5746.Rent paid in kind; market rate; price: bha_uli_ rent paid in kind (H.); bha_u price (H.); price, rate (S.); bha_ (L.); bha_va being, thing (S'vetUp.); matter, thing, meaning (Pkt.); bao, pl. bawi thing, article (Sh.); ba_v market rate (K.); bha_u id. (P.A.B.Or.Aw.); value, rate (N.); bhau market rate (Ku.); bha_o (Mth.); bha_um. intention (OH.); bha_em. according to one's knowledge (OH.); bha_v market rate (G.M.); bava, bva existence, fact (Si.); bvin on account of (Si.)(CDIAL 9475). pa_vattu < ba_bat (U.) article, affair, item of account; pa_vati < pa_oti receipt for money paid, acknowledgment (C.G.)(Ta.lex.)

5747.Image: arrow: pagari, pagal.i a dart, an arrow (Tu.lex.)

5748.Gift: baks.i_s a gift (Ka.); bakkhi_sa, bakhs.i_sa (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Exchange: pakar to shift, move (Ta.); pakaram exchange, equivalent; in exchange (Ma.); instead, in exchange (Ta.); pakaruka to be exchanged; exchange, barter (Ma.); pakarcca change as of place, kind, weather; exchange (Ma.); pagaruni to shift, change place; pagapuni to change, exchange, substitute; pagarce, pagate exchange, revenge; pagara exchange (Tu.)(DEDR 3803). pagaru to change, to exchange, to infect; pagate, pagarte exchange, return; pagaro exchange, instead of; pagarogu pagaro like for like (Tu.lex.) pa_r.hiba_ to put off payment on various pretexts, purchase on credit (Or.); pakad.d.ha dragged; pagad.d.hijjama_n.a being dragged; payad.d.han.i_ (Pkt.); prakr.s.t.a prolonged (MBh.)(CDIAL 8430). pakarcci price (Cilap. Pira. Nan-n-er-i, 23)(Ta.lex.) pakat.u strength (Pur-ana_. 88)(Ta.lex.); force (Ta.)(CDIAL 8430). pratikr.ti counterpart (MBh.); padikidi, paigii, pad.ikidi exchange (Pkt.); pad.ikkaa (Pkt.); pad.kay lending labour and cattle and receiving same in return (M.); pal.iya revenge, satisfaction for an injury (Si.)(CDIAL 8546). pratikaro_ti repays (MBh.); pai~c, pai~co, pai~jo loan (Ku.); pai~co id. (N.); pai~c exchange of labour by farmers (Bi.); borrowing (Mth.); pai~ca_ id. (Mth.); jan-pai~ca_ exchange of labour (Mth.); pai~ca_ loan, repayment (H.)(CDIAL 8547). To advance; to present: prahr. to present (Vedic); praha_ran.am a desirable gift (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) cf. praharati thrusts forward, offers (RV.)(CDIAL 8902). prahu to throw ghee into fire; prahuta offered up; prahuti oblation (RV. vii.90.2); prahr. to advance, extend (RV. i.61.1); to put forward (RV. vi.47.15); to put in (TMB xii.10.16)(Vedic.lex.) cf. prahita placed (Skt.) In exchange: pakaram instead, in exchange (Ta.Na_.); pakar-tal to shift, move (Ta.); pakaruka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ba_kna_ to throw in, put in a vessel (Kur.)(DEDR 4051). cf. pa_kut.am gift, present (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,5,8)(Ta.lex.) pahin.ati to send; pahin.ana sending, dispatch; pahin.a sending, being sent; a messenger; pahin.a-gaman.a going as messenger, doing messages; pahin.ana sending, dispatch; pa_heti to send (Pali.lex.) Feast; guest: pa_gu, phagua the pa_gu feast, i.e. the ensemble of the pa_guma, the pa_guili, to eat cakes and drink rice beer after the annual obligatory hunt, pa_gusendera (Mu.lex.) pahi_, kupul a guest, i.e. one who has come to visit his marriage relations (Mu.); pa_hi_ guest (Oraon)(Mu.lex.) cf. pa_huna a guest; meal for a guest; pa_hun.eyya worthy of hospitality, deserving to be a guest (Pali)(Pali.lex.) pra_hun.a guest (Skt.); prahuta hospitality (Mn.); pa_huna, pa_hunaka guest; guest meal (Pali); pahun.a, pa_hun.a, pa_hun.aya, pa_hun.ia guest (Pkt.); para_hn.a_, para_hna_, pira_hna_ (L.); para_hun.a_, parauhn.a_, pa_hun.a_ (P.); pa_on.a_, pra_wn.a_ (WPah.); paun.o, po~_r.~ (Ku.); pa_hun-sa_l guest house (N.); pa_hunu guest (N.); pa_huna (MB.); pahuna_ (Or.); pa_hun (Bhoj.); pahuna_ guest, bridegroom (Mth.); pa_huna_ guest (Aw.); pa_hun guest (H.); pa_huna_ guest, daughter's husband (H.); pa_hun.o guest (Marw.); paron.o, para_n.o (G.); pa_hun.a_, pa_hon.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 8973). pijgim guest (gem village)(Pr.); pra_cha (Dm.); cac (Bshk.); pra_cu (Phal.); pochu abl.pachi (K.); pa_huna_-pa_cha_ guests (N.); prarthya reception of a guest (TBr.)(CDIAL 8956). Guest: pahi_, kupul a guest, i.e. one who has come to visit his marriage relations (Mu.); pa_hi_ guest (Oraon)(Mu.lex.) pa_gu, phagua the pa_gu feast, i.e. the ensemble of the pa_guma, the pa_guili, to eat cakes and drink rice beer after the annual obligatory hunt, pa_gusendera (Mu.lex.)

5749.Shareholder: pan:ka_l.i shareholder, partner, co-parcener; agnate, kinsman (Ta.lex.) bhe_iva_l, bha_i_va_l partner, sharer (L.); pia_l (low-rising tone on pi-)(P.)(CDIAL 9431). Value of a crop fixed by an appraiser: paka_r < baka_r (U.) value of a crop fixed by an appraiser (Ta.lex.) paka_y-pa_kki < baqa_ya-baqi_ old balance, arrears (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) Vow; present before a deity: pa_va_t.am vow to cut off one's tongue before a deity (Ta.); pa_vad.amu id. (Te.); pa_va_t.ai cloth or carpet spread on the ground for persons of distinction to walk on (Periyapu. e_yarko_n-. 57); pa_vad.a id. (Ka.Te.); pa_va_t.a id. (Ma.); pa_va_t.ai boiled rice heaped on a cloth before a deity or eminent person (Kalin.. 548); cloth used for waving before a deity or a person of distinction; pa_va_t.ai-vi_ran-, pa_va_t.ai-ra_yan- a village deity (Ta.lex.) pa_vad.e, pa_gud.a, pa_vad.a a present (in cloth); pa_vud.a id. (Ka.); pa_vad.a cloths spread in the streets at a great solemnity (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Present: ba_gina, ba_yina a present; ba_yinan:gud.u to give a present (Ka.lex.) upa_yana appoach (RV.); present (MBh.); going to, present (Pali); uva_yan.a visit, present (Pkt.); va_yan.a offering of food (Pkt.); va_yana pious gifts of sweet-meats, etc. (Skt.); ba_yan, ba_ena, baina_ sweetmeat or cake distributed at weddings and other festivals (H.); va_yn.u~ dinner given by relative to a wife in her first pregnancy (G.); va_n. pious gift of fruit, cakes, clothing, etc. (M.)(CDIAL 2309). jaiga, jaejat property given in pledge (Santali.lex.) jaituk father's gift to bride (Santali.lex.) Offering; gift, present: pra_bhr.tam, pra_bhr.takam an offering to a deity or to a king (nazeran.a); a bribe (Skt.lex.) Royal revenue; impost; gift: pa_hura gift (H.); pa_ud.a (Pkt.) < pra_bhr.ta gift (Skt.); prbhr.ta brought forward; prabhr.tha offering (RV.); pa_bhata present, bribe (Pali); pahud.'a gift (NiDoc.); pa_hud.a, pa_hud.ia_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8948). paggaha favour, kindness (Pali); paga_ bribe (Si.) (CDIAL 8478). cf. vaku to distribute (Ta.)(DEDR 5202). pa_kut.am gift, present (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,5,8); royal revenue, impost, tribute (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pa_vud.a gift, present; tribute (Ka.) (Ta.lex.) To receive, take, buy, take away: va_n:ku (va_n:ki-) to receive, take, buy, get, obtain, carry away as a flood, draw, drag, pull, take in (as breath), get back, take back, remove, take away; va_n:kal receiving, admitting, borrowing, buying (Ta.); va_n.n.uka to take, receive, choose; va_n.n.al purchasing; va_n.n.ikka to demand back; va_n.n.ippikka to make one take (Ma.)(DEDR 5336). A system of land revenue: pa_ka-pat.ai a system of land revenue in which a fixed share of the produce is collected; pa_ka-pattiram partition deed (Ta.lex.) bha_gya divisible (Skt.); entitled to a share (Pa_n..gan.a.); per cent (Pa_n..com.); bhagga share (Pkt.); bha_g to divide (property into shares)(Phal.); ba_gu share (Sh. ); bogu, ba_gi (K.); bha_g share (N.G.M.); bagin in order, according to order, severally (Si.); bha_gye_na (Si.); bhaktya_, bhaktis'ah. in succession (Skt.)(CDIAL 9435). bhajati distributes (Mn.); bhayai distributes (Pali); bhajjai id. (Pkt.); pha_zim I divide (a portion)(Kal.); bozik to apportion, share out, divide (Kho.); bazun to give away (prizes, etc.), distribute (K.); bha_je_ti distributes (Pali); bauar he shares (Gypsy); bedanava_ to apportion (Si.)(CDIAL 9360). Indebted:pan:giga one who is indebted or obliged (Ka.)(DEDR 3808). pan:gu, han:gu, an:gu the state of being obliged or indebted (Ka.); han:gu, an:gu obligation; the state of being in the power of another; duty (Tu.)(DEDR 3820). ?cf. an:ka_t.i bazaar, bazaar street (Ta.); an:gan.a courtyard (Skt.)(DEDR 35). bhaga good fortune (RV.Pkt.); bhaya id. (Pkt.); bhai_ with pleasure (OG.); Half: ba_ good fortune; half (Si.) (CDIAL 9346). Share; inheritance: begar separate, different; to separate, to divide the paternal inheritance, after which the sons set up on their own account; begarenale we have separated (we have no longer things in common); bakhra share, portion; to apportion, to share, to divide; ba~t. bakhra portion of inheritance; kami bakhra aleme give us each our set work; bakhradari sharing in,participating; ba~t. bakhra a share, a portion; to divide; share, particularly of ancestral property, or patrimony; bat.ai to divide, share; bat.orae share, portion, lot (of inheritance); ba~t. to share, to divide; share, portion (Santali); bat.a bat.i to divide, serve out (food); bhag ba~t., bhag bha~t.a share, portion; bhag jat a system of cultivation in which the cultivator supplies the cattle, implements and labour, and received one half of the produce (Santali.lex.) Sort, arrange: For semant. bha~t.a in cmpd. bhag bha~t.a : cf. bha_ga-dhe_yam a share, a part, a portion; property (Skt.lex.) bhakti worship, devotion (S'vetUp.); attribution (Nir.); decoration; arrangement (Skt.); bhatti service, devotion (Pali); bhatti-kamma making lines, decoration (Pali); bhatti- devotion, arrangement, sort (Pkt.); bham.ti sort (Ap.); bhati ways, manner, habit (S.); bha_ti, bha~_ti form, appearance (Mth.); bha_m.ti way, manner (OAw.); bha~_t, bha~_ti_ sort (H.); bha~_ti (S.Ku.N.); bha~_t (P.N.M.); bha~_ti manner, king (OMarw.); bha_ti (G.); batiya love, honour (Si.) (CDIAL 9338). pat.i manner, mode (Ta.); pad.i manner, method, way (Ka.); bad.i, vad.i manner (Te.)(DEDR 3851). Share: payk to distribute (Nk.); pahar.i part, share, portion (Kui); payal share, half (Ta.); pasu, pan~cu to divide, separate, part, distribute, share (Ka.); pacci, paccu part, portion; pasuge dividing, separation, division (Ka.); pasalu the share of the fishermen (Tu.); han~cuni to distribute, divide (Tu.); pancu to distribute, divide (Te.); pay, paiy to divide (Kol.); payp- (payt-) to share (Pa.); pay to divide into shares (Ga.); payp- (payup-) to distribute (Ga.); paspa to divide, distribute (Pe.); pahpa to share, apportion; n. apportionment (Kui)(DEDR 3936). paka part, share (Si.)(CDIAL 7627). Property: pa~er.e~ to give away property of family secretly (Santali.lex.) vakir to divide, separate (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Worship: bhattika attending (Pali); bha_ktika dependent (Pa_n..); nityabha_ktika permanent retainer (A_past.); niccabhattika (Pali); bhakti possession (RV.)(CDIAL 9428). Agreement; property: pa_n:gu propriety, agreement, fitness (Ka.); id. (Ma.); pa_mbu id. (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pa_n:ku partisanship, agreeableness (Ta.); propriety, means (Ma.)(DEDR 4053). Gift; fortune: bha_g gift, enjoyment (RV.); ba_ good fortune; ba_ half (Si.)(CDIAL 9429). bha_gya fortune, lot (MBh.); fortune (Pali); bhagga id. (Pali.); good fortune, lot (Pkt.); bogu good fortune (K.); bha_gu fortune, fate (S.); bha_g good fortune (L.P.); fortune (A.B.Mth.H.); fate (Ku.); bhala_-bha_g good fortune (Ku.); bha_ga fortune (Or.Aw.OMarw.); bha_gyo fortunate (S.); bha_gi_ (H.)(CDIAL 9434). bhagin prosperous, happy (AV.); bai good (Pas'.Gaw.); ba_i good (of grass for pasture), well (of health)(Shum.)(CDIAL 9348). pa_kkiyam happy destiny, good fortune, auspicious fate (Kur-al., 1141); prosperity, riches (Civap. Pira. Civajn~a_n-. Kalam. 51)(Ta.lex.) Tribute: pakuti, pakti tribute (Aric. Pu. Nakarni_. 111); income; revenue or rent; portion, allotment (Tiruva_ca. 3,1)(Ta.); pakuti division, share (Ma.); pagadi tribute, tax (Ka.); pagadi id. (Tu.); pagidi tribute (Te.)(DEDR 3808). Possession, part: bhakti possession (RV.); attribute (Nir.); decoration (Skt. in this meaning, falls together with: bhangi-); ornament (bhangi fashion, semblance); bhatti service, devotion; bhatti-kamma marking lines, decoration (Pali)(CDIAL 9338); bhakti part (AitBr.); section; su_tram bhanakti (Skt.)(CDIAL 9339). A system of land revenue: bha_ share (L.); mode of dividing produce 2/5 to landlord and 3/5 to tenant (P.); bhau share (P.); ba_ share, half (Si.); bai share (Md.); ba_ke place (Bshk.); bha_ga portion, fraction (S'vetUp.); portion (Pali); share (Pkt.); bhu_mi-bha_ga piece of land, place (MBh.); bhagi portion (As'.); bha_ge part, period (As'.); bhaga, bhagena, bagena on behalf of (NiDoc.); bhaga portion (KharI.); bha_a share (Pkt.); bawi share (Gypsy)(CDIAL 9430). bha_gin having a share in (Mn.); sharing (Pali); bha_gi, bha_i (Pkt.); bha_ya_n.o belonging to a partner (S.); bha_ya_t.ho, bha_yot.ho, bha_i_t.ho that in which different people have shares (S.); partner (S.); bha_et.hi_ partnership (S.)(CDIAL 9432). pa_kupantu joint interest in the property of a village or person associated (R.F.) (Ta.) < ba_dband (U.); pa_kupantu-mira_cu occupancy of land in coparcenery especially by members of the same family (R.F.)(Ta.lex.) pan:ku-k-ka_ran- co-sharer, shareholder (C.G.); the biggest shareholder in the lands of a village (Ta.); pan:kuta_ran- id.; pan:kan- sharer; one who has another by his side (Tiv. Periyati. 7,10,3); pan:ku-va_l.i mirasdars (G.Tn.D.I, 311)(Ta.lex.) An ancient system of village tenure: pan:ki one who appropriates, one who receives his share (Te_va_. 392,6); an obsolete system of village tenure in Tinnevelly by which the fields are divided by lot once in every six years among the villagers (W.G.)(Ta.); pan:ku-var..i a system of land tenure in which the lands of a village are, for purposes of convenient enjoyment, divided into many shares each consisting of a fixed number of acres and assigned to each holder with reference to quality of the soil, situation, etc. (C.G.); pan:kukka_n.i land owned in common; pan:ku-var..i-nilam land enjoyed under pan:kuvar..i system (C.G.); pan:ku-vi_tam equal shares; adv. pro rata; pan:kit.utal to divide, parcel out, distribute, apportion, allot; pan:ku-pakircci share, portion; pan:kupa_kam share, portion; partition; pan:kuma_l list of shares; Sixteen acres of dry land and two or 2 1/2 acres of wet land: pan:ku share, part (Ma.); share, portion, part (Tiruva_ca. 16,9); moiety, half; sixteen acres of dry land and two or two and a half of wet land (C.G. 288)(Ta.lex.) pan:kan- partner, husband (Ma.)(DEDR 3808). Share; division of a field: bhan:ga breaking (VS.); a break (Mn.); piece (Skt.); breaking up (Pkt.); bham.ga destruction, broken portion, piece (Pkt.); phang to break (Gy.); bhan:gu obstacle (s.); bha_n.o share (S.); bha_n.iba to break (A.); bha~_gat.h breakage (Mth.); bha_na_ to be broken (B.); bha_m.gau piece (OG.); bha~_gu~ broken to pieces (G.); bha~_ga division of a field, field (M.); bha~_gn.e~ to divide (M.)(CDIAL 9353). bha_jana dividing (Skt.); bha_n. line made by trampling down in standing crops for purpose of division, small change of a rupee (P.)(CDIAL 9437). bha_jya to be divided (Skt.); bha_j threshing floor (where the grain is divided out (L.); bha_jar. heap of grain collected for threshing (and subsequent division)(L.); bha_jar. threshing floor (L.); bha_ji_ share of food given at marriages, present, contribution (L.)(CDIAL 9438). bha_jvar. threshing floor (L.)(CDIAL 9439). pa_-ttal to divide, distribute (Tirunu_r-. 89); pa_-tal id. (Tol. Po. 58, Urai.); pa_kam sharing, dividing; share, part, portion (Tiruva_ca. 5,37); alms, charity; pa_kama_tal to be divided, partitioned; pa_kan- person who has anything at his side; partner (Te_va_. 1172, 9); agent; pa_n:kan- friend, associate, companion (Tol. Po. 104); id. (Ma.); husband (Na_lat.i. 400); pa_n:kar--ku_t.t.am union of a hero with his heroine effected through the aid of his companion (Tirukko_.); pa_n:ki female companion of a heroine, lady's maid (Nampiyakap. Akat. 27); pa_n:kin-am suit, company (Man.i. 8,35); pa_n:ku companionship (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 5,4,2); companion (Tin.aima_lai. 87); partisanship, interest, favour (Ya_p. Vi. 96, Pak. 515)(Ta.lex.)

5750.Threshed; abundant: bahuli_kr.ta threshed, winnowed; made much or manifold; extended, augmented (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bahuli_kr. to thresh (Skt.lex.) bahuli_kr. to make public, disclose, divulge; to increase, aggrandize; bahula abundant, copious, plentiful (Skt.lex.) Much: bajek much (Pe.); bajon pl. many (Pe.); bejek much (Mand..)(DEDR 3830). bahe much, too much, many (Or.); bahutitha manifold, many, much (MBh.)[cf. numeral suffix -tha-: katitha, kati, katipayatha, katipaya]; bahutaya manifold (TS.)(CDIAL 9189). buha_e, buheka abundantly, much (Or.); bahudha_ in many ways (RV.Pali); bahuha_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9191). bahu much, many, great (RV.); bahuka costing much (Skt.); bahu, bahuka much (Pali.As'.); bahu sg.and pl., bahuve pl. much, many (NiDoc.); bahu, bahuga, bahu_a, bahuaya (Pkt.); buhu much; buhu large, much, very; bahu (Gypsy); bu_, bo_(h) many (Pas'.); bo_ (Shum.); boh (Kal.); bo(h) much, many (Kho.); bahu~_ much (S.); bahu~_ much, many, great; bau~_ (L.); bahu, bahu~ (P.); bahu (A.B.Or.Mth.G.); bauha_ much (OM.); bhav, bho (Konkan.i); boho_, bo_ much, many; boso_ learned (Si.)(CDIAL 9187). bahutva abundance (MBh.); bahutta abundance, multiplicity (Pali); bahutta, bahu_a much (Pkt.); bu_t much, many (Gypsy); but much (Tor.); bahut, bauhat, bahuta_ (P.); bhaut (Ku.); bahut (N.A.B.Mth.H.G.); bahuta, bhauta, bout (Or.); bahuto much, many (Mth.); bahuta (OAw.); bahuta, bahota, bhota (OMarw.); bot (G.); bahu_t (M.); mhop, mop (Konkan.i); bauhtera_, bathera_ abundant (P.); bahuter, bahutera_ very many, most; adv. for the greater part (H.); but.e much, many (Sh.); bu_t. (D..); but (Bur.); bu_t. all (Mai.); but.a (Mai.); bu_t.u (Sh.)(CDIAL 9190). bahura much, thick (AitBr.); bu_ra, bu_rak much, many (Pas'.); beeri_ (Pas'.); bo_re (Shum.); bro_k many (Tir.); lau large; la_go many (Pas'.); la_u, lou much, many (Gaw.); lao, lau (Wot..); zow (Gau.); la_ya much, many (Dm.)(CDIAL 9193). bahuli_kr.ta thickened (MBh.); bo^hli_ milk of a cow newly calved (L.)(CDIAL 9196). bahula, bola thick, solid (Si.); bahula large, thick (RV.); much, abundant (Pali.Pkt.); buxlo wide; bo_l, bo_li much, great (Gypsy); bahul much, abundant (A.); bahul.a much, thick (Or.)(CDIAL 9194). la.v fat (Kol.); la_v strength (Pa.); strength, force (Go.); alavi power; alavu power, ability, strength (Te.); la_vu strength, fatness, bigness, corpulence; adj. big, large, stout, corpulent, robust (Te.); al. strength, firmness (Ta.); alvi, a_l energy, stamina (Kond.a.); a_l endurance; la_vu much (Kond.a)(DEDR 3112). cf. al-urqe to grow up to maturity (Malt.)(DEDR 399).

5751.Image: bat: pan:ka_li bat (Ta.lex.) pa_ko, pa_kya_ bat (the large kind)(Kon.lex.) valgula a flying fox; ba_val id. (Ka.lex.) va_lguda bat (Vis.n..); va_gguda (Mn.); va_guli, va_lguda flying fox (Skt.); va_gguda (Mn.); valguli_ (Sus'r.); vagguli bat (Pali.Pkt.); va_gol. flying fox (G.); va_gu_l., va_gal., va_ghu_l., va_ghal. (M.); ba_dur. (B.); ba_dur.i (Or.); ba_dur (H.)(CDIAL 11584 < Drav.). velape bat (flying)(Kol.); va_val, vavva_l bat (flying)(Ta.Ma.); va_til, kat.a-va_til, a_val id. (Ma.); vauva_l bat (flying)(Ta.); ba_val, ba_vali, ba_vul, ba_vuli id. (Ka.); ba.vali bat (Kod..); ba_vali, ba_voli id. (Tu.); ba_pla (Kuwi)(DEDR 5370). va_kuram bat (Na_mati_pa. 252)(Ta.lex.)

5752.Image: to jump up: ek-ku (ek-ki-) to reach up, stretch oneself in reaching for a thing; climb, mount, get up; ekku (ekki-) to rise, go up; stand on tiptoe (Ta.); ekkuka to come up, stand on tiptoe (Ma.); ekku id.; ekkala high, tall, huge like a demon; ekkal.su to reach up (Ka.); ekkalyuni to stretch the body, stoop down in order to catch or pick up anything, spring or jump up (Tu.); ekku to ascend, mount, get upon; ekkincu to cause to ascend; (inscr.) ekkumat.i export (cf. DEDR 3730 egumati)(Te.); ek- to climb, (sun) rises; a'k- to climb (Go.); ek- id. (Kond.a); ekasi, engasi rising, ascending, uphill; en:g- to climb; ek- to load on a cart (Kui); engali, enginai to climb; ekh'nai to heighten, promote, over-burden; epki ki- to cause to climb (Kuwi)(DEDR 766). ekku to increase, rise, be augmented (Te.); ekkadot.t.u to increase (Te.)(DEDR 768).

5753.Hiccough: vikku to hiccup, be super-abundant, chokeful; hiccup (Ta.); vikkal, vikkul., vikkil. hiccup (Ta.); pik to cough (To.); bikku to pant, sob, hiccup, stammer (Ka.); bikkul.u sobbing; bikkul.isu to throw up, vomit, eject (Ka.); bikkuni to hold one's breath; bikku holding one's breath, sob (Tu.); vekku, vegacu to hiccough, sob; vekkili hiccough, sobbing (Te.); veksi hiccup (Kol.); veka to cough; coughing, cough (Kui); vek to choke when drinking or eating (Kuwi); ve'uri, kuta ve'uri hiccough (Kuwi); bekkhna_ to have the windpipe stopped, be choked, (animals) to cough (Kur.); beqe to be choked; busge to sob (Malt.)(DEDR 5383). cf. vicchardita ejected, vomited; vicchardana vomiting (Skt.); vicchad.d.e_ti throw out, vomits (Pali)(CDIAL 11689). in:kuva a sigh (Te.); inka a belch; inkawata hiccough (Go.); iu~_khna_ to cough (Kur.); inqe id.; inqrse to force phlegm from the throat, hawk; inq-pce hiccough (Malt.); hikking to hiccough (Br.)(DEDR 419). hikkati hiccups, sobs (Skt.); hi_k (Kal.); hik- to hiccup (Dm.); 1 sg. hiku_m (Phal.)(CDIAL 14074). hikka_ hiccup (Sus'r.Pali.Pkt.); hyuku (K.); hi_k (H.); hik (G.); hikka_ra (Pali.); hikik (N.); hi_kat.i (A.)(CDIAL 14075). hin:karo_ti lows (as a cow after its calf)(Skt.); hin:kr.n.o_ti (RV.); in:garna_ on heat (of cow or buffalo)(L.); hin:g to neigh (Pas'.)(CDIAL 14076). hin:ka_ra exclamation of surprise (Pali); hi~_ka_rna_ to low, bellow, roar (H.)(CDIAL 14077). cf. vekkasamu nausea (Te.)(DEDR 5466). ekkal.ikka to hiccough; ekkil., ekkit.t.a, ikkil., ikkit.t.am hiccough, last breath (Ma.); is.kur. fat-- to hiccough (To.); ekku (usura ekku) to breathe as a child after crying loudly; ekd.u to hiccough; ekkid.ikE hiccough; e_ged.ike id. (Ka.); ekkade, ekkale hiccough, gasping (Tu.); ekkili, ekku hiccup (Te.); ikl.u, ikkid.i hiccough (Kor.); ekt.i, at.ki_ (pl. -hk) id.; ekku to belch (Go.); hikking to hiccough (Br.)(DEDR 772).

5754.To stay; a place: in:ku (in:ki-) to abide, stay (Ta.); in:kuva a place, haunt (Te.)(DEDR 420). cf. ikka place, abode, dwelling, seat (Te.); irukkai sitting, seat, residence (Ta.); ig- (ir-, it-) to exist, be in a place (Ko.); i.s.k dwelling, act of dwelling; is.k lifetime (To.); ikke, irke being, abode, seat, place (Ka.); re'nai to abide (Kuwi)(DEDR 480). cf. rahna_ to abide, live (H.lex.) cf. er- (e-, a-; edd-) to become, happen (Kol.)(DEDR 823). cf. imbu a halting or resting place, home, space, room (Ka.)(DEDR 467). cf. irku, ikku to lay or put down, put, place, beat, serve up (as food) (Ka.); ikkuni to put, serve up (as food)(Tu.)(DEDR 492). cf. ir- to put, fill, place (Ga.)(DEDR 442). raha remains (RV.BhP.); rahas- isolation, secrecy (MBh.); raha_yate_ is lonely (Pa_n.. gan.a); raha_yati (Pali); rahita deserted; rahati, rahayati leaves (Dha_tup.Pali); virahayati leaves (S'a_n:khGr..); viraha the being alone (MBh.); rahai, rahae_, rahe_i remains; rahia remaining; rahia deserted, left (Pkt.); za_n, zo_n, gu_n standing (Pas'.); rahn.u to remain; rahnu, riunu (K.); rahan.u to stay (S.); rahan. to remain; ra_vun. (L.); rahin.a_ (P.); re_hn.u_, re_hn.a_, ra~_n.u_, re~_he_to pres. part. (WPah.); raun.o (Ku.); rahanu (N.); rahiba to abate (of hunger)(A.); raha_ to continue to be, remain (B.); rahiba_ to remain (Or.); rahab (Mth.Aw.); rahna_ (H.); rahevu~ (G.); raha_n.e~, ra_hn.e~ (M.); raha_in.u to make stay, get on with (S.); a-rajjhiya not remaining (Pkt.); randanava_, randenava_ to remain (Si.)(CDIAL 10666). rahita deserted, lacking (MBh.); forsaken, lonely (Pali); rahia deserted, left (Pkt.); ria, re without (S.)(CDIAL 10670). virahita abandoned, separated (MBh.); free from (Pali); virahia abandoned (Pkt.); virahi absent (Si.)(CDIAL 11853). viraha desertion, separation (esp. of lovers)(MBh.); empty, bare (Pali); separation (Pkt.); virahu separation of friends or lovers (S.); birah, birha_ (P.); biraha sorrow of separation (OAw.); varaha separation (OG.)(CDIAL 11851). virahayati abandons (S'a_n:khGr..); virahijjai is left (Pkt.); birasna_ to stop, remain (H.) (CDIAL 11852). rahan.a firmness, remaining (Pkt.); rahan.i_ staying, residence (S.); re~_r.~ staying (Ku.); rahan-sahan conduct, behaviour (N.); rahani firmness, stopping place, dwelling place (N.); rahan.a staying; rahan.i_ residence (Or.); rahana staying (OAw.); rahan manner (H.); rahen.i_ manner of life (G.); rahn.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 10665). rahasya private, secret (MBh.); rahas lonely spot (Mn.); rahassa adj. and n. secret (Pali.Pkt.); rahas in secret (B.); rahasi (OAw.); rahas secret (H.M.); rahasa secret, mystery; raha privacy, solitariness (Si.)(CDIAL 10669).

5755.Image: two: vira, ira two (Ka.lex.)

5756.Man, husband; hero: ire man (Shum.); male (of goats, bulls, boys)(Shum.); wer-jemi_ man (Kt.); vira hero (Ap.); vir (Lat.)(CDIAL 11840). vi_ra man, hero, son (RV.); male of an animal (AV.); vi_raka little man (RV.); vi_ra hero (Pali.Pkt.); viraga, viraya male (of camels, sheep, goats)(NiDoc.); wiri-gor.e stallion; wira-kur.a boy (Ash.); werjimi_, warjemi_ (Pr.); bi_ra male, he-goat (Dm.); bir male (of animals)(Tir.); wi_r man (Pas'.); heriu husband (Gaw.); bi_ra he-goat (Kal.); bira~e male (Kal.); bi_r he-goat (Bshk.); bhi_ro male; he-goat (Phal.); bi_ro, bi_ru, bi_r male (of animals)(Sh.); vi_r brave man (K.); vi_ru hero, demon (S.); vi_r brother (L.); vi_ra, bi_r brother (address by sister)(P.); vi_r, bi_r hero (P.); bi_r hero (WPah.Ku.); bir wild boar (N.); bira_ evil spirit which enjoys women (A.); bi_r hero (Mth.); bi_ra_ brother, kinsman (OAw.); bi_r warrior (H.); bi_ro brother (OMarw.); vi_r hero, brother (G.); vi_ro brother (address by sister)(G.); vi_r hero (M.); viru (Si.)(CDIAL 12056). vi_rya manliness, virility (RV.); semen (MBh.); vi_riya manliness (RV.); viriya effort (Pali); bi_j semen (Mth.); vi_ria strength, bravery (Pkt.); viri_ strength (M.); vera, viriya (Si.)(CDIAL 12061). vaira hostile; enmity (AV.); ve_ra enmity (Pali.Pkt.); vera hatred (NiDoc.); veru enmity (S.); veru~ vindictive (S.); ve_r, vr enmity, feud (L.); be_r (WPah.); ver enmity, revenge (G.); vera (Si.)(CDIAL 12142). vairin enemy (Mn.); ve_rin, ve_rika hostile, revengeful (Pali); ve_ri, ve_ria enemy (Pkt.); be_ri (Sh.); veri_ (S.); vri_ (L.); veri_ hostile; veran. revengeful woman (G.)(CDIAL 12145). vi_raja_ta consisting of male offspring (RV.); werwo_ya_ boy (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12058). vi_ramalla m. nom. prop. (Skt.); wermala_ husband, man (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12059). matheru champion (S.)(CDIAL 9930).

5757.Image: serpentine horn; trumpet: hegga_l.e a large metal horn; cf. boggu (Ka.lex.) cf. ban:ka, van:ka a bend (Ka.lex.) baggu, boggu to bend; baggisu, boggisu to bend; boggu-hegga_l.e a bent large ka_l.e (Tadbhava of kahal.e) = ka_hale, kahal.e, kahal.a_, ka_hale = a metal horn (trumpet) of long tapering shape or of a horn-like shape; kahal.a_rava the sound of a kahal.e; kahal.e-ka_r-a a man who blows a kahal.e; bir-u-gahal.e a loud-sounding horn; kombu-ga_l.e, kombu-ka_l.e a serpentine horn to play upon; gavur, gavuru, gavuri a loud, shill, harsh sound (Ka.); gaure (Te.); gavuru-ga_l.e a kind of harsh-sounding ka_l.e (Ka.); gaureka_l.elu (Te.); pon:ga_l.e a golden horn; burugu, bur-ugu imitation of a harsh, loud sound; burugu-ga_l.e, bu_rga_l.e a kind of ka_l.e (Ka.lex.) ekka_l.am [prob. ekku (to rise, go up) + ka_hala] trumpet, a kind of cornet (Ta.); hegga_l.a (Te.)(Ta.lex.) prob. heg (Ka. = largeness) + ka_hala. ka_hala a kind of musical instrument; ka_hala, ka_hala_, ka_halam a horn (Skt.lex.)[ka_hale is one of the pacamaha_va_dya; cf. s'r.n:ga va_dyada kombu, tammat.avemba halige, s'an:khavemba daval.a, bhe_riyemba ba_ja_, jayaghan.t.eyemba ja_gat.e itter-ada pacamaha_va_dyan:gal.am.,-- bhadramemba karad.e, s'a_sakavemba naga_ri, bhi_s.an.avemba tra_sa_, gho_s.anavemba hud.ukka_, din.d.imavemba d.ikki, d.amaruvemba d.o_lu, jhurjhuravemba jha_yi, ka_halavemba gavurika_l.e, dundubhiyemba dho_ra, ghan.t.ikeyemba gan.t.e itter-ada das'ava_dyan:gal.am. ba_r-esalul.l.a vicaks.an.ar : Vive_kacinta_man.i, 4th prakaran.a; loc. cit. Ka. lex.)

5758.Image: large bull: heggol.i a large bull; heggal.l.a ettu a very large bullock; peg, per largeness, greatness etc. (Ka.); pekku (Te.); pet.a plenty, much (Ta.) (Ka.lex.)

5759.Cakkiliya caste title: pakat.ai title of the Cakkiliya caste (Ta.lex.) Oil-men: hegga_n.a a large oil-mill of stone worked by two oxen; hegga_n.iga a class of oil-men who work the hegga_n.a (Ka.lex.)

5760.Helper: va_huru_ helper (S.); va_har, vahar crowd of people, help (P.); va_ha_ra help (OG.); vaha_r, vha_r, va_r help; va_r army (G.)(CDIAL 12217). A great man: cf. praggad.e, pegad.e an elder, noble, minister (Te.lex.) heggad.ati the wife of a headman or gavud.a; a mistress; heggad.e, peggad.e a headman, a chief, a master; an epithet of the blanket-weavers and shepherds of the Kur-uba caste (Ka.lex.) veggal.a, veggal.e, eggal.a, heggal.a a great man; abundance, greatness, excess; veggal.isu, vekkal.isu to become much, increase greatly, become plentiful, go beyond the common boundary (in emotions), be elated or actuated by impulse (Ka.); veggalamu, veggalapu excess, too much; excessive, extreme; veggali~_d.u a great or extraordinary man (Te.)(DEDR 5467). heccal.a elation; heccal.isu to become elated: to begin to rejoice (Ka.lex.) vekkat.uppu sternness of countenance, stiffness (Ta. lex.) veku adj. < bahu many; much (Tiruppu. 20); vekuttal to be excessive, abundant; vekucu plenty (Ta.lex.) ? ven.-ko_l, ven:ko_n-mai cruel government, tyrannical rule; ven:ko_lan- tyrant, cruel ruler (veruvanta ceytor..ukum ven:ko_lan- : Kur-al., 563)(Ta.lex.) ekkal.a, eggal.a abundance, excess; ekkat.iga a superior, noble, or great man (Ka.); ekkad.i (Inscr.) noble, great, superior; a hero, warrior (Te.)(DEDR 768). peggad.e = pergad.e an elder (Ka.); pegad.e, pregad.e, praggad.e, preggad.e an elder, noble, minister (Te.); tottu-veggad.e a superintendent of servants; ba_n.asu-veggad.e a kitchen-master; mane-veggad.e, mane-peggad.e the superintendent of a house (Ka.lex.) ekkar proud, haughty persons (ekkara_ maman:kaiyarukku : Te_va_. 859,11); ekkal id. (kat.alekkali n-un.man.alir- palar : Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,1,4)(Ta.lex.) cf. ekkar vulgar expression, word not fit to be used in decent society (Pin..); avaiyal-kil.avi < sabha_ + al + = language not suited to an assembly, indecent language (Tol. Col. 442)(Ta.lex.) ka_hala_ a large drum (military); excessive, spacious, large; mischievous; indistinct speech; ka_halam very much, excessively; ka_hali an epithet of S'iva (Skt.lex.) hegala vit.t.an.n.a a name (Ka.lex.) Image: flood-tide: eggal.a, heggal.a, ekkal.a, yeggal.a, veggal.a abundance, excess (Ka.lex.) hekkal.a the state of being or becoming large or of increasing; flood-tide (of the sea); excessive abundance; excellence (of power; of a shower of flowers; of swords)(Ka.lex.) ekkal.i-ttal to be overjoyed (Arut.pa_. 1, Civane_s'a. 78)(Ta.lex.) heg, peg largeness; heg- in cmpds.: heggat.t.avattige large hatchet of female demons; heggat.t.u a strong band or knot; heggan.a, peggan.a a bandicoot; heggal.l.a a great thief; a great idler; hegga_d.u a large or thick forest; heggid.a a large, tall tree; heggiri a large mountain; heggun.t.e a large bullock-hoe used in weeding and stirring crops in the field; heggombu, heggombe a large, or the main, branch of a tree (Ka.lex.) Great man: aggal.a, aggal.e, argal.a greatness, eminence, excess; a great man; aggal.ike greatness, great power; aggal.isu, aggalisu to be or become pre-eminent, abundant or redundant, excel (Ka.); aggalika greatness, high degree, perseverance, eagerness; aggalincu to increase, grow, exert; aggalamu excessive, vehement (Te.); a_glo, a_gro, agro more, much (Go.); a_gal many, much; aggeli many (Kui); aga_da more; agar.a id., extra (Kuwi)(DEDR App. 4); agra top, summit (Skt.); agl.a_ superior (M.); aga_r.i (N.)(CDIAL 68). ajgar. great (Santali.lex.) aggaphala first fruit; agga first; agga-tama first-rate (Pali.lex.)

5761.Image: width of twelve fingers: ba_hra_ of a length equal to twelve fingers' breadth; a term used to denote twelve villages inhabited chiefly by a caste of jats; any collection of twelve villages inhabited or owned by people of one caste (there are many such instances of ownership in the Punjab); ba_hri_ the name of a caste of khattries; collection of twelve castes of khattries (P.lex.)

5762.Guard: pahara, pahra a guard, a watchman; to guard, to watch; pahradar a guard; pahraedako they are on guard; pahra kanako they are guards (Santali.lex.) The charge for watching: pahara, pahra, pa_ra the charge of watching over something (Mu.); pahra (H.)(Mu.lex.) Watchman: pahra, pahara, pahradar a watchman (Santali.lex.) pahat.na_ to run behind someone in order to drive away (H.)(CDIAL 8899). cf. prahara a division of time = about 3 hours, a watch; praharaka id. (Skt.)[Sanskritization of Pers. pahra watch?]; pahar watch of 3 hours (K.); paharu (S.); phur, pa_har, paur, pa_r (L.); pahar, pauhr, paihr watch (P.); pahar watch of 3 hours (Ku.); pahar (N.); par (A.); pahar, par (B.); pahara (Or.); pahar (Mth.Bhoj.); pahara (OAw.); pahar (H.); pahara (OMarw.); pahor, pohor, por (G.); paha_r, pa_r (M.); paihra_ watchman (P.); paharo watch, guard, turn, time (Ku.); pahara_ watch, guard (N.B.); watch, watchman (H.); pahero, pohoro, poro a guard (G.)(CDIAL 8900). pahare, pa_re, pa_ra_, pa_hare a period of three hours, a watch; a watch or a guard; the business of a guard, the state of guarding (Ka.); pahare (M.); paha_ra, paha_ra_ (H.); pahare_ tirugu to go about on guard (Ka.); pa_hi guard! protect! (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) prahara the eighth part of a whole day, a watch; praharaka a watch; striking the hours; praharin a watchman, a bellman; prahr. to strike (Skt.); prahr. to seize upon; praha_ra striking; prahr.ta seized (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) cf. praha_ra blow (Mn.)(CDIAL 8906). cf. praharati strikes (AV.)(CDIAL 8902). praha_yya messenger (Vedic.lex.) cf. prahin.o_ti despaches, sends (RV.); pahita sent (Pali); prahita sent (RV.); pahin.ati despatches (Pali)(CDIAL 8908). praharin gong-man, watchman (Skt.); pari_ya_ village watchman (A.); pahari_ village watchman (Ku.); pahari, pahuri (B.); pahari_ (Or.); pahari_, pahariya_ (H.)(CDIAL 8903). cf. pagadasti immovable, as in a determination or promise; cautious, wary as in speech; painstaking (Ka.M.); pagadasti-ga_r-a a painstaking man (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Day: cf. pakal day time; a day (Ta.Ma.); pagal (Ka.); pagalu, pavalu, pagulu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) pakal dividing, separating (Pur-ana_. 249); period of two na_r..ikai (Ci_vaka. 2200); midday; day time, as divided from the night (Pur-ana_. 8); the morning sun (Paripa_. 11,96)(Ta.lex.) Attention: para_kku < para_k a term of exclamation meaning 'attention' (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ra_kho protector (S.); ra_kha_ watchman; raks. guard (Skt.)(CDIAL 10671).

5763.Pit and pillar for worship: bakhu_ha_ a place prepared by Hindus (and others), in memory and for the worship of departed ancestors. It consists of a pit and a pillar formed of the earth dug from it (there are generally three or four together, hence commonly used in the plural)(P.lex.)

5764.Image: mockery: cf. bekkasa, bakkasa astonishment, amazement, surprise (Ka. lex.) ekatta_l.i mockery, jest, ridicule (Ta.); egata_l.i (Te.); egatal.i (Ka.); ekatta_l.am (Ta.); egata_l.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: laughter: pakan.t.ai song of ridicule (Patin-o. Tiruva_lan.. 1,11)(Ta.lex.) bakkara laughter (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9117). bakva_, bakvo prattle (G.)(CDIAL 9118). Image: amazement: bekkasa, bakkasa astonishment, amazement, surprise; begad.u amasement; fear, alarm (Ka.); begad.u, vegad.u, beggala, beggila (Te.)(Ka.lex.) pakat.i mockery, ridicule; jest, witty repartee; jester, buffoon; pretender, imposter (Or..ivi. Potu. 3)(Ta.lex.) bakun to prate (K.); bakan.u to prattle (S.); bakn.a_ (P.); baknu (N.); bakiba (A.); baka_ (B.); bakiba_ (Or.); bakna_ (H.); bakvu~ (G.); bakn.e~ (M.); redupl.: bakbaki prattling (S.); bakbak (Ku.N.); bakabaka (Or.); bakbak (H.G.M.)(CDIAL 9117). paka imitation of the sound of laughter; paka paka(ne) nagu to laugh very loudly, giggle; pakkane suddenly; pakkane nagu to burst out laughing (Ka.); pakapaka quickly; pakka, pakkane suddenly, unexpectedly (Tu.); pakapaka, paka_paka a loud burst of laughter, the noise of laughter; pakkuna suddenly (applied to laughter)(Te.); paka_l the sound of sudden laughter (Ga.); pakk-en-al onom. expr. of (a) being sudden, (b) bursting as with sudden laughter (Ta.)(DEDR 3813). Image: exhilara-tion: makir.. joy, exhilaration, intoxication from liquor, toddy (Ta.); Image: to laugh: maxing to laugh (Br.); makir..uka to rejoice (Ma.)(DEDR 4618). pahas insult (Si.); praha_sa loud laughter, derision (MBh.)(CDIAL 8907). pakit.i mockery (Ta.); pagidi id. (Te.); pakit.ikkatai story told to excite laughter (Ta.lex.) Amazed; afraid; cowardly: cf. pukkalu, pukku fear, timidity (Ka.)(DEDR 4200b). vekar.. (vekat--) to be puzzled, astounded, thunderstuck; caus. vekarkc- (Ko.); pek in- (id-) to be afraid (To.); bekkasa astonishment, amazement; begad.u, begar, begar.., bigur to be amazed, astonished, fear; n. amazement, fear, alarm; bigurvu that which is formidable or terrific; vigurvisu, vigurbisu to become or be formidable; vigurban.e a fearful object (Ka.); bekkasu surprise, wonder; bekkasuni to wonder, be surprised; begad.uni to be alarmed, bewildered (Tu.); vegad.u astonishment, surprise, confusion, embarrassment, anxiety; vegad.u-pad.u to be anxious; begad.u-pad.u, beggad.il(l)u to fear, be afraid; beg(g)ad.u to be afraid, fear; n. fear, terror; begad.u-par-acu to frighten; beggalamu fear, concern; beggalincu to be afraid; beggalikamu fear; beggil(l)u to be afraid, tremble (Te.); bekad.yak fearful, cowardly (Kol.)(DEDR 5465). vir-ai (-pp-, -tt-) to become bewildered; vir-aippu bewilderment; vir-umi (-pp-, -tt-) to be dazed or bewildered; vir-umai bewilderment (Ta.); verk state of being out of one's normal mind, esp. because of Kurukba magic (Ko.); bir-u to be astounded; ber-agu amazement, astonishment, alarm, wandering or confusion of mind (Ka.); beragu wonder, amazement; beraguni to be amazed, atonished (Tu.); ver-a_gu--pad.u, ver-a~gu-par-acu, vera~gu-par-acu to surprise, astonish, amaze (Te.); ver-a_gu, vera_gu surprise, astonishment, wonder; bra_ confused, confounded, amazed, bewildered; bra_ inba to be confused, etc.(Kui)(DEDR 5443).

5765.Image: heat, fire: bem. (bej), bisu heat; ben:gadir a hot ray; ben:gadira the sun; ben:gal a hot stone; ben:ki, ben:ke, ben:ge heat; fire; ben:ki bi_r..u fire to fall upon or attack; ben:kiya_gu to become very angry; ben:ki hattu fire to be attached or to touch; fire to kindle (Ka.lex.) Sun-god: pakan- < bhaga a sun-god, one of tuva_taca_tittar (Tirukko_. 184)(Ta.lex.) Image: sun: pakal sun (Man.i. 4,92), the morning sun (Paripa_. 11,96), daytime (Pur-ana_. 8)(Ta.); morning, daytime (Ma.); pagelu daytime (Tu.); pakaram brightness, splendour (Ta.); pokkal day (Pa.); pakalavan, pakalo_n sun (Ma.); pakalavan-, pakalo_n- sun (Ta.); poxol daytime (To.); pagal daytime, a day (Ka.); pagalu, pavalu day, daytime (Te.); palgre to dawn (Malt.); pakt.a day (Pa.); panga dawn, morning (Pa.); pi_al by day; piya_l, piyal, peyal, payal a day (Go.); pahpahrna_ to dawn; pairi_ morning (Kur.); palgre to dawn; pohpohre dawn (Malt.)(DEDR 3805). pakalo_n- sun (Tiruva_ca. 15,5); pakal-va_yil east, as the gate of the day (Cilap. 9,10); pakal-ceyva_n- sun, as day-maker (Cilap. 7,50)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pa_kara-p-pirapai splendour of the sun (Me_ruman. 1073); bha_-kara (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Morning; image: sun: pakkam < bharga lustre, brilliance as of gems (Tiv. Tirunet.un. 21, Pak. 175)(Ta.lex.) pratyu_s.a dawn (MBh.); paccu_sa dawn (Pali.Pkt.); paccu_ha (Pkt.); pasos (Si.)(CDIAL 8646). prayu_s.aka_la time of dawn (MBh.); paccu_saka_le_ in the morning (Pali); pasossal early dawn (Si.)(CDIAL 8647). praro_cate_ shining forth (RV.); praising (ChUp.)(CDIAL 8745). prakat.ana bringing to light (Skt.); parne morning (Pr.)(CDIAL 8429). bha_la splendour (Skt.inscr.); pral light (Dm.); plal, plol light, iris of eye; adj. light, bright (Gaw.); pralik, prelik light (Kal.); ca_l (Bshk.); culo (Chil.); plal adj. light, bright (Sv.); cou (Gau.); pra_l (Phal.); c.alo_ lighted torch (Sh.); pa_la_ lamp (N.)(CDIAL 8711). paha_sai shines (Pkt.); prabha_sate_ shines (MBh.); pa_yanava_ to shine, become clear, rise (of sun)(Si.)(CDIAL 8712). prabha_sayati makes shine, illumines (MBh.); pabha_se_ti illumines (Pali); pa_svu~ to make bright (G.); pahayay illumining (OSi.10th cent.); pa_nava_ to show (Si.)(CDIAL 8713). pakar radiance, splendour (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,10,9); to emit lustre(Ta.lex.) cf. bharga (Skt.) praka_s'a clearness, lustre (RV.); paka_sa lustre (Pali); paya_sa light (Pkt.); pras'o, pyas'o light (of sun, lamps, etc.)(WPah.); paha lustre (Si.)(CDIAL 8437). praka_s'ate_ becomes visible (MBh.); praca_kas'at surveying (RV.); paka_sati shines forth, becomes visible or known (Pali); pakce to look for (Kt.); payanava_ to rise (of sun), shine, become clear (Si.)(CDIAL 8438). praka_s'ana illuminating (R.); displaying (MBh.); paka_sana explaining, information (Pali); paya_san.a illumination (Pkt.); pahan light, morning, dawn, lamp (Si.); peuheli, penella torch (Si. + hella spear)(CDIAL 8439). praka_s'ayati makes visible (Skt.); paka_se_ti makes known (Pali); paya_se_i makes shine (Pkt.); pa_svu~ to make bright (G.); pahayay illuminating (OSi.); pa_nava_ to show (Si.)(CDIAL 8440). praka_s'ita published (MBh.); paka_sita made known (Pali); praga_sita (NiDoc.); paya_siya (Pkt.); pavasu information (Si.)(CDIAL 8441). prabha light (Mn.); pabha light (Pali.Pkt.); paha_ (Pkt.); prawa, pl. rays of light, sunshine (K.); piriha dawn (S.); poh, pau, parah dawn (L.); pauh, paih, paihi, pao (P.); puha_ (OA.); puwa_ sunrise, morning time (A.); pah, poh, pau dawn (H.); pa_he dawn, next day (OM.); paha fire; pa_ha_ light, brilliance; paba light, brightness (Si.); pa_ha_r sunshine, sunny place (N.); pohar light (A.); paha_t. period before sunrise, dawn (M.)(CDIAL 8705). prabha_kara sun (MBh.); light (Skt.); paha_yara sun (Pkt.); paha_r, pa_ha_r sunshine, sunny place (N.)(CDIAL 8706). prabha_ta shone forth (MBh.); daybreak (Gaut.); pabha_ta shining; dawn (Pali); paha_ya, paha_iya (Pkt.); paho, poh dawn (G.); paa~_-tara_, pua~_-tara_ morning-star (Or.); pha_yi tomorrow (Konkan.i); parod.h, paror., parod.hiyu~, paror.iyu~ dawn (G.)(CDIAL 8707). prabha_taka_la dawn (Sus'r.); poha_ili dawn (OB.); poha_la (B.)(CDIAL 8708). prabha_ti shines forth (RV.); appears, seems (MBh.); pabha_ti shines forth (Pali); poha_na to dawn (B.); pa_iba_, pa_ha_nti dawn (Or.); pa_he shines (OM.); pa_ha_ti_ dawn (OM.); pa_yanava_ to rise (of sun), shine, become clear (Si.); pahan.u to consider (S.); pa_iba to be fit or proper (A.); pa_iba_ to suit, tally with, seem, think (Or.); pa_hn.e~ to see, search (M.); pa_hije it is necessary (M.)(CDIAL 8709). prabha_na light (Pa_n..com.); pahana light, dawn, morning, lamp (Si.)(CDIAL 8710). Image: dawn: vaikar-ai daybreak (Ain:kur-u. 188); ve_kuva id. (Te.); vaikal day (Pur-ana_. 363); vaika_cam dawn (Ta.) ?< vika_sa (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vaiku-cut.ar light that burns all night (Akana_. 87); vaikutal to dawn, as the day (Perumpa_n.. 318); vaikirul. darkness immediately before dawn (Ta.lex.) bay, bay(i)ge evening, evening twilight (Ka.); vaikuka to stay the night, delay, stay, be late (Ma.); vaiku-ne_ram, vai-ne_ram evening; vaikikka to detain, delay; vaikkam delay (Ma.); vaikar-ai, vaikur-u daybreak (Ta.); bayt.i evening (Kod..); bayyuni, baiyuni to perch, roost; baiya, bayya evening; baiku delay, stay; in the evening (Tu.); ve_gu, ve_vu to dawn; ve_gincu to keep awake; ve_gimpu waking from sleep, keeping awake; ve~_gu~bo_ka, ve_gu~bo_ka, ve~_bo_ka, ve_kuva dawn (Te.)[cf. the suprabha_tam the early morning invocation traditionally broadcast in Tirupati, ve_n:kat.am]; veged., ve_ger. tomorrow (Kol.); ve_g- (ve_gt-) to dawn (Nk.); ve_ge(n), e_gen tomorrow (Nk.); ve_v-, ve_y- to dawn, (day) breaks; ve_pip- (ve_pit-) to make to dawn (Pa.); ve_g- to dawn (Ga.); viya_ sukum morning star; viy- (morning) to dawn; vi_y- to dawn; vi_nahk the whole night long; vele tomorrow (Go.); vige tomorrow; ve_g-/vi_g- to dawn (Kond.a); vig- (vikt-) to dawn (Pe.); viga, vigalin tomorrow (Pe.); ving- (vinkt-) to dawn; vi_e tomorrow; vinge id. (Mand..); ve_ga (ve_gi-) to last, outlast the night, dawn; ve_ga d.a_nju early dawn; ve_gam bod.ur.i morning star; veiti next day, on the day after (Kui); ve_y- (-it-), we_i_nai to dawn; we_d.a we_yalie daybreak; vi_'e, wi_e, vi'e, ve'e tomorrow (Kuwi); bijjna_ to dawn, begin to grow light; bijjta'a_na_ to protract till dawn (Kur.); bije to dawn (Malt.)(DEDR 5554). Dawn: vibha_ti shines forth (RV.); dawns (Pali); viha_di, viha_yai shines (Pkt.); bya_n.o to dawn (Ku.); biya_unu to become light (N.)(CDIAL 11812). vibha_nu radiant (RV.); viha_n.i_ dawn (S.); bya_n (Ku.); biya_na obl. in the morning (N.); biha_n morning (A.); id., dawn (B.Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); dawn (H.); biha_ne adv. in the morning (A.); early (H.); viha_n.ai in the morning (OG.); vaha_n.u_, va_n.u~ dawn (G.); vibha_yana brightening (Pali); viha_yai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11813). vibha_van bright (RV.); viha_u_ the morning star (S.)(CDIAL 11814). Burnt field for shifting cultivation: ve_gar. burnt field for shifting cultivation; ve.gad. (obl. ve.gat.-) field (Kol.)(DEDR 1438; DEDR 5258). bega_, be~gwa_ loose sandy sub-soil in which a clay well does not work (Bi.)(CDIAL 9307). Burn forest: ve_va (ve_t-) to be cooked; (forest) to be fired, burned (Kui); vey- (vet-) to be burned (forest, fuel)(Kond.a); ve- (-t-) to be burnt (Kuwi)(DEDR 5517). Soldered, united, refined (as gold): ve_ to be refined (as gold)(Ta.)(DEDR 5517). ve_vu combustion (Ma.); vet- (vety-) to weld (i.e. make red-hot (Ko.); ve_va to be fired, burned (forest)(Kui); ve- (-t-) to be burnt (Kui); bassna_ to consume to ashes, (man) destroys by fire (Kur.); veh- (-it-) to be hot (Kuwi)(DEDR 5517). bhasman ashes (AV.Pali); bhassa (Pkt.); bas fine dust or powder (of charcoal, fuel, cowdung, etc.)(K.); bhasu ashes (S.); bhass (L.P.); dust (WPah.); bha_si powdered tobacco leaves without molasses (Ku.); bha_s-bhus trifles (N.); bhasbhasi d.ar.a_unu to burn to ashes (N.); bha_s fine sand that falls in and chokes a well (Bi.); bha_sa ashes (Pkt.); bha_ (L.); bha~_s dust from husking (M.)(CDIAL 9425). bhassar dusty (P.) (CDIAL 9426). bhasa_r dirty, untidy (N.)(CDIAL 9427). Image: heat of sun: be_su to burn up, prepare by boiling, bake (Ka.); be_sage, be_sige hot season (Ka.); bisil, bisu, bisal heat and glare of the sun, sunshine; bisi, bisu, bisupu heat (Ka.); bisi heat, warmth esp. of sun; bisulu sunshine (Tu.); benge, benke, benki heat, fire (Ka.); be_, be_yu to be burnt up, be scorched by the sun's heat, etc. (Ka.); ve_ (ve_v-/ve_kuv-, vent-) to burn, be hot (as the weather), be scorched, be boiled, be refined (as gold)(Ta.); ve_vu burning, boiling (Ta.); be_nke; heat, sultriness (Tu.); ve~_d.imi heat, warmth (Te.); vey gal to cook (Kol.); ve_nd.i hot (Kol.); beru sun (Malt.); be_ge fire, heat, wild fire in jungles (Ka.); veyil heat of the sun (Ma.); ve_ka (vent-) to be hot, burn, seeth, boil, (heart) burns (Ma.); veyyo_n- sun (Ta.); ve_n-al heat, hot season, anger (Ta.); bijili sunlight (Kor.) beyipelu boiling, boiled (Tu.); vesni hot (Kond.a); vehini hot (Kuwi); ba_sing to become hot (Br.); bising to bake, cook (Br.)(DEDR 5517). ben:ga_d.u a jungle or uncultivated wild where the grass is scorched (Ka.); ben:ga_ru land that has not sufficient water for growing rice (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) Equinox: vis.uvant supreme (TS.); a day in the middle of the year, a one-day sacrifice (AitBr.); equinox (Ya_j.); vis.uva id. (MBh.); visuva equinox (Pali); bis'u_ the moment of the sun's reaching Aries, song sung by low-caste people in April (WPah.); bihu last day of A_s'vina, Paus.a, or Caitra observed as a festival, equinoctical festival (A.)(CDIAL 11982). ve_gu to be very anxious; ve_d.i heat (Te.); ve.ndi, ve_ndi hot (Kol.)(DEDR.5517). Image: to burn: vakku-tal to burn, singe; to roast (Periyapu. Kan.n.appa. 145); vakkurittal to scorch, burn (I_t.u, 9,9,2)(Ta.); cf. vaks. (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vaks.an.am fire; vaks.i_ ved. 'a flame' (Skt.lex.) prakva_tha boiling (Skt.); pakkat.hita boiling (Pali)(CDIAL 8451). vyus. dawn (AV.); vyus.ita (S'a_n:khS'r.); jua_, ju_, zu_i, ze_i_, jo_i_ dawn, morning, tomorrow (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12219). vyus.ati burns (Dha_tup.); vyus.t.a brightened; vyus.t.i daybreak (RV.); wuhun go glow, smoulder (K.)(CDIAL 12220). akan.t.am perpetually burning lamp; circular lamp; akan.t.a-ti_pam lamp that burns perpetually, used in worship (Ta.lex.) {Echo word}: paka-pakav-en-al onom. expr. of crackling of fire; expr. signifying burning or smarting sensation of hunger (Ta.); bagn, bagbagn blazing with sudden flame (Ko.); baga, baga baga sound used to express suddenly blazing up, the crackling of flames, shining brightly, and also burning of the body; bagabagane, baggane with the sound of bagabaga (Ka.); bagabaga the crackling noise of conflagration (Tu.); bagguna suddenly (of burning or flaming); baggumanu to burn, flame, catch fire suddenly (Te.)(DEDR 3802). Image: to burn: vakku (vakki-) to burn, singe, roast; n. being singed or burnt, being roasted (Ta.); vakkuka to singe, burn slightly; van.n.uka to be singed (Ma.); varn:g- to be burnt, charred, scorched; caus. vars- to scorch, burn, brand; warsa_na_ to brand, blister; varsa_na_ to burn, brand; versa_na_ to blister (Go.)(DEDR 5207).

5766.Image: hunter: baheliya_ hunter, fowler, retained (esp. one armed with bow and arrow)(H.); vya_dha hunter (Mn.Pali); va_ha (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12199). cf. a_her.i_ hunter (S.)(CDIAL 1038). va_gurika deer-catcher (Skt.); hunter who uses nets (Pali); va_guri, va_guriya, va_uriya id. (Pkt.); va_gura member of a mixed caste (Skt.); bauri_a_ member of a low caste of thieves who uses nets for catching animals (P.); ba_uri member of a low caste usu. employed as litter-bearers (B.); a low caste (Or.); vagguria living by snaring birds and beasts (Pkt.); va_ghri_ id. (M.)(CDIAL 11470). ma_rgika hunter (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 10077). Badaga man: mayv Badaga man; fem. mayt; may pat.y Badaga village (Ko.); ma.f Badaga man; ma. mox Badaga boy (To.) (DEDR 4829). ma_kular, ma_kulavar hunters, savages (Ta.); ma_vuliga man who uses nets for catching deer, etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 4790). Net: valkka, vakkuka to catch fish; valayan a caste of hunters (Ma.); vala net, web (Ma.); valai net (Ta.); valaiyan- fisherman (Ta.); val net, box-trap for rats made of netting (Ko.); pal net (To.); bale (Ka.Kod..); net, web, snare (Tu.); vala net, snare (Te.); net (Ga.); valla (Ga.); olla id. (Go.); vala id. (Kond.a.Kuwi)(DEDR 5288). ma_ku a net (Ta.); ma_vuliga man who uses nets for catching deer, etc. (Ka.)(DEDR 4790). valaijan- fisherman (Maturaik. 256); valaika_ran- id. (Ta.); valaicce_ri fisherman's quarters; valaiyace_ri maritime tract; valaicci woman of the maritime tract; fisherwoman; valaiyappar-aiyan- a sect of Par-aiyas who live by netting birds ; valaiyan- inhabitant of maritime tract; fisherman; person of a caste which lives by netting fish, birds and beasts, one of 18 kut.i-makkal. (Ta.lex.) ma_l a kind of net (Ta.); a kind of net for carrying fruits, fishing, etc. (Ma.); ma_li a coir net (Ma.)(DEDR 4823). Image: trap for animals: va_gura_ net or trap for animals (MBh.); net (Pali); hunting-net (Pkt.); va_gura net (Pali); va_kara_- f., va_kara-, va_kura- hyper paliism BSBU 102); va_ura_- f. hunting-net (Pkt.); va~_var net for catching pig and deer (L.); ba~_ur, baur f. (P.); vaggura_ hunting-net (Pkt.); va_ghu_r, va_ghar, va_ghuri_, va_ghri_ net, snare (M.)(CDIAL 11469). va_her.o roost for birds, nest (S.); baseru inhabitant (OAw.); basera_ place for staying (H.)(CDIAL 11594). Image: net: cf. valkka to catch fish (Ma.)(DEDR 5288). vis'a spring-trap, snare for birds, lever (Ma.); bisa a spring, a catch; bisabisa quickness; bisi tension, elasticity (Te.); winja_na_, vi_nj to pull with a jerk (Go.); vi_ska_na_ to drag, pull (Go.)(DEDR 5450). vesa bowstring (Kui); vacca, vaca, wa_ca id. (Kuwi) (DEDR 5469). Image: to lay a trap: oggu to lay a trap, net, lay a wager (Te.); og- to set (fishtrap); vagga_na_, vakka_na_ to set snare (Go.); oga (ogi-) to trap, snare; n. act of trapping (Kui); u_r.u_ ogali to noose; og- (-it-) to set a trap (Kuwi)(DEDR 934). cf. u_ri a trap for birds (Kond.a); u_r.r.u_ (pl. u_r.ka) snare; urru hanging; uru, huru snare (Kuwi); urlu snare (Tu.)(DEDR 655). cf. To weave: Idg. *ueg to weave, as in velum sail (Latin); wecca (Anglo-saxon)= wick (English); waba (Ohg.) = wabe (Ger.) (Pali.lex.)

5767.Image: partridge: pakan.t.ai a kind of partridge; a bird (Ta.lex.) pakki < paks.in bird (Tiruppu. 319)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: pigeon: cf. poge green pigeon (Malt.)(DEDR 4454). bakbakur cry of a pigeon; huhar. a pigeon (Santali.lex.) Image: bird: pa_khru_m. bird (M.); paks.i (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 360). Image: bubble; boil: phakphak, phakphakao to puff, to bubble when boiling, an imitative word; pheke pheke, phokphok to bubble when boiling; phak phak sad.e kana it sounds puff, puff; phakphakaok kana jon.d.ra daka the Indian corn porridge is bubbling (producing the sound phakphak) (Santali. lex.) Wing; tail: pakkam tail; wing, feather (Paripa_. 21,31)(Ta.lex.) Image: wing: pa_khe_l wing (Kho.); paks.a wing, feather (RV.); pakkha wing (Pali.Pkt.); phak, pakh wing (Gypsy); paki_la feather (Gypsy); pach feather (Kal.); poc(h) feather (Kho.); phaca_li wing (Sh.); pakh wing; pakha fan (K.); pakhu feather; pakho fan (S.); pakkha_, pakha_ honeycomb; fan (L.); pakkhu_ bird (L.); pakkha_ fan (P.); pa_ wing (Ku.); pa_khi wing, fin, feather; pkhiya_iba to pluck off feathers or hair (A.); pa_kh(a_) wing, feather, fin (B.); pa_kha_ fan (B.); pakhi tail (Or.); pa_kh wing (M.); pa_k wing, feather (Konkan.i); pa_khu fan used in a flour mill; pa_kh wing or bird or butterfly (H.); pam.kha wing; pam.khud.i_, pam.khud.iya_ (Pkt.); phan:gh wing (P.); phan:g id. (WPah.); pa~_kh feather (Ku.); pa~_khur-o wing (of bird)(Ku.); pwa~_kh, po~kh wing, feather (N.); pa_n:kha_ fan (A.); pan:kha_ wing, fan (Or.Mth.); pa~_khi wing (Mth.); pa~_kh wing; pa~_khi feather (Bhoj.); pa_m.khu wing, feather (OAw.); pa~_kh, pa~_khr.a_ wing; pan:kha_ fan (H.); pa_m.kha wing, feather (OMarw.); pa~_kh wing, pectoral fin (G.); pan:kho fan (G.)(CDIAL 7627). pakhaut.a_ wing (H.)(CDIAL 7630). paks.aput.a wing (Skt.)(CDIAL 7633). Image: bird: pakhru_ bird (P.); pokkhar, pekkhru_, pekhro~, pl. pekhru, pakhru_, pa_khru (WPah.); pa_khru~_ (M.); pa_k(h)ru~ birdlike (Konkan.i); pakhe_ru_ bird (L.); pan:kheru_ (P.); pakheru_ (OAw.); pakheru_, pakheruwa_ (H.); pa~kheru~ (G.); pa~kheru~_ (M.)(CDIAL 7637). paks.in winged; bird (RV.); paks.i (MBh.); pakkhin adj. (Pali); pakhi bird (As'.); pakkho, pakkhia, pakkhin.a, pam.khi, pam.khin.i_ (Pkt.); usum-wici_ bat (Pr.); phaci bird (Dm.); pas.in, pacin, pa_cin, paxi_n (Pas'.); phe_cin (Gaw.); pachi~ak sparrow (Kal.); pachin bird (Bshk.); pas'i_n (Tor.); phe_cina (Sv.); pachin, pachi, pachan. (K.); pakhi_ (S.); pakkhi_, pakhi_ (L.); pakkhi_, pan:khi_ (P.); pa_khi (B.); pakhi_ (Or.); pa_khi (Mth.); pa_m.khi_ bird; pa~_khi_ small winged insects (OAw.); pa~_khi_ bird, winged insect; pa~khi_ bird (H.); pan:khi_ bird; pan:khiyu~ winged (G.); pak bird (Si.)(CDIAL 7636). paks.i, pat.ci, pakki bird (Ta.); paks.i, pakki id. (Ma.); paky id. (Ko.); paks.i, pakki, hakki id. (Ka.); paks'i, pakki id. (Kod..); penis of immature boy (Kod..); pakki bird (Tu.); paks.i, pakki id. (Te.); paksiak male bird (Ko.); paksin female bird (Ko.); paks.i (tatsama from Skt.)(M.); paks.in bird (Skt.); pakkhin id. (Pali); pakkhi id. (DBIA 233b). Crane: bakula_, bag, bagula_, bagla_ crane (H.); bag (G.M..); baka white stork; the bird ardea nivea (Mn.); baka crane (Pali); baka, bakka, baga, baya, bagi_ (Pkt.); brag the blue heron ardea cinerea (K.); bagu, bago, bagulo crane (S.); bagla_ (P.); bakullo (N.); bag (A.); bak (B.); baga (Or.)(CDIAL 9115). Image: white stork, crane: vakka_ white stork, andrea nivea (Ta.); vanka_ a bird (Ta.); vakku crane (Te.)(DEDR 5206). Image: goose: vakkanga ruddy goose (Pali); vakanga loris or ceylon sloth (Si.); vakra_nga goose (Skt.)(CDIAL 11186). Image: forktailed shrike: bha~ga_, bhu~ga_ forktailed shrike (H.); bhr.n:ga fork-tailed shrike (Skt.); bhim.ga a sort of bird (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9578). han:ga the jay, the Indian roller or jay; the fork-tailed shrike (Ka.lex.) cf. -ma~_ga in: kukkat.ima~_ga fork-tailed shrike (Te.)(DEDR 1627). bala_ka_ crane (VS.); bala_ka (Gaut.); bala_kika_ a small kind of crane (Skt.); bala_ka_ crane (Pali); bala_ya_, balaya_, bala_haga_ (Pkt.); bala_ (Si.)(CDIAL 9168). ke_ya snipe or similar bird (Pa.); ke_ga magpie (Kui); ke_ya shrike bird (Kuwi)(DEDR 1994). majjika_ female of Indian crane (Skt.); manji_ duck (Pr.)(CDIAL 9713). phin:gaka forktailed shrike (Skt.); phin:ga_ id. (B.H.); phe~ga_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 9076).

5768.Image: fencing: pakat.am fencing (Ta.lex.). va_ku-yuttam fencing ?< ba_hu arm, shoulder (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

5769.Image: male frog: pe_kam < bhe_ka frog; pe_kan- male of the frog; pe_ki female frog (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) be_ka-na_t.a acting like a frog, timid (RV. viii.66.10)(Vedic.lex.) bhe_ka a frog; bhe_ka-rava the croaking of frogs (Skt.lex.) bhe_ka frog (MaitrUp.); bhe_kat.a, bhe_kani kind of fish (Skt.); bhe_ka frog (Pali); bhe_ga (Pkt.); bheka_no frog (Ku.); beguto, bya_guto (N.); bhek, bhekuli_, bhe_kola_ (A.); bhekt.a_ a kind of fish (Or.)(CDIAL 9600). cf. vyan:ga speckled (AV.); freckles (Sus'r.); frog (Skt.); va~_g marks on skin (M.); beng the Devil (Gypsy); byan., ben. frog (N.); ben. (A.); bya_n., ben. (B.); ben:ga (Or.); be~, ben. (Mth.); ben. (Bhoj.); be~g (H.)(CDIAL 12159). cf. bet.ka frog; panna, pana (Kuwi); bharn.d.a_ bull-frog (Kur.); paran.t.u, poran.t.u bull-frog (Tu.); pande, pan.d.e frog, toad; biceps (Kol.); pande frog; muscle (Nk.); pand.ake frog (Ga.); panne_, panne, panga_l, pand.e id. (Go.); pan.a id. (Pe.); pana frog, toad (Kui)(DEDR 3955).

5770.Usurer: be_ka-na_t.a an usurer; kusi_din (Vedic)(Skt.lex.) pe_kan- a liberal chief, one of seven kat.ai-val.l.alkal. (Cir-upa_n.. 87)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5771.Collected; mixture: bhekar. lump, mass (G.); bheg mixture (G.); bhegu~ collected, mixed together (G.)(CDIAL 9602). bhella_ lump (P.); bhela_ lump, clod (H.)(CDIAL 9618). vyatikara mixture (MBh.); vyatiki_rn.a scatterd in various directions (MBh.); vero difference, distinction (G.)(CDIAL 12161).

5772.Compulsory labour: be_ga_ri, be_ga_rya_ labourer (Konkan.i. lex.) be_ga_ri labour exacted by a government or a person in power without giving remuneration for it (Ka.); biga_ra (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ve_kat.ai-ve_lai unsubstantial work; ve_ka_ri compulsory labour < be_ga_r (H.); ve_ka_vari good-for-nothing person; cf. be_ka_r (H.); ve_kat.ai-y-a_l. fop (Ta.lex.) cf. vegu fool (G.); beglo foolish (N.); begar without (N.B.); begara (Or.); begal. (M.)(CDIAL 11826). vekkasi an unbearable, frightful or disgusting person (Te.)(DEDR 5466). be_ku_p adj. < be_khu_ uneducated, foolish, stupid (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pen:ku evil or corrupt practices (Te_va_. 111,10)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) bhekuwa_ foolish, blunted, unlettered; bhekal, bheklo foolish, lazy, unreliable; bhekaluwa_ foolish (Ku.); bhekera_ blunt (A.); bhe~ko foolish, stupid (A.); bhi~_ga waste (S.); bhn:ga_ squinting (L.); bhe~ga_, bhen:ga_ (Ju.); bhen:gro (WPah.); bhya_n:ga ugliness (N.); bhen:gura_ crooked (A.); bhen:gur.a_ crippled (B.); bhen:ga_na to grimace (B.); bhe~ga_ squinting (H.)(CDIAL 9601). bher. idiot, foolish, rude (Ku.); bhera_ dull-headed; bheruwa_ dull, stupid, timid (A.)(CDIAL 9605). bhya_s, bhesar. foolish, rude, uncivilized (Ku.); bhe~hiya_iba to make faces (A.); bhesar.a_ ugly (Or.); bhesara_ ugly (Or.)(CDIAL 9619). bhedo corpulent (Or.)(CDIAL 9612). ben.a_ idiotic (A.); left-hand (B.); ben:ga fetid smell (Or.); be~ga_, be~gwa_ loose sandy sub-soil in which a clay well does not work (Bi.)(CDIAL 9307). cf. vyan:ga crippled (AV.); ba~_gar.u_ foolish (OH.); vyongu lame (K.)(CDIAL 12158).

5773.Image: to lift the arm preparatory to a blow: ben-gre to lift the arm preparatory to a blow (Malt.); bi_xrna_ to make a gesture of commencing a certain action, being at the same time within convenient distance for performing it, take one's aim for (Kur.)(DEDR 5450). Image: outstretched hand: ben-gle to reach with outstretched hands (Malt.)(DEDR 5519). va_hvu~, va_vu~ to raise (a weapon); poss. also, with meaning 'sow` [if < 'throw` rather 'plough ready for sowing`](G.); wa_yun to wave (the arms)(K.); ba_hn.a_ to raise a weapon (P.); baihn.u_ id. (WPah.); to sow (WPah.)(CDIAL 12201). ve_v collection of seed grain (K.)(CDIAL 11281). vapati scatters, sows (RV.)(CDIAL 11282). wa_eni_, waeni_ sowing (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11523).

5774.Salt: be_k salt (Kur.); beku id.; bek-bkre to taste saltish (Malt.); be_ salt, piquancy, spirit, flavour (Br.)(DEDR 4428). hewer over-salted; hewer har.hat bitter, as some unripe fruits (Santali.lex.) beha_ stale, not fresh; beha_ tabeha_ stale, three days' stale; foot lying stale for three days; behi_ the sweetmeats placed before a wedding party at the bride's house after the marriage ceremony, generally after noon for two days continuously; behi_ tabehi_ food stale for three days; stale food; not fresh (P.lex.) behan. coriander seed (P.lex.) ve_sava_ra, ve_s.ava_ra a paricular condiment or kind of seasoning (consiting of coriander, mustard, pepper, ginger, spice etc.: u_t.ada parika_ra, i.e. codiment used for seasoning food)(Ka.lex.) cf. ve_sava_ra a partic. condiment (of coriander, ginger, mustard, pepper, spice etc.)(Sus'r.); besa_r turmeric (N.); beha_r mustard (A.)(CDIAL 12135). cf. ve_san.a cummin seed, pea-foour (Pkt.); vehan., behan. coriander seed (P.)(CDIAL 12133). me_haghni_ turmeric (Skt.lex.) mis'ih, mis.h anise; spikenard (Skt.lex.) nirbis spice like ginger (Santali.lex.) besaha to traffic, to sell, to dispose of; turi basahae sen akana he has gone to sell mustard seed (Santali.lex.) muhri, panmuhri anise seed (Santali.lex.) va_sita spiced (Skt.lex.) upaskara condiment (Skt.lex.) cf. vakkhar oilseeds in general (L.P.); bakkhar id. (P.)(CDIAL 2265). cf. wakhiri_ small things for merchandise (S.)(CDIAL 2264).

5775.Image: bamboo joint: ve_ykkan. bamboo joint (Na_mati_pa. 297)(Ta.lex.)

5776.Saw: had adj. with daru, bata, ar.kat.a, kant.a: sawn; to cut with a sawing motion, using any instrument at all: a saw, a knife, an axe etc., in contrast to ma and its diminutive sama to cut with a striking motion; to cut the throat; to castrate the animals by cutting; of running water, to eat away the ground on the side of the stream; had-en to cut oneself; ha-p-ad to thus cut each other (Mu.lex.)

5777.Image: fish: hai, haku a fish (of any kind); in specified names hai may stand as affix: cor.ahai, cod.ahaku, binhai, kar.akomhai (Mu.lex.) cf. kakka fish; kayal carp (Ta.)(DEDR 1252).

5778.Image: live coals: hangar-hangar, angar-angar a glowing fire of live coals without flames; to bring a fire to this stage of burning (Mu.); anga_r embers (H.)(Mu.lex.)

5779.Earth: hass soil, earth; made of earth; to mix earth into something (Mu.); khajj (Oraon); hasa-n to dirty with earth one's body or clothes; hasa-o to get mixed with earth; hasa-gar.a a grave; to bury; to dig a grave; hasa-pucu a kind of oath taken in the full and definitive sale of land (Mu.)(Mu.lex.)

5780.Image: goose: has, hasa the goose, anser domesticus (Mu.); ham.s (Skt.) (Mu.lex.)

5781.Phaseolus mungo: hende ramba_r.a, hende rambr.a, hende ramr.a phaseolus mungo, a very common pulse crop; hende blackness (Mu.lex.)

5782.Pulses: hor.e name given to two leguminous plants cultivated as pulses and distinguished in: rutahor.e (Mu.); kurthi (H.); the form of dolichos biflorus; caulihor.e; jugihor.e glycine hispida (Mu.); ram kurthi (H.); birhor.e, birjugihor.e one of the names of atylosia scarabaeoides (Mu.lex.)

5783.Image: neck: hot.o the neck of a man, animal, bottle, pitcher etc.; to fit something with a said kind of neck; hot.o-go to have or be made with a neck or a said kind of neck; ho-n-ot.o the excessive length of a neck; hot.okore, modhot.o up to the neck (deep or high); hot.o-lot.o a wry neck (Mu.lex.) A wry neck: heta a wry neck; heta heto a wry neck; with the name of a person, e.g. heta D.ond.a a person having the habit of turning the head sideways when looking at something or speaking with somebody; heta kar.aba a wry plough-handle; heta bo to turn the head; heta to turn the head aside or towards something; he-p-eta both to turn the head and look at each other; heta-o to be looked at by somebody who turns the head; heta-bar.a to turn the face right and left; heta-biur to look in all directions with a circular movement, wheeling round to complete the circle; heta kot.on of a jackal, to spoil the omens by turning its head and looking at people who go to consult the omens before a marriage; heta-nam to see somebody or something by turning the head; heta-ruar., heta-ru_r.a to look round; het.o-idi to go on moving or move away (Mu.lex.)

5784.Paddy for sowing: hita anything planted or sown for propagation; to reserve or use for propagation or breeding; hata-o id.; hita baba paddy reserved or used for sowing; hita iamam, hita-luman live silk-cocoons reserved or sold for breeding; hita-merom a he- or she-goat kept for breeding (Mu.lex.)

5785.Image: bullock: ho used by little children instead of uri, bullock (Mu.); cf. ko_ (Ta.); go_ bull, cow (Skt.)(Mu.lex.)

5786.Image: man: ho_ contraction of hor.o man; ho_ a member of the Ho branch of the Munda race; Mundas call themselves hor.oko or ho_ko men (Mu.lex.)

5787.Fertility: hoba, ho_ba, hobao the fertility of a field; to give everyone a share or portion; ho_ba to render fertile; hoba of a field, to give a good crop (Mu.lex.)

5788.Broken branch: hoca, honoca the place on a tree where a large branch or the top has been broken off; to wrench, or tear off a large branch or the top of a tree (Mu.); huckaek (Sadani); koc'a a piece broken off or cut away (Oraon)(Mu.lex.)

5789.Image: to comb hair: hodan, hodar to comb hair, using neither oil nor water so that some of the hair gets torn out; hodan-en to comb oneself thus; hodan-o to be combed thus (Mu.); khtna_ to scratch (H.)(Mu.lex.) cf. kutar-u to become loose, dishevelled (Ta.)(DEDR 1703).

5790.Parboiled rice: hond.e the point to be reached in parboiling paddy before husking it; hond.e baba parboiled rice; hond.e to parboil paddy to prepare it for quick and easy husking (Mu.); ondna_ (Oraon)(Mu.lex.)

5791.Image: hare: horalsi-kulae, ler.eakulae a smaller and paler kind of hare, in contrast to jar.akulae the taller and darker kind (Mu.lex.)

5792.Image: hump of a zebu: hocod, ucud the hump of a zebu or camel; hocod-o to get a hump (Mu.lex.) cf. kubja hump (Skt.lex.)

5793.Eleusine coracana: hud.in kode, indikode, t.eperkode the earliest variety of eleusine coracana, ripening at the end of August. Its seeds are red (Mu.lex.) cf.ke_r..-varaku eleusine coracana (Ta.lex.)

5794.Account: haki_katu account, statement; affairs, events, facts (Ka.M.H.); haki_katuna_me a written account of occurrence (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5795.Temporary job: han:ga_mi entertained for the season or occasion (as a public servant), temporary, for the time being (Ka.Te.); han:ga_mi_ (H.M.); han:ga_mi relating to the season; han:ga_mi-sibbandi a temporary establishment of clerks; han:ga_mu the season (as the products of the earth); the time at which anything or business is most abundant (Ka.); han:ga_ma (M.H.) (Ka.lex.) cf. ks.am earth (Skt.lex.)

5796.Image: tumult: han:ga_mu uproar, tumult, riot; an assault, a setting upon with clamour and vociferation and furious manifestations (Ka.); han:ga_ma_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5797.Border: haddu a limit, a border; the end or extremity of (Ka.); hadda (M.H.); haddubastu settlement or demarcation of boundaries (Ka.lex.)

5798.Tank irrigation: hayanu water: the crop that is raised by means of tank water of which the planting begins in January; hayanugadde lands for raising the hainu crop; hayanu batta the paddy of the hainu crop (Ka.lex.)

5799.Broad: hara_bi, ara_bi broad, large, extensive (Ka.H.); ara_bi (Ka.Tu.)(Ka.lex.)

5800.Ruined: hala_ku oppressed, overcome, spent through sickness, labour etc., ruined, destroyed, lost (Ka.Te.); ala_kku (Ta.); hala_ka (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5801.Image: portable fire-place: hasani a portable fire-place, a chafing dish (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

5802.Receipt: hujattu a government receipt (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5803.Wrangling: hujattu perverse wrangling, objecting; any such objection or difficulty made; any mean, unfounded, unreasonable pretence in endeavouring to shuffle off or decline (Ka.); hujata (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5804.An ear ornament: ba_vali, ba_voli an ornament worn by women at the tip of the ear (Tu.); ba_vili_ an ornament or jewel hanging from the ear, an ear-pendant; bavira a kind of ear ornament (Te.); ba_veli ear ornament (Kond.a): pa_vili a kind of ear ornament (Ta.); ba_vali, ba_vuli a kind of ornament of gold, pearls, precious stones, etc., worn on the tip of the ear; ba_li a kind of earring (Ka.)(DEDR 4105). Image: an ear ornament: pagra an ear ring worn in the lobe of the ear; makr.i an ear ring worn higher up in the ear (Santali.lex.) pokat.i, pukit.i, pu_t.i ear ornament worn by women on the top of the helix (Ta.); bugad.i, bugud.i ear ornament of females worn in the upper part of the ear (Ka.); bugud.i female's ornament worn in the tip of the ear (Tu.); bugad.a, bogad.a gold pin worn by women in the tip of the ear (Tu.); bugd.i_ ear ornament (M.)(DEDR 4237).

5805.Thorny babool tree: ba_uru acacia farnesiana (S.)(CDIAL 9199). {Safford, W.E., reports that in some parts of India the bark and the (brown) pods are used as a dye-stuff and for tanning: Useful Plants of Guam, Contrib. U.S.National Herb. 9 (1905)}. Acacia farnesiana: cassia flower; arimaedah (Skt.); vilayati kikar, gandbabul (H.); vilayati-babul (H.); guyababula (B.); gu-kikar (Deccan); jabbaval (G.); gu-baval (G.); kempu cumma or nugatumma (Te.); pikkaruvil, pavalam (Ta.); karijali (Ka.); kariveelum, pitumma pivelum, pikharu-vil (Ma.); kusri-jhad (Konkan.i); guibabhul (M.); kuebaval (S.); habitat: it is found everywhere in India and is well known for its bright yellow flowers; parts used: bark, leaves, gum, pods and flowers; constituents: the oil of cassia flowers contains benzaldehyde; salicylic acid, methyl-salicylate, benzyl-alcohol analdehyde and essential oil; flowers (pods) yield a most delicious perfume (balsamic liquid); action: astringent, demulcent and alterative; bark is astringent; flowers are stimulating. The delicious perfume yielded by the pods is alterative; preparations: decoction, mucilage and oil... A gum exudes from the bark of the tree which is a good substitute for gum arabic, but yields a glutinous fluid on treatment with water. (Nadkarni, Indian Materia Medica, Vol. I, pp.34-35). ve_l babul tree (Ta.); ve_la-maram an acacia, babul tree [acacia arabica = mimosa arabica](DEDR 5537). Synonym: tumma babool tree, acacia arabica (Te.); tumba_ id. (Kol.); tumba maran, tumba id. (Ga.); tumma id. (Go.)(DEDR 3335). ca_li umbrella thorn babul, acacia planifrons; elephant thorn, a. tomentosa (Ta.); ja_li thorny babool tree, a. arabica = a. farnesiana (Ka.); ja_li, ja_la a. arabica (branches are cut and used for fencing)(Te.)(DEDR 2474). cf. ca_likan-, ca_liyan- a caste of weavers (Ta.); ta_lye weaver; spider (Tu.)(DEDR 2475). za_lar net-maker; zaluru spider (K.)(CDIAL 5214). ja_li_ fisherman, sorcerer (B.)(CDIAL 5217). cf. bi-zal spider (Dm.); vayyar.a_ the weaver bird (P.)(CDIAL 11298). ja_lika_ veil (S'a_n:khGr..); net (Skt.); za_li_ silkworm cocoon (A.); ja_li network (B.); ja_ru~ cobweb (G.); bizal spider (Dm.); jal net (WPah.)(CDIAL 5213). jha_la_ cobweb (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5219). Acacia arabica: Indian gum arabic tree, babul tree (Eng.); vabboola, vabbula, barbara (Skt.); kare-mugilan (Pers.); kitkar (H.); babul, kala-babli (M.); babhula (S.); bala, kikar (H.B.P.); kalikikar (Deccan); kaloabaval, baval (G.); nallatumma, barbaramu, tuma (Te.); karuvael, karuvelum (Ta.); karijali, jali, bauni (Ka.); karuvelum, babola (Ma.); shameeruku (Konkan.i); sak (P.K.); ammughilam, ummughilam (A.); akakia (extract)(Pers.Arab.); habitat: common all over India in dry and sandy localities; plentiful in western Peninsula, the Deccan and coromandal coast; Uses: Gum is an efficient substitute for true gum acacia (Nadkarni, Indian Materia Medica, Vol.I, pp. 9-10). Acacia catechu, acacia wallichiana, acacia polyacantha: khadira (extract) (Skt.M.Ka.); catechu (English); khair, katha, kottha fooflee sooparee (dye)(H.); khair, khayer (M.B.); khaira, khaderi (M.); khair (Gwalior); kher, kath-khar (G.Deccan); podalimanu, poogamu, kachu (dye); kaviri-sandra (Te.); voadalam, karangalli, kasku-kutta, wothalay, kasha-katti (dye)(Ta.); khadiram (Ma.); kathu (Konkan.i); kachu (dye)(Ka.); khaiyar (Santal); khoira (A.); khoiru (Or.); ratkihiri (S.); sha (Burmese); habitat: common in forests of India and Burma; lighter variety of catechu is an imported one from Malaya and Singapore and is derived from uncaria gambier; dye extracted from the inner wood is a brittle compact substance of chocolate colour containing much tannin and an acid called catechuic acid, it has a stringent taste... catechu is a resinous extract prepared from the wood by boiling it in water and inspissating the decoction; Uses: catechu is used in India as an ingredient of the packet of betel leaves chewed by the people...kath-bol is a mixture of catechu and myrrh given to women after confinement, as a tonic and to promote secretion of milk... (Nadkarni, Indian Materia Medica, pp. 11-13). Gambir: ve_n:kai East Indian kino tree, pterocarpus marsupium (Ta.)(DEDR 5520). pterocarpus marsupium has tannin which is comparable to the tannin of uncaria gambir (pop.names: gambir, gambier, pale catechu); gambir is widely used as a tanning material; the aqueous extract is prepared from the leaves and twigs. Gambir is also used as a mordant in dyeing. In Malaya, gambir is used for chewing with the betel leaf; some believe it causes the reddening of the mouths of betel chewers. [cf. Duke, James A., Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Boca Raton, Florida, 1985, p. 498)].

5806.Hamlet: t.ola a hamlet, i.e. a small group of houses within the boundaries of a village or a town (Mu.); t.ola (Sadani); t.oli (Sadani)(Mu.lex.)

5961.One-fourth: ha_ga, pa_ga, ha_gu one an.e two ka_sus; one-fourth; ha_go vi_sa a ha_ga and a vi_sa, i.e. 1 an.e 5 1/2 ka_sus (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5992.To attack, kill: pa_g to kill (Mand..); to strike, kill (Pe.); pa_y- (-it-), pai_nai to strike, kill; paiyali to hit, kill; pay- (-it-) to beat, kill (Kuwi); pa_y-, pa_ya_na_, pa_na_, pai_na_ to beat, strike; pa_-/pa_y- id., shoot; pe_hc- to strike, play on a drum, clap (hands)(Go.); pa_k-/pa_g- to beat, shoot (Nk.); ha_kuni to beat, strike (Tu.); pa_y to butt, gore, knock against (Ka.)(DEDR 4044). Image: to wrestle with; to spring, leap: pa_ga attack, pounce upon, swoop down on, fight; to wrestle with, spring at; n. attack, fight (Kui); pa_ska pl.action to fly, leap (Kui); pa_ycal, pa_ccal bounding, jump, butting, piercing (Ta.); pa_yttul. spring, leap (Ta.); pa_nja (pa_nji-) to fly, leap (Kui); pa_y to spring, leap; rush against (Ta.); to jump over, step over, cross, jump, leap, leap against, assault (Ka.); pa_vu to leap or jump over (Ta.); pa_yuka to run against (as bulls), leap, rush out, flee (Ma.); pa_ccal running, leap, assault (Ma.); pa.y- (pa.yuv-, pa.j-) to dash into; pa.yp, pa.yv dashing (Kod..); pa_nja (pa_nji-) to fly, leap; n. act of flying, flight (Kui)(DEDR 4087). pinja (pinji-) to rebound, leap; n. a leap (Kui); pl. action piska (piski-); pispa (pist-) to cause to rebound (Kui); pinj- (-it-) to spring, jump; pl.action pisk- (-it-); pinj- to spring (Kuwi)(DEDR 4145A).

5807.To be beaten(of metal): pahat.t.ha struck, beaten (of metal); suvan.n.a-pahat.t.ha (pp. of pahansati to strike, beat, beat a metal, rub, sharpen a cutting instrument as knife, hatchet, razor etc.); pahansita struck, beaten of metal, refined; paharan.a, paharan.aka striking, beating; paharati to strike, hit, beat; paha_ra a blow, stroke; paha_rin striking, assaulting (Pali.lex.) praharati thrusts forward, offers (RV.); strikes (AV.); throws out (S'a_n:khS'r.); prahr.ta thrown (AV.); struck (MBh.); paharati strikes (Pali); praharidavo (NiDoc.); paharai (Pkt.); pahariba_, paha~riba_, pahu~riba_ to sweep clean (Or.); paharanava_ to strike (Si.); pa_ranava_ to hurt (of a wound)(Si.); pahara_pe_ti causes to be struck (Pali); pa_ravanava_ to squeeze or hit against a boil (Si.); paharavaya (OSi.); pahat.a struck (Pali); pahaya struck (Pkt.); pahia churned (Pkt.); pahal.a, pa_l.a struck (Si.)(CDIAL 8902). praha_ra blow (Mn.); paha_ra blow, wound (Pali.Pkt.); pro_r wound (Kt.); pa_r, pa_re wounded (Pr.); praa_ru, praa_l wound (Dm.); laha_r, plo_or, s.awo_r (Pas'.); paha_r internal wound (L.); pa_ha_ra blow, beating, pestle of rice-pounding machine; pa_hura_iba_ to pound with a pestle (Or.); paharuwa_ pestle of husking machine (Bi.); pahara, pa_ra blow (Si.); fa_ru wound (Md.)(CDIAL 8906). cf. ha_re_i destroys, is defeated (Pkt.); ha_ran.u to lose, be defeated (S.)(CDIAL 14061). haran. forcible seizure (G.M.); haran.a removing (Kaus'.)(CDIAL 13979).

5808.Image: mortar: va_han., va_yan., va_i_n. stone mortar fixed in the ground (M.); avagha_ta threshing corn in a mortar (Skt.)(CDIAL 754). avagha_ta blow, threshing corn (Skt.)(CDIAL 753). avagha_tayati causes to thresh (S'Br.); avahanti threshes (RV.); ogha_vvu~ to thresh (corn etc.)(G.)(CDIAL 755). cf. ukhal. mortar (M.)(CDIAL 2360).

5809.Yearly payment: pakra yearly payment in kind (Santali.lex.)

5810.Bark used for ropes: valkala (Skt.) antiaris toxicaria, a very tall tree reaching 75 m. in height. Synonyms: karwat (Konkan.i); riti (Si.); bhoonromari (Or.); ali, arandali, iraici, maravuri, nettavil, pattai (Ta.); billupale (Tu.); ajjanpatte, ajanapatte, aranyapatte, bairi, jajhugri, jajjuri (Ka.)(Indian Medicinal Plants, Vol.III, p. 2335). Antiaris toxicaria = ipo toxicaria: ipoh (Malaya); upas (Java); ipo (Tagalog. Bisayan/ Philippines) trema orientalis = celtis orientalis. The plant is an evergreen tree. The fruit is a small fig, purple scarlet or crimson. Watt, G., A dictionary of economic products of India, Calcutta, vols.1-6, 1885-1893; vol.1, p.266: from the bark of this tree fibre is obtained which is made into cloth, and is useful for cordage, matting and sacking. (Quisumbing, E., Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, 1978, p.225). cf. e_pi shorea robusta (Ka.)(DEDR 896). Antiaris toxicaria = antiaris innoxia = antiaris saccidora: chandla (M.); karvat (M.); valkala (Skt.); nettavil (Ta.Ma.); riti (Si.); hmyaseik (Burmese); sap: arrow poison; seeds: febrifuge, in dysentery; habitat: evergreen forests of the W. Ghats from Konkan southwards to Travancore, upto 2,000 ft. (GIMP, p.21).

5811.Image: climber; used for ropes: pa_kal balsam-pear, climber, momordica charantia (Tiruva_ru_. 421); pa_val id. (Ma.); ha_gal, ha_gala id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex. DEDR 4045). Image: creeper: pa_hur a creeper having large leaves used for plates; pa_ur, paur, paurjap bauhinia vahlii, siya_ri (Go.); pa'eri mra_nu sp. of wild tree, bauhinia racemosa (Kond.a); pahur camel's foot creeper, bauhinia vahlii (Go.); peyar mar siya_r tree (Pe.); paeri a climbing plant of which the leaves are used for making cups and runners and tendrils for ropes (Kui); pa'eri do_ri rope (creeper fibre); pa'eri d.o_ri rope made from bush vine; pa'eri, pa_e_r ma_r.a_ siyari_ tree (Kuwi)(DEDR 3801). cf. pa_viri creeping purslane, portulaca quadrifida (Ta.); pa_vila-ku_ra, pa_vili-ku_ra portulaca meridiana (Te.)(DEDR 4104). paciri creeping purslane, portulaca quadrifida (Upate_caka_. Civatturo_ka. 501); paciyam < pa_s'ya rope (Ta.lex.) pavan. creeper (Pur-ana_. 109, Urai. Pi. m..)(Ta.lex.) {Synonyms for bauhinia vahlii: mahalan, maul, sihar (Central Provinces); malu (Garhwal); paur (Gond.); malghan, maljan, maljhan, mahul, malo, malu, maulein, maurain (Hindi_); maulan (Kharwar); pairmal (Khond); mottanvalli (Ma.); maljan (M.); mantarai (Ta.); madapu, mudupu (Te.); shiali, shioli, siyali (Or.); cf. Indian Medicinal Plants, vol.II, p.897).} maro_j fibre for rope; moros, mar.os rope prepared from fibre of paur tree; morosm, moras, moroli rope; maronj bark (Go.); murar-ci a cord (Ta.); mra_su rope made from hide (Kui); marcu rope attaching bullock to plough (Kuwi)(DEDR 4976). Cord; bark: murar-ci a cord (Ta.); muraje rope made of straw (Tu.); mar.o_nj strip of bark (Go.); maro_j fibre for rope (Go.); morolik rope (Go.); mo_ru_m bark used for tying a bundle (Go.)(DEDR 4976). Stout rope: hor(a)ji a stout and long rope used in drawing an idol-car (Ka.); horaje cord put round the neck of an elephant (Ka.); puracai, puro_cai halter or head-stall of an elephant (Ta.)(DEDR 4284). Rope: rajju cord, rope (RV.); rope (Pali); raju (NiDoc.); rajju, lajju (Pkt.); rajuk (Kal.); ra_j, ra_z (Phal.); raz rope (Sh.K.); rajot.i thick string (Sh.); raju_r.i_ rope (WPah.); rajet.t.o~ (WPah.); lezu (A.); laja rope (S.); lajj, lajju well-rope (P.); lejur. pad on woman's head for waterpot (Bi.); lajuri_ well-rope (Bhoj.); lej, lejur rope (Bhoj.); lej, lejur rope (H.); rajju (Konkan:k); rodda, rodu string, cord (Si.)(CDIAL 10582). restis rope (Latin); re~zgis wicker, basket (Lithuanian); rajju a cord, line, rope; fisherman's line; rajju-ka_ra rope-maker; rajju-ga_haka rope-holder; (king's) land-surveyor; rajjuka a rope, line (Pali.lex.)

5812.Cordia myxa; used for ropes: bahuva_ra the tree cordia myxa (Bhpr.); bahuva_raka (Skt.Pali); baha_l.u, ba_ha_lu, boa_l.u, bhua~_ra, bhua~_l.a (Or.); bahu_a_r its fruit (H.); bhokar, bho~kar the tree; its fruit (M.); bhokri_, bho~kri_ the tree (M.)(CDIAL 9197). nar-uvili, nar-ul.i sebesten plum, cordia myxa (Ta.); nar-uvari id. (Ma.); nakkera id. (Te.)(CDIAL 3627). cf. viriyan- common sebesten (Ta.); viracu, viricu, virucu large sebesten; viris'u a tree (Ma.); virigi cordia sebestena (Te.)(DEDR 5408).[cf. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.770: ... cordia myxa... occurs in India to southern China and Formosa, and through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia... in the Philippines rope is made from the bast.] Bark, elephant rope : vakku-na_r woolly ordure tree, sterculia villosa; elephant rope tree (Ta.); vakka id. (Ma.); bakka id. (Ka.); bakku id.(Tu.)(DEDR 5209).

5813.Image: to leap: valgati springs, leaps (VS.); vaggati leaps (Pali); vaggai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11419). ve_l- to fly, jump; ve_lpip- (ve_lpit-) to make to fly, teach to fly (Pa.); va_l- to fly, jump, cross over (Ga.); v(r)a_lu to light or perch (Te.); va_luvike perching (Ka.)(DEDR 5368). Image: leap: va_val jumping over; dance; va_vutal to jump over, gallop, leap (Kampara_. Pan~cace_. 63) (Ta.lex.) Image: to jump about: va_kudn.e~ to jump about, frisk, frolic (M.)(CDIAL 12185). cf. kuti to jump (Ta.lex.) Image: to leap: ukal.u to leap, bound, frisk, gambol, jump over, run about; ukal.i to leap, jump, delight, exult; ukalu to billow, rise and roll in large waves; ukai to rise, leap, jump up (Ta.); uvakka to jump up; ukkuka to leap, rebound (Ma.); uka to ascend, rise stately, soar upward (Ta.); ukappu, uvappu height, elevation (Ta.); oge to come forth, arise, be born (Ka.); un:kincu to spring, jump (Te.)(DEDR 559). udaga_t has risen (of sun)(RV.); ugge_i, uggai rises (Pkt.); uga_t he went away (Tor.); uggn.a_ to spring up, grow (P.); ugan.u to spring up, shoot up (S.); uga_na to spring up (B.); ugeiba_ (Or.); u_gab to rise, appear (Mth.); u_gai rises, appears (OMarw.); ugvu~ to rise, come out (as the fruit of), grow (G.); uga_un.a_ to cause to spring up (P.); uga_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 1954). oka_lu ascent; kwa_l.e (WPah.); uka_lo uphill slope; uka_w (Ku.); uka_lo (N.); uka_l. rise (G.); uka_l.a_ ebullition (M.); oka_la_, okala_ food spat out (A. infl. by oka_liba); o~_karai, u~_karai upwards, high (Ash.); uker steep (Kt.)(CDIAL 1720). ukaran.u, ukiran.u to go out, descend (S.); ukaln.o to rise (Ku.); uklanu to ascend (N.); ukaliba to be in excess of a certain number in counting (A.); ukal.vu~ to boil (G.); ukal.n.e~ (M.); ukalna_ to boil over (H.); uka_ran.u to take down, make descend (S.); uka_ln.o to raise (Ku.); uka_lnu (N.); uka_lna_ to boil (water, etc.)(H.); uka_l.vu~ to cause to boil, make ready, finish (G.); ukal.n.e~ to boil (M.); ukal.ta_ lifts (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 1716). uccarati rises (RV.); uccarai goes over or out (Pkt.); ucaral to go, fly (Bhoj.); ucarna_ to rise (of boils, etc.)(H.)(CDIAL 1641). uccalati springs up (BhP.); uccallai goes (Pkt.); ucalvu~ to rise; caus. ucla_vvu~ (G.); ucaln.e~ to rise, shoot up (M.); ucca_le_ti raises (Pali); ucca_le_i throws up (Pkt.); uca_ln.a_ to arouse, excite (P.); uca_lnu to raise, lift (N.); uca_l.vu~ to help in lifting (G.); ucaln.e~ to raise (M.)(CDIAL 1642). ucca_ra rising (TS.); usa_l act of rising (A.)(CDIAL 1644).

5814.To estimate; brand, mark: paka_r value of a crop fixed by an appraiser (Ta. < baka_r (U.)(Ta.lex.) pa_kku estimate, estimate of the crop < ba_k (U.)(Ta.lex.) an:ke_ti marks, brands (Pa.); an:kayati id. (MBh.); an:gn.a_ to examine, estimate (P.); a~_kn.o to mark, estimate (Ku.); a~_ka_ to mark, draw (B.); a~_kna_ to mark, appraise (H.); a~_kvu~ (G.); a~_khn.e~, a~_kn.e~, a~kn.e~ to mark, trace (M.); a_n:kiba_ to brand (Or.)(CDIAL 104). an:kana marking (Nir.); branding (Mit.com.); am.kan.a marking, branding (Pkt.); a~_kan. estimate, opinion (Ku.); a~_kn.u~ carpenter's tool for marking (G.)(CDIAL 102). Counting; marking: aka mark (Si.); an:ka curved line, mark, sign (R.); mark, brand (Pali); o~_kh mark (K.); a~_k mark, spot (H.); digit (Ku.Aw.G.Konkan.i); mark, sign (M.); an:gu numerical figure, mark (S.); an:g (L.P.); a~_ko notch (G.)(CDIAL 100). akkam a numerical figure (?Ma. ?< eka (Skt.); ekm (obl.ekt-) counting, taking account of something; ekat. (ekac-) to count (kat..- to tie); eku.t. (eku.c-) to count (ku.t.- to make to join, gather); ekmu.r. (ek.muc-) to count (Ko.); okm (obl.okt-) arithmetic, account, figures (To.); ekkam the unit of numeration, first place in ciphering (Tu.); ekkamu a unit, the place of units, a multiplication table (Te.)(DEDR 769). an:kita marked, branded (Pali); am.kia (Pkt.); a~ki_ numbered, marked (M.)(CDIAL 106). a~ka_r mark, spot (H.); a~ga_ran.u to sketch out before engraving or painting (S.)(CDIAL 101). kan.akku account, calculation, arithmetic, account book, manner, way (Ta.); account, computation, manner, way (Ma.); kan.akkan- accountant (Ta.); kan.akkan id. (Ma.); kan:k calculation, records (government), historical account (Ko.); kon:k calculation, arithmetic (To.)(DBIA 69). [kan. + akkam = counting on the (12) joints of the fingers; cf. gana-kay wrist (Go.); kan.u-k-kai (Ta.); kan.u knuckle (Ta.)(DEDR 1160)]. gan.aka astrologer (VS.); gan.aya, gan.iya id. (Pkt.); gan.i~_u (G.)(CDIA 3989). gan.ana counting (Pa_n..As'.Si.); gan.ana_ (MBh.Pali); gan.an.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 3992). gan.ayati counts (MBh.); gan.e_ti counts, takes notice of (Pali); gan.i_yati is counted (As'.); gan.e_i, gan.ai counts (Pkt.); gan. to count, read (Ash.Wg.Pas'.); gan.an. (L.); gan.n.o~_ (WPah.); gan.n.o (K.); gan.an.u (S.); gan.iba (A.); gan.a_ (B.); gan.iba_ (Or.); gannu (N.); ganab (Mth.Aw.); ganal (Bhoj.); gan.vu~ (G.); gan.vu~ (G.); gan.n.e~ (M.); gan.inava_ (Si.); gen, gin (Gy.); gi~r (Bashg.); gin.an. (L.); gin.n.a_ (P.); ginab (Bi.); ginna_ (H.)(CDIAL 3993). gan.ita counted (MBh.); gan.iya (Pkt.); gin.uva_ (OSi.)(CDIAL 3996). ganna counting (Pkt.); ga_n~u (S.)(CDIAL 4120). grand counting (K.); ganti (N.); ganti_ (H.)(CDIAL 4234).

5815.Image: linchpin; wedge to tighten spokes: *pratyara beside the spoke; paccar wedge (P.); wedge driven through segment of felly to tighten spokes (Bi.); pa_car wedge to tighten a post etc. (M.); paccar. wedge to tighten spokes; pacci_ id. (Bi.); paccar. linch-pin (r. may be hyperhindiism for r)(Mth.); pha_car wedge; pha_cru~ flat (G.)(CDIAL 8641). cf. pasar. side (Kol.Pa.)(DEDR 3823). cf. paka a piece of stick or twig or bamboo used as a pin (Kui)(DEDR 3808). cf. pa_cam eye of a needle (Ta.); pa.c id. (Ko.)(DEDR 4055). Image: a small bit: pakku-vit.u-tal < paku + vit.u- to be split, cracked as the ground (Kur-al., 1068); to break as the skin from a blow of a rattan (W.); pakken-al onom. expr. of (a) bursting as with sudden laughter; (b) splitting, cracking; (c) throbbing through fear or surprise;(d) being sudden (Ta.lex.) cf. pakkit.u-tal to part, crack, split (Ta.lex.) pakavu slice, share (Ta.); pakat.u a small bit (Ma.); pati.r to divide (?Ko.); pakir (-v-,-nt-) to divide into shares, distribute, break, split; separate; n. share, section, piece (Ta.); pakuppu division, classification (Ta.); Sharing; to give alms: pa_kit.utal to give alms; pa_ki_t.u share, portion, allotment; pa_ku share, portion, lot, division; alms (Te_va_. 54,4)(Ta.lex.) pa_ttu dividing, sharing, share, half (Ta.); pa_tti division, section, part, share (Ta.); pa_tu division, share (Ta.); pa_ to divide, distribute (Ta.); pagadi tribute, tax (Ka.Tu.); pagidi tribute (Te.); pagi, pagtelu rent, split (Tu.); pa_ngu share, proportion (Tu.); papp split bamboo sticks (Pa...); pan, pah, pa to split (Go.); pay to be split (Go.); pag- (pakt-) to split (Pe.); panga to be cracked, split, divided (Kui); paka a piece of stick or twig or bamboo used as a pin (Kui)(DEDR 3808). paku to be divided, cut into pieces, tear off, root out; pakal dividing; pakai disagree-ment, hatred, enmity; pan:kam portion, division (Ta.); pakuti division, share (Ma.); pagiyuni to split, rend, fall in pieces (Tu.); pa_n:gu share, proportion (Tu.); pagulu to break, crack (Te.); pay to break (Nk.); pa_n:gal.a portion, share (Tu.); pax to be divided (To.); paxy division (To.); pak split bamboo (Go.); pak to split (Mand.a); pakme a division of the house (Malt.); pagi, pagtelu rent, split (Tu.)(DEDR 3808).

5816.Herdsman: va_gi_, ba_ggi_ herdsman (P.)(CDIAL 11563). Class, group: varga class, group (Ka_tyS'r.); vagga company, collection (Pali.Pkt.); vagra, vaga class (of people)(As'.); vagu herd (of cattle or camels)(S.); vagg, vag herd, flock (of sheep, cattle, camels)(L.); vag flock, herd (of camels)(L.); vagg, bagg herd (of cattle)(P.); ba_g side, direction (B.); ba_ga side, direction, path, method, skill (Or.); ba_g flock of about 100 sheep or goats (Bi.); va_gh herd (G.); vaga sort, class, affair (Si.); ba_gur.o herd (of buffalos), group, crowd (Ku.)(CDIAL 11331). baga_l flock, herd, crowd (N.)(CDIAL 11332). Party, group: cf. bala_gamu retinue, party, the circle of friends and relatives or kinsmen (Te.)(DEDR 5308). va_ra crowd (Skt.); crowd, troop (Pkt.); varin inst. vara loc. clan, tribe (OSi.); pl. suffix -var, -val (Si. < Ta.)(CDIAL 11548).

5817.Image: buffalo-bull: ba_gi_ buffalo-bull, he-goat (Ku.)(CDIAL 11563). ba_gur.o herd (of buffalos), group, crowd (Ku.)(CDIAL 11331). pakat.u buffalo bull (Tol. Po. 76, Urai.); vakira_ buffalo (Can.. Aka.) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Image: he-buffalo: makit.am < mahis.a he-buffalo (Tiva_.); makit.a-marttan-i Durga_ (Can.. Aka.); makit.a-va_kan-i Durga_ as riding on a buffalo (Ku_rmapu. Tiru. 23); makit.an- buffalo-faced Asura, slain by Durga_ (Te_va_. 147,7)(Ta.lex.) mahis.a a male buffalo (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ko_n.a (Ka.lex.) maha a buffalo (Skt.lex.) Buffalo: majjh, majh, majh buffalo (L.); majha buffalo (S.); majjh (P.); ma_hila buffalo herdsman (Pkt.); bhai~_ f. (Bi.)(CDIAL 9980). ma_hyo, ma_ho of a buffalo (S.); ma_hyar.u seller of milk and butter (S.); ma_hi~_ herd of buffalo cows (L.); ma_hi_ buffalo herdsman (P.); bha~ysa_ buffalo milk (B.); bhai~sa_, mai~sua_ produced from a buffalo (G.)(CDIAL 10113). ma_hio coming from buffaloes (milk, ghee, etc.)(CDIAL 10114). ma~_jho coming from buffaloes (milk, ghee, etc.)(S.); ma_jha_ (L.P.); ma_hila buffalo herdsman (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10116). mai aries of the zodiac; cf. me_s.a; sheep, goat; maiyu_n- mocitta vokkalot.u : Pur-ana_. 96)(Ta.lex.) mahis.a buffalo; great, powerful (RV.); mahis.o_ mr.ga_n.a_m the great one of the beasts: 'buffalo' (SKt.); mahis.i_ buffalo cow (RV.); mahisa, mahim.sa, mahi_sa (Pali); mahisa, mahisi_ (Pkt.);maes.o_ (Pas'.); mai_s.e (Wot..); mai_s. (Sv.Gaw.); mes.-ga_ (Gmb.); ga-mes. (Kho.); me_zh (Tor.); mhe_sh (Mai.); maiyus., me_s. (Sh.); mu~_s'u, mai~s', mu~_s', mu~_s'i, mai~ (K.); me~hi (S.); me~h (L.); maiha~_, mahi~_, mai~h, maihi~ (P.); bhe~_i~s (P.); bhai~_, bhei~, mai~h, mhai, bahe~s', mahis', mhai~s' (WPah.); bhai~so, bhiso, bhe~_s' (Ku.); bhai~si (N.); maih (A.); mai~sa (Or.); bhai~sa (Or.); bhai~sa_ (Bi.); bhai~s (B.Mth.Bi.Bhoj.H.); mhai~s (H.); bhe~s', bhe~sar (G.); mahi_s, mhaisa_, mhas'a_, mhais f. big ugly buffalo bull (M.); mivan (OSi.); mi_va_, mi_ma_, miyu-, mivu-, mi_- (Si.); maihika_ buffalo (H.); mahisikka herd of buffaloes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9964). To graze: me_y-tal to graze, feed, prey on as beasts or birds; to gnaw as white ants (Kur-al., 273; Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,1,1)(Ta.); me_yu (Te.Ka.); me_yga (Ma.); mecelu (Tu.); me_yttal to graze; to feed (Tiruman. 2883); me_yal grazing (Ain:kur-u. 217); pasture, herbage for cattle to eat (Akana_. 14); me_yppan- herdsman, shepherd, grazier (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) me_p to go, move (Skt.lex.) mayyar herdsman (L.)(CDIAL 9966). mahia great (Pkt.); mahi_yas greater, very great (S'vetUp.); mahi_a_m. gen. pl. superior (OG.)(CDIAL 9976). mahis.t.ha greatest (BhP.); maic. buffalo (Bshk.)(CDIAL 9973). meha_go herd of buffaloes (S.); miha_g (L.)(CDIAL 9971). mahiru_, maihru_ buffalo (P.); mihru_ pertaining to buffaloes (P.); mhaisru~_, mhasru~_ buffalo (bull or cow)(M.)(CDIAL 9970). meha~_ru buffalo-herdsman (S.); mahis.apa_la id. (Skt.); mei~hva_l, mivha_l (L.); bhai~swa_r (N.); maiha_l (A.); mai~_sia_l.a (Or.)(CDIAL 9969). maiha~_n buffalo-owner (A.)(CDIAL 9968). meha_ra_ grazing-ground for buffaloes, place in jungle where buffaloes are tethered (P.)(CDIAL 9967). mai buffalo (vaikupular vit.iyin- maipulam parappa : Akana_. 41)(Ta.lex.) mahisa, mahi_sa, mahinsa (Vedic mahis.a, an enlarged form of maha_ + i_s', because of mahi_sa > mahinsa] a buffalo; mahisa-yuddha buffalo-fight; mahinsaka-man.d.ala the Andhra country; cf. mahinsaka-rat.t.ha (Pali.lex.) mangu buffalo (Malt.); manxa_ male buffalo (Kur.); mar..a youth, infancy (Ta.); man.aka, mal.aka young cow or buffalo (fit for breeding)(DEDR 4747).

5818.Jalap: pakan-r-ai Indian jalap (a purgative root)(Ta.); pakunna a purgative root (Ma.)(DEDR 3807).

5819.Image: six presiding female deities: vahula_ the six presiding female deities of the Pleiades (Skt.); va_kulai id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5820.Image: a large eye: bagal.a_, bagal.e, vagal.a_ a large eye (Ka.); bagal.a_-de_vi one of the s'akti deities by means of which one may shut the mouth of an opponent etc. (Ka.); bakala_, bagal.a_, vagal.a_ (Te.); bagase, bagasige, bogasi, bogase the palms of the hands joined so as to form a cup (Ka.); bagase-gan. an eye like a bagase, a large eye (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) va_kku-k-kan. squint-eye (W.)(Ta.lex.) Pay for a vow: a_n:gon.e-san:gon.e, a_n:gon.sin:gon., a_n:gon., a_n:gon.e vow; a_n:gon. samba_l., a_n:gon. di_ (esp. if something is to be paid) keep, observe vow (Kon.lex.) Food offering in temples: an:ka_l.i Goddess Ka_l.i_, a female deity; an:ka_l.a-te_vi goddess (Paca. Tirumuka. 670); an:ka_l.ammai a goddess (Ta.); an:ka_l.amma id. (Te.); akka_l.i-p-piraca_tam a kind of food offering in temples (S.I.I. iv,83)(Ta.); akka_l.i id.; akka_l.i-man.t.ai big balls of food offered to idols in temples (S.I.I. iv,77); an:kamma_ name of a form of Ka_l.i_ (Ta.); an:kamma id. (Ma.); an:gamma_, an:kal.amma (Te.Ka.); an:katam food of elephants (Paca. Tirumuka. 158)(T.E.D.)

5821.Image: dispute: pake_t.a_ < bakhe_ra_ (U.) wrangling, dispute, quarrel; quarrelsome person (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) va_n:ka_vil rivalry (Ta.lex.)

5822.Image: circular piece: paitu~ circular piece of iron or pot etc. used in games; circular slice of fruit (G.); paito small particle of pulse (N.); paito powdered, mutilated, rotten (Ku.)(CDIAL 8447). cf. pagad.e dice (Ka.lex.)

5823.Document (on stone, metal plate or paper): agha_t. a document (on stone, metal plate, or paper) recording a permanent gift, esp. of land (G.)(CDIAL 99). Written testimony; legal title: a_gama a legal title, a voucher or written testimony; a_gamika the officiating bra_hman.a of a temple; a_gama a traditional doctrine or precept; a tantra or any work inculcating the worship of S'iva and S'akti; knowledge, science, intelligence (Ka.lex.) a_kama-v-al.avai scriptures, one of three sources of knowledge (Kur-al., 37, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) prakat.a manifest (Pa_n..); pa_kat.a, pa_kata wellknown (Pali); pragat.a nikhal- to bring out into the open (NiDoc.); payad.a, payala published, open (Pkt.); payad.u famous, wellknown (OG.); pahal.a, pa_l.a clear, open, wellknown (Si.); pal.a karanava_ to publish (Si.)(CDIAL 8428). pakarttu caus. of pakar to transcribe, copy (Ta.); pakarttuka id. (Ma.); pakarppu copy, as of an original document (Ta.lex.) cf. pirakat.am publicity (Cilap. 19,23, Arum.); that which is evident, clear or manifest (Ta.lex.)

5824.To bring out into the open; writer of a document: pakalam < pa-kalam (U.) term prefixed to the signature of the writer of a document that he is the writer thereof (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pahal.a, pa_l.a clear, open, wellknown (Si.); prakat.a manifest (Pa_n..); pa_kata, pa_kat.a well-known (Pali); pragat.a, nikhal- to bring out into the open (NiDoc.); payad.a, payala published, open (Pkt.); payad.u well-known, famous (OG.)(CDIAL 8428). prakat.ana bringing to light (S'a_rn:gP.)(CDIAL 8429). prakaran.a treatise (Gr.S'r.); pakaran.a (Pali); payaran.a (Pkt.); pavurun.aya literary composition (Si.)(CDIAL 8432). Courteous address in a letter: okkan.e, vakkan.e composition, especially of a deed; title, address (Tu.lex.) ?cf. vya_khya_na (Skt.) okkan.e, vakkan.e the title with which any one is honoured at the heading of a letter etc. (Ka.); okkan.a, vakkan.a (Te.); vakkan.ai (Ta.); okkan.isu, vakkan.isu to tell, to say; to relate, to describe (Ka.); okka_n.incu (Te.); cf. va_k (Skt.) (Ka.lex.) vakkan.e (tadbhava of vya_khya_na) explanation, comment; statement; vakkan.isu to explain; to state; vaktr. a speaker; an orator; speaking (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vargan.a_ multiplication (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) Prologue: pagaran.a, prakaran.a doing much or well; treating, expounding, discussion, explanation; a section, a paragraph; an introduction, a prologue, a prelude; a drama; a poetical fiction or poem (Ka.lex.) Title: vakkan.am < vaggan.a < valgan.a formal portion of a letter or other document; honorific superscription in a letter (Na_mati_pa. 654); vakkan.e id. (Ka.); okkan.e id. (Ka.); vakkan.a id. (Te.); vakkan.ai id.; words of courtesy (Ta_yu. Para_para. 213); flowery or rhetorical speech or statement; skilful talk; vakka_n.ittal to expound in detail (Ta.); vakkan.incu id. (Te.); cf. vya_khya_na (Skt.); vakka_n.am elaboration of a tune (Ta.Ka.); cf. vargan.a_ (Skt.); vakkan.ittal to expound in detail (Me_ruman. 244); vakkan.incu id. (Te.); vakkan.isu id. (Ka.); vakkan.am title; learning, scholarship; civilization, culture, refinement; order; taunt, accusation (Ta.lex.) cf. ba_ka_ abusive language (Ku.)(CDIAL 11468). Announce; prattle: pakar to tell, utter, declare, say, announce, pronounce, publish; pakarcci speech, utterance, word (Ta.); pagat.u announce (Te.)(DEDR 3804). Image: to shout; talk: vya_ha_ra utterance, talk (Skt.) (CDIAL 12217). vya_harati speaks (TBr.); cries (of animals)(S'rS.); vya_hr.ta uttered (VS.); vya_harati talks (Pali); va_harai (Pkt.); va_rn.e~ to cry, shout (M.)(CDIAL 12116). prakat.a manifest (Pa_n..); pra kr.n.o_ti brings to light (RV.); pa_kata, pa_kat.a wellknown (Pali); pragat.a nikhal to bring out into the open (NiDoc.); payad.a, payala published, open (Pkt.); payad.u famous, wellknown (OG.); pahal.a, pa_l.a clear, open, wellknown; pal.a karanava_ to publish (Si.)(CDIAL 8428). pakha_n.a_ proverb (P.); prakhya_na the being known (Pa_n..); information, report (R.); prakhya_ta (MBh.); pakkha_ya celebrated (Pkt.); pakha_n.o proverb (Ku.); pakha_na_ report, story (H.)(CDIAL 8463). cf. negar.. to become manifest, famous, shine (Ka.); niga_su glitter, shining (Tu.); negad.u to be published, well-known or famous (Te.)(DEDR 3659). negar.. to udertake, perform, be finished (Ka.); negad.u to increase, spread, extend, progress (Te.)(DEDR 3661). To hawk, sell: pakartal to tell, utter, declare, say, announce, publish (Na_lat. i,256); to hawk, sell (Cilap. 5,14)(Ta.lex.) To have a title; by the name or title of: veha_na_, veh- to tell (Go.); wehta_na_ to explain, show, announce; vahta_na_ to preach, tell; veh- to tell, describe; vehkanur, vehva_l, vehka-bital a teller; vehc- to state, reply; ve'= to say; vesori_, weser.i_, we_so_r.i_, we_se_ri_ story (Go.); weh'nai to speak, say, tell; veh- (vest-) to say, tell (Kuwi); ba'ana_ (ba_cas) to say, command, invite, allow, name, call, salute as, by the name or title of, pretent, express, as one'w own view or idea, say to onself, reflect, intend; ba_rna_ to be called, termed, have a title (Kur.)(DEDR 5514). cf. a_ku-peyar a name or word, which by long usage is secondarily applied to denote something connected with the thing originally denoted by it (Nan-. 290)(Ta.lex.) Calling: a_hu calling; cry; a_hu_ti calling, summoning; a_hvaya calling (Ka.); a name, an appellation (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) akalavan- bard of the Pa_n.ar caste (Patir-r-up. 43); akaval calling, addressing; high tone, acute accent; rhythm peculiar to akaval metre; one of four chief kinds of metre (Tol. Po. 393); screech of the peacock; akavan-makal female bard of the Pa_n.ar caste (Kur-un. 298); akavar bards who rouse the king from sleep with songs in the morning (Maturaik. 223)(Ta.lex.) akaval screech of a peacock, name of a metre in Tamil; akar-uka, akir-uka to roar, bellow, children to cry; akar-al, akir-al, akir-cca roaring, bellowing (Ma.); akavu to utter a sound as a peacock, sing, dance as a peacock, call, summon (Ta.)(DEDR 10). axna_ (axcas, akkhas) to know, realize, experience, mistake for; axka_, akhka_ knowledge, experience (Kur.); ge (aqqa) to know, understand; gre to get accustomed to (Malt.)(DEDR 17). Description; explanation; honorific superscription in a letter: vakkan.ai formal portion of a letter or other document; honorific superscription in a letter (Na_mati_pa. 654); words of courtesy (Ta_yu. Para_para. 213); flowery or rhetorical speech or statement (Ira_mana_ma. Uyut. 30); vakkan.e (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) vakkan.am title (Ta.); vakkan.a (Te.); okkan.e (Ka.); vaggan.a (Pkt.) < valgan.a (Skt.); vakkan.am learning, scholarship; civilization, culture; refinement; order; taunt, accusation; vakkan.ai words of courtesy (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5825.Plebeian; vernacular: pa_gada (Tadbhava of pra_kr.ta); pa_katam pra_kr.t (Te_va_. 858,2); pa_kataccitaivu pra_kr.t words used in Tamil in a modified form (Tirukko_. 53, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pra_kr.ta (fr. prakr.ti) original, natural, native, unchanged, unmodified; ordinary, usual, common, uncultivated, unrefined, plebeian, vulgar, low, base; vernacular; any provincial or vernacular dialect akin to sam.skr.ta (pra_kr.tih- sam.skr.tam tatra bhavam tata a_gatam ca pra_kr.tam : Hemachandra), especially spoken by the female characters and the inferior personages of plays (Skt.Ka.lex.) hagaran.a, agaran.e, an:garan.e, an:gra_n.i, hagaran.e, han:garan.e vain talk, chatter, babble; hagaran.aga_ti a female chatter-box; hagaran.aga_r-a a male chatter-box; hagaran.iga a babbler etc. (Ka.lex.) pra_kpada a preceding word, the first member of a compound (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pra_ktana former, previous, antecedent; old, ancient, early (Skt.lex.) prakr.ti the subjects (of a king); an artisan; the natural condition or state of anything, natural form (opp. to vikr.ti which is a change or effect)(Skt.lex.) prakr.ti cause, source, nature (Mn.); pakati original nature (Pali); pakiti rule, standard (As'.); pai_i-, pagai-, payad.i nature (Pkt.); piyavi natural shape (Si.)(CDIAL 8446). prakat.a manifest (Pa_n..); pra kr.n.o_ti brings to light (RV.); pa_kata, pa_kat.a wellknown (Pali); pagat.a nikhal to bring out into the open (NiDoc.); payad.a, payala published, open (Pkt.); payad.u famous, well known (OG.); pahal.a, pa_l.a clear, open, wellknown (Si.); pal.a karanava_ to publish (Si.)(CDIAL 8428). pa_li a division of the ve_da (Ka.lex.) pa_li an ancient Indian language, sacred to Buddhists (Ta.lex.) "... for about two centuries (both before the Buddha's birth and after his death), the paramount power in India was Kosala-- a kingdom stretching from Nepal on the North to the Ganges on the South, and from the Ganges on the West to the territories of the Vajjian confederacy on the East. In this, the most powerful kingdom in India; there had naturally arisen a standard vernacular differing from the local forms of speech... The Pali of the canonical books is based on that standard Kosala vernacular spoken in the 6th and 7th centuries B.C. It cannot be called the 'literary' form of that vernacular, for it was not written at all till long afterwards. That vernacular was the mother tongue of the Buddha... in one of the earliest Pali documents Buddha is represented as calling himself a Kosalan. When about a thousand years afterwards, some pandits in Ceylon began to write in Pali, they wrote in a style strikingly different from that of the old texts... There is no evidence that the Sinhalese at that time knew Sanskrit... the vernacular on which Pali is based had never passed through the stage of Sanskrit... " (T.W. Rhys Davids and William Stede, Pali-English Dictionary, 1921-25, pp. v-vii).

5826.Make known; number, counting; declaring: khya_ make known (Skt.); abhikhyam perceives (Skt.); cikhya_payis.a_ intention to communicate (Skt.); a_cikkhati tells, shows (Pali); a_ikkhai (Pkt.); a_ikn.e~, aikn.e~ to hear, attend to (M.); a_ik to listen (Konkan.i); abhikhyat perceive (RV.); abhikha_ name (Pkt.); abhi_ks.ate_ looks towards (RV.); ahikkhan.a reproach (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1074). a_yakkhai says, relates (Pkt.); a~_cas to regard (Wg.); a_ikn.e~ to hear, attend to (M.); a_cas.t.e_ announces (TS.)(CDIAL 1063). a_khya_ta declared (Ka_tyS'r.); called (Mn.); akkha_ya, a_gha_ya said (Pkt.); akhaliovel, xaiavel understands (Gypsy);[cf. akavu to call (Ta.)]; a_kkha_ word, riddle (P.); akkhiya said (Pkt.); a_khi_ a saying, word (P.); a_khya_ name (Pa_n..); akkha_, a_khya_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1040). cf. a_khya_ti tells (Skt.); a_khya_yate_ (S'Br.); a_kyat (RV.); akkha_ti announces (Pali); akkhai, akhai says (Pkt.); a_kho saying (K.); a_khan.u to tell (S.); a_khan.a to say (L.); a_xda_, a_hda_, a_khun., a_un. pres. part. akhe_na_ (L.); a_khn.a_, a_hn.a_ to say; makh ( < mai~ a_khya~_ says I); a_khna_ to say (H.); a_khvu~ to speak (G.); a_hijjai is said (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1041). a_khya_tr. one who tells (AitBr.); akkha_tar (Pali); a_khtri_ saying (P.)(CDIAL 1042). a_khya_na tale (S'Br.); a_khya_naka short story (Skt.); akkha_na (Pali); akkha_n.a, akkha_n.aya (Pkt.); a_khu_u story of olden times (K.); a_kha_n.i_ story (S.); akha_n. proverb (L.); akha_n., a_khan. (P.)(CDIAL 1043). kaha_ni_ story (H.lex.) Riddle: upa_khya_na suhbordinate story, episode (MBh.); uvakkha_n.a story (Pkt.); okha_n.i example (S.); ukha_n story, riddle (N.); khana_-ukhani altercation (A.); ukha_n., ukha_n.o riddle; okha_n.u~ riddle (G.); ukha_n.a_ (M.); okha_n.an.u to recognize (S.); wakhonu, wokhonu (K.)(CDIAL 2289). ogat.u, ogat.e, o_gat.e riddle (Ka.); ogat.u riddle, mystic language (Tu.)(DEDR 932). cf. pahel.ika_ riddle (Pali.lex.) cf. prahe_lika_ riddle (Skt.); pahe_liya_ poem with a hidden meaning (Pkt.); parheli_, pahe_li_ riddle (P.); paheli_, paheri_ riddle (H.); pahal.i_ riddle, proverb (Or.)(CDIAL 8911). Riddle; sound: cf. oconi riddle; oc- (-it-) to pronounce, guess (Kuwi); osage speech, report, news (Ka.)(DEDR 937). X o_cai sound, fame; o_tai sound, noise, clamour, din; o_cam sound (Ta.); o_s'a sound, noise; occa id., name, fame (Ma.); o.j noise whose origin is not seen (Ko.)(DEDR 1036). cf. ghosa sound (Pali.lex.) cf. prakhya_na the being known (Pa_n..); information, report (R.); prakhya_ta celebrated (MBh.Pkt.); pakha_n.a_ proverb (P.); pakha_n.o (Ku.); pakha_na_ report, story (H.)(CDIAL 8463). cf. vya_khya_ti explains (S'Br.); vakkhe_ya opt. say, tell (Pkt.); pp. vya_khya_ta, pres. viya_cikkati (Pali); viyakanava_ to explain, paraphrase (Si.)(CDIAL 12187). cf. vya_khya_na comment, narration (S'Br.); vakkha_n.a explanation, tale (Pkt.); vakha_n.a (Ap.); wakhun tale (OK.); wakhonu, wokhonu lecture, narration (K.); va_kha_n. praise (S.); vakha_n., bakha_n. tale (P.); bakha_n praise (Ku.); history, description (N.); ba_kha_n explaining, praising, abusing (B.); bakha_n.a_ statement; bhakhen popular saying (Or.); bakha_n tale (Mth.); bakha_n description, praise (Bhoj.); bakha_na description (OAw.); bakha_n explanation (H.); vakha_n. praise (G.); va_kha_n. (M.); vakkha_n.ai tells (Pkt.); vakha_n.ia (Ap.); wakhanun to explain (K.); va_kha_n.an.u, vakha_n.an.u to praise (S.); bakha_n.na_ to expound (P.); bakha_niba to expound, praise (A.); bakha_n.iba_ to expound (Or.); bakha_nai relates (OAw.); bakha_nna_ (H.); vakha_n.vu~ to praise (G.); va_kha_n.n.e~ to expound (M.)(CDIAL 12188). cf. va_ku propriety, skill (Ta.); ba_gu proper (Te.)(DEDR 5332). sama_khya_ti reckons up (Mn.); declares (MBh.); aor. samakhyata appeared (RV.); samakkha_ta known (Pali); samakhun to become visible, meet (by accident or visit), agree to, suit; samakha_wun to show, meet, join (as a helper)(K.)(CDIAL 13201). X sama_gama meeting (Mn.Pali.Pkt.); sama_ama (Pkt.); sama_m collection, assembly (Si.)(CDIAL 13202). Details: cf. vakai goods; property; the principal stock in trade (W.)(Ta.lex.) vakai details; vakai-tokai id. (Ta.); vakatoga (Te.); vakai-col(lu)tal to give details; to render account; vakai (arith.) parts of the sum total in addition (W.); vakai-cey-tal to make entries in an account; to make a revenue settlement (S.I.I. i,64); vakai-vaittal to credit to an account; vakai-jama_panti a jamabandi showing itemwar total of the detailed jamabandis relating to nacai-y-ar-uti-k-kal.a-nat.ai, kar-a_r-ca_kupat.i, makamai and ma_n-ipa-cutantiram (Ta.lex.) san:kha_ number (Pali); sam.kha_ (Pkt.); sak (Si.)sam.khya_ti number, counting (S'Br.)(CDIAL 12841). cf. can:ku cowry; [counting in cowries](Ta.lex.) Recokon; say; order: sam.khya_ti reckons (S'Br.); samakhyata appeared (RV.); sam.khya_payati causes to be observed (TS.); asam.khya_ta (AV.) = ahaxs'ta (Av.) numerous; sacha_ya = sam.khaya (As'.); san:kha_ti, san:kha_yati reckons, appears (Pali); sam.khaya, sam.khaye, sacha_ya having regard to (As'.); sam.kha_i counts, knows (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12842).

5827.Order: sam.kha_ya absol., sam.kha_viya, sam.ghai, sagghai caus. pp. says (Pkt.); san:gha_am I hear (Kal.); sen.a_ (Kt.); san:giba_ to tell, speak (Or.); sa~_gn.e~ to declare, bid; sa~_g order (M.); sa_he_i, sa_hai says, orders (Pkt.); sam.hai says (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12842). vakkan.am order (Ta.lex.) Command: an:ke an order, a command, a_je (Ka.); a_ke (Te.); an:ke authority, control; restraint, check; an:ke trust, faith (Ka.lex.) an:ka-ca_lai-k-ka_ran- < an:ga + village servant who, by order of the headman, assembles the villagers and procures things wanted (R.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Agreement; command: a_nja to agree, assent, admit, confess, promise; n. agreement, etc.(Kui); a_njinai to claim, consent, undertake, vow (Kuwi); a_sinai to undertake (Kuwi)(DEDR 345). a_ja_ command (Mn.); aa recognition (Pali); a_n.a_ command (Pali); amna, ana, aae order (); an.n.a_, ajja_, a_n.a_ order (Pkt.); a_n order (K.); a_n. submission, allegiance (S.); a_n nod, sign (P.); vow (Ku.); resolve, wish, anger (Or.); command, oath (H.); a_n. vow (Ku.); command, oath (G.); oath (M.); an.a order (Si.); a_n.a promise (Konkan.i); a_na deba_ to swear by a person's name (Or.) (CDIAL 1095). a_n.ave_i, a_n.avai, ajja_ve_yavva orders (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1096); ana_i~ concerning (absol.Or.); an.avanava_ to command (Si.); ana_i~ba_ to take care of, wait for, look (Or.); anaveti, an.apemi, a_napayisati, a_apaya_mi orders (Skt.); a_n.ape_ti orders (Pali); a_ja_payati directs, orders (MBh.)[caus. of a_ja_na_ti notices (RV.) (CDIAL 1096). a_n.atti order (Pali); a_n.atta ordered (Pkt.); an.ata command (Si.); a_japta ordered (Mn.)(CDIAL 1094). a_n.atti an executor of order; royal order (Ta. SITI.IEG.) < a_japti (Pali.Skt.); order, command, ordinance, injunction (Pali. lex.) a_ + atti (cf. a_n.a_peti = a_ + a_peti, caus. of a_ + ja_na_ti) [Pali.lex.] a_n.ai command; oath (as in a court of justice), profane swearing, vow (Ta.); a_n.a command, oath, adjuration (Ma.); a_n.e oath (Tu.); command; oath, adjuration (Ka.); a.n.e a curse (Kod..); a_ja oath, curse, swearing (Tu.); a_ja korpuni to swear (Tu.); a_na order, command; oath, adjuration (Te..); a_ja_ order, command (Skt.); a_n.a_ id. (Pkt.); a_n id. (H.); a_n. oath, vow (M.)(DBIA 32). To say: bhani absol. of bhannu to say (N.)(CDIAL 5120). va_n:ku to call; abuse, reproach; n. abuse, rebuke (Ta.); va_n:ka_pit.i to scream (Ta.); ba_n:ku cry of a dog (Ka.); va~_gu to sound; ring; chatter, babble (Te.)(DEDR 5337). cf. va_k speech (Skt.lex.) bhanati calls aloud, speaks (RV.); bhan.ati (BhP.); says, tells (Pali)[bhanati is prob. IE. but Mu. origin for bhan.- (with replacement of -n.- by -n- in Vedic) and association with bhan.d.ate reviles]; bhan.e~ I say! (Pali); bhan.ai says (Pkt.); phen to speak (Gy.); phan (Gy.); bhannu to say (N.); bhani that (N.); bhaniba to compose (A.); bhana_ to say, speak, compose (B.); bhan.iba_ to say (Or.); bhanab (Mth.); bhanai that (OAw.); mane that (Aw.); bhanna_ to speak (H.); bhan.ai recites (OMarw.); bhan.vu~ to say, repeat, study (G.); bhan.i_ towards (G.); mhan.n.e~ to say (M.); mhan.ta_ to say (Konkan.i); ban.anava_, ban.inava_ to speak, say, abuse (Si.); bunan to speak (Md.)(CDIAL 9383). bhan.ita spoken; bhan.iti speech (Ka_v.); bhan.ia said (Pkt.); bhan.ii speech (Pkt.); bin.u speech, saying (Si.)(CDIAL 9384). bandaus to order (Gaw.); bhand- (Kal.); bandeik (Kho.); bandawa_ (Yid.); band (Phal.)(CDIAL 9385). bha_n.a recitation of scripture (Pali); bha_n saying, speech, word (Mth.); ban.a recitation, word (Si.)(CDIAL 9452). pan.i (-pp-, -tt-) to speak, say, declare (used of a superior), order, command; n. saying, word, command (Ta.); (pan.i-tot.an:kunin- n-a_r-r-alot.u pukar..e_tti : Pur-ana_. 17); pan.ippu command, order (Pu.Ve.1,1,kol.u); palukku (palukki-) to be pronounced clearly, boast, speak; kan.palukka (Te_va_. 262,7); pan-n-u (pan-n-i-) to speak, say, talk, sing (Kampara_. Kaike_. 41); pan-uval word, discourse (Ta.); pan.ikka to speak (Ma.); pon.O to talk in assembly (To.); pon.t speech, words (in songs)(To.); panavu place appointed for meeting (Ka.); helupu to speak like a madman while asleep; halebu to talk foolishly; haleveru to speak while asleep (Ka.); pan.pini to say, tell, inform (Tu.); han.i to say (Bel.); pan(u)cu to send, command, commission (Te.); pan.cu to send, commission (Te.inscr.); pani commission, mission, errand; panupu order, command, errand; pampu to send, dispatch, dismiss; n. sending, order, mission, errand; palukuu to sound, answer, utter, say; n. speaking, word, sound, voice; palikincu to cause to speak, utter, sound, or ring; palukarincu to accost, speak to; ?palavu, palavincu, palavarincu, paluvarincu to talk in sleep; palavaramu, palavarinta, palavarimpu talking in sleep; ?palumu to prattle; n. prattle (Te.); pank- (panakt-) to send; pa.na language (Kol.); pank to send (Nk.); palkis to cause to sound, play on (a musical instrument)(Kond.a); pand.a (pand.i-) to send, commission; n. act of sending; pla_pa (pla_t-) to inquire, question, ask, address, say; pantinai, pan.d. (p-it-) to send (Kuwi); pa_ning (pa_-, pa_r-) to say, speak, tell, speak of, call a thing something, say to oneself (Br.); pen.d.avai sends (Pkt.)(DEDR 3887). vacana speaking (RV.); statement (AitBr.); speech (Mn.); speaking (Pali); order (As'.NiDoc.); vayan.a speech (Pkt.OG.); ven.u abuse (S.); vain. lamentation, boasting (L.); ve~_n. mourning (L.); vain., bain., bain word, speech, (esp.) songs of mourning, recounting with lamentation the virtues of the deceased (P.); bena_ prattle (A.); baan.a word (OB.); bain (B.H.); bain words, speech (Bi.); bain, ben a word (Mth.); bayana word, speech (OAw.); bayan, bain speech, sound, lamentation (H.); ven. word, promise (G.); vajan (OSi.); vadan-a word, speech (Si.)(CDIAL 11199). cf. a_nja to agree, assent, admit, promise; agreement (Kui)(DEDR 345). vacas word (RV.); vaco_ words, speech (Pali); vaca (in vacaguti)(As'.); vao_ (Pkt.); vad-a (Si.)(CDIAL 11200). vaci_ (usu. in cmpds.) speech (Pali); vaciguti_ (As'.); vai (Pkt.); visi (Si.)(CDIAL 11202). va_cayati causes to say (S'Br.); promises (MBh.); reads (Skt.); va_ce_ti makes recite ((Pali); va_ye_i reads (Pkt.); bena_, ba_iba to prattle (A.); va_in.em. to take an oath, dedicate (OM.)(CDIAL 11471). va_kya speech, words (MBh.); speech (Pali); vakka (Pkt.); wa_kh, dat. wa_kkas speech, voice; adj. at end of cmpds. -woku (K.); va_ko outcry (S.); va_k, ba_ word, speech (P.); ba_ka_, a_ka_-ba_ka_ abusive language (Ku.); ba_ka word, speech (Or.OAw.); ba_k word, proverb (H.)(CDIAL 11468). va_cya relating to speech (VS.); to be spoken (Up.); blame (MBh.); vacca words, speech (Pkt.); wa_c speech, promise (K.); va_ca_ promise, agreement (P.); ba_c speech (Garh.); vasa, va_ word, speech (Si.); wa_cal reviler (K.)(CDIAL 11476). va_ca speech, word (Pacat.); speech (Pali); va_cika verbal message (Nais..); va_c (RV.); va_ya_, va_a_ (Pkt.); vada speech (Si.); vaca (As'.)(CDIAL 11472). a_spa to reply, resound, echo; an answer (Kui); a_h'nai to resound (Kuwi); a_spa gro'li echo (Kuwi)(DEDR 344). vaja_ranuvan those who declare (OSi.); vadaranava_ to proclaim (Si.); vada_l.a_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11473). va_ca_t.a full of noise and bustle (R.); va_ya_d.a talkative (Pkt.); parrot (Pkt.); va_yr.u~ self-willed (G.); va_yr.a_i over-talkative-ness (G.)(CDIAL 11474). va_ca_la talkative, noisy (Pa_n..); va_ya_la talkative (Pkt.); baya_l., baya~_l. (Or.)(CDIAL 11475). Mouth; speech: va_y mouth, word, speech (Ta.); va_y, va_ mouth (Ma.); va.y mouth (Ko.); po.y mouth (To.); ba.y mouth (Kod..); ba_yi mouth, speech, utterance (Tu.); va_yi mouth (Te.); va_-konu to speak, utter, say, cry out (Te.); va_y mouth of pot (Pa.); va_si lip (Ga.); veyu (pl.veyku) mouth; vepot.i lip (Kond.a); vey mouth (Pe.); vey-oti lip (Pe.); vay mouth (Mand..); bai_ mouth, mouthful, aperture of a vessel (Kur.); ba_ mouth, aperture (Br.)(DEDR 5352). vahta_na_ to preach, tell (Go.); veha_na_, veh- to tell; wehta_na_ to explain, show, announce; veh- to tell, describe; vehkanur, vehva_l, vehka-bital a teller; vehc- to state, reply; ve'- to say; vesori_, weser.i_, we_sor.i_, we_se_ri_ story; ve_su_ri_ story; vesu~d.i punda_na_ to guess a riddle (Go.); veR- (-t-) to speak, tell; caus. veRis- to cause somebody to tell (Kond.a); vec- (vecc-) to speak (Pe.); veh- (-t-) to tell, say (Mand..); vespa (vest-) to say, speak, tell; saying, speech, word (Kui); vessali (vest-) to tell; weh'nai to speak, say, tell; veh- (vest-) to say, tell; vespu speech (Kuwi); ba'ana_ (ba_cas) to say, command, invite, allow, name, call, salute as, by the name or title of, pretent, express as one's own view or idea, say to oneself, imagine, reflect, intend, cry (of animals), sound so-and-so; ba_rna_ to be called, termed, have a title (Kur.); bace to relate, tell (Malt.)(DEDR 5514). vatar-u to chatter, prate, be talkative, lisp, abuse (Ta.); odar-u to sound, cry aloud, shout, shriek, howl; caus. odar-isu; odar-uvike sounding, crying aloud (Ta.); badaritana defamation (Tu.); vadaru, vaduru to prattle, prate, babble, chatter, jabber; vadaru~bo_tu prattler, babbler; odaru to prattle, prate, abuse (Te.)(DEDR 5244). Speaking: vadana speaking (S'Br.Pali); mouth, face (MBh.); vayan.a speech (Pkt.); mouth, face (Pkt.); bayan face (A.); vuvan-a, uvan-a (Si.)(CDIAL 11246). cf. vaktra mouth, face (MBh.); vatta mouth (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 11184). vadati speaks, says (RV.); speaks (Pali); vayai (Pkt.); viyanava_ to say, expound (Si.)(CDIAL 11245). va_ya speech (Pkt.); va_da speech (Mn.); id. (usu. in cmpds.)(Pali); sounding a musical instrument (Skt.)(CDIAL 11507). vayan.a- that is said, narrated (< Skt. vacana-); vayan.am, vayan-am manner, method, way, circumstance, condition, clear details, particulars, sumptuousness, good agreeable condition, neatness, favourableness, suitability, reason, cause (Ta.); vayina a way, means, contrivance (Ka.); vayana manner, circumstance, way, art of doing a thing, device, scheme, expedient, artifice, dodge (Tu.); vayinamu details, particulars, clearness, plainness, system, method, order; vayan.am details (Te.)(DEDR 5256). va_daka musician (MBh.); va_yaga id. (Pkt.); ba~_ya_, ba~_oya_ skin covering the unbeaten side of a large drum, one of a pair of kettledrums played with the left hand (B.); va_daka partic. method of beating a drum (Skt.)(CDIAL 11508). va_dana playing on a musical instrument (MBh.); one who plays (R.); act of playing music (Pali); va_yan.a adj. playing music; the act (Pkt.); ba_yan one skilled in playing an instrument (A.); ba~_yen, ba_in drummer (B.); ba_a_n.i_ maidservant who plays a drum (Or.)(CDIAL 11509). va_dayati causes to sound (S'Br.); va_de_ti plays (a musical instrument)(Pali); va_e_i (Pkt.); wa_yun (K.); ba_e (OB.); ba_(h)iba_ (Or.); va_vu~ (G.); vayanava_ (Si.); va_da_pe_ti makes play (Pali); va_ya_via (Pkt.); bowa_iba (A.)(CDIAL 11510). va_dya to be said (AitBr.); to be played (Skt.); speech (S'Br.); musical instrument (R.); va_dya(ka) music (BhP.); vajja speaking (Pali); vaja-bhe_ri drum (Pali); vajja- musical instrument (Pkt.); ba_jo_ (K.); va_jo (S.); va_ja_ (L.); va_jja_, ba_jja_, bajja_ (P.); ba_j music (Ku.); ba_ja_ musical instrument (B.Or.Bi.Bhoj.H.); ba_jo (Marw.); va_ju~ (G.); vada speech (Si.)(CDIAL 11511). va_dyakara musician (Skt.); va_jeru_ minstrel (S.)(CDIAL 11512). va_dyate_ is made to sound (MBh.); vajjati is played or sounded (Pali); vajjai (Pkt.); baz to speak (Shum.); bazo_nu to strike (of a gong, etc.)(Sh.); ba_jn.u to sound (of musical instruments, etc.) (WPah.); ba_jn.o (Ku.); ba_ziba (A.); ba_ja_ (B.); ba_jiba_ (Or.); ba_jab to speak (Mth.); ba_jai sounds, thunders, roars (OAw.); ba_jna_ to sound; bajna_ id. (H.); bajnu (N.); bajvu~ (G.); ba_jai (OMarw.); va_jvu~ (G.); va_jn.e~ (M.); wazun to sound (of bell, clock, etc.)(K.); vajan.u (S.); vajjan. (L.); vajjn.a_ (P.); bajjana_ (P.); bag- to sing; bagipen song (Gypsy); vagan.u to sound (S.); vaggan., vagan. (L.); va_gvu~ (G.) (CDIAL 11513). vha_z, a_va_z za_ to sound; vha_za_p, a_va_z sound (Kon.lex.) awaz sound (Santali.lex.) Speech, language: pe_cu (pe_ci-) to talk, speak, converse, make noise, roar; tell, say, recite, praise; pe_cal, pe_ccal talking (Ta.); pe_ccu speakig, speech, language, praise, talk, report, rumour, word (Ta.); speech, language (Ma.); pe_cuka to speak, chatter (as birds)(Ma.); pe.c to talk to oneself; per.c to give irrelevant answers, talk nonsense, talk with impropriety in presence of holy man (Ko.); ost to say, tell (story, lament)(To.); pe_r.. (per..d-) to utter, say, speak, narrate, tell, command (Ka.); pe_r..ike saying, telling, rumour; a saying, enigma; pe_r..ige saying, etc.; notoriety, fame; pe_r..uvike saying,telling (Ka.); pe_rme fame, glory (Tu.); p(r)e_lu to prattle, chatter, talk nonsense (Te.); pre_lari a prattler (Te.); pe_l to talk sweetly; pe_lki a_ to discuss with another (Kuwi); pe_sna_ to command; pe_ska_ command, order, precept; perpererna_ to prate, prattle, talk with a high-pitched voice; perxperxna_ to babble, prattle; parparerna_ to prate, prattle (Kur.); per.qe to talk, speak, simmer, hiss (Malt.) (DEDR 4430). par..iccu to praise, worship; n. praise, adoration (Ta.); par. to tell (?Ko.); paykm a story (Ko.); pa.c pair word with parc- to pray (Ko.); ost to say, tell (story, lament); pa.ym (obl. pa.yt-) story of actual event (To.)(DEDR 4003). Proclaim: par-ai word, saying, statement (Ta.); par-a proclaiming (Ta.); bargi order, command (Kui)(DEDR 4031). Image: to call: payir to cry as beasts or birds, summon, call, sound as instruments; n. cry of animals, etc., sound, musical instrument, cant (Ta.); payil to speak, utter, tell, talk, call; n. word, secret language, cant; payir-r-u to speak, utter, tell (Ta.); payiluka to speak (Ma.) (DEDR 3943). cf. payya secretly (Ma.); payyana quietly (Tu.)(DEDR 3945).

5828.Sound: vakul.i, vakun.i sound (Ta.); parg ar-y to know how to talk (To.); bagul.(u), bagal.u, bogul.u to bark, cry out (Ka.); baggu, bargu, baggan.e the crying, cooing, chirping, chattering or singing of birds (Ka.); bagul.uni, baguluni, bagal.uni to bark, clamour,vociferate, rave, talk irrationally (Tu.); bagal.u raving, wandering in mind, talking irrationally; bagul.a_t.a barking, clamouring (Tu.); baggisu to cry, coo, chirp, chatter, sing, cry out, vociferate (Ka.); bagal.u, bogul.u, bol.l.u barking, crying out (Ka.)(DEDR 5204). X oli to sound, roar; sound, noise, roar, speech; olippu sonorousness, roar; o_l sound, lullaby; o_lam sounnd, noise, roar, cry of lamentation; o_l a_t.t.u to sing a lullaby; ulampu to make a noise, roar, thunder; o_lu to make a noise (Ta.); oli a sound; ulampuka to make a noise; o_lam cry for help (Ma.); oj noise (Ko.); uli to sound, cry, utter, speak, say; sound, cry, word; ole a sound; to utter; ulipa, ulipu, ulivu, uluvu a sound, cry (Ka.); oli noise of a metal bell (Kod..); uliyu to sound, resound; ulivu sound, voice (Te.); olge to cry, weep (Malt.); oloxna_ to bewail, lament (Kur.); ho_ghing to weep (Br.)(DEDR 996). bahu-bo_laka great talker (Skt.); vollai speaks (Skt. < vayai (Pkt.) < vadati and vakti); bollai, bullai speaks (Pkt.); bo_lun, bo_lya_ it was said (K.); bolan.u (S.); bolan. pres. part. bulenda_, bolan. (L.); boln.a_ (P.WPah.); bolan., bolla 2 pl. imper. (WPah.); boln.o (Ku.); bolnu (N.); boliba (A.); bola_ (B.); bala_ (B.); boliba_ (Or.); bo_lab (Mth.Aw.); bolna_ (H.); bolai (OMarw.); bolvu~ (G.); boln.e~ (M.); bolla_viya to call (Pkt.); bulu~r.~ to call (Ku.); bola_unu (N.); bola_iba (A.); bola_na (B.); bala_na (B.); bula_vai (OAw.); bula_na_ (H.); bola_vvu~ (G.); bolavin.e~ (M.); bolla_ talk (Pkt.); bo_l, bu_li language (K.); bola, bolu promise; boli_ language (S.); id. (L.); bol, bolli_ (P.); boli (Ku.N.); bol, boli (B.); bola, boli (Or.); bol, boli speech, promise (Mth.); bol, boli_ speech (H.); bola promise (OMarw.); bol words (G.M.); boli_ language (G.M.)(CDIAL 9321). cf. blekati to bleat (ORuss.); brag bleating; brageik to bleat (Kho.); bra~ bleating (Sh.); la_k to bleat, 3 sg. pres. la_kent (Bshk.)(CDIAL 9326).

5829.Image: to pray; scold: a_s'is wish, prayer (RV. x.128.3)(Vedic.lex.) a_s'i_r-vaca benediction; a_s'i_r-va_da benediction; a_s'isu to desire, to wish, or hope for; to bless; harasu to bless (Ka.lex.) a_kkan.-ku_r-u-tal to bless, invoke a blessing (Tiruvil.ai. Ma_yap. 26); a_kka-p-peyar name or designation coined by an author, opp. to marapu-p-peyar, of two kinds, viz.,(a) arbitrary term, as mu_t.t.ai for Skanda; (b) it.ukur-iya_kkam: a term, which, though connoting 'many' is however actually applied within a limited range, as pon-n-an- (one who has gold; urchin, small boy; arhat)(Nan-. 275, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) bakhe~r. to invoke, to pray, to beg, to petition; ad.i ruhetkateko bakhe~r.a they severely scold (their gods) in their prayers (Santali.lex.) For semant. 'scold' in Santali etyma, cf.: phakkar., phakkar.i_ abuse (P.)(CDIAL 9035). va_n:ku (va_n:ki-) to call; abuse, reproach; abuse, rebuke; va_n:ka_ pit.i to scream (Ta.); ba_n:ku cry of a dog (Ka.); va~_gu to sound, ring; chatter, babble (Te.); ve_n.- (bell) to sound; ve_nc- to ring (bell)(Go.)(DEDRE 5337). vai (-v-, -t-) to abuse, revile, curse; vaivu abuse, curse; vacavu foul, abusive language; vacai (-v-, -nt-) to censure, blame, calumniate; n. reproach, censure, blame (Ta.); vayl. abuse; ve.k me.k in- (id--) to make sport of someone (Ko.); bay(i), bayyu, boyi to abuse, revile, use bad language; bay(i)gul., bay(i)gal. reviling, abuse, bad language, cursing (Ka.); bayy- (bayyuv-, bajj-) to abuse; baygal.a abuse (Kod..); bayya_t.a id. (Tu.)(DEDR 5550). Abuse; cheat: phakkar., phakkar.i_ abuse (P.); phakkika_ proposition (Nais..); (in logic) statement to be refuted, sophism, fraud (Skt.); phakkati propounds a statement to be refuted (Dha_tup.); acts wrongly (Skt.); phakun to state one's poverty as inability to give (K.)[cf. phakar. penniless, beggar (Ku.); phakkar. rascal (N.); libertine (G.)(CDIAL 9037); phakkn.a_ to squander (P.)(CDIAL 9036)]; phakir.i_ altercation (S.); pha_ku_n.o~_ to dispute (WPah.); phaka_unu to flatter, seduce (N.); pha_kat.i deception (A.); phaka_ to be disappointed (B.); phakkar. hoaxer (B.); phakar.i fraud (Or.); phakkar. abuse (H.); pha~_kr.a_ vain boaster (H.P.); pha~_ko pretention; phavu~ to be misled (G.); pha_kad. flashy (M.); phakkiya_ passage in a text hard to interpret (Pkt.); fa_ki_ complaint (WPah.); pha_ki deception, trick (A.); pha~_ki (B.Or.); pha~_ki_ objection (in logic), trick, fraud (H.); proposition, sentence (M.)(CDIAL 9035). vya_ks.e_pa invective (MBh.); vakkhe_va rush, muddle (Pkt.); vakher.a_ brawl (P.); bakher.a_ mockery (L.); bakher.a_ brawl (P.); bakhero controversy (N.); bakher.a_ brawl (B.H.M.); va_khod.ai slanders (OG.); vakhor.vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 12186). vya_khya_ti explains (S'Br.); vakkhe_ya say, tell; pp. vakkha_ya, caus. vakkha_vai (Pkt.); vyakkhissam., pp. vya_khya_ta, pres. viya_cikkhati (Pali); viyakanava_ to explain, paraphrase (Si.)(CDIAL 12187). cf. vya_khya_na comment, narration (S'Br.)(CDIAL 12188). po_kkiri rascal (Ta.lex.) bin:ku crookedness, dishonesty, guile (Ka.); pik(i)la_t.a cheating (Tu.)[cf. pittala_t.t.am deception, fraud (Ta.)(DEDR 4166)]; pikku to cheat; deceit, trick (Te.)(DEDR 4130). pokkam lie, falsehood, deceit, fault; poccam, poccu lie, falsehood; fault, defect; poccai fault; pocca_ppu badness, evil, wickedness, fault (Ta.); pokkar low people (Ma.); bon:ku to lie (Ka.); bon:kuni to deny (Tu.); poccemu deceit, trick, defect, fault; bon:ku to lie; a lie; false, untrue; bon:kincu to deceive, tempt; cause to tell a lie; bon:kari a liar; bon:kula~_d.u id.; fem. bon:kula~_d.i (Te.); bo_kinai to pretend; po_k- (-h-) to tell lies (Kuwi); phukka_ = mithya_ (Pkt.)(DEDR 4459). poy (-pp-, -tt-) to lie, utter falsehood, make false pretences, deceive, cheat, prove false; lie, falsehood, sham, that which is artificial; poykka falsely; poyppu falsification, deception; poymmai falsehood, illusion, that which is artificial or counterfied; poyyan- a liar (Ta.); poy a lie, illusion, cheat (Ma.); a lie (Ko.); pi.k- (pi.ky-) to lie; pi.kit.e.r a lie (To.); pusi to become or prove untrue, lie; bear no fruit, not to attain ripeness; falsehood, lie, hypocricy, idle prattle, bearing no fruit; pusiga liar (Ka.); hus'i a lie, falsehood (Tu.); busa_na_ to lie (Go.); pu_sa_ lie; pu_sa_-ka_t.anji liar (Kui); pussowi, pu_so_vi cheating, pretending (Kuwi); pasyare liar; pasyetre to tell lies; paslaha liar; false; pasadeye to accuse falsely (Malt.); apu_i-/apu_ya-, in: apu_ivayan.a-, apu_yavayan.a- whose words are not false; aphusia free from error (Pkt.)(DEDR 4531). Trouble-some business: bakhe_d.i contention; a troublesome business (Ka.); bakhe_d.a_ contention (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) pake_d.a_-ve_lai troublesome or vexatious business (C.G.); pake_t.a_ < bakhe_ra_ wrangling, dispute, quarrel (C.G.); quarrelsome person (Ta.lex.) Rebuke; image: jackal's howl: hukku jackal's howl (Pali); hu_k, huki_ (M.); hu_n:g (L.); hu_n:gan. to groan (L.); hu_-rava jackal (Skt.)(CDIAL 14134). hakka calling to an elephant (Skt.); hakka_ owl (VarBr.S.); hakka_ shout (Pkt.); hakh, haki loud proclamation, market cry (K.); hak call; hakka_, ha_'k halloo (WPah.); ha_k loud call (Ku.); ha~_k challenge (n.); ha_k prohibition (A.); shout (B.); ha~_k (B.); ha_ka call, invitation; haka_ shout (Or.); ha_ka_ beating for game (Or.); ha~_k shout (Bhoj.); ha_m.ka (OAw.); ha~_k (H.); ha_k, ha~_k (G.M.); ha_k (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13938). hakkayati calls to (Skt.); hakkai shouts, drives back (Pkt.); hakkn.a_ to drive away (P.); ha_kn.u (WPah.); ha_kn.o to rebuke; haku_n.o to drive off (Ku.); haka_unu (WN.); ha~_knu (N.); ha~_ka_ to call, drive off (B.); ha_kiba_ to call out (Or.); ha~_ka_na to drive off (N.); ha~_kiba_ to call out, drive (a vehicle)(Or.); haka_iba_ to call, summon; han:ka_iba_ to drive (Or.); ha~_kab to drive (Bi.); ha_m.kai drives, directs (OAw.); ha~_kna_, ha~ka_na_ to cry out, drive off (H.); ha_kai, ha_m.kai drives (OMarw.); ha_kvu~ to roar out; ha~_kvu~ to drive (G.); ha_kn.e~, ha~_kn.e~ to drive on or away (M.); hakilan.u to drive; hakala calling out, complaint, attack (S.); haklan. to drive; hakkal shout (L.); ha_kalvu~ to call, summon (G.); ha_ka_ln.e~, haka_ln.e~ to drive on or away; ha_kat.n.e~ to bawl, call to (M.); hakkia shouted; ha~_ki rebuking (Ku.)(CDIAL 13939). hakka_ra calling (Skt.); call (Pkt.); haka_r rebuke (N.); ha~ka_r loud call, challenge (B.); ha_kara_ call, invitation (Or.); ha~ka_r call (H.); ha_ka_ra_ (M.)(CDIAL 13940). hakka_re_i, hakka_rai calls (Pkt.); haka_run (K.); haka_ran. to scare birds (L.); haka_rnu to scold, threaten (N.); ha~_ka_ra_ to call loudly, challenge (B.); haka_riba_ to call for, summon (Or.); ha~ka_rna_, ha~ka_lna_ to call out (H.); haka_rvu~ to drive; ha_ka_rvu~ to summon (H.); ha_ka_rn.e~ to call (M.)(CDIAL 13941). garaha_ abuse (Pali.lex.) To speak; language: bha_s.a_ speech (Mn.); bha_sa_ speech, language (Pali. Pkt.); ba_s. word (Wg.); ba_s.a language (Dm.); bas. (Sh.); ba_s. (D..); bha_s' (Ku.); bha_s (N.B.Mth.); language (Konkan.i); bha_sa song (OG.); baha word, saying (Si.); bas, baha (Md.): dubha_siya_ interpreter (H.)(CDIAL 9479). bha_s.ate_ speaks, says (TBr.); bha_s.ati (MBh.); bha_sati speaks, calls (Pali); bha_site said (As'.); bhas.adi speaks (Dhp.); bha_sai_ (Pkt.); bha_s'n.o~ to promise (WPah.)(CDIAL 9478). bhas.a barking (VS.); dog (Skt.); bu_ssa_ dog (Si.)(CDIAL 9422). bhas.ati barks, growls (MBh.); bhasati barks (Pali); bhasai (Pkt.); bahan.u (S.); bhasvu~ to bark, speak (contemptuous)(G.); bahukan.u to bark (S.); bhau~kan.u (S.); bhau~sna_, bhu~_sna_ to bark; bhu~_kna_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 9423). cf. vakul.i sound (Ta.)(DEDR 5204). Image: to shout; abuse: va_s'ana act of bleating, etc. (TBr.com.); bas'onu song, poem (Kho.)(CDIAL 11585). va_s'ayati causes to roar or resound (RV.); bas'eik to sing (Kho.); va_svu~ to blow a musical instrument (G.)(CDIAL 11586). va_s'ita roaring, scream (MBh.); -ba_si in: ruwa_-ba_si lamentation (N.)(CDIAL 11587). va_s'ra lowing cow (RV.)(CDIAL 11590). va_cittal to play on a musical instrument (Cilap. 7, Pak. 205); va_ci musical pipe; tune, musical song (Ta.lex.) va_syate_ (va_s'ati) (RV.) roars, howls, bellows, lows, bleats, sings (of birds)(AitBr.); vassati, va_sati utters a cry (of animals and birds)(Pali); va_sai (Pkt.); bas to bark, crow, cry, sing, play music (Gypsy); wa_s to bleat, bellow (Ash.); wac (Wg.Kt.); bas to mew (Dm.); wa~_s to bleat, scold, speak (Pas.); wos to bellow, bark, bleat, crow (Pas'.); uasi_am I weep (Shum. <Kafiri?); ba_s to bellow, bleat (Kal.); bha_s to bleat, bark (Phal.); basoiki to cry (of animals), chatter, be played (of an instrument) (Sh.); baso_nu, basyo_nu, basijoiki to strike (of clock), crackle (of fire)(Sh.); ba_s'nu_ to chirp (WPah.); ba_s'n.u to warble (WPah.); ba_sn.o to cry (of animals)(Ku.)(CDIAL 11589). Curse: vayl. abuse (Ko.); bay(i), bayyu, boyi to abuse, revile, use bad language (Ka.)(DEDR 5550). vacai reproach, censure, blame, stigma, calumny (Pur-ana_.10); satiric poem, lampoon (Tol.Po.437); vacaikavi id.; vacavu foul, abusive language (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,5,3)(Ta.lex.) avas'apta cursed (MBh.); s'apa (Skt.); wo_hawun to curse (K.); wohav curse (K.); vis'apta abjured (MaitrS.)(CDIAL 847). s'apati curses, swears (RV.); reviles (Ya_j.); sapati curses (Pali); s'ava_vitaya caus. (NiDoc.); savai, savan.a (Pkt.); havanava_, avanava_ (Si.); chawem I swear (Kal.); choik, 1 sg. chaum (Kho.)(CDIAL 12289). s'apatha curse (RV.); vow (MBh.); sapatha oath (Pali); s'avatha (NiDoc.); sovel curse, oath (Gypsy); sol sound, voice (Gypsy); s'a, pl. s'ai~e, s'ave abuse (Sh.); sa~hu~ oath (S.); so~h, sao~, sau~h (L.); sau~h, sauhu~ (P.); s'au~, s'au (WPah.); sau~ (Ku.); sau~h, so~h, so~ (H.); savo (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12290). s'apita cursed (R.); s'ivi_ abusive word or speech, piece of abuse (M.); s'ivera_, s'ivra_ abusive (M.)(CDIAL 12291). s'apta cursed, abjured (MBh.); curse (TBr.); oath (R.); satta cursed (Pali.Pkt.); s'ata (NiDoc.); s'u_t oath (Kt.Pr.); s'u_tu_ (Pr.); s'at (Kal.); s'ot (Kho.)(CDIAL 12292). s'apyati curses (Skt.); s'a_pa_ to curse (B.); sa_piba_ (Or.); sa_pna_ (H.); s'apir wolf (Kho.)(CDIAL 12293). s'apva abuse (Skt.); s'a_p, sa_p curse (Pas'.); s'a_p (Par.)(CDIAL 12294). s'a_pa curse, abuse (MBh.); sa_pa curse (Pali); sa_va (Pkt.); xa_o (A.); s'a~_o (MB.); sv (Si.); huvai (Md.)(CDIAL 12393). s'a_payati causes to take an oath, exorcises (AV.); ha_wun to take a solemn oath (K.)(CDIAL 12394).

5830.Abuse: va_n:ku (va_n:ki-) to call; abuse, reproach; abuse, rebuke; va_n:ka_ pit.i to scream (Ta.); ba_n:ku cry of a dog (Ka.); va~_gu to sound, ring; chatter, babble (Te.); ve_n.- (bell) to sound; ve_nc- to ring (bell)(Go.)(DEDRE 5337). akkosa abuse; akkosati, pp. akkut.t.ha to abuse (Pali.lex.) an:kata-c-ceyyul. stanza of abuse, lampoon (Tol. Po. 430); an:kata-p-pa_t.t.u id. (Tol. Po. 471); an:katam abuse (Tol. Po. 436); falsehood (Aka. Ni.); an:katar those who use abusive language, revilers (Te_va_. 859,10)(Ta.lex.) an:ka a sham fight, miltary show (Skt.lex.) a~kma_na_tso abusive (Kon.lex.) an:ggut.ha dakhauna to show the thumb (to one) in defiance or derision, or to signify a desire for sexual intercourse, (an attitude used by women in blandishment, also an obscene gesture made in abuse by men); to turn off with a joke (P.lex.) an:gada misfortune, trouble; mental agony, anxiety (Te.); an:gele a greedy person, glutton (Tu.); an:glna_, an:gla'a_na_ to weep loudly (Kur.); an:gala_pu lamentation (Ka.); an:gal to grieve, be afflicted (Ka.)(DEDR 31). Wickedness: akat.u wickedness (Ta.); agad.u viciousness, savageness, meanness (Ka.); blame, exposure, fault (Te.)(DEDR 4). agal.a_ wild, mischievous (M.H.); as'ad.u meanness (Ma.); aca_t.a strange, wild, extravagant (M.); agad.u a wild, savage man (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) kakkhal.atta wicked (Pali.lex.) agun.a wickedness (MBh.Pali.Pkt.); ayun.a, yun.a (Si.)(CDIAL 54). cf. akat.iyam injustice (Ta.lex.) Good quality: cf. gun. species, quality, good quality (Mn.); gun.a_ quality, good quality, constituent part (Pali.Pkt.); lot, portion (P.)(CDIAL 4196). gun.in endowed with good qualities (S'vetUp.); guni_ conjuror (H.); wizard (Mth.); gun.ia thoughtful, well-versed (Pkt.); gun.iya_ snake-charmer (OM.); gun.i_ wizard (G.); gun.illa having good qualities (Pkt.); gunilo grateful (N.)(CDIAL 4192).

5831.Eclipta erecta: bhr.n:gara_ja eclipta erecta [bhr.n:gara_ja, bhr.garajas the shrub eclipta prostrata (Sus'r.); bhin:gara_ja eclipta prostrata (Pali); bham.garaya (Pkt.); bha_n.ro a kind of plant from which cloth is woven, nettle (N.); bha~gra_, bha~gr.a_ eclipta prostrata (H.); bha~_gro verbesina prostrata (G.); ban:gaya, bin:gu verbesina erecta, eclipta alba (Si.)(CDIAL 9580); lal kesari eclipta alba (Santali.lex.)]. Eclipta alba = eclipta prostrata: bhringaraja (Skt.); kesaraja (Skt.); bhangra (H.); kesuti (B.); kesuria (B.); maka (M.); garuga (Ta.); galagara (Te.); plant juice in combination with aromatics administered for catarrhal jaundice; habitat: common weed in moist situations throughout India, ascending upto 6,000 ft. on the hills (GIMP, p.104).

5832.Solanum indicum: br.hati_ solanum indicum (Skt.). vanavrintaki (Skt.); birhatta (H.); kandyari (P.); byakura (B.); ringani (M.); papparamulli (Ta.); chittimulaga (Te.); nilavalutina (Ma.)(GIMP, p.229). Solanum carolinense: horse nettle berries; apple of Sodom; part used: the air-dried ripe fruit; habitat: USA; use: horse nettle berries are employed usually in the form of fluidextract as a sedative in the treatment of epilepsy. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 775-776).

5833.Turmeric: ba_lka turmeric; yellow (Kur.); ba_lko yellow (Kur.); blke turmeric (Malt.); blko yellow (Malt.); vallikam, valliyam turmeric (Ta.)(DEDR 4102).

5834.Image: measure: pai a measure equal to 1/2 paila, or 1/2 ser; 4 paoa = 1 pai; 2 pai = 1 paila, 1 seer; paemana, pai mana a measure; paila a measure = 2 pais; paimara to use a short measure (Santali.lex.)

5835.Image: ear of rice: cf. paya, payi an ear of rice etc.; payakelu, payac(c)elu the time of shooting of the ears of corn (Tu.)(DEDR 3937).

5836.Thin: par-ai (-v-, -nt-) to be wasted, worn out, impaired; (-pp-, -tt-) to remove, destroy (Ta.); par-akalu, par-e leanness, thinness, weakness (Ka.)(DEDR 4033). hagara, agura, hagaru, hagura, haguru, havura, havuru, ha_ra the state of being light or not heavy, lightness; light (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5837.Subsistence: pa_ka-vat.t.a subsistence, livelihood, maintenance (Pali.lex.)

5838.Image: to take in the lap: pa_kna_ (pakkyas) to take up into one's arms, on one's lap; refl. pass. paka_rna_ (pakkras) (Kur.); pke to take in the lap (Malt.) (DEDR 4050).

5839.Much: bajek much (Pe.); bajon pl. many (Pe.); bejek much (Mand..)(DEDR 3830). bahe much, too much, many (Or.); bahutitha manifold, many, much (MBh.)[cf. numeral suffix -tha-: katitha, kati, katipayatha, katipaya]; bahutaya manifold (TS.)(CDIAL 9189). buha_e, buheka abundantly, much (Or.); bahudha_ in many ways (RV.Pali); bahuha_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9191). bahu much, many, great (RV.); bahuka costing much (Skt.); bahu, bahuka much (Pali.As'.); bahu sg.and pl., bahuve pl. much, many (NiDoc.); bahu, bahuga, bahu_a, bahuaya (Pkt.); buhu much; buhu large, much, very; bahu (Gypsy); bu_, bo_(h) many (Pas'.); bo_ (Shum.); boh (Kal.); bo(h) much, many (Kho.); bahu~_ much (S.); bahu~_ much, many, great; bau~_ (L.); bahu~, bahu (P.); bahu (A.B.Or.Mth.G.); bauha_ much (OM.); bhav, bho (Konkan.i); boho_, bo_ much, many; boso_ learned (Si.)(CDIAL 9187). bahutva abundance (MBh.); bahutta abundance, multiplicity (Pali); bahutta, bahu_a much (Pkt.); bu_t much, many (Gypsy); but much (Tor.); bahut, bauhat, bahuta_ (P.); bhaut (Ku.); bahut (N.A.); id. (B.Mth.H.G.); bahuta, bhauta, bout (Or.); bahuto much, many (Mth.); bahuta (OAw.); bahuta, bahota, bhota (OMarw.); bot (G.); bahu_t (M.); mhop, mop (Konkan.i); bauhtera_, bathera_ abundant (P.); bahuter, bahutera_ very many, most; adv. for the greater part (H.); but.e much, many (Sh.); bu_t. (D..); but (Bur.); bu_t. all (Mai.); but.a (Mai.); bu_t.u (Sh.)(CDIAL 9190). bahura much, thick (AitBr.); bu_ra, bu_rak much, many (Pas'.); beeri_ (Pas'.); bo_re (Shum.); bro_k many (Tir.); lau large; la_go many (Pas'.); la_u, lou much, many (Gaw.); lao, lau (Wot..); zow (Gau.); la_ya much, many (Dm.)(CDIAL 9193). bahuli_kr.ta thickened (MBh.); bo^hli_ milk of a cow newly calved (L.)(CDIAL 9196). bahula, bola thick, solid (Si.); bahula large, thick (RV.); much, abundant (Pali.Pkt.); buxlo wide; bo_l, bo_li much, great (Gypsy); bahul much, abundant (A.); bahul.a much, thick (Or.)(CDIAL 9194).

5840.Cuckoo: pikalakki Madras bulbul, pycnonotus haemorhous; pikkul.ike name of a bird (Ka.); pikili, pigili bulbul (Te.); pika- Indian cuckoo, cuculus indicus (Skt.)(DEDR 4126). cf. ko_kila the Indian cuckoo, cuculus indicus (MBh.)(CDIAL 3483). Golden oriole: pio golden oriole (Kui); piot.i id. (Kuwi); pio_ oriole (Kur.)(DEDR 4125).

5841.Brown; golden-yellow colour: pin~jara reddish-yellow (MBh.); golden-yellow, tawny (Pali); pim.jara reddish-yellow (Pkt.); pi~jar saffron of a full bright red colour (M.); piduru rice-straw, straw, dry grass (Si.)(CDIAL 8161). pin:gala reddish-brown (AV.); reddish-yellow (Pali); pim.gala greenish-yellow (Pkt.); pingu tawny (Si.); pin:gat.a reddish-brown (A.); pi~ga_ yellowish, tawny (M.); pi~gat. yellowish, tawny (M.)(CDIAL 8148). pin:ga yellowish, reddish-brown (MBh.); pin:giya reddish-brown (Pali); pim.ga yellow (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8147). pin:kalam gold colour, yellow (Tiva_.); gold (Cu_t.a_.); pin:kalan- Kube_ra, the god of wealth (Tiva_. Kur-r-a_. Tala. Nakarac. 35)(Ta.lex.)

5842.Image: to pour: cf. puka_r mouth of a river (Pur-ana_. 30)(Ta.lex.) buk- to pour (Mand..); pon.- to be spilled; pok- to spill; pok- to pour (water)(Kond.a); ponga (pongi-) to be spilt, scattered; popka (< pok-p-; pokt-) to spill, scatter (Kui); bo_khali to spill; bokh'nai to shed, spill; bok- (-h-) to spill (Kuwi); po_ga_na_ to flow; be washed away, drown; of a river, to overflow its banks; po_hta_na_ to drown a man, caused to be washed away; pongi_ta_na_ to cause to flow (water, blooed etc.); pon:ga_na_ to flow; ponga_na_ to float away; pon.- to flow (saliva etc.), flow, drop (tears); po_n.- (pus or blood) to come out of a wound (Go.)(DEDR 4470). To be wetted; to pour out: bugge a spring of water, the source of a river, a fountain (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) put.ai to swell; pot.i to rise up, as pimples; por..il greatness (Ta.); od.ucu, pod.ucu to rise, as the tide, the sun, the moon, a star; pod.upu the swell of a river, the rising of the sun (Te.); pojju to boil over, bubble up; to rise as out of the water; pojjil boiling, bubbling up (Ma.); pokka boiling over; pokku a boil, blister (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. put.a a single application unto as in preparing medicaments, of fire to bake; a crucible; put.a-vikku to apply fire in order to refine metals; put.abhe_da a town, city (Ka.lex.) bhiggn.a_ to get wet (P.); bhign.o (Ku.); bhignu (N.); bhiga_ wet; bhigiba_ to get wet (Or.); bhi_gna_ (H.); bhino wetted (S.); bhinna_ (P.); bhi_nau wet (OAw.); bhi_nu_ (G.); bhagga smeared, lime-washed (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9500). bhi~_ga_ wet (H.)(CDIAL 9501). abhyan:kte_ anoints oneself (RV.); abbhatta smeared with oil, sprinkled, wetted (Pkt.); biz- to pour out (e.g. water)(Dm.); bhijan.u to get wet (S.); bhijjn.a_ (P.); bhijn.o (Ku.); bhijnu (N.); bhiziba (A.); bhija_ (B.); bhijiba_ (Or.); bhi_jab (Bi.); bhijla_h wet (Mth.); bhi_jal to get wet (Bhoj.); bhi_jab (Aw.); bhi_jna_ to be wet (H.); bhijvu~ (G.); bhijn.e~ (M.); bhijta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9502). abhyan:kte_ wets (RV.); abhyanakti anoints (AitBr.); abbhajati, abh(i)yajana (S'Br.); abhim.jan.a (Pkt.); bhi~_m.ja_ anointing, massaging (Pkt.); bhi~_jab to be wetted (Bi.); bhi~_jal (Bhoj.); bhi~ja_vu~ to be wetted (G.); bhi~javvu~ to wet (G.)(CDIAL 9503). bheun.a_ to wet (P.); bheil (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 9508). pa~_jn.e~ to smear paste on the warp (M.)[cf. pacu cotton (Ta.lex.)]; pa~_jna_ to solder (H.)(CDIAL 8926). pra_jana paint or cement (on an arrow)(AV.); pa~_jan., pa~_jn.i_ paste for smearing on thread (G.); pa~_jan. warp-paste (M.)(CDIAL 8927). samajanti pl. anoints (RV.); samajana anointing (AV.); sau~jan.o to wash after defecating (Ku.)(CDIAL 13181). pi_- to pour (Kor.); peyal showering, rain, cloud; peyalai rain; poci (-v-, -nt-) to ooze, percolate, flow (Ta.); peyyuka to pour, rain (Ma.); oy- (oc-) (rain) rains (Ko.); poy to pour, cast; n. pouring; puy to pour, cast; po_cal pouring water (Ka.); poyy- (poyyuv-, pojj-) (rain) rains, (wind) blows (Kod..); po_yu to pour, cast in metal (Te.); paiyeng to pour (Kol.); pi_ id. (Nk.); poy- (water) pours, flows, to be spilled, flow; poy- (water) to be spilled; pocci_- to pour out (water)(Go.); boiyali (bo_t-) to overflow (a vessel); bo_- (-t-) to be spilled (Kuwi); poe~_na_ (before vowel po-, po~_yy-; past possa_) to fall (of rain); pu~ydna_ to pour some water on rice when ready for a meal (Kur.); poye (pos-) to rain; puthye to pour (Malt.)(DEDR 4407).

5843.Sesbana grandiflora: buka, vuka, vaka a sp. of plant; vaka sesbana grandiflora = agasti grandiflora (Ka.lex.) baka-pus.pa the tree sesbana grandifolora, agati grandiflora, s'ivamalli, pa_s'upata, baka, e_ka_s.t.hi_la, kokkarehu_vina-gid.a (Ka.lex.)

5844.Image: to run: cf. bon:gna_ to run (Kur.)(DEDR 4473). vyaga_t he went away (Pa_rGr..); byaga_ he departed, was lost (Pali); bagai (Kho.)(CDIAL 12157). cf. vya_ghut.ana return (HParis'.)(CDIAL 12192).

5845.Image: match: pu~_gna_ to win in a game or match (Kur.); pun-gare id.; (Malt.) (DEDR 4349). ban:gi (Tadbhava of bhan:gi) appearance, semblance, likeness, similarity (Ka.); pa_n:gu (Ka.); ban:gi-ver- to get the appearance of, to resemble (Ka.lex.) bha_na appearance (Skt.); bha_n.a appearance (Pkt.); bha_n.o, bha_n.i_ will of God (S.); bha_n.a_ will (P.); bha_n appearance, pretence (N.); bha_n appearance (B.); bha_n.a pretence (Or.); bha_nab to appear, resemble (Mth.); bha_n appearance (H.) (CDIAL 9451). cf. van-ai (-v-, -nt-) to form, fashion, shape (Ta.); van-am beauty (Ta.)(DEDR 5327).

5846.Image: gate: cf. bha_gol., bha_gal. gate in wall of town or village, precincts of a village (G.)(CDIAL 9352). ba_gil, ba_gilu, ba_kal, ba_kala, ba_gala, ba_galu, ba_gila a door, a gate, a door-way; ba_gilu-va_d.a, ba_gilma_d.a, ba_galava_d.a, ba_gilva_d.a a tower, or an upstair house, over the gate of a place; go_pura, puradva_ra; ba_gilava a doorkeeper, a warder (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5847.Boat: cf. bagala an Arab boat of a particular description (Ka.); bagala_ (M.) (Ka.lex.) pakat.u boat (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) paka_s a rafter (Tu.lex.) paka_so rafter (Kon.lex.) van:kam ship as moving swiftly (Maturaik. 536); a kind of vehicle (Paripa_. 20,16); van:kar people of Bengal (Kampara_. Ula_vi. 47); mariners; van:kam, pan:kam wave (Ta.); bhan:ga (Skt.); pak-r-i coracle, boat (Pat.t.in-ap. 30); ship, vessel; pak-r-iyar people of the maritime tract (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

5848.Image: line: bha_n. line made by trampling down in standing crops for purposes of division, small change for a rupee (P.)(CDIAL 9437). pan:kti group of five (AV.); row, troop (Mn.); panti line, row (Pali); pam.ti, pam.tiya (Pkt.); pa~_t, pa~_ti line, row, turn; pa~_ti (Ku.); pa~_ti line, row (N.A.); pa~_t, pa~_ti, pa~_it line, row, heap (B.); panti, panta_ row (Or.); pa~_ti_ row of trees on either side of the road (Bi.); pa~_ti row, necklace; pa~_ta_ roadside trees (Mth.); pa~_t, pa~_ti row (Bhoj.); pa~_ti_ (Aw.); pa~_t, pa~_ti, pa~_tu (H.); po~_th, pai~th (K.); pa~_ti row of people; pa~_ti_ party, side, share, quota (G.); pa~_t, pa_t, pa~_th, pa_th row (M.); peta line, row (Si.); patta, pl. pati side (e.g. of road), party (Si.)(CDIAL 7646). cf. patha path (MBh.)(CDIAL 7743). cf. pan.am money (Ta.lex.) bhann crease (P.); bha_ small coins (WPah.); bhanon.o to change (money)(Ku.); bhunna_ to be changed (of money)(H.)(CDIAL 9361). pa_n.t.i a kind of hopscotch (G.Sm.D.I, i,111)(Ta.lex.) pa_ rafter (Kalin.. 87); warp (Tiruva_ca. 24,8); pa_kkar..i yarn (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. va_n.a_ woof (M.); va_n.o woof, woof and warp (G.)(CDIAL 11514). pa_kki-kaipi_tu < ba_qi-kaifi_yat statement or account of outstanding balances (R.F.); pa_ gnomon or needle of a sun-dial (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pan.a, han.a a fana, a small coin of silver or gold; four a_n.es and eight ka_sus: four pa_gas; pan.i a stout stick or bat; pan.e the upper part of the stem of a tree (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

5849.Ficus religiosa: pan.i ficus religiosa (Ka.); pan.ai id. (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

5850.Gum: cf. bakka gum (Nk.); ban:ke gum, glue, resin (Ka.)(DEDR 3817). cf. vaka < baka Kube_ra (Ta.lex.) cf. pan:kam < pan:ka mud, mire (Paripa_. 10,82)(Ta.lex.) bon:ke, ban:ke gum; sarala-de_vada_ru vr.ks.ada ban:ke; va_yasa, s'ri_va_sa, vrks.a-dhu_pa, s'ri_ve_s.t.a, sarala-drava; takko_lada-bon:ke ko_laka; bon:ke-ka_yi-gid.a s'e_lu, s'le_s.ma_taka, s'i_ta (Ka.lex.) pan:ka mud, mire (Mn.); pan:go watery, weak (S.); pa_n.o, pa_n.ar.o wet mud (Ku.)(CDIAL 7645). Soft, good: bon:ke-man.n.u a good kind of soil (Ka.lex.) pokkan- man of fine appearance, handsome man (Te_va_. 619,2)(Ta.lex.) bakke sweetness, goodness (Ka.); varikke (Ma.); var..ukkai the tender pulpy substance inside a young coconut (Ta.); var..ukke (Ma.); baraka_ soft, fluid, used of the pulp of a kind of jack etc.; bakkevalasu a sweet kind of jackfruit (Ka.); var..ukkaippala_ (Ta.); varikkeppila_vu (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. po~k young shoot of coconut (B.)(CDIAL 8394).

5851.Image: large leather bag on an ox to carry water: pakha_l a large leather bag to carry water swung over the back of an ox, mule; the dung of a hawk; pakh a soil (P.lex.) pakkale a small net (Tu.lex.) cf. paka_li, paka_l.i a double water-skin carried on a bullock (Ka.Te.Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

5852.Image: a row of petals or corolla: pakal.i a corolla or row of petals (Ka.); phakad.i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

5853.Class or tribe: pakkal one's class or tribe (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) pakhala_ strange, ignorant of the country (P.lex.) cf. makkal. human beings; ma_kkal. men, people, mankind, children (Ta.)(DEDR 4616). pukkil abode (Man.i. 23,76); house, dwelling, permanent abode (Kur-al.. 340); place of refuge (Pur-ana_.221); body, as a temporary abode for the soul (Na_lat. i,41); pukal entering; residence, dwelling (Ain:kur-u. 295); support, prop (Nar-. 179); refuge, asylum (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 109); body; receptacle for storing grain; means; Settler: pukali new-comer, settler (Takkaya_kap. 352, Urai); Shiyali, name of a place in Tamil Nadu; pukalit.am dwelling, residence (Kampara_. Van-ampuku. 24); town, village; refuge, retreat, asylum (Tiruva_ca. 5,62); pukavu entering (Ain:kur-u. 314); po_kar those who live as house-holders (Te_va_. 490,3)(Ta.lex.)

5854.Shopkeeper: cf. baka_l.a a shopkeeper (Ka.); baka_la a shopkeeper with contemptuous implication (M.); baka_l.abha_tu shopkeeper's rice; rice mixed with curds, butter and milk (Ka.lex.) bha~gera_ maker and seller of hemp (P.H.); bha~geran. his wife (P.); bha~geran (H.); bha~gera_, bha~geri_ (M.)(CDIAL 9355). ban:ka_pura name of a place (Ka.lex.) ban:kura name of a place (B.lex.)

5855.Powder; ashes, dust: bukki a fragrant powder, much used in offering to idols (Ka.); buka_, bhuka_ (M.); bukkit.t.u = bukki, bukkihit.t.u pat.ava_saka, pis.t.a_ta; bukkit.t.u-ga_r-a sugandhi (Ka.lex.) bukka-ra_ya name of a person in Vijayanagara kingdom (Te.lex.) me_lu-bukkit.t.u superior perfume, cu_rn.a, va_sayo_ga; bukan.i powder (Ka.); bukat.i_, bukan.i_, buki_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) buggi ashes, dust (Te.); buggi ashes (Kol.); buggi earth (Ga.)(DEDR 4243). buka_ fragrant powder black or red in colour to be applied on the forehead on special occasions, like religious discourses or religious congregation for the purpose of ki_rtana or chanting of the lord's names etc. This custom might have originated in southern India. In Pandharpur (Karnataka) the devotees of Panduranga and Vitthala used to apply buka on their forehead as a mark of their being vais.n.avas, and this practice is still prevalent in Maharashtra where the word is pronounced as bukka. Dubois states that the practice of tracing different marks on forehead prevailed among the sectarian Brahmins living south of the Krishna river [Abbe J.A. Dubois, Hindu manners, customs and ceremonies, Oxford, London, 1972, p.109; loc. cit. Ramakrishna T. Vyas (ed.), Gan:ga_dhara's Gandhasa_ra and (an unknown author's) Gandhava_da (with Marathi commentary), p.3; twelve sections of Gandhava_da deal with different combinations of recipes for the manufacture of buka_.]

5856.Smearing; anointing: pu_cu (pu_ci-) to besmear, anoint, rub, daub on, plaster, scrub the floor with cowdung dissolved in water, clean, wash; n. daubing, smearing; pu_ccu daubing, smearing, coating, gilding, plastering (Ta.); pu_cuka, pu_s'uka to smear, daub, rub, whitewash, plaster, gild; pu_cal, pu_ccu smearing, daub, coating (Ma.); pu_su to smear, daub, apply, anoint, plaster; n. act of smearing etc.; oil for smearing on the body; pu_suvike smearing etc. (Ka.); pu_yu id.; pu~_ta smearing (Te.); pusta working clay, modelling; pusta-karman plastering, painting (Skt.)(DEDR 4352).

5857.Marks on skin: ban:gu a disease of the skin at which it uses to get black, red and white spots (Ka.); van:gu black spots in the face (Te.); va_n:ga a purple or dark discoloration of the skin, a mole (M.); vakku, vajju to be singed (Ma.)(Ka. lex.) vyan:ga speckled (AV.); freckles (Sus'r.); va~_g marks on skin (M.); beng the devil (Gypsy)(CDIAL 12159). vyajana decoration (RV.); sign (A_pS'r.); viyajana (Skt.); vam.jan.a mark (Pkt.); vyajana mark (Pali); viam.jan.a (Pkt.); viyadun distinctive mark (Si.)(CDIAL 12160). vyakta adorned (RV.); wise (Skt.); viyakta (Skt.); vatta made known (Pkt.); viyatta learned (Pali); viyata adj. clever (As'.); viyat clear, learned (Si.)(CDIAL 12156). vyatikara mixture (MBh.); vyatiki_rn.a scattered in various directions (MBh.); vero difference, distinction (G.)(CDIAL 12161).

5858.Image: toothless mouth: bo_d.u toothless state; bo_d.u-va_y toothless mouth; bo_d.a toothless man; fem. bo_d.i (Ka.); po_r..-va_y toothless mouth (Ta.); bo_d.u-ba_yi toothless mouth (Tu.); bo_si toothless, empty (Te.)(DEDR 4582). bhud.o toothless (S.)(CDIAL 9530). phogr.a, phugr.i toothless; phon:gla to become toothless (Santali.lex.)

5859.Images: hole; toothless: pukar spot, pul.l.i (Pur-ana_. 3)(Ta.lex.) cf. pokal. hollow (G.M.)(CDIAL 8391). cf. bu_ka hole; bokka id. (Go.); bokka hole, orifice, aperture, pit; pikka hole (Te.); pokka ditch, ggrave; pokor hollow; bogga small hole, perforation (Kol.); pokka hole, cave; bogga hole (Nk.); bokku toothless; bokka toothless man; bokke any round, small hole, made by rats etc. (Ka.); bon:ku hollow, void, empty; pogul.u a hole, usually in a mud dam across a watercourse; bokku, bokkuba_yi mouth without teeth (Tu.); pok-va.yn man whose teeth are all gone (Ko.); poku (-pp-, -tt-) to make a hole, perforate; pokkan.ai hole in a tree, stone or ground, cleft in rock; pokku hollow in a tree, defect, fault, blemish; pokkai little hole, crack, having a part deformed, blemish (Ta.); bon.a hole; bod.ga id. (Go.)(DEDR 4452). bhu_ka hole (Skt.)(DEDR 4452). cf. (CDIAL 8391; 9263 (6); 9624).

5860.Toothless man: phakuk phakuk toothless, mumbling (Santali.lex.) bo_kka, bo_r..a, bo_d.a a toothless man (Ka.); bo_d.a tuskless; toothless (Te.); bo_d.aka_ (M.) = bo_d.a, bo_d.i (Te.) bare, uncovered, as the head, the person; bare about the crop, as a tree; destitute of the usual appendages, as a cow's head without horns, or with short horns; a hand without fingers, a hill without trees, a house without roof; a widower (Te.)(Ka.lex.) bo_d.i, bo_r..i a toothless woman; one who is bare, or destitute of hairs, or of horns; bo_d.a_kal.u a hornless cow; bo_d.u a toothless state (Ka.lex.)

5861.Image: spinning top: bagari, bugari a boy's spinning top (Ka.M.); ban:gura, bon:gara, bommara (Te.); pamparam (Ta.Ma.)(Tadbhava bavari (Skt.); bugari (M.)(Ka.lex.) bugari a spinning top (Ka.); bho_vara_, bho~_vara_ (M.); bho_van.e_m. to turn round (M.); bugari-y-a_t.a a game at tops; bugariya_d.isu to spin a top (Ka.lex.)

5862.Image: protuberance: bagud.u, bugut.i a swelling, an eminence, an elevation, a protuberance (Ka.); pun:gud.u, bud.ipi (Te.); bod.d.u a prominent navel (Te.); bugud.u-hokkur.. a prominent navel (Ka.lex.) cf. pokkul. navel (Ta.)(DEDR 4460). pukat.u ridge of an oven (J.)(Ta.lex.) pokut.t.u bubble formed in turbid water (Tiva_.; Paripa_. 11,27)(Ta.); bogad.a id. (Te.); pokkul.am boil (Can.. Aka.); metath. koppul.am (Ta.); pokkul.i boil (Ka.); pokkuli_ (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ba_, ba_yu to swell, tumefy (Ka.lex.) cf. pa_kala quite black (TS.); ripening, causing suppuration (Skt.); pail, pol purulent matter, white pus (of a boil)(K.); pa_il mangos spread in grass to be ripened; pa_ili_ ripened in straw (of fruit)(P.); pa_l layers of straw in which unripe mangoes are placed to ripen (H.)(CDIAL 8024).

5863.Image: pericarp of lotus: pokut.t.u pericarp of the lotus or common caung flower (Nan-. 387, Mayilai; Paripa_. Pak. 17)(Ta.); bud.aga id. (Te.); pogid.u id. (Ma.); pokil bud (Iraku. Kucan-ayo_. 63)(Ta.lex.)

5864.Image: crab: cf. bakka_ claws of a crab (Kur.)(DEDR 3814). pan:ka-va_cam < pan:ka-va_sa crab, as living in mud (Ta.lex.)

5865.Image: he-goat: bakare, bakara a goat without reference to sex; a he-goat (Ka.); bakara_ a he-goat (M.); bakare_m a goat without reference to sex (M.); bakarakasa_yi a mutton-butcher (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) bhan:gr.i sheep with black of white spots on face (WPah.)(CDIAL 9353).

5866.Red-wood: po_n:kam a variety of red-wood (Kur-icip. 74)(Ta.lex.)

5867.Ceremony: mahal.a, maha_laya, ma_l.a the s'ra_ddha performed in the latter fortnight of the bha_drapada to the manes of all one's male ancestors; this period (Ka.); maha_l.a (M.)(Ka.lex.)

5868.Winter solstice: ma_gha, ma_gi, ma_ge the month ma_gha which begins with the winder solstice (January-February)(Ka.lex.)

5869.Damsel: ma_n:ge (Tadbhava of ma_ghya) the flower of jasminum multiflorum or pubescens (Ka.); ma_n:geyakkarasi (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. man:kai woman (Ta.lex.)

5870.Division of district: ma_gan.i a division of a talook or district (Ka.Ma.); ma_ka_n.am (Ta.); ma_ga_n.a (H.)(Ka.lex.) ho_bal.i a division of a talook; ho_bal.i-s'a_nabho_ga the accountant of a ho_bal.i; ho_bal.ida_ra a chief of armed peons (Ka.); o_mpat.ai = ka_val custody (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Soldier: sipa_yi a native soldier; policemen and attendants of kings and grandees who are belted and armed, peons etc. (Ka.); s'ipa_i_ (M.H.); sipa_yigiri the profession of a soldier (Ka.); sibbandi, sibandi irregular soldiery, armed peons; an establishment of clerks, peons and servants (Ka.); s'ibandi_ (M.H.) (Ka.lex.)

5871.Image: crocodile: makara a kind of sea-animal, a crocodile, shark; the sign capricornus of the zodiac (Skt.lex.) mukka a gobbler; mukkul. a mouthful of water for rinsing the mouth; muk the nose (Ka.); mukku (Te.)(Ka.lex.) mucali alligator (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. mo_n:kil a kind of whale (Takkaya_kap. 384, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) makara-ke_tan-an- Ka_ma as having a fish emblem on his banner (Kampara_. Un.t.a_t.. 4); makaracalam ocean (Mar-aicai. 90); makara-ni_r sea (Kampara_. Kukap. 49); makara_layam sea as the abode of fish (Takkaya_kap. 408); makaram crocodile (Can.. Aka.); makaram, makarami_n- shark (Ci_vaka. 170); muki-na_yakan- Varun.a (Tiruva_lava_. 30,2); mukil cloud (Pu. Ve. 6,22); mugil (Ka.); mogulu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: crocodile: cf. makara crocodile (VS.); muvara_, mo_ra_ shark (Si.)(CDIAL 9692). Image: male alligator: muvara_, mo_ra_ shark (Si.); magar id. (H.G.); miyaru id. (Md.); man:gar. crocodile (Santali); ma_ngar crocodile (Bal.)(CDIAL 9692). kara_ ?< gra_ha a species of alligator (Tiv. Periyati. 2,3,9); male alligator (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Image: alligator: mucali alligator (Tiva_.); a large kind of lizard; mucalikai id. (Tiva_.); cf. mu_cu swarming, thronging (Ci_vaka. 418); musuru (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: crocodile: mucali, mutal.ai, mutalai crocodile (Ta.); mutala crocodile (Ma.); mocal. (Ko.); mosal.e, masal.e (Ka.); mosale (Kod..); mosal.e (Tu.); mudale, mudal.e, mu_dale (Tu.); mosali (Te.); moseli (Kol.); mo_ca (Pa.); mo_di, mu_di (Kond.a); bo_ca (Kur.); boce (Malt.); ma_cala (Skt.); musali_ house-lizard, alligator (Skt.)(DEDR 4952). mutalai crocodille; net.umpun-alul. vellu mutalai (Kural., 495); mucali house-lizard; chameleon (Ta.lex.) man:gar. an alligator; man:gar. gur.ie calaoena he has gone to shepherd the alligators, i.e. he is dead and his ashes are thrown to alligators into a tank (Santali.lex.) muduga alligator, crocodile; = gra_havis'esa (Pkt.). man:guro a kind of sea-fish (S.); man:gar-macho whale (S.)> ma_ngar crocodile (Balu_ci_.Iranian); makara sea-monster (Pali); magara, mayara shark (Pkt.); makara crocodile (VS.); miyaru shark (Md.); magar crocodile (H.G.). [The NIA forms with -g- or -ng- are considered loans from Pkt. or Skt. or directly from non-Aryan sources from which these came.](CDIAL 9692). cf. maccha fish (Pkt.Pali)(CDIAL 9758). Alligator: makaram crocodile; shark (Ci_vaka. 170); one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra; a great number (Na_mati_pa. 801); a royal insignia; decorative designs about the dais built for seating the bride and bridegroom at the time of marriage; love; makarikai the figure of shark, as in ornaments (Kampara_. Nintan-ai. 1); makara-k-kot.iyo_n- Ka_ma, as having the emblem of fish on his banner; makara-san:kira_nti, makarasan:kiraman.am entrance of the sun into capricorn (I.M.P.Sm. 13; I.M.P.Cg. 1193); makara_yan-am winter soltice (Ta.lex.) makara-mi_n shark; makara-mukam a gesture with one hand in which the thumb and the forefinger are held upright while the other fingers are held together and apart from them; makara_layam sea, as the abode of fish; makari sea; makarai a sea-fish (Ta.lex.) Image: alligator; vehicle of varun.a: na_kra a kind of aquatic animal (VS.) negar.., negar..e, negar..u, nakra alligator; negar..de_ra Varun.a (Ka.lex.); negal.u id.; negaru a sea-animal, the vehicle of Varun.a (Tu.); negad.u a polypus or marine animal supposed to entangle swimmers (Te.); nakra crocodile, alligator (Mn.)(DEDR 3732). na_ga a shark (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) na_ka_ crocodile (H.); naku (Si.); na_ku_ crocodile (H.); nakku long-nosed (Ku.); nakra a kind of aquatic animal (VS.); crocodile, alligator (Mn.); nakka crocodile (Pali); n.akka (Pkt.); na_ko (Ku.)(CDIAL 7038). cf. nakula a mungoose (Vedic.Pali.lex.) cf. makara crocodile (VS.); man:gar id. (Sant.)(CDIAL 9692). naka big-nosed (K.)(CDIAL 7037). na_kk(h)u_ long-nosed (Ku.); n.akka nose (Pkt.); nakh id. (Gy.); nok (D..); naka big-nosed (K.); nakk nose (L.P.WPah.); na_ id. (N.A.); id. (B.Mth.); (Bhoj.H.G.M.); na_ka (Or.); na_kh (Ku.); nakut.u (Si.); nakra nose (Skt.)(CDIAL 6909). nakaru_t.am, nakut.am nose (Can..Aka.; Ya_r...Aka.)(Ta.lex.) nakel wooden or iron pin fixed in a camel's nose (P.H.); bullock's nose-rope (N.)(CDIAL 6910). { cf. vehr.a_ octopus said to be found in the Indus (Jat.ki_ lex.)} < Drav. and poss. connected with makara-).[Perhaps, the morphme: magar- clashes with naya a bait for alligators (Ma.Tu.)(DEDR 3603) yielding: nakra.] cf. na_, na_kku, na_vu tongue (Ta.Ma.); na_lika id. (Kond.a.Te.)(DEDR 3633). naka big-nosed (K.)(CDIAL 7037). nakkaram < nakra crocodile (nakkara-k-kat.ar-pur-attu : Kampara_. Nat.pu-k-ko_t.. 68)(Ta.lex.) nakkiram alligator (Civataru. Cuvarkkanaraka. 117); nakkira-p-palakai a plank supported by the image of a crocodile (nakkira-p-palakaiyu nar-uca_n tammiyum : Perum.. Ucaik. 38,171)(Ta.lex.) cf. mun:gu, min:gu to swallow (Ka.); mugg id. (Kod..); m(r)in:gu to swallow, devour, consume (Te.); ming-, min- to swallow (Kol.); ming id. (Nk.Go.); r.in-, mir.in- to swallow, devour (Kond.a); r.ugginga, r.ugginda onom.; of swallowing (Pe.); munxna_ to devour (Kur.); mir..un:ku, mur..un:ku, vir..un:ku to swallow, gulp, devour, consume; vir..ukku a gulp, swallow; mur..untu to swallow (Ta.); mir..un.n.uka, vir..un.n.uka to swallow, devour, gulp down; mir..un.n.ikka to absorb (Ma.); ming- to swallow (Ko.); ming act of swallowing (Ko.)(CDIAL 4866). makaram a royal insignia (Ta.lex.) makaran- Saturn (Ta.lex.)

5872.Alimony: makar < mahr (Arab. Muham.) written contract making a settlement on a wife; a marriage portion or gift, settled upon one's bride; dowry, jointure, alimony; amount paid or promised to a bride by the bridegroom as security for his keeping the marriage tie (Ta.lex.) mahir money which amongst Muhammadans a man at his marriage engages to pay his wife in case of divorcing her, jointue, alimony; mahirkhai a thief catcher; a reward given to one who catches a thief (P.lex.) [as opposed to:] cf. bannhan. a tie, a ligature, a cord with which anything is tied; a bond of union; banni a bride; muhri a buffalo, cow or horse or camel given in dowry by a bride's father (P.lex.)

5873.Image: hair: magri hair; mogur, magara id. (Kui); megaru id.; meguru, moyiru hair of body (Ir.); mi.r hair; feathers (Ko.); mi.r hair (To.); mayir hair of human beings or animals, fur, fleece, down of birds, tail of the yak; macir hair (Ta.); mayir hair (Ma.); jameri the hair about the body (Tu.); tla_mberi, tlameri hair of the head (Kui)(DEDR 4707). mara_t.t.am hair on the body of human beings or animals; hair on women's head (Iraku. Nakar. 49)(Ta.lex.) cf. mayur. duckweed (Pa.); maymur. moss (Ga.)(DEDR 4708).

5874.Image: neck: magar back of shoulder, back (P.); magir head (WPah.); magar (WPah.)(CDIAL 9701). mak neck (Kol.); makk id. (Nk.)(DEDR 4622).

5875.Sal tree: makka_ the sal tree, shorea robusta (Kur.); make id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4621).

5876.Image: sun: makiran- < mahira sun (Ta.lex.)

5877.Arka plant: mahira the arka plant (Skt.lex.)

5878.Image: elephant: ma_-kari male elephant (Ta.lex.)

5879.Chief: ma_kiran- < ma_hira Indra (Can.. Aka.); ma_kin-am < ma_hina kingdom; ma_kar celestials (Upate_caka_. Civapun.. 15); ma_kam < maha_-kha upper space (Kampara_. Mitilaik. 83); sky, air, atmosphere (Pur-ana_. 35)(Ta.lex.) mukarimai chieftaincy, lordship (Kantapu. Kayamukan-ur-. 49); mukari < mukhara one who makes noise (Te_va_. 719,9)(Ta.lex.) mahita honoured, revered, highly esteemed, proper, right; maha_ great; mahat eminent, noble (Ka.lex.) mahir a term of respect applied to person of the rain. and gujjar castes; a village lambardar or tax gatherer; mahira a title of respect given to the jhiur or kahar caste, a palankeen bearer; mahirai the office and employement of a mahira or lambardar; mahiri the wife of a lambardar, a female of the gujjar, jhiur or rain. castes, a title given to a man's second wife (P.); mahar a headman, a chief, a term used as a title of respect to jat.s generally, especially to members of certain tribes as the sials and drakhans; chat.ti pai mahar te, te mahar ghatti shahar te the chief was fined and he made the village pay it! (Proverb); muhri leader, headman (P.lex.) magru_ru pride, haughtiness; rudeness (Tu.lex.)

5880.Image: trumpet: mohori/mohri trumpet (Kuwi); mohori flute (Go.); mo_ri leaf pipe (Pa.); flute (Ga.); pipe, bag-pipe, trumpet (said to be < Or.) (Kui) (DEDR 5141). bugari, bugiriya a large bamboo flute (Ir.); bugiri bamboo flute (Pa_lKu.); buguri id. (A_lKu.); bugi.r flute (Ko.); puxury Toda flute (To.); buguri id. (Ka.)(DEDR 4239). cf. pu_ri a wind instrument; pu_rikai trumpet (Ta.)(DEDR 4368).

5881.Image: ox treading: mehar, mihar, mahir. the oxen engaged in treading a grain floor (P.lex.)

5882.Image: buffalo: mahiru a buffalo; mahio of or relating to a buffalo (milk, butter); mehara a place where buffaloes are tied up in the jungle; mihru pertaining to a buffalo (P.lex.) cf. mahis.a buffalo (Skt.lex.)

5883.Image: spider, large black ant: makr.a_ large spider (H.); markat.a spider (Skt.); makkat.aka (Pali); makara_ (A.); ma_kar (B.); makkar. large spider (P.); spider (H.); ma_kar. bug (G.); makul, makul.u-va_ spider (Si.); makkad.a id. (Pkt.); makar.u locust (S.)[cf. mat.aci_ locust (Skt.); mit.l. (Ko.); mid.ucu (Ka.)(DEDR 4850)]; makkur. locust (L.); makur.i a small insect, spider (N.); makara_ spider (Mth.); ma_kuro (N.); makar.a_ (Or.)(CDIAL 9883). makkun.a bug (Pkt.); ma_khun bug, flea (H.); makun.a_ bug, spider (Si.); ma_kan. bug (G.); makunu spider (Md.); bhiku_n. bug (M.); ma~_gnu~ bug, flea (P.); mo~_kun (K.); mun:ghin.u (S.)(CDIAL 9747). matko_t.aka termite or white ant (Skt.); marko_t.a-pippi_lika_ small black ant (Skt.); makko_d.a a partic. kind of insect (Pkt.); makor.o large black ant (S.); very large black ant (G.); makor.a_ black ant (L.); large black ant (P.); a partic. kind of small insect numerous in the rains (H.); makaur.a_ grasshopper (L.); large black ant (P.)(CDIAL 9749). makara a species of insect or small animal (Sus'r.); meru maggot often found infesting skin of goats (WPah.)(CDIAl 9693). Fly; bee: mas phuki_ the smallest kind of bee; mas, mesi a kind of small bee; mes beehive; mes nayi honey (Go.); min~ir-u beetle honeybee; n~imir-u bee, honeybee (Ta.); miceri, miciri a species of bee (Ka.)(DEDR 4843). maks.a_, maks. fly (RV.); maks.ika_ fly, bee (RV.); maks.ika (Mn.); makkhika_ fly (Pali); makkhia, macchi_, macchia_ (Pkt.); makh fly; makhi_, maki, macin, maclin, ma_ki mosquito; ma_ki_la sandfly (Gypsy); ma_ki_li house-fly (Gypsy); maci~_ (Ash.); me_cek bee; mecik mosquito; mucek, mucag fly (Pas'.); ma_chi_ fly (Mai.); ma_s.i_, maci_ fly (Sh.); machi (D..); machi_ fly (bee in: machi-kran., machi-gun beehive)(Sh.); machi fly, bee, dark spot (K.); makha, makhi fly, bee, swarm of bees, sight of gun; makho a kind of large fly (S.); makhi_ fly; makki_ id. (L.); makkh horsefly, gnat, any stinging fly; flies; makkhi_ fly (P.); makkhi_ bee; ma_kwa_ fly (WPah.); ma_kho fly; ma~_kh id. (Ku.); ma_kho (N.); ma_khi (A.); ma_chi (B.Or.); ma_chi_ (Bi.); ma_chi_, ma_khi_, makkhi_ fly (Mth.H.); ma_chi_ fly (Bhoj.); ma_khi_; ma_chi_ fly; ma-ma_khi_ bee (OAw.); makkha_ large fly, gadfly (H.); ma_kh, ma_khi_ fly; ma_kho large fly (G.); ma_s swarm of flies; flies in general; ma_s'i_ fly (M.); ma_su, ma_s'i (Konkan.i); balu-makka flea; ma_ssa, masi fly (Si.); mehi fly (Md.)(CDIAL 9696). ma_ks.ika pertaining to a bee (Ma_rkP.); honey (Sus'r.); ma_chi_ bee; ma_khi_, makkhia, macchia honey (WPah.); maci, macik sweet, good; maciana honey (Ash.); maci, mac honey (Wg.); maci_ (Kt.); mat.ek (Pr.); machi_ (Shum.); ma_chi_ (Gaw.); machi (Kho.); me~_ch (Bshk.); me_chi_ (Phal.); machi_ (Sh.); ma_khi_ (S.L.); ma_chi_ (H.); ma~_ch, dat. ma~_chas honey (K.); ma_ch (WPah.); ma_s', mo_s. honey (Pas'.)(CDIAL 9989). madhukara bee (Skt.); macari_k, maceri_k bee (Ash.); macari_k (Wg.); macerik (Kt.); mucerik, mes.kerik, mut.kurik (Pr.); ma~_charik (Shum.); macherik (Kal.); mace_r (Bshk.); ma_churi_ (Phal.); ma_chari bee (Sh.); machari bee, wasp, hornet (Sh.); makhi_r bee; honey (P.); ma~_c(h)or.ik bee (Gaw.)(CDIAL 9990). ma_khyo~_, ma_kho honey, honeycomb (P.) (CDIAL9991). makhern.a_ fringe of leather and thread over horse's eyes to keep off flies (P.)(CDIAL 9697). makhauro flywhisk (N.)(CDIAL 9698). makha_lna~_ fly-fringe over horse's eyes (L.)(CDIAL 9698a). machari wasp, hornet (Sh.)(CDIAL 9699). makhea_l beehive (P.); makhyol swarm of flies (Ku.)(CDIAL 9700). Mosquito: mas'aka mosquito (AV.); mas'a (Skt.); makasa mosquito (Pali); masa, masaa (Pkt.); ma~_s'a fly (Kt.); mus'ok (Wg.); manjege (Pr.); mayo_s (Ash. ?<Psht.); ma_s' fly; mo_s', ma_so_, mae_ gadfly (Pas'.); mase fly (Shum.); masa mosquito; ma_sik fly (Gaw.); meshi_ (Tor.); ma_s.h (Mai.); moi~; mo_ye mosquito (Sh.); mo_hu, mohu (K.); ma~ho~ (S.); ma~h fly (Ku.); mah mosquito (A.); mas', mas'a_ (B.); masa_ (Or.); mos, mo~s mosquito, gadfly (Mth.); masa_ mosquito (H.); masu (OG.) ma_sa_ mosquito (Aw.)(CDIAL 9917). pra_nj (pl. pra_sku) mosquito (Pe.); pra_ska mosquitoes (Kui); pra_cika_ mosquito (Skt.)(DEDR 4607). mujan.t.i a kind of honey (very small bees)(Ka.); mujan.t.e, mujjin.t.i, mojan.t.i a small kind of bee; a honeycomb; majan.t.i a small kind of bee; its wax (Tu.)(DEDR 4908). matsara mosquito, fly [?hypersanskritism from Pkt. macchara](Skt.); macharu mosquito, swarm of mosquitos (S.); macchur mosquito (L.); macchar (P.N.Mth.H.); ma_char (H.); machru~ gnat (G.); maduru mosquito (Si.)(CDIAL 9757). mas'akahari_, mas'ahari_ bed curtain (Skt.); maha_ri_ mosquito-net (S.); mahari curtain (A.); mas'a_ri mosquito-net (B.); masahari_, masa_ri_, masuri_ (Or.); masahri, masaihri_, masihri_ (H.)(CDIAL 9918).

5884.Image: mortar: makara-d.ibbi a mortar-piece (Ka.lex.) Image: pestle: cf. moggara pestle (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10199). mucalam < musala wooden pestle for pounding paddy (Ta.lex.) Mallet: moggara pestle (Pkt.); mogla_ (P.); mogra_ hammer (H.); mogar wooden mallet (G.); mogro hammer-shaped flower (G.); mogar mallet (M.); mudgara mallet (MBh.); mun:gar club, mallet (Mth.); mun:guru hammer, club (OSi.); mugura id. (Si.); muggara club, mallet (Pali); mongil club, wooden maul for applying plaster (K.); mun:gli_ mallet (L.); mu~gro, mugri_ club; mun.ar pestle (Ku.); mun.iro washerman's mallet (S.); mu~_gli_ pestle (P.); mun.ro mallet (N.); mugur (B.); mugura (Or.); mu~gra_ washerman's mallet (Bi.); mu_gra_ mallet (H.); mu~gara_ club, mallet (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 10199). {mugar, mu~ger goat (Sh.); semantically cf. two meanings of English: ram}. Rammer: mokku to beat soundly (Ta.); mekku (Te.); mukku (Ka.); mon:ka_n- rammer for roads; anything large and heavy (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Pestle: musala pestle (AV.Pali.Pkt.) [udukkhala is a mortar]; club (Mn.); mussala dan.d.a a crowbar (Pali.lex.); musul pestle, stone-thumper (Kho.); muzul stone pestle (Sh.); muhuri_ large pestle (S.); mo_la_ pestle (L.); muhla_, mohla_ (P.); musal (WPah.Ku.N.B.H.); muhal (A.); musal.a (Or.); mu_sar (Bi.Mth.Aw.); musl.u~ (G.); mu_sal (H.); musal. (M.); mohol.a (Si.); mo_la (Md.)(CDIAL 10223). < non-Aryan origin; prob. Drav.). uhka- to pound (Mand..); uskal pestle (Go.); uska_l a big pestle, rice-pounder (Go.); u_ssali, uh- (ust-) to pound paddy (Kuwi); uh'nai to pestle (Kuwi); usuya_la mortar (Pkt.); ujid.e, jid.d.e a small mortar (Tu.); ujje_ru, ujveru a pestle (Tu.); usa_na_ to pound with pestle (Go.); usmal, uspal, uskal, usval pestle (Go.); uh to husk (rice)(Pe.); uhka to pound (Mand..); uhpa act of striking, marking, writing (Kui); uh'nai to pestle (Kuwi); usuya_la mortar (Pkt.) (DEDR 583). ukhl.i_ (M.); ukhli_ wooden mortar (L.); ukhli (B.); ulu_khala a wooden mortar (RV.Pkt.); aulu_khale_ pestle and mortar (MaitrS.); ulukkhala, udu_khala (Sus'r.); udukkhala (Skt.) < Drav. Like musala- pop. derivative with -ala. ulu_hala a mortar (Pkt.); urgal mortar for pounding rice or parched rice (N.); ul.ukhl.o a mortar (G.); udu_hala. uu_hala, o_hala mortar (Pkt.); udukkhala id. (Pali); udukkhalika_ part of a threshold (the slot in which the door works?)(Pali); ukkhala, ukkhalaga, uu_khala, okkhala a mortar (Pkt.); wokhul, wokholu id. (K.); wokhuju small mortar (K.); ukhiri_ a mortar, the slip of wood on threshold in which the corner of a door works as a hinge (S.); ukkhal, ukkhul mortar (P.); ukkhali_, ukkhuli_ small mortar (P.); ukkhal (WPah.); ukhal, okhal, okhla_, ukhaw (Ku.); okhal, ukhli, okhli (N.); ukhali (A.); ukkhal.a (Or.); okhar, okhara_, okhari_ (Bi.); u_khor, u_khori (Mth.); o_khari (Bhoj.); okharidash (Aw.); u_khal, ukhal, ukhli_, ukhli, okhli_ (H.); ukhal., ukhl.u~, ukhl.o, ukhl.i_, ukhr.i_ (G.); ukhal. (M.)(CDIAL 2360). ol.ake wooden pestle (Kod..); ulakkai pestle (Ta.); ulakka pestle for pounding rice (Ma.); alke pestle (Kurub.); elk pestle (Ko.); was.k grainpounder (To.); olake, onake, onike wooden pestle for pounding rice and other things (Ka.); on.ikE pestle (Ka.)(DEDR 672). dhusra the pestle of a d.hin:ki without the iron ring; ukhur., ukhr.i mortar; a large wooden mortar in which rice and other grains are husked, cleaned or made into flour ; kan.d.i mortar of d.hin:ki (Santali. lex.)

5885.Image: to turn back: mugud.a to turn back (Tu.lex.)

5886.Image: three; three hills: muk three; mukkeppe three heaps, three hills; muy, mu three (Ka.lex.)

5887.A mode of cultivation: mukkuppe a mode of cultivation by which the crop is divided into three parts, of which one is for the landowner, and two are for the cultivator (Ka.lex.)

5888.Image: cubit: muka a cubit, in contrast to uka the elbow; the number of cubits wanted; to measure in cubits, i.e. to measure by the length of one's forearm from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger (Mu.lex.)

5889.Atrorney: muku_ta_r, mukutia_r, mokota_r, mokotia_r an attorney (Mu.); mukhta_r business agent (Arabic)(Mu.lex.)

5890.Image: crown: cf. makut.am < makut.a crown (Kampara_. Mutar-po_. 246); head-dress, crest, tiara (W.); anything crest-like as the ornamental top of a temple car; makut.a-varttan-ar independent kings, dist. fr. pat.t.avarttan-ar (Pa_rata. Pat.aiyer..uc. 7)(Ta.lex.) mukut., mukut.u a royal crown (Mu.lex.) makut.a, magud.a, mukut.a a head-dress, a crown, a tiara, a crest; s'ikhi, cu_d.a, ve_s.t.ana, mauli, kiri_t.a (Ka.Skt.); makut.a-vardhana a crowned sovereign (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mukut.am, makut.am a crown, tiara, diadem (Skt.lex.) Image: peak: mukut.am a crest; a peak, point (Skt.lex.) Image: platform, crown of the head; headdress: mukat.u top, highest part (Ta.); mogad.u (Te.Ka.)(Ta.lex.); head (Te_va_.936,10); platform; the head-end of a cloth (Ma.); mucci crown of the head, tuft of hair on the head, crest (Ta.); mogad.u ridge of roof; mo_d.u raised or high ground (Te.); mukur comb of cock (Go.)(DEDR 4888). mukut.a tiara, crest, point, head (MBh.); makut.a crest (Pali); maud.a, maula diadem (Pkt.); mo_wal cock's comb (K.); mor.u id. (S.); maur.a crown, hat, nape of neck (Or.); maur., maur.a_, mauli_, maulr.i_ crown (H.); maud.a id. (OG.); muhul.a-a diadem, hair (esp. that bound on the scalp)(Si.); mavul crown, diadem (Si.)(CDIAL 10144). {cf. mol fold of cloth laid on or round head (L.); maul.i_ a kind of coloured thread used at marriages, etc. (WPah.); maur.a a kind of tinsel crown (MB.); maur bride-groom's headdress (Bi.); bride-groom's crown (Aw.); crown, diadem (B.)(CDIAL 10145). muzu_ju cloth placed over the face of the corpse of a Brahman (K.)(CDIAL 10171). mathoti_ that part of a sa_r.i_ which covers the head (G.) (CDIAL 9929). mathaura_ sunshade (H.)(CDIAL 9928).} Image: crown of head: mucci < ucci crown of head (Cu_l.a_. Iratanu_. 102)(Ta.); mucci id. (Ma.); mucci tuft of hair on the head (Ain:kur-u. 93); crest (Paripa_. 14,7)(Ta.lex.)

5891.Ship: man:ga head of a boat, mast or side of a ship; man:gini_ ship (Skt.); ma~g head of a boat (H.); ma~gra_ ridgepole (H.)(CDIAL 9705). ma_jhi, ma~_jhi boatman (N.); ma_zi steersman (A.); ma_ji (B.); ma_jhi (Or.); majhia_ boatman (Or.); ma~_jhi_ (Bi.Mth.H.)(CDIAL 9714). macari_ fisherman (L.); mahavar fishmonger (?)(OSi.); matsyaha_ra fisherman (Skt.)(CDIAL 9762). To immerse, sink: maja_na immerse, ruin (B.); majjati sinks, perishes (RV.); majjayati submerges (S'Br.); majjai sinks (Pkt.); maja_ to sink, become flabby, silt up (B.); ma_jab to plunge into (Mth.); majjanaum. to sink, bathe (OH.); majja_vitta_ submerging (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9711). cf. muha_n.o one of a class of fishermen and boatmen (S.); moha_n.a_ id. (L.)(CDIAL 10273). Image: cargo boat: maji a large boat with one mast used in coasting trade (Ka.); a long boat, a single-masted country vessel (Tu.); maci a large sort of boat, single-masted Pattimar in coasting trade, holding 10 - 40 tons (Ma.); cargo boat with raised platform (Ta.); vaci canoe (Ta.); a large boat (Ma.); maccive a kind of boat (Ka.)(DEDR 4638). ?< maca platform, stage (Skt.)(CDIAL 9715). vaci-p-pa_t.t.u boatman's song (Ta.lex.) monji, manji coasting vessel (Kon.lex.)

5892.Bamboo; image: bush: ma_r.i, ma_n.i bamboo (Kui); ma_r.i, de_ru ma_di bamboo bush; mn.a_hu (pl. mn.a_ska) thorny bamboo (Kuwi)(Kur. ma_s is another pronunciation of ba~_s < IA; Pfeiffer 1972)(DEDR 4806). mu_n:kil bamboo, bambusa arundinacea (Ta.Ma.); mu.n:ga bamboo (Ir.); mun:gilu id. (Tu.)(DEDR 5028). makkari, mas.kari makri, man:kari, man:kri a basket plaited of stout stilts of bamboo or of the date tree (Ka.Ta. Te.); maskari, makkari, mas.kari who carries a bamboo cane: a bra_hman.a in the fourth order, a religious mendicant (Ka.lex.) maskara a bamboo (Skt.lex.) mokery basket (To.); makkeri kind of wicker basket used for fishing (Tu.); makkera, makkiri big basket made of date leaves, used to carry manure or grain on cart (Te.)(DEDR 4620). Swing basket: manxa_ swing-basket, used for irrigating or fishing (Kur.); ma_nika a wide basket to carry stones, mud, etc. (Kond.a)(DEDR 4837).

5893.Images: to grind, to churn; to turn round: magur..cu to cause the face to go or turn backwards; to turn away, to avert (Ka.); magacu, magucu, magur..cu, mogacu, mogucu to turn round; to return; to turn upside down (Ka.lex.) magud.u to turn round (Te.); mat.an:ku (Ta.); mad.accu (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) makit.i (-pp-, -tt-) to be overturned (Ta.); mavn.- (mavd.-) to overturn; (sleeping person) rolls over; mavt.- (mavt.y-) to overturn, roll over, push; mar.t- (mayt-/mar.ty-) to turn over (stone, log, sleeping person), push away (charcoal from funeral burning-place); mar.ty go.l churning stick; maki.r- (mak(a)rc-) (tree) is uprooted and falls; makal.c- to disobey (command), break (oath, promise)(Ta.); magur.. (magur..d-), mogar.. to turn round, be turned upside down, return, turn back, recede, retreat, happen or do again; magur..u receding; magur..cu to cause the face to go or turn backwards, turn away, turn round, grind, return; magacu, magucu, magur..cu, mogacu, mogucu to turn round, return; turn upside down, overthrow, turn (as the leaf of a book), grind, whet (Ka.); magupuni, magucuni, mogapuni to turn, upset; baji mogapuni to retch; magupu, magpu a turn; magut again, a second time; maguru, magaru, magru next, following; again, once more; magurne next, following, succeeding; magapuni to draw and turn over (e.g. water); mag(a)runi to fall, tumble, feel a reeling sensation; baji mag(a)runi to feel uneasiness in the belly; magra_von.uni to prostrate oneself; makar(i)yuni to be changed; maupuni to upset, turn (Tu.); magud.u to turn back, return; magud.incu, magud.(u)cu to turn or bring back, avert; magid.i, magud.a again, anew, back, in return; magucu to cause to return, turn back; makkal.incu to turn back; change, adjust (Te.); magud.- (magut.-), magur.-, magul.-, magu_l-, magd.- to vomit (Kol.); magur. to vomit (Nk.); mak- (-t-) to fall down or off, (tree) to fall; mekh'nai to outroot (Kuwi); mauli nausea, retching (Pkt.); mo_l. id. (G.)(DEDR 4617). For semant. 'to draw and turn over water' cf. : muka (-pp-, -nt-) to draw (as water), bale, measure (as grain or liquid), obtain in full measure, lift, take up; mukavai drawing as water, taking up as grain, bucket for drawing water (Ta.); mogape a vessel for lifting water (Ka.); magapuni to draw and turn over; niru magapuni to draw water (Tu.); mogha_ a kind of vessel (used on waterwheels)(M.)(DEDR 4887).

5894.Image: potter's wheel: makuram < makuram potter's wheel; flower-bud (Ta.lex.) makura the rod or handle of a potter's wheel; mukura the handle of a potter's wheel (Skt.lex.)

5895.Bud: mukura a bud; makula a bud; mukulam a bud; a bud-like junction of the fingers; mukuli_kr. to close in the form of a bud (Skt.lex.) mukul.am bud (Tiruva_lava_. 4,14); mukir.. bud (Na_lat.i, 262)(Ta.lex.) maggu, moggu, mogge a bud (Ka.lex.)

5896.Juice of flowers: makaranda juice of flowers (BhP.Pali); mayaram.da juice of flowers, pollen (Pkt.); muvaranda, muvarada (Si.)(CDIAL 9694). Fragrant tree: makaranda a fragrant mango tree; a kind of jasmine (Skt.lex.) cf. makir.. intoxication from liquor, toddy, joy (Ta.)(DEDR 4618).

5897.Gamboge resin: makki Ceylon gamboge resin; Ceylon gamboge, ire_var-cin-n-i; a medicinal pill (Ta.lex.)

5898.Croton polyandrum: maku_laka a species of medicinal plant (= dantike, the croton-oil plant, croton polyandrum or croton tiglium)(Ka.lex.)

5899.Staggering; to leap, jump: man:kate_ moves (Skt.) mam.kia advancing by leaps (Pkt.); ma~_kal to jump, leap (Bhoj.); man:ku staggering (S'Br.)(CDIAL 9704). man:ku stupefied; blotch; durman:ku- refractory, obstinate, disobedient; man:gula evil, sin (Skt.); man:ku, man:gu, madgu mentally disturbed, upset, abashed, out of countenance; man:ku staggering, confused, troubled; dumman:ku id. (Pali)(DEDR 4750). Agitation: malan:ku to be agitated, turbid, confused, shake, move, tremble (as the eyes), perish; malakku to bewilder, disturb, confuse; malakkam confusion of the mind, distress, bewilderment; malai (-v-, -nt-) to be staggered, be doubtful or confused; (-pp-, -tt-) id., be amazed; afflict, distress; malaippu confusion of mind, astonishment, amazement; malaivu delusion, confusion of mind, amazement, fright; milai (-pp-, -tt-) to be bewildered (Ta.); malekka to grow thick or muddy, be perturbed, perplexed; maleppu perplexity, wonder (Ma.); mallan.i, mallar..i bodily agitation, bewilderment, fear, amazement (Ka.); mala~cu to winnow grain; malayu to be distressed, grieve (Te.); melg- (melekt-) to shake; melp- (melept-), melgip- (melgipt-) id.; melageng to move (Kol.); melg- to stir, move (Ga.); melha_na_ to shake; talla meliha_na_ to shake head in trance; melli_- to move (Go.)(DEDR 4736).

5900.Sallow: madgura, madgula, man:gula sallow, unhealthy (in appearance)(BHSk.) (DEDR 4750). Dim: macan:ku to become dull, lose lustre; macan:kal twilight of evening; maiy-a_ to become dim; maimal evening (Ta.); mayan.n.uka to grow dim or dusk; mayakku dusk, twilight; mayal dimness, dusk; mayyal twilight, darkness; mayimpu dusk (Ma.); masamasa great dimness, darkness; masaka, masage a dusky colour; masaku id., dimness; masakane dimness; dim; masul. lustre to go away or disappear, light to grow faint, grow dim, become pale, disappear, hide oneself; caus. masul.isu (Ka.); majakuni, maskuni to fade, become dim; mayakuni to vanish, disappear; masaluni to change colour, become muddy or foul (Tu.); masaka, masakana dimness, duskiness, darkness, obscurity, dimness of sight (Te.); mahuri dusk, twilight (Kui)(DEDR 4627). mar..uku to become blunt, be dim or obscure; mar..un:ku to be blunt or dull (as an edge or point), be obscured, be deprived of lustre or glory, fade, disappear, be lost, become dull in feeling, be dim, lose keenness of intellect, obscure (as the sun or moon in an eclipse or behind a cloud); mar..ukku to blunt, dull, obscure as lustre or glory, deprive the intellect of its keenness; mar..un:kal that which is blunt, dim or unpolished, blockhead, shameless person; mar..un:ki shameless woman; mar..ukkam bluntness, reduced circumstances, dimness, cloudiness, obscurity of the sun in an eclipse, fading as of a colour, dullness of intellect as from age or a disease; mar..a confusion of mind; makku to die, perish, become dull, decay as fruits; sluggishness, doltishness, ignorant person, dullard; man:ku to grow less, diminish, become dim, grow pale, lose lustre, become obscured (as splendour), decline in prosperity, decay, be ruined, die, perish; ruin, loss; man:kul cloud, fog, night, darkness; man:kulam cloudiness, murkiness, obscuration, perturbation, confusion of mind, gloominess, gravity of countenance, dullness of the eyes, dimness of sight, uncertainty, doubtfulness, indistinctness, obscureness, paleness (as of colour)(Ta.); mar..unnane_ a_ka to grow blunt; man.n.uka to grow dim, wan, pale; man.n.iram, man.n.ul dimness, fading light, cloudy sky; man:ku chaff, blighted ears (Ma.); mag- (magy-), mang- (mangy-) (light) becomes less, lose colour (e.g. withering flower), (face) become ugly (through smallpox, etc.); mak- (maky-) to fall into unconsciousness (Ko.); mar..a dimness (Ka.); mak 0ot-- (0ot-y-) to become senseless (To.); mar..al the eyes to become dim; mar..gu to grow dim or faint, disappear or perish; mar..gisu to cause to disappear, cause to perish, destroy; maggu to grow wan or sallow, become pale, grow fain or dim as gold, vanish away, disappear as colour, grow dirty, rusty or mouldy, perish, die away, become strengthless as a horse, vanish, disappear as a person; maggisu to cause to vanish; maka state of being not bright or dim; man:ku dimness, want of lustre, obscurity of intellectual perception, confusion of mind, silliness, stupidity, stubbornness; man:kutana confused, stupid, silly behaviour; man~ju dimness of sight, obscurity (of intellectual perception)(Ka.); margu dead; margu a_pini to die; man:ka, man:ku dullness, stupidity (Tu.); mraggu, maggu to die, perish; m(r)akku to fade, lose shining or lustre, die; dirtiness, foulness (Te.); manguri dusk, twilight (Kui); mar.xna_ to get dirty, soiled, lose brightness or freshness, be ashamed, grow exhausted, be spent (Kur.); mar.ge to become black; mar.gro black; mar.gtre to blacken, cause sorrow, make sad; mar.gru name of a tree, the bark of which is black (Malt.)(DEDR 4750). ma_su go grow dim, be obscured, fade, become dusky, grey or black; ma_sara a dusky colour (Ka.); ma_suni to fade, lose colour (Tu.); ma~_gud.u blackness, state of being blackened or soiled; ma_gilu to become dim; ma_pu evening, night (Te.); ma_su dusk, twilight (Kui); ma_xa_ night (Kur.); maun black, dark (of night)(Br.); ma_ black (Ta.)(DEDR 4781). ma_r..ku to be bewildered, fascinated, be spoiled or lost, grow lazy; ma_r..a_ to be fascinated, be confused, bewildered, fade, become dim (Ta.); ma_r..kuka to languish, grow faint, sleep, die; ma_r..ka_ta unfailing, unremitting; ma_r..kal, ma_r..ca faintness, dullness, laziness (Ma.)(DEDR 4830).

5901.Betrothal; women; coquetry: cf. man:kai woman (Ta.lex.) ma~ge_tur bride or bridegroom elect (L.)(CDIAL 10075). ma_n.in.o betrothal (S.); man:gn.a~_ (L.); man:gn.i_ (P.); ma~_gn.i_ asking in marriage (Ku.); man:gni_ betrothal (Mth.Bi.H.)(CDIAL 10073). mangar wants, wishes, loves (Gypsy); ma_n.n.o to ask for, ask in marriage (Ku.); man:genda_ betrothed man (L.); ma_gna_, ma~_gna_ to demand, ask in marriage (H.)(CDIAL 10074). ma~_g grain asked for at harvest time (Ku.); ma_gu~ request, request for marriage (G.); man.a betrothed (S.); man:g (L.P.); ma_m.ga (OMarw.)(CDIAL 10078). ?man:gu female cat (Tu.Ka.); man:kai woman, girl between twelve and thirteen years (Ta.); man:ka, man:kacci (pl. man:kayar) a young, playful woman, a coquette (Ma.); man:gan.e, man:gane affectation, coquetry; man:gu female cat, silly female (Tu.)(DEDR 4625). macimam beauty (Ta.lex.) maju beautiful (Pali); charming, lovely (MBh.); mam.ju charming (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9720). man:gala auspicious sign (in cmpds.)(RV.); happiness (Mn.); good omen, festivity (Pali); man:galam. karo_ti gets married (Pali); mam.gale, magale auspicious ceremony (As'.); mam.gala id. (Pkt.); man.aru fire (S.); man:gula, magula happy event, festival, wedding (Si.)(CDIAL 9706). man:galya auspicious (Kaus'.); auspicious event (Pali); mam.galla auspicious (Pkt.); magula, man:gul-, magul- (Si.)(CDIAL 9708). makir.. to rejoice, exult (Ta.); makir..cci joy, pleasure, delight (Ta.); makir..uka to rejoice (Ma.); maxing to laugh (Br.)(DEDR 4618). man:kaliyam marriage badge, ta_li; man:kalliyam id.; man:kalyam id. (Kantaralan.. 21); man:kalattiruna_l. holy day of festival (Man.i. 10,83); man:kala-pattirikai letter of marriage invitation; man:gala-v-an.i marriage badge (Cilap. 1,47, Arum.); man:kalam luckiness, auspiciousness; marriage (Cilap. Pati. 63); marriage badge (Kampara_. Urukka_t.t.u. 35); man:kali married woman, as wearing the ta_li (Ta.lex.) manaru fire (S.); mangal gladness (P.); magula happy event, festival, wedding (Si.); magul the planet Mars (Si.)(CDIAL 9706).

5902.Image: red-faced monkey: man:ga monkey (Ka.); man:ge id. , ape (Tu.); man:gi monkey (Kor.); mon.n.a id. (Ma.); mocca a light-coloured monkey (Ma.)(DEDR 4626) [cf. mucu langur (Ta.); muge baboon (Malt.)(DEDR 4910).]. ma_n:kar.a monkey (Or.); makkat.a (Pali); markat.a (VS.); makkad.a (Pkt.); makad.a (NiDoc.); makkala (Ap.); makar (Wg.); mra_ko (Kal.); mukul. (Kho.); maki_r (Bshk.); ma_kul (N.); ma_kar.a (Or.); ma_kr.u~, ma~_kr.u~ red-faced monkey (G.); ma_kad. baboon (M.); ma_m.kad.a monkey (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9882). ma_rkat.a monkeylike (Skt.); ma_kr.a_ lean, thin, meagre (H.); ma_kr.u~, ma~_kr.u~ reddish-brown (G.)(CDIAL 10069).

5903.Monkey; man: manu, manus man (RV.); manu_a_ monkey (P.); manuwa_ man (N.); manu_ man; manua_ man, monkey; mannu_ monkey (H.)(CDIAL 9825). makkal. human beings, in general (Tol. Col. 1); id. (Ka.); human beings par excellence, as having the five senses as well as the mind which is the sixth sense (Tol. Po. 588); children (Ma.); id. (Kur-al..63); makkat.pe_r-u obtaining children (Kur-al., 61)(Ta.lex.) Son; warrior: maka child, infant, young of animal, son or daughter, young age; makat.u, makat.u_u female, woman, wife; makavu infant, son, young of animals living on trees, as of monkeys; makal. daughter, woman, female, damsel, wife (pl. makal.ir women); makan.mai womanhood, daughterhood; makan- son, child, exalted person, warrior, husband; makan-mai sonship, manliness; maka_r sons, children; ma_kkal. men, people, mankind, children; em-ma_n- my son; mo_n-ai sonny (term of endearment to a child); makin.an- husband, chief of an agricultural tract, lord; mavun.an- husband (Ta.)(DEDR 4616). makan, mo_n son; mo_l. daughter; makkal. the young of animals (Ma.); mog (obl. mog-, mo.t-) child, wife; pe.mog woman; mo.l. daughter; mo.ta.c woman with child (Ko.); mox (obl. mo.t-) child, son, male, daughter, woman; toz mox Toda woman or wife; mox0as- adolescent boy; mo.t fil.0 son's wife (not being one's sister's daughter)(To.); maga son, male person (inscr.); makan son; magavu, magu, maguva, moga, mogu, moguvu infant, child of any sex; magal. daughter; makkal., markal., makkal.ir children; magal.ma_ a wife who is faithful to her husband (Ka.); mo.ven son; mo.va daughter; makka children; pom makka women, wives (pon.n.i wife, female)(Kod..); mage (pl. maga_d.l.u) son; magal.u (pl. magal.a_d.l.u) daughter; makkal. children; mo_nu son; mo_ni daughter (Tu.); maga, moga male; maga_t.imi manliness, bravery, prowess; maga_d.u husband, man, male, king, hero; (inscr.); maganr-u son; magatanamu manliness, virility, courage, bravery, boldness, spirit; magadi male of any animal, beast or bird; magana_lu wife, married woman; magapa_d.i manliness, honour, bravery; magala_gu manliness; magava~_d.u man, male, hero; maguva woman; maguvatanamu womanhood (Te.); magvan husband (Kol.); ma_l (pl. ma_cil) daughter; mayid (pl. mayil) husband (Pa.); magind. sind. man, husband; ma_l daughter; maga sind.u boy child (sind.u son); maggind. husband; ma_cil girl child; children; ma_l (pl. ma_sil) woman; cin makil small children (Ga.); mia_r (pl. mia_hk), mia_r, miya_r., mi_ar.(i) (pl. mi_asku), miya_li_ daughter; miya_r (pl. miya_sk/miya_hk) id., girl; mayya_d. daughter (Go.); moga kor.o boy child; husband, young man; ga_r.u, ga_lu daughter (*< mga_r.u, *mga_lu); magavan.d.u man, husband (Kond.a); ga_r. daughter (Pe.Mand..); gar.ce girl (Pe.); na_-mga_r. my daughter; a_co-mga_r. (pl. -mgahke) woman (Mand..)[cf. a_r. (pl. a_cku) woman, wife (Kond.a); a_sa woman (Kui); a_ca (pl. a_ska) woman (Kuwi)(DEDR 400)]; ga_r.eh (pl. -in) girl (Mand..); maka voc. used to daughters and sisters in affection (Kuwi); maqe boy; maqi girl; maqo small, little, young; maqmaqo small ones; maqu young one (animal)(Malt.); ma_lika_ daughter (Skt.)(DEDR 4616). Student; man: ma_n.i student; bachelor (Tiv. Iyar-.2,61)(Ta.Ka.); ma_n. id. (Tiv. Periyati. 8,10,8); ma_n.a_kki female disciple (Perun.. Ucaik. 37,110); ma_n.avakan- celebate student (Periyapu. Can.t.e_cura. 40); ma_n.a_kkan- id. (Kur-un. 33); ma_n.avan- id. (Uttarara_. Anumap. 6); pupil, scholar; religious student (Ta.lex.); ma_n.avi female student; ma_n.makan- Brahmin boy (Takkaya_kap. 672)(Ta.lex.) ma_n.ava youth, little fellow (Ka_ty.); ma_n.avaka (Gobh.); ma_navika_ young Brahmin girl (Pali); ma_n.ava, ma_n.avaka young man (esp. Brahman)(Pali); ma_n.ava man (Pkt.); ma_n.o, ma_n.i_ man without beard or mustache (Ku.); ma_na_ man (OB.); manav, manva_ man, person (Si.); manai_ man (Bhoj.Aw.); man, husband, bridegroom (H.); ma_nava human; man (RV.)(CDIAL 10048). ma_nus.a human, man (RV.Pkt.); ma_nusa man (Pali); pl. human beings (Pali); manus', manus man (Gypsy); manas. (Wg.); madas. (Gmb.); ma_nes.e (Wot..); ma_nus. (Dm.Gaw.Sv.); mo_nus. (Phal.); ma_nus' pl. (Bshk.); ma_hn., mohan, ma_hnu, mahn.u (K.); ma_n.hu~_, ma_r.hu~_ man, person (S.); ma_n.hua_n.o, ma_n.hiko human (S.); ma_n.as man (P.); ma_hn.u_, ma_nu~_ (P.); mauhn.u, ma_hn.u_, ma_n.as, ma_n.s (WPah.); ma_nis (N.); ma_nuh (A.); ma_nus (B.Mth.Bhoj.H.); mansawa_, ma_nusa husband (OAw.); ma_nas man (H.); ma_n.as (G.); ma~_n.asa (OMarw.); ma_n.isa (OG.); ma_n.ach, ma~_ch, ma_ch (WPah.); ma_nchi (N.)(CDIAL 10049). ma_n-it.am humanity, mankind; man (Tiv.Iyar-. Na_n-mu. 75); ma_n-itan- man (Kampara_. Kumpakar. 36, pi-m); ma_n.ut.am mankind (Ka_cippu. Nakare_r-. 106; Kur-al., 62, Urai)(Ta.lex.) manus.ya human being, man (RV.); X purus.a: murs man, brave young man, boy (Gy.); mursu man, husband (S.); murs (L.); mus, mu_s'u_ (Pr.); mus'a_ man, husband (Sh.); muso (Kho.); mai~sa, mai~se man (Shum.); maise (Nin:g.)(CDIAL 9828). mar.sur, mar.so husband (Go.); ma_r.sa_l man (Go.); mai-mansa_l man and wife, male and female (Go.); mr.eha male (Kui); mr.ehenju man, boy, husband (Kui); mr.eha, mr.e_ha, mneha, mleha man {whence, mle_ccha}; mn.e_ha id., husband (Kuwi); mur.se man, i.e. male; mur.s-maqe male child; mur.soti, mur.sti of man, belonging to man; mur.so male, with reference to plants (Malt.)(DEDR 4756). mi_uth, dat. mi_catas habit or life of an outcaste (K.)(CDIAL 10390).} martya mortal man (RV.); macca id. (Pali.Pkt.); maccia id. (Pkt.); mac husband (Ash.Kt.); ma_s.u husband (Pas'.); mo~_ch man (K.); ma_ch, mich man, person (WPah.)(CDIAL 9888). {cf. mle_ccha non-Aryan (S'Br.); maleccha, miliccha, meccha, miccha barbarian (Pkt.); mi~_ch, mi~_cas non-Hindu (K.); milech, malech Moslem, unclean outcaste, wretch (P.); mele_ch dirty (WPah.); mech a Tibeto-Burman tribe (B.); milidu, milindu wild, savage (Si.); mece wretched, miserly (Pas'.); milakkha, milakkhu non-Aryan (Pali); malak savage (Si.); malaki-du_ a Vadda_ woman (Si.); mila_ca wild man of the woods, non-Aryan (Pali); maladu wild, savage (Si.)(CDIAL 10389). ma.s man (Kol.); ma_s, ma_c husband (Kol.); ma.sal (pl. ma.sasil), ma_sa_, ma_ca wife (Kol.); ma_s man; husband; ma_sal woman (Nk.); ma_sa wife (Nk.); maja, maa man (Pa.); manja man, human being; mai, ma_i_, maiyu_, ma_yi woman, wife (Go.); ma_si (pl. -r) husband (Kond.a); a_l ma_sir husband and wife; me_mar kor.o boy-child; me_-mari (pl. me_-marnu) husband (Kond.a); me~_t, me_t adult man, husband; mai_ female child; way of addressing girls younger than the speaker (Kur.); ma_ntar human beings, male persons (Ta.)(DEDR 4791). matta man (Ap.); ma_t. id., man, boy, youth (Mai.); marta man (RV.)(CDIAL 9887). man-itan-, man-ican-, man-ucan-, man-ittan- man (Ta.); maniccan servant, slave (Ma.); manitan a person of rank (Ma.); mancn male human being (Ko.); monsn human being, man (To.); manise man (Kod..); man(u)se a pariah (Tu.); manis.i a person (Te.); manus.ya man (Skt.)(DBIA 290). manus.a man (RV.); manusa man (Pkt.); manas. (Wg.); madas. (Gmb.); manuzu~, manu_zu~, manu_z (Sh.); mahanyuwu man, servant, slave (K.); manu_, me_n.u_, me_nu_, me_hn.u_ man (WPah.); manas (Tir.); manis. man; adj. male (D..)(CDIAL 9827). manussa man (Pali); manus'a, manusa, manus.a (As'.); mam.nus'a (NiDoc.); man.ussa, man.u_sa (Pkt.); manus, manu~s, moness (Gypsy); manis' (Wot..); man.us man (L.); mun.as, mun.s, mur.s, mun.us husband (L.); munsr.a_ (P.); mun.as', munas, muns, mun.s' (WPah.); manus man, person (Bi.Mth.); munisa (As'.); minis' man (WPah.); men.s' husband (WPah.); munih man, hired farmworker (A.); munis day labourer; minsa_ fellow (contemptuous)(B.); man.isa man, servant, labourer (Or.); pila_ man.isa_ a mere child; munis, munisa labourer (Or.); munis man (Konkan.i); minisa_, miniha_ man; miniya, mini_ corpse (Si.); mi_hu man (Md.); mi_s', mi~_s' young man, husband (pl. ma_nus')(Bshk.); mis' husband (Sv.); me_s', mi_s' (pl. mo_s'a, ma_s'e)(Phal.); mais (Ku.); mas' men (pl. of mac)(Dm.); mos' man, husband (Kho.); ma_sh (Mai.); ma~_s' (WPah.)[after which t.hl.a~_s' woman in: t.hl.a~_s'-minis' woman and man; corresponding feminine forms: cf. ma_nus.i_ (MBh.); manus.i_ (Skt.)]; mo~_s'i_ wife, woman (Wg.); ma_s'i_ mo~_s'i_ (Pas'.); mas'i_ (Shum.)(CDIAL 9828). manussatta manhood (Pali); minisata-bava state of humanity (Si.); manus.yatva manhood, humanity (TBr.)(CDIAL 9829). mo_cak, mo_cek husband, man (Pas'.); ma_c. husband (Shum.); moc (Kal.); mas., me_iz. man (Tor.); mo~_cas man (usu. contemptuous, e.g. when demons speak of men)(K.)(CDIAL 9888).

5904.Mongoose: maggu_s'a mongoose (Skt.); madgus'a (Skt.); mam.gu_sa, muggasa, muggusu, mam.kusa (Pkt.); ma~gu_s, mu~gu_s (H.); ma~gu_s, mu~gas, mu~gu_s (M.)(CDIAL 9702). an:gu_s.a an ichneumon; a mungoose (Skt.lex.) mu_n:ka_ mongoose, viverra ichneumon (Ta.); mun.i, mun:gisi, mun:guli, mun:gili mun:gali, mun:guri (Ka.); mun:gili, mun:guli, mun:gil (Tu.); mun:gi, mun:gisa (Te.); mun:gus (Kol.); mun.s'ak, mun:gus (Nk.); mun.ipo_tu (Ga.); mungus, mun:gus, mun.si, mugus, muggu_s (Go.); mun:gi, mun:gi elka (Kond.a); mun:gi orli (Kuwi); madgus'a, maggus'a (Skt.); mam.gusa, muggasa, muggusu (Pkt.); mu~gu_s, ma~gu_s (H.); mu~gu_s, mu~gas (M.); mugat.i (Si.)(DEDR 4900). nakula, mun:gusa mongoose (Pali.lex.)

5905.To roast: ma_k- (-t-), ma_n.(g)- (ma_n.t-) to bake (bread)(Pe.); ma_ka (ma_ki-) to bake or roast by wrapping in leaves and placing on hot ashes or stones (Kui); ma_k- (-it-) to roast in fire, cook food wrapping it in leaves (Kuwi)(DEDR 4788). makku-tal to moulder (W.)(Ta.); maggu id. (Ka.Te.); mat.ku-tal to become mouldy; to be destroyed (Pirapo_ta. 30,58)(Ta.lex.) maggu id. (Ka.lex.) mekkhna_ (mikkhyas) to bake bread, vegetales, fruit, fish, in a leaf wrapper; me_khna_ (mikkhan) to bake bread (Kur.); meqe to toast bread or eggs (Malt.)(DEDR 5053). cf. bhrajj to fry (Skt.lex.)

5906.Mouldy: muggu to get or have the smell of corruption, to become or be musty or mouldy by dampness (Ka.); mukku, muggu (Te.); murugu to putrify, rot, perish (Te.); muri, murun:ku (Ta.); muggu an offensive smell, fustiness, mustiness, mouldiness (Ka.); murugu (Te.); muyiccu, mus.iccu, mus.uccu (Ma.); muruku smell (Ta.); moccu the strong smell of sheep (Ta.); mutid.u, mutire bad smell of the body (Ma.); muggu-na_ta a fusty smell; muggu pid.i to get a musty smell, to become musty (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mur-i (-v-, -nt-) to be spoiled; (-pp-, -tt-) to change the nature of (as milk, medicine); muri (-v-, -nt-) to be spoiled; mukkal stench of things owing to dampness (Ta.); mur..in.n.u, muyin.n.u, mus.un.n.u an offensive smell (Ma.); mur-ikil impurity, foulness, uncleanness; muggalu mustiness, mouldiness; mu_r-i a bad smell, stench (Ka.); murguni to mould, become musty; mugga mould, mustiness; musty (Tu.); mu_ri bad smell (Ka.); a bad smell, stench (Tu.); mur-ii dirt, filth, impurity; dirty, foul; mur-ugu to become putrid, rotten or rancid; mukku, mrukku to spoil, become mouldy or musty, mould; m(r)ukka spoiled, mouldy, musty; mugga mould, mustiness, mouldy etc.; muggu to be musty or mouldy, be damaged, spoiled (Te.); murr dirt (Kol.); murg a bad smell (Nk.); mur, murru dirt; mura, mur(r)at. rotten (Pa.); muyur. dirt (Ga.); murk id. (Go.); muRki dirty (Kond.a)(DEDR 5007). mhel.o dirty (Kon.lex.) mayli, maylu, mayle, maile impurity, dirt, dirtiness (Ka.Tu.); maila dirt (M.H.); mayle (Te.); mayilai (Ta.); mayile (Ma.); mayle dark-hued, grey, black-spotted colour (Ta.Ma.Te.); cf. masi, me_la_ (Skt.)(Ka.lex) Stale: ma_nj- to be stale, become stale (Mand..); ma_j- (-it-) to become stale, get spoiled (food), smell bad (Kuwi)(DEDR 4795). basi, baske stale; mare ore stale cooked rice; morot sorot stale meat (Santali.lex.)

5907.Point of an arrow: mukha the point of an arrow; the edge of any sharp instrument; surface, upperside; mukhan.d.i a weapon (Ka.lex.) Image: trident: makitam < mahita S'iva's trident (Ta.lex.)

5907a.Image:three: muk, mu adj. three (Ka.); mu_v (before vowels)(Ta.); mu, mu_ (in some cpds.)(Te.); muggur three men (Nk.); muRku mu_Rku three each (Kond.a); musi adj. three (entities)(Br.)(DEDR 5052).

6049.Image: three: mukkai three, a term used in games; < mu_n-r-u + kai; mukka_l three times (Kampara_. Atika_ya. 87)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: three-pronged dart; trident: mukkappu three-pronged dart; trident (Takkaya_kap. 98)(Ta.lex.) Image: three: mug three; muggare, muggere three lines or stripes; muggarebel.l.i silver the value of which merchants or goldsmiths mark with three lines (four such lines denoting pure silver); somewhat impure silver (Ka.lex.) mr.gas'ira_, mr.gas'iras name of the fifth lunar mansion consisting of three stars (Skt.lex.)

5908.Image: teat: mukha a teat, nipple (Skt.lex.)

5909.Image: entrance: mukha an entrance to a house, a door, passage (Skt.lex.) mukha entrance, egress; the entrance of a house; the mouth or embouchure of a river (Ka.lex.)

5910.Image: top of a doorway; upright of doorframe: muha_t.h upright of doorframe (L.P.); threshold (L.).)(CDIAL 10159). muha_r.i_ top of a doorway outside a stockade (S.); muha_r. upright of doorframe; muha_r.i_ wall on each side of a door (L.)(CDIAL 10160). mukat.u platform, ridge of a roof (Ta.); mo_t.u top of a house (Ta.); mukal. ridge, roof (Ma.); moyl. ridge of roof (Ko.); muxul. id. (To.); mogad.u, mogal.u, magil id. (Ka.); mugili turret, top as of a temple (Tu.); mogad.u ridge of roof (Te.)(DEDR 4888).

5911.Image: hole in a vessel: mogh, mogha a hole in a vessel, roof or well (P.lex.) cf. muhar a string for guiding a camel inserted through a perforation in the nose (P.lex.) mogape a vessel for lifting water (Ka.); muge, mugayi small earthen vessel (Tu.)(DEDR 4887).

5912.Work by contract: mugdon.icem. (ka_m) (work) by contract (Kon.lex.) mugu the fixed hire with board, lodging and raiment of a labourer; muguta_y a servant engaged for fixed hire, boarding etc. (Tu.lex.)

5913.Image: squatting posture: mukul.am a squatting posture in which the two legs are joined to form a horizontal circle (Tattuvap. 109, Urai.); mucalikai, mucalikai-ya_tan-am id. (Tattuvap. 108)(Ta.lex.)

5914.Image: to bring forth: mukir..ttal to bear, bring forth (Vina_yakapu. 81,154); to appear (Ain:kur-u. Kat.avul..)(Ta.lex.) magavu, maguvu, magu, moga, moguj, moguvu an infant, a child of any sex (Ka.lex.) mukku-tal to strain as a woman in travail (Ta.Te.); mukkiri (Ka.); mukkuga (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

5915.Image: with the head downwards: moka (Tadbhava of mukha) with the head downwards, topsy-turvy (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.)

5916.Liquor distilled from bassia latifolia: madgi_ mahua flower (Kur.); mthgi bassia latifolia (Malt.)(DEDR 4695). phoka matkom matkom cooked in a certain way; the matkom is washed in water and while still wet is put into an earthen vessel over the fire and roasted (Santali.lex.) cf. mahur.o, maur.o bassia latifolia (G.); mahula bassia latifolia (Or.)(CDIAL 9801). Bassia latifolia: matkom, jamr.o matkom bassia latifolia (Santali.lex.) cf. madhu_ka, madhu-druma the tree bassia latifolia (Ka.Skt.lex.) To offer the first fruits: na~wa~i to offer the first fruits, to partake of a crop first time in the season; matkomle na~wa~i akata we have performed the ceremony of offering the first fruits, of the matkom, or we have partaken of matkom for the first time this season; until the first fruits have been offered, Santals do not as a rule, eat rice, the grain of gundli etc.; the baha or flower fsetival is the offering of the 'first fruits' of the matkom and other jungle fruits and flowers. Matkom is never eaten, except under great pressure, before the observance of the baha or flower festival (Santali)(Santali.lex.) Mahua tree: matkom a large branchy forest tree, mohwa, bassia latifolia; the flower which is used as food; matkom kho~c the calyx of the flower of bassia latifolia; matkom sohoe the stamens of the matkom flower; bhugak matkom lagitko repec kana they are quarrelling over a hollow matkom flower (something not worth quarreling over); teke matkom the matkom flower boiled for food; matkom lat.he a preparation of the flower of bassia latifolia for food; matkom duhli a liquor made from mohwa flowers (Santali) (Santali.lex.) paura liquor distilled from the flower of bassia latifolia; paura cua to distil liquor; paura gadi a greg shop; paurateye nu~ bulena he is drunk by drinking liquor; paura bhat.t.i a liquor still; paura dare the mohwa tree; matkom, jamr.o matkom bassia latifolia (Santali.lex.) Madhuca indica = madhuca latifolia = bassia latifolia: mahua (M.H.); mahwa (B.); madhuka (SKt.); irippa (Ma.); kattiluppai (Ta.); madhukamu (Te.); flowers: yield a distilled spirit which is astringent, tonic, appetizing; regardes as cooling, tonic, nutritive, used in coughs in form of a decoction; dried ones used as fomentation in cases of orchitis for their sedative effect; bark: used in decoction as astringent and tonic; habitat: Dehra Dun and Saharanpur Siwaliks, Oudh, Bihar, Chota Nagpur, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, Gujarat, Konkan, N. Kanara, S. Mahrata, N. Circars and Deccan; cultivated and self-sown (GIMP, p.159). cf. iruppai bassia longifolia (Ta.)(DEDR 485). Madhuca longifolia = bassia longifolia: mohuva (B.); mohwa (M.); mohua (H.); madhuka (Skt.); irippa (Ma.); iluppai (Ta.); uriyippa (Te.); bark: in decoction, used as an astringent and emollient, also as a remedy in itch; flowers: laxative, stimulant, anthelmintic; oil from seeds: used in skin diseases; gummy juice: used in rheumatism; habitat: forests of W. India from Konkan southwards to Travancore, common in Kanara, Malabar, Mysore, Annamalais and the Circars at low elevations (GIMP, p.159). madhura sweet (A_s'vGr..Pali); mahura (Pkt.); mura, mo_ru-ste (Ash.); mu_ra (Wg.); mo_r (Kt.); maura (Dm.); mahura, ma~_ura_ (Kal.); moho_ro (Phal.); mo_ru sweet, mild-natured (Sh.); muhura sweet (OG.); miyuru, mihiri, mi_ri sweet, soft (Si.); mi_ru pleasant (Md.)(CDIAL 9793). madhurata_ sweetness (Skt.Pali); mihira (Si.)(CDIAL 9795). madhus sweetness (TS.); mus'o_ sweet (Sv.)(CDIAL 9800). madhuvr.ks.a, madhuka bassia latifolia (Skt.); mrac(h) bulberry (Kho.); maharoc (Phal.)(CDIAL 9796). mahoti_ fruit of bassia latifolia (H.)(CDIAL 9802). Liquorice: madhura_ liquorice (Skt.); moruk (Kho.)(CDIAL 9797). madhuka liquorice (Sus'r.); moiyu wild liquorice (roots given to animals)(Kho.)(CDIAL 9785). Glycyrrhiza glabra (Modern Egyptian Arabic so_s) "Liquorice is a herbaceous plant growing to 1.5m, with lilac flowers... grows wild in Eastern Europe... the root is demulcent, expectorant, laxative and antiflammatory. It is used to treat coughs and bronchitis, gastric ulcers and as an eye lotion. It is employed to sweeten medicine, to flavour beer, confectionery and tobacco... Prospero Alpini... Boiled in water with fennel seeds it was used to aid vomiting... Pliny... in a powdered state it was chewed by those suffering from mouth ulcers. Theophrastus tells that liquorice, which he calls 'Scythian root', was useful for treating asthma, dry cough and chest troubles... The Assyrian Herbal includes under the name s'u_s'u in treatments for the feet, swellings, excess of saliva and as a diuretic." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.106). Glycyrrhiza glabra: yashti-madhu (Skt.); jathimadh (H.); mulhatti (H.); jashti-madhu (B.M.); muleti (P.); atimaduram (Ta.); atimaduramu (Te.); root: tonic, laxative, demulcent, emollient, used in genito-urinary diseases, coughs and sore throat; glycyrrhizin; habitat: Baluchistan and sub-Himalayan tracts (GIMP, p.126). madhuka glycyrrhiza glabra (Car. Su. 4.1,5,8). madhuraparn.i_ id. (Car. Su. 4.5,21; Ci. 29.117). madhuyas.t.i_ id. (Car. Ci. 16.100, 23.186). ya_s.t.ika_ synonym of madhuka (Car. Su. 4.28); yas.t.imadhu id. (Car. Vi. 8.139); yas.t.ya_hva id. (Car. Su. 3.24,27). madhuyas.t.i_, madhuyas.t.ika_ liquorice (Skt.); madhulat.t.hika_ (Pali); mahulat.t.hi liquorice plant, sugarcane (Pkt.); mulat.t.hi_ liquorice (P.); mulait.hi_, mulaht.i_, mulhat.t.i_ (H.)(CDIAL 9799). Glycyrrhiza glabra or glandulifera: licorice root, liquorice root, sweet wood, lakritzenholz, sussholz (Ger.); reglisse, bois doux (Fr.); licorice has been in use in the form of the crude drug, medicinal pastes and aqueous extract since remote times. It is mentioned by Theophrastus and Dioscorides and by the Roman writers Marcellus and Pliny as radix dulcis and is recorded as being common in Europe during the Middle Ages; parts used: the dried rhizome and roots; habitat: western and central Asia, southern Europe and northern Africa; uses: demulcent, expectorant and flavouring agent... to flavour tobacco. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 427-434). Bassia latifolia: madhuka (Skt.); Indian butter tree, mahwah tree (Eng.); jangli moha, mahua (H.); maua, mahua (B.); mowda (M.); ippachettu, eppi, madhookamu (Te.); kat illipi, kattu-irupai (Ta.); madhookam ilupai (Ma.); ippe-mara (Ka.); ippicha, mohecha, darakhte-gulchakane-sahrai (Pers.); mahuda (G.); habitat: Bombay Presidency, Central Provinces, Bengal and South Indian forests and Ceylon; parts used: flowers, fruit, oil of the seeds, leaves and bark... A spirit is distilled from the flowers. Flowers contain a fairly good quality of sugar, enzymes and yeast... Action: fresh juice is alterative and the spirit distilled from the flowers is a powerfully diffusible stimulant and an astringent, tonic and appetiser... Liquor obtained from the flowers by distillation contains a large amount of empryeumatic oil which is apt to cause gastric irritation in large doses... Fruit or the seed produces an edible fat which is also used for manufacture of margarine etc., the kernels yield a thick concrete oil (mahua butter) which is used by the Gonds and other Central Indian tribes for edible purposes and is frequently used as an adulterant of 'ghee'... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 179-180). Bassia Longifolia: madhuka (Skt.); mohua (H.); mohuva (B.); mee (Si.); illupai, iluppai (Ta.); ippi (Te.); habitat: a tree abounding in milky juice possessing practically the same properties and of the same species as bassia latifolia, and is entirely a south Indian plant commonly grown in Mysore, Malabar and along the west coast... Action: Mowrin is the residue, a sapo-glucoside, after oil is extracted from the seeds, called 'bassia oil'... Mowrin has a specific action on the heart and circulation... (Indian Materia Medica, p. 181).

5917.Image: conch: mukhara a conch shell (Skt.lex.)

5918.Image: the top: mo_ku the upper portion, the top, the forepart (Ka.lex.)

5919.Tax on shop-keepers: mo_hatarpa house-tax (Ka.); tax on the shopkeepers and artificers of a village or town (Ka.Te.); mo_hatarapha id. (M.); mohasale, mo_sale restraint placed on a person to prevent his escape or to enforce the payment of a demand: arrest, confinement (Ka.); mohasalu, mosu_lu (Te.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5920.Exchange: mu_badale, mu_badalu exchanging, exchange, barter; sums lent and paid on running accounts without the use of receipts or documents on either side (Ka.); mo_badala_, mo_ba_dala_ (M.); muba_dile, moba_dala_ (Te.)(Ka.lex.) mokaddame an affair, a matter; a case, civil or ciminal (Ka.Te.); mukadama_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

5921.Erycibe paniculata: mr.gana_ri a vegetable and medicinal substance, erycibe paniculata, used as a vermifuge (Ka.lex.)

5922.A treasure: mukunda name of a particular treasure; the resin of boswellia thurifera (Ka.lex.)

5923.A cereal: mukunda(ka) an inferior cereal (Car. Su. 27.18, Ni. 4.5).

5924.Musk: mr.ga, kastu_rika_ musk (Skt.)

5925.Cloud: mihia_ cloud (Pkt.); mihika_ id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 10140). menj cloud (Kal.); men obl. menju_na (Kal.)(CDIAL 10339). me_gha cloud, rain (RV.); cloud, esp. thunderstorm (Pali); me_ha cloud, rain (Pkt.); mi rain (Gypsy); me~_ (Sh.); mi~_hu (S.); mi~h heavy rain (L.); meh, me~h, mi~_h, mi_hi~_ rain (P.); me cloud, rain (Ku.); meh (A.); miha rain-cloud (Or.); meh, meha_ cloud (Mth.); mem.ha (OAw.); meh, me~h rain (H.); meha (OMarw.); meh, mehulo, mevlo (G.); mehud.a_, mahud.a_ cloud (M.); mey, me_ pl. (Si.)(CDIAL 10302). mukil cloud (Ta.Ma.); nis- muxul.m mist on hills in morning (To.); mugil cloud, series or bank of clouds; the sky (Ka.); mugalu, mugal.u cloud; mugaliyuni to become cloudy (the sky)(Ka.); mogulu, moyilu cloud (Te.); morgar id. (Kol.); malgur id. (Pa.); mogul id., sky; moggul id. (Ga.); moyol (pl. moyosk), muyol cloud; moyoolee a cloud; moyyel id. (Go.)(DEDR 4892). myhar, maya_r cloud (Wg.); ma_re (Pr.)(CDIAL 10303). me_g hail (Tor.); me_ghya being in or coming from a cloud (VS.); me~_k hail (Sh.); me~ghlu_ cloud (L.); meghla_ (P.); me~_i dew (Ash.)(CDIAL 10304). macu cloud, white cloud, fog, dew; ma_ci cloud (Ta.); mau dew, mist, snow (Ma.); manj cloud (Ko.); moz id. (To.); maju dew, fog, coldness (Ka.); maji dew (Kod..); maindu dew, mist, fog (Tu.); mancu id., frost (Te.); manc mist; mass dew (Kol.); ma, maj mist, dew; me_ndir, me~_dir dew (Pa.); ne_ndir id. (Ga.); mac, mach, macc(i), mac e_r dew; mac snow (Go.); masu dew; ni_r masu id., mist (Kond.a); moncu_, mancu, mancu e_yu, macu dew (Kuwi)(DEDR 4641). mappu being overcast or cloudy, bewilderment, beclouded state of the intellect as by intoxication, dullness, arrogance; mammal dusk (Ta.); marvu, marbu, mabbu, mobbu darkness, gloom, dimness, drowsiness, heaviness with sleepiness, dullness, stupidity; mabbiga (a creature of darkness), Asura or Ra_ks.asa (Ka.); mappu evening, twilight; mappu a_pini to grow dark; marbu, mabbu dim, dull, obscure (Tu.); mrabbu cloud; mabbu cloud, darkness, dimness, ignorance, haziness, vagueness; mabbh-konu to be intoxicated (Te.); mabbu cloud (Go.)(DEDR 4728). mar..un:ku to be obscure (as the sun or moon in an eclipse or behind a cloud); mar..ukkam cloudiness, obscurity of the sun in an eclipse; man:kul cloud, fog, night, darkness; man:kulam cloudiness, murkiness (Ta.); man.n.iram, man.n.ul cloudy sky, fading light (Ma.); mag- (magy-), mang- (mangy-) (light) becomes less (Ko.); mar..a dimness; mar..gu to grow dim or faint; man:ku dimness; maju dimness of sight (Ka.); manguri dusk, twilight (Kui); mar.ge to become black; mar.gro black (Malt.)(DEDR 4750). mar..ai rain, cloud, darkness, to become dark as a cloud, be cool (Ta.)(DEDR 4753). ma_ci cloud; ma_cu cloud, darkness; ma_l black, cloud (Ta.); ma_su to grow dim, fade, become dusky (Ka.); ma_pu evening, night (Te.); ma_cka, ma_jga darkness (Pe.); ma_su dusk, twilight (Kui); ma_xa_ night (Kur.)(DEDR 4781).

5926.Lamp lighted for the dead: mo_t.ca-ti_pam lamp lighted in temple-towers in commemoration of dead persons; mo_t.ca-vil.akku lamp lighted and carried before the corpse or placed at the burial place, among Lingayats; mo_t.cam liberation, release, escape; final emancipation, release from transmigration, salvation; heaven; (Jaina.) complete deliverance, state of the soul in which it is freed from all bondage of karma, and has passed for ever beyond the possibility of rebirth; deliverance, release (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,10,4)(Ta.lex.) pamoceti to liberate; mutti, vimutti, mokkha, pamucana liberation; vimocaka, muttida_yaka liberator (Pali.lex.)

5927.An ingredient; one of nine commodities: mo_t.cam one of nava-pata_rttam (Ci_vaka. 2814, Urai); mo_kkam id. (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,4,7)(Ta.lex.) nava-pata_rttam (Jaina) the nine categories of fundamental realities, viz., ci_vam, aci_vam, pun.n.iyam, pa_vam, a_ciravam, camvarai, nirccarai, pantam, mo_t.cam (Ci_vaka. 2814, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

5928. Land measure: ma_ synonymous with pa_d.agam = 240 kur..i (3.17 acres, 1.3 hectares; MIAI, p.45. D.C.Sircar: ma_ = 1/20 ve_li; 2.5 ka_n.i; 2 sei.] ma_ the fraction 1/20 (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 4785); great (Ta.Ma.Ka.); an expletive (Ta.); interj. of wonder, 'bravo!' (Ma.Ka.)(DEDR 4786-87.) 2 mara-k-ka_l or 2 kur.un.i = one padakku [cf. Tol. Er..ut. 239] one padakku = 16 na_r..i; 3 tu_n.i = one kalam (152.6 litres; 96 na_r..i; 12 marakka_l or kur.un.i; 3 maunds of rice).[cf. MIAI, p.8-83; a grain measure (EI 28.IEG.); Altekar, Ra_s.t.ra-ku_t.as and their times, p.376. A Ta. compound indicates that 16 as a landing point was a later-day development; the ancient landing points are: 4 and 20 when arriving at fractions, using kan. finger-joints/ knuckles: ma_ka_n.i the fraction 1/16 = ma_ (4/80) + ka_n.i (1/80) = 5/80 or 1/16.] In Ta. the fraction 1/5 does not seem to have a unique morpheme: it is equated as na_lu-ma_ the fraction 1/5, as four ma_ but with a distinct Tamil script symbol.

5929.Image: eye: mi_kan. the region above or over the eye (Tol. Er..ut. 250, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5930.Brother: moya (mog) brotherly (love)(Kon.lex.) megge, megye, meggi younger brother; megudi, megdi a female's younger sister (Tu.); megi, megge younger brother; megdi younger sister (Kor.)(DEDR 5054). bahn. a brother; bahin.oi, ban.oi, bhanoi, bhan.vayya a sister's husband, brother-in-law (P.lex.) meun.o, miun.o brother-in-law (Kon.lex.) cf. meonak cross-cousin (Nk.)(DEDR App. 53b).

5931.Waist-cord: me_kalai waist-cord (arai cey me_kalaiya_n- : Te_va_. 281,9); a jewelled girdle of 7 or 8 strands (min-n-ume_kalaiyun to_t.un. kot.uttu : Cilap. 4,30, Urai); cloth, saree; lines drawn round the sacrificial pit or the receptacle in which the sacrificial fire is deposited (Ta.lex.) me_khala_ girdle (AV.Pali); band, fillet (Skt.); me_hala_ girdle (Pkt.); mevul-a (Si.)--with metath. hamail necklace of small bells on camel's or horse's neck (L.); hamel necklace (L.P.)(CDIAL 10301). makkat.t.u waist band (puttapputu makkat.t.alai makkat.t.inare_ : Takkaya_kap. 99) (Ta.lex.)

5932.Mimosa: va_kai sirissa, albizzia, fragrant sirissa; karu-va_kai fragrant sirissa, albizzia odoratissima (Ta.); va_ka acacia odoratissima (Ma.); ba_ge acacia or mimosa seeressa = albizzia lebbeck (Ma.); ba_ge-mara the sirissa tree, acacia speciosa (Tu.)[albizzia odoratissima = acacia odoratissima = acacia speciosa = acacia sirissa = mimosa sirissa](DEDR 5333). cf. s'iri_s.a the tree acacia sirissa; its flower (S.ad.vBr.)(CDIAL 12453). ba_ge, ba_gi the tree acacia (or mimosa) seeressa, albizzia lebbeck, s'iri_s.a, kapi_tana, bhan.d.i_la (Ka.); va_kai (mimosa flexuosa)(Ta.); va_ge acacia odoratissima (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) mimosa sirissa = acacia speciosa (Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 800). Aloe wood; sirissa: ci_kkiri, ci_kkiriyan-, ci_kkiriya_n- black sirissa, albizzia amara (Ta.lex.) Albizzia amara: krishna sirisha (Skt.); lallei (M.); turinjil (Ta.); sigara(Te.); seeds: astringent, given in piles, diarrhea and gonorrhea; leaves: useful in ophthalmia; habitat: throughout S. India in dry forests (GIMP, p.10). Albizzia odoratissima: kala siris (H.); kakur siris (B.); chikunda (M.); karuvagei (Ta.); chinduga (Te.); svetashirisha (Skt.); bark: applied externally is considered efficacious in leprosy and inveterate ulcers; leaves: boiled in ghee used as remedy for cough; gum (Wealth of India, I,44); habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.11). sirisa, s'iri_s.a, sirasala, sirsala a large tree, albizzia lebbeck; the tree acacia sirissa (Ka.lex.) s'i_rs.a the black variety of aloe-wood (Skt.lex.) Albizzia Lebbeck. In Java the bark is sometimes used for soap. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.365). siris albizia lebbeck; jan. siris albizia odoratissima (Santali); kan.t.a siris albizzia myriophilla (Santali.lex.) kat.abhi_, kat.ambhara_ albizzia lucida (Car. Ci. 9.70, 23.2.4; 9.47). Albizia or mimosa lebbeck... In Java, according to Heyne, the bark is sometimes used for soap. According to Wehmer the bark contains saponin and tannin 7 to 11 percent... The powder of the bark of the roots is used to strengthen spongy and ulcerative gums (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.365). s'iri_s.a the tree acacia sirissa; its flower (S.ad.vBr.); s'iri_s.aka (R.); siri_sa acacia sirissa (Pali); siri_sa (Pkt.); sirihu the tree albizzia lebbec (S.); s'iri_h, s'ri~_ albizzia lebbec; sari~_h acacia speciosa (L.); siri~_h, sari~_h, si_ri_ acacia speciosa or sirissa or stipulata (P.); siris (H.); siris any kind of leguminous tree with pinnate leaves (N.); sirisa acacia sirissa (Or.); siris (Mth.); sirisa (OAw.); siris, siras acacia sirissa, mimosa sirissa (H.); s'iras mimosa sirissa (M.)(CDIAL 12453). amlika_ tamarindus indica (Car. Su. 23.38, 27.152). Acacia sirissa: bhan.d.ila acacia or mimosa sirissa (Skt.); bhan.d.i_ra ficus indica (R.); acacia sirissa (Skt.); bhan.d.ira acacia sirissa (Skt.); bhan.d.ila mimosa sirissa (Pali); bham.d.i_ra (Pkt.); bham.d.i_, bham.d.ia_ (Pkt.); bad.ila tamarindus indica (Si.)(CDIAL 9375). bhan.d.i_ albizzia lebbeck synonym of s'iri_s.a (Car. Su. 27.107). cf. bhan.d.ila acacia or mimosa sirissa (Skt.) seri_sakaa made of siri_sa wood, name of a hall; seri_samaha festival in honour of the seri_saka vima_na (Pali.lex.) s'iri_s.a mimosa sirissa = albizzia lebbek (Skt.) Albizzia lebbeck: shirisha (Skt.); siris (H.B.M.); vagai (Ta.); dirasana (Te.); bark and seeds: astringent, given in piles and diarrhea, tonic, restorative; root bark: in powder form used to strengthen gums; leaves: in night-blindness; gum, saponin, tannin; throughout India, ascends to 4,000 ft. in the Himalayas, usually planted (GIMP, p.11). karu-va_kai fragrant sirissa, albizzia odoratissima (Ta.); va_ka acacia odoratissima (Ma.)(DEDR 5333). {Mimusops Laurifolius or schimperi (Ancient Egyptian s'3w3b; Coptic wrbe; wroye; Modern Egyptian Arabic = Classical Arabic labah, although this now designates albizzia lebbekh, a tree imported from India in the 18th century) 'Persea is a tall tree with a dense foliage of tough leaves. The fruits are about 4 cm long, round with a pointed tip and four or six sepals. When ripe it is yellow and contains a sweet, green edible pulp enclosing two or three stones. The tree grows wild in Ethiopia, and in ancient times it grew all over Egypt. Fruits have been found in burials of the Old Kingdom and later, leaves have been identified in mummy garlands from the New Kingdom, where they formed the basis for the setting of other floral elements... Two large bouquets were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. In the medical texts it ocfurs just once in a remedy for 'white spots', an ointment consisting of red ochre, kohl, boiled persea pulp, and another plant ingredient, pounded in sycamore juice... The word is'd is generally taken to designate the persea tree and its fruit...' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., pp. 121-122)}.

5933.Agati grandiflora: cf. baka-pus.pa, vaka, vuka the tree sesbana grandiflora = agati grandiflora, s'ivamalli, pa_s'uvata, baka, vaka, e_ka_s.t.hi_la, kokkare huvvina gid.a (Ka.lex.) cf. agase-mara agati grandiflora (Tu.)(DEDR 5). Agati grandiflora: The tree occurs in India to the Mascarene islands, through Malaya to tropical Australia... is often planted for its edible flowers and pods... B. Dey says that the red gum from the bark resembles Bengal kino. Sanyal and Ghose state that the bark contains tannin and gum. Dymock reports that the root of the red-flowered variety, rubbed into a paste with water, is applied for rheumatism... the bark is very astringnet, and an infusion of it is given in smallpox and other eruptive fevers. In the Antilles the bitter bark is considered tonic and febrifuge... in Bombay juice of the leaves and flowers is a popular remedy for nasal catarrh, and headache. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 429-430).

5934.Gummy foam: veky pouzolzia bennettiana (the skin yields a gummy foam used in washing head and body)(Ko.); pol.ky id. (To.)(DEDR 5501). Pouzolzia zeylanica = pouzolzia indica: kallurukki (Ma.); plant: used in syphilis, gonorrhea, and snake-poison; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p. 203; Indian Materia Medica, p. 1008.).

5935.Cardamom: bahule large cardomoms (Ka.lex.) bahula_ synonym ela_ (Car. Ci. 8.103). bahula_ cardamoms; the indigo plant; bahula-gandha_ cardamoms (Skt.lex.) ela_ cardomom, elettaria cardamomum [Car. Su. 4.22(37), 23(454)]; amomum subulatum (Skt.); ela_chi (H.G.); ela_ch (B.) cardamoms are largely used as aromatic adjuncts (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.258). e_lam cardamom plant, elettaria cardamom; cardamom; e_lav-arici cardamom seed (Ta.); e_lam cardamoms; e_latt-ari cardamom seed (Ma.); e_l-akki, ya_lakki, ya_laki large cardamoms (Ka.); e.lakki cardamom seeds; e.la male, e.lati male cardamom plantation (Kod..); el_-akki cardamoms (Tu.); e_la, e_laki cardamom plant; e_lakulu cardamom seeds (Te.)(DEDR 907). e_la_ cardamom (Sus'r.); e_d.aka a medicinal plant (Sus'r.); e_la_, e_l.a_ (Pali.12th cent. A.D.); e_la_ (Pkt.); el.a_ (Or.M.); el-biju, en-sa_l (Si.)(CDIAL 2522). trut.i_ synonym of ela_ (Car. Ci. 26.55). Amomum xanthioides: ilayechi (H.); elach (B.); elam (Ta.); elakulu (Te.); elachi (M.); seeds: stimulant, carminative, useful in relieving tormina and tenesmus and in dysentery; fruit: essential oil (GIMP, p.16). Amomum subulatum: brihadaela (Skt.); bara-elachi (H.B.); periyayelam (Ta.); peddayelaki (Te.); seeds: stomachic, useful in nueralgia, used in gonorrea as aphrodisiac; oil from seeds: aromatic, stimulant, stomachic, applied to eyelids to allay inflammation; essential oil; cultivated in swampy places along the sides of mountain streams in Nepal, Bengal, Sikkim and Assam (GIMP, p.16). Elettaria cardamomum: cardamom seed; kardamomen (Ger.); cardamomes (Fr.); it is listed as an Indian spice in the customs liable to duty in Alexandria, AD 176-180 and first described as a product of the Malabar coast by the Portuguese navigator Barbosa in 1563; part used: dried ripe seed, recently removed from the capsules; habitat: Indo-China, Ceylon, Malabar coast of India; uses: carminative, aromatic, condiment, and flavouring agent in curries. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 231-236). "Elettaria cardamomuum yields the cardamoms of Malabar, Mangalor, Mysore and Ceylon... Sanskrit and Marathi ela, Concani ala, throughout India ilachi, elaichi, Arabic kakilahisighar, and Persian kakilahikurd... Among the Bengalis, Guzeratis, and Deccanis it is called by some hil and by other elachi. That is among the Moors, for among the Gentios of those parts it is called dore... Dioscorides that the best comes from Comagena, Armenia, and the Bhosphorus, and that is also brought from Arabia and India..." (G. De Orta, pp.pp.99-112). Amomum cardomum or elettaria cardamomum. cardamom seed; kardamomen (Ger.); cardamomes (French). "Cardamom is mentioned in the ancient Sanskrit writings of Sus'ruta. It is listed as an Indian spice in the customs liable to duty in Alexandria, AD 176-180 and first described as a product of the Malabar coast by the Portuguese navigator Barbosa in 1563. The species first used as a spice was probably the amomum cardomum of Siam and Java, which is thought to represent amomon of Dioscorides and amomi uva of Pliny... Habitat: Indo-china, in mountainous districts. Cultivated in Ceylon and near the Malabar coast of India, and recently in Guatemala... In Mysore the plants are grown in the betel-nut plantations between the palms... The drug is exported both in the fruit (capsules) and seed form in chests... The 'Allepey greens' are claimed to be the best cardamoms for use in distilling the volatile oil... Bengal cardamom, from amomum aromaticum has 9 wings near the summit of the capsule. Its seeds are about 3 mm. long and possess an aromatic, camphoraceous taste... Uses: carminative, aromatic, condiment, and flavouring agent in curries, various food products.. cardamom oil is used in perfumery. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 231-236).

5936.Cork tree: baken dare the cork tree, millingtonia hortensis (Santali.lex.)

5937.Image: bent: vr.kta in cmpds. 'turned, bent' (RV.); bruku bending of something perpendicular (esp. the backbone) under too heavy a weight (K.); bi_ka_ crooked (H.)(CDIAL 12066).

5938.Tree: ruk birik, ruk birit trees; ruk birit nelte bam berellena? Did you not take notice of the trees before you settled down? rol a large forest tree, terminalia chebula; this tree yields the myrobalans of commerce; ruhen a large forest tree, soymida febrifuga; bir jungle, forest; birit trade, calling, profession (Santali.lex.) ru_ks.a tree (Skt.); rukkha tree (Pali.Pkt.); ruccha (Pkt.); rucha, lukha (As'.); rukh, ruk (Gypsy); rukkh (L.P.); ru_kh (Ku.); rukh (N.); rukha (MB.); ru_kh (Bhoj.Aw.H.G.M.); ru_ku (Kon:kan.i); ruka, rika (Si.); ru' (Md.); rukkhalla tree (Pkt.); rikilla twig (Si.)(CDIAL 10757). rukkhamu_la foot of a tree (Pali.Pkt.); vr.ks.amu_la (Mn.); rukmula (Si.)(CDIAL 10758). va_rks.a of trees, wooden (Ka_tyS'r.); rokhu~ wood, fuel (G.)(CDIAL 10871). cf. lakut.a club (Car.); ruvlo_ stick (Gypsy); laur stick (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 10875). vr.ks.a tree (RV.); ma_la_-vaccha an ornamental shrub or tree (Pali); vracha tree (As'.); vr.e_ha, vrachi (NiDoc.); vakkha, vaccha, vuccha (Pkt.); bri_c (Tir.); bich pine-tree (Mai.); buch, buc plane-tree (Sh.); pa_i~-bi_ch pinus excelsa (Sh.); bi_kh tree (WPah.); buk oak-tree (N.); bi_k willow (D..); bigye~_s (Dm.)(CDIAL 12067). cf. mor.o_ka_ plant(Go.); mr.ogla shoot of bamboo; eye, shoot of potato etc. (Kuwi); mul.a germ, shoot, young plant (Ma.)(DEDR 4997). cf. ur-uppa_ a tree, the timber of which is used instead of teak in shipbuilding, hopea decandra (Ta.)(DEDR 717). cf. gon.d.a a forest, jungle (Pkt.)(CDIAL 4276). cf. gond.a man of Gond tribe (Kol.)(DEDR 2077).

5939.Vermillion: pan:ki vermilion, ca_tilin:kam (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

5940.Image: to see: ven:kan. fiery eye (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,8,5)(Ta.lex.) ven:kal.am battlefield (Pu. Ve. 9,11)(Ta.lex.) vekhn.a_ to see (P.); vekhan. to see pres. part. ve_hda_ to see (L.); vi_ks.ate_ looks at, sees (S'Br.); ve_ks.ayati (Dha_tup.); ve_ks.an.a looking after, care (Mn.); bi_c to see (Tir.); buch (Par.); bhi_cim I aim at (Kal.); bi_ch to see (Bshk.); bich (Phal.); wuchun, wuch (K.); appat.i-vekkhiya absol. not having considered (Pali); pat.i-vekhami I direct attention to; anu-vekhama_ne being considered (As'.); ve_hai looks at (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12041). Image: sight: vi_ks.a sight (Skt.); vi_ks.a_ (R.); wuchu observation (K.)(CDIAL 12040). d.isan.u va_san.u to see (S.); vya_dr.s'yate_ is seen clearly (BhP.)(CDIAL 12198). abhi_ks.ate_ looks toward (RV.); ahikkhan.a reproach (Pkt.); ebikana peeping (Si.)(CDIAL 535). ave_ks.ate_ perceives (RV.); avekkhati perceives (Pali); avekkhai, avikkhai, ve_hai looks at (Pkt.); avehimim ger. having observed (Si.); a_ikn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 899). cf. ve_vu spying (Ta.lex.) udi_ks.a looking up (BhP.); udi_ks.ate_ looks up at (S'Br.); udikkhati (Pali); udikkhia (Pkt.); uki careful watching (B.)(CDIAL 1938). ud.i_kan. to look for, wait for (L.); ud.i_kn.a_ to expect (P.); ud.i_k expectation (P.); udekh indifference (Ku.); udek astonishment (N.); udeka appearance (Or.)(CDIAL 1997). upapre_ks.ate_ overlooks, disregards (MBh.); upekha_ to despise (B.); utpre_ks.ate_ regards (Skt.); upekhai neglects (OMth.); upekhab to throw away (Mth.)(CDIAL 2197). upe_ks.ate_ looks at (S'Br.); overlooks (MBh.); upe_ks.a_ neglect (MBh.); upekkhati looks on, is indifferent to (Pali); uvekkhai, uvikkhai, uve_hai disregards (Pkt.); uvekhvu~ to censure (G.); upekkha_, upe_kha_ indifference to pleasure (Pali); uvikkha_, uve_ha_, o_ve_ha_ neglect (Pkt.); uekha (OB.)(CDIAL 2319). niri_ks.ate_ looks at (MBh.); niri_ks.a_ regarding (R.); n.irikkhai, n.irakkhai sees (Pkt.); nirakkhn.a_ to spy, look out (P.); nirikhiba_ to inspect minutely (Or.); nirakhiba to look., see (A.); nirakhab to watch (Mth.); nirakhai (OAw.); niri_khna_, nirakhna_ to look at (H.); nirakhvu~, narakhvu~ (G.); nirakhn.e~ (M.); nirekhiba_ (Or.); nirekhab (Bi.); nirekhal (Bhoj.); nirekhn.e~ (M.); nirakh knowledge (P.); nirakh consideration, judgement (Ku.); nirikha_ observation (Or.); nirakh, narakh (G.)(CDIAL 7280). pari_ks.ate_ observes, examines (S'Br.); pari_ks.an.a testing (Mn.); pari_ks.a_ inspection, test (Mn.); pari_ks.in in na_n.aka-pari_ks.in coin tester (Skt.); parikkhati looks round, examines (Pali); parikkhai, paricchai (Pkt.); parkhan.u to inspect (S.); parikkhan., parkhun. to test (L.); parkhun (K.); parakhn.a_ (P.); parkhan.o (Ku.); parikhiba_, parakhiba_ (Or.); parkhab, parekhab (Bi.); parikhaba (OMth.); parakhna_, pari_khna_ (H.); parakhiye (OMarw.); parikhai (OG.); parakhvu~, pa_rakhvu~ (G.); pa_rakhn.e~ to examine (M.); parikkhan.a examining (Pali.Pkt.); parekhan (H.); parikkha_ examination (Pali); pali_kha_ya self-examination (As'.); parkha (S.); parakh (L.P.); parekh recognition (N.); parakh examination (B.); parikha, parakha (Or.); parakh (H.); pari_khad.i_ (OG.); parakh, pa_rakh (G.); pari_s, paras (M.); pa_rakh test (M.); parikkhi tester (Pkt.); parkhi_, pari_kh, parekhiya_ coin tester (Bi.); pari_kh, parkhiyo (G.)(CDIAL 7904). cf. pa_r (-pp-, -tt-) to see, look at, examine, inspect, know, look for, desire, search,look after; pa_rval looking; pa_rvai id., eye, appearance etc. (Ta.); pa_rkka to regard, behold, wait for; pa_rppu considering, expectation (Ma.); pa_r to look for, wait for, look after, consider, regard, desire; pa_r(u) looking to or after; pa_raysu to desire; ha_rayisu, ha_raysu to look for, get a longing after, desire; ha_rayke desire (Ka.); pa_ra guard, custody, keeping (Tu.); pa_ruva sight, glance (Te.)(DEDR 4091). pare_ks.ate_ looks at (TS.); parekha_ examination (P.); pare_khab to examine (Bi.); parekhna_ to look all round; parekha_ examination (H.)(CDIAL 7912). prati_ks.ita expected; prati_ks.ya to be expected (Mn.); pad.ikkhia expected; pad.icchia buffalo that has not borne for a long time (i.e. has long been expected to bear)(Pkt.); pa_d.s'i_ sterile cow (M.)(CDIAL 8621). prati_ks.ate_ looks at, beholds (AV.); waits for (TS.); pat.ikkhati expects (Pali); pad.ikkhai, pad.icchai (Pkt.); pratichidavo (NiDoc.); parkhanu to wait for (N.); pad.akhai looks for, watches (OG.); paikhn.e~, paikn.e~ to wait for (M.)(CDIAL 8620). pratyave_ks.ate_ looks at (S'Br.); paccavekkhati considers, regards (Pali); paccavekkhida (Pkt.); pasvikma contemplation (Si.)(CDIAL 8642). Images: to look like; sees; sight: pre_ks.a_ seeing (MBh.); i_ks. see (Skt.); pekkha_, pe_kha_ view, show at a fair (Pali); pekkha_, pe_ha_ sight; peccha_, piccha_ show, spectacle (Pkt.); pekhi sight (Brajbuli); pehu (Si.)(CDIAL 8995). pre_ks.an.a viewing (Gr.S.); public show (Mn.); pre_ks.aka spectator (Ya_j.); spectacle (Skt.); pekkhan.a sight (Pali.Pkt.); pikkhan.a, pecchan.a, picchan.a, pe_han.a seeing; pekkhan.aya, pecchan.aya, picchan.aya show, spectacle (Pkt.); pekhan dancing, display of tail feathers by a peacock (A.); pekhna_ puppet show (H.); pekhn.u~ a display (H.)(CDIAL 8991). pra_ks.an.ika actor (Skt.); pekhniya_ actor (H.)(CDIAL 8992). pre_ks.an.i_ya to be looked at, sightly (MBh.); pekkhan.ijja, pecchan.ijja, picchan.ijja to be observed (Pkt.); pekhni_ an image used in certain shows (P.); pekan.iya navel (i.e. the uncovered part of the body, esp. of women, between breast and belly), nave of a wheel (Si.)(CDIAL 8993). pre_ks.ate_ looks at (TS.); pekkhati sees (Pali); pekkhai, pikkhai, picchai, pe_hai (Pkt.); pic to seem, look like (Gypsy); pekhn.a_ to see (P.); pekhiba to look at (A.); pekh- (MB.); pekhai (OMth.OAw.); pekhna_ to see, desire (H.); pekhvu~ to observe closely (G.); pekhn.e~ to look for (M.); pe_nava_ to be visible (Si.)(CDIAL 8994). cf. dekhati sees (As'.); dakkhati sees (Pali); dr.s' see (Skt.)(CDIAL 6507). cf. i_ks. see (Skt.); i_ks.an.a look, view (Ka_tyS'r.); ikkhan.a (Pali.Pkt.); ebikana (Si.)(CDIAL 1606). i_ks.ate_ sees (AV.); ikkhati (Pali); ikkhai, i_hae_ (Pkt.); i_khna_ (H.); i_hai looks at, considers (OG.)(CDIAL 1607). i_ks.a_ sight (BhP.); anything seen (S'Br.); i_khi expectation (P.); ik look, glance (Si.); ikh jealousy [N. < i_rs.ya_ (Skt.)](CDIAL 1608). anape_ks.a careless (R.); anape_ks.am adv. (S'Br.); ape_ks.a_ consideration, expectation (Mn.); apekkha_ (Pali); avekkha_, avikkha_ (Pkt.); n.okkha unexpected, strange (Pkt.); n.avakha (Ap.); anokhr.a_ singular (L.); an.okh a rarity; an.okha_ uncommon (P.); anaukha_ (Ku.); anokha_ (N.); a_nokha_, a_nakha_ seen for the first time (B.); anokha_ unusual (H.); nokhu~ different, other; anokhu_ like (G.)(CDIAL 289). Image: lying in wait: lokao to lie in wait, to watch for an opportunity (Santali.lex.) cf. ro_yu, r-o_yu to seek, search, look for; va_r(u)cu to look for, wait, expect, wish (Te.)(DEDR 1059). Images: to gaze; to open eyes: jokhan.u to weigh (S.); jokhn.a_, jokkhena_ (P.); jokhn.o to examine (Ku.); jokhnu to weigh (N.); zokhiba to weigh, measure (A.); jo~k(h)a_, ju~ka_ (B.); jokhiba_, jukhiba_ to unite, calculate (Or.); jokhna_ to weigh, measure (H.); jokhvu~ to examine, weigh (G.); jokhn.e~ to weigh (M.); ayo_ks.i_t aor., yo_ks.yati fut., yuyuks.ate_ desid. determines to meditate (Skt.); yun:kte_, yunakti meditates (MBh.)(CDIAL 10525). cf. lo_kate_ sees (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 11122). cf. lo_cana eye (Pali)(CDIAL 11128). no_kku (no_kki-) to see, look at, behold, view, consider, reflect, regard, pay attention to, arrange, put in order, keep, protect, save, do, perform, resemble, compare, read, desire; n. eye, sight, look, beauty, meaning, intention, knowledgeness, greatness, mode, style; no_kkam eye, eyesight, look, gaze, glance, view, aspects of a planet, appearance, expression, cast of countenance, beauty, attractiveness, watch, design, object, intention, aim, sense, intelligence, attention, observa-tion, desire, indication, sign (Ta.); no_t.t.am examination of coins, assaying, scrutiny of gems, precious metals, etc., value, criticism as by a rival artist or workman, attempt at wit, endeavour to excel, hinder or baffle another in speech (Ta.); no_t.t.am viewing, examination, experienced eye, sharp sight, shroffage, fortune-telling; no_kkuka to look at, view, observe, look after, examine, be in a certain direction, seek, consider, regard, intend; no_kkam view, beauty, eye; no_kkal a look (Ma.); no.t.- (no.c-) to look at, look for, examine, be looked at; no.t., no.t.m (obl. no.t.t-) a sight (Ko.); no_kku look, watchfulness, sight, beauty (Ma.); nwi.t. (nwi.t.y-) to look at; nwi.t. a sight (To.); no_d.u to look, look on, look at, view, behold, look after, examine, consider, take care, see; no_d.uvike looking etc.; no_d.isu to cause to look; no_t.a looking at or on, viewing, behold, look after, examine, consider, take care, see; no_d.uvike looking etc.; no_d.isu to cause to look; no_t.a looking at or on, viewing, beholding, seeing, examination, a sight, spectacle, sight, the power of seeing, a look, appearance; no_t.aka a looker-on, spectator, eyewitness (Ka.); no.t.- (no.t.i-) to look at (Kod..); no_t.a sight, view, vision, aim; no_d.a_runi, no_d.a_vuni to point at, show; nu_t.a_vuni to show (Tu.)(DEDR 3794). ne_t.u (ne_t.i-) to seek, look out for, desire, consider, aim at (Ta.); nit.t.isu to look at, look at much, inquisitively or sternly, stare (Ka.) (DEDR 3766). na~_d.- (eyes) to open (of young animals, which when born are unable to see)(Pa.); na_hk-, na_'k to open eyes (Go.); an.d.ra'a_na_ to open one's eyes wide, stare (Kur.); and.e to find, see (Malt.)(DEDR 3642). na_t.u (na_t.i-) to seek, inquire after, pursue (Na_lat.i, 15); examine, investigate (Kur-al., 791); desire earnestly, know, understand, resemble, measure, reach, approach, think, consider, scent as dogs, be measured (Kur-al., 74); na_t.t.am eye (Kampara_. Karan-vatai. 71); sight, examination, investigation (Tol. Er..ut. 483); astrology, beauty, desire, intention, pursuit, aim, quest, suspicion, movement (Ta.); na_t.uka to fllow with the eyes, covet, seek; na_t.t.am investigation, desire (Ma.); na_d.uni to search, seek; na_d.a_vuni to cause to search (Tu.); na_r.- to see, look at; na_d- to gaze (Go.)(DEDR 3637).

5941.Image: trough: vakku water-trough (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5942.Image; dog; barking: bho_bhukka dog (Pali); bhau~kan.u to bark (S.); bhau~kna_ (H.); bho~kvu~ (G.); bukkati barks (Dha_tup.); bukkai barks, bellows (Pkt.); bhukkai barks; bhukkan.a dog (Pkt.); phukav to say (Gypsy); bakun to bark, chatter (K.); bhukn.o to bark (Ku.); bhuknu (N.); bhukiba (A.); bhukiba_, bhokiba_ (Or.); bhu~_kna_ (H.); bhukvu~ (G.); bhukn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9265). Image: roar: put.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to utter a loud noise, roar, rattle; n. sound, noise (as from a stroke)(Ta.); pod.- (pot.t.-) (dog) barks; i.sa pod.- to whistle (Kol.); por.- to bark (Nk.); porp- (port-) id. (Ga.)(DEDR 4254). bu_ssa_ dog (Si.); bhas.a barking (VS.); dog (Skt.)(CDIAL 9422). bhas.ati barks, growls (MBh.); bhasati barks (Pali); bhasai (Pkt.); bahan.u (S.); bhasvu~ to bark, speak (contemptuous)(G.); bahukan.u to bark (S.); bhau~sna_, bhu~_sna_ (H.)(CDIAL 9423).

5943.Sea-side village; royal residence: pa_kkam sea-side village (Pat.t.in-ap. 27); town, village (Maturaik. 137)(Ta.); pa_ka id. (Te.Ka.); pa_kkam royal residence (Patir-r-up. 13,12, Urai.); pa_kkai sea-side village; town, village (Patin-o. Tiruve_. Tiruvan. 74); pa_n:ku side, neighbourhood (Cu_l.a_. Na_t.. 2); pa_n:gu id. (Ka.); pa_n.n.u id. (Ma.); pa_n:ku place, location (Man.i. 1,61); pa_n:ku-tu_kki-vaittal, pa_n:ket.uttu-vaittal to put up hut, etc., as a preliminary to the penning of sheep for manuring a field; pa_n:ku-pirittal to divide the respective sheep of shepherds who have jointly penned them up for manuring a field (Ta.lex.) Hut; village: pakkan.a hut of a Can.d.a_la, village inhabited by barbarians (MBh.); paka_n.a woodman's hut, hamlet of woodmen's huts (Or.)(CDIAL 7620). pakkan.am quarters of ve_t.ar caste; town, village; place where foreign goods are sold (Ta.lex.) pa_kkana_r n. of a famous low-caste sage (Ma.); pa_ka-na_d.u jo_gi a kind of S'u_dra beggars (Ka.); pa_ka hut, hovel; -pa_ka (village name suffix); pa_ka-na_d.u one of the Telugu districts under the Reddi kings (Te.); pa_ka hut (Kond.a)(DEDR 4047).

5944.Image: stream: o_ga, o_gha a stream, a current, a course of water (Ka.Skt.) (Ka. lex.) cf. o_ shutter or other means to stop the flow of water (Ta.); o_ku, o_vu floodgate, sluice, drain; o_tti open gutter, drain (Ma.)(DEDR 1027). cf. vaho_la small stream (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11452). cf. ohan. streamlet from a mountain torrent, channel cut for it (M.)(CDIAL 146). cf. pagar water channel; bohar.ia roaring, flowing strongly (river)(Santali.lex.)

5945.Flow; sweat: pagharu sweat (S.); pagghur, pagghar (L.); pa_ghal. ooze, trickling (M.)(CDIAL 8481). pa_jhar gentle trickle, oozing (M.)(CDIAL 8511). pajjharai falls, drips (Pkt.); pa_jhrn.e~ to drip down (M.)(CDIAL 8512). pajjhalai drips, falls (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8513). pagha_ran. to melt, dissolve (L.); pagha_ran.u id. (S.); pagha_rn.a_ to melt by heating (P.); paghal.n.e~ to spread out, widen, enlarge (M.); pa_ghal.n.e~ to let fall in drops, let run (M.); pigha_lna_ to melt, fuse, dissolve (H.)(CDIAL 8485). paghiran.u to be melted (S.); paghirjan.u to be melted, sweat (S.); pighalna_ to be dissolved, be melted, be fused (H.P.); pighal.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 8486). pagha_ra_ sweat (L.); paha_l. mountain stream (M.); paha_l.i_ shower (M.)(CDIAL 8484). pragharati oozes out (Skt.); paggharati oozes, trickles, drips (Pali); pagharan. to melt, liquefy (L.); pa_ghal.n.e~, paghal.n.e~ to ooze, trickle, drip, melt, dissolve (M.)(CDIAL 8482). begaruni, begapuni to perspire; begaru, bemaru perspiration (Tu.); veyar, ve_r to sweat, perspire; perspiration; viyar to sweat, perspire; perspiration, weariness, exhaustion; veyarvu, veyarvai, veyarppu = viyar n. ve_rppu, ve_rppu, ve_rvu, ve_rvai, viyarppu, viyarvai sweat, perspiration (Ta.); viyarkka to perspire; viyarppu, ve_r sweat (Ma.); bemar(u), bevaru to perspire; perspiration; bemaruvike perspiring; bemarcu to cause to perspire; bevi to perspire (Ka.); bevar- (bevari-) to sweat; bevari sweat (Kod..)(DEDR 5486). cf. parso, parse, parseu sweat (P.)(CDIAL 8898).

5946.Image: raised manger: a_huru, a_huro raised manger for cattle to eat from (S.); ahri_ round vat for dissolving saltpetre from saline earth (Bi.)(CDIAL 1165). a_hu trough of water at a well for watering cattle (S.)(CDIAL 1546).

5947.Image: large vessel: cf. agoli, agol.i a large vessel (Tu.); akal small earthen pot having a wide mouth (Ta.)(DEDR 9). Image: body of a lute: akar..i pot with a large mouth (Tailava. Taila. 94); akal.am jar; large earthen pot (Tiva_.); bucket (Malaipat.u. 104); body of the lute, as shaped like a bowl (Cir-upa_n.. 224)(Ta.lex.)

5948.Image: jesting: a_gad.a sport, jesting, fun, mockery, jeering (Ka.Te.); a_kat.iyam (Ta.); a_gad.aka_r-a a scoffer, a plaguy teaser (Ka.); a_gad.aga_d.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

5949.Image: ox: balilla ox (Skt.); bailla, bellaga ox (Pkt.); bail bull, ox (P.); ox (Bi.Mth.H.M.); belo ox, buffalo-bull (Ku.); bael, baila_, baala ox (Or.); bel ox (G.); baila ox (OAw.); baila_ ox (M.)(CDIAL 9175). balivarda ox, bull (TBr.); bali_varda id. (S'Br.) [Poss. compound of balin (ext. -lla-) and a non-Aryan word for 'ox' (cf. esp. Naha_li_ baddi_) and poss.IA forms like pa_d.o_ bull (Sik.)] balivadda ox (Pali); baleda_, baled herd of bullocks (L.); bald, baldh, balhd ox (P.); baled, baleda_ herd of oxen (P.); balad ox (Ku.B.H.); balad(h) ox (A.); bal.ad ox (G.); bal.ada ox (Or.); barad(h) ox (Bi.Bhoj.H.)(CDIAL 9176). cf. pad.d.a heifer; ped.d.a female calf (Nk.)(DEDR 3881). cf. pa_d.o buffalo calf (S.); per.a_ young buffalo (Or.)(CDIAL 8042). balivardin oxherd (Skt.); baledi_ id. (P.); baldiya_ cattle-dealer (Ku.); baredi_ herdsman (H.)(CDIAL 9177). balin strong (RV.Pali); bali, balia strong, stout (Pkt.); bali_ strong (P.); baliyo, bai (Ku.); baliyo, balliyo (N.); bali (A.B.); bal.i_ strong; bal.ia_ a wild ferocious dog (Or.); bal.i~, bal.iyu~ strong (G.); bal.i, bal.iya_ (M.)(CDIAL 9174). balis.t.ha very strong (S'Br.); balit.t.ha id. (Pkt.); balt.ha_ (M.)(CDIAL 9178). Sacrifice: pali < bali offering given to gods, manes, etc., in sacrifice; sacrificial animal or offering; boiled rice given to mendicants, alms; rice; offering of flowers, etc. in worship; ashes; sacred ashes; tribute; inam granted for the service of making sacrifices to village deities (Ta.lex.); pali-kol.l.i Siva, as one who takes alms (Ta.lex.) bali tribute, offering (RV.); tax, religious offering (Pali); religious offering (Pkt.); offering, sacrifice (N.A.B.); offering (S.); bal offering to spirits (K.H.); bali_ offering (P.); bai food offered to the gods (Ku.); bal.i offering, sacrifice (Or.); bal.i_ id. (G.); bal. id. (M.); billa, bili tribute, tax, sacrifice (Si.)(CDIAL 9171). ba_le_ya fit for an offering (Skt.); ba_ri_ one who offers himself, an offering (OAw.)(CDIAL 9222). palicai profit (Ta.); palisa (Ta.Ma.) interest (S.I.I.i,116. Ta.lex.)

5950.Image: young bulllock: vohur. heifer (L.); vahar., vahir. heifer (P.); vahur.o young bullock (S.)(CDIAL 11459). paghaia d.an:gra a pack bullock (Santali.lex.)

5951.Bride: vokal, vokle bride (Kon.lex.) okkal relations, kinsfolk (Ta.); okl family (Ko.); wikil family within clan (To.); okkal residing, residence (Ka.); okka patrilineal joint family (Kod..); okkia a dwelling, residence (Pkt.)(DEDR 925). okka together; along with; in company with (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 5,2,10); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) o_ going and staying (Tirumuru. 3); o_-ttal lit., to be of one mind, transf., to copulate (Aka. Ni.); o_l. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_kkuka to copulate (Ma.)(DEDR 1071).

5952.House: o_ka a house; a refuge, shelter; o_kas a house, a residence; as in: divaukas a god; o_kas an asylum, refuge; a resting place; o_kivas meeting together, united; o_kya favourable to the house, i.e. to its inmates; good for a house, kind to a household; o_kyam a comfortable place; a resting place, house (in general) (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) okkal, okkalu residing; a residence, a home; tenancy;a resident; a tenant; a tenant of the soil, a husbandman, a farmer; a tenant under government etc., a subject (Ka.); okkal (Tu.); pe_rokkal a great farmer (Ka.); okkal-a_gu to become a tenant; to begin to live prosperously in every way; okkala a husbandman; okkala-tana husbandry, farming; okkaliga a husbandman, a farmer, a S'u_dra; okkalad.i, okkalu pakkalu a house built by the landlord for the use of his tenant; okkalu-mane a house that has a resident or is occupied; a farmhouse (Ka.lex.) Inside; house: akam inside, house, place (Ta.); house, room, inside, abode (Ma.); akatta_n master of the house; akatta_l. mistress of the house (Ma.); akatta_n- householder; o_r-akatti husband's brother's wife (i.e. she who is in one and the same house with oneself)(Ta.); o_ragitti, va_ragitti id. (Ka.); akan.i inside, interior; akampu inside; akal inner part of town or village; aka_, aka_yi inside of house, room (Ma.); akna (pl. -n) room of a house (Go.)(DEDR 7). a_gvu~, a~ga_u one's own (G.)(CDIAL 114). cf. aga_ra house (A's'vGr..Pkt.)(CDIAL 52). Workshop of a goldsmith: aka-sa_la, aga-sa_la, aka-sa_liga, aka-sa_le a gold or silversmith; aka-sa_like the business of a gold or silver smith; akka-sa_le, aka-sa_le the workshop of a goldsmith; a goldsmith; akka-sa_liti a woman of the goldsmith caste (Ka.); akka-c-ca_lai a shop where metals are worked (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) arka a ray of light, a flash of lightning (Vedic); fire (Skt.)(Skt.lex.)

5953.To appoint: bohal to appoint, nominate, install (Santali.lex.)

5954.Farmer; relations: voka_l, vokla_ tenant (Kon.lex.) okkelu habitation; illu okkelu inauguration of a new house; okkelme the Bunt commmunity; pattokkelu lit. ten habitations; now a place name (Tu.lex.) okkiliyan- member of a caste of cultivators from the Kannada province who have settled themselves in the Tamil country mainly in the districts of Madura and Coimbatore (Ta.); okkal relations, kinsfolk (Kur-al., 43)(Ta.); okkaliga id. (Ka.); okkalittal to hold friendly communion with one's relations; to encourage one's relations, maintain them, give them medical aid, etc.; okkal-po_r-r-al supporting or maintaining one's relations, one of the qualities of character of the ve_l.a_l.as (Ta.lex.) okkiliyan a cultivating class (Ma.); okl family (Ko.); wikil family within clan (To.); okkal residing, residence, home, tenancy, tenant, husbandman, farmer, subject; okkala, okkaliga husbandman, farmer, S'u_dra; okkalagitti, okkaligiti, okkaliti a farmer woman; okkalatana husbandry, farming (Ka.); okkelu a tenant; okkelme one of a cultivating class called the Bants, a Bant; fem. okkeldi, okkendi (Tu.); okkia a dwelling, residence (Pkt.)(DEDR 925). Group; skill; side, direction: varga class, group (Ka_tyS'r.); vagga company, collection (Pali.Pkt.); vagra, vaga class (of people)(As'.); la_go many (Pas'.); vagu herd (of cattle or camels)(S.); vagg, vag herd, flock (of sheep, cattle, camels)(L.); vagg, bagg herd (of cattle)(P.); ba_g side, direction (B.); ba_ga side, direction, path, method, skill (Or.); ba_g flock of about 100 sheep or goats (Bi.); va_gh herd (G.); vaga sort, class, affair (Si.); ba_gur.o herd (of buffalos), group, crowd (Ku.)(CDIAL 11331). va_ku skill (Ta.); ba_gu good, excellent, faultness (Te.); ba_gu-ce_yu to set right, repair, mend (Te.)(DEDR 5332). vakuppu kind, sort (Ma.); vakuti division, class (Ta.); bage section, sort, class, caste (Ka.)(DEDR 5202). Side, direction: vakkal side; vakku brim, edge; van:ka side, quarter, direction (Te.); va_kku side, direction (Ta.); va~_ka side, quarter (Te.)(DEDR 5209). Backyard: okol, okoli, ekoli backyard, rear of the house (Kui); okkopara the space at the back of a house; okopa_r.a backyard of house (Kuwi)(DEDR 928). Cultivator: boha casa a non-resident cultivator; halboha a ploughman; bohal first class rice land in which there is always a sufficiency of moisture (Santali.lex.) Kinsfolk: o_ka a S'u_dra (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) utkala a porter, a fowler (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ukkala in: ukkala-vassa-bhaa, okkala_-vassa-bhaa the folk of Ukkala, Lenten speakers of old; ukkala_vassa i.e. ukkala_ + avassa one who speaks of, or like, a porter and bondsman (Pali); ukkala = utkala porter, one who carries a load (Skt.)(Pali.lex.) cf. okkal relations, kinsfolk (Kur-al., 43)(Ta.)(DEDR 925). ur-kalam < utkala name of an ancient district including a large part of Orissa, one of paca-kaut.am (Catu.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) u_kkalar persons of energy, of spirit, of pluck (Maturaik. 743); u_kkal putting forth effort (Na_n-man.i. 86); u_kku zeal, spirit (Kantapu. Tiruppara. 11)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

5955.A group (collection of similar things): varga a class, division, group; company, society, tribe, collection (of similar things); vargin belonging to a class or party; vargi_n.a belonging to a class or category (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) Homonym: a_ to be like, equal (Tiv.Iyar-.1,89); a_kutal id. (Ilak.Kot.86,Urai.); a_ku-peyar a name or word, which by long usage is secondarily applied to denote something connected with the thing originally denoted by it (Nan-. 290); akkaram learning (Tiruva_lava_. 18,12); akkaravilakkan.am orthography, one of ar-upattuna_lu-kalai; akkaravarttan-am < aks.ara + vardhana verse composed with a play on words, a word by gradual addition becoming different words with different meanings (Pi. Vi. 26, Urai) (Ta.lex.) Educated; containing letters: sakkhara educated (Pkt.); sa_khara literate (H.poet.); sa_ks.ara containing letters (Skt.); eloquent (Skt.) (CDIAL 13320).

5956.Image: to sit down: okkna_ (ukkyas) to sit down, seat oneself, alight, perch, hold a session, come to a standstill, acquire steadiness, reside; okkrna_ to sit down in order to breathe or recover oneself; okta'a_na_ to invite to sit down, give firmness to, settle (Kur.); oke to sit, be situated; okete to sit down, settle; oktre to place, put down, make to sit (Malt.)(DEDR 930).

5957.Image: waist: ukkam waist; ukkal side; ukkalai the hips; okkal, okkalai hip, side of the body (Ta.); ukkam, ukkal middle, hip, side; okku hip, loins; okkil. waist, hip; utukku loins (Ma.); uk part of waistcloth on each hip (Ko.); okka hip, waist (Tu.); ukha neut. a particular part of the upper leg (Skt.RV.)(DEDR 564). utsan:ga haunch, part above the hips, lap (MBh.); ucchan:ga hip, lap (Pali); uccham.ga, ussam.ga (Pkt.); ucham.ga_ lap (OAw.); uchan:g lap, slope of mountain, roof (H.); ucha~g lap (G.); osa~g, osa~ga_ (M.)(CDIAL 1870). uyge hips (Kurub.)(DEDR 947). Side of body; waist: marun:ku side, side of body, waist, form (Ta.); marun:kal waist, esp. of women, hip, stomach, abdomen, body (Ta.); marun.n.u side (Ma.); o ma.r- half (lit. one side)(To.); margilu the side, flank (Tu..); makka either side of the part of the body just above the hip (Tu.); buttock (Pa.); marng side (Go.); marngar. side (Pe.); magl side (Ko.); magil slope of hill (To.); maggal side (Ka.)(DEDR 4717).

5958.Night watch: ukkal.am night watch, advance guard, entrenchement around a camp (Ta.); advance guard, night patrol (Ma.); ukkad.a entrenchment about a camp, advanced guard, watch, guard-house, end or outermost post of a town or village (Ka.); ukkad.a, ukkud.a look-out place between the bounds of two towns (Tu.); ukkal.amu vanguard, pickets round a camp (Te.)(DEDR 565). udgha_t.a watchhouse; act of opening (Skt.); ugha_r.a_ naked, open (P.); open (H.); ugha_ro open (N.); ugha_r.o naked (S.); open (OMarw.); ugha_r.u~ (G.); ughd.a_ (G.); ugha_r.i a raised thatched platform in the fields for watching the crops from (Or.)(CDIAL 1972). cf. udgha_t.ayati opens (MBh.); ugghat.e_ti opens, reveals (Pali)(CDIAL 1968).

5959.To offer gifts in a temple; worshipful: pu_j worship (Skt.); pu_jayati honours, worships (A_s'vGr..); pu_je_ti (Pali); pu_jayati, pujeti (As'.); pujayam.to (KharI.); pu_e_i, pujjai (Pkt.); pujay (OSi.); pudanava_ to offer gifts in a temple (Si.) (CDIAL 8316). pu_ja honour, worship (A_s'vGr..); pu_ja_ worship (Pali); puja, pu_ja_m., puja_ (As'.); puya (KharI.); pu_a_, pujja_ (Pkt.); puja (OSi.); puda offerings, worship (Si.)(CDIAL 8317). pu_jita honoured (Mn.); worshipped (Pali); pu_iya (Pkt.); pidu (Si.)(CDIAL 8318). pu_jya to be honoured (Mn.); pujja to be worshipped; pu_jiya (Pali); pujja (Pkt.); pu_ju venerable (S.); pu_j Jain devotee (P.); worshipful (H.); puj (G.)(CDIAL 8319).

5960.Image: line: pahi a line in hoeing; har.ban. har.bun. to move in straight line; phalen to line up (Santali.lex.)

5962.Image: circle: bohol in ever-widening circles (Santali.lex.)

5963.To win: pu~_gna_ to win in a game or match (Kur.); pun-gare id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4349). cf. pun-gare to win in a game or match (Malt.)(DEDR 4349). cf. pun- to solve a riddle (Go.); phunda_ a riddle (Go.)(DEDR 4364).

5964.Image: young shoot: bhuco young shoot or plant, stalk (Ku.); bhosoko stumpy (A.)(CDIAL 9524).

5965.Eating: cf. pokkan.am beggar's bag (Ta.)(DEDR 4558). cf. bhaks.a, bakka, bokka eating, drinking; bhaks.an.a, bokkan.a eating; an eatable; bhaks.yaka_ra a baker (Ka.); bakkari, bakri bread (Ka.); bha_kara (M.); bakkarihancu a platter for baking bread (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. baker, one who bakes bread (English) bokkan.a (tadbhava of bhaks.an.a) a pocket in a coat, a betel pouch, a beggar's bag, a horse's gram bag (Ka.); pon:kan.a, pon:kana, bokkan.a (Te.); pokkan.am (Ta.Ma.); bokkene (Te.); mokkan.i (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Hunger: bubuks.u hungry (Ma_rkP.); bus. hungry (Bshk.); bhuch habitual beggar (WPah.)(CDIAL 9288). cf. bhiks.a_ alms (AV.)(CDIAL 9485). bubhuks.ita hungry (Mn.); bubhukkhita (Pali); buhukkhia, bhukkhia (Pkt.); ibkara (Gypsy); bukhyo (S.); bhuki_ya_ (A.); bhukhi, bhoki, bhuk(h)ila_ (Or.); bhu_khiu (OG.); bhu_khyu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9287). bubhuks.a_ desire to eat, hunger (MBh.); bubhukkha_, buhukkha_, bhukkha_ hunger (Pkt.); bokh, bokhalo hungry; boka_la hungry (Gypsy); bus' hunger (Tor.); buch, bucha (Mai.); bocha, bhoch (K.); bukha (S.); bhukkh, bukh (L.); bhukkh (P.); d.hl.ukkh, bhukk, bhukh (WPah.); bhu_kh, bhu_k (Ku.); bhok(h) (N.); bhok (A.); bhukh (B.); bhuk(h)a, bhoka (Or.); bhu_khi (Bhoj.); bhu_kh (Aw.); bhu_k(h) (H.); bhu_kha (OMarw.); bhu_kh (G.); bhu_k (M.); bhu_ka (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9286). bubhuks.ate_ wishes to eat, is hungry (MBh.); buhukkhai is hungry (Pkt.); buch (Bshk.); bus. (Tor.); bochun (K.); bhrukkhn.a_ (WPah.); bhu_khab (Mth.); bhu_khal (Bhoj.); bhukn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9285). bhukkha_, bhukkhia, buhukkha_, buhukkhia hungry (Pkt.); bukhav, buka_ hungry (Gypsy); busai, bisau (Wot..); bu_t.ho (Bshk.); bucha_l (Sv.); bucha_ (Phal.); bucha_l to become hungry (Phal.); bochu, buccha_ hungry (K.); bhukkha_, bukha_, bhukha_ (L.); bhukkha_ (P.); d.hl.ukkho_, d.hukha_ (WPah.);[cf. dukkha sorrow (Skt.lex.) pukai (-v-, -nt-) to burn as the heart, be chagrined, grieve; n. distress; pukaivu heart-burning (Ta.); buguluni to be grieved (Tu.); pogulu, povulu to be sorrowful or afflicted; pokku id., grieve; n. grief (Te.)(DEDR 4456); bhog suffering; bhogan. to suffer, receive punishment (L.)(CDIAL 9267)]; bhukho (Ku.); bhoko (N.); bhukha_ (A.B.Or.); bhoka_ (Or.); bhu_kha_ (OAw.H.); bhu_kha (OMarw.); bhu_khu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9284). park poverty; parkn poor man; fem. parky, parke (Ko.); paraki, parki, parkisu, parkelu destitute, wretched (Tu.)(DEDR 3950).

5966.Image: palanquin-bearer; village headman: po_ki palanquin-bearer (Ta.); bo_yi id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) bho_gin headman of a village, barber (Skt.); wealthy (MBh.); wealthy man, owner (Pali); bho_i village headman, royal official (Pkt.); bho_ia id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9626). poy-pat.lal village headman (Go.); poiur patel (Go.)(DEDR App.51). bhoi_ head of a Gon.d. village (CDIAL 9626). bhoi_ palanquin-bearer (G.M.); head of a Gon.d. village, palanquin-bearer, porter (H.); bhui_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 9626). ga_ma-bho_jaka village headman (Pali); bho_aga protector (Pkt.); Village headman: bojaka, beji, beja village headman (OSi.)(CDIAL 9628). Fishermen: bo_y palanquin-bearers, fishermen (Ma.); bo_yi, bo_va a caste who are palanquin-bearers and fishermen (Ka.); bo_yi, bo_vi id. (Tu.); bo_yi_ palanquin-bearer (Te.); bo_yid (Pa.); bo_ya, bo_ya_d.u, bo_yava~_d.u savage, barbarian, inhabitant of the forest, huntsman, fisherman (Te.); bo_yi~_d.u a palanquin-bearer, man of the cowkeeper's or shepherd's caste (Te.); po_i_ male member of the fisherman caste (Go.)(DEDR App.51). Image: to carry on the head: mo_ to undertake (Ta.); mo_r- to carry on the head (Ka.); mo_cu, mo_yu to bear, carry, support, rest on, lean on (Te.); mo_pu to place on another as load; n. large bundle, burden, load (Te.); mo_puka~_d.u carrier, burden (Te.); mo~_ta bearing, carrying, load (Te.); mo.p burden (Kol.); mo_pap- (-t-) to keep something heavy (Ga.); mo_ta load (Go.); ma_c to carry on the head (Mand..); mo_c- (-it-) to be loaded down with heavy load (Kuwi)(DEDR 5126){? *cuma- > *cmo_- > mo_-: cuma to be burdened; carry a burden (Ta.); burden, load (Ma.)(DEDR 2677).} mowu the string held in the palm of the hand from which beam of a pair of scales is suspended (K.)(CDIAL 10051). cf. bo_y palanquin-bearers (Ma.)(DEDR App.51).

5967.Image: load: vahya litter (AV.); to be carried (A_s'vS'r.); vayha, vayha_ vehicle, litter (Pali); inf. vo_d.hum (Pali); vojjha burden (Pkt.); bojjha_ load (P.); bojo (Ku.); bojh (N.H.); boza_ (A.); bojha_ (B.Bhoj.H.M.); bojha (Or.); bojhab to load (Mth.); bojho load (G.S.); bohja_ (L.); bojo (G.); ojho (G.); ojhe~ (M.)(CDIAL 11465). ottha_ burden; heavy, difficult, hard to suffer, important (Kur.); ote heavy, important (Malt.)(DEDR 977). cf. por-u to bear, sustain (Ta.); por-ige burden; por-e a load, burden, measure, size (Ka.); pore a load (Kod..); por- to load (Go.); por- (pott-) to bear on the head (Ka.)(DEDR 4865). Image: to carry on shoulder: bohao to carry on the shoulder; to carry; bharia a stick with slings at either end, in which anything to be carried is placed, carried over one shoulder; bojh, bojha a burden, a load (Santali.lex.) va_kan- < va_ha one who possesses a conveyance (kon.t.al va_kan-um kupe_ran-um : Pa_rata. Kurukula. 29)(Ta.lex.)

5968.To reap; to carry harvest from field: ok- (-t-) caus. okis to carry on the head or shoulder in a container (Kond.a); to carry harvest from field (Pe.); opka (<ok-p-; okt-) to remove in loads, cart; n. carting, cartage (Kui); okh'nai to remove (Kuwi); panta okeng to reap (i.e. cart crops from field)(Kol.); okp- (okt-) to remove in loads, cart (Pa.); oskap- (oskat-) to remove (Ga.); akana_ to take, bring, carry (Go.)(DEDR 931).

5969.Boat: bagala an Arab boat of a particular description (Ka.); bagala_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) Catamaran; raft: paccari_ raft (Pali); pasura, pahura boat, raft (Si.)(CDIAL 8641). paccari_ catamaran = ul.umpa (Pali)(Pali.lex.) Raft: pakat.u boat (Tiva_.); raft; joints (Takkaya_kap. 483); pakka-k-kai rafter; pan:kilam raft (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pan:kila a boat (Skt.lex.) pah.r-i coracle, boat (Pat.t.in-ap. 30); ship, vessel (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) People of maritime tract: pah.r-iyar people of the maritime tract (Cu_t.a_.); pah.r-ul.i < pal + tul.i an ancient river south of the river Kumari, said to have been swallowed by sea (en:ko_ va_r..iya ... nan-n-i_r-p- pa(h)r-ul.i man.alin-um palave_ : Pur-ana_. 9)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_r-u ship, sailing ship; pak-r-i coracle, boat, ship, vessel (Ta.); pa_r-u small boat, catamaran; pa_r-al float, raft (Ma.); pa_r-u a kind of boat or ship (Ka.); pa_ti small boat (Tu.)(DEDR 4120). pa_r-u a kind of boat or ship (vahitra bhe_da); pa_ti (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) pa_raka carrying over, bearing across (Ka.lex.) Coracle: paricu, parical coracle, wicker-boat covered with leather, used to cross rivers (Ta.lex.) cf. vaheta_, baheta_ carrying loads (P.); bahita_ voyage (N.); bahita, bohita, buhita boat (MB.); bohita, boita, buita [sanskritized as vo_hitta ship (Skt.); conveyance, boat; bo_hittha ship (Pkt.); bohit, bauhit boat (H.)](CDIAL 11461). Image: raft: pan:kilam raft (Ta.); pan:kila (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Ship: vahala ship (Skt.)(CDIAL 11458). vahan.a carriage, boat (Pkt.); vahana carrying (MBh.); ship (Skt.)(CDIAL 11456). va_ha ship, carrying a load (Pkt.); adj. flowing (BhP.)(CDIAL 11607). va_han.a ship (Pkt.); va_ha_n. ship (G.); vahana-ya, vahala-ya raft (Si.)(CDIAL 11610). To row; to float: wa_yun to row (a boat)(K.); va_hn.a_, va_hun.a_, ba_hun.a_ to unmoor (a boat)(P.); ba_hiba_ to row or punt (a boat)(Or.); ba_ha_ to row (B.); vaha_un.a_ to float (P.); bowa_iba to cause to be rowed (A.)(CDIAL 11612). ba_ha_n.ia~_ boatman, man who spreads a net (Or.)(CDIAL 11611). cf. pakkale a small net (Tu.lex.) vahatu oar (R.); bahana_ oar (N.); ba_ha_n.a rowing, spreading of nets in deep water (Or.)(CDIAL 11610). ba_ic, ba_ich boat race (B.)(CDIAL 11615). cf. pa_rayati brings over (RV.); pa_rab to take across (Mth.)(CDIAL 8106). cf. pa_ra bringing across (RV.)(CDIAL 8100).

5970.To plough; to use a tool: va_hayati drives (a chariot), rides (a horse)(MBh.); va_he_ti causes to go or carry, drives away (Pali); va_he_i, va_hai drives (Pkt.); ba_ to plough (go_ ba_ant he ploughs)(Bshk.); bayoiki to plough, cultivate (Sh.); wa_yun to drive (bullocks), plough, row (a boat), wave (the arms), use (a tool)(K.); va_han.u to cause to flow (S.); va_han. to plough (L.); va_hn.a_, va_hun.a_, ba_hun.a_ to drive (a beast), plough, unmoor (a boat)(P.); ba_hn.a_ to sow (P.); baihn.u_ to sow; ba_hn.a_, ba~_han.u_ to strike (a ball); ba_hn.a_ to throw (a net); ba_n.o~_ to plough (WPah.); ba_n.o (Ku.); (halo) ba_unu (N.); ba_ha_ to carry, row (B.); ba_hiba_ to drive (a car), row or punt (a boat), spread (a net), invade (a country)(Or.); ba_hna_ to drive, load, plough, open out (H.); va_hvu~, va_vu~ to raise (a weapon)(G.); va _hn.e~ to carry (M.); va_ha_viya cause to be driven (Pkt.); vaha_van. to plough (L.); va_ha_un.a_ to cause to be ploughed or to float (P.); bawa_ia~_ caused to plough (Ku.); bowa_iba to cause to flow or to be carried or ploughed or rowed (A.); va_hiyama_na pres. part. pass. (Pali); va_hijjama_n.a (Pkt.); bayizoiki to be cultivated (Sh.); vehan. to be ploughed (pp. vur.ha_)(L.)(CDIAL 11612). [Verbs in K.WPah.Or.G. with meaning 'raise (arms or weapons), strike (a ball), throw (a net)' and those in P. and WPah. with meaning 'sow' (if < 'throw' rather than < 'plough') perh. < vya_dhayati which in MIA coalesces with va_hayati (CDIAL 11612).] ba_ic, ba_ich boat race (B.)(CDIAL 11613). va_hya to be driven, etc. (BhP.); ba_haj ploughed land ready for sowing (P.)(CDIAL 11614). cf. ba_ug act of sowing (Bi.); ba_wag lands sown after a single ploughing (H.)(CDIAL 11528). par.ak first ploughing; harwaha, halboha ploughman (Santali.lex.) Ploughed field: ba_n cultivation (Sh.); do_no baiyoiki to plough (Sh.); va_han. ploughed field (P.); baha_n.o ploughshare (Ku.); ba~_r.~ ploughing (Ku.); va_h work (Skt.)(CDIAL 11610).

5971.Image: idol, doll: ba_hula_ ba_vla_, ba_hola_ idol, doll, statue (M.); ba_valum. (G.); ba_ulli_ paca_lika_ (OM.)(Bloch, p. 370). Images: doll; pupil of the eye: pa_vai puppet, doll, image, picture, portrait, pupil of the eye, woman, damsel (Ta.); pa_va doll, puppet (Ma.); pa_pe, ha_he figure, ornamental form, puppet, doll, badge, ensign, pupil of the eye (Ka.); pa_p image, statue, puppet, doll (Tu.); pa_pa pupil of the eye; image (Te.)(DEDR 4107). cf. pu_vai lady, woman (Ta.); pupup small baby (To.); hu_he child; puppet (Ka.); pu_pa an infant; pupil of the eye (Te.)(DEDR 4365). cf. paudgalika material (Skt.); poggaliya (Pkt.); pugul personal, individual (Si.)(CDIAL 8418). Something having form: puggala person, soul (Pali); puggala, poggala, poggara something having form (Pkt.); pugul (OSi.); pun:gala body, soul, person (Skt.); material object (S'an:k.)(CDIAL 8272). Property, matter: porul. thing, matter, property, riches, leadership (Ta.); stores, provisions, utensils; gold (Ta.lex.); riches, meaning (Ma.); porut.t.u cause, matter of importance (Ta.); cause (Ma.); porl thing (Ko.); purul. fitness, propriety, power, strength; purul.i a notable, high position; poral. wealth (Ka.) (IA 19.143; c. A.D.685); porlu beauty, comeliness; beautiful, handsome, fine; porle a handsome man (Tu.); pon.t.e for the sake of; purulu wealth, honour, nature, valour, beauty (Te.); pora matter, concern, interest (Kui)(DEDR 4544). porul.ar-ai treasury (Tiruva_lava_. 55,24)(Ta.lex.)

5974.Image: bridal procession: vahatu bridal procession (RV.)(CDIAL 11455). bariat a mariage procession; party of bridegroom; baretok to accompany bride; bahu bride; ja~wa~e bridegroom, husband (Santali.lex.) vah carry (Skt.); vo_d.hr. carrying, bringing (Pa_n..); vo_l.ha_ nom. sg. m. draught horse (RV.); bridegroom, husband (Mn.); vo_d.hum inf. of vahati (Skt.)(CDIAL). Boat: cf. o_t.am boat (Ta.lex.)

5975.Procession: pavan-i procession, riding into state, parade, as of a prince or deity (Tan-ippa_. ii,159,397); bavani (Te.); pavan-i-k-kut.ai umbrella held over a king in state procession (Ci_vaka. 2369, Urai.); pavan-i-va_tal, pavan-i-po_tal to parade, go in procession; to ride in state (Ta.lex.) vahatu bridal procession (RV.); ox (Skt.)(CDIAL 11455).

5976.Deposit; treasure: bayake, bayke, oyke a deposit, a trust; a treasure, a hoard, kad.avara; honna bayake gold deposit (Ka.); baycu, baccu, baycal depositing, etc. (Ka.); bay, oy to deposit; to put aside, hide, niks.e_pa (Ka.); vai (Ta.); ve (Ma.); ve_ to throw, cast, fling, discharge; to place etc. (Te.)(Ka.lex.) oyyike carrying off, conveying (Ka.); oy, uy, bayi, bayyu, vay, vayyu, vey to carry off; to conduct, carry, convey (Ka.); oy to put, to lay, to deposit, to put aside, to hide (Ka.); uy, vai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vai to deposit (Ta.)(DEDR 5549).

5977.To go in a conveyance; carry off: uy to carry off; a cry to drive away animals (Ka.); uy to ride, go in a conveyance, drive, proceed (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) vai, vay, vayyu, vey, veyyu to carry off etc. (Ka.); vet- (vett-) to seize and take away (Kol.); vet-/ved- to pull (Nk.); baccna_ to snatch away, rob by force, carry off, seize, confiscate (Kur.); bace to rob (Malt.)(DEDR 5551).

5978.Image: broom: vyavaha_rika_ a broom (Skt.lex.)

5979.Image: scraper: okharn.e~ to smooth a field after ploughing (M.); avaskirati scrapes (Skt.); avakirati spreads (A_s'vGr.); o_kirati casts out (Pali)(CDIAL 864).

5981.Image: mortar: va_han., va_yan., va_i_n. stone mortar fixed in the ground (M.); avagha_ta threshing corn in a mortar (Skt.)(CDIAL 754). avagha_ta blow, threshing corn (Skt.)(CDIAL 753). avagha_tayati causes to thresh (S'Br.); avahanti threshes (RV.); ogha_vvu~ to thresh (corn etc.)(G.)(CDIAL 755). cf. ukhal. mortar (M.)(CDIAL 2360).

5982.Bark: vakku skin (Ta.); cf. tvac (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) valkalam cortex, a membrane that covers some parts of the body; valkam bark of tree (Tailava.)(Ta.lex.) valkala bark, outer garment (Ya_j.); bokla_ bark (H.); va_lkala made of bark (Skt.); ascetics' bark dress (Skt.); vakkala bark, bark garment (Pali.Pkt.); bakal bark (Ku.); ba_kal, ba_kali scale, husk, bark garment (A.); bakala_ piece of bark (A.); ba_kal bark (B.); bakal.a, bakal.a_, bakla_ (Or.); ba_kal outer planking of a boat (Bi.); bakkal, bakal, bakla_ bark, rind, skin (H.); va_kalam. bark garment (OG.); va_kal. (G.); va_kal. tattered garment, quilt (M.); ba_klu thick, coarse (WPah.); ba_klo (Ku.N.); balku branch (Sh.); va_gala made of bark, bark (Pkt.); bakhala_ piece of bark or skin (A.); va_khal., va_kal. (M.); bokro bark (N.)(CDIAL 11418). valka bark of a tree (TS.); va_lka made of bark (Skt.); cloth or garment of bark (Ma_rkP.); vakka skin, bark (Pkt.); bakk bark (P.); bakt.a_ scale, flat portion (A.); sila_-ba_k a kind of lichen or moss (H.); vak-a inner bark of trees (Si.); baku branch; balku, boku (Sh.); va_ka bark; ava_ka without bark (Pali); va_ga, va_ya skin, bark (Pkt.); bakkhe branch (Sh.); va_kh, va_k fibres of palm leaves etc. (G.); filamentous integuments used for making ropes (M.); bikk bark (P.); vukka, bukka skin, bark (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11417). cf. oliyal skin, hide (Ta.); olipu skin, skin of a snake, shape (Tu.); oliyu to be peeled, flayed; olucu to peel, flay, strip; olupu peeling, flaying (Te.); ols- to skin (Kol.); to peel (Nk.); olc- to flay (Pa.)(DEDR 1000). cf. coli- to strip off, peel off, tear (Ta.); chollai to skin (Pkt.)(DEDR 2856). cf. basge to peel (Malt.)(DEDR 5340). valka bark of a tree (TS.); vakka a large elephant rope; vakku-na_r hemp fibre (Ta.); vakku hemp for nets, sackcloth, etc. (Ma.)(DEDR 5209).

5983.Image: to be on heat: va_s'ra roaring (RV.); va_s'ra_ lowing cow, cow (RV.); va_s'ita cow desiring bull (AV.); vahura desire of cow, goat, etc. for male (S.); vahurjan.u to desire the male (S.); va_hran. to be on heat (of cows)(L.); va_harn.a_ to be on heat (of animals)(P.); bahiria_ heated with sexual desire (of cat, lion, elephant (P.)(CDIAL 11590). va_s'itam cry of birds, beasts, etc. (Ta.lex.)

5984.Chest; side: vaks.as breast, chest (RV.); vakkha, vaccha chest (Pkt.); bas. lung (Sh.); wach chest, bosom (K.); vakkhi_, vakhi_ side below the ribs; vakkhi_ sides (L.); vakkh, bakkh the side (P.); vakkhi_, bakkhi_ side under armpit, rib; bakhe~ adv. on the side of (P.); d.l.akh, d.hl.akh side (WPah.); ba_kh, ba_k udder (H.); wa_s' belly (Ash.)(CDIAL 11188). Image: breast or chest: akku the breast or chest (Te.); akam breast (Cilap. 30,16)(Ta.lex.); akakka_r.., akan:ka_r.. heart of a tree (Ta.); akan:kai palm of the hand (Ta.); akalam breast (Ta.); a_kam body, breast, mind, heart (Ta.); a_ya a part of the body, the breast (Ka.)(DEDR 7). Bosom; embrace: akwa_r, a~kwa_r bosom, embrace (H.); a~kapa_li, an:kapa_lika_ embrace (Skt.); an:ko_lika_ (Skt.); am.kava_li_ (Pkt.); angali embrace, armful; angala bosom (Gypsy); na_l bosom (K.); na_l-motu embrace; na_l-mut (K.); goa_l embrace (WPah.); an.wa_l (Ku.); a~ga_lo the bent arm, armful, embrace (N.)[cf. akle top of shoulder(Ash.); akri upper part of arm (Kt.); uku shoulder (Pr.)(CDIAL 109)]; a~_kowa_l embrace (A.); a~kwa_r, akwa_r sheaf as large as can be carried between the arms (Bi.); an:galu caress (S.)(CDIAL 103). Hip to carry children; embrace: an:ka hip where children are carried (Br.A_rUp.); hip (Pali); a~_kh kneepan (H.)(CDIAL 100). ong- (onkt-) to carry (child) on hip; od.ng- (od.onkt-) to have (child) with oneself while sleeping (Kol.); ongip- to carry (child) on hip (Nk.); on- to take child in lap (Nk.); ong- id. (Pa.Ga.); orng-, orun- id. (Go.); urn-, ur.ng- to embrace, take in arms (Go.); un-rga_na_ to sleep with a child in arms (Go.)(DEDR 935). cf. an. arm (Pas'.); un.tro arm (Ash.); an. thigh (Kal.); a~_ga_ as much as can be held in both arms (H.); a~ga_vin.e~ to embrace (M.)(CDIAL 114). akkam-pakkam this way and that way (Ta.lex.)

5985.Army: pakkam army (ta_varum pakka men.n.iru ko_t.iyin- r-alaivan- : Kampara_. Ilan:kaikke_l.vi. 40); pakkar relations, kindred (Ta.lex.) paks.a party, troop (MBh.); pa_kharo enemy; pakhulo stranger (WPah.)(CDIAL 7627). Enemy: pakai enemy (Ta.); pakain~an-, pakaivan- enemy; pakaimai enmity (Ta.); paka enmity; pakayan enemy; pakekka to oppose, hate; pakappu hostility (Ma.); ax hostility; axexo-r-n enemy (To.); page, hage enmity, enemy; pageka_r-a enemy (Ka.); page enmity; pageye enemy (Kod..); page hatred, enmity (Tu.); paga enmity, enemy (Te.); pagatu~d.u, pagava~_d.u, pavat.u~d.u enemy; pagar-ru, pagada_ri enemies (Te.)(DEDR 3808). Image: hatred, enmity: page, hage hatred, enmity (Ka.); pat.i, par..i, pat.ar, pakai (Ta.); page an enemy, an opponent (Ka.lex.) cf. bakher.a_ brawl (B.H.); bakhero controversy (N.); vakher.a_ brawl (P.)(CDIAL 12186).

5987.Image: to hide: pakk- to hide oneself (Pa.); pakkip- (pakkit-) to hide something (Pa.); pak- to hide; pakup- (pakut-) id. (Ga.)(DEDR 3810). Image: to lie in ambush: patun:ku to hide, lie in ambush, crouch, disappear; patukku to hide, secrete (Ta.); patukkam skulking, crouching (Ta.); patun.n.uka, patiyuka to sneak, crouch (Ma.); patukkuka to conceal (Ma.); pati an ambush (Ma.); padng to lie crouching for a spring (Ko.); padduni to sneak, crouch, hide (Tu.); patgre to take refuge or shelter (Malt.)(DEDR 3912). Image: to bend, bow: padugu to bend, bow (Ka.); padan:kara in a stooping posture (Tu.)(DEDR 3912).

5988.Flame: bhra_s' shine (Skt.); bra_h, bre_h, dat. bri_s'u flame (K.)(CDIAL 9681). bhra_j, bhra_jas shine (Skt.); bhra_jate_ shines (RV.); bhra_jas shine, spark (RV.); bha_jai shines (Pkt.); d.l.e~u it dawned; burn; pain (WPah.); bra_zo~_e, bla_ze_i aches (Ash.); lohi (Pas'.); bra_ze painful, pain (Ash.); braze pain (Kt.); brdso (Bashg.); byaiz, bez ill, sick (Pr.)(CDIAL 9659). bha_sa light (MBh.); bha_sas (RV.); bha_sa, bha_sa_ brightness (Pkt.); bas flame (Ash.); ba_s (Bashg.); bhas (Kal.); bas (with rising tone)(Kho.); bha_h, bha_ flame, fire; bah fire (L.); bha_h fire, splendour; bha_hi, bhahi a slight appearance, tinge (of any colourj)(P.); ba_ rays; bha_s discernment, act of seeing (Ku.); appearance (Mth.G.); impression, fancy (G.); bahakan.u to shine (S.)(CDIAL 9480). bha_sati is bright (RV.); appears, becomes clear (Skt.); bha_syate_ Cat. pass. of bha_sayati illuminates (Up.); bha_sai is bright, is known (Pkt.); bha_sna_ to shine (H.); ba_sun to become visible, become intelligible (K.); bha_sa_ to appear, seem (B.); bha_sab (Mth.); bha_sai becomes known (OAw.); bha_sna_ to appear, be known (H.); bha_svu~ to appear, resemble (G.); bha_sn.e~ to appear, seem, seem probable (M.); bha_sta_ appears (Konkan.i); bha_san.u to be seen, appear, seem (S.)(CDIAL 9481). Image: likeness: pa_n:ku equality, likeness (Tol. Po. 78)(Ta.lex.) Little earthen furnace: bhaha_ra_, bhaha_ri_ little earthen furnace (P.)(CDIAL 9482). bhrama flame (RV.)(CDIAL 9646). bha_svara shining (S'Br.); bha_sura (Skt.); bhassara, bha_sura bright (Pali); bha_sura, bha_sira (Pkt.); bha_sara (G.)(CDIAL 9483). bha_ma blaze (of anger)(RV.); bo_m anger (K.); bha_m angry woman, young and seductive woman (G.)(CDIAL 9454). cf. va_ku light, brightness, beauty (Ta.)(DEDR 5332).

5989.Nettle for cloth: bha~gra_, bha~gr.a_ eclipta prostrata (H.); bhr.n:gara_ja, bhr.n:garajas the shrub eclipta prostrata (Skt.); bhr.n:garaja (Sus'r.); bhr.n:ga, bhr.n:gara (Bhpr.); bham.garaya eclipta prostrata (Pkt.); bha_n.ro a kind of plant from which cloth is woven, nettle (N.); bha_gro verbesina prostrata (G.); bangaya, bingu verbesina erecta, eclipta alba (Si.)(CDIAL 9580). Nettle: cf. tumpai, tur-ike/toyrv/cor-i (Ta.lex.) Seller of hemp: bha~gera_ maker and seller of hemp (P.H.M.); bha~geran. his wife (P.); bhageran (H.); bhageri_ (M.)(CDIAL 9355). bhan:ga hemp (AV.S.); hemp, coarse hempen cloth (Pali); bham.ga_ hemp (Pkt.); bon. hemp, bhang (Kho.); banga hemp (K.); bhan:g (P.WPah.); hemp, bhang (H.); bha_n. hemp (Ku.N.A.B.Bhoj.); bha_n.o hemp-seed (Ku.); bha_n:ga (Or.); bha_g (Bi.Mth.H.G.M.); bangahara intoxicating drink, arak (Si.); bhan:gi_ hemp addict (S.H.); bhan.uwa_ addicted to hemp (A.); bhan.elo coarse hempen cloth (Ku.); bhan:gela_ (H.)(CDIAL 9354). Hemp: pan:ki bhang, a variety of Indian hemp (Tailava. Taila. 105)(Ta.lex.) Garment: pan:kam a superior garment of ancient times (Cilap. 14,108, Urai); small piece of cloth (Ta.lex.)

5990.Brinjal: var..utalai, var..tun.ai brinjal, egg-plant, solanum melongena; India nightshade, solanum indicum; val.ai climbing brinjal; van:kam, van:kan.am brinjal (Ta.); var..utina, var..utini id. (Ma.); var.dan. solanum indicum (Ko.); po0an. id. (To.); badan.i, badan.e, badane, badne brinjal (Ka.); badane id. (Tu.); van:ga, van:ka_ya id. (Te.); vange id. (Kol.Nk.); va_nga (Pe.); bat.an-go id. (Malt.)(DEDR 5301). bhan.t.a_ki_, va_rta_ka, vr.nta, vr.ntaka, van:ga, van:gana (Skt.); va_tin:gan.a egg-plant, solanum melongena (Pali.Skt.); badin:ga_n (Ir.Pers.); be_tin:gala (Phal.); bhatin:gar (Sh.); va_im.gan.a, va_im.gan.i_, va_im.gin.i_, va_yam.gan.a, vaim.gan.a id. (Pkt.); vai~gan., bai~gan. (P.); bain.an. egg-plant, penis (Ku.); baigan, baigun egg-plant (N.); ben.ena_ (A.); ba_igana (MB.); begun (B.); ba_in:gan.o, ba_igan.a (Or.); bai~gan (Bi.); bai~gun, baigan (H.); vaim.gan.a (OG.); ve~gan. (G.); vai~gan.i_, bai~gan.i_ purple (P.); ba_igan.ia_, baigin.ia_ (Or.); a_i~gin.ia~_ having a bad smell like that of cooked egg-plant (Or.); ba_yan.a egg-plant (Or.); ba_r.in:gan (B.); bai~jn.i_ purple (WPah.); baijani (N.); bai~jni_ (H.); vam.ga egg-plant (Pkt.); van:ga_ (P.); ba_n:ga_ (Or.); va~_gi_ (M.); vambat.u (Si.); wa~_gun (K.); va_n.an.u (S.); ba_gun (B.); ba_gun.a, ba_n:gina (Or.); van.in.i purple (S.); ba_guniya_ (B.)(CDIAL 11503).

5991.Twenty: bisau~d, biso~d 20 percent, a fine of 20 percent (N.); biso~d 20 percent (H.); vims'a-bandha 20 percent (Skt.)(CDIAL 11617). vims'a consisting of 20 parts (TS); vims'aka id. (MBh.); 20th (Mn.); vis'ami id. (Dardic); vaso 20th part; 20th part of a vigho (G.)(CDIAL 11615). wuhyumu 20th (K.); vims'atima, vims'ama 20th (Skt.); vi_sama 20th (Pkt.); vi_ho~ 20th (S.); vi_hva_ 20th (P.); bihau~ 20th (WPah.); bi_swa_ 20th (H.); bi_savau 20th (OMarw.)(CDIAL 11618). biswa_si_ 20th part (H.)(CDIAL 11619). vims'a_ms'a 20th part (Skt.)(CDIAL 11619). vi_sva_ 20th part of a ruka_ (M.)(CDIAL 11618). visva_si_ 20th part of a particular land measure (G.)(CDIAL 11619). visiti, visi (OSi.Bra_hmi); vims'aka a score (Skt.); biso id. (Ku.); vi_ho the figure 20 (S.)(CDIAL 11615). vi_sam 20 (Pali.Pkt.); vi_sati 20 (Pali.); vi_sai 20 (Pkt.) vi_sa_ 20 (Pkt.); vimsadi 20 (Pkt.); bimsa 20 (Or.); bis 20 (N.B.); bis, wis, wi_ 20 (Gypsy); vi_s 20 (G.M.); vi_sa 20 (Konkan.i); bi_s (Ku.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); bi_sa 20 (OMarw.); wuh, wi_h 20 (K.); vi_ha 20 (S.); biha_ 20 (A.); vi_ (L.); vi_h 20 (L.P.); bi_h 20 (P.WPah.); bi_ 20 (WPah.); bis'i 20 (WPah.); vissa, visi 20 (Si.) (CDIAL 11616). Measure: viggha_ a measure of land about 1/3 acre (L.P.); bigha_ (N.A.B.M.); bi_gha_ (Bi.H.); bigaha_, bi_ga_h measure of land (H.); bi_ga_ (P.); biga (K.); bigahi_ seed plot (M.); vighu~, vi~ghu~ measure of land (G.)(CDIAL 11668). bigha_, bi_gha_ a measure of land (IE 8-6.IEG.) 20 ma_na = one va_t.i (Or.); One ma_na = one bigha_ = 25 gun.t.ha (Or.); One gun.t.ha = 16 bisva; One bisva = 1/20 bigha_ [cf. MIAI, p.39.] vim.s'ati 20 (RV.); vim.s'at, vim.s'a (in compounds)(MBh.); vi_sam. (Pali); vi_sati (As'.); vis'ati (NiDoc.); bis (Gy.); wisi_ (Wg.); wece (Kt.); bi_s (Tor.Wot..)(CDIAL 11616). {vi_saiti (Av.); viginti (Latin); fiche (Old Irish)(Pali. lex.)} vims'a consisting of 20 parts (TS.) = 20 muntiri = 1/320 X 20 = 1/16. vi_cam the fraction of 1/16th (Ta.); vi_s'am 1/16th gold fanam, or a rice-corn's weight of gold (Ma.); vi_sa, i_sa the fraction 1/16th, 1/16th of a han.a (Ka.); vi_su, vi_sa 1/16th, a weight of gold equal to a grain of rice (Tu.); vi_samu a sixteenth part (Te.)(DEDR 5449). {cf. vi_cam seed, seed grain (Ta.) < bi_ja seed, semen (RV.); seed (Pali); bi_a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9250). bi_ya rice when cleaned from husk (Ka.); biyyamu seeds or grains of oryza sativa without husks, paddy deprived of the husk (Te.); bi.am rice (Kol.)(DEDR App.60).}{cf. ma_ka_n.i = vi_cam = ma_ (1/20) + ka_n.i (1/80) = 1/16 (Ta.lex.): ma_ the fraction 1/20; a measure of weight (Tol. Er..ut. 1770, Urai); ma_vu (Te.); ma_ (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 4785). ka_n.am an ancient weight; gold (Ta.); ka_n.i the fraction 1/80; a land measure; landed property; a weight (1/40 of a maca_t.i)(Ta.); 1/20 of an estate (Ma.); the fraction 1/64 (Tu.Te.); ka_ni id. (Te.); ka_n.i a measure (Or.)(DEDR 1444)}. muntiri the fraction 1/320 (Ta.Ma.)[muntirime_r- ka_n.i mikuvate_l (Na_lat.i, 346)(Ta.lex.); muntirikai id. (Ta.)(DEDR 4964).

5993.Warrior: mar-avo_n- warrior; mar-avo_n- ce_n-ai (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,78); mar-am war; victory; killing, murder mar-avan- inhabitant of the desert tract, hilly tract; hunter; warrior, hero; ur-in-uyi raca_ mar-avar (Kur-al.. 778); commander, military chief (Ta.lex.) mar-am valour, bravery, wrath, Yama (Ta.); disagreement, war (Ma.); mar-avai anything cruel by nature (Ta.); marava the caste of Maravas (Te.); mar-avar the Tamil tribe of warriors, Maravas (Ma.)(DEDR 4763). Battle, war: bavara battle, war (Ka.); bavaramu id. (Te.)(DEDR 3997).

5994.Distribution of food: vikars.ati drags apart (TS.); draws this way and that, sets (arrow to bow)(MBh.); vikars.a drawing (a bow)(R.); vikars.an.a dragging asunder, distributing (food)(MBh.); pa_m.s'u-vikars.an.a name of children's game (MBh.)(CDIAL 11622).

5995.Image: brim, edge: vakkal side (Ma.); van:ka direction, side, quarter (Te.); vakku brim, edge (Ma.); va~_ka quarter, side (Te.); va_kku side, direction (Ta.)(DEDR 5208).

5996.Further bank: pa_ra bringing across (RV.); further bank, furthest end (RV.); pa_ratas from the further side (RV.); pa_re_ on the other side (Skt.); pa_ra further bank (Pali.Pkt.); pa_r further bank (K.); pru side (K.); pa_ru limit, boundary, side (S.); pa_r bank (L.); further bank (P.); end, limit (Ku.); river bank, shore, side (A.); opposite side, end, border (B.); pa_ra (Or.); further bank (OMth.); pa_r, pari on the other side (Sh.); pa_r further bank (H.); further bank, end, bottom (G.); bank, limit (M.); adverbial forms: pa_ram. beyond; pa_rato_ from the other side (Pali); pa_ro from beyond (Sh.); pa_ri from (K.); on the opposite side, across, through (S.); beyond (N.G.); pa_ro~ from the opposite side (S.); from beyond (L.); pa_r(e) beyond (L.P.); pa_ro~ from beyond; pa_ru~ by means of; pa_r across (L.); pa_r beyond (WPah.Ku.M.); on the other side of (N.B.Mth.H.); across (B.Mth.H.); par at a distance, aside (Ku.); pa_ra on the other side of, across (OAw.); phar on the further side, far away, across (Kho.); pha_(r) across (Phal.); pharar.o pron. that (in front); phar.a_ there (Phal.); pa_ru limit, boundary, side (S.); pa_re_, po_ru, pho_ru_, pha_rau the day after tomorrow (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8100). cf. paras'vas adv. the day after tomorrow (MBh.)(CDIAL 7799j). pa_rima-ti_ra the further shore (Pali); payim, phe_m on the other side, across (Tor.); pryumu belonging to the country beyond, i.e. Panjab (K.); pa_ri_ bate by yonder way (WPah.)(CDIAL 8113). pa_riya final; end (RV.); pa_rya being on the further bank (TS.); pa_ri_ country on the other side of river Ka_li_, i.e., Nepalese territory (Ku.); pa_ri the opposite bank; pa_ria_ situated on the further side (Or.); i-priya_ living on this side (A.)(CDIAL 8114). apa_ra boundless (RV.); the near bank (MBh.); shoreless (Pali); ava_ra boundless (Pkt.); a_va_ru wilderness (S.); ava_ra_ desolate, waste; wandering (L.); apa_ra the near bank (Pali); wri in the direction of (Sh.); wa_ro from the direction of (Sh.); wa_r on this side; wari_ (WPah.); wa_r, war (Ku.); wa_ri (N.); wa_r the near bank; adv. on this side (H.); ava_r on this side (M.); wa_r pa_r on this side and that (Ku.); wa_r pa_r, wari pari (N.); wa_r pa_r across (H.); warla_, wala_, urla_ belonging to this side (H.); tava_r on that side (M.)(CDIAL 482). cf. ava_ra the near side (VS.)(CDIAL 885). ua_ro unfrequented part on a river bank (G.) (CDIAL 2192). viyar opposite bank, side (Kho.)(CDIAL 11796). supa_ra easy to cross, leading to success (RV.); suwa_r good, prospering (Kal.); suwa_rnu_ to improve in general (WPah.)(CDIAL 13478). appur-am that side; adv. henceforth, after that, furthermore (Ta.); pur-am outside, exterior, opp. to akam (Kur-al., 277); per-a (Te.); hor-a (Ka.); pur-am (Ma.); side, part, face, surface (Kalit. 76)(Ta.); pur-ampar outside; pur-ampu exterior, outside (Periyapu. A_n-a_ya. 7)(Ta.); hor-agu (Ka.); pur-ampat.i outskirts of a town (S.I.I. ii,124)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

5997.Image: afterbirth: avara_ the afterbirth (Pa_rGr..); amara_, amala_ afterbirth, umbilical cord (Skt.); ora afterbirth (S.); ur (L.); a~wal, ambal, a~_wal (H.); var, va_r caul, afterbirth (M.)(CDIAL 813).

5998.Spark: pr.iski spark (Pe.); pr.ihe, pr.ihki id. (Mand..); pr.iska, pr.isi id. (Kuwi); prishk id. (Br.)(DEDR 4191). pu_ spark as of fire (Ta.); pu_vala id.; pua embers (Kui); pu_ya id.; puiya; puva spark; puya_ burning coal (Kuwi)(DEDR 4347).

5999.Mattock; hoe; sickle; adze: va_hola mattock (S.); vahola_ mattock (L.); bahola_ adze (P.); basulo (N.Ku.< P.); basu_la_ (Bi.); basula_ (Mth.); basola_, basu~_la_ (H.); a~_si_ scythe (Ku.); ha~_siyo sickle (N.); ha~_siya_ (B.); ha~siya_, hasiya_ (H.); ha~sua_ (Bi.); ha~_svo hoe (G.)(CDIAL 7). wasoli hammer (Shum.)(CDIAL 11588). cf. va_cci, va_ycci, va_t.ci adze (Ta.); va_cci adze, scraper (Ma.); po.d.c adze (To.); ba_ci id. (Ka.Tu.); ba_ji id. (Tu.)(DEDR 5339).

6000.Cockle-shell: vakka_ a kind of cockle-shell (Kur-r-a_ Kur-a. 79); vakka_man.i bead of a kind of cockle-shell; vakka_man.i-c-cet.t.ikal. traders dealing in vakka_-man.i (Ta.lex.)

6001.Image: a road that bifurcates: pan.la fork (Kond.a); pan.la sar-i a road that separates in two directions (Kond.a)(DEDR 3818). pangal di_na the plains country (Kui); panga outside (Kuwi)(DEDR 3819).

6002.Image: broken: vighat.ate_ flies apart (Skt.); is marred, is broken (Skt.); vighat.ita id. (Skt.); vighad.ai, vihad.ai is separated, broken (Pkt.); bihar.a_ to turn wrong (B.); vihad.ai frustrates (OG.); vigar.n.a_, bigar.n.a_ to be spoilt (P.); bigar.n.o to be spoilt, be angry with (Ku.); bigranu to be spoilt (N.); bigariba to be altered, be out of order, be broken (A.); bigr.a_ to get vicious (B.); bigar.iba_, bigir.iba_ to be spoilt (Or.); bigharna_, bigar.na_ (H.); bigarun (K.); bigir.an.u (S.); bagar.vu~ (G.); bighad.n.e~, bigad.n.e~ (M.); vihad.ia separated (Pkt.); bigari changed in form (A.); vigha_t.ita destroyed (Pali); viha_d.e_i separates, destroys (Pkt.); vighad.n.e~ to spoil, demolish (M.); viga_r.n.a_ to spoil (P.); biga_r.an.o (Ku.); biga_rnu (N.); biga_r.iba_ (Or.); biga_r.na_ (H.); biga_run (K.); biga_r.an.u (S.); baga_r.vu~ (G.); bighad.n.e~, bigad.n.e~ (M.); viga_r. damage (L.); viga_r., biga_r. (P.); biga_r (N.); biga_r. (H.); biga_r.u (S.); baga_r., baga_r.o (G.); bighad. (M.); vighad. union (M.); vighat.t.ita knocked (Pali); vighat.t.ai, vihat.t.ai is destroyed, is separated; caus. vighat.t.e_i (Pkt.); bighat.iba to crush, powder (A.); bighat.a_b to spoil (Mth.); vighat.n.e~ to break (M.)(CDIAL 11673).

6003.Saffron; asafoetida: ba_hlika, va_hlika, ba_hlike, va_hli_ka balkh; saffron; asafoetida (Ka.lex.)

6004.Image: thin, withered: valga (valgi-) to become emaciated, thin, withered (Kui); vali (-pp-, -tt-) to be painful; n. pain, ache, trouble, difficulty (Ta.); valayuka to be straitened, pressed, distressed; valekka to distress, vex, imprison; valaccal distress, poverty (Ma.); balepuni to be distressed, vexed (Tu.); valiyu to be tired, become thin or reduced (Te.)(DEDR 5281). cf. vikala deprived of a part, mutilated, deficient in (Skt.); vikali_ (Pa_n..gan.a); vikala, vikalaka defective, lacking (Pali); viala incomplete (Pkt.); viyalu old, fragile, dried up (Si.)(CDIAL 11623). olku (olki-) to grow weak or faint, pine, be disheartened, become reduced, slender, thin, be emaciated; or-ku (or-ki-) to be deficient, be wanting, fall short, droop; or-kam poverty, indigence, destitution, feebleness, weakness, deficiency, dearth; olli thin person, thinness, slenderness (Ta.); olkuka to grow weak, contract; olla_t.i a thin, slender person (Ma.); olandala, olandale swoon, fainting (Tu.); olla~-bo_vu to faint, grow or turn pale, fade (Te.)(DEDR 1004). vat.i (-v-, -nt-) to be diminished, dry up (as water in a river); vat.iccal decreasing (Ta.); vat.u thin, poor; vat.iyuka to dry up (Ma.); var.v poverty; var.vn poor man; bar.va. meyn., bar.vn meyn., var.vn meyn. son of a pauper (abusive)(Ko.); pod.fin mox son of a pauper (To.); bad.a, bad.avu poorness, weakness, feebleness, thinness, leanness, humbleness; poor etc.; bad.ava a poor, weak man; bad.aka a lean, thin, feeble male; bad.akalu state of being weak, thin, etc.; bad.atana thinness, poverty; bad.aha thinness, leanness, fineness; ban.agu a wretch, poor person, worthless person (Ka.); bad.a poor; bad.ave poor man; fem. bad.avati (Kod..); bad.a poor, indigent, lean, thin; bad.ave, bad.uve a poor man, pauper; bad. thin, lean; bad.avu hunger (Tu.); bad.ugu corpse, a weak creature; lean, thin, slender, skinny; vad.alu to fade, wither; vad.iyu to dry up, become lean; vat.incu to starve (Te.); wad.e_kta_na_, va_d.ekta_na_, e_r vat.k- to be thirsty; vat.ka vas- thirst to be felt; wutkee thirst (Go.)(DEDR 5222). cf. va_t.u to wither, fade, dry up, be emaciated, become weak (Ta.)(DEDR 5342). vara_ka wretched (Pa_n..); vara_kaka (Skt.); vara_ka wretched (Pali); vara_ya (Pkt.); bara_ poor, wretched (N.)(CDIAL 11324).

6005.Image: shaking: cf. bal.aku to shake, tremble (Ka.)(DEDR 5307). var.p, ver.p- to fan (Go.); var.pa (var.t-), vat.pa (vat.t-) to shake, shake out, beat the wings (Kui)(DEDR 5303).

6006.Image: woman with long eyes: va_lutan.t.i woman having long eyes; va_lika long; va_lu long (Te.); va_l anything long or elongated (Ta.); va.l long and narrow (of leaves, shape of face, head etc.); va.l(n), va.lman. man with long, narrow head; fem. va.lmanj [cf. man.d. head (Ko.)(DEDR 4682)](Ko.)(DEDR 5365). Long: cf. va_r length, elongation; height, straightness (Ta.); ba_r(u) length (Ka.)(DEDR 5358).

6007.Gardenia gummifera: bikke, bir..ke name of a small forest tree with eatable fruit, gardenia gummifera (Ka.lex.) dikamali (M.,); karmarri (H.); dikamli (H.); tikkamalli (Ta.); karinguva (Te.); gum: antiseptic, carminative, antiseptic, stimulant, in dyspepsia, anthelmintic, used in veterinary medicine to keep off flies from sores; habitat: S. Mahrata country, N. Kanara, N. Circars, Deccan and Carnatic to the foot of the N. Ghats of Madras State, and Malabar coast (GIMP, p.123).

6008.Image: a shooting posture: vis'a_kha an attitude in shooting, standing with the feet a span apart (Ka.lex.) vica_kan- Skanda (Tiva_.; Kantapu. Tiruvil.ai. 60) (Ta.lex.)

6009.Image: walking: vi_khe walking (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6010.Image: two: vira, ira two; viraja_ji double jasmine (Ka.Te.); vir an affix for the plural, masculine and feminine, e.g. tandevir, ta_yvir, sosevir, attevir, attevirgal. (Ka.); viral.a, virala, be_r-e separate (Ka.); viraha, biraya, biraha separation, parting (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) virical split, crack, rent; viri-tal to split, crack (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6011.Image: to open, unfols: virikan. a disease of the eye-lid that causes the eye to dilate (W.); viri-ttal to cause to expand; to open, unfold (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6012.Image: loose tresses of a woman: viri-ttal to untie, loosen, as the tresses of a woman (Cilap. 20, Ven.pa_, 3)(Ta.lex.)

6013.Paddy: viriki, viri_ki < vri_hi paddy (Ci_vaka. 89, Urai.); rice (Can.. Aka.); viri_i id. (Ci_vaka. 89) (Ta.lex.) cf. vri_hi rice (AV.)(CDIAL 12233).

6014.Image: outspread horns: viri-kompan- ox with outspread horns; virikompu outspread horns (Ta.lex.)

6015.Image: sun: viriccikan- sun (Ja_n-a_. 56,36)(Ta.lex.)

6016.To sell: cf. vir-aka_l. firewood seller (Tiruva_lava_. Pati. Pa_yi. 8)(Ta.); vir-r-al, vir-pan-iai selling, sale (Ta.); vir-r-u-mutal proceeds of sale (C.G.); vir-r-u_n. sundry articles which can be sold for daily food (Te_va_. 1097,1); vir-r-or-r-ipparikkiriyam sale, mortgage, exchange (S.I.I. i,105); vil (vir-p-, vir-r--) to sell, put on sale, be sold (Ta.)(DEDR 5421). vil-tal to sell, put on sale (vir-r-ukko_t.t.akka tut.aittu : Kur-al., 220)(Ta.lex.) vilai selling, sale (Cu_t.a_.); price, cost; value in exchange (Kur-al., 256); value (Te_va_. 1082,9)(Ta.lex.); vila sale, price, value; vilkka to sell; vilpana sale (Ma.); vel price, cost (Ko.); pil price (To.); bil, bili to sell, buy; bili, bele price, cost (Ka.); bele cost (Kod..); bile, bele price, value, worth (Tu.); vil(u)cu to sell, buy; viluva, vela price, cost (Te.)(DEDR 5421). vilaika_ran- purchaser; vilai-kat.t.u-tal to set or fix a price (W.); vilaikkirayam sale-price (W.); vilai-ko_l. worthiness; a characteristic quality of pearls (Tiruva_lava_. 25,16); vilai-c-ce_ri bazaar, market (Perun.. Makata. 3,77); vilaian- seller (Man.i. 28,33); merchant (Catu.); vilaittun.t.u a charge paid out of the kut.iva_ram by cultivators to the me_lva_rata_r or to the government on account of the difference between the price at which the cultivators had sold their grain and the estimated retail prices at the place of sale (R.T.); loss due to the difference between the sale price and cost price (Ta.); vilaippali sacrificial offering given to deities, with a view to gaining their favour (Cilap. 12,43); vilaitti_t.t.u sale-deed (Tol. Col. 81, Urai.); vilai-ppirama_n.a-v-icaivu-ti_t.t.u id. (S.I.I. iv,127); vilai-y-a_van.am id. (S.I.I. iii,110); vilai-y-o_lai id. (S.I.I. iii,154,23) vilaiper-u-tal to be worth a good price (Na_lat.i, 115); vilaiyarttam purchase money (Na_.)(Ta.); vilaiya_t.t.i tradeswoman (Cilap. 12, Urai, Pak. 320); vilaiya_l.an- seller; dealer; merchant (W.); vilaivan- one who does a thing for money (Pur-ana_. 152)(Ta.lex.)

6017.People: vis' an agriculturist, a merchant, a vais'ya; a man in general; people (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6018.Image: a tree: vicai a tree (Tol. Er..ut. 282); vicaikkompu elastic branch of a tree, which when bent down and released springs back to its original position (I_t.u, 3,6, Pra.)(Ta.lex.) vi_cakari East Indian kino tree; vi_caka_ id. (Can. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) vis'a_kha the top of a tree; the branch of a tree; branchless; having spreading branches (Ka.lex.)

6019.Image: to split: vicai-ttal to burst, split (Kalla_. 59,16)(Ta.lex.)

6020.Image: to hop: vicai-ttal to leap, hop (Pur-ana_. 120); to swing (Tiruva_caka. 2,135)(Ta.lex.)

6021.Fan: vicir-i fan (Ta.); vi_cuka to fan (Ma.); vi_cci fan (Ma.); vi_cu to fan (Ta.); vi_yuka to fan (Ma.); vi_yal; vi_yikka to cause to fan; vi_s'uka to fan (Ma.); vi_s'e_r-i, vi_s'a_la, vi_ya_la fan (Ma.); vis'ar-uka to fan, flutter with wings (Ma.); bi_san.ige, bi_san.ike fan (Ka.); bi_sa_le fan (as the one made of areca spathe)(Ka.); bi.j- (bi.ji-), bi.d- (bi.di-) to wave (Kod..); bi_juni to swing (Tu.); bi_suni to fan; bi_sa quickly, rapidly, fast, straightly; bi_san.ig, bi_sanig fan (Tu.); vi_cu to blow as the wind, fan; vico_pu chowrie; vi_vana fan, whisk; visana-kar-r-a fan; visaru, visuru to wave, swing (Te.); vesa quickness; vesa(n), ve_ quickly (Te.); vi_vani a fan (Kond.a); vi_nja (vi_nji-) to blow, fan (Kui)(DEDR 5450). vi_j, vyaj fan (Skt.); vi_cu fan (Ta.); vi_jana fanning (Skt.); fan (Bhpr.); vyajana fan (Mn.); vi_jana, vi_jani_ fan (Pali); vi_jan., vi_an.a, vi_an.i_, vian.a (Pkt.); biuni (B.); bian, biani (B.); vidini-ya (Si.); vim.jan.a fan (Pkt.); vi~in.o, viin.i_ (S.); vi~_jn.o (G.); vi~jhan.-va_ra_ air stirred by a fan; vi~jhn.a_, vijhn.a_ fan (M.); bijani fan (B.); bi_jna_ (H.); vijn.o, vijhn.o (G.); vijn.a_, vijhn.a_ (M.); beniya_ fan for jeweller's fire (Bi.); bena_ fan (OAw.)(CDIAL 12043). vi_jyate_ is fanned (MBh.); vi_jiyati is fanned (Pali); vijjijjai (Pkt.); vi~jvu~, vi~jhvu~ to fan (a fire), whirl round in the air (G.); vizun, pp. vyuzu to winnow, sift (K.)(CDIAL 12044). ve_ga violent agitation (AV.); speed (MBh.Pali); ve_a (Pkt.); ve_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12089). ve_jate_ recoils, moves quickly (Dha_tup.); vijate_ (RV.); ve_ai trembles (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12090). vic sift (Skt.); lor.ha_ bicca_ gleaning (Bi.)(CDIAL 11692a). vivicyate_ is winnowed (AV.); vivicanti, vive_ks.i 2 sg. (RV.); wicem I thresh (Ash.); bisiba to fan (A.)(CDIAL 11693). biciba_ to fan, scatter on the ground, spread, sow (Or.); vinakti separates (Dha_tup.); vivicanti 3 pl. blow through (RV.); bican.a_, bican.i_ fan; bichiba to scatter, strew (Or.); ve~cn.e, vecn.e~ to pick (up, off, out) one by one, gather, select (M.); vive_cayati separates (Mn.); bi_z to sift (Pers.); ge_c to sift (Bal.); vejun to gather, pick up (Oss.)(CDIAL 11711).cf. bhaj (Skt.) vaku-ttal to separate; to divide; to apportion; to distribute (Net.unal. 78); to assign, appoint (Kur-al., 377)(Ta.lex.) vaku-tal < vakir to split (Pur-ana_. 264)(Ta.lex.)

6022.To daub: vaku-ttal to daub (acan-am vakuttu : Perun.. Ucaik. 34,15)(Ta.lex.) makkheti, pp. makkhita to daub (Pali.lex.)

6023.Image: split: vakai division, branch, section (Tol. Col. 146); vaga (Te.Ma.); vage (Ka.Tu.); vakai caste (G.Tn.D. I,145); vakai-tal to be divided; to arrange a subject (Kampara_. Mantarai. 60); to divide, to cut (Nar-. 120); to consider, weigh (Kampara_. Pira_t.t.i. 16); vagatsu (Te.); vakai-ceykin-r-avar settlement officer (I.M.P. Cg. 720); vakai-p-pat.uttutal to divide; to classify and arrange; vakai-ma_lai a kind of garland in which tender leaves and flowers are alternately strung together (Ci_vaka. 483, Urai.); vakai-t-ta_r id. (Perun.. Vattava. 4,8); vakuti < pakuti division, class, category (Kampara_. Iran.iyan-. 69)(Ta.lex.) vakai-mutal-at.ukkalan:ka_ram (rhet.) a figure of speech in which a whole stanza consists merely of the names of several objects strung together without any adjunct (Ma_r-an-alan.. 179); vakir to cleave; to tear open; to rip up (Kampara_. Atika_ya. 160)(Ta.lex.)

6024.Image: narrow street: vakai short or narrow street (Ci_vaka. 462); vakuntu < vaku- way, road (Cilap. 11,167); cf. vaha (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

6025.Image: apartments of a house: vakai apartments of a house (Pur-ana_. 398) (Ta.lex.)

6026.Heavy; load: puhta_na_, pu_hta_na_, puh- to be heavy (Go.); pooho light, not heavy (Go.); pik- (-t-) to be heavy (Pe.);pik- id. (Mand..); pigu heavy; pi_ga (pi_gi-) to be heavy; n. heaviness; pikk- to be heavy (Kui); pikhali to be heavy; pikhni heavy; pikkni id.; pik- (-h-) to be heavy (Kuwi)(DEDR 4127). bo_ki load (Sh.); bokn.o to carry (Ku.); boknu (N.)(CDIAL 9311).

6027.Co-habitation; pair; marrying: me_huna sexual union; associate; me_hunaka (Pali); me_hun.a, me_hun.aya sexual union; me_hun.aya father's sister's son; me_hun.ia mother's brother's son; me_hun.ia_ mother's brother's daughter, wife's sister (Pkt.); mehu_n. newly married couple; mehun.a_, mevn.a_ wife's brother, sister's husband; mehun.i_, mevn.i_ mother's brother's daughter, father's sister's daughter (M.); mevn.o cross-cousin; mevn.i_ cross-cousin, wife's sister (Konkan.i); mevun marrying; pair, couple; mevun-dam cohabitation (Si.); maithuna coupled, paired, relating to sexual union (Mn.); copulation (S'Br.); mithunau du. couple (RV.); copulation (TS.); mi0wana-, mi0wara- paired (Av.)[cf. semant. dvandva couple (TS.); duel (MBh.)](CDIAL 10341). methunam abhiyujati to copulate; pp. methuna_bhiyutta (Pali); methuna copulation; methuna_yatta copulative; mithuna couple; methunam abhiyujati to couple; methuna_bhiyoga coupling (Pali.lex.) cf. me_na connected through a woman's brother or a man's sister, or through a maternal uncle or paternal aunt (e.g. me_na-go_d.alu a man's sister's or a woman's brother's daughter, niece [ko_d.alu daughter-in-law (Te.)(DEDR 2149)]; meonak cross-cousin; fem. meoni (Nk.); me_n.a'en father's sister's son (Kond.a); me_n.a t.ond.en male cross-cousin (Pe.) [t.ond.en brother (Pe.)(DEDR 3563)]; mehn.atayi female cross-cousin; meh'n.a tayi male cross-cousin; meh'n.a tan:gi female cross-cousin (Kuwi); mehun.aya father's sister's son; mehun.ia mother's brother's son; mehun.ia_ mother's brother's daughter, wife's sister (Pkt.); mehun.a_, mevn.a_ wife's brother, sister's husband; mehun.i_, mevn.i_ mother's brother's daughter, father's sister's daughter (M.)(DEDR 53b). maittun-an-, maccun-an- brother of one's wife or husband, son of one's maternal uncle or paternal aunt, sister's husband; maittun-i wife's sister, daughter of one's maternal uncle or paternal aunt, brother's wife; maccin-i, maccin-acci, maccin-icci sister-in-law; maccin-an- wife's brother, sister's husband, sone of maternal uncle or paternal aunt; maccampi elder sister's husband, maternal uncle's son, paternal aunt's son, husband's elder brother; macca_n.t.a_r husband's elder brother; macca_vi elder brother's wife; macca_l., macci wife's sister, daughter of one's paternal aunt or maternal uncle; macca_n- wife's brother, sister's husband, sone of maternal uncle or paternal aunt; maccun-amai relationship of brother-in-law; matin-i elder brother's wife (Ta.); maccunan, maccinan son of mother's brother or of father's sister; maccu_nicci daughter of mother's brother or of father's sister, regarded as the proper bride for her cousin (Ma.); macin. brother-in-law (rarely used)(Ko.); mocin.y cross-cousin (To.); may(i)duna, may(i)da, maydana a connexion, friend or husband; sister's husband, husband's brother, wife's brother, brother's son in relation to sister's son (Ka.); maccin.e younger male cross-cousin; maccin.i, maccin.ici younger female cross-cousin (Kod..); maitine, maidune husband's younger brother, son of a female's maternal uncle, husband of a female's sister; maitidi, maitedi sister-in-law, father's sister's daughter or mother's brother's daughter (Tu.)(DEDR App. 53a). Husband: maintan- son, young man, young of animal or reptile, disciple, pupil, man, strong man, hero, husband (Ta.); maintan boy, son (Ma.); mayme cross-nephew, son-in-law; mayma cross-niece, daughter-in-law (Kod..)(DEDR App. 53).

6028.Image: ram: me_ha ram (Skt.); meh ram (H.); mei wild goat (WPah.); mya~_-pu_tu the young of sheep or goats (K.); me_s.a ram; me_s.i_ ewe (RV.); me_ha, miha (Skt.); me_hati emits semen; me_d.hra ram; penis (Skt.); me_sa sheep (Pkt.); mis'ala (Ash.); mes.el ram (Kt.); mes.e ram, oorial (Pr.); mes., mes.alak ram (Kal.); mes (H.); me_s.asya sheep-faced (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 10334). mu_n, mu_nu sheep's wool; munulu woollen (K.)(CDIAL 10335). me_s. skin-bag (Bur.); mesa_ dressed and coloured sheepskin (P.); mes'i_ sheep-faced (M.)(CDIAL 10343). me_ke she-goat; me_ tbe bleating of sheep or goats (Ka.); me~_ka, me_ka goat (Te.); me.ke id. (Kol.); me_ke id. (Nk.); me_va, me_ya; she-goat (Pa.); me_ge goat (Ga.); meka_, me_ka id. (Go.); me_xna_ (mixyas) to call, call after loudly, hail (Kur.); mqe to bleat (Malt.); mr..e_ka ? (Te.); me_lh ? (Br.); meka- goat (Skt.)(DEDR 5087). [The m(b)- intial form in Proto-indic may explain the following etyma, with b-, bh- intials:] bhe_d.ra, bhe_n.d.a ram (Skt. < Austro-as. perhaps me_d.ra~ bhe_d.ra collides with Aryan me_d.hra in me_n.d.hra penis, ram (Skt.)(CDIAL 9606). be_d.a sheep (D..); bhed.a id. (K.); bhed., bhid. id. (L.); bhed. id. (P.); bhed.i_, bhed.a_ id. (P.); d.hled.d., bher. (pl. bher.a_) sheep and goats (WPah.); bher.o ram (Ku.N.); bher.i ewe (Ku.N.); bhera_ sheep (A.); bhe~ra_ sheep (A.); ram (Bi.); bher. ram (B.H.); bher.a_ sheep (B.Or.); ram (Bhoj.); bher.i ewe (B.); sheep (Or.); bhe~ri sheep (Or.); bhe~r. sheep (Bi.); bhe~r.i_ ram (Mth.); sheep (Aw.); bhe~r.o ram (Mth.); bher.i_, bher.a_ ram (H.); bher.i ram (G.)(CDIAL 9606). bhaid.aka of sheep (Skt.); bhe_d.a sheep (Skt.); bira_t.h, bhi_r.o he-goat (Tor..); biar she-goat (Ash.); byar (Pr.); bur (Bshk.); bhi_r.o he-goat (Phal.)(CDIAL 9604). bhe_d.ravr.ti sheepfold (Skt.); bhe_d.rakut.ika_ sheepfold (Skt.); bhar.o_r.i_ sheepfold (WPah.); bharva_r. shepherd or goatherd (G.)(CDIAL 9606-08). me_n.d.ha ram (Skt.); men.d.a ram (Pali); men.d.aka made of a ram's horn, e.g., a bow (Pali); men.d.ha_, men.d.a_, men.d.hi ram (Or.); med.d.ha, memd.ha, memd.a, mimd.ha, mimd.haga, ram (Pkt.); me~d.ha_ ram (P.M.); me~d.ho ram (G.); mad.aya_ ram (Si.); met.ha_ ram (H.); mi_d.d.ha_, mi~_d.ha_ ram (P.); mer.ho, mer.o ram for sacrifice (N.); mersa_g ram (A. -sa_g <? cha_gya herd of goats (Skt.); sa_ga_ flock of sheep or goats (M.)(CDIAL 5011); cf. saga denoting pha_tries or clans in Gond.); mer.a_, mer.i ram (B.); mer.h, mer.ha_, me~d.ha_ ram (H.); mejhuka_ ram (H.)(CDIAL 10310). me~r.hwa_ a bullock with curved horns like a ram's (Bi.)(CDIAL 10311). min. sheep (Dameli.Kaf.Gawar-Bati); mina_l ram (Bshk.); min.d. ram (To_rwa_li_); min.d.a_l markhor (To_rwa_li_); mindhal ram (Chili_s); ye_r.o-min. ram (Savi.); min.d., min. ram; min.d.o_l yearling lamb, gimmer (Phalu_r.a.)(CDIAL 10310). [The semantic re-inforcement, 'yearling' in min.d.o_l 'yearling lamb (Phal.) is relatable to the poss. Proto-indic form for the numeral 'one' muXi or MuXiC with d as the likeliest consonant. cf. Zide, N.H., Studies in the Munda Numerals, p.26. cf. midh 'one` (Savara).][The duplication in ye_r.o-min. ram (Savi.)is also remarkable, exemplifying the flow and the confluence of the language-streams [me_n.d. ~ (1) min.; (2) e_t.]: cf. e_t.a ram (Te.); mer.o ram for sacrifice (N.)(DEDR 5152). The Sv. compound form apparently denotes the special nature of the Proto-indic m(b)in. 'ram', that it is, like e.r. male buffalo, bull for 'sacrifice'. cf. tir e.r buffalo calf at Toda calf sacrifice (Ko.)(DEDR 917).] e_d.a a kind of sheep (Ka_tySr.); e_d.i_, e_d.aka a sheep, or goat (MBh.); aid.a ovine (MBh.); aid.aka a kind of sheep (S'Br.); id.ikka wild goat (Skt.); [< Drav.)]; el.aka ram wild goat (Pali); el.aka_, el.ika_, el.ike_ (Pali); ed.aka ram (As'.); ed.aka_ ewe (As'.); hed.'i sheep ? (NiDoc.); he_t. she-goat (Br.); e_la, e_laya ram (Pkt.); e_liya_, e_d.ya_, e.d.akka (Pkt.); e_r.a_, e_r.o_, yer.o, zer.o ram (Pas'.); e_r.i_, yer.i_ ewe (Pas'.); ye_r.e, yer.o_lik sheep (Shum.); e_r.a, ye_r.a (Gaw.); i_r (Bshk.); oi (Tor.); i_ (Mai.); yer.o, e.r.ia (Sv.); yi_r.o (Phal.); e_r.i (Sh.); eli-pavharu goatherd (S.); el.uva_ goat (Si.); -- X me_s.a-: e_s sheep (Sh.); e_d.aka sheep (Skt.)(CDIAL 2512). e_d.ika ram (Te.); e_t.a ram (Te.); e_d.u goat (Tu.); ye_t.i_, e_t.i she-goat (Go.); e_r.a_ she--goat (Kur.); er.e id. (Malt.); o_d.a goat (Pe.Kui.Kuwi); u_d.e id. (Mand..); a.d.i (Kod..); a_d.u (Ka.); o.d. (To.); a.r. (obl.a.t.-) goat (Ko.); a_t.u goat, sheep (Ta.Ma.); ya_t.u id. (Ta.); a_t.t.-a_l. shepherd (Ta.); a_t.t.uka_ran id. (Ma.)(DEDR 5152). a_t.t.u-k-kit.a_y ram, he-goat (Ta.lex.) me_t.am, me_t.akam, me_ttiram (prob. < me_d.hra); me_r..am, me_r..akam (Ta.) < prob. me_s.aka ram; vempari me_r..aka me_r-r-i (Ci_vaka..521)(Ta.lex.) me_s.a m. ram; me_s.i_ ewe (RV.); me_d.hra ram (Skt.); me_sa sheep (Pkt.); misala (Ah.); mes.el ram (Kt.); mes.e ram, oorial (Pr.); mes., mes.alak ram (Kal.); mes (H.)--X bhe_d.ra; mya~_-pu_tu young of sheep or goats (K.); mei wild goat (WPah.); meh ram (H.)(CDIAL 10334). Sheepskin: mesa_ dressed and coloured sheepskin (P.); me_s. skin-bag (Burusha_ski); mes'i_ sheep-faced (M.)(CDIAL 10343).

6029.Damp: mehra_rna_ to get damp (from air moisture); mehrta'a_na_ to damp (Kur.); mehare to be damp (as rain)(Malt.)(DEDR 5085). avame_hanti, nime_ghama_na is wet (RV.); me_gha_yate_ becomes cloudy ( = me_gham. karo_ti)(Pa_n..)(TS.); meha_b to get wet (Aw.); miha_na_ to become damp (H.)(CDIAL 10338a). me_hati pisses (RV.); mik to piss (Kho.)(CDIAL 10338). cf. me_ha urine (Mn.); ame_ha retention of urine (TS.); mi_ze urine (Pr.); mi~_n (Tir.); mo~ (Sh.); mi_ke pl. urine; mi_k pissing (Sh.)(CDIAL 10337). menj cloud; men, obl. menju_na (Kal.)(CDIAL 10339). mih mist, rain (RV.); mihika_ cloud; snow (BhP.); mihia_ cloud (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10140). me_gha cloud, rain (RV.); cloud, esp. thunderstorm (Pali); me_ha cloud, rain (Pkt.); mi rain (Gypsy); me~_ (Sh.); mi~_hu (S.); mi~_h heavy rain; mi~_ (with falling tone), mi_ (L.); meh, me~h, mi~_h, mi_hi~_ rain (P.); me cloud, rain (Ku.); meh (A.); miha rain-cloud; mehu (Or.); meh, meha_ cloud (Mth.); mem.ha (OAw.); meh, me~ rain (H.); meha (OMarw.); meh, mehulo, mevlo (G.); mehud.a_, mahud.a_ cloud (M.); mey, me_ pl. (Si.); me_gharava thundercloud (MBh.)(CDIAL 10302). myar, maya_r cloud (Wg.); ma_re (Pr.)(CDIAL 10303). me_ghya being in or coming from a cloud (VS.); me_g hail (Tor.); me~_k (Sh.); me~ghlu_ cloud (L.); meghla_ (P.); megha_ frog (OH.); me~_i dew (Ash.)(CDIAL 10304).

6030.Bride-price; written order: muhri a horse, cow, buffalo or camel, given in dowry by a bride's father (P.lex.) mokh price; present; the price paid for an amulet. Sayads, incumbents of shrines, faqirs, kutanas, sell scraps of paper with some words written on them, generally the name of God, which the buyers hang round their own necks or the necks of children or cattle to protect them from evil spirits and the evil eye. The price is always exacted before the amulet is given. A very efficient amulet can be bought for five pice, but sometimes as much as one rupee is given (P.lex.) Synonym: phull an amulet, a charm. The belief in the power of amulets is universal. Those who give, or rather sell, amulets are, firstly, sayad and kureshis who are considered more pleasing to God than others; secondly, the incumbents of shrines and their sons; thirdly, impostors who persuade people of the efficacy of their amulets... The price paid is called mokh, and whenever the desired result is attained, another amulet is made in addition to the one previously obtained (P.lex.) makar < mahr (Arabic) written contract making a settlement on a wife; a marriage portion or gift, settled upon one's bride; dowry, jointure, alimony; amount paid or promised to a bride by the bridegroom as security for his keeping the marriage tie (Ta.lex.) makaram decorative designs about the dais built for seating the bride and bridegroom at the time of marriage (Ta.lex.) Alimony: mahir money which amongst Muhammadans a man at his marriage engages to pay his wife in case of divorcing her, jointure, alimony; mahirkhai a thief catcher; a reward given to one who catches a thief (P.lex.) [as opposed to:] cf. bannhan. a tie, a ligature, a cord with which anything is tied; a bond of union; banni a bride; muhri a buffalo, cow or horse or camel given in dowry by a bride's father (P.lex.) Valuable: maha_rha valuable (MBh.); maha_raha valuable (Pali); mahariha (Pkt.); maharu (Si.)(CDIAL 9956). Document of service contract: man:kala-pattiram document between master and servant embodying terms of the contract of service, which began with tiru, etc. (Cukkirani_ti, 95)(Ta.lex.) ?mahajaru a title-deed granted by the emperor of Hindustan (Ka.M.H.); a written statement of a suit and of the award upon it (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) muj agreement, concord; mujra account, reckoning; mujra lain.a to deduct, to subtract; mujra paun.a to receive credit for a sum; mujrai, kujrait account, reckoning, settlement of accounts, a credit given on account; remission of revenue, reduction in assessment (P.lex.) makuti a government order addressed to the S'udras (Skt.lex.) Writer: muharrar a writer, a clerk, especially Persian clerk (P.lex.) makacar < mahazar (Arab.) petition, written representation, memorial (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) Settled: mokararu, mokaru_ru settled, fixed, certain (Ka.); mukarara (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) mokarar appointed, fixed (Ta.); muqarrar (Arab.) (Ta.lex.) cf. mukari_r < muharrir (Arab.) clerk, writer, scribe (Ta.lex.) mo_kar < mahr Arab. marriage portion; gift settled upon the bride on marriage; dower (Ta.lex.) Assigned land: moka_ca_ < muka_sa_ (U.) village or land assigned by a king to his relatives or dependents, either rent-free or at a low quit-rent, on condition of military service (C.G., M.M. 506)(Ta.lex.) mokatarpa_ < mohatarifa (Arab.) tax on arts and trades (Ta.lex.) An ancient tax: mukam-pa_rvai an ancient tax (I.M.P. Cg. 1095)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. mokaram < muharram (Arab.) a muhammadan festival in the Arabic month of Muharram (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) unmukta freed (R.); unmukti deliverance (S'Br.); unmukka (Pkt.); umkanu to escape; caus. umka_unu (N.)(CDIAL 2129a). unmucati unfastens (RV.); unmucate_ gets loose (S'Br.); unmucn.e~ to leave loose (M.); numucn.e~ not to loosen (M.)(CDIAL 2131). mo_cuppa_ < muha_saba responsibility, security; mo_cu_l < mohassil guard; guard placed over a revenue defaulter or a civil debtor (C.G.); compelling payment of a debt by sitting at the debtor's door (Ta.lex.) Religious contribution; tax: makamai < makkama (U.) contribution in grain for a temple or chattram, levied from cultivators now given optionally; tax or contribution levied for a religious or charitable purpose bearing a certain definite portion to the rent payable (R.F.) (Cevvanti. Pu. Ur-aiyu_r. 31); donation for charity consisting of a fixed percentage on the profits of commercial transactions; an ancient land tax (S.I.I. vi,187; I.M.P.Cg. 519); makan.mai id. (S.I.I. iii,175,28); cf. mahima_ (Skt.) maka an ancient land tax; makan-mai an ancient tax (S.I.I. iii,115)(Ta.lex.) cf. ma_hi-guzashta_ balance of rent due for the past month (U.); ma_hi-mazku_r collections of the current month (U.)(C.G.); ma_hwar monthly (U.)(Ta.lex.) makacu_l < mahsu_l (Arab.) produce or out-turn, as of a field; makacu_lta_r watch man for the crops to whom in-a_m was formerly allowed (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) makamur-ai feast; method of performing sacrifices; makam < makha sacrifice (Tiruva_ca. 21,3); sacrificial offering or food oblation; festival (Ta.lex.) makta_ < maqta (Arab.) special form of assessment fixed on a village as a whole, in vogue in the early period of revenue settlement (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) makattur-ai place where sacrifice is performed (Kampara_. Mitilai. 129); makattu_n. sacrificial post (Na_mati_pa. 448)(Ta.lex.)

6031.Voluntary contribution: makan-mai, makamai, makan.mai (S.I.I., iii, 175, 28) small portion of the income or of the value of articles of merchandise collected as voluntary contribution by the merchants from among themselves for the maintenance of temples, etc.. (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.); makan-mai poll-tax (Ta.)(SITI); contribution in grain for a temple or chattram, levied from cultivators now given optionally; tax or contribution levied for a religious or charitable purpose bearing a certain definite portion to the rent payable (Ta.lex.< Urdu. mahkama.); donation for charity consisting of a fixed percentage on the profits of commercial transactions; an ancient land tax (S.I.I., vi,187) (Ta.lex.); maka, makan-mai an ancient land tax (S.I.I., iii, 115); malla_yi-makamai prob. a customary collection in the market (Ta.)(SITI). s'et.t.iya_r-magamai voluntary contribution of the merchants (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)[cf.akam, akan.i inside, agricultural tract (Ta.); akal inner part of town or village (Ta.)(DEDR 7). makamai donation for charity consisting of a fixed percentage on the profits of commercial transactions; an acient land-tax; maha [fr. mah, vedic. mahas to honour, revere] worthiness, venerableness; a (religious) festival (in honour of a Saint, as an act of worship); viha_rassa mahamhi; bodhi-maha festival of the Bo tree; hatthia-maha a festival called the elephant festival; mahani_ya [grd. of mahati] praiseworthy (Pali.lex.) mahatta great-souled (Pali); maha_tman high-minded (Mn.); ma_to village headman (WPah.); mahata_ master, gentleman (Si.)(CDIAL 9942). mahatiya_ headman (Aw.); maha_nt great (RV.); maheto, mehto schoolmaster, clerk (G.); mahandi_ husband's sister; maham.ta great (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9946); mahavai king (OG.)(CDIAL 9947); maghavant (Epic Skt. maghava_) Indra or another angel (devaputta)(Pali.lex.) mahattara greater (MBh.); chief, village eldest (R.); courtier, royal servant; mahattaraka id. (Skt.); maha_tare greater, better (Or.); maha_ta_ra_ old (M.); mha_nta_ro old man; mha_nta_ri old woman (Konkan.i); mihtar headman of village, head of a caste, hon. name for cobbler or sweeper (P.); mehtar sweeper (H.); mihtar (Pers.)(CDIAL 9932). ma_ha_ra cattle-keeper, sweeper (Or.); maha_ra_ja great chieftain, king (S'Br.)(CDIAL 9951). maharddhika of great wealth (BHSk.); mahiddhika (Pali); mahid.d.hi, mahid.d.hiya, mahid.d.hi_ya (Pkt.); mahidi rich (Si.)(CDIAL 9934). mahattva greatness (MBh.); mahatta greatness, size (Pali); mahattan.a (Pkt.); mahatt (P.); mahat-a, ma_t-a (Si.)(CDIAL 9933). mahas greatness, glory (RV.); splendour, light (Skt.Inscr.); maha greatness (Pali); light, brilliance (Si.)(CDIAL 9936). mahas delight in praise (VS.); festival, worship; sacrifice (Skt.); maha festival, sacrifice (MBh.Pkt.); festival (Pali.OG.); sacrifice (Si.)(CDIAL 9937). Chief of an agricultural tract: makin.an- husband, chief of an agricultural tract, lord (Ta.); makir..nan- id. (Ta.)(DEDR 4616). Great: ma_y(i) very big; mayali big (Go.); ma_ great (Ta.Ma.); big, great (Ka.); great, in: ma_-gelasa great work, ma_-ma_yi great mother (Ka.); ma_tu greatness; ma_l id., great man (Ta.); (ma_lv-, ma_n-r--) to be magnified, glorified (Ta.)(DEDR 4786).

6032.Images: knuckle, fist: mukkat.t.u knuckle; mukkat.ai height of the fist with the thumb raised vertically = 6 inches (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6033.Price paid for an amulet: mokh price paid for an amulet (L.); price, present, salvation (P.); mo_ks.a release (esp. from worldly existence)(S'vetUp.); mokkha release (Pali); moks.a, mokha (As'.); mokkha, mukkha (Pkt.); mokhu, mokha release (S.); mokhu_ release, salvation (OAw.); mokh space for getting out of a crowd (G.); mok loosing, liberation (Si.)(CDIAL 10345). Seal: moharu a seal (Ka.); mo_hara (M.H.); moharu a seal ring (Ka.lex.) mo_hal.a that which is affixed: the hilt of a sword, of a dagger etc.; mo_hu to beat, to strike, to smite; to put to, to affix; to put or place down; to put (Ka.lex.) mokar seal (Ta.); mohar (Pers.); moka_pila_ < muqa_bala (Arab.) comparing of a fair copy with its original or draft (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) mo_kar, mo_kara_ gold coin, varying in value from 10 to 15 rupees < mohar (Pers.)(Ta.lex.) mhor, mhore the instrument for the seal; the seal impression; mhore bitar dovor or mhor ma_rn dovor keep under seal; mhor ma_r, mhor gha_l to seal (Kon.lex.) mohar, mohur a seal; the impression of a seal; a stamp; a gold coin, a gold mohar; mohar chhap a seal, a signet; a Government seal; dan.e dan.e te mohar hai there is a seal on every grain: proverb used to show that destiny has sealed up every grain of food, to be opened only by the man for whom it is provided; mohar laun.i to seal up, to put a seal on (P.lex.) muhar a string for guiding a camel inserted through a perforation in the nose; be-muhar unbridled, loose (a camel) (P.lex.) mugu the nose; mugu-da_n.a the cord put through an ox's nose (Ka.lex.) muhri of or belonging to gold muhar, pure (gold)(P.lex.) muttirai < mudra_ impress, mark (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,8,9, Vya_.); seal, signet (Tiruva_lava_. 24,8); badge of a soldier or peon; muttiraik-ku_t.am place where goods are stamped; muttiraik-ko_l seal; wooden seal for marking a heap of grain; muttirai-ppalakai plank with some writing or mark thereon, used as a seal on a heap of grain (C.G.); muttirai-man. seal of earth affixed to a grain heap; any soft substance that will hold an impression, in sealing; muttirikai < mudrika_ engraved signet or seal (W.) (Ta.lex.)

6034.To pay off a debt: mo_ks.ate_ wishes to free oneself (Skt.); shakes off (MBh.); muchun to complete a fast or vow, eat after a fast (K.); mokhan.u to redeem anything pawned (S.); mukha_van. to pay off (a debt)(L.)(CDIAL 10346). Launched ship: vimukta launches (of a ship)(R.); freed, escaped (MBh.); vimucati releases, unyokes (RV.); vimucyate_ is freed (Pali); vimuccati (Pali); vimuccai (Pkt.); vimutta released (Pali.Pkt.); biu~tanu to recover from a faint, come to one's senses, caus. biu~ta_unu (N.)(CDIAL 11824). To send, release, free, leave: mo_ks.ita set free (MBh.); wrested away (Skt.); mucha, muchu come loose, come apart (as a door from its post or any two things usu. connected)(K.)(CDIAL 10347). -mukka- loosed (in unmukka-, pat.imukka-)(Pali); mukka-, mokka- let go, free, sent; mukkai leaves; pp. mukkia- (Pkt.); muk- to let go, allow (Gypsy); mek- to escape (Kt.); mukyo_-motu finished (K.); muko, pp. of mujan.u to send (S.); mukkan. be settled, to come to an end; muk finished (L.); mukkala free; mukala_viu_n.a absol. having caused to be sent (Pkt.); muklo free (Gypsy); mokulu free; mokalun to be let go; mokajya_r freedom; mokala_wun to free (K.); mukala free (OB.); mukul.a_ (Or.); mokkala free; mokkaliya sent (Pkt.); mokiro wide, roomy; mokilan.u to send (S.); mo_kl.a_ open, loose, distant (L.); mokla_ loose (P.); molko (Ku.); mokal, mukali free (A.); mokla_ loose, free (H.); mokl.a_ free; mokal.n.e~ to set free (M.); mokl.u~ (G.)(CDIAL 10157). muktva_ having loosed (S'Br.); except (Skt.); mut except, besides (Si.); mutu_, mutu~_ postp. without (L.)(CDIAL 10156). mukti release (S'Br.); mutti release (Pali.Pkt.); mut (Si.)(CDIAL 10155). mukta set free (MBh.); mutta, muttaka released (Pali); muto (Dhp.); mutam.ti 3 pl. pret. (NiDoc.); mutta, motta (Pkt.); muta, muti yearling kid (i.e. independent of dam)(Dm.); muteris kare let it loose (Tir.); muc- a cloud to open (Bshk.); mu_to leavings (Sh.); motu pp. of mocun to remain over (K.); mutta_ pp. of mujan. to send (L.); muttan. to send (L.); kam-mutu finished (Si.)(CDIAL 10151). mucati releases (RV.); muai, muvai leaves; muan.a release (Pkt.); mudanava_ to set free; caus. mudavanava_, intr. midenava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 10176). mucyate_ is loosed (RV.AV.); escapes (Mn.); mucyati (MBh.); muc- to escape, flee (Ash.); mus'ly- (Pr.); muc- to flee, fall (of a star)(Pas'.); muci- (Shum.); muc- to open (of a cloud); caus. muca- to loose (Bshk.); mucu_m I loosen (Phal.); mucoiki to escape, be saved; pret. mu_tus (Sh.); muco_nu to be finished; mucyo_nu to go (Sh.); mocun, pp. motu to be left over; caus. mocarun to leave over; mucarun to loosen, open (K.); mucn.o to escape, get rid of; mucaeio~ milked (Ku.); mu_cna_, mocna_ to set free, loosen (H.); musni_ woman who is released (Si.)(CDIAL 10181). mucati releases, lets go, loses (RV.); releases, sends out, abandons (Pkt.); mum.cai (Pkt.); mutta pp. (Pali.Pkt.); muzoiki to save, finish; mujo_nu to finish; mo~_zizo_nu to finish, be finished (Sh.); mujan.u to send; pp. muko (S.); mujan., pp. muta_; mujun., pp. mutta_ (L.); muciba_ to abandon (Or.); musanava_ to free, leave (Si.); muciya except (Pali); mum.cia (Pkt.); misa except,unless (Pali)(CDIAL 10182). mucana release (Pali); mo_jan escape, deliverance, protection (Sh.)(CDIAL 10183). mo_cayati sets free (Ya_j.); mo_ai releases; caus. mo_a_ve_i, pass. mo_ijjai (Pkt.); mudanava_ to loose; caus. mudavanava_, midenava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 10350). Requital; return present; to liquidate debt: cf. moy presents given on special occasions as at a wedding (Ta.); moy contribution paid at a feast (e.g. at opening of new house, at joint piercing of ears of all children in village); total of such contributions (Ko.); muy(i), muyvu requital, act of returning like for like, return of good for good, an equivalent returned for anything given, done, or suffered, recompense, return of evil for evil, retaliation, punishment; present given to bride and bridegroom at their marriage by their relations etc., with the prospect of a recompense being made on such an occasion in their own house (Ka.); muyi gift of money at a wedding; muyya returning; muyya-pa_d.uni to return, give back; mujare allowance, subtraction, payment to be reduced due to adjustment of accounts (Tu.); muje to liquidate debt (Malt.)(DEDR 5121). cf. m(r)okku obeisance, salutation (Te.)(DEDR 5123). cf. motm Kurumba village (Ko.); mut id. (To.)(DEDR 5120); mottam sum, total, aggregate, whole, universality (Ta.); whole, total (Ma.); motta heap, mass, multitude, flock, collection (Ka.); mottamu total, sum, whole, collection, multitude, flock (Te.); mottomi total (Kuwi)(DEDR 5119)]. Compensaion: mo_kin-i compensation in money given annually by the government to temples for resuming their lands; cf. muyin (U.); mo_kin-i-p-pan.am id. (Ta.); money offered to a god, when he is dressed in female attire and taken out in procession (Ta.lex.) mo_kavilai fancy price (Ta.lex.) {cf. a parallel phonetic transform: mokka schroebera swietenoides (Ka.); mukkid.i (Te.); moko (Kui); moks.a, mus.ka id. (Skt.); mus.kaka schroebera swietenoides (Skt.)(DEDR 5105)}. m(r)oggu to consent, agree, be inclined, willing; to kneel, incline, lean to one side; m(r)okku to make obeisance, salute; n. obeisance, salutation (Te.)(DEDR 5123). Pay off a debt; temporary loan: mukatalai < mubaddal temporary loan (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Recompense; to give away: paer.e~ to clandestinely give away to relatives articles belonging to the joint family, used mainly of wives; bahukogeko pa~er.e~a wives clandestinely give away articles belonging to the joint family (Santali.lex.) cf. pogadi, pagadi tribute, tax (Ka.lex.) Gift: ba_gina, ba_yana (Tadbhava of va_yana) a present, a gift (Ka.); va_kai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

6035.A cloud to open; rain: musuru a constant or continued rain (Te.); mucud. dinom/di_na rainy season (Pe.); mur.sund. din rainy season (Ga.); musur, musur. rain (Go.); musur constant rain, cloudiness; mosop cloud(s), being overcast (of the sky)(Kond.a)(DEDR 4914). muto, mutto rain (Phal.) muc a cloud to open (Bshk.) (CDIAL 10151).

6036.Finished: mux- (mux0-) (one's days) are numbered, finished (To.); mugi to end, terminate, be finished (Ka.); mugiyuni to end, terminate, cease; mugipuni to finish; mugite, mugipu settlement, decision, contract, bargain; mugitala end, conclusion, final; mugituruni to accomplish, conclude, finish (Tu.); mugiyu to be finished, completed; mugincu to finish, complete; mugimpu finishing, completion (Te.); mu_ga to be completed, terminated, accomplished (Kui); mu_pka (< mu_k-p-; mu_kt-) to complete, finish, accomplish; mu_pa (mu_t-) id., succeed; ability; mugse completely, entirely (Kui); mu_- (-t-) to be able, sufficient (Kuwi); munjna_ to finish off, come to the end of, consume, spend completely; munjurna_ to come to an end, be completed, die (Kur.)(DEDR 4891).

6037.Image: iron band round the nave of a wheel: a_mo_cana fastening on (R.); a~_wan, a_wan iron band round the nave of a wheel (H.)(CDIAL 1266).

6038.Image: rim: mukhavat.t.i rim (Pali.lex.)

6039.Image: crest: cf. mukat.u top (Ta.)(DEDR 4888). mukut.a crest (Skt.)(CDIAL 10144).

6040.Above: muk, mok up, west (To.); mo_ku upper portion, top, forepart (Ka.); musku (obl. muskuR-) above, upon, on; muskuRan.d. from above (Kond.a); muhe above, upon, on (Kuwi)(DEDR 5128).

6041.Image: beam supporting roof: mukacaram beam or log supporting the lower part of a roof (Ta.); mokasara id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Weaver's beam; the loom; weaver: man:g loom (Or.)(DEDR 4624); mak-ko_d.a_ weaver (Pkt. cf. the Munda word for spider); *ko_d.ika > kaulika (CDIAL 3535). The first element of the Pkt. form is concordant with: Loom: maggari weaver (Te.); makkam loom (Ta.Ma.); magga id. (Ka.Tu.); maggamu id. (Te.); mant.a weaving instrument (Go.); ma_g loom (M.)(DEDR 4624). mogalingam weaver's beam (Te.); mokalin:kam (Ta.); maka-lin:kam weaver's beam (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) For semant. maggari 'weaver' cf. makr.a_ large spider (H.)(CDIAL 9883).

6042.Image: leaf: mukuram < mukura tender leaf (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) mu_kku base or stem of a leaf (Ain:kur-u. 213)(Ta.lex.)

6043.Image: trunk of elephant: mu_kku elephant's trunk (Takkaya_kap. 273)((Ta.lex.) Image: elephant: cf. mokkad.i elephant with short tusks (Te.)(DEDR 5106).

6044.Image: stump: mokkai piece of wood, stump (Ta.); stub of wood (Te.); meka stump (Go.)(DEDR 5109). pon:kar branch of a tree (Maturaik. 296)(Ta.lex.) Images: a shoot; end of seed: mu_kku germinating end of seeds (Kur-al., 277); broken ends of rice (Ta.lex.) pun:gr.i a shoot (Santali.lex.) po_gan.d.a, paugan.d.a not fully grown (BhP.); po~ga_ young shoot (M.); pogga_ tender branch (P.); po~k young shoot of coconut (B.)(CDIAL 8394). Image: bud: cf. mugul. bud, srout (Ka.)(DEDR 4893). muguru, mugul.u a sprout, a bud; muguru to bud, to sprout; mugurari underboiled rice (Tu.lex.) Image: sprout: mul.a young plant, shoot, germ (Ma.); mul.ai to spring, grow as horns, hair, etc., sprout as shoots, germinate as seeds; n. shoot, sprout, seedling (Ta.); mil. shoot of plant (To.); mul.avu, mul.eppu sprouting, germinating (Ma.); mol.e to germinate, grow, shoot forth, come out of the ground, sprout, bud, shoot; n. germ, bud, sprout, first shoot out of the ground; mol.ake, mol.ike germ, bud, sprout; mol.asu germination; mun:gi, munge sprout (Ka.); mul.iyuni, mul.eyuni, mul.evuni, mol.ipuni, mol.epuni to germ, shoot, sprout; mul.e germ, sprout; mu_n:ku the germ of corn (Tu.); tender shoot (Kor.); molaka, mo_ka germ, sprout, shoot; young; molakettu, molacu, mol(u)cu, molatencu to sprout, germinate, shoot, bud, grow; molapincu to cause to sprout, grow; molava sprout; mokka young plant, germ, shoot, sprout; mo_su a sprout, shoot (Te.); mor.iya_na_ to sprout; mar.i_- (seeds) to sprout; mor.o_ka_ plant; mod.- (plant) to spring up (Go.); moka shoot, sprout (Pe.); a shoot (Kui); mr.ogla shoot of bamboo; moko sprout; mokko herb, plant, tree; moko sprouting of crop; mr.ogla eye, shoot of potato, etc. (Kuwi); mui~_ the minute pedicle (in pulse grains) which is to develop when sprouting (Kur.); mui~_-mui~_rna_ to germinate, either in soil or spontaneously (Kur.)(DEDR 4997). cf. mul.ai bamboo (Ta.); mul.a id. (Ma.)(DEDR 5001). puli young plant (A.); pothro young tree, bush (N.); po_i sugarcane sapling (Bhoj.); poa_ tobacco seedling (Mth.); tender twig (P.); po_ta, po_taka young of plant or animal (MBh.); pua_ plantain seedling (Or.); po, poa, pua shoot of plantain, son (Or.); po_i budding of trees in spring (Ku.)(CDIAL 8399). phordu sprout, shoot, seedling (Kho.); po_dh plant (WPah.); paud seedling (Ku.); paudh, paud young plants for transplanting; paudha_, pauda_ (H.)(CDIAL 8807). Image: ear of grain: potti ear of co_l.am in sheath; ear of grain in sheath; tender palmyra root with unpeeled rind (Ta.lex.) pot.i bulb (e.g. of garlic); pot.inu (ears) to be filled with grain (N.); pot.ilo filled with grain (esp. of an ear)(N.)(CDIAL 8396). pottu to cover; to mend, patch; closing a hole; covering, stopping; to hide, conceal; to tie, string together, as a wreath (Ta.lex.) Image: sprout: pot.ikka sprout (Ma.); pot.ippu id. (Ma.); pot.i to spring up, shoot (Ta.): pod.e sprout of grain (Kurub.); a pregnant ear of corn, an ear of corn just before shooting forth (Ka.); pot.t.e tender ear of corn (Tu.); pot.t.akar-(r-)a an unopened ear of corn, tender ear of corn just formed (Te.); pot. grain in embryonic stage (Pa.); pond.er offspring (Malt.); pot.alita = kud.malita (Skt.)(DEDR 4482).

6045.Image: fish: mugud.u a kind of fish; mud.avu a kind of fish (Tu.lex.) madgura the fish macropteronatus magur (Bhpr.); madguraka, man:gura (Skt.); maggura a kind of fish (Pali); ma_gur the fish silurus pelorius (B.); ma_gura the scaleless freshwater fish clarius magur (Or.); ma~_gur a kind of fish (Bhoj.); maguri_ the fish macropteronatus magur or silurus pelorius (H.); magura_ a river-fish, skeat-fish (Si.)(CDIAL 9781). man:gri hako a kind of fish (Santali.lex.) Fish resembling the prow of a boat: ma_n:kan- (< ma_n:ga (Pkt.) < man:ga) a fish that resembles the prow of a boat (Ta.lex.) vaciram a sea-fish, bluish, attaining 6 feet in length, cybium guttalum; seer, bluish, attaining 3 feet in length, c. interruptum (Ta.); vanjaramu, vanju coal-fish, seer-fish (Te.)(DEDR 5217).

6046.Image: checker board: muhra, mohra the counter of a checker board, a chessman (P.lex.)

6047.To polish jewelry: muharn. to polish jewelry; muhari a string of glass beads used in polishing jewelry (P.lex.) cf. mer-uku shining (Ta.lex.)

6048.Image: mouth of a sack: muha~_du mouth of a sack (S.)(CDIAL 10172). cf. mar-ukai half-a-bullock load (Ta.lex.)

6050.Image: ridge of a roof: mogal.u, mogad.u, magil the ridge of a roof (Ka.); mugad.u, mogad.u, mogalu, mogut.u, mo_d.u (Te.); mugud.u, mugul. (Ma.); mukat.u (Ta.); mog refuge, shelter (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mugul.i a pinnacle of a temple (Tu.lex.)

6051.Fixed hire: mugu the fixed hire with board, lodging and raiment of a labourer; mugu-ta_y a servant engaged for fixed hire, boarding, etc. (Tu.lex.) mun:gad.a an advance in money (Tu.lex.) muguval.i a previous settlement about salary, rent, work etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) muggol.i a kind of tax levied in the days of Hyder and Tippu (Tu.lex.) mukta_ya completing, conclusion, end (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mukta_ < maqta rent fixed for the village as a whole (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6052.Place of encampment: muka_m < muqa_m (Arab.) place of encamping; camp (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6053.Supplier; manager; store for necessary articles of worship: muka_reyaru a class of people who hire out carts and bring cocoanuts and salt up from the coast (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) marakka_yar < markab (Arab.) a Tamil-speaking mussalman tribe, usually traders (E.T. v,1); id. (Ma.); boatmen (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. marakka_l a grain measure = 8 pat.i = 1/12 kalam = 400 cu. in., as originally made of wood (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6054.Image: horn bent forward: muka-k-kompu horn bent forward (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mokta_, mokata_ in front, before, face to face (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pro_dgata projecting (Skt.)(CDIAL 9013). muhagu front (S.); mukha_gra extremity of snout or nose, any extremity (Skt.)(CDIAL 10170). mukhara leader (Skt.); mo_har first, foremost; mo_r priority (L.); mu_hra_ front; muhri_, mohri_ leader; moharla_ foremost (P.); muhra_ front, van (H.); mohar, mohra_ front (M.); muhuro front, face (S.)(CDIAL 10167). Chief: mo_hara_ a leader, a chief (Ka.M.H.); any piece or man at chess, except pawns (Ka.); mohara_ (H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. mukari < mukhara one who makes noise (Te_va_. 719,9); mukarimai chieftaincy (Kantapu. Kayamukan-ur-. 49)(Ta.lex.) muka_ri manager, headman, president, as of a society; agent (Ta.); mukhaiyir (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. mokkan- stout person or thing (Ta.)(DEDR 5108). Leader: mohri one who goes in front, a leader of an army; muharrar the head of a family, the chief man of a village; one who is chief or principal in any department; muhrail one who has the precedence; a leader, a chief; muhri a leader, a headman (P.lex.)

6055.Leadership: mukan-ai headship, leadership; mukan-ai-k-ka_ran- manager, superintendent, headman (W.); mukan-ai-k-kal, mo_kan-a-k-kal stone lintel, as of a temple gateway; stone platform in artta-man.t.apam, on which the necessary articles for worship are kept; carved stone-lintel projecting from a temple gate-way (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mukilan- < mugal (Arab.) mogul (Na_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mogala a mogul (Ka.); mo_gala (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Image: chief: muka_mai < mukhaiyam headship, superiority, pre-eminence, precedence; muka_mai-k-ka_ran- manager, headman, president as of a society; agent (W.)(Ta.); mukhaiyir (U.)(Ta.lex.) mukku pride, arrogance (Ka.); mus.ku (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) mukut.abaddha petty chieftain (Skt.); mud.udhu petty chieftain (OG.); mar.dho headstrong man who makes himself a nuisance in a village (G.)(CDIAL 10145). muna_h chief (H.)(CDIAL 10166). moktiya_ri full powers or authority delegated: absolute state etc. (Ka.); mukhatya_ra (M.); muktiya_ra absolute, free; a plenipotentiary (Ka.); muktya_ra, mukhatya_ra (M.H.); muktiya_r independence, plenipotency; an agent, an attorney; moktiya_rna_ma a power of attorney (Ka.); mukhatya_ra (M.)(Ka.lex.) muktiya_r < mukhta_r (U.) attorney, pleader (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) makir..nan- chief of an agricultural tract (eytin-a n-a_kin-r-u kollo_ makir..nan- : Ain:kur-u. 24); makin.an- id. (Ir-ai. Kal.avi. 1, Pak. 18); Lord (Takkaya_kap. 111); husband (Kantapu. Tiruman.a. 29); makir..nan- id. (Kalit. 75); maki-pa_lan- < mahi_-pa_la king, monarch (Pin..); maki_pan- id. (Piramo_t. Can-ippira. 17); makipan- < mahi_-pa id. (Na_mati_pa. 147); maki_rukam < mahi_-ruha plant, tree, as growing on earth (Pa_rata. Ka_n.t.ava. 5); maki-talam < mahi_-tala the earth (Pa_rata. Patin-et.. 175); maki < mahi_ the earth (Pa_rata ven.. 797)(Ta.lex.) mukhara a leader, the chief or principal person; mukhi_ya being at the top or head, being foremost or in the front; mukha the chief, the principal or prominent (at the end of comp. in this sense) (Skt.lex.) mukha pre-emiment, chief, best; mukhan.d.a a chief, a master; adhyaks.a; mukhya belonging to the mouth or face; being at the head; principal, chief, prime, primary; first, eminent, pre-eminent, first-rate, most excellent; the chief, the most excellent among, the first or best of; a leader, a guide; a principal thing; mukhya mukhya the various chief--; mukhyate pre-eminence, the state of being best or chief or of great importance, principalness, primacy, superiority; mokte_sara, makhte_sara a headman; a chief officer (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) mokari_r < muharrir (Arab.) clerk, writer, scribe (C.G.) (Ta.lex.)

6056.Short, succinct: muktacar < mukhtasar adj. abbreviated, abridged, brief, short, succinct; gist, abstract (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6057.Image: sluice: mohari, mo_ri a little channel to carry off water (Ka.); mo_hari_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6058.Image: gushing water: moku-mok-en-al gushing as of water (Ta_yu. Porul.va. 4) (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6059.Clasp of a girdle: mogapu clasp of a girdle (Tu.); clasp of a necklace or the like (Te.)(DEDR 5104).

6060.Image: ornamental figures drawn with powder or pigments: makarapatram, makarale_kha_ the mark of a makari_ on the face of Laks.mi (Skt.lex.) makarike, makarika_-patra, makara-atra figures drawn with fragrant pigments on the breast, cheek, arm and neck (of a woman)(Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Synonym: patra-le_kha, patra-bhan:ga, patravalli drawing lines or figures on the face and person with fragrant pigments (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: ornamental drawing: muggulu ornamental figures drawn on the floor (Te.lex.); cf. ko_lam (Ta.lex.) Image: knot; ornamental design: mokku ornamental designs drawn on the floor with powder (Ta.); moggu id. (Ka. Te.); mokku knot in trees (Ta.); mokka id. (Te.); cf. mukha (Skt.); mokkuma_ powder for drawing decorative designs on the floor (Ta.lex.) Red chalk; steatite: makkula, makko_la red chalk (Skt.); makol chalk (H.); makul clay, pipe clay (Si.) (CDIAL 9695). ma_kkal potstone, greyish blue soft stone, used for making pots, slate-pencils, etc.; soapstone, steatite; ma_kallu id. (Ma.); ma_ flour, meal, dough, powder; dust; colour (Cilap. 4,40)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Clay: mu_k, mu~_k yellow clay (Wg.)(CDIAL 10284). mit.yaru builder of mud walls (S.)(CDIAL 10285). cf.mr.ttika_ earth, clay (VS.)(CDIAL 10286).

6061.Image: to turn round: magucu, mogacu to turn round, return (Ka.); magud.u to turn back, return (Te.)(DEDR 4617). mukud.u to look back (Tu.lex.)

6062.Nose: mukari bottom of the nose; mukarai id. (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. Kan.n.appa. 3); <? mukha face (Ta.); mo_rai id. (Ta.); mo_ra (Te.); mo_re (Ka.); mukhra_ (H.) (Ta.lex.) mu_kku nose, nostril (Tol. Po. 582); id. (Ma.Te.)(Ta.lex.) mu_kku beak (Ta.Ma.); mu_gu, mu_ nose, forepart, snout, beak (Ka.); mu_ku, mu_gu, mu_n:ku nose, beak (Tu.); mukku nose, beak, end, point, tip (Te.); mungad., mukk, mukku nose (Kol.); mungar, mungan id. (Nk.); muva_d. (pl. muva_cil) id. (Pa.); munan, muna_n, mungan id. (Ga.); mungel id. (Pe.Mand..); mungeli, mungi id. (Kui); mu_ngelli, mungeli, mun:geli, mungeli (pl. mungelka) id. (Kuwi); mui~_ id. (Kur.); mun-yu id. (Malt.) (DEDR 5024). muhu~r.a, mohor.a_ face (N.); muhun.d.a_ front side (Or.); muham.d.aum (OG.); mod.hu~, mo~d.u~ mouth, face (G.)(CDIAL 10163). muhagu front (S.); mukha_gra extremity of snout or nose, any extremity (Skt.)(CDIAL 10170).

6063.Face: mukha the face, countenance; the snout or muzzle (of any animal) (Skt. lex.) mukha, muka, moka, moga the mouth; the beak of a bird, snout or muzzle of any animal; the face; facing; the fore-part or front of anything; mukha-majjana washing the face; mukha-bhe_da distortion of the face; mukha-marjana washing the face; mukhamudre cast or expression of countenance; mukhas'ri_, mogasiri beauty of countenance, a beautiful face; mucud.u, musad.i, musud.i, musul.i, mu_ti, mo_r-e the face, the mouth; the snout, muzzle (Ka.); mu_ci (Ta.); mu_ti (Te.); mugar-u, mucci, mui, moci, mu_ccu, motti, mo_nde (Ma.); musakad.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) mokkat.t.u features, face, likeness (Te.); mokkat.t.ai, mokkai face (Ta.); mukana forepart (Ma.); moga, mugan.u the front (Tu.); mokam face (Kol.); mokom face (Pa.Kond.a); mo_r-o protruding face of an animal (Kond.a); mu_ka_ face (Kui); moga face, mouth (Ka.); the front part, beginning, commencement (Te.); the front (Tu.); mogakonu to face; mogadala the front part, front; mogamu face, mouth, the front; mo_mu the face, countenance (Te.); mu_m face (Pe.); mu_mb id. (Mand..); mru_mbu id. (Kui); mu_mbu, mu_mbu_, mu_ka_ face (Kuwi); mo_re face, visage (Tu.); face (Ka.); mo_ra face or head, generally of the lower animals (Te.); mukar-u face, forepart (Ma.); mukar-uka to go forward (Ma.); mix open ground in front of a village, where people sit and buffaloes are milked (To.); mo_r face (Ma.); mo_rai, mukarai id. (Ta.); mukari, mukan-ai forepart, front; mukam face, mouth (Ta.); face (Go.); mukappu front, forepart, porch, facade (Ta.); frontispiece (Ma.); mukom, mukum face (Go.)(DEDR 4889). mukha mouth, face (RV.Pali); entrance (MBh.); muha mouth, face (Pkt.); muy (Gypsy); mu_ mouth (Tir.Wot..Tor.Mai.K.); mu~_h id. (K.); mu~hu~ face, mouth, opening (S.); mu~ face (L.); mux face (Kho.); mu face (B.); muha_ face, mouth, head, person (Or.); mu~h opening or hole (in a stove for stoking, in a handmill for filling, in a grainstore for withdrawing)(Bi.); mouth, face (Mth.Bhoj.H.); muh id. (H.); muha (OG.); mo~h (G.); muya, muva (Si.); muhala, muhulla mouth, face (Pkt.); muhuro face (S.)(CDIAL 10158). mo_r-ai chin, used in contempt (Ta.); mo_ra (Te.); mo_re_ (Tu.); face, used in contempt (Ta.); mo_r-ai-k-kat.t.ai id. (Ta.); mo_rai face; chin (Ta.); mo_r-e id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Face of an animal: bu_est lip (Pas'.); bes, bustu_r., buster., bostar. (Pas'.); bo_star. (Shum.); bo_t (Gau.); buthu face (K.); bu_thu mouth (S.); bu_thi_ lower part of face (S.); bu_tha_r.i id. (contemptuous); muzzle of a horse (S.); bu_th mouth or face of an animal (L.P.); bu_thi_ id. (L.P.); bu_th face of horse, camel, etc. (P.); butha_r. face, mouth (L.); bu_tha_ mouth or snout of an animal (P.)(CDIAL 9299). Image: protruding face of an animal: mu_ci face (Ta.); mu_cai pouting; longish nose, longish face (Ta.); mu_ti, mo_ti face, mouth, snout (Ka.); musud.u, musad.i, musul.i id., muzzle, nose or nostrils of a horse (Ka.); musumbu face (Ka.); mu.d.i face (Kod..); musun.d.u, musun.t.u face, snout, muzzle (Tu.); mu_ti mouth (Te.); mouth, beak (Nk.); snout of pig (Ga.); mut.t.e snout of hog, beak of bird (Te.); mu.ti mouth, beak; mu~_ti mouth (Kol.); mu_ndur snout (Kol.); mo_nta, motti, moi, mui, mucci, mu_ccu face (Ma.); mo.nd id. (Ko.); mucl mouth-part of man, bird, or animal (Ko.); mu.n (obl. mu.t-) face, front (To.); muydur lip, snout of pig (Pa.); masso_r, mosor., mosor, mosok nose (Go.); mundori snout (Go.); moha_ face (Go.); mu_nzi nose (Kond.a); mu_tu beak (Kond.a); mutla snout of pig (Pe.); mutli id. (Mand..); munduri snout (Kui); mud.ra id., upper lip (Kui); mu_ti beak, snout of pig (Kuwi); mocca_ mouth (not said of men unless in joke or abuse)(Kur.); mudra face (Malt.)(DEDR 5031). Rope, nose-bag: mohuti muzzle for cattle (Or.)(CDIAL 10164). mohal., mova_l.e~, mo(h)l.e~, mol.a_ muzzle for sucking calf (M.); mwa_lo net-muzzle to prevent oxen from eating grain when treading out (Ku.); mwa_li muzzle (Ku.)(CDIAL 10162). mohari_ rope attached to headrope to prevent an ox opening its mouth too wide (Bi.)(CDIAL 10165). muha_r nose-rope (L.); nose-rope for camel (P.)(CDIAL 10169). muha~_du mouth of a sack (S.)(CDIAL 10172). mokkan.i feed-bag, nose-bag; a kind of bridle for mules (Ta.); bakkan.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Stout rope: mo_ku a thick or stout rope, cable (Te.); mo_ko rope (Kond.a)(DEDR 5129). mocar. a twist, wrench (B.)(CDIAL 10351).

6064.Image: leaf-bud; ornamental design; image: sprout, bud: mogo bud, leaf-bud (Kui); mogga, mogad.a bud (Te.); mu_ke flower-bud (Kor.); mugge, mogge flower-bud, germ (Tu.); muguru sprout, shoot, bud (Tu.); mukir.. a sprout, bud (Ma.); to appear in the form of a bud; to bud, bring forth (Ta.); kai-m-mukir.. to join the palms of the hands, as in salute, prayer, etc. (Ta.); mukir..am flower-bud about to bloom (Ta.); mukai opening, bud (Ta.); mu_r.. bud (Ta.); mokku flower-bud, bud-like designs on saris (Ta.); mugut.u flower-bud (Ka.); moggu, mogge, maggu a bud (Ka.); mugul., mugal.u bud, opening bud (Ka.); mokkul. flower-bud (Ta.); mugi to contract, shut up or close as a flower, join the two hands with the open palms brought together (Ka.)(DEDR 4893). mokku flower-bud (Ta.); mogga (Te.); moggu (Ka.); bud-like design on sa_r.i_; ornamental design drawn on the floor with powder; bowl of an oil lamp (Ta.lex.) Image: fresh new leaf; sprout; bud: mukula bud (Sus'r.); makula id. (Pkt.); mukura, makura id. (Skt.); baula id. (MB.); mara (Pkt.); mora budding; morr.o fresh new leaf (S.); maura bud (Pkt.); maur bud, blossom (H.); mohor blossom (G.); baula (B.); bol bud, blossom of fruit tree, knob of a wooden clog (B.); baul.a mango bud (Or.); baur mango blossom (Aw.)(CDIAL 10146). mukula_yate_ closes (like a bud)(Skt.); mukulita (R.); mukula_yita having blossoms (Skt.); maule_i blossoms (Pkt.); morjan.u to sprout (S.); maulna_ to blossom, bud (P.); mauln.o to flourish (Ku.); maulanu (N.); maula_ to blossom (B.); maulna_ (H.); maurna_ to blossom (H.); morvu~ (G.); maula_ai blossoms (Pkt.); maula_unu (N.); maula_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 10147). pogga_ tender branch (P.); po~k young shoot of coconut (B.)(CDIAL 8394). mudgara bud (Skt.); moggara (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10199; DEDR 5113).

6065.Bowl of an oil-lamp: mokku bowl of an oil-lamp; mo_t.ca-ti_pam lamp lighted in temple-towers in commemoration of dead persons (Ta.lex.)

6066.Image: monkey: mu_hu monkey; muge baboon (Malt.) muhu (pl. muska), mu_hu (pl. mu_ska) black-faced monkey (Kuwi); mucu langur, senopithecus priamus (Ta.); mocca a light-coloured monkey (Ma.); musu, musuku, musuva a large and black kind of ape; muju black monkey; mucca black-faced monkey (Ka.); mucc langur (Kod..); mujji, mujju a black monkey, baboon (Tu.); kon.d.a-muccuu large black-faced monkey, baboon (Te.); muy black-faced monkey; mui_ langur (Kol.); muy black-faced monkey (Nk.Pa.Ga.); mu_nj (pl. mu_sk) langur monkey (female); mu_nja_l ape; munj monkey; mu_njal, mu_nji, mu_nju, mu_nj black-faced monkey (Go.); mu_su (pl. mu_ska) sp. monkey (hanuman)(Kuwi)(DEDR 4910). mon.n.a monkey; mocca a light-coloured monkey (Ma.); man:ga monkey (Ka.); man:ge monkey, ape (Tu.); man:gi monkey (Kor.)(DEDR 4626). mukul. (Kho.); markat.a monkey (VS.); markat.i_, markat.aka (Skt.); man:kad.a (BhP.); man:ga (Ka.); makkat.a monkey (Pali); makkat.i_ (Pali); makad.'a (NiDoc.); makkad.a, makkad.i_, mam.kad.a, mam.kan.a (Pkt.); makkala (Skt.); maker, ma_gre~ (Kt.); mak (Wg.); mak (Dm.); mako_r. (Pas'.); mra_ko, makro_ryak (Kal.); maki_r (Bshk.); ma_kar. (Phal.); ma_kul (N.); ma_kar.a, ma_n:kar.a (Or.); ma_kr.u~, ma~_kr.u~ red-faced monkey; ma_kr.i_ female monkey (G.); ma_kad. baboon (M.); makd.i_ female monkey (M.); ma_m.kad.a monkey (Konkan.i); makul (Si.)(CDIAL 9882). ma_rkat.a monkeylike (Skt.); ma_kr.a_ lean, thin, meagre (H.); ma_kr.u~, ma~_kr.u~ reddish-brown (G.)(CDIAL 10069).

6067.Fragrant spices: muhadi act of chewing anything after food to purify mouth, anything so chewed (A.); mukhas'uddhi cleansing the mouth (Skt.)(CDIAL 10168). mogava_sa (Tadbhava of mukhava_sa) a perfume for the mouth (Ka.lex.) muka-va_cam < mukha-va_sa fragrant spices, of which there are five, viz., takko_lam, ti_mpu_, ilavan:kam, karuppu_ram, ca_ti (Ci_vaka. 838, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) mukha-va_sa, mukha-va_sanam a perfume used to scent the breath (Skt.lex.) mukhas'o_dhanam cleansing the mouth; cinnamon; mukha-s'o_dhin the citron tree; mukha-s'o_dhana the sharp flavour, pungency; mukha-bhu_s.an.am a preparation of betel; mukha-priyam cloves; mukha-cu_rn.a scented powder to smear the face with; mukha-du_s.an.a an onion; mukhapriya an orange; mukha-vallabha the pomegranate tree (Skt.lex.)

6068.To smell: cf. muka to smell (Ta.lex.) mo_ga fragrance (Tu.); mukakka, mukaruka to smell, kiss (Ma.); muka (-pp-, -nt-), mukar (-v-, -nt-), mo_ (-pp-, -nt-) to smell; mo_ppam smell; nose; mo_r smell; mo_ru to smell (Ta.); mu_cu_cu, mu_ru-konu, mu_r-konu to smell (Te.); mun-stoleng to sniff (i.e. munst-o_leng sniffing, to see) (Kol.); mu_-, mu_k- to smell, sniff (Pa.); muska_na_ to smell at, e.g. flower; maska_na_, muska_na_ to smell; muska_na_ to inhale, enjoy perfume; mu_sk to smell (Go.); mu_nj- to sniff, smell (Mand..Pe.); mu_nc- id. (Pe.); mu_nz id. (Kond.a); mu_nja (mu_nji-) id.; n. act of smelling (Kui); mu_njinai, mu_nj-, mu_nj- (-it-) to smell (Kuwi); nusungna_ to smell (Kur.); mu_c (mu_ci-) to sniff; mu_ccu respiration, breath (Ta.); mu.t- (mu.yt-) to smell; mung a kiss (Ko.); mu.t- (mu.ty-) to smell; mu.t act of smelling, sniffing; scent (of track)(To.); mu_su to smell; mu_cu, nu_cu id. (Ka.); mu.s- (mu.si-) id. (Kod..); mu_suni to smell, take notice; mu_su smell; mu_sa_vuni to make smell; mu_saliyuni to scent, trace, track, smell; mugalt scent; mu_ri bad smell, stench (Tu.)(DEDR 4886). Fragrance: a_mo_hanika_ a partic. fragrant odour (Sus'r.); amu_jha perplexed (OG.); amu~jha_vu~ to be perplexed, to fret; amu~jhan.i perplexity (G.); amu_hr., amu_hur. ignorant, reckless (P.)(CDIAL 1262). mo~ho~k odour, sweet smell, pleasant odour (Santali.lex.) mo_ga fragrance (Tu.lex.) Fragrance: mo_-ttal to smell (mo_ppak kur..aiyuman-iccam : Kur-al., 90)(Ta.lex.) cf. pogepuni to fumigate (Tu.)(DEDR 4240). cf. mugalte scent (Tu.); mo_ga fragrance (Tu.); mukar (-v-, -nt-) to smell (Ta.)(DEDR 4886). cf. mogje to fumigate (Malt.)(DEDR 5131). mo_ha stupor, unconsciousness, loss of consciousness; mo_ha-cu_ran.a love-powder; mo_hi stupefying, fascinating, charming (Ka.lex.) moko_ba a fragrant powder that is taken with snuff etc. (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) Mixing: mo_dayati mixes (Dha_tup.); softens (with ghee)(Skt.); mohan. to knead with oil or ghee (L.); mon.a_ (P.); moiba to soften or make juicy by mixing with water or other liquid (A.); mona_ to freshen, wet (H.) movu~ to mix fat with flour (G.); moin.u to wring or twist a cloth etc. in rolling it in a lump (S.)(CDIAL 10357). Charm: mo_kan- < mo_ha Ka_ma, the god of love (Pin..); mo_kam delusion of mind which prevents one from discerning the truth (Ci. Po_. Pa_. 2,2); mo_ki-ttal to be confused, bewildered (Vina_yakapu. 74,218); mo_kitam infatuation of love (Vina_yakapu. 82,7); mo_kin-i < mo_hini incarnation of Vis.n.u as a fascinating woman (Paripa_. 3,33, Urai.); a class of demoness (Takkaya_kap. 593)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mo_hani a charm (A.)(CDIAL 10361). pon:ko_lam child's amulet tree, putranjiva roxburghii (Ta.); id. (Ma.)(DEDR 4472). muhna_ to charm, allure (H.); muhun to delude, fascinate, be deceived (K.)(CDIAL 10362). makit.i trial of magical powers between two enchanters in which one hides some treasure from the other and challenges him to discover it by mantras; common play where things are hidden by one player and discovered by another; mo_t.i trial of magical power (Ta.); mo_t.r anything placed by a conjuror who tries to prevent its being removed (Ma.); mo_d.i trial of magical powers, etc. (Ka.); anything placed by a conjuror to try the ability of another, conjuration, delusion, sorcery (Tu.); a sort of magic or jugglery (Te.); makit.i a kind of hautboy used by snake-charmer (Ta.); mo_t.i snake-charmer's pipe (Ta.); magid.i a kind of musical instrument used by a snake-charmer (Te.)(DEDR 5132). mo_kam delusion of mind which prevents one from discerning the truth (Ci. Po_. Pa_. 2,2); mo_kar infatuated persons; mo_kanaccun.n.am magic powder used for fascinating a person (Pa_rata. Campava. 94); mo_kan-am magic art of fascinating a person (Tan-ippa_. i,235,1) (Ta.lex.) mo_kan-avittai the magic art of fascinating a person; mo_kan-ai id. (Kampara_. Aye_ramuku. 59)(Ta.lex.) Delusion; bewildered: muh bewilder (Skt.); mugdha bewildered (AV.); gone astray (RV.); foolish (S'Br.); muddha infatuated, foolish (Pali.Pkt.); mudhi adj. bewildered, stupid (OG.)(CDIAL 10175). nirmo_hayati bewilders (MBh.); nimu_jha_n., nimu_jha_n.a_ vexed in mind, sorrowful (P.)(CDIAL 7379). cf. mu_d.ha stupefied (AV.); mu_ysam.dai foolish (Khot.); mul.a_va delusion (Si.)(CDIAL 10232). muhyati gone astray, is bewildered (RV.); muyhati is stupefied; muyhana (Pali); mujjhai is confused (Pkt.); mujhan.u to be entangled; mujhu_r.o entangled (S.); mujhi_jan., mu~jhi_jan. to be perplexed, be sad (L.); mujinu to be ashamed, be creased, be enjoyed (of a woman); caus. mujya_unu (N.); mujha_vu~ to be perplexed (G.); muza_ wrinkled, shrunk (A.); muzura_ lean, stunted (A.)(CDIAL 10230). mo_hana infatuating (MBh.); infatuation (R.); infatuation, allurement (Pali); mo_hanaka adj. (Pali); mo_han.a enchanging, fainting, love (Pkt.); muhuni fascination, personality (N.); mohan act of fascinating; mohani a charm (A.)(CDIAL 10361). mo_ha bewilderment (AV.); swoon (MBh.); delusion, folly (Pali.Pkt.); mohu love (S.); moh, mohu love, fascination (P.); mo fascination (MB.); moh, moha_ fainting, stupefaction, charm (H.); moh, moho fascination, charm (M.); mohoya, mo_ya error, blindness (Si.)(CDIAL 10360). mo_hayati bewilders (RV.); mo_he_ti deludes (Pali); mo_he_i, mo_hai (Pkt.); muhun to delude, fascinate, be deceived (K.); mohan.u to fascinate (S.); mohan. to allure (L.); mohon.u_ to be surfeited (WPah.); mohai becomes bewildered (OAw.); mohiba to fascinate (A.); moha_ id. (B.); mohiba_ (Or.); mohna_ to allure, charm (H.); mohvu~, movu~ (G.); mohn.e~ to bewitch (M.)(CDIAL 10362). mo_huka falling into enchantment (TS.); mohu_ fascinating (S.)(CDIAL 10363). mojjha confused, stupid (Pkt.); mo~jhu-mo~jhu, mo~jhi-mo~jhi tangle (S.); mu_jh sadness (L.)(CDIAL 10364). Love: mo_g(o), mo_ga_ love; moyamo_g fraternal love; mo_g(o)kar make love; moga_l.pon. loveliness; mo_g(o), moga_l., moga_tso lovely; mo_g kartso making love (Kon.lex.) moh pity, compassion (Santali.lex.) mogasu adj. pleasant, happy (Tu.lex.) moga_l. lovely, dear, kind; moga_l.pon. amiability (Kon.lex.)

6069.Image: to blow with fist: muko_li blow with fist (K.)(CDIAL 10150). buki_ to blow with fist (M.); boku hand bent to receive water (Si.); bukula blow with fist (Si.)(CDIAL 9262). muka_l fist (K.); muka blow with fist (S.); mukk, mukki_ (L.); mukk, mukki_ fist (P.); mukki blow with fist (WPah.); mukkha_, mukki fist (N.); mu_ka_, mukka_, mukki_, mukkhi_ (H.); mukko, mukki_ blow with fist (G.); mut.ka_ fist (Kur.); mut.ka blow with fist (Pa.)(CDIAL 10150). mut.t.uka to knock (Ma.); mut.ka_, mut.ga_ id. (Kur.)(DEDR 4932). mukoli blow with fist (K.); muka_l (K.); muka (S.); mukk (L.); fist (P.); mukki blow with fist (WPah.); mukka_ fist (N.)(CDIAL 10150). Image: to blow with the fist: mut.ka blow with fist (Pa.); mut.hagi_, mut.hki_ blow with fist (Ku.); mut.ki, mur.ki (N.); mut.ka_ (M.)(CDIAL 10221). Fist: mus.t.i clenched hand, fist (RV.); handful (S'Br.); fist, grip (Kho.); fist (Phal.Sh.); mut fist (Bshk.); mut.(h), pl.mut.i fist (Sh.); must fist (Ash.Pr.); mus.t. (Wg.Kt.Dm.); mis.t. (Kt.); mut.t.hi fist (Pali.Pkt.); mus.t.i_ fist (Pas'.Kal.); mut.hi_ fist (Pas'.); fist, handful (Ku.); mus.t.a_k, mus.t.i_ke fist (Gaw.); mot.h, mot.hu fist (K.); mut.hi fist, fistful (S.); fist (N.Or.); fist, handful (A.); mut.ho handful (N.); mut.t.h fist (L.); mut.t.hi_ handful (L.); mut.t.h fist (P.); mut.t.hi_ fist (P.); handful (G.); mut.i, mut.h fist, handful (B.); mut.(h)a_ handful (B.); mu_t.hi fist (Bhoj.); mu_t.hi_ handful (OAw.); mu_t.h fist, blow with fist (H.); fist (M.G.); mu_t.ha_ fist, blow with fist (H.); mu_t.hi_, mut.t.hi_ fist, handful (H.); mut.t.ha_ handful (H.); mu_t. fist (Konkan.i); mit.a, pl. mit.i fist, handful (Si.)(CDIAL 10221). mutha clenched fist (Or.); muthra_ dull, blunt (H.)(CDIAL 10196). mut.ka'a_na_ to hit or hammer at with the fist (Kur.); mut.a fist (Ga.); mut.ka blow with fist (Pa.); mot.t.u, mot.t.uka_ya a knock with knuckles, a blow on a hard body with one that is smaller (Te.); mot.t.u to give a blow or stroke with the knuckles, esp. on the head (Te.); to rap the head (of another) with the knuckles of the fist; n. a rap with the knuckles of the fist (Ka.)(DEDR 4932). mutuku grossness (Ta.); mutuka, muduka rough, thick, blunt (Te.); modukana roughness, thickness (Te.)(DEDR 4956). Image: height of the fist: mukkat.ai height of the fist with the thumb raised vertically = 6 inches; mukkat.t.u knuckle (Ta.lex.) Snap the fingers; strike: mid.ucu to flick with the fingers (Te.); mit.t.-, mit.kip- (mit.kit-) id. (Pa.); mirih to crack knuckles; mor. to snap fingers; mor.hk- to crack knuckles; muhr- id. (Go.); mid.i to strike at or strike with a finger or the fingers, strike with the index, as the strings of a lute (Ka.); mit.ka snapping of the fingers (Kond.a)(DEDR 4848). mar.ka_ brittle (B.); mat.mat. sound of quick movement (M.); mat.akn.a_ to crackle, behave affectedly (P.); to twinkle (H.); mat.ka_na to crack (B.); mat.ka_ fragile (Or.)(CDIAL 9722).

6070.Image: swarming: mu_cu (mu_ci-) to swarm about, gather round; n. swarming, thronging; mu_cal swarming, thronging; mu_r.. (-pp-, -tt-) to swarm round, surround; mu_kai vaste hord (Ta.); moy (-pp-, -tt-) to crowd, swarm; moyppu crowd, multitude; moci (-v-, -nt-) to swarm (Ta.); musuku, musugu to swarm or crowd together (Ka.); mukar-u, mukkur-u, mukkur-iku to surround; moge to cover, fall upon (Ka.); musaru, musuru, mu~_gu, mu_vu to gather around, surround, swarm; mu~_ka crowd, swarm (Tu.); mu_ng(i) e_r- to swarm (Ga.)(DEDR 5030). Army: mu~_ka army, multitude, host, crowd, swarm (Te.); mogiyu to overspread, attack, close with (Te.); mu_kai vaste horde; moy battle, war (Ta.); mu_cu to swarm about (Ta.); mu_cal swarming, thronging (Ta.); mu_r.. to swarm round, surround (Ta.); moyppu crowd, multitude (Ta.); musur- to crowd together (Ka.); musur- to crowd together (Ka.); mukar-u, mukkur-u, mukkur-iku to besiege, surround; mogasu to attack, cover, fall upon (Ka.); moge to cover, fall upon, close with (Ka.); musaru, musuru, mu~_gu, mu_vu to collect or gather around, surround, crowd, swarm (Te.); moia_na_, moitta_na_ to rush at, close with; moya_na_ to kill (Go.); mogiyu to attack, overspread (Te.); moy battle, war; to crowd, press, swarm (Ta.); mogasu to attack (Ta.); moya_na_ to kill (Go.); mu_ng(i) e_r- to swarm (Ga.); moia_na_, moitta_na_ to rush at, close with (Go.)(DEDR 5030). moggara, mokkal.a, mo_hara mass, multitude, army, host; mo_harisu to become plentiful or abundant, be formed into a host; form a host, array as troops for battle (Ka.); mo_haramu battle-array (Te.); mo_harincu to array, prepare for battle (Te.)(DEDR 5107). vyu_ha arrangement (R.); military array (MBh.); heap, mass, array of troops (Pali); byu_ha id. (Pali); vu_ha, viu_ha battle array (Pkt.); bhua (Or.)(CDIAL 12222). u_kam military array, squadron (Kantapu.Cu_ran-akarpuri. 1)(Ta.lex.) cf. u_h to thrust (Skt.)(CDIAL 2442). niru_d.han.em. to push aside (OM.); niru_d.ha put aside, separated (Gaut.)(CDIAL 7287). mu_r.. to swarm around, surround (Ta.); mud.up- to encircle (Kor.)(DEDR 5034). cf. mu_y to cover, surround (Ta.); muccu to close (Ka.)(DEDR 4915). mur-r-u to surround, besiege, blockade; siege; mur-r-ukai blockade, siege, surrounding; distress, want; mur-r-al surrounding, encircling; mur-r-ikkai siege (Ta.); mur-r-uka to be close, crowded (Ma.); mut (people) come together in a dense crowd (Ko.); muttu to enclose, cover, settle upon (as flies, etc.), environ, encompass, surround, hem or shut in, besiege, drive into straits, attack, swarm or crowd together (as bees), throng; muttalu environing, surrounding; muttiga, muttige covering, surrounding, siege, blockade (Ka.); muttuni to surround, besiege, hem in, encompass; mutti, muttige siege (Tu.); mut.t.ad.incu to besiege; mut.t.u id., surround, spread over, be crowded; mut.t.ad.i, mut.t.ad.amu siege, surrounding (Te.); mu_cali to surround, enclose; muccinai to besiege; muc- (-it-) to lay siege (Kuwi)(DEDR 5018). [cf. sutta mutta (Ka.Tu.); cur.r.u-mur.r.um (Ta.)(DEDR 2715)]. Guild; mass, assembly: pun:ga mass, assembly (Skt.); pu_ga heap, quantity (Pali.Pkt.); pu_g assembly, mass (Mn.); pu_ga guild (Pali.Pkt.); pua_a curds (Pkt.); X vyu_h-: poha_, pova_ troop, crowd (M.)(CDIAL 8312). cf. vyu_ha military array (MBh.); arrangement (R.); heap, mass, array of troops (Pali)(CDIAL 12222). pr.n:kti gives lavishly, mixes (RV.)(CDIAL 8251). cf. purumna_ (purumyas) to mix, eat one's rice and vegetables mixed into one mess (Kur.)(DEDR 4541). cf. samu_ha heap, collection (AV.); multitude (Pali.Pkt.); sumuva heap, multitude, army (Si.)(CDIAL 13241). Army, retinue: u_kkal putting forth effort (Ta.); u_kkalar persons of energy, spirit (Maturaik.743)(Ta.lex.) u_kku to make an effort (Ta.); strength, extertion (Ma.); u~_ku to endeavour (Te.); ukye to act with dignity, terrify (Malt.)(DEDR 729). cf. kumpal company, crowd, collection, group, mass; clump, cluster, tuft; heap; kumpu crowd, collection, group (Ta.); gumpu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) War: muyal war (Ta.lex.) muyal to undertake, persevere (Ta.); muyalvu endeavouring, persevering, effort; muyar-ci, muyar-r-i, muyar-r-u effort, exertion, industry (Ta.); mogasu to begin to exert oneself (Ka.); mogi exertion, effort, endeavour; mogiyu to attempt, try;moggu to undertake to do, be prepared for action (Te.)(DEDR 4967). cf. moggara army (Ka.)(DEDR 5107).

6071.Image: to devour: mu_cuka to devour, to lick (Ma.); mu_ci voracious, penem lingens; mu_cuka, mo_cuka to suck (Ma.); mu_ju to suck (used in a derogatory sense)(Ka.); mu.j- (mu.ji-) to suck (penis)(Kod..); mu_cu (mu_ci-) to lick (Ta.) (DEDR 5032).

6072.Written obligation, agreement: muccalikka_ < mucalka (H.) note of hand; written obligation, agreement, bond; deed; counterpart of a lease, as by a tenant to his landlord; recognisance, bail, penalty bond; muccalikkai id.; mucilika_ (G.Tn.D. I, 284)(Ta.lex.) muccalike a written engagement under a penalty; a bond of record, a recognizance, the bond of agreement furnished by the parties of a panca_yat; a final agreement in writing (Ka.Te.); mucalaka_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) mugita, mugite a settlement; a contract; mugitagu korpini to give a work on contract; muccal.ige an agreement in writing, deed of settlement (Tu.lex.) Stationer: mucci stationer, one who serves out stationery in a public office (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mucci a man employed in public offices to make pens, ink, provide paper, seal letters, bind books etc. (Ka.Te.H.)(Ka.lex.) mucci painter; mucciyan- carpenter, cabinet-maker; mucciyan id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) mucutti < mutasaddi (H.) writer in a public office, accountant (Ta.lex.) mocolka personal recognizance, a bond, an agreement; gel t.aka mocolkakateko ar.akkadea they took his personal recognizance in ten rupees and liberated him; mucalka, mucilka personal recognizane or bond (Santali.lex.)

6073.Crooked: mocr.a mucr.i to writhe, to contort, twisting from side to side, to gripe; mocr.ao to twist, to contort, to write, to gripe (Santali.lex.) mucun.t.ar low, mean people (Ta.); mus'at.an coward (Ma.); musun.d.i, mu_san.d.i a crooked, perverse, rude person, a coward; musun.d.itana crookedness, perversity, cowardice (Ka.); musun.d.i, musud.i a shameless woman (Tu.)(DEDR 4912).

6074.Beard, mustache: s'mas'ru beard, mustache (RV.); (hari)s'mas'a_ru, (hiri_)mas'a, (hiri)s'mars'u (with golden) beard; s'mas'a_ (punning) dam, beard (RV.); massu beard (Pali); mas.u (NiDoc.); massu_, mam.su, ma_su, ma_suri_ (Pkt.); s'os'a mustache (Gypsy); mus.u_, ms.yu_, mus'i beard (Pr.); mas, ma_s first beard of a young man (L.); mass, massu~ (P.); ma_suri_ (B.); sa_sa_ (Or.); masa (Si.); mi_s'o mustache (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12659). For the -i_- in Konkan.i, cf.: mi_cai, vi_cai moustache (Ta.); mi_s'a, vi_s'a moutaches, whiskers; feelers of insects, antennae (Ma.); mi.c moustache (Ko.); mi.s id. (To.); mi_se id. (Ka.); mi.se id. (Kod..); mi_s moustaches, whiskers; feelers of an insect (Tu.); mi_samu (pl. mi_samulu, mi_salu) moustache, whiskers (Te.); mi.sal (pl.) moustache (Kol.); mi_sak id. (Nk.); mi_sa_ng, mi_sin, mi_san, me_chan, mi_sok id. (all pl. forms); misal (pl. -ku) id. (Go.); me_samku (pl.) id. (Kond.a); me_sku id. (Pe.); mi_samku id. (Kui); mici_, misi_, mecha_ id. (Kur.); mis'i (pl. mis'a_) moustache (M.); misi (Santali); mici, misi (Mundari)(DEDR 4879). For the s'- cf.: so_r.a a hair (Kui); so_r.a ba_n.aa~_ beard (Kui); sorkoo man with a beard (Go.)(DEDR 2894). cf. mucha mustache (S.); mo_ccha_ (Skt.); mucch, pl. muccha~_ (L.); mucch (P.); mu~_ch (Ku.); mucha (Or.); mu_ch (H.G.); mu~ch (G.); moc (B.); mocha (Or.); mo~ch (Mth.Bhoj.); mo~chi (Bhoj.); mo_ch whiskers (Aw.); mo~_ch hair on face (Aw.); moch mustache (H.)(CDIAL 10180).

6075.Image: to carry; bundle: mo_c- (-it-) to be loaded down with heavy load, be burdened with many worries and responsibilities (Kuwi); ma_c- to carry on the head (Man.d..); mo_ to undertake (Ta.); mo_r- to carry on the head; mo_pu load, burden, heaviness (Ka.); mo_cu, mo_yu to bear, carry, support, rest on, lean on; mo_pu to place on another as load, lay, rest, support, charge with, cause to rest slowly (as a foot on a slippery floor); n. large bundle, burden, load, severity or aggravation (of diseases), responsibility; mo_puka~_d.u carrier, burden; mo_pudala weight, burden, charge, accusation, responsibility, obligation; mo~_ta bearing, carrying, load (Te.); mo.p burden (Kol.); mo_pap- (-t-) to keep something heavy (Ga.); mo_ta load (Go.)[cf. cuma load (Ta.)(DEDR 2677)](? *cuma- > *cmo_-> mo_-)(DEDR 5126). mo_tu bundle of straw (Ta.); mo_da bundle of betel leaves (Te.)(DEDR 5136).

6076.Image: elephant with short tusks: mokkad.i~_d.u elephant with short tusks (Te.); mokkad.i id. (Te.); mokka blunt, not sharp (Te.); mokkat.t.ai that which is blunt (Ta.)(DEDR 5106). mokkat.t.u face; that which is blunt (Te.)(Ta.lex.) matkun.a elephant without tusks; makna_ (of an elephant) undersized (Skt.); makano fierce elephant (S.); makuna_ tuskless elephant (N.); makhana_ tuskless male elephant (A.); ma_khuna_ small tuskless male elephant (= ma_kal.a_)(Or.); makuna_ male elephant with small tusks (Bi.Mth.); tuskless elephant (Bhoj.H.); makhna_ tuskless elephant (H.); mukn.a_ tuskless (of an elephant)(M.)(CDIAL 9748). mr.ga-hastin elephant (RV.); mr.ga wild animal (RV.)(CDIAL 10264)[cf. Practical Vedic Dictionary: mr.ga forest animal, wild beast, game of any kind, elephant; RV. i.190.3; ix.92.6; iv.16.14.] [?Aryanization of karin- ( or -kad.i in: mokkad.i~_d.u which was perhaps non-Aryan in origin; or > Austro-as. cf. Santali:] hastin elephant (with mr.ga RV.AV.); ha~_thi_, hathini elephant (Aw.); hastin (RV.Av.); hatthin (Pali); hasti (As'.); hatthi (Pkt.); hati (Gaw.); het (Bshk.); ha_ti (Ku.N.A.Or.B.); ha_thi_ (OB.Bi.H.Marw.G.)(CDIAL 14039). hathi, hati an elephant (Santali.lex.); hathi son.d.a elephant's tusk, ivory; hathi sun.d. an elephant's trunk (Santali.lex). Image: elephant: kari elephant (Tiruva_ca. 6,19)(Ta.lex.)< nom. sing. of karin: kari_ (Skt.)karu black (Ta.Ma.); karan, karen, kareyan black (Nk.)DEDR 1278). ?Poss. a non-aryan: kar- elephant; kalabha young elephant (Pali.Pkt.); karaba id. (Si.); kalam.baya id. (Si.)(CDIAL 2797). karin elephant (Pali); kari-, karin.a (Pkt.); kiriya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 2803). [Compound of kar- + e_nu:] kare_n.u, kare_n.u_ elephant (MBh.); kare_n.uka (Skt.); *n.e_ru- tusk in: re_ruka ivory (i.e., having no or poor tusks)(Pa.): kan.eru, karen.uka a young elephant (Pali.lex.); kan.e_ru m., kare_n.uka_ f. elephant (Pali); kan.e_ru-, kan.e_ruya_- f., kare_n.u- m., kare_n.ua_ f. (Pkt.); karun.i_, kuran.i_, karan.i_ (OG.); karen. (G.); ken.era young female elephant (Si.)(CDIAL 2812). {For the suffix: -e_n.u in: (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2812); and -ana_ in: makhana_ tuskless elephant (A.)(CDIAL 9748): cf. ya_n-ai, a_n-ai elephant (Ta.)[ya_n-aiyun. kutiraiyum (Tol. Po. 570)(Ta.lex.); a_na (Ma.); a.n (Ko.To.); a.ne (Kod..); a_ne (Tu.Ka.); ya_ne (Ka.); e_nu_gu, e_nika, e_niga, e_nige, e_nuga (Te.); ena_gi (Kol.); e_ngi (Kol.); e_nagi_ (Nk.); e_nu (Pa.); e_nig (Ga.); ye_ni, aini, e_nal, e_ni, e_n (Go.); e_ngu, e_ni (Kond.a.)(DEDR 5161)}.

6077.Image: with folded legs: mucalikai-y-a_tan-am a kind of yogic posture which consists in lying on one's chest with hands and legs folded in a peculiar way (Tattuvap. 108, Urai); mucalikai id. (Tattuvap. 108)(Ta.lex.)

6078.Image: to squat: mugul.m ir- (i0-) (person) squats on heels, (tiger) sits on haunches (To.); mul.ka_ (-v-, -nt-) to sit with arms and legs folded (Ta.);(DEDR 5003). Image: to sit: okkna_ (ukkyas) to sit down, seat oneself, alight, perch, hold a session, come to a standstill, acquire steadiness, reside; okkrna_ to sit down in order to breathe or recover oneself; okta'a_na_ to invite to sit down, give firmness to, settle (Kur.); oke to sit, be situated; okete to sit down, settle; oktre to place, put down, make to sit (Malt.)(DEDR 930). cf. ut.ka_rtal to sit down (Ta.lex.) ud- (utt-) to sit; udip- (udipt-) to make to sit (Kol.); udd- (utt-) to sit; udup-/udp to make to sit (Nk.); und- to sit; untip- (untit-) to cause to sit (Pa.); und.- to sit; und.-, und.-e_r- to sit, perch; un.- (un.d.-) to sit; un.up- to seat (Ga.); udda_na_, uda_na_, ud- to sit; uccahta_na_ to cause to sit; upis-, uppu_s-, upsuhta_na_, upih-, up'-, upcah- to make to sit (Go.)(DEDR 725).

6079.Image: bow to ground: m(r)oggu to kneel, incline, lean to one side; be willing, consent, agree (Te.); moggatilu to bend down, stoop (Te.); murgre to lie with the face downward (Malt.); moqtre to bend (head)(Malt.); ad. mug- (mur.t-) to bow to the ground before god or god-like person (Ko.)[cf. ad.a state of being across, transverse, or in the way, state of being broadwise or horizontal, crosswise; obstructing (Ka.); od. crosswise, prostrate (To.); ad.d.a boruni to prostrate, bow down (Tu.)(DEDR 83)]; mor..gu bow, obeisance (Ka.); mokku id. (Ka.); mur..gu to make obeisance (Ka.); m(r)okku obeisance, salutation (Te.); mokk- to bow down in reverence (Nk.); molk id. (Ga.); mor.k to salute respectfully (Pa.); id., bow down, worship (Go.); mor.ka_na_ to pray (Go.); mulk to bend before in respect (Ga.); mursa_na_ to stoop forward, bow, stoop (Go.); mursahta_na_ caus.; mor.ka_na_ to pray; morka_na_ to worship; mo_r. to bend; mun-r.ga_na_ to sleep on one's face (Go.); mro_nga to crouch over (Kuwi); bonginai, bong (-it-) to bow, bend down (Kuwi); mulkhrna_ to kneel down with head bowed in the ground (Kur.)(DEDR 5123). mu.v- (mu.d-) to salute; kay mu.v- to make an ajali; movc- (priest) prays to god for someone else, moving right hand up and down (?Ko.); koy mux to salute (To.)(DEDR 4893). To bend; bow: oggu to bend, bow, become submissive (Ka.); to bend, turn towards, become submissive, yield (Te.); orun.n.uka to yield (Ma.); orun:ku to sink, decline, become reduced, be ruined, perish; n. suppression, restraint (Ta.)(DEDR 991). cf. van:ku, ve_n:ku (ve_n:ki-) to bend; n. bending (Ta.)(DEDR 5335). jhukan.u to stoop (S.); jhukan. (L.); jhukn.a_ (P.); jukn.u~ to crush or break stone (WPah.); jhukn.o to bow (Ku.); jhuknu to bend forward (N.); jhukkinu to be misled (N.); jhukna_ to bend (H.); jhukvu~ (G.); jhukn.e~ (M.); jhokan.u to push faggots on to the fire (S.); jhok a net hung up to hold clothes (N.); [cf. cun:ku end of cloth left hanging out in dressing (Ta.)(DEDR 2648)]; jhun:gi carrying something by holding it on both sides (N.); jhu~ka_ to stoop (B.); jhun:kiba_ to stoop (Or.); jho~k gust of wind (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5399). bijhukna_ to jerk, fear, be crooked (H.)(CDIAL 11704). Guard: mokacal < mohassal (U.) guard placed over a revenue defaulter; mokattama_ < muqaddama_ subject-matter of a case or law-suit (U.)(Ta.lex.)

6080.Image: numerator of a fraction: po_kam numerator of a fraction (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6081.Image: crucible: muhi crucible (A.); muchi crucible (B.); musa_ (Or.); mu_s (H.G.M.); musa_ (Si.); mu_s.a_ (Ma_rkP.)(CDIAL 10262). mu_cai crucible; earthen mould for casting molten metal < mu_s.a_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) mur-ukuka to be coagulated, become stiff (Ma.)(DEDR 5011a). mu_cai crucible; earthen mould for casting molten metal (Ta.lex.) mu_ka-mu_s.a crucible (has a false bottom into which a part of the melting gold drips down; karat.amukham 'crow's beak' or 'crane's beak': (1) a kind of pincers with hollow ends for concealing gold; (2) a vessel for receiving something; pin.d.a-va_luka_h gold particles; cf. R.P. Kangle, Kaut.ilya Arthas'a_stra, 2.14.23 and 24; Part 2, p.118: The context is the pilfering of gold amidst the activity of the goldsmith in the market highway: "A dummy crucible, foul dross (pu_tikit.t.ah), the 'crane's beak', the blow-pipe, the pair of tongs (sandam.s'a), the water-vessel, borax, and the same gold, these are the ways of removal; Or, sand made into lumps and placed (there) beforehand, is taken out of the fire-place on the breaking of the crucible.")

6082.Image: lid: mucce, muccal., muccal.a a cover, a lid (Ka.lex.) To wrap: mucan. tight-fitting cover (Ko.); mucca_na_ to wrap something round one's body, put new skins on a drum (Go.); muc-, mus- to cover, put on outer cloak (Go.); Image: cover of pot: mucce cover of pot, lid (Go.); mus- (-t-) to bury (as a corpse), cover (a pit), close (with lid)(Kond.a); musa (musi-) to cover (a drum with skin or an umbrella with cloth); munja (munji-) to be covered, buried (Mand..); musge to pack up, tie into a bundle (Malt.); musugna_ to envelop, wrap in, pack into a bundle (Kur.); must shut, closed (Br.)(DEDR 4915). musuku, musugu cover, veil (Ka.); musumbu id. (Ka.); moge to cover, fall upon, close with (Ka.); moy tightness, closeness, battle (Ta.)(DEDR 5030). muzu_ju cloth placed over the face of the corpse of a Brahman (K.)(CDIAL 10171).

6083.Image: a drinking vessel: bo~_ki, bon:ki pot (Te.); bo_ki potsherd (Ka.); bo.kva.y ara.t. pot with piece broken from mouth (Ko.)(DEDR 4576). Image: pot with piece broken from mouth: tiru-bo_ki, tiru-po_ki a beggar; tiru-bo_ki a mendicant's bowl (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bo_gun.i, bo_gan.i a metal basin for washing; a metal vessel for culinary purposes (Ka.); bo_ga_n.i, bo_gin.i, bhagon.i (Te.); bo_gun.i a vessel of stone for culinary purposes (Ka.); bagun.e_m. a certain metal vessel for culinary purposes (M.)(Ka.lex.) pokkan.i a kind of drinking vessel (Ta.); po_kin.i a kind of drinking cup or water-vessel (Ta.); bogin.i (Te.); po_n-aka-c-cat.t.i vessel for serving food (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) po_kan.i a kind of drinking vessel (Can.. Aka.); bo_gan.i id. (Ka.) (Ta.lex.) ohoe potsherd; baher broken; phon.phon. broken in places (Santali. lex.) po_kkat.i losing, loss (Ta.lex.) pan:kam piece; portion (Te_va_. 855,5)(Ta.lex.) mukam form, shape (Pirapulin.. Kaila_ca. 3); mo_kai lump or mass without any distinctive shape (Ta.); muka-ttal to draw as water; to bale (Kalit. 145); to measure as grain or liquid; to obtain in full measure (Kampara_. Er..ucci. 2); to lift, take up (Kampara_. Kumpakarn.a. 129); mukattal-al.avai, mukattal.avai measure of capacity, one of four al.avai (Nan-. 290, Urai.)[the four kinds are: en.n.al (counting), et.uttal (weighment), mukattal (capacity measure), ni_t.t.al (linear measure)(Nan-. 290)](Ta.lex.) cf. mukku a certain vessel, pot (Ka.)(DEDR 4899). mu_r..i the spout of a water-jar (Ka.lex.) mo_-ttal to take in a vessel as water (Tailava. Taila.) (Ta.); moge (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) mogisu to cause to lade; moge to take water with a vessel out of a pond, tank or stream for one's use (Ka.); mol.l.u (Ta.); mucu (Te.); moge to lade, to lade out any fluid with a small vessel etc. out of a larger one (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: fragment: mukku, mur-uku the state of being somewhat broken; a small break; a small fragment (Ka.lex.) mukavai anything which is given in large quantities (Pur-ana_. 371); heap of paddy on the threshing floor (Cilap. 10, 137, Urai.); bucket for drawing water (Patir-r-up. 22,14); Ramnad, a town in Tamil Nadu (Tan-ic. Cin. Pak. 456,34)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mu_kku-c-cat.t.i a vessel with a projecting lip, used to pour liquid food (Ta.lex.) Images: mouth of a vessel; earthen platter used as a cover: mukha opening, aperture, the mouth of a vessel, the eye of a needle etc.; mu_gu the nozzle of a vessel (Ka.Te.); mun:gud.i (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Lid: mudga lid (Skt.); samudga round box (Ya_j.); samugga box (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 13234). moge to cover; to fall upon, to close with (Ka.lex.) moge, mage a small earthen vessel for ladling out (Ka.lex.) Image: to cover: muccutal to cover (Ja_n-ava_. Ma_vali. 8); mu_yu (Te.); muccu (Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) cf. mucce cover of a pot (Go.)(DEDR 4915). mukku a certain vessel, pot, pan or cup (Ka.); mu_kud.u an earthen platter used as a cover (Te.)(Ka.lex.) mukai large earthen vessel (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) mol. to take in a vessel, as water (Ta.); mr.uk to ladle out (Pe.Mand..); mluk- to draw water by dipping in a pot (Kui); mn.ok- (-h-) to draw (water from container with small vessel into large vessel), ladle out; mrokh'nai to merge (Kuwi); mulge to dip in, draw water (Malt.)(DEDR 5124). Image: sacred dairy vessel; earthen pan; plate; pot: mu~_kud.u an earthen pan, a plate, covering dish (Te.); mukku a certain vessel, pot, pan or cup (Ka.)(DEDR 4899). mogha_ a kind of vessel used on waterwheels, etc. (M.); muge, mugayi small earthen vessel (Tu.); mukai large earthen vessel (Ta.); mu.g clay pot in which cows are milked by priests at milk-ceremony (Ko.); mu. the most sacred dairy vessel (To.); ad.y mu. earthen vessel with various dairy uses (To.)[cf. ad.igera a pot (Ka.); ar.ka cooking pot (Go.); ar.i_ earthen waterpot (Kur.)(DEDR 75)]; moge, mage, magi small earthen vessel for lading out (Ka.); mogape a vessel for lifting water (Ka.)(DEDR 4887). udgha_tana bucket for raising water (Skt.); ugha_uni small pot to take water in from the spring to fill a larger vessel (N.)(CDIAL 1975). udgha_t.aka leather bucket for drawing water (Skt.)(CDIAL 1973). muka to draw (as water), bale, measure (as grain or liquid), lift, take up (Ta.); mukai large earthen vessel (Ta.); magapuni to draw and turn over (Ma.)(DEDR 4887). Image: vessel with broken rim: o_va_y vessel with broken rim; mouth lacking teeth (Ta.); o_va_yppa_n-ai, or-uva_yppa_n-ai pot chipped along its mouth (Ta.); or-uvu-kalam id. (Cin-e_n. 175); or-uva_y mouth with defective lips; sunken mouth (Kalin.. 204); broken edge of a pot (or-uva_yttalaiyir- pali : Te_va_. 1125,6); or-uva_yppo_tal to be broken at the edge; to be chipped off (Perumpa_n.. 99, Urai.); to be defective (As.t.a_taca. Pak. 158); or-uva_yan- hare-lipped man (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: pot with broken mouth: cf. bhan:ga breaking (VS.)(CDIAL 9353). cf. bhajyate_ is broken (AV.); bhagga broken (Pali)(CDIAL 9361). cf. bagarage, bakkare, bagarige, bagerage a kind of vessel (Ka.); pakkale (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bo.kva.y ara.t. pot with piece broken from mouth (Ko.); bo_ki potsherd (Ka.); bo~_ki, bon:ki pot (Te.)(DEDR 4576). bhagna broken (Skt.lex.) bocce a potsherd (Te.); bon:ki a bit of skull (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. paka_li S'iva as holding a skull; bhaga_lin (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) bha~ga_r broken pots, a collection of broken pots (G.)(CDIAL 9356). bham.gura breakable (Pkt.); bha~_gru~ breakable, brittle (G.); pan:gu, pan:gula breakable (Skt.)(CDIAL 9358). cf. pan:gula lame; lameness (Sus'r.); lame (Pali); pam.gula (Pkt.); pa~_gula_ lame (P.); pin:gala_, pi~gla_ lame (P.); pen.ura_ lame (A.) pa_m.s'ula, pa_m.s'ura, pa_m.s'uva cripple (Skt.); pan:g(u)la_ lame (H.); pa~_gl.u~ (G.); pa~_gu_l., pa~_gl.a_ (M.); pa_n:gul.a_ madness (Or.); pin:gulo maimed in hands and feet (S.)(CDIAL 7649). pan:gu lame, crippled in legs (AVPar. Ya_j.); pakkha crippled (Pali); pan:gu lame, crippled (Pali); pam.gu (Pkt.); pan:ga_ crooked, deformed (H.); pa~gu_ lame; pa~_ga_ crippled, limping,bowlegged (M.); pen.a_ limping (A.); pen:ga_ crippled, lame (Or.); pe~gu limping, powerless (G.); pe~gn.e~ to limp, be listless (M.); pe~gl.a_ slack, dull (M.); phe~gd.a_, phegd.a_ bowlegged (M.)(CDIAL 7647). nipa~_gur paralysed in hands and feet (H.)(CDIAL 7506). cf. van:gu to bend, stoop; va~_ka crooked (Te.)(DEDR 5335). cf. van:kara crooked (Skt.)(CDIAL 11193). Mutilated; lame: bo_gun.i, bo_gan.i a metal basin for washing; a vesel of stone for culinary purposes (Ka.); a metal vessel for culinary purposes (Ka.); bo_ga_n.i, bo_gin.i, bhagon.i id. (Te.); bagun.e_m. a certain metal vessel for culinary purposes (M.)(Ka.lex.) vyan:ga crippled (AV.); van:ga flaw (Pali); vam.ga, vam.giya mutilated (Pkt.); jan:g hobbling (Pas'.); wongu lame, crippled (K.); ba~_gar.u_ foolish (OH.); van:gi bent (Si.); viam.ga crippled; viyam.ge_i mutilates (Pkt.); vyongu lame; vengun to be maimed (K.); ben.a_ left-hand (B.); ben:ga_ fetid smell (Or.)(CDIAL 12158). bakkari-hacu a platter for baking bfread; bakkari, bakri bread (Ka.); bha_kara (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. bakare, bakkare, bakre a potsherd (occasionally used for parching seeds etc. and as a lid)(Ka.lex.) cf. vund.u lame woman (K.)(CDIAL 11236).

6084.Image: ruin; bent, inclination: po_n-a-po_kku bent, inclination; state of ruin (Pirapo_ta. 7,23)(Ta.lex.) Image: deep scratch: bhon:gar a deep scratch (Santali. lex.) Image: scratch: bokka_na_ to itch, to scratch (Go.); bokr.ip- to scratch (Nk.)(DEDR 4464). gelec bhugak to scratch a hole (Santali.lex.) Image: a rent; a tear: ban. ban. a rent, a tear (Santali.lex.) pokkai having a part deformed, dented or broken; crack (Ta.); bokka (Te.); bokke (Ka.); pokkai-va_y toothless mouth (Tan.ippa_. ii,25,56); pokku defect, fault, blemish (Tiruppu. 432); pokki (Te.); pokkam fault (Te_va_. 1017,1)(Ta.lex.) phakuk, phogr.a, phugr.i toothless; phon:gla to become toothless (Santali.lex.) bhugak hole (Santali.lex.) bocce a potsherd (Te.); bon:ki a bit of a skull (Te.); bo_ki a potsherd (Ka.); bon:ki a pot (Te.)(Ka.lex.) paka_li < bhaga_lin S'iva as holding a skull; paka_lam < bhaga_la skull (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) For semant. 'skull' cf.: punuka skull (Te.); ponki id. (Kuwi) (DEDR 4339). X cf. purni bone (Nk.)(CDIAL 4299).

6085.End of a line, of a row: pom.kh end of a line, of a row (M.); ?pun:kha (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 365). Image: straight: pha~ke pha~k straight along, without deviation (Santali.lex.)

6086.Image: top part of arrow: pum.kha top part of arrow (Pkt.); pun:kha feathered shaft of an arrow (MBh.Pali); pon:kha_nupon:kham. arrow after arrow, constantly (Pali); pwa~_kh, po~kh wing, feather (N.)(CDIAL 8247).

6087.Image: purification: bhujati [bhuj to purify, cleanse, sift; Av. buxti purification; buj to clean; Lat. fungor to get through or rid of; Eng. function; Goth. us-baugjan to sweep; bhujati to clean, purify, cleanse; bhuja clean, pure, bright, beautiful; bhuja-dassana beautiful to look at = kalya_n.a dassana; bhujis.ya clean (BHSkt.); bhuj to purify, sort out; bhujissa a freed slave, freeman; a servant as distinguished from a slave; bhujissan karoti to grant freedom to a slave; bhujissa adj. freeing from slavery; bhujissa-bha_va state of being freed from slavery, freedom (Pali.lex.)

6088.Village headman: bhojaka one who draws the benefit of something, owner, holder, in ga_ma bhojaka landholder, village headman ( = ga_mapati, ga_ma jet.t.haka); bhojanaka = bhojaka; bhojanaka ga_ma owner or headman of the village (Pali.lex.) bhogga adj. [grd. of bhuj to enjoy, thus = Skt. bhogya] to be enjoyed or possessed, n. property, possession, in cpd. ra_ja-bhogga (of an elephant) to be possessed by a king, serviceable to a king, royal; royal possessions in general; ra_jabhogya (BHSkt.); ra_jaa [fr. ra_ja_, cf. Vedic. ra_janya] 'royalty'; a high courtier, a khattiya ( = ra_jabhogga)[pasenadi ra_ja_ ... uggehi va_ ra_janiyehi va_ kacid eva mantanan manteyya = anabhisitta_ kuma_ra_, i.e. uncrowned princes] (Pali.lex.) ra_ja-bhogga royal, in the service of the king in following phrases: ra_ja-bhoggan raa_ dinnan ra_ja-da_yan brahma-deyyan of a flourishing place; 'with power over it as if he were king'; 'where the king has the proprietary rights'; 'ra_ja-laddha'; in BHSKt. a version of this phrase is: 'ra_ja_-agni-dattena brahmadeyyan dattan' i.e. given by the king in the place of agni?; in sequence ra_ja_ ra_jabhogga, bra_hman.a, gahapatika = yo koci rao bhatta-vetan' a_ha_ro: in this sequence, ra_ja_ may be endowed with political and military power in a juridiction; in the phrase: 'ra_jaraha ra_jabhogga rao angan t'eva sankhan gacchati' i.e. worthy of a king, imperial, he justifies the royal qualification, said of a thoroughbred horse, of a soldier, of an elephant (ra_ja paribhoga); royal possessions in general; or just 'king's official'; ra_ja-bhogga, ra_ja-bhogiya, (khattiya_) bhoja-ra_ja_no royal, of royal power, one entitled to the throne; ra_ja-bhogga = khattiya 'royal noble'; = bhoja ra_jano; bhogika adj. [fr. bhoga] having wealth or power, in: antara-bhogika an intermediate aristocrat (Pali.lex.) bho_g enjoy, possess (Kon.lex.)

6089.Village headman; earth; land: bo_jo excellence, greatness, pride (Tu.lex.) bhoja [lit. grd. of bhujati, to be sorted out, to be raised from slavery; thus also meaning 'dependence', 'training, from bhuj, bhujissa] one who is getting trained, dependent, a freed slave, villager, subject. Only in cpds. like bhojisiyan [bhoja + isi + ya = issariya] mastery over dependence, i.e. independence; bhoja_ja_ni_ya a well-trained horse, a thoroughbred; bhojaputta sone of a villager; bhoja-ra_ja_ head of a village (-district) a sub-ordinate king; in the latter phrase it may mean 'wealthy' kings, or 'titled' kings (khattiya_ bhoja-ra_ja_ who are next in power to and serve on a ra_ja_ cakkavatti). The phrase is best taken as one, viz. 'the nobles, royal kings'. It may be a term for 'vice-kings' or substitute-kings, or those who are successors of the king. Sutta-nipa_ta Anguttara 453 takes the three words as three different terms and places bhoja_ = bhogiya_ as designation of a class or rank ( = bhogga). Neumann in his translation of Sutta-nipa_ta has 'konigstamme, kuhn and stolz', free but according to the sense. The phrase may in bhoja contain a local designation of the Bhoja princes (name of a tribe), which was then taken as a special name for 'king'. With the wording 'khattiya_ bhoja-ra_ja_no anuyutta_ bhavanti te' Majjhima III.174: 'pat.ira_ja_no te rao cakkavattissa anuyutta_ bhavanti' and Anguttara v.22: 'kud.d.a-ra_ja_no' in the same phrase; another translation: 'nobles and wealthy lords' (Pali.lex.) Synonym: bhojaputta son of a villager; cf. van.ibbaka = bhojaputta perh. distorted from van.iya thus 'travelling merchant, wayfarer' (Pali.lex.) poiu patel; poy-pat.lal village headman; po_i_ male member of a fisherman caste; fem. paita_r (Go.); bo_yid (pl. bo_yil) Muria Gond (Pa.)(DEDR App. 51). Wealthy: bho_gin wealthy (MBh.); headman of a village, barber (Skt.); wealthy man, owner; ga_ma-bho_jaka village headman (Pali); bho_i, bho_ia village headman, royal official (Pkt.); bho_in.i_ his wife (Pkt.); bhoi_, bhui_ head of a Gon.d. village (H.); bhoyin, bhoyini_ his wife (H.)(CDIAL 9626). bho_ja bestowing enjoyment, bountiful (RV.); bho_jaka giving to eat (Ya_j.); bho_aga protector (Pkt.); bojaka, bejika, bejaka village headman (OSi.)(CDIAL 9628). Village headman: po_ka_r-u expenditure of money (Kur-al., 478) (Ta.lex.) po_ki < bho_gin Indra (Kantapu. Amararcir-ai. 31); wealthy man, man of good fortune and prosperity, epicure (Ni_tiven.. 9); headman; po_kar those who live as house-holders (Te_va_. 490,3); po_kam < bho_ga pleasure, happiness (Te_va_. 639,9); prosperity, wealth; crop, produce of a season (Te_va_. 70,3)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pon:ku-ka_lam period of waxing prosperity, opp. to maku-n.-ka_lam (Kumare_. Cata. 48) (Ta.lex.) A dynasty: po_cal.ar a dynasty of kings (Ta.inscr.); po_ysal.a (Ka.); po_calam the family name of the Tanjore Maharatta rulers (Ta.); bho_nsala (M.)(Ta.lex.) bho_gya to be enjoyed, profitable (AV.); possession, grain (Skt.); bhogga to be enjoyed; property (Pali.Pkt.); bhog cooked or served food (B.); begi possessions (OSi.)(CDIAL 9627). bho_ga enjoyment (RV.); use, possession (S'Br.); hire, wages (Skt.); enjoyment, wealth (Pali); boga enjoyment (NiDoc.); bho_a enjoyment, food, rent (Pkt.); bhoa_ the share of cotton or saffron received by a gatherer (P.); bo_-karanava_ to read, breed (animals)(Si.)(CDIAL 9625). bho_jate_ enjoys (RV.); enjoys (a woman)(Gr.hyas.); bho_yai feeds (Pkt.); phuy-, phu_i_er- to enjoy (a woman)(Gypsy)(CDIAL 9629). bho_jana enjoying, eating, food (RV.); food, meal (Pali); boyam.na (NiDoc.); bho_an.a (Pkt.); bhoyan.a (OG.); bodana, boduna (Si.)(CDIAL 9630).

6090.Enjoyment: bho_jya eatable (MaitrUp.); food, meal (MBh.); bhojja eatable (Pali.Pkt.); bhoj feast (P.Ku.N.); bhoz (A.); bhoj (B.); bhoja (Or.); bhoj feast given to brotherhood at a wedding (Bi.); bhoju_ feast (OAw.); bhoj (H.); bodu boiled rice, food (Si.)(CDIAL 9631). bhukta eaten ; one who has eaten (Kaus'.); food (MBh.); bhutta eaten; one who has eaten (Pali.Pkt.); bhuto digested, embezzled; pp. of bhucan.u (S.); but eating food (Si.)(CDIAL 9520). bhukti enjoyment, eating (A_s'vGr..); food (Skt.); bhutti enjoyment, eating, food (Pali.Pkt.); a village given to provide maintenance for someone (Pkt.); but eating, food (Si.)(CDIAL 9521). bhuga_, bhoga_ to enjoy, experience (B.); bun eaten (Si.); bhugga_ ant-eaten, decayed, rotten; bhugga_ eaten away, rotten (L.); rotten (P.)(CDIAL 9523). bhujyate_ is enjoyed, is made use of (Skt.); bhujjam.ta pres. part. being enjoyed (Pkt.); bhujn.o to be accustomed to, get acquainted, find out, know (Pkt.); bhucan.u to be digested, be embezzeled; pp. bhuto (S.); bhucn.o, bhujn.o, bhucin.o to be experienced, to know (Ku.)(CDIAL 9528). bhujate_ enjoys (Mn.); bhun:kte_ (RV.); bhujati enjoys (Pali); bhum.jama_nasa gen. sg. pres. part. eating (As'.); bhum.jai enjoys, eats (Pkt.); bhunziba (A.); bhujiba_ to eat, experience (pain or pleasure)(Or.); bhu~_jai enjoys (OAw.); bhu~_jna_, bhu~jna_ to enjoy, experience (H.); bhum.jan.em. to enjoy, experience, use (OM.); budinava_ to eat (Si.); bhu~cn.o to be accustomed to, get acquainted, find out, know (Ku.); bhum.jia eaten (Pkt.); bidi (Si.); bhujana act of eating (Pali); bhum.jan.a (Pkt.); bhunzan enjoyment (A.); bujana-tela cooking-oil (OSi.)(CDIAL 9529). Property: bho_gya to be enjoyed, profitable (AV.); possession, grain (Skt.); bhogga to be enjoyed; property (Pali.Pkt.); bhog cooked or served food (B.); begi possessions (OSi.)(CDIAL 9627). bho_ga enjoyment; possessing, ruling governing, protecting, nourishing; a transaction; bho_gya enjoyable, anything that may be possessed or used, an object of fruition; bho_gya_dhi a pledge or deposit which may be used by the mortgagee until redeemed; bho_gyapatra, bho_gya_dhipatra a mortgage-bond wherein the lender assumes the temporary use of the property mortgaged (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) po_ka-pattiram < bho_ga- + document granting the use of specific property (Cukkirani_ti, 93); po_kam use, possession as of land (R.F.)(Ta.lex.) Those with land enjoyment rights: bhui~ha_r name of a caste (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 9565). bho_gita a man who has eaten or enjoyed, or eats or enjoys (Ka.); bho_ktr., bho_kta, bho_kta_ra an enjoyer, an eater, a feeder; one who employs or makes use of; one who feels or experiences; enjoying, eating; feeling, experiencing (Ka.); bho_ktavya to be enjoyed or eaten; fit to be used or employed; to be possessed or ruled (Ka.); bho_ga-ks.iti, bho_ga-bhu_mi land of enjoyment; the place on this earth where people (all of whom are a_ryas) enjoy the reward of their works, which is superior to svarga and where people live very long (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Mortgage: po_kkiyata_r, po_kkiyata_ran- usufructuary mortgage (C.G.); po_kkiya-pattiram < bho_gya + usufructuary mortgage deed (C.G.); po_kkiyam mortgage with possession; use, usufruct; object of enjoyment < bho_gya (I_t.u. 6,7,1); royal revenue spent on coinage, jewels, army, artisans, etc. (Cukkirani_ti, 98); po_kta_ < bho_kta_ nom. sg. of bho_ktr. enjoyer (Ci. Ci. 2,2, Civa_k.); po_ka-k-kalappai object of enjoyment (Perun.. Ucaik. 38, 177); po_ka-nas.t.i remission on double-crop land when there is no water for a second crop; po_ka-pu_mi fruitful field; po_ka-po_kkiyam prosperity, enjoyment of wealth; object of enjoyment (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) po_ka-pu_miyar those with land enjoyment rights which are of eight kinds; cf. as.t.apo_kam; cf. po_ka-pu_mi < bho_ga-bhu_mi fruitful field (Catu.)(Ta.lex.) Food: pukar food; pukavu food (Pur-ana_. 395); cf. bhuj (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) po_kam eating (Kampara_.Mutar-po_. 148); crop, produce of a season (Te_va_. 70)(Ta.lex.) bhu~jate_ enjoys (Mn.); bhun:kte_ (RV.); bhujati enjoys (Pali); bhum.jama_nasa gen. sg. pres. part. eating (As'.); bhum.jai enjoys, eats (Pkt.); bhunziba (A.); bhujiba_ to eat, experience (pain or pleasure)(Or.); bhu~_jna_, bhu~jna_ to enjoy, experience (H.); bhu~_jai enjoys (OAw.); bhum.jan.em. to enjoy, experience, use (OM.); budinava_ to eat (Si.); bhu~cn.o to be accustomed to, get acquainted, find out, know (Ku.); bhum.jia eaten (Pkt.); bidi (Si.); bhujana act of eating (Pali); bhum.jan.a (Pkt.); bhunzan enjoyment (A.); bujana-tela cooking-oil (OSi.)(CDIAL 9529). bhujyate_ is enjoyed, is made use of (Skt.); bhujjam.ta pres. part. being enjoyed (Pkt.); bhujn.o to be accustomed to, get acquainted, find out, know (Ku.); bhucan.u to be digested, be embezzled (S.); bhucn.o = bhujn.o, bhucin.o to be experienced, to know (Ku.)(CDIAL 9528). bho_a food (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9625). bhog cooked or served food (B.)(CDIAL 9627). bho_yai feeds (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9629). bho_jana enjoying, eating, food (RV.); food, meal (Pali); boyam.na (NiDoc.); bho_an.a (Pkt.); bhoyan.a (OG.); bodana, boduna (Si.)(CDIAL 9630). bhoj feast (P.Ku.N.B.H.); feast given to brotherhood at a wedding (Bi.); bhoz feast (A.); bhoju_ feast (OAw.); bodu boiled rice, food (Si.)(CDIAL 9631). cf. po_saka nourishing (Pali)(CDIAL 8408). To sate, satisfy: pa- to be replete, satisfied; pajip- (pajit-) to satisfy (Pa.); panj-, panja_na_ to be satisfied, replete, filled; caus. panjih- (Go.); panz- (-it-) (belly) to be filled after eating and drinking (Kond.a); panj- (panc-) to be replete, satisfied after eating (Pe.); panj- (belly) to be satisfied; n. repletion, satisfaction (Kui); panjali to gorge; bandi panjinai to fill the stomach; panje tinnai to sate; panje h_nai to saturate; paj- (-it-), panj- (-it-) to be satisfied (Kuwi)(DEDR 3837). bujhau to satisfy; bhijau, boj bojao to saturate; bhijai to be saturated (Santali.lex.)

6091.A person who accumulates money for a particular expenditure; headman of a village: bho_gi, bo_gi, bo_vu the headman of a village; a barber; a king, a prince; a person who accumulates money for a particular expenditure (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Property: bhogga property (Pali.Pkt.); begi possessions (OSi.); bho_gya possession, grain (Skt.)(CDIAL 9627). bho_ga wealth (Pali); possession, use (S'Br.)(CDIAL 9625).

6092.Image: porter; fisherman: bo_va, bo_yi a bo_yi chief, a foreman; bo_vatana leadership (Ka.); bo_yi, bo_ya, bo_va, bo_ve, bo_veyarava = besta, besada, besadava, bestarava a class or people who are palanquin-bearers and fishermen (Ka.Te.Ma.); bho_i_ (M.H.); besta a fisherman (who also hires himself as a palanqueen bearer) (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) bhoi_, bhui_ palanquin-bearer, porter (H.); bhoi_ palanquin-bearer (G.M.)(CDIAL 9626). Load, burden: vahya to be carried (A_s'vS'r.); litter (AV.); vayha, vayha_ vehicle, litter (Pali); inf. vo_d.hum (Pali); cf. vo_d.ha ~ u_d.ha (Pkt.); vojjha burden (Pkt.); bojjha_ load (P.); bojo (Ku.); bojh (N.); boza_ (A.); bojha_ (B.); bojha (Or.); bojhab to load (Mth.); bojha_ load (Bhoj.); bojh, bojha_ (H.); bojho (S.); bohja_ (L.); bojho, bojo (G.); bojha_ (M.); ojho (G.); ojhe~ (M.)(CDIAL 11465). boj, bojha a load; bojae, bojhao to load (Santali.lex.) po_ki, po_yi < bhoi (M.) palanquin-bearer (W.)(Ta.lex.) bo_y palanquin-bearers, fishermen (Ma.); bo_yi, bo_vi a caste who are palanquin-bearers and fishermen (Tu.); bo_yata, bo_yeta woman of a savage tribe (Te.); bo_ya, bo_ya~d.u, bo_yava~_d.u savage, barbarian, inhabitant of the forest, hunstsman, fisherman (Te.); bo_yi~_d.u man of the cow-keeper's or shepherd's caste; a palanquin-bearer; bo_yi_ a palanquin-bearer (Te.); po_i_ male mmember of the fisherman caste; fem. paita_r (Go.); bhoi_ palanquin-bearer, fisherman (G.M.); bhoi_, bhui_ (H.)(DEDR App. 51). Shoulder: moympu shoulder (Ta.); mur..ippu id. (Ma.); mirpu id. (Kurub.); mu.r. shoulder joint (Ko.); mud.u shoulder joint (Tu.); muy, muy(i)vu, muyibu, mud.upu, mud.uhu upper part of the arm, shoulderblade, shoulder (Ka.); mu~_pu upper part of the back, shoulder; mu~_paramu hump on the shoulders of an ox (Te.); mu_k shoulder (Ga.); mipi id. (Kond.a); mu_pa id. (Mand..); mo_po upper arm (Kui); mo_pa wi_th'nai to shrug; mo_pa outer edge of the shoulder (Kuwi)(DEDR 5122). cf. mo_ (-pp-, -nt-) to undertake (To.); mo_r- to carry on the head; mo_pu load, burden, heaviness (Ka.)(DEDR 5126). Fishermen and boatmen: muggeru a Malayalam fisherman (Tu.); moge_re fisherman (Tu.); mukavai drawing as water (Ta.)(DEDR 4887). mukke, mukve one of a class of fishermen (Tu.lex.) muha_n.o one of a class of fishermen and boatmen (S.); moha_n.a_, moha_n.i_ (L.)(CDIAL 10273). meu fisherman (S.); me_ (L.); meu~ (P.); meun.i_ boatman (P.); muha_n.o member of a class of Moslem boatmen (S.); moha_n.a_ (L.)(CDIAL 10320). mogor, mogra_ fisherman (of a certain caste)(Kon.lex.) moera a Hindu caste, large numbers of whom are traders or pedlars (Santali.lex.) mugere, moge_re, mukke, mukve Tulu speaking fisherman (Tu.lex.) muka_dam, mukeda_m head of a fleet; ta_rva_-mukeda_m admiral (Kon.lex.) mukkuvar a class of fishermen (Ma.Ta.)(DEDR 4993). Fishermen, boatmen: mukkuvar a class of fishermen (Ta.Ma.); mukkove id. (Kod..); munnuka to dive, plunge, sink (Ma.); mulgre to dive, be dipped in (Malt.)(DEDR 4993). cf. nol. to bale out as water, measure out as grain (Ta.); nul.ai a caste of fishermen; nul.aiyan- fisherman, inhabitant of the maritime tract; f. nul.aicci (Ta.); nollo_ fishing net (Kur.); lole to take out with a spoon (Malt.)(DEDR 3790).

6093.Load; image: cloth used as a sack; bag: buqca bag for carrying things (H.); bokosa_ load carried on back (A.); bo_ki load (Sh.); bokn.o to carry (Ku.); boknu (N.)(CDIAL 9311). cf. buk, buku breast (A.); buk heart, courage, chest (B.); bukr.a_ breast (B.); buka breast, courage; buku id., heart (Or.); boka_ breast (M.); buklu_, buglu_, bu_ku_ (WPah.)(CDIAL 12064). bokad. made of goatskin (M.); bokr.u~ (G.)(CDIAL 9312). bokkasamu money bag; treasury (Te.); pokkan.am beggar's bag, wallet, cloth used as a sack (cattiya pokkan.attu ... ko_lattin-i_r : Tirukko_. 242)(Ta.lex.); beggar's bag, wallet (Ma.); mokkan.i feed-bag, nose-bag, a kind of bridle for mules, etc. (Ta.); bokkan.a pocket in a coat, betel pouch, beggar's bag, horse's gram bag (Ka.); bag, pocket (Tu.); bokkan.amu, bon:kan.amu pouch, purse; bokkaniya gram-bag, nose-bag; bokkena id.; bucket for drawing water, leathern bag for baling water out of a boat, etc.; pon:kanamu purse, pouch; boka_ne bucket (Kol.); bhukka_n.a the food-bag tied round the head of a horse (Skt.)(DEDR 4458). bu_kh, bu_kas well-bucket (K.); boko (S.); boka_ well-bucket (usu. of goatskin) (H.); well-bucket (L.); bokka_ (P.); bokh bucket (G.)(CDIAL 9312). Mouth of a sack: muha~_du mouth of a sack (S.)(CDIAL 10172). Food for a journey: po_kkan.am food for a journey, viaticum (Ta.lex.)

6094.Image: fencing: poy to fight, fence; poyttu fencing, fight, duel (Ma.); poy to fell, throw down (Ta.); poyb wooden paddle used in closing the bottom of a pot before baking (Ko.); poy to beat; beating, a blow (Ka.); puy to beat, smite, strike, kill, throb; puyal, poylu beating, striking (Ka.); poyy- to beat (Kod..); boiyeri vwalli currystone (Kuwi)(DEDR 4534). Image: fencing: poyyuka to fence (Ma.); puyyal beating, striking (To.); poyima_ru violence, force, pillage (Tu.) (DEDR 4534). payar-r-u fencing exercise, a trick (Ma.); payiluka to learn (Ma.); payil to become trained, practise; payir-ci practice, training (Ta.)(DEDR 3942). puy, poyi, huy, huyi, hoy, hoyi to beat, to strike; to fling, to throw; to drive; puyyal beating; a blow, blows (Ka.lex.) vyu_ha military array (MBh.); array of troops (Pali); vu_ha, viu_ha battle array (Pkt.); bhua (Or.)(CDIAL 12222).

6095.Affinal relatives: pay house (Ko.); poy o.l. male affinal relatives (e.g. wife's father and brother, daughter's husband, sister's husband)(To.)(DEDR 3948). Agricultural tract: For poy- cf. : karpo.y pen and cowshed attached; va.yv Toda ti. dairy (Ko.); ha.i field near village (Ka.); pa_r..i agricultural tract, temple, hermitage (Ta.); pol. o.l. the priest of the ti. dairy [i.e. the man, o.l. of the po.w, a dairy of high sanctity] (To.)(DEDR 4112). Time of the shooting of the ears of corn: payac(c)elu, payakelu the time of shooting of the ears of corn (Tu.); Produce: paya (-pp-,-nt-) to yield, produce, put forth fruit, be productive (Ta.); payappu profit, advantage (Ta.); payam id., fruit (Ta.); payanto_r parents (Ta.); Ear of rice, etc.: paya, payi an ear of rice, etc. (Tu.); payata_ye a thriving man (Tu.); paya_vuni to shoot, as an ear of corn (Tu.); pa_ya, paya gain, profit (Tu.)(DEDR 3937). cf. par..am fruit (Ta.lex.)

6096.Sale, selling: phro_ktu, phuro_ktu sale, selling, vend (Ka.); furo_kht (H.) (Ka.lex.) puro_ktu < firu_khtau (Pers.) sale, selling; puro_ttu id. (C.G.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Profit: porho profit, advantage; cet porhom namkeda? what profit did you get? what were you advantaged?; porhoanak kami profitable work (Santali.lex.) Profession; tidings: birit, birti trade, calling, profession; birjau to gain, earn, acquire; birtant tidings, rumour, intelligence, explanation (Santali.lex.)

6097.Declared; priest: pro_kta (pra-ukta) spoken to ; announced, declared, laid down as a rule, said, told (Ka.); pro_kti declaration, utterance, speech, word (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) puro_kita-k-ka_n.iya_t.ci right of officiating as priest (I.M.P. Rd. 121); puro_kitan- family priest (Pa_rataven.. 66, Putup.)(Ta.lex.) purakitan- < puro_-hita priest (Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 331)(Ta.lex.) purhut, purohit a spiritual preceptor, a caste of brahmins who sometimes visit Santals professionally and drink water from their hands (Santali.lex.) puruchun to perform a religious rite, to propitiate, to remove ceremonial uncleanness by sacrifices or offerings, to fulfill a religious duty, as a vow, obsequies of the dead etc.; puruchunkedae he fulfilled his religious duty, vow etc.; puruchun akattaean I performed his rites (of a deceased person); auri puruchunko emok habic bhon.d.geko tahena they remain unclean until they give the propitiatory offering; porsad a small piece of flesh meat sent by the person who has killed the animal to his neighbours, foot that has been offered to the deities, leavings of a spiritual guide (Santali.lex.) cf. prasa_da (Skt.lex.)

6098.Trader: paikar a trader, one who buys and sells; to trade; ad.i paikare bad.aea he knows well how to buy and sell; pahna to make the first sale of the day for cash (Santali.lex.) cf. bo_n.i id. (Te.lex.)

6099.The first sale of goods: po_kan.i handsel, luck-money; first cash payment of price which a shopkeeper receives after opening his shop for the day or on an occasion (Ta.); bo_gan.i id. (Ka.); po_kin.i, po_n.i id. (Ta.); bo_n.i_ id. (U.)(Ta.lex.) bo_n.i, bo_n.ige the first sale of goods (for ready money) occurring after the dawning of the day; handsel (Ka.Te.); bo_han.i_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6100.Sowing: po_kan.i the season of sowing (Can:k. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) For semant. 'sowing' cf. Things used in a ceremony to receive bride and bridegroom; scattering seed: pokh mode of rice cultivation by scattering seed on ploughed ground (L.); po~kh, po~k parched grains of fresh millet (G.); pro_ks.a act of sprinkling on (A'pS'r.) (CDIAL 9005). pro_ks.an.a consecration by sprinkling (TS.); po~khn.a~_ ceremony of receiving the bride and bridegroom, things with which it is performed (G.)(CDIAL 9006). Crop: pro_ks.ati sprinkles upon (RV.); pokhan.u to sow (S.); pokhnu to spill, pour over (N.); po~khvu~, pu~khvu~ to sow, sprinkle bride and bridegroom (G.); pokha sowing, farming, crop (S.); pukhan.u to be sown (S.)(CDIAL 9007). pro_ks.ita sprinkled (S'Br.); pokhi_ self-sown (of a crop that springs up of itself)(L.)(CDIAL 9008). Image: to throw: poha_na_ to throw (Go.); po'- to throw away, leave, abandon; poh- to throw away; pohta_na_ to abandon (Go.); pok- (-t-) to throw (Kond.a); aux. vb. to finish off; caus. pokis- to cause to throw off (Kond.a)(DEDR 4457).

6101.Gum: bon:ke, bon:ka, ban:ke gum, glue, resin (Ka.); boker gum (Go.); bakka gum (Nk.); resin (Kol.); ba_k, ba_kar id. (Pa.); banka gum, stickiness (Ga.); gum (Kol.); ban:ka gum, glue, matter or mucus discharged from bowels (Te.)(DEDR 3817). bon:ke gum, saralade_vada_ru vr.ks.ada ban:ke; pa_yasa, s'ri_va_sa, vr.ks.adhu_pa, s'ri_ve_s.t.a, saraladrava; takko_lada bon:ke; bon:keka_yi gid.a = s'e_lu, s'le_s.ma_taka (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. buhuru trader of spices, drugs (K.)(CDIAL 12175). In Mesopotamia, all aromatic drugs are called by a term which comes to imply also substances oozing from plants, hence gums or resins. The Egyptian term for this was kemait. This gave rise to the Greek word kommi. Hence Low Latin gomma, French gomme, and English gum which is thus ultimately a word of Egyptian origin. (Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R.Hall, Trevor I. Williams, A History of Technology, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, p.287). cf. gumma stench, stinking (Te.)(DEDR 1748). Fragrant, medicinal powder: bukka_ fragrant powder (Skt.); bukka chaff (Pkt.); buki_ powdered medicine (S.); bukka_ dust (P.); buko dry; bukuwa_ powdered turmeric and other spices (N.); bukni powder (B.Or.); bukua_ bean flour and powdered pepper (Bi.); bu_ka_, bukni_ powder; bu_kna_ to pulverize (H.); buka_ a partic. fragrant powder; buki_, bukn.a_, bukt.i_ powder (M.); bhukki_ powder; bhukkn.a_ to sprinkle (P.)(CDIAL 9264). cf. burko powder; burkan.o to fill with powder (N.)(CDIAL 9298). Dust; powder; chaff: buggi ashes, dust (Te.); ashes (Kol.); earth (Ga.)(DEDR 4243). pro_s.ati burns (Dha_tup.); plo_s.ati id. (Dha_tup.); pohan.u to roast in ashes (S.); pilo_sa, pulo_sa burning (Pkt.); prus. burn (Skt.)(CDIAL 9017). pres'em I roast (Kal.)(CDIAL 8988). cf. phukkai blows (Pkt.); phu_ka blast, puff (S.); phu~_kn.o to practise magic (Ku.)(CDIAL 9102). phaki, pha~ki a medicine in powder, a medicinal powder which is taken in a dry state; phaki ran medicinal powder (Santali.lex.) bukan.i powder (Ka.); bukat.i_, bukan.i_, buki_ (M.); bukki a fragrant powder, much used in offering to idols (Ka.); buka_, bhuka_ (M.); bukkit.t.u = bukki, bukki hit.t.u pat.ava_saka, pis.t.a_ta; bukkit.t.u ga_r-a = sugandhi (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pukai-y-ur-uppu incense, things that emit fragrance when smoked, numbering six, viz., ne_rkat.t.i, cente_n-, niriya_cam, paccilai, cantan-am, akil (Cilap. 5,14, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Perfumed paste: cf. bokram, bokran to apply medicine of the consistence of paste externally to the body (Santali.lex.) po_ka-k-kalavai perfumed paste (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 18,108); [cf. po_ki-vallapam sandal wood]; po_kkam beauty, splendour; pokkam bloom, splendour (Patin-o. A_l.u. Tiruvula_); abundance (Tirukko_. 382) (Ta.lex.) Article of perfume; object of enjoyment: po_kakkalappai object of enjoyment, an article of perfume to be enjoyed (Perun.. Ucaik. 38,177)(Ta.lex.) po_kkiyam object of enjoyment (I_t.u, 6,7,1)(Ta.lex.) po_ka-ni_r seminal fluid, sperm (Vir-alivit.u. 576); po_kacatti S'sakti of S'iva in his Sada_s'iva aspect (Ci.Ci. 2,75, Mar-aija_.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to emit smoke: moge to smoke, emit smoke; mogje to fumigate; mogtre to cause to smoke; Charcoal: mogare charcoal, soot (Malt.); mo_lh smoke (Br.); mo_jxa_, mo_sga_ smoke; mojoxna_, mosga'a_na_, mosogna_ to create smoke, smoke anything, fumigate; mo_jxorna_, mosgorna_ to smoke, emit fumes (Kur.)(DEDR 5131). boggu charcoal, carbon (Te.); bogg charcoal (Kol.); bog (pl. boggul), bogum id. (Pa.); bogge id. (Ga.); bogu_na id. (Kuwi); posange soot (?Malt.); po_gh charcoal (Br.)(DEDR 4467). Smoke; vapour; steam; fumigation: pukai smoke, mist, vapour, steam; pukaiccal smoke; pukaippu fumigation, smoking; pukaivu smoking; puka_r mist, fog, haze (Ta.); puka vapour, smoke (Ma.); pukayuka to reek, look dim, be darkened by smoke; pukekka to fumigate, preserve or dry by smoke (Ma.); peg smoke; pog, po. tobacco (Ko.); pax smoke, tobacco (To.); poge to smoke; smoke, steam, vapour (Ka.); smoke (Kod..); puge, poge smoke, vapour, fume (Tu.); pugeyuni to smoke; pugepuni, pogepuni to fumigate (Tu.); poga, pova smoke, fume (Te.); pogayu, povayu to smoke; pogucu, pogacu, pogapu to smoke, fumigate, fry, season with spices (Te.); pog smoke, tobacco (Kol.); smoke (Nk.Ga.); po_gu smoke (Ga.); pogasur soot; po_ga tobacco; pogd. (pogud.-) to fill with smoke (Ga.); pogo, poga_ tobacco; poya, poyo, poi smoke; poy- to smoke (Go.); poyyu_s to season (curry)(Go.); pogo smoke (Kond.a); po_kar.i id. (Kui); bhoiyi, bo_i, bo_yi, bo_yi_, bu_y, po'kar.i id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4240).

6102.Image: bird: pokuval a bird (Cevice ce_valum pokuvalum : Pur-ana_. 238)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) po_kil bird (a_lam po_kir-an-ait tat.ukkum ve_n-il : Ain:kur-u. 303)(Ta.lex.)

6103.Privately owned, not public: pugur.i adj. owned by a private family; not public, i.e. not belonging to the village community (Mu.Sadani)(Mu.lex.) Personal; individual; property, matter: cf. paudgalika material (Skt.); poggaliya (Pkt.); pugul personal, individual (Si.)(CDIAL 8418). puggala person, soul (Pali); puggala, poggala, poggara something having form (Pkt.); pugul (OSi.); pun:gala body, soul, person (Skt.); material object (S'an:k.)(CDIAL 8272). porul. thing, matter, property, riches, leadership (Ta.); stores, provisions, utensils; gold (Ta.lex.); riches, meaning (Ma.); porut.t.u cause, matter of importance (Ta.); cause (Ma.); porl thing (Ko.); purul. fitness, propriety, power, strength; purul.i a notable, high position; poral. wealth (Ka.)(IA 19.143; c. A.D.685); porlu beauty, comeliness; beautiful, handsome, fine; porle a handsome man (Tu.); pon.t.e for the sake of; purulu wealth, honour, nature, valour, beauty (Te.); pora matter, concern, interest (Kui)(DEDR 4544). porul.ar-ai treasury (Tiruva_lava_. 55,24)(Ta.lex.)

6104.Relatives: on:gr.a pon:gr.a relatives (Santali.lex.) po_ra_ < bo_hra_h (U.) a sect of Indian Shiah muslims in Bombay Presidency (Ta.lex.)

6105.Business: voharati to express, define, decide; to decide, govern over (a kingdom), give justice, administrate; voha_ra trade, business; current appellation, common use, usage, designation; voha_rika decider; one connected with a law-suit or with the law, magistrate, a higher official (maha_matta) in the law-courts, a judge or justice (Pali)(Pali.lex.) Blacksmith: bo_ga_r-a (Tadbhava of vyo_ka_ra) blacksmith, lo_haka_ra; a coppersmith; one who makes and sells brass and copper-vessels (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) o_var blacksmiths, kamma_l.ar; ova_-muyar-ci perseverance, a characteristic of the ve_l.a_l.as (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) o_vu separation, removal, cessation (Kantapu. Cukkiran-upa. 46)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vya_ka_ra transformation, change of form (Skt.); vya_kr. to make manifest, clear up; to separate, divide, decompose; vya_ko_s'a expanded, blown, blossomed; developed (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) Blacksmith; goldsmith: o_van- an artificer, kamma_l.an- (Ta.); o_ja a teacher, guru (Ka.); an artifer: a carpenter, a blacksmith (Ka.); a goldsmith (Ka.); o_ju a goldsmith (Te.); ojja, o_ju a teacher, guru (Te.); o_jiva_d.u a priestling; a sacrificer to the village goddess; o_ccan a Ma_ra_n S'u_dra who beats the drum in temples (Ma.); o_ccan- a sacrificer to the goddess Pid.a_ri (Ta.); o_jas vitality, power, strentgh; virility, energy; light, splendour, lustre; manifestation, appearance; support, stay (Ka.); o_ja_yila a man of propriety (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. uvaccan- member of a caste of temple drummers and pu_ja_ris of Ka_l.i (Nan-. 144, Mayilai.); uvaiccan- id. (S.I.I. ii,275)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) yajaka priest (Pali)(Pali.lex.) o_ccan- male of a caste, members of which usually officiate as priests in temples sacred to Pit.a_ri and other village goddesses (Ta.)(DEDR App. 18). cf. upa_dhya_ya teacher (Skt.); ojjha_a- (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2301). cf. ayyan-, aiyan- priest, sage, teacher, master, king (Ta.); ayya, aya teacher, lord (Ka.); ayye priest, minister, teacher, master (Tu.)(DEDR 196). o_var bards, eulogists employed by princes to proclaim their titles and sing their praises (Ci_vaka. 1844)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_tu to recite (Ta.)(DEDR 1052). o_viyan- sculptor who fashions images or idols; painter (Man.i. 5,7); o_vi picture (Tiv. Periyati. 2,8,7); o_viyam picture, portrait (Man.i. 3,131); o_vam picture, portrait (Patir-r-up. 88,28); o_vu painting, picture (Patir-r-up. 68,17)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) To be carefully performed: o_jisu to be properly or carefully performed; o_je-dappu proper conduct to be deviated from; o_je a row, a line, a range; a heap, a mass, an assemblage; regularity, order, propriety, suitablness; good sense (Ka.); o_je, va_je (Te.); oyyane in a restrained manner: slowly; leisurely, gently (Ka.); oykane orderly, properly exactly (Ka.); ur..ki (Ta.); ur..un:ku rule of conduct, discipline, order; or..ukkam an established rule of conduct, morals; way, manner; usage; a rule, order (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. or..uku to be arranged in regular order (Ta.)(DEDR 1011). cf. o_ja a row, line, regularity (Te.)(DEDR 1038). Gold: aujasam gold; aujasika energetic, vigorous, acting with strength; aujjvalyam brightness, brilliancy (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) Image: golden vase: bhr.n:ga_ra a golden vase or pitcher; a pitcher of a particular shape (Skt.); cf. jhari_ (M.); bhr.n:ga_ram a vase used at the coronation of a king; gold; bhr.n:ga a golden vase or jar; bhr.jjanam a frying-pan (Vedic.)(Skt.lex.) bhr.n:ga-rit.i, bhr.n:ga-ri_t.i name of one of the attendants of S'iva (said to be very deformed)(Skt.); bhr.n:gin id. (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) Gold: bhr.n:ga_ra, ban:ga_ra, bin:ga_ra, bin:ga_ri, bhan:ga_ra, bhr.n:ga_ri a golden pitcher or vase; a vase used at the inauguration of a king (or at marriages), which may be made of gold, silver, brass, iron etc.; gold (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Golden vessel: por-kalacam pot-shaped finial of gold as an ornament on a tower; golden vial, golden vessel (Ta.); por-kalam golden vessel (Na_lat.i, 206)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Weights: por-kan.akku table of weights for precious metals; troy weight (W.)(Ta.); por-carakku goods of the highest quality, valuable as gold (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6106.Wizard: bogso wizard (Ku.); bokso id. (N.); boksi witch (N.)(CDIAL 9313). bukkasa a cha_n.d.a_l.a (Skt.lex.) pukkacan- < pukkas'a an outcaste (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) bokos a witch; d.angeam bokosgeam you are a witch, and a witch; boksa, boksi a witch (Santali.lex.) Common people: bukkasa a man of the lowest stratum (Skt.); bokkasa a non-Aryan people (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9313). cf. pr.thagjana man of lower caste; pl. the common people (Mn.); puthujjana ordinary man (Pali); puhuduna_ (Si.)(CDIAL 8356). bakas.i, baks.i a general (Ka.M.); bakkhi_, baks.i_ (H.); bakas.i the head of a department (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. bukkasa a man of the lowest stratum (Skt.); bokkasa a non-Aryan people (Pkt.); bogso wizard (Ku.N.); boksi witch (N.)(CDIAL 9313). bokos, boksi, phukrin witch (Santali.lex.) bho~kas wizard (H.)(CDIAL 9519). pukkasa a degraded mixed caste, the offspring of a Nis.a_da by a S'u_dra female; a ca_n.d.a_la (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6107.Shorea talura: bil.e_ bo_vu mara, bil.e_ bho_gi mara a tree yielding a kind of lac, shorea talura (Ka.); bil.i, bil.e whiteness (Ka.); vil.ajju (Ma.); vil.an:gu (Ta.); vele to shine (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Shorea robusta: sal, sala, asvakarna (Skt.); sakhu, sal (H.); sal, taloora; (resin): ral, dhuna (B.); sal (M.); jalari-chettu (Te.); taloora, kungiliyam (Ta.); karimaruthu (Ma.); bile-bovu, bile-bhogimara (Ka.); habitat: common in the sub-Himalayan regions and the forests of Western Bengal. Bark yields on boiling with water, an extract similar to catechu... Resin (gum) which exudes from incisions made in the bark is a mild astringent, aphrodisiac and stimulant... The resin is burnt as an incense in sick-rooms for its fragrant smoke. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1132-1133). cf. ja_la_ri shorea talura = vatica laccifera (Ka.Te.)(DEDR 2473). cf. karmaru vatica laccifera (Tu.); karumaram shorea robusta (Ma.)(DEDR 1282). Vateria indica or chlorixylon dupada: ajakarua, ajakarna, sarjaka (Skt.); White dammar tree; piney resin or Indian copal tree (Eng.); kahruba, safed damar (H.Deccan); kundro, chundrus (B.); ral (G.M.); sundras (P.K.); telladu maramu, dupa-damaru, tella-damaru, dupada (Te.); vellai-kunrikam, vellai-damar, velli-kundricum; painipishin; vellai-kungiliyam; dhup maram (Ta.); vella-kundurukkam, payana, painipasha, vella-kondrikam (Ma.); dhupadamara (Ka.); dhumpa-ruku (Konkan.i); hal-dumlua (Si.); guttah-rukam-puteh (Malay); habitat: a large evergreen tree indigenous to South-Western India, Kanara and Travancore; resin from vateria indica is white dammar; the black variety is obtained from canarium strictum. Seeds bruised and boiled yield solid fat 49.2%, which resembles the solid fats of garcinia and bassia. It is greenish yellow, bleaches rapidly on exposure to light and has a pecular balsamic odour... It is known as Piney tallow or damar (resin fo the seeds)... A fine resin, the better qualities not unlike amber, exuding from incisions made in the trunk, exists in irregular masses varying in colour, fragrance and density. It is used as an incense. Combined with wax and oil with the aid of gentle heat it forms a good basis for various ointments and plasters. (Indian Materia Medica, p.1265). Canarium strictum: black damer (Eng.); kala-dammar (B.H.G.); dhup (M.); karuppu-damar (Ta.); canari-telli mara (Ma.); nallarojen (Te.); mandadhup, raldhup (Ka.); habitat: western Peninsula, Tinnevelly, Malabar, Bababudan Hills; part used: resin obtained from the tree; resin is stimulant to the skin; resin is used as plaster and ointment and as a substitute for burgandy pitch in making plasters etc. It is useful as an ointment in chronic skin diseases such as psoriasis, pityriasis etc. It is also employed with gingelly oil in rheumatic pains (Indian Materia Medica, p.254).

6108.Image: double handful: bukka handful, handful of rice (Pkt.); boku hand with fingers extended to hold grain (K.); buku the full of both palms closed; buki_ handful of grain put into the mill (S.); bukk double handful (L.P.); bukn.a_ parched rice for chewing; bukaun.o to eat (Ku.); buka_unu to eat by throwing handfuls into the mouth (N.); bu_kna_ to eat; bukt.a_, bur.ka_ snap, bite (H.); bu_k morsel; bukvu~ to eat parched rice (G.)(CDIAL 9262). Handful: bogasi, bagale, bogase as much as can be held by two hands (Ka.); pod.anne (Ma.); po_cci a handful (Ma.); bucaka_ the hand inverted with the fingers extended, so as to take up bran, flour etc. (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. po_n.n.a handful (Ma.)(DEDR 4577). bosok to come away in handfuls (Santali.lex.) Image: two hands put together: bogasi, bogase, bagase, bagasige the palms joined so as to form a cup (Ka.); po_n.n.a handful (Ma.)(DEDR 4577). pasata handful (Pali); prasr.ta stretched out (TBr.); palm of hand hollowed and held out (SBr.); pasaya, pasia extended (Pkt.); paho handful of raw cotton (S.); poha_ hollowed palm held out (A.); pasa_ as much as can be held in both hands open (H.); paslo hollow of both hands (G.); pasli_ hollow of one hand (G.); pasa_ hand hollowed (to hold grain, water, etc.), handful (M.); [pa]l.a widespread (OSi.); pasar hollowed palm of the hand held out (N.H.)(CDIAL 8850). pasai double handful, a partic. measure (Pkt.); two hands put together (OG.); prasr.ti palm of hollowed hand (Skt.); handful as a measure (Ya_j.); pasari hollowed hands or hand (N.)(CDIAL 8851). pasar the two hands placed together to receive something, one hand so held out (N.); hollowed palm of hand (H.)(CDIAL 8824).

6109.Image: ant: po_k ant (not white ant)(Kur.); poku ant (Malt.)(DEDR 4575). pulaka kind of insect or vermin (Skt.)(CDIAL 8393). cf. pokal hollow (G.M.)(CDIAL 8391). Image: worm: bo~ka_, po~ka_, poka_ caterpillar, worm, wood-worm (H.); pok worm (A.); poka_ insect, worm (B.); poka insect, worm, maggot, moth; pokar.a_ worm-eaten (Or.)(CDIAL 8393). cf. pu_cci insect, worm (Ta.)(DEDR 4353). buki worm in rice-plant (Santali.lex.)

6110.Filigree work: pukar-ve_lai, po_kar-ve_lai, po_karai-ve_lai filigree work (Ta.); po_gara id. (Te.); pukal-ve_lai hollow, unsubstantial work, as of jewels (Ta.lex.) cf. bhokro hollow, concave (Ku.); bhok hole (G.); bho~gl.i_ hollow of a tube (M.)(CDIAL 9624). cf. pokkai little hole, crack (Ta.); bokka (Te.); bokke_ (Ka.) (Ta.lex.)

6111.Spotted male deer: pukar-k-kalai spotted male deer (Pur-ana_. 152); pukar spot (Pur-ana_. 3); fault, defect, blemish (Tol. Er..ut. 369)(Ta.lex.) Image: spotted deer: pha_r.ho hogdeer or cervus porcinus (S.); pa_hr.a_ (L.P.); pa_r.ha_ spotted antelope, hogdeer (H.)(CDIAL 8044). pul.l.i-ma_n-, pul.l.i-y-iralai spotted deer, axis maculatus (Pur-ana_. 152, Urai); hog-deer, hyelaphus porcinus; pul.li-mirukam spotted deer (Ta.); pul.l.i-ma_n (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ?pul-va_y deer (Ta.); id. antelope (Ta.lex.)(pulva_y puli-y-ur..ai maraiye_ kavari : Tol. Po. 590); pul grass (Ta.)(DEDR 4300). Image: ibex: varaiy-a_t.u ibex, hemitragus hylocrius; jungle sheep (Ta.); varai mountain, peak, slope of hill (Ta.); par o.r. Nilgiri ibex (To.)(DEDR 5274). pr.s.ata spotted; spotted deer (VS.); pr.s.at spotted antelope (RV.); pasata-miga spotted deer (Pali); pasaya a kind of deer (Pkt.); pusia id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8364). pisera_ a small deer brown above and black below (H.)(CDIAL 8365). pus. to sprinkle (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8366). pr.s.o_dara having a speckled belly (TS.); piso_dara id. (Pali)(CDIAL 8367). badar. selep ravine deer; posta spotted deer (Santali.lex.) Spark: pr.iski spark (Pe.); pr.ihe, pr.ihki id. (Mand..); pr.iska, pr.isi id. (Kuwi); prishk id. (Br.)(DEDR 4191).

6112.Image: to say: pukal to say (Ta.); pokk- to speak, tell (Pa.)(DEDR 4233). cf. pokkai calls (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8246). bo_l to say (H.lex.) Proclaim; praise: pogad.u, povad.u to praise, applaud, eulogize, flatter; pogad.ika, pogad.(i)ta praise, fame, flattery (Te.); po_nga to be sounded abroad, be famed, praised, made known; fame (Kui); pukar.. (-v-, -nt-) to praise, extol, applaud; n. praise, eulogy, fame, exploit; pukar..cci, pukar..vu praise, adulation; pukar..tal adoration; pukar..mai praiseworthiness, fame; pukal fame, renown (Ta.); pukar..uka to be parised; praise; pukar.., pukar..ca praise, renown (Ma.); pogar.. to praise; praise, renown; pogar..ki, pogar..te praising, praise (Ka.); pugaruni, pugal.uni, pogaruni, pogal.uni to praise, eulogize, flatter; pugarige, pogul.u praise, flattery (Tu.); po_pka (< po_k-p-; po_kt-) to make known, proclaim, preach; proclamation (Kui); pogole renown, praise; pogalare to be praised; pogolatre to praise, extol (Malt.)(DEDR 4235). To call: pukal (pukalv-, pukan-r--) to say, state, sound; n. word, mode of singing (Ta.); pukaluka to speak (Ma.); pugal, pugil the cuckoo's note (Ka.); pokk to speak, tell (Pa.); to say, tell (Go.); pok to say (Ga.); pokh to cry (of sambar) (Kuwi)(DEDR 4233). putkaro_ti makes a noise of loud breathing (Skt.); pukka_re_i, pokka_re_i, pokkarai shouts (Pkt.); pukka_ra, pokka_ra shout (Pkt.); pukkai, pokkai shouts (Pkt.); puka_ran.u (N.); puka_rai, puka_ra_ (OAw.); puka_rna_ (H.); puka_ra complaint (OMarw.); puka_rvu~, poka_rvu~ to shout (G.); poka_r loud noise (G.); puka_rn.e~, puka_ra_ (M.)(CDIAL 8246). puka_r loud talk; shout, outcry, uproar; rumour, bad report; complaint (Ta.lex.) pukra_ to shout (B.); phu~karna_ to blow, puff (H.); phu_tkaro_ti blows (Skt.)(CDIAL 9103). phuka_r cry, complaint (Ku.); phuka_ra_ to call aloud, shout (B.); phuka_riba_ to call aloud, roar (Or.)(CDIAL 9104).

6113.Images: swallowing; cheek: pukli cheek (Kol.); pukli id. (Nk.); bukka id. (Pa.); buggal (pl. buggasil) id. (Ga.); buka_, phuka_, bhuka_, bukka, bugga id. (Go.); buggi cheek (Ka.); pukkili inside of the cheek; pukke_d.u mouthful; bukke_d.u a mouthful, as of any liquid; bukka inside or hollow of the mouth, mouthful; bugga cheek, inside of the cheek (Te.); buku mouthful; bugli cheek (Kond.a); pu~kul round-faced, plump; bu~ku_li fat-faced, with cheeks puffed out; br.u~kera swollen-faced man or boy; fem. br.u~keri (Kui); bu_ga, bugga cheek (Kuwi); pok'o_ chubby-cheeked (Kur.)(DEDR 4242). pak- to eat (mulberries, grain and similar things) (Pas'.); pheki- (Shum.); phakan.u to jerk into mouth (when eating from hand)(S.); phaku handful so eaten; phaki_ dose of powdered medicine (S.); phakka_ mouthful (L.); phakkn.a_ to toss food into mouth; phakka_ quantity so thrown (P.); phakya_unu, pha~_k, pha~_ko (N.); phaka_ act of so eating (Mth.); pha~_kna_ to jerk any dry food into mouth; pha_k, pha~_k as much as can be so eaten, bit, piece; pha~_ki_ mouthful of dry grain, etc. (H.); pha_kvu~ so to eat; pha_ko mouthful (G.); pha_kn.e~, pha~_kn.e~, pha_ka_ (M.)(CDIAL 9034). mukku to eat in large mouthfuls (Ta.); to eat in a certain manner, put any dry grain, etc., into the mouth with the hollowed hand and gobble (Ka.); mokku, mokki-t-tin-- to eat greedily in large mouthfuls (Ta.); mukkul., mukkul.e mouthful of water for rinsing the mouth, rinsing the mouth, cleaning the teeth; mukkul.isu to rinse the mouth, spit out, abandon, reject (Ka.); mukkuni to gobble, swallow, devour; mukka_vuni to over-feed; mukkele voracious man; mukkuli, mukkul.i mouthful of any liquid (Tu.); mukkuliyuni, mukkul.iyuni to gargle or rinse the mouth (Tu.); bokku to eat greedily, stuff the mouth and eat voraciously, gobble (Te.); muka (muki-) to cast food into the mouth with the hand; mukal mouthful; mukal giva to rinse out the mouth, take a mouthful, gargle (Kui); buk- (-it-) to gobble, swallow (Kuwi)(DEDR 4897). mo_kuka, mo_ntuka to drink, sip; mo_yikka to give to sip; mo_val a gulp (Ma.); moqe to eat (as meat or fruit) (Malt.); mo_xna_ to eat (anything except cooked rice)(Kur.); moci (-pp-, -tt-) to eat; ma_ntu to eat, drink, experience, enjoy (Ta.)(DEDR 5127).

6114.Brown; image: spotted: pukar tawny colour, brown; spot (Pur-ana_.3); fault, defect, blemish (Tol. Er..ut. 369); tawny-coloured bull or cow (Kalit. 105); pogaru tawny colour (Te.); pukar id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) pogar shine, brightness, lustre, colour (Ka.)(DEDR 4232). pur-ku tawny colour, dimness (Ta.lex.) po_r-k-ka_l.ai bullock with spots on the body; po_r tawny colour; spot; pukar colour (Pat.t.in-ap. 74); brightness, light; pukar beauty (Cilap. 9,10); pukavu mounting, as a vehicle (Paripa_. 10,14)(Ta.lex.) buro (of horse or cow) whitish (Sh.); bura coarse white sugar (K.); bhu_ro brownish, whitish (S.); white, fair (Ku.); bhu_ra_ brown (L.P.H.); brown sugar (Bi.); bhuro brown (N.); bhura_ brown sugar (B.Or.); light brown (M.); bhu_ru~ brown, white (G.); bhurra_ black and white pigeon (N.); bhu_rra_ brown sugar (Bi.); bhulla light brown (Mth.); bhurka_ dirty white (M.)(CDIAL 9690). pul tawny colour; pullai yellowish colour (Ta.); pulla a yellowish colour of cattle (Ma.); pula light brown colour (Ga.); yellowish (Te.)(DEDR 4310). pu_shkun yellow (Br.)(DEDR 4356). pu_cal brownish colour (Ta.lex.) Venus: pukar, pukaro_n- Venus (Ta.); bhr.gu (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

6115.Image: tether-rope: po_ha mouth or forepart of a horse (Pkt.); prox, pharo_x animal's mouth, muzzle, snout (Kho.); pruth snort (Skt.)(CDIAL 14710). pragraha bridle (Kat.hUp.); thong (MBh.); paggaha tether (Pkt.); pragra_ha bridle, rein (Skt.); paga_ha_ tether (N.); pagha_ (Or.A.B.); pagaha_ (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); pagha_ (H.); pa_gar act of towing a boat (G.); pagahu rope to tie boat (S.); paga_ro tether (N.); pa_gar.a tow-rope (Or.); pa_g tether (A.); tether, painter (of boat)(G.M.); paggai seizes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8478).

6116.Image: male dog; barking: puro_kam dog (Kalla_. 48,12)(Ta.lex.) bogga_ male dog (Ka.); bogre, bogge dog (Tu.); boggi bitch (Ka.Tu.)(DEDR 4466). bukkati barks (Skt.); bukkai barks, bellows (Pkt.); bhukkai barks (Pkt.); phukav to say (Gypsy); bakun to bark, chatter (K.); bhukn.o to bark (Ku.); bhuknu (N.); bhu~_kna_ (H.); bhukn.e~ (M.); bhukvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9265). vav noise of dog or jackal barking (one explosive bark); vav vav repeated barking (Ko.); vav a sound in imitation of barking; vavvau repeated barking (Ka.); bavu barking (Tu.); baw baw imit. of barking (Te.)(DEDR 5290). po.0 (barking deer) barks (To.)(DEDR 4233). Image: to bark: bogal.u, bogul.u, bagul. to bark (Ka.); bho_kan.e_m. (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vakul.i sound (Ta.)(DEDR 5204). bhok to bark (Santali.lex.) bhussana, bhun:karan.a bark of a dog (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

6117.Image: toothless: bokke, bocce a pustule, pimple, blister (in the face, the mouth or on any other part of the body)(Ka.); pokku (Te.); pokkul.i (Ma.); po_t.aka a pustule (Skt.); bokka, boccu a toothless man (Ka.); bokki, bo_si (Te.); pokkai (Ta.); bo_l.ke_m a toothless mouth (M.)(Ka.lex.) bokhu~, bokhlu~ toothless (G.)(CDIAL 9263).

6118.Image: roaring of a lion: buk, bukka_ra the roaring of a lion; the cry of an animal; bukk to bark; to speak, talk; to sound in general; bukkanam barking, yelping; the noise made by animals in general (Skt.lex.) pukka_ram < phutka_ra bellowing (Ta.lex.) cf. puka_r < puka_ra_ loud talk; shout, outcry, uproar (Ta.lex.) bok bok babblings, vain talk; bokao to jabber, to talk nonsense, to prate, to rave; bokor bokor to jabber, mutter; boktao to chatter, to say off a rigmarole of prayers, to speak a great deal; koejon.re do alope boktaoka, bedin hor. leka do not say off a rigmarole of prayers like the heathen (Santali.lex.)

6119.Image: swiftly; to jump: pon:ku to be swift, rapid (Te_va_. 535,2); to jump, leap (Kalit. 107); bho_n:kane, bho_n:kene swiftly, speedily, quickly; bekkane, bho_rane, bho_n:kal id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bikor bokor to run out; bonoc to run away (Santali. lex.) Image: to run: bon:gna_ to run, run away, leave a place for good, keep clear of; bon:gta'a_na_ to make run, carry about or off with great speed, lose (by death or otherwise)(Kur.); bon:ge to run, flee; bon-tre to cause to run, carry away (Malt.)(DEDR 4473). cf. po_ to go, proceed, go away (Ta.)(DEDR 4572).

6120.Image: departure, going: po_vu going (Kampara_. Na_kapa_ca. 231)(Ta.lex.) po_pu, ho_hu to be zealously active in going; po_guha going; po_ki a person who goes; tiru-bo_ki a beggar; a mendicant's bowl (Ka.lex.) po_kai departure, going (Kantapu. Cu_ran-r-an.. 31)(Ta.); po_ka (Te.); po_gu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) po_gu, po_, ho_gu going, going away; po_guha going (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) To send; departure, movement: po_ (po_v-/po_kuv-/po_tuv-, po_n--/po_yin--; neg. po_k-) to go, proceed, to go away, reach a destination; po_kai departure; po_vi (-pp-, -tt-) to cause to go, lead; po_vu going; po_kku (po_kki-) to cause to go, send, complete; n. way, passage, exit, walk, gait, going, departure; po_kki afterwards; po_kkan- traveller, stranger (Ta.); po_ka to go, go away, go towards, be lost, be able; verbal n. po_kal; po_kku going, passing off, way, exit; po_kkan wanderer; po_kkuka to make go, remove; po_kkal removing, passing over (Ma.); o.g- (o.y-/o.n-/o.-), o- (oy-; gerund oyr., oyt.) to go; o.kc- to cause to go; po.k- (po.ky-) to spend (time)(Ko.); o.yn.a.r (obl. o.yn.-a.t--) path, journey (Ko.); pi.x- (pi.-) to go; pi. (only negative forms) to be envious, hostile, not to be on good terms with (lit. not to go/join with)(To.); po_, po_gu, po_guha going, departing, proceeding; po_gu, ho_gu, o_gu to go, go away, pass away, be spent; po_pu to be zealously active in going; po_li, po_lu state of going or being gone, ruin, abandoned state, stray; po_ka wanderer, vagabond (Ka.); po.- (po.p-, po.c-; po.k-, po.y-) to go; po.li-na.y (Kod..); po_pini to go, go away, be lost, disappear, depart, start, (time) passes; po_ku passing off (Tu.); po_vu (stems po_-, po_y-) to go, proceed, pass, be over, be lost, disappear, be ruined, begin, die; po_ka going, movement, departure, conduct, behaviour; po_ku, po_kad.a going, conduct, behaviour, loss (Te.); po_k- (-t-) to send (Kond.a.Pe.); pu_k- (-t-) id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4572). To die: pondu to die (Ka.); poliyu to die, be destroyed or spoiled; poliyincu to kill; poliyika death, destruction (Te.); polna_ to be unable, fail; polrna_, polta_rna_ to be rendered impossible, be beyond the strength of; polta'a_na_ to prevent one from doing some action (Kur.); pole to be unable, be helpless, be vanquished; polgre to be impossible; poltre to vanquish, fire out (Malt.); pon-r-u (pon-r-i-) to perish, be ruined, die, fail, be reduced; pulampu (pulampi-) to fade; pular (-v-, -nt-) to fade, wither, faint, become weak, decrease (Ta.); poliyuka to be extinguished; polikka to extinguish; policcal, polippu destruction; polivu extinction (Ma.)(DEDR 4571). Burnt: plus.yate_ is burnt, is scorched (Sus'r.); plus. burn (Skt.); plus.yati (Dha_tup.); plus.t.a burnt (Skt.); pulussanava_ to burn, roast, set on fire (Si.); pilsinu to be burnt; caus. pilsya_unu to cook partially (N.); pilissenava_ to be burnt (Si.); palut.t.ha, pilut.t.ha, pulut.t.ha burnt (Pkt.); ahda-pil.to half-cooked (N.); pulut.u roasted (Si.)(CDIAL 9030). pro_s.ati, plo_s.ati burns (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 9017). Profligate; worthless person: cf. Extension of the semantics: 'wanderer, vagabond': bhu~ya_r vagabond (N.)(CDIAL 9561). po_kkiri, po_kkili blackguard, scoundrel; po_kkan- worthless person, vagabond; po_kkal.i worthless person (Ta.); po_kkiri a dissolute, profligate fellow (Ma.); po.kry evil man (Ko.); po_ka, po_kari villain, blackguard, rogue (Ka.); po_ke, po_kiri, po_kuri a profligate, debauchee; po_ka profligate, debauchee (Tu.); po_kiri wicked, mischievous person, scoundrel; wicked, lewd, profligate (Te.); po_kub a prodigal (Pa.)(DEDR 4574). cf. po_kkan.am shame, sense of shame (Ta.); humility (Ma.)(DEDR 4573). po_kkat.a_ rowdy; po_kkat.ittal to cause to go; to banish, chase away; po_kat.utal to let go; to leave, escape, disappear (Te_va_. 376,4)(Ta.lex.) phokat. worthless thing or person (H.); in vain (G.); phogat. id. (G.); phok-ha_ useless (Or.); phokat.o unirrigated field (N.)(CDIAL 8391).

6121.Image: leopard cat: hon:giya, honagya_ the leopard cat, felix bengalensis (Ka.) (Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Vol. XXII, 1884); honagya_ id. (M.) (Ka.lex.) Leopard: mi_n:g leopard (Tor.)(CDIAL 10264). Image: wild cat: bhongal cat (Go.); po_kka_n wild cat (Ma.); pa_kkan- cat; wild cat (Ta.); ba_vuga male cat (Ka.); ba_vuru-billi (Te.); ba_vuru-ga~_d.u tomcat, wild cat; ba_vurumanu to cry out, echo or resoud (as an empty or desolate house)(Te.); bagale (pl. -l) cat (Nk.); ba_vki wild cat (Pa.); bakoval male cat (Go.); bayok wild cat (Go.); boyka wild cat (Pe.); ba_od.i, ba_oli id. (Kui); ba~_vli, ba~_uli, bavuli id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4106). cf. ve_n:kai tiger (Ta.); ve_n.n.a royal tiger (Ma.); ve~_gi tiger (Te.); ve_nga_lam leopard (Te.)(DEDR 5521). Leopard: bagherae leopard, tiger; baha kul leopard; kul tiger (Santali.lex.) badar. ru d.a wild cat (Santali.lex.) miru~_ wild animal (S.)(CDIAL 10270). miga, maga (Pali); mr.ga (Skt.) animal for hunting, deer, antelope; a stupid person (Pali.lex.) Image: hunting leopard: mr.ga_dana a hyena; a hunting leopard; mr.ga_ri a lion; a tiger; mr.ga_s'ana a tiger; a leopard; mr.galan:ghana leaping or jumping of animals (Ka.lex.) o_tu cat (Nan-. Mayilai. 273, Mayilai.)(Ta.); o_tu (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Image: leopard; tiger; cat: bekku, berku a cat (Ka.); veruku (Ta.); virugu, verugu (Ma.); pilli (Te.); bira_la, bila_la (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vya_ghra tiger (AV.); vya_ghri_ (MBh.); vaggha tiger; vagghi_ (Pkt.); ba_-bi_ar.u leopard (Sh.)[ + bid.a_la-]; va_ghu tiger (S.); ba_gh, bara_gh leopard (P.); d.hl.a_hg, d.l.a_g, dla_hg, bra_hg, brag, bra_g (WPah.); ba_g tiger (Ku.); ba_gh, ba_g tiger (N.); ba_gh (A.B.); ba_g (B.); ba_gha (Or.); ba_gh (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); va_gh (G.M.); va_gu (Konkan.i); vaga (Si.); vag tiger, lion (Md.); vyaggha, byaggha tiger (Pali); viyagghini_, biyagghini_ (Pali); vyagra (NiDoc.); viaggha (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12193). va_ghru~ endearing or contemptuous term for a tiger (M.)(CDIAL 12194). bagambar tiger- or leopard-skin (Ku.)(CDIAL 12194). cf. phe_ru jackal (BhP.)(CDIAL 9112).

5986.Image: similarity: pa_n:gu likeness, similitude, resemblance (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pa_n:ku likeness, equality (Tol. Po. 78)(Ta.)(DEDR 4053).

5972.Bugle-horn: pa_n:ka_ a kind of bugle-horn (Ta.); ba_nka_ (U.)(Ta.lex.)

5973.Image: pole with sling: ba_n:gi, ban:gi a pole with a sling attached to each end, carried across the shoulder and bearing packages in the slings; the packages conveyed; the bangy post or mail (Ka.); ban:gi_, bahan:gi_ (H.M.)(Ka.lex.)

5980.Image: to fing a spear: vaga_hun.a_, baga_hun.a_ to throw, fling (a spear, bludgeon etc.)(P.)(CDIAL 11670).

6122.Fragrance: pon:kam fragrance (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) A fragrant tree: bhujaka a fragrant tree, growing (according to Dhammapadapa_la) only in the Gandhama_dana grove of the Devaloka (Pali.lex.) bhu_rja a species of birch, the bark of which is used for writing on; buja id.; bujapatre birch-bark (Ka.); bhujapatra (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. bhu_rja the birch tree betula bhojpattra (Skt.); bhoja-pat.ru birch bark used for tubes of hookahs (S.)(CDIAL 9570). bhu_ja a tree; mara, kadali, vr.ks.a; khapura (the betel-nut tree, areca faufel or catechu) (Ka.lex.) cf. khapura = tripura (Ka.lex.) ?pu_cayam fragrant tuber of cyperus, ko_raikkir..an:ku (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) ?po_n:kam a variety of red wood; maca_t.i mara vakai (Kur-icip. 74); maca_t.i red-wood, adenanthera pavonina (Ta.); maja_d.i (Ka.); mand.za_di (Te.); maca_t.i adenanthera seed weighing 2 kun-r-i-man.i, useed by goldsmiths as a weight (S.I.I. qqr, 116); bark of dyeing mulberry; nun.a_ppat.t.ai (Can. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. bhu_wa_, bhu_a_ a sort of downy cotton from the tree bombax heptaphyllum, cotton-wool (H.)(CDIAL 9571). Bombax malabaricum = bombax heptaphylla: rakta shalmali, mahavriksha, panchparni (Skt.); silk cotton tree (Eng.); nurma, deokapas; huttian; shimal (H.); ruktasimal, shimul (B.); mundlaboorugachettu, poor, kondaburaga, patti (Te.); elevam, mul ilavan (Ta.); boorugada-mara (Ka.); lal katyan (Deccan); mullulavamarum, samparuthi, poola (Ma.); savarikappusu (Konkan.i); shembal savari (M.); ratoshemalo (G.); tambdi-savaru (M.); semal moosali (Gwalior); habitat: throughout the hotter forest regions of India; parts used: gum, seed, leaves, fruit or capsule, tap-root, bark, cotton and flower; constituents: seeds yield a good non-drying oil. Gum called mochras or supari-ka-phul contain tannic and gallic acids; gum is used in doses of 20 to 40 grains in diarrhoea, dysentery, menorrhagia and other affections in which astringents like kino and catechu are useful (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 207-208).

6123.Image: grove: pon:kar grove (Cilap. 10,69, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

6124.Image: hill: pon:kar hill, mountain; artificial mound (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

6125.Image: to stand on end as hair or mane: pon:ku to stand on end as hair or mane (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 23); poccam fibrous husk of coconut (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Lion: pon:kat.ilion (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: man's hair: pan:ki man's hair (Ci_vaka. 2277); hair of animals (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. bhan:gi hemp (Skt.) bhan:ga hempen cloth (Pali) (Pali.lex.) Image: scanty bearded; moustache: cf. pu_kka (tongue) becomes furred (Ma.)(DEDR 4346). phu~_ka mustache (Dm.); us.-;hun. (Kal.); phun. (Bshk.Tor.); phun:ga pl. (Phal.); phun., phugg, phuge (Sh.)(CDIAL 9083). cf. poccu quantity of hair (Ta.)(DEDR 4477). moca goco a moustache (Santali.lex.) Vulva: cf. poccu vulva (Ta.)(DEDR 4476). buya the female organ (Santali.lex.) boc vulva (Bshk.)(CDIAL 9266). baso_r vulva (Wot..); boc vulva (Bshk.); boicu (Sv.)(CDIAL 9524). Tuft: bucu tuft of hair (S.); buco scanty-bearded, having only a tuft on chin (S.); buci_ scanty beard (S.); bucca_ scanty-bearded (L.); crop-eared (P.); buco empty, unadorned (Ku.); cropped of ears or tail etc. (N.); tame boar (N.); bucka_ stubble (N.); bu_ca_ crop-eared (H.); bucu~ flat-nosed; buciyu~ flat-nosed, earless; buco boy (G.); buci_ girl (G.); buca_ crop-eared; bucka_ tuft (M.); bu_car husks of millet (L.); bocci goat with very small ears (WPah.); bo~ca_ crop-nosed, crop-eared, shameless, wicked (B.); bo~card.a_ toothless, gap-toothed (M.)(CDIAL 9266). bhu_cu long-haired, having long straggling hair (S.); long tangled hair (S.)(CDIAL 9524). Fool: bhu_cu fool (S.); bhucc ignorant, fat (P.); bhuc foolish, rude, uncivilized (Ku.); bhuccuk ignorant, foolish (N.); bhuc clown, blockhead (H.); bhuciyo brittle (G.); bhuccar corpulent man (P.); bhucri_n.o to be dwarfed, be stunted (Ku.); bucho, buchir.o ugly, bad, wicked (S.); bhujri_n.o to become dwarfish (Ku.)(CDIAL 9524). bhucun. fool; boka foolish; urbhun. foolish; nabhua foolishness (Santali.lex.)

6126.Indian coral tree: pon:gara, hon:gara Indian coral tree, erythrina indica (Ka.); pon:gar, pon:ga_ra id. (Tu.)(DEDR 4468). mara~r. erythrina indica (Santali. lex.) Erythrina indica: mimbataru, mandalia, paribhadra, parijataka, palitmandar (Skt.); Indian coral tree; moochy wood tree (Eng.); arbre immortel (French); indischer korallenbaum (Ger.); ferrud, mandar, pangra (H.); palita-madar, palidhar (B.); pangara, panara, paringa (M.); panarawas, pararoo (G.); barijamu, macchikara, modugo, baridachettu, badchipa-chettu (Te.); kaliyana marukka, badic (Ta.); mooloomogrikah (Ma.); harawana, warjippe, hongara, pongara (Ka.); pangiro (Konkan.i); habitat: common in Bengal and many parts of India especially in Southern India often grown in gardens as a support for black-pepper vines. Erythrina strica is the species found in Malabar and used like erythrina indica; parts used: bark, juice, leaves; constituents: bark contains two resins and a bitter poisonous alkaloid erhterine which exists in the leaves also; bark is used in decoction in dysentery, in worms and useful as a collyrium in ophthalmia. Inner side of the bark is smeared with ghee and held over the ghee-lamp flame; the soot thus deposited is used in watery eye, tinea-tarse, and purulent conjunctivitis, being applied to the inner side and edges of the lower lid. (Indian Materia Medica, p.508). Erythrina monosperma = butea frondosa: kinsuka, palasa (Skt.); bastard teak (Eng.); gum: butea gum; Bengal kino (Eng.); palas, tesu, chichra, dhara; (gum) chuniagond, faras, kankeri; tasu (dye)(H.); palash; (flower) murkampoo (Konkan.i.M.); palas; (gum) kamarkas (B.); beej pak (Gwalior); khakara (G.); palah, darakhate-palasha (Pers.); paladulu, mooduga; moduga (dye)(Te.); palasam, murkampoo (dye); murukkanmaram (Ta.); muttagamara, muttuge (dye)(Ka.); pilacham, murukka-maram (Ma.); butee-feuillue (French); habitat: mountainous districts of India extending in the North West Himalayas as far as the Jhelum; and common all over Bengal and southern India; Burma; parts used: gum, seeds, flowers, bark and leaves; gum and bark contain kino-tannic and gallic acids... seeds contain fat... a fixed oil called moodooga oil or kino-oil... the gum is astringent; seeds are laxative and anthelmintic; bark furnishes a very important exudation which hardens into a red brittle resin known as butea-gum or Bengal kino or magugo, largely used 'as a substitute for the "kino" in India and to a limited extent in Europe also. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 222-224). murikku erythrina indica; butea frondosa (Ma.)(DEDR 4981). Erythrina indica = erythrina orientalis: ... is found along the seashore... occurs in India to Polynesia. The plant is a deciduous tree reaching a height of 15 meters... The petals are bright red... Greshoff has isolated in the leaves and bark a poisonous alkaloid, erythrinine. It acts on the nervous system like the more familiar alkaloid, cytisine. Kalaw and Sacay report the presence of saponin in the leaves and bark... Hydrocyanic acid was found in the leaves, stems, roots, and fruit by Kalaw and Sacay... erythrine has a narcotic action, acting as a depressant, and affecting the central nervous system. According to Burkill the bark is used in the Malay Peninsula for curing toothache... The wood is rasped in water and given for haematuria. Hooper says that the bark is used as an expectorant and febrifuge in China. Dey regards teh bark as antibilious and febrifuge. Holmes reports that the leaves, in the Peninsula, are used for poulticing sores. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 402-403). Image: kino tree: murukkan--maram Bengal kino tree, butea frondosa (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) murikku eruythrina indica (usually with some qualifying word)(Ma.); moghar.i butea frondosa (Go.); murukku palas tree, butea frondosa (Ta.); mutta, muttaga, muttala, muttuka, muttuga, muttula, mur..taga, mur..tuga (Ka.); muttaka (Tu.); mo_dugu, (inscr.) mro_dugu id. (Te.); modg (Kol.); murtand. (Ga.); murmar.a_, mur, murrar., murar., mogaree, mut.o_, mot.o_ (Go.); murka_ (Kur.); murko name of a tree (Malt.)(DEDR 4981). murup butea frondosa, a small gregarious forest tree, the palas, flame of the forest (Santali.lex.) muttaga a tree with large red or orange flowers, the bastard teak, butea frondosa (Ka.lex.) murukku, mul.l.u-murukku East Indian coral tree, erythrina indica; coral tree of the Eastern and Western ghats, kicukam (Ta.lex.) cf. kim.s'uka the tree butea frondosa (MBh.); kesu, kesur.a~_ pl. the flowers (used for making a saffron dye)(G.) (CDIAL 3149). pa_rija_ta the coral tree, erythrina indica (MBh.); pa_riya_tra(ka) (BHSk.); pa_rija_ta the coral tree (Pali); pa_rija_ya, pa_riya_ya, pa_riya (Pkt.); pa_ricchata, pa_ricchataka (Pali); parasatu (Si.)(CDIAL 8111). Butea frondosa: pala_s'a coming from butea frondosa (S'Br.); pa_la_s'aka adj. from pala_s'a (Pa_n..gan.a); pa_la_sa coming from butea frondosa (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8130). pala_san name of a place in Bengal (B.)(CDIAL 7961). pala_s'a butea frondosa (S'Br.); pala_sa butea frondosa (Pali.Pkt.); pala_h (P.A.); pala~_s (N.); pala_s (B.H.); para_s (Bi.H.); para_sa, pala_sa (OAw.); pal.a_sa (Or.); pala_su (S.); pal.as (M.); palas (Si.); phula_ (L.); phara_s (H.)(CDIAL 7960). bodel butea frondosa (Pa.Pe.)(DEDR 4511). pala_s'a butea monosperma (Car. Su. 2.13, 3.16); butea frondosa [cf. bodel butea frondosa (Pa. Pe.)(DEDR 4512); cf. murukku palas tree, butea frondosa (Ta.)(DEDR 4981); murup butea frondosa; na~r.i~ mur.up butea superba (Santali.lex.)]. Butea frondosa = butea monosperma: palasha (Skt.); palas (M.B.); dhak, palas (H.); parasa (Ta.); moduga (Te.); palasinsamatha (Ma.); gum: astringent, used in dysentery common throughout the greater part of India upto 4000 ft. (GIMP, p.42).

6127.Image: a retinue: bho_ga a train, a retinue, an army; an army in column (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)