; glue, paste, cement (Malaipat.u. 26); pas'a id. (Ma.); pacai glutinous substance in fruits, roots etc.; sap, juice (Kampara_. Kan:kaip. 5)(Ta.); pas'a (Ma.); pasa (Te.); moisture (Kampara_. Ta_t.akai. 3); pas'a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Stickiness: pai_ starch made of rice diluted in water (Kur.); paca, pas'a, paya gum, glue (Ma.); pagisu, pagina gum, resin, exudation of trees (Ka.); paya gum, resin (Tu.); pas, pas' greasiness, oiliness (Tu.); pe_semu juice or sap as of mango or palm fruit (Te.); pacihta_na_ to stick (Go.); padxna_ to thicken, acquire half consistence (as glue, paste), become soft, half-melt; render half-fluid (Kur.); pathge to be congealed (Malt.); pacai stickiness, paste, glue, glutinous substance in fruits, roots etc.; (-v-, -nt-) to become glutinous or viscous; stick together; payirppu resin; payan- juice; payin- gum, glue (Ta.)(DEDR 3827). paginu, haginu gum, resin, exudation of trees; nirya_sa, kas.a_ya; elavada haginu = s'a_lmali_ ve_s.t.a, picce (Ka.lex.) For ela- cf. ilavam silk cotton (Ta.lex.) cf. picin- gum, exudation from certain trees; benzoin (Ta.lex.) cf. bihibiji gummy, greasy, sticky (Tu.); piccha_ gum, slimy saliva (Skt.)(DEDR 4134). pasia_ water filtered from boiled rice (Or.); pasewa_ juice draining off fresh opium (Bi.); prase_ka flowing forth (MBh.); resin (R.)(CDIAL 8852). pasyu_n.o to drain extra water off rice while cooking (Ku.); prasin~cati pours out (AV.); prase_cayati pours into (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 8853). Sap: pakara sap, juice (Tu.); bakka sap (Kol.)(DEDR 3817). cf. hakkal.e an incrustation (Ka.); pakku dried portion of any bodily secretion, scab (Ga.)(DEDR 3811). Inner bark; scale: vakku skin (Ta.); cf. tvac (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vakala inner bark or skin of a tree (TBr. iii.7.4)(Vedic.lex.) cf. valka bark of a tree (TS.); vakka skin, bark (Pkt.); va_lka cloth or garment of bark (Ma_rkP.)(CDIAL 11417). valkalam cortex, a membrane that covers some parts of the body; valkam bark of tree (Tailava.)(Ta.lex.) valkala bark, outer garment (Ya_j.); bokla_ bark (H.); va_lkala made of bark (Skt.); ascetics' bark dress (Skt.); vakkala bark, bark garment (Pali.Pkt.); bakal bark (Ku.); ba_kal, ba_kali scale, husk, bark garment (A.); bakala_ piece of bark (A.); ba_kal bark (B.); bakal.a, bakal.a_, bakla_ (Or.); ba_kal outer planking of a boat (Bi.); bakkal, bakal, bakla_ bark, rind, skin (H.); va_kalam. bark garment (OG.); va_kal. (G.); va_kal. tattered garment, quilt (M.); ba_klu thick, coarse (WPah.); ba_klo (Ku.N.); balku branch (Sh.); va_gala made of bark, bark (Pkt.); bakhala_ piece of bark or skin (A.); va_khal., va_kal. (M.); bokro bark (N.)(CDIAL 11418). valka bark of a tree (TS.); va_lka made of bark (Skt.); cloth or garment of bark (Ma_rkP.); vakka skin, bark (Pkt.); bakk bark (P.); bakt.a_ scale, flat portion (A.); vak-a inner bark of trees (Si.); baku branch; balku, boku (Sh.); va_ka bark; ava_ka without bark (Pali); va_ga, va_ya skin, bark (Pkt.); bakkhe branch (Sh.); va_kh, va_k fibres of palm leaves etc. (G.); filamentous integuments used for making ropes (M.); bikk bark (P.); vukka, bukka skin, bark (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11417). cf. oliyal skin, hide (Ta.); olipu skin, skin of a snake, shape (Tu.); oliyu to be peeled, flayed; olucu to peel, flay, strip; olupu peeling, flaying (Te.); ols- to skin (Kol.); to peel (Nk.); olc- to flay (Pa.)(DEDR 1000). cf. coli- to strip off, peel off, tear (Ta.); chollai to skin (Pkt.)(DEDR 2856). cf. basge to peel (Malt.)(DEDR 5340). valka bark of a tree (TS.); vakka a large elephant rope; vakku-na_r hemp fibre (Ta.); vakku hemp for nets, sackcloth, etc. (Ma.)(DEDR 5209).

5587.Oil seeds; stock in trade; granary: wakhar a general name for oil seeds including til, sarhon. (sesame, mustard); wakhar a_n de ghani kud.h d.awa_in. bring your oilseeds and I will let you have the oil press; wakkhar, bakkhar stock in trade, capital; (particularly spoken by oilmen); bakhari_ a granary; bakhara a basket or box for holding knick-knacks attached to the underside of a cart; bakhra, wakhra part, portion, share; bakkhra, wakkhra_ divided, separate (P.lex.)

5588.Merchant: va_kha_ri_ warehouse-keeper, merchant (G.)(CDIAL 11189). Trader; profession: va_ri resources, income (puyalen-n-um va_ri : Kur-al., 14); produce (Pur-ana_. 35); grain; wealh (Ta.lex.) va_ryam pl. possessions; a blessing, a boon (Skt.lex.) vya_r, ya_r, vya_ra_ thing to be sold; ya_ri, ya_rya_ grocer; ya_r, ya_ra_ things (for sale) (Kon.lex.) cf. va_r-na_ma_ < wari_-na_ma (U.) bill of lading; va_ri part. < wa_ri_ (U.) suffix meaning 'according to' (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) va_ru, vari by, according to; for (Ka.); va_ri_m. (M.); dinasu-va_ri according to the articles (Ka.); va_ra like, in, with, or after the fashion of detail (M.H.); tara_-va_ri various kinds (Ka.lex.) hamar a granary, a storehouse for grain (Santali.lex.) be_hara, be_ha_ra a very clever and able man (Ka.); be_ha_ra, be_hara, yava_ra, ve_vaha_ra (Tadbhava of vya_vaha_ra) doing, performing; process; occupation, work, profession, business, transaction; dealing, traffic, commerce, trade (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vyavaha_ri, be_pa_ri (tadbhava of vya_pa_ra) transacting, practising any business or trade; a trader, merchant (Ka.); be_pa_ra trade (M.H.); be_pa_ra sa_pa_ra redupl. id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) paikar., bepari trader (Santali.lex.) Trader: baikhar corrupted from the Arabic word, bai sale and khar the root of the Persian word kharidan to buy. A broker. Used specially of a person who buys a crop of unripe dates, watches it while ripening, picks the fruit, and sells it by retail. Under the government of Diwan Sawan Mall the baikhars were an important body. The government took the whole of the date-crop, no right of the owners of the land to the fruit being admitted. Each year in har.h (June-July), the date-crop was valued and sold at a fixed price to the baikhars, who were usually the persons who had bought the fruit of the same trees in former years. From the time of sale they had to bear all expenses of watching, picking, drying and selling by retail. The price fixed was rigorously exacted. Rain or a fall in the price of dates of course caused them much loss, but no remissions were allowed on this or any other account. The British government has, however, admitted the right of the owners of the soil to the date trees, upon which a cash assessment has been made. Baikhars are now those who buy the unripe crop from the land owners, and watch, harvest and sell the fruit. The trade is very profitable. They absorb most of the profits that have arisen from the grant by government of proprietary rights: baikhara_n. de ajab cha_le; hik ma_n.h khat.de, kha_n.de sa_ra_ sa_le the ways of baikhars are wonderful; they work for one month, and live a whole year on the profits! (Punjabi. lex.) paikar a trader, one who buys and sells; to trade; adi paikare bad.aea he knows well how to buy and sell (Santali.lex.) One who tends tusser silk worms: paiha a disciple, a follower, one who tends tusser silk worms (Santali.lex.) pakka_ (Tadbhava of pakva) regular; pakka_kharad.e the regular account compiled from the diary (Ka.M.); pakka_ran:gu lasting colour (Ka.lex.) Business: beor.a business, pressure of business; karbar to transact business; kabari, karbaria one who transacts business (Santali.lex.) cf. s'abara (Skt.lex.) beora_ affair (B.); vya_pa_ra (Pali); vya_pa_ra occupation, business (MBh.); va_va_ra business (Pkt.); va_var business, activity (M.); va_vr (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12205). vya_pr.ta engaged in (MBh.); va_vad.a engaged in (Pkt.); vya_vat.a, bya_vat.a occupied (Pali); via_vad.a (Pkt.); viyavul.u engrossed in (Si.)(CDIAL 12207). vya_pa_rayati employs (MBh.); vya_pa_rita occupied with (Pali); va_varn.e~ to perform, manage, do the business of (farm, house etc.) (M.)(CDIAL 12206). vya_priyate_, vya_pr.n.uti is engaged in (MBh.); va_varai, va_virai is busy (Pkt.); va_varai uses, eats (OG.); va_varvu~ to use, bring into use, live in (a house), spend (G.); va_varn.e~ to busy oneself with, live and act among (M.); va_parvu~, va_varvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12203). Shopkeeper: baka_l.a a shopkeeper (Ka.); baka_la id. with contemptuous implications (M.)(Ka.lex.) baka_l.abha_tu shopkeepers' rice: rice mixed with curds, butter and milk (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pakka_ kharad.e the regular account compiled from the diary (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) ba~r.ia~ shop-keeper (Santali.lex.) cf. bania_ merchant (H.lex.) a_pan.a shop; a_pan.ika shop-keeper (Pali)(Pali.lex.) paura gadi liquor shop; dokan, gadi shop (Santali.lex.) cf. pan.yas'a_la_ shop (Skt.)(CDIAL 7720). Spread out: pakhal. litter, rubbish; pakhard.a_ id. (M.)(CDIAL 8854). pakharn.e~, pakhal.n.e~ to scatter, strew; pakharn.i_ scattering (M.); pakheran.u to spread out, diffuse (S.); pakher.an.u id. (S.)(CDIAL 8855). Shop: pagga_hika belonging to, receiving (or trading?) in cpd. pagga_hika-sa_la_ a shop (cf. Vinaya Pit.aka Texts III.383: would he set up as a hawker in cloth or would he open a shop?); paggahan.a stretching forth, lifting, holding out; of the hands as sign of respectful salutation; paggaha favour, kindness, patronage; exertion, energy; paggahita holding up, or (being) held up (Pali); cf. pragr.hi_ta lofty (BHSkt.) (Pali.lex.) cf. prasa_ra trader's shop (Skt.); pasa_ro extension of family or property, household (Ku.); pasa_r extension (N.); extent of practice in business, popularity (B.); pasa_ra_ expansion (P.); pasa_ro expansion, crowd (S.); pasru petty shopkeeper (K.); paha_ra_ goldsmith's workshop (P.); poha_r small shop (A.); pasa_ru spices (S.); pasa_r-hat.t.a_ druggist's shop (P.); pansa_ri_ grocer's shop (Ku.); prasa_rayati spreads out for sale (Mn.); puha_ra_ breaking out (of fever, smallpox etc.)(P.)(CDIAL 8835). prasa_ran.a spreading out (S'Br.); pasa_ran.a stretching out (Pali); pasaran.a cloth spread on ground, carpet, lacquer work, enamel (Si.)(CDIAL 8836). prasa_rin spreading out (Pa_rGr..); pasa_ri shopkeeper (Ku.); poha_ri (A.); pasa_ri druggist, petty trader (B.); druggist, pedlar (Or.); pasa_run.i_ f. (Or.); pasa_ri_ seller of spices (H.M.S.P.); pansa_ri grocer (N.); pansa_ri_, pa~sa_ri_ seller of spices (H.P.); X pan.yas'a_la_ (CDIAL 8839). baja_r < ba_za_r (Pers.) a market, a street in which waes are sold; baja_ri pertaining to the market (P.lex.)cf. pan:ka_ru gold (Ta.); ban:ga_ru (Te.); ban:ga_ra (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pakkan.am place where foreign goods are sold; pa_kkam royal residence (Patir-r-up. 13,12, Urai); pa_kkiyam prosperity, riches (Civap. Pira. Civaja_n-a. Kalam. 51)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_ka-put.i potter's kiln (Ta.lex.) cark spices for curry (Ko.); carakku drugs (Ma.); spices, curry-stuffs (Ta.)(DEDR 2353). pasal booth, shop (N.); pasara_ tray of goods for sale (B.Or.); prasara advance, extension (Skt.); pasara extension (Pkt.); pasar extension of family, lineage, family, household (Ku.)(CDIAL 8824). prasa_ra extension (Sus'r.); trader's shop (Skt.); prasa_rayati spreads out for sale (Mn.); la_sar bench-like flower beds outside the window (Pas'.); pasa_r rest (K.); extension (N.); extent of practice in business, popularity (B.); stretching out, expansion (G.); pasa_ro stretching out, expansion (G.); extension, bigness, extension of family or property, lineage, family, household (Ku.); pasa_ra extent of practice in business, popularity (Or.); pasa_ra_ stretching out, expansion (H.P.M.); pasa_ro expansion, crowd (S.)(CDIAL 8835). prasa_ran.a spreading out (SBr.); pasa_ran.a stretching out (Pali); pasaran.a cloth spread on ground, carpet, lacquer work, enamel (Si.)(CDIAL 8836). prasa_rayati stretches out, extends (VS.); pasa_re_ti extends (Pali); pasa_re_i (Pkt.); prasar to win (Gypsy); pasa_run, pasarun to beat out a metal plate thin, pare off the edges of a metal plate (K.); pasa_rn.o to stretch, throw, lay flat (Ku.); pasa_ra_ to spread out (B.); pasa_riba_ to spread out, exhibit for sale (Or.); pasa_rab to spread out (Mth.Aw.); pasa_ral (Bhoj.); pasa_rna_ (H.); pasa_rn.o (Marw.); prasa_vu~, pasa_rvu~ (G.); pasarn.e~ (M.); paharanava_ (Si.); pa_ran.u to stretch out (S.); pasa_rn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 8838). prasarati advances, extends (RV.); breaks out (of disease)(MBh.); pasarati extends, scatters (Pali); pasarai (Pkt.); paharjan.u to be put to graze (of cattle)(S.); pasarn.o to lie at full length, sleep, be idle (Ku.); pasrinu to lie down (N.); pasaral to spread (Bhoj.); pasarai is spread out (OAw.); pasarab to spread out, lie down (OAw.); pasrata_ to spread out (Konkan.i); pasarna_ to spread out (H.); pasarvu~ (G.); pasarn.e~ (M.); pasar grazing cattle at night on forbidden pastures (H.); pasar grazing cattle in the morning (G.); pasiran.u to expand (S.); passarn.a_, pasarna_ to be spread out (P.)(CDIAL 8825). pakheran.u to spread out, diffuse (S.)(CDIAL 8855). vakai class, caste, manner, method (Ta.); vakuppu kind, sort (Ma.); To accomplish a business: vakayikka to accomplish a business (Ma.); bage division, section, class, caste (Ka.); bage kind, manner, species, income (Tu.); vaga manner, mode, means (Te.); vaka variety, sort, kind (Kui)(DEDR 5202). Business, occupation; trade: va_va_ra business (Pkt.); va_var business, activity (M.); va_vr (Konkan.i); vya_pa_ra (Pali); beora_ affair (B.); vya_pa_ra occupation, business (MBh.)(CDIAL 12205). vya_pa_rayati engaged in (MBh.); vya_pa_rita occupied with (Pali); va_varn.e~ to perform, manage, do the business of (farm, house, etc.)(M.)(CDIAL 12206). vya_pr.ta engaged in (MBh.); va_vad.a engaged in (Pkt.); vya_vat.a, bya_vat.a occupied (Pali); via_vad.a (Pkt.); viyavul.u engrossed in (Si.)(CDIAL 12207). va_yppu wealth (Tiruppo_. Can. Ma_lai. 73); fertility (Na_mati_pa.621); profit, gain (I_t.u., 2,10,10)(Ta.lex.) va_yppai debt (Ta.); va_yppa, va_yippa a loan (Ma.)(DEDR 5355). vyavasa_yin industrious (MBh.); vivasa_i_u trader (OG.); vasva_yu~ member of the artisan class who receives a fixed share of the harvest and land to build a house on (G.)(CDIAL 11832). Merchant; granary: bauri a caste of semi-hinduized aborigines (Santali.lex.) voha_rika merchant (Pali.lex.) cf. kot.t.a_gha_ra granary (Pali.lex.) Shopkeeper: ba~r.ia~ the bania caste, a shopkeeper or pedlar who sells salt, spices, tobacco etc.; bani payment for services made in kind to oilmen, goldsmiths etc.; bania potole a small pannier, a small round bundle, anything of the shape of a small pannier; banij to trade, to obtain with some trouble, to search for, to personally call one to attend a panchayat; banij bepar to buy goods at one place to sell at another, to trade; bepari, beparia a merchant, a trader; bepar to trade, to traffic, to buy and sell; pher bepar buying and selling (Santali.lex.) Wealthy: vahur.o wealthy (S.); vas shine (Skt.); vasu good; wealth (RV.); wealth (Pali.Pkt.); wese goat (Ash.Kt.); wase_i, ose_ (Wg.); waicar collect. 'goats' (Pas'.); wosee goat (OPrus.)(CDIAL 11446). vahu_n.a~_ being in power or authority, able (L.); vahi_n.o submissive (S.); basa_i is able (OAw.)(CDIAL 11431). vasi_yas better, more prosperous (TS.); vasyas (RV.); va_hyo~ wealthy (S.)(CDIAL 11445). cf. vas'a will, authority, power (RV.); vas'e_na on account of, by means of (S'rS.); vasa will, power (Pali); vase_na on account of (Pali); vasa (Pkt.); va_h, ba_h power (P.); bas authority, control (N.); bas'a (obl. bas'u~ owing to)(Or.); bas (basi rahab to be under the control of)(Mth.); bas (Bhoj.Aw.H.); basi loc. sg. in the power of (OMarw.); vasi, vasu_ (OG.); vasin through, by means of (OSi.); visin, vaha control (Si.)(CDIAL 11430). Obligation: vas' will (Skt.); vas'ya to be subjected, obedient; in cmpd. or with gen. 'at the disposal of' (MBh.); vassa- subject, subject to (Pkt.); bas' verbal enclitic with obl. of inf. to express necessity, propriety, obligation, ability (Kho.); particle with inf. to express necessity (Sh.); vassa_ capable, fit, able, worthy (L.); vass, bass power, authority (P.)(CDIAL 11433). vas'i_kara subjugating (MBh.); vas'i_karan.a bewitching (Pa_rGr..); vas'iyar snake (G.)(CDIAL 11432). bhara support (Skt.); bharvaso, bharoso confidence (S.); bharossa_ (P.); bharosa_, bharsa_ trust, dependence, support (Ku.); bharos, bhoras support (N.); bharas, bharasa_ reliance, trust (B.); bharaxa_ (A.); bharasa_ (Or.); bharos hope, consolation (Mth.); bharos, bharosa_ confidence (H.); bharoso (Marw.); bharo~so, bharu~so (G.); bharvasa (M.)(CDIAL 9398). bahbahia, bhale wealthy; behal to lose wealth; ha~sil to come into possession (Santali.lex.) va_hin possessing (Skt.lex.) vitta found (AV.); a find (AitBr.); goods, power (RV.); wealth (Pali.Pkt.); vitu power, ability (S.); bit money (A.); bita wealth (Or.); bit (Mth.); vi_t (G.)(CDIAL 11727).

5589.Trader; vendor of drugs: bha~oria one who peddles salt, tobacco, spices etc. and carries his wares in a basket on his head (Santali.lex.) buhuru vendor of drugs etc. (K.); vyavaha_raka trader (Skt.); bohora_ name of a clan of Chetris (N.); bohra_, bauhra_ class of village bankers (Muhammadans originally from Gujarat)(H.); vahoro, voro, horo trader (G.); boro (H.); nagala-viyoha_laka_ nom. pl. city magistrates (As'.)(CDIAL 12175). bakkasa, bokkasa a bundle; ko_s'a, artha; bokkasadavanu a treasurer (Ka.lex.) vakan- < baka Kube_ra; Baka, an asura or demon; vaka_ra-v-uppu rock-salt (Ta.); paha_r (U.); vakai goods; property; means of livelihood; the principal stock in trade (W.); vakaiyara_, vakaira_, vakaiyar-a_ etcetera (Ta.); wagaira (U.); va_kat.am < va_gbhat.a medical science; medical treatise (Takkaya_kap. 553, Urai.); va_kat.ar physicians (Piramo_t. 10,15)(Ta.lex.) bokram, bokran to apply medicine of the consistnce of paste externally to the body (Santali.lex.) be_ri trader (Tadbhava of vya_pa_ri) (Ka.Te.); biya_ri (Ma.); be_ra ma_d.u to trafic (Ka.); be_ra trade (Ka.Te.); be_r root (Ka.); ve_r (Ta.Ma.); be_pa_ra (Tadbhava of vya_pa_ra) trade (Ka.M.H.Te.); parada, harada a dealer, a merchant (Ka.Te.); paraditi a merchant woman; paradu, haradu trade, traffic; parade_s'a a foreign country; a remote country; pombarada, sonnevarada gold merchant; si_revarada cloth-merchant; haradike trade, traffic; haradu trade, traffic; haradugey to trade; harapriya Kube_ra; hare to spread, to extend; haredu, haradu id. (Ka.); haravu to spread; harahu id. (Ka.); hariba business, affair, work, concern (Ka.); harika_r-a a hawker, a chandler (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vyavaha_rayati deals with (SaddhP.); beha_riba_ will employ (MB.)(CDIAL 12176). vyavaha_rin trader (Mn.); vo_ha_rika magistrate (Pali); vivaha_ri_ trader (OG.)(CDIAL 12178). To collect funds: viya_pa_ri-ttal < vya_-pr. to collect funds, as for a festival; to operate, act; to be worked; vya_pa_ram action, operation; function (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 77); trade, commerce; transaction; vivaca_yam, viyavaca_yam labour, active occupation; agriculture; buying and selling, trade, traffic (Ta.lex.) ve_t.ai street where merchants live (Ta.); va_t.ai < va_t.a row of houses as in a street; street where herdsmen or hunters reside; village, hamlet (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vicam (prob. vihita) rate (S.I.I. iii,314); expense (S.I.I. v,307); allowance, batta (Na_.) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) cf. besa_d trade (B.); besa_ti (B.); bisa_ti_ (Bhoj.); vais'yavr.tti trade (Mn.)(CDIAL 14810). cf. bisa_, besa_ purchase of grain (Ku.); visa_hia accomplished (Pkt.); viha_jhn.a_, viha_jn.a_ to buy (P.); viha_in.u to buy (S.); besa_unu to buy (N.); bisa_hna_ to get possession of, buy (H.); visa_hai exchanges (OG.); viha_jan. to buy; via_jhun. to acquire (L.)(CDIAL 11979). cf. ve_sa to redeem (Kui)(DEDR 5523). vi_t.u-kol. (kol.v-, kon.t.-) to recover, get back (Ta.); vi_t.uka to be paid or discharged, be complete as a fast, be revenged; discharge; vit.t.uka to discharge what is due, repay (Ma.) bu_t.uni to repay, give in return, avenge, revente (Tu.) (DEDR 5453). vessa_, ves merchant (Si.); beha_ trade (A.); vais'ya peasant as member of the third caste (RV.); adj. belonging to such (MBh.); vassalage (TS.); vessa, vessi_, vessika_ member of the third caste (Pali); vessa-, ve_sa-, ve_si_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12150). Puddling in rice plants: beusiba_ to puddle in rice plants (Or.); bi_sna_ to set out pieces in a game (e.g., chess)(H.); beusa_ act of puddling in rice plants (Or.); beusan.a id. (Or.)(CDIAL 11622). cf. vyavasa_ya agriculture (Skt. lex.) Agriculture: be_sa_ya (Tadbhava of vyavasa_ya) agriculture; be_sa_yaga_r-a an agriculturist, a farmer (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) be_sa_yo cultivation (Tu.lex.) besa_iga_r, besa_iga_ra_ cultivator; besa_i, besa_ye cultivation; besa_i kar to cultivate (Konkan.i.lex.) vepa_r, vepa_ra_ trade; vepa_ri, vepa_rya_ trader (Konkan.i.lex.) Rate; portion; memorandum of the produce at harvest: va_ci rate, as of interest; portion (S.I.I. iii,123); discount, in changing money (Te_va_. 572,1); fitness, propriety; va_ci-ya_ta_stu memorandum of the produce at a harvest (Ta.lex.) va_ci_pu propriety of conduct; regularity < wa_jib (U.)(Ta.lex.) va_calviniyo_kam an ancient tax (S.I.I. ii,115); va_car-pan.am id. (S.I.I. i,93); va_car-kan.akkan- accountant in a palace (Ta.lex.)

5590.Establishment in an office: bahali synonym of acu to engage a servant, a workman; bahali-n, ba_li-n to engage oneself as servant or workman; hasa dul kamiree bahalinjana he has engaged himself as a navvy; sindisumre kamimentee bahalinjana he has accepted an engagement to go and work in Singbhum; bahali-o ba_li-o to get employment, to get engaged for service; ba-n-ahali, ba-n-a_li the result of the action, i.e. the men one has engaged; bana_lii ba_likedkoa kami kamo donotana he engaged such a number of workmen that there is not work for all (Mu.); ba_li (Hasada dialect); baha_li karek to reinstate (Sadani)(Mu.lex.) bahali establishment in an office (Ka.M.); bahali barataraphu establishment and dismissal (Ka.); baha_li_ establishment in an office (H.M.); bahalu established in or invested with (Ka.); baha_la (H.M.)(Ka.lex.) bowa_ti_ flowing (A.); bau~ta_ serving as a servant; vahant carrying, flowing (Skt.)(CDIAL 11457). bahal to appoint to office; bahali office; paka paki to establish an agreement; baisau to establish (Santali.lex.) To appoint to an office: bohal to appoint, nominate, install; bahal to engage, to appoint to an office, to begin; et.ak sahebe bahal akana another gentleman has got the appointment; bahali an office, a position, an appointment; bahali khonin chut.an ocomea I shall cause you to be dismissed from your appointment; presuming upon one's office; presumptuous (Santali.lex.) bahi an account book; a heap, a pile, large quantity; mit bahi dakae emadin he gave me a pile of rice (Santali.lex.) The official sacrificer; head of a village family: pahanr, pr.a, pahr. the official sacrificer; the head of a village (Mu.lex.) pahr., pr. the public sacrificer in each Munda village; the office of pahan (Mu.); pahan (H.); pa_han, pa_ha_n (Skt.); ... in a few villages in the Hasada country, and in nearly all the villages elsewhere, a rice field, called pahanai or dalikata_ri, is attached to the office (of pahan). The Mundas, kept to this day as pahans in the villages where Oraons have superseded the Mundas, also possess such a field (Mu.lex.) Animal for sacrifice: pahur., pahur an animal or fowl intended for a sacrifice; okatek calak kana? pahur. nan.amin. calak kana Where are you going? I am going for an animal for a sacrifice (Santali.lex.) Village: [For semant. 'land' and 'farming or tenanting' cf.: kun.t.e pit, pool, pond (Ka.) (DEDR 1669) kud.u farmer (Ka.); kut.i house, home, tenants (Ta.)(DEDR 1655)]. kht.kat.i_, kht.kat.i_da_r, ku_t.kat.i_, ku_t.kat.i_da_r in reference to the Mankipatti country where there are no zamindars, i.e. no individual owners of a village, and all the land is legally owned by the village community, only a small quit-rent being paid to the rajah. The term kht.kat.i is used as adj. with disum, hatu, hor.o, ote. kht.kat.i hor.i is a synonym of kht.kat.ida_r a member of a village community which legally owns its lands; kht.kat.i ote is such land as is actually possessed by a kht.kat.ida_r in virtue of his membership in the village community, in contrast to raiti ote, land possessed under a landowner, i.e. land granted by the village community to an outsider... The Mundari khuntkattidar as defined in the Chota-Nagpur Landlord and Tenant Procedure Act, 1913 'means a Mundari who has acquired a right to hold jungle land for the purpose of bringing suitable portions thereof under cultivation by himself or by male members of his family and includes the heirs in the male line of any such Mundari...' (Mu.lex.) khu~_t., khu_t., ku_t. either of two branches of the village family. These are: pahr.khu~_t., pr.ku_t. the elder branch, to which the official village sacrificer must belong; and the mund.akhu_t. the younger branch, in which the position of village chief is hereditary (Mu.); kht. (Oraon); ... the pure Mundari khuntkatti village usually contains three elements, namely (1) the khuntkattidars, (2) the parjas or raiyats, and (3) the subsidiary castes. The khuntkattidars are the descendants in the male line of the original founders of the village. As such they are all akin, of equal status and differing in wealth mainly owing to differences in size of the families of their ancestors. As a group they are the owners of the whole of the area included in the village boundaries, subject to the payment of a fixed annual rent to the superior landlord. This annual rent was originally made up solely out of the subscriptions (chandas) of the various khuntkattidars; but in most villages these subscriptions, or some of them, have now been reduced, the deficit being made good from the rent paid by the parjas. The amount of a man's subscription, no doubt, originally corresponded with the share of the cultivated lands which he inherited; but, inasmuch as the uncultivated lands, though as such held in common, were liable to be appropriated by any individual khuntkattidar who might reduce them to cultivation, such correspondence is not now found to exist. It is to be noted that the cultivated lands are not held in common, and that no trace is found of the existence of any custom of equalization of shares or periodic re-distribution of lands... The parjas are almost invariably Mundaris, and very often are relatives on the female's side of the khuntkattidars. They are in no sense co-owners of the village, and can bring under cultivation only such specific lands as may from time to time be given to them. The subsidiary castes (Pernains, Mahilis or Khangars, Bhogtas, and Barais) perform the non-agricultural functions necessary to the village life and rarely cultivate land... the community looks on itself as a family, and as such requiring a head or common representative, called pahanr, to exercise over the whole village functions exercised in his own household by the individual head of the family. These are both religious and civil... Inasmuch as the sacrificer exercises important religious functions which are incumbent on him in his quality as elder or head of the village family, he is called pahanr. He is pahanr because he is the real social elder, or head, or patriarch of the village family... The civil functions ... presiding over panchayats for the settlement of various kinds of disputes... inflicting punishments (generally fines, sometimes expulsion)... collecting and transmitting to the proper authority the various amounts owing as quit-rent and other dues... In the exercise of these civil functions the pahanr was assisted by the next most prominent and influential member of the community, the mund.a... A khuntkatti area is subdivided into circles called pat.is. The pat.i comprises generally at least ten or twelve villages. The manki is the chief of a pat.i, and his duties now consist mainly in realizing the quit-rents due by the villages of his pat.i to the superior landlord, as well as other dues, such as road-cess and rakumats... the villages of a pat.i are divided into two categories, viz., (1) thakur villages, or those which contribute the superior landlord's share of the rent; and (2) chaputa villages, or those which contribute the manki's share of the rent... As a rule, the manki makes out a collective receipt in the names of both the mund.a and the pahanr; and in some instances two separate receipts are given, one to the mund.a and one to the pahanr... In west Sonpur are found the parhas, consisting of groups of eight or more villages... (Mu.lex.) par.ha a group formed by all the villages of a clan which are grouped around the original village (Mu.); pa_r.a_ sportive association of a group of villages (Oraon); cf. pat.i, pi_r. (Mu.lex.) pa_t.-mund.a or hatumund.a, maran mund.a a village chief who does not collect himself the rent in all his hamlets but has under him one or several hamlet chiefs called t.olamund.a, hur.in mund.a (or kiliren mund.a when the clan of the hamlet differs from that of the village) who collect it in their respective hamlets and hand it over to him. He in his turn hands it over with the rest of the village rent to the manki (Mu.lex.) pr.a, pahr., pahanr the official sacrificer; the head of a village (Mu.lex.) pat.i_ the group of villages under a mr.ki (Mu.); pat.t.i division of a village (H.); pat.t.i_ town, village (Ta.)(Mu.lex.)

5591.Contract; trade: be_ha_ra, be_hara, yava_ra, vevaha_ra, vyavahr.ti, vyavaha_ra a contract; doing, performing; conduct, behaviour; operation, action; process, procedure, practice; affair; occupation, work, profession, business, transaction; dealing, traffic, commerce, trade; a contest at law, a lawsuit; the practice of the courts of law; fight, quarrel; use, usage, habit, custom; adherence to law; steadiness, propriety; avaha_ra, avaharan.a throwing away, laying aside; taking away; stealing, plundering; taking back; fining, mulcting; vyavaha_ra-maulya-san:ke_tana appointment of the price in a transaction; key-ma_d.u to make signs or gestures with the hand; to represent the form of something by means of the hands; to appoint or fix the price or to agree about the price in a transaction, to conclude a bargain (Ka.); vyavaha_rika relating to practice or business; transacting business, engaged in business; customary, usual, common, ordinary; vyavahartr. one who transacts business or is engaged in any affair; a litigant; vyavaharisu to be employed or used, to be in use; to deal in, to traffic with, to carry on a business or trade; to litigate; vyavaharisuvike carrying on a business etc. (Ka.lex.) vivaram < vivara particulars, details; circumstances as of a narrative; discrimination, the capacity to reason and distinguish (Ja_n-ava_. Mumut.. 10); vivari-ttal < vivr. to relate in detail, enter into particulars (I_t.u, 5,1,3)(Ta.lex.) vivakari-ttal < vyava-hr. to argue (Ta_yu. Cittar. 10); to expound (Ta_yu. Paripu_. 1); vivaka_ram < vyava-ha_ra judicial proceedings, litigation; disputation (Ta_yu. Cacci. 9); vivaka_rikam custom (Ta.lex.) vyavaha_ra behaviour (MBh.); custom, business (Skt.); vo_ha_ra trade, business (Pali); vavaha_ra daily work, lawsuit (Pkt.); vuha_r, buha_r trade (P.); buha_r custom (WPah.); ohara_, ora_ a bout of the plough, the elliptical space ploughed (M.); vahara custom (Si.); viyohala_-samata_ equity in judicial procedure (As'.); vihiva_ra business (OG.); vaheva_r intercourse, transactions (G.)(CDIAL 12174). vohorvu~, vorvu~ to buy, collect (G.)(CDIAL 12173). buhuru vendor of drugs etc. (K.); bohora_ name of a clan of Chetris (N.); bohra_, bauhra_ class of village bankers (Muhammadans originally from Gujarat)(H.); boro trader (H.); vahoro, voro, horo trader (G.) (CDIAL 12175). vuharai buys (OG.); hr. take, carry (Skt.); vyavaharati deals, trades (A_past.); has intercourse with (Gr.S.); vo_harati administers, governs (Pali); vavaharati works, is busy (Pkt.); oran.u to talk over one's troubles (S.) (CDIAL 12173). vyavaha_rika_ servant, female slave (R.); bwa_ri_ son's wife (Ku.); buha_ri, buwa_ri (N.); bowa_ri son's or younger brother's wife (A.); bauha_ri_ wife, son's wife (MB.); bori bride, son's wife, brother's wife (Gypsy)(CDIAL 12177). vya_priyate_, vya_pr.n.ute_ is engaged in (MBh.); va_varai, va_virai is busy (Pkt.); va_varai uses, eats (OG.); va_varvu~ to use, bring into use, live in (a house), spend (G.); va_varn.e~ to busy oneself with, live and act among (M.); va_parvu~ = va_varvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12203). vya_pa_ra occupation, business (MBh.); va_va_ra business (Pkt.); va_var business, activity (M.); va_vr (Konkan.i); vya_pa_ra (Pali); beora_ affair (B.)(CDIAL 12205). vya_pa_rayati employs (MBh.); vya_pa_rita occupied with (Pali); va_varn.e~ to perform, manage, do the business of (farm, house ect.)(CDIAL 12206). vya_pr.ta engaged in (MBh.); va_vad.a engaged in (Pkt.); vya_vat.a, bya_vat.a occupied (Pali); via_vad.a (Pkt.); viyavul.u engrossed in (Si.)(CDIAL 12207). atihr.ta added to (Skt.); atiharati stands out above (S'Br.); atiharati brings over (Pali); ihal.a above (Si.); hr. take, carry (Skt.)(CDIAL 219). harapita, ha_ra_pita_ni, ha_la_pita_ causes to be imported (As'.); ha_rayati causes to be taken (MBh.)(CDIAL 14061). Monastery; temple; arrangement: vihara (OSi.Bra_hmi_); vahara (OSi.inscr.1 cent.B.C.); vahera (OSi.4 cent. A.D.); veher (OSi.10 cent.); vehera Buddhist temple, monks' residence (Si.); viha_ra arrangement (AitBr.); roaming, pleasure ground (MBh.); monastery (BHSk. ii 505); walking about, sojourning, monastery (Pali.Pkt.); viha_raka hut (Pali); vihara-yatra, viha_la-ya_tam. pleasure tour (As'.); vihara monastery (KharI.)(CDIAL 12033). vika_ram Buddhist temple (intira vika_ra me_r..ume_ttutalin- : Man.i. 26,55)(Ta.lex.) vyavah. to deal in any transaction or business; to act, behave, deal with; to manage, transact business; vyavaha_rah. business, work; dealing, transaction; commerce, trade, traffic; dealing in money, usury; conduct, behaviour; profsssion, occupation; vyavaha_rakah. a dealer, trader, merchant; vyavaha_rika relating to business; engaged in business, practical; vyavaha_rika_ usage, custom (Skt.lex.) be_ro business (Tu.lex.) vuharai buys (OG.); vohorvu~, vorvu~ to buy, collect (G.)(CDIAL 12173). po_ka_r-u expenditure of money (Kur-al., 478); va_n:ku-tal to buy (Cilap. 3,171); to get, obtain (Te_va_. 456,8); to receive, take (Tiruva_ca. 5,68); va_n:kal receiving, admitting; buying (Ta.lex.) Vendor of drugs: cf. vo_ha_ra trade, business (Pali)(CDIAL 12174). cf. buhuru vendor of drugs etc. (K.)(CDIAL 12175). cf. vivaha_ri_ trader (OG.)(CDIAL 12178). cf. va_kat.ar physicians (Piramo_t. 10,15)(Ta.lex.) Trade: {Echo word} ohar-dohar trade (N.); avaha_ra putting aside (Skt.); truce (MBh.); avaha_ra, o_ha_ra acquisition (Pali); o_ha_ra share (Pkt.)(CDIAL 882). Produce of farm: got.ha-ohara produce of farm (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 882). Decoration articles; odds and ends, furniture, merchandise: va_khro, va_khl.o furniture, odds and ends in a house (G.); upaskara utensil, household appurtenance (Mn.); uvakkhara decoration, that used in decorating (Pkt.); wakhur a cake offered in sacrifice (K.); wakhiri_ small things for merchandise (S.); okhar implements, tools (H.)(CDIAL 2264). cf. vakaiyara_ etcetera, miscellaneous (things) (Ta.); vakair-a_, vakaiyar-a_ id. (C.G.); wagaira (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. To be established in use: bese, bisu, besu to be established in use; be_gad.ebese to affix laminae of tin covered over with some colouring substance (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Traveller: po_kkan- traveller, wayfarer (Ta.); po_kkan (Ma.); po_ka (K.); po_-tal to go, proceed; to depart (Man.i. 3,83)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); po_gu (OK.); po_-tal to extend, spread (Kalit. 144,40)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Shop: poha_r small shop (A.); paha_ra_ goldsmith's workshop (P.); pasru petty shopkeeper (K.)(CDIAL 8835). cf. hari golden, yellow (RV.)(CDIAL 13981). Íhr. take, carry (Skt.); hartr. thief (Ya_j.); ha_ri_ta (Skt.); ha~_ri_r, hairua thief (Kal.)(CDIAL 13989). h_rim. I take (Kal.); har to take, take away (Mai.); harati carries, brings (RV.); takes away (Mn.)(CDIAL 13980). avaharate_ brings down (Ka_tyS'r.); o_harati takes down (Pali)(CDIAL 881). a_bhiha_rika fit for presentation; a respectful offering (Skt.); a_heri_, aheri_, a_hiri_, ahiri_ suitable to be given as a marriage present, of little value (M.)(CDIAL 1231). a_hariba_ to collect (Or.); a_harati fetches, gets (RV.Pali); a_r to bring (Pas'.)(CDIAL 1541). a_hr.ta brought near, fetched (Mn.); a_hat.a (Pali); a_had.a, a_haya brought, stolen (Pkt.); ha_d.ta_ brings (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 1547). uvaharai presents, offers in worship (Pkt.); upaharati brings near, offers (food)(AV.)(CDIAL 2281). abhiha_ra bringing near (Skt.); abhiharati brings, offers (S'Br.); ahiharai takes, raises (Pkt.); abhiha_ra present (Pali); abhiha_le reward (As'.); a_her, aher presents from friends and relatives to one in whose family there is a marriage (M.)(CDIAL 534). cf. uddharati takes out (RV.); udharvu~ to be debited (G.); udha_ran.u to save (S.); udha_r loan (B.); udha_riba_ to deliver, borrow (Or.)(CDIAL 2009). cf. uddha_ra loan (esp. without interest)(Skt.); tax, debt (Pali); taking away, protection, loan (Pkt.); udha_ro credit account (G.); udha_r buying and selling on credit (M.); debt (H.); purchase on credit (Bi.); loan (L.P.WPah.Ku.N.)(CDIAL 2018). nirharan.a taking out (MBh.); nehrun weeding (Kal.)(CDIAL 7403). nirharati takes out,destroys (RV.); gets rid of (A_past.); ni_harati takes out, drives out (Pali); n.i_harai (Pkt.); neranava_ to set aside, put out of the way; to protrude (Si.); neri- to erase, put to flight (Ta.)(CDIAL 7404). pariharati leads round (TS.); puts aside (S'Br.); does not heed (A_past.); pariharati carries about, takes care of (Pali); palihat.ave to bring up (a child)(As'.); pariharai leaves (Pkt.); palhran. to forgive, forego (L.); pariharna_ forsake (H.); parharvu~ to remove, avert, abandon (G.) pariharai, paraharai forsakes (OAw.)(CDIAL 7899). pariha_ra leading round (Ka_tyS'r.); shunning (S'Br.); attention, care (Pali); serving, desertion (Pkt.); pariha_r exile, refuge (Pas'.); perahara protection, safety (Si.)(CDIAL 7901). viharati separates (RV.); moves on (A_s'vS'r.); wanders (MB h.); passes time (R.); diverts oneself (Gaut.); viharan.u to transplant (rice etc.)(S.); viharati stays, lives (Pali); viharai walks, remains, amuses oneself (Pkt.); bihariba_ to walk about, pass the time, play (Or.); biharna_ to walk about, be pleased (H.); viharai wanders from pace to place, accepts food (of an ascetic) (OG.); viharvu~ to amuse oneself (G.); viharn.e~ to ramble, play (M.)(CDIAL 12029). Collect: sama_harati collects (AV.); sama_harai collects (Pkt.); sohrn.a_ (H.)(CDIAL 13223). cf. ce_karam collection (Ta.lex.) sam.harati draws together (RV.)(CDIAL 13064). Image: likeness: sam.hr.ta drawn together (MBh.); sa_haya id., enveloped (Pkt.); sahal.u likeness (Si.)(CDIAL 13065). anuharate_ resembles (Skt.); an.uharai (Pkt.); anuharna_ (H.)(CDIAL 341). anuha_ra resemblance (Skt.); an.uha_ri resembling (Pkt.); nua_r appearance (P.); anuha_r, anwa_r likeness, appearance, face (N.); anuha_r, unha_r resemblance, manner (H.); un.aha_ra countenance (OMarw.)(CDIAL 342). Deed of agreement: viyavastitam that which is settled, established or fixed; viyavastai settlement, arrangement (S.I.I. i,65); deed of agreement (I.M.P.Tj. 1176-B.); written opinion on points of law with citation of the original texts on which it is based, submitted to a court by Hindu Law pandits (C.G.); distinction (Ta.lex.) vyagra engaged (MaitrUp.); busy, agitated (MBh.); vigra active; activity (RV.); vaiyagrya preoccupation (Skt.)(CDIAL 11827). akra dear, high priced; jom jinis ad.i akraena foodstuffs are very dear (Santali.lex.) beohar usage, practice, custom, conduct (Santali.lex.) Shopkeeper: poha_ri shopkeeper (A.); pasa_ri druggist, petty trader (B.); pasa_ri shopkeeper (Ku.); pasa_ri druggist, pedlar (Or.); pasa_run.i_ f. id. (Or.); pasa_ri_ seller of spices (H.M.S.P.); pansa_ri grocer (N.); pansa_ri_, pa~sa_ri_ seller of spices (H.); pansa_ri_ (P.)(CDIAL 8839). To perform: negar.. to undertake; to engage in; to prepare; to perform, to do, to make, to cause to act; udyo_ga (Ka.); neggincu, neggu (Te.); nikar.. to go, go on = nat.ai (Ta.); niggu, neggu to go on well, be effected; negar.. to come; to be used (Ka.); negar..cu to cause to undertake or do; to cause one's self to undertake, to begin; to perform; to compose, to produce, to cause; negar..te action; work; practice; rites, conduct; negar.., negar..u to become manifest, notorious, well known, renowned or famous; to shine; to appear; to be finished (Ka.); negad.u (Te.); nigar.. to shine; nikaram light; nekit.i, jekir.. fire; nekir.. to bloom; neruppu fire (Ta.); nere to shine (Te.); negar..te fame, notoriety, accomplishment; nege, nese to be purified, to become clear, to shine (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5592.Image: alligator; large water animal: negar.., negar..u, jegar..e an alligator; nakra; negar..de_ra Varun.a (Ka.lex.) avaha_ra, avaharan.a taking away; stealing, plundering (Ka.lex.) avaha_ra shark or another large water animal; gra_ha, negar.. (Ka.); apaha_ra stealing, snatching away (Skt.lex.)

5593.Image: snub-nosed crocodile: bagun, baghun. the snub-nosed crocodile, crocodilus palustris found in India only in one lake in Sindh. It is identical with the species found in the Nile. In the Indian rivers the long-nosed variety, i.e. the alligator alone exists (P.lex.) makara alligator (Skt.lex.) Image: crocodile: vr.jina crocodile, nakra, negar..u (Ka.lex.) vit.an:kar crocodile (Varata. Pa_kavata. Na_racin.. 133); it.an:kar crocodile (Kur-icip. 257)(Ta.lex.) tayan a crocodile (Santali.lex.)

5594.Image: grasp: pagga_ha grasp (Pali.lex.) Image: claws: bakka_ claws of a crab, forceps, shears (Kur.); bake forceps (Malt.)(DEDR 3814). Image: clasp; crook; buckle: bakuk a whorl in an animal's horn, a crook, a buckle, clasp of belt; bakup a crook, hook, clasp, buckle; bhekr.a crooked, bent (Santali.lex.) Image: to seize: pakr.ao to seize, to take hold of, to catch; pakar. id. (Santali.lex.) Image: claws of a crab; reflexive words: 'to seize`: pa_kar.a_ seizes (B.); pakarab (Aw.); pakar.vu~ (G.); pakad.n.e~ (M.); pagar.n.a_ (P.); pagar.iba_ (Or.); pakkad. seize (Skt.); paggai, pamgai, pimgai seizes (Pkt.); pragr.hn.a_ti holds (AV.); paggan.hati (Pali); pakar.n.a_ to seize (P.H.); pakar.n.o (Ku.Marw.); pakranu (N.); pa_kariba (A.)(CDIAL 7619). Image: to seize, snatch: vavvu (vavvi-) to snatch, take hold of, carry off, sweep away; n. snatching, taking hold of; vavvu (vavvi-), vau to seize, snatch, commit highway robbery, steal, rivet attention, fascinate (Ta.); vavva_yi, vavva_li fox (Ma.); ba_vu, ba_vukonu to gobble, devour or swallow greedily, gulp (Te.)(DEDR 5291). cf. pragrah holding in front (MBh.); paggaha favour, kindness (Pali); paga_ bribe (Si.)(CDIAL 8478). ?cf. metath. pat.aka_ru tongs, pincers (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 3864).

5595.Image: teeth of a comb: bakhor. an instrument, with which tassar cocoons are cut into narrow strips (badhi) for splicing purposes; teeth of a comb (Santali.lex.) bagaru to scratch with the nails or claws (Ka.lex.) Image: comb: ba_grka_, ba_girka_ wooden comb worn by boys and girls (Kur.); ba_gna_ to comb; ba_grna_ to comb oneself (Kur.); va_ri comb (Ta.); barcan, ba_ran., ba_ran, ba_can.ig, ba_rpan.i a comb; barcuni, ba_cuni, ba_runi to comb (Tu.); ba_cu, ba_rcu to comb (Ka.); va_ruka (va_rnt-), va_r-uka (va_r-i-) to comb (Ma.); va_r (-v-, -nt-) to comb, as hair (Ta.); va_raki_ra a small comb (Skt.)(DEDR 5357). ba_can.ige a comb; prasa_dhani (Ka.); ba_can.ige hallu the tooth of a comb; prasa_dhana arranging, setting in order; decorating, embellishment, dress, toilet (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pasa_hun.a_ to perform the ceremony of stripping and purifying and adorning a bridegroom (P.)(CDIAL 8834). Parting in a woman's hair: bha~_g parting in a woman's hair (M.)(CDIAL 9353). vakit.u parting in woman's hair (Ta.); baktale, bagutale parting of the hair by combing, combing the hair into curls, crown of the head (Tu.); bavtale id. (Kod..)(DEDR 5202). vakir to disentangle or part as the hair (Ta.lex.) Image: comb: hekku, pikku to comb; hekku to pick up; to take up one by one (Ka.); per-ukku (Ma.); peji, pejju (Tu.); hekku to pick off; hakkal, hakkalu, ba_kal, hakkala gleanings (of corn)(Ka.); pad.ige, parige (Te.); por-ukku to pick or peck up, from the ground as grain, small stones etc. (Ta.); hakkalana_yu = ba_kala_yu to glean (Ka.lex.)

5596.Image: honeycomb: pakha_ honeycomb, fan (L.)(CDIAL 7627).

5599.Image: scraper: okharn.e~ to smooth a field after ploughing (M.); avaskirati scrapes (Skt.); avakirati spreads (A_s'vGr.); o_kirati casts out (Pali)(CDIAL 864). Image: broom: vyavaha_rika_ a broom (Skt.lex.) Image: scraper: pakhuri_ goldwasher's iron scraper for collecting ashes (Bi.)(CDIAL 8458). cf. khurpo a pot-scraper (S.); khurpa_ id. (P.Mth.); blade of hoe (Bi.); weeding knife (H.); kharpo scraper (G.); ks.urapra sharp-edged like a razor (BhP.)(CDIAL 3730). cf. kurappam currycomb (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 1771). Iron-studded stick used in threshing rice: praharan.a weapon, attack (MBh.); striking (Skt.); praharan.i_ya a weapon (MBh.); paharan.a striking; adj. praharan.aka (Pali); paharan.a striking, weapon (Pkt.); paran.a stroke, blow, flogging (Si.); pa_ha_run.i iron-studded stick used in threshing rice (Or.)(CDIAL 8901). cf. pahia churned (Pkt.); pahat.a struck (Pali) (CDIAL 8902). Ploughshare: ba_n cultivation (Sh.); do_no baiyoiki to plough (Sh.); va_han. ploughed field (P.); baha_n.o ploughshare (Ku.); ba~_r.~ ploughing (Ku.); va_h work (Skt.)(CDIAL 11610). To plough; to use a tool: va_hayati drives (a chariot), rides (a horse)(MBh.); va_he_ti causes to go or carry, drives away (Pali); va_he_i, va_hai drives (Pkt.); ba_ to plough (go_ ba_ant he ploughs)(Bshk.); bayoiki to plough, cultivate (Sh.); wa_yun to drive (bullocks), plough, row (a boat), wave (the arms), use (a tool)(K.); va_han.u to cause to flow (S.); va_han. to plough (L.); va_hn.a_, va_hun.a_, ba_hun.a_ to drive (a beast), plough, unmoor (a boat)(P.); ba_hn.a_ to sow (P.); ba_hn.a_ to throw (a net); ba_hn.a_, ba~_han.u_ to strike (a ball); baihn.u_ to sow (WPah.); ba_n.o~_ to plough (WPah.); ba_n.o (Ku.); (halo) ba_unu (N.); ba_ha_ to carry, row (B.); ba_hiba_ to drive (a car), row or punt (a boat), spread (a net), invade (a country)(Or.); ba_hna_ to drive, load, plough, open out (H.); va_hvu~, va_vu~ to raise (a weapon)(G.); va _hn.e~ to carry (M.); vaha_van. to plough (L.); va_ha_viya cause to be driven (Pkt.); va_ha_un.a_ to cause to be ploughed or to float (P.); bawa_ia~_ caused to plough (Ku.); bowa_iba to cause to flow or to be carried or ploughed or rowed (A.); va_hiyama_na pres. part. pass. (Pali); va_hijjama_n.a (Pkt.); bayizoiki to be cultivated (Sh.); vehan. to be ploughed (pp. vur.ha_)(L.)(CDIAL 11612). [Verbs in K.WPah.Or.G. with meaning 'raise (arms or weapons), strike (a ball), throw (a net)' and those in P. and WPah. with meaning 'sow' (if < 'throw' rather than < 'plough') perh. < vya_dhayati which in MIA coalesces with va_hayati (CDIAL 11612).] ba_ic, ba_ich boat race (B.)(CDIAL 11613). va_hya to be driven, etc. (BhP.); ba_haj ploughed land ready for sowing (P.)(CDIAL 11614). cf. ba_ug act of sowing (Bi.); ba_wag lands sown after a single ploughing (H.)(CDIAL 11528). par.ak first ploughing; harwaha, halboha ploughman (Santali.lex.)

5600.Image: broom: bauha_ri_, bahuriya_, bo_ha_ri_ brush (Pkt.); buha_ru sweepings, refuse; buha_ri_ broom (S.); boha_r sweepings, dust; boha_r, boha_ri_ broom (L.); buha_ra_, buha_ri_, baha_ri_, baha_ru_ broom (P.); buha_ru_ sweeper (H.); buha_ran.u to sweep (S.); buha_rna_ to sweep (P.H.); ba_rvu~ to sweep (G.); borvu~ to clean (a privy)(G.); bahuka_ra effecting much (VS.); bahukara sweeper (Pa_n..); mehtar derisory hon. term? (H.); bahukara_, bahukari_ broom (Skt.); bahuka_ra of great service (Pali)(CDIAL 9188). Sweepings; scraper: cf. pakka_l.i sweepings (Ta.lex.) cf. va_ru to take in a sweep (Ta.); va_ru-ko_l broom (Ta.); varan.t.i rake, scraper (Ma.); ba_rcu to scrape together with the hand (Ka.)(DEDR 5362). cf. ba_kalu gleaning (Ka.); bke to take up (as earth)(Malt.)(DEDR 4051). To throw; offer: upaharati brings near, offers (food)(AV.); takes away (MBh.); upaharate_ accepts (TS.); upaharati brings, offers (Pali); uvaharai presents, offers in worship (Pkt.); war-, wo_ar to catch (Dm.); wa_ran. to devote, sacrifice (L.); uva_in.ai makes a mental vow to do some special service for a deity on completion of some work (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2281). upa_karo_ti fetches (TS.); upa a_ akaram (RV.); upa_karo_ti makes preparation (for a sacred ceremonial), undertakes, begins (TS.); consecrates (Mn.); wa_r- to prepare, put, throw (Pas'.)(CDIAL 2284).

5601.Image: mountain; stone: pahad.u a hill (Ka.M.); paha_d.a (H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. paga_r. trench, ditch, trench, bank, bank round field (B.); paga_r id. (B.); paga_ra ridge round field (Or.); paga_r mound , bank (H.)(CDIAL 8464). cf. pas.i_ wall (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8140). hara a hill; mand buru a sacred hill; buru a hill; bhot.koc a small hill (Santali.lex.) Rock: pa_ha_r. hill, steep bank (B.); pa_ha_r.a hill (Or.); paha_d. hill (M.); paha_r mountain (K.); paha_r. (L.P.Ku.); paharo rock, cliff (N.); paha_r. mountain (N.H.Mth.G.)(CDIAL 8141). paha_r mountain (K.); paha_r. (L.P.Ku.); paharo rock, cliff (N.); paha_r. mountain (N.H.Mth.G.); pa_ha_r. hill, steep bank (B.); pa_ha_r.a hill (Or.); paha_d. hill (M.)(CDIAL 8141). pa_s.a_n.a stone (Skt.); pa_s.a_n.i_ small stone used as a weight (Skt.); pa_sa_n.a stone, rock (Pali.Pkt.); pa_ha_n.a (Pkt.); pahan.u stone (S.); pa_han. stone (P.); pa_han (Mth.); pa_hana (OAw.); pa_ha~_n (H.); pa_han.iim. inst. sg. (OG.); pa_n., paha_n.o, pa_n.o (G.); pahan.a, pa_n.a (Si.); pa_s.a_n. the excess of weight in one scale which disturbs the equipoise (B.)(CDIAL 8138). pa_h a kind of stone which is ground with alum and cloves and opium as a poultice for sore eyes (H.); pas.u_ rock, precipice (Wg.); pas.i_ wall (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8140). pa_r-ai rock, crag, stratum, hillock; pa_r rock, rocky stratum, shelf of rock (Ta.); pa_r-a rock, large stone, firmness (Ma.); pa.re flat stone, stone slab, place where bath is taken on paved floor in bath-house (Kod..); pa_de rock (Tu.); ha_de id. (Kor.); pa_ra slab of stone (Pa.); pa_rum (pl. pa_ru'ku) rock, boulder (Go.)(DEDR 4121). pahad.u a hill (Ka.); paha_d.a (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Image: cliff: char cliff, precipice (Kho.)(CDIAL 3675). pe.r steep slope (Ko.); p.r- (obl. p.t--) cliff (To.)(DEDR 4448).

5602.Image: flower-petal: pa_m.kl.i, pa_kl.i, pa_ko_li_ flower-petal (M.); pa_m.khd.i_ (G.); pakh(u)d.i_ (H.); ?pamha, pamhala (Pkt.); paks.man (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 359). cf. makula bud (Pali); baula bud (MBh.) (CDIAL 10146). pa~_khr.i_ hand, arm, petal (G.)(CDIAL 7630).

5603.Image: sprout; green corn: pa~_gal cutting ears without the stalks (Bi.); pa_gar leaves at top of sugarcane; pagr.a_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 8916). pa~gu_r new leaves, germination (Ku.); pa~gurn.o to germinate (Ku.); pa~_garvu~ to blossom (G.)(CDIAL 8918).

5604.Image: green leaf; betel leaf: pa_kat.ai < pa_ku + at.ai areca-nut and betel (Ka_cippu. Valampuri. 37); pa_ku areca-nut (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 29); treacle, molasses, sugar syrup (Tiruva_ca. 9,15)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_cat.ai betel leaf (Malai.); green leaf (Kur-un. 9); pa_cavar dealers in betel leaves (Cilap. 5,26)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_si_ seller of palm-juice (Bi.); man who taps palm trees (B.)(CDIAL 8136). cf. pa_s'in laying snares (Skt.)(CDIAL 8136). Betel box: valgulika_ box, chest (Skt.); va_ggulika betel-bearer (Skt.); ba_gul.i metal case for betel packets (Or.); ba_gul.i_ betel-bearer to a king (Or.)(CDIAL 11422). vat.t.uvam pouch in which betel leaves, nut, chunam, tobacco, etc. are kept, medicine pouch, pocket inside a pouch or purse (Ta.); betel-purse, portemonnaie (Ma.); bat.uve bag, purse, satchel (Tu.)(DEDR 5234). bat.ave a draw-purse (Ka.); bat.ava_ (M.); vat.t.uvam (Ta.); vat.ra (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

5605.Image: petiole of a leaf: bhekua the petiole of a leaf (Santali.lex.) Palmyra fibre: bagr.a fibre extracted from the leaf of the palmyra palm (Santali.lex.)

5606.Image: fig tree: pakar.e a species of fig tree (Santali.lex.) Image: opposite-leaved fig tree: pa_kur. ficus infectoria (B.); pakur.a (Or.); pa_k(h)ar., pa_kar, pa_kariya f. infectoria (H.); pa_khar (P.); pa_kar.i a fig tree (Bhoj.); pa_k(h)ad., pa_khar the scandent plant clypea burmanni (M.); plaks.a ficus infectoria (AV.); f. religiosa, thesperia populneoides (Skt.); praks.a (in etymological exegesis)(TS.); pla_ks.a belonging to f. infectoria (TS.); its fruit (Skt.); parkat.i_, parkat.in f. infectoria (Skt.); quercus oak (Lat.); forha pine (OHG.)(CDIAL 9022). Image: ficus oppositifolia: pha_gu, pl. pha_gu_ fig tree, pl. pha_gua~_ its fruit (WPah.); pha_u fig (Wot..); phalgu ficus oppositifolia (Skt.); phagva_r.a_ ficus caricoides; phagva_r.i_, phagu_r.a_ its fruit (P.); phego~ pl. phegu_ fig; fegu_ fig tree; fegr.a_ its fruit (WPah.); pha_g fig (Phal.Sh.P.); pl. pha_gi (Sh.)(CDIAL 9063). cf. me_d.i ficus oppositifolia (Ka.)(DEDR 5090). pilakkha ficus infectoria (Pali); pala_kh ficus infectoria (P.); pa_khal (with metath.) f. infectoria (H.); palakkha, pilakkhu, pilam.khu, pilim.khu, pilukkha, pilum.ka the banyan ficus indica (Pkt.); pilakhana f. infectoria (H.); pi_lkha~_ a kind of tree (H.)(CDIAL 9022). Ficus religiosa: pipa_likai, pippalam, pippalikai, pippilam pipal (Tiruvil.ai. Ma_yappacu.16) (Ta.lex.) pippala berry (esp. of ficus religiosa)(RV.); ficus religiosa (Ya_j.); pimpari_ (Skt.); su-pis.pala_ (MaitrS.); pippali_ berry (AV.); pipphala ficus religiosa (Pali); pippala the tree; its fruit (Pkt.); pipal-kulu (K.); pipiru (S.); pippal, pippil, pipul (L.); pippal (P.); pi_pal, pipaw (Ku.); pipal (N.); pippal (B.); pipal.a_ wooden legs put on the frames of furniture (Or.); pippal.a f. religiosa (Or.); pi_par (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); pi_pal the tree (H.); pi_pla_ appertaining to it (H.); pi_pala (OMarw.); pi_pal., pipl.o (G.); pi_pal. the tree (M.); pi_pal., pi_par, pi_pre~, pi_pru~_ its fruit (M.); pimpal. (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 8205). piplu mole, freckle (Skt.); pipp, pip, pl. pippu~, pipu~_ fruit of ficus religiosa (L.); pipp (P.)(CDIAL 8208).

5607.Images: saddle; balustrade; central platform of a chariot: pa_kar wooden balustrade in a car (Cir-upa_n.. 258, Urai.); car; pa_ central platform of a chariot (Ta.lex.) pa_khar a saddle with all its appurtenances (P.lex.)

5608.Image: saddle with its gear; sack with two divisions: pasibbaka sack (Pali) (Pali.lex.) cf. paiku pouch (Tu.); pasube a long bag that has its opening in the midst and is thrown over the shoulder as to form two division (Ka.)(DEDR 4450). cf. pa_kku bag (Ma.)(DEDR 4049). satthaga_minan. yamaka-pasibbaka pannier (Pali)(Pali.lex.) cf. pakha_la waterskin (S.); pakha_l (P.N.H.G.); ? *paks.a-khalla_ leather water-skin (Skt.)(CDIAL 7628). praks.ara iron armour for horse or elephant (Skt.); pra(k)khara (Skt.); praki_rn.a horse (?< saddled, accoutred)(Skt.); pakkhara bordering or trimming (of a carriage)(Pali); pakkhara, pakkhara_ horse armour (Pkt.); pakhara dress given by faquir to layman (S.); pa_khar armour for elephant or horse (H.); saddle with its gear (P.L.); pa_khar net of flowers for bed-cover, horse-armour; pa_khariyo a species of horse (G.); pa_khar caparison of a horse (M.)(CDIAL 8452). pragathana stringing together (Skt.); pa_gran. bedding, decorations (G.)(CDIAL 8477). Image: saddle: vakkhala covered (Pkt.); ba_khara covering or cloth saddle on a horse (Or.)(CDIAL 12215). bat.u, bat.ua a small bag used to carry small articles in, such as money, tobacco etc. (Santali.lex.) Leather sack; bellows: bhastra leathern bag (S'Br.); bellows (Skt.); bhastrika_ little bag (Skt.); basta goat (RV.); basta_jina goat's skin (MaitrS.); ba_tam. carma (Mn.); bhasta goat (Pali); bhastacamma goat's skin (Pali); bhasta_ bellows (Pali); va_ta-pun.n.a- bhasta-camma goat's skin full of wind; bil.a_ra-bhasta_ catskin bag; bhasta leather sack (for flour)(Pali); kha_ra-basta blacksmith's skin bellows (K.); bha_ti bellows (A.Or.); bha_thi_, bha~_thi_ (Bi.); bha_thi_ (H.); bha_ta_ leathern bag, bellows (M.); bha_tad. bellows (M.); bha~_t.i bellows (N.); bha_t.hi_ (H.)(CDIAL 9424). bakura bag or bellows made of goat skin; ba_kura-dr.ti (RV.); va_kura (JaimBr.); bo_ri_ bag made of goat's or camel's hair (L.); bori_ sack (Sh.)[Orig. of goat's hair for which jute was substituted esp. in the East]; bori_, bora_ sack, coarse bag (for pack animals)(P.)(CDIAL 9320). Bedding: par..ke, pakke lying down, reposing; cow-pen or herd of kine; hakke place for reposing, bed (Ka.); oky sleeping place, bedding (To.); parke bedding, sleep, rest (Tu.); pakka bed, bedding (Te.)(DEDR 4007). pa_gran. bedding, decorations (G.); pragrathana stringing together (Sa_y.)(CDIAL 8477). prasvapiti falls asleep (S'Br.); passupati sleeps, rests (Pali); prasu_im I fall asleep (Kal.)(CDIAL 8845). prasupti sleepiness (Skt.); pasutti a sort of leprosy ending in unconsciousness (Pkt.); pasutta asleep (Pkt.); prust, plus bed (Ash.); pruis't (Kt.); pu_st, pus't (Pr.); pro_s't, pro_s', pru_s't sleep, dream, bed (Wg.)(CDIAL 8846). Headdress, covering: turban: pag turban (K.); paga (S.); pagg (L.P.); paga~ (L.); pa_g (Ku.N.A.B.Bi.Mth.H.); pa_ga (Or.); pa_gh (G.); paguru (K.); pagir.i_ (S.); pagr.i_ (L.H.); paggar. (P.); pa_gr.o turban, loin-sheet (Ku.); pagari turban, cap (N.); pa_guri turban (A.); pa_gr.i (B.); pagar.i (Or.); pagri_ (Bi.); pagar.i_ (Mth.); pa_ghr.i_ (G.); pagd.i~ child's turban (M.)(CDIAL 7644). pagot.e~ turban (M.)(CDIAL 7642). pa_kai turban, puggree, talai-p-pa_kai; (pa_t.akarkkup pa_kaiyen-r-um ; Vir-alivit.u. 746)(Ta.lex.) Sheet: pam.gurai covers (Pkt.); pam.guran.a cloth, garment (Pkt.); pa~_gran. small kind of dhoti_ worn by men, bodice (G.); pa_m.guran.em. to cover loosely, put on loosely; pa_m.guran.a covering, sheet (OM.)(CDIAL 7648). Image: pannier: akkha_ one end of a bag or sack thrown over a beast of burden (L.P.); akho mesh of a net (S.); akha_ gunny bag (Or.); a~_kha_ netting in which coconuts, etc. are carried (M.); grain bag carried by pack animal (Bi.); a_kha_ id. (Bi.); one of a pair of grain bags used as panniers (H.); a~_khe~ half a bullock-load (M.)(CDIAL 17). jalakhri_ cord net for carrying goods on the head (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 5216). cf. pakku bag (Kalit. 65,14; Ain:kur-u. 271); pa_kku bag (Ma.); pakku bag (Ta.)[fracture, break; crack; double-dealing (Te_va_. 17,3); outer bark of a tree; pakutal to be split, divided (Ta.lex.)]; pa.kki id. (in songs)(Kod..)(DEDR 4049). Goat: paharu_ goat (S.); poro pl. poru flock of sheep or goats (WPah.); poru_ sheep and goats (WPah.); paha_ru_ sheep or goats (L.); ram, young lamb, one head of goats or sheep (P.)(CDIAL 7988). ba_kura-dr.ti bag made of goat skin; bakura (RV.); va_kura (JaimBr.)(CDIAL 9320).

5609.Image: carrying-pole: va_had.iya_ carrying-pole (Pkt.); ve~_gi_ carrying-pole (L.); vihan:gika, vihan:gamika_ id. (Skt.); bya_bhan:gi_ (Pali); vaihn:ga_, bain:ga_, vaihn:gi_, baihn:gi_ (P.); bahan:gi_ net used by bearers with sling-pole (Bi.); bahi~ga_ (Mth.); baha_ga_ carrying-pole (H.); baha_gi_ small carrying-pole (H.)(CDIAL 11452a). ve_y bamboo; bamboo rod; tube, anything hollow; ve_y-k-kan. bamboo joint; ve_yn:kur..al bamboo pipe; ve_yal short-sized bamboo (Ta.lex.) cf. ve_y bamboo; ve_r..am bamboo (Ta.); a reed (Ma.)(DEDR 5541).

5610.Image: bullock; waterskin-carrier: pakka_l.i < pakha_li_ (U.) one who carries water in a leather sack on a bullock; canvas covering (Ta.lex.) pakhard.a_, pakhal. litter, rubbish (M.)(CDIAL 8854). pakharn.e~, pakhal.n.e~ to scatter, strew; pakharn.i_ scattering (M.); pakhern.u to spread out, diffuse (S.); pakher.an.u id. (S.)(CDIAL 8855). cf. khalla leather, leathern garment (Skt.); khallar. leather bag (L.) (CDIAL 3848). kalli a bag of network (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 1317). pakha_la waterskin (S.); pakha_l id. (P.N.H.G.M.); ?*paks.akhalla_ leather water-skin (Skt.)(CDIAL 7628). Pack animal: vahit.ru riding or pack animal (S.); vahitr, ve_tur (L.); vahitar, bahitar id. (P.)(CDIAL 11461). Image: a double water-skin carried on a bullock: bahisti_ a muhammadan water-carrier (P.lex.) paka_li, paka_l.i a double water-skin carried on a bullock (Ka.); pakha_la (M.H.); kapa_li (Ka.M.Skt.); paka_li-ni_ru Paka_li-water (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bugli, gubli small bag (Santali.lex.) pakka_l.i one who carried water in a leather sack on a bullock (W.)(Ta.); pakha_li_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) pakku bag (Kalit. 65,14)(Ta.lex.) pa_kku bag (Ma.); pa.kki id. (Kod..)(DEDR 4049). cf. paiku, paika pouch, scrip made of rushes or palm leaves (Tu.); pai sack (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 4450). cf. boka_ well-bucket (usu. of goatskin)(H.); bokh bucket (G.); bokad. made of goatskin; bu_kh, bu_kas well-bucket (K.); boko (S.); boka_ (L.); bokka_ (P.)(CDIAL 9312). Image: leather bag for water: pakha_l leather bag for water (M.G.P.H.); payah- + khalla (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 357). Image: bullock which carries scavenger's muck: a_hal manure; aha_li_ bullock which carries the scavenger's muck (L.)(CDIAL 1055). a_khu~ whole, uncastrated (G.); a_khlo uncastrated bull (G.); a_kha_ whole, undivided (M.); a_kho, a_ko complete (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 28). akan.t.a-ka_ve_ri the undivided Ka_ve_ri, between Erode and its point of bifurcation close to Trichinopoly (Ta.); akan.t.itan- god, as an undivided whole (Maturaip. 70)(Ta.lex.) akan.t.am that which is indivisible (Ko_yir-pu. Pata. 65); the whole (Cu_t.a_.); perfection (Ja_n-va_. Upaca_nta. 34); akilam < a-khila the whole, all (Tiva_.); universe (Kantapu. Pa_rp. 9); earth (Iraku. Ci_taiva. 72)(Ta.lex.) cf. Image: saddle with its gear: praks.ara iron armour for horse or elephant; pra(k)khara id. (Skt.); pakkhara bordering or trimming (of a carriage) (Pali); pakkhara, pakkhara_ horse-armour (Pkt.); pakhara dress given by faqir to layman (S.); pa_khar armour for elephant or horse (H.); saddle with its gear (P.L.); net of flowers for bed-cover, horse-armour (G.); pa_khariyo a species of horse (G.); pa_khar caparison of a horse (M.)(CDIAL 8452). cf. pa_gran. bedding, decorations (G.)(CDIAL 8477). pa_ the central platform of a chariot; protection (Ka_cippu. Tiruve_kam. 48)(Ta.lex.) pakka_l.i-ma_t.u bullock used for carrying water in a leather sack put on its back; a recalcitrant bull; pat.ukka_l.i-ma_t.u, pat.ukka_n:kol.l.i a recalcitrant bull; pat.u-k-ka_l.i-ppayal rascal (Arut.pa_, vi, Tirumu. Ta_n-per-r-a. 5,707); liar (Can:ka.Aka.)(Ta.lex.) Equipped; armour: pakkare, pakkarake, hakkarike, pakkarikke, pakkarakke armour, mail, housings (Ka.); pakkarake (Te.); cf. paks.araks.a (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) pakkhara bordering, trimming (of a carriage)(Pali); cf. praks.ara, prakhara (Skt.)(Pali.lex.) cf. pakhara bordering or trimming of a carriage (Pali); pakhara dress given by faqir to layman (S.); pa_khar saddle with its gear (P.L.)(CDIAL 8452). paka_ra make-up, getting up, fixing, arrangement, preparation, mode, way, manner; ingredient, way of making (a food) tasty (Pali.lex.) To equip; harness: prakaro_ti effects, makes fit for, gains (RV.); effects (Pali); pakubbati id. (Pali); pakare_i, pakun.ai, pakkuvai begins to do (Pkt.); pakkare_i harnesses or equips (a horse)(Pkt.); pakkaran., pakkiran. to come to one's aid, prove good; pakrun. to be serviceable in a difficulty (L.); pakkharia equipped, harnessed (Pkt.); pa_kharan.em. to organise, build up (OM.)(CDIAL 8433). Image: pouch: paiku, paika pouch, scrip made of rushes or palm leaves; payicilu bag made of palm leaves (Tu.); pasube, pasumbe, hasibe, hasube, hasumbe a long bag that has its opening in the midst and is thrown over the shoulder so as to form two divisions (Ka.); pasumbe, pasambe sack or bag made of coir; paimbe bag (Tu.); asimi bag placed on the back of a bullock to carry things (Te.); pai bag, sack, purse, satchel, bladder, duct; pacumpai a pedlar's pack carried over the shoulder; acampi, acampai traveller's bag thrown over the shoulder (Ta.); pai, payimpa bag, sack, stomach, womb (Ma.)(DEDR 4450). pa_kku bag (Ma.); pakku bag (Ta.)[fracture, break; crack; double-dealing (Te_va_. 17,3); outer bark of a tree; pakutal to be split, divided (Ta.lex.)]; pa.kki id. (in songs)(Kod..)(DEDR 4049). Image: pack-saddle; sack; bag placed on the back of a bullock: ba_khara covering or cloth saddle on a horse (Or.)(CDIAL 12215). pakkarai, vakkarai stirrup (Ta.)(Tiruppu. 405); pakkera (Te.); pakkare (Ka.); pakkarai saddle (Cu_l.a_. Kalya_. 14)(Ta.); bag, pocket; pakkar-ai canvas covering; saddle (Ta.lex.) cf. barkara kid, lamb (A_pS'r.); goat (Skt.)(CDIAL 9153). bakra_o_ goat's hair (WPah.)(CDIAL 9155).

5611.Leather strap: vakir leather girdle (W.); leather strap; vakir-tal to slice; to cut in slips (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Rein; guiding-rope: wag rein, tether (K.); va_ga rein, halter (S.); va_g rein (L.G.); guiding rope of a bullock (G.); ba_g rein (B.Mth.Bhoj.H.); ba_g-d.or tether for horses (Bi.); ba_g-dor rein (M.); ba_g-d.ora (K.)(CDIAL 11420). valge a bridle, a rein (Ka.lex.) Bridle: *va_lga_-, valga_ bridle (Skt.)[S.L.P. forms poss. indicate earlier *va_lga_-]; vagga_ bridle (Pkt.); va_g bridle (P.); ba_g bridle (P.Mth.Bhoj.H.); rein (B.Mth.Bhoj.H.); ba_g-d.ori bridle (P.); ba_ga bridle, rein (Or.OAw.)(CDIAL 11420). kat.iva_l.am horse's bit, bridle (Ta.Ma.); kat.i-va_r.u id. (Ma.); kar.va-l.m reins (Ko.); kad.on.m (obl. kad.on.t-) id. (To.); kad.iya_n.a, kad.iva_n.a bit, bridle (Ka.); kad.iva_n.a bridle (Tu.); kad.d.yana bridle, reins, bit (Tu.); kal.l.iyamu, kal.l.emu bridle (Te.); karia_ri_ bit of bridle; kariya_ri_ bridle (Go.)(DEDR 1133). For kat.i- : cf. kat.i- to bite (Ta.); kad.d.iya_na_ to bite (Go.)(DEDR 1124). Rope: pragraha bridle (Skt.); thong (MBh.); pragra_ha bridle, rein (Skt.); paggaha tether (Pkt.); paga_ha_ tether (N.); pagahu rope to tie boat (S.); pagha_ tether (A.B.Or.H.); pagaha_ (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); pa_gar act of towing a boat (G.); paga_ro tether (N.); pa_gar.a tow-rope (Or.); pa_g tether (A.); tether, painter (of boat)(G.M.)(CDIAL 8478). akkam rope, cord (Ta.); ogm (obl. ogt-) rope (To.); agga, agga-ran.e, hagga rope (Ka.)(DEDR App.2). ukkam rope or cord attached to anything (Ta.); uggamu a suspender or cord attached to a pot (Te.)(DEDR 570). udgha_ta raising (R.); uggha_a collection (Pkt.); ugha_ a reel to wind thread on (A.)(CDIAL 1974). ugha_iba to wind thread on a reel (A.); ughon.o to collect (Ku.)(CDIAL 1976).

5612.Two-wheeled cart: bahal, bahali_, baheli_ two-wheeled cart (Bi.); bahal id. (H.); bahli_ two-wheeled cart drawn by two oxen (H.); bahaila cart (OMarw.); vhel, vel bullock-cart (G.); vahala accustomed to the yoke (S'Br.)(CDIAL 11458). va_ha vehicle (S'vetUp.); act of drawing (MBh.); cart, vehicle (Pali); driver (of a waggon)(Pkt.); vahaya vehicle (Si.); baha_ carrier (Or.)(CDIAL 11607). va_hana vehicle (Pali); va_han.a waggon; driving (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11610). To drive; to carry; image: to raise a weapon or hand: va_hayati drives (a chariot), rides (a horse)(MBh.); va_he_ti causes to go or carry, drives away (Pali); va_he_i, va_hai drives (Pkt.); wa_yun to drive (bullocks), use (a tool)(K.); va_han.u to cause to flow (S.); va_hn.a_, va_hun.a_, ba_hun.a_ to drive (a beast)(P.); ba_hn.a_, ba~_han.u_ to strike (a ball); ba_hn.a_ to throw (a net)(WPah.); ba_ha_ to carry (B.); ba_hiba_ to drive (a car), spread (a net), invade (a country)(Or.); ba_hna_ to drive, load (H.); va_hvu~, va_vu~ to raise (a weapon)(G.); va_hn.e~ to carry (M.); va_ha_viya caused to be driven (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11612). va_hanika_ living by draught animals (Pa_n..gan.a); va_han.iya connected with driving or draught animals (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11611). bohao to carry; to carry on shoulder; boelao to carry away (Santali.lex.)

5613.Image: ram's horn: van:ka_ < ba_n:ka_ a long winding trumpet, ram's horn (W.)(Ta.lex.) ba_n:ki a trumpet-horn (Tu.lex.)

5614.Image: spoke of a wheel; outer-rim of a wheel: va_n:ku a spoke of a wheel; the felloe, outer-rim of a wheel (Tu.lex)

5615.Salvadora indica: wan. salvadora oleoides... the species flowers about April and the fruit (pi_lhu_n.) ripens at the beginning of the hot weather. It is sweetish and is eaten by the natives. The leaves are eaten by and occasionally collected as fodder for camels. In the southern Punjab the wood is at times used for rafters and Persian wheels.. salvadora indica... with bitter fruit... leaves used as salad and eaten by camels... pieces of the wood are carried to long distances for sale, as it is much in vogue for toothsticks or miswa_k (tooth brush) by Muhammadans, who use theirs for a number of times. (P.lex.) Salvadora indica: jan (H.); leaves are purgative (Indian Materia Medica, p. 1091). Salvadora persica: pilu (Skt.M.); tooth brush tree (Eng.); chhota-pilu (B.); darakht-i-miswak (Pers.); pilvu (Bombay); khabhar (S.); varagogu (Te.); ughaiputtai (Ta.); goni-mara (Ka.); found in the arid tracts of Sind in the Punjab and in NW India and Persia... flowers yield an oil, which is stimulant and laxative... fruits have a strong aromatic smell and are eaten... useful in enlarged spleen, rheumatism, tumours and lithiasis. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1092-1093). banapu a large timber tree, terminalia tomentosa (Ka.Tu.); ban.apu (Konkan.i)(Ka.lex.) Ash yielded by the calcareous matter in the trunk of this tree [maddi (Te.)] is used by chewers of betel nut; gum from the trunk is used as a cosmetic and incense (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1211-1212).

5616.Image: grove: bano a grove; na_ga bano a thicket considered sacred on account of the haunting by serpents and where there are na_ga stones over which milk is poured on na_ga pacami day (Tu.lex.)

5617.Image: drop: pan.n.ika, pan.n.ige an ornamental mark on the forehead; arranging, equipping (Ka.lex.) pani drizzle, drop, dew; pani barso a drizzling rain; pani a little; ban.a_ri a tear, sob; padpu a particle; an atom; a dot; ba_no sky; ba_no bot.t.u rice field depending on rain water fo cultivation (Tu.lex.) pa_ni water (Ka.H.); pa_n.i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) pani, hani to drop; pani, pan, hani a drop, of water, dew etc. (Ka.); pani (Ma.); pan-i (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

5618.Image: pedestal: pa_n.ivat.t.alu a pedestal with a spout (for a lin:ga to carry off the water)(Ka.lex.)

5619.Image: spinning top: {Echo word} wa_n:gga_ a large humming top; wa_n:ggi_, ba_n:ggi_ a small humming top; ba_n:gga_ a large top (P.lex.) ban.aban.a buzzing, humming, howling, singing or sounding from very emptiness or barrenness as an empty house, a deserted village (Ka.lex.)

5730.Image: spinning top: bagari a spinning top (Ka.lex.)

5620.Image: wrist ornament: wan:gg, ban. an ornament worn on the wrist, made of glass, lac; a bracelet (P.lex.)

5621.Image: comb: pan.ye a comb (Tu.lex.)

5622.Image: ploughshare: panoru, pan.oru, panol.u a plough share (Tu.lex.)

5623.Image: a string round the neck of a pot: wan:ggn.a_, ban:ggn.a_ a string fastened round the neck of a pot or degchi as a handle; an ornament worn by women on the forehead; ban:ggun.a_ an ornament worn by women on the forehead; a string attached to a cooking vessel to serve as a handle, and to vessels for drawing water from a well; ba_n.hnu_ a small cord used for tying up a coiled rope; banha_i_ fastening, the cost of fastening (anything); bannhan. a tie, a ligature, a cord with which anything is tied (P.lex.) pa_n.e, pa_e large earthen pot; pan.ake pairing together with a rope as cattle; pan.e contrivance for lifting water; a piece of rope tied to the horns and neck of buffalos; pan.e kutti the two big vertical posts supporting the picota; nuga-pan.e yoke-like piece of wood supported by two parts to which the picota is firmly secured and about which it moves; dud.ip-pan.e a tying arrangement on the snout of an animal; pan.n.ol.ige a basket or wooden trough for drawing water (Tu.lex.) ba_n:k a large vessel for oil or ghee, made of skin (P.lex.) pa_ne (Tadbhava of pa_na) a pot of metal or earth (Ka.); pa_n-ai (Ta.); pa_ni (Ma.); ippa_ne two pa_nes; oppa_ne one pa_ne; kod.apa_ne, kod.apa_na a kod.a of copper or brass; kod.a (Tadbhava of kut.a) an earthen pitcher or pot, also one of metal; je_n:kod.a a vessel containing honey (Ka.lex.) cf. pan.ate, pan.ite (Tadbhava of pran.i_ta) an earthen or metal saucer-formed receptacle for the oil and wick of a lamp (Ka.); pan.ati_ (M.); pramite (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

5624.Image: harlot: pan.aka_nte a venal woman, a harlot; pan.avadhu, pan.avadhu_ti id.; pan.ya_n:gane a venal woman, a prostitute; pan.ya_jana a harlot; pan.ye, pan.ya_ a venal woman (Ka.lex.)

5625.Image: tiger: bangam used of tigers which when they have killed a man, are said to put him behind their back and lie down for some time before eating him (Mu.lex.)

5626.Image: lair of wild beasts: pan.e, han.e a haunt or lair of wild beasts (Ka.); pan.ai, pan.n.ai litter or straw laid for animals (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

5627.Commodity for sale; making an agreement: pan.ya-vikraya-s'a_le a hall for buying and selling (Ka.Skt.); pan.ya-vi_thike a market-street, bazaar (Ka.Skt.); pan.ya a shop; vipan.i id., an:gad.i; pan.a_rpan.a retaining-fee; earnest-money; making an agreement, contract; pan.a a sum reckoned in coins or cowries (Ka.); a coin of a certain weight equivalent to 80 cowries (Ka.Skt.); a commodity for sale; business, trade; a shop, stall; pan.ya id.; pan.itavya to be bought, vendible (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

5628.Image: barren woman: ban.j barren (a woman)(P.lex.) cf. van.n.a a woman recently delivered (Ma.)(DEDR 5347).

5629.Farm: pan.e ground that is worked; tillage; a quarry (Ka.Ma.); pan.ai, pan.n.ai (Ta.); pan.n.eya, pan.ya, pan.e a farm, a landed estate (Ka.lex.) ba_n:ggar land dependent on rainfall; hard, barren soil (P.lex.) cf. va_n-am-pa_rtta-pu_mi id. (Ta.lex.) banjri land irrigated by canal water alone (P.lex.) pan.e quarry; kalpan.e quarry where red laterite stones are cut (Tu.lex.)

5630.Person who calls to prayer: ba_n:g the voice of the qa_zi_ calling muhammadans to prayers; ba_n:g den.a_ to call to prayers; wa_n:gga_, ba_n:gga_ the person who calls to prayer; ba_n:ggu_ the person who summons other to prayers; wan:gg wichch a_un.a_ to come under one's power, or into one's possession, to be obedient to (P.lex.) cf. van.an:ku to be submissive (Ta.)(DEDR 5236). cf. van:gu to bend, stoop, bow (Te.) (DEDR 5335). cf. va_n:ku (va_n:ki-) to call; abuse, reproach (Ta.); va~_gu to sound; chatter (Te.)(DEDR 5337).

5631.Image: crowing of a cock: ba_n:g the crowing of a cock; ba_n:g den.a_ to crow (a cock) (P.lex.)

5632.To cohabit: ba_n:ggn. to cohabit, to have sexual intercourse (P.lex.)

5633.Oil: wa_n:g oil used for greasing wood work; wa_n:gg oil, soap for the cart or carriage wheels; wa_n:gn. to grease the wheels of a carriage or cart; ba_n:ggn. to tar, to oil, to grease (whe wheels of a cart or carriage) (P.lex.) Curved axe used in oil-press: wan:gg a small curved axe used in making an oil-press; ban:g a small curved arc used in making an oil-press (P.lex.) cf. wan.ja_ra_, wan.ja_ri_ a trader, a transporter of grain, salt, spices, and especially of rings (P.lex.) Grain seller: banya_, ba_nya_n. a caste among the Hindus, a grain seller; (ironic) a miser, a niggard; a timid person (P.lex.) bagha_r condiments prepared by frying spices with ghee or oil, seasoning for food, melted ghee; bagha_r den.a_ to season, to fry spices in ghee (P.lex.) cf. van-n-iyan- a caste; caste title among certain castes (as the kal.l.ar, valaiyar etc.); van-n-i person of the van-n-iya caste (Ta.); vanniyam a Tamil tribe immigrated from Trichinopoly (Ma.)(DEDR 5331). cf. bani substance, essence as of grains, milk, butter or vegetables (Ka.lex.) ban.ajitana trade, traffic; van.ijya; ban.anjisu to trade (Ka.lex.) pa_nu a leaf; the leaf of piper betel; the roll of this leaf with betel-nut, spices and lime (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) ban.upu a kind of timber (Tu.lex.) ban.d.asa_le a warehouse, a big provision merchant's shop [Skt. bha_n.d.a]; ban.d.a_ri a family name; a barber; ban.d.a_ro a treasure, jewels and other valuable belongings [Skt. bha_n.d.a_ga_ra]; ban.d.a_ro the cowrie (ca_mara), the sword, bell, the mask etc., kept in the temple of a devil (bu_ta)(Tu.lex.)

5634.Image: a pile of vessels: ba_n, ba_na a pile of earthen vessels (Ka.); va_n = peru greatness (Ta.); ba_n a heap of cakes of (dried) cowdung (Ka.lex.) ba_n to make or fashion as a potter does, to form earthenware, to make pots (Ka.); va_nu (Te.); mani, mane (Ma.); man-ai, van-ai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) ba_n.asa (Tadbhava of maha_nasa) a kitchen (Ka.lex.)

5635.Wife or land: wanni_n. banni a wife or land, i.e. the custom of settling a feud by giving either a girl in marriage or land to the aggrieved party (P.lex.) banni a bride (P.lex.) cf. va_n.i wife (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 5348). banni high-lying tracts of land infringing the ku_r or old Indus bank; kur, kura_ a drought, a failure of a canal or of the annual rising of the rivers (P.lex.) bana_ the cultivation of one independent cultivator (P.lex.)

5636.Profession: ba_n.a_ profession, employment, calling, vocation (P.lex.)

5637.Implements: ba_na_ apparatus; furniture, implements, instruments, arrangements; ba_na_ bannhn.a_ to get ready all the necessary material and implements to build a house; to marry (P.lex.) cf. van-ai to form, adorn (Ta.)(DEDR 5327). banna_ to be made (H.)(CDIAL 11260).

5638.Image: similar: wa_n:gg, wa_n:ggu_n., wan:g, ba_n:gg like, similar, resembling; wa_gi_ similar (opposed to sa_gi_ identical)(P.lex.)

5639.Images: large stones; mortar: va_n, va_na_ large stones used for grinding spices etc.; mortar (Kon.lex.)

5640.Image: offering of fruits and vegetables: paniya_ro, paniva_ro an offering to deities, consisting of fruits and vegetables (Tu.lex.) paniya_n.a, paniva_ra a sweet cake, a fritter (Ka.); pan.ika_ram, pan.iya_ram (Ta.); pan.ne_ramu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) pan., pan.n.u, han.n.u a ripe fruit; ripeness (Ka.); pan.d.u (Te.); par..am (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

5641.Image: sharp tooth: pane a bud-like, pointed or sharp tooth; moneval, mol.eval (Ka.lex.)

5642.Camphor: panne camphor (Ka.lex.)

5643.Image: whiskers: panne the state of having the whiskers cleared away in a pecular funny manner (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5644.To flow: or..uku-ma_t.am the human body, as house from which impurities flow out through nine excretory passages (Te_va_. 338,7)(Ta.lex.) or..ukal leaking, dripping, leak (Ta.); or..ukku (or..ukki-) to cause to drop, drip; n. leaking, dripping, flowing; or..ukkal pouring (as into the mouth)(Ta.); or..ukkuka to flow, run down or off (of blood, water); or..ukal flowing, being adrift; or..ukkuka to pour, inundate, set afloat; or..ukku current, stream; or..ukkam running, floating; or..iyuka to run off (as water); or..ivu watercourse; or..ikka to pour; or..ippu discharge; o_r..uka to flow (Ma.); ok- (oky-) to ooze, (liquid, e.g. blood) pours out (Ko.); war.f- (war.t-)(po.x blood) flows (To.); or..ku to flow; n. torrent or strong current of a stream (Ka.); uggu to throw (as water)(Ka.); okk- (okki-) to flow, float away, be carried away by stream; obbe an open drain (Kod..); ugguni to spurt; uggelu a well (Tu.)(DEDR 1010). or..uku- to flow, as a stream (Kait.ata. Na_t.t.u. 6); to leak, drop, as water; to fall by drops, trickle down (Tiruva_ca. 26,7)(Ta.lex.) vaci rain, water (Ta.); basi, bose to drip, drop, trickle, ooze, flow; pour off water from boiled rice, etc., by inclining the vessel, strain; basu oozing (Ka.); basabasa gushing, flowing in a stream; bassa overflowing (Tu.)(DEDR 5214). var. (-t-) to drip down (as through filter)(Kond.a); var..iccal overflowing (Ma.); var..iyal that which overflows or drains off (Ta.)(DEDR 5296). vat.iyal strained or filtered liquid; that which is cooked (Ta.lex.) Image: irrigation flow: vagul.a_ irrigation flow (Si.); vagghi_, vaghi_ id. (L.); va_jn.e~ to flow, blow (of wind)(M.); wagun to flow (K.)(CDIAL 12190). cf. va_ra canal for irrigation (Kond.a); va_ru (pl. va_rka) water-channel, stream, torrent (Kui); va_ru flood (Kui); barcelu channel to empty surplus water, as from a field (Tu.); va_ri channel for draining off rain-water from roof, waterway, sluice (Ta.)(DEDR 5356).

5645.Image: oozing: basi, bose to drip, to drop, to trickle, to ooze, flow; to ooze as water through the small openings in a well; to pour off water from boiled rice etc., by inclining the vessel, strain (Ka.); vat.i, var..i (Ta.Ma.); vad.i (Te.); basu oozing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. var..i (-v-, -nt-) to overflow, flow; (-pp-, -tt-) to shed, let flow; var..iyal that which overflows or drains off (Ta.); var..iyuka to flow, overflow; var..iccal overflowing; var..ikka to cause to overflow (Ma.); bal.i to flow out completely (as oil from an inverted pot)(Ka.); var.-, vara_na_ to leak, drip; var.a_na_, war.a_na_ to leak, drip (Go.); var.- (-t-) to drip down (as through filter); var.in.- (pl.), in: pu_s var.in. saliva (Kond.a)(DEDR 5296). basabasa gushing, flowing in a stream (Tu.); vaci rain, water (Ta.); bassa overflowing (Tu.)(DEDR 5214). cf. or..uku (or..uki-) to flow, leak, trickle down; n. leaking, dripping, flowing (Ta.)(DEDR 1010). cf. vat.i (-v-, -nt-) to drip, trickle; n. filtration, distillation (Ta.)(DEDR 5221). cf. vanta rivulet (Ta.)(DEDR 5250).

5646.Image: percolation: bana_ri saliva or juice of fruits etc., dripping about the corners of the mouth (Tu.lex.) wagn. to move, to flow (as a stream); to run, to discharge matter; to light, to fall; dewi_ di_ ma_r wage may the curse of dewi_ fall upon him; waga_un. to cause to flow (P.lex.) va_n(g)- to pour (Nk.); van(g)- to leak; va_ng- to leak, overflow; va_n- to flow out like water; va_n.p- (va_n.up-) to make to flow out (Ga.); wa_nga_na_ to trickle, of water, grain, dust etc.; va_nga_na_ to drip, drop (Go.); vanc- to strain off water from boiled rice; va_n.- (pot) to leak; va_ng- to drip, leak; to be poured, spilled (Go.); va_n- (-it-) to be poured, flow, drip (Kond.a); va_k- (-t-) to pour (Pe.Mand..); va_n.- to leak (Mand..); va_nga to leak, percolate; n.leak, percolation; va_pka (< va_k-p; va_kt-) to cause to leak, pour out from a small opening, sow in drills; n. sowing in drills (Kui)[cf. bob sowing of grain by the drill (H.)(CDIAL 11282)]; vwa_ngali, wa_nginai to leak; vwa_khali, wa_kh'nai to pour; va_ng- (-it-) to flow, be poured, leak; va_k- (-h-) to pour (Kuwi); bag-bagre to be poured out copiously (Malt.); va_kku (va_kki-) to pour; va_kkal boiled rice from which conjee has been poured (Ta.); va.k- (va.yk-) to pour out slowly (Ko.); po.x- (po.xy-) to flow down completely; po.k- (po.ky-) to empty out completely; po.x blood (To.); ba_gu to pour off water from boiled rice, etc., by inclining the vessel (Ka.); ba.k- (ba.ki-) to pour off water from cooked rice (Kod..); va_kku to pour; va.k to pour out slowly (Ko.); va~_ka, va~_gu rivulet, streamlet (Te.); vancu to serve from a container, empty (Te.); va.ng- (va.nkt-) to pour or ladle (liquid)(Kol.)(DEDR 5334). cf. va_n-, va_n-am sky, cloud, rain (Ta.); bani a current or flood of water caused by heavy rain (Malt.)(DEDR 5381). cf. pa(h)r-ul.i an ancient river south of the river Kumari, said to have been swallowed by sea (en:ko_ va_r..iya ... nan-n-i_r-p- pa(h)r-ul.i man.alin-um palave_ : Pur-ana_. 9)(Ta.lex.) ma_huri_ name of a river (Ra_jat.); ma_vuru a river in the Machipu_r Pargana (K.)(CDIAL 10115). Brick well; sacred tank near a temple: pokkaran.i < pokkharin.i_ sacred tank, as in a temple (Perun.. Un~caik. 53,79); bokkaran.i id. (Ka.); put.karin.i lotus tank; sacred tank near a temple (Ta.lex.) pus.kara blue lotus (AV.); pukkhara lotus (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8298a). paus.kara pertaining to the blue lotus (MBh.); pokkhara lotus plant (Pali); pertaining to lotuses; lotus, water (Pkt.); pukkhara id. (Pkt.); pokhur irrigation basin round base of a tree; pokhuru brick well (K.); po(k)khar pond (P.); pokhar, pwokhar (Ku.); pokhari pool, tank, lake (N.); pukhuri_ (A.); pokhiri_ (OB.); pukkhur(i), pukur, pakur (B.); pokhari (Or.); pokhar, po_khra_ (Bi.); pokhar, pokhari_ (Mth.); pokhara_, pokhari_ (Bhoj.); pokhar, pokhra_ (H.); pokhar (M.); pokura lotus flower (Si.)(CDIAL 8425). paus.karin.i_ lotus pool, pond (Skt.); pus.karin.i_ id. (RV.); pokkharan.i_ lotus pool (Pali); pukarin.i, pokaran.i pond (KharI.); pokkharin.i_, pukkharin.i_ pond, lotus (Pkt.); pokhran. small lake or pond (M.); pokurun.i, pokun.a lake, pond (Si.)(CDIAL 8426). Image: to trickle down; to flow: avagalati falls down, slips down (Skt.); o_galia slipped down, fallen (Pkt.); uwaliba to slough off, be rotten, be shattered (A.); ogol- to descend, get down (D..); ogal.vu~ to trickle down, ooze, melt (G.); ogal.n.e~ to fall off, trickle (M.); ogal moisture near surface of soil (H.); ogal. streamlet; vagal. refuse, dregs (M.)[cf. oga_r residue of cattle fodder (G.); oga_l. chewing the cud, cud (G.)(CDIAL 744)]; oga_l to make descend, to take down (D..); oga_l.vu~ to cause to melt (G.); vagal.n.e~ to drop disregardfully, cast out, omit (M.)(CDIAL 742). okhara cow's milk (Or.)(CDIAL 733). o_kirati pours down or over, casts out (Pali); avakirati scatters, pours out (A_s'vGr..); oirinu with pass. suffix to drop (as corn into a mill), fall headlong (N.); wairna_ to pour (rice, etc.) from hand or vessel, to sow (H.); okkhin.n.a scattered (Pkt.)(CDIAL 732). River-mouth: cf. puka_r mouth of a river (Pur-ana_. 30); the town of Ka_viri-p-pu_m-pat.t.in-am, as situated at the mouth of the river Ka_ve_ri (Cilap.)(Ta.lex.) To flood; to float; to swim: o_gna_ (u_gyas) to swim, float; o_grna_ to be swum across, (tank or stream) supports; o_gta'a_na_ to make swim, float (trees, etc.)(Kur.); ge to swim, float (Malt.)(DEDR 1031). augh flood, stream (S'Br.); o_gha id.; quantity (MBh.); flood (Pali); collection (Pkt.); o_ha id. (Pkt.); okanda great flood (Si.)(CDIAL 2565). Streamlet: vha_l. streamlet (M.); vahala, vahana (Si.); vaholo va_hala_ virao trayo'pi laghujala prava_hava_cakah- (OM.)(Bloch, p. 401). va_gul. act of chewing (M.); va_gol.vum. (G.); vaggola_i romanthayati (OM.)(Bloch, p. 394). ogaral milk to come into the udder of a cow before giving milk (Bhoj.); ogra_l.o a large brass or copper ladle for serving liquid food (G.); ogarn.e~ to dish or ladle out; ogar a mass (esp. of boiled rice) ladles out (M.)(CDIAL 741). o_ga_l.ha immersed, firmly grounded in (Pali); o_ga_dha (Pali); o_ga_d.ha, avaya_d.ha (Pkt.); or.hu very deep; deep hole in a river (S.); avaga_d.ha plunged into (Skt.)(CDIAL 743). o_hat.t.a withdrawn (Pkt.); o_hat.t.ai decreases, withdraws (Pkt.); ugat.n.o to abate, be ruined (Ku.); ohat.n.e~, aut.hn.e~ to abate, ebb, flow down (M.)(CDIAL 748). Image: channel: wakra_ an embankment thrown across an open plain to carry the rain water that falls down to the cultivated parts; the small water course leading from a main or branch stream into a ban.d (P.lex.) vo_hara water-channel (Pkt.); ohri_ small water-channel from well (L.); ohar channel worn into land by irruptions from the sea (M.); ohal. oozing, streamlet (M.); ol., ol.i_ streamlet, gutter (M.); oghal., vaghal. streamlet (M.)(CDIAL 750). o_harai throws down, upsets (Pkt.); ohal.n.e~, vahal.n.e~ to ooze, trickle (M.); ohal.n.e~, vahal.n.e~ to upset (M.); oghal.n.e~, vaghal.n.e~ to slip off, make run or slip, reject (M.)(CDIAL 751). Silt at the mouth of a river: oha_l., ol.i silt at the mouth of a river (G.)(CDIAL 756). o_d.ha_l flood; od.ha_, od.ho_l (Phal.)(CDIAL 773). ojjhara, ujjhara stream coming down a mountainside (Pkt.); ojhar trickling, stream (M.)(CDIAL 769). ojjharia thrown aside (Pkt.); ojharn.e~ to trickle, ooze, run in streamlets, graze, just touch (M.); ojhiran.u to nod from drowsing (S.); ojharab to be put in disorder, be dishevelled (Mth.)(CDIAL 770). o_harati takes down (Pali); avaharate_ brings down (Skt.)(CDIAL 881). Image: flow: vagul.a_ irrigation flow (Si.); vagghi_, vaghi_ id. (L.)(CDIAL 12190). Image: running about; flowing: baghai, baghaia ravenous, running about; baha bahi running over; bahi flowing, running, as opposed to stagnant (Santali.lex.) Image: roaring: bohar.ia roaring, flowing strongly (of river)(Santali.lex.) vaho_la small stream (Pkt.); vahel.o, vohel.o, vel.o (G.); vaha_l., ohal., ohal.i_ streamlet, oozing (M.); vaha in cmpds.: carrying, bearing along (of rivers)(MBh.); river (Skt.); current (Pali.Pkt.); va_ri-vaha river (Pali); vah, va_h, vaha_ watercourse, canal (L.); bah channel conveying water into a field (Mth.); ba_ha_ arm of river or canal (P.); vo flow of water (G.)(CDIAL 11452). va_han.u to cause to flow (S.); va_han. to plough (L.); ba_hna_ to open out, plough, drive (H.)(CDIAL 11612). o_vahati, pass. o_vuyhati is carried down (a river)(Pali); o_vahai flows, sinks (Pkt.); wa_- to flow; u_ wa_ant the water is flowing (Bshk.); waha_ndu streaming, running (of water)(Phal.)(CDIAL 841). o_bharati bears off (Pali); o_haria brought down, descended (Pkt.); oia_ to descend; caus. ola_na (B.); uhliba_ to flow down, float away (Or.); oharna_, uharna_ to subside (of swelling or flood), to settle (of a liquid)(H.)(CDIAL 797). o_li_ai comes down (Pkt.); erenava_ to flow into the udder (of milk)(Si.); oravvu~ to irrigate with well water (G.)(CDIAL 814). o_ro_hati descends, alights (Pali); o_ro_hai, o_ruhai, o_rubhai (Pali); ora- to descend, be immersed (Si.)(CDIAL 817). o_rasai descends (Pkt.); ulahan.u to descend, set (sun, moon, etc.); ulahando the West (S.); olahyo western (S.)(CDIAL 831). ola_, ula_ to descend (B.)(CDIAL 833). o_lum.d.ai falls, drips (Pkt.)(CDIAL 834). Image: stream; water channel: va_hur.u backwater (S.); va_hali_, va_haliya_ stream (Pkt.); va_hl.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 11607). vahana flowing of water (Nir.); current (Pali); vauhan. mountain torrent (L.); vahin., vaihan. flowing of a stream; vahn., bahn. flowing, surface of a roughly ploughed field (P.); ven. stream of water (G.); ohan. streamlet from a mountain torrent, channel cut for it (M.); vaha_n. stream (M.); vahana flowing (Si.)(CDIAL 11456). udaka-va_haka flood of water (Pali); b-dora (Dm.); va_hu canal (S.); va_h, vaha_ (L.); ba_ha_ channel carrying water into a field (Bi.); ba_ha_ stream, current (Mth.); outflow of water, watercourse (H.)(CDIAL 11607). ba_hra_ man who stands at the well to pour out the water drawn up in the bucket (H.)(CDIAL 11608). pagar a water-channel; pa~er.e~ overflow of a tank; pagrao to construct a water-channel; banbasi a flood; banbasi, bhasao to be carried by flood; ban, bayaban a flood (Santali.lex.) Flow; carry: vaihn.a_, baihn.a_, bahn.a_ to float, flow (P.); bahiba_, bohiba_, buhiba_ to carry, wear; to flow, blow (Or.); bahab to carry, work (a plough); to flow, blow (Mth.); vahati carries, bears along (of rivers), is carried along (RV.)(CDIAL 11453). cf. vaha in cmpds. 'carrying, bearing along (of rivers)'(MBh.); river (Skt.); vaha_ id. (Skt.); vaha current (Pali.Pkt.); va_ri-vaha river (Pali); va_hin conveying (MBh.); vah, va_h, vaha_ watercourse, canal (L.); ba_ha_ arm of river or canal (P.); bah channel conveying water into a field (Mth.); vo flow of water (G.); vaho_la small stream (Pkt.); vahel.o, vohel.o, vel.o (G.); vaha_l., ohal., ohal.i_ streamlet, oozing (M.)(CDIAL 11452). buhel to flow; bhulkau to flow out (Santali.lex.) Image: flood; filling: pu_r flow, stream (B.); pura_ full (Pas'.); pura full (Shum.); pu_r (Gaw.); pu_ri (Kal.); por full (Gypsy); pu_ra filling (BhP.); flood (Sus'r.); pu_raka filling (MBh.); flood (BhP.); pu_ra full; pu_raka filling (Pali); pu_ra flood (Pkt.); pu_raya filling (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8330). phurkau to spout up, to spout out, to spout (Santali.lex.) Image: water-channel: vahi_n.u, vihi_n., bihi_n. hole (in wall of house or fort or city) to let water out, drain, sewer (P.)(CDIAL 11818). cf. va_ru (pl. va_rka) water-channel, stream, torrent (Kui)(DEDR 5356). cf. barakelu inundation (Tu.)(DEDR 5323). cf. ba_ha_ watercourse (H.)(CDIAL 11607). virha_ stream (M.)(CDIAL 11674). Image: to distil: va_luka to be distilled, to run, drip (Ma.); o_luka to flow, ooze; va_r-r-u straining, distilling; va_l spittle; va_r-r-uka to strain, drain off, distil (Ma.); va_li drizzle (Ta.); ba_luni to run over, go out (Tu.)(DEDR 5367). cf. oliyal river (Ta.); oliyuka to flow; olikka to flow, run as water, blood from wounds; olippu flowing, looseness of bowels; olivu flowing; olu water-current; o_luka to flow, ooze out; o_la trickling; o_li a spring, temporary well; o_lo_la falling in drops, trickling (Ma.); uli waterfall (Ir.); oli id. (Pa_lKu.A_lKu.); oyl. waterfall in channel or river (Ko.); was-y waterfall; was-f- (was-t-) to defecate (of adults); wa.l pil. drainage hole in wall (To.); oluku to be spilled, run, flow, overflow, gush out (Te.)(DEDR 999). cf. bagre to be poured out copiously (Malt.)(DEDR 5334). vighr.ta dripping (RV.); vigharn.e~, vighurn.e~ to be melted, be dissolved (M.); vigharvu~ to be melted, be dissolved, be scattered (G.)(CDIAL 11675). cf. var..i to overflow (Ta.)(DEDR 5296). cf. vat.i to drip, trickle (Ta.)(DEDR 5221). To flow: va_hn. mountain torrent; va_hn.i_ gentle current, small torrent; va_n. streamlet (L.); vaha_n. current, stream; va_n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 11610). vahana carrying (MBh.); flowing of water (Nir.); ship (Skt.); current (Pali); vahan.a carriage, boat (Pkt.); vauhan. mountain torrent (L.); vahin., vaihan. flowing of a stream (P.); vahn., bahn. flowing, surface of a roughly ploughed field (P.); bahni_ channel carrying juice from sugarcane mill (H.); ven. stream of water (G.); ohan. streamlet from a mountain torrent, channel cut for it (M.); vaha_n. stream (M.); vahana flowing (Si.)(CDIAL 11456). vahant carrying, flowing (Skt.); vaham.ta- pres.part. (Pkt.); vahi~da_ flowing (of water)(P.); bau~ta_ serving as a servant (A.); bowa~ti_ flowing (A.)(CDIAL 11457). vahati carries, bears along (of rivers), is carried along (RV.); carries (Pali); vaham.ti (NiDoc.); vahai (Pkt.); wahun to flow (of rivers)(K.); vahan.u (S.); vahan. to flow, go, stagger (L.); vaihn.a_, baihn.a_, bahn.a_ to flow, float (P.); bhon.u_ to move, blow (WPah.); bahan.o to wander (Ku.); bahanu to flow, run, glide, blow (N.); biba to carry, serve; to flow, blow (A.); baha_, baoya_ to carry, row, steer; to flow (B.); bahiba_, bohiba_, buhiba_ to carry, wear; to flow, blow (Or.); har bahab to plough (Bi.); bahab to carry, work (a plough); to flow, blow (Mth.); bahai flows, blows (OAw.); bahna_ (H.); bahai flows, moves (OMarw.); vahevu~ to flow (G.); va_hn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 11453). ba_hra_ man who stands at the well to pour out the water drawn up in the bucket (H.)(CDIAL 11608). udaka-va_haka flood of water (Pali); ba-d.ora (Dm.); va_hu canal (S.); va_h, vaha_ (L.); va_hur.u backwater (S.); ba_ha_ channel carrying water into a field (Bi.); stream, current (Mth.); outflow of water, watercourse (H.); va_hali_, va_haliya_ stream (Pkt.); va_hl.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 11607).

5647.Image: catching fish: pa_g, pa_gai to catch fish with a net; (ma_sl.i) pa_gtolo fisherman; pa_ga_p, pa_gpa_ catching fish (Kon.lex.)

5648.Payment: pa_g, pa_ga_ payment (Kon.lex.)

5649.On account of; value of crop; estimate: baha_ price, value (Urdu.lex.) paka_r value of a crop fixed by an appraiser (Ta. < baka_r (U.)(Ta.lex.) pa_kku estimate, estimate of the crop < ba_k (U.)(Ta.lex.) Settle: vakai (-v-, -nt-) to consider, weigh; vai (-pp-, -tt-) to consider, meditate upon, suppose; vaittu-kkol. to suppose, take for granted (Ta.); bage to think, consider, suppose, conjecture, know; n. thought, concern, regard, notion, idea, intention, purpose, the mind; bagye, bagge the very thought, intention, purpose; on account of, with regard to; pul-vage a mean or low thought (Ka.); bageyuni, bagevuni to think, conceive, imagine (Tu.); vagacu to think, ponder; grieve, sorrow; vaga, vagapu, vagalu grief, sorrow; vagadencu to decide, settle, determine; vagadegu to be finally settled or determined (Te.)(DEDR 5205). Account-book: vahi_ account-book, ledger (L.S.); vahika_ in: ra_ja-vahika_ king's diary (Skt.); vahiya_ accounts; vahia examined (Pkt.); vahi_, bahi_ account-book, ledger (P.); bahi (N.A.B.Or.); bai (B.Or.); bahi_ (H.); vahi_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 11460). Account book of native merchants: wahi_ an account book of native merchants or bankers, a register, a record; wahi_ wichch char.ha_una_ to bring on the books, to place to account; kha_ta_ wahi_ account books; rokar. wahi_ cash book; bahi_ an account book, a register, a merchant's or banker's book, stitched together at one end instead of the side; bahi_ kha_tta_ account books; ledger; a set of books kept by merchants or bankers (P.lex.) vai to put, place (Ta.); vaippu placing, deposit, treasure (Ta.); vekka to deposit; veppu placing, deposit, treasure; vaikkam deposit (Ma.); oje to keep (Malt.); uina_ (uyyas) to put down; retain, keep back (Kur.)(DEDR 5549). ve_yu, vaicu, vayicu to place, put (Te.); vaippu place; earth, land, world, town (Ta.); vaikkam what is laid down, deposit, alluvial ground (Ma.); bay(a)ke deposit, treasure, hoard (Ka.)(DEDR 5549). ur..uku land-register (Ta.lex.); cf. or..uku register of a temple giving an account of its properties, and its history; land record containing particulars of the ownership, etc. of lands (Ta.lex.) bahi, buhi account book; baki account (Santali.lex.)

5650.Sap, juice: pakara sap, juice; da_la pakara ijji it is good for nothing [ijji, iddi negation of existence, not to be; dallu to smear as with mud or cow-dung] (Tu.lex.)

5651.Image: pony: paiko_mat.t.am pegu pony (Ta.)(Pirata_pa. Vila_. 18)(Ta.lex.)< paigu (Malay).

5652.Image: bull: vakati < vahati bull; vakatu < vahatu bull (Ta.lex.)

5653.Images: bull, ploughing ox: pakat.u bull, ploughing ox (Tol. Po. 76); a team of oxen harnessed to a plough (Pur-ana_. 35); greatness, hugeness, largeness (Perumpa_n.. 243); strength (Pur-ana_. 88); [cf. pagat.u force (Ta.)(CDIAL 8430)] < br.hat (Skt.) pakat.t.umullai theme of comparing a householder to a plough-ox, as bearing heavy burdens and getting wearied with intense labour (Pu. Ve. 10, Potup. Mullaip. 6)(Ta.lex.) vahu_ working bullock (L.); vahatu ox (Skt.); bridal procession (RV.)(CDIAL 11455). vahit.ru riding or pack animal (S.); vahitr, vetur (L.); vahitar, bahitar (P.); vaheta_, baheta_ carrying loads (P.); bahita_ voyage (N.)(CDIAL 11461). ba_hakar. good plough ox (WPah.); va_ha horse, ship, carrying a load, driver (of a waggon)(Pkt.); va_i_ ploughing (L.); baha_ carrier (Or.); ba~_h a ploughing (Bi.); ba_ha (H.); vahaya vehicle (Si.)(CDIAL 11607). halohir. ploughed land (L.)(CDIAL 14015). halava_haga ploughman (Pkt.); halva_h, halva_ha_ (P.); hal va_hun.a_ to plough (P.); harwa_h, harwa_ha_ (Bi.); harwa_h (Mth.); halwa_ha_ (H.)(CDIAL 14009). Draught animal: vahin drawing well (TBr.); ox (Skt.); vahilaga camel or ox or other domestic animal (Pkt.); vahilla quick (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11462). va_hana any vehicle or draught animal (S'Br.); oar (R.); driving (Sus'r.); vehicle, draught or riding animal (Pali); va_han.a waggon, ship; n. driving (Pkt.); ba_n cultivation (Sh. cf. do_no baiyoiki to plough); va_han. ploughed field (P.); baha_n.o ploughshare (Ku.); ba~_r.~ ploughing (Ku.); bahana_ oar (N.); ba_ha_n.a rowing, spreading of nets in deep water (Or.); ba_han draught animal (N.A.B.); ba_han conveyance, riding animal (Mth.); ba_han draught or riding animal (H.); va_ha_n. ship (G.); vahana-ya, vahala-ya raft (Si.)(CDIAL 11610). va_hanika living by draught animals (Pa_n..gan.a); va_han.iya connected with driving or draught animals (Pkt.); ba_ha_n.ia~_ boatman, man who spreads a net (Or.)(CDIAL 11611). Image: ox: hakkur, hakhoru bull, bullock; hakkr uncalved heifer (K.); s'akkara, s'a_kkara, s'akkari, s'a_rkkara, s'an:kara, s'a_n:kara bull (Skt.); s'akvara, s'a_kvara bull (Skt.); s'akvan, s'akvari_ skilful, powerful (VS.AV.); elephant (Skt.); s'a_kvar mighty (of bull)(AV.); bull (VS.); s'kkuro unbroken ox (WPah.); s'kkoro well-developed bull-calf; s'kkori_ well-developed heifer (WPah.); sarak-a_, harak-a_ bull (Si.)(CDIAL 12256). s'aka a draught-ox (Skt.lex.) sakki_ (pl. -l) bull; sakkil (pl.) bullocks (Ga.); cakur-tol cattle-shed (Pa.)(DEDR 2267). s'a_kvara a bull, an ox (Skt.Ka); s'a_kvara_ro_ha one who mounts or has mounted an ox; s'a_kat.a any yoked animal (Ka.); a draught ox (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) s'akvari a cow (Ka.lex.) cf. ca~_gi_ species of good horse (G.)(CDIAL 4564). ce_ bull, bullock, ox (Tiruva_ca. 10,1); ce_ma_ bull (Na_lat.i, 377)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 2818). Image: bull, bullock: ce_kil tawny-coloured bull (kuru_uc ce_kil ka_n.ika_ : Kalit. 105); ce_n:kan-r-u bull-calf (Ta.lex.) ce_ta_ (ce_tu + a_) tawny-coloured cow (Nar-. 359); ce_tu red (Cu_t.a_.); ce_ntu redness (Pin..); ce_ntu-pantam sealing-wax; arakku (Can.. Aka.); ce_ppu red, redness (Paripa_. 7,70); ce_y redness (Paripa_. 11,114); ce_yttu that which is red (Ci_vaka. 2622)(Ta.); kempu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Red: cekka-c-civattal to be deep-red (Tiruppu. 125); cekka-ceku-ttal id. (I_t.u, 1,9,5); cekkam redness; anger (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,9,5); cekkar redness, crimson (Pur-ana_. 16,8); red sky of the evening (Kalit. 126); cekkavuri spinous wild indigo (Ta.); cekkar-va_n-am red sky (Kampara_. Varaik. 66); cekil redness (Tiruvirut. 69); ceccai redness (Tiruvil.ai. Valai. 24)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Red: ce_ red, redness (Kalla_. 85,9)(Ta.); ce id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Domesticated: che_ka domesticated, tame; town-bred, shrewd, clever (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) ca.kn tameness (but not really tractable or domesticated)(Ko.); sa~_kud.u rearing, bringing up; sa~_ku to rear, bring up, foster, educate, train up (Te.); ca.k (ca.ki-) to rear (child, young animal)(Kod..); ca.k (ca.yk-) to make to grow, rear, support (Ko.)(DEDR 2427). che_ka clever, shrewd (Skt.); s'ikva skilful (AV.); s'ikva skilful (AV.); s'ikvan, s'ikvas able (RV.); che_ka clever, skilled (Pali); che_a (Pkt.); sey-, se_ (Si.)(CDIAL 5061). caher adroitness, proficiency, skill (Santali.lex.) cf. cak(i)ye possible (As'.); cayai can; caia possible (Pkt.); 3 sg. opt. cakkiya_ (Pkt.); ca_yam.ta enabling; ca_iya made able (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4535). cahi, cahia necessary, needful; cahiye necessary, proper, right (Santali.lex.) chala panniers; dangrako chalawakoa they put panniers on bullocks; chala badla a pack bullock; chik chak, chik chok bright, plump, looking glossy as the skin of a well fed and well groomed horse; chik chok mot.a akanae sadom do the horse is fat and glossy-skinned (Santali.lex.) Image: solitary card: ce_kku solitary card of any denomination in the hands of a player at a game of cards; trump-card (Ta.); ce_kku-p-pul.l.i solitary person having no relations (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ce_ bull, bullock, ox (ce_ve_r-u ce_vat.ikke_ cen-r-u_ta_y : Tiruva_ca. 10,1); taurus in the zodiac (Vita_n-. Nal. 12)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Cowdung: sahar dung, to void dung, applied mainly to cattle while on the threshing floor, or when being purchased (Santali.lex.) cakan.am < chagan.a cowdung (Ta.); ca_n.am id. (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) sa_ravin.e~ to smear with cowdung (M.)(CDIAL 12372). chero watery stool (Ku.); cher diarrhoea (N.); sera_iba bowels to be loose (A.); chera_ watery stools (Or.); cherna_ to have bad digestion (H.)(CDIAL 4954). carpi (prob. car.pi) cowdung (Pa.); sar.pi, sad.pi id. (Ga.); sara_pi_, sar.p, sad.a_pi_, sar.ap, har.ap, ar.api, har.pi, ar.pi, ar.ap id. (Go.); r.a_pi id. (Kond.a.Pe.Mand..Kuwi); ra_pi id. (Kuwi); sanap cowdung (Nk.);(DEDR 2402). cf. pi_ excrement (Ta.)(DEDR 4210). chakana, chakan.a animal dung (Pali); chagan.a, chagan.iya_ cowdung (Pkt.); chen.u, chen.o cow or buffalo dung (S.); cha_n. cow or buffalo dung; cha_n.u~ cowdung cake (G.); s'en. cowdung (M.)(CDIAL 4952); chaga dung (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4951). s'en.van.i_ thin cowdung wash (M.)(CDIAL 4953). cha_gan.a fire of dried cowdung (Skt.); cha_n.a, cha_n.i_ cowdung (Pkt.); cha_n.a_ cowdung (P.); cha_n. cow or buffalo dung; cha_n.u~ cowdung cake (G.)(CDIAL 5007). ca_n.i cowdung (Man.i. 30, 253, Urai); sagan.i id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Dung: s'a_ravin.e~ to smear with cowdung (M.)(CDIAL 12372). cf. cha_gan.a fire of dried cowdung (Skt.)(CDIAL 5007). s'aka dung (AV.);sago_n (Par.); ga-sa~_ cowdung (Ash.); cu~_ dung of horses or cows (Kt.); zo~ cowdung (Pr.); s'a_n:gan dung of horses or cows (Pas'.); s'en. cowdung (M.); s'en.a (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12238). s'en.a_ra_ pile of cowdung cakes plastered over with cowdung and earth (M.)(CDIAL 12240). sa_r manure (P.); s'er bird dung; s'ern.e~ to void dung (of birds)(M.); s'argu_ horse dung (Kho.); dung (of cow, horse, donkey)(Sh.)(CDIAL 12241). saru_r. stack of dried cowdung cakes (L.)(CDIAL 12242). s'akr.t dung (RV.); s'aknah. (AV.); kao-s'akror.o a worm in dung of animals (WPah.)(CDIAL 12248). sam.kara dung (Car.); dust, sweepings (Skt.); sam.kara, sam.gara rubbish heap (Pkt.); sa~_kar rubbish blocking a stream (M.); asakara_ unswept; refuse, sweepings (Or.)(CDIAL 12818). sam.ka_ra dust, sweepings (BHSk.); san:ka_ra rubbish (Pali); sa~ka_r sweepings, dust, rubbish (H.); sa~_kha_ra_, sa~_kera_, sa~_kora_ rubbish and mud blocking a waterchannel (M.)(CDIAL 12820). Dung: sahar dung (Santali.lex.) cf. cakur-tol cattleshed (Pa.)(DEDR 2267). cf. cakkal rotten straw (Ta.)(DEDR 2267). he~dar dung, rubbish; he~dra_ dirty (M.)(CDIAL 14161). sa~_ka_, sa_ka_ straw etc. collected and blocking a stream, dregs; a mixture of copper and inferior gold for soldering trinkets (M.)(CDIAL 12829).

5654.Image: heifer: va_har., vohur., vhar. young bull (L.); bahir., bahir.i_, wahir.i_ a heifer; bahir.a, bahir.i_, wahir.a_ a bullock, a young bull, a heifer; wahitar an animal for riding, a beast of burden; bahitar a beast of burden; especially an ass, mule or pony; wa_hi_ ploughing, agriculture; waheta carrying loads, work done by beasts of burden; any work done by oxen, asses; wa_hu_ a working bullock (P.lex.) Plough ox: bahar. young bullock (Ku.); bahar (N.); vhir. heifer (L.); va_hr.ka_, va_hr.ki_, vhr.ki_ (L.); vahar., vahir.a_, bahir.a_ m., vahir., bahir., vahir.i_, bahir.i_ f. (P.); vahata, vahatu ox (Skt.); vahad.a calf to be trained (Pkt.); vahur.o young bullock (S.); vahur.i_ heifer (S.)(CDIAL 11459). Pack-bullock: pahur. animal for sacrifice (Santali.lex.) paghaia pack-bullock (Santali.lex.) Bull; strong: vr.s.abha lord, male, bull (RV.); vasabha bull (Pali); basaha_ bull bought by religious mendicants (Bi.); basah bull (Mth.H.); vasu_ bull calf, bull branded and set at liberty (M.)(CDIAL 12085). uks.a-, uks.an large; uks.ita fully grown, strong (RV.); u_s., u_x long (Pas'.)(CDIAL 1627). Ox: ukkha_ ox (Pkt.); vaccha_n.a ox (Pkt.); uks.an bull (RV.)(CDIAL 1628). maho_ks.a a large bull (S'Br.); mahoch great ox, blockhead (H.)(CDIAL 9978). Bullock's hump: vas'e~, os'e~ bullock's hump (M.); vasu~ bull calf, bull branded and set at liberty (M.); basah bull (Mth.); Bull brought by religious mendicants: basaha_ bull brought by religious mendicants (Bi.); vasabha bull (Pali.); vr.s.abha powerful; lord, male, bull (RV.); vasaha, visaha, vusaha bull (Pkt.); basaha_ bull not used for ploughing (N.); bull (Bhoj.); basaha (OAw.); basah (H.); vahap ox, steer (Si.)CDIAL 12085). vas'e~d., os'e~d., vas'i~d., vas'a~d., vasa~d., osa~d.(e) bullock's hump (M.)(CDIAL 12084). vr.s.an strong, great; male, bull (RV.)(CDIAL 12085). pas'u domestic or sacrificial animal (RV.); goat (Skt.); beast (As'.NiDoc.); pasu, pasuka cattle (Pali); pasu animal, horned quadruped, goat, sheep (Pkt.); pace-moc shepherd (Kt.); paha goat (S.); animal of the deer class, any quadruped (A.); pas buffalo-heifer (H.); pasu_ animal (such as goat or sheep)(H.)(CDIAL 7984). poyo_nu rich, prosperous (Sh.); pas'umant rich in cattle (RV.)(CDIAL 7989). cf. vahu_ working bullock (L.); vahatu ox (Skt.)(CDIAL 11455). cf. vahas shoulder of a draft animal (S'Br.); vahur.o young bullock (S.); vaha shoulder of an ox (AV.)(CDIAL 11459). To equip; harness: prakaro_ti effects, makes fit for, gains (RV.); effects (Pali); pakubbati id. (Pali); pakare_i, pakun.ai, pakkuvai begins to do (Pkt.); pakkare_i harnesses or equips (a horse)(Pkt.); pakkaran., pakkiran. to come to one's aid, prove good; pakrun. to be serviceable in a difficulty (L.); pakkharia equipped, harnessed (Pkt.); pa_kharan.em. to organise, buildup (OM.)(CDIAL 8433). vahilaga camel or ox or other domestic animal (Pkt.); vahin ox (Skt.)(CDIAL 11462). va_ha draught animal (RV.)(CDIAL 11607). cf. paghaia d.an:gra a pack bullock (Santali.lex.) cf. ba_hakar. good plough ox (WPah.); baha_ carrier (Or.)(CDIAL 11607). Bull; plump, chubby: bha_k bull (Sh.); bakula thick (D..); bakot.a_ stout, fat (Pas'.); baku_l strong, thick, fat (Bshk.); bhakulo strong (Phal.); bhakullo chubby, plump; bhakku short stout man (N.); bha_kur.i short and stout (B.); bakka_ big man or animal; bakkan large, plump, clumsy (M.)(CDIAL 9330). cf. bahala thick (Sus'r.); dense, thick (Pali.Pkt.); ba_la much (L.); ba_hla_ much, excessive (P.); bahal.a great, plentiful, thick (Or.); bahal. exuberant, plentiful (M.); bahala firm, solid (Si.)(CDIAL 9182). phe~t.ar. a heifer (Santali. lex.) vahatu ox (Skt.); vahu_ working bullock (L.)(CDIAL 11455). va_ha draught animal (RV.); horse (Pkt.); ba_hakar. good plough ox (WPah.); va_hin in cmpds. conveying (MBh.); possessing (Skt.)(CDIAL 11607). me~r.hwa_ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's (Bi.)(CDIAL 10311). meha_ the bullock next to the post (Bi.); mi_ha_ id. (Mth.); meh, meha_ the post (Mth.); mehr. f. mehar. m. oxen on threshing floor (P.); me~rha_ bullock next the post (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 10317). me~hiya_ the bullock next the post on threshing floor (Bi.)(CDIAL 10318). me~h, me~ha_ the post (Bi.)(CDIAL 10317). meht.a_, me~ht.a_ the bullock next the post (Bi.); me_this.t.ha standing at the post (TS.)(CDIAL 10319). Hornless: me_r..ai hornless beast (Na_mati_pa. 235); cf. mo_r..ai hornless or dehorned cattle (Ta.); mo_la id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) mar-ai, mar-aiyan- cattle or other animal with red spots (Ta.lex.) Plough and team of bullocks: e_ru pair of oxen yoked to a plough (Ka.); e_ru plough with draught oxen made ready for ploughing (Te.); ce_r plough and team of bullocks (Kol.)[cf. ce_rvai assemblage, collection (Ta.)(DEDR 2814)]; plough and team of oxen, yoke of oxen, plough (Ta.Jaffna); e_r plough and team (of oxen)(Ma.Ta.Go.); yoke of oxen (Ma.Ta.); he_r set of plough and bullocks (Pe.); he_r. one pair of bullocks (Go.); he_ru (pl. he_rka) pair of ploughing bullocks (Kuwi); se_ru a yoke of oxen, a *pair, two of cattle for ploughing (Kui); yoke of oxen (Kond.a); se_reka two, a pair, a yoke of oxen (Kui); cereyakul (pl.) pair of bullocks (Pa.)(DEDR 2815). Reckoning the sets: pairs of bullocks: e.r pair of bullocks used in ploughing (Ko.); cereyakul (one) pair of bullocks (Pa.)(DEDR 2815). i_rer two pairs of bullocks (Pa.)(DEDR 2815). muccer three pairs of bullocks (Pa.)(DEDR 2815). nel cer four pairs of bullocks (Pa.)(DEDR 2815). ce~_jer five pairs of bullocks (Pa.)(DEDR 2815). Image: pack-ox: er..tu bull, ox (Ka.)(DEDR 815). et.uttan- pack-ox (Ta.)(DEDR 851-a). erutu bull, ox, steer (Ta.) (Patir-r-up. 27,13); bullock, ox, chiefly as a beast of burden (Ma.); et bull (Ko.); est id. (To.); e(t.) t.esk a circle of bullocks [et. < et.t.u bull, bullock (Badaga); tesk loop, curve of horn (To.); tiraccal wrinkles; tirappu rolling (Ma.); tiraya curtain (Si.) (DEDR 5825)]; ettu, eddu ox, bullock (Ka.); etti bull, bullock (Kod..); eru ox; male buffalo (Tu.); eddu (pl. ed.lu) ox, bullock, bull (Te.); eddu pat.t.u to geld (an ox)(Te.); Bull consecrated to a temple: -reddu in: gangi-reddu bull consecrated to a temple; gang-eddu id. (Te.)[cf. ga~_garvu~ to bellow like a bull (G.)(CDIAL 3951)]; ed. (pl. ed.l) bullock (Kol.); hed.d. (pl. hed.l.) id. (Nk.); ad.d.o_ bullock, ox (Kur.)(DEDR 815). eruttu-k-ka_l.ai steer; eruttu-t-timil hum pf a bull; eruttu-p-purai ox stall; eruttu-p-pu_t.t.u first ploughing on an ausipicious day, when every one's team is employed and a few furrows are turned up; eruttu-ma_t.u bull, ox (Nan-. 183, Urai); pack-bullock (Ta.lex.) Image: male animal: e_t.t.ai male of animals, as of the buffalo; e_r-u bull; Nandi, the chief of Siva's hosts; pouncing upon, as an eagle; male of certain animals (pig, deer (pul-va_y antelope), tiger, yak (kavari), bull or buffalo (per-r-am [Tol. Po. 594; 400, Urai]), buffalo (erumai), Indian elk, sambur, bison (marai : Tol. Po. 571), goat, lion; male shark; male conch (Ta.); e_r-r-ai male of any animal remarkable for physical strength (Tol. Po. 604)(Ta.lex.); e_t.t.ai id. (Ta.); e_ran bull (Ma.); e_r-u bullock (Ma.); e.r- bull (To.); are_ (pl. arisk) male individual,person, husband (?Br.)(DEDR 917). Load (bullock): e_r-u (e_r-i-) to be laden (as cargo)(Ta.); e_r-r-u (e_r-r-i-) to load (as a cart or ship (Ta.); e_l to carry (Ta.); e.t- (e.c) to place (burden) on (person or animal)(Ko.); o.r- (o.r-y-) to load (bullock, cart)(To.); e_r-isu to place upon (Ka.); e_r-r-am embarkation (Ma.); raising up (Ta.)(DEDR 916). Humpback: por-ad.u humpback (Te.); horad.u, horat.u a hump (Ka.)(DEDR 4566). Hump on bull: e_ri hump on bull (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 904). er..tu bull, ox (Ka.) > as.a (Ash.); as.e (Kt.); as.e_i (Wg.); az.a, az.u_, ajo_ (Pas'.); r.s.abha bull (RV.); usabha (Pali); usabha, usaha, risabha, risaha (Pkt.); res.u (Kho.); ris'u (K.); usabaya_ ox (Si.)(CDIAL 2458). res.ui_ri, res.i_ri oxhide (Kho.)(CDIAL 2459). [id.vara- bull to be set at liberty (Skt.); e_t.ate_ goes (Skt.); eriba to unfasten; eran act of leaving (A.); er.a_ to let loose, reject (B.); elavanava_ to drive away (Si.)(CDIAL 2511). cf. itvara walking (RV.); ittara- small (Pali.Pkt.); ittarinu to swagger (N.)(CDIAL 1566)].

5665.Image: bull calf; bullock's hump: vas'e~, os'e~ bullock's hump (M.); vasu~ bull calf, bull branded and set at liberty (M.); basah bull (Mth.); Bull brought by religious mendicants: basaha_ bull brought by religious mendicants (Bi.); vasabha bull (Pali.); vr.s.abha powerful; lord, male, bull (RV.); vasaha, visaha, vusaha bull (Pkt.); basaha_ bull not used for ploughing (N.); bull (Bhoj.); basaha (OAw.); basah (H.); vahap ox, steer (Si.)CDIAL 12085). vas'e~d., os'e~d., vas'i~d., vas'a~d., vasa~d., osa~d.(e) bullock's hump (M.)(CDIAL 12084). Bull; strong: vr.s.abha lord, male, bull (RV.); vasabha bull (Pali); basaha_ bull bought by religious mendicants (Bi.); basah bull (Mth.H.); vasu_ bull calf, bull branded and set at liberty (M.) (CDIAL 12085). uks.a-, uks.an large; uks.ita fully grown, strong (RV.); u_s., u_x long (Pas'.)(CDIAL 1627). Ox: ukkha_ ox (Pkt.); vaccha_n.a ox (Pkt.); uks.an bull (RV.) (CDIAL 1628). maho_ks.a a large bull (S'Br.); mahoch great ox, blockhead (H.)(CDIAL 9978). vr.s.an strong, great; male, bull (RV.)(CDIAL 12085). pas'u domestic or sacrificial animal (RV.); goat (Skt.); beast (As'..NiDoc.); pasu, pasuka cattle (Pali); pasu animal, horned quadruped, goat, sheep (Pkt.); pace-moc shepherd (Kt.); paha goat (S.); animal of the deer class, any quadruped (A.); pas buffalo-heifer (H.); pasu_ animal (such as goat or sheep)(H.)(CDIAL 7984). poyo_nu rich, prosperous (Sh.); pas'umant rich in cattle (RV.)(CDIAL 7989). cf. vahu_ working bullock (L.); vahatu ox (Skt.)(CDIAL 11455). cf. vahas shoulder of a draft animal (S'Br.); vaha shoulder of an ox (AV.); vahur.o young bullock (S.) (CDIAL 11459). Calf: vatsa calf, child (RV.); voc. as term of endearment (MBh.); vatsa_ (S'a_n:khS'r.); vatsaka little calf (Mn.); vatsika_ heifer (Ya_j.)[orig. 'yearling': vatsa year; sam.vatsam for one year (RV.); wucu_, uscu year (Pr.); vas-a (Si.)(CDIAL 11240)]; vaccha calf (Pali.Pkt.); vacchaka little calf (Pali); baca (Tir.); wa_cek, wasa_k (Pas'.); e_ci_ cow (Gaw.); bacha_ yearling calf (Kal.Dardi); ba_s, bia_s calf (Tor.); ba_co (Sv.); wochu, woc (K.); vacha buffalo calf (S.); vacch suckling buffalo calf; vaccha_, vacchi_ calf (L.); vaccha_, baccha_ (P.); vacchi_ (P.); bachi_ cow (WPah.); ba_cho, ba_ch calf (Ku.); ba_cho, ba_chi (N.); ba_sa_ affectionate address to a child (A.); ba_cha_ calf, young of animal, dear child (B.); young bullock (Or.); calf (Bi.); bacha_ young bullock (Or.); ba_chi heifer calf (Or.); bachwa_ calf (Bi.); ba_chi_ (Bi.Bhoj.); bachiya_ (Bi.H.Aw.); ba_ccha_ young of animal, esp. calf (Mth.); bachawa_ (Aw.); vassa_, va_ssi calf (Si.); wucur, wacir. calf (Kt.); buce~r.e (Nin:g.); bachora, bichore new-born calf (Kal.); bacho_, baco_i_, bachou, bacoro, bacer.o (Sh.); wochoru, wachar, wachuru, bacur.o_ (K.); bachur. (WPah.); bacot.o (D..); bace_n. calf (Wot..); baco_n. (Wot..); bachori_, bacho new-born calf (Dm.); bachol. calf (Kho.); bachu_r.u (Phal.)(CDIAL 11239). vatsala affectionate towards its young (MBh.); vacchala affectionate (Pali.Pkt.); vacchal compassionate, propitious (P.); ocala, ucele calf (Ash.); ocali_, uceli_ (Ash.); wucala (Wg.); wa_celik, wacula (Pas'.); wacolik (Shum.); wecela_, weceli_ (Gmb.)(CDIAL 11244). vatsaru_pa young calf (Skt.); bechrua~_ calves (WPah.); ba_churu, ba_churo, ba_chur calf (Ku.); ba_saru (A.); ba_chur (B.); bacharu (Or.); bachru (Bi.); baccharu_ (Bhoj.OH.); va_chru~ (G.); vasru~_, va~_sru_ (M.); va_sru~ young calf (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11243). vatsara 5th or 6th year in a cycle of 5 or 6 years (TS.); year (Mn.MaitrUp.); vacchara year (Pali.Pkt.); basar (A.); vasara (Si.) (CDIAL 11242). Girl: buy girl (Mand..); boy girl; pl. boycka (Kuwi)(DEDR 4532). cf. vatsa young calf (Skt.lex.) Image: male calf: vacavan- male calf, steer (Tiruppu. 51); basava (Ka.); vr.s.abha (Skt.); vatsa calf (Skt.); vaccam (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) basa, basava, vr.s.a a bull (Tadbhava of vr.s.abha); the bull on which S'iva rides; its stone image worshipped by the Lin:ga_yats; and its incarnation on earth: Basava, the founder of the lin:ga_yata sect (AD 1369); a bull at liberty dedicated to some deity (synonym: go_l.i)(Ka.lex.)

5655.Image: arrow: pagari, pagal.i arrow, dart (Tu.); pakar..i arrow (Pur-ana_. 152)(Ta); id. (Ma.)(DEDR 3806). bha_li, bha_lye arrow (Kon.lex.) cf. pun.umbu arrow (Ka.)(DEDR 4361). Image: arrowhead: pukar a kind of arrow (Kampara_. Ira_van.an-vatai. 108); pur..uku arrowhead (Akana_. 9); pil.uku id. (Ka.); pur..utu knob or featherd part of an arrow (Ta.lex.) pil.uku, pil.ku feathered part of an arrow (Ka.)(DEDR 4314). pun:kha feathered shaft of an arrow (MBh.); id. (Pali); [some dial. pronunciation of pa~_kh < paks.a]; pon:kha_nupon:kham. top part of arrow (Pkt.);pwa~_kh, po~kh wing, weather (N.)(CDIAL 8247). pun:kam shaft of feathered part of an arrow (Takkaya_kap. 617); arrow (Takkaya_kap. 82); pun:kavam arrow (Kantapu. Cu_ravatai.)(Ta.lex.)

5656.Spread out: pakhal. litter, rubbish; pakhard.a_ id. (M.)(CDIAL 8854). pakharn.e~, pakhal.n.e~ to scatter, strew; pakharn.i_ scattering (M.); pakheran.u to spread out, diffuse (S.); pakher.an.u id. (S.)(CDIAL 8855). uvaha_ra spreading (Pkt.); wa_r putting or piling things over each other (as courses of bricks)(K.); wa_r thawun to keep, retain (K.); vha_r, va_r support, help (G.); uha_ra curtain (OAw.)(CDIAL 2183). upaskara scattering (Skt.); bakara_ni place for rubbish (A.)(CDIAL 2265). Crop: pagara, payara collection, heap (Pkt.); prakara scattered heap (MBh.); Treading by bullocks: paer, paeri_ treading of paddy sheaves by bullocks (Or.); pair heap of grain and chaff ready for winnowing (Bi.); crop spread out for threshing (Bi.); pa_er, paira_ seed sown on unploughed land; mixed crop of peas, grain, barley and wheat (Bi.); pair id. (Mth.); pairi scattered heap of corn for threshing (Bhoj.); per rice stalks, etc. cast on threshing floor to be trodden out (M.)(CDIAL 8431). paur, pauri_ crop spread out ready for threshing (Mth.); paur mixed crop of peas, gram, barley and wheat (Mth.)(CDIAL 8445). cf. paya to yield, produce (Ta.); an ear of rice, etc. (Tu.)(DEDR 3937). payar-u green gram, phaseolus mungo (Ta.)(DEDR 3941). Layer: pa_ra_ a layer (as of bricks on a wall)(M.)(CDIAL 8436). per-r-u pile (Tol. Col. 305, Urai)(Ta.lex.) prathita spread out (MBh.); pahia spread, published, well-known (Pkt.); phela_u expansion (S.); phaila_un.a_, phaila_rn.a_ to spread (P.); phailanu, phaila_unu, phaila_o expanse (N.); phela_ to throw (B.); phaila_u scattered (B.); phail, phael scatered (Or.); phailai (OMarw.); phelvu~, phela_vvu~ (G.); phaila_vn.e~, phaila_vin.e~ (M.); phailna_ to spread (H.); phaila_na_, phaila_w expanse (H.)(CDIAL 8651). Scatter: par-a to fly, be scattered, dispersed; pa_r-u (pa_r-i-) to be scattered (Ta.); pa_r-r-uka to scatter about, let fly (Ma.); pa.t- to winnow (remove light grains, dust, straw, etc.)(Kod..)(DEDR 4020). pratikirati scatters towards (Pa_n..); pat.ikirati strews about (Pali); pargelnu to sift rice (N.)(CDIAL 8548). prakirati scatters (S'Br.); pakkirama_n.a being thrown (Pkt.); paira_ scattering seed broadcast (Bhoj.); pern.e~ to scatter, strew, spill, sow (M.); pihira to scatter, strew, comb (the hair)(Si.)(CDIAL 8443). vikirati scatters (Mn.); id., sprinkles (Pali); viin.n.a, viki_rn.a (Pkt.); virn.e~ to strew (pieces of cowdung) thinly over loppings and straw laid on the ground to be burnt (M.)(CDIAL 11631). vervu~ to scatter, throw about (G.)(CDIAL 11636). vikharna_ to be spread, be scattered (P.); bakharna_ to separate, put apart; bikhra_un.a_ to scatter (P.); bikharn.o to be scattered, become separate; to alienate (Ku.); vicharvu~ to be separated (G.)(CDIAL 11644). [cf. pikku to separate, disentangle, comb; pi_nku to be dislocated, slip off (Ka.); pi_nki to slip out (Kor.); pi.g- (pi.gy-) to part (hair, bushes); pik- (pi.ky-) id. (Ko.)(DEDR 4213).] praki_rn.a scattered, thrown about (MBh.); pai_n.n.a very much spread out (Pkt.); pain, paini deep furrow used as irrigation channel (Bi.)(CDIAL 8444). prakiran.a scattering (Skt.); pern.i sowing of seed (M.)(CDIAL 8442). pawerna_ to scatter seed in a field (H.)(CDIAL 8449). pawera_ scattering seed by hand (H.)(CDIAL 8780). prapa_tayati makes fly away (AV.); chases, throws down (MBh.); pava_d.e_ma_n.a making fall (Pkt.); pua_un.a_ to cause to be cast or poured or put (P.); pawa~_rna_ to throw, make fall, scatter seed in a field (H.)(CDIAL 8683). Sowing: pampal harvest; expanse, luxuriance, abundance; paravu to spread; parappu to spread (as grain)(Ta.); pampu spread (as vegetation)(Ta.); paraka to spread (Ma.); parvu, parbu, habbu to spread (Ka.); parat- to spread (grain); pabb (creeping plant) twines (Kod..); parapu spreading; parvu, paruvu to spread (Te.); parha_na_ to spread (Go.); prahpa to spread out (Kui); pressali to spread out paddy to dry (Kuwi)(DEDR 3949). vapa sower (VS.); ve_v collection of seed grain (K.); bua_ puddling in of rice plants, state of rice plants between 2 and 10 inches high (Or.)(CDIAL 11281). vapati scatters, sows (RV.); sows (Pali); vavis'ati, inf. vavam.nae (NiDoc.); vavai (Pkt.); bo~ (Gau.); wawun (K.); bon.o to scatter, sow (Ku.); boab to sow (Bi.); boal (Bhoj.); bona_ (H.); bovu~ (G.); vavanava_ to plant, propagate by cuttings, cultivate; vavenava_ to spring up, thrive (Si.); vavitaga, pret. vavidemi (NiDoc.); vavia (Pkt.); bayau (OAw.); boya_ (anboya_ unsown)(H.); vaviavva (Pkt.); bob sowing of grain by the drill (H.); caus. vapa_pe_ti (Pali); bowa_iba (A.); buwa_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 11282). vapana act of sowing (Skt.Pali); vavam.mae inf. (NiDoc.); vavan.a (Pkt.); buna_ a sowing (B.); bona_, buna_ to sow (B.); bun.a_ act of sowing (Or.); bun.iba_ to scatter, sow (Or.); boni_ act of sowing (Bi.); bu_nab to sow (Bi.); boani_ sowing (Mth.)(CDIAL 11284). vapani_ya to be sown (Skt.); bawin small wild oats (Kho.); vavan.a, vavan.i_ cotton (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11285). vapant pres. part. sowing (Skt.); vavam.ta (Pkt.); bau~_ta_ sower of seed (A.)(CDIAL 11286). va_pa sowing (Skt.); seed (MBh.); va_va, va_ya sowing, field (Pkt.); va_vi_r sprouted rice for sowing (M.)(CDIAL 11519). [cf. vayakkuka to clear jungle, bring into use (Ma.); vayakku (vayakki-) to improve (as land); to tame, break in (Ta.)(DEDR 5254)]. va_pana sowing (Sam.hUp.); wa_eni_, waeni_ sowing (Pas'.); ba_n (Sh.); ba_uni_ seed-time (H.); va_vn.i_ act of sowing; va_vn.iyo drill-plough (G.)(CDIAL 11523). va_payati sows (MBh.); va_pe_ti causes to be sown (Pali); va_via sown, spread out (Pkt.); bhayu_m I sow (Phal.); wa_wun (K.); ba_n.u_, be_n.u_, ba_n.a_ (WPah.); va_vivaum. (OG.); va_vvu~ (G.); ba_na_ to throw (D..); wa~_ (Pas'.); boyik to plant (seed or cutting), set up (post, etc.), drive in (peg)(Kho.)(CDIAL 11525). va_vetar, va_vtar cultivated; sowing, cultivation, crop (G.)(CDIAL 11527). ba_wag, ba_og, ba_ug act of sowing (Bi.); jota_-ba_wag lands sown after a single-ploughing (BiMth.); ba_wag, ba_ug seed-time (H.)(CDIAL 11528). va_pya sown (Kaus'.); vappa to be sown; field to be sown (Pali); vappa, vappia, vappi_d.ia seed-bed (Pkt.); va_p sowing; field of young corn; va_pa_ garden bed; va_pi_ small garden bed (M.); vap-a sowing, levelling ground after sowing; vap, va_p the month September-October (Si.); va_pho garden bed, plantation (G.); va_pha_ (M.)(CDIAL 11530). vappate_ is sown (Pali); wa_pun (K.); va_phn.e~ to germinate and come up (of seed); to sow (M.)(CDIAL 11531). vai to put, place; vaippu placing; land (Pur-ana_. 18)(Ta.); va.y- (va.yt-), va_y to sow; va_y- to sow with drill (Kol.); vay- to sow; vayk-to put (Nk.)(DEDR 5549). pravapati sows, scatters (RV.); pavapati (Pali); prux light sprinkling of snow on hilltops, first snow of the season, ground slightly white with snow (Kho.); perx hoarfrost (Ir. Yid.) (CDIAL 8779).

5657.Image: long stick to smooth plaster: paht.a_, paiht.a_, pait.a_, pa_t.a_ long stick for smoothing plaster (Bi.)(CDIAL 8480). praghars.ati rubs to pieces (Kaus'.); pagham.sai, pagham.san.a rubbing again and again (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8483).

5658.Image: flowing; washing; to scour an idol: {Echo word} pakkhalati to wash, cleanse; pakkha_leti to wash, cleanse; paggharan.a trickling, oozing, dripping; paggharan.aka flowing, trickling, oozing out; paggharati to flow forth or out, to ooze, trickle, drip; paggharita flowing, trickling (Pali.lex.) pa_khal.n.em. to scour an idol (M.); pakha_lvum. (G.); pakhaln.a_, pakharn.a_ (P.); pakha_lna_ (H.); praks.a_layati (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 360). pakkale a temporary well in a stream; vajjara, or-ante (Ka.lex.) praks.a_la flowing; praks.a_laka washing (Mn.); pakha_l pool on the floor inside the house; phakha_l pool, reservoir (Ku.); pakha_la_ diarrhoea; pakha_l-pukhul washing thoroughly (N.); pakha_l.a washing, stale watered rice (Or.); pakha_l dysentery, rubbish, mud; ukha_l-pukha_l cholera (H.)(CDIAL 8455). Muddy: pan:ka mud, mire (Mn.); mud (Pali); pamka (Pkt.); paga (Dhp.); pango watery, weak (S.); pa_no, pa_nar.o wet mud (Ku.); pa~_go silt (N.); pe~k mud (A.B.); pa~_k mud (B.Bhoj.H.); mud at bottom of pond (Mth.); pe~ka_ muddy (Bi.); pa~_ka_, panka_, pa~_g mud, alluvial deposit (H.); X kardama-: pakama, pakuma, pakan, pakun mud, mire (Si.)(CDIAL 7645). pan:ka mud, mire (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pan:kam mud, mire (Paripa_. 10,82)(Ta.lex.) praks.a_layati washes away (S'Br.); pakkha_le_ti washes (Pali); pakkha_ladi, paccha_le_i (Pkt.); pakha_lan.a_ (P.); pakhoi (Ku.); pakha_lnu (N.); pakha_liba (A.); pa_kha_la_, pa_khala_na (B.); pakha_l.iba_ to wash, moisten stale rice with water (Or.); pakha_ral to wash the feet (Bhoj.); pakha_re washes (OAw.); pakha_lna_, pakha_rna_ to rinse, wash (H.); pakha_l.vu~ (G.); pakha_l.n.e~, pa_khal.n.e to scour an idol (M.); pakkha_lia rinsed (Pkt.); pakha_le lees of curds left in the dish and washed out with water, whey (N.)(CDIAL 8456). praks.arati flowed out (RV.); pokhari diarrhoea, cholera (Or.) (CDIAL 8453). pakha_ran.a_ to wash (P.)(CDIAL 8454). cf. pakhuri_ goldwasher's iron scraper for collecting ashes (Bi.)(CDIAL 8458). Images: excessive menstruation: pagar irregular or excessive menstruation (M.)(CDIAL 8466). pa_can-am diarrhoea (Ta.); ba_su to void excrement (Ka.); pa_canamu, pa_sanamu evacuation of the bowels (Te.)(DEDR 4056). paga_r causing the milk to flow in the breast; paga_ro milk with which teat is wetted to make calf suck (N.); paga_r wet earth or clay for building a wall or plastering (H.); pa_ga_r wooden instrument for sowing corn (M.)(CDIAL 8470). pa_jhar gentle trickle, oozing (M.)(CDIAL 8511). pajjharai falls, drips (Pkt.); pa_jharn.e~ to drip down (M.)(CDIAL 8512). pajjhalai drips, falls (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8513). paga_rnu to cause to flow into the udder (N.)(CDIAL 8471). pagharu sweat (S.); pagghur, pagghar (L.); pa_ghal. ooze, trickling (M.)(CDIAL 8481). pragharati oozes out (Skt.); paggharati oozes, trickles, drips (Pali); pagharan. to melt, liquefy; paghrun. (L.); pa_ghal.n.e~, paghal.n.e~ to ooze, trickle, drip, melt, dissolve (M.)(CDIAL 8482). pagha_ra_ sweat (L.); paha_l. mountain stream; paha_l.i_ shower (M.)(CDIAL 8484). pagha_ran.u to melt, dissolve (S.); pagha_ran. (L.); pagha_rn.a_ to melt by heating (P.); pagha_riba to flavour curry with condiments and ghee or oil (A.); paghal.n.e~ to spread out, widen, enlarge (M.); pa_ghal.n.e~ to let fall in drops, let run (M.); pigha_lna_ to melt, fuse, dissolve (H.)(CDIAL 8485). paghiran.u to be melted; paghirjan.u to be melted, sweat (S.); pighalna_ (older paghilna_, caus. paghila_na_) to be dissolved, be melted, be fused (H.); pighalna_ (P.); pighal.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 8486). To ooze, trickle: paga_rnu to cause to flow into the udder (N.)(CDIAL 8471). paga_r causing the milk to flow into the breast; paga_ro milk with which teat is wetted to make calf suck (N.)(CDIAL 8470). pagranu (milk) to flow into the udder (N.)(CDIAL 8467). pragalati drips (Skt.); praga_layati causes to fall (Car.); paggalita dripping (Pali); pagalam.ta (Pkt.); pagaln.o, pigaln.o to melt, thaw (Ku.); paglanu (N.); pa_gal.n.e~ to melt, drip (M.); pigaln.o, pi~galn.o to melt, be dissolved (Ku.); pigalna_ (H.); pigal.vu~ (G.); pargalna_ to melt (P.); paga_lnu (N.)(CDIAL 8468). parigalita melted (Skt.)(CDIAL 14673). pagharu sweat (S.); pagghur, pagghar (L.); pa_ghal. ooze, trickling (M.)(CDIAL 8481). pa_jhar gentle trickle, oozing (M.)(CDIAL 8511). pajjharai falls, drips (Pkt.); pa_jhrn.e~ to drip down (M.)(CDIAL 8512). pajjhalai drips, falls (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8513). pagha_ra_ sweat (L.); paha_l. mountain stream (M.); paha_l.i_ shower (M.)(CDIAL 8484). pragharati oozes out (Skt.); paggharati oozes, trickles, drips (Pali); pagharan. to melt, liquefy (L.); pa_ghal.n.e~, paghal.n.e~ to ooze, trickle, drip, melt, dissolve (M.)(CDIAL 8482). pagha_ran. to melt, dissolve (L.); pagha_ran.u to melt, dissolve (S.); pagha_rn.a_ to melt by heating (P.); paghal.n.e~ to spread out, widen, enlarge (M.); pa_ghal.n.e~ to let fall in drops, let run (M.); pigha_lna_ to melt, fuse, dissolve (H.)(CDIAL 8485). paghiran.u to be melted (S.); paghirjan.u to be melted, sweat (S.); pighalna_ to be dissolved, be melted, be fused (H.P.); pighal.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 8486). begaruni, begapuni to perspire; begaru, bemaru perspiration (Tu.); veyar, ve_r to sweat, perspire; perspiration; viyar to sweat, perspire; perspiration, weariness, exhaustion; veyarvu, veyarvai, veyarppu = viyar n. ve_rppu, ve_rppu, ve_rvu, ve_rvai, viyarppu, viyarvai sweat, perspiration (Ta.); viyarkka to perspire; viyarppu, ve_r sweat (Ma.); bemar(u), bevaru to perspire; perspiration; bemaruvike perspiring; bemarcu to cause to perspire; bevi to perspire (Ka.); bevar- (bevari-) to sweat; bevari sweat (Kod..)(DEDR 5486). cf. parso, parse, parseu sweat (P.)(CDIAL 8898). To stir, roll violently: pa~_hul a Sikh initiatory rite involving the stirring of a bowl of sherbet (P.) praghu_rn.a turning round or rolling violently (Skt.); paho_d.ai swings; paho_lira one who swings or shakes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8487). Chewing the cud (oozing): pagur to chew the cud (Santali.lex.) paghuri_ chewing the cud; paghura_eb to chew the cud (Bi.)(CDIAL 8482). pak act of lying down, act of lying down and chewing cud; pak var.- to lie down and chew cud (par.- to lie)(Ko.); pak me.ki.- to rise up from chewing cud (Ko.)(DEDR 4007). pa_gur chewing the cud (N.); pa_gur, pa_guri_ (Bi.); pa_gur (H.); pa_gul.a_, pa_gul.i (Or.)(CDIAL 8475). gurate_ chews (Dha_tup.); pa_guliba to chew the cud (A.); pa_gura_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 8476). muh- (must-) to chew (Pe.); muhpa (muht-) to munch, chew, grind the teeth (Kui)(DEDR 4091). Spittle: pika spittle (S.); pi_k spittle spat out when chewing betel (P.); pik juice of betel nut chewed and spat out, spittle (A.); spittle (B.); juice of betel-nut spat out; saliva (G.); pika betel-stained saliva (Or.); pik-da_ni_ spittoon (Mth.); pi_k juice of betel-nut spat out (H.); pi~k, pi~ki_, piki_ spittle (esp. when chewing tobacco, betel, etc.)(M.); pi_k spittle (M.)(CDIAL 8144). pukkal.iyuni to gargle, rinse the mouth (Tu.)[X koppal.i, koppul.i to gargle (Ta.); koppul.ikka id. (Ma.); koppal.ipuni to gargle, rinse the mouth (Tu.); kupulp id. (Pa.)(DEDR 2107); kopli mouth (Kol.Nk.); kuplong cheek (Pa.)(DEDR 2114)]; pukkilincu id. (Te.); puski ki- to swill out the mouth (Pe.); gu_ti prokhali to rinse out the mouth; prok- (-h-) to wipe mouth (Kuwi); pilku (pilki-) to gargle, spit, flow, drip (as dew), exude (as honey from flowers); pilir-r-u to gargle, drizzle, drop, sprinkle, let out (as milk from the udder); pil.ir to gargle (Ta.); pil.ir-r-u to spit out, vomit (Ta.)(DEDR 4241). Image: boiling mixture: pakkat.t.hi_ (fr. pa + kvat) a boiling (-hot) mixture; explained as katita-gomaya, chakan.aka_; boiling cow-dung [cf. Niddesa II Culla-, 1918, 199: the interpretation as 'cowdung' is more likely than 'boiling oil'](Pali.lex.) sahar dung (Santali.lex.) pa_vana purifying, sanctifying; purified, pure, holy; fire; a means of purification: penance, water; cow-dung; pa_va, pa_vaka purifying; pure, clear, bright; a fire-poker (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: any liquid food; treacle: pa_ku any liquid food (Pirapulin.. A_ro_kan.a. 34); treacle, molasses (Tiruva_ca. 9,15); milk (Ta.lex.) pakka ripe [Vedic. pakva; a pp. formation of pac to cook; Lat. coquo cook; Av. pac; Old Bulgarian peka; Lithuanian. kepu]; decaying; heated, glowing; pakka-a_saya receptacle for digested food i.e. the abdomen; pakka-pu_va baked cake; pakkat.hati to cook, boil up; pakkat.hita (pakkuthita), pakkut.t.hita cooked up, boiled, boiling hot, hot; pakopa agitation, effervescence, anger, fury (Pali.lex.)

5659.Footsoldier; village headman: paik footsoldier (Pahl.); paig (Pers.); pa_yakka-, pa_ikka-, paik(k)a- (Pkt.); pa_yak, pa_ik footsoldier, messenger (H.); pa_i_k petty village official, armed attendant (M.)(CDIAL 8097). pa_ya-k-kat.t.u village headman (Vir-alivit.u.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_kan- elephant driver, mahout (Na_lat. i,213); charioteer, muleteer, horseman, rider (Tiv. Periyati. 7,5,2); pa_ga_ (M.)(Ta.lex.); pa_kan, pa_van an elephant instructor (Ma.)(DEDR 4046). cf. pa_car-ai encampment or tent of an invading army (Patir-r-up. 83,9); pa_car-ai-nilai theme of a victorious king continuing in war-camp even after the surrender of the enemies (Pu. Ve. 3,21); pa_car-ai-mullai a theme in which a hero thinks of his beloved when absent from her in war-camp (Tol. Po. 76, Urai)(Ta.lex.) cf. va_ha driver (of a waggon) (Pkt.) (CDIAL 11607). Chief person in a village; best; messenger: vasis.t.ha best; nom. prop. (RV.); vasit.t.ha nom. prop. (Pkt.); basi_t.ha messenger (OAw.); basi_t.h chief person in a village, messenger; basi_t.hi_ agency (H.)(CDIAL 11444). pat.haona a messenger; paekan, peada a foot messenger (Santali.lex.) cf. padga footsoldier (Skt.); afoot (Skt.); pagd.a_ foot (M.)(CDIAL 7766). prais.ya servant (AV.Mn.); pre_s.ya (MBh.); pessa, pessiya, pessiyaka, pessiya_ messenger, servaqnt (Pali); pres.i servant (NiDoc.); pessa servant, slave (Si.)(CDIAL 9004).

5660.Noble; brave: bahware bravo, well done, excellently, well played (Santali. lex.) bahadur prominent, superior (Santali.lex.) ba~hi~ duar, ba~i~h duar names mentioned in the traditions of the Santals. The ba~hi~ door is probably an opening in some mountain range through which the Santalspassed to their present habitat in Chota Nagpur (Santali.lex.) pa_cca_ < ba_dsha_h king, emperor, sultan (W.); show of power (Ta.lex.) baha_dar, baha_du_r, ba_ha_du_r a hero, a warrior (Ka.H.); a title of honour given to the nobles of the court; a title of honour given to persons of inferior, although respectable station (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) pa_kut.am royal revenue, impost, tribute (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) baha_dari_ varaha a gold pagoda worth about four rupees (Ka.Te.); baha_dari belonging to the ruler Baha_dar Sha_h (Ka.lex.) pakat.t.u foppery, affectation, ostentation (Tiv. Tirunet.un. 28,236) (Ta.); pagat.u (Te.); pa_kan.t.an- < pa_khan.d.a pompous, showy person; one who puts on appearances (W.) (Ta.lex.) baha_dar < baha_dur (Pers.) brave, bold, courageous, high-spirited; a hero, a champion, a knight; baha_dari_ < baha_duri_ (Pers.) bravery, courage, valour, heroism (P.lex.) baha, ba_ha bappa, barpa, baruva present relative participle of bar; ba_ha future (or present) of baru; bahudu, baruvadu it will come, it is possible; bar (the bodily members) to be at (one's) command or under (one's) control (so as to have the use of them); to be fit, becoming, useful, proper; to be possible; to fall to the share (of any one), to accrue (t oany one), to become an acquisition; to come, to arrive; (to take place, to happen); barakattu success, happy termination; successfulness; overplus (Ka.Te.M. H.); bara sel.e, bare tege to draw so as to come, to draw towards one's self; barevar to come onward, to continue coming (Ka.lex.) pahatu_r < baha_du_r (U.) a title (Ta.lex.) Title: hakku, hakku-da_ri, hakku-da_rike right, title, a true, just, legal or prescriptive right or claim (Ka.M.); hakka (H.); hakku the share due (of the revenue or of the crops) of the hereditary district or village officers (Ka.M.); a province, peculiar business (Ka.M.); hakku-da_ra the holder of a right, a man vested with any property, perquisite or privilege (Ka.); a holder of a share of the revenue or of the annual crops (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pan:ka_l.i shareholder, partner, co-parcener (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) hak claim; hok, hak, heke, hike correct; hae dae a title (Santali.lex.) hakku < haqq (U.) right, claim (C.G.); hakku-ta_r holder of a right (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) vakku means, resources (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Obligation: han:gu, pan:gu the state of being bound by some favour rendered etc.; regard; han:ga_l.u a person under obligation (Ka.); han:gisu to remind a person of, or charge him with, neglecting his obligation or obligations (Ka.); han:giga a man who is bound by some favor rendered, a man under obligation; han:gige a woman under obligation (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. han:gu, an:gu obligation; the state of being in the power of another; duty (Tu.)(DEDR 3820). Owner: ba_gi (Tadbhava of bha_gi) an owner; a master, a lord (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pakkal one's class or tribe (W.)(Ta.); side (Periyapu. Iyar-. Pakai. 7)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); pan:kal.an- (pan:kal.ar kan:kar : Cilap. 25, 157); pan:ka_l.i < van:ga Bengali, native of Bengal (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Land owned in common: pan:ku-k-ka_n.i land owned in common (W.)(Ta.lex.) pakal-irukkai council hall, durbar (I_t.u, 8,6,4; S.I.I. iii,135) (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vakka_man.i bead of a kind of cockle-shell; vakka_man.i-c-cet.t.ikal. traders dealing in vakka_-man.i (W.)(Ta.Lex.) vakka_lattu < waka_lat (U.) power of attorney given to a lawyer for conducting a case (W.); vakki_l < waki_l (U.) authorized attorney; counsel at law, pleader; one who represents the bride in a contract of marriage (Muham.Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vaka_lattu, vaki_li the duties or office of a vaki_l (Ka.M.H.Ma); vaka_lattu-na_ma_ the credentials furnished to a vaki_l, a power of attorney (Ka.M.H.); vaki_la a lawyer, a pleader (Ka.M.H.); an ambassador, an envoy, a factor (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) pan:kal.appat.ai a newly enlisted army, useless as chaff (I_t.u, 1,3,1); pan:ka_l.i shareholder, partner, co-parcener (Ta.); pa_n:kan- friend, associate, companion (Tol. Po. 104)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

5661.Image: an ear-ring: baha_dari_a_n. the name of gold ornaments worn by women in the ear; gold ear-rings (P.lex.) baha_duri_ a small ring worn on the border of the ear (Urdu.lex.)

5662.Command; commander: besa command, order (Ka.); viyam id. (Tol. Col. 67); viyan:ko_l. command; viyan:kol.l.utal to obey orders, to submit (Cilap. 9,78); viyavan- commander, person in authority; headman (S.I.I. ii,352); strong, bold man; servant; besadavan (Ka.) (Ta.lex.) Authority: baha_iba to subdue, punish (A.); vahi_n.o submissive (S.); basa_i is able (OAw.); vahu_n.a~_ being in power or authority, able (L.)(CDIAL 11431). vas'i_kara subjugating (MBh.); vas'i_karan.a bewitching (Pa_rGr..)(CDIAL 11432). vas'ya to be subjected, obedient; in cmpd. or with gen. 'at the disposal of' (MBh.); vassa subject, subjected to (Pkt.); bas' verbal enclitic with obl. of inf. to exptress necessity, propriety, obligation, ability (Kho.); bas' particle with inf. to express necessity (Sh.Dardic); vassa_ capable, fit, able, worthy (L.); vass, bass power, authority (P.)(CDIAL 11433)[cf. avaciyam necessity, need (Ta.lex.)]. vas'a will, authority, power (RV.); will, power (Pali); vase_na on account of (Pali.Pkt.); va_h, ba_h power (P.); bas authority, control (N.); basa (Or.); bas'u_ owing to (Or.); bas authority, control (Mth.Bhoj. Aw. H.); (basi rahab) to be under the control of (Mth.); basi in the power of (OMarw.); vasi, vasu (OG.); vasin through, by means of (OSi.); visin, vaha control (Si.)(CDIAL 11430). Strength; healthy: va_ja strength, vigour (RV.); wez alive, healthy (Pr.)(CDIAL 11477). ugra strong, terrible, fierce (RV.); ugga id. (Pali.Pkt.); ug fit, paroxysm (A.)(CDIAL 1631). o_jas strength, vigour, vitality (RV.); o_ja_ nutritive element in food (Pali); o_ya, o_ya_ strength, fame, glory (Pkt.); oja (KharI.); oya (NiDoc.); oda strength (si.)(CDIAL 2541). o_jman vigour, speed, power (Skt.); oju force, rapidity, height, arrogance (S.); oj strength, vigour, splendour, light (H.); oj life, vitality (M.); ojjalla strong (Pkt.); ojho powerful; awe (G.)(CDIAL 2543). u_rjas vigour, stength (Skt.); u_rj, u_rja_, u_rja adj. (RV.); ujja strength, brightness (Pkt.); uj energy (Ku.); u_j uproar, tyranny (H.); oda nectar (Si.)(CDIAL 2422). Thunderbolt: vajra thunderbolt (RV.); diamond (Skt.); vajira thunderbolt; diamond (Pali); vajja, vayara, vaira (Pkt.); bac. thunderbolt, meteorite, lightning (Sh.); ba_j thuunderbolt (B.); vidu Indra's thunderbolt, diamond (Si.); vadura, vidura id. (Si.)(CDIAL 11204). vajraku_t.a name of a mountain; mythical town in Himalaya (Skt.); bajur name of a village in Waigal (Wg.); bajaur. (Psht.)(CDIAL 11205). baja_gi fire caused by lightning (OAw.)(CDIAL 11206). vajra_s'ani Indra's thunderbolt (R.); baja_sani thunderbolt (Aw.)(CDIAL 11207). vacciram thunderbolt, a weapon sharp-edged at both ends and held in the middle (Cilap. 2,46-8, Urai); that which is exceedingly strong, hard or adamant; diamond, as very hard; a weapon used by boxers (Ta.lex.) cf. vairam diamond; vaccira_n:ki invulnerable armour; armour or cloak set with diamonds; vaccira_bhya_cam cross multiplication; vaccira_yutam a mystic symbol in the form of a thunderbolt, representing the element earth; vaccira_varttam Rama's bow (Ta.lex.)

5663.Image: speed: vesa quickness; vesa(n), ve_ quickly; bisa a spring, a catch; bisabisa quickness; bisi tension, eleasticity (Te.); vis'a spring trap, snare for birds, lever (Ma.); vicai (-pp-, -tt-) to hasten, cause to move swiftly, swing, leap, hop, burst, split, be forceful; n. haste, speed, impetus, elasticity, spring, force, contrivance as a trap, lever (Ta.); bi_sa quickly, rapidly, fast, straightly (Tu.); pl. action vi_pka (vi_pki-) act of shooting, throwing; viska swift, quick (Kui)(DEDR 5450). vesa haste, speed (Te.); vese haste, speed (Ka. Tu.); visa (Ma.); vicai haste, speed, impetus (Tol. Po. 63)(Ta.); vicai-ttal to hasten; to cause to move swiftly (Ta.lex.) vij move suddenly (Skt.); vigna alarmed (Skt.); avije~ I fled (RV.); vijitr., ve_ktr. separating (Dha_tup.); vizun, pp. vyuzu to sift, winnow (K.)(CDIAL 11709). ve_ka_l.am swiftness (W.); ve_kam < ve_ga swiftness, quickness (Ci_vaka. 982); speed, velocity, impetuosity (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ve_ki-ttal to be swift (Pa_rata. Man.ima_n-. 52); ve_ki < ve_gin one who is agile or quick (Ilak. Aka.); ve_kitan- < ve_gita one who is quick, as in action (Cukkirani_ti. 114); ve_kitai swiftness (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) viska swift, quick (Kui)(DEDR 5450). ve_kavati < ve_ga-vati_ the vaigai river in the Madura district (Tiruva_lava_. 7,6); the kampa_ river near Conjeevaram (Kuruparam. 170)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5664.Image: junction of four streets: va_ciram junction where four streets meet; va_s'ram (Skt.)(Ta.Skt.lex.)

5666.Groceries; drugs: vasa_n.u~ condiments, groceries, drugs (G.)(CDIAL 11954). basut property; tij basut, cij basut goods and chattels (Santali.lex.) Traders: vaciyar < vais'ya members of the vais'ya caste (Caivaca. Potu. 95); vacu wealth, treasure < vasu (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Wealth: vahur.o wealthy (S.); vasu wealth (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 11446). va_hyo~ wealthy (S.)(CDIAL 1145). vasu good; wealth (RV.)[<*vas shine]; wealth (Pali.Pkt.) (CDIAL 11446). va_cavan- < va_sava Indra, as the chief of the Vasus (Man.i. 24,69); va_cavan--maruko_n- Skanda, as the son-in-law of Indra (Na_mati_pa. 30)(Ta.lex.) va_su name of Vis.n.u; va_sude_va particularly Kr.s.n.a, any descendant of Vasudeva; vasu wealthy, rich (Vedic); name of Kube_ra (Skt.lex.) vastu existing thing (Skt.); affair (MBh.); vatthu property, thing (Pali.Pkt.); vathu thing, article (S.); va~th share of patrimony (M.); vat-a property, thing, ceremony, story (Si.)(CDIAL 11449). bastu a bale of goods; a packet of letters (Ka.Te.H.); bostu (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ve_sana flour of a partic. vegetable product (Bhpr.); ve_san.a cummin seed, pea-flour (Pkt.); vehan., behan. coriander seed; vesan., besan. gram flour (P.); besan soya-bean flour (N.); gram flour (B.Bi.H.); besana (Or.); vesan. (G.)(CDIAL 12133). ve_sava_ra a partic. condiment (of coriander, ginger, mustard, pepper, spice etc.)(Sus'r.Pkt.); besa_r turmeric (N.); beha_r mustard (A.); besara, besa_r rye paste for curry (Or.); biswa_r mixture of spices and aromatic seeds powdered and ready for use as curry powder (H.)(CDIAL 12135). Dealer in five aromatics: cf. va_cavan- vendor of the five aromatics (ilavan:kam, e_lam, karppu_ram, ca_ti-k-ka_y, takko_lam)(Cilap. 5,26)(Ta.lex.) Dealers in betel leaves, meat, ropes: cf. pa_cavar dealers in betel leaves (Cilap. 5,26); dealers in mutton (Patir-r-up. 21,9); dealers in meat (Cilap. 5,26, Urai.); those who manufacture and sell ropes (Cilap. 5,26, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) pa_carukam eagle-wood, akil, a tree that yields an incense (Ta.lex.) pacakku substance (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. paca_r bazaar, permanent market or street of shops (Ta.); baza_r (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pan.yas'a_la_ shop (Skt.)(CDIAL 7720). pacama-s'a_le a brazier's shop; paca_l.a, paca_ruka, pa_ca_la the five classes or castes of artificers: goldsmiths, carpenters, blacksmiths, braziers, and stone-cutters (Ka.M.); the first three classes (Ka.); a goldsmith (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pacakamma_l.ar the five castes of artisans, viz., tat.t.a_n, kan-n-a_n-, cir-pan-, taccan-, kollan- i.e. goldsmith, brazier, stone-cutter, carpenter, blacksmith (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

5667.Image: watching a field at night: va_so watching a field at night (G.); bha~_ temporary dwelling in fields (L.); basa_ lair of wild beast, lodging-house (B.) (CDIAL 11591).

5671.Adze: va_cci, va_ycci, va_t.ci adze (Ta.); va_cci adze, scraper (Ma.); po.d.c adze (To.); ba_ci id. (Ka.); ba_ci, ba_ji (Tu.)(DEDR 5339). Image: to split: vaci-tal to split, to cut (Tirumuru. 106); to be dented, or notched; to bend (Tirumuru. 106, Urai.); vaci cleft (Malaipat.u. 303); point, edge (Kantapu. Maka_ka_l.a. 19); pointed stake (vir-alivit.u. 131); mark, scar, cicatrice (Patir-r-up. 42,4)(Ta.lex.)Image: hook; the tongue of a balance; that which is pointed; to sharpen: basi to be pointed, to be sharpened; to point (a thing), to sharpen (Ka.); vat.i (Ta.); basi, base a pointed object; the tongue of a balance (Ka.); vad.i sharpness; vasi a spike, a wooden pin (Te.); vaci, vai, val. sharpness; the point or edge of a thing; a pointed stake; a sword; a trident (Ta.); basidu, basadu that which is pointed, sharp, keen, or acute (Ka.); base a small pointed object that sticks in the ground, a stubble of togari etc. (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) baha carec a long pin which fixed in a rafter forms a kind of hook, by means of which the rafter is hooked on to the ridge pole of the roof; bak to hook on, to hang on a hook, to catch on a thorn (Santali.lex.) cf. bakhor. an instrument with which tassar cocoons are cut into narrow strips for splicing purposes; teeth of a comb (Santali.lex.) Image: a pole: ba_se a pole viewed as fit for a rafter; a rafter (Ka.); va_sa_, va_m.sa_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vam.s'a bamboo (RV.); vajhu punting pole (S.)(CDIAL 11175). va_s'i_ adze (Skt.)(CDIAL 11588). vat.i (-pp-, -tt-) to sharpen; n. sharpness (Ta.); va~_d.i sharp, keen, edged, pointed; n. sharpness, keenness, pointedness, bravery, courage, valour; va~_d.imi sharpness, keenness, pointedness, bravery, courage, valour (Te.); va~_d. edge, sharp edge, sharpness (Pa.)(DEDR 5349). cf. va_l. sword, saw, ploughshare, scissors, sharpness (Ta.); va_lika sharp; va_lu id. (Te.)(DEDR 5376).

5668.Image: ornamental arch over an idol: va_ci ornamental arch over an idol (Tiru-va_lava_. 37,75); va_cikai ornamental arch over an idol; tiruva_ci id. (Ta.lex.) cf. bha_sin (Skt.); bha_sa brightness, light, lustre; bha_sanam shining, glittering (Skt.lex.) cf. bha_sa brightness (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9480). Image: arch: vacivu arch, vault; curvature, bent (Pin..); vacai-tal to bend, incline, lean (Ta.); vacu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) va.cr eaves (Ko.); va_cu_ru id. (Te.)(DEDR 5338).

5669.Image: chaplet: ba_ciga, ba_siga, ba_singa a garland or chaplet of flowers worn on the top of the head, s'e_khara, can.d.e (Ka.); an ornament of gold, coloured wood or pith, paper, or flowers worn on the forehead of the bride and bridegroom (Ka.); id. (on the head) (M.); ba_s'inga (M.); va_cikai wreath as of flowers, pearls etc., worn on the head; garland (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 50); garland of flowers strung thickly together (Ta.lex.) cf. va_sa clothes, dress (Skt.lex.) baha dak at the baha festival, water is thrown by certain persons on others. This is known as baha dak or flower water; baha porob the flower festival of the Santals, observed about the middle of Phagun, or the end of February; baha bas at the conclusion of a dance one or more of the musicians passes each a flower along the line of girl dancers; baha to deck with flowers, put flowers in the hair; bahakanme put a flower in my hair; kur.iko baha akana the girls are decked with flowers; baha a flower; to flower (Santali.lex.) pomba_siga a golden ba_siga (Ka.lex.) baktal, bagutal crown of the head, chaplet (Tu.)(DEDR 5202). pa_saka a bow, for the dress; for the hair; pa_sa a sling, snare, tie, fetter (Pali.lex.) Synonym: ba_carasa, ba_ci ra_ja S'iva (Ka.lex.) tiruva_cakam the celebrated poem in praise of S'iva by Ma_n.ikka-va_cakar (Ta.lex.) va_cavan- Indra, as the chief of the Vasus (Man.i. 24,69); va_sava (Skt.Ka)(Ta.Ka.lex.) tiruva_ci a kind of garland; tiruva_cci yellow oleander (Ta.lex.) vaccam an ancient province of north India (Vi_raco_. Alan.. 11, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

5672.Image: roof: besa_ one of several layers of thatch on a roof (A.)(CDIAL 11688). To thatch: ve_s to cover roof (Go.); me_ccal thatching (Ma.); bese to thatch (Malt.); ve_k id. (Mand..); ve_ng to thatch (Ga.); ve_ytal thatched house (Ta.); ve_yvu covering (Ta.); ve_sa_na_ to thatch (Go.); ve_nc to cover (Go.); vega to roof, thatch (Kui); ve.j to thatch (Ko.); ve.nz id. (Kol.)(DEDR 5532). Image: verandah; shop: vasa_re a veranda (Ka.); vasa_ra_ (H.); ?an:gud.i vasaram or an:gad.i vasaram = vasara (Ka.); an:gad.i a shop, a stall (Ka.); an:ga_d.i (Te.); an.n.a_d.i (Ma.); an:gad.i (Tu.Te.); an:gad.i-bi_di a market-street, a market; an:gad.i-mal.ige a prolongation of the front roof of a shop, a sort of verandah in front of a shop; an:gad.i-mu_like a shop drug; an:gad.i-saraku the goods of a shop; an:gad.i-ka_r-a a shopkeeper (Ka.lex.) Eaves: va.cr eaves (Ko.); va_cu_ru id. (Te.)(DEDR 5338). cf. cu_ru, su_r, su_ru the part of a sloping roof that projects a little beyond the walls, eaves (Ka.); su_ri eave line (the border of a roof)(Tu.); cu_ru eaves, the edge of a roof, cornice; munju_ru eaves (Te.); muir id. (Pa.); munzuru id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 2729). Image: grazing shrub: bei any shrub fit for grazing, grass fit for grazing (Br.); ve_vel (pl.) straw (Ga.); bai id. (Tu.); vai-k-ko_l id. (Ma.); straw of paddy (Ta.); vai straw of paddy, grass (Ta.)(DEDR 5553). To thatch: bai_na_ (bann-), be_na_ (be_nna-) to cover with tiles, thatch, etc. (Kur.); be_nifing, be_rifing to thatch (Br.); ben.a_ thatching grass (Or.); ve_y to cover (as a building), roof, thatch, put on (as a garland)(Ta.); me_y (-v-,-nt-) to cover fully, thatch, roof (as with tiles)(Ta.); me_vu (me_vi-) to thatch, cover over (Ta.); me_al thatching, tiling the house (Ma.); be_pini to thatch the roof of a house, etc. (Tu.); ve_nj- (j = dz) to thatch (Nk.); ve_ id. (Pa.); ve_yu to thatch a house (Te.); ve.nz- (ve.nst-) to thatch (Kol.); vi_gali to thatch; vi_ka thatch; wikka illu thatched house; vig- (-it-) to thatch; vikka roof; wiggnai ceiling; vi'uri grass for thatching house (Kuwi)(DEDR 5532). vam.s'ya crossbeam (BhP.); we_ roof beam (Par.); bains' (Psht.); we_s'a (Waz.); ba~s', ba_s' rafter (Dm.); was' (Pas'.); wa~s', wa_s' (Shum.); bas', bha~s' (Kal.); ba_u~sa (Or.); va~_sa_, va_sa_ (M.); wa~s', wra~s' rafter (Wg.); ba~_s' (Dm.); waes' main roof-beam (Pas'.); bi_s' (Bshk.); be~_s' (Sv.); bhe~_s', bo~i (Phal.)(CDIAL 11182).

5673.House: va_ciram house (Ta.lex.) basn.a_ to live (WPah.); basn.o to dwell, live, be alive (Ku.) basnu to remain, inhabit, sit (N.); va_sayati makes remain (Skt.); vas dwell (Skt.); vasati stays, dwells (Skt.); vyus.t.a stayed (MBh.); us.ita (BrahmaP.); vasati lives, stays (Pali.As'.); vasai (Pkt.); wass-un to remain (Wg.); basab to dwell, remain, be (Mth.); basai dwells (OAw.); basab (OAw.); basna_ (H.); basai settles (OMarw.); vasvu~ (G.); vasn.e~ (M.); vasanava_ to stay, pass time (Si.)(CDIAL 11435). Dwelling: us.t.a- in cmpds.: vyus.t.a stayed (MBh.); us.ita id. (BrahmaP.); vut.hvu~ to reside (G.); vuttha (Pali.Pkt.); wothu, pp. of wasun (K.)(CDIAL 11435). vasati dwelling (Skt.); vatthi hut, ascetic's leaf-hut (Pkt.); vasti village (Gypsy)(CDIAL 11448). Storehouse: pesti storeroom for chaff, barn (Kho.); pastiya, pastya, pastiya_, pastya~_ dwelling (RV.); pasti_ storehouse (Kal.)(CDIAL 8017). va_catta_n-am dwelling, residence (Takkaya_kap. 474, Urai.); va_cam dwelling (Pirapulin.. Akkama_tur-a. 12); va_can- dweller, inhabitant (Ka_vat.ic.); va_cin-i female resident (Takkaya_kap. 54, Urai.); va_sini_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vasati a halting place; vasatham an abode, dwelling, nest (of birds)(Skt.lex.) bas dwelling place; to place, to settle permanently; noa atoreko bas akata they have settled in this village (Santali.lex.) va_hero roost for birds, nest (S.); baseru inhabitant (OAw.); basera_ place of staying (H.)(CDIAL 11594). Inhabitant; neighbour: gram-bes'u neighbour (Kho.Kal.); ve_s'a inhabitant, neighbour (RV.); vis' tribe, habitation (RV.)(CDIAL 12124). ve_s'a habitation (VS.)[ = vis' : ve_s'a_n dha_raya (VS.) ~~ vis'a_m. dhartr. (RV.)](CDIAL 12125). ve_s'anam a house; entering, entrance; ve_s'aka house; ve_s'yam abode, residence (Vedic) (Skt.lex.) ve_s.a work; working (VS.); vis.t.i service, servants, slaves (MBh.); ve_s.ya work (Ta_n.d.Br.) [influenced by ve_s'a as 'house' or 'ingress'](CDIAL 12126). cf. bese to thatch (Malt.); ve_ytal thatched house (Ta.); ve_sa_na_ to thatch (Ga.); vega to roof, thatch (Kui); vikka roof (Kuwi)(DEDR 5532). ve_s'iya metr. for ve_s'ya inhabitant (RV.); vus'i_ neighbour < ve_s'in (Kt.)(CDIAL 12127). Refuge: visa_ refuge, asylum (Si.); vis'raya refuge (Skt.)(CDIAL 11952). Temporary dwelling in fields; watching a field at night: bha~_ temporary dwelling in fields (L.); ba_so halt (Ku.); ba_s resting-place (N.P.); a dwelling (Mth.H.); nest (H.); va_s resting place (P.G.M.); basa_ lodging (N.); lodging-house (Or.); lair of a wild beast (Or.); ba_sa_ lodging house, nest, lair, den (B.); a dwelling, nest (H.); lodging-house (Bi.); a dwelling (Mth.); ba_sa abode (Or.); a dwelling (OAw.); id., nest (H.); stay (OMarw.); ba_h nest, bee-hive (A.); baha_ temporary house (A.); va_so watching a field at night (G.); va_sa abode (RV.); staying (R.); staying, habitation (Pali); staying (Pkt.); va_s.a dwelling-place (As'.); va_saka sleeping quarters (Skt.); wa_s halt (Ash.); a dwelling (K.); day (Ash.); wos (Kt.); wes, wa~_s (Pr.); bas (Kho.)[cf. va_sara relating to morning (RV.); day (Gr.S.); day (Pali.Pkt.); va_ra-ya (Si.)(CDIAL 11602); vasar dawn, in: vasar-han- (RV.); va_sra day (Skt.)(CDIAL 11442); us.as dawn (RV.); usa_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2385); usr. morning light (RV.); uste~ first morning light (M.); usa ray (Pkt.); usra sun, ray, day (RV.)(CDIAL 2399); us.t.a burnt (Skt.); hut.t. sultry (P.)(CDIAL 2386); odna_ (oddas) to kindle a fire by means of straw or shavings (Kur.); ode to burn (as fuel)(Malt.)(DEDR 978)]; wo_ze to spend the night (Pr.); wa_i, wa_ house (Pas'.); bas halting-place, day and night, night; basi place where the night is passed, roosting (of a bird)(Kho.); bas, pl. bazi halt, stage (Sh.); vas-a a dwelling (Si.)(CDIAL 11591). va_hero roost for birds, nest (S.); baseru inhabitant (OAw.); basera_ place of staying (H.)(CDIAL 11594). bazo_lo wild animals' lair or den (Sh.)(CDIAL 11595). va_sagr.ha bed-chamber (Mn.); va_sa_ga_ra (Skt.Pali); va_saghara living room, bedchamber (Pali); va_sahara (Pkt.); ba_har houses for temporary residence of king or important personages, camp for troops (A.); ba_sahara (OB.); basa_r bridal chamber (B.); ba_sara_ house, bridal chamber (Or.)(CDIAL 11596). [cf. o_saraka affording shelter (Pali); o_sa_raka outbuilding, shed (Pali); o_sa_ra cow shed (Pkt.); usa_ra_ porch, vestibule, room on the roof of a house (P.)(CDIAL 848).] baseri small fairly level piece of ground or pocket in a hillside where cultivation can be carried on (N.)(CDIAL 11597). va_sin inhabiting (TS.); -va_sin in cmpds. 'staying in' (Pali); va_si- (Pkt.); ba_si inhabitant (N.); ba_si_ (OAw.); vasiya_, vassa_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11605). va_stu site of house, house (RV.)(CDIAL 11606). vasati dwells, stays (Skt.As'.); lives, stays; caus. vasa_pe_ti (Pali); vasai (Pkt.); bahan. to sit, perch (L.)(CDIAL 11435). va_sayati lodges (S'Br.); va_sayati for the night (MBh.); va_sayate_ id.(Skt.); va_se_ti loges, puts up (Pali); va_sa_petaviye should be made to dwell (As'.); baseik to put up for the night, billet (Kho.); ba_i afterwards (WPah.); bahuwa_iba to cause to settle (A.); basa_iba to establish (a village, etc.)(Or.); va_svu~ to colonize (G.); vassan to dwell (L.); vassn.a_ to be inhabited; act. to dwell (P.); wass-un to remain (Wg.); wes- to spend the night (Kt.); wo_ze id. (Pr.); ba_zum I sit, imper. be_za (Tir.); ba_sem I spend the night (Kal.); ba_yoi_ki to dwell, sit (Sh.); wasun to land from a boat, descend (K.); basun to dwell and live long (K.); bahan. to sit, perch (L.); vahin.a_, bahin.a_, bauhn.a_ to sit; caus. baha_un.a_ (L.); basn.a_ to live (WPah.); basn.o to live, dwell, be alive, sit (Ku.); basnu to remain, inhabit, sit (N.); bahiba to sit (A.); basa_ (B.); basiba_ to stay, sit, sink down, coagulate (Or.); basab to dwell, remain, be (Mth.); basai, basab dwells (OAw.); basna_, caus. basa_na_ (H.); basai settles (OMarw.); vasvu~, caus. vasa_vvu~ (G.); vasn.e~ (M.); vasanava_ to stay, pass time, caus. vasavanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11435). vasana abiding, dwelling (MBh.); abode (Pali); vasan.a (usu. in cmpds. e.g. vasan.a-ga_ma-) staying (Pkt.); basan.i residence (Or.); vasan-a house, dwelling (Si.); vahan.u hamlet (S.)(CDIAL 11437). cf. vraja cowpen, cattleshed (RV.); vaja id. (Pali); vaya, vaia_ (Pkt.); vada (Si.)(CDIAL 12224). cf. vatha_n.u cowpen, pasturage (S.); batha_n flock, herd, mob (of animals, men or birds)(N.); ba_tha_n animal pen (A.); cowpen (B.); batha_n cowpen, pasturage (Bi.); cowpen or fold (Mth.); cowpen, pasturage (H.); bat.ha_n (H.); batha_nnu to collect (N.)(CDIAL 12226). go_vraja cowpen (Mn.); govada, govuda cowpen, cowshed (Si.)(CDIAL 4332). cf. Cattle-shed: bha_n.u place where cattle are kept, cowpen, dunghill, dung of cows or buffalos (S.); bha_n.o cattle-fold (S.); bha_n., bha_n.a_ cattle-shed (L.)(CDIAL 9436). To remain, stay: bahao to exist, to live, to last, wear well; nui hor. do ad.iye bahaoa akana this man has lived a long time; basgad.i to settle permanently, to take up one's residence; ba~sgad.i to fix bamboos upright in the ground for the purpose of giving possession of, or attaching land in pursuance of a decree of the civil court (Santali.lex.) be_'ena_ (biccyas) used as an auxiliary (as a separate verb, it once meant 'to remain fixedly', but has been supplanted by ra'ana_); to be, stay, remain (Kur.); behe to exist (Malt.)(DEDR 4427). For semant. ra'ana_ cf. rahna_ to stay (H.lex.)

5674.Occupation; inanimate; possession; settlement: ve_s.an.am occupation, possession (Skt.lex.) cf. vis.aya sphere, region (MBh.)(CDIAL 11973). Work: vr.j strength (Skt.); varez to work; varezayant working (Av.); vr.j = bala = varga = vr.jana (Naigh.); baj- to do (Bshk.); bal.eik with dat. to overcome, worst, defeat, get the better of; bal.eik, baleik to be superior (Kho.)(CDIAL 11334). cf. vaya strength, power (Ta.); vayam strength (Ma.); baymbe hero (Kod..)(DEDR 5254). vadda, vadi aboriginal inhabitants of Ceylon (Si.); varjita excluded, avoided (MBh.); vajjita excluded (Pali); vajjia (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11336). Exertion: va_ra (va_ri-) to be wearied, tired, cramped after exertion; pl. action va_rka (va_rki-)(Kui); varuntu (varunti-) to suffer, be distressed, grieved, become emaciated, take pains, make great efforts, make a supplication; varuttu (varutti-) to cause pain, afflict, vex; n. suffering, pain; varuttam suffering, pain, strain, difficulty, effort, exhaustion, weariness (Ta.); varuttam trouble, toil, affliction, sickness (Ma.); po.r- (po.0-) it pains; pi.r-for- (pi.r-fo0-) to love, kiss (pi.r- belly)(To.); vandu, vanduru to grieve, sorrow, be afflicted, grow pale, emaciated, perish; vanta grief, sorrow, pain, weeping (Te.); vand- (-it-) to get tired, be exhausted (Kond.a)(DEDR 5272). Tired: ussahati exerts; ussa_ha exertion; a_vesana workshop (Pali.lex.) baccu to be tired; baccelu tiredness; basvel.i to be fatigued (Ka.); baccuni to be wearied, tired, fatigued (Tu.); bacca_vuni to tire, fatigue; baccelu fatigue, weariness, tiredness; baccan:gelu tiredness, fatigue (Tu.); va_h- (va_st-) to be or become tired (Pe.); vaha (vahi-) to be tired, exhausted, tire, faint; n. weariness, exhaustion (Kui); vwahali, wahinai to be tired; va_h- (-it-) id., become tired; va_hu weariness (Kuwi)(DEDR 5215). var..alikai weariness, fatigue (Ta.); ba.l. fatigue; ba.l.- (ba.l.y-) to become exhausted from hunger (Ko.); bar..al(u) to become weary, be fatigued, droop, fade, to cast down, be distressed; bar..alike, bar..alke weakness, fatigue, distress; bad.aluvike fatigue (Ka.); bal.alik tiredness, fatigue, exhaustion (Tu.); bad.alu to be tired, fatigued, wearied, exhausted; bad.alincu to fatigue, tire, exhaust; bad.alika fatigue, weariness, exhaustion (Te.); va_r.ag a_- to become tired (Mand..); br.ac- (-it-) to be tired of (Kuwi)(DEDR 5293). viheseti, a_ya_seti to weary; a_ya_sakara, vihesa_-janaka wearisome; a_yasa-karatta wearisomeness (Pali.lex.) vicukku displeasure; vicukkit.u to become displeased, be pained at heart; vicai (-pp-, -tt-) to become angry; viyar (-pp-, -tt-) to become angry; veyar (-pp-, -tt-), ve_r (-pp-, -tt-) to be angry; viyarppu, viyarvai, veyarppu, ve_r, ve_rppu, ve_rpu, ve_rvu, ve_rvai anger (Ta.); visuku, visugu, visuvu to be tired, wearied, disgusted, be sick of, have enough and more of; n. disgust, weariness, vexation, satiety; visikincu, visigincu to tire, weary, disgust, sicken (Te.)(DEDR 5386). vyasana moving to and fro (Pa_n.. va_rtt.); passion, evil passion, vice (Mn.); misfortune (Pali); vasana, vyasana, viyas.ana (As'.); vasan.a distress, pain (Pkt.); vasana_ sin (Si.); viyasana misfortune (Si.)(CDIAL 12180). pe_ca trouble; pe_c-a_d.u to be involved in trouble and difficulties (Ka.); pe.c-a.d.- to try hard (Kod..); pe_c-a_d.uni to try, strive, be in trouble; pe_c-a_t.a affliction, distress; struggle (Tu.); pe_ci trouble, difficulty, embarrassment (Te.)(DEDR 4429). vai be exhausted (Skt.); udva_yati is exhausted (TS.); va_yati is exhausted (RV.)(CDIAL 2081). prah, parhi love, adoring love (K.); pra_s'a_ ardent desire (Ta_n.d.Br.); a_s'as nom. sg. a_s'a_h- wish, expectation; a_s'a_ (AV.); a_sa_ hope, expectation (Pali.Pkt.); a_ha prayer for evil, desire to retain (S.); a_s hope (Ku.N.B.Mth.); id. (Bhoj.Aw.H.); id. (L.P.); id. (G.M.Konkan.i); a_sa (OMarw.)(CDIAL 8968). pacca_sa_ expectation, hope (Pali.Pkt.); pasasa joy, happiness (Si.)(CDIAL 8643). ve_ca_t.ai sorrow; ve_caram, ve_car-avu, ve_car-ikkai id., weariness, fatigue; ve_car-u (ve_car-uv-, ve_car-r--) to be weary, fatigued, be vexed, distressed; ve_ca_t.al mental agitation; ve_ca_r-u (ve_ca_ri-) to be weary, fatigued, be vexed, distressed; be consoled, rest; n. weariness etc.; ve_ca_r-al weariness, sorrow; becoming consoled or pacified (Ta.); ve_ca_r-u anxiety (Ma.); be_sar-(u) (be_satt-) to grow weary or fatigued, get tired of, be disgusted, be vexed; n. weariness, fatigue, disgust, vexation, dispiritedness; be_ja_ru weariness (from fatigue, pain, vexation), annoyance; be_sar-a, be_sar-ake, be_sar-ike weariness etc.; be_sar-isu to cause to be weary (Ka.); be.ja.ra sorrow (Kod..); be_ja_ru weariness, fatigue, disgust, offence, vexation, annoyance; be_saru fatigue, weariness, vexation, disgust; fatigued, weary; be_saru a_pini to get tired, be weary (Tu.); bisirige homesickness (Kor.); ve_sat.a fatigue, weariness; ve_saramu trouble, fatigue; ve_sarincu to trouble; ve_sa_ru to be troubled or fatigued, be disgusted (Te.); be_-za_r (H. < Pers.)(DEDR 5524). e.c pa.c unclean secretions of body (e.g. urine, excrement, snot, voimit)(Ko.); e.sy/e.s' od.- (od.0-) to dislike, hate (To.); pe_su, he_su to feel aversion, have a dislike; n. aversion, disgust; pe_sike, he_sike, e_sike, he_sige aversion, disgust, nastiness, object that causes disgust (Ka.); he.sige disgust at touching dirty things (Kod..); pe_s'iyuni, pe_cuni to loath, be disgusted; pe_s'ig, pe_sig disgust, loathing, dirt, filth; he_sige, e_sige filth, dirt (Tu.)(DEDR 4431). Displeasure; fatigue; disgust: pa_sk- to dislike; pa_ska_na_ id., hate (Go.); pa_ska (pa_ski-) to disparage, despise; n. disparagement (Kui); payir (-pp-, -tt-) to show aversion or disgust at, be sulky or ill-humoured about; payirppu disgust, abhorrence; disagreeembt, estrangement (Ta.)(DEDR 4060). par..i (-pp-, -tt-) to blame, censure, ridicule, revile, slander; n. blame, ridicule, slander, fault, sin, revenge; par..icai scorn; par..ippu scorn, blame, guilt, defect; par..utu defect, fault (Ta.); par..i fault, false accusation, deadly vengeance; par..ikka to scold, blame, abuse (Ma.); pal.c- to abuse; pal.y retribution; apr./l.yk ipr./l.yk onom. of scolding (as in: apr.yke. ipr.yke. (id-)r man.cuko. he scolded vigorously); paya.c woman who has casual sexual intercourse (Ko.); pa.k (pa.ky-) to abuse (To.); par..i to revile, scold, rebuke, scorn, upbraid, deride; n. (also par..ivu) blame, rebuke, fault, guilt (Ka.); pal.i (pal.iv-, pal.ij-), pal.e- (pal.ev-, pal.and-) to speak ill of; pal.ame talk, gossip (Kod..); prayi blame; prabbu to abuse, blame, censure; n. blame (Te.); par.agna_ (par.gyas) to talk against one, detract, slander, run one down (Kur.)(DEDR 4002). pisaru infatuation, foolish pride, arrogance, refractoriness (Ka.); pisuru displeasure, anger; self-conceit, arrogance; pisan.t.u fretfulness, peevishness, anger, displeasure (Tu.); pisa_l.i infatuated person (Te.); pisa_l.n.e_ to run mad, lose one's wits (M.)(DEDR 4136). cf. piccu madness (Ta.)(DEDR 4142).

5675.Vagrant: vra_tya one who has undertaken parivrajya_-vrata, term of address for a guest, vagrant (Skt.); bocu one who lives by gifts and without any trade (K.); one who has lost caste (Mn.)(CDIAL 12231). vrata ordinance, religious duty (RV.) (CDIAL 12228). To move: var..an:ku (var..an:ki-) to move, proceed (Ta.); var..akku moving, passing to and fro; var..akku (var..akki-) to cause to go (Ta.); val.c- to use (pots, vessels, plates etc.)(Ko.); pol.c- to live, be alive, get on in life (To.); pol.p way of living, means of livelihood (To.); bar..asu, bar..isu to use, spend as time (Ka.)(DEDR 5292). Wanders about: parivrajati wanders about (S'Br.); wanders about as a mendicant (Mn.); paribbajati wanders about as a religious mendicant (Pali); parvarvu~ to go, depart (G.)(CDIAL 14676). varjayati gives up (ChUp.); excludes (Mn.); vajje_ti renounces (Pali); varjavidavo (NiDoc.); pp. vajjiya, pass. vajjijam.ta being deserted (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11335). pravrajati goes forth (S'Br.); leaves home to be an ascetic (Mn.); pp. pravrajita (Mn.); pabbajati goes forth, becomes an ascetic (Pali); pavvayai (Pkt.); parvarvu~ to go, depart (G.); pabbajita gone forth as a monk (Pali); pravrajita, pavajita ascetic (As'.); paviji (OSi.); pavidda_ gone forth as a monk (Si.)(CDIAL 8810). To go forth: vajati, ya_ti, pavattati to go; anupariya_ti to go about; pat.ipajjati go along (Pali.lex.) vra_ja going, motion (Skt.); avra_jin- stationery (Pa_n.. gan.a); vis.t.ha_vra_jin stationary? (S'Br.); va_ya motion (Pkt.); vadda loc. sg. entrance (OSi.)(CDIAL 12229). cf. va_yil, va_yal, va_cal doorway, entrance, gate (Ta.); va_til doorway, entrance, gateway (Ma.)(DEDR 5354). a_vrajati comes near, proceeds (S'Br.); a_vajati comes near; 3rd sg. opt. abbaje_ (Pali); avidinava_ to walk; absol. 10th cent. avuj, avud, mod. avut < a_vrajya (Si.)(CDIAL 1451). Going abroad: pravrajya going abroad (MBh.); wandering about (of ascetics)(Mn.); pabbajja_ becoming an ascetic (Pali); pavvajja_ (Pkt.); pavvaia (Pkt.); pavidi, pavadi the first order of priesthood (Si.)(CDIAL 8811). parivrajati wanders about (S'Br.); wanders about as a mendicant (Mn.); paribbajati wanders about as a religious mendicant (Pali); parvarvu~ to go, depart (G.)(CDIAL 14676). vadalu to leave or leave off, abandon, relinquish, loosen, slacken, let loose; become loose or slack, disappear, go away; adj. loose, slack; vadalincu, vadal(u)cu to loosen, slacken, untie, separate; udalu, udulu to leave off (grip, hold); udalcu to release oneself from another's hold (Te.); odoxna_ (odxas) to render less tight, detach, get rid of (Kur.)(DEDR 5243). para_ri < fara_ri_ (U.) absconding fugitive, runaway (Ta.); para_ri (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) vraj go (Skt.); vrajati goes, wanders (RV.); pres. part. vrajant (RV.); pp. vrajita gone (S'Br.); vacyate_ moves (RV.); vajati moves, goes to (Pali); vajitaviye one must walk (As'.); vayai moves, goes (Pkt.); ba_ to go (Sv.Mai.); bay 1 sg. pres. baya_nu, fut. be_m (pret. gu_m)(Phal.); ve_- to go (L.S.); pres. part. vaan.u, ve~do, vi~_do (S.); pres. part. vnda_, fut. vsa~_ < vrajis.ya_mi (L.); pp. vio < vrajita (S.) [or < viyant-, vye_s.yati, vi_ta]; vadinava_ to go in; pp. (9th cent.) van entered (Si.); vannan to enter (Md.); vam.jai goes (Pkt.); vaan.u (S.); vajan. (L.); vajn.a_ to go, depart, die (P.); vajjai moves, goes (Pkt.); vrajam.ti (NiDoc.); bazem 1 sg. I go (Tir.); baj-, baz- (pret. ga_ < gata-)(Tor.); buzoiki, bozo_nu (Sh.); vaggai goes; leaps (Pkt.); vagan. to move, flow, blow; vaggun. (L.); vagn.a_, bagn.a_ (P.); bagn.o to flow (Ku.); bagnu (N.); baga_iba to crawl, creep, climb (A.); ba_gana_ (OH.); bagna_ to move, go, be in use (H.); va_gvu~ to fall upon (G.); va_gn.e~ to move, live (M.); vracam.ti (As'.); vaccai moves (Pkt.); bac to go (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12190). vye_ti goes away (RV.); pres. part. viyant (RV.); pp. vi_ta (Skt.); fut. vye_s.yati (Skt.); ve_ti goes away (Pali); ve_i is lost (Pkt.); wi- to come out (Pr.); we_- to pass (of time)(Pas'.); bik to go; aor. 1 sg. bim, 3 sg. bi_r (pret. bagai, pp. bogdu)(Kho.); ve_- to go (S.L.); ve~do, vi~_do (S.); pres. part. of S. vaan.u and L. vajan. (L.); vi_ta gone away (Pali); vi_a- (Pkt.); bi_ru pp. of bik (Kho.); vio pp. of vaan.u (S.); vsa~_ fut. I shall go (L.)(CDIAL 12223). vyaga_t he went away (Pa_rGr..); byaga_ he departed, was lost (Pali); bagai (Kho.)(CDIAL 12157). vrajati goes, wanders (RV.); pres. part. vrajant- (RV.); pp. vrajita gone (S'Br.); vajati moves, goes to (Pali); vajitaviye one must walk (As'.); vayai moves, goes (Pkt.); ba_- to go (Mai.Sv.); bay- 1 sg. pres. baya_nu, fut. be_m (pret. gu_m)(Phal.); ve_- to go (L.S.); pres. part. to vaan.u ve~do, vi~_do (S.); venda_, fut. vsa~ ( < vrajis.ya_mi)(L.); pp. vio (< vrajita-)(S.); vadinava_ to go in, pp. (9th cent.) van entered (Si.); vannan to enter (Md.); vam.jai goes (Pkt.); vaan.u (S.); vajan. (L.); vajn.a_ to go, depart, die (P.); vajjai moves, goes (Pkt.); vrajam.ti (j = jj)(NiDoc.); bazem 1 sg. I go (Tir.); baj-, baz- (pret. ga < gata)(tor.); buzoiki, bozo_nu (Sh.); va_jn.e~ to flow, blow (of wind)(M.); vaggai goes; leaps < valgati (Pkt.); wagun to flow (K.); vagan. to move, flow, blow; vaggun. (L.); vagn.a_, bagn.a_ (P.); bagn.o to flow (Ku.); bagnu (N.); bagna_ to move, go, be in use (H.); va_gvu~ to fall upon (G.); va_gn.e~ to move, live (M.)[cf. va_r.. to live (Ta.lex.)]; vracam.ti (As'.); vaccai moves (Pkt.); bac- to go (Bshk.)(CDIAL 12225).

5676.Trade: vais'yavr.tti trade (Mn.); besa_d, besa_ti trade (B.); bisa_ti_ (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 14810). ?ve_caram the Telugu language (Ta.lex.) vaicciravan.an-, vaicciravan- Kube_ra; ve_can-am town in an agricultural tract; house; gate; ve_t.ai street where merchants live; pe_t.t.ai market-place near a town; caravansera; extramural suburb; pe_t.h id. (M.)(Ta.lex.) Trust: vais'va_sika trustworthy (Skt.); vessa_sia, ve_sa_sia id. (Pkt.); vesa_i, vesa_ho (S.)(CDIAL 12151). vis'va_sa trust, confidence (MBh.); vissa_sa trust (Pali); vis'pas'a (Dhp.); vissa_sa, vi_sa_sa (Pkt.); visa_h (L.P.); vasa_h, bisa_h, basa_h, basa_ (P.); bisa_s (H.Ku.); visa_sa (OG.); vesa_hu (S.)(CDIAL 11966). vis'va_sayati causes to trust, encourages (Skt.); vissa_se_ti is friendly towards (Pali); visvam.savitave to be inspired with confidence (As'.); vissa_siya trusted (Pkt.); vesa_han.u to trust (S.); visa_hun.a_, bisa_hun.a_ to cause to believe, inveigle (P.)(CDIAL 11967). vis'rambhate_ trusts in (BhP.); vis'rambhayati encourages (MBh.); vissam.bhai, vi_sam.bhai trusts (Pk.t); visamvu~ to give as a trust (G.)(CDIAL 11951). vissambha trust (Pali); vissam.bha, vi_am.bha, ve_sam.bha (Pkt.); visam.ba (Si.)(CDIAL 11950). Vocation; performance: bes, besa_, bhes vocation, state (of life)(Konkan.i. lex.) besa, besana (Tadbhava of vidha, vidha_ compared with vidha_na) performing, making; the performance of prescribed acts or rites: act of worship; a demand, an order, an injunction; questioning, asking, inquiry; besa key to make, to perform; to produce; to worship; besa keyvudu to be submissive; parivasye, paricarye, s'us'ru_s.e, upa_sane, upa_sti, pari_s.t.e, se_ve, bhakti, prasa_dane, a_ra_dhane, upaca_ra; to be submissive, to obey; besa keysu to subject, to rule; besagey to worship, to honour; to make; to use; besagol. to demand, to enquire, to ask, to question, to solicit; besan:gey to make to cultivate; besambad.e, besavad.e, besamber.. to get an order, to obtain permission; To command: besave_r.. to give an order, to command (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) besana (Tadbhava of vidha_na) order, command; besanam sa_r to get an order; besana he_r..isi kol. to obtain permission; besani_ to give an order (Ka.); besasu to order, to command, to tell; to declare, to communicate; to request, to grant (Ka.lex.) besa_u~, besa_va_ blessing (Konkan.i. lex.) To be established in use: bese, bisu, besu to be established in use; be_gad.ebese to affix laminae of tin covered over with some colouring substance (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Profession, business: ve_s to go, to move (Skt.lex.) vyavaso_ to settle down; to decide, resolve (Vedic.lex.) be_sa_ya, bavasu, bavase, bevasa_ya, yavasa_ya, vevasa_ya, vyavasa_ya settled determination, resolve, obstinacy; endeavour, strenuous effort or exertion, activity, energy, diligence, industry, perseverance; action, performance; follow any business or profession; a trade, business, livelihood, cultivation, agriculture; an artifice, a stratagem, device; vyavasa_yi one who acts energetically, a diligent, assiduous, enterprising or persevering man; a clever man (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Trade, business, crop: viha_in.u to buy (S.); bisa_, besa_ purchase of grain (Ku.); besa_unu to buy (N.); bisa_hna_ to get possession of, buy (H.); visa_hai exchanges (OG.); viha_jan. to buy; via_jhun. to acquire (L.); viha_jhn.a_, viha_jn.a_ to buy (P.); visa_hia accomplished (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11979). cf. becnu to sell (N.)(CDIAL 12100). beusa_ trade, business, crop (Or.); vyavasa_ya resolve (MBh.); action (R.); strenuous effort (Car.); trade (Skt.) (CDIAL 11831). vyavasa_yin industrious (MBh.); vivasa_i_u trader (OG.); vasva_yu~ member of the artisan class who receives a fixed share of the harvest and land to build a house on (G.)(CDIAL 11832). To exchange; to buy: viha_in.u to buy (S.); bisa_, besa_ purchase of grain (Ku.); visa_hai exchanges (OG.); viha_jan. to buy; via_jhun. to acquire (L.); viha_jhn.a_, viha_jn.a_ to buy (P.); besa_unu to buy possession of, buy (H.)(CDIAL 11979).

5677.Crop, business: beusa_ trade, business, crop (Or.); vyavasa_ya resolve (MBh.); action (R.); strenuous effort (Car.); trade (Skt.)(CDIAL 11831). To buy; exchange : besa_, bisa_ purchase of grain (Ku.); besa_unu to buy (N.)[-e- from becnu to sell (N.)(CDIAL 12100)]; bisa_hna_ to get possession of, buy (H.); visa_hai exchanges (OG.); viha_jan. to buy; via_jhun. to acquire (L.); viha_jhn.a_, viha_jn.a_ to buy (P.)(CDIAL 11979). cf. To sell: van.ic, va~r.ic to sell (Ash.); vrai~_c (Kt.)(CDIAL 11233). vi.r (vi.t.-) to sell (Kol.); vi_r, vi_y id. (Nk.); vi_r. id. (Ga.Pa.); bise to sell (Malt.); bi_sna_ id. (Kur.)(DEDR 5459). For sale: cf. bise to sell (Malt.)(DEDR 5459). vegn, vukn, bikin sells (Gypsy); brikin (Dm.); r.eken-, ligin- (Pas'.); bikin (Gaw.); bre~_kr (Kal.); bigin (Tor.); vikin.an.u (S.); vikri_n.i_te_ barters (AV.); sells (Mn.); vikri_n.a_ti sells (Skt.); vikkin.a_ti sells (Pali); vikrinati (NiDoc.); vikkin.ai, viki_n.ai (Pkt.); vikun.anava_ to be sold (Si.); vrai~c sale (Kt.); ve_can. (L.); vikke_i, vikke_ai (Pkt.); viketaviye (As'.); inf. in vikke_tum. (Pali)(CDIAL 11640). veku_ for sale (S.); vakro sale (G.); vikra_, vikri_ (M.); vikraya sale (AV.); vikkaya sale (Pali); vikraya, vikra (NiDoc.); vikkaa (Pkt.); vika_ (L.P.); bika_, biki (B.); bika_ (Or.); vikiro, vikiri_ sale (S.); bikri (N.); bikaruwa_ for sale (A.); bikri sale (Or.); bikri_ (H.)(CDIAL 11638). kra_payati sells (Pa_n..); vikka_yama_n.a (Pkt.); vika_un.a_, bika_un.a_ to sell (P.); bika_unu (N.); bika_iba (A.); bika_na (B.); bika_iba_ (Or.); bika_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 11639). vikri_ta sold (MBh.); sale (Mn.); vikrida, vikridaga, pret. vikridemi (NiDoc.); vikki_a, vikkia (whence pres. vikkai sells)(Pkt.); vikka_ pret. of vikun.anava_ (Si.); biki-kini selling and buying (B.)(CDIAL 11641). vikri_yate_ is sold (Skt.); vikijan.u to be sold (S.); vikan.u to be sold (S.); vikkan. (L.); vikn.a_, bikn.a_ (P.); biknu (N.); bikiba_ (Or.); bikna_ (H.); vikn.e~ (M.); bikiba to sell (A.); bika_ to sell (B.); vi_kai (OG.); vikn.e~ (M.); vikkan (Md.)(CDIAL 11642). Price: ve_ca_ (v.l. ve_ta_ hire, wages; ve_tana id. (MBh.); ve_tane_na kri_tah hired (Pa_n..com.); price (Skt.); [vikri_n.a_no_ 'lpa-ve_tanaih-]; ve_ti procures (RV.); veccai, vicce_i spends (Pkt.); ve_can. to sell (L.); vecn.a_, becn.a_ (P.); becn.o (Ku.); becnu (N.); besiba (A.); beca_ (B.); beciba_ id. (Or.); biciba_ (Or.); becab (Mth.); be~cab (Mth.); becna_ (H.); vecvu~ (G.); vecn.e~ to spend (M.) (CDIAL 12100). cf. vi.r- (vi.t.-) to sell (Kol.)(DEDR 5459). cf. vel price, cost (Ko.); bele cost (Ka.); price, cost (Kod..); price, value, worth (Tu.); vela, viluva price, value, cost (Te.); vilai selling, sale, price, cost, value (Ta.) (DEDR 5421). Wage: ve_cai wage, remuneration (Ta.lex.) Expenditure: {Echo word} vecca (Tadbhava of vyaya) spending, expenditure, outlay, disbursement (Ka.Te.); ve_ca (M.); vecca-ma_d.u to spend; vecca-va_gu to be spent, to be consumed; vecca sacca id.; vecca hattu expenditure to be called for or to be required (Ka.); vecca hid.i id.; veccisu to spend; to distribute (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vecco expenditure (Tu.lex.) vyaya change, loss, expense (Mn.); vaya, vyaya expense (Pali); vyaga (NiDoc.); vaya (Pkt.); baya_ expenses (Or.); vaya, viya, va_ya (Si.)(CDIAL 12170). vyayati spends (Dha_tup.); bayiba_ to spend (Or.)(CDIAL 12171).

5678.Work: vessa a Vais'ya, i.e. a member of the third social (i.e. lower) grade; a man of the people (Pali.lex.) ve_s.a work, activity, serving (S'Br. i.1.1.2); ve_s.a working; ve_s.an.a service (RV. v.7.5; iv.33.2)(Vedic.lex.) ve_s.anam occupation, possession (Skt.lex.) ve_s.a work; working (VS.); vis.t.i service, servants, slaves (MBh.); ve_s.ya work (Ta_n.d.Br.)(CDIAL 12126). vis.t.i pervading; an act, occupation; hire, wages; unpaid labour; sending; residence in hell to which one is condemned (Skt.lex.) cf. vis.t.i forced labour (MBh.); vet.t.hi forced labour (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11989). bit.t.i unpaid labour, labour exacted by a government or a person in power without giving remuneration for it, press-service (Ka.); ve_t.ha (M.); bit.t.i-gan.t.u a load carried a person (or animal) pressed; that which is without remuneration or worthless; money obtained without exertion or labour; bit.tigelasadava a man pressed to cary a load etc. (Ka.lex.) cf. ve_lai work, office (Ta.)(DEDR 5540). vis. to undertake a work (RV. vi.32.5); to go to (RV. x.27.7); to offer (RV. i.27.10); to work or be active (RV. i.110.4); vis.t.i work (RV. i.20.4); vis.t.ha_ position, place, station; variously situated or sitting (GBr. iii.1); vis.t.hita stationary, inanimate (RV. vi.47.29); vis.a servant (RV. viii.19.11)(Vedic.lex.) Dwelling: baseru inhabitant (OAw.); basera_ place of staying (H.)(CDIAL 11594). va_sagr.ha bed-chamber (Mn.); va_sa_ga_ra (Skt.Pali); va_saghara living room, bedchamber (Pali); va_sahara (Pkt.); ba_har houses for temporary residence of king or important personages, camp for troops (A.); ba_sahara (OB.); basa_r bridal chamber (B.); ba_sara_ house, bridal chamber (Or.)(CDIAL 11596). vas to stay, abide (Skt.); vasati a dwelling, abode, residence (Vedic.Pali); ra_ja-vasati = ra_ja-paricariya_ royal service (Pali); vasati to live, dwell, stay, abide; to spend time (esp. with vassan. the rainy season); to keep, observe, live, practise ( = sam.vasati, a_vasati, parivasati); imper. vasatha; uposathan. vasan. ppr. keeping the Sunday; brahmacariyan. vasati to live a chaste life; aor. vasi; fut. vasissati ( = Skt. vasis.yati); vacchati ( = Skt. vatsyati); pass. vussati ( = Skt. us.yate); caus. va_seti to cause to live, stay or dwell; to make live; to preserve; vasa_peti to make live or spend, to cause to dwell, to detain [Av. varehaiti; Lat. vesta the goddess of the hearth; Gothic. wisan to stay, remain, be ( = OHG. wesan, Eng. was, were); Old Icelandic vist to stay; Old Irish foss rest]; vasana dwelling (-place), abode; usually in cpds. vasana-ga_ma the village where (he) lived; vasana-t.t.ha_na residence, dwelling place; vasanaka living (in); nibaddha vasanaka of continuous abode; adhiva_seti (caus. of adhivasati to wait for; to have patience, bear, endure; to consent, agree, give in; adhiva_sayati to consent, agree, give in (BHSkt.); adhiva_sa_peti to cause to wait; a_vasati to live at or in, to inhabit, reside, stay; pp. a_vuttha; a_vasatha dwelling-place, habitation; abode, house, dwelling; a_vasatha a_ga_ra resting-house; nivasati to live, dwell, inhabit, stay; pp. nivuttha; niva_sa stopping, dwelling, resting-place, abode; living, sheltering; niva_san kappeti to put up; pubbe-niva_san anussarati to remember one's former abode or place of existence (in a former life); niva_sana dwelling, abode; niva_sana-t.t.ha_na place of abode; niva_sika staying, living, dwelling ( = nibaddha-vasanaka); niva_sin adj. (to nivasati) dwelling, staying; n. an inhabitant; nivisati to enter, stop, settle down on; to resort to, establish oneself; pp. nivit.t.ha; ger. nivissa; caus. niveseti; nivit.t.ha settled, established (in); confirmed, sure; fixed on, bent on, devoted to; nivit.t.ha ga_ma built, situated; su-nivit.t.ha, dun-nivit.t.ha of a street = well and badly built or situate; nivesa [Vedic nives'a] entering, stopping, settling down; house, abode; dit.t.hi-nivesana settling on, attachment, clinging to a view = dogmatism; nivesana entering, entrance, settling; settlement, abode, house, home; nivesita adj. (pp. of nivesati) to cause to enter, to establish, to found, build, fix, settle; (fig.) to establish in, exhort to, plead for, entreat, admonish; parivasati to stay, dwell, to live under probation; parivut.t.ha, parivuttha (pp. of parivasati) staying (a period), living (for a time), spending (or having spent) one's probation; pariva_sa sojourn, stay; period under probation; period, time (lit. stay), interval, duration; pariva_sika staying, i.e. usual, accustomed, common; a probationer; cira-pariva_sika staying long, being in use for a long time, i.e. stale: may be derived from va_sa odour, perfume or seasoning; hence, long-fermented or seasoned; va_saka, va_sika living, dwelling; ga_ma-va_saka villager; ba_ra_n.asi-va_saka living in Benares; va_sana dwelling; va_sa living, sojourn, life; ana_tha-va_san to lead a helpless life; samagga-va_san vasati to live a life of concord; va_sa home, house, habitation; va_san kappeti to live (at a place), to make one's home; va_sa-attha home success, luck in the house, prosperity; vasa_ga_ra bedroom; va_sa-upagata having entered one's hut or abode (for the rainy season); gone to bed; va_sa-dhura ordinary duty (lit. burden) or responsibility of living, or the elementary stages of saintliness; va_sita established, made to be or live, preserved; va_sin liking, dwelling (in) cf. neva_sika one who inhabits, an inmate; living in a place, local; cf. necayika, nerayika rich, wealthy; cf. nicaya wealth, provisions; heaping up, accumulation (Pali.lex.) a_va_sa sojourn, stay, dwelling, living; dwelling-place, residence; -ana_va_sa n. and adj. uninhabited, without a home; an uninhabited place; a_va_sika living in, residing at home, being in (constant or fixed) residence (Pali.lex.)

5679.Image: to look back as one moves forward: be_s (-t-) to look back as one moves forward (Kond.a.); be_c (-it-) to have a glance at (Kuwi); becali to peep (Kuwi); be_cinai to look, see (Kuwi)(DEDR 5533). cf. ban-ge to lie in wait (Malt.); be_gu spying (Ka.)(DEDR 5533). Image: to turn away: bhecr.ao to turn away, turn back; bher.tan. to whirl round, to turn sharp round (Santali.lex.) peyar to turn about, return, be detached (Ta.); peyarntu, peyarttu, peyarttum again, in return; pe_r to become loose, change; pe_rttu, pe_rttum, pe_rntum again, in return (Ta.); pe_ruka cattle to turn in ploughing; pe_rttu again (Ma.); pijiruni to turn, return (Tu.)(DEDR 4409). bi_su, bisu to swing, turn round, whirl (Ka.); bi_sisu to cause to turn round, mill etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 5450). ve_pka (< ve_k-p-; ve_kt-) to stretch forth, stretch up, crane the neck (Kui)(DEDR 5519). vac move (Skt.); vacati moves (with a stick), crawls (AV.); travels (Skt.); vacayati moves (with a stick)(S'vetUp.); escapes from (MBh.); vacate_ deceives (MBh.); vacyate_ flies, is poured forth (RV.); vacati walks about; vace_ti eludes, cheats (Pali); vam.cai goes; vam.cia avoided (Pkt.); va_jan.u to pass over, exclude (S.); ba~_cn.u_ to be saved (WPah.); ba~_cnu to escape, be left over (N.); ba~_ca_ to escape (B.); baciba_ to be saved from, to live (Or.); ba~_cab to escape (Mth.); ba_m.cai (OAw.); ba~_cna_ to escape, avoid; bacna_ to escape; ba~_cna_ to disregard (H.); baca_wun to save (K.); baca_in.u to escape (S.); baca_un.a_ (P.); baca_vvu~ (G.); baca_vin.e~ (M.); va~cvu~ to be saved (G.); caus. va_cavvu~ (G.); va~_cn.e~ to escape, continue to live (M.); va_cta_ is saved (Konkan.i); buzoiki to walk, go; pret. ga_s; bozo_nu (Sh.); vaccai moves (Pkt.); bac- to go (Bshk.); vaca_un.a_ to save (P.); ba_siba to escape (A.); ba_ciba_ to exceed (Or.); bacab to escape (Mth.); baca_b to save (Mth.); bacna_, baca_na_ (H.); bacun to escape (K.); bacn.a_ (P.); bacvu~ (P.); vacai is saved (OMarw.); vacta_ goes, turns, happens (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11208). le_nc to go, enter (Gaw.)(CDIAL 8596). cf. peyar (-v-, -nt-) to move, depart, turn about, return, grow loose (Ta.); pijiruni to turn, return, abate (as a fever)(Tu.)(DEDR 4409). For semant. 'deception' cf. vacakan- < vacaka artful, cunning man (Kampara_. Pat.ai-ttalai-varvatai. 10); deceiver, impostor, cheat (Ta_yu. Maun-a. 6); vacakam fraud, deceit (Tiruva_ca. 5,96); hiding (Ta.); vacakam fraud, deceit (Tiruva_ca. 1,55); vaci-ttal to deceive, defraud, cheat (Kur-al., 276); vacam < vacana fraud, deceit (Na_lat.i, 172)(Ta.); vacan-am fraud, deceit (Kalit. 4, Urai.); vacan- deceitful person (Tiv. Periyati. 1,6,7)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5680.Image: strainer: pavitra strainer (RV.)(CDIAL 7983). pavana sieve, strainer (AV.); potter's kiln (Skt.)(CDIAL 7977).

5681.Sea-trader: bhaitra (Tadbhava of bahitra) a ship; ya_napa_tra, po_ta, had.agu; bhaitra-vyavaha_ri a sea-trader, po_tavan.ija (Ka.lex.) vya_pa_ra work; bahi abroad (Pali.lex.)

5682.Image: sun: va_sara a day (Skt.Ka.); va_sara-pati the sun; va_sara-man.i the sun (Ka.lex.) vasar dawn in: vasar-han (RV.); va_sra day (Skt.); wa_s day (Ash.Wg.Kt.Pr.); bs (Dm.); wes (Pr.); wo_s (Pas'.); bas (Kal.Kho.); vas shine (Skt.)(CDIAL 11442). va_sara relating to morning (RV.); day (Gr.S.); va_sara day (Pali.Pkt.); va_ra-ya (Si.); va_ra (Skt.)(CDIAL 11602). bha_s shine (Skt.); bha_sa light (MBh.); bha_sas (RV.); bha_sa, bha_sa_ brightness (Pkt.); bas flame (Ash.); ba_s (Bashg.); bhas (Kal.); bas (with rising tone)(Kho.); bha_h, bha_ flame, fire; hot (L.); bah fire (L.); bha_h splendour, fire; bha_hi, bhahi a slight appearance, tinge (of any colour)(P.); ba_ rays (Si.); bha_s discernment, act of seeing (Ku.); appearance (Mth.); appearance, impression, fancy (G.); bahakan.u to shine (S.)(CDIAL 9480). bha_sati is bright (RV.); appears, becomes clear (Skt.); bha_syate_ pass. of bha_sayati illuminates (Skt.); bha_sai is bright, is known (Pkt.); bha_sna_ to shine (H.); ba_sun to become visible, become intelligible (K.); bha_sa_ to appear, seem (B.); bha_sab (Mth.); bha_sai becomes known (OAw.); bha_sna_ to appear, be known (H.); bha_svu~ to appear, resemble (G.); bha_sn.e~ to appear, seem, seem probable (M.); bha_sta_ appears (Konkan.i); bha_san.u to be seen, appear, seem (S.)(CDIAL 9481). bhaha_ra_, baha_ri_ little earthen furnace (P.)(CDIAL 9482). bha_svara shining (S'Br.); bha_sura (Skt.); bhassara, bha_sura bright (Pali); bha_sura, bha_sira (Pkt.); bha_sara (OG.)(CDIAL 9483). cf. pakal day, daytime, the morning sun, sun (Ta.)(DEDR 3805). viha_n.i_ dawn (S.); bya_n (Ku.); biya_na obl. in the morning (N.); biha_n morning; biha_ne adv. in the morning (A.); biha_n morning, dawn (B.Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); biha_na (OAw.); biha_n dawn (H.); biha_ne adv. early (H.); viha_n.ai in the morning (OG.); vaha_n.u~, va_n.u~ dawn (G.); vibha_yana brightening (Pali); viha_hai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11813). vibha_van bright (RV.); viha_u_ the morning star (S.)(CDIAL 11814).

5683.Image: the number three: vraja a multitude, collection, flock, group (Skt.lex.); vraja, braja id. (Ka.); s'ikhi-braja the number three (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) besi, besa odd, not even; vis.a id. (Ka.); be_si (Te.)(Ka.lex.) pe, pea, pen three (Santali.lex.)

5684.A will: vaciyat < wadi_at (U.) will, nuncupative document (C.G.)(Ta.lex.)

5685.Image: cloth for wizard to sit on: basnaut.o cloth for a wizard to sit on (N.); *vasanapat.t.a cloth to sit on (Skt.)(CDIAL 11438). cf. vastu seat or place of anything (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 11449).

5686.Image: nest: va_hero roost for birds, nest (S.)(CDIAL 11594). bazo_lo wild animal's lair or den (Sh.)(CDIAL 11595).

5687.Settlement: vis.akta firmly fixed (AV. xii.3.13); vis. settlement (AV. v.17.5); vis' settlement, people, peasants; dwelling (RV. iv.2.3); race, stock (RV. viii.63.7); vis' to enter, arrive, settle down (RV. ix.85.7); vis'iks. to share out; vis'e_-vis'e_ in every house (RV. ix.67.9); vis'aujas ruling over settlements; vis'pati lord of the house, chief of a settlement or a tribe (RV. i.27.12); vis'ya of the settlement or a tribe (RV. x.91.2); a man of the third caste (AV. vi.13.1); vis'va-go_trya belonging to all, kinsman (AV. v.21.3)(Vedic.lex.) vesma (Vedic. ves'man; vis' to enter) a house (Pali.lex.)

5688.Wife: bahu a bride, a wife; bahukic the bride (about tobe); bahujon to take to oneself a wife; bahu agu to bring a bride from her father's house; bahuic a wedded bride; bahu ja~wa~e bride and bridegroom; bahudean I got him a wife; bahuanic a married man; bahu to heed, listen to, assent, support a proposal (Santali.lex.) cf. vadhu_ bride (RV.)(CDIAL 11250). bahu_ bride (P.H.lex.)

5689.Married: Ívah carry (Skt.); vivahati marries (AV.); viji_vun. to be married (L.)(CDIAL 11838). viva_ha 'carrying or sending away' i.e. marriage, wedding; a_va_ha = kaa_-gahan.an; viva_ha = kaa_-da_nan; viva_hana giving in marriage or getting a husband for a girl; veva_hika wedding-guest; a_va_ha taking in marriage, lit. carrying away to oneself, marriage; a_va_ha viva_ha(ka) lit. leading to (one's home) and leading away (from the bride's home), wedding, feast; a_va_hana = a_va_ha i.e. marriage, taking a wife ( = a_va_ha-karan.a); 'getting up, bringing together' i.e. a mass, a group or formation: in sena-a_va_hana a contingent of an army; a_vahanaka one who brings; a_vahana bringing, causing; a_vaha bringing, causing; a_vahati to bring, cause, entail, give (Pali.lex.) cf. viva_ha marriage (AV.Pali); vivaha, viva_ha (As'.); viva_ha, via_ha (Pkt.); biav (Gypsy); viha~_u (S.); viva_h, viva~_h, via_h, vija_h, viya_ (L.); via_h, bia_h, bea_h (P.); bia_ (WPah.); bya_h, bya_u, byo, bya_ (Ku.); biha_, bie (N.); biha_, biya_ (A.B.); biha_, beha_, bhia_ (Or.); biya_h (Bi.); bia_h, biha_ (Mth.); biya_ha (OAw.); biwa_h, bya_h (H.); bya_ha (OMarw.); viva_h (G.M.); viva_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11920). viva_hana giving in marriage (Pali); biya_han, bya_han marrying (H.); bia_hn.u_ pertaining to a wedding; clothes given to bride by groom's father (P.)(CDIAL 11921). biahauti_ first married wife (H.)(CDIAL 11922). viva_hayati gives (a girl) in marriage (MBh.); viva_hate_ takes (a girl) in marriage (Skt.); [caus. of vivahati carries off (RV.); marries (AV.)]; viva_he_i marries (Pkt.); biav- (Gypsy); via_hn.a_, bia_hn.a_, bea_hn.a_ (P.); bia_ha~n.u (WPah.); beu~_n.o (Ku.); bia_hab to give in marriage (Mth.); biya_hai gives or takes in marriage (OAw.); bia_hna_, bya_hna_ to marry (H.); bya_hai (OMarw.); viva_hn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 11923). viva_hita gives (a girl) in marriage (MBh.); viva_hiya married (Pkt.); bia_ha_ (P.); bia_ho_ (WPah.); bia_i_ hon.u_ to be married (WPah.); an.bya_i_ virgin (WPah.); beha_i (Or.); behi f. married (Or.); biya_hi_, bihi_ first wife (Bi.); bia_hi_ married (Mth.); bya_hi_ married; marriage; anbiya_hi_ spinster (H.)(CDIAL 11924). viva_hin (in a-viva_hin) connected by marriage (Mn.); beha_i_ son's or daughter's father-in-law (MB.); biyai (A.); beya_i (B.); vi_va_hi_ (OG.M.); vya_hi_ mother-in-law (M.); biya_n, beha_n, beya_n son's or daughter's mother-in-law (B.); vahevan., vaheva_n., vehvan. (G.); vihi_n., vihi_n.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 11925). viva_hyate_ is married (Skt.); via_jhn.a_ to take (a girl) in marriage (P.)(CDIAL 11926). vaiva_hika nuptial (Mn.); marriage ceremony (MBh.); alliance by marriage; son's or daughter's father-in-law (BhP.); ve_va_hika wedding guest (Pali); ve_va_hia related by marriage (Pkt.); veva_hi_ya son's or daughter's father-in-law (OG.); vaheva_i, vevahi (G.)(CDIAL 12148).

5690.Caravan leader: sam.vahati brings together (AV.); loads (a cart)(R.); samva_hayati assembles; drives a cart (MBh.); sam.vahai carries, is ready (Pkt.); sambahan.u to get ready, equip, to be accoutred, be equipped (S.); sam.va_hai drives, makes ready (Pkt.); samba_hin.u to cause to get ready, to equip (S.); samba_hu preparation (S.)(CDIAL 13017). va_ha carrying, leading; a leader; sattha-va_ha a caravan leader, merchant; vahati [Skt. vahitra; Lat. vehiculum; Eng. vehicle; Av. vazaiti to lead; Lat. veho to drive; Goth. ga-wigan = OHG. wegan = bewegen; Goth. we_gs = Ger. weg, Eng. way; OHG. wagan = Eng. waggon] vahati to carry, bear, transport ( = dha_reti); vahati (of iron: carry weight); vahati to proceed, to do one's work; to work, to be able, to have power; pass. vuyhati (Skt. uhyate) to be carried (along); caus. va_heti to cause to go, to cary, to drive away; ppr. vahi_yama_na; vahana carrying; vahanaka carrying, bearing; dhura-vahanaka id.; vaha bringing, carrying, leading; va_hini_ an army; va_hin carrying, conveying; va_hana carrying, pulling, drawing; va_hana-bala army and elephants i.e. army in general, forces (Pali.lex.) nirvahati leads out of (RV.); accomplishes (Sus'r.); succeeds (Skt.); nirva_hayati performs; nirva_ha accomplishing, completing; livelihood (Skt.); nibbahati leads out (Pali); nivvahai passes (time), is finished (Pkt.); nibbhun. to be finished (L.); nibhn.a_ to be accomplished (P.); nibhan.o to pass time well, go on, live with honour (Ku.); nibahan.u to live, pass (time), be ended (S.); nibahai is completed (OAw.); nibahna_, nibhna_ to last, be accomplishd, succeed (H.); nibun to be accomplished (K.); nibhvu~, nabhvu~ to endure, continue, be held on (G.); nibhn.e~ to be accomplished, get through, come well out of (M.); nibba_hati leads out, removes (Pali); n.ivva_han.a completion (Pkt.); niba_han.u, nibha_in.u to accomplish, pass (time)(S.); nibha_van. to accomplish (L.); niba_hun.a_, naba_hun.a_, nibha_un.a_ (P.); nibhaun.o to manage, maintain, help (Ku.); naba_hal to carry on, pass on (Bhoj.); niba_hai completes, accomplishes (OAw.); niba_hna_ to accomplish, conduct, carry on (H.); nibba_ha_pe_ti causes to be led out (Pali); niba_wun to accomplish, conduct, manage, pass (time)(K.); nabhava_vai accomplishes (OG.); nibha_vvu~ to accomplish, bring safely and well out of, overlook, pass by; nibha_van., nabha_van. act of so doing; nibha_v, nibha_vo, nabha_vo passing through well, endurance (G.); nibha_vin.e~ to accomplish, bring safely through; nibha_vn.e~ to be accomplished, come well out of; nibha_v success (M.); n.ivva_ha completion (Pkt.); niba_hu, niba_ho living, getting on, settlement (S.); niba_h, naba_h, nibha_u accomplishment, sufficiency, concord (P.); niba_h accomplishment, protecting (Mth.); niba_ha success, livelihood (OAw.); niba_h accomplishing (H.)(CDIAL 7397). parivahati carries round (RV.); parivahai conducts (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7873).

5691.Messenger: ve_kar ?< ve_gin messenger, courier (Kampara_. Akali. 39)(Ta.); ve_garulu (Te.); ve_yar spies; a class of Brahmins (Tiv. Periya_r... 5,4,11)(Ta.lex.) be_hu, be_gu spying (Ka.); e_gu, ve_gu (Te.); ve_, ve_y, ve_gu, ve_vu (Ta.); ve_vu (Ma.); ve_gincu to keep awake; ve_gu to watch without sleeping; ve_cu to wish for, hope, expect, watch for (Te.); be_gu-ga_r-a, be_hu-ka_r-a a spy (Ka.); ve_vuka_ran- (Ta.); ve_gulava_d.u (Te.); be_hinava a spy, a scout (Ka.); he_riga id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to spy: be_gu, be_hu spying (Ka.); ve_y report of a spy (Tol. Po. 58); a spy (Kampara_. Ira_van.an-r-a_. 15); theme describing the choice of spies (Pu. Ve. 1,6) (Ta.); ve_, ve_vu spying, espionage (Ta.)(DEDR 5533). ve_vuka_ran- spy (Ta.lex.) ve_gi swift, fleet; a courier, an express; ve_ga_yla very swift, of great velocity; a runner; ve_ga_yila a courier, an express; harika_r-a (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Secret: bheu a secret (whence bheua_ spy)(Or.); bheu_ (OAw.); bheu, bhewa_ (H.); bhev secret (G.) (CDIAL 9610). Spying: ban-ge to lie in wait (?Malt.)(DEDR 5533). cf. e.gar (pl. -sil) watchman's raised platform (Kol.); hegar (pl. hegad.l.) id. (Nk.)(DEDR 877). Image: to spy: ve_y to spy out (Maturaik. 642, Urai); ve_ spying, espionage (Ta.); ve_y- (-pp-, -tt-) report of a spy, a spy; ve_, ve_vu spying, espionage; ve_yar spies; ve_ytal spying (Ta.); ve_vu spying (Ma.); ve_gu espionage, a spy (Te.); ve_cu to wait for, look for (Te.); pe.fiz-, pe.l.z (feline) crouches for a spring (To.); pe.f o.k- (o.ky-) (feline) crouches for a spring (lit. place an ambush); pe.f ambush (To.); ve.j to peep, eavesdrop (Ko.); be_du secret information; be_pu lurking, spying; be_puni to lurk, watch, spy, betray (Tu.); ve_gu espionage, a spy; ve_gari, ve_gulava~_d.u, ve_guva~_d.u spy, scout (Te.)(DEDR 5533). Image: spying: ve_ spying (Ta.lex.) Image: spy: he_raka, he_rika, he_riga, ho_rika, ho_riga a spy, a secret emissary or agent (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ocaraka spy (Pali)(Pali.lex.) bhidia, bhiduk spy; bhidi to spy (Santali.lex.) bedaku to seek, search for, look for; n. search (Ka.); vedaku, vetaku, venaku, veduku, vetuku to search, explore, rummage, examine, scrutinize, seek or search for, look for; vedakula_d.u, vetakula~_d.u to search; vedakud.u searching, search (Te.); mehka_na_, mehk-, mahk-, mahak- to search, grope; ma_hakka_na_ to grope, grope in a pool for fish; mahakka_na_ to fish (Go.)(DEDR 5483). ve_va_l. spy (Pan.avit.u. 25); ve_vu spying, espionage (Ta.Ma.); ve_gu (Te.); be_hu id. (Ka.); ve_y report as of a spy (Tol. Po. 58); spy (Kampara_. ira_van.an-r-a_. 15); theme describing the choice of spies (Pu. Ve. 1,6); ve_vu-pa_rttal to spy out; ve_yttal id. (Maturaik. 642, Urai.); ve_ytal spying (Ta.lex.)

5692.Image: speed: ve_ga violent agitation (AV.); speed (MBh.Pali); ve_a (Pkt.); ve_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12089). ve_jate_ recoils, moves quickly (Dha_tup.); vijate_ (RV.); ve_ai trembles (Pkt.); vegan. to be on heat (of a mare)(L.); veg intense sexual desire, venereal orgasm (P.)(CDIAL 12090). Image: speed: beragu haste, speed, expedition, importunity, impertinence, rudeness (Ka.); beria quickly, soon (Kod..); birsu velocity (Tu.); vira swift, quick (Kui); virai (-pp-, -nt-) to be speedy, swift, rapid (Kur-al., 474); hurry, hasten, be intent, eager, be perturbed, disturbed in mind; viraivu swiftness, celerity, dispatch (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 5,4)(Ta.); virayuka to be eager, make haste; viravu speed, haste (Ma.); pern, per0fern quickly (To.)(DEDR 5417).

5693.Image: to see: ve_nati sees, looks (RV.); vae_n to see (Av.); we_n., wi_n., we~_r. to see (Ash.); wre~_ caus. (Wg.Kt.); wan.a_ to show (Ash.); we~ra (Kt.); (mu) binum I saw (Dm.)(CDIAL 12111). vinna found (Pa_n..); considered (Skt.); vid know, find out (Skt.)(CDIAL 11786). vindati finds, gets (RV.); finds, possesses (Pali); vim.dai obtains, knows (Pkt.); winda-un to interrogate (Wg.); wend, windar. to find (Pas'.); ve_ndun to get (K.); vindinava_ to possess, experience, suffer, enjoy (Si.) (CDIAL 1783).

5694.Image: god, spirit: ve_nga, pe_nga (pl.) gods, spirits (Kui.); pe_nu (pl. pe_n:ka) god (Kuwi)(DEDR 4438); pe_n. worship, protection (Ta.)(DEDR 4436). ve_ntan king, Indra, sun, moon, Br.haspati (Ta.)(DED 5529). ve_ntan king, Indra, sun, moon, Br.haspati (Ta.); ve_ntu kingly position, kingdom, royalty, king, Indra (Ta.); king (Ma.)(DEDR 5529). ve_did, ve_did. god (Pa.); ve_ndit. id. (Ga.); devil(s), spirit(s)(Ga.); vand.in in: pe_nd.ra vand.in the highest god of the Murias (?Go.) (DEDR 5530). Devil; madness: pe_y devil, goblin (Ta.); pe_ycci, pe_cci demoness, woman under possession of a demon (Ta.); pe_, pe_yi demon; fem. pe_cci (Ma.); pe_na ghost, spirit (Ma.); pe.n, pe.nm possession of woman by spirit of dead; pe.y demon (Ko.); o.n the god of the dead (To.); pe_, he_ madness, rage, viciousness; pe_tu, he_de demon; pe_n:kun.i, pe_n:kul.i, he_kul.i demon; madness, fury [(cf. ku_l.i devil, demon (Ta.); demon, ghost (Ma.); kole ghost (Ka.); kule id., apparition (Tu.) (DEDR 1918)]; he_ga a mad, foolish man (Ka.); pe_yi demon (Tu.); pe_n pl.-k, pen, ven, pe_nu god; pen. (pl. pen.d.kul) idol, god (Go.); pen god (Pe.); pe_nu (pl. pe_nga), ve_nu (pl. ve_nga) a god, a spirit (Kui); pe_nu_, pe_nu (pl. pn.e_ka) god; pe_nu (pl. pe_nka) devil; pe_ne'esi, pe_ne'esi deceased person (Kuwi); peypeyre to feel fervent or animated (Malt.)(DEDR 4438). Madness: pa_n:gul.a_ madness (Or.)(CDIAL 7649). Image: hermaphrodite; conceit; pride: hekkal.a inflation, conceit, pride; hekkal.avikku to employ a superabundance (of words); hekkal.isu, pekkal.isu to grow inflated, to act overbearingly (Ka.lex.) Stupid: hin:ga_ worthless, boastful (Or.); hen:ga_ good-for-nothing (Or.); he~ga_d., he~ga_d.a_, he~gd.a_ clumsy, stupid (Or.); hokha_ weak, unsteady, characterless, worthless (P.); hoga_ slack, slothful, sturdy and over-bearing (M.)(CDIAL 14078). ha_ba_n. stupid (A.); ha_ba_, haba_r.i dumb, stupid (Or.); habr.a_ clumsy, ill-shaped (H.)(CDIAL 13972). hi_jir.o an impotent man (S.); hijr.a_ eunuch (P.); hijar., hijr.a_ (B.); hijar.a, hijar.a eunuch; hijar.i_ woman with male characteristics (Or.); hi_j weak, lazy, cowardly; hijr.a_ eunuch (H.); hijr.u~ impotent (G.); hejar.a_ shameless, laughing, loudly, impotent; hejal.a_ impotent (Or.); hijd.a_ hermaphrodite (M.); hejar.a_ shameless, miserly (Or.); hucca_ disreputable (M.); hocho low, mean (S.); hoccha_ quarrelsome over trifles (L.); mean, stupid, trifling (P.); ho~cho mean, shallow-minded (P.); hoco, ho~co low, short (N.)(CDIAL 14084). he~dra_ clownish, stupid (H.)(CDIAL 14161). hopal. slack, slovenly, disorderly (M.); huma_, humya_ blockhead (M.)(CDIAL 14177). hu_sar. uncouth, stupid (H.)(CDIAL 14143). Image: stupid female: heccal.a pride, conceit (Ka.lex.) pekkal.isu, hekkal.isu to act overbearingly , arrogantly or proudly; peggu, pegga a backward, dull man, a fool; pen:ga a fool, a simpleton (Ka.); pen:ge, peje (Tu.); pen:ke (Te.); pecci, peddi a stupid, mad female (Ka.lex.)

5695.Image: lame; bowlegged: bango bent, lame, crippled (Gypsy)(CDIAL 11191). bhen:gur.a_ crippled (B.)(CDIAL 9601). pa~_gula_ lame (P.); pan:g(u)la_ (H.); pa~_gl.u~ (G.); pa~_gu_l., pa~_gl.a_ (M.); pan:gula lame; lameness (Sus'r.); pa_m.s'ula, pa_m.s'ura, pa_m.s'uva cripple (Skt.); pan:gula lame (Pali); pam.gula (Pkt.); pa_gal ass's colt (N.); pa~_gal camel (Marw.); pin:gulo maimed in hands and feet (S.); pin:gala_, pi~gla_ lame (P.); pe~gl.a_ slack, dull (M.); pen.ura_ lame (A.); pe_n:gula crippled (Skt.)(CDIAL 7649). pan:gu lame, crippled in legs (AVPar.Ya_jn~.); pan:gu crippled, lame (Pali); pan:ga_ crooked, deformed (H.); pa~gu_ lame (Ma.); pa~_ga_ bowlegged, crippled, limping (M.); pen:ga_ crippled, lame (Or.); pen.a_ limping (A.); pe~_gu limping, powerless (G.); pe~gn.e~ to limp, be listless; pe~gl.a_ slack, dull (M.)(CDIAL 7647). phakka cripple (Skt.)(CDIAL 9037). phalgu small, pithless (VS.); phalgva weak (of voice)(RV.); phaggu worthless, sapless (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9064). ba_guvatana the state of being bent; ba_guha bending (Ka.lex.) pan:ku < pan:gu lameness (Pin..; Kampara_. Mantirap. 66); lame person, cripple (Te_vaiyula_, 25); pan:kam lameness (Aka. Ni.); distortion, contortion of the limbs, deformity (Tiruppu. 18); defect (Te_va_. 46,9)(Ta.lex.) pan:gu lame, crippled (Ka.lex.) phucco undersized, dwarfish, short (Ku.); phuci little girl (N.)(CDIAL 9084). bu~gr.o, bun.r.o small, undersized, simple, humble (Ku.)(CDIAL 9263). put.t.a, put.a smallness in size, shortness; a small, short man (Ka.); pot.t.i (Te.); pot.icu (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

5696.A kind of camphor: bhi_mase_na a kind of camphor (Skt.); bhi_vam.sena_ camphor (OAw.)(CDIAL 9514).

5697.Image: mark of sacred ashes on cooking pot: piva_yam mark of sacred ashes put on a cooking-pot (Takkaya_kap. 750, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) bi_vu a kind of utensil; kr.ttike (Ka.lex.)

5698.Image: formidable appearance: pi_mam < bhi_ma fearfulness, dreadfulness (Me_ruman. 146)(Ta.lex.) pairavar Durga_'s hosts (Takkaya_kap. 429); pairavan- < bhairava a manifestation of S'iva (Pin..); pairavi < bhairavi_ Durga_ (Takkaya_kap. 431)(Ta.lex.) bhi_ma, bi_ma fearful, dreadful, terrible, formidable; Yama; S'iva; a strong man; a very valiant man, a hero; bhi_kara causing or exciting fear, formidable, terrible (Ka.lex.) bigur to be afraid, to fear; to get amazed; bigur, begar fear, amazemet; dreadfulness; bigurvarija, bigurpariju he who has a terrible form: Bhairava; bigurvu, vigirban.e that which is formidable or terrific (Ka.lex.) bhairava (fr. bhi_ru), bairava formidable, awful, terrific; Bhairava, a form of S'iva; te_r..di_ra; gho_ramu_rti, digambara; bhi_rutva fearfulness, timidity; bhi_ru timid; afraid of (Ka.); ka_r..u-bhairava the ferocious Bairava (Ka.lex.) bhi_ fear (Skt.); bhi_ma terrible, fearful (RV.Pali.Pkt.); bim afraid (Kho.); bem dreadful; demon, devil (Si.)(CDIAL 9513). bhi_yate_ fears (Skt.); bizoiki to fear; bi_jam 1 sg. pres., bizo_nu (Sh.); bijo_na (D..); bhiyana_ (H.); bi_ar 3 sg. pres., bi- (Gypsy); biya_m 1 sg. pres. (Tir.); bhi_y- (Mai.); bhiy- (Phal.)(CDIAL 9515). bhi_ra intimidating (Skt.)(CDIAL 9517). bhairava frightful (MBh.); bhe_rava frightful (Pali); fear (Pkt.); bera frightful (Si.inscr.)(CDIAL 9622). bhayate_ fears (RV.); bay- to fear (Pas'.); bha_yati, 2 pl. imper. in: ma_ bha_tha (Pali); bha_yai, bha_ai, bha_i (Pkt.); 3 sg. bayi (Si.)(CDIAL 9391). bhayana fear (Skt.); benu fear (Si.)(CDIAL 9392). bha_yayate_, bha_yayati frightens (Pa_n..com.); bha_yayate_, bha_ya_pe_ti frightens (Pali); bha_e_i, bha_aai, bha_a_ve_i (Pkt.); bhaya_uni_ frightful (MB.); bavanu to frighten (Si.); bhaya_na_ to be afraid, to frighten (H.)(CDIAL 9458). abhaya fearless (S'Br.); safety (RV.); fearless; safety (Pali); abaya nom. prop. (OSi.); abi fearless; abiya fearlessness (Si.)(CDIAL 507). Semant. 'safety' cf. bhi_ma_ insurance (U.modern)(Ta.lex.) abhi_ta fearless (R.Pali.As'.); abi (Si.); awi_h (H.)(CDIAL 537). bha_yayati, bha_payati (Pa_n..); ubha_na_ to alarm (H.)(CDIAL 2040). vibhi_ta afraid (Ma_rkP.); vi_hiya frightened (Pkt.); vibibhe_ti fears (MBh.)(CDIAL 894). vibhi_s.ayati frightens (RV.); vibhe_ti, vihe_ti fears (Pali)(CDIAL 11811). sam.bhi_ta terrified (R.); sambhi_ta (Pali); ham.banava_, am.banava_ to drive away, pursue; caus. ham.bavanava_, am.bavanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12965).

5699.Image: bending; to turn; crooked: ve_n:ku (ve_n:ki-), va_n:ku to bend, sink, subside, move to one side, withdraw; bending (Ta.); benkna_, benka'a_na_ to turn from a straight line, bend, curve; benko_, banka_ crooked, bent, curved (Kur.)(DEDR 5335). Squinting: bhn:ga_ squinting (L.); bhen:gro (WPah.); bhen:gura_ crooked (A.); crippled (B.); bhen:ga_na to grimace (B.); bhe~ga_ squinting (H.); bhya_n:ga ugliness (N.); bhe_ga_ squinting (L.); bhya_n:ga ugliness (N.); bhen:gura_ crooked (A.)(CDIAL 9601). pelka, pilki, perla to squint (Santali.lex.) pan:ga_ crooked, deformed (H.)(CDIAL 7647). u~ka_ri_ curve, crook, bend (H.)(CDIAL 1923). van:ka crooked; bend (of river)(Skt.) va_n:kal bending, curve, inclination; va_kku bend, irregularity (Ta.); va_n.n.uka to bend, shrink, draw back; va_n.n.al withdrawing (Ma.); vag- (vagy-) to be slightly bowed down, crouch, be obedient to orders; vak- (vaky-) to bend, be cowed (Ko.); ba_gu to bend, bow, incline, stoop; bending, inclining, curve; ba_gisu to bend, cause to bend; ba_guvatana, ba_guha bending; ban:ku to be crooked, bend; baggu, boggu to bend, bow, become submissive; baggisu, boggisu to bend; bon:kane in a bending or bent way; bokka with a turn, bend, or bow (Ka.); ba.ng- (ba.ngi-) to become bent, slope; bagg- (baggi-) to stoop, bend down (Kod..); ba_guni, ba_n:guni to bow, stoop, lean on one side; ba_n:ga_vuni to cause to bow or stoop; bagguni to bend, bow, stoop, yield, submit; bagga_vuni to cause to stoop, make bend; baggele a bending or crouching man (Tu.); van:gu to bend, stoop, bow, become crooked, become low or humbled; vancu, vampu to bend, cause to stoop, subdue, humble, overpower; vampu bend, curve, crookedness; bent, curved, cooked; va_ncu to bend head, cause to bend; va~_ka crooked (Te.); vang- (vankt-) to bend; vangip- (vangipt-), vap- (vapt-) id. (Kol.); vang- id. (Nk.Pa.); vanka curve (Ga.); vak-, vang- to bend; vanga_na_ to be bent; vakta crooked, zigzag; vankor, vanko bent, crooked (Go.); van- (-it-) to bend, become bent; vak- (-t-) to bend; vekor.i crooked (Kond.a); vwa_ngali to be crooked; vwakhali to bend; wanginai to be bent, stoop; vang- (-it-) to bend, be bent; vak- (-h-) to bend (Kuwi)(DEDR 5335). Sickle: ve_gu (Mand..); ve_go sickle (Kuwi.)(DED 5518). vivam.ka very bent (Pkt.); vin:gu bend (S.); vin:ga defect (S.); vin:go crooked (S.); vin:g, bin:g crookedness (P.); vin:ga_, bin:ga_ crooked (P.); bi~_gar.o silly (Ku.); be~ka_ crooked (A.); bi~ge~ any crooked or devious procedure (M.)(CDIAL 11914). Dagger: van:ki a certain dagger (Ma.); a sort of knife or sword (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 5211). an:kha sickle (Dm.); han:ko (Gaw.); e_n:g (Bshk.); a_eng (Tor.); a_n:gu (Phal.)(CDIAL 100). Crouch: pal.ku (pal.ki-), par..ku (par..ki-) to cower, crouch (Ta.); pal.un.n.uka to cower, stoop (Ma.); par.g- (-it-) (tiger) to crouch (Kond.a); palga (palgi-) to bend forwards, stoop down (Kui)(DEDR 4015). van:ka bent, crooked; bend of a river (Skt.)[belongs to or has been influenced by a prob. non-Aryan word-group for 'bent, crooked']; van:ka crooked, bend (Pali); van:kaka something crooked (Pali); vam.ka crooked, bend of a river (Pkt.; bango bent, lame, crippled (Gypsy); ba_n.o crooked (Ku.); ba~_g (Ku.); ba~_ka_ crooked (B.); ban:ka curved, crooked (Or.); ba_n:kar.a_ somewhat curved (Or.); Oblique: van:ka bend of a river (Skt.); crooked; bend; van:kaka something crooked (Pali); vam.ka crooked; bend of a river (Pkt.); ba_n.o crooked; ba~_g (Ku.); ba~_ka_ crooked (B.); ba_n:ka curved, crooked; ba_n:kar.a_ somewhat curved (Or.); ba_n:ka_r.a-ba~_ka oblique (Or.); ba~_k tranverse rib of a boat (Bi.); ba~_k bent, distorted, cruel (Bhoj.); ba_m.ka crooked; ba~_ka_ (OAw.); ba~_k bend of a river; ba~_ka_ bent (H.); ba~_ko (Marw.); va~_k curve (G.); va_m.kau crooked (OG.); va~_ku~ (G.); va~_k, va_k curve; va~_ka_, va_ka_ crooked (M.)(CDIAL 11191). Image: curved; crooked; bent: bhan:gi bend, curve (Skt.)(CDIAL 9357). vakra crooked, curved (AV.); vakka crooked (Pali.Pkt.); vakkara (Skt.); wakar (K.); vak bent (Si.); vaka-ya bend, curve (Si.); vakor.an.u to twist (S.); bakauto crooked (Ku.); vakut.u (Si.)(CDIAL 11185). Image: to bend: baggisu, boggisu to bend; ban:ka a bend; a corner; ba_gisu to bend; to cause to bend, to have bent (by another)(Ka.lex.) Bend of a river: vakar.u, vakur.u bend of a river, the gripes (S.)(CDIAL 11185). ba~_k bend of a river (H.); pan:kuram the bend of a river; curve (Ta.lex.) bhan:gura crooked in: bhan:gura_vani having crooked ways (RV.); bent, curled (Skt.)[Like bhangi- it belongs to a non-Aryan word group.]; bend in a river (Skt.); bhen.ur a bend (A.); bhen.ura_ crooked (A.)(CDIAL 9358). vam.ka crooked, bend of a river (Pkt.); van:ka bent, crooked; bend of a river (Skt.)[belongs to or has been influenced by a prob. non-Aryan word-group for 'bent, crooked'](CDIAL 11191). ba~_kar crooked (Bhoj.); van:kara crooked; bend of a river (Skt.)(CDIAL 11193). cf. banka_ crooked, bent, curved (Kur.)(DEDR 5335). Image: bent, crooked: ba~_kura, ba~_kuira_ (H.); va~_kd.e~ (Konkan.i); va~_kud.a_ crooked (M.); van:ku going crookedly (RV.); ba~_gu crooked (Gar.hwa_li_.)--extension -d.-: vam.kud.a, vam.kud.a crooked (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11194). vakrita curved, bent (Skt.); vakkida, vam.kia bent (Pkt.); ba_n:kia_ (Or.)(CDIAL 11187).

5597.Image: wooden instrument for sowing corn: pa_ga_r wooden instrument for sowing corn (M.)(CDIAL 8470).

5598.Image: elephant goad: gaja-ba_ga elephant goad (Or.)(CDIAL 11420).

5699a.Elephant goad; hook: van:ki a kind of iron hook or curved instrument (Ta.); hook (Ka.); on:ki id. (Ka.); oggi, uggi hook, handle (Tu.); on:kiya, on:ke hook or peg fixed in a wall (Te.); vakonjee an elephant goad (Go.) (DEDR 5210). a~kr.i_ hook at end of a long stick for picking fruit (G.); a~kd.i_ (M.); an:ka hook (RV.Pali); curved line, mark, sign (R.); am.ka hook (Pkt.); a~_ko notch (G.); a~_khi_ pole with hook and netting for gathering mangos (M.); a~_kr.a_ hook, tendril (B.H.); a~_kr.i_ hook (G.)(CDIAL 100). cf. akkhika mesh of a net (Pali)(CDIAL 17). anku in cmpd. 'hook' (Av.); an:kut.a instrument for moving the bolt or bar of a door (Skt.); am.kud.aga peg (Pkt.); an:gur.o hooked pole for picking fruit (S.); a~_kur. handle of a hoe (Ku.); a~_kuri-bag heron with a long crooked beak (A.); an:kur.a_, an:kura_, an:kuri_ iron poker for smith's fire (Bi.); a_n:kur.a_ long pole with a hook (Or.); a~kur.a_, a~kura_ fringe-maker's hook and ring; a~_kuri_ iron hook in the construction of a cart (Bi.); a~kora_, o~kra_ iron poker (Mth.); akuri_, ukri_ hook for taking glass out of crucible (Mth.)(CDIAL 108). agura hooked (Skt.); crooked (Gypsy); akra peg (Wg.)(CDIAL 109). an:kus'a hook, driver's hook (RV.); an:kusa, an:kusaka hook, elephant goad (Pali); am.kusa, am.kusaya (Pkt.); an:gus elephant goad (P.); an:kuse hook (N.); a~_kuhi long stick with a hook (A.); a~_kusi, a~_ksi (B.); a_n:kusa_, a_n:kusi elephant goad, hooked stick, tendril of creeper (Or.); a~kusa_ fringe-maker's iron hook with rin (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); a~_kus elephant goad (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.H.); a~kusi_ hook (Bhoj.); a~_kusa goad (OAw.); a~kus'i_ hooked stick (M.); akussa elephant goad (Si.)(CDIAL 111).

5700.Image: turning one's back: verin back (Tol. Er..ut. 300); beri (Tu.); ven back (Ta.); vennu (Te.); ben (Ka.); vennit.utal to retreat, as turning one's back (Pu. Ve. 7,12, Urai.); vennid.u (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ven:ka behind (Nk.); berin:kallu backbone (Tu.)(DEDR 5488). ven- back (Tiruppu. 10)(Ta.lex.) ben, bem. (bej), bennu, bem the back; pr.s.t.ha (Ka.); vi_pu, vi_vu (Te.); bentat.t.u to pat one's back, to encourage; bendagul. to follow, to pursue; bennat.t.u to follow, to pursue; bennasthi the back-bone; benni_ to turn the back, to retreat, to flee; benni_ha flight; bennud.ugu the back to contract or to be bent; bennoggu to follow, to pursue (Ka.lex.) venaka at the back (Te.lex.) bennane at the back, after, behind (Ka.); ven.n.ane (Te.); benna hattu to follow; to pursue; benna_gu to become accustomed to carry loads, a saddle, a rider, as bullocks or horses; the back of an ox, a horse etc. to get sore; to get sore-backed; bennumu_l.e the backbone; bennuhuri the spine (Ka.lex.) cf. ver.in:gi with face upwards; r.e_n.(g)-, (r.e_n.t-) to lie on the back (Pe.)(DEDR 5499). Image: to look back: birampat. to keep looking back as one flees, to flee away at full speed; birampat.e dar.keda he fled looking back every now and again as he ran; biraj to be frightened, to be worried, to harass; birki to be frightened, scared, nightmare; birij birij to harass, to worry (Santali.lex.) bihur to revolve, come round again as the seasons (Santali.lex.) vilambate_ hangs to, delays (MBh.); vilambati loiters (Pali); vilam.bai (Pkt.); vilman. to delay, wait (L.); vilamn.a_, bilamn.a_ to stop (P.); bil.ambiba_ to delay (Or.); caus. bilama_eb (Mth.); bilam(b)na_ (caus. bilma_na_)(H.); bilam.bai (OMarw.); wi_lam to roll down (Wg.)(CDIAL 11891). vira~bn.e~ to hang the head, be downcast (M.)(CDIAL 11845). Image: to turn back: ba_hur.a_, ba_har.a_ to return (B.); va_hud.ia gone (Pkt.); ba_hur.iba_ to return (Or.); bahurab (Aw.); vya_ghut.ya return (Skt.); vya_ghut.ana return (HParis'.); gho_t.ate_ turns (Dha_tup.); ba_hur.an.u to return (S.); va_hur.n.a_, vauhr.n.a_, bauh(a)r.n.a_ to arrive, come and help; bauhar. again (P.); baur.n.o to return (Ku.); bauranu to return, revive (N.); bahurna_, bahuri again (H.); ba_hur.ai returns; bahor.i again (OMarw.)(CDIAL 12192). byo~cna_ to writhe, twist a limb (H.); vikun~cayati contracts, draws back (the ears)(R.)(CDIAL 11632). magud.u to turn back, return (Te.); makit.i to be overtuned (Ta.); magur.., mogar.. to turn round, return (Ka.); magur..cu to cause the face to go or turn backwards (Ka.); magacu, magucu, magur..cu, mogacu, mogucu to turn round, return (Ka.); magute again, a second time (Tu.)(DEDR 4617).

5701.Cessation: be.n:g- (be.n:gi-) (rain) stops, clears (Kod..); ve_pka (< ve_k-p; ve_kt-) to cease (rain); n. cessation of rain (Kui)(DEDR 5522).

5702.Palate: van:ger palate (Ga.); wanje_r, vanjer (pl. vanjehk), venjer tongue; wunjagai id. (Go.); vetol id. (Kond.a); vendul id. (Pe.Mand..); vangosi, van:gosi, vanjus id. (Kui); vendo_ri, wend.ori, vendori id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5470).

5703.Image: wild cat: cf. bekki jungle cats of various species (Kod..); bekku, berku cat (Ka.)(DEDR 5490). cf. put.t.a fox, jackal (Ma.)(DEDR 4261). Image: wolf: vr.ka wolf (RV. i.42.2); vaka wolf (Pali); vaya, vaa, viga, via (Pkt.); varu (G.); vkx (Sh.)(CDIAL 12062). vr.ka-dvaras killing like a wolf, covering or besetting the door (RV. ii.30.4); cf. dvar run, flee like a wolf (Av.); vr.ka_yu wolfish, murderous (RV. x.133.4)(Vedic.lex.) vr.ka a jackal, a wolf; vr.ko_dara wolf-bellied (Ka.lex.) vit.arukam < vida_raka cat (Na_mati_pa. 258)(Ta.lex.) Image: tiger; jackal: burkal, burka_(l), burka_l, burrkal tiger (Go.); burka id. (Pe.); burka id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4298).

5704.Wild cat: cf. bagga, baggu (Tadbhava of vya_ghra) tiger; bekku, berku a cat (Ka.lex.) bagale (pl. -l) cat (Nk.); ba~_vli, ba~_uli, bavuli wild cat (Kuwi); ba_od.i, ba_oli id. (Kui); pa_kkan- cat, wild-cat (Ta.); ba_vuga male cat (Ka.); po_kka_n wild cat (Ma.); ba_vuru_-billi, ba_vuru-ga~_d.u tomcat, wild cat; ba_vurumanu to cry out, echo or resound (Te.); ba_vki wild cat (Pa.); bakoval male cat; bayok wild cat; bhongal cat (Go.); boyka wild cat (Pe.)(DEDR 4106). cf. bat-bial wild cat (Kho.)(CDIAL 9237). Image: tiger; jackal: cf. put.t.a fox, jackal (Ma.)(DEDR 4261). burkal, burka_(l), burka_l, burrkal tiger (Go.); burka id. (Pe.); burka id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4298). Image: male cat: bo_ka_ a male cat (M.); ba_vuga a male cat, a tom cat (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Image: tiger: bagga, baggu (Tadbhava of vya_ghra) tiger; bagga-doval, bagga-toval a tiger-skin (Ka.lex.) Leopard: be_zar leopard? (Dm.); baco_r leopard (Pas.); bacor wolf? (Pas.); bac.ha_r leopard (Shum.); bhaks.amkr.a eaten (TS.)(CDIAL 9341). Image: tiger: va_ghru~ endearing or contemptuous term for a tiger (M.)(CDIAL 12194). cf. bat-bial wild cat (Kho.)(CDIAL 9237). Image: leopard: bagherae a tiger, leopard (Santali.lex.) boak a huge big headed tiger or tomcat; broad full faced; boak asiane nelok kana he looks like a huge big headed tomcat; boak moca big or wide mouthed (Santali.lex.) va_ghu tiger (S.); va_gh (G.M.); va_gu (Konkan.i); vaga (Si.); vag (Md.); ba_gh, bara_gh leopard (P.); d.hl.a_gh, d.l.a_g, dla_hg, bra_hg, brag, bra_g (WPah.); bag-biar.u leopard (Sh.)[cf. bid.a_la cat (Mn.); bilo cat (S.); bilir.o small cat (S.)(CDIAL 9237). pilli cat (Ta.Ka.Te.Kol.Nk.); biley id. (Pa.); bilay id. (Kond.a); bileyi id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4180)]; ba_g tiger (Ku.); ba_gh tiger (N.A.B.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); ba_g (N.B.); ba_gha (Or.); vaggha tiger (Pkt.); vya_ghra tiger (AV.)(CDIAL 12193). bagambar tiger- or leopard-skin (Ku.)(CDIAL 12195). Tiger: ve_n:kai tiger, felis tigirs (Pu. Ve. 3,23)(Ta.lex.) ve_n.n.a royal tiger (Ma.); ve~_gi tiger (Te.); ve_nga_lam leopard (Go.)(DEDR 5521). pilli cat (Ta.Ka.Te.Kol.Nk.); biley (Pa.); bilay (Kond.a); bileyi (Kuwi)(DEDR 4180). vanara_ja lion (Skt.); van.ara_ya (Pkt.); banra_y tiger, lion (H.)(CDIAL 11264). [cf. the extra-ordinary etyma connoting a tiger and an alligator and possible transferance of associated semantics of a homonym: gha_t.h landing place (K.)(CDIAL 4414); kat.t.ai dam (Ta.)(DEDR 1147); kha_t.i_ bank (Go.)(DEDR 1449): khar.yal tiger (Go.)(DEDR 1132); ghar.ya_lu long-snouted porpoise (S.); ghar.iya_l crocodile (N.); gha~riya_l alligator (A.B.); ghar.ya_ (H.); ghar.ia_l.a (Or.); ghan.t.ika alligator (Skt.); gha~t. protuberance on the snout of an alligator (A.)(CDIAL 4422). Tom-cat; leopard: veruku tom-cat, wild cat (Pur-ana_. 324); toddy cat, paradoxurus niger (Ta.); veruku, viruku, meruku civet cat (Ma.); berku, bekku cat (Ka.); bekki jungle cats of various species (Kod..); beru marten, wild cat (Tu.); ve_rig, verrig (pl. vergil), verig cat (Ga.); verka_r., verkar. cat (Go.); varka_r wild cat (Go.); berxa_ id. (Kur.); berge id. (Malt.); berko, berku_ id. (Nahali)(DEDR 5490). blari, brari cat (Gypsy); broru, byoru (K.); bera_l., brail, ghor.-bala_ wild cat (WPah.); bira_lo (N.); bira_l (A.B.); bag-biar.u leopard (Sh.)(CDIAL 9237). cf. veru fear, dread (Ta.); bercu, beccu fear, dread (Ka.); ver-a fear, terror (Te.); veri-, ver- to fear (Go.); bree inba, brehe inba to be afraid (Kui)(DEDR 5489). bi_ra_ coward (Gypsy); bi_ro_m I feared (Gypsy); bhi_ta frightened (RV.)(CDIAL 9511). bi-, biar fears (Gypsy); bibhe_ti fears (RV.); bhiy to fear (Phal.); bihvu~ id. (G.); bihin.e~ (M.); bhitta_ fears (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9241). To scratch: bagaru to scratch with the nails or claws (Ka.)(DEDR 5202). varan.t.u to scratch (as with fingernails or claws)(Ta.); baruku to scratch, claw (Te.); bakr.ali, bark, brak to claw (Kui); varkara_t.a marks of a lover's fingernails on the bosom of a woman (Skt.)(DEDR 5322).

5705.Image: East Indian kino tree: be_n.n.a, ben:ga red sandalwood, p. santalinus (Tu.); ve_n:gor, ven:go, ven:gur ma_r.a id. (Go.); ve~_gisa pterocarpus marsupium (Te.); veuk (Pa.); ve_n:kai East Indian kino tree, pterocarpus marsupium (Ta.); ve_n.n.a pterocarpus marsupium or pterocarpus santalinus (Ma.); be_n:ga p. marsupium (Ka.); ve_n:geri, ve_n:geri marnu bija tree (Kuwi); ve_n.er- maran the bija tree ( = pterocarpus marsupium)(Kond.a); vengogai the dhorbenla tree (Go.); ve_ngesi piasal tree or wood ( = pterocarpus marsupium)(Kui); begasi a kind of tree (Malt.)(DEDR 5520). Pterocarpus marsupium = pterocarpus indicus: pitasala (Skt.); Indian kino, Malabar kino (Eng.); damula akhavena hindi (Arab.); khune siyiavushane hindi (Pers.); natka damula (Deccan); bijasar (H.); pit-sal (B.); chinai-gond (gum)(M.); bibla (M.); honne (M.); peddagi (Te.); vengai-maram (Ta.); hanemara, bethonne (Ka.); common in central and southern India, and Ceylon. This tree is the source of the kino of the European pharmacopoeas. Kino is the juice obtained by incisions in the trunk inspissated without artifical heat... By boiling an aqueous solution of kino-tannic acid a precipitate of kino-red is obtained... kino is a simple astringent, administered in diarrhoea... bark is used in powder or decoction in diarrhoea, pyrosis etc. Bruised leaves are applied as paste to boils, sores and skin diseases. Leaves and stalks which are succulent are fed to cattle... (Indian Materia Medica, p. 1025). Yields a red dye. veuk p. marsupium (Pa.); vengur ma_r.a id. (Go.); vengogai the dhorbenla tree (Go.); ve_ngesi piasal tree or wood = p. marsupium (Kui); ve_n:geri marnu bija tree (Kuwi); begasi a kind of tree (?Malt.)(DEDR 5520). [Tu. form with two meanings has a parallel: cf. Si. synonym, which gets the two meanings: patangi, pata_ngi red sandal, sandalwood tree, pterocarpus santalinus, caesalpina sappan (Si.)(CDIAL 7739)] cantanamum ve_n:kaiyum ve_me_ : Na_lat.i. 180)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_- to burn (Na_lat.i, 180); be_ (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) {Caesalpina sappan and pterocarpus marsupium are both used in dyeing. Caesalpina sappan is referred to as: pat.t.aranga (CDIAL 7707 = lit. silk + red). Pterocarpus marsupium is: ve_n:kai (DEDR 5520). Both mean in common parlance: red sandal. "Pterocarpus marsupium is a large deciduous tree with a stout crooked stem and widely spreading branches; bark thick, yellowish grey, the outer layer corky...distribution: W.Peninsula, S.India and Ceylon...The plant and the gum are hot and bitter with a sharp taste...cure leucoderma...urinary discharges...useful in eye troubles and elephantiasis... the gum is used for toothache on the Coromandel coast... In Goa, the bark of the tree is used as an astringent... Etyma: damulakhain (Arabic); pitsal, pitshul, piyashal (B.); benga, bibla, honne (Ka.); bijo (Gond); bia, bibla, bio, hiradakhana (G.); banda, bija, bijasal, bijasar, biya, hiradokhi, peisar, piasal, pitshola (H.); vengis (Khond); hed, hid, hilum, hitun, paisar (Kolami); assan, asson (Konkan.i); karintakara, malantakara, venna (Ma.); asan, asana, bibla, dhorbenla, honi, huni (M.); hid daru (Mundari); kondavegisa, vengisa (Saora); ganmalu, gummalu (Sinhalese); banda, murga (Santal); asanam, kani, kurinji, pidasaralam, pirasaram, pidagarama, sarvasadagam, sarudagam, tamisu, tannini, timisam, timil, timisu, udiravengai, vandunarmalar, vengai, visaga (Ta.); peddagi, peddavegisa, peddegi, pedegu, vegisa, vengisa, yegi (Te.); piyasalo (Or.); asana, bandhukapushpa, bijaka, bijavriksha, mahakutaja, mahasarja, nilaka, pitasalaka, pitasara, pitashala, paramayudha, priyaka, priyasalaka, sauri (Skt.) The variety of terms may be descripive of its attributes and related to the prescriptions of substitute medicinal herbs in ancient medicinal systems. (Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol.I, pp. 828-829). Image: kino tree: Red sanders: cantan-a-ve_n:kai red sanders, cecantan-am, pterocarpus santalinus (Ta.lex.) Pterocarpus santalinus: rakta-chandana (Skt.H.B.M.Ka.); red sanders, red sandalwood (Eng.); santal rouge (Fr.); dunkelrothe flugal-frucht (Ger.); lalchandana (H.); sandale surkh (Pers.); ratanili (G.M.); rakta gandhamu, erra-gandamu (Te.); shen-chandanam (Ta.); chan-chandanam (Ma.); rachandana (Konkan.i); habitat: this small tree is generally met with in the forests of southern India; part used: wood; action: mildly astringent, cooling and tonic; Uses: heartwood of red sandalwood is called santalum rubrum. It enters into the composition of numerous astringent remedies used in complaints like bleeding piles, haemorrhages, dysentery etc. Decoction of the legume is useful in chronic dysentery. Wood powdered or beaten up into a paste is applied to eyes in ophthalmia... wood rubbed on a piece of stone with water forms an excellent cooling application and purifier of skin after bathing like white sandalwood. It is also employed as a wash in superficial excoriations of the genital organs. In British Pharmacy the wood is generally employed as a colouring agent in the compound tincture of lavender and in Indian preparations, as an ingredient of several medicated oils (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1025-1026). cantan-a_ti Indian kino tree, ve_n:kai (Ta.lex.) cantan-u < santanu a king of the lunar race, father of Bhi_s.ma (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Synonym: murukkan--maram Bengal kino tree, butea frondosa (Ta.lex.) Pterocarpus santalinus: "A small tree, attaining 7.5 m., with extremely hard, dark purple heart-wood... Distribution: Deccan, in the hills of Cuddapha, S. Kurnool, N. Arcot and Chingleput... the wood is bitter with a flavour... inferior to white sandalwood... red sandalwood is considered astringent... external application for inflammation and headache... the wood rubbed up with water, is advantageously employed as a wash in superficial excoriation of the genital organs... Synonyms: sandaleahmar, sandhulhamra, undum (Arabic); kuchunduana, lall chandan, rakta chandana, raktachondon, ranjana, ruktachundun, tilaparni (B.); nasani, sandaku (Burma); kempugandha, patranga, raktashandana (Ka.); t'an hsiang (Chinese); sandelhout (Danish); lalchandan, undum (Deccan); red sandalwood, red sanders, ruby wood, sanders red (Eng.); bois caliatour, santal rouge (Fr.); rotes sandelholz (Ger.); ratanjli (G.); lalchandan, ragat chandan, rukhto chandan, undum (H.); sandalo roso (Italian); raktachandan (Konkan.i); patrangam, raktashandanam, senshendanam, tilaparnni, uruttushandanam (Ma.); raktachandan, tambadachandana (M.); apalit, daytanag (Pampangan); buckum, dulsurkh, sandalesurkh, sandulsurkh, sun, undum (Pers.); sandalo vermelho (Port.); chandanlal (P.); agarugandha, arka, chandana, harichandana, kshudrachandana, kuchandana, kushikam, patranga, tilaparni (Skt.); rat-handum, ructhandun (Si.); naga, narra (Tagalog); atti, kusandanam, picanam, pidagattam, salliyam, sandauam, sandanavengai, sensandakkattai, sensandanam, sivappuchandanam (Ta.); agarugandhamu, ettachandamu, kuchandanamu, raktachandanamu, raktagandhamu, shandanamu (Te.); benne (Tu.); indrochondono, lohoti-chondono, roktochondono (Or.)(Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I, pp. 826-827). Red sandal-wood: kucandana red sandal-wood, pterocarpus santalinus (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) kucantan-am > ku-candana id. (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) Red sandalwood: cf. be_n.n.a, ben:ga red sandalwood, pterocarpus santalinus (Tu.); ve_n.n.a pterocarpus marsupium or santalinus or avicenna or terminalia tomentosa (Ma.)(DEDR 5520). ben:ga fetid smell (Or.)(CDIAL 9307). Santalum rubrum: Synonyms: red saunders, red sandal wood, red santal, ruby wood, chandam; rothes santelholz (Ger.); santal rouge (Fr.); botanical origin: pterocarpus santalinus; part used: the heartwood; habitat: Indo-China and southern India; cultivated in the PHilippines; plant: a tree with spreading branches, trifolate leaves and spikes of yellow papilionaceous flowers. The leaflets are oval and emarginate; use: colouring agent. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 450-451). hone, hane a large forest tree, pterocarpus marsupium; it stains yellow if wetted; the bark when wounded yields a red gum resin, the kino, van someren; hane, hane mara a tall tree, pterocarpus indicus (Ka.lex.) cf. ve_n:kai East Indian kino tree, pterocarpus marsupium (Ta.)(DEDR 5520). Image: Indian kino tree: akan-am Indian kino tree; cf. acan-am; acan-a_ti ceylon leadwort, kot.uve_li (Ta.); akulo_tikam karun:kot.uve_li, a black variety of ceylon leadwort (Ta.)(TED). asana the tree terminalia tomentosa (Sus'r.); as'ana, a_sana, a_s'ana (Skt.); asana the tree pentaptera tomentosa (Pali); asan.a a partic. kind of tree (Pkt.); e~_han. a shrub with prickly leaves (WPah.); asna_ terminalia tomentosa (N.); a_sna_ pentaptera tomentosa (B.); asan, a_san terminalia alata tomentosa (H.); asan., a_san., asn.a_, a_sn.a_, asa_n.a_, asn.i_ (M.); asana (Si.)(CDIAL 963). cf. e~_han. (WPah.) and ve_n.n.a terminalia tomentosa (Ma.)(DEDR 5520): Pterocarpus indicus: vengai (Ta.); ettavegisa (Te.); padauk (Burmese); honne (Ka.); gum from the tree: used as substitute for gum kino; kernel of the fruit: emetic; yields a red kino; habitat: eastern and western Peninsula (GIMP, p.206). Synonyms: chalangada (Andamans); padauk, tounghkayai (Burma); chan kraham (Cambodia); honne (Ka.); andaman redwood, malay padauk, padauk (Eng.); diegou (Fulah); angsana (Malay); diahon, diegou (Malinke); daitanag (Pampangan); agana, antagan (Philippines); khembe (Soussou); asana, narra (Tagalog); vengai (Ta.); ettavegisa, gandamrigapunetturu, simagandamrigapunetturu (Te.); naga, narra (Visayan)(Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol. I, p. 828). Pterocarpus marsupium: vengisa (Te.); bijasar (H.); pitsal (B.); bibla (M.); pitasara (Skt.); karintakara (Ma.); pirasaram (Ta.); gum: a good astringent, in diarrhea and pyrosis, used for toothache; bruised leaves: useful external application to boils, sores and skin diseases; bark: astringent; yields gum kino, which contains kino-tannic acid; habitat: western Peninsula and S. India (GIMP, p.206). asana pterocarpus marsupium (Car. Su. 4.23.(43), 5.73). Bedstead and seats were made of: asana (pentaptera tomentosa)[cf. asana pterocarpus marsupium (Car.)]; hence, a_sana sitting (AV.); seat (S'Br.)(CDIAL 1484). Pterocarpus marsupium: gum kino, Malabar-, East India-, Madras- or Cochin-kino; kino de l'inde (Fr.); kino (Ger.); part used: the dried juice, obtained from the trunk; habitat: forests of eastern India; a large timber tree with alternate, imparipinnate leaves having 5-7 emarginate leaflets, pale yellow flowers and an orbicular indehiscent legume containing a single seed; the phloem region of the bark of this tree contains a number of tubular cells arranged in axial rows. These cells contain a red astringent fluid which exudes to the surface when the bark is wounded. Kino is collected by the natives who make vertical incisions in the bark of the trunk with oblique lateral ones running into them. The red juice that flows is collected in cups... evaporated... broken up into small fragments; use: astringent in diarrhea. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 467-468). ve_n:kai East Indian kino tree, pterocarpus marsupium (Na_lat.i, 180); ve_n:kai-na_t.u, ve_n:kai-man.t.alam the Ve_n:gi country comprising the Godavari and Kistna districts, ruled by the Co_r..aas in the 10th and 11th c. (Ta.inscr.); ve_n:kai id. (Vi_raco_. Alan.. 23); gold; cf. i_n:kai; cf. ve_-tal to be refined by burning in a crucible, as gold (Ci_vaka. 585)(Ta.lex.) Caesalpinia sappan: cappan:ki, cappan:ku < Malay. sapang Sappan-wood, caesalpina sappan (W.); cappan:kam id. (M.M.); cappan:ki-c-ca_yam colour or dye from the root of cappan:ki (Ta.lex.) The popular Sanskrit name is rakta candana, red sandalwood. Red is the colour. cf. ranga dye, colour (MBh. Pali); ramga red colour (Pkt.); ra_ng dye (Tor.); rang colour (K.); ra_n red colour of chewed betel (A.); ra_na_ red (B.); ra~_n:ga_ red, red colour (Or.); ra~_g dye, juice of plants (H.); ranga colour (Si.)(CDIAL 10560). [cf. pat.t.aranga dyeing silk; red sandal tree. cf. pat.rang(a_) silk-dyer (P.); pat.t.aranga id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 7707). pattra_n:ga red sandal, caesalpinia sappan (Sus'r.); pattran:ga id. (Skt.); pattrra_dhya, pat.t.ara_ga, pat.t.arajaka id. (Skt.); pat.ira sandal tree (Bhpr.); patangi, pata_ngi red sandal, sandalwood tree, pterocarpus santalinus, caesalpina sappan (Si.)(CDIAL 7739). pattira_n:kam red sanders, cecantan-am, pterocarpus santalinus (Mu_. A.); cecantan-am red sanders; Travancore red-wood, gluta travancorica (Ta.lex.) Caesalpina sappan is used in dyeing. It is a small tree, 3 to 5 metres high, with scattered prickles. The flowers are yellow with a red spot at the base. It is called sapang in the Philippines < Malay. It is chiefly used as a dyewood, being very popular for colouring the native fabrics. Dymock, W., The Vegetable Materia Medica of Western India, London, 1885, p.205: the colouring matter of sappan wood is identical with brazilin obtained from brazilwood. In addition to brazilin, the resinous extract of sappan wood contains gallic and tannic acids. The leaves (19 %) and bark and fruit walls (44%) contain tannin. bakam the heart-wood of caesalpina sappan used for dyeing a kind of red, logwood; wakam, vakam sapan wood, caesalpinia sapan, used for dyeing a kind of red. Also medicinally as an ammanagogue and depurant, as an astringent similar to logwood (Punjabi.lex.) [Synonyms: baggam (Arabic); bakam (Persian); bakam, patang (G.); bakam, patang, tairi (B.H.); tainniya, teinnye (Burmese); sheng (Cambodia); patranga, pattanga, sappanga (Ka.); patrangam, sappannam (Ma.); bharyavr.ks.a, kashtha, kuchandana, lohitaranga, patranga, pattura, raktaka, raktakashtha, suranga, ranjana (Skt.); teri (Santali); padangam,patungam, sappangu, varattangi (Ta.); bakamu, bakapu, bukkamu, kapuramaddi, okanu, patanga (Te.); bakomo (Or.) Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol.II, p. 848]. Santanum album: "candana (Skt.); s'ri_khan.d.a (Skt.); chandan (B.); saphed chandan (H.); Sanskrit writers describe several varieties of chandana and some include the woods of pterocarpus santalinus (raktachandana) and caesalpinia sappan (pattanga) under this common denomination. Excluding these last, two varieties of sandal wood are generally recognised, namely, s'ri_khan.d.a or white sandal wood and pitachandana or the yellow variety. These varieties are founded on the difference in the depth of colour in the heart-wood and not on any specific difference in the plants. The use of sandal wood in carving, and the elegant and fragrant articles made from it, are too well known to need description here. The Hindus use an emulsion of the wood in the worship of their idols and for painting or anointing their bodies after bathing. Rich natives sometimes use sandal wood for burning their dead relatives. Rich or poor, all add at least one piece of the wood to the funeral pile. The essential oil of chandan (chua chandana) obtained by distillation from the heart-wood and roots, is of a pale yellow colour and has a peculiar fragrant smell best appreciated by rubbing a few drops of it on the hand. It is much used as a perfume by the Hindus both for themselves and for their idols. In Orissa it is a practice with the better classes to rub a little sandal oil in the spices which they take with their betel-leaf. Sandal wood is described as bitter, cooling, astringent, and useful in biliousness, vomitting, fever, thirst and heat of the body. An emulsion of the wood is used as a cooling application to the skin in erysipelas, prurigo and sudamina... to check gastric irritability and dysentery, and to relieve thirst and heat of body." (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 225-226). cf. s'ri_gandha, siriganda, s'ri_khan.d.a, sirikan.d.a sandal-wood; patra_n:ga, patan:ga sappan wood, caesalpina sappan a small prickly tree yielding sappan wood; red sanders, pterocarpus santolinus, rakta-candana; candana, candan.a, candala, candal.a, canda_l.a sandal, strium myrtifolium: either the tree, the wood, or the unctuous preparation of the wood; canda_l.a a kind of sandal, kr.s.n.a_garu candana (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) Caesalpinia sappan: patanga, pattranjaka (Skt.); bakam, patang (H.B.); patang (M.); patungam (Ta.); bakamu (Te.); sappanam (Ma.); decoction of wood: considered emmenagogue, useful in diarrhoea and dysentery; brasilin, essential oil; habitat: S. India, Bengal; usually cultivated as a hedge plant (GIMP, p.44). Caesalpinia sappan: Sapang (Tagalog) is chiefly used as a dyewood... to colour the native fabrics... brazilin is the colouring matter... The wood is official in the British and Indian pharmacopoeias... The seeds are used as a stomachic in Indo-China. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp.374-375). Pterocarpus indicus: erravegisa (Ta.); padauk (B.); gum is used as a substitute for gum kino (Indian Materia Medica, p. 1024). Narra (Tagalog) is a very valuable wood which is highly prized both for cabinet and building purposes. The wood is used locally as a red dye, which is called narrin by Brooks. The wood is official in the French, Portuguese and Spanish pharmacopoeias... It contains a kino, a term adopted from a West African language signifying the gum of pterocarpus, which is well known as a Malay medicine. It is given for diarrhoea and dysentery after being purified by boiling and subsequent evaporation to dryness. Its chief constituent is kino-tannic acid. It is a powerful astringent. In Java a decoction of the bark or the kino is used for thrush, and the kino is administered to arrest diarrhoea. The young leaves are applied to ripening boils, ulcers, and prickly heat. Ridley quotes Hohne, who states that the juice of the root is used as an application to syphilitic sores. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp.426-427). Compound ointment; sandal: ca_ntu compound ointment of sandal, camphor, musk and saffron; cement; tar (Ma.); sa_du, sa_ndu a fragrant substance, perfume; the black colour made of burnt rice or ragi with which females and children mark their foreheads (Ka.); sa_dik smearing (Tu.); ca~_du to rub into a paste; sharpen blade on stone; a black preparation of burnt rice etc., used for a beauty spot on the forehead; a black spot on the forehead, beauty spot (Te.); ca.ndi sandalwood (Kod..); ca_ntam sandal; ca_ntu sandal tree, sandal paste, black pigment made of burnt rice or ragi used as tilaka, paste, mortar, plaster; cantu sandalwood (Ta.); ca_tu-pad.i sandal paste (Te. inscr.); candana sandal (tree, wood, paste)(Skt.); candanamu (Te.); todon.m (To.); sa_tana a kind of sandal (Kaut.ilya); ca_ttu (ca_tti-) to daub, smear, anoint (Ta.); catur (-pp-, -tt-) to daub, besmear (Ta.)(DEDR 2448). cf. sar-i paste, gum, glue (Ka.); car-i, sari starch; paste or gruel used as paste (Te.); sadali gum, resin (Kui)(DEDR 2418). cf. car-u juice, sap (Ta.)(DEDR 2484). To slip: cf. carukku (carukki-) to slip (Ta.); sari to slip (Ka.); carugud.u a sledge; jarugud.u slipping (Te.); jarqe to be dropped, fall (Malt.)(DEDR 2360). cf. ca_r-u to slip off (Ta.); car-ukkal slipperiness (Ta.)(DEDR 2482). sarakvu~ to move, slip, slide (G.)(CDIAL 13250). saran.yu quickly moving (Skt.)(CDIAL 13249). To adorn; to wear a caste mark: ca_ttu (ca_tti-) to put on, adorn (idols, great persons), wear as a caste mark; n. wearing as a garland (Ta.); ca_ttu to wear (esp. holy clothes, caste mark, etc.)(Te.)(DEDR 2449). ca_rttuka to put on dress, adorn; ca_rttikka to adorn as an image ith flowers (Ma.)(DEDR 2460). candana sandalwood (Nir.); sandal tree (Pali); its wood (Pali); cam.dan.a, cam.dan.aga sandal-wood (Pkt.); candun (K.); canan. (L.Ku.); cannan. (P.); ca~_dan (N.); ca_nan sandalwood, paste made therefrom (Mth.); sandu, handun sandalwood (Si.)(CDIAL 4658). cana_t.hi_, carna_t.hi_ small piece of sandalwood (P.)(CDIAL 4659). canaut.o flat stone on which sandalwood is ground for making paste (N.); candraut.a_ (Bi.)(CDIAL 4660). cantam colour, hue (Tirukko_. 211); sandal (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Beauty; adorning: cantam beauty, colour, shape, form, pleasure, happiness, manners, habits; antam beauty, comeliness (Ta.); cantam beauty, elegance; antam beauty (Ma.); canda, cenda pleasing, beautiful, lovely, charming, propriety, fitness, niceness, beauty; appearance, shape, form, kind, manner; anda fitness, beauty, pleasantness; suitable, nice or good form or manner, array, manner, form, nature, faculty (Ka.); canda beauty, elegance; anda form, shape, beauty, elegance, handsomeness, symmetry; purport; beautiful, pretty; anda-canda very handsome, pleasant (Tu.); candamu manner, way, state, condition; andamu beauty; andaga~_d.u a handsome man; fem. andakatte, andagincu to look beautiful or nice, appear adorned, be beautiful; andagimpu adorning, ornamenting, beauty (Te.)(DEDR 2328). chadyati seems good (RV.); chajjai shines; chajjita shining, decorated (Pkt.); cha_jn.o to be fit, suit; chajan.a decoration (Ku.); cha_jab to be beautiful, bloom (Mth.); cha_jai befits, looks nice (OAw.); cha_jna_ to befit (H.); cha_jvu~, sa_jvu~ to suit (G.); sa_jn.e~ to befit, be congenial to (M.); chaguab to be pleased (Mth.)(CDIAL 4982). chadayati seems, seems good, pleases (RV.); cal- to please; calo satisfied (Gypsy)(CDIAL 5019). Invites: chandayati seems good (RV.); chandati (Naigh.); cham.de_i wishes, approves, invites (Pkt.); sa_ndiba to seek an opportunity (A.); cha~_dni style (of speaking or writing)(B.)(CDIAL 4986). Pleasing; style, fashion: chnda pleasing (RV.); pleasure, will (Ya_j.); chanda impulse, will (Pali); cham.dam. (As'.); cham.da wish (Pkt.); channi entreaty (WPah.); cha~_d style, fashion (B.); appearance, shape (Mth.); sanda, snda wish, love (Si.)(CDIAL 4983a). Appearance, trace: ca_t.ai appearance, feature, similarity, inclination (Ta.); ca_t.a faint notice of something, a trace (Ma.); ja.r. sign (made by hands, eyes, etc.)(Ko.); ja_d.u, ja_d.e mark of a footstep or of a carriage wheel, track, trace, a slight or faint notice, wink, hint (Ka.); ja_d.a a sign, trace, track; hint, intimation, way, manner (Te.)(DEDR 2442). Image: likeness: sa_t.i likeness, similarity (Ka.); equal, like, similar, likeness (Te.)(DEDR 2438). Beauty: canna, cennu straightness, beauty, grace, niceness, properness, elegance; canna, cenna a man of beauty, a handsome man; fem. canni, canne, cenne; cannage handsomely, nicely, properly; canniga a handsome, fine man (Ka.); canna handsome, well (Tu.); cennu beauty, grace, elegance, manner, way (Te.)(DEDR 2423). Pleasing: anv fertility of ground (Ko.); anu, anuvu, anavu fitness, propriety, nicety, loveliness, that is pleasing, charming or beautiful, worth, merit, readiness, success, proper or correct way, scheme, device, circumstance, opportunity (Ka.); anutana fitness, opportunity (Tu.); anuvu fitness, convenience, means, contrivance; suitable, fit, convenient (Te.); a, am. beautiful, pretty; ammai beauty, prettiness (Ta.)(DEDR 328). can, cam. redness (Ka.); ce, cem, cekappu, cemmai, cey, ceva, cevappu, cevvu, ce_, ce_ye (Ta.); cem, cevu, ce_ye, cuvappu, cone, covvu (Ma.); ceva, civa, ce_ to be red (Ta.); ceva, cuva, co_ to be red (Ma.); ceve, cevve, ce_guru, ce_vuru red; ce_gurincu, ce_- to grow red (Te.); candana, candan.a sandal, strium myrtifolium: either the tree, the wood or the unctuous preparation of the wood; candana_cala a part of the southern range of the western ghauts, where sandal-wood is found; candano_pala a lab on which sandal is ground; candala sandal; a vessel made of sandal-wood (Ka.M.); candal.a, canda_l.a a kind of sandal, kr.s.n.a_garucandana (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) "Sandal. (...the Sanskrit chandana (i.e. refreshing), Arabic sandali-aswad, Mahratti gandha (i.e. fragrant), and sri-gandha (holy incense), and Hindustani's safid-chandan (white sandal-wood), is the wood of santalum album. It is also tantalon of the Greeks; but their tagalina, also identified with it, was probably teak wood, the sag, sagun, and sagwan of India. Red sandal-wood or sanders is obtained from pterocarpus santalinus, rakta chandan and caesalpinia sappan, bakam... The sandal grows in Timor... and is called chandam, and it is known by that name in all the lands round Malacca... The Canarese, Deccanis, and Guzeratis call it cercanda... though the red sandal is not in Timor, it is met with in asserim and on the coast of Coromandel... white and yellow sandal is used throughout India... and the natives are very fond of pleasant scents." (G. De Orta, pp. 393-399). Santalum album: chandana (Skt.Ka.); chandan, safed chandan (H.B.M.); chandan (P.); chandanam (Ma.); ingam (Ta.); chandanamu (Te.); wood: ground up with water into a paste applied to the temples in the headache, fevers, local inflammation; oil from heartwood: used in the symptomatic treatment of dysuria, in gonorrheal urethritis and cystitis; heartwood yields essential oil, the oil contains santalol 89-96%; habitat: western Peninsula (GIMP, p.221). Pterocarpus santalinus: red sandal wood; part used: the heartwood; habitat: Indo-China and Southern India; cultivated in the Philippines; red saunders is imported from Madras... Use: colouring agent in tinctures. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 450-451). Sandalwood: pattan:ga caesalpinia sappan (Car. Ci. 26.210). pa_tiram sandalwood (Ta.); pa_t.i_ra (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) pattra_n:ga red sandal; caesalpinia sappan (Sus'r.); pattran:ga red sandal (Skt.); pattra_d.hya caesalpinia sappan; pat.t.aran:ga, pat.t.ara_ga, pat.t.arajaka (Skt.); pat.ira sandal tree (Bhpr.); patan:gi, patn:gi red sandal, sandalwood tree, pterocarpus santalinus, caesalpinia sappan (Si.)(CDIAL 7739). {There has been a convergence of semant. sandal-wood and eagle-wood in both the aerial etyma: ven.n.a (DEDR) and agaru (CDIAL)}. nalada = ma_m.si_ (Car. Su. 3.25, 4.14)[since Pa_n.ini refers to nalada and jat.a_ma_m.si_ these are apparently allied species, but distinct]; jat.a_ma_m.si Indian spikenard, nardostachys jatamansi (Ka.lex.) cat.a_ma_ci spikenard herb, nardostachys jatamansi (W.); cat.a_ma_cil id. (Pata_rtta. 995)(Ta.lex.) cantan-a-k-ku_t.t.u perfumery ground with sandal (Ta.Ma.); cantan--a-c-ca_ntu id. (Perun.. Makata. 7,109); cantan-a-k-kal.i sandal-paste (Ci_vaka. 1719); cantan-a-k-kur..ampu sandal paste (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,76); cantan-a-c-ce_r-u id. (Paripa_. 7,74, Urai.); cantan-a-t-te_yvai id. (Perun.. Ucaik. 41,130); cantan-a_ti-t-tailam fragrant medicated oil having sandal as the chief ingredient (Ta.); cantan-a-c-co_lai grove of sandalwood trees (Tirukko_. 107); cantan-a-k-kur-ai small blocks of sandalwood used in preparing scented paste (Perun.. Makata. 17,139); cantan-a-k-kur-at.u platform where idol is anointed with sandal paste (Ta.Ma.); cubical or oblong block of sandalwood marked with the numbers 3, 12, 10, 100, one on each side, the number which turns up when it is thrown being looked for in a book for divining the future (W.); cantan-am sandalwood tree, santalum album (ver-ikamar.. cantan-amum ve_n:kaiyum : Na_lat.i, 180); sandal paste (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 9,157); cantan-avattar sandal attar, perfumed liquid distilled from sandalwood; cantan-a-villai sandal tablet, small cake of sandal paste; cantan-a-ver-pu Potiya-malai, as the mountain noted for sandal trees (Tiruvil.ai. Par..iya. 23)(Ta.lex.) Santalum album: Synonyms: sandalwood, yellow sandalwood, lignum santali, white saunders; bois de santal blanc, santal citrin (Fr.); weisses oder gelbes sandelholz (Ger.); part used: the heartwood; habitat: India and Malay archipelago; uses: sandalwood is used in the arts and as a source of santal oil, the latter being used in medicine as a genito-urinary stimulant and disinfectant, and less frequently as an expectorant in bronchitis. It is also used in the perfume industry.(Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 279-280). Sandal: gandha_pan.a a shop where sandal and other perfumes are sold (Ka.); gandhi smelling, odoriferous (Ka.Skt.); gandha taila, gandhada en.n.e sandal oil; gandha, ganda smell, odour; a perfume (Ka.); gandha smell (Skt.); gandiga a seller of perfumes (Ka.); gandapud.i perfumed powder (Ka.); gandhana fragrance (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) candana santalum album (Car. Su. 3.23, 26.29). cf. gandha smell (RV.); gan deodar tree (WPah.); ga~_da sandalwood, sandalwood paste (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4014). sam.dhai joins (Pkt.); sa_nn.o to mix with ingredients, immerse in spices (Ku.); sa_ndhiba_ to mix up, knead (Or.)(CDIAL 12898). candana white sandalwood, santalum album; raktacandana red sandalwood, pterocarpus santalinus; Indian kino tree or pterocarpus marsupium , peet sa_l (B.) (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p. 155; p. 296). Pterocarpus santalinus: raktachandana (B.Skt.); raktacandan (M.); lalchandan (H.); raktashandanam (Ma.); sensandanam (Ta.); raktachandanamu (Te.); wood: astringent, tonic, used as cooling external application for inflammation and headache, in bilious affections and skin diseases, in fever, boils, and to strengthen the sight, diaphoretic; fresh shoots yield glucoside, colouring matter; habitat: Deccan, in the hills of Cuddapah, S. Kurnool, N. Arcot and Chingleput, up to 1,500 ft. (GIMP, p.206). netta ca.ci sp. sandalwood which is red (Kod..); neytto_r blood (Ta.)(DEDR 3748).

5706.Image: snake: pagela_ a harmless snake (Ka.); pagel a kind of harmless snake (Tu.)(DEDR 3809).

5707.Image: to stir; tremble: pa~_hul a Sikh initiatory rite involving the stirring of a bowl of sherbet (P.); praghu_rn.a turning round or rolling violently (Skt.); paho_d.ai swings; paho_lira one who swings or shakes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8487). re_s- (-t-) to stir and mix (boiling flour, etc.) with a ladle (Kond.a); pressali (prest-), preh- (prest-) to stir with a spoon; pre_h- (-t-) to stir (curry, meat, etc.) (Kuwi) (DEDR 4610). pracala tremulous, shaking (MBh.); pracala_ka springing up (TS.); peacock's tail or crest (Skt.); pacala tremulous (Pali); payala (Pkt.); ps'lyu_ woman's long hair (Pr.)(CDIAL 8489). pracalati starts up from (R.); pacalati dangles (Pali); payalai goes, stumbles; payallai spreads out (Pkt.) (CDIAL 8490). pracalayati wags, jogs (Skt.); praca_layati causes to tremble (R.); paca_le_ti sways (Pali); paccalita shaken (Pali); payale_i makes go (Pkt.); pcil to shake (Kt.)(CDIAL 8491). pir-ar.. to tremble; pir-ar..cci, pir-ar..vu shivering, trembling; pir-akkam awe, fear (Ta.); pir-iki coward (Ka.); id., timid, cowardly (Te.)(DEDR 4200). pe_r..kan.i to be afraid (Ta.); pel.agu fear, alarm (Ka.); pel.ar- to tremble, fear; fear, alarm; pel.ar-isu to cause to fear, frighten; pel.pal.isu, bel.pal.isu to tremble, fear (Ka.); perci shying, strarting suddenly; percuni to shy, start aside suddenly (Tu.); pelakur-u to fear, be alarmed (Te.); bir.k- to be startled (Pa.)(DEDR 4419).

5708.Image: vessel; brim, edge: vakku brim, edge (Ma.)(DEDR 5208). pakkale, pakkare, bakarage, bakkare, bagarige, bagerage a kind of vessel (Ka.); pakkale, pakkare a kind of vessel; a temporary well in a stream (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: a vessel: bisale, bisal.e an earthen vessel; kinni-bisale a small earthen vessel; bin.d.i a big earthen vessel (Tu.lex.) cf. bakkari, bakri bread (Ka.); bha_kara (M.); bakkarihacu a platter for baking bread (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. paka_lam skull (Ta.); bhaga_la (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) To stir a bowl: praghu_rn.a turning round or rolling violently (Skt.); paho_d.ai swings; paho_lira one who swings or shakes (Pkt.); pa~_hul a Sikh initiatory rite involving the stirring of a bowl of sherbet (P.)(CDIAL 8487). re_s- (-t-) to stir and mix (boiling flour, etc.) with a ladle (Kond.a); pressali (prest-), preh- (prest-) to stir with a spoon; pre_h- (-t-) to stir (curry, meat, etc.)(Kuwi)(DEDR 4610). Image: bowl: cf. kapa_li_ a beggar's bowl (Skt.); cf. caput (Latin); kephale (Greek); kapa_la a jar in general; a cup; a cover, lid; kapa_lika_ a potsherd (Skt.lex.) Ship; sail: kappar--pa_y sail made of canvas; kappal ship, sailing vessel (Or..ivi. Cattini. 22)(Ta.); ship (Ma.); kopol boat (To.); kappalu ship (Tu.); kappali id. (Te.)(DED 1219). kappalo_t.utal to sail as a ship; to cary on trade by sea; kappale_r-r-utal to transport; to punish with transportation, as to the Andamans; kappalo_t.t.utal to sail a ship, steer a vessel; kappalo_t.t.i sailor, seaman; captain, chief sailor; kappar--ka_ran- master of a ship, ship-holder; mariner, shipman (Ta.lex.)Little earthen furnace: bhaha_ra_, bhaha_ri_ little earthen furnace (P.)(CDIAL 9482). pa_ka-stha_na kiln (Skt.); poya_n potter's kiln (B.)(CDIAL 8023). Kiln pa~_ja_ brick-kiln (B.)(CDIAL 8251). Potter's kiln: pa_ka-put.i, pa_ka-p-put.i potter's kiln (Ta.); pa_ka-put.i_ (Skt.); pa_ka-ca_lai kitchen (Pirapo_ta. 11,29)(Ta.lex.) pa_kad.o heated, purified (OMarw.); pa_k cooking (N.); pa_kn.o to be cooked or boiled (Ku.)(CDIAL 7621). pa_kat.h cooked, ripe, old, strong (H.)(CDIAL 7626). bhrama flame (RV.)(CDIAL 9646). bha_svara shining (S'Br.); bha_sura (Skt.); bhassara, bha_sura bright (Pali); bha_sura, bha_sira (Pkt.); bha_sara (G.)(CDIAL 9483). bha_ma blaze (of anger)(RV.); bo_m anger (K.); bha_m angry woman, young and seductive woman (G.)(CDIAL 9454). cf. va_ku light, brightness, beauty (Ta.)(DEDR 5332). Flame: bhra_s' shine (Skt.); bra_h, bre_h, dat. bri_s'u flame (K.)(CDIAL 9681). bhra_j, bhra_jas shine (Skt.); bhra_jate_ shines (RV.); bhra_jas shine, spark (RV.); bha_jai shines (Pkt.); d.l.e~u it dawned; burn; pain (WPah.); bra_zo~_e, bla_ze_i aches (Ash.); lohi (Pas'.); bra_ze painful, pain (Ash.); braze pain (Kt.); brdso (Bashg.); byaiz, bez ill, sick (Pr.)(CDIAL 9659). bha_sa light (MBh.); bha_sas (RV.); bha_sa, bha_sa_ brightness (Pkt.); bas flame (Ash.); ba_s (Bashg.); bhas (Kal.); bas (with rising tone)(Kho.); bha_h, bha_ flame, fire; bah fire (L.); bha_h fire, splendour; bha_hi, bhahi a slight appearance, tinge (of any colourj)(P.); ba_ rays; bha_s discernment, act of seeing (Ku.); appearance (Mth.G.); impression, fancy (G.); bahakan.u to shine (S.)(CDIAL 9480). bha_sati is bright (RV.); appears, becomes clear (Skt.); bha_syate_ Cat. pass. of bha_sayati illuminates (Up.); bha_sai is bright, is known (Pkt.); bha_sna_ to shine (H.); ba_sun to become visible, become intelligible (K.); bha_sa_ to appear, seem (B.); bha_sab (Mth.); bha_sai becomes known (OAw.); bha_sna_ to appear, be known (H.); bha_svu~ to appear, resemble (G.); bha_sn.e~ to appear, seem, seem probable (M.); bha_sta_ appears (Konkan.i); bha_san.u to be seen, appear, seem (S.)(CDIAL 9481). Cooked: pakva cooked, ripe (RV.); cooked food (RV.); ripe corn (AV.); pakvaka (AV.); pakka ripe, cooked (Pali.Pkt.); pako bald, bare (Gypsy); pkye (apple) ripened (Kt.); pa_ko cooked (Phal.); paku ripe, cooked (Sh.); popu ripe (K.); poku (K.); pako ripe, cooked (S.); pakk maturity (P.); pakka_ ripe (P.); cooked, ripe, mature, real (H.); pa_ko ripe, well-cooked (Ku.); pa_k cooking, sugar boiled for conserves (N.G.); ripe (OAw.); pa_g cooking (A.); pa_ka_ ripe, mature (B.); pa_ku syrup (Konkan.i); pa_kawun to cook esp. by boiling (K.); pa_kyu cooked (Garh.); pa_knu to be boiled (of water)(N.); pikka cooked, ripe (Pkt.); peko cooked (Gypsy); pek to cook (Gypsy); pi_k ripe crop (M.)(CDIAL 7621). pakva, pakka_, pakku cooked; digested; mature; accomplised (Ka.lex.) papay season of ripening (K.)(CDIAL 7623). pacati cooks (RV.Pali); bakes (bricks)(S'Br.); payai cooks (Pkt.); paioiki (Sh.); payun to bake (earth or bricks), heat red hot, scorch (K.); pewun to start preparations for cooking (K.)(CDIAL 7650). pacyate_ is cooked, is digested (RV.); become ripe (RV.); paccati is boiled (Pali); pac to be boiled (Pas'.); pazei cooks bread, bakes, roasts, cooks on hot coals (Sh.); pacab to be cooked, be digested (Mth.); pacai is boiled (OAw.); pa_cna_ to cook (H.); pa_cai is boiled (OG.); pasi cooked, ripe (Si.)(CDIAL 7654). pa_ka cooking (S'rS.Pali); baking (of bricks)(Mn.); pa_ya (Pkt.); in cmpd. maha-paka (OSi.)(CDIAL 8022). pa_kal quite black (TS.); ripening, causing suppuration (Skt.); pa_il mangos spread in grass to be ripened (P.); pa_l layers of straw in which unripe mangos are placed to ripen (H.)(CDIAL 8024). pa_cayati causes to be cooked (S'Br.); pa_ce_ti makes boil (Pali); peje to cook, boil (Pr.); paz (Tir.)(CDIAL 8028). pacana means for cooking (RV.); cooking (Pali); pacanika_ frying pan (Skt.); payan.a, payan.aga cooking pot (Pkt.); paen.i_ a partic. measure (L.)(CDIAL 7651). pakkuvam < pakva suitability, fitness (Ci. Po_. Pa_. Pak. 180, Cuva_mina_.); maturity (Ta.lex.)

5709.Image: fish: vakuli a fish (va_riyut. payamila_tu tiriyucil vakuli po_n-r-u : Varata. Pa_kavata. Naracin:ka. 234; Na_mati_pa. 269)(Ta.); va_gt.i_ a kind of fish (M.); baggad.e a kind of fish (Ka.)(DEDR 5203). hako fish; bhed.a hako a kind of fish; boar., pan:gas hako id.; matkom hako, mat sakam hako a kind of fish (Santali.lex.) [cf. matkom = mahua tree (Santali.lex.)] Image: fish: baggad.e a kind of fish (Ka.); vakuli (Ta.); va_gat.i_ (M.); va_gu, va_gusa a sort of large fish, madgu, s'r.n:gi, hemmi_n (Ka.lex.) Fish: madgura the fish macropteronatus magur (Bhpr.); madguraka, man:gura (Skt.); maggura a kind of fish (Pali); ma_gur the fish silurus pelorius (B.); ma_gura the scaleless freshwater fish clarius magur (Or.); ma~_gur a kind of fish (Bhoj.); maguri_ the fish macropteronatus magur or silurus pelorius (H.); magura_ a river-fish, skeat-fish (Si.)(CDIAL 9781). Fish resembling the prow of a boat: ma_n:kan- (< ma_n:ga (Pkt.) < man:ga) a fish that resembles the prow of a boat (Ta.lex.) van~ciram a sea-fish, bluish, attaining 6 feet in length, cybium guttalum; seer, bluish, attaining 3 feet in length, c. interruptum (Ta.); vanjaramu, vanju coal-fish, seer-fish (Te.)(DEDR 5217). Image: eel-like fish: mra_u pl. mra_nga eel (Kui); malan:ku eel (Ta.); malejji a kind of fish (Tu.); malu~gu (Te.); maluga a kind of eel (Te.); malanj(i) eel-like fish (Go.); mala_j fish called tambu_ in Hindi (Go.); malnu moyya a kind of fish (Kond.a); mn.iya id. (Kuwi); minj id. (?Kur.)(DEDR 4737). mi_na fish (Mn.); mi_n.a fish (Pkt.); min (Si.) (CDIAL 10140-a). vila_ngu-mi_n eel (Ta.lex.) Fish: mi_na fish (Mn.Pkt.); min fish (Si.)(CDIAL 10140a). mi_n- fish (Ta.); mi_n id. (Ma.Ka.Ga.Go.Kond.a.); mi.n fish (Ko. To.Pe.Mand..); mi_nu fish (Tu.Te.Kui.Kuwi.Malt.); mi.ni (Kod..); min, pl. minke (Mand..); mn.i_nu (Kuwi); mi_ni (pl. mi_nul)(Pa.); pl. mi_nil (Ga.); pl. mi_nga (Kond.a.Kui); pl. minku (Pe.); pl. mri_ka (Kuwi); pl. mi_nka, mni_ka, mn.i_ka (Kuwi)(DEDR 4885). mi_n-pit.i a sub-division of the Pa_n.ar caste (Ta.lex.) mi_n-e_r.u shark, cur.a_-mi_n (Ta.lex.) Fish: matti a kind of fish (Ta.); a small fish, sardinia, used as manure (Ma.)(DEDR 4696). maccha, macchi_ fish (Pkt..Pali); matsya id. (RV.); matsyaka little fish (MBh.); macha (As'.); matsa (DhP.); maco, macin, macho, manchav, maca fish (Gypsy); mo_c (Ash.Nin:g.); mac (Wg.) id., pl. macin (Bshk.); to_a_-mu_su~_ (to_a_- from to- 'in' with a_- 'water')(Pr.); au-mrac (Dm.); ma_s, ma_c (Pas'.); ma_c (Shum.); mace_t. (Wot..); macot.a (Gaw.); maj (Tor.); macot.o_ (Sv.); mach, dat. macas (K.); machu large fish (S.); machi_ fish (S.); macch, machi_ fish (P.); ma_cha_ (WPah.); ma_cho (Ku.N.); ma_ch, ma~_h (Ku.); ma_ch (B.H); ma_s (A.); ma_cha (Or.); ma_ch, ma_chi_ (H.); mam.cha_, mam.chi_ (OMarw.); ma_chau (OG.); ma_sa_ (M.); masa_, maha_ (Si.); mas (Md.); maci, o_-maci (Kt.); maci_, u_-machi_ (Kal.); maci, machi (Kho.); macchi_, machi_ (L.); mas'cali_ (Pkt.); machli_ (WPah.Bi.); mechli_, machli, pl. mi_chli_ (WPah.); machari_ (Aw.); ma_chali_ (OMarw.); ma_sl.i_ (M.Konkan.i); ma_chli_ (G.)(CDIAL 9758). matsyaji_vin fisherman (Skt.); machi_ a tribe occupied in fishing (also weavers and woodcutters: the women act as bakers, corn-parchers, and midwives)(L.); masdiv fisherman (Si.)(CDIAL 9759). matsyaran:ga, matsya-ran:gaka, matsyaran:ka kingfisher (Skt.); machra~ga_ kingfisher (H.)(CDIAL 9760). matsyahan fisherman (S'Br.); macha_ni_ fisherman (L.); macha_n.i_ wife of ma_chi_ (L.); ma_chan. (P.)(CDIAL 9761). machari_ fisherman (L.); mahavar fishmonger (OSi.)(CDIAL 9762).

5710.One who buys and sells vegetables; gardener: ba_ga_vana a gardener; one of a caste that buy and sell vegetables and flowers (Ka.M.H.); ba_ga_yati a garden; relating to garden-land (Ka.); ba_ga_iti_ (M.H.); ba_ga_yatu garden-land, a garden (Ka.); ba_ga_i_ta (M.H.); ba_g, ba_gu a garden (Ka.); ba_ga (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5711.Image: shank of the leg: bagr.a_ shank of the leg (Kur.); bagd.e id. (Malt.); bagd.-pot.i calf of the leg (Malt.)(DEDR 3816). vangel, vatgel calf of leg (Pa.); va_n:gul knee (Ga.); van.n.a calf of leg (Ma.)(DEDR 5249). Image: hind leg of animal: pugo.l hind leg of animal (ko.l leg)(To.)(DEDR 4205). cf. ka_l leg, quarter (Ta. Ma.Ka.Kuwi.Mand..); id. (Pe.Kond.a.Ga.Go.Kol.); kalu id. (Te.); ka_lu id. (Tu.); ka.li (Kod..); ke_l leg (Pa.); ka_li cow, cattle; she-buffalo (Ma.)(DEDR 1479). cf. put.h back (CDIAL 8371).

5712.Image: a road that bifurcates: pan.la fork (Kond.a); pan.la sar-i a road that separates in two directions (Kond.a)(DEDR 3818). pangal di_na the plains country (Kui); panga outside (Kuwi); pan:gen:ga pl. plains people; pangati external; pangata outside, away; panga ra_ji the plains (Kuwi)(DEDR 3819).

5713.Image: parting the legs wide; stand astride; forked branch: bagat.u open the legs, straddle, to disjoin the legs (Ka.); pan:gad.a distinct, apart; bagat.uni to straddle, stand astride (Tu.); pan:ga parting the legs wide; forked branch of a tree (Te.); pan:gat.i forked, pronged, placed wide apart; pan:gat.i-ka_l.l.u bandy legs; pan:gat.incu to part wide, straddle (Te.); panla fork (Kond.a); pan:ga state of being astride or forked (Ka.)(DEDR 3818). Image: astride: pan:ga the state of being astride or forked: a fork, the forked branch of a tree (Ka.); pan:ge (Te.); pan:ga-na_ma a large sprawling forehead mark (Ka.Te.); pan:gad.a astride, apart, distinct (Ka.); pan:gat.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.) phe~gd.a_, phegd.a_ bowlegged (M.)(CDIAL 9037). To divide; images: to separate; to straddle: bagat.u to disjoin the thighs, to open the legs, to straddle (Ka.); vaku to divide, separate (Ta.Ma.); bagi, bagaru to separate, to disunite; to divide, to make pieces, to cleave, to tear (Ka.); vakir to divide, slice (Ta.); vagu (Te.); vagu, vage to separate, divide (Ma.); vakai division, portion (Ta.); vage (Ma.); bage a division, a portion, a part (Ka.); a division or section, a kind, a sort, a variety; a class, a caste (Ka.); vage (Te.Ma.); vakai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) higa hage, hija haje, hid.a had.e to straddle (Santali.lex.) Semant. 'where division is done': Threshing-floor: vekkai threshing-floor (Patir-r-up. 71,3)(Ta.lex.) Share of theto fisherman; division: paccekka, pa_t.iyekka separate; paccekkan. separatelyeach (Pali)(Pali.lex.) cf. pasu (pacc-) to divide, separate, part, distribute, be divided, etc.; pacci, paccu part, portion; pasuge dividing, division; pampa equal share or division (Ka.); payal half, share (Ta.); the share of the fisherman (Tu.); pancu to distribute, divide (Te.); pay-, paiy-pasaluseparation,share;holder with reference to quality of the soil, situation to divide (Kol.); payk- to distribute (Nk.)(DEDR 3936). cf. paku to divide pagadi tribute, tax (Ka.)(DEDR 3808). paka part, share (Si.) (CDIAL 7627).(Ta.);etc. (C.G.); pan:ku-va_l.i < pan:ku + a_l.- mirasdars, land-lords (G.Tn.D. I,311); Land owned in common: pan:ku-k-ka_n.i land owned in common (Ta.) (Ta.lex.)

5714.Dry and wet land; an ancient system of land tenure: pan:ku sixteen acres of dry land and two or two and a half of wet land (C.G. 288); pan:ki an obsolete system of village tenure in Tinnevelly by which the fields were divided by lot once in every six years among the villagers (W.G.); pan:ku-var..i a system of land tenure in which the lands of a village are, for purposes of convenient enjoyment, divided into many shares each consisting of a fixed number of acres and assigned split bamboo sticks (Pa.); paka piece, slice (Pe.)(DEDR 3808). bakala gash, deep incision (Tu.)(DEDR 5202). "The Hitnahebbagilu plates (Epigraphica Carnataca, Vol. IV, p. 136, Hunsur No. 18; parihr.ta-pan:g-otkot.a) of Kadamba Mr.ges'varman (c. 470-90 A.D.) mention a number of privileges to be enjoyed by the donee, the most interesting of them being the exemption from pan:ga and utkot.ta. pan:ga or pa_n:ga is also mentioned in other records of the Kannad.a speaking area such as Kapoli plates (Epigraphica Indica, Vol. XXXI, pp. 234 ff.) of As'an:kitavarman (6th century A.D.), the Goa plates (JBBRS, Vol. X, pp. 348 ff.) of Satya_s'raya Dhruvara_ja Indravarman, a grant (1107 A.D. Epigraphic Indica, Vol. XXX, pp. 77 ff.) of Kadamba Tribhuvanamall and the Panjim plates (ibid., Vol. XXXIII, p. 54) of Jayakes'in I. The word pan:ga = pa_n:ga found in the said inscriptions is no doubt the same as Telugu pan:gamu recognised in Brown's Telugu-English Dictionary in the sense of a 'tax in the shape of one-fourth of the produce collected in olden times by the government on lands in the possession of gods and Bra_hman.as'. But expressions like sarva-pan:ga-parihr.ta, 'exempt from all the pan:gas', suggests that sometimes the word was used to indicate a tax in general. And this is supported by the use of the word pan:ga (rarely pan:ga_) in a large number of medieval Telugu inscripions (ibid., p. 55-56) sometimes in the sense of a group of levies. In these records, we have, besides pan:ga-tappu and pan:ga-s'ulka or pan:ga-tappu-s'ulka in a single compound, the word used along with other levies called a_ya-s'ulka, pannu, ka_n.ika, dars'ana, upaks.iti, put.t.i and ma_d.alu. Both a_ya and s'ulka mean 'tolls, tax, customs etc.', and the compound a_ya-s'ulka may mean 'customs duties'. Wilson's glossary recognises pannu as a Tamil word meaning 'tax, tribute, custom, rent' and it is also recognised by Brown as a Telugu word meaning 'a tax'. ka_n.ika may be Kannad.a ka_n.ike-ka_n.e or ka_n.ike-kappa (or kappa-ka_n.ike) recognised by WIlson in the sense of a 'present from an inferior to a superior, a subscription, a donation'. Brown recognises Telugu ka_nika or ka_nuka in the same sense. dars'ana is the Tamil pa_vai and Persian nazra_na. put.t.i reminds us of Telugu put.t.idosillu recognised by Wilson in the sense of a 'fee of two handfuls from each put.t.i of grain paid to the village servants'. ma_d.alu reminds us what Wilson says under ma_d.a : 'a half pagoda; where it is applied to a rate of rent, payment of 50 per cent'. The expression pan:gatappu may indicate interest or fine on arrears of pan:ga. upaks.iti probably means the tax on a particular kind of land such as khajjana. The word utkot.a, mentioned in the Hitnabebbagilu plates, is not known from Sanskrit lexions. But there is no doubt that it is the same as Prakrit ukkod.a meaning 'things to be offered to the ra_jakula (i.e. the king, royal officers and members of the royal family), and 'presents made to the king and others'.

5715.Once-ploughed; to crack: papka (<pak-p-; pakt-) to crack, break up the earth at a first ploughing; n. act of splitting (Kui); pak- (-h-) to cut open; pakhali to gash (Kuwi); pa_xna_ to force open, to expand by main strength (Kur.); pay- to break (Nk.)(DEDR 3808). Image: to cut in slips: vakir (-v-, -nt-) to slice, cut in slips, split, cleave, tear open, divide; n. tearing, scratch, slice; vaci (-v-, -nt-) to split, cut (Ta.); bagaru to scratch with the nails or claws; bagi to separate, divide, make peaces, cleave, tear, lacerate, scratch, dig, scrape (bottom of pot with spoon); bage division, portion, part, section, sort, vanity, class, caste (Ka.); bakala gash, deep incision (Tu.); bakr.ali, bark- (-it-), brak- (-h-) to claw (Kuwi)(DEDR 5202). cf. varan.t.u to scratch (Ta.); beran.t.u, berat.u, ben.t.u to dig or scratch with nails or claws (Ka.)(DEDR 5322). To split: palkna_ to cut lengthwise, split, crack (Kur.); palke to cut up (as fruit or vegetable)(Malt.); palva split piece of wood (?Pa.)(DEDR 3991). Thin strip of metal, wedge, stake: pha_ri_ half a hide (Bi.); pha_l.o share (G.); pha_la board, slab (Pali); pha_laka splitting (Pali); pha_la_ chip (B.); pha_li strip (B.); pha_l.ia_ chip (Or.); pha_r piece (H.); pha_l. slip of wood (M.); pha_ra slice (S.); piece (H.) (CDIAL 9073). cf. pha_laka splitting (Pali.lex.) pa_ki lath (Kuwi); pukee a portion split from a bamboo (Go.)(DEDR 3808). Property; item: vaku to separate, divide, apportion, distribute; vakuti division, class, category; vakuppu dividing, classifying, section, division, class; vakai arrange a subject (Ta.); vakukka to divide (Ma.); vakuppu kind, sort, section, paragraph; vaka division, kind, item, means, property, stock; vakayikka to accomplish a business (Ma.); bagi to separate, disunite, divide, make pieces; bage division, portion, part, class, caste (Ka.); bage kind, manner, means, resource, income; bakala gash, deep incision (Tu.); vaga manner, means (Te.); vaka variety, sort, kind (Kui)(DEDR 5202).

5716.Image: joints; gap: pakat.u joints, gap (pakat.t.i n-ot.ittu : Takkaya_kap. 483)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) bakka, bakkat.a, bakkambayal, bakkat.abayal, bat.t.abayal an empty, void place, a wide, open plain; a void, a vacuum, vacuity; bakkat.a voidness, bareness (Ka.); bakhal.a open space; any void spot (M.)(Ka.lex.) bhaj divide, distribute; bhanakti divides (Skt.); bha~jna_ to be divided (H.); bha~_jn.e~ to distribute (M.)(CDIAL 9360). Images: broken; split; gate; fold; turn; flee: cf. bhagna broken; bhan:ga breaking (VS.)(CDIAL 9353). cf. bha_gol. gate in wall of town or village (G.)(CDIAL 9352). bhagga broken (Pali); bhagga broken, fled (Pkt.); bhaggia (Ap.); phago broken; phag- to break; bag- to break, lose (by a transac-tion)(Gypsy); bhago broken, fled; pp. of bhajan.u (S.); bhaggana_ to run; bhagel cowardly (P.); bhaggn.u_ to break; bhage_ 3 pl. pret. were deducted (WPah.); bha_gn.o to flee (Ku.); bha_gnu, bha_ga_-bha_g flight (N.); bhaga_ broken, cracked; bha_giba to crack, be ruined, flee (A.); bha_g flight; bha_ga_ to flee (B.); bhaga_ broken; bha_giba_ to be broken, to flee (Or.); bha_gab to flee, run (Mth.); bha_gal defeated (Mth.); bha_gab to run away (Aw.); bha_ga_ running (H.); bha_gna_ to flee (H.); bha_gai runs (OMarw.); bha_gu~ broken, idle (G.); bha_gvu~ to break, flee (G.); bha_gn.e~ to give way (of a pillar etc.), get away, be tired (M.); bha_gta_ wastes away (Konkan.i); bhanna_ broken, fled; pp. of bhajjan.; bhannan. to break, pass (time); bhanun. (L.); bhann crease; beating, change (of money); bhann.a_, bhannana_ to break; bhana_un.a_ to change (money); bhanyon.o id. (Ku.); bha_nab to be dispersed, be dissipated (Mth.); bha_n. flight, rout (of an army)(P.); bha_nna_ to break; caus. bhuna_na_, bhunna_ to be changed (of money)(H.)(CDIAL 9361). bha~ga_r broken pots, a collection of broken pots (G.)(CDIAL 9356). bhajaka breaker (of doors)(Skt.); bhajaka in cmpd. 'breaking' (Pali); bham.jaa (Pkt.); bhau interruption (S.); bha~_j flight (P.); bha~_ci_ interruption, obstacle (Ku.); bha~_jo, bha~_ji, bha~_ci interruption, obstacle (N.); bha~_ji_ interruption (H.)(CDIAL 9362). bhanakti, pl. bhajanti breaks (RV.); bhajati (Pali); bham.jai breaks (Pkt.); bham.jia fled (Pkt.); bhanju_m I beat (Phal.); hhaan.u to break, split (S.); bha~_cn.o to turn a metal article into another shape; bha~_ja~r.~ to break (Ku.); bha~_cnu (N.); bha~_ja_ to fold (B.); bha_jiba_ to break in pieces, fold (Or.); to flee (Or.); bha~_jal to fold (Bhoj.); bha~_jna_ to break, twist, turn; bha~jna_ to be divided (H.); bha~_jvu~ to break (G.); bha~_jn.e~ to distribute (M.); bham.ja_via put to flight (Pkt.); bha~ja_unu to change (money)(N.); bhajeiba_ to cause to be broken or folded (Or.); bha~ja_na_ to change (money)(H.)(CDIAL 9363). bhajana breaking (MBh.); bhajana in cmpd. 'breaking (e.g. of an axle)' (Pali); bham.jan.a, bham.jan.a_ (Pkt.); bha~_jn.i_ dividing, division, dividend (G.)(CDIAL 9364). bhajyate_ is broken (AV.); bhagna broken, torn, defeated, lost (MBh.); break of a bone (Sus'r.); bhanakti puts to flight (Skt.); bham.ja_via put to flight (Pkt.); (dis'o_) 'bhyabhajata_m fled (Skt.); dis'o_bha_ga fleeing (Skt.); bhajjai is broken (Pkt.); bhajan.u to be broken, flee, gallop (S.); bha_ju_ deserter (S.); bhajjan. to be broken, flee; bhajjun. (L.); bhajjn.a_, bhajjana_ to flee (P.); bha_jn.o~_ to retire from a case (P.); bha_jn.o to flee, run, escape (Ku.); bha_jai is broken (OB.); bha_jiba_ to be broken, be routed, flee (Or.); bha_jab to run away (Aw.); bha_jna_, bhajna_ (H.); bha_jai disappears, runs (OMarw.); bhaja_in.u to put to flight (S.); bhaja_van. (L.); bhaju_n.o (Ku.); bhaja_un to change money (N.); bhaja_na_ to put to flight (H.)(CDIAL 9361). Image: bend: bha~_z bend, contraction, distortion; bha~zuwa_ bent (A.); bha~_j fold, folding (B.); bhaja_ breaking (Or.); bha~_j one turn of working a sugarcane mill (Bi.); bha~_j twisting (H.)(CDIAL 9362). Image: crack; break: pakkit.u-tal to part, crack, give way, split; pakku fracture, break (W.); double-dealing, duplicity (Te_va_. 17,3); pakavu slice, bit (Kur-al., 889); share, portion; crack; pan:ku-pakircci share, portion; pan:ku-ka_kam share, portion; partition (Ta. Tinn.); pan:ku-ma_l list of shares (C.G.); cf. + ma_l (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. paku-ttal to distribute, apportion, allot (Kur-al., 322); pakukka id. (Ma.); paku-ttal to classify; to divide, cut into pieces (Ta.); pagulutcu id. (Te.); paku-ttal to root out, tear off (Kampara_. Ilan:kaiyeri. 55); paku-tal to be split, divided (Tiruppu. 841); pagulu id. (Te.); cf. paku-tal to be at variance, disunited; to separate (Kur-al., 187); pakuka id. (Ma.); paku-tal to divide (Tiruva_lava_. 30,30); pakuti portion, part, allotment, division (Tiruva_ca. 3,1)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); cf. pakir-tal to divide into shares, distribute, parcel out, apportion (Kantapu. Maka_ca_t. 20); to break, split; to separate (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 131); pakir share, section, portion (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 89); piece (Tiruvil.ai. Na_kameyta. 15); pan:ki_t.u dividing, sharing allotting, distributing (Ta.lex.)

5717.Image: unhusked rice: bagad.e rice, roughly cleaned (Ka.); bagad.a (M.); bagad.eyakki an inferior kind of rice used to feed elephants, buffaloes etc. (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Gleanings: hakkalu, hakkal, ba_kalu, hakkala gleanings (of corn)(Ka.); vad.ege, varige (Te.); por-ukku to pick or peck up, from the ground as grain, small stones etc. (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) To throw in a sack: ba_kna_ to throw in, put in (a basket, sack, vessel, any dry goods, corn, money, etc. with the hands)(Kur.); bake to take up (as earth) (Malt.); ba_kalu gleaning (Ka.)(DEDR 4051). bag aenom, bag panjar, bajal rice-plant (Santali.lex.) paka_l.a-pa_ttu < baka_labha_t rice mixed with curds and seasoned (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) baka_l.abha_tu shopkeepers' rice: rice mixed with curds, butter and milk (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) va_kkal boiled rice from which conjee has been strained (Pur-ana_. 215)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5718.Unsifted paddy on the threshing-floor: pon:kar..i unsifted paddy on the threshing-floor (Cilap. 10,151); pon:kar--campa_ a kind of campa_ paddy (W.)(Ta.lex.) hor.o, hur.u rice-plant; boro hur.u variety of rice; baihar. first class rice-land (Santali.lex.) cf. pulam rice field (Ta.)(DEDR 4303). cf. pur..ukkal cooked rice (Ta.)(DEDR 4345). cf. pula_ka a lump of boiled rice (Skt.)(CDIAL 8295). Image: unhusked rice: cf. val (pl. valkul) grain of unhusked rice (Kol.); valku pl. paddy, rice (Nk.)(DEDR 5287). Red rice: bagar. coarse grass, a kind of red rice (P.); a kind of rice (Ku.); bagar.a_ a kind of coarse rice (N.); bagar., bagr.a_ rice roughly cleaned (H.); bagad. (M.)(CDIAL 9119). pan:ka_l.a-c-campa_ a kind of paddy; pan:ku-nel a kind of paddy (Ta.lex.) bha_tyan., bha_ten., bha_tyen. rice-straw (M.)(CDIAL 9334). pakta_ta_yam revenue in paddy (S.I.I. i,81)(Ta.lex.) pasa_i_, pasahi_ a wild rice growing in shallow ponds (H.); prasa_tika_ a kind of small-grained rice (Ma_rkP.); pras'a_tika_ (Car.); prasa_dhika_ wild rice (Bhpr.); pasa_diya_ a kind of rice (Pali); sam.sa_diya_ a kind of rice (Pali)(CDIAL 8830). pasia_ water filtered from boiled rice (Or.); pasewa_ juice draining off fresh opium (Bi.); prase_ka flowing forth (MBh.); resin (R.)(CDIAL 8852). pasyu_n.o to drain extra water off rice while cooking (Ku.); prasin~cati pours out (AV.); prase_cayati pours into (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 8853). ca_tam boiled rice (Kumare_. Cata. 63)(Ta.)l; sa_damu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

5719.Image: pleiades: bahulika_ pl. pleiades; bahula born under the pleiades; the pleiades (Skt.lex.) bahule, bahulegal. the pleiades or kr.ttika_s (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: female deities of the pleiades: va_kulai < vahula_ the six presiding female deities of the Pleiades; va_kule_yan- < va_kule_ya Skanda (Ta.lex.) bahula_ the Pleiades (Va_rBr.S.); bahul id. (Kal.); bol, boul, bolh (Kho.); bale (Sh.)(CDIAL 9195). pa_kulam < ba_hula the month of Ka_rttikai = November-December; pa_kul.i full moon in the month of purat.t.a_ci (Vina_yakapu. 37,81)(Ta.lex.) ba_hule_ya Ka_rttike_ya, son of S'iva; ba_hula the month ka_rttika (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5720.Image: procession: u_ghalvu~ to start in procession for bride's father's house, go in procession (G.)(CDIAL 1970). u_r-valam procession (Ta.lex.) u_rko_lam, u_rvalam procession on festive occasions; id., round a town or village, the course of such processions being such that the village is always to one's right (Ta.lex.) Image: parade: mucca_rikai parade of horses, chariots and elephants (E_la_ti, 12)(Ta.lex.)

5721.Image: beautiful women; wedding garment; beauty: hen:gal., pen:gal.u women; hen:gosu, pen:gosu a woman; an:gane (Ka.lex.) valgu beautiful (RV.); vaggu beautiful (Pali.Pkt.); bagg white wood (L.); bagga_ white (L.P.); ba_ga_ robe of honour, wedding garment (H.)(CDIAL 11421). va_ku beauty; light, brightness; niceness, orderliness, propriety; skill (Ta.); bagu beauty (Te.); va_ga (Tu.Ma.) (Ta.lex.) ba_gu good, well-being, welfare, profit, nice, proper, right, correct, beautiful (Te.); ba_guga_ well, nicely, finely, beautifully, etc.(Te.); ba_gula~_d.i beautiful woman (Te.)(DEDR 5332). hen:gasu (abbreviation of hen:gosu) a female; a woman; a wife; hem., pem. (pej) a female, a woman; pem., pen., pen:gosu a woman; pen:gosukeyya S'iva (Ka.lex.) Bride: hoka_l, hokle, oka_l, voka_l, vokle bride (Kon. lex.) Woman: pen. woman, of four classes, viz., patumin-i, cittin-i, can:kin-i, attin-i (Kur-al., 907); daughter (Kantapu. Tiruppa. 35); pen. woman (Ka.Ma.); bride (Akana_. 112); wife (Pur-ana_. 82); female of animals and plants (Tiva_.); pen.t.i (Te.); pen.-cako_taram sister; pen.t.akai womanliness (Kur-al., 1083); pen.t.u woman (Ven:kaikko_. 47); pen.t.i (Te.); pen.d.a (Ka.); pen.d.i (Ma.); pen.t.u wife (Ain:kur-u. 57); pen.n.at.i female child or heir (Vir-alivit.u, 152); pen.n.i_rmai womanliness (Nalvar..i, 16); pen.pil.l.ai woman (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 7); pen.pen.t.a_t.t.i woman (I_t.u, 6,2, Pra.); pen.var..i female line, as in inheritance (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. phen, be_n sister (Gypsy)(CDIAL 9349). bha_gin having a share in (Mn.); sharing (Pali)(CDIAL 9432). pakin-i sister (Civataru. Pa_va. 33)(Ta.lex.) bhagini the happy or fortunate one; a sister; a woman in general (Ka.lex.) bhagini_ sister (Mn.); bhaginika_ (Skt.); bhagin an expression of good wish: bhagah- hani_na_m (RV. i.163.8)(CDIAL 9349). bhaga dispenser, epithet of the gods, assigning, granting rices (RV. ii.11.21); wealth given by the gods, possession, prosperity, good fortune, good luck, benediction (RV. iii.54.21); [ba_ga (Aw.)]; bhagvant possessing fortune, fortunate, prosperous (RV. vii.41.5); bhagitama fortunate, rich (KS. viii.1; AV. vi.129.1)(Vedic.lex.) cf. the marumakatta_yam system of inheritance in Malabar. A form *baghini_ never existed between the age of As'oka and the first emergence of Pkt. bahin.i_... the new bahin.i_ belonged to the Centre, the older bhain.i_ remaining on the periphery in Dard., S.L.P., some WH. dialects, EA., Or., and Konkan.i (CDIAL 9349). bhaginina sister (As'.); bhagini_ (Pali); bhagini_nam. gen. pl. (As'.); bha(g)in.i_, bha(g)in.ia_, bahin.i_ (Pkt.); phen, be_n (Gypsy); bem (D..); baine (Wg.); bai_n (Wot..); bhe~, byawn, bhi~_ (Mai.); biha~_ (Chil.); bhe_n., behe_n. sister, brother's wife (Phal.); bee sister; bi, biu term of address to woman of equal or moderate age; bhain, bahin., be_an, bi_ni (K.); bhen., bhen.u (S.); bhn., bhn.u_, pl. bhn.a~, bhe_n. (L.); bhain. younger sister; bhain sister (P.); baihn., bhe_n., pl. bhe_n.i_, bhain. younger sister (WPah.); bain.i, be~_r.i (Ku.); baini younger sister (N.); bahini, bhani (A.); bain, buin, bon, bhain (B.); bhain.i_, bhaan.i_, bhaun.i_, bhaen.i_, bhaun.d.i_, bahin.i_, bahen.i_ (Or.); bahin, bahini (Mth.); bahini (Aw.); bahin, bahan, bhain (H.); bhaini_ (Brj.); bahan.a, bhan.a (OMarw.); bahina (OG.); bahen, ben sister; beni_ dear sister, confidante; bhen, bhun (G.); bahi_n. (M.); bhain.i (Konkan.i); buhuna_, buhun elder sister (Si.); bihini_, bihin (Si.)(CDIAL 9349). bhagini_pati sister's husband (Skt.); bhain.i_vai sister's husband (Pkt.); bema (K.); bhen.i_vio sister's husband (S.); bhanu_ia_, bhanvi_a, bhuni_a, bhan.vi_a, bhan.veia_, bhan.i_a_, bhn.i_a_ (L.); bhan.oi_, baihnoi_, bhanoi_ (P.); bhanoia_, ba(h)noi_, bhan.vayya_, bhanvayya_, bhanvi_yya_ (P.); bhina_ elder sister's husband (Ku.); bhena_, bhina_-ju (N.); bainai, bhauna_i, bhinihi younger sister's husband (A.); banui, bana_i sister's husband (B.); bhen.oi_, bhen.ei_, bhin.oi (Or.); bhinoi_, bhineu_, bahnoi_, bahneu_, bhi_na_ (H.); bahan.eu (OMarw.); banevi_ (G.)(CDIAL 9350). bhagini_suta sister's son (Skt.); benathar sister's son (K.); bahnot (H.)(CDIAL 9351). bha_gine_ya sister's son (Pa_rGr..); bha_gine_yaka (MBh.); bha_gine_yi_ sister's daughter (Skt.); bha_gineyya sister's son (Pali); bha_gin.e_ya, bha_in.e_ya, bha_gin.ejja, bha_in.ejja, bha_yan.ijja, bha_in.ijja (Pkt.); benaza sister's daughter (K.); bha_n.ejo, bha_n.iju, bha_n.ijo (S.); bhan.ea_, bhan.ei_, bhan.eja_, bhan.eji_, bha~r.e_a_ (L.); bha_n.ja_, bha_n.ji_, bha_naja_, bhane_(v)a~_, bhane_vi~_ (P.); bhan.e_j, bhan.e_ji (WPah.); bha_n.ij, bha_n.ijo, bha_n.jo (Ku.); bha_nij, bha_nji (N.); bhan.aja_, bha_n.iji (Or.); bhaine (OH.); bha~_ja_, bhanejan, bha~_ji_ (H.); bha_n.ej, bha_n.iyo, bha_n.o, bha_n:ko, bha_n.eji_, bha_n.ji_, bha_n:ki_ (G.); bahana_, ba_na_ sister's son, elder brother, daughter's husband (Si.)(CDIAL 9433). paaun.i_, paun.i_ husband's elder sister (Ku.)(CDIAL 7729). sawasin pl. sisters; deo bhagin children of sister; bahonhar renic sister-in-law; boeha sister (Santali.lex.) ja_vai_n. daughter's husband's sister (M.)(CDIAL 5199). cf. ja_ma_tr. daughter's husband (RV.)(CDIAL 5198). ja~wa~e gomket son-in-law (Santali.lex.) madavana, mayduna a man connected by marriage: a husband (Ka.); maccun-an- a brother-in-law; a cousin who is the mother's brother's son or the father's sister's son; maittun-an- a brother-in-law (Ta.); maccuna the son of a mother's brother or of a father's sister (Ma.); maruka, marumakan- son-in-law (Ta.); mar-indalu the daughter of a mother's brother etc.; mar-idi the son of a mother's brother etc. (Te.); madavanigatana the state of being a bridegroom; madaval.ige a bride (Ka.lex.) macca_l. wife's sister; daughter of one's paternal aunt or maternal uncle; macca_n- wife's brother (Tan.t.alai. 62); sister's husband; sone of maternal uncle or paternal aunt; macca_n.t.a_r husband's elder brother; maittun-an- (prob. maithuna) brother of one's wife or husband; son of one's maternal uncle or paternal aunt (Uttarara_. Tikkuvi. 107); sister's husband; maittuni wife's sister; daughter of one's maternal uncle or paternal aunt (Tiruva_lava_. 62,7)(Ta.); brother's wife; maitun-am < maithuna copulation; sexual union (Or..ivi. Kiriyai. 16); marriage (Ta.lex.) cf. attai father's sister (Kampara_. Pa_ca. 19); mother-in-law, of wife (Kampara_. Taila. 40); atta father's sister (Te.); atte (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) For prefix ja- in ja_ma_tr. daughter's husband, cf. ja_tya of the same family (S'Br.); jacca in cmpds. of the family of (Pali); of good birth, best, beautiful (Pkt.); ja_ti_ya in cmpds. of the race of (Ka_tyS'r.)(CDIAL 5190). {Note: the custom of marrying the daughter to close relatives, e.g. a girl marrying her mother's brother.} ja_ma_tr. daughter's husband (RV.); ja_ma_tar, ja_ma_ta (Pali); jamata (NiDoc.); ja_ma_u, ja_ma_uya (Pkt.); zama_ (Ash.); daughter's or sister's husband (Wg.); zema (Kt.); imi_ (Pr.); zma_ daughter's husband (Dm.); ja_ma_i, ja_ma_, zo_mo_, ja_maye-m (Pas'.); ze_ma (Pers.); ja_ma_ daughter's or sister's husband (Pas'.); za_maye daughter's husband (Shum.); jhamo_u, jhamo_las, jhamor (Kal.); jamar (Kho.); java_i_ (P.L.); jama_i_ (P.); jemoi (WPah.); jawai~, jawe~ (Ku.); juwa~_i, jawa~_i (N.); zo~wa_i_ (A.); ja~_wa_i, ja_ma_i (B.); jua~_i_, joi~, jai~ (Or.); ja~wa_y husband (so called by wife)(Bi.); jama_i_ daughter's husband (Mth.); jawa~_i_, ja~wa_i_, jama_i_, jawa_i_ (H.); jama_i (G.); ja~_vai_, ja_va_i_, ja_vai_ (M.); ja~_vayi (Konkan.i); jaftero daughter's husband; jatro id., jautro wife's brother; jautri wife's sister; jamutro daughter's or sister's husband (Gypsy); zamalo, jamala_ (Gaw.); jamal (Bshk.); jama_r. (Tor.); zamalo_ (Sv.); jha_matro_ (Phal.); zamco (Sh.); pl. zamca_re (Sh.); jamaca (D..); jamacro_, jamco_h sister's husband (Sh.); za_maturu daughter's husband (K.); ja_t.ro (S.); java_tra_, java~_tra_, jama_tra (L.); jama_ttra_ (P.)(CDIAL 5198). ja_mi related as brother and sister; brother; sister (RV.); relative (RV.); femnale relative, esp. son's wife (MBh.); sister (Pkt.); zami_ wife's brother (Kt.); imi_ (Pr.); zami_ (Dm.Gaw.); jo_mi_ (Kal.); zami_ wife's brother, sister's husband (Sv.); zame (Phal.); za_m husband's sister, wife's brother's wife (K.); jai~ husband's sister (WPah.); jhamili son's wife, woman (Kal.); jameli daughter's son (Kho.); je_mil husband's sister (Bshk.)(CDIAL 5200). ja_mitva consanguinity (RV.); zomith-nos' husband's sister's son's wife (K.); zomith-gobur husband's sister's son (K.)(CDIAL 5201). zomiye husband's sister's husband (K.)(CDIAL 5202). ja_me_ya sister's son (Skt.); zomiza husband's sister's daughter (K.)(CDIAL 5203). ja_mi, ya_mi a sister; a virtuous or respectable woman; ja_mini id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ya_mi a sister, female relation (Ka.lex.) ca_mi < sva_mini_ lady, mistress (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) yami the river Yamuna (Can.. Aka.); yama-pakin-i < yama-bhagini_ the river Jumna; yamun-ai-t-tur-aivan- Kr.s.n.a as lord of the region of the Jumna (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 5)(Ta.lex.)

5722.Image: low table: han:gul.ige a stool or low table; han:gul.i a kind of seat or couch (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5723.Image: nape of the neck; shoulder: bem. (bej), ben the back; ben:kat.t.u the ridge of the roof of a building; ben:gad.e the backside; ben:ga_val a rear-guard: a body-guard; ben:gon a hump on the back; ben:gol. to follow, to run after (Ka.lex.) hegal, pegal the shoulder or neck of an ox; vaha; the withers of an elephant; skandha; hekkattu the back of nape of the neck; hek, hik, heg, het the state of being behind; heg, heggattu the back or nape of the neck; hegal, pegal the shoulder (Ka.); pugel, puggel (Tu.); hegalgol.isu to join the neck (of an ox) to, to yoke (an ox); hegala_gu the neck of an oxen to swell; hegalubad.ika a shoulder-beater: a ruthless man (Ka.lex.) vahas shoulder of a draft animal (S'Br.); vaha shoulder of an ox (AV.Pkt.); ba- shoulder of ox (A.)(CDIAL 11459). pakha_ shoulderblade (Or.)(CDIAL 7627). Image: thorax: baggari thorax (Ka.); baggare rib (Kod..)(DEDR 3815). magar back of shoulder, back (P.); magir head; magar (WPah.)(CDIAL 9701). mak neck (Kol.); makk id. (Nk.)(DEDR 4622).

5724.Image: split: hagar- a split of a bamboo (Ka.); hakkal, hakkalu, akkalu, an:gala, an:galu, agala the state of being separate or more or less apart; the thinness of corn in a field etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pakkicai-ttal to sound, break in, as in a hiatus; to differentiate (Ci. Po_. Cir-. 12,4, Pak. 246)(Ta.); pakkin.i < paks.in.i a night with two days enclosing it (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) pakkam portion, section (Tol. Po. 75); pakal dividing, separating; middle position (Patir-r-up. 90,9); middle or main peg in a yoke (Pat.t.in-ap. 206)(Ta.lex.) Image: a small bit: pakat.u a small bit (Ma.); pati.r to divide (?Ko.); pakavu slice, share (Ta.); pakir (-v-,-nt-) to divide into shares, distribute, break, split; separate; n. share, section, piece (Ta.); pakuppu division, classification (Ta.); Sharing; to give alms: pa_kit.utal to give alms; pa_ki_t.u share, portion, allotment; pa_ku share, portion, lot, division; alms (Te_va_. 54,4)(Ta.lex.) pa_ttu dividing, sharing, share, half (Ta.); pa_tti division, section, part, share (Ta.); pa_tu division, share (Ta.); pa_ to divide, distribute (Ta.); pagadi tribute, tax (Ka.Tu.); pagidi tribute (Te.); pagi, pagtelu rent, split (Tu.); pa_ngu share, proportion (Tu.); papp split bamboo sticks (Pa...); pan, pah, pa to split (Go.); pay to be split (Go.); pag- (pakt-) to split (Pe.); panga to be cracked, split, divided (Kui); paka a piece of stick or twig or bamboo used as a pin (Kui)(DEDR 3808). paku to be divided, cut into pieces, tear off, root out; pakal dividing; pakai disagree-ment, hatred, enmity; pan:kam portion, division (Ta.); pakuti division, share (Ma.); pagiyuni to split, rend, fall in pieces (Tu.); pa_n:gu share, proportion (Tu.); pagulu to break, crack (Te.); pay to break (Nk.); pa_n:gal.a portion, share (Tu.); pax to be divided (To.); paxy division (To.); pak split bamboo (Go.); pak to split (Mand.a); pakme a division of the house (Malt.); pagi, pagtelu rent,split (Tu.)(DEDR 3808). Image: gap: pakku < paku- fracture, break; double-dealing, duplicity (Te_va_. 17,3)(Ta.lex.) cf. paku-tal to be split, divided (Tiruppu. 841); pagulu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) pha~k open space, free space, a blank, an opening, an interstice, an interval, an interspace, a gap, a rift, an opportunity; birko mak pha~kkeda they cut a clear space in the jungle; nia pha~kte calakpe go by this clear space; pha~k pha~kteye laga idiketkina he drove them away through the open space; rimil pha~kena there is a rift in the clouds (Santali. lex.) vihalai is broken (Pkt.); biharai splits open (OAw.); biharna_, beharna_, bihara_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 11804). Image: slice; deep incision: bakala gash, deep incision (Tu.); vakir (-v-, -nt-) to slice, cut in slips, split, cleave, tear open, divide; n. tearing, scratch, slice (Ta.)(DEDR 5202). vihad.a_ break (Pkt.); with neg. prefix avihad.a continuous (OG.)(CDIAL 11672). Cutting of sugarcane: pagra a cutting of sugarcane for planting (Santali.lex.) Image: part of a joint; horizontal piece: cf. ba_l.ka, ba_l.go slices of vegetables (Tu.); va_l.uka to scratch, slice (e.g. coconut into horizontal pieces)(Ma.); va_l- to pare off with a knife (Pa.); ba_l.ku wafers, as of unripe banana (Ka.); va_r.- to pare, peel (Go.); va_n.- (va_t.-) to pare, slice (Pe.); va_lba (va_t.-) to peel, pare; n. act of paring (Kui); va_d.- (-it-) to peel (Kuwi); ble to cut the pulp of fruit or the fleshy part of a joint (Malt.); lye to cut up flesh (Malt.)(DEDR 5378). cf. var.ka division, part; vad.ga_ half, portion (Go.)(DEDR 5228). vatrar.vu~, vatar.vu~ to scratch with the nails; vatair. scratch; vatair.vu~ to scratch (G.)(CDIAL 11724). vitr.n.atti pierces, breaks asunder (AV.); wien.d. to flay (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11725). To scratch with claws: cf. bagaru to scratch with the nails or claws (Ka.); bakr.ali, bark- (-it-), brak- (-h-) to claw (Kuwi)(DEDR 5202). Image: to cut in slips: vakir (-v-, -nt-) to slice, cut in slips, split, cleave, tear open, divide; n. tearing, scratch, slice; vaci (-v-, -nt-) to split, cut (Ta.); bagaru to scratch with the nails or claws; bagi to separate, divide, make peaces, cleave, tear, lacerate, scratch, dig, scrape (bottom of pot with spoon); bage division, portion, part, section, sort, vanity, class, caste (Ka.); bakala gash, deep incision (Tu.); bakr.ali, bark- (-it-), brak- (-h-) to claw (Kuwi)(DEDR 5202). bhon:gar a deep scratch (Santali.lex.) cf. varan.t.u to scratch (Ta.); beran.t.u, berat.u, ben.t.u to dig or scratch with nails or claws (Ka.)(DEDR 5322).

5725.Jeweller; affixing tinsel of brass leaf: be_gad.e tinsel of brass leaf (Tu.lex.) ve_kat.a a jeweller, a youth (Skt.lex.) begad., begd.i tinsel (Konkan.i.lex.) vegad.a a mode of music (Ma.); be_gad.a tinsel (Tu.); ve_gad.an a jeweller, youth (Ta.Ma.)(Ma.lex.) be_gad.e, be_gad.i talc mineral, mica resembling glass (Ka.Te.); laminae of tin covered over with some colouring substance (Ka.Te.); be_gad.a (M.); be_gad.ebese to affix such laminae (Ka.lex.) For semant. 'colour' cf. pe_kan.ittal to change colour; to become pallid (Tiv. Periyati. 2,4,2, Vya_.); pe_kan.ippu (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) ve_kat.acey polish gems, ca_n.ai pit.ittu merukit.u, i.e. polish with the chisel (Ta.)(W.lex.) For semant. extension 'incrustation ~~ lamination' cf.: hakkal.i an incrustation, a crust or coat, as that of cowdung smeared on a floor, of lime applied to a wall, of serum on a wound, of an exudation on the bark of a tree etc. (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) One who cleans and polishes gems; youth: ve_kat.an-< ve_kat.a one who cleans and polishes gems; ve_kat.i id. (Upate_caka_. Cir-appup. 12); youth; ve_kat.am polishing and cleaning gems (Kampara_. Ni_rvil.ai.22); fancy work; youthfulness; ve_kat.ai id.; ve_kat.ai-t-ta_l. foliated tinsel; ve_ka_ri an ancient tax (S.I.I. v,95)(Ta.lex.) ve_t.ko_ potter (Pur-ana_. 32); ve_t.ko_van- id. (Tiva_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pakka-cey-tal to emit lustre, as a gem (Tiv. Tirunet.un. 21, Pak. 175) (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Plated articles: pakat.t.u to make a vain show; to be foppish; to shine with a false glitter, as plated articles; to be beautiful, be attractive (Kampara_. Ka_r. 110)(Ta.lex.) For semant. 'tin' cf.: Tin; lead: van:ga tin, lead (Skt.); calx of tin (used as an aphrodisiac)(S.); van:g, ban:g (P.); ba~g tin, lead, calx of tin; ba~ga_ having a metallic or brackish taste (of water)(H.)[cf. ven:ka_ram a kind of caustic (Ta.lex.)](CDIAL 11195). van:ka-cun.n.am a kind of medicinal powder, prepared from purified lead; van:ka-nat.am borax [cf. ven:ka_ram borax, sodae soboras (Ni_tiner-i. 59); van:ka_ram gold; ingot, mass of metallic ore; ban:ga_ramu (Te.); ban:ga_ra (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)]; van:ka-ni_r-u, van:ka-man.al lead ore; van:ka-p-par-r-u solder for metals; van:ka-par-pam, van:kapasmam carbonate of lead, ceruse; van:kam lead, purified lead (Kantapu. Ma_rk. 123); tin; zinc; silver; van:ka-v-uppu sugar of lead; ven:kalam, ven:kalam bell-metal, bronze, an alloy of copper and tin (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,9,5); ven:kala-nimil.ai bismuth pyrites; ven:kala-pa_ttiram bronze vessel for domestic use (Ta.lex.)

5726.Image: separate: beglo separate, different (N.); beleg separate (A.); begal.a separate; begal other (Or.); vegl.u~ separate, distinct, distant (G.); vegl.a_ separate (M.)(CDIAL 11827). vyakta separate (Skt.); vyakti individual (BhP.); vijitr. separating (Skt.); ve_ktr. (Dha_tup.); vagga, vagge_na separate, separately (Pali); vegyo foreign (S.)(CDIAL 11826). Cutting out: vihad.a_ break (Pkt.); vighat.ika_ small unit of time (Skt.); with neg. prefix: avihad.a continuous (OG.) (CDIAL 11672). vikartana cutting (Nir.); vikattana knife (Pali); vikattai, vigattai, vikat.t.ai cuts (Pkt.); vetran. to cut out (clothes); vetrun. to cut out (foundations)(L.); vetarvu~ to cut to measure (G.)(CDIAL 11621). viut.an.u to cut out (clothes)(S.); veutn.a_ (P.); byotan.o to dress a slain goat or other animal, cut out (clothes), fit, adapt (Ku.); beutiba_ to distribute, arrange (Or.); beuntiba_ to distribute, arrange (Or.); byo_t.na_, byo_tna_ to cut up, kill, cut out clothes; byo~t., byo~t cutting out (H.); beu~tan.a_, ve~utan.a_ (P.); ve~ut.a cutting out of clothes (S.)(CDIAL 11830).cf. vet.t.u to cut as with sword or axe, cut off, engrave (Ta.)(DEDR 5478). cf. ve_gu sickle (Mand..)(DEDR 5518).

5727.A shrine: veh-ka_ a Vis.n.u shrine (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,62); vaikun.t.am Vis.n.u's heaven; vaikun.t.an- Vis.n.u (Na_mati_pa. 47); ve_n:kat.am the Tirupati hills which formed the northern boundary of the ancient Tamil country (Tol. Pa_yi.); Tiruppati, a Vis.n.u shrine; ve_n:kat.a_cala-mu_rtti Vis.n.u as the lord of Mt. Tiruppati (M.M. 973)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) ve-kat.a, en:kat.a, en:gat.a, ven:gat.a name of an idol of Vis.n.u on a hill at Tirupati; ven:kat.agiri the hill on which Vis.n.u is worshipped; a fort on that hill; ven:kat.i, en:kat.i, en:gat.i, ven:gat.i names of females (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vaikun.t.ha an epithet of Vis.n.u; of Indra; the heaven of Vis.n.u (Skt.lex.) veinkut., vainkut.a_ or vaikun.t. paradise (eden)(Konkan.i.lex.)

5728.Image: male elephant: pakat.u male elephant (Pu. Ve. 8,5)(Ta.lex.) br.hat, br.hattu, vr.hat great, large, vast; br.hanta a great man (Ka.); br.haspati lord of increase (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. mahut elephant driver (Santali.lex.) pa_kan- elephant driver, charioteer, horseman, rider (Ta.); pa_ku id., art, ability (Ta.); pa_kan, pa_van an elephant instructor (Ma.); pa_vu all that an elephant has to learn in training him (Ma.)(DEDR 4046). cf. bagad.eyakki an inferior kind of rice used to feed elephants, buffaloes etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pon:kat.i elephant (Akana_. 44) (Ta.lex.) pakkam royal elephant (Ta.lex.) From -hat in: br.hat great, large (Skt.)> mr.ga-hastin elephant (RV.); hastin elephant (AV.); hastini_ f. (AV.); hastin having hands, clever with the hands (RV.); hatthin elephant; hatthini_ f. (Pali); hasti, nom. pl. hastino, hastine, hathi_ni, hathini (As'.); hasti (Dhp.); hatthi, hatthin.i_ f. (Pkt.); hati (Gaw.); het (Bshk.); hati_ (Sh.); ha_ti (Ku.N.A.); ha_thi_ (Ob.); ha_ti (B.Or.); ha_tun.i f. elephant (Or.); ha_tha_ elephant bull (Bi.); ha_thi_ elephant in general (Bi.); hathni_ f. (Bi.); ha_thi_ (Mth.); ha~_thi_, hathini (Aw.); ha_thi_ (H.S.P.WPah.); hathini_, hathni_ f. (H.); ha_thi_, ha_ti_ (Marw.); ha_thi_u (OG.); ha_thi_, ha_thn.i_ f. (G.); hatti_, ha_tn.i_ f. (M.); at-a_, atinna, atini_, atinni_ f. (Si.); et, e' (Md.); hasto, ha_stu (Sh.); hostu (K.)(CDIAL 14039). hastipa_la, hastipa_laka elephant-keepr (Skt.); ha_tia_l.a elephant driver (Or.)(CDIAL 14040). hatthiru_paka toy-elephant (Pali); hatru~_, hatru_d. contemptuous term for elephant (M.)(CDIAL 14042). hastiva_ha elephant driver (Skt.); hathiwa_h elephant keeper (Mth.)(CDIAL 14043). hastis'a_la elephant stable (MBh.); hatthisa_la_ id. (Pali); ha_tisa_l (B.); ha_tisa_l.a (Or.); hathisa_r (Mth.); athal-a (Si.)(CDIAL 14044). hastis'un.d.a_ elephant's trunk (Skt.); ha_tisu~r. id. (B.); ha_tisun.d.a (Or.)(CDIAL 14045). hattha_ni_ka troop of war-elephants (Pali); ataniya id. (Si.)(CDIAL 14046). hastya_ro_ha elephant rider (MBh.); ataruva_ (Si.); hattha_ro_ha elephant driver (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 14047).

5729.Mimusops elengi: pogad.e, pagad.e mimusops elengi (Ka.); pogad.a (Te.)(DEDR 4453). cf. ilai, irai mimusops elengi (Ma.); reje (Ka.)(DEDR 496). magha kind of flower; a drug (Skt.); magha-gandha mimusops elengi (Skt.); maghamaghai, mahamahai gives out fragrance (Pkt.); mahak fragrance (N.H.); mahaka (Or.); mehek (G.); mehekvu~ to emit fragrance (G.); maghmaghvu~ (G.Pkt.)(CDIAL 9703). Fragrance: magha kind of flower; a drug; magha-gandha mimusops elengi (Skt.); maghamaghai, mahamahai gives out fragrance (Pkt.); mahak fragrance (N.); mahaka (Or.); mahak (H.); mehek, mehekvu~ to emit fragrance (G.); maghmaghvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9703). makir.., makir..am mimusops elengi (Ta.); makir..-maram id. (Ma.); mugul.e id. (Ka.); makura, makula, mukura id. (Skt.); maulsari_ id. (H.)(DEDR 4619). (In India, the bark is used for tanning: Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.701): bakula the tree mimusops elengi; n. its flower (MBh.); vakula id. (MBh.); makula id. (Skt.); bakula m. elengi (Pali); mara the tree mimusops elengi (Pkt.); baula (Pkt.); bo_l the flower (Ku.); baul.a the tree (Or.); baul.a_ the tree and its flower (Or.); vakula the tree (Pali); o~u_l. id. (M.); o~val., vau~_l. its flower (M.); o~vl.i_ the tree and its flower (M.); maura the tree (Pkt.); maulsari_, maulsiri_ (H.); baulasiri_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9116). ba_kula pertaining to the tree m. elengi (Sus'r.) (CDIAL 9199). mugul.e mimusops elengi (Ka.); makir.., makir..am mimusops elengi (Ta.); makir..-maram id. (Ma.)(DEDR 4619). Mimusops elengi: sinhakesara (Skt.); bakula (Skt.); pomme (Port.); affengesict (Ger.); mulsari (H.); bakul (H.); maulsari (P.); baulo (Or.); elengi (Malay); bakul (B.); ranjanasal (M.); bakul (M.); borsali, taindu (G.); bolsari (G.); pogada (Te.); mogidam, vakulam, maghizham, magadam (Ta.); mukura (Ma.); ranje (Ka.); pagade-mara (Ka.); vovaliruku (Konkan.i); khaya (Burmese); munemal (Si.); habitat: this large ornamental tree is cultivated in gardens for its fragrant flowers. It is found wild in Deccan and forests of South India and Burma; parts used: bark, flowers, fruit and oil of seeds. Flowers yield an oil which is used in perfumery (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 301-302). makura, makula the bakula tree (Skt.lex.) makir..am (ve_n:kai mara_a makir..am : Paripa_. 22,7); makir..ampu_pan.ika_ram a kind of cake in imitation of makir.. flowers; makir..alaku seed of the makir.. tree, formerly used in astrological calculations (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,49); makir.. < makula pointed-leaved ape-flower,mimusops elengi (makir.. ma_laima_rpin-an- : Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,10,11); makulam < makula pointed-leaved ape-flower (Can.. Aka.); makir..-tal to joy, rejoice, exult (Kur-al., 1057); makir..uka id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) 'Enki and the World Order' mentions the 'magilum-boat of Meluhha' (Kramer, S.N., The Sumerians, Chicago, p. 297). mukura the bakula tree (Skt.lex.) muh- a reddish-brown or tawny colour (Skt.lex.) Homonyms: makilam mayilir-aku, peacock-feather; mayilam id. (Ta.lex.) mukuli, mucali fragrant screwpine (Pari. Aka.); mogali id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) mucalai the fragrant tuber of cyperus rotundus, ko_raikkir..an:ku (Ta.lex.) mugli, mugul.i a white acacia, acasia suma; mugul.i a thorny tree with leaves like those of acacia concinna or si_ge, the acacia suma (Ka.lex.) bakula, vakula (Skt.); bakula, vakula (Pali)(CDIAL 9116). Mimusops elengi: baul.a_ like the flower of mimusops elengi (Or.)(CDIAL 9199). Bdellium: mahis.a_ks.a a kind of bdellium (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mahakka a widespread fragrance (Skt.lex.) cf. maga smell, fragrance (Ka.lex.) Balsamodendron = commiphora: Balsamiferous trees which yield gum-resins known as bdellium and myrrh. The species used medicinally include: commiphora africana; commiphora myrrha; commiphora kataf; commiphora opobalsamum; commiphora caryaefolia. Official: 'Myrrh' or gum-resin of commiphora sp. Commiphora mukul = balsamodendron mukul = balsamodendron roxburghii; Distribution: Bellary, Mysore, Deccan, Khandesh, Kathiawar, Rajputana desert, Sind, Baluchistan; Arabia. The gum is of five kinds. It is bitter, hot, acrid; laxative, stomachic, aphrodisiac, alterative, tonic, anthelmintic; causes biliousness; heals fractures, ulcers, fistula, piles; removes 'kapha', 'vata', cures indigestion, urinary discharges, urinary concretions, leucoderma, tumours, inflammation, tubercular glands in the neck, 'tridosha'; useful in ascites, asthma, and the troubles of the chest; removes bad discharges from the ear. The fruit cures abdominal troubles (Ayurveda). Arabic: aflatan, moql, moqlearzaqi, mukulearahi; Bengal: gugal, guggul, mukul, ranghanturb; Canarese: guggala; Cutch: gugal; Deccan: gugal, guggul, mukul, ranghanturb; Hindi: gogil, gugal, guggul, mukul, ranghanturb; Marathi: guggala, gulag, mukul; Persian: boejahudan; Porebunder: gugal, gugali, gugar; Sanskrit: bhavabhishtha, bhutahara, devadhupa, deveshta, dhurta, divya, durga, guggulu, jatala, jatayu, kalaniriyasa, kaushika, kumbha, kumbhi, kumbholu, kumbholukhalaka, kunti, mahishaksha, mahishakshaka, marudishta, nishadhaka, palankasha, pavandvishta, pura, puta, rakshoha, sarvasaha, shamhava, shiva, uddipta, ulukhalaka, usha, vayughna; Sind: gugal, guggul, mukul, ranghanturb; Sinhalese: gugula, jatayu, javayu, ratadummula; Tamil: gukkal, gukkulu, maishakshi; Telugu: gugul, mahisaksh, maisakshi. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 525-529). lan.d.a_-bakuli name of a plant (Or.)(CDIAL 10918). cf. bakul.a, vakula, vakul.a the tree mimusops elengi (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Mimusops elengi: vakul.am < vakul.a pointed-leaved ape flower, makir.. (Kur-icip. 70); vakul.a-pu_s.an.ar Saint Namma_r..va_r, as wearing makir..am flowers (Ta.lex.) vakula, vakul.a, bakul.a the tree mimusops elengi, ke_sara, na_gake_sara (Ka.Skt.lex.) bakula mimusops elengi (Car. Vi. 7.21, Ci. 3.258); bakul (H.B.); borsali (M.); bakulam (Ma.); maulsari (P.); magiam (Ta.); vakulamu (Te.); bark: astringent, tonic, useful in fevers; pulp of ripe fruit: astringent, used in curin chronic dysentery; seeds: bruised and locally applied within the anus of children in cases of constipation; seeds contain saponin; kernel yields an oil; habitat: Western Peninsula, southwards from Khandala Ghat on the west and the N. Circars on the east side and the Andamans (GIMP, p.167). bakula mimusops elengi. its flowers were regarded as particularly sacred to the Sun and Mars (B.Sam.. C III.47); also called kesara (B.Sam.. LVIII.6). ba_kula pertaining to the tree mimusops elengi (Sus'r.); its fruit (Skt.); bal.a_ like the flower of mimusops elengi (Or.)(CDIAL 9199). bakula the tree mimusops elengi; its flower (MBh.); vakula (MBh.); makula, makura (Skt.) [cf. pagad.e (Ka.); pogad.a (Te.)]; bakula mimusops elengi (Pali); bala (Pkt.); bo_l the flower (Ku.); bal.a the tree; bal.a_ like its flower (Or.); vakula (Pali); o~u_l. the tree (M.); o~val., vau~_l. its flower; o~vl.i_ the tree and its flower (M.); mara (Pkt.); maulsari_, maulsiri_ (H.); balasiri_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9116). pogad.e, pagad.e mimusops elengi (Ka.); pogad.a id. (Te.)(DEDR 4453). cf. makir.., makir..am mimusops elengi (Ta.); makir..-maram id. (Ma.); mugul.e id. (Ka.)(DEDR 4619). makura, makula, mukura (Skt.); maulsari_ (H.)(DEDR 4619). cf. ilaci, irici pointed-leaves ape-flower (Ta.); ilai, irai, erin.n.i, erii mimusops elengi (Ma.); reje (Ka.); reja, reji, rejiru, rej, rejeyi, rejevu id. (Tu.)(DEDR 496). Image: leaf: ilai leaf, petal (Ta.)(DEDR 497). cf. makula bud (Pali); baula bud (MBh.)(CDIAL 10146). bhonot.ok a bud; d.og a leaf; mo~he~ to bud; baha a flower, to deck with flowers (Santali.lex.) cf. poka mahua flower (Te.); pokke flower; mahua flower (Kol.); mahua flower (Nk.)(DEDR 4461). In Malaysia, the leaves of mimusops are smoked with those of santalum album (sandalwood) (perhaps strictly medicinal, for asthma)(James A.Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Boca Raton, Florida, CRC Press, Inc., 1985, p.426). Used for ships' wheels: Mimusops elengi, mimusops erthroxylum. The wood is useful in the Philippines and is a favorite for ships' wheels, marline-spikes, fine tool-handles, etc. Guerrero states that the bark, as well as the ripe fruit, yields a powerful astringent remedy. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.703). Mimusops elengi; perfume: (kabiki in Tagalog) is cultivated as a shade-tree in gardens and for its fragrant flowers. A lotion of the flowers is used in India as a perfume. In Java women sometimes hide the flowers in their hair. Siamese women infuse infuse them for use as a cosmetic after bathing. In India, the bark is used for tanning purposes. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.701). kakkula the bakula tree; kakko_la, kakko_laka, kakko_li_, kan:ko_li_ name of a plant bearing a berry; a berry of this plant; a perfume prepared from its berries (Skt.lex.) kakko_la, karko_la, kakko_laka name of a plant bearing a berry, the inner part of which is a waxy and aromatic substance; a perfume prepared from the berries of this plant (Ka.lex.) Mimusops elengi: sin:ga ke_sari name of a plant (Ka.); sim.ha ke_sara the plant mimusops elengi (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ke_sara the plant mimusops elengi, rottleria tinctoria, mesua ferrea; ke_s'a a kind of perfume (Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

5731.Bridegroom: vo_l.ha_ bridegroom, husband (Mn.); vo_d.hr. carrying, bringing (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 12153). vod.havya to be borne or carried; able to be borne; vo_d.hr. one who carries or bears or draws; a bearer, a porter; a leader; a draught horse; a bull; a bridegroom (Ka.lex.) vo_d.hr. a bearer, porter; a leader, a husband; a bull; a charioteer; a draught-horse (Skt.lex.)

5732.Image: ox: vo_d.hr. drawing, a draught horse, ox (RV. vii.71.4; rathah- vo_d.ha_, S'Br. xiii.1.9.4; pura_nd.va_n vo_d.ha_ jaje_ from ancient times an ox was born as a draught animal (Vedic.lex.) o_s.t.t.a a great ox (KS'S. v.11.13); o_d.ha brought near to, invoked (Sat. v.3)(Vedic.lex.)

5733.An exclamation: vaus.at. an exclamation or formula used in offering an oblation to the gods or manes (Skt.lex.) o_s.at.h creating desire; vas.t.i desirous, eager (RV.v.79.5); vas.at. an exclamation with which oblations are offered (TS. ii.2.12.4); vas.at-kr.ti the pouring of oblations with the call, vas.at. (RV. i.31.5; RV. vii.15.6 se_ma_m ve_tu vas.at. kr.tim let him come to this vas.at. call)(Vedic.lex.)

5734.Diamond dust: vacat.t.i [prob. vajra] diamond dust (Ta.lex.)

5735.Deductions: vaja_vat.t.a making the required deductions and allowances and determining the several dues; making up and settling accounts betwixt parties; deducting out of a gross amont some particular amounts and bringing to account the remainder (Ka.); vaja_va_t.a (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) vaja_ < vaza_ (ArabiC) deduction, remission, abatement, as of revenue; vaja_pat.t.i list of remissions made (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) wasta_ account, sake; connection, relation (P.lex.)

5736.Image: fourth part: vo_d.ri_ the fourth part of a pan.a (Skt.lex.)

5737.Image; seven: o_r..u, yo_r..u seven (Ka.lex.)

5738.Image: abortion: vol. be miscarried (prove abortive); vol.ai cause abortion; a_voi burgea_k vol.aita_ (Kon.lex.)

5739.Image: a half of a cocoa nut: vol.em, vol.ya_ either of the two halves of a cocoanut (Kon.lex.)

5740.Image: ace in dice: pagad.e a die (or cowy) for playing a kind of black-gammon; a piece used at that play [cf. vat.aka_ (Skt.); cf. pa_caka a die, dice (MBh.)(CDIAL 8132)]; the play itself; pagad.eya ko_t.i the centre of a dice-cloth or board; pagad.eya mane a square on the dice cloth or board; pagad.eya sa_lu the line of squares a player's pieces have to cross to arrive at the centre of a dice-board or cloth (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pagd.a_ dot on dice (M.); padga a foot (Skt.); pag foot (H.)(CDIAL 7766). pa_vara the side of a die which is marked with two points; or a particular throw of this die (Skt.lex.) pa_ga = ha_ga the fourth part of a pan.a: 1 an.e 2 ka_su (Ka.lex.) bha_ga a quarter, one-fourth part; a part of any whole, a fraction; bha_gyam good fortune or luck (Skt.lex.) pagad.e a mark on a die (Ka.); pagad.a_ (M.); pakat.ai (Ta.); pagad.e, pagid.e (Ma.); pagad.e an ace on a die (Te.); a die (or cowry) for playing a kind of back-gammon; a piece used at that play (Ka.); cf. vat.aka_ (Skt.); pagad.e the play itself; pagad.eya letta a die (or cowry) at pagad.e (Ka.lex.) pa~u~ ace in dice (i.e. a quarter of the highest throw of 4 dots)(S.); pau (P.N.H.M.); paa (Or.); po (G.); pav (M.); pa (OAw.)(CDIAL 7764). jua dice (Santali.lex.) Image: ace in dice: pagd.a_ dot on dice (M.); pag ace in dice (P.)(CDIAL 7766). pakat.ai ace upon dice (pakat.ai pan-n-iran.t.et.t.u)(Ta.); pakat.a (Te.Ma.); pagad.e (Ka.); pagad.a (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Image: ace in dice: praha_ a good throw at dice (RV. x.42.9) (Vedic.lex.) pa~u~ ace in dice (i.e. a quarter of the highest throw of 4 dots)(S.); pau (P.N.OAw.H.M.); paa (Or.); po (G.); pav (M.)(CDIAL 7764). Image: blank in the play of dice: kappar-ai blank in the play of dice (Ta.lex.) prabhr.ti throwing or casting (Vedic. Skt.lex.) pakat.ai sudden smiles of fortune; ace upon dice (Ta.); pakat.a (Te.Ma.); pagad.e (Ka.); pagad.a (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Material cause: pakat.i primordial matter; material cause of the world (Tirukkalam. 13)(Ta.); pagad.i id. (Pkt.); prakr.ti (Skt.)(Ta.lex.); pakuti < prakr.ti primordial matter (Kampara_. Mi_t.ci. 100); portion, part, allotment,division (Tiruva_ca. 3,1)(Ta.lex.) cf. bha_gyam entitled to a share; prosperity, affluence (Skt.lex.) pa_kkiyam lot, destiny; happy destiny, good fortune, auspicious fate (Kur-al., 1141); prosperity, riches (Civap. Pira. Civaja_n-a. Kalam. 51)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5741.Image: three: pauna_ three-quarters, i.e. one less from the unit of four (H. lex.) cf. una one (Skt.); u_n-am deficient (Ta.lex.) Three quarters: pa_do_na less by a quarter (Skt.); paun.o adj. pau~_n.i three quarters (S.); paun.a~_ (L.); paun.e, paun, pauna_ (P.); paun.u_ (WPah.); paun. (Ku.); paune (B.); pawan (Bhoj.); paun, pauna_ (H.); pon.u~ (G.); aun.a_-paun.a_ (M.); du_nu (K.); pa_un.a_ (Or.); pa_un. (M.Konkan.i)(CDIAL 7765). cf. u_n deficient (AV.); u_n.e less (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 2405).

5742.Skim: pon. what remains after straining whey from churned curd (P.); pauniya_ confectioner's skimmer (Bi.)(CDIAL 7977).

5743.Image: circular piece of pot used in games: paitu~ circular slice of fruit, circular piece of iron or pot etc. used in games (G.); paito powdered, mutilated, rotten (Ku.); paito small particle of pulse (N.); prakr.ntati cut up (AV.)(CDIAL 8447).

5744.Images: eyelid; cover: vahula, vahun cover, eyelid (Si.); apidha_na cover (Pali); cloth for covering, cover (RV.); apidha_ni_ cover (Skt.)(CDIAL 488). apidadha_ti covers (AV.); apidahati (Pali); vahanava_ to shut, cover, close (Si.) (CDIAL 487). Image: saddle: vakkhala covered (Pkt.); ba_khara covering or cloth saddle on a horse (Or.)(CDIAL 12215). Image: lid: bakare, bakkare, bakre a potsherd (occasionally used for parching seeds etc., and as a lid)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: covering: va_sana, ba_san.i enveloping, covering; an envelope (Ka.); vasana, basana covering, clothing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) basna_, basan covering, wrapper (H.) (CDIAL 11436). Image: lid: vujjan.a lid (Pkt.); buco plug, stopper (N.); bucinu to be plugged (N.); buc plug (G.M.); bujo plug; bu~ji_ cork (S.); bujja_ plug (L.); stopper, menstrual cloth; bujji_ plug (P.); bujn.o to stop, shut (eyes etc.)(Ku.); bujo cork, stopper; bujinu to be stopped up (N.); buja_, bu~ja_ to shut (B.); buja_ shutting; bujiba_ to shut, enclose, fence (Or.); to be closed, be filled up (Or.); bujna_ pessary (H.); buj plug; bujn.e~ to stop up (M.)(CDIAL 9267). but.ijan.u to be blocked (S.); but.an. to stop, close (ears or mouth)(L.); but.n.e~ cork, stopper (M.)(CDIAL 9269). cf. bu_n.a peg, wedge (Tu.)(DEDR 4396). jhapni a lid (Santali.lex.) Image: potsherd: cf. bakare, bakkare, bakre a potsherd (Ka.lex.)

5745.Heap; crop: pagara, payara collection, heap (Pkt.); prakara scattered heap (MBh.); Treading by bullocks: paer, paeri_ treading of paddy sheaves by bullocks (Or.); pair heap of grain and chaff ready for winnowing (Bi.); crop spread out for threshing (Bi.); pa_er, paira_ seed sown on unploughed land; mixed crop of peas, grain, barley and wheat (Bi.); pair id. (Mth.); pairi scattered heap of corn for threshing (Bhoj.); per rice stalks, etc. cast on threshing floor to be trodden out (M.)(CDIAL 8431). paur, pauri_ crop spread out ready for threshing (Mth.); paur mixed crop of peas, gram, barley and wheat (Mth.)(CDIAL 8445). cf. paya to yield, produce (Ta.); an ear of rice, etc. (Tu.)(DEDR 3937). payar-u green gram, phaseolus mungo (Ta.)(DEDR 3941).