6128.Image: snake; having coils: bho_ga any winding or curve; a ring, the coil of a snake; the expanded hood of a serpent (Ka.); bho_gi having curves or coils: a snake; bho_gipa the snake s'e_s'a; bho_gini a serpent woman; bho_gis'aya Vis.n.u; bho_gavat having rings or coils; a snake; bho_gadhara a snake (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) po_kavati < bho_gavati the city of the serpent race in the nether world (Pin..); prosperous, happy woman (Can.. Aka.); po_kavatikkir-ai An-antan- the serpent lord of po_kavati_ (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) bho_gavati, bho_ga_vati the city of the snakes in the subterranean regions; the river of the snakes, the Ganges of the lower regions; bho_ga_vati city, town (Ka.lex.) bhogin (fr. bhuj) having coils, of a snake; bhuja to bend; bhujaga snake; biugan to bend (Goth.); beugen, biegen (Ger.); bogo (OHG.); bow (E.)(Pali.lex.) bhujam.ga snake (Sus'r.); bhujaga (MBh.); bhuj bend (Skt.); bhujan.a, bhujaga (Pali); bhuam.ga, bhuaa (Pkt.); bhuan:g, bhavan:g a kind of snake (P.); bhuam.ga snake (OAw.); bhuwa~g (H.)(CDIAL 9526). bhukti daily movement of a star (Su_ryas.) (Skt.lex.) pucakam snake (Tiruppu. 1187)(Ta.lex.)

6129.Image: bend, curve: {Echo word} bon:kane in a bending or bent way (Ka.) (Ka. lex.) bokka, boggu with a turn, bend or bow; bok boralu, bokka boralu, bokka bo_rla headlong, flatwise (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Flight: bhuja crooked, bending; bhuja-lat.t.i betel-pepper tree (Pali.lex.) fugio to flee (Lat.); fuga flight (Lat.); bouc (OHG.)(Pali.lex.) bhujaga Garud.a (Skt.lex.) d.humbak, ombak to bend forwards; bhor benediction (Santali.lex.) cf. pan:kuram < bhan:gura the bend of a river; curve (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: crooked: bhuj bend (Skt.); bhugna bent, crooked (A_s'vGr..); bhogga bent (Pali); bhugga bent, crooked (Pkt.); bun bent (Si.)(CDIAL 9522). cf. bhugga_ ant-eaten, decayed (L.)(CDIAL 9523). bhukti curve, fold; faily movement of a star (Su_ryas.); bhuja arm (MBh.Pali); bhua arm, hand (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9525). cf. bhujam.ga snake (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 9526). bhuja_li, bhoja_li short sword (B.) (CDIAL 9527). vr.j bend; vr.kta in cmpds. 'turned, bent'(RV.); bruku bending of something perpendicular (esp. the backbone) under too heavy a weight (K.); bi_ka_ crooked (H.)(CDIAL 12066). boggu to bend; the state of being bent; boggisu to bend (Ka.); boggu hegga_l.e a bent large bull (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ba_ku a bend, a curve (Ka.M.); ba_ka, ba_n:ka, va_ka, va_n:ka (H.); ba_gu to bend, to bow, to incline, to stoop; to bend; to pour off the water from boiled rice, etc. by inclining the vessel (Ka.); bending, incling; a bend, a curve; a bow, an obeisance (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) ban:ku to be crooked; to bend (Ka.); on:gu, van:gu (Te.); van:k to be crooked (Skt.); baggu to bend, to bow; to become submissive (Ka.); van.an:ku, val.ai (Ta.); van.accu, val.e to bend (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Dagger: ba_gu, ba_ku a dagger (Ka.); va_n:ku (Ta.); va_ccu, van:gi (Ma.); ba_ku (H.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bent, curved: baka, ba~ka~ curved, twisted, bent, curved; bakbhen:kor. crooked, zigzag, winding, mixed (Santali.lex.)

6130.Image: cocoon: bo~k the pedicle of the cocoon of the tassar silk worm (Santali. lex.) pokol silk, cocoon (Kur.); poklu tassur silk (Malt.); pokl-t.owa cocoon (t.owa anything hollow, as the shell of an egg)(Malt.)(DEDR 4462). bo~k pedicle of cocoon (Santali.lex.) Hemp: boili_ hemp (Kol.); boyli id.; boyal, ba_yal sunn hemp; baiya_l flax; boilee hemp (Go.)(DEDR 4535). phuki empty, hollow, empty applied to cocoons etc. from which the insect has emerged; phuki lumam, lumam phuki an empty tassar cocoon from which the moth has emerged (Santali.lex.) Image: beehive: pol., pol.e~ honeycomb (M.); polo beehive (Ku.); polo, pwa_lo beehive (N.)(CDIAL 8398). poye~, pove~ honeycomb in hollow of wood or stone (M.)(CDIAL 8391). pera honeycomb, beehive (Te.)(DEDR 4412). pu_ki a type of beehive (Kuwi)(DEDR 4345).

6131.Image: deer: miga (Vedic mr.ga) a wild animal, an animal in its natural state; a deer, antelope, gazelle; e.g. en.i antelope; sarabha red deer; miga-cha_paka young of a deer; miga-luddaka deer-hunter; miga-visa_na a deer's horn; migi_ a doe (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

6132.Fabulous animal: makan.mai a fabulous animal having the form of a woman; womanhood; hermaphrodite, ali (Ta.lex.)

6133.Image: to overflow; to pour: pon:kal boiled rice seasoned with salt, pepper, cumin seeds and ghee; n.pr. of a festival (Ta.); pon:galu, pon:gil rice boiled with pulse, salted or sweetened with sugar (Ka.); pon:gu boiling, overlfowing (Te.); pog to boil and overflow (Kond.a); puge to swell (Malt.); pugro, pugt.o a boil, swollen (Malt.)(DEDR 4469). Flood; stream: po_kku-tal caus. of po_- to cause to go or flow; to send (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,2,1); po_kku flowing, as of water or wind (Kampara_. Or-r-uk. 46)(Ta.lex.) o_gha a flood, stream, current; an inundation (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) ogha flood; pava_ha id. (Pali)(Pali.lex.) cf. odde wetness (Tu.)(DEDR 1047). o_tavan-am sea as a great flood (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-i_r. 2); o_tam flood, inundation, deluge (Cilap. 7,35); sea (Tiruva_ca. 38,3)(Ta.lex.) ogha a flood of water; mahogha a great flood; oghana watering, flooding; oghaniya that which can be engulfed by floods (Pali)(Pali.lex.) Image: to pour: oyi, hoyi to pour (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. pey to pour down into (Ta.); po_yu to pour (Te.)(DEDR 4407). cf. or..uku to flow, trickle down (Ta.)(DEDR 1010). Image: increase, overflow: pon:ka_ram increase, overflow (Ta.); pon:kar-pa_n-ai new mud-pot used to boil rice for the pon:kal feast (Ta.); pon:ku-tal to boil up, bubble up; to increase (Ka_cika. Cayile_. 23); to expand, swell, as with joy (Tiruva_ca. 9,8)(Ta.); pon:gu (Te.Ka.); pon:guga (Ma.); pon:kal boiling, bubbling; ebbing; swelling; leaping (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to boil over: hon:gu, pon:gu to swell; to boil over; to boil; to be elated, to exult, to be overjoyed (Ka.); pon:galu, pon:gil a boiling, a bubbling up (Ka.); pon:kal (Ta.); pon:gali, pon:gal.i (Te.); pon:gu to boil over; to burst open, to swell (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to flow; to spill: cf. bo_khali to spill (Kuwi); po_nga_na_ to flow; be washed away, drown; of a river, to overflow its banks (Go.)(DEDR 4470). cohol bohol overflowing (Santali.lex.) Images: swelling; protuberance: bon:gu protuberance; bon:keluni to swell; bon:ka big, large (Tu.); bugut.i, bugud.u swelling, protuberance; pompur..i swelling (Ka.)(DEDR 4469). pon- to be spilled; pok- to spill; to pour (water)(Kond.a); po_nga_na_ to flow; be washed away, down; of a river, to overflow its banks; po_hta_na_ to drown a man, cause to be washed away; pon:ga_na_ to flow; ponga_na_ to float away; pongi_ta_na_ to spill (Go.); bon- (-t-) to be spilled; bok- (-t-) to spill (Pe.); buk- to pour (Mand..); ponga to be spilt, scattered; popka (< pok-p-; pokt-) to spill, scatter (Kui); bo_khali to spill; bokh'nai to shed, spill; bok- (-h-) to spill (Kuwi)(DEDR 4470).

6134.Solar festival: pon:kal solar festival when the sun enters capricorn and takes a northward course, being the first day of the month, tai, when pon:kal is prepared as an offering (Ta.); pon:gali (Te.); pon:kal a preparation of boiled rice seasoned with salt, pepper, cumin seeds and ghee (Cilap. 5,69); pon:kal varicai present sent to a married woman by her parents on pon:kal day (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) pon:galu-habba a festival in honour of the sun on its entering the sign of capricon when pon:galu is eaten (Ka.); pon:galu boiled rice (Ka.); pun-ka, pugarvu, pommal boiled rice (Ta.); pon:kal a boiling, a bubbling up (Ta.); bo_na boiled rice, food (Ka.); po_n-akam (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

6135.Image: float: pon:ga_yi canoe (Tu.)(DEDR 4471). puhi a float for a fishing line (Santali.lex.) pon.n.u a float, raft, buoy, boat; pon.n.uka to rise, as out of the water (Ma.); pon:guni, pun:guni to rock, reel, toss (as a boat); pon:gelu tumbling, rocking, unsteadiness; pun:ge, pun:gele a fickle-minded man (Tu.); ponor act of floating; ponor er- to swim, float (Ga.); pong- to float (Go.); po_ngray a_- to swim (Kond.a)(DEDR 4471). Image: raft: pan:kilam raft (Ta.); pan:kila (Skt.) (Ta.lex.) pey to rain, fall (as dew or hail); pour down or into; poci to ooze, percolate, flow (Ta.); poy to pour, cast; pouring (Ka.); po_yu to pour, cast in metal (Te.); poy- (water) pours, flows, to be spilled, flow (Go.); poe~_na_ to fall (of rain)(Kur.); poye (pos-) to rain (Malt.)(DEDR 4407). cf. o_gna_ (u_gyas) to float (Kur.)(DEDR 1031). o_n:kal boat, vessel (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6136.Image: overflow; water channel: pagrao to construct a water channel, to lead water by clearing a way for it; dakko pagrao idikeda they led away the water; pajao id.; daka ma pajao aderme lead the water in; pa~er.e~ an overflow channel of a tank etc. cf. pagar water channel (Santali.lex.) phor. to cut a dam to allow the water to run out, to be breached, as an embankment of a dam etc.; dakko phor. akata they have cut the dam and let the water out; dakte phor.ena it (embankment) has been breached by water by a flood; pogar., pogar a surface drain, to surface drain; pokhori a tank mentioned in Santal traditions (Santali.lex.) Image: dam: bhokar to raise a dam, embankment, ridge etc., by putting fresh earth on it (Santali.lex.) paera to swim; paera dak water too deep to wade in, water deep enough to swim in; dakreko paeraka they swim in water; paera paromokme swim across (Santali.lex.)

6137.Mouth of a river: puka_r mouth of a river (Pur-ana_.30); the town of Ka_viri-p-pu_m-pat.t.in-am, as situated at the mouth of the river Ka_ve_ri (Cilap.); pukut.i backwater, estuary; gate, doorway (Ta.lex.) Confluence of rivers; river-mouth: mu~ha_n. source of a river (P.); muha_n river-mouth, division of a river into two (N.); mohana_ river-mouth (A.); muhana_ river-mouth, confluence of two rivers (B.); mu~ha_n.a river-mouth (Or.); muha_na_ river-mouth, confluence of two rivers (H.)(CDIAL 10173). moga mouth of a river (Te.)(DEDR 4889). cf. pun-al, pun-ai water, flood, river (Ta.); punal, pun.al water, river (Ma.); ponal stream, river (Ka.)(DEDR 4338). cf. do-maulo confluence of two streams (Ku.); mu~ha~ head of a canal (L.)(CDIAL 10158). mukali a river flowing by Ka_l.ahasti (Te_va_. 1095,3)(Ta.lex.)

6138.To make underground cellar for hiding treasure: po_kku-vaittal to make underground cellar for hiding treasure; to find out ways of expenditure (Ta.lex.) Treasury; general: cf. bokkan.a bag, pocket (Tu.)(DEDR 4458). bakkasa, bokkasa a a treasury (of a king, of a rich man, or of a temple (Ka.); bo_kasa_, bo_caka_ a bundle (M.); bukkise, bokkisa_, bokkese (Te.); baks.a_ (H.); bokkasa a money bag; a treasury (Te.); bokkasada mane a treasury; bokkasadavanu a treasurer (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Treasure; stores: pokkaca-vaippu treasure trove; hidden treasure; pokkacam, pokkis.am treasure; stores (Ta.); bokkasamu id. (Te.); bokkasa id. (Ka.); pokkis.akka_ran-, pokkis.a-ta_r treasurer; rich man; pokkis.a-ca_lai treasury; pokkis.a-vi_t.u id.; pokkis.a-p-pet.t.i coffer; chest for money and other valuables (Ta.lex.)

6139.Image: dancing warriors: pon:kattam, pon:kattam-pon:ku, pon:kattam-pon:ko_ exclamation of surrender by defeated warriors with a particular kind of dance (Tiv. Periyati. 10,2,10)(Ta.lex.)

6140.Image: bull: pun:kavam < pun.-gava bull (Uri. Ni.); Nandi, S'iva's bull (Paripa_. 8,2); that which is excellent; pun:kan-u_r-ma_t.u an excellent breed of Mysore cattle, raised in Pun:kan-u_r in North Arcot (Ta.lex.) pum.-vatsa a bull-calf; cf. bachd.a_ (Vedic. lex.) Eminent person: pun:kavan- < pun.-gava eminent person, chief (Ka_cika. Turuva. Tava. 1); priest, preceptor; Buddha; Arhat; pun:kavi fem. of pun:kavan- goddess; Pa_rvati_ (Ta_yu. Malaival.ar. 5)(Ta.lex.) cf. pu_j to pay homage to (Vedic. lex.) pu_ja_ honour, worship (A_s'vGr..); worship (Pali); puda offerings, worship (Si.)(CDIAL 8317). pu_j Jain devotee (P.); pu_ju venerable (S.)(CDIAL 8319). pun:gava a bull; at the end of a cmpd.: a hero, an eminent person, best, most excellent; pun:gava-dhvaja S'iva (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pum.s male (RV.); man, mankind, people; a servant, an attendant; pum.gava a bull, an ox; at the end of cmpds.: chief, best, most excellent, distinguished or pre-eminent of any class (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) pun:kavam < pun.-gava bull (Uri. Ni.); Nandi, S'iva's bull (Paripa_. 8,2); that which is excellent (Ta.lex.) Image: male of an animal: pukalvi male of an animal (Kur-icip. 253)(Ta.lex.) Excellence: bo.ji beauty, goodness; bo.jan:gun.d.i well, in proper fashion; bo.ja-ka.re best man at wedding; bo.j avve mother's younger sister (Kod..); bo_ja excellence, greatness, pride (Tu.); bu_ja (bu_ji-) to be beautiful, handsome; n. beauty; adj. beautiful, handsome (Kui)(DEDR 4579). Boy: po_gan.d.a, paugan.d.a not fully grown, deformed; boy (BhP.); po_am.d.a eunuch (Pkt.); pu~_gr.a_ boy (H.); po~gd.a_ stripling; po~gd.i_ girl (M.)(CDIAL 8394). Man of exalted courage: pon:ga man of ebullition or of exalted courage (Ka.); pon:ku prosperity, fortune (Ta.); pon:kal abundance, splendour; n. pr. of a festival, abundance, profusion; pon:kam increase, abundance, joy, splendour; pokkam abundance, eminence, splendour; pommu (pommi-) to swell, excel in appearance; pommal abundance, thickness, plumpness; bommen-al to swell (Ta.); pon.n.al ostentation (Ma.); pon.n.accam display, boasting (Ma.); pompur..i growth, greatness (Ka.); pon:gad. proud flesh (Tu.); pon:gu to rejoice, be elated, be puffed up, be proud; n. joy, pride (Te.); pon:gincu to please, flatter, puff up, coax; pon:ka pride, haughtiness; bugulu-konu to increase, swell, rise; pompiri abundant, full (Te.); pon:gipt id.d.eng to exaggerate (Kol.); pon.i- (-t-) to be bloated, swell up (Kond.a)(DEDR 4469). chok bok abundant (Santali.lex.) o_n:kal chief, leader, superior, king; strong man; descendant (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) o_n:ka_ra-vuru, o_n:ka_ran- (+ ru_pa) deity considered as the personification of the mystic syllable Om; o_n:ka_ram Om, the mystic syllable (Te_va_. 320,10)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) cf. pun:kavan- < pun.-gava eminent person, chief (Ka_cika. Turuva. Tava. 1); priest, preceptor (Pin..); god (Pin..); Buddha (Tiva_.); Arhat (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) Proud: puggu pride, arrogance; purgu id. (Ka.); pogaru pride, arrogance; pod.agu height, loftiness, stature; pod.ucu to rise as the tide, the sun, the moon, a star; pod.upu the swell of a river, the rising of the sun (Te.); poccu to boil over, bubble up; to rise as out of the water (Ma.); pokka height, increase; boiling over (Ta.Ma.); pokku a boil, blister (Ta.Ma.); pulusu pride (Te.); pugga_yila a proud or arrogant man (Ka.) cf. pon:ku to be haughty (Tol. Po. 426)(Ta.lex.) pukalvu pride, arrogance (Kur-icip. 135)(Ta.); puggu, purgu id. (Ka.); pogaru id. (Te.); po_kh'nai, po_k- (-h-) to swagger (Kuwi)(DEDR 4234). phu_hu pride of youth (S.); phu_har.u intemperate in language (S.); phu_har. obscene (P.); phohar, phohor, phor obscene language (N.); puhar dirt, filth (Or.); pu_har. obscene (H.); phuar., phuer. filthy (G.)(CDIAL 9105). pakir-u pride (Ta.); fakhr (Arabic)(Ta.lex.) bu_tu foul, shameless, obscene language; a shameless, obscene man (Ka.); bu_tu obscene or foul language; obscene, foul, indecent (Te.)(DEDR 4363). Obstinate man; irresistible; image: stout person: mokkan- stout person or thing (Ta.); mokkai bulkiness (Ta.); mokka_d.u a stout, strong man; a determined, resolute man (Te.)(DEDR 5108). mus.ku strength, vigour, insolence, presumption; mus.kan stout, stubborn, violent; mus.karam strength, power; mus.karan strong, self-willed; mukkal.am fullness of blood, turgid, well-fed, wanton state (Ta.); mus.kara pertinaciousness, stubbornness, obstinacy, insolence (Ka.); musku disregard, disrespect; mukkud.a stout, robust (Tu.); mus.karamu obstinate, stubborn, rude; mokkat.i~_d.u an obstinate man; mokkalamu obstinacy, stubbornness; obstinate, irresistible; mokkali, mokkalika~d.u an obstinate man, a brave man (Te.); mukkaram, mus.karam obstinacy (Ta.)(DEDR 5011b). Stupid; simpleton: bu~gr.o, bun.r.o small, undersized, simple, humble (Ku.); bu_khar fat and stupid (P.); bukeste blunt (Ash.); buke (Wg.); bu_k blunt (Tor.); bukuro, bukunu a little fellow (N.); bo_ka blunt (Dm.); boka_ senseless; bokr.a_ coarse, rough (B.); boka_ blockhead (Or.); lout, unwieldy person (M.); boghlu~ simple, guileless (G.); bo~ga_ loutish, clumsily big, dull, idiot (M.)(CDIAL 9263). bembha simpleton; bebuj simple (Santali.lex.) pun:kan- fool (Ta.); pun:kan id. (Ma.) (Ta.lex.) bhu_khar unproductive, barren (G.); bhu_ku blockhead (S.); bho~kr.a_ very large and fat (H.)(CDIAL 9519). pun:kan- fool (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 4244). Simpleton: pen:ga, pegga simpleton, fool (Ka.); pen:ge, pen.n.e id., stupid fellow (Tu.); pen:ke an impudent, mischievous person; impudent (Te.)(DEDR 4381). ben.a_ idiotic (A.); left-hand (B.); ben:ga fetid smell (Or.)(CDIAL 9307). pe~gl.a_ slack, dull (M.)(CDIAL 7649). bhekuwa_ foolish, blunted, unlettered (Ku.); bhekal, bheklo foolish, lazy, unreliable; bhekaluwa_ foolish (Ku.); bhekera_ blunt (A.); bhe~ko stupid (A.); bhi~ga waste (S.)(CDIAL 9601).

6141.Sun-god: cf. bon:ga, sin.-bon:ga the sun, sun-god (Santali. Mundari.lex.) pon:ku good luck, fortune (A_tiyu_ravata_n-i. 38); prosperity; to be bright, attractive (Te_va_. 876,2)(Ta.lex.) surjahi bon:ga sun-god (Santali.lex.)

6142.Red powder; red liquid: pha_go dust; pha_g pollen of pines (Ku.); pha_ug, pha_g red powder thrown during Holi (B.); phagu (Or.); pha_gu powder thrown during Holi festival (Mth.); pha_g, pha_k, phagua_ powder then thrown in Holi festival (H.); phalgu reddish, red (TS.); red powder thrown at Holi festival (Skt.)(CDIAL 9062). phalguna reddish (TS.)(CDIAL 9065). Holi festival: po_ki-kol.uttal burning of old clothes and lumber on the night of po_ki-pan.t.ikai; po_ki, po_ki-pan.t.ikai festival on the day before pon:kal (Ta.lex.) pho~g spring festival (K.); phalgu spring season (Skt.); phaggu special period of fasting (Pali); spring festival (Pkt.); pha_gu sport at Holi festival, the 11th month February-March (S.); pha_g, phagua_ Holi festival (P.); pha_gu Holi festival (N.); pha_ku, pha~_k (with k from a word for 'powder' in, e.g. Or. pha~_ki)(A.); pha_gu Holi festival, the powder thrown during it (Mth.); phagua_ Holi festival (Bhoj.); pha_ga (OAw.); pha_g, pha_k, phagua_ Holi festival, song then sung, powder then thrown (H.); pha_g Holi festival (G.M.)(CDIAL 9062). phalguna the month February-March (Skt.); phagun.u id. (S.); phaggan., phaggun. (L.); phaggan., phagan (P.)(CDIAL 9065). o_kal.i, o_kul.i red liquid sprinkled or squirted at the holi feast, at the close of a temple festival, or at marriage (Ka.); o_kal.i, o_kul.i id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1028). pon:kar red-flowered silk cotton tree (Ta.lex.) cf. mokaram < muharram (Arab.) a muhammadan festival in the Arabic month of Muharram (Ta.lex.) cf. pho~g (K.) ~~ pon:kam exultation, joy (Ta.); pon:gu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) pon:kal solar festival when the sun enters capricorn and takes a northward course, being the first day of the month Tai, when pon:kal is prepared as an offering (Ta.); pon:gali id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) pan:kun-i < phaggun.i (Pkt.) < phalguni_ the 12th month of the solar year, March-April (Ci_vaka. 851); pan:kun-i-y-uttaram special festival day when the moon is in conjunction with the 12th naks.atra (Ir-ai. Kal.a. 17, Urai)(Ta.lex.) pon:kam increase, abundance; bloom, splendour (Pan.avit.u. 365); po_ki, po_ki-p-pan.t.ikai festival on the day before pon:kal (Ta.lex.) phagguna February-March (Pali); pha_lguna (Mn.); phagun.e (KharI.); phaggun.a, pha_gun.a (Pkt.); pha_gun (K.); pha_gun. (WPah.); fa_ggan. (WPah.); pha_gun. (Ku.); pha_gun (N.A.Bi.Bhoj.H.); pha_gan. (G.M.)(CDIAL 9075).

6143.Smeared, wet: bhagga smeared, lime-washed (Pkt.); abhyakta anointed (S'Br.); bhiggn.a_ to get wet (P.); bhign.o (Ku.); bhignu (N.); bhiga_ wet (Or.); bhigiba_ to get wet (Or.); bhi_gna_ (H.); bhino wetted (S.); bhinna_ (P.); bhi_nau wet (OAw.); bhi_nu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9500). bhi~_ga_ wet (H.)(CDIAL 9501). abhyan:kte_ anoints oneself (RV.); abbhatta smeared with oil, sprinkled, wetted (Pkt.); biz to pour out (e.g. water)(Dm.); bhijan.u to get wet (S.); bhijjn.a_ (P.); bhijn.o (Ku.); bhijnu (N.); bhiziba (A.); bhija_ (B.); bhijiba_ (Or.); bhi_jab (Bi.); bhijla_h wet (Mth.); bhi_jal to get wet (Bhoj.); bhi_jab (Aw.); bhi_jna_ to be wet (H.); bhijvu~ (G.); bhijn.e~ (M.); bhijta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9502). abhyanakti anoints (AitBr.); abbhajati, abh(i)yajana (S'Br.); abhim.jan.a (Pkt.); bhim.ja_ anointing, massaging (Pkt.); bhi~_jab to be wetted (Bi.); bhi~_jal (Bhoj.); bhi~ja_vu~ to be wetted (G.); bhi~javvu~ to wet (G.)(CDIAL 9503). bo.k- (bo.kt-) to become wet; bo.kip- (bo.kipt-) to wet (Kol.); bo_k to be wet (Nk.); po_d- to get wet (Pa.); po_c- to be soaked (Ga.); puh- to make wet (Go.); puha to get wet, be wetted, sodden; puhpa (puht-) to make wet or damp, moisten (Kui); poroxna_ (purxyas) to swell as a result of imbibed water; borsna_ to get moist, become wet (Kur.); porge to be soaked (Malt.); pude_n cold, chilly (Br.); bo_da swollen (Te.); potirkka to soak, steep (as fibres, cloth)(Ta)(DEDR 4505).

6144.Tip of an elephant's proboscis: put.karam tip of an elephant's proboscis (Ta.lex.)

6145.Sacred tank near a temple: pukar waterfall (Aru. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) pukkai spring-pond (Ta.); poykai natural or spring pond (Ci_vaka. 337); tank (Patir-r-up. 27)(Ta.lex.) poyka pond, flower-garden (Ma.); bugge spring of water, source of a river (Ka.); bugga spring of water, fountain (Te.)(DEDR 5433). pokkaran.i < pokkharin.i_ sacred tank, as in a temple (Perun.. Ucaik. 53,79); bokkaran.i id. (Ka.); put.karin.i lotus tank; sacred tank near a temple (Ta.lex.) pus.kara blue lotus (AV.); pukkhara lotus (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8298a). Irrigation basin; brick well: pokhur irrigation basin round base of a tree; pokhuru brick well (K.); po(k)khar pond (P.); pokhar, pwokhar (Ku.); pokhari pool, tank, lake (N.); pukhuri_ (A.); pokhiri_ (OB.); pukkhur(i), pukur, pakur (B.); pokhari (Or.); pokhar, po_khra_ (Bi.); pokhar, pokhari_ (Mth.); pokhara_, pokhari_ (Bhoj.); pokhar, pokhra_ (H.); pokhar (M.); pokura lotus flower (Si.); paus.kara pertaining to the blue lotus (MBh.); pokkhara lotus plant (Pali); pertaining to lotuses; lotus, water (Pkt.); pukkhara id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8425). ukhur. d.ad.i a spring of water in which a hollow log has been placed to prevent the sides falling in (Santali.lex.) paus.karin.i_ lotus pool, pond (Skt.); pus.karin.i_ id. (RV.); pokkharan.i_ lotus pool (Pali); pukarin.i, pokaran.i pond (KharI.); pokkharin.i_, pukkharin.i_ pond, lotus (Pkt.); pokhran. small lake or pond (M.); pokurun.i, pokun.a lake, pond (Si.)(CDIAL 8426). put.akini_ lotus [?cup-shaped flower](Skt.); pud.ain.i_ lotus pond (Pkt.); purain lotus leaf, lotus (H.)(CDIAL 8254).

6146.Means of livelihood; place of refuge; newcomer, settler: po_kkiyaka_n.t.am a class of categories (Civap. Kat..); po_kkiya-tattuvam id. (Ci.Ci. 1,19, Civaja_.); acutta-tattuvam impure categories, one of three classes of tattuvam, comprising 4 antakkaran.am, 5 ja_n-e_ntiriyam, 5 karume_ntiriyam, 5 tan-ma_ttirai, 5 pu_tam (Civap. Kat..)(S'aiva.)(Ta.lex.) po_kkit.am place of refuge (Tiruva_ca. 23,6); po_kkat.i pecuniary means; remedy (I_t.u, 1,4,4); refuge (I_t.u, 9,1,2); po_kkat.i-yar-utal to lose one's means of livelihood; to be laid prostrate; to be helpless (Kuruparam. 342); po_kkar-u-tal to lose one's means of livelihood (I_t.u, 6,10,10)(Ta.lex.) po_kku refuge (Kampara_. Ma_ya_can-aka. 83); character of land, as hilly, sandy; e.g. malaippo_kku, a_r-r-uppo_kku; po_kku going, passing, departure (Pu. Ve. 1,7, Kol.u); po_kkuvarattu going and returning (I_t.u, 6,10,10); guests; po_kkuvarattu-man.iyam clerk deputed to attend on guests; po_kkat.i refuge (I_t.u, 9,1,2); pecuniary means; po_kkat.iyar-utal to lose one's means of livelihood; to be laid prostrate, to be helpless (Kuruparam. 342); po_kkili one who has no refuge; po_kkan.am refuge; way of escape; food for a journey, viaticum; po_kkan- wayfarer, traveller (Ta.); po_kkan id. (Ma.); po_ka id. (Ka.); po_kkan- stranger, foreigner (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Abode: pukkil abode (Man.i. 23,76); house, dwelling, permanent abode (Kur-al..340); place of refuge (Pur-ana_. 221); body, as a temporary abode for the soul (Na_lat.i, 41); pukal entering; residence, dwelling (Ain:kur-u. 295); support, prop (Nar-. 179); refuge, asylum (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 109); body; receptacle for storing grain; means; pukali new-comer, settler (Takkaya_kap. 352, Urai.); Shiyali, name of a place in Tamil Nadu; pukalit.am dwelling, residence (Kampara_. Van-ampuku. 24); town, village; refuge, retreat, asylum (Tiruva_ca. 5,62); pukavu entering (Ain:kur-u. 314); po_kar those who live as house-holders (Te_va_. 490,3)(Ta.lex.) Image: door: pukuti front door (Ta.); pukutu (pukuti-) to enter, happen; pukuru (-v-, -nt-) to enter (Ta.); pu_r (-v-, -nt-) to enter; pu_tu (pu_ti-) id.; pu_vi (-pp-, -tt-) to cause to enter (Ta.); pukkil abode, place of refuge (Ta.); pukuka (pukk-) to enter, begin; pukukka to put into; pukkikka to make to enter or receive; pu_kuka to enter, reach a time; pu_kikka to make to enter (Ma.); uk- (ug- also in the negative; uky-) to enter (Ko.); pux (puk-) id. (To.); pugu, pogu (pokk-), hugu, hogu (hokk-), ogu to enter (Ka.); pugil entering, door, arrival (Ka.); pogguni to enter, penetrate (Tu.); pogpa_vuni to cause to enter or penetrate, pierce (Tu.)(DEDR 4238). Threshold: muha_t.h upright of doorframe; threshold (L.P.)(CDIAL 10159). muha_r.i_ top of a doorway outside a stockade (S.); muha_r. upright of doorframe (L.)(CDIAL 10160). mukat.u entrance of a house; mukat.t.u var..iyu_n. pukar..nta_r (A'ca_rak.23)(Ta.lex.)

6147.Image: pigeon: pokin.a, pokan.a, po_n.a, pu_n.a the green imperial pigeon, carpophaga sylvatica (Ma.); po_lg id. (Kol.); po_nal id. (Pa.); po_na_r., po_nar. id. (Go.); po_lgu green pigeon, green dove (Kuwi); poxa_ green pigeon (Kur.); poge id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4454).

6148.Image: hen: po_kr.a hen (Kond.a); pokla id. (Pe.); pokla hen that has never laid an egg (Kui); hen (Kuwi)(DEDR 4465). po_nta_n- a kind of fowl (Ta.); po_nj, po_i_, po_inj pullet (Go.)(DEDR 4589). Image: cock: pu_van cock (Ma.); bu.jn cock (Ko.); puja, puju id. (Ka.); pu_je id. (TU.); hu_nji id. (Kor.); punju id. (Te.); punzu male, esp.of fowls (Kond.a)(DEDR 4373).

6149.Image: hind leg of animal: pugo.l hind leg of animal (ko.l leg)(To.)(DEDR 4205). cf. ka_l leg, quarter (Ta.Ma.Ka.Kuwi.Mand..); id. (Pe.Kond.a.Ga.Go.Kol.); kalu id. (Te.); ka_lu id. (Tu.); ka.li (Kod..); ke_l leg (Pa.); ka_li cow, cattle; she-buffalo (Ma.)(DEDR 1479). cf. put.h back (CDIAL 8371). Image: shank of the leg: bagr.a_ shank of the leg (Kur.); bagd.e id. (Malt.); bagd.-pot.i calf of the leg (Malt.)(DEDR 3816). Image: hind legs, buttocks, hinder part: poko thigh, loins, back, rectum (Ku.); pokar. buttock, posterior, back, anus (A.)(CDIAL 8392). phugga loins (Pkt.); sphij buttock (Ka_tyS'r.); sphigi_ (RV.); sphicau nom. du. (MBh.); sphicam (Mn.); phijja buttock, upper part of thigh (Pkt.); phisu_ vulva (Pas'.); p(h)inji (Kal.); phi_ju mare's urinal parts, horse's pastern (S.); phi_l leg (Ku.); philo fleshy part of thigh and buttocks (N.); phi_li_, philli_ calf of leg (H.) (CDIAL 13837). paccha hinder part (Pkt.); pa_s the back, the rear (A.); pa_ch(a_) back part of anything (B.); pacha (Or.); pa_ch kicking out with the hind legs (H.); passa the hinder part (Si.); picho rear (S.); piccha_ hinder part, rear (P.); pis the rear (A.); picha_ (B.); posterior, buttocks, hind legs (of a horse) (Or.); pi_cha_ rear (H.)(CDIAL 7990). pachva_r.a_ rear (P.); pachua_r. adj. behind, hinder (Mth.); pichwa_r.a_ hindmost (H.)(CDIAL 7994). paccha_ behind (Pali.Pkt.); pas'ca_t from behind, behind (RV.); paca-kana behind (Pas'.); pach behind (H.) (CDIAL 7999). Image: having the face turned back: pichau~r. having the face turned back (H.); pichau~r.a_ behind (H.)(CDIAL 7997). pichau~hai adv. behind, from behind (OH.)(CDIAL 7996).

6150.Land inundated by floods: pukkoli land inundated by floods (of the ebb-tide), perh. a field similar to khajjana. pukku_li or pukkolli are terms found in certain Sanskrit inscriptions from the Kannad.a-speaking area in expressions like pukkoli-ks.etra or pukkoli-khajjana. khajjana, khajjana, khajja_na, khajjan.aka is the same as Mara_t.hi_ kha_jan.. It is a Sanskritized des'i_ word meaning 'the area (near the sea-shore), on which a thin layer of sand accumulates after the ebb-tide coming through inlets' and 'a rice field created out of such an area near a hillock by erecting embankments on the three other sides', or 'a field created by reclamation of the river-bed' (Epigraphica Indica, Vol. XXIII, pp. 53-4; loc. cit. D.C.Sircar, Indian Epigraphy, p. 426). poykai natural spring or pond (Ci_vaka. 337); tank (Patir-r-up. 27); pukkai spring-pond (Ta.); bugga (Te.); bugge (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

6151.Image: anus: pukku, pukul.i the female organ of generation (Ka.); pu_ku, poke (Te.); pucci, pocce, ponal, por-a, por-u (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) bukni the anus (Santali.lex.) Image: female organ of generation: pukal.i, pukul.i, pukku, mukal.i, mukul.i, mukl.i female organ of generation, anus (Ka.); pu_ku id. (Ka.Te.Kond.a); pukul.i anus (Tu.)(DEDR 4236). poko rectum (Ku.); pokar. anus (A.)(CDIAL 8392). Image: female organ: mukal.i, pukal.i, mukul.i, mukl.i the female organ of generation (Ka.lex.)

6152.Images: navel; umbilical cord; a depression: pokkul., po_kil navel; pokkan.i a large open navel (Ta.); pokkil., pokkul. navel (Ma.); puku. id. (Ko.); piku. id. (To.); pokkur.., porkur.. id. (Ka.); pokki id. (Kod..); puval.u, pu_vol.u id. (Tu.); hodkul.u id. (Bel.); hokru id. (Kor.); pokkili id.; a depression (Te.); bogur navel (Kol.Nk.); pu_n.el id. (Pe.Mand..); pu_r.enji, pu_nenji id. (Kui); pu_leri, pu_leni, pu_len.i id. (Kuwi); pu_t id., umbilical cord (Br.)(DEDR 4460). buka the navel; buka seresere ulcerated navel (Santali.lex.) Image: child at birth: pokali adj. of a child, fully developed at its birth (Mu.Sadani) (Mu.lex.) paya_ya born (Pkt.); paya_ya_ who has borne a child (Pkt.); pra_ye behun to crouch in labour; pya_v act of giving birth; pya_y woman who has borne a child; pya_ye pp. of pasun (K.); praja_ta born (RV.); praja_ta_ woman who has borne a child (Mn.)(CDIAL 8509). praja_yate_ is born (RV.); bears, begets (MBh.); paja_yati is born (Pali); paya_i gives birth (Pkt.); pa_iba (A.); pa_iba_ (Or.)(CDIAL 8510). prajanayati causes to propagate (RV.); causes to be reproduced (S'Br.); pi_nawun (a midwife) to deliver a woman (K.)(CDIAL 8507). prajana begetting, bearing (Mn.); pi_n childbirth; dupi_u a woman who has had two children (K.)(CDIAL 8506).

6153.Betel-vine cultivators: mukkantan- title of a sect of shepherds and of betel-vine cultivators (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mu_lava_pa planter of edible roots (Mn.); mura_u_ greengrocer (Aw.)(CDIAL 10253).

6154.Blossom of Artocarpus: mutal. bud (Ta. lex.); mutal blossom or catkin of Artocarpus, considered as the first fruit (mi_ttu) and superstitiously plucked off (Ma.); beginning (Ma.Ta.); mo0il valuable thing (To.); modal beginning, extremity or tip (Ka.); mudeli origin (Tu.); modalu beginning, origin (Te.); modol beginning (Go.); the first (Kond.a)(DEDR 4950). mudgara bud (Skt.); moggara (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10199; DEDR 5113). Origin: mu_laka arising from (MBh.); s'ar-mu_w source of the river, Sarju (Ku.); mul.hu~ from the beginning (Or.); mu_l. origin (G.); cause (M.); mu_l.i_ tender root (G.); mula beginning, cause (Si.)(CDIAL 10250). mud.d.h, mun.d.h beginning, root (L.); beginning (P.)(CDIAL 10247). Artocarpus heterophyllus: "...The bark is sometimes made into rope and cloth. The wood is used locally to a limited extent as a yellow dye." (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.229). Image: bud: mot.t.u tender flower-bud; rounded top of a car (Ta.); flower-bud, nipple, bud-like, the blunt end, pommel (Ma.); mit.t.e tender bud, flower-bud (Kor.); mod.o bud (Go.); id., flower-bud (Kui); mod. flower-bud (Ga.Kui); sprout (M.)(DEDR 5113).

6155.Deceit: pokkam lie, falsehood, deceit, fault; poccam, poccu lie, falsehood; fault, defect; poccai fault; pocca_ppu badness, evil, wickedness, fault (Ta.); pokkar low people (Ma.); bon:ku to lie (Ka.); bon:kuni to deny (Tu.); poccemu deceit, trick, defect, fault; bon:ku to lie; a lie; false, untrue; bon:kincu to deceive, tempt; cause to tell a lie; bon:kari a liar; bon:kula~_d.u id.; fem. bon:kula~_d.i (Te.); bo_kinai to pretend; po_k- (-h-) to tell lies (Kuwi); phukka_ = mithya_ (Pkt.)(DEDR 4459). poy (-pp-, -tt-) to lie, utter falsehood, make false pretences, deceive, cheat, prove false; lie, falsehood, sham, that which is artificial; poykka falsely; poyppu falsification, deception; poymmai falsehood, illusion, that which is artificial or counterfied; poyyan- a liar (Ta.); poy a lie, illusion, cheat (Ma.); a lie (Ko.); pi.k- (pi.ky-) to lie; pi.kit.e.r a lie (To.); pusi to become or prove untrue, lie; bear no fruit, not to attain ripeness; falsehood, lie, hypocricy, idle prattle, bearing no fruit; pusiga liar (Ka.); hus'i a lie, falsehood (Tu.); busa_na_ to lie (Go.); pu_sa_ lie; pu_sa_-ka_t.anji liar (Kui); pussowi, pu_so_vi cheating, pretending (Kuwi); pasyare liar; pasyetre to tell lies; paslaha liar; false; pasadeye to accuse falsely (Malt.); apu_i-/apu_ya-, in: apu_ivayan.a-, apu_yavayan.a- whose words are not false; aphusia free from error (Pkt.)(DEDR 4531). Cheat: phakkika_ proposition (Nais..); (in logic) statement to be refuted, sophism, fraud (Skt.); phakkati propounds a statement to be refuted (Dha_tup.); acts wrongly (Skt.); phakun to state one's poverty as inability to give (K.)[cf. phakar. penniless, beggar (Ku.); phakkar. rascal (N.); libertine (G.)(CDIAL 9037); phakkn.a_ to squander (P.)(CDIAL 9036)]; phakir.i_ altercation (S.); phakkar., phakkar.i_ abuse (P.); pha_ku_n.o~_ to dispute (WPah.); phaka_unu to flatter, seduce (N.); pha_kat.i deception (A.); phaka_ to be disappointed (B.); phakkar. hoaxer (B.); phakar.i fraud (Or.); phakkar. abuse (H.); pha~_kr.a_ vain boaster (H.P.); pha~_ko pretention; phavu~ to be misled (G.); pha_kad. flashy (M.); phakkiya_ passage in a text hard to interpret (Pkt.); fa_ki_ complaint (WPah.); pha_ki deception, trick (A.); pha~_ki (B.Or.); pha~_ki_ objection (in logic), trick, fraud (H.); proposition, sentence (M.)(CDIAL 9035). bin:ku crookedness, dishonesty, guile (Ka.); pik(i)la_t.a cheating (Tu.)[cf. pittala_t.t.am deception, fraud (Ta.)(DEDR 4166)]; pikku to cheat; deceit, trick (Te.)(DEDR 4130).

6156.Ruin; theft; deceit: mo_s.a theft (Mn.); mo_sa stealing (Pkt.); khos-mos (N.)(CDIAL 10358). mo_s.ati steals (RV.); mo_san.a stealing (Pkt.); mohan. to cheat (L.); mohna_ to steal (P.); mosnu (N.); mohiba to take by fraud (A.); mosna_ to steal (H.)(CDIAL 10359). mu_s.an.a stealing (Skt.); mu_san pilfering (H.)(CDIAL 10259). mu_s.ati steals (Dha_tup.); mi_sai steals (Pkt.); mu_sna_ (H.); musna_ to be stolen (H.)(CDIAL 10259). mus. in cmpds. 'stealing' (MBh.); theft (Skt.); mus.ivan thief (RV.); mus.a_r., mus.a_r.a thief (Gaw.)(CDIAL 10216). mus.ati steals (MBh.); musati beguiles (Pali); musai steals (Pkt.); mus. (Pas'.); muhun to defraud (K.); muhan.u, mu_han.u to steal, rob (S.); musn.o (Ku.); musa_via caused to be stolen (Pkt.); muha_un.a_ to be plundered (P.); muskiba_ to deceive (Or.); musakn.e~ to scorn (M.)(CDIAL 10217). mus.t.a stolen (Skt.); mut.t.ha robbed (Pkt.); mot.hu change of fortune (usu. from good to bad)(K.); mut.ho ruined (pp. of musan.u)(S.); mut.t.ha_ pp. of mussan., mut.t.han. to cheat (L.); mut.t.hn.a_ to cheat, rob (P.); mu_t.hna_ to be destroyed, not to remain (H.)(CDIAL 10220). mus.yate_ is robbed (MBh.); musun to steal (K.); musan.u to be ruined (pp. mut.ho)(S.); mussan. to be ruined, be unlucky (pp. mut.t.ha_), musna_ to be spoilt, rot (L.); to steal (P.); to be stolen (H.)(CDIAL 10222). muci to perish (Ta.); mucippu destruction (Ta.); musincu to be spoiled, fail (Te.)(DEDR 4903). makin.o to be rotten (Ku.); mak(k)inu, mak(k)a_unu to decay, rot away; makmaka_unu to ache, pain (N.); mr.kta hurt (RV.)(CDIAL 10263). cf. mu_cat.ai rancidity, anything unclean (Ta.)(DEDR 5029). Vain; pretence; deceit: mo_sa_ falsely (Pkt.); mo_sa deceit (Pkt.); mr.s.a_ vain (RV.); falsely (AV.); mis.a false appearance (Skt.); musa_ falsely (Pali); musa_-va_da falsehood (As'.); mus.a, mus.aya falsely (NiDoc.); musa_ falsely (Pkt.); misa, miha deceit (Pkt.); mis.a_ to deceive (Ash.Kt.); mis.i to play (Kt.); mus. to cheat, play (Wg.); mi_hu pretence (S.); mi_ha_inu to deceive (S.); misa pretence (OMth.); mis (H.); misa pretext (OG.); mas fraud, trick (G.); ase-mase adv. with false but plausible reasons (G.); mi_s pretext (M.); musa mistake, deception (Si.)(CDIAL 10298). mo_campo_tal to be deceived; to fall into danger; to go wrong, be mistaken; mo_cam treachery, deceit, fraud; danger, risk, detriment; mistake; mo_ca-na_cam cheating and damaging; mo_cat.i fraud (Ta.lex.)

6157.Image: fountain: ojjara, vajjarakke a spring, a fountain (Ka.); uja, uje (Tu.); uggel a well (Tu.); osar, osaru to ooze, to trickle, to flow gently; osargal the oozing-stone: a kind of crystal; osaru ni_ru oozing or trickling water (Ka.lex.) cf. o_gha, o_ga a stream, a current, a course of water (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6158.Weight: ojana, vajanu gravity, heaviness, weight; a weight; weight, dignity, influence (Ma.); bo_ja, bo_ja_, vajana (H.); ojanu (Tu.); ojje, vajja, vajje, vajanu, vaje a weight, load, burden (Ka.); o_jhem. (M.)(Ka.lex.) vajani of weight, not of capacity (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6159.Influential man: vajanuda_ra weighty, influential, an influential man (Ka.M.H.) (Ka.lex.) vaji_ra a vizier, a prime minister (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vajra a kind of very tenacious mortar or hard cement; a strong glue (used by carpenters) (Ka.Te.Ta.); an impetuous or overawing man; vajras'un.t.a an extremely stupid and illiterate man (Ka.); vajra-ga_re a hard or durable plaster (Ka.lex.) o_ja_yila man of propriety (Ka.lex.)

6160.Ornaments; instrument; bright: o_ja ha_rku ornaments; o_jali turh'nai to rig; o_japee that I may look nice (Kuwi); o_spa (o_st-) to be bright, shine, glitter, give light; o_steri light (Kui); ojjam'ni po_da a pretty girl; o_ja, o_jagatti, o_ji beautiful; o_ju beauty; o_jitasi a handsome man (Kuwi)(DEDR 1037). cf. harku thing, instrument, furniture, jewels (Kuwi)(DEDR 2353).

6161.Priest; goldsmith; blacksmith; artificer; sacrifice: va_ja an artificer; o_ja a teacher, a guru (Ka.); ojja, o_ju (Te.); o_jeva_d.u a priestling; a sacrificer to the village goddess (Te.); o_cca a ma_ra_n s'u_dra who beats the drums in temples (Ma.); o_ccan- a sacrificer to the goddess Pit.a_ri (Ta.); o_ja an artificer: a carpenter, a blacksmith, a goldsmith (Ka.); o_ju a goldsmith (Te.); o_van- an artificer; kamma_l.an- (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. u_r..iga work, business; service (Ka.); u_d.iga (Te.); u_r..iyam (Ta.Ma.); oy to perform (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) ur..iga a brid of omen (Ka.); ur..i circumstances; ur..i ka_n.u to inquire from the astronomer; od.i sorcery; to use witchcraft (Ma.); valanu an omen (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Image: subjugation: vayam < vas'a state of subjugation (Te_va_. 1133, 2); power, might (Na_mati_pa. 793); victory, conquest (Paripa_. 15,59); vayattan- one brought to state of subjection (Ta.lex.) vayappat.u to be brought under another's influence (Par..amo. 110)(Ta.lex.) Strength; effort: vaya strength, power; increase, abundance (Ta.); vayam power, might; victory, conquest; vayavan- strong man, valiant man; vayavu strength (Ta.); vayam strength (Ma.); baymbe.. hero (Kod..)(DEDR 5254). vya_ya_ma dragging different ways, contest (AV.); exertion (MBh.); effort, exertion (Pali); a partic. measure of length (Skt.); va_ya_ma effort, exertion (Pali.Pkt.); vayam-a exertion, practice; va_yam-a labour (Si.); ba_ya~_ width (P.)(CDIAL 12209). va_ji strong, powerful, impetuous, swift; an enemy; va_ja strength, vigour, energy (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) va_jape_ya name of a particular sacrifice (Skt.Ka.); va_ji-me_dha a horse-sacrifice (Ka.); va_ja a mantra or prayer concluding a sacrifice (Ka.); boiled rice, food in general, vegetable food (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) va_ja strength, vigour (RV.); wez alive, healthy (Pr.)(CDIAL 11476). o_ja_ nutritive element in food (Pali); o_jas strength, vigour, vitality (RV.); o_ya, o_ya_ strength, fame, glory (Pkt.); oja- (KharI.); oya- (NiDoc.); oda strength (Si.)(CDIAL 2541). o_jman vigour, speed, power (Skt.); oju force, rapidity, height, arrogance (S.); oj strength, vigour, splendour, light (H.); oj life, vitality (M.); ojjalla strong (Pkt.); ojho powerful; awe (G.)(CDIAL 2543). u_rjas vigour, strength (Skt.); u_rj, u_rja_ adj. (RV.); ujja strength, brightness (Pkt.); uj energy (Ku.); u_j uproar, tyranny (H.); oj life, vitality (M.); oda nectar (Si.)(CDIAL 2422). niro_ja tasteless, insipid (Pali); niroda lacking vitality or power (Si.)(CDIAL 7289). o_can- preceptor, teacher; cf. ojas (Skt.); o_ja (Ka.); o_ccan (M.); o_ccan- male belonging to a caste, members of which usually officiate as priests in temples sacred to Pit.a_ri and other village goddesses; uvaccan- member of a caste of temple drummers and pu_ja_ris of Ka_l.i (Nan-. 144, Mayilai); member of an ancient tribe of Arabs (Cu_t.a_.); o_ccan--katti large billhook for beheading animals in sacrifices; o_cunan- male of the parava caste (Cilap. 5,27); oilmonger (Cilap. 5,27,Urai); sailor (Cilap. 5,27,Arum.)(Ta.lex.)

6162.Image: spear: barca the iron part of a spear (Mu.); cf. barcha_ (Oraon.); barca (Sadani.); barci (M.); barca the spear-head when the shaft is of wood, and the whole spear, when the shaft and point are one single piece of iron, in which case the cmpd. mer.edbarca is used (cf. Pl. IV.A.)(Mu.lex.)

6163.Public revenue: mahasu_lu public revenue (Ka.M.H.); private income from land (Ka.); mahasu_lu-da_ra a collector or receiver of taxes (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) vasu_lu revenue, rent (Ka.M.H.); collections, collection (Ka.Te.); vasu_luba_ki balance due of the revenue, of grain, of money etc.); vasu_luma_d.u to collect as revenue etc. (Ka.lex.)

6164.Pregnancy: basar-osage a festivity held at the first pregnancy of a woman or at the first si_manto_nnaya; basir-, basar-, basur-, basru the belly, the abdomen (Ka.); vayir-u (Ta.); vayar-u (Ma.); basur- the belly; the womb; pregnancy; the embryo; the inside, the hold of a ship; basur-u nil pregnancy to take place; basur-i a pregnant woman; besal, besana, besale birth, production, bringing forth; besala_gu to bear, to bring forth, as children; to be delivered (Ka.lex.) bar jivi pregnant (Santali.lex.) pori a ceremony performed on the occasion of the first pregnancy of a lady (Tu.lex.) cf. vaya_-nat.ukkam morning sickness and morbid longings of a pregnant woman; vayavu-no_y id. (Kalit. 29); vaya_-no_y id. (Ain:kur-u. 51); vayavu id. (Pur-ana_. 20)(Ta.); bayake (Ka.); vaya_ (Tol. Col. 371) vaya_ great desire (Tirukko_. 383, Urai.); basiru (OKa.) (Ta.lex.) a_sa_ desire (P.lex.) pa~_kyu~ wished for, expected, resolved on (G.)(CDIAL 8434). bayake desire, especially a longing occasioned by pregnancy; bayakate madime a ceremony observed usually in the sixth month of pregnancy (Tu.lex.) ?cf. vyasana passion, evil passion, vice (Mn.)(CDIAL 12180).

6165.Image: foetus: vaya_ foetus; womb; pains of child-birth; pain; vaya_-v-uyirttal to yearn; to give birth; to be relieved of pain (Ta.lex.) Desire: vayam desire (Tirukko_. 383); bayake (OK.); vayavu morning sickness and morbid longings of a pregnant woman (Pur-ana_. 20); vaya_-nat.ukkam id.; vaya_-k-ko_t.t.i id.; vaya_-no_y id. (Ain:kur-u. 51); vaya_-p-pan.t.am eatables longed for by women during pregnancy; vayavu desire, love, affection (Paripa_. 11,67); vaya_vutal to desire (Malaipat.u. 476); vaya_ great desire (Tirukko_. 383, Urai.); langour or lassitude during pregnancy; vayavu strength (Patir-r-up. 36,2); valapu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ma_ya_ supernatural power, skill (RV.); illusion (S'Br.); fraud, compassion (Skt.); illusion, trick, fraud (Pali.Pkt.); sexual love (N.); ma_a illusion (OB.); ma_v fraud, sorcery (M.); ma_ deceit, illusion, jugglery (Si.); ma_y love, affection (K.)(CDIAL 10060). ma_yin artful, deceptive (RV.); ma_yika juggler (Skt.); ma_yi, ma_ia deceiving, juggling (Pkt.); ma_yum. goyum. crooked (OG.)(CDIAL 10061). maya (-pp-, -nt-) to mistake, misunderstand; mayakku to bewilder, confuse, puzzle, mystify, fascinate, allure, charm, mix up, unite, ruin, destroy, disturb, unsettle, make one swoon; (also mayakkam) mental delusion, stupor, bewilderment, aberration of mind as from ignorance, fascination, etc., spiritual ignorance, mistaken knowledge, misunderstanding, giddiness, unconsciousness, coma, confusion, mixture, laziness; mayakkat.i bewilderment, intoxication; mayan:ku to be confused, bewildered, be charmed, allured, be intoxicated, be changed in one's mind or body, be ruined, desolated, be distressed, be disturbed, tossed about (as the sea), be in doubt, be overwhelmed with anxiety, be mixed up, resemble, be crowded together, be engaged in a fight, lose one's senses, be in a state of disorder or confusion, become unconscious; mayar (-v-, -nt-) to be bewildered, confused, lose consciousness, be fatigued, tired, wonder; bewilderment; mayarvu illusion of the senses, confusion, bewilderment, ignorance, weariness; mayari person whose mind is confused, bewildered person, lascivious person, ignorant person; mayal confusion, bewilderment, delusion, madness, desire, lust, sensual infatuation, doubt, fear, dread; mayar-kai confusion, bewilderment, delusion; maiyal infatuation of love, madness, overwhelming pride, must of elephant; maiyalavar persons of deranged minds; maiyala_r id., magicians; maiya_ (-pp-, -tt-) to be perplexed; maintu infatuation of love, madness, must of elephant, ignorance; macakku to charm, bewitch, confuse, perplex; macakkam dullness, indolence, swoon, unconsciousness, morbid longings of a pregnant woman; macakkai morbid longings of a pregnant woman; macan:ku to become confused, doubtful; macan:kal confusion, perplexity (Ta.); mayan.n.uka to be drowsy, giddy, be perplexed, delude, fascinate; mayal infatuation, charm of love; mayyal perturbation, grief (Ma.); mo.s't- to be in rut; mint passion, heat (of female buffalo); min us't- (female) is passionate and arouses passion (To.); mayamu, maymu bewilderment, perplexity; mayme perplexed, downcast state; maccu, meccu illusion, delusion, deception, a decoy powder (Ka.); me.k- to mix thoroughly; me.ng- id. (Kod..); maikuni to entice, persuade, perplex (Tu.); maikamu intoxication, inebriation, unconsciousness, drowsiness; maida intoxication; maidu deception, deceit, delusion, intoxication; an enchanting powder; mey(i)du to be infatuated, be beside oneself, be intoxicated; mampu intoxication (Te.); ma_ya_ malt prepared for making beer, malt refuse, beer in its preparatory stage; ma_ya_, ma_ya~_n- arrack made of rice (Kur.); meca an intoxicating beverage prepared of corn (Malt.)(DEDR 4706). bayake, bay(i)ke, bavake longing, wish, desire, hope; desired object; bagasu, bayasu, bayisu, bavasu to desire, wish, long for; bayasuvike desiring, etc.; ba_kul.i excessive desire; an inordinately desirous, covetous person (Ka.); bay- (bayp-, bayc-) (stomach) hungers (Kod..); bayakuni, bayasuni to long for, desire eagerly; bayake desire, esp. the longing occasioned by pregnancy; baga_suni to desire; baja_n.yuni to long, wish, be greedy (Tu.); va~_piri, va~_pu longing or desiring eagerly after long privation; ve_vil.l.u (pl.) longing of a pregnant woman (for particular things, with vomiting and other signs of pregnancy (Te.); wassa_na_, assa_na_ (hunger, cold, etc.) is felt, (soul, ji_wa_) desires; vas- (hunger, thirst, cold, etc.) to be felt; vah- (thirst) to be felt (Go.); bana hunger (Kond.a); va~_cu, va_cu to feel a strong desire for anything after long want or privation, long (Te.)(DEDR 5257). Desire: va_chati desires (RV.); ba_chiba_ to wish, wish for (Or.); a_m.cha likes (OG.)(CDIAL 11478). va_cha_ wish (Skt.); vam.cha_ I wish (Pkt.); wa~nc = wo~_ch partiality, curse (K.)(CDIAL 11479).

6166.Fascination: vaci fascination (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,3,8)(Ta.lex.) vas'i_kara subjugating (MBh.)(CDIAL 11432). vas'a will, authority, power (RV.); vasa will, power (Pali)(CDIAL 11430).

6167.Command: besana (Tadbhava of vidha_na) order, command; besanam pe_r.. = besani_; besanam sa_r to get an order; besana he_r..isi kol. to obtain permission; besani_, besani_-i_ to give an order; besambad.e, besavad.e to get an order, to obtain permission; besave_r.. to give an order, to command (Ka.lex.)

6168.Love; protection: o_ to be attached to; to love; to be fond of; to be pleased with; to be kind (Ka.); uva (Ma.Ta.); upavi love (Ma.); o_pam a beloved man; a husband; o_pal. a beloved woman; o_ an interjection of calling, of praising, or reverencing and questionableness; o_l affection, friendship (Ka.); o_limike friendship (Te.); o_vu to take care of, to guard, to protect, cherish (Ka.); o_mu (Te.); o_mbu (Ta.Ma.); o_ma favour, kindness; assistance (Ka.); o_man (Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

6169.The mystic syllable: o_m.-ka_ra the mystic syllable o_m. (Skt.Ka.); o_ma_na, o_na_ma a name of the alphabet of which formerly the letter o_ (as a salutation) was first taught to write; the name or mantra that begins with o_ i.e. o_ namah- s'iva_ya (Ka.lex.)

6170.Image; similarity: o_pu to fit, to suit; o_lupu, po_lupu to compare (Te.); o_pa_di likeness, similarity (Te.Ka.); o_l to resemble (Ka.); o_lu, po_lu to resemble (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6171.Oblation: o_ma, ho_ma the act of making an oblation to the gods by casting clarified butter into the fire, accompanied with reciting mantras; an oblation of clarified butter, an oblation with fire, a burnt-offering; a sacrifice; o_jas vitality, power; light, splendour, lustre; o_jisu to be properly or carefully performed; o_laga service, homage (Ka.Te.Tu.); o_lakkam splendour, majesty (Ta.Ma.) (Ka.lex.)

6172.Inner apartment: o_vari (Tadbhava of upagr.ha) an inner apartment or chamber; apavaraka (Ka.Te.); o_vari_ a term for the several apartments under the arcade which is erected along the course of the enclosing wall of a temple (M.)(Ka.lex.) apavaraka an inner apartment, a lying-in chamber (Skt.Ka.); upa-gr.ha an inner apartment (Ka.lex.)

6173.Perfumed: gandha-vaha ep. of wind (Mn.); wind (MBh.); wa_gan wind (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11454). pariva_sita perfumed (all round); va_sa perfume; cf. va_ta wind [va_yu Skt. wind; Lat. ventus; Goth. winds = wind; OHG. wa_jan to blow; Old Irish feth air; Lithuanian audra storm]; cf. va_sa perfume (Classical Skt.); va_sita scented; va_sana-va_sita scented, filled, permeated; va_seti to perfume, to clean or preserve by means of perfumes, to disinfect; saso ava_sesi sake sari_re = sake sari_re attano sari_ran da_tun ava_sesi va_sa_peti ti attho, sari_ra c'assa bhakkh' attha_ya ada_si: in this passage va_seti is taken as caus. of vas to eat; thus 'he made eat, feasted, entertained by or on his own body'; kusumehi va_setva_: perfume; cf. va_sitaka scented, perfumed; va_sitika_ scented clay (Pali.lex.) va_si having or emitting perfume; va_sita, va_s'ita perfumed, scented (Ka.lex.) vahant carrying, flowing (Skt.); vaham.ta pres. part. (Pkt.); bowa~ti_ flowing (A.)(CDIAL 11457).

6174.Roll: cf. br.si_ roll of twisted grass, cushion (S'rS.)(CDIAL 9301). bhisi a bolster, a cushion, pad, roll; ci_vara-bhisi a robe rolled up; five kinds are allowed in a viha_ra, viz., un.n.a-bhisi, cola-bhisi, va_ka-bhisi, tin.u-bhisi, pan.n.a-bhisi, i.e. bolsters stuffed with wool, cotton-cloth, bark, grass, or talipot leaves; bhisika_ a small bolster; va_ta-pa_na-bhisika_ a roll to keep out draughts; bhisi a raft; ?a cushion of twisted grass (Pali.lex.)

6175.Vindhya: vicam < vijo_ (Pkt.) < vindhya the vindhya mountains (Perun.. Narava_n.a. 3,52)(Ta.lex.) bija (Tadbhava of vindhya) a forest; the Vindhya range (Ka.); vintam jungle (Ta.); bija-vet.t.u the vindhya range (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vintiyam the range of hills separating the hindusthan from the deccan, one of as.t.a-kula-parvatam (Pin..); vintai id. (Kampara_. Akat. 39); vintam id. (Takkaya_kap. 62); mountain (Na_mati_pa. 513); vintam-at.t.o_n- Agastya, as one who subdued the vindhyas (Na_mati_pa. 121); vintan- shepherd (prob. go_vinda)(Na_mati_pa. 158)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6176.Scorpion: vr.scika scorpion (RV.); vr.s'cana id. (Skt.); vicchika scorpion (Pali); vicchia, vim.chia (Pkt.); bich (Sh.); bichi_ (Ku.); bisa_ (also a hairy caterpillar covered with bristles)(A.); bicha_ scorpion (B.Or.); bi_ch (Mth.); bi_chi_ (Bhoj.Aw.H.); bi_cha_ (H.); vi_chi_, vi~chi_ (G.); ucum (Pas'.); vichu~_ (S.); vat.hu~ha~, vat.t.hu~ha (L.); vicchua, vim.chua (Pkt.); vichu_, vicchu_ (L.); bicchu_ (P.); bichu (Or.); bi_chu (Mth.); bicchu_, bi_chu_ (H.); vi_chu (G.); viccu, viccua, vim.cua (Pkt.); byucu (K.); biccu_ (P.); biccu_, biccot.u_ young scorpion (WPah.);[ For -ot.- cf. pot.t.i scorpion (Te.); pot.t.e scorpion (Ga.)(DEDR 4488)]; vi~cd.a_ large scorpion (M.); viccu, vim.cu, im.cu (Konkan.i); bacchiu~ large hornet (N.); vi_cu~, vi_cu_, vi~cvi_, vi~cvi_n., vi~ci_n. scorpion (M.)(CDIAL 12081). cf. itsu, itsa_, vitsu scorpion (Kon.lex.) [For semant. vr.cika caterpillar covered with bristles (Skt.)(CDIAL 12081) cf.: wi_si_, vi_s, vi_si fly (Go.); vi_sla/vi_zla, vi_nza id. (Kond.a); vi_za id. (Pe.); vi_je id. (Mand..); visa, viha fly, winged insect (Kui); vi_ha, vi_ha_, wiha fly (Kuwi); viha fly, insect (Kuwi)(DEDR 5451)]. viruccikam < vr.s'cika scorpion (Tiva_.); scorpio of the zodiac (Tiva_.); the eighth solar month (Tan.ikaippu. Intira. 18)(Ta.lex.) Image: crab: viruccikam crab (Ilak. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

6177.Paddy or millet for immediate consumption: besa the market price of paddy and rice (Mu.Sadani); besa the paddy, rice or millet bought for immediate or early (within 2-3 weeks) consumption, instead of benesa which is not used (Mu.lex.)

6178.Image: to strike with a whip: bese a swinge, stroke with a whip, etc.; a blow, bow for dressing cotton (Tu.)(DEDR 5450). bese, bisu a swinge: a stroke with a whip etc., a blow; a bow for dressing cotton (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) To spread, to throw: ve_k (-h-) to announce, publish; ve_ng (-it-) to become spread; we_nginai to spread, outspread; we_kh'nai to unravel (Kuwi); ve_nga to be spread out, stretched out or up, opened out, open out; ve_pka to stretch forth, stretch up, spread out, open out (Kui); ve_y (-v-, -nt-) to blossom, open; ve_yul. blossoming (?Ta.)(DEDR 5519). negad.u to be published, be well-known or famous (Te.); nikar.. to shine (Ta.)(DEDR 3659).

6179.Image: cry; t tell, describe; announce: veh- to tell, describe; vehkanur, vehva_l, vehka-bital a teller; vehc- to state, reply; ve'- to say; vesori_, weser.i_, we_so_r.i_, we_se_ri_ story; vesu_d.i punda_na_ to guess a riddle; ve_su_ri_ story; veha_na_, veh- to tell; wehta_na_ to explain, show, announce (Go.); veR- (-t-) to speak, tell; caus. veRis- to cause somebody to tell (Kond.a); vec- (vecc-) to speak (Pe.); veh- (-t-) to tell, say (Mand..); vespa- (vest-) to say, speak, tell; n. saying, speech, word (Kui); vessali (vest-) to tell; weh'nai to speak, say, tell; veh- (vest-) to say, tell; vespu speech (Kuwi); ba'ana_ (ba_cas) to say, command, invite, allow, name, call, salute as, by the name or title of, pretend, express as one's own view or idea, say to oneself, imagine, reflect, intend, cry (of animals), sound so-and-so; ba_rna_ to be called, termed, have a title (Kur.); bce to relate, tell (Malt.)(DEDR 5514).

6180.To pull out; redeem; unpack: ve_sa to take out; bring out into the open, extract, expose, redeem (Kui); ve_ska pl. action (Kui); ve_nj (ve_nc-) to take out (Mand..); vecc (-it-) to take out, take off (Kuwi); we_cinai to unpack; ve_c (-it-) to pull up, pull out, take out (Kuwi)(DEDR 5523). ve_ma_ nom. sing. of ve_man; cf. ve_mam < ve_ma loom; ve_mamutala ta_mini takar-r-a *(Ja_n-a_. 15)(Ta.lex.) ba_ha_n.a spreading of nets in deep water (Or.); ba_ha_n.ia~_ man who spreads a net (Or.)(CDIAL 12200). Use (a tool): wa_yun to use (a tool)(K.); ba_n.o~_ to plough (WPah.)(CDIAL 11612). bahiba_, bohiba_, buhiba_ to carry, wear; to flow, blow (Or.); bahab to carry, work (a plough); to flow, blow (Mth.); vahati carries, bears along (of rivers), is carried along (RV.)(CDIAL 11453). bhon.u_ to move, blow (WPah.); bahanu to flow, run, glide, blow (N.); bahan.o to wander (Ku.); biba to carry, serve; to flow, blow (A.); baha_, baoya_ to carry, row, steer; to flow (B.); bahiba_, bohiba_, buhiba_ to carry, wear; to flow, blow (Or.); har bahab to plough (Bi.); bahab to carry, work (a plough); to flow, blow (Mth.); bahai flows, blows (OAw.); bahna_ (H.); bahai flows, moves (OMarw.); vahevu~ to flow (G.); va_hn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 11453). To throw a net: ba_hn.a_ to throw (a net)(WPah.); ba_hiba_ to spread (a net)(Or.); wa_ to throw, put, place, shoot (an arrow)(Dardic)(CDIAL 12201). pheka to throw (B.); phekab (Mth.); phe~knu, phya~_knu (N.); phe~kna_ (H.); phe~kvu~ (G.); phe~kn.e~, phekn.e~ (M.); phen:giba_ (Or.)(CDIAL 9106). vya_dhayati causes to pierce (AitA_r.); ba_na to throw (D..); wa(h), wa~_ to throw, put, place, shoot (an arrow)(Pas'.); wa_yun to wave (the arms)(K.); ba~_han.u_ to strike (a ball)(WPah.); va_hvu~, va_vu~ to raise (a weapon)(G.); ba_hn.a_ (P.); baihn.u~ (WPah.); boyik to drive in (peg); baihn.u_ to sow (WPah.)(CDIAL 12201). vaicu to cast, fling, throw (Te.); v(r)e_yu id., discharge, cut off as with a knife or any heavy weapon (Te.); v(r)e~_ta casting, throwing, striking, knocking, stroke, knock, blow (Te.); vayk to throw (Nk.); bese to strike with a whip (Ka.); be.ng (be.ngi-) to cut (plantain trunks at wedding, as test of skill with weapon (?Kod..); ve_pa act of striking, beating (Kui)(DEDR 5555).

6181.Image: to give birth: besal_gu to bear, to bring forth, as children; to be delivered (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) besale, besal, besana birth, production, bringing forth; besal a_gu to bear, bring forth; vesale pregnant (Ka.); vang- to give birth to (Ga.); wahta_na_ to give birth to (not of humans)(Go.); va_ha_na_, va_ta_na_ to bear (of animals)(Go.); bijiluni, bijeluni to bear, bring forth (as a child)(Tu.); va_y to sow; to sow with drill (Kol.); to sow (Nk.)(DEDR 5549). va_t.a_na_ to give birth to, to throw (Go.); wa_tina_ to give birth to (Go.); va_t.u throwing, casting, flinging, a blow, stroke (Te.); va_t.a_na_, wa_t.a_na_ to put; va_t.- to throw; va_t.a_na_ to throw, throw away, put (Go.)(DEDR 5346). van.n.a a woman recently delivered (Ma.); ba_n.at(i), ba_n.anti id., woman just brought to bed, lying-in woman (Ka.); ba_n.anti id. (Tu.); ba_linta, ba_lintabo_l.amu, ba_lenta id. (Te.); ba_l.a~t, ba_l.a_ti_n. id (M.)(DEDR 5347). Image: placenta: ma_n:ku the sticky coating over the body of a newborn baby (Ta.); ma_vi afterbirth (Ka.Te.); ma_yi placenta (Ga.); ma_vu, ma_cu, ma_ afterbirth (Ma.); ma.c id. (Ko.); ma_su id., placenta; the exterior membrane which invests the foetus, chorion (Ka.); ma_se afterbirth (Tu.); ma_cu, ma_ afterbirth, secundines (Ta.)(DEDR 4783).

6182.To produce a wale (ridge or rib in a knitted fabric: ba_sur..i, ba_sur..e, ba_sun.d.e, ba_sar..ike a wale (Ka.); ba_, ba_yu to swell, tumefy (Ka.); va_yppu fertility (Ta.); ba_sur..isu to produce a wale or wales (Ka.); basu_la wale, stripe (Tu.){Wale is a ridge or rib in a knitted or woven fabric; wales may run crosswise, lengthwise, or diagonally.}(DEDR 5350).

6183.Calving: bya~_t, bet calving (Ku.); vetar birth, bringing forth, brood (G.); vet littering, litter, brood (M.); ja_tri_ mother (AV.)(CDIAL 11700). bya_n.o (human or animal) gives birth (Ku.); biya_unu (of animals: only contemptuously of women) (N.); vija_yate_ is born (RV.); bears young (AV.); vija_yati gives birth (Pali); via_ai (Pkt.); via_van. to give birth (esp. of animals)(L.); biya_na (B.); bia_iba_ (Or.); beiba_ (Or.); biya_na_, bya_na_ (human and animal) to give birth (H.); via_vu~ (G.); vin.e~ (M.); vadanava_ (S.); biya_n, bya_n parturition (H.); vija_yana (Pali); bia_n.a (Or.)(CDIAL 11701). bian, biyan, ben to give birth (Gypsy); vijanana birth (Skt.)(CDIAL 11695). vijanya_ pregnant woman (Pa_rGr..); ben birth (Gypsy); child-birth (B.); biyan child-birth (A.); vi_n. littering, brood, litter (M.); vadana birth (Si.)(CDIAL 11696). viamu birth (S.); vijanman birth (Skt.)(CDIAL 11697). vija_ta born (MBh.); vija_ta_ one who has borne (Pali); via_u infant (S.)(CDIAL 11699). ba~_ki_ barren (of women)(MTh.)(CDIAL 11192). bajhwat. stalk without ear (H.)(CDIAL 11276). ve_hat barren cow or cow that miscarries (AV.); ve_hati miscarries (Skt.); ve_ha_yate_ (Pa_n..gan.a); bahilo, bail(h)o barren (esp. of goats and cows)(N.); bahila_, bahla_, baila_ barren (usu. of cattle)(H.)(CDIAL 12136).

6184.Production: besal, besale, besana birth, production; besal a_gu to bear, bring forth (Ka.); vaiyakam, vaiyam, vayam earth, world (Ta.); veppu treasure; Alluvial ground: vaikkam what is laid down, alluvial ground, deposit; vayyam, vaiyakam earth (Ma.); bijiluni, bijeluni to bear, bring forth as a child (Tu.); va_y to sow with drill (Kol.)(DEDR 5549). pa_ya, paya coming into existence, being delivered of a child (as among pariahs)(Tu.)(DEDR 3937). praja_ta born (RV.); woman who has borne a child (Mn.); paya_ya born (Pkt.); paya_ya_ who has borne a child (Pkt.); praye behun to crouch in labour (K.); pya_v act of giving birth (K.);; pya_y woman who has borne a child (K.)(CDIAL 8509). pi_n childbirth (K.); prajana begetting, bearing (Mn.MBh.); dupi_u a woman who has had two children (K.)(CDIAL 8506). prajanayati causes to be reproduced (S'Br.); pi_nawun (a midwife) to deliver a woman (K.)(CDIAL 8507). praja_yate_ is born (RV.); bears, begets (MBh.); paja_yati is born (Pali); paya_i gives birth (Pkt.); pa_iba (A.); pa_iba_ (Or.)(CDIAL 8510). nas'yat-prasu_ti woman who has had a still-birth (Skt.)(CDIAL 7084). prasavati bears, begets (MBh.); pasavati produces (Pali); Granted: pras-avita, pras-avitaga granted (NiDoc.); pasavai produces, pp. pasavia (Pkt.); prasavvu~ to bear (G.); pasa_unu to sprout, (flower or fruit) just to show (N.); pasave_ti brings forth, produces (Pali); prasawun to cause a child to be born, to make a woman give birth (by medical means)(K.); pasavin.e~ to bear, to foal (of mares and asses)(M.); prasavati, pasavati is produced (As'.); pasavn.e~, posavn.e~, poen.e~ (corn) to shoot into ear (M.)(CDIAL 8828). prasawunu man who is always begetting children, prasavunu woman always bearing children (K.); prasavana bearing of children (Skt.) (CDIAL 8829). prasu_ bearing (Skt.); prasu_ta_ woman recently delivered (AV.); pasu_ta_ (Pali); pasu_a_ having given birth (Pkt.); prasu_tika_ recently calved cow (Ca_n..)(CDIAL 8847). prasu_na born (Skt.); prasu_ti coming forth (of flowers) (Skt.)(CDIAL 8848). prasu_yate_ begets, bears (S'Br.); is born (Mn.); pasu_ama_n.a bearing (Pkt.); prasun to bear young (K.)(CDIAL 8849). prasava procreation (VS.); pasava bringing forth, offspring (Pali.Pkt.); the giving birth (Si.)(CDIAL 8827). Image: miscarries: ve_hat barren cow or cow that miscarries (AV.); ve_hati miscarries (Skt.); ve_ha_yate_ (Pa_n.. gan.a); bahilo, bail(h)o barren (esp. of goats and cows)(N.); bahila_, bahla_, baila_ barren (usu. of cattle)(H.)(CDIAL 12136). vyabhica_ra going apart (Skt.); transgression (Mn.); vahica_ra adultery (Pkt.); vihiru, vihirau (OG.); vahero, vero deviation, destruction (G.)(CDIAL 12169). vijanana bearing young, bringing forth (Ka.lex.) Image: a woman in labour: va_hayati makes labour (Skt.); prava_hate_ bears down (of a woman in labour)(Sus'r.); va_hate_ bears down (Car.); makes an effort (Dha_tup.); va_han.u to cause to labour (S.)(CDIAL 11609). biha~r., bian birth; bedan, bijhauk to travail in birth (Santali.lex.)

6185.Young: vicir toled, vicir guriyal youngest brother (Pa.); visral young (brother etc.); visral marr youngest son; visro younger (Go.); vi_za vi_skor.a the last-born male child (Kond.a); vi_skur.a youngest child (Pe.)(DEDR 5385). For semant. vi_za 'of all' cf.: vi_zu all; vizer all men, all people (Kond.a); vizu all; vizar all men, all people (Pe.); vija all; vijar all men, all people (Mand..)(DEDR 5387).

6186.Family lineage: vam.s'a family lineage (S'Br.); vam.sa id. (Pali.Pkt.); vas'a (KharI.); vas-a (Si.)(CDIAL 11175).

6187.Image: harrow: ba~_sai bamboo ladder used as a harrow (B.)(CDIAL 11178).

6188.Fisherman: besada, besta a fisherman (who also hires himself as a palanquin bearer)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6189.Miscellaneous: ba_je miscellaneous (Ka.Te.H.); ba_je_-ba_bu a miscellaneous head in accounts (Ka.Te.H.)(Ka.lex.) ba_bu an article, an item, a point (Ka.M.H.); ba_bat an article; an item; a point of view (Ka.M.H.); paca-ba_bu five items of revenue, viz., toddy, spirituous liquor, opium, hemp, and excise (Ka.lex.)

6190.Separation: basana, besana, byasana, yesana, vesana, vyasana separating; arranging; throwing in different directions; grief, sorrow (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vegl.o separated, different; vegl.o kar to separate (Konkan.i.lex.) ve_kkuga to separate rice from its husk (Ma.)(Ma.lex.) vyasta cut into pieces, torn asunder, divided (TS. i.7.1.4); vyasta-ke_s'i_ of dishevelled hair (AV. viii.1.19) (Vedic.lex.) Image: separation: ve_ka separation, discrimination (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) prave_ka choicest, most excellent, best, chief (Ka.); vive_ka discrimination, judgment, the faculty of distinguishing and classifying things according to their real properties; vive_ki discriminating, judicious, prudent, discreet, considerate; a discriminator etc.; vivikta separated, disjoined, detached, kept apart; separation; vive_cane, vive_cana discriminating, distinguishing; investigation (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Separate: veggala separate, distinct (Pkt.); beglo separate, different (N.); begal.a separate (Or.); begal other (Or.); vegl.u_ separate, distinct, distant (G.); vegl.a_ separate (M.); vegyo foreign (S.)(CDIAL 11826). vyakta separate; vyakti individual (Skt.); vagge_na separate, separately (Pali) (CDIAL 11826). viyukta separated (Mn.); viyutta separated (Pali); viyunakti (AV.); viutta (Pkt.); viyutu (Si.)(CDIAL 11837); viyo_ga separation (Mn.Pali); vio_(g)a (Pkt.); biyog solitary, single (Kho.); viyo_-va separation (Si.); viyev separation from the beloved (Si.)(CDIAL 11839). To separate: bilaga separate (Or. OAw.); bilag (whence bilagna_ to be separated)(H.); beleg separate (A.)(CDIAL 11880). vilaku to be separated (Ta.); vilan:ku to be separated; n. obstruction, hindrance (Ta.); vilakku separation, interdict (Ma.); vilan.n.uka to go aside, fall across, cross over, be transverse (Ma.); vilan.n.a across, athwart (Ma.); vilan.n.u what is across, fetters (Ma.); vi_lu to be separated, leave (Te.)(DEDR 5423). Image: dividing; strip: vircha dividing, rations or money in lieu (S.); lipsa_ desire to share (MBh.)(CDIAL 11904). vilucati tears off (Skt.Pali); vilum.cai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11907). vili_ line of parting in a woman's hair (P.); vile_kha_ furrow, scratch (MBh.)(CDIAL 11908). villu-chun to be divided; to pillage, plunder (Wg.)(CDIAL 11912). vid.d.ha_ notch (L.)(CDIAL 11928). cf. vle_ka a thin strip of bamboo (Kui); le_kin pl. strips of bamboo (Pe.)(DEDR 5557).

6191.Image: broom: besakil a broom (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6192.Rattan, reed: vaci common rattan of south India, calamus rotang (Ta.); vaci, vai bamboo, reed (Ma.); vajula c.rotang [vajula c. rotang (Pali.); vam.jula jonesia asoka, cane (Pkt.); vadula arbour (Si.)(CDIAL 11210)](DEDR 5216). ba_n. rush for rope making (WPah.)(CDIAL 11483). Reed, bamboo, cane: vam.s'a bamboo (RV.); family, lineage (S'Br.); vam.sa bamboo, pipe (Pali.Pkt.); van~jh, bajh pole (P.); ba~_s bamboo (WPah.Ku.N.B.H.Sh.); id. (P.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); bamboo pole of litter (Bi.); ba~_h (A.); ba_u~sa (Or.); bai~s, bo~s (K.); va~_s (G.); va_so (Konkan.i); vas-a bamboo, flute (Si.); vajha_ handle (L.); ba~_sa_ bamboo pipe in a drill plough (Bi.); bamboo tube (H.)(CDIAL 11175). base~r.a_ thin bamboo (H.)(CDIAL 11176). basaila_ young bamboo (Mth.)(CDIAL 11177). ba~swa_r, ba~swa_ri_, basa_r, baser bamboo grove (Bi.); ba~swa_r.i_, baswa_r.i_, basaur (H.)(CDIAL 11179). vam.s'i_ flute, pipe (Skt.); flute (Pkt.); wanc guitar (Ash.); bi_s' flute (Tor.); be_s' (WPah.); ba~_hi (A.); ba_s'i_ (MB.); bau~si, bai~si (Or.); ba~si_ (H.); bes'ili pipe, flute (D..); va~jhli_, vajl.i_ (L.); vajhli_, bajhuli_, bajhli_, bijhli_ (P.); ba~_suli_ (Ku.); ba~_suli, ba~_suri (N.); ba~_suli_ (Mth.); va~_sl.i_ (G.)(CDIAL 11180). ba~_si_ pertaining to or made of bamboo (H.); vam.s'i_ya belonging to a family (BhP.); pertaining to bamboo = vam.s'ika (Skt.)(CDIAL 11181). vam.s'ya crossbeam (BhP.); we_ roof beam (Par.); bains' (Pas'.); we_s'a (Waz.); ba_s', ba~_s' rafter (Dm.); was' (Pas'.); wa_s' (Shum.); bas', bha~s' (Kal.); ba_u~sa (Or.); va~_sa_, va_sa_ (M.); wa_s', wra~_s' rafter (Wg.); ba~_s' (Dm.); waes' main roof-beam (Pas'.); bi_s' (Bshk.); be~_s' (Sv.); bhe~_s' (Phal.); bo~i (Sh.)(CDIAL 11182). vam.s'a bambusa arundinacea (Skt.); bans (B.H.); the siliceous concretion found in the joints of the female bamboo is called vam.s'a ro_cana (Skt.), and is described as sweet, cooling, tonic, aphrodisiac and useful in cough, consumption, asthma, fever etc. It enters into the composition of numerous compound prescriptions for affections of the lungs. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.272). Bambusa spinosa = bambusa arundo: The spiny bamboo... is most useful for building purposes and for the manufacture of furniture and household utensils. The young shoots are fairly tender and are used for food... Nadkarni reports that the silicious concretions in the culm contain 90% of silica or silicum as hydrate of silicic acid, peroxide of iron, potash, lime, alumina and vegetable matter. The leaves are used as an emmenagogue and an anthelmintic. The silicious concretion is said to be stimulant, astringent, tonic, cooling, antispasmodic and aphoridisiac, and is useful in coughs, consumption, asthma etc. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 90-91). Bambusa bambos = bambusa arundinacea: vansh (Skt.); bans (B.); mandgay (M.); mungil (Ta.Ma.); bongu-veduru (Te.); leaves: emmenagogue, used in haemetemesis and veterinary practice; bamboo manna: tonic, useful in fever, cough, in snake-bites etc.; habitat: wild throughout the greater part of the country (GIMP, p.33). Image: a pole: ba_se a pole viewed as fit for a rafter; a rafter (Ka.); va_sa_, va_m.sa_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vam.s'a bamboo (RV.); vajhu punting pole (S.)(CDIAL 11175). vajula name of various trees and plants including jonesia asoka and calamus rotang (MBh.); vajulaka (BhP. vajulika_ (Skt.); vajula, vajul.a a partic. tree, ratan cane (Pali); vam.jula jonesia asoka, cane (Pkt.); vadula arbour (Si.)(CDIAL 11210). vajra_sthi seed of asteracantha longifolia (Skt.); the tree (Skt.); vajra, vajras'r.n:khal(ik)a_, vajra_sthis'r.n:khala_ asteracantha longifolia; vajradruma, vajravr.ks.a name of various trees (Sus'r.); bajra~_t.h the oak quercus lamellosa (N.)(CDIAL 11203).

6193.Image: rat: virucam, viracam < vr.s.a rat (Can.. Aka.); virut.akam < vr.s.a-ka rat (Aku. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

6194.Twenty: vicati < vim.s'ati twenty (Ja_n.a_. 8)(Ta.lex.)

6195.Token; curry: vican-am < vyajana token (Perun.. Ucaik. 34,172); curry (arici tun.ippatakkukku vican-a mut.pat.a : S.I.I. v,84)(Ta.lex.)

6196.Sweet flag: vacam, vacampu, payampu sweet flag, acorus calamus (Ta.); vayampu id.; orris root (Ma.); baji, baje, vace, vaje acorus calamus (Ka.); baje id. (Tu.); vaca, vasa id. (Te.)(DEDR 5213). vaca_ a kind of aromatic root (acorus calamus)(Skt.); vaca-, vacattha- a kind of root (Pali); vaca_-, vaya_- a kind of plant (Pkt.); way the sweet flag acorus calamus and its root (used as a stomachic and for diminishing phlegm)(K.); vada the shoe-flower hibiscus rosea sinensis; vadakaha acorus calamus, orris root (Si.)(CDIAL 11201). vaca_ acorus calamus (Car. Su. 4.3,11,12). Medicinal root: boc a medicinal root sold in the bazaars, acorus calamus (Santali.lex.) vasu a medicinal root (Skt.lex.) cf. vaca an aromatic root (Skt.)(CDIAL 11201). "Sweet flag, flagroo, calamus. This long-used plant was an article of commerce in the Near East for 4,000 years... Leaves and roots yield oil of calamus, a yellow aromatic volatile oil, used in hair powders, perfumery, and for flavouring liquers... Fresh rootstock is used as a confection or as a substitute for ginger... Orientals use the root for bronchitis and regard it as aphrodisiac... valued for rheumatism in Iran.' (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p.14). Acorus calamus: bach (H.B.); vaj (M.); bhadra (Skt.); vashambu (Ta.); vadaja (Te.); dry rhizomes contain 1.5 - 3.5% of a yellow aromatic volatile oil; rhizome: insecticidal; throughout India and Ceylon (GIMP, p.5). Acorus calamus... calamo aromatico... some say that galanga is the calamo... Calamo aromatico... called vaz in Guzerat, bache in the Deccan, vazabu in Malabar, daringo by the Malays, heger in Persia, vaicam in the Concan, and cassab aldirira in Arabia..." (G. De Orta, p.78). Sweetflag: Synonyms: sweet root, sweet cinnamon, sweet cane, sweet or grass myrtle, calamus root, radix acori, radix calami aromatici; kalmus (Ger.); acore vrai (Fr.); Botanical origin: acorus calamus; part used: the peeled, dried rhizome; habitat: on the banks of swamps, streams or ponds of North America, Europe and Asia; uses: caminative, aromatic bitter and stimulant; flavouring agent; used in atonic dyspepsia and colic. (Heber, W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, pp. 177-179).

6197.Tragia involucrata: vr.s'cipattri_ tragia involucrata (Skt.); bic(h)ut.i, bicha_t.i, bicha_ti the nettle tragia involucrata (B.); bichua_ti stinging nettle, tragia involucrata, fleurya interrupta, laportia cremulata (Or.); bicha_ta_, bichut.i_, bichua_ the nettle urtica interrupta (H.)(CDIAL 12082). Tragia involucrata: vrischikali (Skt.); barhanta (H.); bichati (B.); kanchkuri (M.); kannichi (Ta.); dulagundi (Te.); choriyanam (Ma.); turachi (Ka.); root: diaphoretic, alterative, given during fever when the extremities are cold; forms the basis of an external application in leprosy; fruit: rubbed over the head with a little water useful in baldness; habitat: throughout India from the Punjab and outer Himalayan ranges eastwares to Assam and southwards to Travancore (GIMP, p.246).

6198.To thresh: virc to thresh (Pa.); to thresh paddy (Ga.); vih- (vist-) to trample, thresh with feet (men)(Pe.); wissa_na_ to thresh grain with bullocks (Go.); vihpa (viht-) to separate corn from the ear by treading or threshing (Kui); vih- (vist-) to stamp, tread; vissali to mix by trampling; wihinai, wih'- to trample; vih- (vist-) to step on, tread, trample (Kuwi)(DEDR 5420). Threshing; sifting; fanning: vizun, pp. vyuzu to sift, winnow (K.); ve_ktr. separating (Dha_tup.); vi_j, vyaj fan (Skt.); vic sift (Skt.)(CDIAL 11709). vivicyate_ is winnowed, is separated (AV.); vivicanti, vive_ks.i 2 sg. (RV.); wice_m I thresh (Ash.); bisiba to fan (A.)(CDIAL 11693). lor.ha_ bicca_ gleaning (Bi.)(CDIAL 11692a). pe_zna sieve (Psht.); peice, pe_ca sieve (Ash.); po_ca (Wg.); ps'a~ (Kt.)(CDIAL 7730). cf. parwi_z to sift (Shgh.)(CDIAL 7882). vivinakti sifts grain (AV.); vim.cia sifted (Pkt.); vai~cn.e~, vaicn.e~ to sift coarser from finer grain (M.)(CDIAL 12163). vinakti separates (Dha_tup.); vivicanti 3 pl. blow through (RV.); biciba_ to fan, scatter on the ground, spread, sow (Or.); bichiba_ to scatter, strew (Or.); ve~cn.e~, vecn.e~ to pick (up, off, out) one by one, gather, select (M.); bi_z to sift (Pers.); vejun to gather, pick up (Oss.)(CDIAL 11711). vi_cu to fan; vicir-u to fan, wave to and fro; vicir-i fan (Ta.); vi_cuka to fan; vi_cci fan; vi_yuka to fan, brandish; vi_yal (Ma.); vi_yikka to cause to fan; vi_s'uka to fan, blow; vi_s'ikka to get oneself fanned; vi_s'e_r-i, vi_s'a_la, vi_ya_la fan; vis'ari fan (Ma.); bi_su, bisu to fan; bi_sa_le fan (as the one made of areca spathe)(Ka.); bi_ja_t.a fanning, brandishing; bi_ja_d.uni, bi_ja_vuni to brandish, fan; bi_suni to fan, wave; bi_san.ige, bi_sanige fan (Tu.); vi_cu to fan (Te.); vi_vana fan, whisk; visana-kar-r-a fan (Te.); vi_vani a fan (Kond.a); Image: to lift the arm: ben-gre to lift the arm preparatory to a blow (Malt.)(DEDR 5450). vi_jana fanning (Skt.); fan (Bhpr.); vyajana fan (Mn.); vi_jana, vi_jani_ fan (Pali); vi_jan.a, vi_an.a, vi_an.i_, vian.a (Pkt.); bian, biani (Mth.); vidini-ya (Si.); vim.jan.a fan (Pkt.); viin.o, viin.i_ (S.); vi~_jn.o fan (G.); vi~jhan.-va_ra_ air stirred by a fan; vi~jhn.a_, vijhn.a_ fan (M.); bijani (B.); bi_jna_ (H.); biuni (B.); vijn.o, vijhn.o (G.); vijn.a_, vijhn.a_ (M.); beniya~_ fan for jeweller's fire (Bi.); bena_ fan (OAw.H.)(CDIAL 12043). vi_jyate_ is fanned (MBh.); vi_jiyati is fanned (Pali) vijjijjai (Pkt.); vi~jvu~, vi~jhvu~ to fan (a fire), whirl round in the air (G.); vizun, pp. vyuzu to winnow, sift (K.)(CDIAL 12044). Ívij to move suddenly; Ívi_j or Í vyaj fan (Skt.); vi_cu to fan (Ta.); Ívij = Ívic separate (Dha_tup.); Ívic sift; vinakti separates (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 11711).

6199.Snare for birds: vis'a spring-trap, snare for birds, lever (Ma.); vi_ccu cast (as of a net)(Ta.); bisa a spring, catch; bisi tension, elasticity (Te.)(DEDR 5450).

6200.Hunger: vicarppu hunger (Ta.); vis'akka to be hungry, have appetite (Ma.); vis'appu hunger, appetite (Ma.); bi_n hunger (Br.); bi_ngun hungry (Br.)(DEDR 5384). Emaciated person: pacai poor person, weak, emaciated person (Ta.); paje id. (Ka.)(DEDR 3825-b). Famine: pacam scarcity, famine, dearth (Cir-upa. 79); id. (Ma.); pacampaci scarcity and hunger; pacaka_lam time of famine (Tan-ippa_. i,236,4); pacappa_t.t.u poverty, as the burden of one's song; pacalippu adverse circumstances; hardships of famine; pacalittal to be upset mentally (Cilap. 10,131, Urai.); pacat.t.ai weak condition; pacaittan-am poverty (Ta.); pacetana id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) paci to be hungry; hunger (Man.i.14,58; 11,80)(Ta.); paciyan- a hungry man (Ta.); pai, payi, payikka, paikkam, payippu hunger; payikka, paikka to be hungry; payyavan the hungry; Agni (Ma.); osf- (ost-) hunger is (to a person); osf hunger (To.); pasi to hunger; hunger (Ka.); pasivu hunger (Ka.); pastu fast, fasting; nippastu starvation [nip < nir-u full (Ta.)](Te.)(DEDR 3825). bisau hungry; busau id. (Wot..); bhukhav, buka_ hungry (Gypsy); bu_t.ho (Bshk.); bucha_l (Sv.); to become hungry (Phal.); bucha_ hungry (Phal.); bochu, buccha_ (K.); bhukkha_ (P.); d.hl.ukkho_, d.hukha_ (WPah.); bhukho (Ku.); bhoko (N.); bhukha_ (A.B.Or.); bhoka_ (Or.); bhu_kha_ (OAw.H.); bhu_khau_ (OMarw.); bhu_khu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9284). bubhuks.ate_ wishes to eat, is hungry (MBh.); buhukkhai is hungry (Pkt.); buch- (Bshk.); bus.- (Tor.); bo_chun (K.); bhrukkhn.a_ (WPah.); bhu_khab (Mth.); bhu_khal (Bhoj.); bhukn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9285). bubhuks.a_ desire to eat, hunger (MBh.); bubhukkha_, buhukkha_, bhukkha_ hunger (Pkt.); bokh (Gypsy); bokhalo hungry (Gypsy); bka_la hungry (Gypsy); bus' hunger (Tor.); buch, obl. bucha (Mai.); bocha, bhoch (K.); bukha (S.); bhukkh, bukh (L.); bhukkh (P.); d.hl.ukkh, bhukk, bhukh (WPah.); bhukh, gng. bhu_k (Ku.); bhok(h) (N.); bhok (A.); bhukh (B.); bhuk(h)a, bhoka (Or.); bu_khi (Bhoj.); bhu_kh (Aw.); bhu_k(h) (H.); bhu_kha (OMarw.); bhu_kh hunger (G.); bhu_k (M.); bhu_ka (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9286). bubhuks.ita hungry (Mn.); bubhukkhita (Pali); buhukkhia, bhukkhia (Pkt.); ibkara (Gypsy); bukhyo (S.); bhuki_ya_ (A.); bhukhi, bhoki, bhuk(h)ila_ (Or.); bhu_khiu (OG.); bhu_khyu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9287). bubhuks.u hungry (Ma_rkP.); bus. hungry (Bshk.); bhuch habitual beggar (WPah.)(CDIAL 9288). cf. bhiks.ate_ desires (RV.); asks (esp. alms)(VS.); bhiks.ati (MBh.); bis.kinas to beg (Bur.); bhikkhati begs (Pali); bhiks.adi (Dhp.); bhikkhai (Pkt.); be_chun (K.); bechoiki (Sh.); bhikhvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9484). bhiks.a_ alms (AV.); bhikkha_ begging, alms (Pali.Pkt.); bhiccha_ (Pkt.); bi_kha (S.); bhikkh (P.); bhi_kh (Ku.Aw.G.M.); grain set out for beggars (Bi.); bhik begging, alms (N.); bhik(h) (B.); bhik(h)a (Or.); bhikh alms (Mth.); bhi_k(h) (H.); bhi_kha (OMarw.); bhi_ka (Konkan.i); bik (Si.)(CDIAL 9485). bhiks.a_cara mendicant (R.); bhikkha_cariya_ alms-begging (Pali); bhikkha_yara, bhicchaara beggar (Pkt.); bhikha_r (H.); bhikha_ru (G.); bhicca_ri (Skt.); bhikha_ri (P.Ku.N.A.B.Or.H.); bhikiri (B.); bhikha_ri (Bhoj.); bhikha_ri_ (G.M.Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9486). bhiks.ita obtained alms (Ya_j.); bikhia_ alms (L.); bhi_khi (Mth.); bhi_khi (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 9487). bhiks.u mendicant (Mn.); bhiks.uka (Gr.S.); bhikkhu mendicant monk (Pali); bhikhu (As'.); bhichu (NiDoc.); bhiks.usa (KharI.); bhikhu (Dhp.); bhikkhu (Pkt.); bhuch habitual beggar (WPah.); bhik adj. begging (B.); biku, buku, bik Buddhist monk (OSi.)(CDIAL 9488). bhaiks.a asking alms (Mn.); alms (Gr.S.); bhikkha collection of alms, alms (Pkt.); becha alms (K.)(CDIAL 9620). piccai < bhiks.a_ alms, food or raw rice given as alms (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 2); piccai-t-te_van- S'iva as mendicant (Tiruva_ca. 5,81)(Ta.lex.)

6201.To fry: bhrajj fry (Skt.); bharjana act of parching or roasting (Skt.); bhrajjana id. (Skt.); bhajjan.a, bhajjan.aya id. (Pkt.); bha_zan act of frying (A.); bha_jan, bha_jna_ (B.); bha_jan., bha_jn.e~ act of parching, grain put to be parched (M.); badina-tel frying oil (Si.); beoin. wheat parched or ground (Kho.)(CDIAL 9400). bharjita fried, parched (Sus'r.); bhajjia fried (Pkt.); abozu cooked in water and not fried in oil (K.); bha_zi fried vegetables (A.); bha_ji anything fried (B.Or.)(CDIAL 9401). bhrjjati fries, parches (RV.); bharjayati (Sus'r.); bhrajjayati (Gr.); bharjate_ (Dha_tup.); bhajjati fries, parches (Pali); bhajjai (Pkt.); bul.ik (Kho.); buzun (K.); bhujan.u (S.); bhujjun. (L.); bhujn.u (WPah.); bhujn.o (Ku.); bhu_jna_ (H.); bhujn.e~ (M.); bha~jn.e~ (M.); bhajje_i fries, parches (Pkt.); bazun to cook in hot ghee (K.); bha_ziba to fry, parch (A.); bha_ja_ (B.); bha_jiba_ (Or.); bha_jna_ (H.); bha_jn.e~ (M.); bha_jta_ (Konkan.i); badinava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 9583). bhujjiya fried, parched (Pkt.); bru_ja, bur.ja_o food, grain (Wg.); abuzu not parched, raw (of grain)(K.); bhurji_, bhujji_ fried potherbs (P.); bhu_ji_ roast or parched vegetable food, vegetables (Ku.); bhuja_ parched fresh rice (N.); parched corn (B.); parched rice (Or.); bhu_ji_ burnt, dry (Mth.); bhu_ja_ parched grain (Mth.); bhu_ji_, bhujiya_ fried potherbs, greens (H.)(CDIAL 9584). bhujan.u to be fried, be parched (S.); bhujjana_ to be parched (P.); bhujjan. to be roasted (L.); bhr.jyate_ is fried (Nir.); bha_jn.e~ to catch in the fire, be burnt, be singed (M.)(CDIAL 9585). bhuan.u to fry, parch (S.); bhujiba_ (Or.); bhu~_ja_, bhu_jna_ parched grain (Bi.); bhu_m.jai parches (OAw.); bhum.jauna_ thing fried or parched like grain (OAw.); bhu~_jna_ to parch, fry (H.); bhu~_ja_ fried; fried mouthfuls (H.); bhu~jvu~ to roast (G.); bhr.n.a_ti fries (Skt.)(CDIAL 9586). bhr.kta roasted, fried (Skt.); bhutta_ spike of maize (H.); bhatto_sa parched grain (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9576). bhuto pp. of bhujan.u and bhuan.u (S.); bhugi_ piece of fried meat (S.); bhugir.o parched grain (S.); bhugr.e pl. (L.); bunik to parch, fry (Kho.); bhunnan. (L.); bhunnan.a_ (caus. bhuna_un.a_)(P.); bhunan.o (Ku.); bhuna_ to fry, parch; parched corn (B.); bhu_nal to parch (Bhoj.); bhu_nai (OMarw.); bhun.a_i_ wages for parching (P.); bhr.n.a_ti fries (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 9577). ba_z to bake, to roast, to toast (e.g. bread)(Kon.lex.) cf. ma_k- (-t-), ma_n.(g)- (ma_n.t-) to bake (bread)(Pe.)(DEDR 4788).

6202.Image: to cut off (lengthwise) slantingly (e.g., a wedge); to smooth: va_ccuka to cut off slantingly (e.g. a wedge)(Ma.); baipini, baipuni to chip or pare obliquely (Tu.); va_nja (va_nji-) to chip off, smooth by chipping, shave down; pl. action va_ska (va_ski-)(Kui)[cf. va_pa shaving (Mn.)(CDIAL 11522)]; basgna_ to peel (by progressive cuts only)(Kur.); basge to peel (Malt.)(DEDR 5340).

6203.To drop: bhras'yati falls (RV.); bhassati falls, drops, droops (Pali); bhassai (Pkt.); bhasa_van. to overcome (L.); bhasi_jan. to be overcome, be exhausted (L.); bha_s'i depressed, degraded (Ku.); bha_sinu to descend, sink in (N.); bhasa_unu to lower (N.); bha_sa_ to float, drift along, overflow; bha_sa_na to throw into the water (B.); bha_siba_ to float; bhasa_iba_ to set afloat (Or.); bhasna_ to sink, go down, float, float away; bhasa_na_ to launch (H.); bhasakna_ to fall (H.); basinava_, bahinava_ to descend, set (Si.); bahenava_ to subside (e.g. of flood)(Si.); basvanava_, bassanava_ to cause to descend (Si.)(CDIAL 9654).

6204.Millet: wric barley (Kt.); vri_hi rice (AV.); raho, raho_ husked rice (Par.); wuzi_ barley (Pr.); bri_u~ rice (Sh.)(CDIAL 12233). wre_i, wle_i flour (Ash.); bre_i, bre_ (Wg.); bre (Kt.); ble_ (Gaw.)(CDIAL 12234). varjari millet (Skt.); ba_jhari, ba_jhiri_, ba_jhiro the grain holcus spicatus (S.); ba_jra_, ba_jhra_, ba_jhri_ spiked millet (L.); ba_jra_ millet (P.B.H.M.); ba_juro (N.); ba_jara_ (Or.); ba_jr.a_ (Bi.Mth.H.); ba_jri_ a small pea (Bi.); millet (G.); a small variety (M.); ba_jro a large variety (G.)(CDIAL 9201). cf. balbaja eleusine indica (a coarse grass not liked by cattle)(TS.); babbaja a coarse grass (used for making slippers)(Pali); ba_biyo a kind of grass (used for thatching)(N.)(CDIAL 9179). Puffed millet: pace.k puffed millet (Ko.); pocis'ky id. (To.)(DEDR 3829).[cf. pacati cooks (RV.); bakes bricks (S'Br.)(CDIAL 7650); pacanika_ frying pan (Skt.); pen.o large frying pan (G.)(CDIAL 7651).] Maize: panara_ a kind of maize (Or.); punera_ a kind of grain (H.); pavana_la andropogon bicolor (Skt.)(CDIAL 7980).

6205.Image: hole: veccam a defect in rubies (Kalla_. 98); bejjamu (Te.); vejjam a flaw in rubies (S.I.I. ii,78); bejja (Te.); vejja (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) be_gad.e a bore, a hole as in a gem (Ka.lex.) cf. ve_kat.am < ve_kat.a polishing and cleaning gems (Ta.lex.)

6206.Image: to walk: bija to walk; bija ma_d.isu to cause to walk, to carry about, as an idol; bija, biya, bijaya going; coming; bijayagey to walk; to go; to come; bijayageyisu to cause to walk; cf. vi_, vyay to go, move? (Skt.); bidiya-variya capering, vaulting (Ka.); vi_n:kha_ going, moving; dancing; one of a horse's paces (Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

6207.Image: to go backward: bi_gu to go backwards, to recede, to retreat (Ka.); vi_gu (Te.); vilaku (Ta.); vilan.d.u to go aside (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

6208.Relative by marriage: bi_ga, biyyaga a relative by marriage; nan.t.a, s'ya_la (Ka.); viyya, vi_ya (Te.); ve_r..jai connexions and relations (Ma.); bi_gatana relationship by marriage; bi_gati, bi_giti a female relative by marriage (Ka.lex.)

6209.Image: joint: bija_gari a jointed hinge, jummers (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

6210.Greatness: bijje, bijjala greatness (Ka.); viccu, vicu abundance; vitai, viya, viyan-, viyal, vir..al greatness; width, extension (Ta.); bijje, bijja (Tadbhava of vidye) learning; bijje ven. Sarasvati_; bijjega a man who has the knowledge of; bijje val.a Gan.e_s'a; bit.t.al.a hugeness (Ka.); bit.t.u greatness, muchness, excess (Te.) (Ka.lex.) be_da (Tadbhava of ve_da); be_da-bijjiga Brahma_; bomma, ajja, bidi, alarica (Ka.lex.) mahas, ma_sa greatness, might; a feast, a festival; a sacrifice, an oblation; maha_ great (Ka.)

6211.Grain sown; seed; to sow: bejo first sowing of rice for future transplanting, crop so sown (S.); beji_ kept for seed (S.); be_ja_ seed (WPah.); baiju_ (WPah.); baijika relating to seed (Mn.)(CDIAL 9309). Husked rice: bi_ya rice when cleared from the husk (Ta.); biyya, bi_ya (Te.); bi_ya food (Ka.Lex.) bian rice sown and not transplanted (Kho.); bina_ pl. seed-corn, young plants sown in a bed for transplantation (Ku.); biha_na seed-corn (Or.); bi_han seed (Bi.); bihna_i_ (Mth.); behan seed-corn (H.); bi_han nursery for rice-plants (H.)(CDIAL 9254). bi_jya produced from seed (Pa_n..gan.a.); biz seed (Tor.); bi_j seed (L.WPah.Ku.); bi_ja_ sugarcane cutting to be used as seed (L.); bi~j grains (Ku.)(CDIAL 9261). biu seed (N.); bi_ja seed, semen (RV.); seed (Pali); bi_jaka seed, semen (Sus'r.); offspring (Pali); biji, bhija, bhis'a seed (NiDoc.); bi_a (Pkt.); bi_ seed, grain (Kt.Wg. Ash.); grain (Dm.Pas'.L.P.WPah.G.M.Konkan.i.); bi_u seed (Wot..); a single grain (Gaw.); bi seed, semen (Kho.); seed (Sh.); bi_h (Sh.); bi~_ pl. (L.); seed (M.); seed, cutting of a plant (P.); bi_yo, biyo~ seed (Ku.); biyu~ grain of rice remaining unhusked (N.); biya~_ pl. seed of fruits other than corn (N.); bia_ seed (B.); bi_ya_ (Bi.Bhoj.H.); bi_a_ (Mth.H.); bia_ (Aw.); bi_yu~ (G.)(CDIAL 9250). vi_yam seed; rice (Ta.); bi_ya rice when cleaned from the husk; food (Ka.); biyyamu seeds or grains of oryza sativa without husks, paddy deprived of the husk, rice (Te.); bi.am (pl. bi.al) rice (Kol.)(DEDR App.60). Testicles: picci the testicles of animals (Tu.); picca testicle (Te.)(DEDR 4140). cf. pit.ukku testicle (Ta.Ma.); pixid. testicles (To.); hid.iku, hid.igu testicle (Ka.)(DEDR 4151). bitza, bicca, bica seed (Kuwi); bi_ci id. (Malt.); vijja_, vi_ja_ seed (Go.); viccu seed (Ta.); vittu to sow, spread, broadcast (Ta.)[cf. vitir to scatter, throw about, sprinkle (Ta.)(DEDR 5400)]; seed, semen (Ta.Ma.); to sow; n. seed, testicle (Te.); vittanamu seed, testicle (Te.); veda sowing (Te.); vitanam seed (Kol.Nk.); vit- to sow broadcast (Kol.); to sow (Nk.Pa.Ga.Kond.a.Mand..); vi_t- id. (Ga.Go.Pe.); vi_ti seed (Ga.); vitu seed (Kond.a); vittid (pl. vittil) seed, semen (Pa.); vitai seed, testicle; vitaippu sowing (Ta.); vita sowing, sowing season, grain sown (Ma.); vitar seed (Ma.); vit- (vity-) to sow; vit seed; vitan. time of sowing (Ko.); pit- (pity-) to sow; pit seed (To.); bittu to put seeds, sow (Ka.); bittu, bitta, bir..tu seed (Ka.); bittige, bittane act of sowing (Ka.); bede seed, sowing (Ka.); bitt- (bitti-) to sow, scatter; bitti seed selected for sowing; bide a particular sort of seed; butte semine virile (Tu.); vitka_ semen (Kui); vi_can.a id. (Kuwi); wita_na_ to sow broadcast (Go.); to sow (Go.); vita_na_ to sow (Go.)(DEDR 5401). vis.t.ara anything spread out (Gr.S'r.); vitthara, vitthira spreading out, collection of words (Pkt.); bitar dispersion (Ku.); chitar-bithar scattered (H.); vithar dispersion, ruin (M.); vatura water, flood (Si.)(CDIAL 11987). vittharan.a adj. spreading (Pkt.); ve_tharan mat of twisted rice-straw, sack of the same (K.)(CDIAL 12004). vistarati spreads out (R.); vittharai id. (Pkt.); bitarn.o to be scattered (Ku.); bitharna_ to scatter, be scattered, be separate (H.); vaturanava_ to spread (Si.); caus. wathara_wun to spread (K.); bithra_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 12005). vista_ra expansion, extent (MBh.); vittha_ra expansion (Pali.Pkt.); bitha_r extension, breadth (Mth.); vitara (Si.)(CDIAL 12006). visara spreading, extension (Skt.); werest, wrias, weryahas span (Pas'.)(CDIA 11996). vista_rayati spread out, displays (MBh.); vittha_re_ti spreads out (Pali); vittha_re_di, vittha_rai (Pkt.); bitharoiki (Sh.); bitha_rab to stretch, extend (Mth.); bitha_rna_ to scatter (H.)(CDIAL 12007). vista_rita spread out (Skt.); vittha_rita id. (Pali); vittha_riya (Pkt.); batha_ri bedding (Sh.); bitha_ri_ spread out, scattered (Mth.)(CDIAL 12008). visti_rn.a spread out, extensive (MBh.); vitthin.n.a wide, large (Pali.Pkt.); vistirna (NiDoc.); istono wide (Pas'.); bisti_n.u (Phal.); bisin (Bshk.); bizin (Tor.)(CDIAL 12009). visti_ryate_ is spread out (Mn.); bathijoiki to get a place, find a place, fit into, go through (Sh.)(CDIAL 12010). vistr.ta spread, expanded, wide (MBh.); vitthata spread out (Pali); vistatena, vithat.ena at length, in detal (As'.); vitthad.a, vitthaya, vitthiya, vitthuya wide (Pkt.); wister-a_ (Ash.); wister, wistere (Kt.); wis'ti_, wis'te_ (Wg.); wis'tir, is'tare_ (Pr.); bis'tura (Dm.); westa_r. (Pas'.); bithure they were scattered (OAw.); vatal.a spread out, large (Si.); vatul.a pret. of vaturanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12011). visarati flows through, spreads out (RV.); visirenava_ to be spread, be scattered (Si.); virsan.u to be separated (S.); bisarab to desert (Mth.)(CDIAL 11997). visa_ra diffusion (RV.); spread (Pali); visara expansion (Si.)(CDIAL 11999). visa_rita extended (Skt.); visiri id. (Si.)(CDIAL 12000). visr.jati emits, diffuses (RV.); visr.s.t.a sent forth (RV.); vihidanava_ to diffuse, spread out; vihidi diffused (Si.); vissat.t.ha, visat.t.ha scattered, wide (Pali); visul.a spread out (Si.)(CDIAL 12002).

6212.Image: shaggy hair: bhi~_s shaggy hair or wool (M.)(CDIAL 9301). bhu_cu long-haired, having long straggling hair (S.); long tangled hair (S.); bhuco young shoot or plant, stalk (Ku.)(CDIAL 9524). bhe~hiya_iba to make faces (A.); bhesar.a_ ugly (Or.); bhesara_ ugly (Or.)(CDIAL 9619). Image: masquerade; assumed appearance: ve_s.a dress, assumed appearance (Mn.); ve_sa disguise (Pali); be_s. airs and graces, posturing (Sh.); vi_h, vih appearance (K.); besa_ guise (H.); ves-a masquerade (Si.)(CDIAL 12129). cf. bhi_s.a_ frightening (Mn.); inst. sg. (RV.); bhi_sai frightens (Pkt.); bi_s'i, bis'wai fear (Gypsy)(CDIAL 9516).

6213.Incense: pukai incense (pukaiyum ca_ntum : Cilap. 5,198); smoke, fume (Ci_vaka. 2977)(Ta.); puga (Ma.); poga (Te.); poge (K.); pukai-y-u_t.u-tal to perfume the hair with incense (Ta.); pukai-y-ur-uppu incense, things that emit fragrance when smoking, numbering six, viz., ne_rkat.t.i, cente_n-, niriya_cam, paccilai, cantan-am, akil (Cilap. 5,14, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

6214.Molasses: ucchurasa pl. molasses (Pali.lex.) vicayam juice of the sugarcane (Ta.); vetsa, vetsu (Te.); visi, visil, visu (Ka.Tu.); veigil (Ma.); jaggery, treacle (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vellam jaggery (Ta.); juice of sugarcane, molasses (Ma.); bhel jaggery (M.); bheli id. (Or.)(DEDR 5494).

6215.Seeds: pit.t.ha crushed seeds (Pali); pis.t.a crushed, ground (RV.)(CDIAL 8218). cf. bisa edible stalk of lotus (AV.); lotus stalk (Pkt.Or.); bhisa (Pali.Pkt.); bihu (S.); bhe (L.); bhe_h, bhe~_, bhe_ (P.); bhi_s (H.); bhise~ (M.); bisa (Si.)(CDIAL 9249). Young berry: picu young tender fruit (Ta.); young fruit just set (Ma.); piju, hi_cu, i_cu fruit newly come forth from the blossom (Ka.); pindiya, pinde young berry, fruit just formed after the blossom (Te.); pinje small young berry (Ga.); pinza (pl. pinzen.) tender fruit, young berry (Kond.a); pijari fruit (irpi pijari mahua fruit)(Kuwi)(DEDR 4145). Lotus flowers: visini, bisini an assemblage of lotus flowers, a place abounding in lotuses; the lotus plant, nelumbium speciosum; lotus fibres (Ka.lex.) bisaja, visaja a lotus; bisaja-nayane a lotus-eyed woman (Ka.lex.) bhisa the sprout (fr. the root) of a lotus, the lotus fibres, lotus plant; bhisa-puppha the lotus flower = paduma puppha; bhisa-mul.a_la fibres and stalk of the lotus (Pali.lex.) picam, pi_cam fibre of the lotus; lotus stalk (Ta.lex.) cf. picir fibre (Ta.)(DEDR 4133). bisa stem of lotus (Car. Su. 5.10, Ci. 3.258). bisini_ an assemblage of lotuses; bisavati_ a place abounding in lotus-fibres; bisam the fibre of a lotus; the fibrous stalk of a lotus (Skt.lex.) bri_m-po_s' the waterlily nymphaea alba (K.)(CDIAL 12079). cf. bisa the edible stalk of lotus (AV.Pkt.Or.)(CDIAL 9249). vicaput.pam < bisa-pus.pa lotus flower (Malai.); vicam lotus-fibre (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

6216.Horn: vis.a_n.a horn, tusk (AV.); visa_n.a horn (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 11977). vis.a_n.in horned (MBh.); visa_n.i horned (Pkt.); viseni-ya 5th day after new or full moon (Si.)(CDIAL 11978).

6217.Luxuriant; swollen: va~_cu, va_cu to swell, be swollen (Te.); va_y to flourish, be luxuriant (Ta.); va.v (part of body) swells (Ko.); po.f swelling on body (To.)(DEDR 5350). va_pu swelling, protuberance (Te.); va_y to swell (Kol.Nk.); va_p id. (Pa.Ga.); va_s to be inflamed, swollen (as a body part)(Kond.a); ba_pu swelling, tumour, abscess (Tu.); ba_, ba_yu to swell, tumefy (Ka.); ba_vu, ba_hu swelling (Ka.); va_ypu growth (Ma.)(DEDR 5350). Good harvest; swollen; desire: bamjan.u to be swollen (S.); bama_n.o to be puffed up, be proud, grow (Ku.); bamkan.o to be puffed-up; bamato much, plenty; ba_mto ardent desire; bamtan.o to become mad (Ku.); bam-phasel good harvest; bamme crowded; bamkanu to boast (N.); ba~b vast, full (G.M.)(CDIAL 9150). pambal ardent desire, solicitous or grievous thought; pambalisu to desire ardently, be full of solicitous or painful thought (Ka.); hambalu solicitous thought (Tu.)(DEDR 3931).

6218.Quercus lamellosa: vajra_sthi seed of asteracantha longifolia; the tree (Skt.); vajra-, vajras'r.n:khal(i)ka_, vajra_sthis'r.n:khala_ asteracantha longifolia; vajradruma (Skt.); vajravr.ks.a (Sus'r.); bajra~_t.h the oak quercus lamellosa (N.)(CDIAL 11203). vam.jula Jonesia asoka (Pkt.); vajula (MBh.)(CDIAL 11210). cf. banapu a large timber-tree, terminalia tomentosa or coriacea (Ta.)(DEDR 3885). wenzi_, wezi_ oak (Kt.); wo_zu (Pr.); wanji_ holy-oak (Pas'.); banzi_ oak (Nin:g.); banz (Wot..); inji_, he~_zi_ (Gaw.); bu~, boj, bonz holly-oak (Kal.); banj (Kho.); banz (Sv.); baj a partic. tree (WPah.); ba~_j oak (Ku.); ba~_jh the tree echinocarpus sterculiaceus (N.); ba~_jh, ba~_j, baji_ the oak quercus incana (H.); mo_c, mu_c oak (Wg.); mo~_zi oak (Ash.)(CDIAL 11209). Beech family: Beeches, chestnuts, oaks: The trees of this family are found in the temperate forests of the eastern and western hemispheres and comprise about 368 species... oaks for e.g. are: white oak, quercus alba, chestnut oak, quercus montana, black oak, quercus velutina etc., chesnut, castanea dentata... the wood of the beech, fagus grandifolia, is used for chairs,tool handles etc... The cork of commerce is obtained from the bark of quercus suber and quercus occidentalis... Nutgall: synonyms: galls, aleppo galls, smyrna galls; Turkey or Syrian galls; gallapfel (Ger.); galla d'alep (Fr.); botanical origin: quercus infectoria; part used: the excrescence obtained from the young twigs; habitat: Mediterranean basin from Greece to Persia; Production: the female of cynips tinctoria, gall-fly punctures the young leaf buds of the dyer's oak with her ovipositor and deposits one or more eggs in the wound. The egg hatches and a young insect or larva emerges in the plant tissue. The larva secretes a fluid (probably from its salivary glands) which contains an enzyme capable of converting starch into sugar. The cells immediately surrounding the larva contain considerable starch and are termed the nutritive zone. This starch is gradually changed to sugar by the enzyme which makes more food available than usual to the growing plant cells. The protoplasm of these is, accordingly, stimulated toward greater cell-reproduction as the rate of change from starch to sugar is accelerated, and a hypertrophied growth, tumor or gall is the result. In the gall the insect undergoes a metamorphosis, passing from the larva or 'worm' stage to the chrysalis or pupa stage and thence to the imago or adult stage. In this last stage it channels its way out leaving a tubular canal communicating with a central cavity. While the insect is in the early larval stage most of the cells of the gall contain numerous tiny starch grains. By the time the larva is transformed to a chrysalis, gallic acid has taken the place of starch in the cells near the middle of the gall, while tannic acid in masses is abundantly present in the cells at the center and near the outer margin. When the imago or adult winged insect is developed, most of the cells of the gall contain masses of tannin together with a small amount of gallic acid. After the imago has emerged from the gall, the tannin constituent of the cells undergoes oxidation which results in replacement by an insoluble product. The gall becomes lighter in weight and colour and more spongy in texture. The so-called 'white galls' of commerce represent this last stage. The galls should be collected before the insect has emerged. Most of the official galls are gathered by the peasants of Asia Minor, Syria and Persia who dry them in the sun... On account of different stages of maturity, the galls vary in colour from black, through green and blue, to white... Uses: astringent, chiefly in the form of the ointment. Nutgall is the chief source of tannic acid. Tannic acid has astringent and styptic properties and is a chemical antidote for poisoning by alkaloids... Chinese galls are produced on the leaves of rhus chinensis... (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 266-270).

6219.Firm soldering: besage ha_ku to solder; bet.t.a-besage a firm soldering (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to unite firmly: besike, besuge soldering; bet.t.avesage a firm soldering or union; bet.t.a firmness, hardness, excessive hardness of metals, harshness, rudeness; besige gol.l.u to be soldered; bese, bisu, besu to solder; to unite firmly (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) besige soldering a metal (Tu.lex.) Image: to unite; soldering gold or other metal: besu, bese, bisu to unite firmly; solder; join, be united; bisu soldering; bisuge, besage, besavu, besike, besige, besuge id., state of being soldered or firmly united, close connexion, composition; beccu state of being soldered or united (Ka.); besige soldering gold or other metal (Tu.)(DEDR 5468). pa_s'ayati fastens, binds (Dha_tup.); paha_un.a_ to entangle (P.); pahanava_, pa_hanava_ to fasten, weld, solder (Si.); fahan to sew (Md.); pasa_un.a_ to cause to stick, to entangle, thrust in (P.)(CDIAL 8135). Image: to unite firmly: bisu, besu, bese to unite firmly, to solder (Ka.); vir..ai to join, be united; vil.akku to solder (Ta.Ma.); bisu to join, to be united (Ka.); soldering; bisuge soldering (Ka.lex.) vir..aiccu sexual union; vir..aivu copulation; vir..ai, ir..ai to move closely or intimately (Ta.lex.) vil.akku to solder (S.I.I. ii,182)(Ta.lex.) vici-ttal to fasten, bind, tie tightly (Malaipat.u. 3); vici-tal id. (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 2,26); vici fastening, tie (Perumpa_n.. 56); leather strap for drums (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) viku (-pp-, -tt-) to be tight, stiff, or hardened; piki (-v-, -nt-) to be hard-knit; piku, pikuvu tightness, hardness, rigidity (Ta.); vin.n.uka to be tight, dense (Ma.); vigv- (vigt-) (handle of axe) is tightly fixed (Ko.); bigi to tighten, bind, fasten, tie firmly to (Ka.); bigi, bigu, biguta tightness (Tu.); bigi, bigutu, biguvu tightness, tension (Te.); bin:kamu tightness, stiffness (Te.) (DEDR 5282).

6220.Bile; madness: pitta bile (AV.Pali.Pkt.); pit a small vessel with blood in it on the liver of an ibex (Sh.); bile (A.H.G.); gall-bladder, courage (A.); pe_th, dat. pe_tas bile (K.); pitu (S.); pitt (P.); piti (Ku.); pat bile (G.); pita bile (Or.); pat a kind of leprosy (G.); pita bile, anger (Sik.); pith gall-bladder (L.); pitla_ma~_ liver and lights (L.)(CDIAL 8181). pith sour (Wot..); pita sour, bitter (Gaw.); pito bitter (Sv.); pita (Or.); pito gall-bladder (S.); pitta_ id., bile (P.); pitto bile, anger (Ku.); pita_n.o to get vexed (Ku.); pito gall-bladder (N.); pitta_ id., bile (H.); pitto (G.)(CDIAL 8182). pitl.a_ choleric (M.); pittala bilious (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 8183). pittika bilious (Pali); pittiya (Pkt.); patiu~ a kind of leprosy (G.)(CDIAL 8186). pittu, pittam, pitti bile, madness (Ta.); pitta id. (Ka.); giddiness (Kod..); pittu bile, fickleness; pitta bilious, choleric (Tu.) (DEDR 4142). cf. piccu bile, madness; piccan- madness (Ta.); piccu madness (Ma.); piccan madman (Ma.); puc madness (Ko.); anger (To.); peccu, paccu, puccu madness (Ka.); picci, picca madness, silliness (Te.); pisak mad (Nk.); pisal, pisa, pisol mad woman (Go.)(DEDR 4142). pe_t bladder (Sh.); paitta pertaining to bile (Sus'r.) (CDIAL 8387). paittika bilious (Pa_n..va_rtt., Sus'r.); peti_ bilious (P.)(CDIAL 8389). pittappai gall-bladder (Ta.lex.)

6221.Image: arrow: vicikam arrow (Ja_n-a_. 20,19); iron pestle, crowbar; vicikai id. (Ta.lex.) cf. vis'ikha (Skt.)

6222.Image: street: vicikai street (Ta.); vis'ikha_ (Skt.)

6223.Image: wave: vicikaram wave; vici wave (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Kat.avul.van.a. 4)(Ta.lex.)

6224.Image: to resemble: vir..ai-tal to resemble (Tol. Po. 289, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

6225.Image: kite: vij kite (Ko.); bijju a voracious bird, paradoxurus pallassii (Ka.)(DEDR 5389).

6226.Image: insect: cf. wi_si_ fly (Go.)(DEDR 5451). vit.t.ikai moth (Tiruvicaip. Karuvu_. 10,8); vit.t.il locust (Ci_vaka. 64, Urai.); moth (Tiruva_ca. 6,5)(Ta.lex.)

6227.Image: to throw: cf. vi_cu to throw (Ta.)(DEDR 5450). vi_kku (vi_kki-) to strike (Ta.); vikkuka to flog, hammer; vi_kku blow (Ma.)(DEDR 5447). vi_ (-v-, -nt-) to perish, cease, disappear, leave, die, deviate as from one's course; (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy; n. ruin, destruction, death, drooping, languishing, separation, removal; vi_kku (vi_kki-) to kill, destroy, ruin; vi_vu ruin, destruction, death, eraditcation, removal, end, defect, flaw, interruption, interval; vi_tal death (Ta.); bi_ to end, cease, fail, fall away or off, fade, perish, die; bi_kal ending etc.; bi_gu to go backwards, recede, retreat; bi_sara end, destruction (Ka.); vi~_gu to run away, move, step aside, end, disappear; vi~_ka flight, retreat; vi_sara deficiency; vi_sara-pad.u, vi_sara-po_vu to be deficient, fail, be fruitless; vi_saramu useless, vain, fruitless (Te.); vi_c tomb, grave; wich dead man; wich bati disposal place for the dead (Go.)(DEDR 5446). vi_z- (-it-) to be finished; vi_s- (-t-) to finish (Kond.a); vi_z- (vi_st-) to be finished; vi_h (vi_st-), vi_spa to finish (Pe.); vi_j- to finish, be finished, completed (Mand..); viha (vihi-) to be ended, finished, terminated, used up; n. termination (Kui.); verg- (vergy-) to be finished (work, desire); verk- (verky-) to finish (work, ceremony, desire etc.); finish off (man by killing)(Ko.); pir-x- (pir-xy-) to be finished; pir-k- (pir-ky-) to finish (work)(To.)(DEDR 5444).

6228.Image: mule: ve_sara, ve_s'ara mule (VarBr.S.); ve_gasara, ve_gasari_ (Skt.); ve_sara mule (Pkt.); vesar (G.)(CDIAL 12134).

6229.Malabar-nut: va_cai malabar-nut, a_t.a_to_t.ai, justicia adhatoda as eaten only by goats; va_sa_ (Skt.) (Ta.lex.) va_saka ganderussa vulgaris (VarBr.S.); ba_sa_ justicia ganderussa (H.)(CDIAL 11593). va_se the tree justicia adhatoa (Ka.lex.) a_d.a_so_ge malabar nut (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. at.aru_s.aka justicia adhatoda and ganderussa (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 176). Justicia gendarussa = gendarussa vulgaris: nila-nirgundi (Skt.); nili-nargandi (H.); jagatmadan (B.); kala-adulsa (M.); vatankolli (Ma.); karunochi (Ta.); addasaramu (Te.); leaves and tender shoots: diaphoretic, given in form of decoction in chronic rheumatism; infusion of leaves: given internally in cephalalgia, hemiplegia and facial paralysis; juice of leaf: for earache; plant: febrifuge, emetic; cultivated throughout India (GIMP, p.146).

6230.Image: deer: vaccayam stag; black deer (Na_mati_pa. 224); vatsaka (Skt.) (Ta.lex.)

6231.Image: porpoise: vasa_d.hya the Gangetic porpoise (Skt.lex.)

6232.Sesbanum grandiflora: vasuka, vasu_ka the plant called arka (Skt.lex.) vasu, vasuka the tree sesbana grandiflora; baka (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6233.Coconut kernel; jack-fruit: var..ukkai pulp of a tender coconut (Ta.); var..ukka id. (Ma.); bal.akka a large piece of a coconut kernel (Ta.)(DEDR 5300). varikka good, sweet (fruit); the pulp of an unripe coconut (Ma.); barika, barik hard (distinguished from soft, as the pu,p of a fruit); barkena id.; solid, fast (Tu.)(DEDR 5268). varukkai, varukkai-ppala_ a species of jack-tree (Ta.); varikka-ppila_vu superior jack-tree (Ma.); bakke-valasa a sweet kind of jack-fruit; bakke the hard variety of jack-fruit (Ka.); bakki a hard type of jack-fruit (Kor.)(DEDR 5271). van:kam tender wild jack (Ta.lex.)

6234.Marrow: vacai < vasa_ marrow, fat (Ce_tupu. Ve_ta_. 30)(Ta.lex.)

6235.East Indian kino: vacul.am < vajula East Indian kino; ve_n:kai-maram (Malai.) (Ta.lex.) cf. vajula name of various trees and plants including jonesia asoka and calamus rotang (MBh.)(CDIAL 11210). cf. wanji_ holly-oak (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11209).

6236.Counteract: vir-ugu to be counteracted (Te.); vir-ucu to counteract; vir-upu counteraction, disenchantment (Te.); beje to cure by repeating spells (Malt.)(DEDR 5442).

6237.Levy: ko_d.u-vi_sa the allowance of a vis of corn etc. for every bullock-load that comes into a town (Ka.lex.) i_sa = vi_sa (Ka.lex.) vi_sa the fraction called one-sixteenth, 1/16 of a han.a (Ka.Te.); visa, vi_su (Tu.); vi_cam (Ta.); vi_s'a (Ma.); vi_sa-bad.d.i interest to the amount of the sixteenth part; something small or insignificant; interest at the rate of one an.e and 2 ka_sus for 3 rupa_yi_s (Ka.lex.) Possession: a_visati to possess; pp. a_vit.t.ha; a_vesa possession (Pali.lex.) vya_sa detailed account (MBh.); separation (Pali)(CDIAL 12214).

6238.Born of: ica an affix to form masculines, denoting 'born of' (Ka.lex.)

6239.To cajole: bujjayisu, bujjavisu to cajole, to flatter, to console, to persuade (Ka.); bujjagicu (Te.); bullayisu, bullavisu to coax; to fondle (Ka.); bellincu (Te.); bhulavin.e_m. to captivate, beguile, make forget, infatuate (M.); punna_ra, ponna_ra flattering, coaxing (Ka.); bo_sarisu to show feigned respect, to flatter; to coax; bo_l.ayisu to court, to coax, to caress, to fondle, to pat (Ka.lex.)

6240.Image: stopple: bu_cu a stopple; a bung, cork (Ka.); bu_ca, bu_ja (M.)(Ka.lex.)

6241.Cereal grains: bu_su a generic term for cereal grains, the grasses, and the esculent culms (Ka.); bhusa_ra, bhum.sa_ra, bhu_sa, bhu_m.sa (M.); bu_sad.agarige a corn-dealer (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Chaff: busa, bus'a, bus.a chaff and other refuse of grain; refuse, rubbish; dr cow-dung (Ka.lex.)

6242.Mildew: bu_ju, bu_ji, bu_s.t.e, bu_si, bu_su mould, white mould, mildew, mustiness (Ka.); id., dirt, cobwebs, trash (Te.); puci, pucu (Ta.); bu_ci, bu_cu, bu_ju (Tu.); burasi_, burasa_, bura_, bhu_ra (M.); bhusa_ chaff; powder, dust etc. as of sawn wood (M.H.); bu_jugat.t.u mould to form or be produced; bu_ju hid.i mould to seize or fall upon (anything)(Ka.lex.) ba_tello mouldy; ba_te mouldy (owing to monsoon-weather); bosma moulder, get destroyed; burso dirty (physical and moral); us.t.o dirty (hands) (Kon.lex.) cf. mur-iki dirt, filth, impurity (Te.)(DEDR 5007).

6243.To importune: pracch ask (Skt.); pras'na question, astrological inquiry into the future (S'Br.); paha question (Pali); pasin.a, pan.ha, pan.ha_ (Pkt.); pa_naya (Si.)(CDIAL 8818). pat.ipuccha_ question (Pali); pad.ipucchai (Pkt.); pil.ivisinava_ (Si.); pad.ipucchana inquiring (Pkt.); pul.uvusna_ (Si.)(CDIAL 8575). pat.ipuccha question (Pali); pad.ipuccha_ (Pkt.); par.puch (G.)(CDIAL 8576). pul.uvut inquired into (Si.); pat.ivutta (Pali); pad.ivutta (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8577). pr.s.t.a asked (RV.); put.t.ha asked (Pali.Pkt.); put.hiim. inst. sg. request (OG.)(CDIAL 8368). pr.chati asks (RV.); pucchati asks (Pali); prichati, pruchati, prochida (NiDoc.); pucchai (Pkt.); phuc, puc, pus', pruc, puch (Gypsy); puch (Dm.); phuc (Kal.); puc (Chil.); prichun, prusnu, pucn.o (K.); puchan.u (S.); puchan. (L.); pucchn.a_ (L.); pu_chn.o (Ku.); puchnu (N.); pusiba, posiba (A.); pucha_ (B.); puchiba_ (Or.); pu_chab (Mth.); puchal (Bhoj.); pu_chab (Aw.); pu_chna_ (H.); pu_chai (OMarw.); asks (OG.); pu_chvu~ to ask, heed, care about (G.); pri_chai understands (OG.); prichvu~ to understand, recognize, console (G.); pusn.e~ to ask (M.); fuhe_n (Md.); caus. puccha_pe_ti (Pali); puccha_vai (Pkt.); pucha_un.a_ (P.); pucha_vvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 8352). pr.cchana asking (Sk.); pucchan.a, pucchan.i_ (Pkt.); puchni (N.)(CDIAL 8353). prcha_ asking (Skt.); puccha_ (Pali.Pkt.); prich (K.); pucha (S.); pucch (P.); puch (N.); pucha_ (Or.); puch (H.); pucha_-puch, puch-parach, -pa_ch questioning; prich recognition (G.)(CDIAL 8354). For semant. 'recognition' cf. paricaya (Skt.) pacari (-pp-, -tt-) to press, importune, talk at length; pacali (-pp-, -tt-) to upset mentally (Ta.); pacarikka to importune (Ma.)(DEDR 3835). For semant. 'astrological inquiry' cf. X paji_, pajika_ register, almanac (Skt.); pa~_zi almanac (A.)(CDIAL 7690). pajika_raka almanac-maker (Skt.); pajia_r hereditary genealogist (whose special duty is to arrange marriages)(Mth.); pa~jia_r herediary genealogist of Soti_ brahmans (Mth.)(CDIAL 7689). beza_r kar, portun portun ma_g to ask again and again (Kon.lex.)

6244.Harvest or revenue era: pacali < fasli_ revenue or harvest era, beginning from 591 A.D. and instituted by Akbar in 1555 A.D.; pacali-kammi remission granted on double-crop land cultivated with only one crop for want of water (C.G.); pacali-ja_sti extra crop; assessment imposed on land bearing more than one annual crop; charge for a second crop raised with government water on land registered under single crop; paca_n- a kind of paddy harvested in cittirai; harvest time of paca_n- paddy (S.I.I. ii,132); paca_n-am id. (I.M.P.Tn. 383) (Ta.lex.) ha_salu, ha_silu revenue (Ka.); ha_s'i_la (M.H.); ha_salu custom, toll, duty (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. paca_n- a kind of paddy harvested in Cittirai (S.I.I. ii,132); pica_n-am id. (Ta.); pisa_namu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Division; toll: cf. pu~_ji stock, property (Ku.); pu~zi deposit money (A.)(CDIAL 8251). pasu to divide, to separate, to part, to cut; to apportion, to distribute, to assign, to share; to be divided; pp. paccu; paseyir to be ready or willing to share in or with; pasuge, hasige, hasuge dividing, separating; division; part, portion, share; apportionment; arrangement, disposition (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) hasige dividing etc.; division or sharing of the produce between the cultivator and landlord; hasige-pat.t.a a list or account of the division of the produce; hasige-mutsaddi a clerk who keeps the account of such division; hasige a toll (as of vegetable, grain) exacted by official personages from the vendors (Ka.); pasike (Te.); phasaki_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) pa_can-am share; division (Ta.); bha_jana (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) pa_ci < pa_s'in Varun.a (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Register: paji a record, journal, register; a calendar, an almanac; paji-ka_raka a writer, scribe; an almanac-maker; pajika_ a perpetual or running commentary which explains and analyses every word; a journal, a book in which accounts of receipts and expenditures are entered; the record or register of human actions kept by Yama (Skt.)(Skt.lex.)

6245.Field: paca ricefield (Ma.Tu.)(DEDR 3834). pacai moisture (Ta.); pa_caval green field (Ta.); pa_ci moss, sea-weed (Ta.); pasima moisture, freshness (Ma.); pa_ci moss (Ta.Te.); pa~_ci, pra~_ci moss (Te.); pa_yal, pa_yi moss (Ma.); passi wet (Kol.)(DEDR 3821). Yellow; gold: pacalai gold colour (Ta.); pasi_d.i, payi_d.i gold (Te.); pasan.d.i gold (Pkt.)(DEDR 3821). pasan.d.i gold (Pkt.);; pacu green, greenish yellow, yellow (ta.); pacumai greenish yellow (Ta.); paitu, paittu greenness (Ta.); pac green, raw (of meat)(Ko.); pacce greenness, yellowish colour, golden colour (Ka.); pacca yellow, green (Te.); pasupu yellowish colour, turmeric (Te.); pasud.i yellow, orange (Kol.); paccan yellow (Pa.); pasin turmeric (Go.)(DEDR 3821). payir green corn, growing crop (Ka.); growing grain, herbage, tender sprout; green corn (Ma.); pajiru grass (Tu.); pairu standing or growing corn (Tu.); corn, grain, growing corn (Te.); pa_ci (= Or. s'asya crop)(Kuwi); pa_caval green field (Ta.); paca.l open grassy ground in front of Kolme.l temples (Ko.); pasi, pasu, pasir, pasur, pacce, pace, pacca, pacca, paccane growing corn, young sprouts or new leaves, freshness (Ka.); pasale young grass, pasturage, a place overgrown with grass (Ka.)(DEDR 3821).

6246.Image: green leaf: paccai betel leaf (Par..a.); green colour, greenness (Ta.); pacca (Ma.); patcca (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_cat.ai green leaf (Kur-un. 9); pa_cilai betel leaf (Ci_vaka. 1987)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) paccen-al expr. of being green or verdant (Tol. Col. 261, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pacalai gold colour (Pur-ana_. 155)(Ta.); basal.e spinach (Ka.); pacal.ai (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pacitu that which is green (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,56)(Ta.); pasidu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) paccilai green, fresh leaf (Pin..); paccela (Ka.); paccila (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ba_ru betel (B.)(CDIAL 9213). ba_rui caste of betel-growers (B.)(CDIAL 9214). Image: betel leaf: vetl betel leaf (Ko.); baccire id. (?Tu.); ver-r--ilai betel pepper (Ta.); ver-r--ila betel (Ma.)(DEDR 5515). *parn.ava_t.ika_- [panva_r.i_ betel garden (P.)(CDIAL 7925). Betel leaf: pa_cavar dealers in betel leaves; (pa_cavar va_cavar mainnin.a vilaijaro_t.u : Cilap. 5,26)(Ta.lex.) pa_cat.am betel leaf; prob.pa_cat.ai green leaf (Kur-un. 9)(Ta.lex.) pa_car-avu loss of colour or complexion (Ta.lex.) Green; yellow; turmeric; golden: paca (-pp-, -nt-) to be green, turn sallow or pale, become golden (as the sky in the evening)(Ta.); pacalai gold colour, sallowness (Ta.); pacu green, greenish yellow, yellow (Ta.); pacuppu greenness, greenish yellow (Ta.); pacu tender, fresh, moist, green (Ma.); paca, pasa, paya moisture (Ma.); pas'ima freshness, softness, moisture (Ma.); pacca greenness, freshness (Ma.); pac green, raw (of meat)(Ko.); poc green (To.); pasi, pasu, pasir, pasur, pacce, pace, pacca, paccu, paccane greenness, yellowish colour, golden colour; freshness (Ka.); pacce green, blue (Kod..); pacca green, fresh (Tu.); green, yellow (Te.); pacci raw, green (Te.); pasaru green colour (Te.); pasi young, tender (Te.); pasimi yellow colour (Te.); pasupu yellowish colour, turmeric; yellow (Te.); pasap turmeric (Kol.Nk.); pasa_p ginger (Kol.); parep turmeric (Ga.); pasi green, fresh, tender (Kond.a); pasin turmeric (Kond.a); pa_ci (= s'asya crop (Or.); pasan.d.i gold (Pkt.)(DEDR 3821). Ripening; unripe: pacya becoming ripe (VS.); pacu fruitful (of trees)(Sh.) (CDIAL 7653). paccai unripeness (Ta.); payappu turning sallow, gold colour (Ta.); pacca greenness, freshness (Ma.); pac raw (of meat), unboiled (of water), unbaked (of pots)(Ko.); pasi, pasu, pasir, pasur, pacce, pace, pacca, paccu, paccane greeness, golden colour; freshness, unripeness, rawness (Ka.); pacci unripe, raw, unboiled, undried, unburnt (Te.); paccik pan unripe fruit (Kol.); pasu_r raw (Ga.); pay green, fresh (Ga.)(DEDR 3821). Slime: pa_vase, pa_ci, pa_si, ha_ci, ha_ci, ha_m.se, ha_vase green stuff or slime (algae) produced in or on stagnant water, or on stones near water, or in vessels containing water; the weed growing upon standing water or duck-weed; green mouldiness (lichens) upon stones, walls, and wood (Ka.); pa_ci (Ta.); pa_yal, pa_yi, pa_yil (Ma.); pa_ci, pra_ci (Te.); pa_vase-mugil a cloud in which pa_vase has grown; pa_vase-val a tooth or teeth covered with pa_vase (Ka.lex.)

6247.Image: stones arranged: pa_suri stones arranged on one another in the form of a wall (Kond.a)(DEDR 4087). Image: cone: pun:gi to twist into a point, to make in to a cone, compressed into a point, as a flower bud; baha pun:gi akana, auri sar.oka the flower bud is pointed, it has not yet opened; sakam pun:gikate botolko eseda they twist a leaf into the shape of a cone and cork a bottle with it (Santali.lex.) punji a heap, to make a heap (Santali.lex.)

6248.Memorial cairn: panji heap of stones as a memorial cairn (Kho.)(CDIAL 8251). pacapa_n.t.avarkal.-pat.ukkai stone-beds in the caves of a hill (T.A.S. i,262) (Ta.lex.) Offerings; provisions: cf. pa~_ji_ offering of food to a ghost (M.)(CDIAL 8251). pacakku substance (Ta.Na_.); pacai-tal to gather, get ready as necessary materials (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,64); paccai offering to a superior or a deity (I_t.u, 5,1,3); present as to a newly married pair (Ci_vaka. 823, Urai.); tribute (I_t.u, 4,1,1); compensation, return (I_t.u, 2,3,4); provisions (I_t.u, 1,6,1); profit; pacumpatam raw materials for food (Pat.t.in-ap. 203); paccai-k-kaliya_n.am ceremony on the fourth day in a marriage festival, as the time of presenting gifts (Ta.); paccai-kat.t.u trifling presents, commonly to the headman of a village (Ta.lex.) To sweep together: pu~jvu~ to gather, sweep (G.); pu~jn.i_ broom (used by Jain ascetics)(G.); pu~jo sweepings (G.); puja_vin.e~ to gather in a heap (M.)(CDIAL 8251). bar..i, bor..i to sweep together as dust (Ka.); bad.iyu to sweep away (Te.)(DEDR 5295). cf. pur..uti dust, dry earth (Ta.)(DEDR 4316).

6249.Image: nape of the neck: pical nape of the neck; hump of an ox; shoulder (I_t.u, 3,5,4)(Ta.lex.) cf. bhuja (Skt.)

6250.Image: comb: prasa_dhani a comb (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Toilet attendant: prasa_dhaka toilet attendant (Skt.) To scratch: var-an.t.i rake, harrow; var-an.t.u-tal to scratch as with finger-nails, claws or spikes (Ta.lex.) pacali, paccinai, pac- (-it-) to scratch; pahinai to scrawl (Kuwi); pac- to scratch (Pe.Mand..); comb hair (Mand..); pecer a comb (Mand..); par-an.t.u, par-a_n.t.u, pir-a_n.t.u, pur-a_n.t.u to scratch as with nails (Ta.); paran.t.uka to scratch, scrape (Ma.); parad.u, paracu to scratch with the finer or nails, claw; harnku to scratch with nails (Ka.); paran:kuni, parn:kuni, parkuni id. (Tu.); pars- (parast-) to scratch (part of body)(Kol.); pars- to scratch (Nk.); parc- to scratch; partid the itch; paytil urticaria (Pa.); pa_rc-, pars- to scratch (body, etc.); pa_rs- (pa_ris-) to scratch with fingernails or claws; parru prickly heat (Ga.); pas- (-t-) to scratch with the nails; pasay a_- to get scratched (Kond.a); pacc- to scratch (Pe.)(DEDR 4023). par-a-par--en-al onom. expr. of sound made in tearing cloth, scraching (Ta.)(DEDR 4024). pracchyati scarifies (Sus'r.); pacchita cut off, skinned (Pali); pacchan.a scraping (Pkt.); pachan.u to scrape (S.); pachu, pachir.o incision (S.); pacchan., pachan. to scrape, lance (L.); pacchn.a_ (P.); pacchnu~ to cut a log with an axe (WPah.); pacch cut (in shaving) (WPah.); pa_chnu to scratch, tickle; pa_ch a scratch (N.); pa_chab to scarify poppy seeds (Bi.); pa_chna_ to make an incision, scarify; pa_ch incision, inoculation (H.)(CDIAL 8505). pa_chi_ scarifying poppy heads (L.); pachi_ act of scarfying poppy heads to extract juice (L.); pacchita cut off, skinned (Pali); pracchita cut, lanced (Sus'r.); pacchi_ sugarcane after expression of juice (P.)(CDIAL 8501).

6251.Grocer; articles of trade that come from trees: hasara_n.i, hasaruva_n.i, hasarva_n.i, asara_n.i articles of trade that come from trees, creepers or vegetables, as leaves, fruit etc.; pasurvid.i to get green foliage (Ka.); hasarva_n.ikanya_ya a tax levied on such articles (Ka.); hasar, hasaru, hasara_n.i, hasarva_n.i green colour; hasara_n.ibal.l.i a creeping or twining weed, convolvulus arvensis; pasale, hasale young, green grass, pasturage (Ka.lex.) pasarike articles of a shop (Ka.lex.) pasariga one who spreads about; pasarisu, prasarisu, hajarisu to proceed; to spread, to spread abroad; hasarisu, pasarisu to spread, to extend in all directions; pasarambad.e to spread; pasaramber.. to extend, to form a multitude (Ka.lex.) pasa_ra, pasara, pasa_re (Tadbhava of prasa_ra) spread out state: things lying spread about; a sort of tray to hold the measures etc. of a shop (Ka.); pasa_ra_ (M.); pasa_ra a grocer's shop (Ka.Te.); pasa_ri_ a grocer (M.); pasa_ra, pam.sa_ra the trade of a druggist; pasa_ri, pam.sa_ri a druggist (H.); pasa_re a grocer's shop (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) pasara, hasara (Tadbhava of prasara) moving forwards; spreading, extending; extent, dimension, diffusion, dispersion; a multitude, an assemblage; a stream, a flow, current (Ka.lex.) pasara, pasa_ra a shop; du_siga-vasara the shop of a cloth merchant; ranna-vasara a shop where jewels are sold (Ka.lex.) prasa_ra trader's shop (Skt.); prasa_rayati spreads out for sale (Mn.); lasa_r bench-like flower beds outside the window (Pas'.); pasa_ro extension, extension of family or property, lineage, family, household (Ku.); pasa_r extension (N.); extent of practice in business, popularity (B.); pasa_ra (Or.); pasa_ra_ stretching out, expansion (H.P.); pasa_ro expansion, crowd (S.); pasa_r, pasa_ro (G.); pasa_ra_ (M.); pasru petty shopkeeper (K.); paha_ra_ goldsmith's workshop (P.); poha_r small shop (A.); pasa_ru spices (S.); pasa_r-hat.t.a_ druggist's shop (P.); pansa_ri_ grocer's shop (Ku.)(CDIAL 8835). prasa_ran.a spreading out (S'Br.); pasa_ran.a stretching out (Pali); pasaran.a cloth spread on ground, carpet, lacquer work, enamel (Si.)(CDIAL 8836). prasa_rayati stretches out, extends (VS.); pasa_re_ti extends (Pali); pasa_re_i (Pkt.); pasa_rn.o to stretch, throw, lay flat (Ku.); prasar to win (Gypsy); pasa_run, pasarun to beat out a metal plate thin, pare off the edges of a metal plate (K.); pasa_ra_ to spread out (B.); pasa_riba_ to spread out, exhibit for sale (Or.); pasa_rab to spread out (Mth.Aw.); pasa_ral (Bhoj.); pasa_rna_ (H.); pasa_rn.o (Marw.); prasa_rvu~, pasa_rvu~ (G.); pasarn.e~ (M.); paharanava_ (Si.); pasa_ran.u to stretch out (S.); pasa_rn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 8838). prasa_rin spreading out (Pa_rGr..); pasa_ri shopkeeper (Ku.); poha_ri (A.); pasa_ri druggist, petty trader (B.); pasa_ri druggist, pedlar (Or.); pasa_run.i_ f. (Or.); pasa_ri_ seller of spices (H.M.S.P.); pansa_ri grocer (N.); pansa_ri_, pa~sa_ri_ seller of spices (H.); pansa_ri_ (P.)(CDIAL 8839). Market: baja_ra, baja_ru, ba_ja_ra, ba_ja_ru a market; the business of a market (Ka.); va_ja_ra (M.H.); ba_ja_ri, baja_ri relating to a market; low, disreputable (Ka.); baja_r (M.); va_ja_ri_ (M.); baja_ri a low, disreputable woman (Ka.); paja_ri (Te.)(Ka.lex.) paja_r < ba_za_r (U.) bazaar, a street of shops where goods are exposed for sale; paca_ri, paja_ri < ba_za_ri (U.) < vyabhica_rin harlot, whore; street-walker (Ta.lex.) cf. ba_za_r bazaar, permanent market or street of shops (Ta.U.)(Ta.lex.)

6252.Image: vessel; dish or plate for eating: cf. bha_jana receptacle, pot, plate (MBh.); bha_na vessel (K.)(CDIAL 9436). pa_can-am < bha_jana vessel (Periyapu. E_yarko_. 35); dish or plate for eating (Pin..g.); mud vessel; receptacle; suport, basis (Ta.lex.) paccai-k-kuppi a green flask, used in ancient times for keeping liquor (Perumpa_n.. 382, Urai.)(Ta.); pacal.ai-k-kalam unburnt pot (I_t.u, 7,4,5)(Ta.lex.) pasata (cf. Skt. pr.s.at or pr.s.ad a drop; pr.s.ata raindrop) a small measure of capacity, a handful (of water); pasatam. pasatam. by handfuls; pasata ... sara_va (cup) the amount of a small gift (Pali.lex.) cf. cara_vam < s'ara_va shallow wide-mouthed earthen vessel (Patin-o. A_l.u. 16)(Ta.lex.) cf. par-c dot (To.)(DEDR 4028).

6253.Image: lute: paccai covering as of the body of a ya_r.. (Cir-upa_n.. 226); skin, hide (Malaipat.u. 29)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6254.Image: fish: pa_ci fishery; fish (Ta.); pa_si_ (U.); pa_ci-k-kuttakai fishing lease; pa_ci-kat.t.i a sub-division of the Valaiyar caste (E.T. vii,274); pa_ci-p-pa_t.t.am tax on fishing (I.M.P. Mr.327)(Ta.); pa_ci-vari tax paid for the privilege of fishing (Vir-alivit.u. 458); pa_ci-vilai price of fish (W.)(Ta.); pa_ci-mural halfleak, sea-fish, attaining 6 in. in length, hemirhamphus xanthopterus (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6255.Image: armlet: pa_ci-pantu an armlet (Vir-alivit.u. 1117)(Ta.); ba_zu_band (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ba_hu arm (Skt.lex.)

6256.Image: beads: pa_ci variegated glass beads or green earthen beads for children's necklaces (Tiruva_lava_. 52,3); pa_s'i (Tu.Ma.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pa_cu = greenness, verdure; bamboo; bravery, courage (Ta.lex.) Well-adorned woman: pa_cir..ai well-adorned woman (Ci_vaka. 586)(DEDR 3821.) Beads: ha_s (pl.-ku) necklace, beads (Pe.); ha_c (pl.-ke) id. (Mand..)(DEDR 2434). Image: gold or silver bead; necklace: pu_sa bead (Te.Nk.Kond.a.Kuwi); necklace (Kuwi); pu.sa necklace (Kol.); pooshange necklace of black beads worn by women (Go.); pu_diya, pu_de bead of gold or silver (?Te.); pu.sa necklace (Kol.)(DEDR 4350). Ornament: pu_cal decoration, adornment; pu_cu to adorn, decorate (Ta.lex.) cf. bhu_s. adorn (Skt.); bhu_s.an.a ornament (MBh.); bhu_sana (Pali); bhu_san.a (Pkt.); bhu_san (H.poet.)(CDIAL 9572). bhu_s.a_ ornament (Skt.); bhu_sa_ ornament (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 9573).

6257.Merchant: pasubeval.a a man who carries a pasube; a merchant, vais'ya (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) pacu, acu, hacu to divide, to share, to distribute (Ka.Te.); distribution, unfair distribution (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: double-bag: pasube, pasumbe, hasibe, hasube, hasumbe a long bag that has its opening in the midst and is thrown over the shoulder so as to form two divisons (Ka.); payimbe, pai (Ma.); pai (Ta.); asimi-sace (Te.)(Ka.lex.) hajabi_ a long and double money-bag (M.); hasibeci_la = hasibe (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pacumpai a pedlar's pack carried over the shoulder (Tiruva_lava_. 23,6)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. prasi_vyaka sack (Skt.)(CDIAL 8844). Long cloth: paccavat.am a long piece of cloth, used as a blanket, bedsheet or screen (Ko_yilo. 94)(Ta.); patccad.amu (Te.); paccapad.a (Ka.); paccavat.am (Ma.); paccat.am id. (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 29); paccai-p-pat.a_m id. (Tol. Po. 461, Urai, Pak. 433); paccai-vat.am (I_t.u, 4,8,2); pracchada-pat.a (Skt.); paccilai a kind of ancient garment (Cilap. 14,108, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pracchada cover, wrapper (Skt.)(CDIAL 8496).

6258.Images: resemblance; derision, laughter: hasa laugh, laughter; derision; hasika_ id.; has to laugh at, mock, ridicule; to jest, joke; to resemble (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) hasa mirth, laughter (RV. x.18.3); laughter, jest (RV. ix.112.4)(Vedic.lex.) cf. hasa laughter (Pkt.)(CDIAL 14020).

6259.Image: collection of six: pacu collection of six seeds at a time in a hole in the game of palla_n:kur..i (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. puja_ collection, aggregate of four (Or.)(CDIAL 8251).

6260.Image: bull: pacu bull (Te_va_. 760,4)(Ta.); pas'u (Skt.); pacupati S'iva (Te_va_. 481,5); pacu individual soul, spirit (Tiruman. 115)(Ta.lex.)

6261.Association of guilds: pa_n~ca_la an association of five guilds (i.e. of a carpenter, weaver, barber, washerman, and shoe-maker)(Skt.)(Skt.lex.)

6262.Capital: punji capital, stock; punji akatae he has accumulated stock; mo~re~ t.aka reak punji manaktaea he has five rupees of capital; punji pat.a capital, stock; punji pat.a cet ho~ banuktina I have not got any capital whatever (Santali.lex.) To repay: phujau to pay up, to repay or return as a loan, to make up deficiency or arrears (Santali.lex.) Capital; property; deposit money: pucam collection, heap, quantity, lump (Kalla_. 59,18); flock, crowd, swarm (Iraku. Tikkuvi. 266)(Ta.lex.) puja heap, quantity (MBh.); heap (Pasli); pujaka heap (Pali); pum.ja, pum.jaya heap (Pkt.); pu~_ji stock, property (Ku.); pu~ji id. (N.); pu~zi heap, deposit money (A.); pu~ji heap, capital (B.); puja_ collection, aggregate of four (Or.); puji heap, cluster, capital (Or.); pu~_j stack with grain heads inside (Bi.); pu~_ji_ capital (Bi.); heap, mass, store (H.P.); pum.ja heap (OMth.); pu~ji_ heap (G.); pu~ja_ quantity of thread (M.);[cf. pa~_zi wisp of cotton, roll of cotton or thread (A.)(CDIAL 7688)]; pu~ji_ little heap (M.); pum.jai heaps together (Pkt.); caus. pp. pum.ja_viya- (Pkt.); paja_ heap (Pali); pa~_jo row of cut corn laid out to dry (N.); pa~_ja_ wisp, bundle, stack (B.); pa~_ji_ offering of food to a ghost (M.)(CDIAL 8251). pu~jaur stack with heads of grain turned inside (Bi.)(CDIAL 8252). paza_li small heaps of mustard plants harvested and left on the field to dry (A.)(CDIAL 7687). paca-va_riyam a village committee entrusted with collection of village dues (I.M.P.Tj. 83); pacava_ravu_rit.uvari an ancient tax (I.M.P.Tj. 94); cf. pacavan- the Pa_n.d.ya (Cilap. 20,33)(Ta.lex.)

6263.Boat: pa_can-am boat (Tiv. Tiruccan. 100)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6264.Male: pum.s male (RV.); pusvan. purificatory rite when vitality begins in the foetus (M.); pum.savana rite performed in third month after conception (Gr.S.) (CDIAL 8245). herel hopon, kor. hopon male (Santali.lex.) puma male (Pali) (Pali.lex.)

6265.Image: harrow: cf. pa~_ca_ five-pronged stick for pushing sheaves under bullocks when threshing (Bi.)(CDIAL 7656).

6282.Image: ace in dice: pa_ccikai dice; pa_ccikkat.t.ai id. (Ta.); pa_cci id. (Ta.); pa_cika id. (Te.); pa_cike (Ka.); pa_ccika id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) pa_yccu to throw, as of dice; dice (Ci_vaka. 983, Urai); pa_yccikai dice; cf. pa_s'aka (Ta.lex.) pa_s'aka, ha_san:gi a die used in playing; aks.a, de_vana; nettada ha_san:gi (Ka.lex.) Image: spot on dice: pa_s'a die, dice (MBh.); pa_s'aka id. (Skt.); cf. pa_sa(ka)- < pra_saka die (Skt.); pra_syati layes a wager (Ta_n.d.Br.); pa_saka die (Pali); pa_saga (Pkt.); pa~_so (Ku.); pa_sa_ (N.B.H.P.M.); pa_so (G.); pasa_, pa_sa _ game of dice (Or.); sa_ri-pa_msa_ game of dice (OAw.)(CDIAL 8132). phla_ spot on dice (MBh.)(CDIAL 9051). par..am winning points, as in a game of tick-tack; fruitfulness, success, as opp. to ka_y, unripe fruit; three-quarters; par..am-et.uttal to win dice or tick-tack (Ta.lex.) phala gaming board (MBh.)(CDIAL 9053). Image: chequer-board: paca_li_, paca_ri_ chequered board for playing at draughts, chess-board etc.; pacani_ (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) Image: chequered-cloth: pacani a chequered cloth for playing at draughts (Ta.lex.)

6280.Ingot: pa_so head of an iron instrument (such as axe or spade)(N.); pasa_ iron ring through which plough iron is thrust (Or.); pa_sa_ lump, cube, lump of metal (H.); pa_s silver ingot, iron share of harrow (M.)(CDIAL 8132). Supernatural beings: pa_cam demon, vampire (Patir-r-up. 71,23)(Ta.lex.) pica_car a class of supernatural beings (Tiruva_lava_. 6,2); cf. paica_cam iron; paca_cam iron (Ci. Po_.5); cf. pacanam cooking; hence, may be workers in metals; cf. taittiyar glossed as workers with bellows (Ta.lex.) cf. pa_cam eye of a needle (Ta.); pa.c id. (Ko.)(DEDR 4055).

6271.Spear: pra_sa throwing (Skt.); barbed missile (MBh.); pa_sa a throw, spear (Pali); spear (Pkt.); pah weapon, arrow (A.)(CDIAL 8969). pra_san.a throwing forth or down (S'rS.)(CDIAL 8970). ba_kna_ to throw in (Kur.)(DEDR 4051).

6270.Indra's thunderbolt: as'ani, asani Indra's thunderbolt (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) asanam throwing, discharging, casting; as in: is.vasanam a bow; asana_ a missile, an arrow (Vedic); asani one who throws; as'ani Indra's thunderbolt; flash of lightning; a missile; the tip of a missile; a sacrificial rite to kill an enemy; Indra; fire; fire produced from lightning (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) as'an firmament; as'ani thunderbolt, missile (RV. i.143.5); as'ani-hat (a tree) struck by lightning; asan throwing, hurling (AV. i.13.4); asana_ missile (RV. x.95.3)(Vedic.lex.) cf. asan.i thunderbolt (Pkt.); as'ani_ thunderbolt (S'Br.); as'an sling-stone (RV.); asani_ thunderbolt, lightning; asana stone (Pali); as'i_ hail (Ash.); as'e~_ (Wg.); i_s'i~ (Pr.); azhir (Bashg.); as'in (Dm.); as'en (Pas'.); as'in (Shum.); is'in (Gaw.); as'un (Bshk.); is'in (Savi); a~_s'un (Phal.); ahin, e_n (L.); a_hin., a_han., aihan. (P.,); a~_n., e_hin.i (WPah.); asino, pl. asina_ (N.); sena, hen.a thunderbolt (Si.); ai~yer hail (Sh.); xil hailstone (A.)(CDIAL 910). cf. vajra_s'ani Indra's thunderbolt (R.); baja_sani thunderbolt (Aw.)(CDIAL 11207). arel hail; arel hasa white silt mixed with water from melted hailstones, and supposed to possess medicinal properties; hasa earth, soil, land; arak hasa red soil; pa~k hasa silt; dhiri hasa stony soil (Santali.lex.) acan-i thunderbolt (Ja_n-a_. 19); acan-i-pa_tam stroke of lightning (Ci. Ci. 11,7, Civa_k.); acan-i-y-e_r-u thunderbolt (Ku_rmapu. Antaka_. 61)(Ta.lex.) Sharp stone: asani [Vedic as'ani in same meaning; with Skt. as'ri corner, caturas'ra four-cornered to Lat. acer pointed, sharp; egl sting (Ags.); ekka corner, point (OHG.); asana rock, stone (Pali); as'an(m) id. (Vedic)] a sharp stone as hurling-weapon thence in mythology Indra's thunderbolt, thunder-clap, lightning; asani-aggi the fire of thunder, i.e. lightning or fire caused by lightning; asani-pa_ta the falling of the thunderbolt, thunderclap, lightning (Pali.lex.) Image: edge, corner, angle; sharp: as'ri sharp side, corner, angle, edge (S'Br.); -as'ra- in cmpds. (Skt.); amsi (Pali.Pkt.); assi (Pkt.); assi_ sharp edge of anything (P.); a~_sia_ having angles (Or.); as, aha corner, angle (Si.) < cu_ corner (Prasun. Kafiri); assa corner (Pali); asa side (Si.); ahak aside (Si.); a_si-pa_si on all sides (S.); a_sse-pa_sse (L.); a_si~_-pa_si~_ (P.): a_s-pa_s (N.Ku.B.); a_sa-pa_sa (Or.); a_s-pa_s (H.); a_s'i~_-pa_s'i~_ (M.)(CDIAL 918). acc thorn (Kur.); acu id. (Malt.); ac-acro prickly (Malt.)(DEDR 45). Image: brim: am.s'u a point or end (Skt.lex.) acu brim; the corner or brim of the mouth (Ka.lex.)

6266.Trap: pajara_-khe_t.ah (Skt.lex.) trap; pajara cage, net (MBh.)(CDIAL 7685). {pajara_-khe_t.ah = cotton + winnowing basket = cleaned cotton? pacarai to gin cotton; to remove the cotton seeds; pacaram pottery; place for forming pots; a portion of the inner sanctuary of a temple (Ta.lex.) pajara cage (Pali); pango (Latin); pajali with outstretched hands, as token of reverence (Pali.lex.)} cf. tol.ku net for trapping (Ta.)(DEDR 3531).

6267.Image: fire: pa_can-am < pa_cana fire (Ta.lex.)

6268.Image: torch: paju torch (Ka.); paji, paju id. (Tu.); panju, panja_ya_ id. (Te.); paji_ a sort of torch with five branches for lights (H. < Pers.)(DBIA 237). cf. pa~_ja_ kiln (B.)(CDIAL 7686).

6269.Image: portable fire-place; chafing dish: hasani, hasanti, hasantike a portable fire-place, a chafing dish (Ka.) hasani_ a portable fire-place; hasani_man.i fire; hasantika_ a portable fire-place; hasanti_ id.; has to open, bloom, blow; to brighten up, or to clear up (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) pa_can-am < bha_jana vessel (Periyapu. E_yarko_. 35); mud vessel (Ta.lex.) To chafe: ga_s to rub; ga_sun ta_pai to make warm by rubbing (Kon.lex.) cf. ghars.a friction (R.); ghas abrasion (L.); gha_sa_-gha_s reiterated rubbing (M.)(CDIAL 4448). har to chafe or to rub (Santali.lex.) ks.ubh shake (Skt.); push, shake (RV.); ks.ubdha churning stick (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 3722).

6272.Image: scales: ahanu balancing of scales (S.)(CDIAL 1486). pa_san. what is thrown into scales as a make-weight (Ku.)(CDIAL 8970). pasan:g a make-weight, want of equality between the two sides of a balance, that which is put on one scale to make it balance the other; takkr.i wichch pasan:g hon.a to be uneven (a balance) (P.lex.)

6273.Image: a beautiful seat: pase, hase a layer; a bed; a beautiful seat; pase nil to be on a seat (Ka.); hase a spot on the ground decorated with flowers or colours; hase-jagali an artificially raised spot to put the ornamented seat upon; hase-man.e a plank used to form a hase; the ornamented seat itself (Ka.); a_sandi a couch, the seat of which is made of basket work; a_sana sitting (Ka.); a seat in general: a stool, chair etc.; sitting in pecular postures, according to the custom of devotees (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.Skt.); asi, hasi that which is laid on the ground (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pad.u, had.u to lie down; to set as the sun (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Lofty seat: pra_sa_da lofty seat or terrace (S'a_n:khS'r.); lofty mansion (MBh.); pa_sa_da lofty platform, terrace, high building (Pali); pa_sa_ya palace (Pkt.); pahaya, pa_ya mansion, place (Si.)(CDIAL 8971). Image: scaffold: paran. watch-tower, upper story, rack over a fireplace, loft under the roof of a house (Ta.); loft under the roof, rude ceiling, frame for drying something over the fireplace (Ma.); paren~ji, pareji scaffold, temporary platform (Tu.)(DEDR 3953).

6274.Image: double handful: pasai double handful (Pkt.); pasari hollowed hands or hand (N.); pasai the two hands put together (OG.); prasr.ti palm of hollowed hand (Kaus'.); handful as a measure (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 8851). sr. move (Skt.); prasr.ta stretched out (TBr.); palm of hand hollowed and held out (S'Br.); pasata handful (Pali); pasaya, pasia extended (Pkt.); paho handful of raw cotton (S.); poha_ hollowed palm held out (A.); pasa_ as much as can be held in both hands open (H.); paslo hollow of both hands; pasli_ hollow of one hand (G.); pasa_ hand hollowed (to hold grain, water etc.), handful (M.); (pa)la_ wide-spread (OSi.); pasar hollowed palm of the hand held out (N.H.)(CDIAL 8850).

6275.Image: spotted deer: pasada-miga spotted antelope (Pali); pasata-miga id. (Pali); pr.s.ant, pr.s.ati spotted (Vedic)(Skt.lex.)

6276.Anything deposited: pa_so anything unwanted that is left or deposited (N.); pra_s customary return of a certain portion of gift sent by bride's father to husband's family on certain festive occasions, the portion so returned (K.)(CDIAL 8969). pa_cam love (Ci_vaka. 1320); attachment (Na_lat.i, 130); devotion (Tiruva_ca. 7,2); pa_car-avu absence of worldy attachment (I_t.u, 5,3,1)(Ta.); pa_cam tie, bondage (Na_n-man.i, 99)(Ta.lex.) Relations: pa_can-am relations, kindred (Kantapu. Cin:kamu. 8)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Friend: asna < ashna (Pers.) an acquaintance, a friend, intimate friend, a lover; sweetheart, paramour, mistress, concubine; acquainted, knowing (P.lex.) pa_cam friends and relations (Tirikat.u. 20)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ba_yna_ (ba_ycas) to respect, keep on a footing of reserve with (elder brothers with younger brothers' wives, elder sisters with younger sisters' husbands, man with wife's elder sisters, woman with husband's elder brother); ba_ena_xoena_ to shun (Kur.); bc-naqe to employ the plural form when relatives by law address one another; bc-naqpo a relative by law (Malt.)(DEDR 4090).

6277.Descendants: pacal boy (Nan-. 122, Mayilai.; I_t.u, 9,5,6); pasul.e (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) apatya offspring (RV.); apacca (Pali); apaca nom.pl.m., apacam. (As'.); avacca (Pkt.); bacco_ young of goats (K.); baco infant, young of animal (S.); bacca_ (L.); vacc, bacc young child, young of fish or insects or reptiles (P.); bacca_ child, young of any animal (P.); child (WPah.); ba_ca_ boy (Bhoj.); vasa descendants; race, lineage (Si.); apatiye nom.sg.n. (As'.)(CDIAL 424). bacero young of a bird (N.)(CDIAL 425). vacca_, vacya_ a young one (M.H.); bacca (Tadbhava of vatsa) a young one; a boy (Ka.); bacca a calf, etc.; bacca-bari, baccahari to become a calf, to behave like a calf; baccaka_ne, bacaka_ni a cloth for boys; vatsa a calf (Skt.Ka.); a son, a boy (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ce_y son, child; juvenility, youth (Ta.); je_vu child, lad, youth; jo_vu id., baby, female child; je_ru pariah child (Tu.); ce_pal (pl. ce_pkul) boy, lad (Pa.); se_pal (pl. se_pakil) id.; sa_pal boy (Ga.); jo~_kas lad, youth, servant (Kur.); ce_vala child at the breast (Ma.); jo_kul.u children (Tu.)(DEDR 2813). jo_gal.a, jo_gul.a a lullaby; jo_ an imitative sound: hush! jo_ jo_ rep. hush, hush! words used in lulling infants to sleep, a lullaby (Ka.Te.M.); ta_la_t.t.u, o_ra_t.t.u (Ta.); ta_lo_la (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

6278.Frankincense: acan-i frankincense leaf; ca_mpira_n.i-y-ilai (Ira_cavait.)(Ta.lex.) cf. styrax benzoin: ca_mpira_n.i (Ta.lex.) luban resin (B.H.); oodh (M.)(Indian Materia Medica, p. 1182). cf. u_da = silha frankincense (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6279.Incense; terminalia tomentosa: Terminalia tomentosa, terminalia crenulata, terminalia glabra, terminalia alata, pentaptera tomentosa: asana the tree pentaptera tomentosa, as Bodhi-tree of Gotama (Pali.lex.) cf. asana the tree terminalia tomentosa (Sus'r.); as'ana, a_s'ana, a_sana id. (Skt.); asana the tree pentaptera tomentosa (Pali); asan.a a partic. kind of tree (Pkt.); e~_han. a shrub with prickly leaves (WPah.); asna_ terminalia tomentosa (N.); a_sna_ pentaptera tomentosa (B.); asan, a_san terminalia alata tomentosa (H.); asan., a_san., asn.a_, a_sn.a_, asa_n.a_, asn.i_ (M.); asana (Si.)(CDIAL 963). Terminalia tomentosa: asana (Skt.); asan (H.); piasal (B.); asna (Bombay); madat, yen, sadada, saj, sajo, ain (M.); ain (G.); hatana, matnak (Kolhapur); sain (Bijnor); sadar (Bundelkhand); karuppo-mara, karuppu-maruta-maram, anemin, karimardu, matthi (Ta.); maddi, nalla-maddi, innumaddi (Te.); thambaon, mardu, karimardu (Ma.); karimatti, banapu, aini, mattimara, torematto-madi, hebbulure (Ka.); banapu (Tu.); habitat: Deccan, U.P., Nepal and Sikkim. Parts used: gum, bark and ash... ash yielded by the calcareous matter in the trunk of this tree is used by chewers of betelnut. Gum from the trunk is used as a cosmetic and incense. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 1211-1212). honne, punnike, ponne the tree terminalia tomentosa; pi_tasa_la, sarjaka, asana, priyaka, ji_vaka (Ka.lex.)

6281.King: pa_ccha, pa_tas.a_ha, pa_das.aha a king, a Pasha (Ka.); pa_ccha_ya, pa_das'a_ha_ (M.H.); pa_dus.a_ (Te.); pa_rs'a_vu (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) ba_dasa_h, pa_sa_h, pa_tsa_h, ba_tsa_h < pa_disha_h (Persian) king, monarch, sovereign, lord, master; owner, governor, proprietor; ba_dsa_h ja_da_ a prince; ba_dsa_h ja_di_ princess (P.lex.) pa_tus.a_ < ba_dsha_h (U.); sultan, muhammadan ruler (Ta.lex.)

6283.Forget: pocca_, poycca_ to forget; pocca_ppan- forgetful person; pocca_ppu forgetfulness (Ta.); po_s- (-t-) to forget (Kond.a); po_c- (-c-) id. (Pe.)(DEDR 4475). pus. forgets (Pr.); pramus. (Dm.); plemus. (Gaw.); pra_mus. (Kal.); pamhasai, pamhusai, pamhuhai forgets (Pkt.); pramr.s.e inf., pramamars.a perf., pramars.is.t.ha_h aor., mr.s.yate_ (RV.); pamussati forgets (Pali); s'amas' (Pas'.); pamut.t.ha forgotten (Pali); pamhat.t.ha, pamhut.t.ha (Pkt.); pumis.t., permis't, purmus't forgot (Ash.); pramus.t.oi, pramus't (Wg.); pemis.t.yo, premus'tyo (Kt.)(CDIAL 8730). prasmarati forgets (Skt.); pa_hariba to forget (A.); pa_sara_ (B.); pa_soriba_, pa_suriba_ (Or.)(CDIAL 8885). mar-a to forget; mar-ati, mar-appu, mar-al, mar-ali, mar-avi forgetfulness (Ta.); mar-a secret (Ma.); mar-akka to forget, be forgotten, vanish from the mind (Ma.); mar-ati, mar-avi forgetfulness (Ma.); marv- (mard-) to forget, be forgotten (Ko.); mar- (mar-0-) to forget (To.); mar-e to become unmindful of, forget, be forgotten (Ka.); mar-agu, mar-apu, mar-avu, mar-ahu forgetting, forgetfulness (Ka.); mar-apu to cause to forget (Ka.); mar-ave state of becoming unmindful of, oblivion, forgetfulness, unconsciousness (Ka.); mar-eyuvike becoming unmindful of (Ka.); mara- (marap-, marand-) to forget (Kod..); marandi forgetfulness (Kod..); madapuni, marapuni, marepuni to foreget; madapu, marapu forgetfulness; madapele a forgetful man (Tu.); mar-acu to forget; mar-apincu to cause to forget; mar-akuva, mar-apu ignorance, forgetfulness (Te.); mar-ukuva forgetfulness (Te.); mad- (matt-) to forget (Kol.); mare_nga_na_, marun.-si_a_na_, ma_ran:g, ma_rand.-, maranga_na_, marunga_na_, marung-, maring-, mareng-, marng- to forget (Go.); maru_m- to forget (Go.); mra_nga to be lost (Kui); mra_pka (< mra_k-p; mra_kt-) to loose, obliterate (Kui); ja_ng to get lost (Kuwi); masge to vanish (Malt.)(DEDR 4760). mars.ayati causes to forget (MaitrS.); mr.s.yate_ forgets, neglects (RV.); mussati (Pali); ma_snu to do away with, spend (money) (N.); mas'un (pp. mot.hu) to be forgotten; caus. mas'erun to forget (K.); ma_sinu to fade away, be extinct (N.)(CDIAL 9898). mut.t.ha-sacca forgetfulness (Pali); mot.a forgetful (Si.)(CDIAL 10300).

6284.To loosen: phuskanu to be loosened, slip (N.); phusuki jiba_ to miscarry (of a work)(Or.); phusphus looseness, flabbiness (H.); phusphusa_, phuska_ loose, flabby, soft (H.); phusphusiyu~ flimsy (G.); phusakn.e~ to break off; phuskat.n.e~ to fall away (M.); phu~_s.ku empty (Sh.)(CDIAL 9098). phok loose (Kal.); phuknu to open, loosened; phuko free, untied (N.); pho_iaya set free, spread out (Pkt.); phunu, phoi to unfasten (N.); phona_ (H.); pholhan.u to open (S.); pholn.a_ (P.) (CDIAL 9082). pucka_na_ to become loose (of a shoe, ring, lid of a box, etc.); puc- to pull off, remove (skin of fruit)(Go.); pucce to put off (as attire); undress (Malt.); pucgre to become loose (Malt.); puy to be pulled out (Ta.); puccu to pull out (Te.); pus- to pull, pull out, take off (clothes)(Kol.); puc(c)-, (pust-) to take out something, pull out (Nk.); pucc- to extract, take off (Pa.); puc- to take out (Ga.)(DEDR 4281). phasun to become opened or dismembered or tender (K.); phasu wearied (S.); phaskano flabby, swollen (Ku.); phasphase loosely woven (N.); phasko loose, brittle (N.); phaska_ loose (B.); phasar.a frutless, vain; phaska_ loose (Or.); phas, phasphasa_ loose, soft; phasakna_ to become loose (H.); phasakvu~ to burst, come to nothing (G.); phasakn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9068).

6285.To hiss; whisper: phusphus hissing (H.); phusphusa_t. whispering (Ku.); phuskan.o to whisper; phuski_ whisper (Ku.); phusphus whisper (N.); phusphus whispering (B.); phusla_na to flatter (B.); phu_sab to whisper; phusia_ whisperer, deceiver (Mth.)(CDIAL 9099). bus, busu, bussu, bos a sound ot imitate the puffing or hissing of a serpent, of a pair of bellows, of the snorting of cattle, etc. (Ka.); bus ku.t. to hiss (Kod..); busu, busu-busu, bussu gasping, panting, hissing (Tu.); busa hiss of a serpent, hissing, snorting, snoring, a deep breath, a sigh; busabusa noise of the boiling water; busabusal-a_d.u to hiss; bussu hiss of a snake (Te.); puskarileng to hiss (Kol.)(DEDR 4246). phum.ka_ra hissing of a snake (Pkt.); phu_ka_ro hiss of snake, snort of horse; phu_ka_ran.u to hiss, snort (S.); phuka_rn.a_, phu~ka_rn.a_ to hiss (P.); phuka_ra hissing (Or.); phu~ka_rna_ to hiss (H.); phu~ka_ro puff, hiss, blow (G.)(CDIAL 9104). To blow: phuka_rn.a_, phu~ka_rn.a_ to blow (P.); phu~ka_ro puff, hiss, blow (G.); phukka_ra blowing (Pkt.); phu_tka_ra, phutka_ra blowing (Skt.)(CDIAL 9104). phukkai blows (Pkt.); phum.ka_ blowing (Pkt.); phu_ko distended; puko swollen up; phukni bellows; bag (Gypsy); puk breath (Ash.); breath, soul (Wg.); pu_ id. (Wg.); phu_ky to breathe, blow (Dm.); phuk to winnow (Dm.); phuk reflexive pron. self (Tor.); phu_k breath, life (Gaw.); pug to blow (Tor.); phu_k to blow out (Phal.); phokh, phokhas puff, blowing; phukh, phukhas blowpipe; phukun to blow up (a fire); phokun to blow (of wind)(K.); phu_kan.u to blow; phu_ka blast, puff (S.); phu_kn.a_ to blow; phukk soul (P.); phukki puff of air (from bellows or mouth)(Wpah.); phukn.o to blow; phu_k breath, life, soul; phu~_kn.o to practise magic (WPah.); phuknu to blow; phuk-pha_k incantation (N.); phu~kiba to blow (A.); phu~ka_ (B.); phun:kiba_ (Or.); phu_kab, phu~_kab (Mth.); phukna_, phu~_kna_, phu~kna_ (H.); phu_kai (OMarw.); phu~kvu~ (G.); phu~kn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9102). phu_t, phut blowing, puffing (Skt.); phu korik, phuik to blow; phu dik to be blown up, be distended (Kho.)(CDIAL 9101).

6286.Image: to lurk, lie in wait; spy: po_rhali to lie in wait (Kuwi); pocu to be in wait, lurk; hocu id. (Ka.); acu to lurk (Ka.); acuni to lurk (Tu.); poncu to lurk, lie in wait; n. lurking (also poncika)(Te.); po_rpa to watch for, lie in wait, spy (Kui)(DEDR 4596).

6287.Yoke, arrow, create: po_c- (-c-) to string (bow), open (umbrella); po_cpa to fix, attach (load on kavr.i)(Pe.); pu_c to yoke (Mand..)(DEDR 4578).

6288. Camphor: pacce camphor (Ka.lex.) cf. karppu_ram, paccai-k-karppu_ram camphor (Ta.lex.)

6289.Image: eagle: pajhar., buru pajhar. the Indian tawney eagle, aquila rapax vindhiana; the Indian black eagle, ictinaetus malayensis; the Indian crested hawk, spizaetus cirrhatus; the imperial eagle, aquila heliaca heliaca; hako sap pajhar. Pallas's fishing eagle, haliaetus leucoryphus (Santali.lex.)

6290.Dalbergia sissoo: picchala_ dalbergia sissoo (Skt.); pisala_ a kind of forest tree (A.)(CDIAL 8153). picchila_ dalbergia sissoo (Skt.)(CDIAL 8156). cf. s'im.s'apa_ dalbergia sissoo is the si_sam tree; its wood is strong and durable and is recommended for furniture (B.Sam..)

6291.Image: long-tailed ram; wild goat of a reddish colour: pu_s fox (Tor.); pi_s vixen (Tor.); pijj, pejj wild goat of a reddish colour (WPah.)(CDIAL 8158). puchiya_ long-tailed ram (H.)(CDIAL 8250). pusiya_ old and decrepit ox (Si.)(CDIAL 9084).

6292.Image: arrowhead, feathered shaft of an arrow: pisa_ra_ feathered end of an arrow, feathered state, plumage, feather (M.)(CDIAL 8155). piccha tail-feather (MBh.)(CDIAL 8151). puri peacock's tail (Te.); pu_ril peacock's tail feathers (Pa.); puri feather of a peacock (Kond.a)(DEDR 4367). pur..uku arrowhead (Ta.); pur..utu feathered part of an arrow (Ta.); pil.uku, pil.ku id. (Ka.)(DEDR 4314). pi_li peacock's feather (Ta.Ma.Ka.Tu.Te.); pi.li peacock's tail feather (Kod..); pika feather, peacock's tail (Nk.); pince tail of peacock (Ga.); pi_seri, plieri tail feather of a peacock; pieli peacock (Kui); pice tail of a peacock; picale peacock in full plume (Malt.)(DEDR 4226). Image: fish's tail: puchi_ fish's tail (S.); pu_chi_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 8249). pod.asu scales of fish (Tu.); pola, polasu, polusu id. (Te.); plo_kosi id. (Kui.)(DEDR 4480). Image: tail of fat-tailed sheep: puccha tail, hinder part (AV.); tail (Pali.Pkt.); pinji id. (Gypsy); pochu, puchu, pochu tail (K.); puchu tail (S.); puchi_ fish's tail (S.); puch tail of fat-tailed sheep (L.); pucch tail (P.); pu_ch (Ku.); pucha (Or.); po~ch (Mth.); pucch loose end of loincloth hanging in front (Mth.); pu~_ch tail (H.); pu_chi_ fish's tail (H.); pu~ch tail (G.); pu_msa id. (OM.); phoco_ tail (Sh.); pochuru stumpy tail (K.); puchar.u tail of lizard (S.); puchir.i_ tail of snake, end of whiplash (S.); puchar. tail (L.); po~char. tail (WPah.); po~ser. tail of cattle; penis (WPah.); puchar., puchar.o tail (Ku.); puchar tail, stump, bottom (N.); puchr.u~ tail (G.); pu_chal tail (L.); puchul id. (L.); pu~_chla_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 8249). puchiya_ long-tailed ram (H.); pu_s fox (Tor.)(CDIAL 8250). Tail feather, tail: pacai-mayir soft hair, thin locks of hair (Ta.lex.); piccha tail-feather (MBh.Pali.Pkt); tail (Pkt.); pe~ca_ tail-piece (as of a fish)(B.); picha tail-feather (Or.); pim.cha (OM.); pi_ch, pi~_ch, pi_chu~ feather (G.); pi_s (M.); pija tail-feather (Pali); pinji tail (Gy.); pijal_ bunch of grass (Skt.)(CDIAL 8151). Image: tail, hair; eyebrow: poccu quantity of hair (Ta.); boccu wool, fine hair, down (Ka.); hair, down, wool (Te.); bucur.a a knot of hair (Nk.); bocca eyebrow (Pa.)(DEDR 4477). pu_t.a down of birds, wool fine hair (Ma.); bu.r eyelash, eyebrow (Kol.); bu_d.ul hair, fine feathers, down (Pa.); bura_ feather (Go.); buiya_ hair, feathers (Go.)(DEDR 4358). Images: tail; feather, wing: picam feather, wing (Catu.)(Ta.lex.) cf. piccha tail-feather (MBh.); pinji tail (Gypsy)(CDIAL 8151). cf. puccha tail (AV.)(CDIAL 8249). pisa_ra_ feathered end of arrow, feathered state, plumage, feather (M.) (CDIAL 8155). Scanty beard: bucu tuft of hair (S.); buco scanty-bearded, having only a tuft on chin; buci_ scanty beard (S.); bucca_ scanty-bearded (L.); crop-eared (P.); buco empty, unadorned (Ku.); buco cropped of ears or tail, etc.; tame boar; bucka_ stubble (N.); bu_ca_ crop-eared (H.); buciyu~ earless (G.); buca_ crop-eared; bucka_ tuft (M.); bocci goat with very small ears (WPah.); bu_car husks of millet (L.); bo~ca_ crop-nosed, crop-eared, shameless, wicked (B.); bo~card.a_ toothless, gap-toothed (M.)(CDIAL 9266). bhu_cu long-haired (S.)(CDIAL 9524). Mustache: phu~_ka mustache (Dm.); us.-phun. (Kal.) [Lip: us.t. < o_s.t.ha lip (RV.); us.t., u_s.t. lip (Kal.); ot.t.ha lip (Pali.Pkt.); ut.t.ha (Pkt.); hot.t.ha, hut.t.ha (Pkt.); o_s't, vus't (Gypsy); o_s.t. (Ash.); u_s.t., wu_s.t. (Wg.); yu_s.t. (Kt.); u_t.h, u_s.t. (Pas'.); us.t. bank of a river (Pas'.); o~_t.u upper lip; o~_t.i lower lip (Sh.); o_t.e (D..); wut.h, dat. wut.has lip (K.); hot.h (L.P.); ho~t.h (P.); ot.h, ho_t.h (WPah.); u~_t.h, o_t.h (Ku.); ot.h (N.); o~_t.h (A.Aw.); ot.ha (Or.); ot.h (Mth.Bhoj.); id. (H.g.M.); ho~_t.h (Aw.); o~t.h, hot.h, ho~t.h (H.); hot.h (G.); o~t.h, hot. (M.); ot.a (Si.)(CDIAL 2563); utat.u lip, brim, edge of a wound (Ta.); lip (Ma.); u0ur gums (To.); odad., odud.u, odaru lip (Ka.)(DEDR 606)]; phun. mustache (Bshk.Tor.); phun:ga pl. (Phal.); phun., phugga, phuge (Sh.)(CDIAL 9083). mucha mustache (S.); mucch, pl. muccha~_; much (L.); mucch (P.); mu~_ch (Ku.); mucha (Or.); mu_ch (H.G.); mu~ch (G.); moc (B.); mocha (Or.); mo~ch (Mth.Bhoj.); mo~chi (Bhoj.); mo_ch whiskers (Aw.); mo~_ch hair on face (Aw.)[cf. mu_ci face (Ta.)(DEDR 5031)]; moch mustache (H.)(CDIAL 10180). mi_cai, vi_cai moustache (Ta.); mi_s'a, vi_s'a moustaches, whiskers; feelers of insects, antennae (Ma.); mi.c moustache (Ko.); mi.s id. (To.); mi_se id. (Ka.); mi.se id. (Kod..); mi_se moustaches, whiskers, feelers of an insect (Tu.); mi_samu (pl. mi_samulu, mi_salu) moustache, whiskers (Te.); mi.sal pl. moustache (Kol.); mi_sak id. (Nk.); mi_sa_n:g, mi_sin, mi_san, me_chan, mi_sok id. (all pl. forms), misal (pl. -ku) id. (Go.); me_sakamu pl. id. (Kond.a); me_sku id. (Pe.); mi_samku id. (Kui); mici_, misi_, mecha_ id. (Kur.); mis'i_ (pl. mis'a_) moustache (M.); misi (Santali); mici, misi id. (Mundari)(DEDR 4879). Image: vulva: poccu woman's pubic hair, vulva, anus (Ta.); pocca, pocci membrum muliebre (Ma.); po_s vulva (Br.); poj id. (Ko.); pucci, pucce id. (Ka.)(DEDR 4476). pucci_ pudendum muliebre (M.)(CDIAL 4476). puc(h) penis (Kho.)(CDIAL 8249). posa anus, vulva (Pkt.); posan.a anus (Pkt.); phosa id. (Skt.); *pucca vulva (Skt.)(CDIAL 8248). boc vulva (Bshk.); bocu_ silly, paltry; catamite (M.)(CDIAL 9266). baso_r vulva (Wot..)(CDIAL 9524).

6293.Irrigation: pa_yccutal to lead or conduct water; to irrigate (Ar-aner-i. 5); to infuse, inject, introduce, as poison; to put in; to cause to enter (I_t.u. 2,8,9); pa_ykkuka to irrigate (Ma.); pa_y-ma_li < pa_e-ma_li (U.) destruction of land by flood (Ta.); pa_y spreading, extending; pa_ytal to flow, issue or gush out, as blood or stream; to rush down, as a waterfall (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 29); to jump down, as from a hill (Na_lat.i, 369); to spread, as water (Tol. Col. 361); pa_yccal current, stream, torrent; overflowing; irrigation (Ta.lex.) Land with river irrigation system; stream; flow: pa_can-a-k-ka_l irrigation channel (Ta.lex.) pa_can-am irrigation (Ta.colloq.); flood (Te_va_. 955,9); pa_y (-v-, -nt-) to flow, issue or gush out as stream or blood; to rush down, as a waterfall (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 29); to jump down as from a hill (Na_lat.i. 369); pa_yccal irrigation (Ta. colloq.); pa_yccal, pa_ccal torrent; pa_yccu (pa_ycci-), pa_yttu (pa_ytti-) to lead or conduct water, irrigate (Ar-aner-i. 5)(Ta.); pa_ccuka to cause to flow (Ma.)(DEDR 4087). Temporary cultivator: pa_ya-ka_ri < pa_-a-ka_ri temporary cultivator, one who cultivates the land of another for a stipulated term, obtaining a certain share of the crop (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) [cf. semant. ext. pa_can-am diarrhoea (Ta.); pa_s'anamu id. (Te.); ba_su id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)] sru flow (Skt.); sruta streaming (Mn.); flow, flowing (AV.); su_a_ catch drain to bring water from high land to a low field; su~_ the name of a valley between Sakesar and Bhukhi (L.); sua stream, current (Or.); su_wana_ to flow (H.); hu_ what has flowed out (Si.)(CDIAL 13886). sruti road, path (RV.); stream (Skt.); sru_ stream (RV.); s.u_i_ ravine, valley, cleft (Wg.)(CDIAL 13887). sro_tas stream (RV.); so_ta stream (Pali); sodu (Dhp.); so_a current, stream, chasm (Pkt.); soa_ spring of a well (Mth.); soya, hoya, oya rivulet (Si.); o-kanda great flood (Si.); oi stream (Md.)(CDIAL 13889). sro_tiya_, metr. for sro_tya_ stream (RV.); soi_ spring of a well (Bi.); soiya_ well supplied from a spring (Bi.); soi_ ground where a stream is dammed and rice grown (H.)(CDIAL 13890). sotta, sutta stream, river; sotti_ (Pkt.); sot spring of water (Ku.); sota_, sot, sutti_ spring of a well (Bi.); sot (Mth.); sot, sota_ fountain, spring (Bhoj.); so_t stream (Aw.); sot, sota_ stream, channel, spring; soti_ rill, small spring, pool formed by overflow from a river (H.)(CDIAL 13891). sravati flows (RV.); savati flows (Pali); savai (Pkt.); s'rawun, srawun to drip, ooze, drop forth (K.); ovanava_ to pour in, fill (Si.)(CDIAL 13880). sravant flowing; sravanti_ stream (RV.); savanti_ river (Pali); savam.ti_ (Pkt.); xo~ta_ stream, branch of a river; xo~t a current; xu~ti small branch of a river (A.); so~ta_ adj. damp; stream; su~ti slow stream between shoal and shore (B.)(CDIAL 13881). Alluvium: avasra_vyati makes flow down (Ka_tyS'r.); ossavana outflow, running water (Pali); vasan. alluvium (M.)(CDIAL 878). avasruta dropped down (A_s'vGr..); osyi gei miscarried (of a cow)(WPah.)(CDIAL 879). a_sra_vayati causes to flow (Skt.); a_sravati flows off (AV.); a_savati flows to (Pali); a_savama_n.a dripping (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1535). parisrava flow, stream (MBh.); parisra_va efflux (Sus'r.); parisrave, parisave, palisave stream (As'.); parissava stream of events (Pkt.); parasa_ urine (Or.); prasra_va (Skt.); parissuta overflowing (Pali)(CDIAL 7897). prasrava flow of milk into udder (Mn.); pa_rso mu_kvo to let milk flow into udder (of cows)(G.) (CDIAL 8887). prasravati flows forth (AV.); prasravan.a gushing forh (RV.); gushing forth of milk from udder (Ya_j.); gushing forth of urine (Skt.); passavati flows out (Pali); pasoijan.u to contain milk (breasts or udder)(S.); pa_sna_ milk to flow into udder (H.); pa_s cow's udder (G.)(CDIAL 8888). prasra_va urine (Car.); overflowing scum of boiling rice (Skt.) pasa_u a method of cooking rice (S.); passa_va urine (Pali); pasa_wa_ scum of boiled sugarcane juice mixed with water and again boiled (Bi.)(CDIAL 8889). pasa_wan skim milk (Bi.); channa_ du_dh lit. strained milk (Mth.); pasa_wan overflow from anything boiling, scum of rice (H.)(CDIAL 8890). prasruta flowed forth, wet, moist (MBh.); prasruti oozing out (Skt.); pasoa_ fomenting feet and legs in warm water (P.); pasoi_, pasewa_ place where earth begins to get moist when digging a well (Bi.)(CDIAL 8892). Straining vessel; strains, filters: parisra_van.a straining vessel, filter (Skt.); parisravati trickles (RV.); parissa_van.a water-strainer (Pali); perahana (Si.)(CDIAL 7898). parissa_ve_ti strains (Pali); paris(s)a_ve_i (Pkt.); peranava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 14679). Water strainer, a requisite of a bhikku: parissa_vana a water strainer, filter (one of the requisites of a bhikku); parissa_vanaka used in negative: aparissa_vanaka one who has no strainer; not to be filtered, i.e. so that there is nothing left to be filtered; perh. 'not oveflowing'; parissa_vita strained, filtered; parissa_veti to strain or filter; pp. parissa_vita; parissuta overflowing (Pali.lex.) parisra_vah. effluxion, effflux; parisravah. flowing, streaming; gliding down; a river, torrent; birth of a child; parisra_van.am. a filtering vessel; parisrata trickling, dropping, flowing; sra_vah. flow, flowing, oozing; sra_vaka causing to flow, pouring out, exuding (Skt.lex.) yavya_ stream (Naigh.); yavya_vati a place name (RV.); yo streamlet (Ash.); yu_ (Kt.); zas' irrigation channel (Dm.); yab (Tor.Phal.Sh.); ya_p, ya_ba_i (Sh.); zai irrigation channel (Kal.); zoi (Kho.); j small stream in a torrent bed (L.)(CDIAL 10442). cf. vaham.ta pres. part. carrying, flowing (Pkt.); vahi~da_ flowing (of water)(P.); bowa~ti_ flowing (A.); vahant carrying, flowing; pres. part. of vahati (Skt.)(CDIAL 11457). uyavai jungle stream; jungle (Ta.lex.) Low flat land by a river: o_vit.a low flat land by a river (Si.)(CDIAL 13892).

6294.Image: to spring, leap: pa_yccu spring, leap; pa_ytal to spring, leap, bound, gallop, prance (Pur-ana_. 24); to pierce, penetrate, plunge into (Pu. Ve. 6,4); to rush against, butt; pa_yccal bounding, galloping, rushing; butting; piercing; rudeness; pa_yccal-ka_t.t.utal to cause to spring, leap up; to set one against another, as a ram or a butting goat; pa_yccal-ma_t.u butting bull; a sport of bull-baiting amongst kal.l.ars wherein bulls are tethered to long ropes and sought to be thrown down (E.T. iii,90)(Ta.lex.)

6295.Image: lion; five-faced; ornamental plate worn on the forehead: pacaciyam, paca_ciyam < paca_sya (Skt.) lion, as broad-faced; pacamukan- S'iva; lion; pacavattiram lion, as broad-faced; pacavattiran- S'iva, as five-faced < paca-vaktra; paca_n-an-an- = aimmukatto_n-; vattirapan:ki < vaktra-bhan:gi_ worshipping the five faces of S'iva (Tattuvap. 64)(Ta.lex.) piakan- S'iva, as destroyer (Tiruva_ca. 1,7)(Ta.lex.)

6296.Image: inner sanctuary of the temple: pacaram place, place of abode; a portion of the inner sanctuary in a temple (Ta.lex.)

6297.People, populace: pailam people, populace (Patir-r-up. 17,9); pai_l id. (Tiva_. MS.); pailam id. (Pur-ana_. 62, 10, Ki_r..kkur-ippu); pacai a sub-division of pa_n.t.iya ve_l.a_l.as; pacukka_ran- id. (E.T. vi,17) (Ta.lex.) ?cf. mulu people; mul all persons (Go.); mur..u al, entire, whole (Ta.)(DEDR 4992).

6298.Malabar night-shade: pacal.ai Malabar night-shade, basella; and some other plants; pacal.a, pas'al.a basella; vas'al.a, vayar-a p. oleracea (Ma.); basal.e Malabar night-shade, b. alba; basale b. cordifolia, b. lucida or lubra (Ka.); baccale-bal.l.i portulaca quadrifolia (Ka.); basale Malabar night-shade, b. alba (Tu.); ti~_ga-baccali b. cordifolia[b. rubra = b. alba = b. cordifolia = b. lucida](DEDR 3824). vr.s'cikapattrika_ the plant basella cordifolia (Skt.)(CDIAL 12082). Basella rubra: potaki, putika (Skt.); lalbachlu, poi (H.); rakto-pui, poi (B.); velgond (M.); pasalei (Ma.); vaslakkirai (Ta.); batsala (Te.); basala (Ma.); leaves: demulcent, diuretic, useful in gonorrhoea and balanitis; juice of leaves: used in urticaria, and in cases of constipation particularly in children and pregnant women; habitat: throughout India (GIMP, p.34).

6299.Image: snare: pa_s'aka, pa_cike, pa_san:gi, ha_san:gi = pa_s'a at the end of a cmpd. : a noose, a snare; a tie, a cord, a rope, a fetter (Ka.lex.) pa_cam noose, snare (Man.i. 22,71)(Ta.lex.) ha_sa, ha_s'a, pa_s'a a tie etc. (Ka.lex.) pa_s'a noose, snare, cord, fetter (RV.); pa_s'aka, pa_s'i_ fetter, rope (Skt.); pa_s'ika_ leather strap on plough (Skt.); pa_sa string, tie, fetter; pa_saka a bow (for dress)(Pali); pa_sa, pa_saya noose (Pkt.); po_s' trap, net (Kt.); pas' bird-snare of a horsehair noose, noose (Kho.); pa_s'iya_ snare (WPah.); pa_s'i_ hanging (WPah.); pa~_so suffocation by hanging (Ku.); pasyu_n.o to throttle (Ku.); pa_so net (N.); pa_h fringe of short hair (A.); pa_h-za_l fishing-net (A.); pa_s noose (B.H.); net (Mth.); pa_sa net (Or.); kes-pa_s lock of hair (Mth.); pa_sa_, pa~_sa_ noose (H.); pa_si_ hobble for a horse (H.); pa_sau noose (OG.); pa_su (Konkan.i); pasa sling, net (to capture wild animals) (Si.); pasra_ fishing-net (Bi.)(CDIAL 8133). pa_s'in laying snares; birdcatcher (A_past.); pa_s'ika (VarBr.S.); pa_siya using a noose (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8136).

6300.To be suitable; (dress) suits: pa.c (pa.c-) to be suitable (dative of person)(Ko.); po.c- (dress, hairdressing) suits (To.)(DEDR 4059). Coat of mail: pa_cam coat of mail, mail, kavacam; noose, snare, as a weapon; cord; a kind of battle array (Ta.lex.) pa_cam cord; noose, snare as a weapon (Man.i. 22,71); a kind of battle-array (Pa_rata. Patin-a_n-. 18); tie, bondage, fetter (Na_n-man. i.99)(Ta.lex.) pa_cavar those who manufacture and sell ropes (Cilap. 5,26, Urai)(Ta.lex.)

6301.Made of cotton: ka_pa_sa made of cotton (A_s'vS'r.);[?a compound of ku_ra- cloth + paci- cotton (Ta.)(DEDR 3836); cf. kore clothes (Ka.); ku_ra a set of cloths, thick cloth (Ma.); ku_rai cloth, clothes (Ta.)(DEDR 1925)]; kupa_ha_ id. (P.); ka_rpa_sika made of cotton (MBh.); kappa_sika id. (Pa.); ka_pa_hi_ (S.); kapa_si_ id., downy, light green (H.)(CDIAL 3072-3)[(CDIAL 7688: pa~ji- ball of cotton (Skt.); pa~_zi wisp of cotton, roll of cotton or thread (A.); pa~_ij wisp, roll (esp. of cotton)(B.)] ka_rpa_sa made of cotton; cotton; cotton-cloth; ka_rpa_sa-ca_pa a bow for dressing cotton; ka_rpa_savivaran.a the spreading out or hatcheling of cotton; ka_rpa_sa-s'o_dhana the dressing of cotton; ka_rpa_si the cotton plant, gossypium herbaceum (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) piju to card cotton (Ka.); pi_ccu (Ma.); pan-n-u, piy (Ta.); pigulu to be burst (Te.); pid.aru, pidar-u to burst, to split (Ma.); pijan.e_m. to card or comb, as cotton (M.)(Ka.lex.) pajike, aji, paji, haji the ball or roll of cotton from which the thread is spun (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) patti, parti, par-ti, haji, hatti cotton in the pod, or not cleared from the seed (Ka.Te.); pari, paci, pacu, parutti (Ta.); paai, parutti (Ma.); patti cotton in general (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Cotton carding: pija_ra a carder or comber of cotton (Ka.); pija_ri_ (M.H.); pijari, pija_ri (Te.); piji, uja, huja a quantity or skein of cotton yarn (Ka.); pijaka_ (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. piju, hiju to divide; to separate; to card cotton (Ka.Te.); pi_ccu (Ma.); pan-nu, piy (Ta.); pigulu to be burst (Te.); pid.aku, pidar-u to bust, to split (Ma.); pijane_m. to card or comb as cotton (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to tousle cotton in a pot: pacu-kat.ai to tousle cotton with a turning stick in a pot (Ta.lex.) Cotton: karun.-kan.n.i a species of cotton, gossypium obtusifolium (G.Tn.D. i,161)(Ta.lex.) For -pac- cf.: karpa_sa the cotton plant gossypium herbaceum (Sus'r.); karpa_si_ the plant; karpa_saki_ (Bhpr.); kappa_sa, kappa_si_ cotton, silk-cotton tree (Pali); kappa_sa cotton, wool (Pkt.); kappa_si_ cotton plant (Pkt.); karbeso obl. cotton (Kt.); kapas cotton plant, cotton (with seeds)(K.); kapa~_ha cotton (S.); kapa_h cleaned cotton (L.); kapa_h, kupa_h cotton plant, raw cotton (P.); kapa_s cotton (Ku.); kapa_, kaba_s cotton; kapa_si cotton plant (N.); kapa_h cotton (A.); ka_pa_s cotton plant, cotton in pod (Bi.Bhoj.); kopa_s (H.); kapa_sa cotton (OAw.); kapa_s cotton, cotton plant (G.); kapa_s, kapu_s cotton (M.); kaps'i_ the plant (M.); ka_ppu_sa cotton (Konkan.i); kapu cotton tree, cotton (Si.); kapa_ raw cotton (Or.); kap, kaph cotton (M.); gupa_sa cotton (D..); gupa_s (Burus.a_ski_.); kravas cotton plant (Kal.); karvas (Kho.); khaya_s (Sh.); karva_s (Pers.)(CDIAL 2877). kapset.ha_, kapset.hi_ dried cotton plant stems for fuel (H.)(CDIAL 2878). kapa_s'iya_ pl. cotton seed (G.); kapa_syo (S.) (CDIAL 2879). ka_rpa_sa made of cotton (A_s'vS'r.); ka_pa_saka (MBh.); kupa_ha_ (P.)(CDIAL 3072). ka_rpa_sika made of cotton (MBh.); kappa_sika made of cotton; cotton cloth (Pali); kappa_siya made of cotton (Pkt.); seller of cotton (Pkt.); ka_pa_hi (S.); kapa_hi_, kupa_hi_ made of cotton, light green (P.); kapa_hi_ made of cotton (A.); ka_pa_siya_, ka_pa_se (B.); kapa_sia_ (Or.); kapa_si (Bhoj.); kapa_si_ made of cotton, downy, light green (H.)(CDIAL 3073). [For semantics of 'light green' cf. paca to be gree (Ta.); pa_ci that which is green; moss (Ta.)(DEDR 3821)]. cf. paci cotton (Kur-un. 353)(Ta.); pajike_ (Ka.); pai (Ma.); pacu cotton (Kampara_. Ma_ri_ca. 70); paci cotton coloured with lac-dye (Takkaya_kap. 33, Urai); pacu id. (Kampara_. Ula_viyal. 10)(Ta.lex.) Cotton: paci, pacu cotton, cloth, cotton cushion (Ta.); pai cotton (Ma.); poj cotton blossom (To.); paji, pajike ball of cotton from which thread is spun (Ka.)(DEDR 3836). pa~_ij wisp, roll (esp. of cotton (B.); paji_, pajika_ ball of cotton from which thread is spun (Skt.); pa~_zi wisp of cotton, roll of cotton or thread (A.)(CDIAL 7688). pija_ cotton (Skt.); picu cotton (Car.); picavya, picula (Skt.)(CDIAL 8162). paji, paji_, pajika_ ball of cotton from which thread is spun (Skt < Drav.; collides with paja, pija_ in NIA.); pa~_ij wisp, roll (esp. of cotton)(B.)(CDIAL 7688).[cf. phonetic shift in: Uncleaned cotton in the pod: van:ga cotton (Skt.); ba~_ga_ cotton plant gossypium herbaceum (Bi.); ba~_go, ba~_ga_ uncleaned cotton in the pod (Mth.); ba~_ga_ id. (H.); (CDIAL 11196). van:ka-c-ca_tar a kind of embroidered silk (Perun.. Ucaik. 42,205) (Ta.lex.)] Cotton: ba~gaur cotton seed (Bi.)(CDIAL 11198). paci ven.t.iri-c- cecut.ar (Kur-un. 353); white cloth; paciyun. kal.aiya_-p- pun.n.ar (Pur-ana_. 353); red silk-cotton tree; cer-ukkar-r-a pacimalarc-c- ci_r-at.i (Ci_vaka. 2339); cotton coloured with lac-dye; pacimellat.i (Takkaya_kap. 33, Urai); cotton plant; dense thicket; anything loose or bushy, as cotton, down, etc.; paci-t-tan.akku white silk-cotton tree; paci-y-at.ar cleaned cotton; pacir-r-ot.ar the soft fibre of cotton drawn out in spinning (Ta.lex.) Bow for ginning cotton; image: to tousle cotton with a turning stick in a pot: pacarai to gin cotton; paca_ram condition of being frayed, as cloth (Ta.lex.) paca-vat.t.an-tat.i bow for ginning cotton; pacu-k-kot.t.ai handful of cotton prepared for spinning (Ta.); pacu-k-kat.ai, pacu-kot.t.u to tousle cotton with a turning stick in a pot; pacu-k-kot.t.i cotton-cleaner; pacu-cu_r to tousle cotton with the fingers for separating the seeds; pacu-t-tuy ends of cleaned cotton; mun-n-arp pacuttuypo_lu ma_kalin- (Kur-al., 360, Urai)(Ta.lex.) paca_ri, pija_ri < pinja_ra, paja_ra_ (U.) a class of cotton-cleaning Muhammadans; pacu-k-ka_ran- a sub-division of Ve_l.a_l.as; pacu-k-ka_ra-c-cet.t.i; pacu-kot.t.i cotton-cleaner; pacai a sub-division of Pa_n.t.iya Ve_l.a_l.as; pacu-p-pi_li, pacupili an ancient tax on cotton (Ta.lex.) pia_ro cotton-carder (S.); pi~ja_ra_, pa~ja_ra_ (H.); pi~ja_ro (G.); pi~ja_ri_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 8163). piy (-v-, -nt-) to be carded (as cotton), be loosened; (-pp-, -tt-) to card (cotton), to rip, tear into small bits (Ta.); piccuka, pi_ccuka to tug, tear in pieces, prepare wool for carding (Ma.); piju, hi_cu, i_cu to card cotton (Ka.); pinju to card cotton with the fingers (Te.); penja_ri_ the cotton-cleaner caste (< IA; CDIAL 8163)(DEDR 4171). pimjai cards cotton (Pkt.); pian.u (S.); pijan. (L.); pijun. (L.); pijn.a_ (P.); pa_ja_un.a_ (P.); pi~ja_ (B.); pe~ja_ (B.); pijiba_ (Or.); pi~_jna_ (H.); pi~_vu~ (G.); pi~jn.e~ (M.); pinnana_ (EP.); pi_nna_ (H.)(whence pinna_ to be carded)(CDIAL 8159). pim.jan.a carding cotton (Pkt.); pizonu ball of wool or cotton ready for spinning (Kho.); pe~jan carding (B.); pi~jan. (G.)(CDIAL 8160). pia_ro cotton-carder (S.G.); pi~ja_ra, pa~ja_ra (H.); pi~ja_ri_ (M.)(CDIAL 8163). pijana act of carding, bow for carding (Skt.); pian.i cotton-carding bow (S.); pijan. (L.); pijun. (P.); pi~jn.i_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 8160). Cotton bale: pacu-p-poti cotton bale (Ta.lex.) pa~_jn.e~ to smear paste on the warp (M.); pa~_jna_ to solder (H.)(CDIAL 8926). pa~_jan., pa~_jn.i_ paste for smearing on thread (G.); pa~_jan. warp-paste (M.)(CDIAL 8927). Sacred thread: paca-vat.i sacred thread of hair; (pacavat.i ma_rpin-a_n-ai : Te_va_, 228,5); pa~ca-vat.am, pa~ca_vat.am, pa~cina_n. sacred thread worn by dvijas; pu_n.u_l (Ya_r... Aka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa~cavat.i the sacred grove on the banks of the Goda_vari, where Si_ta_ was abducted by Ra_van.a; (pacavat.i maca : Kampara_. Akat. 57). Cotton, cloth: phet.wa_l a kind of cotton (Bi.); phet.i skein of thread (B.)(CDIAL 9107). Cotton cloth: pas'ty wick (To.); parti, par..ti, patti cotton in the pod, cotton in general (Ka.); parati cotton cloth (Kod..); parutti cotton (Ta.Ma.); Indian cotton plant, gossypium herbaceum; pa_ram cotton plant (Ta.); parti cotton (Tu.Kui); pratti, parti, par.ti cotton (Kuwi); p(r)atti cotton (Te.); part id. (Go.)(DEDR 3976).

6302.Decoration: pasana, gan.d.a-vasana, gan.d.a-pasadana, gan.d.a-vasadana grand decoration; pasadana (Tadbhava of prasa_dhana) to decorate; pasa, pasa_yte a mistress of the robes; gan.d.a-vasana an excellent cloth; prasa_dhana decorating, decoration, embellishment, ornament, dress, toilet (Skt.Ka.); pacca (Tadbhava of pracchada or prasa_dhana) dressing; dress; embellishing, adorning; an ornament; pacca-ga_r-a a man whose occupation is embellishing or adorning, a dresser, a master of the robes; paccad.a, accad.a, haccad.a, paccavad.a (Tadbhava of pracchada) a large wrapper; a stout cotton cloth, generally twenty-four cubits long and two cubits broad; to make it broader, it is cut crosswise, and the two haves are sewn together; it is used as a wrapper or cover at night (Ka.); pacca (Te.); paccavat.am (Ta.Ma.); paccad.isu, haccad.isu to dress, to adorn; paccavad.ati a woman whose occupation is dressing or adorning, a mistress of the robes; pacca_yla, paccayila, pacca_yila, pasa_yita a master of the robes (Ka.lex.) cf. pacca-vat.am a long piece of cloth, used as a blanket, bedsheet or screen (Ko_yilo. 94)(Ta.); patccad.amu (Te.); paccapad.a (Ka.); paccavat.am (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Clothes, cloth; packing: pucch loose end of loincloth hanging in front (Mth.)(CDIAL 8249). po_c cotton cloth, muslin (Wg.); puc id. (Kt.); duster, cloth (Pr.); pu_cuk clothes (Pr.)(CDIAL 8400). puc clothes, cloth (?Br.); pose to twist, plait, make rope (Ka.); hose to twine (Ka.); poyipini to twist (as rope)(Tu.); poja (poji-) to pack, make a bundle; n. act of packing (Kui); po_jali to tie up in a cloth (Kuwi); pocinai to wrap (Kuwi); poje to wrap, twist, entwine (Malt.)(DEDR 4479)[cf. va_sana covering dress (Skt.); clothing (Pali); ba_san hem of trousers; trouser seam (Tor.)(CDIAL 11598). va_sayati clothes (RV.); vasanava_ to clothe, dress, cover (Si.)(CDIAL 11600). po.c (dress, hairdressing) suits (To.); pa.c to be suitable (dative of person)(Ko.)(DEDR 4059). an-su selvage, edge of a cloth (Ta.); acu id., border (Ka.); ancu id. (Te.); acala edge of border of a garment (Skt.) (DEDR 57). a_cu armour (Ta.lex.)] Skin, hide: paccai skin, hide (Ta.)(DEDR 3833). Image: covering of the lute: ya_r..: paccai skin, hide; covering as of the body of a ya_r.. ,lute (Ta.); pa_ca skin of the leg (Tu.); pacx natural outer sheath or covering, bark (Br.); paci_rok, paci_ronk outer layer or crust (Br.)(DEDR 3833). Head-kerchief: pa_chur.i_ head-kerchief (B.); pa_chur.a_ sheet, scarf (Or.); pachor.i_ head-kerchief (H.); pa_sod.a_ (M.); pichaur.o (Ku.); pichaur.a_, pichaura_ (H.); pichor.i_ (G.); pacheuro (N.)(CDIAL 7991). pichaut.i_ bandage passed round a load on the back (P.)(CDIAL 7992). pachevad.a, pached.i_ outergarment (OG.); pracchadapat.a covering (Skt.)(CDIAL 8497). pracchada cover, wrapper (Skt.); pacchada cover, garment (Pali); pacchaya a kind of garment (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8496). pacchanna covered, shut up (S'Br.); covered, hidden (Pali); pracchan.n.a (Pkt.); pisan covering, concealment (Si.)(CDIAL 8498). Waist cloth: poz cloak (To.); pace, paja_, paje a small do_tra used for various purposes (Ka.); pace waist-cloth (Kod..); pance a man's lower garment (Te.); paca_ a short dhoti (M.)< Persian (DBIA.238).

6303.Fragrance: paccilai = ko_t.t.am patchouli; Arabian costum; costus shrub, saussurea lappa (Ci_vaka. 1905); putchock, fragrant costus root (Kampara_. Kumpaka. 145); kut.t.am Arabian costum, ko_s.t.am (Malai.); ko_s.t.am Arabian costum, clstus speciosus; costus shrub, saussurea lappa (M.M.); putchock, a fragrant substance (Ta.); paccilai a fragrant creeper, nar-aikkot.i (Pur-ana_. 168, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) "Saussurea auriculata = aplotaxis auriculata: kus.t.ha (Skt.); kur, pa_chak (H.B.); the aplotaxis auriculata is a native of the mountains around Cashmere, and has been used in Hindu medicine form an early age. Its root is described as aromatic, stimulant and useful in cough, asthma, fever, dispepsia and skin diseases. It enters also into the composition of some pastiles for fumigation." (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.182). Saussurea lappa: kushtha (Skt.); kuth (H.P.K.); pachak (B.); ouplate (M.); goshtam (Ta.); kustam (Te.); sepuddy (Ma.); root: tonic, stomachic, carminative, stimulant, used as spasmodic in asthma, cough and cholera and as alterative in chronic skin diseases and rheumatism; roots contain essential oil, alkaloid saussurine and a bitter resin; the drug has a remarkable effect in controlling bronchial ashtma, especially those of the vago-tonic type; physical constants of the essential oil from root (Parfus de Fr., 1936, 271); habitat: Kashmir, 8,000-12,000 ft. (GIMP, pp. 222-223).

6304.Gamboge: paccilai Mysore gamboge, garcinia xanthochymus (Ta.); pacca_ri (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ja_rige-hul.i-mara Mysore gamboge, garcinia morella = garcinia pictoria (Ka.)(DEDR 2467). cf. o_n.t.e-pul.i the sour fruit of garcinia cambogia (Te.); o_t.e the tree garcinia pictoria (Ka.)(DEDR 1044). Gamboge is a gum-resin obtained from garcinia hanburii (Fam. guttiferae), a tree indigenous to South-east Asia... The liquid is collected in the internode of a large bamboo. When sufficient liquid has been collected, it is poured into smaller bambooos in which it solidified in about a month. The bamboos are then heated until they crack and the gamboge is removed. Gamboge occurs in rolls 15-20 cm long and 3-6 cm in diameter or in cakes. The former variety, pipe gamboge, is preferred. The surface, which is brownish-orange in colour, is frequently covered with a greenish-yellow powder and bears longitudinal striations formed by contact with the fibres of the bamboo... Gamboge is a typical gum-resin, and when triturated with water, it forms a yellow-emulsion. Good gamboge contains 70-80 per cent ofresin (gambogic acid) and 15-20 per cent of water-soluble gum with which is associated oxidase enzyme. Gamboge is no longer used in human medicine but is sometimes given as a purgative to cows. It is also used as a pigment. (G.E. Trease and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 12th edn., London, Bailliere Tindall, 1983, pp. 470-471). Yellow resin: paccilai Mysore gamboge, garcinia xanthochyumus (Ta.); pacca_ri (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Garcinia mangostana: Wehmer records that the rind contains 5.5 percent of tannin, and a resin... a yellow, crystalline, bitter principe, mangostin... Kirtikar and Basu, quote Rumpf, who states that the bark and young leaves are employed by the Macassars in diarrhoea, dysentery, and affections of the genito-urinary tracts, and also as a wash for aphthae of the mouth. ... that the rind is used as an astringent medicine for diarrhoea and dysentery... they say that the value of the rind lies in the yellow resin which it contains... which acts as a stimulant to the intestines... They quote Waitz, who recommends a decoction of the powdered rind as an external astringent application. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p. 622).

6305.Putrid: pur..ukka putrefy, rot (Ma.); pur..i putrefy (Ka.); pung- (meat) becomes slightly decomposed, (sore) festers a little (Kod..); purigan.t.u anything eaten or perforated by worms; purkuni to rot, decay, become putrid; purn:guni, purun:guni to ferment, decompose, decay; purn:gelu fermented, decayed, mouldy; purn:gat.u id.; fermentation, decay; puppi, puppu decay, rottenness (Tu.); p(r)uccu to rot, be putrified, decay; p(r)uppi rottenness, decay (Te.); pur.i- to be worm-eaten (Go.); poccna_ (puccyas) to rot, fester (Kur.)(DEDR 4312). cf. pun.d.ra worm (Skt.); pul.ava worm, maggot (Skt.); phullaka worm (Skt.); phu_l maggots hatched in meat (H.)(DEDR 4312). Insect: pu_cci insect, beetle, worm (Ta.); any insect (Ma.); pu_ci, bu_ci worm, insect (Ka.)(DEDR 4353). Flea: plus.i a partic. noxious insect, (prob.) flea (RV.); pulus.u flea (Kho.); pus'i_ (Konkan.i); pus'um (Gypsy); purs.um (D..); puc (Ash.); pru~_c (Wg.); ruci (Kt.); pus'ugu_ (Pr.); ple_ic (Pas'.); pisua, pisua_ (Pkt.); pis'om, pis'um (Gypsy); s.is. (Pas'.); ples.uk, pes.uk (Gaw.); pri_s.u (Kal.); pyu-mash (+ mas'aka-)(Tor.); qi_s.h (= ci_s.)(Mai.); pres.uko (Sv.); pri~_s.u, pri~_zu, pri_zu, piza (Phal.); pyus'u, dat. pis'is (K.); pihu~, pissu~_ flea (L.); pi_u~_ gnat (L.); pissu_ flea (P.); t.l.iu~_, piu~_, priu_, pis'u_ (WPah.); pisu (B.); pi_hu_, pissu_, pi_su_ (H.); pisu_, pi_ (collective) fleas (M.); pras.u~_ (Dm.); las.u_k (Pas'.); ca_'s. (Bshk.)(CDIAL 9029). Fetid smell: poca fetid smell; pocaka_, pocara_ rotten, putrid (Or.)(CDIAL 8415). Worm: pur..u worm, maggot (Ta.); worm, maggot, moth, mite (Ma.); pu. worm, maggot (Ko.); puf worm, intestinal worm (To.); pur..u, pur..a worm (Ka.); pul.u worm (Kod..); puri worm, mite, moth (Tu.); pur(u)gu, pur(u)vu, pruvvu worm (Te.); purre worm (kol.Nk.); pur.ut worm (Pa.); pud.ut insect (Ga.); pur.i_ (pl. pur.k) worm (Go.); pliguli insect; pr.iyuli worm (Kuwi); pocgo_ worm, fleshy larva esp. of beetle (Kur.); pocru worm (Malt.); pu_ worm, maggot, caterpillar (Br.); pul-mak(k)i tapeworm (Br.)(DEDR 4312). pu_ti putrid (AV.Pali); pus (MBh.); stench (Skt.); pu_i stinking; stench (Pkt.); pu~_i pus (S.); fi_-va_n to rot, stink (Md.)(CDIAL 8323). putikam. despicable (As'.); pu_iya stinking (Pkt.); pui a privy (S.); pui, poi rotten (Or.); pui_ pimple (M.)(CDIAL 8324). pulaka kind of insect or vermin (Skt.); pok worm (A.); poka_ insect, worm (B.); poka insect, worm, maggot, moth (Or.); pokar.a_ worm-eaten (Or.); poka_, po~ka_ caterpillar, worm, wood-worm (H.); bo~ka_ big flying insect on plants (H.)(CDIAL 8393). pur..u to be worthless (as a worm-eaten thing)(Ta.); purigan.t.u perforated by worms (Te.)(DEDR 4312). pocca very soft (Pkt.); poccad.a, puccad.a sapless, worthless, dirty (Pkt.); po_cro_ hollow (WPah.); poc unhusked rice which is soft and has no grains in it; pocu~ soft, feeble (G.)(CDIAL 8395).

6306.Arrogance: pisaru infatuation: foolish pride, arrogance, refractoriness (Ka.H.); anger (Tu.); pisa_ mad (M.); pisa_t.an.e_m., pisa_l.an.e_m. to become rabid (M.); pisaru tege to reprove, to scold (Ka.lex.) pe_n:kul.i, pe_n:kun.i, he_kul.i a demon; madness, fury (Ka.); e_pi, be_pi, ve_pi (Te.); ve_n:kul.iva_l devil's milk (Ka.lex.) paigambara a prophet; a messenger from heaven (Ka.); pe_gambara (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) humas pride, arrogance (Ka.); mummassu (Te.); himata, himmata boldness, courage, spirit, joy (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) pisaru anger, displeasure (Tu.lex.) piso foolish; pisa_i cause to get mad; folly (Kon.lex.) Refractoriness: muju_ri, mu_juvari, mu_ju_ri refractoriness (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) musun.d.i, mu_san.d.i a crooked, perverse, rude person; a coward (Ka.); mucut.an-, mucun.t.an- < mucu ape (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pis'a_ca demon (AV.); pisa_ mad (M.)(CDIAL 8216). pica_cam < pis'a_ca devil, goblin; spirit of malevolent character (Cu_t.a_.); pica_cu (Pin..); pica_car a class of supernatural beings, one of patin-en.-kan.am (Tiruva_lava_. 6,2)(Ta.lex.) cf. kan.am divided into 18 classes: amarar, cittar, acurar, taittiyar, karut.ar, kin-n-arar, nirutar, kimpurut.ar, kantaruvar, iyakkar, vicaiyar, pu_tar, pica_car, antarar, mun-ivar, urakar, a_ka_yava_ciyar, po_kapu_miyar (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

6307.Image: mouse deer: pisa_y the mouse deer, memimna indica (Ka.lex.)

6308.To sprinkle: prec.h to sprinkle (e.g. water), to splash (Dm.); pr.s'ni spotted (RV.)(CDIAL 8351). picir to sprinkle, to drizzle; spray, rain drop (Ta.); pitir drop of water (Ta.); pitar rain (Ma.); pisk urine (To.); picipici oozing, trickling (Tu.); pisaru a bit, particle, small quantity (Te.); pitur crumbs, scattering of food (Pa.)(DEDR 4132). pus. to sprinkle (Pas'.); pars.ati sprinkle (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 8366). To piss: me_ha urine (Mn.); ame_ha retention of urine (TS.); mi_ze urine (Pr.); mi~_n. (Tir.); mo~ (Sh.); mi_ke pl. urine; mi_k pissing (Sh.)(CDIAL 10337). me_hati pisses (RV.); mik to piss (Kho.)(CDIAL 10338). meha_b to get wet (Aw.); miha_na_ to become damp (H.); avame_hanti is wet (RV.)(CDIAL 10338a). me_kam venereal or urinary disease; disease due to impure blood; a urinary disease, leucorrhoea; me_kar water-sprinklers; those who water the roads, as for a king's progress (I_t.u, 10,1,1); those who clear the way, as for a king; me_kan-am membrum virile (Ta.lex.)

6309.Mildew: phup(h)i mildew (Or.)(CDIAL 8304). pu_cu, pu_can.am, pu_cal.am mould, mildew, cobweb (Ta.); pu_ to become mouldy (Ta.); pu_kka id.; pu_ppu mould (Ma.); bu_ju, bu_je, bu_si, bu_su, bu_s.t.e mould, mildew, mustiness (Ka.); bu_ju, bu_cu, bu_ci, pu_n:ke mould, mildew; bugut.u mould formed on the surface of foodstuff (Tu.); bu~_ju, bu~_du mould, mildew (Te.); burj- to go mouldy; burja mould (Pa.); buru su_pa to become mildewed; n. mildew (Kui); bu_lu_r mildew (Kuwi)(DEDR 4357). cf. pu.c blue, green (Ko.); blue-grey (To.); pu_shkun yellow (Br.)(DEDR 4356).

6310.Image: dot, cipher: pu_je, pu_ji, pu_jya a dot; the nasal sound; a cipher; a nought in calculation (Ka.); pu_ja (M.); pu_jya (Te.); pu_cciyam (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) pu_cciyam shell representing zero in astrological calculations, worshipped by astrologers (W.); pu_cciyan- draught ox of grey and white spots; pu_cciyam emptiness, scantiness (Na_mati_pa. 622); zero; blank in a lottery (W.) (Ta.lex.) Image: hollow; to perforate: pokku hollow in a tree (Pin..)(Ta.); id. (Te.); pokkan.ai hole in a tree, stone or ground; cleft in a rock (Ta.); poku-ttal to make a hole, perforate (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) bu_ka, bokka, bon.a hole (Ga.); pokkan.a hole in a tree, etc. (Ta.); bogga hole; pokka hole cave (Nk.); pottu hole in the ground, cavity, hollow hand (Ma.); bokke any round, small hole made by rats, etc. (Ka.); bon:ku hollow, void, empty (tu.); bokka hole, orifice, aperture, pit (Te.); botta hole, leak (Te.); hole (Pa.); pokor hollow (Kol.); bu_ka, bokka hole (Go.); pot to bore, perforate (Kond.a.Pe.); pospa (post-) to pierce, bore a hole, mortise (Kui); potir to pierce (Ta.); potu to be perforated (Ta.); po to perforate, make a hole (Ta.); po_thali to hollow out (Kuwi); pattna_ to pierce, perforate, tap with a chisel (Kur.); pattre to pierce (Malt.)(DEDR 4452). pukal hollowness (Ta.); bo_lu id. (Te.); pur..al tube, anything hollow (Cir-upa_n.. 134)(Ta.lex.) Image: chisel: bon:ga hole (Ga.); potpa, poppa a chisel (Pa.); botta hole (Pa.); bogga small hole, perforation (Kol.); pohpi_, po'pi chisel (Go.); patta_ chisel to dig a hole in a piece of wood (Kur.); poku (-pp-, -tt-) to make a hole, perforate (Ta.)(DEDR 4452). bhosa to pierce (Santali.lex.) cf. pogguni to penetrate (Tu.)(DEDR 4238). Image: hole, bore: woju, woji finger-ring, ring, button-hole or similar orifice, hole (of rats, etc.)(K.)(CDIAL 11573). be_gad.e a bore, a hole, as in a gem; bejja (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bagarage, bagarige, bagerage (bajjarakke, vajjarakke) a hole dug for water in the dry bed of a river or stream, a spring (Ka.lex.) van:ku a hole (Ta.lex.) van:ku orifice, hole, hollow as in a stone, rat-hole, snake-hole, cave, cavern, hollow in a tree (Ta.); hole of rats, snakes etc., cave (Ma.); on:ka hole of rats, snakes etc. (Tu.)(DEDR 5212). Inside; granary: haga, hageya a hole in the ground (for storing grain), a subterranean granary (Ka.); haggu low ground (Ka.); patan:ku a hole made in the ground (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) po-ttal to perforate, puncture, make a hole or opening (Na_lat.i, 376); pokkacavaippu treasure trove; hidden treasure (Ta.lex.) Image: hollow: cf. pokal. hollow (G.M.)(CDIAL 8391). Images: small opening; hollow tube: pukra a small opening in wall to let air through; phukar an opening, an aperture, a hole through and through, as in a wall, a chimney opening; phukni a piece of hollow bamboo used as a blowpipe, the Indian substitute for bellows; phon:gla to be enlarged (a hole); to become toothless (Santali.lex.) phogr.a, phugr.i, phugr.i, phogr.a toothless, having lost the front teeth; phon.phon. broken in several places; phon. phon. bhugakena it is broken or holed in many places; phon:ke, phon.phon. that can be seen through, as anything with a hole in it, as a pipe, drain, culvert etc.; phon phon nel tabok kana you can see right through it; phoka to blister, to rise a blister; phoko foam, froth; to puff; phokok phokok imitative of the sound produced by any thick substance when boiling or any yielding substance when pierced (Santali.lex.) Hollow: po_n:ga hollow (Skt. < Prob. Drav.)(CDIAL 8391). bhokro, bhoka_ro hollow, concave (Ku.); bhok hole (G.); bhokvu~ to pierce; bhoka_ru_ hollowness (G.); bhok hole; bhoku_ perforation; bhokn.e~ to pierce; bhoksa_ rude gap (M.); boku hollow, oval (Si.); bhwa_n. hole (N.); bho~k stab (H.); bho~k hole (G.); hollowness (M.); bho~gal., bho~gl.a_ hollow, loose; bho~gl.i_ hollow of a tube (M.)(CDIAL 9624). phukar hole (B.); pokhara cavity in tree trunk (Or.); pokha_r hollowed, excavated (M.); pokhar, pokha_r(a_) hole, cavity (M.); pogal. hollowness; pogar a hollow, vacuum (G.); phoka hollow (K.); phoku (S.); phoka_ (P.); phok, phoka_ hollow (H.); phok hollow (G.); phokat. dregs (P.); phokar hole (B.); phongu hollow (K.); pho~k hollow H.)(CDIAL 8391). pokal. hollow (G.M.); pokl.i_ cavity (G.); phukar hole (B.); pokhara cavity in tree trunk (Or.); pokha_r hollowed, excavated (M.); pokhar, pokha_r(a_) hole, cavity (M.); pogal. hollowness (G.); pogar a hollow, vacuum (G.); po~kan. a hollow grain (Konkan.i); po~ga_ empty, hollow (H.); phukka_ in vain (Pkt.); phoka hollow (K.); phoku (S.); phoka_ (P.); phoko blister, bubble (N.); phok-ha_ useless (Or.); phok, phoka_ hollow (H.); phoka in van (OG.); phok hollow (G.); phokat. worthless thing or person (H.); phokat.u uselessly (S.); phokat. dregs (P.); phokat.o unirrigated field (N.); phokat., phogat. in vain (G.); phukat. gratis (M.); phokso swollen (Ku.); phokso lung (N.); phoka_n.o, phoka_no the bladder, penis (Ku.); phokca_ a small fish (whose belly, blown up by cruel boys, swells enormously)(Mth.); phokar hole (B.); phongu hollow, pithless (K.); pho~k hollow (H.)(CDIAL 8391). bho~s abyss (B.); bhosn.e~ to thrust into; bho~skat. gap in wall or fence (M.); buhuru hole, pit (Si.)(CDIAL 9635). pho~ha blister (A.); pho_ri_ra rotten (Dm.); phosar. idle fellow (P.); phosro empty, useless (N.); phoska_ blister (B.H.)(CDIAL 9114). Image: hole: bhok hole (G.M.); bhokvu~ to pierce (G.); bhoku_ perforation (M.); bhokn.e~ to pierce (M.); bhwa_n. hole (N.); bho~k hole (G.); hollowness (M.); bho~gal., bho~gl.a_ hollow, loose (M.); bho~gl.i_ hollow of a tube (M.)(CDIAL 9624). bhokro, bhoka_ro hollow, concave (Ku.); bhokvu~ to pierce (G.); bhok hole (G.); bhoku_ perforation (M.); bhokn.e~ to pierce (M.)(CDIAL 9624). phukar hole (B.); pokl.i_ cavity (G.); pokal. hollow (G.M.); pokhara cavity in tree trunk (Or.); pogal. hollowness (G.); pogar a hollow, vacuum (G.); po~kan. a hollow grain (Konkan.i); po~ga_ empty, hollow (H.); phok hollow (G.); phokat. worthless thing or person (H.); phokar hole (B.); pho~k hollow (H.); phongu hollow, pithless (K.)(CDIAL 8391). phoko blister, bubble (N.) (CDIAL 8391). pokuttal to make a hole, perforate (Ta.lex.) Image: bubble; foam: mugul.i bubble (Tu.); mo_r..ai, mukir.., mokkul. bubble; mokkul.i (-pp-, -tt-) to bubble up (Ta.); mukkilikka id., ferment (Ma.)(DEDR 4894). pokkul.am bubble (Ta.); pogl blister (Ko.); pig bubble (To.); pugul. blister (Ka.); pokku id. (Te.); bugga bubble (Kol.Te.); popond.el bubbles (Nk.); puka boil (Mand..); bugga, bu_ga bubble (Kuwi)(DEDR 4455). phoko blister, boil (N.)(CDIAL 8391). bobbuli bubble (Ka.); bobbul.i id. (Tu.); bubri id. (?Go.); bubbul.a (Pali); budbuda (Skt.)(DEDR 4525). pokut.t.u bubble (Ta.); pokkil.a id. (Ma.); pokkal.a a blister (Kod..); bugga bubble (Te.Kol.); papel (Pa.); bugga, bu_ga (Kuwi); poka blister (Malt.)(DEDR 4455). phoko bubble, blister (N.)(CDIAL 8391). pugul., hugal.u, hugul.u a blister, a vesicle; pokkul.i a blister, a bubble, a water-bladder (Ma.); pokut.t.u a water-bubble (Ta.); puga_ra_ a bladder or blister (M.); pokka boiling over (Ma.); poccil bubbling up, boiling (Ta.); pugul., pugul.l.e, pugul.l.al. blisters or sores in the mouth (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to bubble up; to swell: pon:ku to boil up, bubble up by heat (Ta.); pon:ka to swell (Te.)(DEDR 4469). bhumbuk to bubble; bhukur., bukur. id.; bhakar. bubbling (Santali.lex.) Foam: pog, pogl foam (Ko.); burugu foam, scum (Ka.); boskur, poncur foam (Kol.); poyor (Pa.); boyul (Go.); poxta_ froth, foam (Kur.); potge, potgo id. (?Malt.); pavvam id., water bubble (?Ta.)(DEDR 4463). po_t.a bubble (Pali)(CDIAL 8398). pon:ku to bubble up by heat, foam and rage (Ta.); pon.n.al boiling, bubbling up (Ma.); pon:g to boil over (Kol.); to swell (Kuwi); to expand (Nk.); pog to boil over (Ko.); pon:gu id. (Ka.); to bubble up, boil, overflowing (Te.); to boil and overflow (Kond.a); pon:kal boiling, bubbling, swelling (Ta.); pon:gali rice boiled in milk (Te.) bugut.i, bugud.u swelling, protuberance (Ka.); bon:gu protuberance (Tu.); puge to swell (Malt.); pugt.o, pugro swollen, a boil (Malt.)((DEDR 4469). porumu to swell (Ta.); prog id. (Pe.Kui); porge to become fat (Malt.)(DEDR 4543). Image: core of a boil: mul.ai core of a boil (Ta.); mol.e id. (Ka.); molaka id. (Te.)(DEDR 4999). Blister; foam; bubble: pol.l.u to blister, swell (Ta.); bubble (Ma.); pol.l.al blister, swelling (Ta.); blistering, pustule (Ma.); pol.l.ikkla to blister (Ma.); pol.l.a blister, bubble; pol.ukuka to blister; pol.ukam blister, watery eruption (Ma.); pol.l.uka to rise in bubbles or blisters (Ma.)(DEDR 4563). phola_ blister (H.)[CDIAL 8398(6)]. pog, pogl foam (Ko.); burugu foam, scum (Ka.); boskur, poncur foam (Kol.); boyul id. (Go.); potge, potgo froth, foam (Malt.); pavvam water bubble (?Ta.)(DEDR 4463). Bubble: budbuda in: budbuda-yas'u bubble (RV.); budbudaka (BHSk.); bubbua bubbling (Pkt.); bud.bud. sound of bubbling (M.); boboi bubble (WPah.); bubbul.a, bubbul.aka bubble (Pali); bubur (K.); bubul.a, bibul.a, bibil.a well, spring, blister, boil (Si.); bud.abud.e_i bubbles; bulabula, bulam.bula_ bubbling (Pkt.); bur.bur.i (S.); bur.kan.u to bubble (S.); burburni small bubbles (A.)(CDIAL 9278). bud.a, bud.u, bod.a sound in imitation of that produced by a vessel, etc., when immersed into water (Ka.); bud.ubud.u in drops (Tu.); bud.abud.a with a bubbling noise; bud.ukku, bud.ukkuna sound produced by anything suddenly sinking in water (Te.)(DEDR 4249). Image: foam: cf. borju lather; boyul foam (Go.); pog, pogl foam (Ko.); potge, potgo froth, foam (Malt.)(DEDR 4463). Foam: phoko, phe~r. foam (Santali.lex.) cf. phen.a foam (Pali)(Pali.lex.) Image: perforation; hollow of a tube: popla_ toothless (P.H.); popara_ hollow, worn out (Or.); popr.u~, popr.i_, popr.o, popcu~ detached scaly crust (G.); popla~_ pl.vain struggles (G.); phopho hollow (S.); phopa_ puffed out or flabby person (M.); phopar hollow (B.); phopara_ full of holes, decayed, spongy; phuphla_ toothless (Or.); pho~para_ hollow (B.); pho~phi_ hollow reed, pipe (H.); pho~phar hollow (H.)(CDIAL 8405). For semant. popla_ toothless (P.H.); cf. perh. cmpd. : pokkai hollow + pal tooth (Ta.) Image: hole: phon:ke a hole in centre; bogoc, bhoskao to make a hole; pion. poyon. holes and cavities; pio poyo emerging from many holes (Santali.lex.) Image: hole; pustule: bakka an empty, void place (Ka.); bakkat.a bareness, voidness (Ka.); bakhal.a open space; any void spot (M.); bokke any round small hole made by rats etc. (Ka.Te.); boriye, bor-iye, bor-r-e (Te.); bho_ka (M.); a bore, hole (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bore, hole: mur..ai to enter; to pierce, bore; n.large mountain cave, cavern, den (Ta.); mur..aicu cave, hole; mu_r..ai a hollow place; mo_r..ai cleft, crevice, subterranean water-course, pool (Ta.); mul.ayuka to creeping, retire, cattle to enter the stable; mul.ekka to gather, shut up as cattle for the night (Ma.); mo_l.e a small hole (made by crabs, etc.) in the banks of ricefields or tanks, a fissure (Ka.)(DEDR 4994). cf. nur..ai opening, aperture, cave (Ta.); nor..e to creep in, etc. (Ma.)(DEDR 3714). Chisel: potpa, poppa a chisel (Pa.); pohpi_, po'pi chisel (Go.); pattna_ to tap with a chisel; patta_ chisel to dig a hole in a piece of wood (Kur.)(DEDR 4452). To chisel, perforate, make a hole: pol.i to chisel, pick (Maturaik. 482); to make holes; to open, puncture, as a blister; to be perforated, punctured (Ta.lex.); hole made with a chisel; be perforated; to bore; pol.ivu chiselling, hewing (Ta.); pol.l.u to bore, make a hole, hew, chisel (Ta.); po_lo_ hollow, empty (Br.)(DEDR 4560). poro small hole (N.); poru cavity (S.)(CDIAL 8398). Image: hollow, empty: pollu empty glume or husk of grain (Ta.); pol.l.u empty, hollow (Ma.); polka hollow, hollowness (Pa.)(DEDR 4562). po_l hollow object, hollowness in a tree (Ta.); bo_lu hollow (Te.)(DEDR 4604-b). pola_ hollow, porous, loose (of soil)(L.); polla, pollad.a, pulla hollow (Pkt.); polla_ hollow (P.); pol, pula_i_ hollowness (P.); pola hollow (Or.); pola_ hollow (M.); empty (Or.); pola_n. hollowness (G.); pol empty tube or grain (M.); polo hollow, weak (Ku.)(CDIAL 8398). po_r-ai hole, hollow in tree, cavern (Ta.); po_r hollow of a tree (Ta.); hole (Ka.); bo.r vagina (Ko.); bor-iya, bor-r-e hole, burrow, hollow, pit (Te.); bor-r-a hole, hollow, cavity in a tree (Te.); borra hole in tree (Ga.Kuwi); bor.o hole of a crab, etc. (Kond.a) (DEDR 4604-a) phora_ hollow (B.Or.); poru cavity (S.); poro hollow (S.); por hollow bamboo (P.); poli cavity (G.); polu~, polru~ hollow (G.)(CDIAL 8398). To draw out in threads; split into filaments: po_r- to split, cleave (Pa.); poye to open, tear; gape (Malt.); po_r.. to be cleft, split, gape; be disunited, split; n.cleft, piece (Ta.); to cleave, split, divide into parts; n.a split, piece, slice; po_r..al hollow of a tree; po_t.e hole in a tree, cavern, hollow; pot.re, pot.t.e, pot.t.are hole in a tree, hollow of a tree (Ka.); pot.t.e the hollow of a stalk or tree (Tu.); por..vu cleft, fissure; po_r..-va_y open mouth (Ta.); bo.t. hollow in tree trunk, hole that goes through (Ko.); p(r)o~_ju, ponju, po~_cu to split into filaments, draw out in threads (Te.); p(r)o~_gu thread, string, one strand in a cord (Te.)(DEDR 4599). Image: hole: pottu hole, rat-hole, small cavity, hollow in a tree (Pur-ana_. 364,11); pottal hole, orifice (Ta.); pot.t.are id. (Ka.); potre id. (Tu.); pottu id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.); pottai hole, orifice (Tiruva_ca. 26,7); potuttal to bore (Patin-o. Mu_tta. 3); to pierce, prick (Maturaik. 598, Urai); potutal to be perforated (Tiv. Tiruccan. 73); pottilam hole in a tree (Ci_vaka. 1395)(Ta.lex.) bona, bod.ga hole (Go.); pondo hole (Kui); poth'nai to hole (Kuwi); pattre to pierce (Malt.); pottal, pottai hole, orifice; po_n- cave (Ta.); po n. tubularity, hole; poku to make a hole, perforate; potu to bore, pierce (Ta.); po_tu a hole as in worm-eaten wood (Ma.); bon:ku hollow; pogul.u a hole (Ka.); bokka hole, aperture; pokka hole (Te.); hole, cave (Nk.); botta hole, leak; bonda hole, bore (Te.); pokor hollow; bogga small hole, perforation (Kol.); hole (Nk.); bonga hole (Ga.)(DEDR 4452). To tear into strips (using a chisel): pol.i to split, tear into strips (as fibre)(Ta.); to split, chip (Ma.); to break (Te.); pol.l.u to be rent or torn (Ta.); pol.iyuka coverings or roof to break, skin to be peeled off (Ma.)(DEDR 4560). Paring, jeweller's polishing stone; abrasion: hol.acu to pare off (Ka.); pol.in:ke, pol.ike bark, skin, peel, crust (Tu.); ploh inba to suffer abrasion, be rubbed off, peel off (skin)(Kui); ploh ispa to abrade, rub off, peel off (Kui)(DEDR 4561). pot jeweller's polishing stone (Bi. ?< po_tra cleaning instrument, Po_tr.'s soma vessel (RV.)(CDIAL 8403-4). pol.i to split, be perforated, tear into strips; depression made by digging (Ta.); split, chip (Ma.); to break (of a stick-like thing, tree)(Kod..); pol.l.u to bore; be rent or torn (Ta.); hole in a tree, hollow in the soil (Ka.); pol.a to open the mouth (Kod..); pori, pol.i to break (Tu.); pul.aruka to split (Ma.); pod.ucu to pierce, prick, gore, bore, perforate (Te.); polka hole in a tree (Pe.); polnga id. (Kuwi); po_lo_ hollow, empty (Br.)(DEDR 4560). polpa to strip the grains from a maize pod (Kui); hol.acu to pare off (Ka.); pol.in:ke bark, peel (Tu.)(DEDR 4561). po_l hollow object (Ta.); bo_lu hollow (Te.)(DEDR 4604). po_r-ai hole, hollow in a tree (Ta.); po_r hole (Ka.); hollow of a tree (Ta.); bor-iya, bor-r-e hole, burrow, hollow, pit (Te.); borra hole in tree (Kuwi)(DEDR 4604). purai tubular hollow, tube, pipe, windpipe (Ta.); perevuni to be bored, perforated; perepini to bore, perforate; burma, burmu a gimlet; berpuri a borer (Tu.)(DEDR 4297).

6311.Iron chisel: paha_r, paha_ray pointed iron bar, crowbar (M.); para_, para_i crowbar, pestle (G.)--with metath. *paha_ri-: pa_ri_ crowbar (G.)(CDIAL 7806). pu(h)a_ri small iron chisel (Or.); pa_ri_ crowbar (G.); paha_r, paha_ray iron bar, crowbar (M.); parha_r wound (Psht.); para_r wound (Tir.Wot..); parha_r (Sv.Phal.); para_r (Bshk.)(CDIAL 8906). Crowbar: pa_rai crowbar, small hoe for cutting grass (Nalvar.. i,33); ha_re crowbar (Ka.)(Ta.lex.); pa_ra iron crowbar, lever, bar used for digging (Ma.); pa.r crowbar (Ko.To.); pa_ren:gi iron crowbar, lever (Tu.); pa_re crowbar, short hoe (Ka.); pa_ra spade, small hoe for cutting grass (Te.); pa_r-a spade (Te.); gad.d.a pa_ra spade (Kol. gad.d.a clod); pahar crowbar (Nk.); pa_ra spade (Ga.Go.Kuwi)(DEDR 4093). Weapon: pa_rai a kind of missile (Kampara_. Na_kapa_ca. 110) (Ta.lex)

6312.Reverence, worship: pu_je, pu_ja_, pu_jye honour, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to superiors, adoration or worship of the gods or idols; pu_je geysu to cause to show respect; pu_jya to be honoured, honourable, respectable, venerable, worshipful; a father-in-law; pu_jyate honourableness, venerableness; pu_jye a respectable woman; pu_jisu to honour, to revere, to worship, to adore; to receive with honour or hospitably; pu_jita honoured, respected, reverenced, worshipped, adored; pu_ja_-vacana a word or title of respect; pu_ja_ri the officiating bra_hman.a or other person of a temple (Ka.Te.Ta.); puja_ri_ (M.); pu_jana reverencing, honouring; worshipping; worship, respect (Ka.lex.) pu_ca_-virutti inam land granted for performing worship in a temple (I.M.P.N.A. 240); pu_cittal to perform acts of ceremonal worship (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-mu. 63)(Ta.lex.) pu_cciyattuvam honour, respect (Civacamava_. 65); pu_cciyam < pu_jya that which is venerable, worthy of worship; honour, reputation (Tan-ippa_. ii,279, 665); pu_cciyan- one deserving respect (Maccapu. Macca_va. 19); pu_can.am coin tied in a piece of cloth and set apart as a votive offering (Na_.); pu_cai worship, homage to superiors; adoration of the gods with proper ceremonies (Ku_rmapu. Kan.n.an-civapu_cai. 1); pu_caimiccam unexpended balance in the daily allowances of a pagoda, i.e. in the daily allowances for the worship in a temple (W.G.)(Ta.lex.) Priest: pujhar a sacrificing priest, the title given to the family of a sacrificing priest; puja, puja agha worship, to offer sacrifice and worship (Santali.lex.) Worship: pu_can-am solemn ritual, worship; devotion (Tiruvil.ai. Narapari. 120); pu_can-ai daily ritual or worship (Kur-al., 18); honouring (Kampara_. Pat.aikka_. 30); pu_can-aipat.aital to honour, perform worship (Kampara_. Pirama_. 184)(Ta.lex.) pu_ju (pl. pu_nga) flower (Kui)(DEDR 4345). pu_ja_ worship (lit. offering of flowers (A_s'vGr.); puja (As'.); puya (KharI.); pu_a_, pujja_ (Pkt.); puja (OSi.); puda offerings, worship (Si.)(CDIAL 8317). pu_jayati honours, worships (A_s'vGr..); pu_je_ti (Pali); pu_jayati (As'.); pujayam.ta (KharI.); pu_e_i, pujjai (Pkt.); pujay (OSi.); pudanava_ to offer gifts in a temple (Si.)(CDIAL 8316). pu_jita honoured (Mn.); worshipped (Pali); pu_iya (Pkt.); pidu (Si.)(CDIAL 8318). pu_jya to be honoured (Mn.); pujja to be worshipped (Pali); pu_jiya (Pali); pujja (Pkt.); pu_ju venerable (S.); pu_j Jain devotee (P.); worshipful (H.); puj (G.)(CDIAL 8319). Flower: phulla expanded, blown (of flowers)(MBh.); open: in su-phulla (R.); full-blown flower (Skt.); blossoming (Pali); opened, blossoming; n. flower (Pkt.); ad.a-pholu half-blown (K.); phulu flower (S.); phull flower (L.P.); fu_l (WPah.); phu_l (Ku.Bi.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.G.M.); phul (N.A.B.); phula (Or.); phu_la (OMarw.Konkan.i); pul open flower, peacock's tail (Si.)(CDIAL 9092). phullati expands, opens (as a flower)(MBh.); phullita blossomed (Pali); phullai blossoms (Pkt.); pholun to expand, open (as a flower) (K.); phulan.u to blossom (S.); phullan (L.); phulln.a_ to swell (P.); fuln.u to bloom, become old (WPah.); phuln.o to swell, blossom, become overgrown, grow grey; phul-phuli_n.o to get puffed up (Ku.); phulnu to swell, blossom, thrive (N.); phuliba to blossom (A.); phula_ to swell, blossom (B.); phuliba_ to swell, expand (Or.); phulab to blossom (Mth.); phu_lai (OAw.); phu_lna_, phulna_ to swell, blossom (H.); phu_lai blossoms (OMarw.); phulvu~ to swell, blossom (G.); phuln.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9093). pholila flower-scented oil (K.); phulelu any fluid perfume (S.); phulel a partic. scent (P.); a cheap scent made from flowers (N.); phuleri, phulauri, phulori, phuluri floral oil (Or.); phulel (Mth.); phula_ela (OAw.); phulel (H.G.M.)(CDIAL 9094). phurr.u_, pl. phurr.ua~_ flower (WPah.)(CDIAL 9091). phulva_ri_ flower garden (OAw.); phulwa_r.i_ (H.)(CDIAL 9096). pu_l pl. flowers (Ga.); pu_p- (pu_t-) to flower; puvvu flower; pu_k- (pu_t-) to flower, blossom (Ga.); pu. flower (Ko.); flower, neck feathers of a jungle cock (Kod..); pu.vi id. (Kod..); pu.f flower; (pu.t-) to blossom (To.); pu_ flower (Ta.Tu.); to flower, blossom (Kond.a); to blossom, flower, bloom, flourish (Ta.); flower, blossom (Ma.Ka.Te.); pu_vu id. (Ma.); flower (Ka.Te.); puvvu flower (Ka.Te.Ga.); pu_ppu flowering, blooming (Ta.); pu_kka to blossom, bud (Ma.); pu_kkal flowering (Ma.); pu_mbe flower bus of a plantain (Tu.); pu_cu to blossom, flower, bloom (Te.); pu_ta flowering, blossoming, blooming (Te.); puv, pu_ta flower (Kol.); pu_ta id. (Nk.); pu_ (pl. pu_vul) id.; pu_p- (pu_t-) to flower, blossom (Pa.); punga_r, pungar, punar flower; poongagai id. ; puya_na_, pu_ina_, po_i_a_na_, puiya_na_, po_y-, pu~_y-, puy-, pu_y- to flower, bloom, blossom; po_y- id. (Go.); puyu (pl. pu_nu) flower, blossom; pu_ki honey (Kond.a); puy (pl. -ku) flower;l pu_ki vi_za bee (Pe.); puy flower; pu_ki vi_je bee (Mand..); pu_pa to blossom, bloom; pu_ki, pu_ki viha bee; pu_ki niju, pu_ki ni_ru honey (Kui); pu_yu_ (pl. pu_nga), pu_nga, pu_yu (pl. pu_nga) flower; pu_ki viha bee; pu_ki ni_yu~ honey (Kuwi); pu~_p, pu_mp flower (Kur.); pu~ydna_, pui~dna_ to bloom, flower (Kur.); pupu flower; puthe to blossom (Malt.)(DEDR 4345). pus.pa flower (Skt.Dhp.NiDoc.); puppha id. (Pali.Pkt.); pesup (Ash.); pu_s.pa (Pas'.); puhupa (OAw.); puph, phu_p, pu_hup (H.); pup (Si.); (w)is'pi_k (Pr.)(CDIAL 8303). pus.pita flowering (MBh.); pupphita (Pali); pupphia (Pkt.); pipi blown (of flowers)(Si.)(CDIAL 8304). pus.payati flowers (MBh.); pupphati flowers (Pali); pipenava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 8305).

6313.Cock: puja, uja, puju, huja, huju a cock (Ka.); puju (Te.); hu_van (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pu_van- (Ta.lex.)

6314.Honour, worship: pus.ya honour, worship (Ka.lex.)

6315.Image: dot: pus.ya a dot or cypher (Ka.lex.) cf. pu_cciyam cipher (Ta.lex.) pusku, puskat.i useless, vain (Tu.lex.)

6316.Price: pus.ya price (Ka.lex.)

6317.Image: cat: pu_cai cat (Tol. Po. 623)(Ta.lex.)

6318.To plaster; smear; wipe; clean: pu_cu to besmear, anoint, daub, rub, spread on, plaster (Te_va_. 627, 5); scrub the floor with cowdung dissolved in water (Pirapulin.. It.t.alin.. 37); to clean (Na_n-.man.ik. 99); to wash with water (Na_n-manik. 35); pu_cur-u-tal to adorn (Ci_vaka. 953)(Ta.lex.) pu_suka to smear, whitewash, plaster, gild (Ma.); pu_juni to smear, rub, daub (Tu.); pu_yu id. (Te.); pusta working clay, modelling (Skt.)(DEDR 4352). pro_ncati wipes off (Mr.cch.); puchati, pujati wipes off (Pali); pum.chai, pucchai, pum.sai, pusai, phum.sadi (Pkt.); pu_jhan., pu~_jhan., pujhun. (L.); pu~_jhn.a_ (P.); pu~chn.u~ (WPah.); po~chn.o to wipe with cloth (Ku.); puchnu to wipe (N.); po~cha_, pu~c(h)a_ (B.); pochiba_ to wipe, smear (Or.); pochab to wipe off (Mth.); pauchai, po~_chab (OAw.); po~chna_, pochna_ (H.); puchai wipes; ra _cha-pocha ashes and dust (OMarw.); pu~chvu_ to wipe (G.); pusn.e~ (M.); pisinava_, pihinava_ (M.)(CDIAL 9011). pro_n.chana wiping out (Nais..); puchana wiping (Pali); pum.chan.a id. (Pkt.); puchani_ cloth for wiping (Pali); pum.chan.i_ small grass-whisk (Pkt.); pu~_jhan., pu~_jhun. settlings, dregs, wiping cloth (P.); pochun.i wiping rag (Or.); po_chan wiping (H.); pusn.e~ wiping rag (M.); pusana broom (M.); pisana, pisina cleaning (Si.)(CDIAL 9012).

6319.Battle: pu_cal battle (a_n-a pu_ca lar-itilam : Kampara_. Ula_viyal. 34); clamour, loud uproar (Kampara_. Ira_van.an-vatai. 228); making known, publishing (Kur-al., 71); wailing, lamentation, complaining, crying (Tol. Po. 79)(Ta.); pu_yal fight (Ma.); puyyal vociferation, lamentation; puyalcu, puyyalcu to call or cry out, viciferate, lament (Ka.)(DEDR 4351). pu_cal-ner-r-i, pu_car-kal.am, pu_car-kal.ari field of battle (Ta.lex.) cf. po_rmukam, po_rmun-ai id. (Ta.lex.) pu_car-par-ai a drum of the desert ract (Ir-ai. 1, pak.18); pu_car-r-ut.i id. (Te_va_. 889,7); pu_can-amayakku theme describing the wailing of kinsfolk on the death of a young warrior (Pu. Ve. 10, Cir-ap. 6); theme describing the wailing of the subjects on the death of their king (Pu. Ve. 10, Cir-ap. 7); pu_can-ama_r-r-u theme describing the success of the invaders seizing the cows, and defeating the forces that pursue to recover them (Pu. Ve. 1,10)(Ta.lex.)

6320.Barren: ba~_d. stalked of blasted corn; field of such (M.)(CDIAL 9124). ba~_jo barren, fallow (Ku.); ba~_j(h)a_ barren (of land or trees)(B.); ba~jhar. blighted and grainless head of small millet (Bi.); ba~_j(h) barren (H.); ba~_jar barren soil (H.)[cf. bajaru-bhu_mi (Te.lex.)](CDIAL 11275).

6321.Wedge: paccar wedge (P.); wedge driven through segment of felly to tighten

spokes (Bi.); pa_car wedge to tighten a post, etc. (M.); paccar. wedge to tighten spokes (Bi.); paccar. linch-pin (Mth.); pha_car wedge; pha_cru~ flat (G.)(CDIAL 8641).

6322.Bulky: parukkai becoming bulky (Ta.lex.) paru to become large, bulky (Ta.); gross, big (Ma.); barda a great person, a virtuous person (Ka.)(DEDR 3972). Bale of cotton: marukai bale of cotton; parutti-p-poti id. (Ta.lex.) People: van:ga name of a people (MBh.); van:gi_ya adj. (Pa_n..gan.a); bam.ga name of a people (Pkt.); ba_n.la_ of Bengal (B.); van:gu, vagu a district in Bengal (Si.)(CDIAL 11197).

6323.Dwarfish: pi_cca, pi_ccan what is small, dwarfish, immature (Ma.); pi_cu shortness, smallness; picce shortness or deficiency in measure or weight (Ka.); pi_cilu thin, slender (Tu.); picca low, base, mean; short, deficient, false (Te.); picca_-kkatti combined pocket knife and iron style, long country knife (Ta.); bisatti knife (Tu.)(DEDR 4214). bhujri_n.o to become dwarfish (Ku.); bhucri_n.o to be dwarfed, be stunted (Ku.); bhosoko stumpy (A.); bhuccar corpulent man (P.); bhuco young shoot or plant, stalk (Ku.); bhucc fat (P.)(CDIAL 9524).

6324.To leap: pinja (pinji-) to leap, rebound, n. a leap; pl. action piska (piski-); pispa (pist-) to cause to rebound (Ku.); pinj- (-it-) to spring, jump; pl. action pisk- (-it-); pinj to spring (Kuwi)(DEDR 4145A.) phan.ati springs (Skt.); phan.ayati makes spring (RV.); a_-pani_phan.at springs over (RV.); phonik to dance (Kho.); paninava_ to spring, jump (Si.)(CDIAL 9044).

6325.Linseed: pesi linseed (Or.)[which is crushed for oil](CDIAL8386). cf. byssos in Ancient Egypt. Fibre: picir fibre (Ta.); pi~_cu the fibrous parts of plants (Te.); pi~_su fibrous matter of fruits (G.)(DEDR 4133). pici, picil, pisil paddy straw (Go.); pi_cu grass, straw (Kuwi); pi_li straw (Ma.)(DEDR 4216). pir. to peel (Kond.a.Pe.); (snake) to slough skin (Mand..)(DEDR 4182). vesa bowstring (Kui); vacca, vaca, wa_ca id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5469). peccu rind, peel (Te.); pecce, peccika shell of coconut, etc. (Te.); pocid rind, husk, shell (of egg), pod, serpent's slough (Pa.)(DEDR 4384). Image: to split, piece: pe_nj to split (Pe.Kuwi); pe_nja id., split wood (Kui)(DEDR 4432). pes'i, pes'ika_ rind of fruit (Sus'r..); pe_sia_ piece (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8384). Weaver: pe_saka_ra weaver (Pali); pehera_ (Si.); pe_s'aka_ri_ female embroiderer (VS.)(CDIAL 8382). Adorned: pe_s'ala adorned (VS.); soft, delicate (Skt.); pe_sala pleasant, beautiful (Pali.Pkt.); pis'olu, pis'ulu tender, delicate, soft (of woollen goods)(K.); pe_s'a ornament (AitBr.)(CDIAL 8383).

6326.Rice-gruel; irrigation: pe_nz to strain water from boiled rice (Kond.a); pe_nj id. (Pe.Mand..Kuwi); pe_nja to strain a liquid, pour off rice water (Kui); pi_sna_ to pour off the water from boiled rice (Kur.); pi_se id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4433). Gruel: e_ju cooked rice, rice-water, gruel; a meal (Kui); ye_u, in: ha_ru ye_uta it.t.inai to marinate (cf. ha_ru salt (DEDR 2674b)(Kuwi)(DEDR 881). ecar water in a pot set over the fire for boiling rice (Ta.); esar, esaru water in a cooking pot when in a state of boiling, water that is strained off from boiled vegetables or pulse, the water with the boiled vegetables, etc., pepper water (Ka.); esaru water boiled for the purpose of dressing food (Te.); esar water boiled for cooking grain (Kol.); hot water in which meal, etc., is boiled or flour is kneaded (Nk.); esar var- (water) to boil (Nk.); esar water in which rice is boiled (Ga.)(DEDR 777). cf. ka_sar yellow water which comes out of strained rice; kaisar boiled rice gruel (Go.)(DEDR 1107). panihata_ a dish made by adding water to rice left over from previous night (Bi.); panta_ boiled rice kept in water for use next day (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 8085). piccha_ scum of boiled rice (Pa_n..); slimy saliva (Car.); pic cream (Ash.); pi_c (Kal.); picha, pichi_ rice-water (S.); picch (L.P.); pi_c(h) (H.)(CDIAL 8154). pe_ya to be drunk; n. beverage (MBh.); drink offering (S'a_n:khS'r.); pe_ya_ rice-gruel (MBh.); peyya- in cmpds. 'drinkable' (Pali); pe_a_, pejja_, pijja_ rice-gruel (Pkt.); peju drinkng (S.); peju, pejo watering of rice land after sowing (S.); peja, peji_ rice-water (S.); peja rice-gruel (Or.); pej thickened milk (H.); rice-gruel (M.); peje~ milk (M.)(CDIAL 8380). cf. pes'f- (pes't-) (ghee or milk) solidifies (To.); peruku curdled milk; pirai fermented buttermilk used for curdling milk (Ta.); piriyuka to coagulate (as milk); piriccal coagulation of milk; pirannuka to curdle (Ma.); pep solidified, curdled milk; pev- (pevd-) (ghee) solidifies, (butter) forms in churning (Ko.); perpuni to be curdled (as milk); perpu curdling agent; bejana, beana curds, curdled milk (Tu.); peru~gu curdled milk, curds; pe_ru, pe_r-u to congeal, curdle (Te.); pereg coagulated milk ready for churning (Kol.); perag, perg curds (Nk.); pergu curds (Ga.); part.ub, parup cream (Pa.); pe_rgu_ curdled milk; pergu buttermilk (Kuwi)(DEDR 4421). pi_yu_s.sa ep. of Soma; milk, soma juice (RV.); beestings (Kaus'.); pe_yu_s.a (Skt.); pi_u_sa, pe_u_sa nectar (Pkt.); pios. beestings (of cow or goat)(Kho.); peyusa beestings (with seven days of birth of calf)(Or.); pyu_s, peus, pewas m., pyu_si_ f. beestings (H.); pisu (S.); phe~h (A.); phenus, phenusa_ (Bi.); phenus (H. >); pi~r.u~s (Sant.)(CDIAL 8241). payas any fluid (esp. milk)(RV.); paya milk, juice (Pali); milk, water (Pkt.); pai milk (Mai.); paya, pa_ milk, water (Si.)(CDIAL 7790). payasyati flows (Pa_n..); pa_sna_ milk to descend into the udder, have a flow of milk (H.)(CDIAL 7791). pa_yasa made of milk (Gr.S'r.); food prepared with milk, rice boiled in milk (Mn.Pkt.); pa_ya_sa rice boiled in milk (Pali); pa_ha id. (A.); payas fluid, water, milk (Si.)(CDIAL 8099). payita watered (of land)(NiDoc.); pa_e_i, pajje_i gives to drink (Pkt.); pa_ye_ti gives to drink, irrigates (Pali); pa_yayati gives to drink (RV.)(CDIAL 8098). pai_ fat (Kho.); pi_vas nourishment (milk, fodder, etc.)(RV.)(CDIAL 8243). [cf. mez wen (A.); me~jh fat (L.); menj fat (WPah.); me_dya fatty, thick (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 10326).] pi_van well-nourished, abundant (RV.); piva_ fat, plump, robust (M.); pi_vara strong, stout (MBh.); fat (Pkt.); pivarae fat (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 8242). pi_yate_ is drunk (AV.); pi_ai, pijjai is drunk (Pkt.); pi_ju~ was drunk (WPah.); pi_jataum being drunk (OG.); pijjai drinks (Pkt.); pijaun.o to allow to suck (Ku.); pi_can. to be moistened, be irrigated, absorb water (L.); pi_cn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 8238). pa_canam irrigation (Ta.); pa_ccuka to cause to flow (Ma.)(DEDR 4087).

6327.Mucus: pici_ mucus in the eyes (S.); picyaru one from whose eyes mucus exudes (S.)(CDIAL 8150). piccu slimy impurities of the eyes, rheum (Ka.); pul.ku rheum of the eye (Tu.); pusi id. (Te.); bejje id. (Kur.); pic id. (Br.)(DEDR 4143).

To sprinkle; rain: picir (-v-, -nt-) to drizzle, sprinkle; n. rain drop, spray; picupicu (-pp-, -tt-) to drizzle, sprinkle; picu-pic-en-al expr. signifying drizzling slightly; pitir drop of water; (-v-, -nt-) to be separated into small particles, fall to powder, become scattered; (-pp-, -tt-) to scatter, spread (Ta.); pitar rain (Ma.); pisk urine; pisk in- (id--) to urinate (To.); picipici oozing, trickling; bijuni to ooze (Tu.); pisaru a bit, particle, small quantity (Te.); pitur (pl. -kul) crumbs, scattering of food (Pa.)(DEDR 4132). pirr, pir, pi_r, per, par, pegh rain (Go.); pir-u (pl. piRku) id. (Kond.a); piy id. (Mand..); piju id. (Kui); pi_yu_ (pl. piska), pi_yu, piyu id. (Kuwi); pir id. (Br.); pir dassing to rain (Br.)(DEDR 4199). Squeeze: picai (-v-, -nt-) to work with the thumb and fingers in mixing, knead, squeeze or mash between the palms, crush and separate as kernels of grain from the ear, rub or apply on the skin, strike against one another as branches in the wind; picakku (picakki-) to presss between the fingers, squeeze, crush; picar-u (picar-i-) to mingle, mix with the hand (Ta.); pis'it.u husks of fruits, oilcake; pis'ukku the remains of expressed coconuts (Ma.); picg- (picgy-) to be soft so that it can be squeezed; pick- (picky-) to squeeze, pinch; picpicn beaten to a pulp, cooked to a pulp (of grain)(Ko.); pisuku to squeeze, press as a fruit, knead, shampoo; hisi to squeeze (a ripe fruit) so as nearly to separate it into two pieces; hi_cu to squeeze out pus from a boil (Ka.); piskuni, pi_suni to squeeze, strangle; pijajkku, pijan:ku, pejan:ku to squeeze, strangle (Tu.); pijan:ki to crush (Kor.); pisuku to squeeze, press, knead, shampoo, handle (Te.); pijg- to knead (Nk.); pi_k- to crush; pi_c- to grind (Pa.); piskolp- (piskolt-) to squeeze; pic- to milk (Ga.); piska_na_ to knead flour; pisk- to squeeze, press, knead; puska_na_ to knead (Go.); pi_c- (pi_cc-) to squeeze, milk (Pe.); pi_c- to milk (Mand..); pi_c- to press, squeeze, milk (Kui); to press out, wring, milk (Kuwi); pi_c- (-it-) to milk, squeeze; pi_cali to milk, wring, press out (oil); pi_cinai to quash, wring (Kuwi); picka;a_na_ to press and bruise, flatten by crushing; refl. and pass. picka_rna_ (Kur.); picc-, picch- to press, squeeze (Skt.)(CDIAL 8149; DEDR 4135). pir..i (-v-, -nt-) to squeeze, express, press out with hands, drip, exude, shed or our (as rain)(Ta.); pir..iyuka to wring out, squeeze out (Ma.); pir..i to wring or squeeze out, press out juice (Ka.); pun.d.- (pun.d.i-) to squeeze (wet cloth, fruit, anything with liquid in it); pun.d.e wetness (as of wet clothes)(Kod..); pi_n:ka_vuni to press out (as tamarind seeds or the testicles of animals); pi_n.t.uni to twist, turn, wring; purcuni, purecuni, purecuni to squeeze (as a lemon)(Tu.); hircadi to squeeze (Kor.); pid.ucu to squeeze, wring, press out (Kor.); pi.nd.- (pi.nd.t-), pind., pi_nd.- to squeeze, milk (Kol.); pi_nd.- to milk (Nk.); pir.s- to squeeze, wring (Kond.a); pr.ihpa (pr.iht-) to squeeze out, strip off (Kui); pi_xna_ to press out (oil), squeeze, harass (Kur.); piqe to wring or squeeze out, milk; pilqe to squeeze; perce to be squashed, as an overripe fruit; perctre to squash (Malt.); pilhing, princing to squeeze, squeeze out, massage, press hard (Br.); vr.i_sa (vr.i_si-) to squeeze, milk; n. act of squeezing, milking; pl. action vr.i_ska (vr.i_ski-); br.i_c- to press (Kui); wi_skinai to squeeze; r.i_sk (-it-) to knead (Kuwi); bi_nna_ to milk, clean guts (by pressing along), sponge, fleece (Kur.); bi_r.ing to milk, draw off (milk)(Br.)(DEDR 4183).

6328.To slip: phiskan.u to slip (S.); phisaln.a_ (P.); fisalnu, fis'kn.u (WPah.); phislan.o (Ku.); phisalna_ (H.); phiskat.n.e~ to fall away (M.)(CDIAL 9080). bisaruni to slip, tumble (Tu.); besuku to miss the mark, glance aside, slip through the fingers (Te.); bhisurka_na_, bhisur.ka_na_ to slip, slide; bisurkta slippery (Te.); picaku to fail, err, blunder, make a false step, trip, be dislocated (as a joint); picaku, picakku failure, mistake; pici falsehood (Ta.); pes'aku error (Ma.); peck mistake, mishap, wrong-doing (Ko.)(DEDR 4131). cf. pir..ai to do wrong; fault, crime, defect, mistake (Ta.); pi_n:kud.uni, pi_n:kuni, pi_n:gul.uni to escape, slip out; pi_n:ka_d.runi, pi_n:ka_vuni to cause to slip out, get on the sly; pirs- (pirist-) to slip, slide (Kol.); bir.j- to be slippery (Pa.); bir.sk-, bir.ska_na_ to slip, slide; bir.s- to be slippery (Go.); pid.ho a_nai to trip (Kuwi); phillus-, phellus- to slip (Pkt.)(DEDR 4187). pilippila slippery (VS.); pilpila (Skt.); pilpila_, pulpula_ slippery, smooth (H.); pilpila_na_ to become soft or flaccid (esp. of penis)(H.); pulpula_na_ to soften by chewing (H.)(CDIAL 8213). Slippery, smooth, soft: picchila slippery (Pali.Pkt.Pa_n.MBh.); pecili sliding (Dm.); picili, pecili to slip (Gaw.); phici_lu smooth (Sh.)(CDIAL 8156). picchala slimy, slippery (MBh. Pkt.); picha_l smooth (Bshk.); pisal (Tor.); pis'olu tender, smooth, soft (K.); pic.ho_lu smooth (Phal.); pisala slippery (A.); pichal slimy, slippery, smooth (B.); pis'elun to become soft (K.)(CDIA 8152). piccha_ scum of boiled rice (Pa_n..); slimy saliva (Car.); pic cream (Ash.); picha, pichi_ rice-water (S.); picch (L.P.); pi_c(h) (H.); Gum of bombax heptaphyllum: piccha_ gum of bombax heptaphyllum [bu_ra, bu_raga silk-cotton tree, b. heptaphyllum (Ka.); bu_rje (Ga.); bu_rugu id. (Te.); pu_ran.i_ id. (Skt.)(DEDR 4366)](CDIAL 8154). Dalbergia sissoo; bombax heptaphyllum: picchala_ dalbergia sissoo, bombax heptaphyllum (Skt.); pisala_ a kind of forest tree (A.)(CDIAL 8153). pu_l.ai red silk-cotton; pu_la_ red silk-cotton tree (Ta.); pu_l.a silk-cotton tree, bombax malabaricum (Ma.); pu_vulara a piece of fluff (?Kui)(DEDR 4378).

6329.Greasy: pyu_ru greasy, slimy, slippery (K.); pli_eu fat, grease (Pas'.); pri_wa id. (Pas'.); pivva, pibba water (Pkt.); pi_b, pi_p pus (P.H.); pip id. (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 8242). Moist; gum: picupicu (-pp-, -tt-) to be moist, sticky, be viscous, adhesive or oily; picu-pic-en-al expr. signifying (a) moistness (as of a cloth), (b) stickiness; picin- gum, stickiness, viscousness; picukku sticky substance; picukk-en-al expr. signifying stickiness or viscosity (Ta.); hisku oyster (Ka.); picipici miry, muddy; bijibiji greasy, gummy, sticky (Tu.); pisapisal-a_d.u to be clammy or viscous; pisaka greasiness or dirt in the hair; pisunu gum, resin (Te.) (DEDR 4134). piccha_ gum, slimy saliva; picchala, picchila slimy, smeary (Skt.) (CDIAL 8154; CDIAL 8156). vijjala, vijjana, vijina, vij(j)ila slimy, smeary (Skt.)(DEDR 4134). To adhere; to stick: acai (-pp-, -tt-) to join with, tie, bind (Ta.); asa fitness, propriety (Ka.); as- (-t-) to stick to, remain stable (in a village)(Ta.); assali to fit (Kuwi); assgna_ to adhere, stick, hold to or together, attach oneself to, fit, (tongue) to be unable to utter distinctly; assagta'a_na_ to glue, paste or make otherwise adhere (Kur.); asge to stick; asgre to adhere; asge to paste on, make of two things one (Malt.)(DEDR 43). cf. pacai stickiness, paste, glue (Ta.)(DEDR 3827). pasaun. to cause to stick, to entangle, to catch, to set (as a knife blade in the handle)(P.lex.)

6330.To be torn; to card cotton: piy be carded (as cotton)(Ta.); piju, hi_cu, i_cu to card cotton (Ka.)(DEDR 4171). phissa easily torn (N.); phisphise easily giving way (N.); phi_su~ weak, faded (G.)(CDIAL 9081). *pijati cards cotton; pijana bow for carding cotton (Skt.)(CDIAL 8160). pim.jai cards cotton (Pkt.); pian.u (S.); pijan. (L.); pijun. (L.); pijn.a_, pa_ja_un.a_ (P.); pi~ja_, pe~ja_ (B.); pijiba_ (Or.); pi~_jna_ (H.); pi~_jvu~ (G.); pi~jn.e~ (M.); pi_nna_ whence pinna_ to be carded (H.)(CDIAL 8160). pikkuka (picc-) to break in pieces (Ma.); pigulu, pikulu, pivulu to burst (Te.); pinja (pinji-) id.; pispa (pist-); pl. action piska (piski-)(Kui); pinj- (-it-) (fire) to explode, spark out; pl. action pisk- (-it-) (Kuwi)(DEDR 4129).

6331.Miser: picin-a_r-i, picin-e_r-i miser; picin-i niggard; miserliness, niggardliness; picuku (picuki-) to be niggardly; picukku miserliness, niggardliness; picukkar mean-minded persons; picupicuttavan- niggard (Ta.); pis'ukku niggardliness; pis'ukkan niggard, miser (Ma.); picci Mammon; pici parsimony, stinginess; stingy, miserly (Tu.); piccapat.t.u stinginess, miserliness; pisid.i, pisina_ri, pisini miserly, stingy; pisini-got.t.u miser; pikku to be miserly; pi_na_si stingy person (Te.); pitey miser (Pa.)(DEDR 4144). cempot. miser (Santali.lex.)

6332.Pine: pi_tuda_ru deodar (Skt.); pi_nus (Lat.); -wic in: gye_wic pine (Shum.)(CDIAL 8236). pus'is pine (Lith.); peuse (OPruss.); pic-kande pine (Ash.); pu_ci, pici (Kt.); puc, pu_c (pu_c-ker pine-cone)(Wg.); wyoc (Pr.)(CDIAL 8407). cf. pun-ku Malabar poon (Ta.); punna calophyllum inophyllum (Ma.); pun-n-ai, pin-n-ai mast-wood (Ta.)(DEDR 4343). Semant.: te_vata_ru cedar; mast-tree (Ta.lex.) cf. pooshee the koossum tree (Go.); pu_zi maran id. (Kond.a); pu_vam a fine timber-tree (Ma.)(DEDR 4348).

6333.Sewing, needle, thread: pa.c eye of a needle (Ko.); pa_cam eye of a needle, sewing, thread (Ta.)(DEDR 4055).

6334.Straw: phu_s old dried straw, rubbish, anything decayed; phu_si_ chaff, rubbish; phu_sr.a_, phu_sra_ rags and tatters (H.); fusa_ pudendum muliebre (WPah.)(CDIAL 9100). pici, picil, pisil paddy straw (Go.); pi_li straw (Ma.); piyal id. (Pe.); pi_cu, pi_cu_ id.; pi_cu grass, straw (Kuwi)(DEDR 4216). phusi dirt on penis (Ku.); phu_s husk of grain, chaff, grass (Ku.); dry grass (Bi.H.); grass (G.); phus-kat. bits of chaff and grass (M.)(CDIAL 8306). busa chaff, any rubbish; bus'a, bu_s.a (Skt.); busa chaff (Pkt.); busia_ barley chaff (Pkt.); bus straw (Ash.); buho, buhi_ chaff of millet (S.); bu_s, buso chaff (Ku.); busa husks, chaff (Or.); bis straw (Gypsy); bu_s broken straw (D..); bosu chopped straw (K.); busa chaff, dried cowdung (Si.); bhusa, bhusika_ chaff (Pali); bhusa (Pkt.); phus straw (Gypsy); bhu_s (Mai.); bhus (Phal.); buhu chaff and broken up stalks of wheat (S.); bhu~h, bhu~, bho~h chaff, straw of grain; bhu~_ straw (L.); bhoh, bho, bho~ chaff (P.); bhu_ fodder (WPah.); bhu_s, bhuso chaff (as 'blasted grain')(Ku.); bhus (N.); bhusi chopped straw (B.); chaff (A.Or.); bhus, bhusa_ husk, straw, chaff, bran (H.); bhu~su~ chaff (G.); bhu~_s, bhusa_, bhu~sa_ (M.); bhus'i_, bhu~s'i_ fine chaff (M.); bhussi_ chaff (P.); bhu_s (WPah.Bi.); bhu_sa_, bhu~_sa_, bhussa_ husks of grain; bhu~_si_ bran (Bi.); bhussa_, bhussi_ chaff (Mth.); bhu_s, bhu~_sa_, bhu_si_ chaff, bran, straw (H.) (CDIAL 9293). busaur.i storehouse for chaff and husks (Ku.); bhusaur.o id. (Ku.); bhusauri_ (H.)(CDIAL 9294). busilo empty (of grain); empty grain (Ku.) (CDIAL 9296). bhu~saur, bho~_saula_ house for storing chaff (Bi.); bhusaul ghar (Mth.)(CDIAL 9540). bhusehra_ place for storing chaff or straw or corn (H.)(CDIAL 9541). bhusau~da_ place for keeping straw or chaff or grain (H.)(CDIAL 9542). bhu~ha_lu_ shed in which chaff is stored (P.)(CDIAL 9543). bhusa_re~ rick or pile of chaff (M.) (CDIAL 9544). buco empty (Ku.); bu_car husks of millet (L.)(CDIAL 9266). bucko chaff (N.); buko (Ku.)(CDIAL 9293). phu_s husk of grain, chaff, grass (Ku.); phusi dirt on penis (Ku.); phu_s dry grass (Bi.H.P.K.); grass (G.); phus-kat. bits of chaff and grass (M.)(CDIAL 8306). pussa flower (Pali); pu_sa (Pkt.); pus mildew (Si.)(CDIAL 8306). cf. pu_ flower (Ta.)(DEDR 4345).

6335.Cane: hacce, acce, pacce, hecce cane or ratan, tattoo; hacce-cuccisu to tattoo; hacce, hecce a bamboo-split (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. punambu cane (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

6336.A cereal: pa_m.s'uva_pya a variety of cereal (Car. Su. 27.12).

6337.A cereal: pras'a_tika_ a coarse cereal (Car. Su. 21.25, 27.17).

6338.Commander: pauju-da_ra = phaujada_ra a native that commands a body of troops (Ka.M.H.); a native criminal judge or magistrate (Ka.M.H.)(Ia.lex.)

6339.Torch: mas.a_lu a torch (Ka.Te.); mas'a_la (M.H.); mas.a_lci a torch-bearer (Ka.); mas'a_laci_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6340.Gums, lip: masu_r.e_ (ma_m.sa flesh +) the gums (L.); masu_(h)r.a_, musu_(h)r.a_ (P.); musuro the tooth of a horse which tells its age (N.); masu_r.a_ the gums (H.); ma_r.i, mer.e the gums (B.); ma_r.i_ (Or.); masyu_r.a_ lips (Ku.)[cf. miri lips, gums (Ku.)](CDIAL 9084). mol.a, mol.e gum of the teeth (Kon.lex.) danta mu_lam, danta-ma_m.sam gum (of teeth)(Skt.lex.) maha_ra gums of teeth (S.); marha_e_, pl. marha~_ (L.)(CDIAL 9083). cf. utat.u lip, brim, edge of a wound (Ta.); lip (Ma.); u0ur gums (To.); odad.u, odud.u, odaru lip (Ka.)(DEDR 606). karro_ xo_col cartilage (Kur.) [xo_col bone (Kur.)(DEDR 2188)]; qaru id., the gums (Malt.)(DEDR 1296).

6341.Image: python: ma_cun.am python (Ta.); ma_yond. ba_m id. (Pa.); ma_su_l rock python; ma_sul, ma_sor. python (Go.); ma_hun.d.ala a kind of serpent (Ap.)(DEDR 4793).

6342.Sprain: mejxa'a_na_, me_jxna_ to sprain, inflict a sprain; strain (e.g. by sleeping in an uncomfortable position); me_jxerka_ a sprain; me_jxerna_ to sprain oneself, get sprained (Kur.); mackare to be dislocated (Malt.)(DEDR 5089). meckao, bickau, biclau, mackao, bigar. to be sprained (Santali.lex.)

6343.Cobbler: mucci < mo_ci_ cobbler (H.); one who works in leather (C.G.)(Ta.); sheath-maker (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Cobbler: mo_caka shoe (Skt.); mo_cika tanner and cobbler (BHS); moci_ cobbler (S.L.P.H.Bi.G.M.); moci (N.B.Or.); musi, musiya_r (A.)(CDIAL 10349).

6344.Pterospermum suberifolium: mucukunda the plant pterospermum suberifolium, sada_pus.pa (Ka.lex.) Pterosperum suberifolium: muchukunda (Skt.M.); muchkand (H.B.); madri (Ta.Ka.Te.); tadai (Ta.); tada (Te.); flowers: made into paste with rice water used as application for hemicrania; flowers and bark: charred and mixed with kamala applied in suppurating small-pox; habitat: N. Circars, Deccan in Mysore, Coimbatore, Cuddapah and N. Arcot, up to 3,000 ft., Nellore coast (GIMP, p.207). tat.ai pterospermum suberifolium (Ta.); tad.a id. (Te.)(DEDR 3034) mackunda pterospermum acerifolium (Santali.lex.). mucalinda, mucilinda the tree pterospermum suberifolium (Skt.); muculinda (R.); mucukunda pterospermum suberifolium (Skt.); kucukum.da, mucakum.da, muum.da a kind of flowering tree (Pkt.); muckund, mackund, mickund, ukcan flower of the tree pterospermum suberifolium (used as remedy for headache)(H.)(CDIAL 10177). Pterospermum acerifolium: matsakanda (Te.); karnikara (Skt.); kanak champa (H.B.M.); kanachampaka (Ka.); vennangu (Ta.); flowers: used as a general tonic; flowers and bark: charred and mixed with kamala applied in suppurating small-pox; down on the leaves: used as haemostatic; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayan valleys and hills upto 4,000 ft., Bengal, Chittagong, Khasia Hills, Manipur, N.Kanara and extensively planted in the Bombay State (GIMP, pp.206-207).

6345.Deduction: mujara_, mujare any authorised deduction, reduction, remission (Ka.Te.H.); respect, obeisance, a bow, or a sala_m (Ka.M.H.Te.); mujara_yi deductions from the public revenue for religious or charitable purposes, allowances or grants to temples, mat.has and satras (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6346.Accountant: mutsaddi, musaddi one of the public officers: an accountant, a clerk (Ka.Te.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6347.Image: crucible: mu_si (Tadbhava of mu_s.e) a crucible; musi, mu_se id. (Ka.); mu_ai (Ta.Te.); mu_sa, mo_sa (M.); a matrix, a mould; a trace, track (M.)(Ka.lex.)

6348.Image: rat: cf. mu_s.ika, mu_sika a mouse, a rat (Ka.lex.) mu_s.ika_ra a male rat (Skt.lex.)

6349.A tree: mu_s.ika the siri_s.a tree (Skt.lex.)

6350.Smell: mu_su to smell; mu_si no_d.u to explore by the smell (Ka.lex.)

6351.Curculigo orchioides: musali_ curculigo orchioides [musali_ the plants curculigo orchioides and salyinia cucullata (Skt.); musli_ curculigo orchioides (B.); musl.i_ curculigo orchioides (G.M.); curculigo brevifolia (used medicinally)(G.M.)(CDIAL 10224); musali_r.o name of a plant used medicinally (N.)(CDIAL 10225)]; Hypoxis orchioides or curculigo orchioides. mus.ali_, ta_lamu_li_ (Skt.); ta_llura (B.); mus.ali (H.). The tuberous roots of this plant are considered alterative, tonic, restorative and useful in piles, debility and impotence. They enter into the composition of several medicines intended to act as aphrodisiacs and restoratives. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.251). ta_lamu_li_ curculigo orchioides (Car. Ci. 18.75). Curculigo orchioides: talamulika (Skt.); kalimusli (H.M.); talamuli (B.); nelatatygadda (Te.); nilappanaik-kilhangu (Ta.); rhizome used in piles, jaundice, asthma; habitat: sub-tropical himalayas from Kumaon eastwards and in the Western ghat from Konkan southwards (GIMP, p.84). Curculigo orchioides:... Guerrero says that the plant is used as a cure for skin diseases and for headache... Kirtikar and Basu, Nadkarni, Drury, and Dey report that the root is aromatic and slightly bitter, and mucilaginous to the taste, and is considered demulcent, diuretic, and restorative (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.173).

6352.Madder: Rubia cordifolia: manjistha (B.); manjit (H.M.P.); manjistha (Skt.); manjitti (Ta.); manjishtatige (Te.); manjetti (Ma.); root: tonic, alterative, astringent; stem: used in cobra-bite; glucoside, munjistin; throughout India in hilly districts (GIMP, p.215). Rubia cordifolia (manjis.t.ha_) is quite common in the Hima_layas and in South India used for dyeing the cloth used to bind their account books. (Gazetteer of India, p.167). cf. pu_vattam a tree that yields a red dye, rubia munjista (Ta.)(DEDR 4348). Madder was known to Strabo as rhiza, the root. "No trace of it has been found in Mesopotamia, though samples of cotton from Mohenjo-daro (Indus valley), vating back to the third millennium BC, are said to have been dyed with it. The madder plant, rubia tinctorum, occurs in nature in Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and many other regions; in Egypt, it was certainly known in antiquity." (Charles Singer, E.J. Holmyard, A.R.Hall, Trevor I. Williams, A History of Technology, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1967, p.246). Rubia tinctorum: bacho (P.); manyunth (M.); plant: considered in Europe as astringent and diuretic; root: reputed effectual for promoting menstrual and urinary discharges; roots contains alizarin and purprin; habitat: Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan, planted (GIMP, pp. 215-216).{Rubia tinctorum. Ancient Egyptian ip3; Coptic amei; Modern Egyptian Arabic fo_a) 'Madder is a perennial plant with a long climbing and scabrous stem, the lanceolate leaves being arranged in whorls. It has pale-green flowers and red globular berries. The roots of the plant contain a red colouring matter which is used for dyeing. According to Dioscorides the Egyptians called it sophoboi. It is mentioned by Pliny as a treatment for jaundice. In modern Egyptian folk medicine the powdered root is employed as a tonic, to ease childbirth and to treat bladder ailments. It is now imported from Asia Minor.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.144)}.

6353.Bouquet; compound; flower: mam.jiri_ compound, flower, castanets (M.); mam.jari_ bouquet (G.); mam.jari_ bouquet, bud, flower, pearl (H.); mam.ji_r ornament for the feet, bracelet; mam.jira_ cymbals (H.); mam.ji_r bracelet for feet (B.); mam.jari_ bud, bouquet (B.); majari_ (Pkt.Skt.)(Bloch, p.375).

6354.Ant: mucir-u, muyir-u red ant (Ta.); mi_r-u, ni_r-u id. (Ma.); murar.i, mujor.i large red ant; muci tra_ku a kind of ant (Kui); muh'iri id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4906).

6355.Boiled rice: musar-e boiled rice, which is considered to be unclean by Ma_dhva brahmans, though they eat it and offer it to idols; the vessels in which anything has been boiled and which want cleansing; mus.irE dirt on utensils (Ka.); musare anything boiled or dressed for eating; uncleanness; boiled, dressed, unclean, foul (Tu.); mu_cat.ai rancidity, anything that has become rancid, anything unclean (Ta.); mu_cu to go bad, be spoiled, rancid; mu_cal being spoiled (Ta.); mu_s'e_t.t.a uncleanness (Ma.)(DEDR 5029).

6356.Bombax heptaphyllum: moc-ras bombax heptaphyllum (P.)[bu_ra (Ka.); pu_ran.i_ (Skt.)(DEDR 4366); ila, ilavam (Ta.); d.a_ka_ngi (Kuwi)(DEDR 495)](CDIAL 10348).

6357.Musa sapientum: moca_ plantain (B.); mo_ca plantain (Pali); the plantain musa sapientum (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 10348).

6358.A weight of gold: ma_s.a a particular weight of gold (Mn.); ma_sa small coin of very low value (Pali.Pkt.); rati ma_so more or less (N.); ma_s a particular weight (B.); ma_so a weight of gold = 8 ratis or 1/12 tola_ (G.); ma_sa_ a particular weight (M.); massa, masu a particular small coin (Si.)(CDIAL 10098). ma_r..ai ?= ma_s.a lump of metal; gold (uruki ma_r..aiyum vel.l.iyum)[Tan.ikai-p-pu. Ci_pari. 374.]; beauty, youth, assembly of women; palm leaf (Ta.lex.) [cf.ma_s.a a weight of gold = 8 rati or 1/12 tola_ (G.); rati ma_so more or less (Ku.)(CDIAL 10098).] ma_s.ika in cmpds. 'worth so many ma_s.as' (Mn.); ma_s'i_ weighing a ma_s.a (M.)(CDIAL 10102).

6359.Condiments: masa_la_, masa_le drugs, spices, spicery, seasoning drugs, the seasoning put in curry; horse and cattle physic; ingredients of compositions (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) vejana (Tadbhava of vyajana) condiment; boiled and seasoned vegetables, pickles, chutney (Ka.lex.)

6360.Mixed grains: mis'ra mixed (RV.); mis'raka (Sus'r.); missa, missaka y(Pali); missa, mi_sa (Pkt.); mis' with (Ash.); mes' (Kt.); miz joined, beginning (Pas'.); miso made of mixed grains (S.); miss crops which include peas, gram and other pulses (L.); mixture of two grains in a crop (P.); missa_ belonging to such crops (L.); mixed, of mixed grain (P.); mixed (H.); mis' sediment in preparation of ghee (WPah.); mis-ma_s mixing, mixture (N.); mih (A.); mis (B.); misa_ mixed (Or.); musu, muhu mixed (Si.)(CDIAL 10135). Accessory ingredient: birxna_ to help to some more at meals, cook some accessory ingredient along with the main article of food, mix several kinds of seeds (esp. for sowing); refl. and pass. birxrna_; birxi_ mixture of rice and ma~_rwa_ used in rice-beer brewing (Kur.); birge to mix, add, join; birgre to be mixed, be joined, keep company with (Malt.) viracu to join, unite; vira_vu to mix, join, unite; mixture (Ta.); viraval mixing, mixture (Ta.); virakuka, virakkuka to mix (Ma.); berasu, berisu to mingle together, mix, unite (Ka.); berasuha mingling, etc. (Ka.); berake, berike state of being united, mixed, combination (Ka.); bere to be joined or united, join, be mingled or mixed, associate with (Ka.); bira_vuni, birasuni, berasuni to mix, mingle compound; beravuni to be mixed, mingled; birake, berake mixture, compound; berasu admixture (Tu.); berayu to happen, spread, attain, mix, join (Te.); verasi total, whole, sum (Te.); ra_nja_na_ to be mixed (of ingredients)(Go.)(DEDR 5407). beraju to gather together, collect, put together, heap up (Ka.); bi_rajuni to collect, heap up (Tu.); vera_ju to take by large handfuls, steal, plunder (Te.)(DEDR 5487). mis'ran.a mixing, mixture (Ka_tyS'r.); missana mixing (Pali); misan soil consisting of a mixture of clay and sand (H.); muhun mixing (Si.)(CDIAL 10136). mis'rayati mixes (Ka_tyS'r.); mis'ra_payati (Vop.); mis'rita mixed (MBh.); misse_ti mixes (Pali); missai (Pkt.); -ms'i- to mix; absol. mes.i_ with (Pr.); mi_s.oiki to mix (Sh.); misn.o (Ku.); misnu id. (N.); misa_ to be mixed (B.); misiba_ to mix; to be mixed (Or.); misna_ to be mixed (H.); misn.e~ to mix (M.); pass. mi_sijjai (Pkt.)(; mis.izoiki (Sh.); misinu (N.); caus.: mis'era_m, mis'ura_m I mix (Ash.); mis'ur (Wg.); mazhu_ra mixed (Bashg.); mis.arem, mis.eram I mix (Kal.); mis.aroiki 1 sg.; mis.a_ram, mis'a_ru mixed; mis'rak thoi_ki to mix (Sh.); mis'a_ to eat (something mixed)(Ash.); misa_unu to mix (N.); misa_na (B.); misa_iba_ (Or.); missita mixed (Pali); missia, mi_siya (Pkt.); mis.i_lu (Sh.); misiyo (Ku.); misyo (N.)(CDIAL 10137). misala mixed (Skt.); misalai mixes (Skt.); mihal, mihaliba (A.); misal (Bhoj.); misal., misal.ne~ (M.); mahal.u, ma_lu-va curry, compound of various ingredients (Si.)(CDIAL 10138). mis'teik to mix (Kho.); mixtus (Lat.)(CDIAL 10139). cf. picai to work with the thumnb and fingers in mixing; picar-u to mingle, mix with the hand (Ta.)(DEDR 4135).

6361.Shrunk: muza_ shrunk (A.); muzura_ lean, stunted (A.)(CDIAL 10230). murs-, mur.s- to be dried up and hard (Go.); murat.uka to shrivel (Ma.); murut.u, murat.u, mutun.t.u to shrink, contract, shrivel (Ka.); murun.t.u, nurun.t.u shrunk, shrivelled (Tu.); mural to wither (Nk.); murdna_ to become perfectly dry (Kur.); murjha_rna_ to get quite dry, dry up, wither; murjha'a_na_ to scorch, parch (Kur.)(DEDR 4972). moccha_ short thick piece of timber (P.); muchan.u to lop (S.)(CDIAL 10179).

6362.Smile; sob: muck- to smile (Pa.); mus mus kowwa_na_ to smile or half-laugh (Go.); musi musi navvu a smile (Te.); mus mus kavv- to smile (Go.); mus mus in- id. (Pe.); musu/musuk inba to chuckle, grin, smile (Kui); muska_rna_, musmusurna_ to smile (Kur.)(DEDR 4904). musmus smilingly (N.); musmusa_unu to smile (N.); musmusa_na_, masmasa_na_ to sob (H.); musmusn.e~ (M.); musra tear (Un..com.); muskan.u to smile (S.); musukka smilingly (N.); muskura_unu, muskara_unu to smile (N.); muska_na_, muskura_na_ (H.); muska_vu~ to be delighted (G.)(CDIAL 10227). muskan. to smile (L.); meskai smiling (Psht.); musa smiling (Pas'.)(CDIAL 14754). cf. muttu tear (Ta.)(DEDR 4959).

6363.Image: cut piece: mce to cut (as meat)(Malt.); mo_cna_ to cut up into convenient pieces any object too large for use, give a cut in or through (Kur.)(DEDR 5130). cf. moci to eat (Ta.); mo_yikka to give to sip (Ma.)(DEDR 5127).

6364.Saccharum sara, a grass from which rope is made: muja the grass saccharum sara or munja (S'Br.Pali); mum.ja (Pkt.); mujaka (VarBr.S.); muja_- in cmpd. (MBh.); muu a grass from which rope is made (S.); muj fibre of s. sara (L.); mu, mujh sheath of s. sara (used for making rope)(P.); the plant chamaerops rithina (fine leaves of which are used for making mats, the coarse for rope)(P.); mu_j strings made of s. sara (Ku.); muj s. sara (N.); muja (Or.); mu~_j (Bi.H.); mu_m.ja (OAw.); mu~j (M.)(CDIAL 10184). muju_la_, ma~ju_la, majula bundle of the sheathing of the reed s. sara (P.)(CDIAL 10185). mauji_ thread of the grass s. sara worn by Brahmans (MBh.); mauja_ made of this grass (TS.): mu~ji_ the sacred thread (M.); mu_ji the thread, the ceremony of the investiture (Konkan.i); mujiyo Brahmin boy at time of investiture (G.)(CDIAL 10367). mol. saccharum munja; mauro a partic. kind of grass growing in swampy places (N.); maku_laka croton polyandrum (Skt.)(CDIAL 10149).

6365.To rub: mac- to rub head with earth (Pa.); mashing to wash the head, clean the head with fuller's earth (Br.)(DEDR 4634). ma_rtsna finely ground (S'Br.); masin.a, masan.a soft, slippery (Pkt.); masin.ia crushed, polished, cleaned (Pkt.); mahi_n. fine, delicate (P.); masin.o, mas'i~r.~ thin, fine (Ku.); masinu thin, fine, dainty (N.); masininu to be made fine (N.); masin.a, masun.a, masun.a_ smooth (Or.); musuka soft (Wg.)(CDIAL 10086). mas.ati rubs, crushes; mas.am. ka_rayati grinds to powder (S'a_n:khGr..); mas.mas'a_karo_ti (AV.); masmasa_- (TS.S'Br.); mr.smr.sa_- (Skt.)[K. form with -h- indicates earlier -s.- or -s'-, which would allow collison with mr.s'ati grasps, seizes (AV.) as the origin... further influenced in MIA by Drav. forms. The variety of extensions in the NIA verbs indicates their popular character and possible non-Aryan influences.] masiba to wipe, plaster (A.); maskan.a_ to press, be torn (P.); maskaun.o to press, squeeze (Ku.); maskanu, maskinu to be tightened (N.); maska_unu to tighten, scour (N.); masakka tightly (N.); masakna_ to touch, stroke, rub, squeeze (H.); maska_na_ to press, squeeze (H.); masa_ra- stone for grinding on (Pkt.); masarakkai is tightened (Pkt.); maha_run to separate by rubbing in the hand, crumble (K.); musa_rnu, masa_rnu to touch, stroke (N.); moha_riba to crush, squeeze (A.); masal.vu~ to rub, crumble, knead, shampoo (G.); masaln.a_ to bruise, crush (P.); masaliba_ to wrench, twist (Or.); masalna_ to rub to pieces (H.); mahat.an.u to rub (S.); mahat.iya_iba to crush by treading down (A.); masa_dn.e~, masa_dal.n.e~ to knead and squeeze, crush together (M.); masmas rustling sound (Or.); masmasia_ crumbly, crisp (Or.)(CDIAL 9919). mardati pounds, crushes, treads on,l squeezes, rubs (MBh.); marmartu (RV.); maddati crushes, treads on, kneads, jumbles, destroys (Pali); maddai, mad.d.ai crushes, tramples on (Pkt.); ma~_d.un to knead, mix (K.); mad.n.u_ to thresh (WPah.); ma~_r.nu to rub, tread out (N.); ma_riba to thresh, tread out (grain), mix by grinding (A.); ma_r.a_ to pound, thresh (B.); mo_r~- to rub, polish, grind (Gypsy); man.- to rub (Dm.); mun.d.-, mun.-, mur., mun.d.al to break (Pas'.); man.d.- to rub, smear; ma~_n.- to thresh, smear; me_n.- to crush; ma~_r. to rub (Pas'.); mon.d.- to thresh (Kal.); ma_n.d.- to knead (Phal.); mand.un to rub, trample, wash (woollen cloth by kneading it with the feet)(K.); manan.u to shampoo, make clothes ready for steaming (S.); minn.u to rub (WPah.); minan.o to beat, rub (Ku.); mi_r.ab to knead, grind, shampoo (Mth.); mi_r.na_, mi~_d.na_ to rub with hands, clean (H.); ma~_d.n.e~ to smear vessels (M.); mand.inava_, mad.anava_ to rub, press, clean rice from husk; mand.a to crush (Si.); man.d.ia spread out (Pkt.); mi_n.d.emim I crush, thresh, grind, wash (clothes) (Gaw.); middhn.a_, pp. middha_ to stir up, mix, knead (mortar), rumple, tumble (clothes, paper, etc.), spoil by treading on (crops)(P.)(CDIAL 9890). mettu (metti-) to plaster, pack, pad (Ta.); met- (mety-) to plaster, smear; metc- to smear (Ko.); mettu to coat walls with chunam or mud, plaster, lay on, apply to, press into; mettuvike smearing over, etc. (Ka.); mettuni to fill up with earth, repair as a dam (Tu.); mettu to apply, plaster with mud or the like; plastering with mud (Te.); met- (mett-) to plaster with mud (Kol.); mett- to plaster, smear (Nk.); to smear (Pa.); to rub on, apply (medicine)(Ga.); met- to paint thickly (Ga.); mi_t- to rub on, smear, plaster (Mand..)(DEDR 5066). misna_ to be pulverized, be ground, be crushed, be crumpled by rubbing (H.); mi_sna_ to pulverize, grind, rumple (H.)(CDIAL 10297). mi_nja_na_ to rub or wring the hands in chagrin (Go.); mr.i_nj- (mr.i_nc-), mn.i_nj- to punch, press (Pe.); mr.i_c- id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4881). mr.s.t.a rubbed, washed, pure (RV.); prepared,savoury (R.); sweet, pleasant (MBh.); mat.t.ha polished, wiped, clean (Pali.Pkt.); mat.t.ha_ wheaten fritter (P.); rubbed smooth (H.); ma_t.hn.e~ to polish (M.); mit.hna_ to be effaced (H.); ma_t.hiba to smooth with a hammer (A.); mat.ha_ polished (Or.); ma_t.hiba_ to polish (Or.); mat.a polished, smooth, shining (Si.); mut.ha_rnu to smooth, trim (a stick)(N.); mat.ha_rvu~, mat.hervu~ to smooth (G.); mat.ha_rn.e~, mat.ha_l.n.e~, ma_t.harn.e~, ma_t.hal.n.e~ to smooth by hammering (M.)[loss of aspiration; poss. influenced by miti tread on (Ta.)]; mat.t.a wiped, polished, pure (Pali); mit.ijjai is wiped out (Pkt.); mit.un (K.); mit.an.u (S.); mit.na_, mat.ana_ to wipe (P.); ma_t.-met. exhaustion (N.); mit.iba to be settled (A.); met.a_, mit.a_ to be wiped out (B.); mit.iba_ to be settled; to rescind (Or.); met.ab to be rubbed out (Mth.); mit.na_ (H.); mit.ai (OMarw.); mit.vu~, mat.vu~ (G.); mit.n.e~ to efface (M.); me_t.avai wipes out (Pkt.); met.an.u (S.); met.n.a_ (P.); met.n.u to spoil (WPah.); met.nu to wipe out (N.); men.t.iba_ (Or.); met.ai (OAw.); met.na_ (H.)(CDIAL 10299). mardana act of crushing (Skt.); maddana crushing (Pali); maddan.a massaging; n. massage, hurting (Pkt.); marana_ heap of paddy spread our ready for treading (A.); ma_d.an. wallowing pool for buffaloes (G.); mad.ana act of crushing or treading (Si.)(CDIAL 9891). marda in cmpds. 'crushing, destroying', grinding, violent pressure (MBh.); mar.a_ treading out of rice by oxen (Or.)(CDIAL 9889). mal.ai rubs (Pkt.); mer to rub (Ash.)(CDIAL 10290). maretum I wash clothes (Kt.); mar to shampoo (Bashg.); marun to paste on, fasten on (K.); malai, male_i rubs (Pkt.); malun (K.); maran.u to work up in water with fingers (S.); malan., malun. to rub, knead, stroke (L.); malan.u to rub (S.); mal.na_ to rub (P.); malnu to rub, anoint (N.); maliba to crush, squeeze, dissolve by crushing, scour (A.); mala_ to rub (B.); maliba_ to thresh, crush, rub (Or.); pel.a-mal.a crushing the testicles (for gelding a horse)(Or.); malab to rub, shampoo (Mth.); malal (Bhoj.); malna_ (H.); mal.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9870).

6366.Smacking: macc smacking sound in eating (P.); mac creaking (B.); macmac creaking of jaws (M.); macak smacking sound (P.); macakn.a_ to make such a sound in eating (P.); mackanu to creak (N.) macka_na to be wrenched (B.); macakiba_, makaciba_ to wrench, crush, tread (Or.); macakna_ to creak (H.)(CDIAL 9709).

6367.Image: low stool: maji low stool (S.); manjo, manza_ (WPah.); maca platform, stage (MBh.); macika_ trough on legs (Sus'r.); mam.ca platform (Pkt.); ma~_co platform (Ku.); ma~_c platform to keep fodder on (N.); ma~siya_ chair (A.); ma_ca_ platform, scaffolding (B.); maca platform (Or.); maca_ scaffolding inside a thatched house (Or.); ma_ci_, macia_ seat (Mth.); maciya_, macola_ four-legged wooden stool (Bi.); ma~_c watchman's platform (Bhoj.); ma~ciya_ raised platform, chair (Bhoj.); ma~_ca_ watchman's platform (H.); ma~_ci_ four-legged stool (H.); ma~_ci_ stool (G.); ma~_cr.o platform (G.); ma_c platform (M.); pl. mahi platform on posts, watch hut in rice fields (Si.)(CDIAL 9715). maccu terraced roof, loft under the roof of a house (Ta.,); boarded ceiling, upper story (Ma.); upper story (Ka.); terrace (Te.); macc-akam house or room with boarded ceilings (Ma.); macci ceiling (Kod..); masela loft in a house (Te.)(DEDR 4631). Storeroom: macikai chest, box, storeroom, grain bin; macikam chest, box; macu store-house, granary (Ta.); macika a large basket (Ma.)(DEDR 4640); manju_s.a box (Skt.); casket used for documents (Pali); mamju_sa_ box, chest (Pkt.); ma~_du_s box, coffer (M.); majusi_ projection on wall of indigo vat on which pressing beam is supported (Bi.); mandos-a, mados-a box, coffer (Si.)(CDIAL 9721).

6368.Linseed: masi_na_ linseed, linum usitatissimum (Skt.); masi_n a vetch, pulse (H.)(CDIAL 9923).

6369.Bengal gram: cu_ram Bengal gram; macu_ram (Ta.lex.) Lentil: masu_ra lentil (VS.Pkt.); masu_ra_, masu_ri_, masura, masura_, masara_ (Skt.); masu_rika_ (Sus'r.); masu_sya (TBr.); masu_raya, masu_raga (Pkt.); mazur, mo~_zar (Sh.); mosur, musur (K.); mahuri_ (S.); mohri_ (L.); mauhar (L.); mahur (P.); masu_r (P.H.Ku.Bi.G.M.); musuro, masuri, musuri (N.); masura_, masara_, musuri (B.); masura (Or.Si.); masuri_ (Bi.)(CDIAL 9924). masu_raka lentil-shaped (Kaut..)(CDIAL 9925). maseuro lump of ground pulse (N.)(CDIAL 10100). maswa_n.i water in which pulse has been soaked and which is used for curry (Ku.)(CDIAL 10101). ma_s.ya fit for beans (Skt.); ma_as bean (Pas'.); ma_s' large pea (Gaw.): prob. < Pers. ma_s' (CDIAL 10103). Bean: ma_s.a bean (RV.); ma_s.aka (Sus'r.); ma_sa bean (Pali.Pkt.); ma_h, maha_ the bean phaseolus radiatus (K.); ma~_hi_ (S.); ma~_h (L.P.); ma~_ (L.); beans or pulse (Si.); ma_s' pl. black pulse (WPah.)[cf. ma_ black (Ta.)(DEDR 4781)]; ma_s pulse, lentil (Ku.N.); ma_h general name for all kinds of pulse (A.); ma_sa phaseolus radiatus, dolichos pilosus (Or.); mahela_ the pulse phaseolus aconitifolius (P.)(CDIAL 10097). masyu_t.o pounded paste of any sort of pulse (Ku.)(CDIAL 10099). man:kaliyakam a kind of gram (Ta.lex.) Green gram: pesar- green gram (Ka.); paden:gi, padeji id. (Tu.); pesalu id. (Te.); pesara the green gram plant; belonging to or made of green gram (Te.); pesa_l, pesal green gram (Kol.); pesal. id. (Nk.); payari (pl. payarul), payal id. (Pa.); pes'el, pesel, pasel, pesli id. (Go.); pesra (pl. -na) id. (Kuwi); payar-u green gram, phaseolus mungo (Ta.); payar-(u) leguminous plants (Ma.)(DEDR 3941).

6370.Sour cream; buttermilk: mastu sour cream (TS.); whey (Sus'r.); mattimlo residue when making a partic. sweetmeat (N.); ma_t.ha_ buttermilk (B.); mat.ha_ thick milk (M.)(CDIAL 9931). maccikai buttermilk (Ta.); manj id. (Ko.); moz id. (To.); majjige id., whey (Ka.); majjiga buttermilk (Te.Ga.); majjili id. (Go.); majjia_ a curd preparation (Pkt.); ma_rjita_ curds with sugar and spice (Skt.)(DEDR 4630). mahiya_ur mess of rice, etc. in buttermilk (Bi.); maher (Bi.H.); maheri_ (H.)(CDIAL 9768). mahiya_ri_ milkwoman, curd-seller (G.)(CDIAL 9769). mathura_ name of a town (VP.); madhura_, mahura_ (Pkt.); ma_hu_ra, mahura (OH.)(CDIAL 9770). mihil buttermilk (Gypsy); ma_i~_n (Bshk.); mahi_ sour milk and water churned together, buttermilk (S.); mahi buttermilk (N.); sour whey used for curdling (Or.); mahiya_ refuse left in boiling down ghee (Mth.); mahi_ buttermilk (H.); mahiya_ foam from boiling sugarcane juice (H.); maher, maheri_ rice or other grain boiled in buttermilk (H.); maher (Bi.); mahi, mahi_r.u~ buttermilk (G.); me_l buttermilk (Sv.Sh.); mehe_l (Phal.); mail (Sh.)(CDIAL 9767). cf. bomoli foam; bommul id., bubble; bomoolee saliva, foam, froth (Go.); pumel foam (Pe.); pumbel id. (Mand..); pumbeli if., froth (Kui); pomboli foam; pumbulli froth (Kuwi)(DEDR 4280). mac.hir curds, partially dried curds (put in a bag as food for a journey)(Kho.); ma_o milk boiled down to a hard lump of curd (S.); maze sour milk (Tir.); ma~_ya sour milk (Bshk.)(CDIAL 10030). mattu butter-milk, whey, curds (Tailava. Taila. 59); curdled milk and cream (Ta.lex.) maha~_r.a_, maha_r.a_ vessel for making curds in (Bi.)(CDIAL 9765). Buttermilk: murn.e~ to coagulate, be impregnated with syrup, soak into, ripen (of fruit); ad-mure~ half-coagulated milk (M.); moravvu~ to curdle; morvan. acid used to curdle milk (G.); ad-more~ (M.)(CDIAL 10212). mo_r buttermilk; curd diluted with water (Perumpa_n.. 160); id. (Ma.); mo_ru (Te.); mo_saru (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) mucar buttermilk, curds (Ta.); mo.r buttermilk (To.); mocr id. (Ko.); mosar(u), masaru curds (Ka.); mo.ri buttermilk; kat.t.i mo.ri curd (Kod..); mosaru curds (Tu.); mo_ru buttermilk (Te.); maringing to form into curds, curdle (Br.); morat.a, moran.a sour buttermilk (Skt.)(DEDR 4902). To coagulate: mu_rchati becomes solid (AV.); mu_chayati causes (milk) to coagulate (Kaus'.); mucchati curdles (Pali); mucchai congeals (Pkt.); mucoiki to curdle (of milk), freeze (Sh.); midenava_ to coagulate (Si.); muccha_via caused to curdle (Pkt.) (CDIAL 10240). mochn.o to mix lentils and pulse with ghee (Ku.); muchnu to knead (N.)(CDIAL 10241). mu_rta coagulated (TS.); embodied (S'Br.); mu_tu curdled (Sh.) (CDIAL 10244).

6371.Priest: mucaliya_r < Arab. musim Muhammadan priest (Ta.); musali id. (Ma.); musalma_n- < muslimu_n Arab. pl. of muslim Muhammad (Ta.lex.)

6372.Written bond: mucilka a written bond to keep the peace, imposed by the judge, or by the village panchayat (Mu.); mucalka_ (Tartarian)(Mu.lex.)

6373.A linear measure: meco measurement of an arm for ornaments (S.); me_can. to measure (L.); mecan.u to measure (S.); me_ca_ fit, measure (of shoes etc.)(L.); mec, mecca_ measure (P.); mi~_ch, dat.mi~_cas thing for measuring (K.); miccan. to be measured (l.); micun. to measure (L.); miccn.a_ to measure, compare (P.); mecn.e~ to hold in account, heed (M.)(CDIAL 10123).

6374.Image: fish-roe: meca fish roe (Or.); meca_ lump (Or.)(CDIAL 10307).

6375.Besom: ma_ccai, ma_ccil besom, broom (Ma.); ma_ypu broomstick (Ka.); makipu a broom or besom made of the ribs of palm leaves; maypu, ma_ypu broom stick (Tu.); ma_yi broom (Kor.); ma_r-u broom (Ta.)(DEDR 4794). mer- to rub oneself; merpip-, mercip- to rub another with the hand (Pa.); mar- to rub (oil, etc.) on oneself; marup- to rubh (oil, etc.) on another (Ga.); marehta_na_ to rub; marahta_na_, marehta_na_ to smear; marehtalle to apply (Go.)(DEDR 4709). ma_rjana wiping off, cleaning (Gr.S'r.); majjana cleaning (Pali); majjan.a (Pkt.); maze_ni besom (Kho.); ma~_ja~r.~ washing (Ku.); mahjan toothpowder (N.); ma_jan scouring (B.); ma_jan.a_ (Or.); ma~_jan weaver's brush (Bi.); majna_ id. (Mth.,); majni_ instrument for smoothing potter's clay (Mth.); ma~_jan. dust and ashes for smearing (M.); kes-madana comb (Si.)(CDIAL 10081). Dirt: ma_cu spot, stain, taint, tarnish, defect, dust; ma_ccu fault (Ta.); ma_cu filth, spot (Ma.); ma_ccu filth, dirt as of the hands (Ma.). ma.c dirt on face, hands, or body (Ko.); ma_su to be stained, become foul, dirty, impure or filthy; to dirty, soil; n. impurity, filth, dirt (Ka.); ma_salu impurity, dirtiness; ma_sadike the state of not being impure (Ka.); ma.j (ma.ji-) (clothes) become soiled (Kod..); ma.ji soiled clothes (Kod..); ma_su turbidity, soiling; turbid, soiled; ma_suni to soil; ma_selu that which is soiled; ma_yan:gruni, ma_yandruni to become dirty or filthy (Tu.); ma_si dirt, uncleanness; ma_yu to become dirty, soiled or unclean; ma_pu to dirty, soil; n. dirt (Te.); ma_pud.u dirt, state of being soiled (Te.); ma_- to be dirty; ma_pap- to make dirty (Ga.); ma_c, ma_cu dirt; ma_c dirty (Go.); machattoo dirtied; machoo dirt (Go.); ma_t- to make dirty (Kond.a); ma_ci dirt (Mand..); ma_si filth, dirt, stain; wrong, wrong-doing, sin (Kui); ma_ci dirt (Kui); maci, ma_ci dirty; maci ki_ali to dirty (body); mahi ki_ali to dirty (clothes); maci aiyali to become dirty (body); ma_hali to be dirty (clothes); ma_h- (-it-) to become dirty; ma_ci dirt (Kuwi); maccia- dirty (Pkt.) (DEDR 4792). macca dirt (Pkt.); mic clay (Ash.)(CDIAL 10287).

6376.Black, charcoal: mai black, blackness, spot as of moon, blemish; dirt (Ta.); collyrium for the eye (Ta.); blackness, antimony (Ma.); masi charcoal (Kod..); the black of culinary vessels, lamp-black, blackness, antimony (Ka.); blackness, sootishness, charcoal (Te.); soot (Go.); maji coal, black powder, ink (Tu.); maiyi a kind of collyrium (Tu.); maivaripuni to paint the eyes with antimony or collyrium (Tu.); majji soot (Kor.); mas soot (Nk.); mai~_s ink (Kur.)(DEDR 5101). mas.i_ lamp-black, black powder (VarBr.S.); masi_ (Sus'r.); masi soot (Pali.Pkt.); ink (Pkt.); masi_ ink; moso soot (Ku.N.); masi ink (N.B.Or.OAw.); mahi ink (A.); mas ink (H.); masi_ ink (Mth.H.); soot (G.); mass (P.L.); masu (S.); mes', me_s' soot (G.); mas (M.); mas'i_ (M.); mas'i lampblack (Konkan.i); mosi ink (Mth.); misi black dye (Mth.); masi-da_ a black mineral substance used in medicine (Si.)(CDIAL 9920). Gold dust: maikka_t.u ashes and dust in a goldsmith's workshop containing particles of precious metals; masikat.t.u id. (Te.); mai-k-ka_t.t.u-vet.t.u a coin used in former days (Pan.avit.u. 136-7)(Ta.lex.)

6377.Fisherman; image: water-carrier: ma_tsyika, ma_tsika fisherman (Pa_n..); macchika fisherman (Pali); macchia (Pkt.); ma_chi_ a tribe of fishermen, weavers, grain-parchers and bakers (L.); macha_n.i_, ma_chni_, machea_n.i_ (L.); ma_chi_ fisherman, Muhammadan water-carrier (P.); fisherman (G.)(CDIAL 10026).

6378.Head workman: me_stri a head workman (Ka.Te.Ma.M.); mestre (Port.)(Ka.lex.)

6379.Image: watch-tower: pat.akam watch-tower (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) Image: cornice work: pan.t.ikai a kind of moulding or cornice; periodical festival (Ta.); pan.d.uga id. (Te.); pan.d.ige id. (Ka.); pan.t.ika id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. er..utakam, er..utam cornice work; ornamental stone base for a pillar; er..utakama_l wooden mould used in cornice work (C.E.M.) (Ta.lex.) Image: watch-tower: pan.avai watch-tower, loft (Kalit. 41); pan.ai watch-tower (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) hat.ap hut.up towering (Santali. lex.)

6380.To grumble: bat.a-bat.a adj. garrulous, talking rapidly, loudly, and incessantly (Mu.lex.) bar.r bar.n onom. of defecating with diarrhoea, or of a falling tree (Ko.); bad.abad.a, vat.avat.a sound to imitate that of gabbling, jabbering, prating (Ka.); bad.abad.a babbling, garrulity; noise of a drum (Tu.); bad.abad.a (to talk) abruptly, noisily (Te.); bar.bar.rna_ to talk loudly, chatter noisily; bar.an.bar.an:grna_, ber.en:gber.en:grna_ to talk endlessly, talk together noisily (Kur.); bar.bar.re to prattle (Malt.)(DEDR 5230). bad.abad.ai laments (Pkt.); bar.bar.a_in.u to grumble (S.); bar.bar.a_un.a_ (P.); barbara_unu to grunt, grumble, mutter in sleep (N.); bar.bar. murmur, grumble; bar.bar.a_na to murmur (B.); bar.abar.a grumbling (Or.); bar.bar.a_na_ to grumble (H.); bar.bar.vu~ (G.); bad.bad.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9122). vad.avad.ai mutters (Pkt.); vat.vat.n.e~ to grumble (M.)(CDIAL 11224).

6381.Pride: mut.t.ima, mot.t.ima pride (Pkt.); mut.u heart, courage, feelings (N.); mit.i heart (Si.)(CDIAL 10188). Ímad be exhilarated (Skt.); ma_jn.e~ to grow arrogant (M.)(CDIAL 10032). pro_nma_dayati begins to be in rut (Skt.inscr.); po_ma_iya praised, delighted (Pkt.); poma_vu_ to be delighted (G.)(CDIAL 9016). pramada joy,pleasure (MBh.); wanton (Skt.); pramadati enjoys (RV.); pamada pleasure (Pali); pamaya (Pkt.); pama, pama_ love, affection (Si.)(CDIAL 8718). u_mna_ to be exultant, boil up (H.)(CDIAL 2115). mit.al, mit.an- strength (Ta.); mit.ukkan- strong, powerful man; rough, coarse person; proud, conceited man; min.t.u to be hard, be exultant, vain, join battle; strength, bravery, courage; fault, crime, mischief, vulgar talk, vulgarity, presumptuous speech (Ta.); mit.ama valour, prowess, skill; mit.aman valorous; mit.ukku, mit.ukkam strength, activity; dexterity; mit.ukkan resolute, active, clever; mit.ukkuka to insist, urge on (Ma.); min.d.- to refuse to obey or listen; kick (Ko.); mid.uku to become conscious, grow animated or quickened, become lively or vigorous, be alive; move, urge on, push; setting in motion, animation, life, liveliness, activity, sprightliness, vigour, strength, valour; min.d.a man of high position, hero, somebody or something that is above or beyong another's reach, beyond his faculties or out of his power; mi_t.u, mi_n.t.u eminence, greatness, superiority, excellency, excess, beauty, niceness (Ka.); mid.uku to live, subsist; min.d.a great, high, excessive, exceeding; male; mid.i pride; proud, haughty (Te.); mend.gi young (Kol.); mind.gi a young man (Nk.)(DEDR 4846). Pride, cruelty: vet.t.an-avu cruelty, hardness, force; vet.t.i (-pp-, -tt-) to be harsh, rough, violent; vet.t.itu that which is harsh, rough, violent; vet.t.imai harshness, roughness, harshness of speech, anger; vet.t.-en-al expr. of harshness, violence, severity; vet.t.-en-avu severity, harshness, that which is severe or hard; vet.t.ai hardness as of metals (Ta.); vet. hard (of gold mixed with alloy); bet.n. one who is strong and big (Ko.); pet.t.u pride, domineering, daring; ped.asu hardness (as of metal), stiffness, inflexibilty, brittleness, harshness (of speech), difficulty, trouble (as of a business); bet.t.a, bet.t.i, bet.t.u, bet.t.e firmness, hardness, excessive hardness of metals, harshness, rudeness; bet.t.ane with harshness, force, fierceness, or vehemence; bet.t.it(t)u that which is hard, firm, strong, stiff, harsh, fierce, rough, rude, difficult etc. (Ka.); bot.t.a_na excessively, exceedingly (Tu.); pet.uku unpleasant, disagreeable, rough, stiff, inflexible, discourteous, uncivil; unpleasantness; bet.t.a hardness, difficulty; hard, difficult; bet.t.u hardness, stiffness, rigidity, respect, awe; much, excessive; excessively, violently; bet.t.idapu, bet.t.idamu hardness, harshness, severity, violence, fury; hard, harsh, severe, stiff, violent; bet.t.idu~d.u, bet.t.idura_lu a furious or cruel person; bed.a_da trouble, ado, complication; bed.idamu severity, harsh language; severe, harsh, much; bed.iyu to have a difference or misunderstanding, be on bad terms (Te.); ped.a difficult, obstinate, troublesome, past endurance (Kui); pat.ut physical strength, force (Kur.)(DEDR 4392).

6382.Excellence, abundance: {Echo word} ogu bursting forth, running over, excess; ogu-mige abundance (Ka.lex.) mihtar name of a caste, the same as chur.ha (in some districts the same as chumar), an hon. title of sweepers, shoe-makers; the headman of a caste; mihtari the office of mihtar, or headman of a caste (P.lex.) cf. mahi_yas greater, very great (S'vetUp.); mahia great (Pkt.); mahi_a_m. gen. pl. superior (OG.)(CDIAL 9976). mehesana sovereign (OSi.); maha_s'a_na a name of S'iva (Skt.)(CDIAL 9977). mah great (RV.); mihtar (Pers.)(CDIAL 9932). meha_r(i_) palace (B.)(CDIAL 9940). miku (mikuv-, mikk-) to exceed, surpass, be in excess (Na_lat.i, 346); grow, increase (Ir-ai. 16); swell, be doubled (a letter), crowd, be great, excellent, be superior, remain, be left over, be superfluous, be self-conceited, arrogant; (-pp-, -tt-) to augment, make large (Kur-al., 475); excel, surpass, increase, regard with pride; adj. great; mikuttu (mikuti-) to save, spare, leave over; mikka great, much, excellent, superior; mikkatu that which is abundant or excessive, that which is excellent, superior, that which remains over (as food after a meal), that which oversteps the limits, excess, transgression; mikkavar, mikka_r great persons, superior persons, majority of persons, most people (Ta.); mikko_n- great person; mika, mikku very much, abundantly; mikal being plentiful or abundant, greatness, victory; mikavu abundance; mikar-kai doubling (as of a hard consonant); mikutam abundance, profusion, redundance; mikuti much, abundance (Tol. Er..ut. 411); fullness, satiety, crowd, increase, excess, remainder, surplus, excellence, arrogance; mikunta much, great, excessive, remaining; mikai abundance, excess (Kur-al., 504); excellent thing, excellence, greatness, that which is unnecessary, superfluous, that which remains or is left over, extra, arrogance, evil deed, fault, defect, error; (-pp-, -tt-) to increase, swell, be proud; micu (mici-) to exceed, surpass, transgress, excess; miccam remainder, remnant, surplus, excess; miccil remainder, remnant, surplus, excess; miccil remainder, leavings, what is left after a meal, charcoal; mi_ppu abundance, excellence, greatness; mi_ta_ri remainder, residue; mi_ti remainder, that which is left; vicu (vici-) to excel, surpass, be excessive (Ta.); mikuka (mikk-) to surpass, abound, be foremost; mikka the greater part, the chiefest; mikavu eminence, plenty, much; mikakka, mikukka to increase, be foremost; mikuti plenty, greatness, profit; mikekka to exceed, increase, thrive, prosper; miccam more than enough, above average; surplus, remnant; mical surplus, remains of food laid by; micuka to exceed, superabound, remain; micikka to leave fragments of food, spare, save; micippu remainder (Ma.); mik- (miky-) to be left over, be saved from death; mikc- to save (money, life); micm remainder (Ko.); mik- (miky-) to be left over, remain; mixc- to save, put by; mixil, micm remainder; misx- (misxy-) to pollute dairy by transgressing rules (To.); mikku to grow abundant, increase, exceed, remain over; n. excess, state of being more or above or other, remainder, rest; migu (mikk-) to grow great, abundant or excessive, exceed, grow more or larger, superabound, be in excess, be over and above, remain over, be left as a remnant, remain, go beyond, surpass; migate surplus, remnant, rest; migil(u), migalu greatness, muchness, abundance, excellence, superiority, superabundance, excess, remainder, rest; mige abundance, excess; adv. so as to abound, abundantly, excessively, much; micu to become great, excel (as in any work), go beyond, exceed, expire (as a period), pass beyond reach, behave over-bearingly or proudly (Ka.); mij- (miji-) to be left over, remain (of things) (Kod..); migguni, mikkuni to surpass, exceed, transgress, remain, be left; mikka left, remaining; other; migut, migit surplus, balance, remnant, mesne profits; migi, migilu, migu, miggi surpassing, excelling; migiluni to excel, surpass; mijuni to be release, saved, escape, exceed, spare, conquer, overcome (Tu.); migulu to remain or remain over, be over and above, be left as a remainder or residue, be saved or laid by, be left unspent, survive, pass, elapse, be too late; migul(u)cu, migilincu to save, lay by; migata, migulu remainder, rest, balance, remnants, leavings, residue, surplus, relic; migilina remaining, rest; migula(n) greatly, exceedingly; mikkilu to increase, exceed; mikkili great; greatly, highly, very, much, more than proper; mikkiliva~_d.u one who is superior or better, a superior; mikkat.amu, mikkut.amu much, excessive, extreme, great, strong, severe; n. excessiveness; mincu to exceed, go beyond or above, excel, surpass, transgress, increase, rise, be great, high or excessive, elapse, expire, be gone by, be beyond recall, be too late; n. increase, rise, swell; mincudala increase, rise; exceeding, excelling, surpassing, transgressing (Te.); migil to be left over (Nk.); mayy- to remain, be surplus; mayyu_s- to save, cause to remain (Go.); mis- (-t-) to increase, excel (Kond.a); miji_- remainder of food; eka_ odanamijy avatis.t.hate (BHSkt.)(DEDR 4838). mi_ (Te. mi_ ; Ka. me_) top, surface; height, elevation, eminence, loftiness; sky, heavens; greatness, dignity; mi_-k-ku_r-tal to increase; mi_-k-ko_l. abundance, plenty; ascent; upper garment; mi_ka_man, mi_ka_n pilot, captain of a vessel, ma_lumi; mi_-ka_ram upper storey or terrace of a mansion; mi_caran superior; great person; mi_cu abundance, copiousness (Ta.lex.) > ma_c, matsya fish. mi_ca-va_ram the landholder's share of the crop (Ta.lex.) mi_cu-poli grain first taken from the grain-heap at the threshing-floor for charitable purposes (Ta.lex.) Exceed: mi_r-u (mi_r-i-) to go beyond, exceed, transgress, violate, infringe, domineer, be in excess, remain over, be great, grow lofty as a tree, stout as a person, be haughty; vi_r-u (vi_r-i-) to be distinguished, pre-eminent, increase; n. excellence, distinction, abundance (Ta.); mi.r-- (mi.r-y-) to become uncontrollable (To.); mi_r-uka to exceed, transgress; vi_r-uka to be grand, dignified, be puffed p, proud (Ma.); mi.r- (mi.ry-) to be extreme in anything, (beauty) is great, refuse to heed (Ko.); mi_r-u to go beyond, go beyond th eproper limit, transgress, evade, surpass, exceed, put into the shade; pass, elapse (as time); move out of reach, become excessive (as trouble etc.); be elated, lofty, unrestrained or proud, act overbearingly; mi_r-uha going beyond, transgressing etc. (Ka.); mu.r- (mu.ri-; mu.ruv, mu.nd-) to disregard, disobey (one's words), be superior to, outdo (Kod..); mi_ru much, exceeding; mi_runi to transgress, violate, exceed; mi_ra_vuni to cause to surpass or exceed; mi_rik, mi_rig, mi_ruvik transgression, violation (Tu.); mi_r-u to exceed, transgress, excel, surpass, increase, pass, elapse, grow haughty, conceited, impertinent or disobedient (Te.); vi_d.en. to overtake (Kol.); wi_ra_na_ to pass, surpass, outstrip; vi_r.- to surpass; to be more than sufficient, win; wida_na (d = r.) to cross over (Go.); mi_ja (mi_ji-) to exceed, excel, surpass, overtake, pass by, precede (Kui)(DEDR 4884). Abundance; stout: br.h to increase (Skt.); br.hant tall, high (RV.); brho high mountain (Kal.); bo_ up; bui high (Mai.)(CDIAL 9302). muracu (muraci-) to be full, abundant; mu_ri strength, greatness (Ta.); mu_ru fat, stout, corpulent (Tu.); to increase, be full (Te.)(DEDR 4970). br.m.hati increases (S'Br.); br.hati is thick, grows strong; br.m.hayati increases (MBh.); ba_jhn.e~, ba_jn.e~, ba_.e~ to bear (of fruit or flower trees); ba_jh crop (M.)(CDIAL 9306). praud.ha full of (MBh.); strong, full-grown, skilful (Skt.); pro_d.ham (Pa_n.. gan.a); paribr.d.ha strong (S'Br.); pavu_d.ha firm (Pkt.); paur.ha_ mighty, firm, stiff (H.); po_d.ha grown up, capable, clever (Pkt.); por.ho very old (S.)(CDIAL 9021). cf. bud.d.ha old (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 9271). men.d.u abundance, plenty, much, great (Te.); me_n.d. full (used suffixially, e.g., d.oppo_-me_nd. a leaf-plate full)(Go.); me_r. full, whole, entire, complete (Go.e.g., gappa mend. basketful); met.an having the total of (Go.); na_r mend.u the whole village; na_r met.or all the people of the village (Go.)(DEDR 5060). cf. kor.k mend.u a full double handful; kor.ov double handful; folded hands (Go.)(DEDR 2046). mit.t.e a large number (Ka.)(DEDR 5058).

6383.Old; to grow: muracu (muraci-) to mature, be old, ancient; n. maturing; mu_ri antiquity, old age (Ta.); murtal old woman (Kol.); murtal. (Nk.); murtal id. (Pa. Ga.); mu_r.a_na_ to grow old (of a woman); mura_na_ to ripen (of a boil); murtar. woman; mur.t.e_li_ very old (of trees only); mur- to mature (Go.)(DEDR 4969). mutu old, ancient; mutt-eyil ancient fortress; mutumai antiquity, oldness, old age,proverb, maturity; muta_ri being old or ancient, that which is ripe; mutiyavan-, mutiyan-, mutiya_n- aged man, elder, senior, Brahma_; mutiya_l. elderly woman, woman possessed by a spirit; mutiyo_l. old woman, goddess; mutiyo_r persons of ripe wisdom; mutir (-v-, -nnt-) to grow old, have the qualities of age, become mature, grow ripe; mutircci maturity, ripened condition, great age, excellence in learning or experience; mutirvu maturity, ripened condition, grea age; mutuvar elders, old persons, persons of ripe wisdom, men of experience, counsellors; mutuval that which is time-worn; mutuvo_r elders, men of experience, the great, the elders as king, teacher, mother, father, elder brother, poets; mutai, mutai-ppun-am ground long under cultivation; mutaiyal wild jungle, ancient forest; mu_ (-pp-, -tt-) to become old, be older than another, be senior in age; n. old age; mu_va_r the Devas as never ageing; mu_-te_vi the elder sister of Laks.mi_, goddess of misfortune; mu_tt-appan- father's father; mu_ttavan- one who is senior in age, elder brother, superior; mu_tta_r aged persons, elders, husbands, elder brother; mu_tta_l. aged woman, elder sister, first wife; mu_tto_n- aged person, elderly man, senior, elder brother, Gan.es'a (as the eldest of S'iva's sons), man between 48 and 64 years of age; mu_ta_t.kal. forefathers, ancestors; mu_ta_t.t.i aged woman; mu_ta_l.an- aged man; mu_tu oldness, elderliness; mu_tai old, past, ancient; ground cleared of wood and prepared for tillage; mu_ppar elders in age, superiors, deacons; mu_ppan- headman in some castes; mu_ppa_n- elder, S'iva; mu_ppi aged woman, woman of distinction; mu_ppu seniority in age, old age, power of management, leadership (Ta.); mutu old, prior, ripe; mutukan old man; mutuma a choice word (opp. putuma); muta jungle land brought for the first time under cultivation; mutiruka to grow up, become mature, mutircca growth, tallness; mutirppu maturity; mutt-appan grandfather; mutu-mutt-appan great-grandfather; muttan old man; mutti old woman; grandmother; mu_kka to grow, grow old, ripen, ferment; mu_-de_vi elder sister of Laks.mi_, goddess of misfortune; mu_tu prior; mu_tta old, grown (opp. kl.aya); mu_ttatu old, elder; mu_ttappan father's elder brother, father's father; mu_ttamma elder sister of mother or father, mother's mother; mu_tta_cci grand-mother; mu_ttavan elder, senior, elder brother; mu_tta_n an old Nayar, senior; mu_tto_r old men; a title of barons in Kad.attuwana_d.u; mu_ppu old age, maturity, seniority, a right of inheritance, an office of dignity; mu_ppan old man, senior, elder president; the head-man of a class (a title bestowed by Ra_jas on Ti_yars and Ma_pl.as); a caste of jungle dwellers in Wayana_d.u, agrestic slaves (Ma.); mud, mudk old age; old; mudkn old man; fem. mudky; mutl maturity, ripeness, old age; mut- (muty-) to become ripe, become mature or advanced in age (Ko.); mu0, mu0y old; mu0 maw heavy rain; mut- (muty-) (child) becomes strong, (fruits) become hard and good for seed; mu.f- (mu.t-) to become old; mu.t old age; mu.tk former times (ablative mu.tks-n from of old)(To.); muttu, mudi advanced age, oldness, old age, priority; mudaka, muduku old man; fem. mudaki, mudiki, muduki; mutta, mudupa old man; mudu (mutt-), mode to advance in growth, increae, become full-grown, mature, advance in years, become old; n. old age, etc.; mudukatana, muppu old age; mu_-de_vi elder sister of Laks.mi_, goddess of misfortune (Ka.); mudi old; mudike old man; fem. mudiki; muttajje great-grandfather; mutta.y great-grandmother; mu.- (mu.p-, mu.t-) to grow up; mu. de.vi quarrelsome, extravagant, cruel woman (Kod..); mudi, mudu old, aged, ancient; mudiyuni to be worn out; mudiye old man; old, aged; muduke old man; mutt-ajje great-grandfather; mutt-ajji great grandmother; muppu old, aged; old age; misfortune, ruin, destruction; mopp old man; mujad. old man; mujud.u an old person (Tu.); mudara, muduru not young or tender (as a fruit or berry or the like), grown up, ripe, mature, advanced, old; mudi old age; old; muditanamu, mudimi old age, decrepitude, mudiyu to become or grow old; muduka~d.u old man; muduru to become ripe or mature, arrive at the period of full growth or maturity, grow, advance or increase, become worse or aggravated as a disease, enmity or ill-feeling; mudusali old; an old person; mudusalitanamu old age; mutta, mutti old person; mutt-avva great- grandmother; mutta_ta great-grandfather; muppu old age; danger, misfortune; mu_de_vi the goddess of ill-luck or misfortune (Te.); mudgan husband (Nk.); muttak old man (Pa.Ga.); muv-, muia_na_, muita_na_ to grow old; muytor, muytond. old man; muytar., muyta_r. old woman; mudiyal old man; mudiyo, mudiya_l, mudpal, muido, moido_, mujo, mujjo husband; mutte old woman, woman, wife; mute, mutto wife; mut.o old woman, mother, wife; muy- (fruit) to become mature; mukka_l old man; mukka_d old woman (Go.); mu_ssela old man; mu_'nai to outgrow; mudr- (-it-) to become matured, ripen (Kuwi); mutkun old; old thing (Br.)(DEDR 4954). du_- (-t-) to be well grown (as fruit, child etc.), be well-developed; caus. du_p- (-t-) (Kond.a); du_- (-t-) to grow old; du_ten old man (Pe.); du_tanju old man; du_ta_li old woman; du_- (-t-) to grow old; du_ti old (Kuwi)(DEDR 3374). mur-r-ukai completion; mur-r-u (mur-r-i-) to become mature, ripen, be fully grown, be advanced in age, abound, increase, become hardened as the core of a tree, be fulfilled (as one's desire), come to an end, eb finished, die; complete, finish, destroy, kill; n. perfection, completeness, that which is complete, ripeness, maturity, end, termination; mur-r-um wholly, entirely, all; mur-r-a entirely, fully; mur-r-al maturiing, anything that is fully grown or developed, hardness (as of the core of a tree), fruit almost ripe, completing, ending, strength, old age; mur-r-i (-pp-, -tt-) to complete, finish; mur-imai mature wisdom; mur-r--avai grandmother; mur-uku (mur-uki-), muruku (muruki-) to ripen (Ta.); mur-r-u entireness; mur-r-uka to grow ripe, entire, perfect; mur-r-a wholly, entirely (Ma.); mut- (muty-) to become ripe, become mature or advanced in age (Ko.); mut. et- (eyt-) to go round completely (Ko.); mut- (muty-) (child) becomes strong, (fruits) become hard and unfit for use, (potatoes) are hard and good for seed (To.); muttuni to become extinct, be destroyed; mutta_vuni to ruin, destroy (Tu.); m(r)uggu to ripen, become overripe (Te.)(DEDR 5017). mu_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to be mature (Ta.); mur..ukka to grow ripe, mature (Ma.); m(r)uggu to ripen, become overripe (Te.); mur.- to ripen after being plucked; mur.kip- (mur.kit-) to ripen off (Pa.); mu_r.a_na_ to ripen (of a boil); mur.ksta_na_ to cram achar berries into a pot, to rot them before extracting the chironji kernels (Go.)(DEDR 5046). bud.d.ha old (Pali.Pkt.); phuro (Gypsy); bur.a_lek old woman; bud.ai (Pas'.); bur.a_la, bur.a_lek old (Shum.); bur.a, bud.a grand-father; bur.i, bud.i grand-mother (Gaw.); bud.a old man; bud.i_ old woman (Mai.); bu_r., bu_d.o, bur.i old (Phal.); bud.u old; bud.un to become old (K.); bud.ho (S.); bud.d.h, bud.d.hi_ old channel of Chenab river; bud.d.ha_, bud.hr.a_, bud.ha_ old (L.); bud.d.ha_ (P.); bud.happan. old age; bud.d.a_ old; bud., bud.d.i; bud.he_n.u to make old (WPah.); bur.ho, bud.d.ho, bur. (Ku.); bur.(h)o (N.); bura_ (A.); bur.a_ (B.); bur.ha old cow; bur.ha_ old (B.); bu_r.h, bu_r.hi old; bur.hia_ old woman (Mth.); bu_r.h old (Bhoj.); bu_d.ha, bu_r.h (OAw.); bu_r.ha_ (H.); bu_d.hau (OMarw.); bu_d.h, adj. bud.hiyo old man (G.)[Initial b- in all lggs. seems to preclude direct derivation < vr.ddha](CDIAL 9271). vr.ddha grown, large (RV.); grown-up, old (TS.); vaddha, vuddha, vud.d.ha, vud.d.haka old (Pali); vadhra, vudha, vud.ha (As'.); vudha (KharI.); vr.dha, vr.dhaga, vr.taga (NiDoc.); vaddha, viddha, vuddha, vud.d.ha, vu_d.ha (Pkt.); viddi old woman; wuddih, buddi (Gypsy); bat-kuma_ maid (Tor.); udhan.u to increase (S.); vaddh, baddh more, excessive; va_ddhu_, ba_ddhu_ superfluous (P.); bur.ha_ a_n:gut.hi big toe, thumb (Or.); vudhvu~ to go (G.); vidu old man (Si.); bi_d.u, bir.e much (Phal.)(CDIAL 12073). vr.ddhatara larger (R.); vr.ddhatama oldest (R.); vadhera_, badhera_ more, much, many (P.); vadha_re more, greater; vadha_rvu~ to increase; vadha_ro increase (G.)(CDIAL 12074). naudh, naudha_ newly planted; sapling, fresh shoot (H.)(CDIAL 7015). maha_vr.ddha very old (R.); mod.h name of a caste of Brahmans who serve as priests to a caste of Bania_s also called mod.h (G.)(CDIAL 9959).

6384.Wall, terrace; mound: pir-an:kal mountain, height (Ta.); per-r-am greatness (Ta.) (DEDR 4425). bhit.o wall holding up a terraced field (N.); bhit.a_ mound, mound on a ruined site, homestead (B.); bhi_t. embankment (H.); bhi_r., bhir.o terrace, wall (Ku.); bhir steep slope, precipice (N.); bhi~_r., bhi_r.wa_ mound round a tank (Mth.); bhit.a sandhill (S.); bhit.o ridge, terrace, upper side of field; bhit.uko ridge, terrace, hillock (Ku.)(CDIAL 9491). cf. bet.t.a big hill, mountain (Ka.); vit.am, vin.t.u, vit.ari mountain (Ta.); bit., but. mound, hillock; ba_t.agh summit, top (Br.)(DEDR 5474). cf. met.t.u mound, heap of earth (Ta.)(DEDR 5058). mettai storied house (Ta.); metta terrace (Ma.); middiya, midde flat roof, terrace, terraced house, one with a flat roof, house with an upper story (Te.)(DEDR 5069). bhitti mat of split reeds (S'Br.); panel, partition, wall (MaitrUp.); bhittika_ (Skt.); bhitti wall (Pali.Pkt.); bhittika having walls (Pali); bitko_r wall (Sh.); bhiti (S.); bhi_t (P.H.); bhitti sitting-room with hearth in middle (WPah.); bhi_t wall, terrace (Ku.); wall (Bi.Mth.H.); bhi_ti_ wall, stone or brick fence, terrace (Ku.); bhit wall (B.); bhi_ti, bhitti (Mth.); bhi_ti (Bhoj.); bhi~_t (H.G.M.); bhi_ti (H.OG.); bhitr.i_ (G.); bhi~tr.i_ (G.); bhitarr.i_, bhiytarr.i_ (G.); bhint (M.); bita, pl. bit (Si.)(CDIAL 9494). House: bid.a_ramu house (Te.); bid.a_ra id. (Ka.); vi_t.u house, habitation, abode (Pu.Ve. 3,15, Kol.u.); squares, as of a chess board (Ta.lex.) Dwelling: vit.a_ram camp (Pu. Ve. 8,16, Kol.u, urai.); house (Ta.); vi_t.u freehold property, house, esp. of a Na_yar or Janmi(Ma.); vi_t.an headman, chief (Ma.); bid.avu leaving space, space, room, interval (Ka.); bi_d.a_ra halting or dwelling place, house, lodgings (Ka.); bid.a_r house, household, lodgings (M.)(DEDR 5393). bi_d.ike halting; a halting- or resting-place; a camp (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Inn: vit.uti lodging place, place of temporary residence, that which is solitary (Ta.); bud.a_ra temporary abode, lodging (Tu.); vid.iyu to halt or stay temporarily, lodge; n. town, city, camp (Te.)(DEDR 5393). cf. vit.t.am beam of a roof (Ma.); but.t.a ceiling joist (Kod..)(DEDR 5395).

6385.Sudden movement; sudden noise; crackle: {Echo word} pat.apat.a (-pp-, -tt-) to rattle (as things falling, rolling or breaking); pat.a-pat.en-al onom. expr. signifying burstling, breaking, falling with a rattling noise; pat.a_r-en-al, pat.a_r-pat.a_r-en-al onom. expr. signifying cracking, bursting with a sudden noise, report or explosion; pat.i_r-en-al onom. expr. signifying a sudden crash or explosion (Ta.); pat.apat.a rattling noise, the report of a gun, etc. (Ma.); pat.akkam a cracker (Ma.); pat. in- (id.-) to make noise of bursting of skin when burnt, of sharp blow, crack, etc.; pat.a.rn with noise of a blow, or of breaking (stick, knife, rope)(Ko.); pad.a, pad.a pad.a sound imitating that of a cracker of squib (Ka.); pat.a, pat.a pat.a, pat.a_rane, pat.t.ane sound imitating the flapping of wings or suspended clothes, of a dog shaking his body, of applying blows or kicks, of burstling; pat.i_r, pat.hil bang! (Ka.); pad.apad.a, pat.apat.ane a flapping or rattling sound (Tu.); pat.apat.a noise made in breaking or busting, gnashing the teeth, crackling; pat.ilumanu to break with a crack (Te.); pat.pat. any rapid succession of sounds (made e.g. by objects falling in number); pat.pat.rna_, pat.pot.rna_ to crackle several times in succession, make a series of rapidly repeated noises (Kur.)(DEDR 3841). bhat.a-bhat.a_yate_ gurgles (Skt.); bhar. crackle, rush (H.); bhad. crackling fuel (M.); bhar.bhar.i_ alarm (P.); bhar.bhar.a_t. startling noise, crackling of fire (Ku.); bhar.abhar.a snuffling (Or.); bhar.bhar. violently; bhar.a_bhar. smartly (G.); bhad.akka noise (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9365). pat.apat.a (-pp-, -tt-) to be overhasty (as in speech); pat.apat.appu precipitancy, agitation, overhastiness; pat.a-pat.-en-al onom. expr. signifying speaking in haste, hurry (as in preparation for a journey) (Ta.); pat.akn suddenly, with a jerk; completely, all at once (Ko.); pat.akkane with the sound of pat.ak, i.e. suddenly and with a noise (Ka.); pat.akka, pat.a_la, pat.t.a_la smartly, sharply (as to strike thus); pat.t.a suddenly (Tu.)(DEDR 3842). pat. sudden noise (Skt.); suddenly (G.); pat.at, pat.iti, pat.apat.aditi, pat.atpat.iti, pat.atpat.e_ti with a crack; pat.pat.a_karo_ti makes a crackling noise (Skt.); pat.kan.a_, pat.a_n.a_ to dash against (P.); pat.a_k(o) slap; pat.akn.o to dash against; par.ku_n.o to beat (Ku.); par.ya_n.n.a explosively; parkanu to explode; pat.akka asunder; pat.a_pat. incessantly (N.); par. sound of tearing (B.)[cf. par-i to tear asunder (Ka.); to be torn apart (as roots)(Ta.); tearing off (Ma.); par-ivu tearing, rending (Ka.); pa_r-u to be torn in pieces (Ta.)(DEDR 4027)]; pat. with a crash; pat.pat.a_na to crackle; pat.ka_na to throw down (B.); par.par. crackling sound (OR.); pat.akna_ to dash against (H.); pat.a_ko loud crack (G.); pat.akn.e~ to dash down (M.)(CDIAL 7691). pal.a-pal.a-v-en-al expr. signifying bursting sound; pal.i_r-en-al expr. signifying cracking, crashing, clanging (Ta.); pal.apal.a cracking, popping (Ma.); crackingly (Te.); pal.ak sound produced when an earthen vessel with water breaks (Ka.)(DEDR 4013).

6386.Image: flag, banner: pat.an:ku standard, large banner (Ta.) < pat.a_ka flag (Pali.Skt.); pat.i- divided up; attain (Pali.lex.); pata_ka flag (MBh. prob.< a non-Aryan word containing p(h)at. aryanized with t]; pata_ka flag; pat.a_ga (Pkt.); pad.a_ya, pad.a_ia_, pad.a_ha (Pkt.); par.a_i paper kite (G.); phra_ flag (Kal.); phar.ka_ (perh. influenced by phar.a-phar.a with a sudden movement)(Or.)(CDIAL 7726). pat.an.n.u flag (Ma.); pad.aga id., banner (Te.)(DBIA 239). pat.a_kai flag, banner; pat.t.am flag, large banner; pata_kai ensign, banner, standard; large flag (Maturaik. 373)(Ta.lex.) pat.a_kai multitude, crowd (Perun.. Ucaik. 38,128)(Ta.lex.) pat.t.ala_ a district, community (Skt.lex.) Army: pata_kin-i army (Jan-a_. 26,18)(Ta.lex.)

6387.Thin: pattala thin (Pkt.); patalo thin, liquid (Ku.); pa_talo, pa_tulo thin (N.); pa_tal (A.B.); pa_tla_ (B.); pa_tal.a, pa~_tal.a_ (Or.); pa_tar, patla_ sowing wide apart (Bi.); pa_tar slender, delicate (Mth.); pa_tar thin (Aw.); thin, weak (H.); pa_tur, patla_ id. (H.L.P.); pa_tl.u~ thin (G.); pa_tal. (M.); pa_ttal.a (Konkan.i); patali, petali flat (Si.)(CDIAL 7736). pat.rir.o thin (S.); pa_ti a little (A.B.Or.); pati_l, patla_ thin (H.); patiro, patilo thin (S.)(CDIAL 7740). Image: thin slips: bate thin slips of bamboo (Malt.); bata_ bamboo laths, bamboo slips (Kur.)(DEDR 3917). pa_ntam fibres of a coconut branch (Ma.); pa_ndava, pa_ndavu a thin strip of coconut branch or of other fibrous trees, generally used as a band or tie (Tu.)(DEDR 4081). Lath, reaper: pat.t.iyal lath, reaper (Ta.); pat.t.iya id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: thin slip of bamboo: bata a bamboo lath, a thin slip of bamboo, a piece of bamboo etc. tied or nailed across to strengthen; lattice work, interlacing; andharia bata a bamboo tied lengthwise half way between the eaves and ridge, to strengthen the rafters (Santali.lex.) pattai thin piece, as of bamboo (Ta.); badda, bradda a flat thin portion or part of anything, slice, chip, piece, strip; braddara a piece, a slit (Te.); bada slit, chip (Kond.a); badda slice (Kuwi)(DEDR 3962b). Division: vad.e slices (Kol.); var.ka, var.ga_ division, part (Go.); vad.ga_ half, portion (Go.)(DEDR 5228). Metal foil: pattri_, patti_ thin slip of iron (P.); pa_to metal plate used to repair something broken (Ku.); pa_t blade of a knife (N.); blade of tool or weapon (M.); pata_ thin metal plate (A.); pa_ta_ blade (B.); pa_ta metal-foil (Or.); pa_tia_ thin slip of metal (Or.); pa_ta_ blade of paddle (Bi.); leaf of yoke of plough (Bi.); patta_ id. (Bi.); pa_te~ blade (M.); patta board, stick (Si.); petta slice, thin piece of wood (Si.)(CDIAL 7733).

6388.Tools: pat.ai instrument, implement, tool; weapons, arms of any kind (Kur-al., 828); means, agency (Kur-al., 555)(Ta.lex.) Image: ploughshare: pat.ai ploughshare (Kampara_. Na_t.t.u. 7); pat.ai-k-ka_l, pat.ai-k-ka_r--palakai the wooden part of the ploughshare to which the iron coulter is attached; pat.ai-va_l. ploughsare (Kalla_. 59,20); plough (Ta.lex.) cfr. pat.ai army (Ta.)

6389.Hypothecation bond: pantakam < bandhaka pledge, mortgage; alienation; pantaka-pattiram hypothecation deed; pantam encumbrance on property; alienation of `property; pat.ukalam hypothecation bond; pat.ukalam-palicai extra cess on land levied in lieu of interest on arrears of revenue (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) pan.ayam pledge, pawn (Kampara_, U_rte_. 185); id. (Ma.); pan.aiyam pawn, pledge (Pur-ana_. 316); stake in gambling (Nal.a. Kalini_. 88)(Ta.lex.) Laid in store for sale: ba~_dhi fixed, settled, laid in store for sale (B.)(CDIAL 9142). ba~_dha_ settlement (B.)(CDIAL 9136). band(h)ej discipline, arrangement (N.); stability (H.); ba~dhej continence (M.); ba~dhi_ stipulation, prohibition (G.)(CDIAL 9143). badda, badu lease, rent, tax (Si.); bandha bond (RV.Pali); custody (Mn.); deposit, pledge (Skt.); bamdha bond (Pkt.) ba_dh bond (B.); ba~_dho pledge, what is promised to a god in a vow and destroyed on fulfilment of vow (N.); ba~_dha_ basnu to agree to serve a master till debt is paid off (N.); bandha_ act of binding, mortgage, security (Or.) (CDIAL 9136). bandhana bond (Pali); ba~_dhan, ba~_dhani bond (B.); bamma bond, ligature (Si.)(CDIAL 9140). bandha_n.u promise? (Si.)(CDIAL 9141). ba~dhiya_ bondsman (N.); bandhita imprisoned for debt, caused to be bound (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 9142). bamdha servant (Pkt.); ba_nho slave (S.); ba_nha~_, ba_nhi_ slave (L.); ba~_dho servant, bond servant (N.)(CDIAL 9207). Lease: pat.a a lease, to give a lease; noa aton pat. ak ta I have taken a written lease of this village; har pat.a a cultivating lease; raj do pat.ae emoka the zemindar will give a written lease; raja pat.awaflea the zemindar gave us a written lease or lease (Santali.lex.) Messenger; accountant: pat.haona to send, a messenger, ambassador; pat.haon wadeale we have sent to him; pat.wari a writer, a village accountant (Santali.lex.) patrika_ a leaf for writing upon; a letter, document; patri_ writing; patram a letter, document; any thin leaf or plate of metal, a gold-leaf (Skt.lex.) pedo, pedya_ a courier (Kon.lex.) Receipt, receptacle: par-r-u (Ta.Ma.) receipt, things received; acceptance; grasp, grip, seizure; portion of a country consisting of many villages; resting place; village, parish; paddy field (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 102); riches, treasure (Kural.); bundle, as of betel leaves (S.I.I. iii,188,8) (Ta.lex.); par-r-u-k-kat.t.u ryot's holding; annual rent on dry land (Ta.lex.); pattu (Ka.). par-r-a_yam [cf. patta_yam (Ta.Ma.) receptacle for grain, grain-bin.] a very large box (Ta.lex.) Wealth; receipt: pa_n.ba, pa_n.pa to obtain, get, receive, find; n. obtaining, getting,finding, wealth (Kui); pa'-, (pat.-, ppl. pan.bi) to find, get; neg. pr.a_-, imper. 2 sg. pr.a_mu to obtain; patali (future par-, imper. pamu_ to find; parinai id.; pa_'nai to get, have; pa_npu the receipt; pa_n.-/pn.a'- (-h-/-t-) to receive, get (Kuwi)(DEDR 4072). Act of getting: pa_van.a act of getting (Pkt.); pa_on (A.B.); pa_ona_ dues (B.); pa_un.a_ money due (Or.); pa_n getting (H.); pa_uni adj. due, payable, dues (A.); pa_van. ceremony of bringing the bride to here father's house (M.)(CDIAL 8942). pra_payati causes to be obtained (TBr.); obtains (R.); pa_pe_ti makes obtain, brings to (Pali); pa_vai obtains (Pkt.OAw.); pav to arrive; pau come (Gy.); pro_ to reach (Kt.); pou to arrive (Pr.); pow to obtain (Tor.); pra_wun (K.); pira_in.u to obtain (S.); pa_van. (L.): pa_un.a_ (P.); paun.o (Ku.); pa_unu (N.); pa_iba id. (A.); pa_oya_ (B.); pa_iba_ (Or.); pa_eb (Mth.); pa_vn.e~ (M.); pa_va~_ (OMarw.); pa_vu~ id. (G.); pa_na_ (H.); pa_vta_ reaches (Konkan.i); pava_ upto, till (Si.)(CDIAL 8943). Receipt; pawn ticket: pratigrahan.a receipt (S'a_nkhGr..); pat.iggahan.a acceptance (Pali); pad.ga_han. pawn ticket (M.)(CDIAL 8555). pratigr.hn.a_ti seizes (AV.); accepts (RV.); pat.iggan.ha_ti accepts (Pali); pil.igannava_ (Si.); pad.igga_hai accepts (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8553). cf. prati likeness; copy, duplicate (Ta.lex.<Skt.); pat.imam image; example, model (Tiruva_lava_. 47,3); pat.i true copy, as of a manuscript (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 56); resemblance, comparison (Te_va_. 44,7); pad.i id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pratigraha receiving (of gifts)(S'Br.); pratigrahe acceptance (KharI.)(CDIAL 8554).

6390.Large bellows: pantam a large kind of bellows (Ta.lex.) cf. pantam lamp, torch (Ta.Ma.); pantye small lamp (Tu.)(DEDR 3920).

6391.Image: wall: pantam surrounding wall, fortification (Ta.lex.)

6392.Image: arbour: pantar, pantal pandal (Pur-ana_. 260); shade (Cilap. 10,30); storehouse (Patir-r-up. 55,4); the state-chamber (Kampara_. Ma_ya_ca. 52); arbour, bower (Ta.); pantal temporary shed or wickerwork erected esp. for marriages or feasts; pantalikka to spread lke an arbour, be shady (Ta.); pandar, pandara, pandal temporary shed of leaves, cloth, etc., erected for marriages, etc.; trellis for vines or creepers (Ka.); panda temporary structure built for wedding or festival, pandal (Kod..); pandiri, pandili shed made of leaves or wickerwork, trellis for vines or creepers to run or spread over, a frame; pa_dali a shed (Te.); pandri pandal, bath-house (Kol.); pandal (Kond.a); pandiri id.; pandri roof structure with thatch, small hut (Kuwi)(DEDR 3922).

6393.Lands: va_ra-p-par-r-u lands held on the sharing tenure, a share of the produce being received by the government or landlord in kind, opposite to ti_rvai-p-par-r-u (Ta.lex.) par-r-u-c-ci_t.t.u receipt; lease-deed of cultivation; par-r-u-k-ko_l walking stick; iron-rod used to brand oxen; soldering iron; blacksmith's pole (Ta.lex.) pyo_ru gift (Pr.); prada_na gift (TS.)(CDIAL 8661). prai, pray receipt (K.); prada_ya gift (Mn.)(CDIAL 8659). pradi gift (Pa_n..com.)(CDIAL 8663). Item, entry in an account: paddu item, entry in an account (Te.); poddu thing, item (Pa.) (DEDR 3919). Memorandum showing the area sown: patthawaturu memorandum showing the area sown (K.)(CDIAL 8871). Field: pattu field; pattu-k-kat.t.u a ryot's usual holding (H.M. 642); pattu-k-ka_t.u field (Tinn.); a fixed assessment on dry land (W.G.); par-r-u paddy field (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 102); riches, treasure (Kur-al., 521); portion of a country containing many villages (Pu. Ve. 7,2, Urai); bundle, as ofbetel leaves (S.I.I. iii,188,8); perumpattu land, the proprietary right of which lies in the hands of the government (W.G.); perumpati town surrounded by villages; par-r-u paddy field (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 102); place under one's possessions (I_t.u, 1,3,9); resting place (Paripa_. 8,10); portion of a country consisting of many villages (Pu. Ve. 7,2, Urai); riches, treasure (Kur-al., 521); par-r-u-k-kat.t.u ryot's holding; annual rent on dry land; par-r-u-k-kat.t.or..un:ku system of land tenure whereby lands once brought under cultivation by a ryot become thereby part and parcel of his holding, subject to the incidence of taxation; Receipt: par-r-u-c-ci_t.t.u lease-deed of cultivation; receipt; par-r-u receipt; things received; par-r-ili uncultivated land whose revenue remains unpaid (S.I.I. v,376); par-r-u-varavu transaction, dealing; debit and credit (Kumare_ca. Cata. 4); par-r-at.aippu lease for cultivation (Kont.alvit.u. 85)(Ta.lex.)

6394.Image: long span; breadth: pa_t.a breadth, expanse (Skt.); pa_t.aka long span (Skt.)(CDIAL 8030). ardhapa_t.a a half expanse (Skt.); adhva_r. half a sheep's skin (L.); half of anything, one side of leather or piece of cloth (P.); adhua_r. id. (P.); adhwa_r. half of anything, half a roll of cloth (H.)(CDIAL 660). pra_dhvana_ bed or course of a river (RV.)(CDIAL 14668a). pat.am instep (Ta.); flat part of the hand or foot (Ma.); pat.a key palm of hand (Pe.); pat.a kiy id. (Mand..); pat.a ka_l sole of foot (Mand..); pat.a naki palm of hand (Kuwi)(DEDR 3843). cf. pat.a numeral classifier of flat objects (Malt.)(DEDR 3878).

6395.Wet land; table-land: pat.t.at.ai plot of wet land cultivated mainly by lift-irrigation; pat.t.ar-ai-nilam id. (Ta.); pat.t.at.ai-k-kar..ani a cultivated field artificially irrigated (Ta.lex.) pat.t.at.ai portion allowed to ploughmen from the proceeds of a harvest; cultivation, irrigation; plot of wet land cultivated mainly by lift-irrigation; pat.t.aikka_l high land irrigated by water from a lower level; pat.t.aikko_lutal to make a well-basket of palmyra leaf (Ta.lex.) Plateau: pa_t.t.a_ tableland (M.); pat.t.a_ lease (L.); pat.t.i_ narrow strip of level ground (L.); pat.t. sandy plain; pa_t.o plot of land (N.); pa_t.i anything flat, rafter (B.); pat.a metal plate, slab (Si.)(CDIAL 7699). pat.ha_r, pat.ha_ra_ plateau (M.)(CDIAL 8372). Seed-bed: pat.t.am a portion of seed-bed; fitting season, e.g. a_t.ippat.t.an te_t.i vitai; tank, pond (Ci_vaka. 868); pat.t.ar-ai-nilam, pat.t.ar-aikkar..ani, pat.t.ar-aikka_l wet land cultivated mainly by well irrigation; pat.t.at.ai id.; cultivation, irrigation; pat.t.ar-aikke_n.i a well whose water can be used for irrigating the lands close by (Ta.lex.) Garden: pa_t.t.am garden (Ta.); pa_t.am range (esp. of rice fields), rice-land (Ma.); pa.r.m (obl. pa.r.t-) level ground (Ko.); o.d. id. (To.); ha.d.a open, grassy ground in village (Badaga); pad.pu a plain (Tu.)(DEDR 4062). Spread out: patthat.a spread out (Pali); patthad.a id. (Pkt.); prasti_rn.a (AV.)(CDIAL 8867). pa_t.akam portion of field (S.I.I. iii,203)(Ta.lex.) Garden bed; small field; flat land: pa_ti garden bed (Ka.); nursery for plants (Tu.); pa_di, pa_du garden bed or plot (Te.); pa_tti small field (Ta.); garden bed (Ma.)(DEDR 4078). pattha lonely place, wilderness (Pali); prastami elevated land (NiDoc.); bumi-path wide level plain (K.); a_ra-path land in the bed of a stream (K.); prastha flat land (MBh.); vanaprastha forest wilderness (Skt.); va_naprastha living in wilderness (Skt.) (CDIAL 8868). Division into lots and assignment of lands: pat.t.i-var..i lands of a village divided into lots with reference to the quality of the soil and assigned to holders (Ta.lex.) Cultivated plot: par.u a cultivated plot (Kond.a); par (pl. -kul) garden (Pa.)(DEDR 4030). bare dry soil (Ka.); var.an dry soil, hot season (Ta.)(DEDR 5320). purambo_k nilam (Ta.lex.) as contrasted with nan--cey wet land. Field: pat.e small field for cultivation (Go.); bat.a a field on the hills (Pe.); field (Mand..); pasture (Kuwi)(DEDR 3874). Pasture: bhakar-bha_na_l goat-house (Phal.); bha_n.o_l cow- or sheep-pen in the hills, hill-pasture (Phal.); bana_l hill-pasture (Bshk.); bha_n.a_ (L.)(CDIAL 9442). Plain: padharu open, plain, enclosure round a house, yard (S.); paddhar open treeless plain (L.); open plain (P.); plain (WPah.); pa_dhar plain, open (G.)(CDIAL 7767). pa_hyaru hedge, fence (S.)(CDIAL 7896). patha_ri_ place where cowdung cakes are made (Bi.); patha_r spreading out grain to dry (Bhoj.); patha_r expanse (G.)(CDIAL 8864). pathraur place where cowdung cakes are made (Bi.)(CDIAL 8865). Level ground; flatness: prastara flat surface (Mn.); grass to sit on (RV.); pathur levelled area, bare floor (K.); pathuru level piece of ground, plateau (K.)(CDIAL 8857). pat.t.ai flatness; pat.t.am flat or level surface of anything, flat piece (as of bamboo)(Ta.); pat. flatness (of piece of iron, of head); pat.m (obl. pat.t-) ground for house (Ko.); pot. site of dairy or house (To.); pat.t.i space before house, spreading space; man.a-pat.t.i sandbank (Kod..); par. place (Nk.); pad. place, site (Pa.); pat. kapr.a top of the head (Pe.Mand..); pat.a numeral classifier of flat objects (Malt.)(DEDR 3878). Agriculture: pa_n.t.iyam agriculture, ploughing (Kalit. 136)(Ta.lex.) Agricultural tract: pa_n-al agricultural tract, rice-field (Ta.); ba_n.i a meadow (Ka.); ba.n.e open treeless meadow where cattle graze (Kod..); ba_n.e, ba_n a hill or jungle near a rice-field (Tu.)(DEDR 4071). pa_n.i town, village; district, country; grove encircling a village (Ta.lex.); pan.ai agricultural tract (Pur-ana_. 16); paddy field (Patir-r-up. 43,12); pan.n.ai agricultural tract (Cilap. 11,13); paddy field (Pa_rata. Pa_yi. 6); garden, cultivated plot of ground (Cilap. 13,192); (inscr.) pan. field (Ta.); pan.a ground which is worked (including stone-quarry)(Ma.); pan. level grassy ground (Ko.); pan.e ground that is worked, tillage, quarry (Ka.); pan.n.eya, pan.ya farm, landed estate (Ka.); pan.e quarry (Tu.); pan(n)asa agricultural land given to brahmans (inscr. 6th cent. onwards); Epigraphic Indica, 27.225-8)(DEDR 3891). pan-ai-na_t.u a portion of the Tamil country believed to have been submerged (Tol. Po. 650, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) pan.n.a-k-ka_ran- husbandsman, cultivator; headman amongst Par-aiyas who generally convenes meetings and presides at them for settlement of caste disputes; assistant headman of a village; rich landlord, farm-owner (Ta.lex.) To make fit for cultivation: pan.-cey-tal to prepare, as the ground; to make fit for cultivation (Ta.lex.) Street of herdsmen: pa_t.i town, city, hamlet, pastoral village (Ta.); (in n. pr. of villages)(Ma.); pa_t.am street, street of herdsmen (Ta.); pa_d.i settlement, hamlet, village (Ka.); pa.d.i hut of Kurumba (Kod..); pa_d.u village (at the end of names of places)(Te.); pa_d.a_ hamlet or culter of houses of agriculturists (M.); pa_t.aka a kind of village, half a village (Skt.)(from which are borrowed Ta. pa_t.akam street, section of village, Ma. pa_t.akam part of a village)(DEDR 4064). pa_r.o quarter of a town, vicinity (S.); pa_r.a_ quarter of a town (H.)(CDIAL 8031). {A synonym of ve_li is pa_d.agam (cf. MIAI, p.45) = street, section of a village; portion of field (S.I.I., iii,203); bank, shore (Ta.lex.)} padda village (Kur.); site of a village, small village (Pkt.); pa_r.a_ quarter of a village (B.); quarter of a town (H.); par.a_ quarter of a town or village (Or.)(CDIAL 7780). pa_ravd.a_ quarter of a village (M.)(CDIAL 8915). Cowstall: pat.t.i a measure of land, as sufficient for a sheep-fold; sheep-fold (Ta.Ka.Ma.); hamlet, village (Ta.Ka.); pat.ra id. (Te.); pat.t.i-k-ka_t.u hamlet, petty village (Ta.lex.) pat.appai backyard, cowstall, enclosed garden (Ta.); pat.appu enclosed garden (Ta.); pat.t.am sleeping place for animals (Ta.)[cf. pad.u, pad.e place of refuge for wild animals between stones or in rocks (Ka.); pad.a_ku cave, hole, crevice (Te.)(DEDR 3857).] Cow-stall, village, city: pat.t.i cow-stall, sheepfold, hamlet, village (Ta.); fold for sheep or cattle (Ma.); pen or fold, abode, hamlet (Ka.); pat.t.u hamlet, small town, village (Ta.)(DEDR 3868). pat.t.i-t-tor..uvam pound for cattle; pat.t.i-t-to_r..am id.; pat.t.i-p-pat.i allowance for herding cattle; pat.t.i-p-pon:kal pon:kal ceremony performed in the pen for cattle (Ta.lex.) bhe_d.ravr.ti sheepfold (Skt.); bhe_d.rakut.ika_ sheepfold (Skt.); bhar.o_r.i_ sheepfold (WPah.); bharva_r. shepherd or goatherd (G.)(CDIAL 9606-08). vraja cowpen, cattleshed (RV.); vaja cattleshed (Pali); vaya, vaia_ (Pkt.); vada (Si.)(CDIAL 12224). vatha_n.u cowpen, pasturage (S.); batha_n flock, herd, mob (of animals, men or birds)(N.); ba_tha_n animal pen (A.); cowpen (B.); batha_n cowpen, pasturage (Bi.H.); cowpen or fold (Mth.); bat.ha_n cowpen, pasturage (H.); batha_nnu to collect (N.)(CDIAL 12226). Town: pat.t.i hamlet, village (Ta.); pat.t.u hamlet, small town, or village (Ta.); pat.y Badaga village (Ko.); pat.t.i abode, hamlet (Ka.); pat.t.u abode, dwelling place (Te.); nest (Tu.); od.y Badaga village (< Badaga hat.t.i)(To.)(DEDR 3868). pat.an quarter of a town, name of a village 14 miles NW of Srinagar (K.); pa_t.an name of a town in the Nepal valley (N.); name of a town (M.); town (H.G.); town, market (B.); pa_t.ana_ town, village, hamlet on outskirts of a big village (Or.); pat.na_ name of a town (Bi.)(CDIAL 7705). varod. Baroda (G.); vad.avadda name of a town in Gujarat (G.) (CDIAL 11214). cf. hat.t.a market, fair (Skt.); shop, bazar (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13944).

6396.Village: hatu a village (Mu.); hati (Khasi.); hatu prefixed to names of animals in the meaning of tame, domesticated, in contrast to bir meaning wild: hatusim the barn door fowl; birsim the red jungle fowl; hatusukuri the domesticated pig; birsukuri the wild pig; hatumind.i the sheep; birmind.i the bear; hatu-disum a village in which one possesses buinhari or khuntkatti lands; a fixed residence with landed property; one's village and country; the part of the country where one resides; hatu-mund.a the headman of a village, hereditary successor of the founder, whether he be a Munda in a Mundari village, or belong to some other tribe which has founded the village in question... his office is to collect the rent in his village and hand it over to the manki, in the Mankipati country, or to the landholder elsewhere; hatu-tuka the village of one's ancestors; a long and settled residence; to fix one's residence somewhere; hat.ia the main road of a village; hat.ia-o of a village, to have its main road in such or such a place or with such or such a feature (Mu.)(Mu.lex.) cf. pa_t.i town, city, hamlet, pastoral village (Ta.)(DEDR 4064).

6397.Maritime town: pat.t.in-am maritime town, small town (Cir-upa_n.. 153); Ka_viri-p-pu_mpat.t.in-am (Pat.t.in-ap. 218)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 3868). Group of villages: patakam, patan:kam, patan:kamam an administrative unit in the Tanjore district, made up of a number of villages, formed during the Maharatta rule (G.Tj.D. I,170)(Kampara_. Ka_ka_la. 79); pat.a_kai division of a country, district (S.I.I. ii,352); a cluster of cottages at some distance from a village, erected for the convenience of carrying on agricultural operations (W.G.) (Ta.lex.) Territory: pat.t.ale a district, a community (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pat.t.as'ara, pat.t.asara a large tank (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pat.t.a, pat.an.a, pat.t.ana (Tadbhava of pattana) a city, town, village (Ka.); pat.t.an.a (Te.Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pat.t.an.a town (Kaut..)(CDIAL 7705). pa_n.t.il country, territory; pa_n.t.i-vat.am < bha_n.d.i_ra-vat.a a place where Kr.s.n.a grazed his cattle (Tiv. Na_yc. 12,7); pa_n.t.i-k-kur-avan- a person of the Tamil-speaking division of the Kur-ava caste in Travancore; pa_n.t.i-k-kot.umut.i a S'iva shrine in Kon:ku-na_t.u,now identified with Kot.umut.i in Coimbatore district (Te_va_.); pa_n.t.i-ve_l.a_l.an- a sub-sect of the Ve_l.a_l.a caste in Madurai district; ve_l.a_l.as of the pa_n.d.ya country settled in Travancore (Ta.lex.)

6398.Headman: pat.t.akila tenant of royal land (Skt.); pat.t.ail(l)a village headman (Pkt.); pat.el hereditary headman (G.); pat.la_n.i his wife (G.); pa_t.ailu (OM.); pa_t.el, pa_t.i_l village headman (M.)(CDIAL 7703). Leader: pras.t.ha leading, going first (Pa_n..); pras.t.i leader, leading horse (RV.); pat.t.ha going in front; headman (Pkt.); las.t.a_ comrade (Pas'.); prus.t. being in front (Kho.); prus.t.o fomer, first; prus.t.i, prus.t.a adv. in front, before (Kho.); prus.t. good (Kal.)(CDIAL 8820). pra_dhve_ at the head of (Skt.); pra_dhvam suitably, properly (R.); paddhati way (Skt.); pa_dha_rai travels (Pkt.)(CDIAL 14668a).

6399.Pool: mat.u (Ta.); mad.ugu (Te.); mad.u (Ka.Ma.) pond, pool; deep place in a river or channel (Ta.lex.) Agricultural tract; low ground: pat.ukar rice field; pat.ukai land on the banks of a river fit for cultivation; reservoir of water (Tiruppu. 493)(Ta.lex.) pad.uva a low ground (Te.); pat.u tank, pond, deep pool; pat.ukar pit, hole, hollow, tank, ricefield, agricultural tract (Ka_cippu. Tiruna_t.t.u. 131); pat.ukal tank (Te_va_. 82,2); pat.uvam slushy field; pat.t.am tank, pond (Ta.); pat.u a rough tank (Ma.); pad. swamp (Kod..); pad.iya, pad.e small pit containing water (Te.)(DEDR 3856). Agricultural town: pat.appu enclosed garden (Periyapu. Tiruna_vuk. 174); pat.appai garden (Cilap. 6,32); backyard (Kalit. 108); adjoining region or locality (Perumpa_n.. 126); vicinity or outskirts of a town (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 95); agricultural town or village; cow-stall; enclosure for collecting and drying palmyra fruits (Ta.lex.) cf. pat.ukar a caste (Ta.); bad.aga id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ma_da_k pool (Kon.lex.) cf. palvala pool, pond (MBh.); palvara (BHSkt.); palvalya marshy (TS.); pallala marsh, pond (Pali.Pkt.); palharu pond, pool (S.)(CDIAL 7976).

6400.Channel: pat.t.at.ai plank used for crossing a channel (Ta.lex.) cf. For prefix pat.t.- : pat.u tank, pond, deep pool (Ta.); a rough tank (Ma.)(DEDR 3856). baduhu, baduvu, bada, badu a raised bank in fields, a low ridge (Ka.); varappu, varampu, varaippu, varai, varaivu (Ta.); varappu (Ma.); varuju, varave (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Irrigation channel; watercourse: ad.a watercourse (S.); ad.d., pl. ad.d.a_ f. small irrigation channel (L.); a_d.i obstacle (G.)(CDIAL 188). o_t.ai large watercourse, dyke, tank, reservoir, moat (Ta.); o_t.a water-course (Ma.); running; current of water (Ka.); id., sailing of a vessel (Tu.); o_d.ika stream, current (Te.); o_r.a channel, drain (?Kui)(DEDR 1041). pait.h entrance (H.)(CDIAL 8804). vati way; channel, head of a channel (S.I.I. vi,147)(Ta.lex.) Image: sluice: pantal a conduit pipe to carry water from a higher level to a lower one (Na_t.unal. 96, Urai); par-r-al a kind of conduit-pipe made either of wood or stone; pattal a wooden bucket (Patir-r-up. 19,23)(Ta.lex.) Image: heap of stones: ba_ndu a dam, a mole; a heap of stones etc. used as a landmark (Ka.); ba_nda, ba_ndha (M.); ba_ndinava a surveyor (Ka.); ba_ndu-kallu a landmark-stone (Ka.lex.) cf. pathin (Skt.) vartram a dam, dike (Skt.lex.) bonu, ban heap, pile (K.); bandhu embankment (S.); bano small bank to keep back water (S.); bannh pond, dam (L.); embankment (P.); bad dam (Si.); ba_n dam (Ku.A.); ba_dh dam (N.H.G.M.B.Bi.Aw.); embankment (Mth.); boundary embankment, granary made of straw (Bi.Aw.); ba_nh id. (Bi.Aw.); ba_ndhi low ridges in a betel plantation on which the creepers are planted (Or.)(CDIAL 9136). bandhana embanking (MBh.); ba~_dhan embankment, dam (N.); ba~_dhan. dam (G.); ba~_dhn.i_ dam (G.M.); embankment (M.); ba~_dhan. dammed-up rice-field (M.); ba~_dhn.e~ dammed-up part of a stream (M.)(CDIAL 9140). ba~_dho structure (G.); ba~_dha_ structure (M.); ba~dha_ran. arrangement, construction (G.)(CDIAL 9136, 9138). ba_nan.i enclosing wall near house and courtyard (Ku.)(CDIAL 9140).

6401.Image: a hollow: pat.t.re, pot.t.are, pot.re, po_t.e, po_r..al, hot.t.e, hot.re a hollow in a tree or between stones (Ka.); pottal, poy, pol.l.al, po_r-ai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pa_ta_la hole in the earth, one of the seven subterranean regions (A_run.Up.); cliff, abyss (Pali); pa_ya_la underground world (Pkt.); pia_l the lower world (WPah.)(CDIAL 8054). cf. pion. poyon. in holes; pio poyo emerging from many holes (Santali.lex.) Image: to split; be torn: pat.an.u to dig up, pluck out (S.); pat.t.an. to dig up; pat.t.un. to uproot (L.); pat.t.n.a_ to dig up, open (P.); pat.nu to lie follow (i.e. after being dug up?)(N.); pat.na_ to be levelled, be irrigated (H.)(CDIAL 7711). pa_t.an. to be split, be torn (L.); pa_t.n.a_ id. (P.); pa_t.ayati splits (MBh.); opens, plucks out, removes (Ya_j.); pa_t.e_ti removes (Pali); pa_d.ai splits (Pkt.); pa_r.an. to split, tear (L.); pa_r.na_ (P.); pa_rab to dig (Bi.); pa_d.ai draws, strikes (OMarw.)(CDIAL 8032). To split open; separate: parge to split, cleave, rend; pargre to be split, rent; pargro cracked, rent, a crack, fissure (Malt.); pari (-v-, -nt-) to separate, be dered, break off, be destroyed, cut asunder, destroy; (-pp-, -tt-) to cut asunder; parun:ku (parun:ki-) to pluck (as fruit), tear off (Ta.); parikku, parukku scratch, wound, scar; parin.n.uka to pluck grass; parin.n.al scratched surface, hurt skin (Ma.); pary bay (bi.) house with roof and walls broken from disuse; pary gik broken basket used for carrying rubbish (Ko.); paripuni to tear, rend; pariyuni to rend; parte, partelu rent, tear (as in clothes); torn, tatered, old; partele man in rags; parluni to cut sharply, as a knife (Tu.); pariyu to wear away, be spoiled, (plastering) falls away in shreds (Te.); part- (paratt-) to cut up (Kol.); parng- to be split; parkip- (parkit-) to split, plough for the first time; parka piece, portion, split piece of wood (Pa.); parinp- (parint-) to split (firewood with axe)(Ga.); para crumb, fragment (Kond.a); paja (paji-) to hew, cut down; parpa (part-) to cut through the bank of a wet field, irrigate; irrigation; pr.a_pka (< pr.a_k-p-; pr.a_kt-) to split open, cut open, tear open (Kui); par- (-h-) to dig a ditch, (also parl- [-it-]) make channel for water, place for well; par(a)r.a split (in wood, wall, etc.), gap, hole (Kuwi); par.axna_ to separate or force asunder the two parts of some object previously split, two limbs, etc.; parxna_ to split, cleave, rend; paramna_ to bite, separate the two natural halves (of pulse seed) with the handmill (Kur.)(DEDR 3962a). par-iya piece, fragment, bit, slice; par-iga gleanings of corn (Te.); par-ikka to pluck off (Ma.); par-y- to pluck, (string) breaks (To.); har-ita, har-ata, harta cutting, sharpness (Ka.)(DEDR 4027).

6402.Image: the sun: patan:kam the sun (uruppatan:kan-ai yoppan-a)(Kampara_. Kumpaka. 211); patan:ga (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Lightning: pit.uku thunderbolt (Ta.); pin.ar id. (Ma.); pid.ugu id. (Ka.Te.); lightning (Te.); pir.gu thunderbolt (Kond.a)(DEDR 4150). Flash; to take fright: la_mbel-br.a_k lightning (Pas'.); bhar.ha flash (S.); bhar.kan.u to blaze (S.); bhar.k flash; bhar.kn.a_ to be angry (P.); bhar.a_k blow; bhar.kan.o to be angry (Ku.); bharkanu to take fright, start (N.); bharak boast, display (A.); bhar.ak display (B.); bhar.aka (Or.); bhar.ka_na to take fright (B.); bhar.akiba_ (Or.); bhar.ak flash, display (H.); bhar.akna_ to be excited, take fright (H.); bhar.ku~ blaze; bhar.a_ko crash, blaze; bhar.akvu~ to take fright, start (G.); bhad.ak display; bhad.akn.e~ to blaze, take fright (M.); bhat. suddenly (G.M.); bhat.kan.u, bhit.kan.u to wander (S.); bhat.kan.o to write (Ku.); bhat.ak display; bhar.kanu to start, rise (of penis)(N.); bhat.akna_ to be restless (H.); bhat.akvu~ to blaze, start (G.); bhatakn.e~ to wander (M.)(CDIAL 9365). pal.apal.a to glitter, shine (Ta.); gleaming (Ma.); term to indicate glittering (Tu.); glitteringly (Te.); pal.apal.appu glittering, lustre; pal.apal.a-v-en-al expr. signifying glittering; pal.iccen-al expr. signifying flashing, shining; pal.i_ren-al expr. signifying gleaming, flashing (Ta.); pal.un.n.uka to glitter (Ma.); pal.akne, pal.acane, pal.accane, pal.ace with a glitter, with pure brightness, with a flash; brightness, pureness, etc.; hal.acige flash, glitter, shine; pal.l.an:ge completely dawning (Ka.); pal.l.ena light, shine (Tu.); paluka, palukana paleness, whiteness (Te.)(DEDR 4012). Frightened: bidar-, bedar-(u) to be agitated, confounded, bewildered, alarmed or frightened, take fright, fear; bedar-(u) agitation, alarm, fright, fear; scarecrow; bedar-ane, bedar-ike fright, alarm; bedar-isu to alarm, frighten; bedar-isuvike frightening; bedarke agitation, alarm, fright; hedar-u to be alarmed; hedaru, hediri, edru to fear; hederu id.; hederike fear (Ka.); bedaru, bedarik start, fright, fear, alarm; bedaruni to be alarmed (Tu.); bedaru, beduru to fear, be afraid or alarmed, start, be startled; n. fear, fright, alarm, terror; bedarincu to frighten, alarm, terrify, startle, bully, threaten; bedarimpu frightening, threatening, bullying, threat; bedarupo_tu timid person (Te.); bedris- to scare, frighten (Kond.a); pedr.ali, pidr.u_-aiyali, pedr- (-it-) to be startled (Kuwi)(DEDR 4401).

6403.North: vat.a north (Ma.Ta.); bad.a, bad.aga, bad.agal, bad.agu the north, in the north (Ka.); bad.aki the north, northern (Kod..); bad.aka_yi the north, northern (Tu.); vad.a_gon.d.a Himalaya (Te.)(DEDR 5218). bad.agu, bad.agan.am a man of the north; bad.agan.a dikku, bad.agu kad.e the north quarter; bad.agan.a dikkinarasa Kube_ra (Ka.lex.) Northern: vat.antai that which is in the north (Net.unal. 173); north wind (Ain:kur-u. 263); vat.a-por..il northern region (Paripa_. 5,8); vat.amalai the Himalayas (Pur-ana_. 67); the Tiruppati hills, as the northern boundary of the Tamil country (Tiv. Iyar-. Periya. Ma. 6); vat.avarai Mt. Me_ru (Uttarara_. To_ttira. 15); vat.amalai id. (Pat.t.in-ap. 187); vat.a-ter-ku north and south (Patir-r-up. 31)(Ta.lex.) bad.agale a certain vais.n.ava mode of putting the na_ma, drawing a line across the upper part of the nose, as is done by northerners (Ka.lex.) vat.akalai-na_mam the U-shaped caste mark by the vat.akalai vais.n.ava sect (Ta.lex.) ten--kalai na_mam the Y mark worn on the forehead by the ten--kalai sect of vais.n.avas (Ta.lex.) utara_ha_ an inhabitant of the north (Mth.); uttara_ha_, uttara_ya_ norhern (H.); uttara_patha the north (Skt.); uttarapatha (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 1774). uttara_rdha the northern part (S'Br.); uttaraddha, uttaddha back part (Pkt.); utra_du~, otra_du~ northern; utra_tu~, otra_tu~ (G.)(CDIAL 1776). uttara_rdhiya, uttara_rdhya northern (TS.); utira_dhi_ northern (S.); uttara_dhi_ (L.); utra_dhi_ a caste among the Aror.a_s (P.)(CDIAL 1777). otiryo living in the north (S.); auttara id. (MBh.)(CDIAL 2566). utra_va_ra_ northerly wind (M.)(CDIAL 1772). utra_n. north wind (M.)(CDIAL 1773). utar north; utraha of the north (Santali.lex.) uttara upper (RV.); northern (AV.Pali); utaren.a in the north (KharI.); uttara_ the north; uttara first, northern (Pkt.); antar upper (Gaw.); woturu the north (K.); utaru (S.); uttar (L.P.WPah.); utar (Ku.); utara_ northern (Or.); utar (Mth.); u_tar (H.); uttar (M.); uturu higher, northern (Si.); uttarilla former, northern (Pkt.); uttla_ upper (L.P.); uttrio~, uttru~, uttria~_ pl. northern, uttreu (WPah.)(CDIAL 1767).

6404.Reply: uttara upper; following, future (RV.); answer, va_kyam (R.); uttara reply (Pkt.); utaru reply, anything given to complete the value of something exchanged (S.); uttar reply (P.); utar (Ku.B.); utara_ a copy (Or.); utar a reply (Mth.Bhoj.); u_taru (OAw.); u_tar (H.); utura (Si.)(CDIAL 1767). pa_t.i ulai to reply; pa_t.i-utar reply (Kon.lex.) cf. pratyuttara answer (Skt.); paccuttara answer (Pali.Pkt.); pasutura (Si.); pad.iuttara (Pkt.); pil.itura (Si.)(CDIAL 8645).

6405.Rope: val., val.pu, val.vu thong, lash (Ta..); val., val.l.u stalks of palm-leaves to stitch an umbrella with (Ma.); pol.f leather strap to turn the churnstick (To.); bal.l.i, bol.l.i rope (Ka.); bal.l.u, ballu rope, cord (Tu.); bal.l.i, balli rope (Kor.)(DEDR 5305). vallika_ jungle rope (Pali)(CDIAL 11429). Straw rope: palupu halter for cattle (Te.); palpu rope attaching bullock to plough (Kond.a); palpu_ straw rope (Kuwi); pala_pa halter, rope (Skt.)(DEDR 3990). Rope: bad.d.u a thick or strong creeper or rope, cable (Te.); creeper (Ga.)(DEDR 3882). Rope: vat.a string (Skt. < Prob.Drav.); bariyo cord, rope (N.); barah rope working irrigation lever (Bi.); barha_ thick well-rope (Bi.); baraha_ rope (Mth.)(CDIAL 11212). vara_t.aka string (MBh.); vat.a_raka (Skt.); sa-vat.a_kara having a cable (Pali); baral-rassi_ twisted string (Bi.); barra_ rope (H.); bara_ra_ thong (H.)(CDIAL 11217). vat.am rope, a rope of cowhide (in plough), dancing rope, thick rope for dragging timber (Ma.); cable, large rope as for drawing a temple-car (Nan-. 219, Mayilai.); cord, bowstring, strands of a garland, chains of a necklace (Ta.); vat.i rope (Ta.); rope, cord (Te.); vat.t.i to tie (Ta.); vat.a, vat.ara, vat.i string, rope, tie (Ka.); vat.iya strong rope made of paddy straw (Go.)(DEDR 5220).

6406.Image: banyan tree: vat.am < vat.a banyan (Ta_yu. Karun.a_. 41); vat.a-dal.am banyan leaf (Man-o_n-. i,2,110)(Ta.lex.) bar.e dare, pet.er bar.e a banyan tree; pod.o two fig trees: hor. pod.o ficus cunia; seta pod.o ficus sp.; pod.o daka the seeds of ficus cunia boiled as rice (Santali.lex.) Ficus bengalensis: vata, sriksha, bahupada, shikhandin, skandaja, nyagrodha (Skt.); banyan tree(Eng.); vada, bor (H.); bar, bargat, bat, bot (B.); bera, bor, bohar, bargad (P.); baagat, bar (Psht.); vata-vraksha (M.); vad, vadlo, vor (G.); marichettu, mari, marri, peddimari (Te.); vada, alam, ala (Ta.); paeral, vatam (Ma.); aladamara, ahlada (Ka.); goeliruku, vodaruka (Kon.); pyinyoung (Burm.); figuier due Bengal (Fr.); this well-known tree is wild in the lower Himalayas and is now found all over India; Parts used: milky juice and bark... Milky juice and seeds or fruits are useful as external application to pains and bruises, sores and ulcers, in rheumatism and lumbago, to the soles of the feet when cracked or inflamed, and to the teeth and gums for toothache... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 543-544). Image: banyan: berel, bare_li_ banyan (Go.)(DEDR 4411). bo_r.a maran banyan tree (Kond.a); bro_d.i a banyan tree or fruit (Kui); pro_d.i id. (Kuwi); pro_d.i marnu banyan tree (Kuwi); bond.e id. (?Kuwi)(DEDR 4611). cf. bodhi the tree of wisdom, the sacred Bo tree, the fig tree (assattha, ficus religiosa) under which Gotama Buddha arrived at perfect knowledge (Pali.lex.) vohr., bohr., var., bar. (P.); var.ot.a_, bar.t.a_ young banyan (P. +? cf. bro_d.i (Kui); baar banyan (N.A.); bar. (B.H.Bhoj.Mth.); bar (Bi. > bara (Or.); var. (G.); vad. (M.); vad.u (Konkan.i); vat.a the banyan ficus indica (MBh.); vat.a banyan (Pali); vad.a, vad.aga (Pkt.); war (K.); bar.u (S.)(CDIAL 11211). vat.al banyan, a_l (Ta.); vat.a-tal.am banyan leaf; vat.a tal.a vutara va_n.i_ (Man-o_n-. i,2,110) (Ta.lex.) vad.avadda name of a town in Gujarat (Pkt.); var.od (G.)(CDIAL 11214). var.va_i_ hanging root of banyan tree (G.)(CDIAL 11215). cf. bodhi the tree of wisdom, the sacred Bo tree, the fig tree (assattha, ficus religiosa) under which Gotama Buddha arrived at perfect knowledge (Pali.lex.) vat.a, vad.e, vod.e the banyan or Indian fig tree, ficus indica; ficus bengalensis, s'iva, nyagro_dha; a string, a rope, a tie (Ka.lex.) po_ti < bo_dhi pipal, as the tree of wisdom (Cilap. 23,76)(Ta.lex.) pod.o ficus; bar.e dare ficus bengalensis (Santali.lex.) cf. joro aerial roots (Santali.lex.) vir..utu, vit.utu, vi_r.. aerial root of the banyan (Ta.); vir..utu air-root (Ma.); bi_r..al root that grows downwards from the branches of a banyan and other trees, pendent root (Ka.); u.d.a aerial root of banyan (Te.)(DEDR 5431). Ficus indica: According to Nadkarni, the bark contains tannin, wax, and caoutchouc... Bruntz and Jaloux report that the latex is official in French pharmacopoeia; and the resinous substance, in the Belgian, Danish, French, Greek, Mexican, Rumanian, Swedish, and Venezuelan pharmacopoeias... In the Philippines the Negritos and Mangyans use the pounded and cleaned bark to cover their private parts... Nadkarni states that the bark is tonic and diuretic, and the fruit, cooling and tonic. The young buds and the milky juice are astringent. The milky juice is useful as an external application to pains and bruises and for rheumatism and lumbago. The leaves are heated and applied as a poultice to abscesses to promote suppuration and discharge of pus. Internally, it is useful in dysentery and diarrhoea... The concentrated juice in combination with the fruit is an aphrodisiac... Ainslie states in his Materia Indica that the latex is applied in toothache to the tooth or gums and also to the soles of the feet when cracked or inflamed. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 233-234). Ficus bengalensis: vata (Skt.); bor (H.); bar (B.); vad (M.); vada (M.); bor (P.); pudavam (Ta.); 0eddamatti (Te.); milky juice: applied externally for paind in rheumatism and lumbago; infusion of bark: tonic, astringent, used in dysentery, diarrhoea, diabetes; seeds: cooling, tonic; leaves: applied as poultice to abscesses; habitat: sub-Himalayan tract and W. Peninsula, planted elsewhere (GIMP, p. 118).

6407.Carpenter: bad.gi, bad.gya_ carpenter (Kon.lex.) bad.hi, bar.hi mistri, bad.hoe, bad.ohi, kat. bad.hoe carpenter (Santali.lex.) bad.agi, bad.a_yi, bad.iga, bad.igi, bad.ige, bad.igya_, bad.d.agi (Tadbhava of vardhaki) a carpenter; bad.agitana carpentry (Ka.lex.) Image: stick: bar.ga, bar.iya stick (Kuwi); bur.ga stick, club; badga walking stick (Kuwi); bar.ga, bad.ga, bad.d.e, bad.d.i, bar.iya, war.iya_ stick (Go.); bar.iya stick (Pa.); vat.i small cane or stick; vat.ippu iron rod (Ta.); vat.i stick, staff, club or armed brahmans, shaft, stroke; vat.ikka to strike; vat.ippikka to have the measure struck (Ma.); bad.i, bad.e, bod.i, bod.e to beat, strike, thrash, bang, pound; n. beating, blow, castration, a short thick stick, cudgel; bad.ike beating; bad.ige stick, staff, cudgel, hammer, mallet; bad.isu to cause to beat; bad.ukatana beating, etc.; ba_y bad.i to prevent one from speaking, silence one (Ka.); bad.i (bad.ip-, bad.ic-) to hammer, pound; ba.y bad.i- to bawl out (Kod..); bad.ipuni, bad.iyuni to strike, beat, thrash; bad.u stick, cudgel (Tu.); bad.ita, bad.iya, bad.e thick stick, cudgel (Te.); bed.ta club; bad.ya walking stick (Kol.); bad.iga big walking stick; bad.ga stick (Kond.a); bad.ge stick, staff (Pe.); bad.ga stick (Mand..); bad.ga_ cudgel, stick; bad.vin.e~ to bruise, beat (M.)(DEDR 5224). bharia a carrying stick (Santali.lex.) vad.aga_ a stick, staff (M.); bad.iko_l a staff for striking, beating or pounding; bad.i-man.i an instrument for levelling a surface by beating; bad.iho_ri a gelded young bull (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6408.To boil: var.g-, r.ag- (-it-) (water) to boil (Kuwi); ragi(ti) boiling (water); laskinai to seeth (Kuwi); r.aksi- to boil (Kond.a); r.akhi- id. (Pe.)(DEDR 5302). ukad to boil (Kon.lex.) cf. ud.uku to boil, seethe, bubble with heat, simmer; n. heat, boiling (Te.); ur.turna_ to be agitated by the action of heat, boil, be boiled or cooked (Kur.)(DEDR 588). udhiau, utlau to boil over; autau to boil milk; hed.ec to boil (Santali.lex.)

6409.Saddle; harness; bundle: bha_n.d.a harness (MBh.); bhan.d.ika_ bundle, heap, collection of goods (Pali); assa-bhan.d.a harness (Pali)(CDIAL 9440). pa_n.t.il saddle (Patir-r-up. 90,35)(Ta.lex.) cf. paridha_na harness (Skt.lex.) pan. saddle for a horse (Kampara_. Varaikka_t.ci. 13); decoration (I_t.u, 6,2, Pra.); trappings of an elephant or horse (Pu. Ve. 6,2); fittings and decorations of a car (Pu. Ve. 9,26)(Ta.lex.) Neck ornament: pat.t.at.ai neck-ornament (Ta.); pat.t.ad.i a kind of necklace (Tu.); pat.t.ed.a a sort of ornament worn by women round the neck (Te.)(DEDR 3866).

6410.Image: strap round an ox's body; a girth: vat.t.ut.ai cloth tied round the waist and reaching down the knee (Man.i. 3,122); garment (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) pat.t.al.e, pat.t.i the broad strap tied round an ox's or horse's body, a girth, a martingal (Ka.); pat.t.ad.i, pat.t.ed.e (Te.)(Ka.lex.) pat.ala veil, cover (BhP.); membrane (esp. roudn eyes), cataract (Sus'r.); pat.a veil (Skt.); pat.ala covering, membrane (of liver, stomach)(Pali); par.al. film over eye (G.); pad.al. (M.); parelo (N.)(CDIAL 7693). parda veil (Pers.)(CDIAL 7701). cf. pa_t. strip of cloth (H.); pa_t.t.o strap (Konkan.i); pat.t.a fillet (MBh.)(CDIAL 7700). Woven cloth: pat.a woven cloth (MBh.); pat.t.ika_ cloth, garment (Pali); pad.a cloth (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7692). cf. bat.t.a cloth (Te.lex.) pa_t.ara_ a Hindu caste of cloth-dealers (Or.); pat.ahera_ maker of fancy silk (Bi.); pat.t.aka_ra weaver (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7702). pat.ol.u~ a fine silk cloth worn by women (G.)(CDIAL 7704). Fine silk cloth: *pat.t.a-duku_la fine silk cloth; pat.aulaum id. (OG.)(CDIAL 7704). {A combination of: pat.t.a bark and tu_r-ike/toyrv nettle.} pat.t.a_liyan- a Tamil silk-weaver caste; pat.t.u sack cloth of Indian hemp; pat.t.u-nu_r--k-ka_rar silk weavers; the Saura_s.t.ra caste; pat.a-ka_ran- weaver (Ta.lex.) Bark: pat.t.e rind or bark of trees (Ka.); pat.t.a, pat.t.amu bark (Te.); pat.t.ai bark of tree (Ta.); pat.t.a bark of tree (Ma.)(DEDR 3876). pand.an bark of a tree (Ga.); pand.a a skin (Kui.Kuwi)(DEDR 3897). Image: strip: paht.a side, strip, piece, direction; mit paht.a bar.geko emadin.a they gave me a strip of garden land; sor.ok khon etom paht.a the right side of the road (Santali.lex.) Bark, woven silk: pat.t .a woven cloth (MBh.); pat.t.aka, pat.ika_, pat.i_ (Pa_n..gan.a); pat.a, pat.i, pat.ika_ cloth, garment (Pali); pad.a cloth (Pkt.); pad.i_, pad.iya_ a kind of garment (Pkt.); par.i_k shawl (Wg.); par.u covering of cloth for a saint's grave; par.o petticoat (S.); pal.a, pala cloth, garment; pil.iya cloth, clothes (Si.); feli cotton cloth (Md.)(CDIAL 7692). pat.t.a cloth, woven silk (Skt.); bandage, fillet, turban, diadem (MBh.)[from non-Aryan sources]; pat.t.a woven silk, fine cloth, cotton cloth, turban; pat.t.aka made of a strip of cloth; bandage, girdle; pat.t.ika_ (Pali); pat.a roll of silk (NiDoc.); pat.t.a cloth, clothes, turban (Pkt.); pat.i_ belt (Pas'.); pat.a_ strip of skin (Pas'.); pa_t.i scarf (Kal.); pat.t.ar.a bark (Phal.); Long strip of cloth from loom: pat.h, dat. pat.t.as long strip of cloth from loom (K.); pot.u woollen cloth (K.); po_t.u silk, silk cloth (< Ind.?); pat.u_ silk (S.); pat.u~_ a kind of woollen cloth (S.); pat.t. silk (L.P.); pat.t.i_ woollen cloth (L.); coarse woollen cloth (P.); pet.t.u woman's woollen gown (WPah.); Flax, hemp: pa_t. silk (Ku.); flax, hemp (N.); silk (A.B.); jute (B.); pa_t.a silk, jute (Or.); silk cloth (OAw.); strip of cloth (G.); pat.a_ red silk cloth, sheet (Or.); pa_t.a_ loincloth (Or.); pat. cloth, turban (H.); pat.ua_ jute (Bhoj.); pat.t.u_ coarse woollen cloth (H.); pat.t.i_ strip of cloth (H.); pat.ka_ loincloth (H.); pat.a silk, fine cloth (Si.); pato clothing; patavo napkin; patavo_ sock (Gypsy); pha_r silk, taffeta (Gypsy); pa_c.u cloth (Sh.); poc.e clothes (Sh.); pa_t.o bandage; pa_t.i_ tape (G.); pa_t.t.o strap (Konkan.i); pat.a silk, fine cloth; pat.iya ribbon, girdle, cloth screen round a tent (Si.)(CDIAL 7700). Hemp cloth: pat.t.u silk cloth, silk yarn, sackcloh made of Indian hemp (Ta.); silk (Te.); silk, sackcloth made of hemp (Ma.); cloth, woven silk (Ka.); pat.t.e id. (Ka.); silk, piece of cloth (Tu.); pat. rag (Ko.); pot.y clothes (To.); pat.t.i_ silk cloth (Kod..); pat.t.i silk (Ka.); strip of cloth (Tu.); pat.t.a, pat.t.a_ sackcloth (Ta.); pat.t.amu silk thread (Te.)(DBIA 240b). Woven cloth: pat.a woven cloth (MBh.); pat.aka, pat.ika_ (Skt.); pat.i_ (Pa_n.. gan.a)[Probably with karpat.a- and karpa_sa- < Austro-as.; less likely < Drav. This CDIAL comment is arguable; cf. pXsa- forms in Drav.]; pat.a, pat.i, pat.ika_ cloth, garment (Pali); pad.a cloth (Pkt.); pad.i_, pad.iya_ a kind of garment (Pkt.); par.i_k shawl (Wg.); par.u covering of cloth for a saint's grave (S.); par.o petticoat (S.); pal.a, pala cloth, garment (Si.); pil.iya cloth, clothes (Si.); feli cotton cloth (Md.)(CDIAL 7692). cf. pallava strip of cloth (Skt.)(CDIAL 7970). Wool: ban.d.e, ban.d.a wool; ad.i-ban.d.a the wool at the belly of a sheep (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pat.t.aka made of a strip of cloth (Pali); bandage, girdle (Pali); pat.a roll of silk (NiDoc.); pa_t.i_ belt (Pas'.); pa_t.i scarf (Kal.); pat.o band of cloth (S.); pat.t.i_ bandage, fillet (S.); pat.t.i_ bandage (P.); strip of cloth (H.); pet.t.u woman's woollen gown (WPah.); pat.a scarf (Or.); pa_t. strip of cloth (G.); pa_t.o bandage (G.); pa_t.t.i_ tape (G.); pa_t.t.o strap (Konkan.i); pat.iya ribbon, girdle, cloth screen round a tent (Si.); patavo_ sock (Gypsy)(CDIAL 7700). patavo napkin (Gypsy)(CDIAL 7700). badri_ belt (Kal.); d.a_k-badhre_i (Phal.)(CDIAL 9129). pat.t.i cloth, puttee, bandage (Ta.); pat.t.e tape (Tu.Te.)(DBIA 240b). Clothes: pat.t.i cloth (Ta.Ka.); pat.t.ikai woman's girdle of gold or silver (S.I.I. ii,144); pat.t.am cloth, large banner; bat.t.alu pl. clothes (Te.lex.) Weaver: pat.t.aka_ra weaver (Pkt.); pa_t.ara_ a Hindu caste of cloth-dealers (Or.); pat.ahera_ maker of fancy silk (Bi.)(CDIAL 7702). pat.t.an.avan- a class of weavers (Nan-. 289, Mayilai); cloth woven by Pat.t.an.avan-; a fisherman caste on the East coast from Kistna to the Tanjore district; pat.t.an.a a coastal town; town, city, large town (Ta.lex.) pat.t.ayam royal grant inscribed on a copper plate (Ta.lex.) Upper garment, printed cloth: pat.am cloth for wear, painted or printed cloth, picture, upper garment (Ta.); fine cloth, sheet, chequered cloth, picture (Ma.); pad.m (obl. pad.t-) picture, photograph (To.); pat.a, pad.a, pad.u cloth, chequered cloth, picture (Ka.); pat.a picture (Kod..); pad.ambu a rough canvas cloth (Tu.); pat.amu cloth, garment, picture (Te.); pa_t.am cloth (Ta.)(DBIA 240a). Cloth for wear: campat.am cloth, ku_r-ai (Ta.); very dirty cloth (Ma.)(DEDR 2344). <Prob. kappat.am < karpat.a cloth in rags, tatters (i_t.u,6,4,5); cloth for wear (Patin-o.)(Ta.lex.) Homonym: campat.am an ancient tax (Ta.lex.) Cloth; shield: vat.t.am cloth; (va_lir..ai vat.t.amum : Perun.. Ucaik. 42,208); shield; (aiyiru vat.t.amo t.ehkuvalan tirippa : Tirumuru. 111); vat.akam upper garment; (vat.akamun tukilun to_t.um : Ci_vaka. 462); a superior kind of cloth (Cilap. 14,108, Urai.); skin ?< vastra; vat.aku skin (Ta.lex.) vat.t.u small piece of cloth (Ta.); vat.t.ut.ai cloth tied round the waist and reaching to the knee, garment (Ta.); bat. clothes (Ko.); pot.y id. (To.); bat.t.a cloth, clothes (Te.); bat.t.e cloth (Ka.Kod..); clothes (Kod..); cloth, clothes (Tu.); vastra (Skt.) > vattha (Pkt.)(DBIA 318). cf. pat.t.u silk cloth, silk yarn, sackcloth of Indian hemp (Ta.); pat.a cloth, garment, painted cloth (Skt.); pat.t.a woven silk (Skt.)(DBIA 240-b). vat.t.uvam pouch in which betel leaves, nuts, chunam, tobacco, etc. are kept, medicine pouch, pocket inside a pouch or purse (Ta.); betel-purse, portemonnaie (Ma.); bat.uve bag, purse, satchel (Tu.)(DEDR 5234). vastra dress (RV.); vattha clothes (Pali.Pkt.); vat-a (Si.)(CDIAL 11450). from vas, vaste to clothe; Idg.*ues, enlargement of *eu (: Latin.ex-uo); vestis vest-(ment)(Latin); wasjan to clothe (Gothic); wasti dress (Gothic); vattha cloth; clothing, garment, raiment; also collectively: clothes; alla-vattha fresh, clean clothes; ahata-vattha new clothes; dibba-vattha heavenly, i.e. exquisite dresses--pl.vattha_ni garments, clothes; vattha hangings, tapestry; vattha--yuga a pair of garments; vattha-sannidhi storing up of clothes (Pali.lex.) Shield: vat.t.an.am ?<at.t.ana shield, paricai; (it.t.a vat.t.an.an:kan. me_ler-inta ve_l : Kalin. .413); vat.t.an.ai shield, ke_t.akam; (man-n-avarka_n.a vat.t.an.ai va_l.et.uttu : Kalla_. 48,8); circular bed or cushion; (vat.t.an.ai...iri_iyin-a_re_ : Ci_vaka. 2433); vat.t.a-t-to_l shield; (vat.t.atto_l varipur-an:kit.antacaiya : Tiruvil.ai. Naripari. 30) cf. ad.d.ana shield (Skt.); ad.d.an.a (Pkt.); a_r.an.i (Or.)(CDIAL 190). Hem of a garment: pan.anta, pan.ata end of a garment, one half of a cloth (Or.); pat.a_nta hem or edge of a garment (MBh.)(CDIAL 7697). pra_nta tip, point (Skt.); end, edge (MBh.); pa_ndu border of a garment (S.); pa_nd, pa~_d end, tail of camel, top of sugarcane (L.); pa_ndi_ roll of spun thread as taken off the spindle (S.); para~_da_ parti-coloured yarn used by women for tying up their hair (P.); panta_r.a end; pantua_ end of cloth worn by a woman during her period (Or.)(CDIAL 8940).

6411.Image: slope of roof: pat.al, pat.alai sunshade (Ta.)(DEDR 3845). pat.ala roof, thatch (VarBr.S.Pali); pad.ala thatching grass (Pkt.); parali covering or screen of thatching grass (A.); pal.e_ thatch of a house (Si.)(CDIAL 7694). par.a_l. slope of a roof (G.)(CDIAL 7695). par.a_l.i_ one half of a sloping thatch (G.)(CDIAL 7695). Image: wooden fence: wa_tr wooden fence (Wg.); wo_tr hurdle (Kt.)(CDIAL 11565).

6412.Image: squares: patam compartments drawn on a chart for determining the site for building a house (Ta.lex.) pat.a, pat.t.a a chequered cloth or board to play at chess (Ka.); as.t.a_pada (M.)(Ka.lex.) Place: patam place, site, location (Takkaya_kap. 147)(Ta.lex.)

6413.Basin: pat.a a channel or basin for watering plants and trees (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

6414.Image: a jar: pat.t.al.ige (Tadbhava of pat.alaka) a jar, karaga (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pati_la_ copper pot (H.); pa_tru~ wooden bowl (G.); pa_telu~ brass cooking pot (G.)(CDIAL 8055).

6415.Image: harrow: pat.ala, pat.al a rough harrow (Ma.); pat.a an instrument to level the field after ploughing (Kond.a)(DEDR 3845). phol.em, phol.ya_ plank; gunt.ce phol.e harrow (Kon.lex.) pat.ai, pat.ai-va_l. ploughshare (Kalla_.59,20); plough (Ta.lex.) Club with iron points [harrow]: matya club with iron points (AV.); a kind of harrow (TS.); maitya, madya (Skt.);[cf. mati_-karo_ti harrows (AitBr.); su-mati kata well-harrowed (Pali); -- explanation of madi-, madika_ a kind of harrow or roller; madi_ any agricultural implement, e.g. a plough (Skt.); as MIA forms do not account for *madya- in NIA.] macc implement for levelling a rice-field (whence maccn.u_ to level ploughed ground)(WPah.); maj harrow consisting of a log (K.); ma~j ladder (P.); maiya harrow (Pkt.); may implement for levelling (L.); moi_ implement for smoothing land after sowing (WPah.);; mayo harrow consisting of a plank for breaking up clods after ploughing (Ku.); me harrow (Ku.); mai harrow (whence maya_iba to harrow)(A.); mait.a_ single bamboo with its knot on used as a ladder (A.); mai, moi harrow, ladder, ladder used as harrow (B.); mai ladderlike harrow (Or.); mai_ harrow (H.); mai_d rude harrow or clod breaker (M. +?)(CDIAL 9755). ba~_sai bamboo ladder used as a harrow (B.); *vams'amatiya bamboo harrow (Skt.)(CDIAL 11178). mad.ike a kind of harrow or rake (Ka.); mad.a_ka plough with bullocks complete (Te.)(DEDR 4656).

6416.Seat: vat.t.am seat, chair (Ta.); vat.t.aman.ai circular platform for idols, in a temple; seat offered as a mark of respect (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6417.Curve: vat.t.am curve, bend (Te_va_. 5,9)(Ta.lex.) vartana a dwarf (Skt.lex.) vatta cripple; van.t.ha id. (Pali.lex.)

6418.Image: sides of body: vayr sides of trunk of body (Ko.); bari, baraki, bad.i side, flank; badi id., nearness, proximity, vicinity (Ka.); bari side (of body, river, etc.)(Kod..); bari, badi side, border (Tu.); bari side (Te.); vada, vadda, odda nearness, proximity; oddi which is near, at, with, in the possession of (Te.)(DEDR 5267).

6419.Barber: vat.ikka to shave (Ma.); var..i to scrape, shave (Ta.); bar..i, bor..i to scrape together with the hand (Ka.); pod.y- (pod.c-) to scrape with finger (To.); vraccu, vr..accu (inscr.) to efface (the writing in inscriptions), destroy (a gnat); bad.iyu to sweep away the influence of evil spirits on a person (Te.)(DEDR 5295). va_ria barber (Pkt.); ba_ri_ a caste who sells torches and occasionally act as barbers (H.); va_ri_k barber (M.); kr.tava_pa shaven (Mn.); va_pa shaving the head (Mn.)(CDIAL 11522).

6420.Colour: vat.ivam colour (Ta.)(DEDR 5223).

6421.Kidney; testicle: wat.t.ewi~_k, wad.d.awik kidney (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12069). vat.t.a-k-ka_y testicle (Ta.); vat.t.aka_ya id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) bele, pante bele, an.d.ga, peska testicle (Santali.lex.) Testicles; castrated: phu_l testicle (Ku.); ovary (M.); pul testicles (Ash.); phul egg (N.)(CDIAL 9092). put.t.a_, put.t.ai swelled testicle (Ta.); bud.d.e swollen testicle (Ka.); bud.d.a bubble, testicle, rupture (Te.); mad.d.a, mod.d.a penis (Te.); bud.d.e genitals (male or female, esp. penis); testicles (Kol.); bud.d.a genitals (Pa.); mod.a penis (Go.); bu_dda testicle (animal); bud.a testicle, penis (Kuwi)(DEDR 4266). Penis; testicle: pelav penis (Gypsy); pel.a penis, testicle (Or.); pe_la testicle (Skt.); pelo id. (Gypsy); pyolu, dat. pe_lis (K.); pehla_, pihla_ (P.); pellho (WPah.); pel (A.B.); pela_ (H.); pel., pel.vo (G.); pella, pilla; pl. peli, pili (Si.); pehlar., pihlar. (P.); pelar., pelhar., pelhr.a_ (H.); periyu~ penis (G.)(CDIAL 8381). pi.r. penis (Ko.); pi_d.a (Mand..); pi_r.a_, pira_ (Kuwi)(DEDR 4220). pit.ukku testicle (Ta.Ma.); pixid. testicles (To.); hid.iku, hid.igu testicle (ka.)(DEDR 4151). vadhri castrated (RV.); vadhrika_ eunuch (Skt.); vadhi-kukut.e capon (A.); vaddhia castrated (Pkt.); badhiya_, ba_dhiya_ castrated bull or goat (N.); badhia_ castrated (Or.); badhiya_ (Bi.); badh(i)ya_ castrated animal (H.)(CDIAL 11256). badiya_r castrater of young bulls (A.)(CDIAL 11257). Pudendum muliebre: pon- pudendum muliebre (Ta.)(DEDR 5457). pun.t.ai pudendum muliebre (Ta.); pid.- id. (Ko.); pid.y penis (To.); pu_tki male organ (Kuwi)(DEDR 4273).

6422.Leprosy oil; gum tree: vat.t.ai mountain tamana-oil tree, hydnocarplus alpina; marote, hydnocarpus wightiana (Ta.); vat.t.a a common gum tree; hydnocarpus wightiana (Ma.)(DEDR 5235). Hydnocarpus venenata: small chaulmugra or small kawati (Eng.); jangli-badam (H.); kauti (M.); niradimuttu (Ta.); habitat: occurs in Burma, in Madras and Ceylon; the oil is used as a substitute for chaulmoogra oil (Indian Materia Medica, p.661). Hydnocarpus wightiana: tuvaraka, kushtavairi (Skt.); jangli almond (Eng.); chaulmoogra (Pers.H.); jangli-badam (seeds) (Deccan); kowti, kava (M.); kadu-kawata, kowtee (M.); yetti, maravetti (Ta.); niradimuttu (Ma.); niradi-vittulu (seeds)(Te.); makulu, ratakakuna (Si.); habitat: grows over gardens and accessible places all over western Peninsula, Konkan, along the coast-range, Malabar, south India and Ceylon; parts used: seeds and oil... oil is considered as a specific for leprosy... (Indian Materia Medica, p. 658). Chaulmoogra oil: Synonyms: hydnocarpus oil, kalaw tree oil, leprosy oil; botanical origin: taraktogenos kurzii, hydnocarpus wightiana, hydnocarpus anthelmintica; part used: the fixed oil expressed from the ripe seed; habitat: Burma, India and Cochin China; taraktogenos kurzii, known to the Burmese as kalawso... hydnocarpus anthelmintica, known as the chaulmoogra oil tree of Siam... possessing fibrous bark, the fibers used for cordage... Uses: chaulmoogra oil is employed as a germicide in the treatment of leprosy. It has also been used empirically in rheumatism, psoriasis and tuberculosis, as a counterirritant application for sprains and bruises and also for various inflammations of the skin. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 575-576).

6423.Rice in the husk; millet: batta, bhatta paddy, rice in the husk (Ka.); vatm [obl. vat(t-)] millet, panicum miliare (Ko.); potm millet (To.); kafotm sp. millet (ka- black)(To.)(DEDR App.56). cf. bha_t boiled rice; rice in the husk (M.) (CDIAL 9331). Panicum miliare: sava, bhadli, vari-gudhi, halvi-vari, vari-mahan, vara (varieties) (M.); cheno, gadro, kuri (G.); saon (S.); save, baragu (Ka.); grown in the Bombay Presidency, principally in Gujarat, chiefly in garden-land... vari and sava differ: vari takes longer to come to maturity than sava... vari has a smaller and brighter grain than sava... sava grain is boiled like rice and sometimes ground to flour and made into bread... Panicum pilosum: bhadli (M.); bhadli grain is husked by pounding and is eaten by the poor. It is sometimes boiled and eaten whole, and more rarely ground to flour... bhadli is much like red rala and is sometimes confounded with it. It is, however, larger, grows well in poorer soil and the ripe ear is a reddish brown and bristly, while the ripe rala is smooth and of a pale yellow colour. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 899-900). Panicum miliaceum: china (Skt.H.); small millet, common millet, broom-corn millet (Eng.); millet rond (Fr.); achte hirse (Ger.); dhengali, chino, vari, ralle, ghoti-sava, dudha vari, dhengli, cheno, vara (M.); vari, chino (S.Deccan.M.); gadio, kuri (G.); save, baragu (Ka.); is a species cultivated in Africa, western and central India and Gujarat. vari is a hill-millet which is a valuable carbohydrate food and is used as a demulcent in diarrhoea and externally as poultice. There are three varieties distinguishable by colour of the seeds, which are white, yellow and red... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 898-899). Panicum italicum, setaria italica: kanku, shyamaka (Skt.); Italian millet, deccan grass (Eng.); kangui, samak, kangni (H.); kora, syamdhan (B.); samve (M.); korralu (Te.); tinnai (Ta.); tina (Ma.); navaneakki, kungo-gida (Ka.); varayi (Kon.); rala (S.); this seed is much esteemed in some parts of India as an article of food; but it has heating properties and when taken as the sole food it is apt to produce diarrhoea... (Indian Materia Medica, p. 897). Panicum spicatum: va_t.a panicum spicatum (Skt.); ba_r.i cake made of millet flour (Ku.); ba_ra_ cake made of pulse and oil (N.Bi.); ba_r. (H.)(CDIAL 11481). Rice; daily ration of soldier: bhakta meal, food, boiled rice (Skt.); bhatta id. (Pkt.); bhakta- food?(RV.); meal, food (Mn.); bha_t masc. boiled rice; neut. rice in the husk (M.); bha_ta husk of rice (Konkan.i); bo_t rice (Wg.); bata boiled rice, meal (K.); bha_t (Ku.N.A.B.G.M.Bi.Bhoj.WPah.H.); bha_ti_ custom of sending cooked rice to a house where there has been a death (H.); bhatu boiled rice (S.); bhat bruised corn, boiled rice (L.); bhatta_, bha_ta_ advances made to ploughmen without interest (H.); bhatta_ extra pay to public servants or soldiers, travelling allowance; foot taken to farmers in fields (P.); bata daily ration or pay of coolie or soldier (Si.) (CDIAL 9331). bhaks.a eating, food (RV.); bhakkha eating, meal (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9340). bha_n.e~ to make a meal (M.); bhajjai serves? distributes (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9359-9360). bhaks.aka_ra eating; cook; furnishing food (Skt.)(CDIAL 9341). bhaks.ayati eats, drinks (RV.); bhaks.ati (MBh.); bhakkhati eats (Pali); bhakkhe_i (Pkt.); bhakkhn.a_, bhacchn.a_ to devour (P.); bhakkhnu_, bhakkna to eat quickly in large quantities (WPah.)(CDIAL 9342). bakhiru a plant with a prickly pod (tribulus alatus eaten by the poor)(S.)(CDIAL 9343). bhaks.ya eatable; food (Mn.MBh.); bhaks.a (RV.); bhakkha eating (Pkt.); eatable; food (Pali); bhakk(h)r.a_ the thorny medicinal plant tribulus alatus (used as food by the poor)(P.); abakkh uneatable (P.)(CDIAL 9344). khara-khusk tribulus terrestris (Arabic); gokhuri (B.)(Indian Materia Medica, p.1229).

6424.Interest: bad.d.i (Tadbhava of vr.ddhi) interest on money; usury (Ka.); biddi, vaddi, viddi id., increase, augmentation; prosperity; profit, gain; money-lending, usury (Ka.); vad.d.i interest on money (Te.); vat.t.am (Ta.Ma.); bad.d.i kod.u to lend money on interest; bad.d.ige kod.u id.; bad.d.i ti_risu to pay or discharge interest; bad.d.iyun. to take or receive interest (Ka.lex.) cf. vat.t.am < bat.t.a_ (U.) rate of exchange; money-changer's commission (Pan.avit.u. 179); trade discount; profit; vat.t.i < vr.ddhi interest on money (Kat.ampa. Pu. Ili_la_. 147); profit (Ta.lex.) a_da_i, a_da_iya_ interest, profit (Kon.lex.)

6425.Vow: vat.t.i- to swear, to take an oath (Cilap. 21,45); to write (Cilap. 21,46, Arum); vat.t.ippu vow (Na_mati_pa. 667)(Ta.lex.) vrata ordinance, religious duty (RV.); vata religious vow, manner of behaviour (Pali); vada (Dhp.); vaya ordinance, vow (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12228). vra_tya a divine epithet (AV.); term of address for a guest, vagrant (Bra_hman.as); one who has lost caste (Mn.); bocu one who lives by gifts and without any trade (K.)(CDIAL 12231). virutu, viratam religious vow, act of austerity; holy practice, as fasting, continence, etc. (Na_lat.i, 57); solemn vow, oath (S.I.I. iv,94); penance; viratam-pit.i to fast; virati one who has taken a religious vow (Te_va_. 700,3); celibate student (Civatarumo_. Civaja_n-a. 29); one who has renounced the world; vira_ttiyan- one who has lost caste through non-observance of caste rules; one born of a pratilo_ma husband and an-ulo_ma wife (Ta.lex.)

6426.Price: bhati hire, wages; bhatiya_ (kamman) ka_reti v.t.; bhatiya_ gan.ha_ti; bhataka hireling, vetanika (Pali.lex.) ve_ta_ v.l. hire, wages; ve_ca_ hire, wages (Skt.); ve_tana hire, wages (MBh.); ve_tane_na kri_tah. hired (Pa_n..com.); price, vikri_n.a_no_ 'lpave_tanaih. (Skt.); ve_ti procures (RV.); veccai, vicce_i spends (Pkt.); ve_can. to sell (L.); vecn.a_, becn.a_ (P.); becn.o (Ku.); becnu (N.); besiba id. (A.); beca_ (B.); beciba_, biciba_ (Or.); becab, be~cab (Mth.); becna_ (H.); vecvu~ (G.); vecn.e~ to spend (M.)(CDIAL 12100). To buy: ve_n.t.u to buy, purchase (Na_mati_pa. 704); to be indispensable, to be necessary (Na_lat.i.41); ve_n.t.um verb meaning 'will be required' or 'will be necessary, indispensable'; verb in the future tense used in all genders, numbers and persons, meaning 'will be required' (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vasti village (Gypsy); vatthi_ hut, ascetic's leaf-hut (Pkt.); vasti dwelling (Skt.); vas dwell (Skt.)(CDIAL 11448). To be paid, repay: vi_t.u-kol. (kol.v-, kon.t.-) to recover, get back (Ta.); vi_t.uka to be paid or discharged, be completed as a fast, be revenged; discharge; vi_t.t.uka to discharge what is due, repay (Ma.); bu_t.uni to repay, give in return, avenge; bu_t.a_vuni to make pay or retribute, avenge, revenge (Tu.)(DEDR 5453). mi_l. (mi_l.v-, mi_n.t-) to return, be rescued, redeemed (Ta.); mi_l.i returning; mi_t.pu redemption (Ta.); mi_l.uka to return; bring back; vi_l.uka to return, get back; avenge; vi_n.t.u again; vi_l.ca return, ransom (Ma.)(DEDR 4883). Repayment, return: vr.e_ppa (vr.e_pt-) to pay back, return something borrowed or pledged; n. turning something back, repayment, return (Kui); r.epsi si_- to give back; r.esi va_- to return (Kond.a); vethali to give back; vend.a va_- to come back, return; ven.d.- (-it-) to return; vet. (-h-) to return something; ven.d.e ki- to repair (Kuwi); ven.d.i again, once more, further (Te.); vendali to go back, return; wend. to return (Kuwi.); bir.dna_ to turn round, give back (Kur.)(DEDR 5481). Sale: vir-r-al selling, sale (Ta.); vir-pan-ai id. (Ta.); vil (vir-p-, vir-r--) to sell, put on sale, be sold; vilai selling, sale, price, cost, value (Ta.); vila sale, price, value; vilkka to sell; vilpana sale; vilpikka to cause to sell (Ma.); vel price, cost (Ko.); pil price (To.); bil, bili to sell, buy; bili, bele price, cost (Ka.); bele cost (Kod..); bil, bel price, value, worth (Tu.); vil(u)cu to sell, buy; viluva, vela price, value, cost (Te.)(DEDR 5421). Money due: pet.hi money due (S.); pait.ha depositing money, payment, delivery (Or.)(CDIAL 8804). pradis.t.a ordained (RV.); assigned (Mn.); pait.ha paid, handed over (Or.)(CDIAL 8664). pat.ipanna following up (Pali); pad.ivan.n.a obtained, agreed (Pkt.); pad.ivanniya (Skt.)(CDIAL 8571). paisa_l.u_ imported (of goods); pait.ha paid, handed over (Or.);(M.); pait.ha_ri import (N.)(CDIAL 8803). To get: pad.e getting; to get, acquire, gain (Ka.); per-u (Ka.Te.); pat.ai, paya (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Use: pravr.tti advance (Gr.S'r.); use, conduct (Mn.); continuance (R.); pavatti, pavitti, pavat.t.i use (Pkt.); pavatti, pavutti event (Pali); pirt custom (L.); pait.i the beginning to consume corn kept long in reserve (N.); pa_it.i household work (Or.); puvat.u a happening (Si.); puvata continuance, news (Si.); pot quality, disposition (H.)(CDIAL 8806).

6427.Exchange: bat.t.a_ exchange (H.); vat.a subsistence, livelihood (Si.); varta livelihood (Skt.)(CDIAL 11346). Rate, price: bhao bat.a rate, price; bat.a exchange, discount, commission; bat.a lagaoka discount will be charged (Santali. lex.)

6428.Merchants: pattar merchants; perh. vartaka; Goldsmiths: pattar a caste of goldsmiths (Ta.); battud.u id. (Te.); Town, city: pattan-am < pattana city, town (Tirunu_r-. 40)(Ta.lex.) Small hammer: bha~_r.i goldsmith's small hammer (N.); bham.d.a barber's utensils (Pkt.); bha~_r.i, bha~_ir. razor case (B.)(CDIAL 9440). pan.t.akkalam gold ornament (Man.i. 26,23); pan.t.am gold; wealth, riches (Tiv.Tirukkur-un. 11); pan.t.akka_ran- rich man; owner of goods (Ta.lex.) Goldsmith's trade; storehouse: bha_n.d.as'a_la_ storehouse (S'atr.); bhar.asa_ra cupboard for keeping food in (OH.); bha_d.sa_l, bha_d.sa_r, bhansa_l storehouse, granary (H.); bad.ahala pottery (Si.); bad.ahal, bad.a_la_ goldsmith; bad.al-vd.a goldsmith's trade (Si.); bad.ahl potter (Si.)(CDIAL 9441). Trade: varttakam business, trade (Ta.lex.) vartaka a trader, a merchant (Ka.); vartakatana the state of being a merchant; traffic, trade (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) vat.t.a-man.iya- k-ka_ran- headman of a group of villages (Ta.lex.) Traveller: bat.oi traveller (Ku.); bat.ohi (N.); ba_t.oi, ba_t.ei (N.); bat.ohi_, bat.ohia_, bat.ohini (Mth.); bat.o(h)i_ (H.)(CDIAL 11367). Present: bhit.t.an.a present (Pkt.); bhit.t.a_ present (Pkt.); bhet.a (S.); bhet. (P.); bhet.auli_ presents sent to sister in month of Cait (Ku.); bhet.i a present (N.A.B.); bhe~t.i (A.); bhem.t.a present (M.); bhet. (M.); bhe~_t. (OAw.); bhet.i_ (H.); bhet.iyo bearer of a gift (G.)(CDIAL 9490). cf. vil.aivu agricultural produce; result or consequence; ve_l.a_n.mai hospitality; cultivation (Ta.lex.) An ancient tax: vet.t.i an ancient tax (S.I.I. i,87); vet.t.i-p-pa_t.t.am an ancient tax (Ta.inscr.); vet.t.i-p-put.avai an ancient tax (S.I.I. i,91)(Ta.lex.) Meeting: mhit.n.u, mit.n.u to meet (WPah.); bhet. meeting (G.M.); bhe~t. interview (Mth.); bhit.t.ijjai meets (Pkt.); bhet.an.u to complete (S.); bhet.an. procuress (P.); bhet.n.o to meet (Ku.); bhet.nu to meet; bhet.a_unu to fall in with, accomplish (N.); bhet.iba, bhe~t.iba to obstruct; bhet.a_ dam (A.); bhet.a_ to meet (B.); bhet.iba_ (Or.); bhet.ab, bhe~t.ab (Mth.); bhem.t.ai (OAw.); bhet.na_ (H.); bhet.vu~ (G.); bhet.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9490). Market: pet.hi market (Mth.); pe~t.h, pai~t.h market, market day (H.); pet.h, pe~t.h town, quarter of a town, market (M.); pe~t.a marketplace (Konkan.i); pait.ha_, pait.he masonry steps at the bottom of a building (B.); pait.hi step of a staircase (Or.); pratis.t.ha homestead (AV.)(CDIAL 8608). pait.han. name of a town (M.); pait.t.ha_n.a city, foundation of a building (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8610). par.tha_r veranda, portico (G.)(CDIAL 8616). Contract: pe~t.h signature on a document (G.)(CDIAL 8608). pait.han. agreement, contract (G.)(CDIAL 8610). pradis.t.a ordained (RV.); assigned (Mn.); pait.ha paid, handed over (Or.)(CDIAL 8664). pravr.tti advance (Gr.S'r.); pait.i the beginning to consume corn kept long in reserve (N.) (CDIAL 8806). pavati concord, friendship (S.); prapatti pious devotion (S'a_n.d..) (CDIAL 8677).

6429.Store: pan.t.am substance, article, store, provision (Kur-al., 475); id. (Ma.); ban.d.amu id. (Te.); ban.d.a id. (Ka.); pan.t.am materials, utensils (Ta.lex.); pan.t.am-pa_t.i goods and chattels; pan.t.aca_lai, pan.t.akaca_lai granary, store-house, godown; repository, treasury (Ir-ai. 21,112); pan.t.avar-ai id. (Ta.); ban.d.aruvu id. (Te.); pan.t.ava_l.am stock, capital, fund, means; ban.d.avalamu id. (Te.); ban.d.ava_l.a id. (Ka.); pan.t.ava_l.am different kinds of articles (Ta.lex.) Capital, stock, store: ban.d.avala, ban.d.avalu, ban.d.ava_la, ban.ava_lu, ban.d.ava_l.a, ban.d.ava_l.u capital, funds; stock, store (Ka.); ban.d.avala, ban.d.a_la (Te.); bha_n.d.avala (M.); bha_n.d.a a pack or bale of goods or merchandise; the stock of a shopkeeper, goods, wares, merchandise, stores of any kind, the capital or principal of a merchant; bha_n.d.a_ga_ra, ban.d.a_ra, bhan.d.a_ra, bha_n.d.a_ra a store-room, a store-house, a magazine; a treasure (Ka.Skt.); a treasure (Ka.); ban.d.a (Tadbhava of bha_n.d.a) capital, property, wealth, goods (Ka.); pan.t.am (Ta.Ma.); ban.d.a_risu to go to the store-room, to be stored; to store up (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Wholesale merchandise: pad.a_vu wholesale merchandise (Ka.H.); pad.a_puda_ra a wholesale merchant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pat.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to acquire, get; pat.aippu acquiring, possessing; pa_t.u business, industry; pa_t.t.a_l., pa_t.t.a_l.i an industrious person (Ta.); pat.ukka to obtain (Ma.); pa.r. (obl. pa.t.-) work, concern (Ko.); pad.u (pat.t.-) to get, obtain; pad.uvike getting (Ka.); pad.ayu, pad.acu to obtain; pad.apu earning (Te.); pad.- to acquire; pat.ip- (pat.it-) to cause to get (Pa.); par- to receive (Ga.); par.sna_, pa~_r.sna_ to take (a load) upon oneself (Kur.)(DEDR 3853). pad.asa_le, pad.usa_le a roof-hall; a veranda (Ka.); pad.avi_ (M.); a hall, portico (Te.); pat.t.a-c-ca_lai a hall, saloon, place of audience (Ta.); pad.as'a_l.a_, pad.sa_l.a_ an out-house; a building contiguous to a temple for travellers etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6430.Property of the commonwealth: pan.t.a_ra-c-com public property, property of the state or commonwealth; pan.t.am cattle (Ta.); substance, article, store, provision (Ta.Ma.)[Kur-al.. 475); ban.d.amu (Te.); ban.d.a (Ka.); bha_n.d.a (Skt.); pan.t.am-pa_t.i goods and chattels (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) chilu-pat.ru goods and chattels (?< *skin and feathers)(P.)(CDIAL 7733). Treasure; wares; ornament: pan.t.am profit, advantage (Te_va_. 1001,5); gold, wealth, riches (Tiv. Tirukkur-un. 11); pan.n.ika_ram stores, provisions (Ta.); pan.ya_ramu id. (Te.); pan.n.iyakka_ran- headman among van-n-iyars (G.Sm.D.I. i,144); pan.n.iya-ca_lai merchant's warehouse; market; pan.n.iyam stores, provisions (Maturaik. 422); merchandise (Man.i. 7,124); pan.n.iya-vinaiar dealers in stores and provisions (Patir-r-up. 76,5); pan.n.utal to make, effect, produce, accomplish (Na_lat.i, 37); pan.n.u id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pan.t.a-ma_r-utal to barter; to sell; pan.t.a-ma_r-r-u barter, exchange (Nan-. 101); pan.t.a_ra-va_t.ai village whose income belongs to the cultivators; pan.t.a_ra-va_riyam managing committee of temples (T.A.S. i,293); pan.t.a_ra-vit.uti rest-house or lodging of a public officer; pan.t.a_ratteru king's high-road; pan.t.a_ra-me_l.am drum beaten in proclaiming government notifications; pan.t.a_ra-vil.akku lit., public light; pan.ta_ra-ve_lai service required of the public (Ta.lex.) pan.t.a_ram stores, wares, treasure (Tiruva_ca. 36,5); public treasury, repository (Paripa_. 11,123); granary (Ta.lex.) pan.t.a-ca_lai granary, store-house, godown; repository, treasury (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,8,7); pan.t.avar-ai id. (Ta.); ban.d.aruvu id. (Te.); pan.t.aka_ri treasurer < bha_n.d.a_ga_rika (Me_ruman. 285); pan.t.ara-v-ul.l.iruppu office of a treasurer (T.A.S. i,291); pan.t.a_ri treasurer or storekeeper; treasurer of a religious establishment (R.F.); a title of the Ut.aiya_r caste; supercargo (Ta.lex.) bha_n.d.a ornament, wares (Mn.); harness (MBh.); treasure (Skt.); bha_n.d.aka goods (Skt.); bhan.d.a utensils (A_past.); stock-in-trade, goods (Pali); -bhan.d.aka articles, implement (Pali); bhan.d.ika_ collection of goods, heap, bundle; assa-bhan.d.a harness (Pali); bham.d.a utensils, goods (= bham.d.aga-, bham.d.aya-) ornament, barber's utensils, razor; bham.d.ia_ bag (Pkt.); bha~_d.e pl. metal vessels (WPah.); bha~_r.i goldsmith's small hammer (N.); bha~_r.i, bha~_ir. razor case (B.); bha~_r.a_ treasure; bhan.d.a_ vessel, utensil, granary; bha~_d.a_ utensil (L.); bad.uva movable goods, wares (bad.a belly, womb)(Si.); bu collection of pots (K.)(CDIAL 9440). bha_nd.aga_ra treasury (Ya_j.); bham.d.a_ga_ra, bham.d.a_a_ra, bham.d.a_ra treasury (Pkt.); bhan.d.a_ru storehouse (S.); bhan.d.a_r granary, spinning-bee (L.); bha~d.a_r storehouse (P.); bha~d.ea_r store, a company of girls (P.); bhan.d.a_r treasury (WPah.); bhana_r storehouse (Ku.); bha~r.a_r (N.); bha~ra_l (A.); bha~_r.a_r (B.); bhan.d.a_ra (Or.); bha~r.a_r (Mth.Bhoj.); bham.d.a_ru_ (OAw.); bha~d.a_r(a_), bha~_d.a_r (OAw.); bhar.a_ra (OMarw.); bha~d.a_r (G.); bha~_d.a_r (M.)(CDIAL 9442). bha_n.d.a_ga_rika treasurer (Skt.); bhan.d.a_ga_rika storekeeper (Pali); bham.d.a_ga_ri(a)-, bham.d.a_ri(a)- (Pkt.); bhan.d.a_ri_ (WPah.); bha~r.a_ri treasurer, partic. class of Brahmans (N.); bha~ra_li storekeeper (A.); bha~_r.a_ri (B.); bhan.d.a_ri(a_) (Or.); bha~r.a_ri_ (Bi.); bha~d.a_ri_ (Aw.H.G.); bha~_d.a_ri_ (M.); bad.akarika, bad.akariya (OSi.inscr.); bad.ahra, ban.d.ri, badriya_ treasurer (Si.)(CDIAL 9443). Movable goods: pan.t.am materials, utensils (Ta.lex.); pan.t.am-pa_t.i goods and chattels (Ta.lex.) cf. chilu-pat.ru goods and chattels (S.)(CDIAL 7733). House; temple: han (st. hand-) house, temple of Jes.t.ak (Kal.); o_n house (Kal.); handhu place, abode, bed, bedding (S.) > hand place, dwelling (Balu_ci_.Iranian.)(CDIAL 13970). harmiya large house (RV.); hammiya large building with an upper story (Pali); hammia (Pkt.); hamiya palace (Si.)(CDIAl 13998). handar, handara, pandara, cappara a pandal etc. (Ka.lex.) cf. pantal, pantil storehouse (Ta.); pa_dali a shed (Te.); pandri small hut (Kond.a)(DEDR 3922). Image: sack; treasury: cf. bokkasamu money bag; treasury (Te.); pokkan.am cloth used as a sack (Ta.)(DEDR 4458). Diverse things: pat.t.am diverse things; pan.t.am substance, article, store, provision (Kur-al., 475)(Ta.lex.) Storehouse; movable goods: bha_n.d.a treasure (Skt.); bham.d.a goods (Pkt.); bha~_r.a_ treasure (Aw.); bha_n.d.a_ granary, vessel (L.); bad.uva movable goods, wares (Si.)(CDIAL 9440).

6431.Image: slant: pat.t.a a sash, a zone (Ka.Ma.Ta.); a stripe as of colour (Ma.Ta. Ka.); pat.t.e id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pa_t.t.am crosswise position (Ta.lex.) pa_t.i extent, size, magnitude (Te.); extent, size (Ka.); pa.t.y size, strength equal to what must be done (Ko.)(DEDR 4067). pat.t.u the state of a quantity taken as often as the prefixed numeral denotes: so much as; time, repetition; e.g. nu_r-u pat.t.u, nu_rmad.i (Ka.); pat.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pat.a numeral classifier of flat objects (Malt.)(DEDR 3878). Multiplication: pa_r.o column in multiplication (G.); pa_d.a_ id. (M.)(CDIAL 8041). palware to be multiplied (Malt.); palarme several times (Ka.); pala, palavu much, many, several, various (Ka.); pala id. (Ma.Ta.); palla_r many persons; panmai plurality, multitude (Ta.); pal-ka_lum many times, often (Ta.) (DEDR 3987). va_y-p-pa_t.u table, as of multiplication; formula, symbolic expression; idiom, cant; practice, custom, usage (Ta.lex.) Furrow: pat.aicca_l furrow in ploughing (Ta.lex.) Image: space between two lines of ploughed land: pa_r.a_ space left in ploughing (L.); space, space between two lines of ploughed land (P.); pa_ro shaft in handle of khukri or any instrument (N.); pa_r.(a_) scaffold, wooden frame over a well (H.)(CDIAL 8030). pa_t.a_ a series, order; pa_t.a extension, breath; (in geometry) the intersection of a prolonged side and perpendicular, or the figure formed by such intersection; pa_t.i_ arithmetic (Skt.lex.) Image: tiles set in a row: patan:ku tiles set in a row; half of a split palmyra tree; patam row, order, series; patun:ku brick on edge; patun:ku-pit.ittal to pave with bricks on edge, as in terracing (Ta.lex.) Image: row: pat.i a line, a row, a strip; mif pat.i khetin namkeda I got a line, or strip of rice fields (Santali.lex.) Succession: pallava succession, order (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7937). Turn: paryaya revolution, turn (MBh.); regularly recurring series (Br.); pajjaya succession, order (Pkt.); pale_ back, back again, in return (Gy.); pa_lo, pa_li_ turn, time, rotation (Ku.); pa_lo (N.); pa_l (A.); pa_la_ (B.H.)(CDIAL 7937). Line, row: pa_l arrangement in line (L.); line, row, series (P.); pa_le_ back, in return (Gypsy); pa_lo turn, time, rotation (Ku.); pa_lo id. (N.); pa_l id. (A.); pa_la_ id.(H.); pa_ri_ time, turn (H.); pa_d.i row, line, turn (Skt.); pa_li boundary, edge (MBh.); line, row, text (Pali); pa_t line, turn, rotation (Ku.); pa_r.i edge, border, one of side pieces of thatched roof (Bi.); pa_l.i_ turn (G.); encircling line, turn (M.); pa_l.i turn, chance (Konkan.i); pel.a row, line, text (Si.); pella turn (Si.)(CDIAL 8041). Image: turn; encircling line: pa_r.o column in multiplica-tion (G.); pa_d.a id. (M.); pel.a row, line, text (as opposed to commentary)(Si.); pa_l.i turn, chance (Konkan.i); pa_ri_ time, turn (H.); pa_li line, row, text (Pali); boundary, edge (MBh.); lower edge of thatched roof (N.); pa_lia_ handle of sword (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8041). pa_l moiety, middle; side; line, row; place, region, location, situation; classification of number in nouns and verbs, two in number, viz., orumai, pan-mai; pan-mai-p-pa_la_r.-ku_r.utal (Tol.col.62); a sub-division of It.aiyar and Kur.umbar caste (E.T. v,450)(Ta.lex.) pa_r..i row, line, regularity, regular order or way, method, rule (Ka.); pa_d.i justice, propriety; nature, quality (Te.)(DEDR 4113).

6432.Prosper, live: vadk- to prosper, live (Ko.); va.c- pair word with vadk- (Ko.); pol.c- to live, be alive, get on in life (To.); ba_l.a_vuni to make thrive, prosper (Tu.); badukuni to live, subsist, survive, recover (Tu.); baduka_vuni to cause to live, save, heal, cure (Tu.); baduku living, livelihood (Tu.); b(r)atuku, b(r)aduku to live, subsist, survive (Te.); bratikincu to restore life to, revive, resuscitate (Te.); b(r)atuku life, existence, livelihood (Te.); bradimi existence, living, livelihood (Te.); bat- (batt-) to live in a place (Kol.); batkip- to rear (Kol.); batt- to live (Nk.); badkip- to make to live, bring up (Nk.); badk- to live (Pa.); badakto_r he lived (Go.); batki- to live, flourish; batku life, living (Kond.a); ba_rti longevity, long life (Kui); batkali, batkinai to life; batku living; batk to get on well; batki ki- to make a good living, live happily (Kuwi)(DEDR 5372). Trade, profession; livelihood: brath, brucu trade, profession (K.); vr.tta livelihood; conduct, matter (Skt.); vatta- duty, office (Pali); vat.t.a-, vatta-, vitta-, vutta- livelihood (Pkt.); butta_ means (P.); buto daily labour, wages (Ku.); buta_ means, ability (N.); bu_ta_ power (H.); vat.a subsistence, wages (Si.)(CDIAL 12069). va_rtta_ livelihood, business (Mn.)(CDIAL 11564). vutti practice, usage (Pali); vatti-, vitti-, vutti- life, livelihood (Pkt.); buti work (Gypsy); servant (Or.); butti_ compulsory labour, unrewarded service of Brahmans and barbers (P.); buti daily labour, wages (Ku.); ha_t-but, ha_t-buti domestic work (Ku.); buta_ work in hand, business (Or.); butti_ means of subsistence (H.); bi_t., bi_t grazing fee charged by herdsmen (H.); vat.i state, condition (Si.)(CDIAL 12070). Ívr.tti mode of life, conduct (Gr.S'r.); business (MBh.); wages (Skt.)(CDIAL 12070). hathaut.i_, hathot.i_ dexterity (P.); hataur.i method of doing anything (N.); hathaut.i_ dexterity (Mth.); skill (H.); hataut.i_ id., adj. skilful (H.); hathot.i_, athot.i_, at.hot.i_ skill in a manual profession (G.)(CDIAL 14035). bhar.et paid servant (Ku.); bhar.aut.i_, bhar.ot.i_ one who plies for hire (H.)(CDIAL 9470). bhar.oi_ paid servant (Ku.)(CDIAL 9469). [cf. bha_d.aya hire (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9468)]. masauti expenditure (N.)(CDIAL 10107). besa_d trade (B.); besa_ti (B.); bisa_ti_ (Bhoj.); vais'yavr.tti trade (Mn.)(CDIAL 14810). satyavr.tti devotion to truth (R.); sacaut.i_ truthfulness (Mth.); sa_cvat.i (G.); sacot.i_, satot.i_ honesty (M.)(CDIAL 13115). samavr.tti equanimity (Skt.); samoti_ tranquility from iving together in harmony; samotu~ respected for peaceable quality (of a newely wed wife)(G.)(CDIAL 13194). sidhaut.i_ uprightness (Mth.)(CDIAL 13403). neot.a_ affectionate (B.)(CDIAL 13803). [sne_hin unctuous; affectionate (Skt.); nehi_ affectionate (S.); nehi_, nehi~_ loving, friend (P.); nehi_ affectionate (Mth.H.)(CDIAL 13804)]. hi_navr.tti of base conduct (MBh.); hinauti_ humility (H.)(CDIAL 14127). vata~_dra_, bata~_dra_ exchange of work among women (e.g., spinning for sewing)(P.)(CDIAL 11358). vartti-ttal to be; to exist; to subsist; to dwell, remain, stay, abide (Man.i. 29,257); vattan-ai < vartana livelihood, wages (Ta.); vatti-ttal to increase, grow; to thrive (Ja_n-ava_. Ur-pa. 40); vati-tal < vas to dwell, abide; to sojourn, stay (Paripa_. 10,20); vati lair, nest (Kalit. 119)(Ta.lex.) vattakam < vartakam (Ta.) traffic, trade, commerce (Ta.lex.) cf. vr.tti-cakram the wheel of state; vr.tti profession, occupation, business, employment, mode of leading life (often at the end of cmpds. : va_rdhake_ mun-ivr.tti_n-a_m)(Skt.lex.) va_r..kkai village; town; agricultural town; va_r..nar inhabitants, residents (Pur-ana_. 9); va_r..vu residing; residence (Te_va_. 276,2); town; va_r..umo_r those who live in prosperity (Patir-r-up. 71,27)(Ta.lex.) Livelihood: va_r..cci living (Ta.) (Tol. Col. 80); va_r..cci-p-pat.uttu- to cause to prosper (Tol. Po. 90, Urai)(Ta.); baduku, badaku, barduku living, life, livelihood (Ka.); badukisu, badikisu to cause to live, support, save from death, raise to life (Ka.); bar.. to live, begin to live prosperously (Ka.); ba.l.- (ba.v-, badd-) (child) lives, rule; ba. mane house into which bride marries; ba.ce act of living; ba.ke ku.d.- (woman) marries; badik- to live, live happily; barduku, bar..dun:ku, bardun:ku, baduku, badaku, badiku, badun:ku, ba_r.., ba_r.. to live, be alive, subsist, make a livelihood, remain alive, revive, return to life (Ka.); ba_r..(u) living, life, livelihood, state of living prosperously or happily, marriage (Ka.); ba_r..i person who lives, etc. (Ka.); ba_r..ive, ba_r..ve, ba_r..ike, ba_r..ke, ba_r..te, ba_r..uvike, ba_r..vike living, life, livelihood, household (Ka.); va_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to exist, live (Kur-al., 1124), flourish (Te_va_. 1177,1), be happy (Ta.); va_r..kkai, va_r..vu living (Kur-al., 435), lifetime, happy state, wealth, prosperity (Ta.); va_r..vi to cause or help one to live (Ta.); va_t.kai living (Ta.); va_n.an- prosperous man (Ta.); va_r..uka to live, live well or happily (Ma.); va_r.. life (Ma.); va_r..ca living prosperously (Ma.); va_r..vu prosperity, happy life (Ma.); va_r..i living somewhere (Ma.); va.l.- (woman) lives prosperously with husband (Ko.); vag- (woman) is married (Ko.); vakc- to make woman marry (Ko.)(DEDR 5372). va_r..kkai-t-tun.ai wife (Kur-al., 51); va_r..kkai-p-pat.u to be married; to become a wife (Tan-ippa_. ii,1,1); va_r..kkai-p-pat.uttu to give in marriage (Ci_vaka. 1490, Urai) (Ta.lex.) va_r..kkai married life (Ta.)(DEDR 5372). Village: va_r..kkai village; town; agricultural town; va_r..nar inhabitants, residents (Pur-ana_. 9); va_r..vu residing; residence (Te_va_. 276,2); town; va_r..umo_r those who live in prosperity (Patir-r-up. 71,27)(Ta.lex.) vardhama_na prospering (RV.); name of a district (VarBr.S.); vardhama_na_ name of a town (Skt.); vad.d.hama_n.a, vad.d.haya name of a town in Gujarat (Pkt.); vad.hva_n. the town of Burdwan (G.)(CDIAL 11380). cf. va_ram hire, rent, lease of land for a share of the produce (Ta.); va_rakam advance to soldiers and servants, press money (Ma.)(DEDR 5359). pat.i-k-ka_ran- one who works for his daily food; one who grants batta or subsistence money; pat.i fixed daily allowance for food (Kalit. 35); pat.ittaram daily allowance, as to a temple (Ta.); pad.itara id. (Ka.); pat.ittaram rule, regulation (Ta.Ma.); pat.ittan-am id. (Ko_yilo_.62); pat.ippur-am land on free tenure, bestowed on temple-priests (Cilap. 30,151); pat.i-k-kat.t.al.ai daily allowance to a temple for conducting worship; pat.iya_l. hired servant, one whose wages are paid in grain; farm labourer who receives his wages in kind; a division among Par-aiyas hereditarily attached as servants to some landholding family which must support them in times of drought and famine (Ta.lex.) Dependant; profession; business: bha_ktika dependant (Pa_n..); nityabha_ktika permanent retainer (A_past.); niccabhattika (Pali); bhattika attending (Pali); bha_ti_ fellow-resident, messmate (S.)(CDIAL 9428). -varttanai : adhika_ra-varttanai customary payments made to an officer at stipulated periods (Ta.Skt.) (SITI.IEG.) anu-varttanai a class of contingent dues (Ta.Skt.) (SITI.IEG.) avasara varttanai presents payable to an Avasara, an officer of the royal household having the duty of bringing to the notice of the king anything that demanded his immediate attention (Ta.) (SITI.IEG.) vira_tam manual labour; day-labour (Ta.lex.) cf. avacaram various poses of a deity in a temple (Vais.)(Ta.); necessity, compulsion; occasion, favourable opportunity (Pa_rata. Campava. 13)(Ta.lex.)

6433.Nourish; fill: bha_ran. support, maintenance, means of support (Ku.); a weight, pressure (G.)(CDIAL 9460). bharati bears, brings, keeps (RV.); fills (Skt.); bharita nourished, full (MBh.); bears, supports, feeds (Pali); -bharita filled with (Pali); bharai supports, fills (Pkt.); pher- to fill; phar- to place oneself on, ride; ba_rda full (Gypsy); barun to endure, fill; bharnu to fill, draw water; bharunu to fill; bharn.o_ (K.); bharan.u to fill (S.); bharan. (L.); bharna_ to bear (P.); bharnu_ to fill, weed for a second time (WPah.); bharn.o to support, feed, fill (Ku.); bharnu to fill (N.); bhariba to put in (A.); bhara_ to load (B.); bhariba_ to fill (Or.); bharab to irrigate (Bi.); bharab to fill (Mth.); bharal (Bhoj.); bharai bears, endures, fills, covers (OAw.); bharna_ to fill, be full (H.); bharai fills (OMarw.); bharvu~ (G.); bharn.e~ to carry, fill (M.); bharta_ fills (Konkan.i); caus. bhara_unu to cram into (N.); bhara_iba to fill (A.); bhara_vvu~ to fasten (G.); bharavin.e~ to feed (M.)(CDIAL 9397). bharosa_, bharsa_ trust, dependence, support (Ku.); bharos, bhoras support (N.); bharos, bharosa_ confidence (H.)(CDIAL 9398). Master; husband: bhartr. acc. bharta_ram husband (Skt.); bearer (RV.); bhat.t.a_ra, bhat.t.a_raka noble lord (Skt.); bhat.t.a term of address from lowborn to superior, lord (Skt.); bhatta_, bhatta_ram acc. sg. husband (Pali); bhat.ara, bhat.araga master (NiDoc.); bhat.ariyae gen. sg. mistress (NiDoc.); bhattu-, bhatti-, bhat.t.u-, bhat.t.i- husband, master (Pkt.); bhat.t.in.i_ mistress, non-anointed queen; bhat.t.a_raya worshipful one, (in drama) king; bat.a a Brahman (K.); bito_r, pl. bita_ra husband (D..); bhata_ru (S.); bhata_r (Ku.A.); bhata_ra (OB.); bha_tar (B.); bhata_r (Bi.); bhatara_ (Aw.); bhata_r husband, master (H.)(CDIAL 9402).

6434.God, goddess: bhad.a_raya god (Pkt.); broru god, esp. S'iva; bro..ru goddess (K.)(CDIAL 9402). bhat.t.a_rika_mat.ha name of a quarter in S'ri_nagar (Skt.); brad.imar (K.)(CDIAL 9367). vardhama_na prospering (RV.); name of a district (VarBr.S.); vardhama_na_ name of a town (Skt.); vad.d.hama_n.a, vad.d.haya name of a town in Gujarat (Pkt.); vad.hva_n. the town of Burdwan (G.)(CDIAL 11380).

6435.Image: plate, dish: va_sana box, casket (Ya_j.); va_san.a vessel, plate (Pkt.); ba_san pot, dish (H.); va_san. (G.)(CDIAL 11599). basna a cup (Santali.lex.) vardhani_ water-jar (BhP.); vardhanika_ (BHSk.); va_rdhani_ (HParis'.); vad.d.hana potshred (Pali); badane_ pitcher (Tir.); vadhna_, badhna_ earthen waterpot with spout (P.); badhna_ (B.Bi.); badhan (Mth.); badhni_, badhna_ earthen or copper vessel with spout (H.)(CDIAL 11379). Image: mouth of a cup; lip: cf. va_si lip (Ga.); va_y mouth of a cup, lip (Ta.)(DEDR 5352). cf. vac speak (Skt.); vacana speaking (RV.)(CDIAL 11199). cf. vakku brim, edge (Ma.)(DEDR 5208a).