6436.Fragrance: vatuvai fragrance; vatuvai-na_r-r-am new fragrance (Akana_. 25)(Ta.lex.) sva_du, so_du a particular perfume or fragrant substance; sweet, pleasant, delicate; pleasing, charming; sweetness, flavour, relish (Ka.); sva_da taste, flavour, savour; liking, enjoyment (Ka.lex.)

6437.Image: earthen pot for grains to sprout: vatuvai-mul.ai earthen pot in which nava-ta_n-iyam is sown and allowed to sprout in marriage (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. bhadra-ghat.a (Skt.) bhen.u earthen cooking pot (G.)(CDIAL 9360a). vat.t.u porringer, platter, plate, cup (Ta.); vat.t.il id. (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 4,3)(Ta.); bat.t.alu id. (Ka.); vat.t.o_t.u goldsmith's pot for live coals (Ta.lex.) vardhani_ water-jar (BhP.); vad.d.hana potsherd (Pali); badane_ pitcher (Tir.); vadhna_, badhna_ earthen waterpot with spout (P.); badhna_ (B.Bi.); earthen or copper vessel with spout (H.); badhan (Mth.); badhni_ (H.)(CDIAL 11379). Image: projecting rim: vat.t.u the circular piece to which the ribs of an umbrella are joined (Ta.lex.) varti projecting rim (Skt.); vat.t.i, vat.t.ika_ circumference, rim, brim (Pali); vatti edge, limit (Pkt.); vtti edge of bank or river (Si.)(CDIAL 11360). bat. to trim, make leve, straighten (Santali.lex.) Image: tire of a wheel: pat.t.e the outer iron rim of a wheel (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pat.ru tire of a wheel (S.); pat.ru band of iron to tighten anything, tire of a wheel (S.)(CDIAL 7733). Image: protuberance round a vessel: varti, varti_ the projecting threads or unwoven ends (of a cloth), the fringe; the protuberance round a vessel (Skt.); vartman an edge, a border (Skt.lex.) cf. vardhanika_ a small vessel in which sacred water is kept; vardhama_na a pot or dish of a particular shape, lid (Skt.lex.) mukhavat.t.i, titti brim; v.t. a_mukhavat.t.in pu_reti; v.i. samatittikan pu_rati (Pali.lex.) mukha-vat.t.i outer rim, border, lining, e.g. cakkava_l.a-mukha-vat.t.i; pa_sa_da-mukha-vat.t.i; vat.t.ika_ a brim (Pali.lex.) Image: projecting rim: bit. rim of a vessel (N.)(CDIAL 12045). Image: handle; rim of a vessel: be~t. handle (Ku.H.); bi~_d.a_ axe-handle (P.); bi~_r., bi_n handle (Ku.); ben.t.a handle (Or.); be~_t. handle (Aw.); bi~t. handle (N.); bet., ve_t.t.a handle (Bhoj.); bit. rim of a vessel (N.)(CDIAL 12045). bil opening, mouth of a vessel (Kho.)(CDIAL 9245). neti cord round neck of oil-flask (N.); ne_tra cord of churning stick (MBh.)(CDIAL 7588). newat, newata_ cord of churning stick (Bi.)(CDIAL 7590). cf. varti wick (MBh.)(CDIAL 11359). Handle: bi~_d.a_ axe-handle (P.); bi~_r, bi_n handle (Ku.); ben.t.a handle (Or.); be~t. handle (Bi.H..); be~_t. id. (Aw.); bet. id. (Bhoj.); bon.t.a_ handle of plough (Or.); ba~_t. handle (B.)(CDIAL 12045). viruttam circle, anything circular (Tiv.Iyar-. Tiruvirut. Tan-iyan-)(Ta.lex.) Edge: vil.impu border, edge, rim, brink, margin (Ta.); vat.impu border, edge (as of a garment), extremity, eaves, edge of a roof (Ta.); vil.impu, vil.umpu, vel.umpu edge, margin, border or hem of a cloth (Ma.); vel.uti margin (Ma.)(DEDR 5436). Image: big pot or vessel: vat.t.akai small bowl; metal cup (Ka_cippu. Tar..uvak. 333)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.ikai basket; vat.t.il id., measure of capacity (Ta.)(DEDR 5231). cf. ve_t.ko_ = ve_l. + ko_ potter (Ta.lex.) vel.i-va_y the outer rim or lip of a vessel; openly (Ta.lex.) cf. bal.l.a a brazen charger or eating dish (Ka.lex.) val.l.am a dish for use in eating or drinking, hour-glass, a measure of grain (= 4 marakka_l)(Ta.lex.) val.antu big pot or vessel (Ta.lex.) bal.l.a a measure of capacity, the 4th part of a kol.aga or 4 manas (Ka.lex.) vat.t.il < vr.tta porringer, platter, plate, cup (Tiv. Peruma_l. 4,23); measure of capacity (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Il.ampu_.)(Ta.); bat.t.alu (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Drinking bowl: (sura_-)vittha drinking bowl; (a_ve_sana-) vitthaka small bowl for needles etc. (Pali); vit-a drinking vessel (Si.)(CDIAL 11728). Image: cup: cf. vat.t.a cup (Pkt.); bat.a_ metal pot for betel (Or.); va_t.i_ vessel (G.M.); ba_t.a_ round copper or brass vessel (N.)(CDIAL 11347). cf. vartalo_ha a kind of brass (Skt.)(CDIAL 11357). cf. vat.t.u dish (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11364). cf. vat.t.il basket, measure of capacity, quiver for arrows (Ta.)(DEDR 5231). Medicinal pouch: vat.t.uvam medicinal pouch (Pirata_pa. Vila_. 121); pouch in which betel leaves, nuts, chunam, tobacco etc. are kept (W.)(Ta.); vat.t.uvamu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: metal cup: bha~utic a leaf cup, a cup made of leaves pinned together; bat.i a metal cup or basin (Santali.lex.) vat.t.am scale-pan (Tiruman. 1781)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.i porringer, kin.n.am (Aka. Ni.); a measure of capacity = 1 na_r..i = a pat.i; mukattal.avai (Tol. Er..ut. 170); vat.t.a_ plate, porringer, bowl (Ci_tak.); vat.t.appakka_ Madras measure, when made with a wide circular mouth (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: cooking pot; phonetic echoes: bh-/b-/p-, m- optional particle (plosive, nasal) prefixes: bha_n.d. cooking pot (WPah.); bha_n.d.a pot, dish, vessel (Mn.); cooking pot (Or.); bhamd.a vessel (Pkt.); bha_n.d.aka small cup (Skt.); bhan.a, ba_na vessels, dish (Tor.); ba_nu a kind of dish (Kho.); bo_n., bo_n cooking pot (Sh.); bha_n.d.o cooking pot (K.); bhana, bamna vessel (NiDoc.); bha_no cooking pot (Ku.); bha_r.o large pot for cooking rice (N.); bha~_r. small earthen pot (B.); large earthen pot, vessel for milk or ghee; bha~_r. necked vessel for milk or ghee (Bi.); bha~_r.a_ milking vessel (Bi.); bha~_r.iya_ earthen pot (Aw.); bha~_d. earthen pot (H.); bha~_d.a_ earthen pot (H.); cooking pot (P.); vessel (L.); bha~_d.u~ pot (G.); bha~_d., bha~_d.e~ pot (M.); ba_na vessel (K.); bou large milk vessel (K.)(CDIAL 9440). Image: pot: cf. ba_na large earthen pot with a broad mouth (Ka.)(DEDR 4124). cf. bud.d.i earthen vessel (Go.); glass bottle (Ka.); bottle, flask (Te.); bud.d.iga (Te.); put.y bottle (To.); pot.y (Ko.); put.t.i flask, bottle (Ta.)(DEDR 4265A). Image: pot: bindige a kind of metal water-vessel (Ka.); binaga_ (M.); binde (Te.); vinde (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) pit.hara, pit.hari_ a pot, pan (MBh.); pit.haraka (Skt.); pit.hara pot, pan (Pali); pid.hara, pihad.a (Pkt.); pi_ri_ (Gypsy)(CDIAL 8166). cf. pit.aka basket, box (Mn.) (CDIAL 8164). bhinka_ra a water jar, a (nearly always golden) vase, ceremonial vessel (in donations)(Pali); cf. bhr.nga_ra (Skt.)(Pali.lex.) Pot, boiler: pa_n.t.il small bowl or cup (Pur-ana_. 97); bowl of a lamp (Ta.lex.) pa_n.ali, va_n.ali, va_n.a_y frying pan (Ta.); ba_n.ali, ba_n.ale, ba_n.d.li, ba_l.ali, ba_l.l.e frying pan of stone or metal (Ka.); ban.al, banal a kind of frying pan (Tu.); ba_n.ali frying pan (Te.) (DEDR 4069). pa_li_ a pot, boiler; pa_la a spitting-pot (Skt.lex.) pa_likai < pa_lika_ earthen pot in which nava-ta_n-iyam is sown in marriage and other ceremonies (Man.i. 1,44); pa_likai-kot.t.utal, pa_likai-vit.utal the ceremony of emptying sprouts in the pa_likai into a river or tank on the conclusion of marriage and other ceremonies; pa_likai-tel.ittal the ceremony of sowing nava-ta_n-iyam in pots on auspicious occasions (Ta.lex.) Image: large-mouthed pot: pa_t.am oil-dish (Ma.); pa_d.a an oil vessel (Tu.)(DEDR 4061). Waterpot: vat.t.am large waterpot; a unit for measuring the quantity of water = 500 average potfuls, as the amount necessary for a pan:ku for one week; vat.t.akai small bowl; metal cup (Ka_cippu. Tar..uvak. 333)(Ta.lex.) patalai large-mouthed pot (Aric. Pu. Viva_ka. 292); ornamental pitcher mounted on a tower (Tiv. Periyati. 3,8,2); boat (Ta.); pa0s- large, broad-mouthed clay-pot (To.); patli cooking pot (Go.Malt.)(DEDR 3909). Image: trough: pan-r-ippattar hog-trough; water-scoop for irrigation (Cilap. 10,110, Urai.); pattar wooden trough for feeding animals (Na_lat.i, 257); pattal a wooden bucket (Patir-r-up. 19,23); wooden trough for feeding animals; ditch, depression (Nar-. 240)(Ta.lex.) pa_d.ini_ an earthen pot; a boiler; pa_tili_ a small earthen vessel; pa_tram a drinking-vessel, cup, jar; a vessel or pot in general; a reservoir; a kind of measure (a_d.haka); pa_tri_ a vessel, plate, dish; pa_trakam a vessel, pot etc.; pa_trika measured out with any vessel or a measure called a_d.haka; pa_trikam a vessel, cup, dish; pa_tri_yam a sacrificial vessel or utentil; pa_tri_ram an oblation (Skt.lex.) Soma bowl: paddharan.i- (stha_li_-) (bowl) for collecting the scooped footprint of the soma-cow (S'rS.)[conceived of by pop. etym. as containing pad-haran.a-](CDIAL 14668a). pada_yatana the place where a cow plants her feet (Satya_s.a_d.ha S'rautaSu_tra vii.2. Vedic lex.) Chamber vessel; spittoon: pratigrahan.a vessel (S'a_nkhGr..); pratigraha chamber vessel (Car.); spittoon (Skt.); pat.iggaha reception, receptacle (Pali); pad.igg-aha bowl (Pkt.); par.igaha_ spittoon (Mth.); par.ghi_ stand for a pot (G.); pad.gha_, pad.ga_, pad.ghe~, pad.ge~ wooden bowl; pad.ghi_, pad.gi_ stand for a pot (M.)(CDIAL 8554). pat.ikkam spittoon (en. caturama_ka ceyvittuk kot.utta pat.ikam on-r-u)(S.I.I. ii,149); pot for receiving water used for an idol (I.M.P. ii, 1404,1332); pad.iga spittoon (Te.Ka.); pat.ikkam id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) vr.nta stand of waterjar (Ka_tyS'r.); footstalk of leaf or flower, any stalk (MBh.)(CDIAL 12077). Watering-trough for feeding animals: pattal wooden bucket (Patir-r-up. 19,23); pattar wooden bucket, wooden trough for feeding animals (Na_lat. i.257); coconut shell or gourd used as a vessel (Kalla_. 40,3)(Ta.); pa_tti bathing tub, watering-trough or basin, drain (Ta.); pa_ti basin for water round the foot of a tree (Ka.); trough or bathing tub, drain, spout (Tu.); pa_di, pa_du basin for water round the foot of a tree (Te.)(DEDR 4079). Image: feeding-trough: pathiya_ basket used as feeding- trough for animals (Mth.); basket used by sower or for feeding cattle (Bi.); pa_tha_ large milk pail (Mth.); prastha a measure of weight or capacity = 32 palas (MBh.); pattha a measure = 1/4 a_l.haka, cooking vessel containing 1 pattha (Pali); a measure of grain (Pkt.); patthaya id. (Pkt.); path a measure of land requiring 1 trakh (= 9 1/2 lb.) of seed (K.); patth, path a measure of capacity = 4 boras (L.); pa_tho a measure = 2 seers (Ku.); pa_thi a measure of capacity = 1/10 man (N.); pa_thi_ a measure of corn for a year (H.); pata a measure of grain and liquids = 1/4 na_liya (Si.); prasta a measure (NiDoc.)(CDIAL 8869). Image: bowl; oil-dish: pa_tra drinking vessel, dish (RV.); pa_traka, pa_tri_ vessel (Gr.S'rS.); patta bowl; pattaka a little bowl (Pali); pa_ti_ (Pali); patta, patti_, pa_da, pa_ya, pa_i_ vessel (Pkt.); pati large long dish (Sh.); pa_thar, dat. pa_tras vessel, dish; poturu pan of a pair of scales (gahana-pa_th, dat. pocu jewels and dishes as part of dowry)(K.); pa_t.ri large earth or wooden dish; pa_t.ror.o wooden trough (S.); pa_tri_ earthen kneading dish; para_t large open vessel in which bread is kneaded; pa_tri_ plate (L.); pa_tar vessel; para_t id.; para_tr.a_ large wooden kneading vessel (P.); pa_ttar brass or wooden kneading vessel (P.); pa_i wooden pot (Ku.); pa_til earthen cooking pot (B.); pa_tili small earthen cooking pot (B.); pa_til.a, pa_tul.i earthen pot; sil-pa_ stone mortar and pestle (Or.); pati_la_ earthen cooking vessel (Bi.); patla_ milking vessel; paila_ small wooden dish for scraps (Bi.); pati_la_ copper pot; patuki_ small pan (H.); pa_tru~ wooden bowl (G.); pa_telu~ brass cooking pot; para_t circular dish (G.); circular edged metal dish (M.); paya, pya (Si.)(CDIAL 8055). vat.t.a-, vat.t.aya- cup (Pkt.); wat.a_k cup, plate (Ash.); wat.ukh, dat. wat.akas cup, bowl (K.); vat.o metal drinking cup (S.); ba_t.a_ round copper or brass vessel (N.); box for betel (B.); ba_t.i cup (A.Or.); saucer (Or.); bat.a_ metal pot for betel (Or.); ba_t.i_ small metal cup (Mth.); bat.r.i_ (H.); va_t.i_ vessel (G.M.); bat.t.a_ large metal cup (Mth.)(CDIAL 11347). cf. vartalo_ha a kind of brass (Skt.); vat.t.alo_ha a partic. kind of metal (Pali); valt.o_a_ metal pitcher (L.); valt.oh, balt.oh, vatloha_ (P.); bat.lohi round metal vessel (N.); bat.lahi water vessel (A.); ba_t.lahi, ba_t.ula_i round brass cooking vessel (B.); bat.lohi_ small metal vessel (Bi.); bat.lohi_, bat.loi_ brass drinking and cooking vessel (H.); vat.loi (G.)(CDIAL 11357). Image: plate, cup; measure of capacity: bhad.d.u_ copper cooking vessel (P.); bhad.d.u (N.)(CDIAL 9368). bat.t.alu porringer, plate, cup (Ka.); vat.t.il (Ta.); (pon vat.t.il pit.ittu-- : Divya. Peruma_l.. 4,3); measure of capacity (Tol. Er..ut., 170, Il.ampu_.); clepsydra; a small vessel with holes in the bottom, floating on the water and sinking at the end of a na_likai, being a contrivance for determining time; vat.t.i measure of capacity = 1 na_r..i = 1 pat.i (Tol. Er..ut. 170); basket (Akana_. 391); draught board (Ta.lex.) vat.t.u dish (Pkt.); bat.ui small water vessel (Ku.); bat.ua_ metal dish (Bi.); bat.wi_ pot (Aw.); bat.uko round copper or brass vessel (N.); va_t.uki_ cup (G.)(CDIAL 11364). Saucer: paridha_ya receptacle for water (Skt.); pariya_, para_i saucer used as a cover for other vessels (Bi.)(CDIAL 7839). Image: large earthen pot with a broad mouth: ma_n. earthen vessel for water (M.); ma_tra_ measure (RV.); matta_ measure, quantity (Pali); mat.t.u measure (Ta.)(CDIAL 10023). ma_n.i metal waterpot (G.); ma_n. broadmouthed earthen vessel (usu. for water)(M.)(CDIAL 10041). man.a skin-bag (Ash.); ma_na skin-bag for ghee (Dm.); ma_n.a skin-bag for sour milk (Gaw.); ma_n inflated skin (Bshk.); cama-mun.a_ skin-bag (Or.)(CDIAL 10044). pa_n-ai large earthen pot; a measure of capacity (Ta.); pa_n.a_ large rounded pot (Ta.); pa_na, pa_n water pot (Ma.); pa.n.y a measure = 8 ol.k (Ko.); po.ny Badaga contribution to Toda (four ol.k a house)(To.); pa_ne, ha_ne a pot of metal or earth (Ka.); ba_ne, ba_na, ba_ni large earthen pot with a broad mouth (Ka.); pa.ni a measure = two se.ri (Kod..); pa_n.i, pa_n.e a large pot (Tu.); pa_ne a kind of brass vessel (Tu.); ba_na, ba_n.a water-vessel (Tu.); ba_na a large earthen pot, boiler, kettle (Te.)(DEDR 4124). Image: a vessel: mat.al receptacle for sacred ashes and sandal (ponnin pus.kara-p-patti mat.al on-r-u : S.I.I., ii,15); shoulder blade; standing pole of a well-sweep; branch channel (Ta.lex.) bat.t.al, bat.t.alu, bat.t.ala, bat.la, bat.lu (Tadbhava of vartula) a concave metal vessel: a bowl, a cup, a basin, a goblet (Ka.); vat.t.il (Ta.); vat.t.e, vat.t.age (Ma.); bat.ud.i (Te.); vat.t.al.a a large cooking vessel, a brass pan (Ma.); vat.t.am a large water-pot (Ta.); va_t.aga a large metal dish; va_t.i_ a saucer-form vessel of metal; a half of a coconut shell; the pan of the knee; va_t.o_l.a_ round (M.)(Ka.lex.) bha_n.d.a-mukha the mouth of a vessel; bha_n.d.a, ban.d.a, bhan.d.a, bha_n.d.e any vessel, a pot, pan, cup, plate, dish, pail, vat, utensil (Ka.); bha_n.d.a-s'akala a potsherd (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Measure: ma_na measure, standard (RV); a particular measure (Pali); ma_naka measure, weight (Skt.); ma_ni_ a particular measure; a measure of capacity = 80 pa_is (L.); a weight = 12-18 maunds (P.); ma_nika_ a particular weight = 2 double handfuls; a weight = 4 dro_n.as (Pali); man.ika waterpot; man.a grain measure (Skt.); ma_n.a a particular measure (Pkt.); a measure of land, a measure of grain, a pot for such a measure (Or.); mou a weight = 4 maunds (K.); ma_n.u a measure of grain (S.); ma_n.o, ma_n.i wooden vessel holding 1/2 seer (N.); ma_ni central iron rod in a handmill (N.); ma_n a particular measure (A.B.); ma_n.a_ a particular measure (Or.); ma_n. boundary (G.); maninava_ to measure (Si.)(CDIAL 10041). mina_ti measures (Pali); minana measurement (Pali); minai, min.an.a id. (Pkt.); min.an. to measure (in a measure of capacity (L.); min.na_ to measure (P.); min.nu (WPah.); minuma, mimma measuring (S.); min measure (S.); minan to measure (Md.); me_n. a measure (L.); me_nun, myu_nu to measure (K.)(CDIAL 10132). mijja-ma_n.a being measured (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10141). man maund = 52 lb. (K.); man. (L.P.N.G.M.); man.u (S.); man.a (OMarw.Or.); mon (A.); man, mon (B.); man (H.)(CDIAL 9730). ma_i, ma_ai measures (Pkt.); ma_van. pres. part. ma~_da_ to be contained in, hold, receive (L.); ma_i is contained in (OG.); ma_na_ to be contained in (H.); ma_vu~ to be comprised, hold (of a measure of capacity)(G.); ma_n.e~ to be contained in (M.)(CDIAL 10059). Cooking; eating: mat.ai cooking (Ta.); mad.a (Te.Ka.); mad.uva (Ma.); oblation of food to a deity (Ta.); mat.ai-po_t.utal to lay out rice offerings before a deity (Ta.); mat.ai-k-kalam cooking utensil (Ta.lex.) [cf. kalam vessel, plate, utensil, earthenware, ship (Ta.); pot, vessel, ship (Ma.); kalm claypot in the making (Ko.); kala pot, vessel (DEDR 1305).] mat.ai boiled rice, offering of food to a god, cooking; man.t.u (man.t.i-) to eat and drink greedily; mat.u to take food or drink, devour; cause to eat or drink, feed; mat.uppu taking food; mat.aiyan- cook (Ta.); man.d.- (man.d.y-) (calf) becomes accustomed to suckle (Ko.); mod.- (mod.y-) (buffalo) allows calf to suck (To.); mod.f ir milch buffalo (To.); mad.apali kitchen (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 4657). Kitchen: mat.u to take food or drink, devour (Ta.); mat.apali kitchen (Te.)(DEDR 4657). mat.appal.i, mat.appal.l.i, mat.aippal.i, mat.aippal.l.i cook-house, kitchen, especially of a temple (at.unti_ ma_r-a_ mat.aippal.l.i ya_ki (Kalla_. 23,37); steward of a palace; a caste of people; Rice offerings to a deity: mat.aippan.t.am rice offerings to a deity; mat.ai-nu_l art of cookery; treatise on cookery (Man.i, 2,22)(Ta.lex.)

6438.Boiled rice, food: van.t.akamu food, boiled rice (Te.); van.d.u to cook, dress, boil, prepare (Te.); van.t.a cooking, anything cooked (Te.); van.t.aka~_d.u cook (Te.); vadd (vatt-) to cook (Nk.); vend-, vend.- id. (Pa.); vand.- id. (Ga.); vanj- (vanc-) id. (Pe.); vanj- id. (Mand..); vaja (vaji-) id.; n. cooking; pl. action vaska (vaski-) (Kui); vaj- (-it-), vwajali, wajinai to cook (Kuwi)(DEDR 5329). cf. bare to be fried in oil or ghee (Kod..); var-u to be fried, grilled; to toast (Ta.); vedp- to fry (Pa.); var-a frying (Ma.); var- to cook (Kond.a); vah (vast-) to fry, roast, grill (Kuwi)(DEDR 5325). vanc- to strain off water from boiled rice (Go.); va_kkal boiled rice from which conjee has been poured (Ta.); ba_gu to pour off water from boiled rice, etc., by inclining the vessel (Ka.); ba.k- to pour off water from cooked rice (Kod..); vancu to serve from a container (Te.)(DEDR 5334). vand.i_na_, vand.a_na_ to taste (Go.); vend. id. (Pe.); vand.a id.; n. act of tasting; pl. action vat.ka (Kui); vwandali, wandinai, van.d. to taste (Kuwi)(DEDR 5240). Boiled rice; food: ond.a boiled rice; food (Kuwi); onda cooked rice; u_ndali to drink (Kuwi); o_nna_ (on.d.as) to drink, eat (rice)(Kur.); one (ond.-) to drink, be coloured (Malt.); kuning to eat, drink, bite (Br.)[X kha_in.u to eat (S.)(CDIAL 3865)]; un.ba to drink, partake of food (with e_ju a meal)(Kui); un. to drink (Pe.); to drink, suck (Ko.); to eat or drink, suck (as a child)(Ta.); to drink, suck (Ko.); mother's milk (Ka.); on.asu a meal, dinner, boiled rice and curry (Tu.); u_t.u (cattle) to drink water, etc., completely (Te.); un- (und-) to drink (Kol.); un- (und.-) to drink; u_rt- to feed, give to drink (Nk.); to drink (Ga.); und.ke pej, food (Ga.); und.a_na_ to drink; uhta_na_ to make to drink; undana to drink; uhtana to make to drink; jawa_ und.a_na_ to take food (jawa_ porridge, food); u_n.d.a_na_ to drink; u_n.d.ha_na_ to cause to drink (Go.); u_t.pis- to make to drink, feed (Kond.a); un.n.uka to suck; un.n.i suckling, infant (Ma.); u_t.pa- to give to drink (Pe.); un- (uc-) to drink, smoke; u_t.- to give to drink (Mand..); u_r.pa (u_r.t-) to cause to drink, give to drink, suckle (Kui); unnai to drink, suck (Kuwi); o_nka_ thirst; o_nta'a_na_ to give a meal, make drink (Kur.); hur.ing to suck (Br.)(DEDR 600). bat.uli_ small metal vessel (Bi.); vartula round, globular (BhP.)(CDIAL 11365). *kajjala-varta round collyrium container (Skt.); gajraut.o small pot for collyrium (N.); kajraut.i id. (N.); kajraut.a_, kajraut.i_ (Bi.); kajlaut.i_ (H.)(CDIAL 2624). kajlo_t.hi_ pot in which lamp-black is kept (P.)(CDIAL 2623). cf. kajjala lamp-black (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 2622). cf. vartaka bell-metal, brass (Skt.); vat.t.a cup (Pkt.); va_t.i_ vessel (G.M.)(CDIAL 11347). vartalo_ha a kind of brass (Skt.); vat.t.alo_ha a partic. kind of metal (Pali); valt.o_a_ metal pitcher (L.); valt.oh, balt.oh, vat.loha_, bat.loha_ (P.); bat.lohi round metal vessel (N.); bat.lahi water vessel (A.); ba_t.lahi, ba_t.ula_i round brass cooking vessel (B.); bat.lohi_ small metal vessel (Bi.); bat.lohi_, bat.loi_ brass drinking and cooking vessel (H.); vat.loi (G.)(CDIAL 11357).

6439.To fry: bhrajj fry (Skt.); bharjana act of parching or roasting (Skt.); bhrajjana id. (Skt.); bhajjan.a, bhajjan.aya id. (Pkt.); bha_zan act of frying (A.); bha_jan, bha_jna_ (B.); bha_jan., bha_jn.e~ act of parching, grain put to be parched (M.); badina-tel frying oil (Si.); beoin. wheat parched or ground (Kho.)(CDIAL 9400). ba_z to fry; ba_zulle kha_n. fry (Kon.lex.) bhaji to fry in oil (Santali.lex.) bharjita fried, parched (Sus'r.); bhajjia fried (Pkt.); abozu cooked in water and not fried in oil (K.); bha_zi fried vegetables (A.); bha_ji anything fried (B.Or.)(CDIAL 9401). bhrjjati fries, parches (RV.); bharjayati (Sus'r.); bhrajjayati (Gr.); bharjate_ (Dha_tup.); bhajjati fries, parches (Pali); bhajjai (Pkt.); bul.ik (Kho.); buzun (K.); bhujan.u (S.); bhujjun. (L.); bhujn.u (WPah.); bhujn.o (Ku.); bhu_jna_ (H.); bhujn.e~ (M.); bha~jn.e~ (M.); bhajje_i fries, parches (Pkt.); bazun to cook in hot ghee (K.); bha_ziba to fry, parch (A.); bha_ja_ (B.); bha_jiba_ (Or.); bha_jna_ (H.); bha_jn.e~ (M.); bha_jta_ (Konkan.i); badinava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 9583). bhujjiya fried, parched (Pkt.); bru_ja, bur.ja_o food, grain (Wg.); abuzu not parched, raw (of grain)(K.); bhurji_, bhujji_ fried potherbs (P.); bhu_ji_ roast or parched vegetable food, vegetables (Ku.); bhuja_ parched fresh rice (N.); parched corn (B.); parched rice (Or.); bhu_ji_ burnt, dry (Mth.); bhu_ja_ parched grain (Mth.); bhu_ji_, bhujiya_ fried potherbs, greens (H.)(CDIAL 9584). bhujjana_ to be parched (P.); bha_jn.e~ to catch in the fire, be burnt, be singed (M.) bhr.jyate_ is fried (Nir.); bhujan.u to be fried, be parched (S.); bhujjan. to be roasted (L.)(CDIAL 9585). bhuan.u to fry, parch (S.); bhujiba_ (Or.); bhu~_ja_, bhu_jna_ parched grain (Bi.); bhu_m.jai parches (OAw.); bhum.jauna_ thing fried or parched like grain (OAw.); bhu~_jna_ to parch, fry (H.); bhu~_ja_ fried; fried mouthfuls (H.); bhu~jvu~ to roast (G.); bhr.n.a_ti fries (Skt.)(CDIAL 9586). bhr.kta roasted, fried (Skt.); bhutta_ spike of maize (H.); bhatto_sa parched grain (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9576). bhuto pp. of bhujan.u and bhuan.u (S.); bhugi_ piece of fried meat (S.); bhugir.o parched graim (S.); bhugr.e pl. (L.); bunik to parch, fry (Kho.); bhunnan. (L.); bhunnan.a_ (caus. bhuna_un.a_)(P.); bhunan.o (Ku.); bhuna_ to fry, parch; parched corn (B.); bhu_nal to parch (Bhoj.); bhu_nai (OMarw.); bhun.a_i_ wages for parching (P.); bhr.n.a_ti fries (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 9577). Innkeeper: bhat.hia_ra_ grain-parcher, innkeeper (who lets rooms or prepares food for travellers)(P.); bat.ha_ro innkeeper (S.); bhat.hiya_ra_ innkeeper (N.); bha_t.iya_ra_ liquor-seller (B.); bhat.hiya_rini landlady; bhat.hiya_ren her husband (Aw.); bhat.hiya_ra_ innkeeper (H.); bhat.hiya_ro eating-house keeper, cook, baker (G.); bhat.a_ri_ innkeeper (M.); bhat.a_rnu to parch (grain)(N.); bhat.a_r-bhut.ur hurried cooking of rice (N.)(CDIAL 9596). cf. bhr.s.t.a fried, roasted (Gr.S'r.); bhut.n.o to parch (Ku.); oil for frying (Ku.); bhut.io~ fried (Ku.); bhut.nu to parch, fry in ghee (N.)(CDIAL 9594). bhr.s.t.i act of frying or parching (Skt.); bha_t.-bhut. frying (N.); bhut.i-bha_t.i hasty frying (N.)(CDIAL 9597). avamocana inn (Skt.lex.) cf. ve~_gincu, ve~_pu to fry, grill (Te.); bising (bisis-), bisinging to be baked, cooked, ripen (Br.)(DEDR 5517). cf. var-u (-v-, -nt-) to be fried, grilled (Ta.); vat.p- to fry (Ga.); vars- to fry (Go.); vah- (vast-) to fry (Pe.Kuwi); wah'nai to fry, broil (Kuwi)(DEDR 5325).

6440.Image: murder; torment: vatai < vadha murder (Te_va_. 965,8); affliction, torment (Tiv. Na_yc. 8,9); vatittal, vataittal to kill, murder; to torment; vatai-tal id.; vanti compulsion (Tiv. Na_yc. 9,3, Arum.); vanti-par-r-u to obtain by force (Tiv. Na_yc. 9,3) (Ta.lex.)

6441.Image: honeycomb: vatai honeycomb (Ta.lex.)

6442.Conessi bark: vattalam < vatsaka conessi bark, vet.pa_lai (Malai.)(Ta.lex.)

6443.A title: vatta-ra_yan- < vatsa-ra_ja title of certain chiefs (Ta.inscr.); vatit.-kat.ittal < + ghat. (Skt.) to assume a title or pseudonym; vatil., vatil substitute; vattavan- < vatsa king of the vatsa country (Man.i. 15,62)(Ta.lex.) cf. badla_ alternate, recompense (U.lex.)

6444.Wind; whirlwind: val.i wind, air, windy humour in the body (Ta.); breaking wind (Ma.); garuvali wind, air (Ka.); bal.i bud.- to break wind (Kod..); karuvali wind, air (Te.); vali adj. cold, chill; vali-molaka Bhi_ma (offspring of the wind-god)(Te.); val(l)i wind, air (Pa.); val, vallu id. (Ga.); war.i_sta_na_ to blow (of wind); var.i, var.i_, vari_ wind (Go.); r.oy id. (Pe.); r.iy id. (Mand..); vilu, vliu wind, air (Kui); vir.i wind (Kuwi)(DEDR 5312). ba_lai wind (Wot..); ba_la_ wind, heavy rain (Bshk.); balai wind (Tor.); ba_l (H.)(CDIAL 11497). balval, ba_rval wind (Gypsy); va_ta wind (RV.Pali.); wind as a humour of the body (Sus'r.); va_ya (Pkt.); ba_o wind, a bad cold (WPah.); bai wind (Ku.); ba_ (A.B.Or.); ba_y (B.); ba, ba_a_ (Or.); ba_e~ ba_e~ with the speed of wind (Or.); vaha, va_ wind (Si.); va_e (Md.)(CDIAL 11491). va_tam.dhama blowing out wind (Skt.); badum wind (Dm.); wa_dana (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11492). bata_s wind (Ku.N.Mth.H.); bata_h (A.); ba_ta_s (B.); bata_sa (Or.OAw.); basa_t (Mth.)(CDIAL 11493). va_taputra name of Bhi_ma and Hanuman, cheat (Skt.); wu_tri_ fairy (Ash.); wo_tri_ (Wg.); wu_tr (Kt.); w(y)aci (Pr.); varo_ti (Kal.)(CDIAL 11495). va_taman.d.ali_ whirlwind (Skt.); va_taman.d.ala, va_taman.d.alika_ whirlwind (Pali); ba_onal whirlwind (WPah.); bavam.d.ara_ whirlwind, dust-storm (OAw.); bau~d.ar whirlwind (H.)(CDIAL 11496). va_tara windy, stormy (Skt.); va_tala (Skt.); va_ra_in.u to air (S.); ba_yar originating from air (A.); va_yro wind, air, gust (G.); va_ra_, va_re~ (M.); va_ro, va_re~ (Konkan.i); va_ya_ra cool wind (Pkt.); baya_ra tempest (Or.); baya_r, baya_ra_ (H.); baya_lo wind (Ku.)(CDIAL 11497). ba_haran medicine which removes flatulence (H.)(CDIAL 11499). va_ta_li_ whirlwind (Skt.); va_ta_vali_ (Skt.); baya_ri wind (OAw.); baya_ri (OAw.); ba_l (H.)(CDIAL 11500). va_tya_ gale (Skt.); being in the wind (VS.); va_ca gale, dust-storm; va_ciru stormy; va_cu_r.o whirlwind (S.); va_ca_la wind (Skt.)(CDIAL 11505). va_ti blows (RV.); va_yati (A_past.); blows, emits odour (Pali); wayi (wind) blows (Pas'.); va_vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 11501). va_tam wind, air; the ten vital airs of the body; windy humour of the body; va_tapittacu_lai an arthritic complaint from va_tapittam: a state of one's body in which the windy and the bilious humours predominate (Ta.lex.) va_tika produced by disorder of the wind, rheumatic (Sus'r.); connected with the humours of the body (Pali); va_ia id., boastful (Pkt.); va_i_ flatulent (S.); va_yr.u~ flatulent (G.); wa_y gout (K.); ba_i flatulence, mad, fit, whim (Or.); gout (Aw.); ba_yi_ rheumatism (Bhoj.); ba_i_, ba_e flatulence (H.); va_i (G.); va_i_ rheumatism (M.)(CDIAL 11502). va_tula affected by wind-disease, crazy (Skt.); va_tu_la mad (Skt.); va_ula mad (Pkt.); baula_ (P.); beurappan. insanity (WPah.); baul madness (Ku.); ba_walo, baulo mad (Ku.); baula_ha mad (N.); ba_ul, ba_ula_, baliya_ (A.); ba_ul fit of passion (B.); ba_ul.a, ba_ul.a_ mad, madness (Or.); ba_ur, baura_h mad (Mth.); ba_ura mad (OAw.); baura_ dumb (OAw.); ba_ula_, baura_, baura_ha_ mad (H.); va_ulu~ mad, hasty (G.); ba~_viro (S.)(CDIAL 11504).

6445.Flesh: va.r.- (obl. va.r.-, va.t.-) small pieces of meat for broth (of size of a mouthful)(Ko.); ba_d.u flesh (Ka.); ba_d.isu to scorch or singe by the fire as slices of dried flesh or leaves (Ka.); va_t.t.u roasted or fried flesh or vegetable (Ta.)(DEDR 5345). cf. vit.akku flesh, meat, carcass (Ta.); carcass (Ma.); bikku flesh (Ka.)(DEDR 5390). Image: lion: vat.-puli lion (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

6446.One-fourth: pa_i_ a measure of capacity (L.); 1/12 anna (L.S.P.H.); quarter, 1/4 anna (M.H.); one-fourth seer (P.); pa_i 1/12 anna (G.P.A.B.Or.); 1/4 anna (B.P.); pa_dika worth a quarter (Pa_n..); pa_dika_ a coin (Skt.); pa_ir.i_ 1/4 yard (S.)(CDIAL 8074).

6447.Image: tooth: vardhana a tooth growing over another tooth (Skt.lex.)

6448.Image: mystical diagram: vardhama_na a kind of mystical diagram (Skt.lex.)

6449.Clerodendrum siphonantus: vardhaka the plant clerodendrum siphonantus (Ka. Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

6450.Chenopodium album: va_stu(u_)ka chenopodium album (Car. Su. 27.88, Ci. 4.49,67). Chenopodium ambroisioides or anthelminticum: part used: the dried fruits; Uses: anthelmintic, for the round and hook worms, in the form of a 5 per cent decoction, or as the crude drug which is frequently mixed with molasses, or as the official volatile oil... odour distinct, aromatic; taste pungent and bitter. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 301-302). be_l.e, be_l.i a common herb used as a potherb, chenopodium album (Ka.)(DEDR 5546). cf. pappu-ku_ra (Te.)(GMIP, p.61). cilli_ chenopodium album (Car. Su. 27.98).

6451.Image: a layer of stone: paduru a layer, stratum (Tu.); pedre a layer; hadi a layer of stone or brick in the ground (Ka.)(DEDR 3915). cf. pad.uku a stone (Te.); pan:ku id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 3890). Image: layer: par-al.ai layer, stratum; par-al.ikai id. (Ta.lex.) pattai-kat.t.utal to tie up a broken limb with splints (Ta.lex.) Image: pile of stones: patukkai pile of stones (Ain:kur-u. 362); rock (Kalla_. 6); pantar-mut.t.i ornamental pots placed one over another at a wedding pandal (Ta.lex.) Image: seat: pa_t., pa_t.a_ bench, stool, throne (B.); pa_t.a throne (Or.); seat (OAw.); pat.t.a_ board on which to sit while eating (H.); pat.alau dining stool (OG.); pa_t. bench (G.M.); pa_t.lo id. (G.)(CDIAL 7699). pat.t.am a throne; a chair or stool (Skt.lex.) Steps: pa_t.ika_ stone steps (Pali)(CDIAL 8030). Stone: pad.uku a stone (Te.); pan:ku id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 3890). ban.d.e rock, block or slab of stone (Ka.); ban.d.a id., pestle without a ferrule, a much-used or worn-out block of stone (Te.); boulder (Ga.); stone, rock, hail (Go.); ba_d.ya_ the top rock on a hill (M.)(DEDR 3903). patharu rug, mat (S.); patthara stone (Pali.Pkt.); pa_thar flat stone (Ku.)(CDIAL 8857). pathraut.i_ pavement of slates and stones (Ku.) (CDIAL 8858). prastaran.a couch, seat (Skt.); pattharan.a spreading out (Pkt.); pasterni carpet (Gypsy); pasteno_ carpet, rug (Gypsy)(CDIAL 8859). padha_rna_ to proceed, sit down, depart (H.); padha_rai comes, goes (OMarw.); padha_rvu~ to go, come, go in peace and safety (G.)(CDIAL 7768). Pedestal: pat.t.iyar-kal, pat.t.iyal, pat.t.ikai-k-kal pedestal, as of a stone pillar; pat.t.iyar-kal stone on the border of pial (Ta.lex.) Bier, bed: pat.a layer in mud walls, course of bricks (Ma.); pat.uppu, pat.appu bed, mat (Ma.); pa_d.e bier (Te.); pa_t.ai bier (Ta.)(DEDR 3852). [cf. pad.uku a stone (Te.); pan:ku id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 3890).] pat.t.at.ai a layer or course of earthwork, as in raising mud-wall (Ta.lex.) pat.t.at.ai layer or bed of olas for grain; corn-rick; enclosure of straw for grain, wattle and daub; granary (Ta.lex.) cf. mettai bed, quilt stuffed with cotton (Ta.); metta mattress, bedding (Ma.); mette id. (Ka.); mattress (Kod..); metta bed, bedding, cushion, pad (Te.)(DEDR 5069). Sail, mat, bed: patha_ri_ mattress (M.); bedding (G.); partha_r bed (G.)(CDIAL 8864). patharan.i_ bedding, mattress, bed (S.); pa_thran. bedding, cloth for sitting on (G.); prastaran.a couch, seat (Skt.)(CDIAL 8859). pa_yal bedding (Ta.); pa_y mat, sail (Ma.); pa_yi id. (Tu.); pa_y spreading, extension, mat, sail (Ta.); pa.t (pa.ty-) to spread (cloth, mat)(Ko.); pa.y mat used as seat (Ko.); pa.tveyr. sleeping mat (Ko.); pa.c id. (Ko.); po.t (po.ty-) to spread (bedding, mat)(To.); pa_su to spread (as blanket, carpet, mat, leaves, etc.), lay; n. bed (Ka.); pa_sage, pa_sike, pa_suge bed (Ka.); ha_su bed (Ka.); ha_y sail (Ka.); Beautiful seat: pase bed, layer, beautiful seat (Ka.); paje mat (Tu.); paseruni to extend, diffuse, spread (Tu.); pa_h (pa_st-) to spread out (mat, etc.)(Pe.Mand..); to spread (Kuwi); pa_spa (pa_st-) to spread out, lay a cloth; n. act of spreading out something (Kui); passali to spread out (clothes)(Kuwi); pase bed (Ka.); pa_yi mat, sail (Tu.)(DEDR 4088). Sill; stair: pat.i step, stair, rung of a ladder, stirrup, grade, rank, sill (Ta.); step, stair, threshold, bench, sill (Ma.); par.ykat. steps leading to the veranda, step of ladder (Ko.); pad.i stirrup (Ka.); pad.i-kat.t.u a stair or step (Te.)(DEDR 3850). pa_dha_rai steps (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7768). padya_ footsteps (RV.); pajja_ flight of steps, road (Pkt.); paz, pac step of stone staricase (Sh.)(CDIAL 7778). aj footprint (Ko.); oj step (To.); pajje, pejje, hejje, hajje footprint, footstep, trace, stride (Ka.); aje, haje footprint, track, trace (Tu.); ajja foot, footprint; anja id., step, stride (Te.); pajja path (Pali)(DEDR App.6). For semant. 'threshold' cf.: pratiha_ra, padiha_r-a, pad.iyar-a, prati_ha_ra a door; a gate; a door-keeper, a porter; pad.i a door-joining; the leaf or panel of a door (Ka.); pat.i a sill of a door or window (Ta.Ma.); pad.i a door; pad.ider-e to open a door (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Place; footsteps: padavi_ place (RV.); footsteps, way (MBh.); place (R.)(CDIAL 7764).

6452.Image: warrior: bat.a, ban.t.a (Tadbhava of bhat.a) a brave warrior (Ka.); ban.d.a_ya quarrelling, revolt (Ka.); bhan.d.a_i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) ban.d.an.a (Tadbhava of bhan.d.ana) a battle; war (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ban.t.u-tana valour, heroism, bravery (Ka.Te.); ban.t.ava_l.a name of a place in the Tul.u country (Ka.); van.t.a_la the contest of heroes (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ban.t.a, bat.a, ban.t.u (Tadbhava of bhat.a) a warrior, a soldier; a hero, a valiant man (Ka.); ban.t.u (Te.); van.t.an- (Ta.); ban.t.a the farmer-caste of the Tul.u country, corresponding to that of the Na_yas of Malabar (Ka.); ban.d.a (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) bhr.ta carried, brought (MBh.); hired, paid (Mn.); hireling, mercenary (Ya_j.com.); bhr.taka hired servant (Mn.); bhad.a soldier (Pkt.); bhad.aa member of a non-Aryan tribe (Pkt.); bhat.a hired soldier, servant (MBh.); hireling, servant, soldier (Pali); hired servant (As'.); bhar. hero, brave man; adj. mighty (Ku.); soldier, servant, nom. prop. (B.); warrior, hero, opulent person (G.); adj. strong, opulent (G.); bhar.il hero, servant (B.); bel.e_ soldier (Si.)(CDIAL 9588). Army: pad.e a multitude, a host, a force, an army (Ka.); pat.ai (Ta.); General: pad.eval.a, pad.eval.l.a a general; pad.eyila a soldier; pad.e an originating, i.e. principal, great man (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Warrior: pat.ai-k-ko_lam warlike costume or accoutrements; pat.ai battle, contest, war, engagement; forces for the defence of a kingdom, of six kinds, viz., mu_la-p-pat.ai, ku_li-p-pat.ai, na_t.t.u-p-pat.ai, ka_t.t.u-p-pat.ai, tun.ai-p-pat.ai, pakai-p-pat.ai (Kur-al., 762, Urai)(Ta.lex.) bha_thi_ warrior (G.)(CDIAL 9424). bal.a_m warfare (Si.)(CDIAL 9589). bhar.au song about the prowess of ancient heroes (Ku.)(CDIAL 9590). Army; spy: pa_t.i army, troop; armour, coat of mail; spy; pa_t.i-ka_ppa_r village watchmen; those responsible for the safety of property in a village; pa_t.i-ka_val system of watch in a village; (inscr.) village watchman; contribution for village watching (S.I.I. i,89); punishment enforced by a tribunal; safe custody or detention; pa_t.i-vi_t.u military camp (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 151)(Ta.lex.) pat.ukal.am battle-field (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Mercenary force: pat.ippat.ai mercenary force (Perun.. Makata. 24,39); pat.ilan- warrior; servant; piratikkirakam rear of an army (Kur-al., 767, At.ikkur-ippu)(Ta.lex.) Soldier, general: pad.eyila soldier (Ka.); pad.eval.a, pad.eval.l.a a general (Ka.); pad.ava_lu commander of an army (Te.)(DEDR 3860). pat.ai-y-a_t.ci soldier, warrior; acts of bravery, as of a soldier (Tiruva_ca. 49,1); title of the van-n-iyar, caval.aikka_rar, etc.; pat.ai-y-a_l. soldier (Tiruva_lava_. 39,4); pad.eval.a, pad.eilla id. (Ka.); pat.ai-y-a_l.an- id. (Patir-r-up. 13,21, Urai); pat.ai-y-ila_r- mur-aimai a kind of tax (S.I.I. ii,115)(Ta.lex.) Army; weapons: pat.ai weapons, army, battle, crowd (Ta..); pat.a army, battle (Ma.); pad.e army, force, multitude (Ka.Tu.); pad.ava fight, battle (Te.); pad.avalamu van of an army (Te.) (DEDR 3860). pat.ai army (pat.aiyiyan. karavam)(Tol. Po. 58); forces for the defence of a kingdom of six kinds: mu_la-p-pat.ai, ku_li-p-pat.ai, na_t.t.u-p-pat.ai, ka_t.t.u-p-pat.ai, tun.ai-p-pat.ai, pakai-p-pat.ai (Kur-al., 762, Urai); weapons, arms of any kind (Kur-al.,828); a sledge-like weapon, used in war; ploughshare; battle, contest, war, engagement; pat.aikkarttar commander of an army (Tiruppu. 2); pat.aikkalattor..il the art of handling weapons of war (Pur-ana_. 72, Urai); pat.aikkalam weapons, arms (Tiruvil.ai. An:kam. 12); missile; steel; pat.ai-ku_t.t.u to raise an army; pat.aiccan-am soldiers, troops; pat.aicca_ttu collection of armies (Tiruva_lava_. 39,20); pat.ai- c-ca_r-r-u to challenge to battle; pat.aicey to carry on war (Kalla_. 23,26); pat.aijar soldiers (Pu. Ve. 5,6, Kol.u); pat.ai-c- cerukku high spirits of soldiers, military ardour (Kur-al.. Ati. 78); pat.ai-t- talai-t-teyvam a sea-god worshipped by fishermen of the Pat.t.an.avar caste before setting out on a fishing expedition; pat.ai-t-talaivan- captain, commander, leader of troops; pat.ai-t-tun.ai aid in battle; ally in war (Pa_rata. Va_cute_van-. 6); pat.ainar soldiers (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 2,32); pat.ainilai barracks (Patir-r-up. 13,21, Urai); pat.aippar-r-u military station (Ta.inscr.); pat.aimat.am violation of the laws of war, such as attacking those who flee, slaying the wounded, etc. (Pur-ana_.142); pat.ai-mukam front or van of an army; pat.ai-y-an.i a kind of dance with torch-light in hand; pat.aiyar those who maintain armies (Ta.); pad.aiya id. (Ka.); pat.aiya_cci, pat.aiya_t.ci soldier, warrior; acts of bravery, as of a soldier (Tiruva_ca. 49,1); title of the Van-n-iyar, Caval.aikka_rar; pat.aiyur-ai sheath, as of a sword; pat.ai-y-et.u to invade, lead a military expedition; pat.ai-vakuppu military array of four kinds: tan.t.am, man.t.alam, acan:katam, po_kam (Kur-al.. 767, Urai); pat.ai-var..akku a minor theme which describes a king as presenting weapons to soldiers of equal rank (Pu. Ve. 4,4); pat.aivi_t.u encampment, soldier's quarters in an encampment; capital; armoury, arsenal, magazine; the six shrines of Skanda; pat.aivi_ran- warrior, soldier (Kampara_. Ta_n-aika_n.. 29)(Ta.lex.) Footsoldier: padga footsoldier (Skt.); afoot (Skt.); pag foot (Kal.); pon.(g) foot, leg, bottom end (Kho.); pag foot (P.M.); pagu foot (OAw.); pag foot, footstep (H.); paga (OMarw.OG.); pa_g foot, leg (G.); pagalaum. footstep (OG.); pa_gr.u~ stirrup (G.); pagd.a_ foot (M.)(CDIAL 7766). padya relating to a foot (RV.); pa_dya (S'Br.); pajja oil or salve for the feet (Pali); water for washing the feet (Pkt.); pa_ji_ foot-soldier, guard, watchman (H.)(CDIAL 7776).

6453.Image: small grove: pu_t.u, pu_n.t.u small plant, herb; pu_n.t.i shrubbery, garden (Ta.); purn.d. a thorny bush; pun.d. bush, thicket; pu_n.d.elu a thicket, clump, as of bamboos (Tu.)(DEDR 4360). pa_d.i an underwood, a small forest (Tu.); ha_d.i a small grove (Ka.)(DEDR 4063). Image: bush: patr.a_ bushes, thicket (Kur.); padaval a bush (Ta.Tinn.); putai thick part of a jungle; putal, putar bush, low jungle, grass (Ta.); potumpar thick grove (Tirukko_. 39); park, pleasure garden (Perumpa_n.. 374); grove (Can.. Aka.); potumpu grove (Akana_. 18); shrubby jungle (Ci_vaka. 3042); potai bush (Ta.); ponta thicket overgrown with grass (Ma.); pot bush (Ko.); pode bush; podar bush, thicket, thick tuft of trees; hotte a bush; pude thatch, bush, thicket (Ka.); pudelu bush, shrub (Tu.); poda, podaru bush, thicket, shrub; podarillu bower, arbour (Te.); potke bush; podela, padla, podla id., shrub; podde_la_ id. (Go.)(DEDR 4509). Images: bush; creeper: bad.d.u a thick or strong creeper or rope, cable (Te.); creeper (Ga.)(DEDR 3882). pat.al clump of bushes (Ma.); pat.ar thick bush (esp. of creepers); to spread (as a creeper); pat.arcci, pat.artti creeping (as a vine)(Ta.); pat.a_r low bush, low thicket of creepers (Ta.); pat.alai spreading, expanding (Ta.); pat.aruka to spread (as plants, fire, odour), creep, climb; pat.arcca climbing of vine, diffusion (Ma.); pat.arppu, pat.appu bush, thicket; pat.alam a spreading over, cover, mass (Ma.); pad.aruni, pad.apuni to creep (Tu.)(DEDR 3844). Image: creeper: pat.arpayir climber, creeper, as a spreading plant (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Mantama_. 34); pat.arkot.i any kind of running plant; pat.artal to spread, as a creeper; pat.alai-ma_lai garland of green leaves and flowers (Ci_vaka. 483)(Ta.lex.) pa_t.ha_ the creeper clypea hernandifolia (SKt.); pa_d.ha_ a kind of creeper (Pkt.); pa_r.i_ an autumnal wild creeper (leaves are used to heal wounds)(Ku.); pa_r.h clypea hernandifolia (H.)(CDIAL 8038). Bunch: pat.alai a bunch of fruits (Ta.); pat.u cluster, bunch of flowers or fruits (Ta.); pat.ala a cluster or comb of plantains (Ma.)(DEDR 3846). Image: bush: pattrala leafy (Skt.); pattali_-karo_ti beats into thin leaves (Skt.); pa_trat.a thin (Skt.); pattala leafy; n. leaf, leaves (Pkt.); patulu mat made of pieces of wood and reeds (K.); pattal leaf-platter (P.); pa_tal leaf-platter (G.); bush (Ku.); thick clump of bushes (N.); pa_tale growing in clumps; pa_tale sisnu the wild nettle (N.); pa_tlo plate of leaves sewn together (Ku.)(CDIAL 7736). pat.a_r low bush, low thicket of creepers (Mullaip. 51)(Ta.lex.) Image: bush: patukkai thicket, bushes, low jungle (Tacaiva_. 363)(Ta.lex.) putar, putal bush, thicket, low jungle (Kur-al., 274); poda (Te.); podaru (Ka.Te.); putal medicinal shrub (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) putavam Bermuda grass, ar-uku (Pat.t.in-ap. 243); putavu id. (Malaipat.u. 449) (Ta.lex.)

6454.Leaf: pattraka leaf (esp. of laurus cassia)(Bhpr.); patar, paturu leaf (esp. of cinnamomum albiforum)(K.); patra_ c. albiforum (P.)(CDIAL 7734). pattrala leafy; leaflike, thin (Skt.); pattala leafy; leaf, leaves (Pkt.); patulu mat made of pieces of wood and reeds (K.); pattal leaf-platter (P.)(CDIAL 7736). Palm branch: mat.t.ai leaf-stalk of a fern or palm (Ta.); mat.al flat leaf of palm, jagged stem of a palmyra leaf, horse of palmyra stems on which a thwarted lover mounts to proclaim his grief and win his love (Ta.); mat.t.a, mat.t.al palm branch; mat.al palm bough, cadjan, palm-leaf (Ma.); mat.t.e, mot.t.e bough of the palm (Ka.); mad.alu palm branch (Tu.); mat.t.a branch or bough of any palm tree, a young palm tree (Te.); spathe of palm tree (Ga.)(DEDR 4663). Image: shoot from a tree: patar.ak a shoot from a tree, applied mainly to a shoot from a sarjom tree, split up in the middle; sahan patarak a piece of a thin branch split for firewood; patar.agok to spring or sprout as a shoot; sarjom patar.ak a shoot from a sarjom tree (Santali.lex.) patrin.i_ a sprout, shoot (Skt.lex.) mat.al sheath, as of Indian corn, plantain flower, etc. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: sapling: pativu sapling, layer of a plant; patittal to plant a shoot, runner or creeper; pati sapling for transplantation; patiyam sapling or cluster of saplings planted; layer or runner inserted; slip, shoot, graft; patiyari saplings for transplanting (Ta.lex.)

6455.Image: leaf: pattra wing-feather (VS.); leaf, petal (Ka_tyS'r.); leaf of book (Skt.); patta wing, feather, leaf (Pali); patti_, pattika_ leaf (Pali); patta, pattaya, pattia_ wing, leaf, page (Pkt.); patri, patrin leaf (Gypsy); s'a_pa_tr butterfly (Pas'.)[cf. patan:g butterfly (Wot..)(CDIAL 7721)]; pat leaf (Bshk.); pathar, patras (K.); pa_s. (Tor.); Goods and chattels: chilu-pat.ru goods and chattels (S.); pattar leaf, foliage; pattra_ palm-leaf fibre (L.); patra_ page (L.); patri_ leaf (L.); pattar, patra_ leaf (L.); patt, pattra_, patta_ leaf (P.); pattri_, patti_ leaf, almanac (P.); pat.i_, pat.lo~ leaf (WPah.); pa_t leaf, leaves and grass (Ku.); pa_to horoscope, metal plate used to repair something broken (Ku.); pa_ti_ leaves, letter (Ku.); pa_t leaf (N.A.B.H.); thin metal plate (H.); pa_ti leaf, flowers used in worship (N.); pa_ta_ leaf, blade (B.); Pinnate-shaped leaf: pinnate-shaped leaf (M.); pa_t, patta_ leaf, page, epistle (Mth.); pa_t, patai_ leaf (Bhoj.); pa_ta_, pa_ti_ (Aw.); pa_ta_, patta_ leaf (H.); pa_ti_, patti_ leaf, epistle, clue (H.); pa_tru~, pa_tu~ leaf (G.); pa_tri_ packet of leaves and flowers (G.); pa_te~ leaf, blade (M.); pa_ti_ narrow leaf (M.); fat, fai leaf (Md.); pet.ege_ feather; wet.ege letter paper (Pr.); phat. leaf (Dm.); pat.a_, pu_t., pad.d.ak, pha_t.ak (Pas'.); pat.t.a (Shum.); par. (Wot..); phat.a (Gaw.); pat.u a long leaf (Sh.); pot., pat.a (D..); pa_t.u, pat.u, pat.hu, pat.he leaf (Sh.); pata wing, feather, leaf (Si.)(CDIAL 7733).

6456.Measure: pat.i a weight (= 100 palam); measure (esp. of rice)(Ma.); par.y a measure (ol.k); quantity of food that one person eats at a meal (Ko.); pad.i measure of capacity (= one-half seer)(Ka.); a small weight (Tu.); a measure of capacity (= 1 1/2 seer)(Te.)(DEDR 3849). pat.i (Ta.Ma.) weight for scales; subsistence money; low platform for conducting ceremonies; verandah; reservoir of water; pad.i id. (Te.Tu.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pat.i-k-kat.t.u steps, stairs of masonry; weights, weighing stones or stamped weights (Te. pad.ikat.t.u); pat.i-maravai a wooden vessel in which weights are kept by merchants (Ta.lex.)

6457.Image: door: pit.al, pat.al door (Perun.. Ucaik. 49,3)(Ta.lex.) Shutter: pat.al small shutter of braided palm leaves or thorns (Tiv. Periyati. 4,4,3); a kind of hurdle or wattled frame for sheltering cattle; a kind of tatty against sun, rain or wind, used in a shed, bazaar or hovel, or before a shop; pat.alam canopy (Perun.. Ucaik. 57,52)(Ta.lex.) pat.ala cover, veil (BhP.)(CDIAL 7693). par.a_l.slope of a roof (G.)(CDIAL 7695). pat.a_m cloth (Pur-ana_. 141); curtain, screen (Ta.lex.) Image: gate: cf. puta door, gate (Ta.)(DEDR 4274). cf. pol.i street (G.)(CDIAL 8633). Gate; sluice: putavu door (Patir-r-up. 16,5); entrance, gate (Perumpa_n.. 52); sluice (Akana_. 237); small door within a larger one, wicket (Cu_t.a_.); puta_ door (Ci_vaka. 1549); putavam gate (Cilap. 11,119)(Ta.lex.) puta_na_r..i an ancient tax (S.I.I ii, 521); puta_r..i id. (S.I.I. ii,509)(Ta.lex.) pat.al, pat.alai hurdle or wattled frame for sheltering cattle; small shutter of braided palm leaves or thorns (Ta.); od.y door (To.); pad.i leaf of panel of a door, a door (Ka.); a thrashing frame, a door or shutter made of slips of bamboos tied together (Tu.); pad.i leaf or panel of a door, a door (Ka.); door (Kod..); a door or shutter made of slips of bamboos tied together (Tu.); pat.al small shutter of braided palm leaves or thorns (Ta.)(DEDR 3845). pha_t.ak gate (P.N.); prison (A.); phat.ak gate (A.); pha_t.ak gate, prison (B.); gate (Bi.H.M.); phat.kiyu~ ba_rn.u~ a single shutter to close a door (G.); pha_kat., phat.ka_ gate (of a village, etc.)(M.)(CDIAL 9069). bar.da bamboo door (Pa.); burda balla door post (Kuwi)(DEDR 4009). Doorkeeper: pratiha_ra a closure (Skt.); door (in cmpd.)(BhP.); prati_ha_ra conclusion (of Sa_man)(AV.); door (Skt.); pratiha_ra doorkeeper (R.); pad.iha_ra doorkeeper (Pkt.); pad.iha_ri_ (OB.); par.hia_ri_ (Or.); pad.hiya_r a caste of labourers (G.)(CDIAL 8618). par.icha_ attendant, courtier (MB.)(CDIAL 8619). Gate: pada_r gate of a village, confines of a village, uncultivated land near a village (G.); padda site of a village, small village (Pkt.); padra village, road in a village (Skt.)(CDIAL 7780). pat.ika_ran- gate-keeper (Kampara_. Pal.l.i. 1); pat.ikar gatekeepers (Ta.lex.) Entrance: pratipad entrance (VS.); beginning (TS.); first day of lunar fortnight (AgP.); pat.ipada_ entrance (Pali); first day of lunar fortnight (As'.); pad.ivaya_ (Pkt.); par.va_, parva_ (P.); par.yawa_, par.ya_w (Ku.); par.ib, par.iba_ (Mth.); parewa_ (N.); pare_wa_ (Aw.); par.iwa_, par.wa_, pari~_wa_ (H.); par.vo (G.)(CDIAL 8570). pradva_r place before a gate (MBh.); padva_ra (Pali); pradva_ra (R.); pauri gatepost (OAw.)(CDIAL 8666). prave_s'a entrance (MBh.); pave_sa entrance (Pali.Pkt.); pe_s' ceremony of entering a house (Ku.); paisa entrance (Or.); pavesa (OG.); pivisa entering, approach (Si.)(CDIAL 8809). pratipadyate_ sets foot on, enters (VS.); pp. pratipanna (Yaj.); pat.ipajjati enters upon, follows out (a plan)(Pali); paijna_ to enter; paij entrance (H.)(CDIAL 8571). pravis'ati enters (RV.); pravis.t.a entered (RV.); invested (of money)(Ya_j.); pavisati enters (Pali); pravis'i (Skt.); pavisai, paisai (Pkt.); pes- (Gypsy); pehan.u, pihan.u (S.); pehan. (L.); pasnu (N.); pahiba, paxiba (A.); pasa_ (B.); pasiba_ (Or.); paise (MB.); paisab (Mth.); paisal (Bhoj.); paisna_ (H.); paisai (OG.); pesvu~ (G.); pivisenava_ (Si.); paisijjai pass. (Pkt.); pausi_n.o to enter, penetrate (Ku.); piha_ran.u to cause to enter(S.); paisa_r entrance (H.); pavit.t.ha entered (Pali); road (Pkt.); pait.t.ha road (Pkt.); pravit.ha (NiDoc.); pet.ho entered; pp. of pehan.u (S.); pait.han.o to enter into, begin (Ku.); pait.ha_ entered (OB.); pait.hab to enter (Mth.); pait.hal (Bhoj.); pait.ha, pp. paithai pres. (OAw.); pait.hna_ (H.); pethu~ pp. (G.); pait.ha_ entrance (M.); pivit.u entered; entrance, arrival (Si.)(CDIAL 8803).

6458.Bull: pa_n.t.i, pa_n.t.iyam bull (Paripa_. 20,17, Kur-ippu.); (cecuvar-pa_n.t.iyam : Perun.. Ucaik. 38,32); pa_n.t.il bull (Ci_vaka. 2054); pa_n.t.iyam agriculture, ploughing (Kalit. 136); taurus of the zodiac (Ta.lex.) pad.d.ika calf (Skt.)(CDIAL 8042). Image: male calf not yet broken to the plough: ba~_r.a_ a tailless or docked animal (H.); ban.d.ha_ bullock with a broken tail (Bi.); ba~_r. id. (Bi.); tailless, docked (H.)(CDIAL 9124). Cropped, tailless: ban.d.a maimed (in hands, feet or tail)(AV.); ba~_r.iya_, be~r.e tailless (B.); ba~_r. tailless (H.); ba~_r.a_ a tailless or docked animal (H.); ba~_d.u~ tailless; ba~_d.iyo contemptuous term for a Moslem (because circumcised) (G.); ba~_d. shrunken or diminished from blight, coarse (of cloth), m. stalk of blasted corn (M.); ban.d.a_ bullock with a broken tail (Bi.)(CDIAL 9124). kha~ra_ cropped, tailless (A.)(CDIAL 3792).

6459.Image: monkey: ba~_dar, ba~_dhar monkey (N.); ba~_dar (WPah.B.); ba~_dri_ (L.); ba_ndar (P.); ba_ndara (Or.); ba~_dar (OAw.H.); ba~_dra_, ba~_dri_ (H.); ba~_dro (Marw.); va~_dar, va~_dro, va~_dri_, va~_dru~ (G.); va~_dar (M.); va_m.dar (Konkan.i); vandura_, vanduri_, vandiri (Si.); banur (Gypsy); va_nara (Mn.Pali.Pkt.)[der. vanar- in cmpd. 'forest' (RV.)]; vandur (Sh.); wa~_dur, wa_nur (K.); va_naru (S.); ba_nar (WPah.N.Ku.Bi.Mth.); ba_nara (OAw.)(CDIAL 11515). va_n-aram ape, monkey (Ci_vaka. 1168); va_nara-makal. female monkey (Kampara_. Tirumut.i. 7); celestial damsel (Ir-ai. 2, Urai, Pak. 32); va_n-ar celestials (Tirukko_. 155)(Ta.lex.) manti black-faced monkey (Ma.); monkey in general; female monkey (Ta.)(Tol. Po. 622, Urai)(DEDR 4698). cf. manu_a_ monkey (P.)(CDIAL 9825).

6460.Image: half-grown tiger-cub: pa~_d.a_, pa~_d.ya_ half-grown tiger-cub (M.)(CDIAL 7717). pun.d.ari_ka a tiger, camu_ra, huli (Ka.lex.)

6461.White chalky soil: pa~_d.ri_ white chalky soil (H.); pa~_d.har white soil (M.)(CDIAL 8047). pa~_d.u_ white clay mixed with water and used by children for writing on wooden tablets (P.)(CDIAL 8051). pnra, prna lime, white, snow (Gypsy)(CDIAL 8047). pa_n.d.ara whitish-yellow, yellow, pale, white (S'Br.); pa_n.d.ura (R.); pan.d.ara white, pale, yellowish (Pali); pam.d.ara white (Pkt.); parna white (Tir.); pan.ar, pana (Bshk.); panaro (Chil.); panara (Mai.); para~r.o (Sv.); pan.a_ru (Phal.); phan.e_ri (pan.e_ri) white of the eye (Phal.); pa_n.d.ara_ yellowish-white, grey; pan.d.ara_ white (Or.); pa~_d.ra_ species of sugarcane (H.); pand.ara, pand.uru whitish, yellow, white lotus (Si.); pam.d.ura, pam.d.uraya, pam.d.uria white (Pkt.); pa_n.d.ura_ (Or.); pa~_d.hra_ white; pa~_d.hurka_ whitish (M.)(CDIAL 8047). Yellowish: pan.d.u pale-red or yellow, reddish, light yellow, grey; thin, pale and colourless; pa_n.d.u, palita, pa_tala pale-red (RV.); palleo to be pale; pullus grey (Lat.); patvas pale-yellow; pilkas grey (Lith.); falo pale, yellowish, withered (OHG.); pale (English)(Pali.lex.) pa_n.t.u whiteness, paleness; jaundice; anaemia; pa_n.t.uram whiteness, paleness; jaundice; pa_n.t.al rancidity, mustiness, fetidness, mouldiness; staleness; pa_n.t.aram id.; pa_n.t.ai bad smell, as of rotten fish (Ta.lex.) pa_n.d.ara whitish-yellow, yellow, pale, white (S'Br.)(CDIAL 8047). pr~a~_se grey (Wg.)(CDIAL 8050). pa_n.d.u white, yellowish, pale (S'Br.); pan.d.u yellowish, reddish (Pali); pam.d.u whitish yellow, white (Pkt.); parno white; par.no, pa_rni chalk (Gypsy); pan.d.u yellowish, brown (Or.); pan.d.ua_ ka_bata_ a kind of big dove; pan.d.ia_ grey (Or.); pand.u whitish, yellow (Si.); pam.d.ullaiya white (Pkt.); pand.ili white, whiteness (Si.); pd.ili white (Si.); pronu white, pure, clean (K.); pranun to become white (K.); pad.d.a white (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8051). pun.d.ari (in cmpd.) lotus (TS.); hibiscus mutabilis; pun.d.a_ri_yaka its flowers (Skt.); pun.d.araya a medicinal plant for sore eyes (Skt.); pu~d.d.ri_, pu~d.ariya_ a medicinal plant the juice of which is used for diseased eyes; panir.i_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 8257). pun.d.ari_ka white lotus flower (RV.Pali); pum.d.ari_a, pum.d.ariya, pom.d.ari_a, pom.d.ariya (Pkt.); pand.era, pand.uru id. (Si.)(CDIAL 8258). pund.ra pale; (white) lotus flower, (red variety of) sugarcane (Skt.); paun.d.ra straw-coloured sugarcane (Sus'r.)[perh. hypersk. of pun.d.a sectarian mark]; pum.d.a white (Pkt.); a kind of sugarcane (Pkt.); pu_t.u, pu_t.i red (Pr.); pu_t.u rainbow (Pr.); pud. red (Kt.); pun.d.ar white (P.); pu~r.i ga_i a partic. kind of red cow (N.); pu~r. sugarcane; pu~r.i a red variety of sugarcane (B.); mikir-pura_ a variety of sugarcane (A.)[Mikir are a hill tribe in Assam]; pu~d.a_ white (of cattle); pud.a_, pu~d.a_ u_s, pu~d.ya_ a variety of sugarcane (M.); pom.d.a white; a variety of sugarcane (Pkt.); pon.d.a_, ponna_, pona_ (P.); po~d.a_, po~d.a_ u_s (M.); pau~r.o (Ku.); pau~d.a_ straw-coloured or red variety of sugarcane (H.)(CDIAL 8259). par..u become pale or yellowish (as the body by disease); ripeness, yellowness (of fruits), leaf turned yellow with age; par..uppu id. (Ta.); par.n (hair) to become grey (Ta.); pand. id. (Go.); (leaf) to become yellow (Go.); band. (leaves) to turn yellow (Go.); bhand.a_na_, bha_nd.a_na_ to wither (leaf)(Go.); pan.d.- (hair) to become grey; to ripen (Kond.a)(DEDR 4004). pun.d.ra name of a people (AitBr.); pun.d.raka (Mn.)[orig. 'light-skinned']; pu~r.i name of a caste (B.)(CDIAL 8260). cf. phalguna reddish (TS.)(CDIAL 9065).

6462.Festival: pand.om holiday; bandum festival, a first-fruit or new-eating ceremony (Go.); pan.d.oy festival (Kond.a); pan.t.ikai festival (Ta.); pan.t.ika id. (Ma.); pan.d.uga id. (Te.)(DEDR 3899). For semant. 'fruit' cf. Produce; crop: pan.t.a a crop; year (Kond.a); produce, crop, fruit, ripening (Te.); pan. to be produced (ripe fruit); n. (also pan.n.u) ripe fruit, ripeness (Ka.); pan.t.am fruit (Ta.); pan.d.u to yield, produce; adj. ripe, mature (Te.); pand.ud. ripe fruit (Kol.); pand. to become ripe (Nk.); pan.r.tal, pand.ta ripe; pand.(i) ripe fruit (Go.); pan.d. to ripen (Kond.a); pan.d.is to cause a crop to grow (Kond.a); pan.d.u (pl. pat.ku), par.u fruit (Kond.a); par. (pl. -ku) id. (Pe.); par. (pl. -ke) id. (Mand.); pand.u ripe fruit; pa_r.ey (pl. -ke), pa_r.eyi, pa_r.esi fruit (Kuwi); pa~_nna_ (paja_) to ripen, (boil) festers, have a yellowish appearance (as after a prolonged illness)J(Kur.); pajka_ fruits (Kur.); pne to ripen; pntre to ripen; teach manners; panjek, panjeke ripe (Malt.); phala fruit; phalati to bear or produce fruit; ripen (Skt.)(DEDR 4004).

6463.Snake: pa_ntal. snake, mountain snake (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 4082). Snake; hood: pat.am cobra's hood (Tiruva_ca. 34,1)(Ta.lex.) phat.a expanded hood of snake (MBh.); phut.a, phut.a_, sphut.a, sphut.a_ (Skt.); phud.a_ (Pkt.); sphat.a, sphat.a_, spho_t.a_ (Skt.); phad.a, phad.a_ snake's hood (Pkt.); phad.a_, phad.i_ (M.); phet., phe~t. (A.)(CDIAL 9040). phan.a expanded hood of snake (esp. of cobra)(MBh.Pali.Pkt.); phan.a_ id. (Pkt.); pan.-s'i_ big snake (+ s'ai head)(Wg.); phan expanded hood of snake (K.); phan.i (S.); phan. (L.P.Ku.M.); phan.u, phan (P.); fan. (WPah.); phan.i (Ku.); phani (N.); phana_ (A.); phan (B.Bhoj.H.); phana_ (B.Mth.H.); phan.a~_ (Or.); phen. (G.); phan.i_ (G.M.); pan.a, pen.a (Si.); phan.i shoulder blade (S.)[cf. mat.t.ai shoulderblade (Ta.)(DEDR 4663)]; phani_ wedge (H.); phan.o fore part of foot (G.); phena_ expanded hood of snake (A.); phen.a_ (Or.)(CDIAL 9042). phan.in hooded (of snake, esp. cobra)(Skt.); phan.i snake (Pkt.); phan.i_ flat-headed (of snake)(P.); hooded (Or.); snake (Or.G.); phani_ snake (A.); hooded (H.); pan.iya (Si.)(CDIAL 9046). phan.akara, phan.a_kara, phan.adhara, phan.a_dhara cobra (Skt.); phaniar (L.); phanyar (P.); fana_'r (WPah.)(CDIAL 9043). patam cobra's hood (Ta.); pat.am id. (Ma.); ped.e, pad.aga (Ka.); par.ge, bar.ak, bar.ki, bir.ki hood of serpent (Go.)(DEDR App.47).

6464.Image: double-headed barrel drum: pa_n.t.ikam a kind of drum (Ta.lex.) Image:drummer: vet.t.iya_r-par-aiyar a sub-division of the Par-aiyas, who act as drummers on certain ceremonial occasions (M.M. 655); vet.t.i, vet.t.iya_n- a village menial servant (C.G.)(Ta.); vet.t.i-va_d.u (Te.); vet.t.imai service of a vet.t.iya_n-, one who cremates corpses (Ta.lex.) pat.t.am a kind of drum (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) pat.akam drum of the akamur..avu class (Cilap. 3,27, Urai); small drum, tabor (Kalla_. 8); kettle drum, war drum (Kantapu. Uyattaka_. Mutan-a_t.. 53)(Ta.lex.) pat.aha kettle-drum (MBh.)[< Munda or Drav.]; drum (Pali); pahat.a < prahr.a struck; pad.aha drum (Pkt.); proclamation by beat of drum (OG.); par.a_ (B.); pad.ahau drum (OG.); par.o drum (G.); par.i_ proclamation (G.); pal.ahaya drum (Si.)(CDIAL 7696). pan.ai drum, large drum (Ta.); pan.e, pan.a small drum or tabor (Ka.); pan.ava id. (Skt.)(DEDR 3893)(CDIAL 7716). pan.ava drum (MBh.); small drum (Pali.Pkt.); pan.a_ (Si.)(CDIAL 7716). par-aiyan member of the Par.aiya caste (Ta.); par-ayan a Pariah (Ma.)(DEDR 4032). par-ai drum, a measure of capacity (Ta.); Disk, circle: par-a drum, muracu; a rice measure, disk, circle (Ma.); par drum (Ko.); par. drum (To.); par-e id. (Ka.); pare drum (large, double-headed barrel drum beaten by Me.de)(Kod..); par-r-a a measure of capacity (Te.); para, parra, par(r)ay drum (Go.); phara_ small drum (Go.)(DEDR 4032). {5 mara-k-ka_l = one par-r-a or par-r-ai [Cilap. 14,208.] [10 id.anga_r..i = one par-r-a; 20 id.anga_r..i = one podhi (Ma.); cf. MIAI, p.83, 169.]} par-ai word, statement (Ta.); par-aivu proclaiming (Ta.); bargi order, command (Kui)(DEDR 4031). Measure: patakku a measure of capacity = 2 kur.un.i (Tol. Er..ut. 239); patakam (? pat.a_kai) an administrative unit in the Tanjore district, made up of a number of villages, formed during the Maharatta rule (Ta.lex.)

6465.Bowl: pa_n.t.il circle; small bowl or cup (Pur-ana_. 97); circular piece of hide used in making a shield (Patir-r-up. 74); felly of the wheel of a chariot (Cilap. 14,168, Urai); circular bedstead or cot; stand of a lamp; standard (pa_n.t.il vil.akku)(Net.unal. 175); bowl of a lamp; a pair of cymbals (Cilap. 26,194); two-wheeled cart (Ta.lex.)

6466.Pair of cymbals: pa_n.t.il a pair of cymbals (Cilap. 26,194)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6467.Image: encircling line, row: pa_n.t.il circle (Tiva_.)(Ain:kur-u. 310); a pair of cymbals (Cilap. 26,194); felly of the wheel of a chariot (Cilap. 14,168, Urai); circular bedstead or cot (Net.unal. 123); circular piece of hide used in making a shield (Patir-r-up. 74); [cf. vat.t.an.am a kind of big shield; vat.t.a-t-to_l shield (Tiruvil.ai. Naripari. 30)(Ta.lex.)] pa_n.t.i a bullock-cart (Paripa_. 10,16); a game with a tablet of 14 pits; a kind of hopscotch (G.Sm.D.I, i,111)(Ta.lex.) Image: wheel: pa_n.t.ir--ka_cu a piece of jewelry, known as vat.t.a-k-ka_cu (Ain:kur-u. 310)(Ta.lex.) ban.d.i wheel, cart, carriage (Ka.); any wheeled conveyance, cart (Te.); cart (Tu.); bhan.d.i id. (Tu.); van.t.il wheel, cart (Ta.Ma.); van.t.i id. (Ma.); van.d.y cart (Ko.); pod.y bullock-cart (To.); pa_n.t.il two-wheeled cart (Cilap. 14,168)(Ta.lex.); pan.t.i cart, waggon, carriage (Ta.) Goods, wares; cart: bha_n.d.a goods, wares; bhan.d.i cart (Skt.)(DEDR App.50)(CDIAL 9440). va_t.a, va_t.aka circle, enclosure (Pali)(CDIAL 11480). Wheel; circumference; spindle: ba_t.u wheel (Sh.); va_t.o tire (G.)[(semantically: cf. vartani felly of wheel, path (RV.); vattani_ track, path (Pali); vat.t.an.i_ road (Pkt.)](CDIAL 11367). Image: outer rim of a wheel: pat.t.a_ outer rim of a wheel; pat.t.a id. (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kat.aiccar-pat.t.ai turner's lathe; kat.aiccal turning on a lathe or on a brazier's wheel; kat.aicar-pat.t.arai turner's shop; kat.aical polishing, enamelling; turned work in wood (Ta.lex.) pat.alikai circle, circular surface; pat.u-cu_l.ai circular kiln (Ta.lex.) pa_li a circumference (Skt.lex.) Image; a wheel; a cart: ban.d.i a wheel (Ka.Te.); van.t.i, van.t.il Ma.); ban.d.i a bandy, a cart, a carriage (Ka.Te.); van.t.i, vat.t.ai, pan.t.i, van.t.il (Ta.); van.t.i, van.t.il (Ma.); ban.d.iyava the owner of a bandy; a carter, a driver (Ka.); ban.d.ika_r-a a s'u_dra servant in connection with a temple who is in charge of the idol-car (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: wheel: ban.d.i wheel, cart, carriage (Ka.); any wheeled conveyance, cart (Te.); cart (Tu.); bhan.d.i id. (Tu.); van.t.il wheel, cart (Ta.Ma.); van.t.i id. (Ma.); van.d.y cart (Ko.); pod.y bullock-cart (To.); pa_n.t.il two-wheeled cart (Ta.); pan.t.i cart, waggon, carriage (Ta.) bha_n.d.a goods, wares; bhan.d.i cart (Skt.)(DEDR App.50)[?< bha_n.d.a- goods, wares, as carrying these (Skt.)(CDIAL 9440)]. ban.t.a a particular thing or atticle of a peasant's cart (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) van.t.il cart, carriage; s'akat.a; wheel (Na_mati_pa. 461)(Ta.lex.) sakat.a cart, waggon, cartload (Pali); s'akat.a cart (S'a_n:khS'r.); chakir.o cart (S.)(CDIAL 12236). saka wheel, circle (Si.); ca_ka wheel (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 4538).

6468.Praise; written syllable: va_rn.a relating to letters (Gr.); va_rn.ika scribe (Skt.)(CDIAL 11338). varn.a sound, syllable (AitBr.); written syllable (Skt.); praise (Skt.); musical note (MBh.); van.n.a timbre of voice, praise (Pali); praise (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11339). varn.ana description (BhP.); van.n.ana_ praise, commentary (Pali); van.n.an.a praise, description (Pkt.); wanun a saying, speech (K.)(CDIAL 11340). varn.ama_la_ rows of letters, alphabet (Skt.); ba_na_n spelling (B.)(CDIAL 11341). pa_n.an- an ancient class of Tamil bards and minstrels (Ta.); pan.t.ar bards (Ta.); pan.n.avan- bard (Ta.); pa_n.an a caste of musicians, actors and players (Ma.); pa_n.a an expert in singing and dancing (Ka.); pa_n.a a ca_n.d.a_l.a, untouchable (BHS.Skt.); pa_n.a id. (Pkt.); pa_no name of the D.omb caste in Ganjam (Or.)(DEDR 4068).] The phonetic trace in the terminal particles of morphemes, poss.: -n.d.- : -n.-/-n- or -t.t.-. This aerial phonetic transformation is particularly evident in forms with, perhaps, an initial nasal consonant: mb-. Examples: me_d.hra-/ bhe_d.ra-/e_d.a- ram; bha_n.d.a-/ha_n.d.a-/man.d.e pot.

6469.Panegyrist: bat.a-ma_nya free land granted by a ruler to a learned bra_hman.a (Ka.); bat.t.a, bat.a (Tadbhava of bhat.t.a) a learned bra_hman.a; a pu_ja_ri; a praiser, a panegyrist, an encomiast, a bard (Ka.); bha_t.a (M.H.); bat.t.a a cook (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Jester; mime: bhan.d.a jester, mime (BhP.): bham.d.a jester (Pkt.); bhan.d. caste of actors (P.); bhan.d.u (S.); bhann (WPah.); bha_n (Ku.); bha~_r. buffoon (N.B.Bhoj.); caste of jesters (H.); rogue, pimp (Mth.); bha_n.d.a buffoon (Or.); bha~_d. caste of jesters (G.M.)(CDIAL 9371). Dancing god: pan.t.an:kan- S'iva, as dancing pa_n.t.aran:kam dance (pan.t.an:kan- me_katto_t.u co_lai cu_r.. mit.ai cir-r-e_ma me_vin-a_n-)(Te_va_. 789,2); pan.t.aran:kan- id. (pacupati_ pan.t.aran:ka_ ven-r-e_n-a_n-e_) (Te_va_. 297,6(Ta.)); pa_n.t.aran:kan- id.; pa_n.t.aran:kam Dance of S'iva when he destroyed the tiri-puram, one of eleven ku_ttu (Cilap. 6,45); pa_n.t.aran:kan-a_r an ancient poet, author of the 16th stanza of Pur-ana_n-u_r-u (Ta.lex.) Priest: pan.d.ita learned, clever (Br.A_rUp.); scholar, teacher (MBh.); pan.d.a_ wisdom; cf. praja_ (Skt.); pandara foolish (Kho.); pan.d.ita, pan.d.aka learned man (Pali); pan.ida (Dhp.); pam.d.ia (Pkt.); pan.d.a_ (P.); pa~_r.e a class of brahmans (N.); pa_n.d.ia_ (OB.); pa~_r.e a North Indian brahman (B.); pa_n.d.a a class of brahmans in northwest India (Or.); pan.d.a_ brahman priest of lower status (Or.); pa~_r.e a class of brahmans (Bhoj.Aw.); pa~_d.e, pa~_r.e, pa~_d.a_ learned man; pan.d.a_ priest presiding at a temple (H.); pan.d.yo brahman (G.); pa~_d.ya_ a class of brahmans (M.); pand.i learned (Si.)(CDIAL 7718). Image: lute: pan. a stringed musical instrument; pan.n.al act of tuning the lute strings according to the required melody (Ci_vaka. 657, Urai.); pan.n.iyam musical instrument (Man.i. 7,123)(Ta.lex.) Bards and minstrels: pa_n.an- an ancient class of Tamil bards and minstrels (Ta.); pa_n.an a caste of musicians, actors and players (Ma.); pa_n.be dancing girl, whore, adultress; pa_n.a an expert in singing and dancing (Ka.); pa_na_l a Pardhan man (Go.); pa_n.a a ca_n.d.a_la, untouchable (BHSk.); pa_n.a id. (Pkt.); pa_no name of the D.omb caste in Ganjam (Or.)(DEDR 4068). Bards: pan.t.ar bards, singers of a low caste (Tiruvil.ai.Vir-aku.48); pan.t.a_ a class of brahmin priests who assist pilgrims (Ta.); ban.d.a id. (Ka.); pan.t.a_ram religious mendicant; a S'aiva monk; a caste of non-brahmin S'aivaites who sell garlands of flowers (Ta.Ma.); pan.d.a_ramu id. (Te.); pan.t.a_ra-can-n-iti the chief of the S'aiva mutts of the non-brahmins; S'aiva mutts where S'a_straic discussions are held; pan.t.a_ra-na_r..i a kind of measure, used in temples (S.I.I. v,255)(Ta.lex.) pan.d.ita man of learning, erudition; title assumed by barbers; pan.t.uvan- id. (Ta.); pan.d.itam erudition; art of healing, the medical art; pa_n.dikan- singer, one who chants early in the morning, ceremoniously awakening a deity in a temple; pa_n. song, vocal music; Pa_n.ar caste (Pur-ana_. 3,48)(Ta.lex.) pa_n.an- an ancient class of Tamil bards and minstrels (Ta.)(Tol. Po. 91); a caste of musicians, actors and players (Ma.); pa_n.be dancing girl, whore, adultress (Ka.); pa_n.a an expert in singing and dancing (ka.); pa_na_l a Pardhan man (Go.); pa_n.a a ca_n.d.a_la, untouchable (BHSkt.); pa_n.a id. (Pkt.); pa_no name of the D.omb caste in Ganjam (Or.)(DEDR 4068). pa_n.-makan- man of the Pa_n.ar caste (Man.i. 18,17); pa_n.ar-ma_laiyar women of the pa_n.ar caste (Tiruva_lava_. 54,26)(Ta.lex.) bhan.d.u caste of actors (P.); bhann (WPah.); bha_n, bhanya_lo (Ku.); bha~_r. caste of jesters (H.); bha~_d. (G.M.); bha_nu begging musician (S.)(CDIAL 9371). Bard; praise: cf. pa_t.u (pa_t.i-) to sing, chant, warble (Ta.)(DEDR 4065). cf. va_r..ttiyal theme describing the praise bestowed on a chief by a bard (Pur-ana_. 2, Tur-ai-k-kur-ippu)(Ta.lex.) bhan.d.a mixed caste (of bards)(BrahmavP.); bhat.t.a bard (Pkt.); ba_t.h bard, panegyrist (K.); bhat.u id. (S.); bhat.t. id. (P.); bha_t. (Ku.N.A.B.Bhoj.Aw.H.G.M.); bhat.t.an. (P.); bha_t.an (H.); bhat.ya_unu to lead a chorus (N.)(CDIAL 9366). pa_t.u to sing, chant, warble, hum (Ta.); pa_r.a stanza, verse (Kuwi); pa_t.a song, story, word, language (Pa.)(DEDR 4065). pa_n. song, melody, pa_n.ar caste; praise, flattery (Ta.); pan.t.ar bards (Ta.); pa_n.a a ca_n.d.a_la, untouchable (Skt.); pa_n.a id. (Pkt.); pa_no name of the D.omb caste (Or.)(DEDR 4068). [This concordance bha_n.d.- = pat.t. is echoed in aerial etyma bhat.- = pa_n.- in the sense of 'bard': bhat.t.a bard (Pkt.); mixed caste of bards (Skt.); bhat.a mixed caste (Skt.); bhad.a (Skt.); bhan.d.a BrahmavP.); ba_t.h, dat. ba_t.has bard, panegyrist (K.); bhat.u (S.); bhat.t. (P.); bha_t. (Ku.N.A.B.Aw.H.G.M.); bha_t.a (Or.); ba_t.t.aya_ (Si.); bhat.in.i_ woman of this caste (S.); bhat.t.an., bhat.t.an.i_ (P.); bhat.ini (N.); bha_t.an (H.); bhat.ya_unu to lead a chorus (N.)(CDIAL 9366). varn.ayati relates, describes (MBh.); observes; praises (Skt.); van.n.e_ti describes, praises (Pali); van.n.e_i praises (Pkt.); ba_n speaking (Wot..); banin I am speaking (Tor.); ban- to speak (Mai.); wanun to describe, name, call, recognize; wanawun to sing in chorus (of women at festivals)(K.); bonnu_ to speak (WPah.); va_nin.e~, va_nn.e~, va_n.n.e~ to praise (M.); baniba_ to describe, spell, abuse, call names (Or.); van.anava_ to praise, describe, say (Si.)(CDIAL 11342). Image: ornamental gateway: vantan-a-ma_lai a kind of wreath of flowers or leaves hung over the door of a house; the ornamental arch of a gateway (Ta.lex.) Image: homage, adoration: vantan-am < vandana reverence, homage, adoration, worship, salutation (Te_va_. 132,8); vantan-ai id. (Tiruva_ca. 5,26); vantittal < vand to pay homage; to salute reverentially (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,95); vanti adoration, homage, reverence (Te_va_.693,4)(Ta.lex.) vand praise (Skt.); vandate_ praises (RV.); greets respectfully (Ma_rkP.); vandati salutes, honours (Pali); vam.dai (Pkt.); vandun to offer in sacrifice (K.); vandn.a_, bandn.a_ to salute respectfully (P.); va_m.dai bows (OG.); vandmi I salute (OSi.); vandinava_ (Si.); vam.tati, vam.tade honours (NiDoc.); wontus was said by him (K.); bantn.u_ to greet (WPah.)(CDIAL 11270). vandana praising (RV.); salutation (Pali); vandana_ (Pali); vam.dan.a, vam.dan.a_ (Pkt.); va_m.dan.a~_ pl. (OG.); vandun honouring (Si.); vadun gift (Md.)(CDIAL 11271). vanda_ru praising; praise (RV.); vam.da_ru one who praises (Pkt.); bana_r song in praise of a great person (SH.)(CDIAL 11273). vandin praising (Skt.); vandi bard (Pali); vandi, vadi praiser (Si.)(CDIAL 11274). pan.ta_ra-k-kuru priest who teaches agamas (Ta.lex.) Image: to salute: pan.i (-v-, -nt-) to be low in height, be short, be lowered, be humble, become inferior, fall (as prices, wages), bow, make obeisance to; (-pp-, -tt-) to lower or lead down, degrade, reduce (as price); n. bowing, reverencing; pan.ippu lowness (as of tone); pan.iyal worship, obeisance; pan.ivu submission, humility, veneration, defect, low place, depression (Ta.); pan.iyuka to worship, salute, acknowledge superiority (Ma.); henuku to bend, bow (Ka.)(DEDR 3888). pan.d.u to lie down; parun.d.u to lie down, recline (Tu.)(DEDR 3900).

6470.Inheritance; relation: ba_dya (fr. bandu, ba_ndhava) a man who is connected or related: a relative, a relation (Ka.Te.); a man who a right or claim to (Ka.Te.); pa_ttiya (Ta.); ba_dya an heir (Ka.Ta.);l a right or claim to possession (Ka.Te. Ta.); ba_dhya (Ma.); ba_dya property, inheritance; ba_dyate a right or claim to possession (Ka.Te.); that to which one has a right or claim; heirship (Ka.Te.); ba_dyasta a man who has a right or claim to (Ka.); a rightful owner (Ka.Te.); an heir (Ka.); a man who has the duty (of performing something) (Ka.Ma.); ba_dyastike a right or claim to possession (Ka.lex.) ÷bandh bind (Skt.); bandhu kinsman (RV. Pali); bam.dhu (Pkt.); band (K.); ba_ndh friend (A.)(CDIAL 9144). ba_ndhava kinsman (esp. maternal)(Mn.); ba_ndhavi_ female relative (Skt.); bandhava kinsman (Pali); bam.dhava (Pkt.); ba_ndhai term of endearment for a beloved woman (A.)(CDIAL 9208). ?so_mabandhu waterlily < ?saugandhika fragrant (Skt.lex.)

6471.Grain-pit; ditch: pa~_tar-a grain-pit or cellar (Te.); pa.tar grain storage pit (Kol.); pend- to bury (Pa.); pendup- (pendut-) id. (Ga.); pa_ntu cavity, hollow, deep hole (Ta.); pattar, pattal ditch, depression (Ta.); pa_tu to bury, fix in the grain-pit, cellar (Kond.a)(DEDR 4080). To store up grain: pat.t.at.ai-kat.t.u-tal to store up grain in an enclosure of straw; pat.t.at.ai-kat.t.i an avaricious person; pat.t.at.ai corn-rick, enclosure of straw for grain, wattle and daub, granary; stock, heap, pile, as of straw, firewood or timber (Ta.lex.) Pitfall: pa_tampi a pitfall (Te.)(DEDR 4080). Image: to fall down: prapatati flies down, falls down (RV.); papatati falls down or into (Pali); pavad.ai falls (Pkt.); pavan.u to fall, happen (S.); pevan., pres. part. ponda (but pp. pe_a_) to fall; povan. to fall, happen, lie down (L.); paun.a_ to fall (P.); pu_n.u_ (WPah.)(CDIAL 8675). prapatana falling down (Gaut.); papatana falling (Pali); pavad.an.a (Pkt.); paun.u pitfall dug to catch wild animals (S.)(CDIAL 8676).

6472.Workshop: pat.t.ad.e, pat.t.ad.i anvil, workshop (Ka); pat.t.at.ai, pat.t.ar-ai, anvil, smithy, forge (Ta.); pat.t.ika, pat.t.ed.a anvil (Te.); pat.t.ad.a workshop (Te.)(DEDR 3865). Guild of workmen: pat.t.ar-ai community; guild as of workmen (Ta.); pat.t.ale id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pat.t.ar-ai factory, rice-hulling machine, machine (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Goldsmith's small hammer: bhar.i goldsmith's small hammer (N.); bham.d.a barber's utensils (Pkt.); bha~_r.i, bha~_ir. razor case (B.)(CDIAL 9440). pan.t.akkalam gold ornament (Man.i. 26,23); pan.t.am gold; wealth, riches (Tiv. Tirukkur-un. 11); pan.t.akka_ran- rich man; owner of goods (Ta.lex.) Goldsmith: bad.ahal, bad.a_la_ goldsmith (Si.); bad.al-vad.a goldsmith's trade (Si.); bad.ahal potter (Si.); bha~d.sa_l, bha~d.sa_r, bhansa_l storehouse, granary (H.); bad.ahala pottery (Si.)(CDIAL 9441). pala-pat.t.at.ai store room in which diverse articles are kept; people of various castes; a general tax on merchants and artisans (Ta.lex.) For semant. 'artisan' X 'workshop' : Workshop; anvil; smithy: pat.t.ar-ai, pat.t.arai machine; rice-hulling machine; factory; pat.t.at.ai smithy, forge (Ta.); pat.t.ad.i id. (Ka.) (Ta.lex.) pat.t.at.ai anvil (Kur-al., 821); pat.t.ar-ai anvil (Ta.); pat.t.ad.e, pat.t.ad.i anvil, workshop (Ka.); pat.t.ika, pat.t.ed.a anvil; pat.t.ad.a workshop (Te.)(DEDR 3865). pat.t.at.aiya_r master of a shop; overseer (Ta.lex.) bha_n.d.ika_ an implement, a tool, utensil; bha_n.d.am any tool or instrument, an implement (Skt.lex.) Support; anvil: at.a- support, anvil; at.ai prop, slight support (Ta.); at.ai-kal anvil (Ta.); at.a-k-kallu anvil of goldsmiths (Ma.); ar. gal small anvil (Ko.); ad.e, ad.a, ad.i the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to operate upon, a support (Ka.); ad.egal, ad.agallu, ad.igallu anvil (Ka.); at.t.e a support, stand (Tu.); d.a_-kali, d.a_-kallu, da_-kali, da_-gali, da_yi anvil (Te.)(DEDR 86). ad.d.i_ iron rest for supporting tools in turning (L.); ad.a_v the wooden beam supporting a log when being sawn (K.); ad.d.o support for a log being sawn (WPah.); ad.an.u to build (S.); a_r.o support, bolt of door (Ku.); a_d.n.i_ a stand (G.); ad.aya prop, stopper (Si. perhaps direct < at.ai (Ta.)(CDIAL 188). ot.hi~gvu~, at.hi~gvu~ to lean; ot.hi~gan. a prop (G.)(CDIAL 772). adhikaran.i_ anvil (Skt.); smith's anvil (Pali)[explained as: originally meaning 'serving, that which serves, i.e. intrument' (Pali.lex.)]; ahigaran.i_ a piece of apparatus for a smith (Pkt.); yi_ran, dat. yu_ru anvil (K.); aharan.i, aran.i (S.); arin., e_run. (L.); airan., aihran, a_hran. (P.); arhini (WPah.); ern.e smithy (WPah.); a_ran (N.); aheran, a_hran anvil (H.)(CDIAL 252). adhikaro_ti puts at the head of (MBh.Pkt.); ye_run to sort or arrange the warp for the loom (K.)(CDIAL 253). pat. side (left or right)(Ko.); pat.t.i direction, side (Go.)(DEDR 3871)]. Anvil: pratika_ya target (Skt.); pariya_t.ha_ wooden framework over a well on which the drawer stands; carpenter's block, anvil block; paret.ha_ anvil block (Bi.); pariat.h, parait.h, parhat.a_ fodder chopping block (Mth.)(CDIAL 8544). pat.t.at.ai piece of board temporarily used as a seat (Ta.lex.) [?pat.u + at.ai : pat.u to hit or strike against (Ta.)(DEDR 3853) + at.ai support (Ta.)(DEDR 86)].

6473.Buried treasure: pat.u-porul. buried treasure (Cilap. 23,102); amassed wealth (Cilap. 23,128)(Ta.lex.) Image: to take shelter: patgre to take refuge or shelter (Malt.); patun:ku to hide, lie in ambush (Ta.); patun.n.uka, patiyuka to sneak, crouch; patukkam concealment, sulking; pati an ambush (Ma.); padng- to lie crouching for a spring (Ko.); padugu to bend, bow (Ka.); padan:kara in a stooping posture; padduni to sneak, crouch, hide, lurk (Tu.)(DEDR 3912). pan.ai lair of an animal; pan.n.ai lair, sleeping place of beast (Ta.); pan.e haunt or lair of wild beast (Ka.)(DEDR 3892). To bury; treasure-trove: u_d.u, u_r..u to lean, set, fix, put in the ground etc.; u_r..u to bury (Ka.); hu_r..u to sink into; to be filled up as a channel; to be filled into (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pu_r..uka to be buried (Ma.); pu_d.(u)pu burying, treasure-trove (Te.)(DEDR 4376). cf. putai (-v-, -nt-) to be buried, covered, concealed (Ta.)(DEDR 4509). Lair: pad.a~ku hole, cave, crevice (Te.); phar.ka den, lair (e.g. of tiger)(Nk.); pad.u, pad.e place of refuge (for wild animals) between stones or in rocks (Ka.)(DEDR 3857). vati lair, nest (Ta.lex.) pat.t.am a portion of seed-bed (Ta.lex.) vati mire (Ta.); badi mud, mire, slush, ooze (Ka.)(DEDR 5245). pat.ukkai lying down, bed; pat.ai bed; layer, stratum (Ta.); pat.appu bed, mat (Ma.); pad.u to fall, lie, recline, sleep (Te.); pad.a placing or laying (Tu.); pa_d.e bier (Te.); pat.t.i_na_ to lie down (of animals)(Go.); pat.t.ana_ to rest, of cattle, sit, crouch (of men or animals)(Go.)(DEDR 3852). pat.t.am sleeping place for animals (Ta.lex.) Space: pat.m ground for house (Ko.); pat.t.i space before house, spreading space (?Ko.); par. place (Nk.); pad. place, site (Pa.)(DEDR 3878). Lair; to dwell: vati (-v-, -nt-) to dwell, abide, sojourn; sleep (Ta.); badi a deity's place, small building (Ka.); roofed shelter (temple) constructed for a devil (Tu.)(DEDR 5246). vatthu site, ground, field (Pa.); house (Pkt.); vastav(y)a inhabitant (NiDoc.); va_stavya left on the spot (TS.); inhabitant (MBh.); vatta, vatu residence with a garden or grove of coconut or other fruit trees (Si.)(CDIAL 11606). caupa_r. vestibule, assembly room (H.); catus.pa_t.a extending on four sides(?)(Skt.)(CDIAL 4644). kan-pa_ro temple, brow, gill (N.) (CDIAL 8030). pat.t.i direction, side (Go.); pat. side (left or right)(Ko.)(DEDR 3871). ma_t.u place; side (Ta.lex.) put.ai, put.am place, side (Ta.); put.a side (Ma.); hod.e side (Ka.); pud.e border, edge, brink, margin, brim, side, interval space (Tu.); ped.a side, page (?Te.)(DEDR 4255). pa_t.o side (N.)(CDIAL 7699). Shelter: otukku shelter (Ma.); or-r-i-ppo_- to go away from; ottu, or-r-u to make room for; or-r-ivai- to place out of the way, adjourn (Ta.); or-r-uka to step aside, retire, cringe (Ma.); ot- (oty-) to precede on the way, go fast (Ko.); ottu to give way, leave space, step aside (Ka.); ottu, ottilu, ottillu, ottigillu to step aside, make way, move out of the way (Ka.); otun:ku to get out of the way, step aside (as a mark of respect, before a superior), retreat, be defeated, seek refuge (Ta.); otukku settle; that which is apart, refuge, screen (Ta.); otukkam privacy, retiring, hiding-place (Ta.); otun.n.uka to give way, step aside, yield; be adjusted; otukkuka to subdue, settle; otukkam subjection, being settled and compressed (Ma.); wi0x- (wi0xy-) (horns of fighting buffaloes) slip apart (To.); odu~gu to move or step aside, make room, sidle, shrink from, sneak, slink (Te.) (DEDR 973).

6474.Dry cow-dung cake: bat.t.i, bar-at., ber-at.i, ber-an.i, ben.n.i dried cowdung cake for fuel (Ka.); var-at.t.i, var-al., vara_t.i dried cowdung cake (Ta.); var-al.i, varat.i id. (Ma.); bejan.t.u id. (Tu.); beyt.i id. (Kor.); varat.a id. (Te.)(DEDR 5321). cf. var-a (-pp, -nt-) to dry up; varat.u dry grass, hay, straw; dry (Ta.)(DEDR 5320). X cf. bat.t.i a furnace, kiln; a spirit-still; matter prepared in a kiln (Ka.); bhat.t.i_ (M.H.Te.)(Ka.lex.) X bar-a dry fire-wood; bar-apa dryness, emptiness (Ka.lex.)

6475.Image; buffalo: pan.d.a_ male calf not yet broken to the plough, male buffalo (Or.)(CDIAL 7717). pad.d.e maturity, fitness for breeding (Ka.); pad.d.a female buffalo or cow fit for breeding; female buffalo calf; bar-r-e female buffalo (Te.); pad.d.a-le.na female calf; barre buffalo (Kol.); pad.d.a heifer; ped.d.a female calf (Nk.); bere, bed.e/ber.e female calf (Ga.); bed.d.e peyye calf (Ga.); pad.d.a_ cow-calf; pad.d.a piya, pad.d.a, pad.a peyya, ped.d.a, pad.a piya female calf, heifer; pad.a pila calf of buffalo; puda heifer (Go.); pad.a young cow, heifer (Kond.a)(DEDR 3881). pad.d.aya buffalo (Pkt.); pad.d.i_ cow or buffalo that has calved once; pa_d.i_ young buffalo; pad.d.iya_ id., small buffalo cow; pad.d.acchi_ buffalo cow (Pkt.); pa_r.ek, pa_yar.ek goat (Pas'.); pa_d.o buffalo calf (S.); pa_r.o buffalo calf (N.); pa_r.a_ (Bi.H.); par.u_a_, pa~r.wa_ m., pa_r.hi, par.iya_ f. (H.); pa_d.o, pa_d.u~ (G.); pa_d.a_ buffalo calf (M.); pa_d.e~ calf of a cow (M.); ped.d.a, ped.d.a_ buffalo (Pkt.); pera_ stout male buffalo (A.); peri_ buffalo cow (A.); per.a_ young buffalo (Or.)(CDIAL 8042). par.ru_ buffalo calf (Bi.); par.aru, par.ar.u (Mth.); par.aru_ (Bhoj.); pa~r.aru_ (H.)(CDIAL 8043). pa.l. buffalo calf between one and two years old (Ko.); po.l. female buffalo calf between one and two years old (To.); pa_rol.u a young she-buffalo (Tu.)(DEDR 4118). per-r-am buffalo (Tol. Col. 400, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) per-r-a-kkannu wild buffalo (Ma.)(DEDR 4425). por.ha, pur.ha male buffalo (Or.); por.a_ stout, robust (Mth.); pod.ha_ stout, cunning (P.); por.h, por.ha_, paur.ha_ mighty, firm, stiff (H.); pod.ha big (OG.)(CDIAL 8807). cf. po_ttu male buffalo (Ma.); po_tu male buffalo (Te.); male of an animal; young male animal (Kuwi); po_t male of animals (Go.Pa.); po_ttu male of animals (Ta.)(DEDR 4586). po.ri male buffalo (Kod..); pori calf or buffalo (?Ta.)(DEDR 4593). pat.hru_ kid, lamb (Bi.); pat.haru_ buffalo calf (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 8016).

6476.Throwing dice: pa_t.akam dice-throw (Ta.lex.) pa_t.aka throwing dice; pa_n.ika got by playing at stake (Skt.lex.) Small lump: vat.a small lump (S'a_rn:gS.); round cake of pulse fried in oil (Sus'r.); vat.ika_ small lump (Skt.); vat.aka small ball (Pali); vad.i_ ball of pulse (Pkt.); woru a kind of spiced cake (K.); vuru small lump of pulse fried in oil or ghee (K.); var.o dish of pulse (S.); var.i_ pellet of pulse (L.); var.a_, bar.a_ fried preparation of lentils (P.); var.i_, bar.i_ lump of pulse (P.); bar.o cake of pulse fried in oil or ghee (Ku.); bari pill (N.); bara round cake of ground pulse (A.); bar.i ball of bruised pulse, pill (B.Or.); bari_ cake of fried pulse (Bi.); bar.a_ (H.); var.u~ a kind of cake (G.); vad.i_ id. (M.); vad.a_ cake of fried pulse (M.)(CDIAL 11213). Round: vat.t.u < vat.t.a (Pkt.) < vr.tta small spheroidal pawn, dice, draught (Akana_. 108)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.ana_ (fr. vr.t) in: vat.t.ana_vali_ is a line or chain of balls ('round', i.e. rings or spindles); vat.t.hana_-vali-sanka_ka_sa_ pit.t.hi te ninnat'unnata_ : thy back like spindles in a row, a long unequal curve doth show; vat.aka a small ball or thickening, bulb, tuber; in mul.a_la-vat.aka the (edible) tuber of the lotus (Pali.lex.) Dice: val dice (Tol. Er..ut. 373)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.u small spheroidal pawn, dice, draught (Akana_. 108); roundness; anything round; a circular piece used in pa_n.t.i game; a game-piece; vat.t.u-p-po_r gambling; vat.t.a_t.u- to play with draughts or dice (Kur-al., 401); vat.t.u-k-ka_y dice; vat.t.a_t.t.u game of dice (Kamara_. Mitilaik. 17) (Ta.lex.) Image: dice: vat.t.u small spheroidal pawn, dice, draught (Akana_. 108); roundness; anything round (Ci_vaka. 2950); a circular piece used in pa_n.t.i game; a game-piece (Nar-. 3; Ci_vaka. 611);[< vat.t.a (Pkt.) < vr.tta (Skt.)]; vat.t.u-k-ka_y dice; vat.t.u-p-po_r gambling (Par..amo. 176, Urai.); viruttam < vr.tta circle, anything circular; a fall of dice which entitles the player to another throw; vat.t.in-i wager, stake in a game (Kampara_. Mitilai. 17)(Ta.lex.) Image: draught-board: vat.t.il draught-board (W.)(Ta.lex.)

6477.Round grind-stone: bar, bar. stone (Gypsy); wa_t. stone, millstone (Gaw.); bat stone (Kal.); bat. millstone (Sh.); wat.h, dat. wat.as round stone (K.); vat.t.a_ stone (L.P.); bat.t. small round stone (WPah.); vat.t.i_ pebble (P.); bat.t.a_ stone roller for spices, grindstone (Bi.); bat.hui pebble (Sh.)(CDIAL 11348). vartaka something round; vat.t.aka pill, bolus (Skt.); wat.k walnut (Orm.); wa_t.i(-stu_m) walnut (-tree)(Wg.); wot.u, vut.u globulated mass (K.); vat.t.a_ clod, lobe of ear (L.); vat.t.i_ pill (P.); bat.t.i egg (WPah.)(CDIAL 11349). Diameter: vit.t.am diameter, cross-beam, anything put across (Ta.); vit.t.am, pit.t.am diameter, cross-beam, tie, beam of a roof (Ma.); bit.t.a cross-beam (Ka.); but.t.a ceiling joist (Kod..)(DEDR 5395). cf. bhittu roof plank (Phal.); bitil id. (Kt.); bhi_to beam resting on a wall (G.)(CDIAL 9493). Images: a round thing; dapple cow: bat.uvu, bat.u, bat.uhu roundness; a circle; regularity in form, beauty (Ka.); bat.uvu (Te.); vr.tta (Ka.); bat.t.a, bat.a, bat.t.u, bot.t.u, vat.ra (Tadbhava of vr.tta) that is round, circular, spherical or globular; a circle, a disk (Ka.); vat.t.am, vat.t.u (Ta.Ma.); bat.t.a that is well proportioned, regular or beautiful; that is uniform, as colour; round etc. (ne_sar-a bat.t.a); bat.t.a a mark on the forehead in the form of a circlet (Ka.); bat.t.u, bat.t.a a round thing used for weighing (Ka.); bat.a a large marble, a taw; bat.t.u-da_li a hemispheric plain ta_li used as an ornament; bat.t.u-hasa a dapple cow; bat.t.ukudure a dapple horse; bat.t.akudure a one-coloured (chestnut) horse; bat.t.a-gad.ale peas, the round pea, pisum arvense;[cf. bat.a_n.i the common pea, pisum sativum (Ka.); va_t.a_n.a_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)]; bat.t.a givi a round ear; bat.t.ageydu a circular weapon, the discus; bat.t.a-javvana beautiful youth; bat.t.adale a round head; bat.t.adene a round top of a rampart; bat.t.adod.e a round thigh; bat.t.a-balmole a round, stout female breast; bat.t.a-muttu a round pearl; bat.t.a-moga a round handsome face; bat.t.amole a round female breast; bat.t.aver-e the full moon (Ka.); bat.t.u-geydu-geyya Vis.n.u (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Chickpea; image: flower on cloth: but. chickpea; but.a_ flower on cloth (A.B.); but.a, bun.t.a chickpea; but.a_ flower on cloth (Or.); bu~_t. the chickpea cicer arietinum (Bi.Bhoj.); but.t.o, but.t.i_ painted flower (G.); bu_t., bu_t.a_, bu_t.i_ (M.); bu_ta flower on cloth (K.)(CDIAL 9297). Image: nipple: vr.nta nipple (Skt.)(CDIAL 12077). ben.t.a nipple (Or.); ba~_t. nipple of woman's breast (B.)(CDIAL 12045).

6478.Image: throat circle: va_t.aka enclosure, circle, ring: in gala-va_t.aka the throat circle, i.e. the bottom of the throat; can.d.a_la-va_t.aka circle of Can.d.a_las; bra_hman.a-va_t.aka of Brahmins (Pali.lex.) For semant. 'circle' cf. vr.tta turned (RV.); rounded (S'Br.); vat.t.a round; circle (Pali)(CDIAL 12069). cf. vat.t.am circle (Tol. Col. 402, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

6479.Image: throat: bar..i the place of the throat next to the artery called pin:gale (a particular vessel or artery, said to be the path of the fifteen vital airs) (Ka.); bar..i-goral id. (Ka.lex.) cf. kural-val.ai windpipe, laynx, ton.t.ai (Ta.); Adam's apple; projection of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx (Perun.. Makata. 14,55) (Ta.lex.) Swelling in the throat: varti, varti_ swelling in the throat (Skt.lex.) ve_l.a throat (Ma.); var.er, ware_r, ved.er, vered.i, ver.er., verer. neck; warer neck, throat (Go.); verer, ved.eru (pl. ved.ahku), ved.a_ga_ throat (Go.); bo.l.e neck (Kod..)(DEDR 5547). cf. se_rki the back of the neck (Kui); he_rki, herki neck; herki shoulder (Kuwi)(DEDR 2817). melkha_ throat, neck (Kur.); melqe throat (Malt.)(DEDR 5080). mer.a neck; t.r-eki throat (? aphaeresis of m-)(Kond.a); mad.a neck (Pkt.); met.re throat (Ka.); mit.ar.u neck, trachea, windpipe, throat (Ta.); throat; a draught, gulp (Ma.); mit.ila throat (Ma.); mir. front of neck; neck of pot (Ko.); mir. (obl. mir.-, mir.t-) neck (To.); med.a neck, shoulders (Te.); med.a-ka_ya, mid.su neck (Te.)(DEDR 4847). Throat; neck: manda neck (Ash.Gaw.); mo~_da, mu~_da (Wg.); manda_ neck; mandelik throat (Pas'.); madolik neck (Shum.); mu~nde (Nin:g.); mandapile_ (Sv.); mara_rik neck (Kt.); manthi_ back of neck (WPah.); mana_t.i_, mit.t.u_ (WPah.); mant.o, munt.o head, neck (N.); man.d.o_ (Par.)(CDIAL 9732). Neck: man-n-ai throat, cheek (Ta.); manna, menna neck (Ma.)(DEDR 4779). men-n-i, men-n-ai throat; cheek; men-n-ai-k-kat.t.i goitre; mumps; man-n-aikkat.t.i mumps; men-n-i-kat.t.i a cattle disease; men-n-aiyai-p-pit.i to throttle; men-n-aippit.ikka to the full, as in eating; man-n-iyai nerve in the nape of the neck; vital nerve; man-n-aippit.i seizing by the throat (Te_vai. 80)(Ta.lex.) manya_ du. and pl. nape of neck (i.e. the lines of muscle at the back of it)(AV.); manya_ka_ (Skt.); man~j neck (L.); ma_n neck (M.); ma_ni_ annular lining of the mouthpiece of a handmill (M.); ma_na nape of neck (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9858). man.i hump of camel (MBh.); fleshy excrescence on a goat's neck (VarBr.S.); thyroid cartilege (= kan.t.haman.i-)(Skt.); man.ika globular formation of flesh on an animal's shoulder (AitBr.); man.ila having fleshy excescences (e.g. on the dewlap)(TS.); men nape of neck, neck, throat; mend id. (Gypsy); mendri_ necklet; menri_ (Gypsy); man. neck (Bshk.); man.i Adam's apple (Sh.); mun~u-god.u flesh of nape of neck; nape of neck (K.); man.i vertebrae of neck (S.); man.i_ clitoris, knob of wood, pulley block (M.)(CDIAL 9732). Image: neck: man.iko vertebrae of neck, Adam's apple (S.); man:ka_ nape of neck, vertebra of neck (L.); Adam's apple, amulet worn round neck (M.); man:ko single vertebra of neck (G.)(CDIAL 9732). magar back of shoulder, back (P.); magir head; magar (WPah.)(CDIAL 9701). mak neck (Kol.); makk id. (Nk.)(DEDR 4622).

6480.Image: snipe; quail: vartika_ a quail; varti_ra, vartira a kind of quail (Skt.lex.) vartika_ quail (RV. i.122.6); bat.e_ra (H.)(Vedic.lex.) bat.a a quail, or snipe, coturnix coturnix; bhon.d.e bat.a a large quail; dak bat.a the painted snipe, rostraluta benghalensis; dhinaur bat.a the common or fantail snipe, capella gallinago; gun.d.ri bat.a a small type, coloured like a gun.d.ri; ku~k bat.a a medium-sized type; khed.ra bat.a the smallest of all; tir.nic bat.a a small type (Santali.lex.) vat.t.aka_ quail, snipe (Pali.lex.) cf. bat.er quail (Ku.B.)(CDIAL 11350). cf. vartika_ quail (RV.)(CDIAL 11361). Image: quail: gund.ral (pl. gund.rahk) a kind of quail (Go.); gun.d.ri_ quail (Kur.)(DEDR 1696). Image: quail: varti_ra, vartira making turns (of the quail)(Sus'r.); bat.er quail (Ku.B.); bat.ara, batara the grey quail (Or.); bat.er quail (Mth.H.P.); bat.era_ (P.); bat.e_ra_ (L.); bat.ero (S.); ba_t.uru a kind of quail (K.); ba_t.e_ra quail (K.)(CDIAL 11350). uwre partridge (Ash.)[cf. o_r.a_ bird (Kur.); o_r.e_ a small bird (Kur.); vartika_ quail (RV.); va_rtika (Skt.); vartaka_ (Skt.); va_rta_ka (Car.); or.e quail (Malt.)(DEDR 1040)]; wat.i_ (Pas'.); ha_ra-wut.u species of waterfowl (K.)(ha_ra- < s'a_ra-); barti quail, partridge (Kho.); vat.t.aka_-, vat.t.aka- in cmpds.: quail (Pali); vat.t.aya- (Pkt.); bat.t.a_i (N.); bata_-sara_i (A.)[cf. sa_r.e (sa_l.e) quail (Nk.); sa_le, salle id. (Kol.)(DEDR 2480)]; batui, bat.uya_ (B.); vat.uva_ snipe, sandpiper (Si.); bha_t.oi, bha_t.ui the grey quail cotarnix communis (Or.); bha_roi, bha_rui (Or.); va_t.i_- a kind of bird (Car.)(CDIAL 11361). cf. van.t.a_n-am pelican ibis (Ta.); van.t.a_r..n.-kuruku a kind of heron (Ta.); van.t.a_ran.-ko_r..i Indian crane (Ma.)(DEDR 5238).

6481.Sword: pat.t.am sword (Ta.); pat.t.a id. (Te.); pat.t.ayam id. (Ma.); id. (Vir-alivit.u)(Ta.lex.) cf. pat.t.ika_ (Skt.) Sword: pat.t.a_ sword (Ta.Ka.); pat.t.a_-k-katti sword (Ta.); a double-edged sword (Te.); flat blade for cutting grass (Ta.lex.) pattiram small sword (Kampara_. U_rte_. 170); arrow (Kur-r-a_. Tala. 14,39); a kind of moulding in a pedestal (S.I.I. ii,222) < bhadra; pattira-lin:kam altar of sacrifice (Caiva. Potu. 127, Urai)(Ta.lex.) bhadra fortunate, delightful (RV.); bhadraka good (Mn.); bhadda good, happy (Pali)(CDIAL 9377). Sword: pat.t.aiyam sword (Ta.); pat.t.am sword, weapon (Ta.); pat.t.aya, pat.e, pat.t.a_ a long and broad sword (Ka.); pat.t.iyamu, pat.t.emu sword (Te.); pat.a_ a long, broad sword with two edges; a wooden foil (H.); pattra(ka) blade of sword or knife, knife, dagger (Skt.)(DBIA 247). Image: spear with three points: pat.t.asam, pat.t.is'am sharp-edged spear (Ma.); pat.t.icam weapon (Ta.); pat.t.is'a, pat.t.isa spear with a sharp edge (Ka.); pat.t.isamu a sort of weapon (Te.); pat.t.is'a spear with a sharp edge or some other weapon with three points (Skt.)(DBIA 247). Image: fish-hook: bad.is'a hook, fish-hook (MBh.); balis'a, baris'a, vad.is'a, valis'a, bilis'a (Skt. < non-Aryan, perhaps Munda origin); bal.isa fish-hook (Pali); bad.isa, balisa, bid.isa (Pkt.); balsi_, balchi_ (Ku.); balsi, balchi (N.); balche barbed (N.); barahi (A.); bar.is, bar.si (B.); bar.sa_, ba~r.si (B.); bar.isa, bar.isi, banasi, banisi fishing-rod and line (whence banasia_, banisia_ angler)(Or.); bansi fish-hook (Mth.); banasi_ (OAw.); balasa, biliya, bili-kat.uva (Si.)(CDIAL 9123). vat.icam fish-hook, tu_n.t.il (Ta.lex.< bad.isa).

6482.Axe (Some Munda etymologies): gc? axe (Bonda); hake middle-sized axe for cutting wood (Munda); axe (Ho.); vake (Korwa); ak(h)ej (Mowase.); akhe (Korku); gak, he:g adze (Soma.); hak to split (Bahnar); hak to tear; jik to cut (Stieng). maloe battle axe (Didey); maray big axe (Bonda)[This seems to be a Drav. word: cf. mars, maras axe (Go.)]. cf. paku (pakuv-, pakk-) to be split, divided (Ta.) (DEDR 3808). cf. vakuka to divide (Ma.)(DEDR 5202). Axe: mar..u mace, hatchet, red-hot iron for ordeals (Ma.); axe, battle-axe, red-hot iron for ordeals (Ta.); mari axe (Ga.); mars, maras, mar(a)su, magsu, mar.su id. (Go.); marzu id. (Kond.a); massa_ t.ong'e a large kind of axe (Kur.); masu axe (Malt.); mad.i large axe for splitting wood (Pa.); mad.u axe (Ka.) matti axe with blade fastened through wooden handle (Kod..); maccu-k-katti pruning knife (Ta.); marcu, maccu, maccu-katti billhook or straight knife used for cutting bushes (Ka.); wood-knife, billhook (Te.); mad.d.u-katti id., blunt knife (Te.); mar.t axe; mal.v piece of iron used to strike chisel (Ko.); most axe (To.); mad.u axe (Ka.); axe, hatchet (Te.)(DEDR 4749). cf. mar..i (-pp-, -tt-) to shave, esp. the head (Ta.); man.- (mayn.d.-) to shave (Ko.)(DEDR 4748). cf. mar..u blunt (Ta.); mar..unnane_ a_ka to grow blunt (Ma.)(DEDR 4750). cf. mar..ukku to beat, pound, hull by pounding (as paddy)(Ta.); mar..akkuka to beat, wash, cleanse (Ma.)(DEDR 4751).

6483.Image: junction of four roads: pat.t.am junction of four roads (Ta.lex.); pat.t.a a place where four roads meet (Skt.lex.) To send: pih- (pist-) to leave, abandon (Pe.); pih- (-t-) id. (Mand..); pihpa (piht-) to release, relinquish, let loose, set free, absolve, forgive, excuse, cast off; n. release, relinquishment, absolution (Kui); pih- (pist-) to leave, abandon; to leave, forsake; pissali to forsake; pih'nai to release, relinquish; pispi ki_nai to rescue, ransom; pispinai to release (Kuwi); puccu to send, abandon, give up, let go, release (as a sigh); puttencu to send, dispatch, forward; puppincu to send (Te.)(DEDR 4138). prahin.o_ti despatches, sends (RV.); prahita sent (RV.); sent away (MBh.); pahin.ati despatches (Pali); c.e~_ to send (Mai.); ceho~ (Chil.); ciyo~_ (Gau.); c.hin.o_nu, c.in.yo_nu, c.han.oiki (Sh.);cf. ce_yo_n- one who is remote (Tiruva_ca. 1,8); ce_y distance, remoteness; ce_r to go, advance (Kur-al., 910)(Ta.lex.)] pahita sent (Pali); prahita (NiDoc.); pahia (Pkt.); chhai-gil (Mai.); pe-, inf. pyu_sa to send (Tor.)(CDIAL 8908). Traveller: pahia traveller (Pkt.); pathika id. (MBh.); pahiya (OG.); pai in paron.o-pai visitor, guest (G.)(CDIAL 7745). pahia_, paiha_, pahe_a_, pe_ha_ path (P.)(CDIAL 7756). pochu guest (K.)(CDIAL 7746). payu~, paiyu~ foot-track, esp. the track over which bullocks move when drawing water (G.)(CDIAL 7747). Foot: pada footstep, track, place (RV.); footstep, pace, foot (Pali); paya footstep, foot (Pkt.); payo leg (Ku.); leg or foot of a chair (B.); paya feet (OG.)(CDIAL 7747). pat.am instep (Ta.); pat.am flat part of the hand or foot (Ma.); pat.a key palm of hand (Pe.); pat.a kiy id. (Mand..); pat.a ka_l sole of foot (Mand..); pat.a naki palm of hand (Kuwi)(DEDR 3843). pair. footprint, track (P.); foot (H.); paira_ foot (of hill, vessel, road)(CDIAL 7752). peru footwork, foot, paw (S.); pero footmark, track (S.); perr.yo on foot (S.); pair, per, pe_r foot (L.); pe_ra_ track (L.); pair foot (P.H.K.N.A.); id. (Mth.OAw.)(CDIAL 7756). poi on foot (Kho.)(CDIAL 7763). mala palm of the hand, sole of the foot (Kuwi); mad.a id. (Kui)(DEDR 4731). pa_tha way, path (Pa_n..gan.); pantha_ path, road (RV.); pa~_thi_ parting of the hair (G.); pa~_th road (M.); pandh, paddh road, distance (L.); pon road (Kho.)(CDIAL 7785). pam.tha traveller (Pkt.); pa~_dhi_ (S.); pa_ndhi_ (P.)(CDIAL 8091). prapad forepart of foot (AV.); papada (Pali); frabda (Av.); podu sole of foot, foot, elephant's or camel's foot (K.); pabu ball of food (S.); prabb id. (L.); pab ball or front part of sole of foot or shoe (L.); pab toe (L.); pabb forepart of foot (P.)(CDIAL 8702). Road: pa.v way, path (Kol.); pa_v way, road (Nk.); path (Nk..); road (Pa.Ga.); pa_vu id. (Ga.); pa_b road, path, journey (Kur.); pawu way, path, road (Malt.)(DEDR 4108). pavi road (Marw.); pa_va_h cattle-path between two hedges, land near a village (L.); pavah, pa_h cattle-path between two hedges (L.); prapatha way, journey (RV.)(CDIAL 8679). Road: pad.aa road (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8030). vartman track of a wheel, path (RV.); vat.uma path, road (Pali); vat.t.a (Pkt.); vat.t.a_, vat.t.amaya, vad.u_maga (Pkt.); wath, dat. wati (K.); va_t.a (S.); va_t., ba_t., batta, bat, batt (P.); batt, bat (WPah.); ba_t. path, pass (Ku.); ba_t.o path (Ku.); ba_t.o (obl. ba_t.a postposition 'from')(N.); ba_t. (A.B.); ba_t.a path, place (Or.); path (OAw.OMarw.); ba_t. path (Mth.H.); ba_t (Bhoj.); va_t. (G.M.Konkan.i); vat.uma road (Si.); devat.a lane (Si. de- < de_s'a- ?); --Derivatives: bat.uwa_ traveller (N.); bet.o of the road (B.); ba_t.ua_ traveller (Or.); va_t.vo (G.); vat road (Si.)(CDIAL 11366). bat.oi traveller (Ku.); bat.ohi (N.); ba_t.i, ba_t.ei (Or.); bat.ohi_, bat.hia_ (Mth.); bat.o(h)i_ (H.)(CDIAL 11367). va_ti_ path (Gypsy); va_t. (L.); vat.u (Si.); vartis journey (RV.)(CDIAL 11363). pa_di, ha_di road (Ka.)(DEDR 4087). pa_t.t.ai road, way (Ta.); ba_t.a (Te.); ba_t.e (Ka.); pa_t.akam street; section of a village (Ta.lex.) pa_tai way, road; beaten-track, foot-path (Ta.lex.) pai~d.a_ road, distance (P.); pai~r.a_ (Mth.); pa_yar.a_ footpath (OH.); pai~d., poe~d. track, path (H.)(CDIAL 7753). poh footprint, track (Kho.)(CDIAL 7754). Way: vartman track of a wheel, path (RV.); vat.uma path, road (Pali); vat.t.a-, vat.t.a_-, vat.t.amaya-, vad.u_maga- (Pkt.); wath, dat. watti, wat (K.); va_t.a (S.); va_t. (P.G.M.Konkan.i); ba_t. (P.Ku.A.B.Mth.H.); batta, bat (P.); batt (P.WPah.); ba_t.o path (Ku.N.); obl. ba_t.a_ postp. 'from' (N.); ba_t.a path, place (Or.); path (OMarw.); ba_t path (Bhoj.); vat.uma road (Si.); devat.a lane (Si.)[ de- < de_s'a?]; vattani track, path (Pali); vat.t.ani_ road (Pkt.); bat.uwa_ traveller (N.); bet.o of the road (B.); ba_t.ua_ traveller (Or.); va_t.vo (G.); vat road (Si.)(CDIAL 11366). bat.oi traveller (Ku.); bat.ohi (N.); ba_t.oi, ba_t.ei (Or.); bat.ohi_, bat.ohia_, bat.ohini (Mth.); bat.o(h)i_ (H.)(CDIAL 11367). pathipa_ road-guard (Skt.); vat.ua_l watchman (P.); batva_l (P.)(CDIAL 11369). panwa_l road-guard (Phal.)(CDIAL 7783). panrac.o road-guard, advance guard of an army, anyone giving information about the state of a road (Sh.); panthiraks.as protecting roads (VS.); panthiraks.i (RV.)(CDIAL 7784). advan road (RV.); addhan (Pali); addha-, addha_n.a (Pkt.); adhavici in the middle of the road (OG.); adan high road, long way, stretch of time (Si.)(CDIAL 281). adhva_yo carrier who carts traders' goods, cattle-dealer (G.); pathiva_haka burden-carrier (Skt.)(CDIAL 2822). Image: road: varti track (VS. xx.81); vartman track, course, path, road (RV. i.85.3; A_pS'S. 2362)(Vedic.lex.) vat.t.i path, way (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) Rolling of wheel: vartana a globe, ball; vartula a ball; vartulam a circle (Skt.lex.) vartana a spindle; turning round, revolving, rolling on; vartani a wheel (Vedic); the track of a wheel; vartis circuit, orbit (Vedic)(Skt.lex.) vartani rolling (of a wheel)(RV. viii.63.8); vat.t.ana_ id. (P.); vartani track, path (RV. iv.45.3; x.5.4); vartu act of turning (RV. vii.101.2)(Vedic.lex.) bat. a road; dobat.ia where two roads meet (Santali.lex.) cf. vartman track of a wheel, path (RV.)(CDIAL 11366). Way: vat.t.ai < vat.t.a_ (Pkt.) < vartman way (Kalla_. 40,13) (Ta.lex.) vartana a road, way; vartani id.; vartis a way, path; vartman a way, road, path, passage, track; sthala-vartmana_ by land; vartmani_ a road, way (Skt.lex.) Image: road: {Echo word} bat.t.e, ban.t.e (Tadbhava of va_t.a) a path, a road,a way (Ka.); vat.t.e (Ma.); vat.t.ai (Ta.); va_t.a (M.); bat.t.e-ga_n. to see a way; bat.t.e-ga_val a convoy or guard to protect a traveler; bat.t.e-ged.u a road to fail; to lose the way; bat.t.e vid.i to enter on a journey, to start; bat.t.e bat.t.e (Ka.); bat.t.e-ga one who has a road or track (Ka.); ba_t.e a road (Ka.H.); va_t.a (Skt.); ra_ja-ba_t.a the king's highway, a high road (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6484.Image: eyelashes: vartani the eyelashes (Skt.); vartas the eyelashes (Vedic); vartman an eye-lid; vartma-ro_ga a disease of the eyelids (Skt.lex) vartman eye-lashes (ChUp.)(Vedic.lex.)

6485.Image: line: varti, varti_ a streak, line (Skt.lex.)

6486.Perfumed match or taper: varti_ the wick of a lamp; vartika_ a paint-brush; the wick of a lamp (Skt.lex.) vartti, vatti wick (Ta.); oil-cup of a lamp (Ta.lex.) vat.t.ikai < vartika_ painter's brush, drawing pencil (Man.i. 4,57); vat.t.ikai-p-palakai tablet for painting (Ci_vaka. 1107)(Ta.lex.) varti wick (MBh.); small compress (Sus'r.); lamp (Skt.); vartika_ wick (Skt.); vat.t.i, vat.t.ika_ wick (Pali); vat.t.i_, vat.t.ia_, vatti (Pkt.); bati_ unlit native lamp, candle, wick of European lamp (Sh.); vat.i wick (S.); vat.t. roll of grass, wick (L.); vat. wick (L.); vat.t.i_, bat.t.i_, batti_ (P.); ba_ti lamp (N.); bati (N.H.); ba_ti (A.); wick, lamp, candle (B.); bati lamp (Or.H.); ba_ti_ (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.); wick (OAw.H.); batti_ (H.); va_t. lamp (G.); va_t wick (M.); va_ti_ perfumed match or taper (G.); va_ti wick (Konkan.i); vt-a lamp; vt.i-ya wick (Si.); vo' lamp (Md.); ba_to wick, lamp (Ku.); rope of twisted cane (to tid down thatch)(N.)(CDIAL 11359). di_pavat.t.i wick, lamp wick (Pali.lex.) sitthavat.t.ika_ candle (Pali.lex.) bat.i a lamp wick, a lamp of european manufacture (Santali.lex.) vya_vat.t.ana twist; vet.haka twister; vat.t.i, vat.t.ika_ roll (Pali.lex.) Metath.: Wick: tiri roll or twist of cloth or thread for a wick, torch of twisted cloth (Ta.); tiri, siri wick of a lamp (Tu.); tir-i a twist of anything flexible (Te.)(DEDR 3246).

6487.Image: a fish: bat.t.a-mi_nu a species of fish, ra_ji_va (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: fish: cf. bot.la ce~_pa a sort of fish, sparus (Te.)(DEDR 4498).

6488.Miracle: pra_tiha_rya juggling (Lalit.); pa_t.iha_riya, pa_t.ihi_ra wonder, miracle (Pali); pa_d.iha_riya magic for getting things back (Pkt.); pa_d.he_ra a partic. kind of worship (Pkt.); pel.ahara miracle, religious procession (Si.)(CDIAL 8937).prati_ha_ra juggler (BhP.)(CDIAL 8618).

6489.Image: cockroach; cricket: pa_r-r-a cockroach (Ma.); pa_ccai cockroach, cricket (Ta.); pa.t- cockroach (To.); ha_te, a_te, ha_ntE id. (Ka.); pa.te id. (Kod..)(DEDR 4123).

6490.Eye of an ornament: pat.u-kan. the eye in which the hook of an ornament is fastened (S.I.I. ii,157); pat.u-kan.n.i id. (Tiv. Periyati. 5,4,7, Vya_.)(Ta.lex.) Image: tongs: par-al.ai cramp-iron (W.); plate of metal (S.I.I. ii,7); smith's tongs (W.)(Ta.lex.) par-r-irumpu cramp-iron, iron-brace, band, cincture (Ta.Ma.) (Ta.lex.) par-r-am grasping, taking hold (Ta.lex.) pattu-k-ka_lo_n- crab, as having 10 feet (Ta.lex.) pat.uka_r-u pair of tongs, large pincers (Te.)(DEDR 3864). cf. ka_ru pincers, tongs (Ka.Te.Ga.); par-r-u-k-kur-at.u, par-r-u-kot.ir.u tongs, blacksmith's pincers (Cilap.16, 108, Arum.)(Ta.lex.) pat.aka_ru tongs, pincers (Ka.); pair of tongs, large pincers (Te.)(DEDR 1473). Image: to grasp: par-r-utal to grasp, seize, catch, hold (Tiruva_ca. 3,145); pat.t.u to seize; n. hold, seizure, firm grasp (Ka.); par-r-u to grasp, seize (Ta.); adhesion, friendship (Ma.); pat. to catch, seize (Ko.); pattu, partu to stick to, adhere, be united, join; n. adhesion, hold, a fight, friendship, trust (Ka.)(DEDR 4034). pat.u to catch, ensnare, entrap; to do, make, effect (Ta.lex.) Image: walking-stick: par-r-u-k-ko_l walking stick; iron-rod used to brand oxen; soldering iron; blacksmith's pole; par-r-u-k-ko_t.u walking stick; support; post to which animals are tied (Ta.lex.)

6491.Image: bull covers cow: patt (bull) covers cow (Kod..); pattuni to hold, catch; adhere, stick, be joined (Tu.); pat.t.u hold, grasp, seizure, a wrestler's hold (Te.); patt to take hold of (Pa.Ga.)(DEDR 4034).

6492.Image: ear of corn: vad.d.h ears of corn remaining in a field after sheaves have been removed (L.)(CDIAL 11372).

6493.Empty: bat.t.i empty (Ka.); vat.t.i empty, vain, useless (Te.); bat.t.a, bakka, bakkat.a, bat.a_, bat.t.u bareness, voidness; bat.t.a-tale a bald head (Ka.); baje-tana barrenness (Ka.); baje (Tadbhava of vandhye) a barren or childless woman (Ka. Te.); va_n.jha (M.); baje a barren cow, vas'e, vandhye (Ka.); va_jha_ barren (M.); bajaru waste land (Ka.H.); bajaru-din.n.e a waste hillock (Ka.); bajaru-bhu_mi waste or fallow land (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Uncultivated land: pi_t.u waste, uncultivated land (Ta.); bi_d.u, bi_r..(u) id. (Ka.); bi_d.u id.; waste, useless; (inscr.) bed.d.a-ce_nu a dry land, a waste uncultivated land (Te.)(DEDR 4219). Fallow: ma_d.a_, ma_d.ha_ left fallow (of fields)(M.)(CDIAL 9723). pirtak sterile (of animals and women), not giving milk (of cows)(Kho.); parta_ land left fallow (Mth.); pari_t, parti_ waste land, land left fallow (Bi.); parta_ land accidentally gone out of cultivation (Bi.)(CDIAL 8738). pariccia thrown away or up (Pkt.); perecik to throw, throw away (Kho.)(CDIAL 8743). Dwarfish woman: ban.d.a, van.d.a maimed, defective, crippled; an ox without a tail (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ba_n.t.hia_ dwarfish (Or.); vam.t.ha unmarried dwarf (Pkt.); ba~_t.h barren woman (WPah.)(CDIAL 11236). cf. ba_n.d.a, ban.d.a_ penis (Or.)(CDIAL 9124). Image: barren woman: ba~_t.h barren woman (WPah.); ba_n.t.hia_ dwarfish (Or.); ba~_t.iya_, be~t.iya_ dwarfish (B.); vund.u lame woman (K.); a-van.t.a well-formed (of a woman's breast) (Pali); van.d.ara eunuch (Skt.); va_d.a_ barren (of woman or animal)(M.); van.d.a a man who is circumcised or has no prepuce (Si.); va~d.al. eunuch (G.); va~_d.ho bachelor, widower (G.); vad.hara rogue, son of a Brahman by a Vais'ya woman (Pkt.); vam.t.ha unmarried, dwarf (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11236). vat.a unmarried (Pa.Pe.); bereaved of husband or wife (Kui); vavr.n. man who has no children; fem. vavr.y, vayr. (Ko.); van.t.a, van.t.ha unmarried (Skt.)(DEDR 5219). Barren: maj barren, unfruitful; majeru steile, barren (Tu.); mai barrenness, sterility, barren woman, barren buffalo; maimmai barren woman, barren buffalo (Ta.); mai barrenness; macci barren woman (Ma.); may barren (of buffalo)(Ko.); moy id. (To.)(DEDR 5102). banjha, banjhi, bahla barren (Santali.lex.) va_nz barrn (of women)(Kon.lex.) cf. vandhya barren, sterile (Mn.)(CDIAL 11275). vandhya barren, sterile (Mn.); vajha barren (Pali); vam.jha (Pkt.); va~_jha adj. (S.); vajh, bajh barren woman (P.); ba~_j id. (Ku.); ba~_jho barren, fruitless (N.); ba~_jhi barren woman (N.); ba~za_, ba~_zi barren (A.); ba~_jh, ba~_jhi childless woman (B.); ba_jha sterile; ba_jhi_ childless woman (Or.); ba~_jh, ba~_jhin barren woman; ba~_jh barren woman (Bhoj.); ba~_jha (OAw.); va~_jh barren woman (G.); va~_jho weakling; va~_jhiyu~, va~_jhn.u~ barren, childless; a~_jhn.i_ barren woman (used euphemisticall)(G.); va~_jh impotent man; barren woman; va~_j(h)a_ barren (M.); va~_j barren woman (Konkan.i); vanda sterile, unfruitful; vandi_ sterile woman; vadi_ widow (Si.); winjali_ young she-goat (Pas'.); bajyu_n.o to leave fallow (Ku.); ba~jyu_n.o (N.)(CDIAL 11275). phan.d.a anus, vulva (Dm.)(CDIAL 9047). van.d.a a man who is circumcised or has no prepuce (Si.); va~d.al. eunuch (G.); van.d.ara eunuch (Skt.)(CDIAL 11236). ba~_r.iya_, be~r.e tailless (B.); ba~_r. bullock with broken tail (Bi.); tailless, docked (H.); ba~_r.a_ a tailless or docked animal (H.); ba~_d.a_ maimed, crippled (H.); ba~_d.u~ tailless (G.); ba~_d.iyo contemptuous term for a Moslem (because circumcised)(G.); ba~_d. shrunken or diminished from blight, stout and lusty (of person); stalk of blasted corn (M.); ban.d.ha_ bullock with broken tail (Bi.); ban.d.a maimed (in hands, feet or tail)(AV.)(CDIAL 9124). phan.d.i_ barren, having ceased bearing (S.); phan.d.ar an old cow or buffalo which has ceased calving or giving milk (L.); barren (of animals)(P.)(CDIAL 9047). van.t.a tailless (Gaut.)(CDIAL 11236). Lewd: van.t.u low, mean conduct; van.tan- wicked person; van.t.attan-am wickedness, lewdness; van.t.ai that which is corrupt or vulgar (Ta.); pod. mox child which is illegitimate because (To.); ban.d.u shamelessness, lewdness, disgrace; ban.d.a a shameless, dishonourable, lewd, profligate man; ban.d.aga, ban.d.atana, ban.d.utana shamelessness, profligacy (Ka.); ban.d.e shameless man; fem. ban.d.ati; ban.d.atana shamelessness (Kod..); ban.d.u, bhan.d.u obscenity, rudeness; bhan.d.a obscene, impudent; ban.d.e, ban.d.a an indecent man, a lewd man (Tu.); ban.d.a a rude, unfeeling man; obscene, shameless; ban.d.a_d.u, ban.d.agu_d.u a rude, unfeeling man; ban.d.a_t.a wickedness; ban.d.u indecent, obscene, gross (Te.); bhan.d. exposure, public disgrace, subjection to general ridicule (M.)(DEDR 3902). bariya_ widow's illegitimate son (A.); ba~_ri widow (A.); ba_d.uva~_ pl. poor simple little children (G.)(CDIAL 9124). ra~_r.-bha~_r. abusive term of a widow (N.); ra~_d.-bha~_d. (M.)(CDIAL 9376). Eunuch: pan.d.a eunuch, weakling (Skt.); pan.d.aga (AV.); pan.d.aka eunuch (Pali); pam.d.a, pam.d.aga, pam.d.aya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7717). pe_t.i hermaphrodite; impotence; pe_t.an- hermaphrodite with male characteristics predominating; pe_t.u hermaphrodite; female sex, female of birds and of certain quadrupeds (Ta.); pe_d.i eunuch, hermaphrodite (Te.); effeminate man, hermaphrodite (Ka.); he_d.i, e_d.i id. (Ka.); coward (Tu.); pe_d.e having no moustache, beardless man (Te.); pot.a_ hermaphrodite (Skt.)(DEDR 4434). bhan.d.u bald, shaven (Pali); bham.d.u shaving (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9376). vat.a unmarried (Pa.Pe.); bereaved of husband or wife (Kui)(DEDR 5219). pe_t.u what is unproductive, useless, or kernelless (Ta.); what is seedless, unproductive, shrivelled (Ma.)(DEDR 4435). cf. ven.t.u (ven.t.i-) to dry as in the sun, become withered (Ta.); ben.d.u emaciated (Tu.); useless substance (Ka.); powerless, soft (Te.); bhe_d. pith (M.)(DEDR 5480). Useless; vain: vet.t.i, vet.t.ai uselessness, worthlessness (Ta.); vet.t.i a tree of worthless timber; worthless (Ma.); vit.y uselessness, invain (Ko.); pit.yk (?pit.ky) in vain (To.)(DEDR 5477). vat.t.i naked, empty, vacant, void, blank, mere, simple, vain, useless, bare, false, untrue, groundless (Te.); bat.a~_ open, wide (Tu.); bareness, voidness (Ka.); bat.t.i, bat.t.a id. (Ka.); bat.t.i bare ground (Pa.)(DEDR 5233). Poverty: ver-umai emptiness, uselessness, poverty (Ta.); ver-itu uselessness; ver-ippu famine; ver-iyan- empty, destitute person; ver-uman- worthlessness; ver-uman-e_ in vain, without advantage, without doing anything, idly; ver-r-a-ver-itu absolute worthlessness; ver-r-ar poor people, worthless persons; ver-r-imai emptiness, barrenness, bareness; var-al emptiness; var-umai poverty, emptiness, helpless loneliness, difficulty; var-itu that which is small or insignificant, worthless-ness, defect, poverty, emptiness (Ta.); ver-u asunder, void of, empty, bare; ver-ute_ for nothing, uselessly, for mere pleasure, kidly, gratis; ver-uma emptiness; ver-r-an destitute, poor; var-u empty (Ma.); ver, verd, vet-a ver mere, unmixed, vain; vera.c woman temporarily without a child; ver im buffalo temporarily without a calf; ver a.l. man without wife or children; ver gi.m naked (lit. mere hands); verma(n.)tamn naked; veruk small piece of meat for broth (Ko.); per- empty, mere; per-iyi it is worthless; per- o.l. ordinary man (as priest becomes when polluted); per- fo.s- pure milk; per- fit. mere foolishness; per- me.n. tree without blossoms; per-isy in vain, empty-handed, good-for-nothing (To.); bar-e, bar-i, bar-u, bar-a, bar-ahu, bar-ad.u, bad.d.u, bar-apa emptiness; bar-ide for nothing, without cause; battale, bettale bareness, nakedness (Ka.); bari only, merely (Kod..); baji empty, mere, only; vain, useless, false; battale, be_talu naked (Tu.); barigi empty; bi_r-u useless (Te.); vat.t.i empty (Nk.); vededi alone (Pa.); vayke, vayket.i empty (Ga.); warrovaror, varror alone; varrai id. (fem.); varrore, varrur, varur one, alone; var.or., verond. one man (Go.); vari bare, empty (Pe.); veru empty (Mand..); vari only (Kui); var'i empty; vwa_ri id.; vwarari ki_ali to empty; vwaraiyi aiyali to be empty; wara_ni ki_nai to empty; var'i only; empty (Kuwi); bi_ra simply, just; bi_ragha_ pure and simple, nothing but (Br.)(DEDR 5513).

6494.Levy; unpaid labour: vis.t.i (Skt.); bit.t.i (Ka.)(SII. 11-1.IEG.); bittu-vat.t.a, bittu-kat.t.e (Ka.) a portion of the produce from the land irrigated by a tank, granted to a person who excavated or repaired the tank (A.R.Ep., 1958-59, p.10. IEG.) bit.t.i unpaid labour, labour exacted by a governmet or a person in power without giving remuneration for it, press-service (Ka.); ve_t.ha (M.)(Ka.lex.) Forced labour: vis.t.i forced labour (MBh.); vit.t.hi id. (Pkt.); vit.i wages (Si.); vet.t.hi forced labour (Pkt.); bet.h (Ku.); bet.hi one day's forced labour in the year for village headman (N.); bet.hi forced labour (Or.); vet.hi (G.); vet.h (M.)(CDIAL 11989). vais.t.ika forced labour (Saddh.); bet.hi forced labourer (B.); bet.hia_ (Or.); vet.hiyo (G.)(CDIAL 12152). pa_it.hi household work (Or.); ?*pra_vis.t.i work (Skt.)(CDIAL 8961). vet.t.iya_n- a village menial servant (Ta.); vet.t.iva~_d.u id. (Te.); vet.t.imai service of a vet.t.iyan- (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) ban.t.a-tana the state of being a servant (Ka.); ban.t.a (Tadbhava of van.t.ha) a servant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Work: vis. be active (Skt.); ve_s.a work, activity (VS.); pa_it.hi household work (Or.)(CDIAL 8961). ve_s.a working (VS.); vis.t.i service, (coll.) servants, slaves (MBh.); ve_s.ya work (Ta_n.d.Br.)(CDIAL 12126).

6495.Image: overflow: var..i-tal to overflow (Kampara_. Cu_rppan.a. 72); var..i-ttal to shed, let flow (Kampara_. Kat.alka_n.. 5)(Ta.lex.) cf. vat.i-ttal to cause to flow out; to shed as tears, to drain (Tan-ippa_. i,351,73); var..into_t.u-tal to overflow, as rain water; var..i-yat.t.u-tal to cause to overflow or overspread (I_t.u, 4,6,2); var..iyal that which overflows or drains off (Ta.lex.) Image: flood: var-ada flood, torrent, inundation (Te.); barakelu inundation (Tu.)(DEDR 5323). cf. mal fertility (Ta.); malika to overflow (Ma.)(DEDR 4729). Image: to filter: vat.ivu that which is strained or filtered, outflow, surplus water; vat.i (-v-, -nt-) to drip, trickle, (tide) ebbs; (-pp-, -tt-) to cause to flow out, shed (as tears), drain, strain, filter; n. filtration, distillation; vat.ical straining, filtering, rice boiled and strained, ebbing; vat.ippu straining, filtering; vat.iyal id., strained or filtered liquid (Ta.); vat.iyuka to overflow, ebb, trickle; vat.i strainer, filter; vat.ivu a current (Ma.); war.f- (war.t-) (blood) flows (To.); od.i to flow in a small, gentle stream, trickle through, ooze, run and cause blots (as ink); od.i-gat.t.u to strain off, filter; bad.apam continuous rain (Ka.); od.d.uni to flow, run; od.d.a flowing; od.pa_vuni to drain; od.d.a_vuni to turn flowing water into a field (Tu.); vad.iyu, od.iyu to be strained or filtered, percolate; vad.ucu, vad.acu to let fall in drops, pour slowly; vb. n. vad.upu; vad.i_-gat.t.u, vad.iya~-gat.t.u to strain, filter (Te.); vad.is- (-t-) to pour down, serve (of liquid food)(Kond.a) (DEDR 5221). cf. var..i (-v-, -nt-) to overflow, flow (Ta.); var.- (-t-) to drip down (as through filter); var.in. (pl.), in: pu_s var.in. saliva; pu_sa vali saliva (Kond.a); var.a_na_, war.a_na_, var.-, vara_na_ to leak, drip (Go.); bal.i to flow out completely (as oil from an inverted pot)(Ka.)(DEDR 5296). pat fly, fall (Skt.); patati falls (Mn.); patita pp. (AV.); patati falls, alights (Pali); patita fallen; patitaka dropped, thrown into (Pali); pavan.u to fall, happen (S.); pain.a_, paun.a_ to fall (P.); pad.ai falls (Pkt.); pariba to fall (A.); par.iba_ to fall, happen (Or.); pad.ai falls, lies (OMarw.)(CDIAL 7722). For semant. 'happen' cf. pat.u to happen (Ta.)(DEDR 3853). patana falling (Pali); padan.a,payan.a, pad.an.a (Pkt.); paran (A.); par.an a tumble (B.); par.an.a (Or.)(CDIAL 7724). cf. pe_zna sieve (Psht.)(CDIAL 7730). pad fall (Skt.); pa_dayati causes to fall (AV.); pa_wun to make fall (K.); pa_van. to throw, pour, put on (L.); pa_un.a_ to pour (P.)(CDIAL 8065). cf. pavana sieve, strainer (AV.)(CDIAL 7977). cf. puna_ti purified (RV.)(CDIAL 8277). cf. vat.i (-pp-, -tt-) to refine, perfect; n. form, shape (Ta.)(DEDR 5223).

6496.Image: prop: vali prop, support (Ci_vaka. 2012); valampai pole, stick; valampam straight line (Ta.lex.)

6497.Remuneration to boatmen: vali remuneration to the owners of the boats used in pearl-fishery being one day's gathering in eight (W.)(Ta.lex.)

6498.Image: mark, trace: vali < vali mark, trace, fold, crease (Ta.lex.) cf. vari line (Ta.lex)

6499.Pincers: vali cramp-iron; pincers; to seize (Akana_. 76)(Ta.lex.) vilaggai sticks to, supports (Pkt.); valagvu to seize, adhere to (G.); val.gan. grasp, seizure (G.)(CDIAL 11881).

6500.Pole for gathering fruit: vilagna hanging to (MBh.); vilagga stuck to, hanging to (Pali.Pkt.); lan:gani_ stick or rope to hang clothes on (Skt.); lan:gala pole for gathering fruit (R.com.); balun. stick to hang clothes on, perch (for a bird) (Sh.); vala~g, bila~g, bilan:ga_ rope to hang clothes on; vilan:gan., bilan:gan. (P.) (CDIAL 11879).

6501.Battlefield: vil.a_kam battlefield (ven-r-avar vil.a_kattan-n-ut. cen-r-ile_n)(Te_va_. 1193,1)(Ta.Ma.) (Ta.lex.) villan:kam bar, impediment, difficulty, trouble, distress, charge or encumbrance on properties, defect in title to properties, contest, dispute, claim; villat.ai adversity, distress, impediment, enmity (Ta.); villan:kam contest, wrangling; adversity, difficulty (Ma.); pilogm (obl. pilogt-) worry (To.); vilaga incongruity, unsuitableness, inconsistency, discordance, discripancy (Ka.)(DEDR 5426). cf. vel to conquer, subdue (Ta.); ver-r-imai victory (Ta.); velluka to overcome, surpass, kill (Ma.)(DEDR 5493). vil.i to destroy (mutal vil.ikkum vin-aiyaip puriyar-ka : Vina_yakapu. 2,59);to kill (vecin-a varakkarai vil.ittu vi_yumo_ : Kampara_. Nintan-ai. 48); vil.ivu death; ruin (Tirumuru. 292); vil.ivu warriors' shout, war-cry (Kampara_. Kin:kara. 28); vil.ivittal to cause to kill (Ta.lex.) ir..avu death (Ma.); ir..a to lose, forfeit; lose by death; ir..appu loss, deprivation, detriment; destruction, ruin, death; destitution (Ta.); ir..akkam loss (Ma.); ir..akkuka to lose, forfeit (Ma.)(DEDR 501).

6502.Garden; a wood on a sea-coast: ve_la_-vana a wood on a shore or sea-coast (Ka. Skt.)(Ka.lex.) val.a_kam millet-field (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Ve_t.an-valam. 28); garden (Ta.lex.) ve_la garden, grove (Skt.); vel-a field (Si.)(CDIAL 12114). vil.a_kam garden (Ma.); surrounding area (Ta.)(DEDR 5435). Ferry; sea-shore: velala, velela sea-shore, river-bank, ferry (Si.); vel.ata vicinity (Si.); ve_la_tat.a seashore (Skt.)(CDIAL 12115-6); ber limit (H.); vel., el. seashore (M.)(CDIAL 12115). Sea-shore: ve_la_ shore (Pali.MBh.Pkt.); limit, boundary, time (S'Br.); vel.a sea-shore, sandbank (Si.)(CDIAL 12115). ve_lai sea-shore (Kantapu. Me_rup. 46); sea, ocean (Tiruva_ca. 6,46); sandy tract (Paripa_. 19,18)(Ta.lex.) Sea-shore; ghat: vir..ijam a town on the seacoast of Travancore (vir..ijakkat.ar-ko_t.iyul. ve_lvalan:kaik kon.t.a_n- : Ir-ai. 3, Urai.); vir..itur-ai shore, bank, ford; ghat, ford (Ta.lex.) cf. ir..i to descend, dismount (Akana_. 66)(Ta.); il.i id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.); ir..iccu to lower, let down, help or hand down (Te_va_. 584,7)(Ta.lex.) Circle; surrounding region: val.a_ circuit, area, spread, as of a tank (Kur-al., 523); val.a_vu to surround (Paripa_. 15,27); to cover; val.avu house (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 6,77)(Ta.); velavu id. (Te.); val.ai circle, circuit, surrounding region (S.I.I. i,151,72); bal.e id. (Ka.)(Ta. lex.) val.a_kam place (Te_va_. 1193,1); enclosing, surrounding; continent (Kampara_. Tirumut.i. 6); country (Kantapu. Ma_rk. 142)(Ta.lex.)

6503.Image: shout: bar..i a man who calls or invites (Ka.); ar..ai to call, summon (Ta.); vil.i to call, invite; a call, cry, summons (Ma.Te.Ma.); pilucu to call, invite; pilupu a call, cry; an invitation (Te.); bar..i-yat.t.u to send one that calls or invites to come (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vil. to say, tell, reveal (Ta.)(DEDR 5433). To tell: vil. to say, tell, reveal (Ta.); vil.ampu to speak, say, proclaim, make public, reveal; n. word, speech (Ta.); vil.i to say, speak; to summon, sin, roar, shout; n. sound, song, word, speech, shout of excitement (Ta.); vil.ivu warriors' shout, war-cry (Ta.); vil.ampuka to divulge; vil.amparam proclamation; vil.i call, cry, summons (Ma.); belki speech (Kurub.); pil.y to utter long, high shout of joy or triumph; n. expression of joy (To.); bul.puni, bul(i)puni to cry aloud, shout, exclaim (Tu.); bul.u, bul.pu cry, lamentation (Tu.); burpi to cry (Kor.); vil.ambaramu notification, publication (Te.)(DEDR 5433). pil.ir-u great noise (Ta.); pilucu to call, invite; shout (Te.); pilupu, pilupud.u calling, a call, invitation (Te.)(DEDR 4195). vila_pa wailing (MBh.); idle talk (Pali); vila_va wailing (Pkt.); bila_i, bilai misery (A.)(CDIAL 11896). vilapati wails (AV.); talks wildly, laments (Pali); vilavai laments (Pkt.); bilaun.o, bila_n.o (Ku.); billa_na_ (H.); vilavn.e~, vival.n.e~, ival.n.e~ to groan, moan (M.)(CDIAL 11885). vilapana wailing (Uttarar.); vilavan.a adj. wailing (Pkt.); vilavan.aya_ (Pkt.); bilaun.a_ pl. lamentations (Ku.); bilauna_, bilana_ (N.)(CDIAL 11886). vilapyati bewails (MBh.); valapinava_, valapenava_ to weep, lament (Si.)(CDIAL 11887). vila_payati causes to lament (AV.); vila_via causes to weep (Pkt.); billa_un.a_ to weep bitterly (P.); billa_na_, bilbila_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 11898). Image: to bark: cf. valli to bark (Kor.)(DEDR 5283). bhalate_ expounds, describes (Dha_tup.); bel- [1 sg. aor. belim, fut. bala_lem] to speak (Ash.); bhalai arranges (Pkt.); bhal attend to, observe (Skt.)(CDIAL 9406). be_ron. speech, conversation, discussion, language (Pe.); language, story (Mand..); be_ror.i conversation (Kui)(DEDR 4439). cf. oli (-pp-,-tt-) to sound, roar (Ta.)(DEDR 996). cf. a_lu (a_li-) to sound, make noise (Ta.)(DEDR 386). a_l.-en-al onom. expr. signifying a dog's howling (Ta.); a_l.uka to cry out, roar; a_l.ippu explosion (Ma.)(DEDR 401). cf. elu~gu voice (Te.)(DEDR 835). cf. pulampu to sound (Ta.); pallo word, speech (Go.)(DEDR 4304).

6504.Furcated post: bel.kem. form of a tree or furcated post (M.); bel shovel (H.K.); beli_ sthu_n.a_ (OM.)(Bloch, p. 371).

6505.Image: pigeon: bel.ava, bel.uva wild pigeon (Ka.); bel.a-guvva, bel.ava ring-dove (Te.)(DEDR 4420).

6506.Image: spear: balya, balle, balleya, ballevu, balleha, bhalleya, bha_le a spear, a pike, a lance, a javelin (Ka.); bha_la_ (M.); vallaiya (Ta.); vallaya (Ma.); balliyamu, ballemu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. bhalla (Skt.) cf. ve_l dart, spear, lance, javelin, trident, weapon; ve_la_n- spearman; ve_lan- id., Skanda, priest worshipping Skanda (Ta.); ve_l weapon, lance, pike (Ma.)(DEDR 5536). pa_lam a weapon (Ta.lex.) bhallo_d.a tip of an arrow (Pkt.); bha_lor.u~ spearhead fixed to the end of an arrow (G.)(CDIAL 9411). pallam a kind of weapon; arrow (Kampara_. Na_kapa_ca. 107); pallayam a kind of dagger (Pirata_pa. Vila_. 123); balleya id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) vallayam a kind of spear (Kantapu. Tarumako_. 24); ballemu (Te.); ballega (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) bhalli_ spear (Pkt.); bha_li_ crescent-shaped arrow, spear (Or.); bali_ a kind of mountain grass (Pas'.); bha_l arrowhead, iron spike, lance (H.); head of lance or arrow (M.)(CDIAL 9409). bhalla a kind of arrow (MBh.); bhalli_ arrowhead of a partic. shape (Skt.); bhalli a kind of arrow (Skt.); bhalla spear (Pkt.); ba_la (K.); bha_lo (S.); bha_lla_ (P.); bha_lo (Ku.N.); bha_lu~ spear (G.); bha_la_ spear, crescent-headed arrow (Or.); spear for driving an elephant (Bi.); spare (Mth.); large spear (H.); spear (M.)(CDIAL 9409).[K.S.P forms point to *bha_lla-]. vel. sharpness (Ta.lex.) ve_l dart, spear, lance, javelin, trident, weapon (Ta.); wearpon, lance, pike (Ma.); ve_la_n- spearman; ve_lan- id. (Ta.)(DEDR 5536).

6507.Work; religious ceremony in temples: ve_lai work, labour, task (As.t.ap. Tiruvaran:kak. 54); business, matter; workmanship, situation, office (Ta.); ve_lai-y-a_l. workman, labourer; servant (Ta.lex.) ve_l.e-ya_l.u a watchman (Ka.lex.) ve_laikka_ran-, ve_lai-y-a_l. manservant, workman, labourer; ve_laikka_ri servant maid (Ta.); ve_la work, labour, religious ceremony in temples, difficulty; ve_lakka_ran labourer, servant (Ma.); be_le work, labour (Tu.); ve_la work (Te.)(DEDR 5540). ve_l.aikka_rar devoted servants who hold themselves responsible for a particular service to their king at stated hours and vow to stab themselves to death if they fail in that (I_t.u, 5,1,9); ve_l.aikka_rana_yakam leadership of the ve_l.aikka_rar (S.I.I. v,85)(Ta.lex.) ve_r-ka_ran spearman; armed servant of a king (I_t.u, 1,4,9)(Ta.lex.)

6508.Skanda: ve_l. Skanda (Ta.lex.) ve_lan- Skanda, priest worshipping Skanda (Ta.) (DEDR 5536). Temple: ve_r-ko_t.t.am temple of Skanda (uccikkir..a_n-ko_t.t.a mu_rkko_t.t.am ve_r-ko_t.t.am : Cilap. 9,11)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_l spear; ve_la_yutan- Skanda, as weilding the lance (Kantaralan.. 17); ve_lan- Skanda; spearman (Ta.lex.) cf. ko_t.t.am < ko_s.t.ha room, enclosure (Man.i. 6,59); temple (Cilap. 14,10)(Ta.lex.)

6509.Image: spider: ba_la spider (Pa.); ba_lo id. (Go.)(DEDR 4098).

6510.Image: to roam: valayuka to wander about (Ma.)(DEDR 5286). bhr.n.ati is crooked (Dha_tup.); bhun.an.u to wander about (S.)(CDIAL 9587).

6511.Image: pot with brim: ko_l-val.l.am a cup with ornamental brim (Ci_vaka. 2700) (Ta.lex.) cf. val.l.am a dish for use in eating or drinking, hour-glass (Ta.); a small measure (Ma.); bal.l.a a certain measure of capacity (Te.); measure of capacity equal to about one seer or eighty tolas (Tu.); measure of capacity, the fourth part of a kol.aga or 4 ma_nas (Ka.)(DEDR 5315). Brim: cf. vel.umpu edge, margin (Ma.); vil.impu rim (Ta.)(DEDR 5436). To distribute: cf. vil.ampu to serve food (Ta.)(DEDR 5434). cf. vela cost (Te.)(DEDR 5421). cf. vakku brim (Ta.)(DEDR 5208). cf. pal.l.ayam dish (Ta.); pa_l.e_ wooden bowl (M.)(DEDR 4017). cf. pala a fluid measure (Nir.); pala_ a ladle holding 1/4 seer of oil (P.); pal a measure of capacity (Ku.); pali_ spoon to take oil out of a jar, spoonful (Ku.); pal.i_ ladle; pal.a_ large ladle (M.); pala_, pali_ ladle (H.)(CDIAL 7952).

6512.Live! congratulations; benediction; cultivation of the soil: vardha success, prosperity (RV. x.12.4); increasing, gladdening; vadhan means of increasing, the one that increases (RV. iii.32.12; RV. vii.101.2); increasing (RV. ix.97.39) (Vedic.lex.) va_ra choice, anything chosen, treasure, property, good things (RV. i.128.6)(Vedic.lex.) var..i-mor..i-tal to praise (Pur-ana_. 239,7); to reiterate, as a statement already made (Tol. Virut. 1)(Ta.lex.) bar.. to live; to begin to live prosperously; bar..dun:ku, baduku to live; to remain alive, to be saved; ba_r.., ba_r..u to live; to be alive; to live prosperously or happily; to cultivate; ba_r.. living; life, condition of life; livelihood, profession; the state of living prosperously or happily; conjugal life, married state, marriage; property; ba_r..gamba a living post, as the stock of a plantain; ba_r..modal the beginning or the chief thing, of a prosperous life; ba_r..i a person who lives; ba_r..ve, ba_r..ive, ba_r..uve living; life; prosperity; livelihood; profession; household; property; ba_r..ive to live; ba_r..ke, ba_r..ike living; way or condition of life; livelihood; profession; household; ba_r..tina living; ba_r..te living; prosperity; profit, advantage, use; ba_r..te-gey to use one's own purpose; ba_r..u to be worth, to fetch, to sell for; ba_r..uka, ba_r..aka vegetables (or fruits) that have been split, dried, and thus preserved; ba_r..aka dried up (Ka.); va_l.aka_ (M.); ba_r..e cultivation of the soil (especially ploughing)(Ka.); ir-ba_r..e the second cultivation, the second ploughing of a field (Ka.lex.) A thriving crop: ba_r..-vel.e a thriving crop (Ka.lex.) va_r..i, va_r..iya optative meaning 'may you prosper' (Nan-. 168; tat.amartta_l. va_r..i : Tiruva_ca. 24,6); va_r..tt et.u-ttal to praise (Kulo_t. Ko_. 321); va_r..tturai benediction (ka_cippu. Or..ukkap. 12); va_r..vu prosperity, happiness, felicity; happy life (Kampara_. Mantarai. 49); livelihood, living, career (Na_lat.i, 369); endowment of land for maintenance (Ci_vaka. 2347); residing (Poru. Ni.); residence (Te_va_. 276,2); high state or position (Tiruva_ca. 6,5); wealth (Pu. Ve. 4,12); va_r..-na_l. lifetime (Na_lat.i, 22)(Ta.lex.) wadhn. to increase, to grow, to be enlarged; to advance; wadhan, wad.han to increase, to grow; ma_l da_ wadhan kismat te increase to wealth depends on fate; wadh increase; wadha_n an increase; wa_ddha_ increase, profit; gha_t.t.a_ wa_ddha_ loss and profit; waddh increase, enlargement; wadha_i_ benediction; blessing; a present given on occasion of a birth or wedding; in pl. a form of congratulation, as wad.ha_i_a_n. all hail, I congratulate you! (P.lex.) vardhana increasing, augmenting, growing, thriving; a granter of increase, a bestower of prosperity; pra-vardhana causing to grow or increase; augmenting, increase nandi-vardhana increasing pleasure; S'iva; a son, a friend; pat.t.a-vardhana elevated by the pat.t.a: a distinguished elephant; pi_t.ha-vardhana a servant who bestows the benefit of seats (Ka.lex.) cf. barkat prosperity (Arabic. U.); barkatu id. (Tu.); barikati (Kod..); ba_rti longevity, long life (Kui); batkali, batkinai to live (Kuwi); ba_l.t, ba_l.v existence, subsistence, prosperity, thriving (Tu.); ba_r..(u) living, life, livelihood, state of living prosperously or happily, marriage, property (Ka.); va_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to exist, live, flourish, be happy, live life of a married woman, live according to a definite set of rules; n. regularity, order; va_r..ttu (var..tti-) to felicitate, congratulate, bless, praise; n. benediction, praise (Ta.)(DEDR 5372). va_l. lustre, splendour, brightness, fame (Ta.); pa.l. spark (To.); va_lu to increase, swell, flourish, be splendid, shine (Te.)(DEDR 5377). cf. val. fertility, abundance, greatness, strength, largeness (Ta.)(DEDR 5304). vardha giving increase or prosperity (RV.); vad.d.ha wealth; vad.d.haka augmenting (Pali); va_dho profit (S.); va_ddha_, ba_ddha_ increase, profit (P.); ba_dha_ increase in taxes (WPah.); ba_r.(h)a_ increase (B.); bar.ha_ (Or.); ba_dha_ (H.); va_d.h (M.)(CDIAL 11373). cf. vardhate_ grows, increases (RV.)(CDIAL 11376). mal fertility, richness; income (Ta.lex.); malku to increase, abound, grow, flourish (Ta.); mallal wealth, fertility, richness, beauty (Ta.); malika to abound, overflow (Ma.); malka to abound (Ma.); malya great, big, chief, principal (Ka.); malla, mallavu great, big, chief, important (Tu.); malla_ye a man senior in age, rich man, grown-up man (Tu.); malucamu superior, fine (Te.); mallad.i a crowd (Te.); malampia proud (Pkt.)(DEDR 4729). Increase: balle, balleya increase: further, and (Ka.); bali, bal to increase, to grow, to become abundant (Ka.lex.) Distribution of wages; fees paid in grain; landed property; perquisites: vattan-ai < vartana_ livelihood; wages (Ta.); vattin-ai perquisite (S.I.I. vi,272)(Ta.lex.) cf. varta, vatta, votta occupying one's self with; manner of existence or subsistence, livelihood, living (Ka.lex.) varttanai < vartana fees, perquisites, especially those paid in grain to the public servants of a village or town for their maintenance; wealth (Ilak. Aka.); vattin-ai perquisite, urimaippe_r-u (nammit.a vattin-ai kuma_rar vattin-ai nammit.a atika_ri ... vattin-ai ... ul.pat.a : S.I.I. vi,272); vattu < vattu (Pkt.) thing, object, matter, article (Pirapo_ta. 26,56); vastu id. (Ta_yu. Cir-cuko_. 3); landed property; vattan-ai < vardhana_ prosperity (Civataru. Civaja_n-ta_n-a. 43); vattam < bhakta boiled rice (Perumpa_n.. 305); vata-v-arici rice husked from boiled paddy before it is fully dried; vataval that which is partially parched; that which has faded or dried; vata_n-iyan- < vada_nya munificent man; bountiful giver; Kube_ra (Ta.lex.) bat.ava_d.e distributing of wages (Ka.); bat.avad.a_ (M.H.); bat.a_yi tax paid in kind to the proprietor of the land (Ka.); bat.a_i_ id. (M.); ba_d.age, ba_d.ige (Tadbhava of bha_t.aka) hire, rent; fare (Ka.); va_t.akai (Ta.Ma.); ba_d.ige (Te.); ba_d.igege kod.u to hire out; ba_d.igeyettu a hired horse; ba_d.ige-da_ra a man who hires out, as cattle, houses (Ka.); bha_t.i wages, hire, fee; earnings of prostitutes (a whore)(Ka.); bha_t.aka, ban.d.a wages, hire, rent, fee; earnings of prostitutes (Ka.); bha_t.aka, ba_d.age, ba_d.ige price paid for anything, wages, hire, rent (Ka.); bha_t.aka (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ban.d.a (Tadbhava of bha_t.a) price, fee, fare (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6513.Wealth: vitta found (AV.); a find (AitBr.); goods, power (RV.); vitta wealth (Pali.Pkt.); vitu power, ability (S.); bita wealth (Or.); bit money (A.); bit wealth (Mth.); vi_t wealth (G.)(CDIAL 11727). vittam a cast in dice play (Kalit. 136,8); vitta_yam id. (Kalit. 136,9); vittam wealth, money; gold; good fortune; wisdom, knowledge (Arut.pa_.i, Civane_ca. 64); vittakan- skilful, able person (Pu. Ve. 12, Ven-r-ip. 6); artificer; vittakam fine, artistic work; minute workmanship (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 5,24); skill, ability (Kampara_. Ka_rmuka. 19)(Ta.lex.) cf. vr.tta livelihood (Skt.)(CDIAL 12069). Property: vatthu property, thing (Pali.Pkt.); vathu thing, article (S.); va_th share of patrimony (M.); vat-a property, thing, ceremony, story (Si.); vastu seat or place of anything (Sus'r.); existing thing (Skt.); affair (MBh.)(CDIAL 11449). Property; skill: badiki property (Kod..); baduku, badaku, barduku property, goods (Ka.); bardu, baddu increase, greatness, perfection, proficiency, skill (Ka.); ba_r..(u) property (Ka.); va_r..cci prosperity, wealth, felicity of victory (Patir-r-up. 56,7)(Ta.); va.l.n. extremely fatty meat (Ko.); vadk prosperity, property (Ko.); po0k- to prosper (To.); po0k wealth (To.); pod.- (pod.o-) to be priest of ti. dairy (To.); pas.k property, household article (To.); [pol.p way of living, means of livelihood (To.); val.c- to use (pots, vessels, plates, etc.)(Ko.); var..i gift, boon (Ta.)(DEDR 5292)]; ba_l.uni to thrive, prosper, exist, subsist, last, endure (Tu.); ba_l.ike, ba_l.ke, ba_l.u, ba_l.uvike, ba_l.uve, ba_l.tara, ba_l.te, ba_l.ve existence, subsistence, prosperity, thriving (Tu.); baduku property, wealth (Tu.); b(r)atuku subsistence (Te.); badk- to subsist (Kol.); batku prosperity (Kond.a); barkatu prosperity (Tu. < Urdu. barkat); barikati (Kod..)(DEDR 5372). va_r..vippu delivery of possessions through a court; va_r..vu prosperity (Kampara_. Mantarai. 49); career (Na_lat.i, 369); endowment of land for maintenance (Ci_vaka. 2347); wealth (Pu.Ve. 4,12)(Ta.lex.) va_r..i, va_r..iya optative meaning: may you prosper (Nan-. 168); to be over-luxuriant in growth and unproductive; va_r..ippu over-luxuriant growth (Ta.lex.) vardha giving increase or prosperity (RV.); vad.d.ha wealth (Pali); vad.d.haka augmenting (Pali); va_dho profit (S.); va_ddha_, ba_ddha_ increase, profit (P.); ba_dha_ increase in taxes (WPah.); increase (H.); ba_r.(h)a_ increase (B.); bar.ha_ (Or.); va_d.h (M.)(CDIAL 11373). Desire: va_chati desires (RV.); ba_chiba_ to wish, wish for (Or.); a_m.cha likes (OG.)(CDIAL 11478). va_cha_ wish (Skt.); vam.cha_ I wish (Pkt.); wa~nc = wo~_ch partiality, curse (K.)(CDIAL 11479). cf. vacan-ai curse (Ta.lex.) To congratulate; present: vardha_payati increases, exalts, gladdens, congratulates (Skt.); vad.d.ha_pe_ti increases (Pali); vad.d.ha_vai, vad.d.ha_ve_i (Pkt.); bada_wun (K.); vadha_in.u to cause to grow (S.); vadha_un.a_, badha_un.a_ to increase (P.); badha_wn.u (WPah.); bar.ha_unu (N.); bar.haun.o, bar.aun.o to increase (Ku.); bara_iba (A.); ba_ran.a (B.); bar.ha_iba_ (Or.); badha_b song of congratulation (Mth.); badha_na_ to increase (H.); badha_van.a_ songs of congratulation (OMarw.); vadha_vvu~ to welcome ceremonially (G.); va_d.havin.e~ to increase (M.); vad.d.ha_via increased (Pkt.); vadha_i_, badha_i_ blessing (P.); badhe, badha_i_ rejoicing (WPah.); badhai thanksgiving (Ku.); bar.a_i_ congratulation (N.); bara_i pride (A.); badha_i, badha_w congratulation (A.); bar.a_i pride (B.); ba_dha_i songs in celebration of Kr.s.n.a's birth (B.); badha_i_, badha_wa_ congratulations on birth of a child (H.); badha_i_ present (OMarw.); vadha_i_ good news (G.); vadha_vo present sent to bride (G.)(CDIAL 11383). va_r..ttu to felicitate, congratulate, bless, praise (Te_va_. 1203,7); n. benediction, praise (Ta.); va_r..ttuka, va_r..ttikka to bless, praise, extol (Ma.); var..uttu to bless, praise, extol (Kur-al., 1317)(Ta.) (DEDR 5372). va_r..ttiyal theme describing the praise bestowed on a chief by a bard (Pur-ana_. 2, Tur-ai-k-kur-ippu); va_r..ttu invocation or praise of the deity at the beginning of a religious or literary work, one of three man:kal.a_caran.ai (Tan.t.i. 7)(Tol. Po. 421, Urai); va_r..mutal god, as the source or first cause of existence (Tiruva_ca. 6,23)(Ta.lex.) Profit: vat.t.i interest on money (Kat.ampa. Pu. Ili_la_. 147); profit (Na_mati_pa. 645)(Ta.lex.) Ancient tax: vat.t.i-na_r..i an ancient tax (S.I.I. ii,521)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.am < bat.t.a_ (U.) rate of exchange; money-changer's commission; trade discount; profit; vat.t.am-pirital gaining in exchange; vat.t.a-k-ka_ran- money-changer (Ta.lex.) wad. profit (K.); udhi_-khut.i_ profit and loss (S.); vadhi excess (S.); vad.d.hi bribe (L.); vaddh, va_dh increase (P.); vad.d.hi_, va_d.d.hi_, ba_d.d.hi_ bribe (P.); ba_ri interest on money (A.); ba_r.i interest (B.); ba_r.hi_ interest (H.); ved.a interest (OSi.); vad.a increase, profit (Si.)(CDIAL 12076).

6514.Image: to rush forward: va_dhvu~ to advance, rush forward (G.); vaddhan. to advance (L.); vaddhn.a_, baddhn.a_, vadhn.a_ to advance (P.); bad.un to advance (K.)(CDIAL 11376).

6515.Prosperity: vardhana a granter of increase, a bestower of prosperity; causing to increase; growth, increase, prosperity (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) vartta-ma_n-ar < vardhama_na god (Te_va_. 107,10)(Ta.lex.) vardhama_na a palace or temple built in the form of a mystical diagram; growing, increasing (Skt.lex.) vattan-ai prosperity (Civataru. Civaja_n-a-ta_n-a. 43); vatti-ttal to exist (Uttarara_. Arakka. 5)(Ta.lex.) vadha_van. to increase, advance (L.)(CDIAL 11383). vr.ddhi increase, prosperity (RV.); vad.d.hi-, vud.d.hi-, vuddhi- increase; vad.d.hika- prosperous (Pali); vad.hi-, vad.hi_-, vadhri-, vadhi- growth (As'.); vardhi (with -ar- from verb vardhadi)(NiDoc.); vad.d.hi-, vud.d.hi-, ud.d.hi-, viddhi-, vuddhi- increase (Pkt.); ba_r., ba_r.i increase (N.); ba_r. increase (B.); ba_r.h increase (H.); vadh increase (G.); va_d.h increase (M.); va_d.hi_ surplus (G.); va_d.i growth (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12076). vardhate_ grows, increases (RV.); vad.d.hati increases, prospers (Pali); vad.his'ati (As'.); vardhati (NiDoc.); vad.d.hai (Pkt.); bad.una to be born (D..); bad.- to grow (Dm.); wad.d.- (Pas'.); ba_d- (Kal.); bordik to grow (of crops), grow up (Kho.); bad.- to grow (Phal.); bra_dun, ba_dun to become powerful (K.); vadhan.u to grow (S.); badhn.o~_ to fill (WPah.); bar.hn.o, bar.n.o to increase, thrive (Ku.); ba_r.hnu, bar.nu (N.); ba_riba (A.); ba_r.a_ (B.); bar.hiba_ (Or.); ba_r.hab (Mth.); bar.hal (Bhoj.); ba~_dhai (OAw.); ba_r.hab (OMaw.); ba_r.hna_, bar.hna_, badhna_ (H.); badhai (OMarw.); va_dhai increases (OG.); va_dhn.e~ to increase and grow (M.); va_d.ta_ (Konkan.i); vad.inava_ to increase, grow (Si.)(CDIAL 11376).[Euphem. 'to be finished', 'to be fully grown or completed' cf. Maya Singh PD 1183: vaddhan. to dry up (of a well); caus. vadha_van to stop a well (L.); vadhn.a_ to be finished (e.g. of a supply of food) (P.); caus. vadha_un.a_ to extinguish (a light)(P.); badha_wn.u (WPah.); va_d.hn.e~ (used esp. by women through superstitious fear of evil from direct mention of the fact) 'to be expended, be consumed (of food, etc.), be winnowed' (M.)(CDIAL 11376).] vardhana strengthening; means of strengthening (RV.); increasing (MBh.); vaddhana increase (Pali); vad.d.han.a-, vaddhan.a- (Pkt.); vadhin.i_ (S.); vad.un (Si.)(CDIAL 11378). vardhayati makes grow or increase (RV.); rears (AV.); vad.d.he_ti (Pali); vad.heti (As'.); vad.d.hai (Pkt.); bardeik to rear (Kho.); va_dhn.e~ to replenish (a lamp with oil)(M.); vad.anava_ to increase (Si.)(CDIAL 11382). Excellent: vardhita increased, strengthened, gladdened (MBh.); vad.d.hita increased (Pali); vad.hita (As'.); vardhida (NiDoc.); vad.d.hia-, vaddhia- (Pkt.); vadhya_, badhya_ of first quality, excellent (P.); bar.iya_ (N.); bariya_ (A.); ba_r.iya_ (B.); bar.hia_, bar.ia_ (Or.); bar.hi_ya_ (Bhoj.); bar.hiya_ superior (H.); vad.i big, more (Si.); vad.iya larger number or quantity; adv. too much (Si.); vadhi too much, much (S.); ba_r.hi (Aw.); vadhika_ more (S.); vadhi_k more, excessive (L.P.)(CDIAL 11384). Property, article: vastu seat or place of anything (Sus'r.); existing thing (Skt.); affair (MBh.); vatthu property, thing (Pali.Pkt.); vathu thing, article (S.); va~th share of patrimony (M.); vat-a property, thing, ceremony, story (Si.)(CDIAL 11449). To grow: va_d. grow; va_d.ya cause to grow, educate; va_d.a_vol. developing, growing (Kon.lex.)

6516.Distribution; allotment: vi_tittal to share, to allot; vi_ta_ca_ram proportion, rate; vi_tam rate, ratio; share, portion; cf. vihita (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vitarati gives (MBh.); accomplishes (Bhp.); vitirati traverses, brings forward (RV.); vitarati goes through, overcomes (Pali); viarai hands over (Pkt.); vetarun to carry on or through (some difficult work in face of obstacles)(K.)(CDIAL 11719). vidadha_ti apportions, puts in order (RV.); ordains (Gr.S'rS.); pp. vihita (RV.); caus. vidha_payati (R.); vidadha_ti, vidahati assigns, practises (Pali); vidaha_mi (As'.); vihe_i makes (Pkt.); bihiba to lay down as a rule (A.); bihiba_ to ordain, arrange, accomplish (Or.); vihin.em. to ordain, settle (OM.); j(a)h- to place, put (Pas'.); vihita, vihitaka arranged (Pali); vihia (Pkt.); vihi_lem. (OM.); viha_van.a arrangement (Pkt.); bhiya_unu to be able, to finish (N.); biha_iba_, bhia_iba_ to cause to happen, arrange (Or.)(CDIAL 11732). vihita arranged, fixed, settled; ordered, prescribed, decrreed; distributed, apportioned; vihitam an order, command, decree; vihiti performance, doing, action; arrangement (Skt.lex.) cf. parive_s.a serving of food (AV.)(CDIAL 7885). cf. parivis.t.a offered (as food)(Ka_tyS'r.)(CDIAL 7879). pari- vesana_ distribution of food, feeding, serving meals (Pali.lex.) To distribute: ba_r.a_ to distribute food (B.); ba_r.hiba_ to serve out food (Or.); ba_d.hna_ to divide (H.); va_d.hn.e~ to serve out (food); to fill (a lamp with oil)(M.)(CDIAL 11381). balasi, bal.ci to serve out food (Kor.); var..akkam gift (Ta.); var..an.n.uka to grant a favour (Ma.)(DEDR 5292). parivavat.a exchange (OSi.)(CDIAL 7890). To serve: parosa_ dish of food sent to neighbour or friend or offered to guest (H.); parasa_ serving of food (Or.); parauso, paroso a meal for one person placed before him in a dish (Ku.); parive_s.a serving of food (AV.)(CDIAL 7885). parive_s.aka one who serves food (MBh.); parive_saka serving at meals (Pali); pariha_ one who serves food at table (P.); paro_ssa_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 7886). parive_s.an.a atendance, serving at meals (S'Br.); parive_san.a serving food (Pali); parive_san.a, pari_san.a (Pkt.); pari_n.i_ distributing food (P.); parasun.i_, parusun.i_, parasa_n.a, parusa_n.a serving a meal (Or.)(CDIAL 7887). parive_s.ati attends, serves food (AV.); parivisati waits upon, serves with (Pali); pari(v)e_sai serves food (Pkt.); pri_hn.a_ to serve a meal (L.); pari_hn.a_ (P.); parasa_ (B.); parusiba_, parasiba_ (Or.); parosal (Bhoj.); parosai, parasai (OAw.); parosna_ to offer food to a guest or send to a neighbour (H.); parosn.a_ (P.); puru_sai, purasai serves a meal (OMarw.); pri_sai serves (OG.); pari_svu~, parasvu~ to serve faithfully; pirasvu~ to serve a meal (OG.)(CDIAL 7888). Sharing; division of crops: ba~_t.ho share (G.); bat.ha_ (Mai.); vam.t.han.a sharing (Skt.); van.t.a share (Skt.); ban.d., van.d.a_, ban.d.a_ (P.); ban.d. (WPah.); vam.t.aga share (Pkt.); bano (Sh.); wan.t., wa_t., wen.d. (Pas'.); wan.d. (K.); van.d.a (S.); van.d. (L.P.); ba~_t.a_ (B.); van.d.i_ (L.); ba_n.d.a_ (WPah.); ba_n, ba~_n. (Ku.); ba~_r. (N.); ba~t.a_ (A.); ba~_t. (B.); ba_n.t.a (Or.); ba~_t. division of crops (Bi.); ba~_t.i_ (Mth.); ba~_t. (H.); ba~_t.a_ share (H.); va~_t., va~_t.o (G.); va~_t.a_, va_t.a_ (M.); va_n.t.o (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11235). van.d.a_ra_ act of dividing (G.)(CDIAL 11237). van.t.ati, van.t.ayati shares (Dha_tup.); van.t.ati shares (Pali); vam.t.ai (Pkt.); met.- (Ash.); mat.- (Wg.); bet.- (Kt.); wan.t.-, wen.t.-, wan.d.- (Pas'.); be_n.t. (Gaw.); ban.t.un.u, ban.t.n.o_ (K.); van.d.an.u (S.); van.d.an. (L.); van.d.n.a_ (P.); ban.d.ana_ (P.); ban.t.n.u~, ban.d.n.a_ (WPah.); ba_n.n.o, ba~_t.n.o (Ku.); ba~_r.nu (N.); ba~_t.iba (A.); ba~_t.a_ (B.); ba_n.t.iba_ (Or.); ba~_t.ab (Mth.); ba~_t.al (Bhoj.); ba_m.t.ai (OAw.OMarw.); ba~_t.na_ (H.); va~_t.vu~ (G.); va~_t.n.e~ (M.); ban.t.h (Wot..)(CDIAL 11238). Tax: pa_n.t.ivari an ancient tax (S.I.I. iv,79)(Ta.lex.) pa_ti half (Ta.); id., a share (Ma.); pa.dy half (Ko.); po.0y id. (To.)(DEDR 4074). pahar.i part, share, portion; pahpa (paht-) to share, apportion; apportionment (Kui); payal share, half (Ta.)(DEDR 3936). Distribution of wages: batwa_ra_ (U.) > pat.t.uva_t.a_, pat.t.uva_t.u distribution, disbursement of wages; pat.t.upat.i amount of cost, charges, expenses or outlay (Ta.); pat.t.ubad.i id. (Te.); pat.t.uppat.ital to submit to an order; pat.t.aiyam title deed < pat.t.a_ (U.); pat.t.o_lai, pat.t.o_likai consolidated statement of ledger accounts; catalogue of artciles, inventory; pat.t.o_lai-po_t.u to make a list of articles; pat.va_ri registrar < pat.wa_ri (M.)(Ta.lex.) List; invoice: pat.t.i list, invoice; curriculum (Ta.); id. (U.); pat.t.iyal invoice; pat.t.il id.; pat.t.o_lai first draft of a petition, etc. especially what is written to dictation; document, edict, royal proclamation; consolidated statement of ledger accounts; list, catalogue of articles, inventory (Ci_vaka. 829, Urai); pat.t.o_la royal proclamation, edict (Ma.); pat.t.o_lai-c-carakku drugs, as distinguished from curry stuffs; pat.t.o_lai-po_t.utal to make a list of articles (Ta.lex.) paddu item, entry in an account (Te.); poddu thing, item (Pa.)(DEDR 3919). Sharing of crops: pat.a_yi sharing of crops between a landlord and his tenant, the landlord's share varying from 1/6 to 1/2 (R.F.); bat.a_i id. (U.); pat.a_yi revenue paid in kind (R.F.); pat.i batta, subsistence money (R.F.); the ordinary measure of capacity = 8 ollocks, kottu of Jaffna; fixed daily allowance for food (Kalit. 35)(Ta.lex.) pat.it-taram, pat.i-k-kat.t.al.ai daily allowance to a temple for conducting worship (Ta.lex.) pat.imur-ai regular course (Ci. Ci. 8,1); the fixed day or terms for which extra allowance is granted (Ta. lex.) pat.i-y-al.attal to measure out grain on account of wages; to make or pay allowances for one's maintenance (Tan-ippa_. i,121,5)(Ta.lex.) -pa_t.t.am : tax or rent; payable prob. for an industry or profession (Ta.)(SITI.EI 21.IEG.) a_dir.ai-p-pa_t.t.am, attir.ai-p-pa_t.t.am tax on cattle (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) an:ga_d.i-pa_t.t.am, an:ga_d.i-k-ku_li tax on bazaars, shops (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) antara_ya-p-pa_t.t.am, antara_ya-k-ka_s'u internal taxes; minor taxes like the profession tax, etc., payable to the village assembly (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) eri-mi_n-pa_t.t.am a tax; income from fish in the tank (Ta.)(SII 12.IEG.) Synonyms: pa_s'i-p-pa_t.t.am, mi_n-pa_t.t.am... id.ai-p-pa_t.t.am, id.ai-p-pu_t.ci tax on herdsmen or cattle-breeders (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ilai-va_n.iya-p-pa_t.t.am tax on the sellers of betel-leaves (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) kol-mur.ai-p-pa_d.u customary dues (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ma_ppat.t.ad.ai tax prob. for penning of cattle (Ta.)(SITI. IEG.) mi_n-pa_t.t.am tax on fishing (Ta.lex.S.I.I.iii.115). monam-pa_t.t.am a tax of uncertain import (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.)[cf. manom cultivated field in the jungle or upland (Pa.)(DEDR 4701).] paccai-p-pa_t.t.am, -pan.am, ka_rttigai-k- ka_s'u, -ka_n.i, -paccai, -aris'i, ka_ttigai-p-paccai payments in kind in the month of Ka_rttigai, i.e. during the harvest (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.); a_d.i-p-paccai perquisites payable in grain in the month of a_d.i after the harvest (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) pa_t.t.a-nel paddy to be paid by the tenant to the landlord as per terms of lease (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) tat.t.a_r-pa_t.t.am tax on goldsmiths (Ta.)(SII 12.SITI.IEG.) Synonym: tat.t.-oli prob. tax on the smiths or the workshop of the artisans like the blacksmiths (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) Rent: va_t.ai rent (Ta.); cf. bha_t.a (Skt.); va_t.akai rent, hire (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 85); va_t.a_kkat.amai permanently fixed tax (S.I.I. v,120); va_t.ikaikka_ran- customer; customary supplier of goods (Ta.lex.) bhar name of a partic. low caste (Bhoj.); ubhar. landless worker (G. cmpd. with u- 'without', i.e. one without servants); ber.e, ber.i_ 3 sg. pret. brought (Ash.); bra (Kt.); br.et they begin (Gaw.); bhata supported, fed (Pali); bhataka hired servant (Pali); bhat.aka, bhata, bhataka hired servant (As'.); bhayaga servant (Pkt.); bhuaga worshipper in a temple (Pkt.); bhuvo id. (G.); bur.i_ servant maid (Pas'.); bhar.u clever, proficient; an adept (S.)(CDIAL 9588). bhar.oi_ paid servant (Ku.); bha_t.akaji_vika_ living by wages (HYogS'.)(CDIAL 9469). badaga, badiga, badega a low man or servant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bhar.et paid servant (Ku.); bhar.aut.i_, bhar.ot.i_ one who plies for hire (H.)(CDIAL 9470). batta, batya batta, an allowance beyond the settled rate of pay given on occasions of extraordinary service, extra allowance; allowance made by a creditor to one detained by him in prison, subsistence-money generally to prisoners, to attending witnesses, to peons executing processes etc. (Ka.); batte (Ma.); bhatta_ (M.H.); bhr.tya to be nourished or maintained: a servant; the minister of a king; bhr.tye maintenance, support, sustenance, food; hire, wages (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Regular (daily) allowance: pat.i fixed daily allowance for food (Ta.); regular allowance; at the rate of (Ma.); pat.i-y-a_l. hired servant, one whose wages are paid in grain (Ta.); par.y a measure (ol.k) of grain given to a Toda when he comes to a village; payr. bazaar measure of grain (= ol.k); quantity of food that one person eats at a meal (Ko.); por.y rice given at funeral; contribution given to Badagas at a two-day funeral (To.); pad.i an allowance in food to servants, a gift to friends or poor people (Ka.); daily allowance of food, extra pay to servants when travelling, alms in kind (Tu.)(DEDR 3849). Wages: bha_t.a wages (Skt.); bha_t.aka, bha_t.i wages (esp. of prostitution)(A_ryav.); bhatta_ extra pay to public servants or soldiers (P.); food taken to farmers in fields (P.); bha_ta_, bhatta_ advances made to ploughmen without interest (H.); bha_tu~ extra allowance above pay given to public servants, etc.(G.); bata daily ration or pay of coolie or soldier (Si.); bha_r.i_ one who lets out oxen, etc. on hire, pack-carrier (P.); bhar.iya_ paid servant (Ku.); balayat.a dat. pl. for the servants (Si.inscr.); bha_t.a wages (Skt.); bha_d.aya hire (Pkt.); bha_r.o (S.); bha_r.a_ rent, fare; pa_ra_ (with low rising tone)(L.); bha_r.a_ rent, hire (P.B.); hire, price of labour (Mth.); hire, fare, freight, rent (of house)(H.); bha_r.u, pl. bha_r.a~_ charge for grinding corn (WPah.)[cf. pari-, para_y to grind (flour)(Kol.); paray- to grind (Nk.); padgare a stone mill for grinding (Nk.)(DEDR 3967)]; bha_r.o wages, hire (Ku.); bha_ra_ rent, hire (A.); bhar.a_ rent of house, wages of prostitution (Or.); bha_r wages for parching grain (Bi.); wages (Mth.); bha_ro wages for parching grain (Mth.); bha_r. wages of prostitution, pimp (H.); bha_r.u~ hire, fare (G.); bha_d.e~ (M.); bha_r.an.u to hire (S.); bhatta wages, tip; bhat.t.ha id. (Pali); bha_d.i_, bha_d.iya_ hire, tax (Pkt.); bha_r.i wages of a pimp (S.); bha_r. prostitute's wage (P.H.); bha_r.i profit on letting out prostitutes (G.); bha_d. (M.); balaya, bala wages, hire (Si.); bha_d.iya hired (Pkt.); bha_r.i_, bha_r.yo pimp (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9468). bhr.ti support, food (RV.S'Br.); wages, hire (Mn.); bhati wages (Pali); bhatika_ fee (Pali); s'arira-hud.iyami in the maintenance of the body (NiDoc.); bhai-, bhii-, bhui- wages (Pkt.); bhar.il servant (B.)(CDIAL 9591). bhur.to wages, hire (Ku.)(CDIAL 9592). bhri_n.a_ti injures, hurts (3 pl. bhri_n.anti) (RV.); bri_ne_t cut (Pers.); brenik (with rising tone on root syllable) to clip, shear (Kho.); gerdan-bren having the neck shaved (term of ridicule)(Kho.)(CDIAL 9687).

6517.To smear: var..aku smoothness, softness, gloss (Patin-o. Tiruvi_ran. 70)(Ta.lex.) bor..iyuvike smearing (Ka.lex.) bar..acu to cause to smear (a floor etc. with cow-dung); bar..u-ga_re mortar that is applied to a wall, etc. for smoothing and finishing; bar..u putting on or applying to; bar..i, bor..i to put on or apply to as lime (white-wash), mud etc. to a wall, cow-dung to the floor of a house, etc., an ointment to the body; to besmear as the floor of a house with cow-dung; to anoint (Ka.); var..i (Ta.); vad.i (Ma.); bar..ida en.n.e the oil applied to the body; bar..i to scrape together with the hand; ba_cu, ba_rcu id. (Ka.); va_ru (Ta.Ma.Te.) (Ka.lex.) var..i-ttal to rub in with the hand as an ointment; to smear as sandal paste (Ci_vaka. 699); to wipe, scrape; to gather together, as a pulpy mass (Tan-ippa_. ii,383); bal.i id. (Ka.); var..iyal that which is gathered by wiping, scraping etc. (Ta.lex.) Resin: prase_ka resin (R.); flowing forth (MBh.); pasia_ water filtered from boiled rice (Or.); pasewa_ juice draining off fresh opium (Bi.) (CDIAL 8852). pacai gum (Ta.lex.) pacai stickiness, paste, glue, glutinous substance in fruits, roots etc.; (-v-, -nt-) to become glutinous or viscous; stick together; payirppu resin; payan- juice; payin- gum, glue (Ta.); paca, pas'a, paya gum, glue; payala, pakala the pulp inside the shell forming the coconut (Ma.); pac flour-paste (Ko.); pagil to be sticky, viscid, glutinous, adhesive, adhere, join; paginu, pagina gum, resin, exudation of trees (Ka.); paya gum, resin; pas, pas' greasiness, oiliness (Tu.); pe_semu juice or sap as of mango or palm fruit (Te.); pacihta_na_ to stick (Go.); pai_ starch made of rice diluted in water; padxna_ to thicken, acquire half consistence (as glue, paste), become soft, half-melt; render half-fluid (Kur.); pathge to be congealed (Malt.)(DEDR 3827). cf. ban:ke gum, glue, resin (Ka.); bakka gum (Nk.); resin (Kol.)(DEDR 3817).

6518.Scented clay: va_sitika_ scented clay; va_sitaka scented, perfumed (va_sitakena pia_kena nha_yeyya : should bathe with perfumed soap)(Pali.lex.) Perfume: cf. va_sa perfume (Car.)(CDIAL 11592). cf. mukha-va_sa perfume (Skt.lex.) bas smell, odour, scent; to smell, to scent; basmati a variety of the (scented) rice plant (Santali.lex.) hasuku sharp, disagreeable smell (Ka.); pasi smell, scent (Te.)(DEDR 3826). cf. pa_s- to become stale (Nk.)(DEDR 4057). va_ti blows (RV.); va_yati (A_past.); va_yati (2 sg. va_si) blows, emits odour (Pali); wayi (wind) blows (Pas'.); va_vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 11501). ba_su stench (Ka.M.); ba_sa_ smelling, stale, not fesh (H.)(Ka.lex.) va_sa perfuming; perfume; pat.a-va_sa, pat.a-va_saka perfumed powder; va_saka perfuming, fumigating, filling with perfume; perfume; va_sa scent, trace, sign; mukha-va_sa, mukha-va_sana a perfume for the mouth; va_sana the act of perfuming, fumigating with fragrant vapours; perfume (Ka.); va_sana-dravya a pefume; va_sana_-va_sana perfuming with scent; va_sanisu to perfume; va_sane smell, odour, scent; fragrance, flavour; va_sayo_ga fragrant powder sprinkled on the cloths, the o_kul.i (Ka.); vasanto_tsava the spring festival or celebration of the return of spring; any festive occasion on which vasanta (o_kul.i) is sprinkled or squirted; va_sisu to have an odour or particular scent, to smell, to be fragrant, to be perfumed; to perceive by the nose, to smell; to perfume(Ka.lex.) vacantam scent, fragrance (Cu_t.a_.); scented powder (Catu.); vasanti tuscan jasmine, iruva_t.ci (Na_mati_pa. 47); va_santi_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) va_cam smell, scent, odour, perfume (Ci_vaka. 2735); aromatic substance (paca-va_cam : Cilap. 5,26); va_can-am smell (Ta.); va_can-ai smell, perfume, fragrance (Ta.); va_can-ai-t-tiraviyam articles of perfume, spices; va_can-ai-p-pan.t.am id. (Ta.); va_cavan- vendor of the five aromatics (pa_cavar va_cavar : Cilap. 5,26); va_ca-v-un.t.ai ball of perfumery (Cilap. 14,171, Arum.); va_cittal to emit fragrance, smell (Tan-ippa_. i,323,18)(Ta.lex) paca-va_cam the five aromatics, viz., ilavan:kam, e_lam, karppu_ram, ca_ti-k-ka_y, takko_lam (Cilap. 5,26, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) va_s to scent, perfume, incense, fumigate, make fragrant; to steep, infuse (Skt.lex.) va_sa perfume (Car.); scent (Pali.Pkt.); va_saka perfume (Skt.); ba_s scent (B.Mth.); stink (H.); smell (P.); wind (Wg.);[cf. semant. gan wind (Kho.); scent, wind (of game), wind, the air (Kho.); ga_nd, gnzu stink (K.)(CDIAL 4131); ga_ndhika perfumer (Skt.); gandhika perfumier (Skt.); perfumer (Pali); gam.dhia (Pkt.); gnzu, ganzas tanner (K.); ga~_dhi a stinking insect, esp. the flying bug (B.); gandhi stinking insect (Or.); ga~_dhi_, gandhi_ a stinking flying bug (Bi.); ga~_dhi_, ga~dhiya_ a stinking bug (H.)(CDIAL 4133)]; ba_sa scent (OAw.S.); va_s smell (P.); scent (G.M.)(CDIAL 11592). va_sayati perfumes (MBh.); va_se_ti perfumes (Pali); va_sai (Pkt.); ba_sab (Mth.); basna_ to be perfumed (H.); va_svu~ to send out fragrance (G.); va_sa_pe_ti perfumes (Pali); basa_unu to smell (N.); basa_vai perfumes (OAw.); basa_na_ to stink (H.)(CDIAL 11601). va_sita infused, scented (MBh.); scented (Pali); va_sitka scented (Pali); va_sida, va_siya scented, smelling, stale (Pkt.); basir he-goat (Kho.); veha_, beha_ stale (P.); beha_ (L.); ba_hir.a_ eating stale bread in worship of Si_tala_ (P.); ba_o~ stale (WPah.); ba_i~ stale (WPah.); ba_si_ (Ku.); ba_si musty, stale (N.); ba_hi stale, kept overnight (A.); ba~hiya_ stale, soaked in water overnight, dull, pale (A.); ba_si stale; beser.a_ stale, musty (B.); stale (Or.); ba_si_, basiya_ food saved from supper for breakfast (Bi.); ba_si_ stinking, stale (H.); ba_si_, ba_ssi_ stale (P.); ba_si_ (L.S.); bsi scented (K.); va_si_ stale (G.)(CDIAL 11604). va_cantam southern breeze (Ta.Skt.lex.) vasanta spring season (RV.); vasantaka (Skt.); vasanta spring (Pali); vasam.ta (NiDoc.Pkt.); wosunt (Ash.); wasu~_t, waso~_t, oso~_t (Wg.); wosut (Kt.); usti (Pr.); basan (Dm.); wahen(d), wyen (Pas'.); basan (Wot..Kat..); woso~_t summer (Gmb.); wasand, wasan spring (Gaw.); ba_sun, ba_sund (Kal.); bosun (Kho.); basan (Bshk.); basa_n (Tor.); basan (Sv.); basa_na_, basa_n (Phal.); bazo_du, bazo_nu, bazo_, baso_n (Sh.); vasat (Si.)(CDIAL 11439); vasantaka_la spring season (R.); bazona_l next spring (Sh.)(CDIAL 11440). wezdar season between spring and autumn (Kt.)(CDIAL 11441). va_ca-ney fragrant ointment (Ci_vaka. 1476); va_ca-v-en.n.ai id. (Ci_vaka. 2737)(Ta.lex.) cf. ney any unctuous substance, grease, fat, oil, lard, ghee (Ma.)(DEDR 3746). Scent: pasi smell, scent (Te.); hasuku sharp, disagreeable smell (Ka.)(DEDR 3826). va_s smell (Skt.); bese smell (Pr.); ubas putrid smell (H.)(CDIAL 2083). ubassan. to become musty or mouldy; ubassia_ musty (L.); ubas.na_ to have a bad smell, be putrid, rot, ferment (P.); ubasna_ to smell offensive, rot; upasna_, umasna_ (H.); caus. ubsa_un.a_ to cause to putrefy (P.); ubsa_na_ (H.); busna_ to smell putrid (H.)(CDIAL 2084). cf. semant. bissa-bol myrrh (H.); a cmpd. bissa + bo_l.a i.e. smelling + gum-myrrh. Musty smell: baske left over from the previous meal, fusty, stale, unfinished; basi stale, fusty (Santali.lex.) hasuku a disagreeable smell of certain leaves or unripe fruits, the smell of raw meat etc. (Ka.); pa_yu, pa~_cu, pa_su to be rotten; p(r)a~_ci foulness, staleness, nastiness (Te.); pa_s- to get addled, get sour (of food)(Kol.); to become stale (Nk.); pa~_se left-over food from the previous day, spoiled food (Ga.); pa_n.t.al rancidity, mustiness, fetidness, mouldiness, staleness; pa_n.t.ai bad smell, as of rotten fish (Ta.)(DEDR 4057). cf. pa_r.. (-pp-, -tt-) to go to ruin, become useless (Ta.)(DEDR 4110). cf. par..a old (Ta.); pan.t.ai antiquity (Ta.); par..utu anything rotten, state of being a corpse (Ta.); pay- (before vowel), pa- (before consonant) old; payd that which is old (Ko.); par..asu to be spoiled (Ka.); paran:guni to become stale, musty, decay; paran:gelu, paran:gu staleness, decay (Tu.); harngi stale (Kor.); p(r)a~_ta, pa_ta old, decayed (Te.); pr.a_n old (of things, not persons)(Pe.); pr.a_n(ca) old (Mand..); pr.a_d.i id.; pr.a_k- (food) to become stale (Kui); pace old (of things)(Malt.)(DEDR 3999). ausna_ to become musty (H.)(CDIAL 458). visa~_dh, visa_nh, bisa_nh stench; visa~_dha_, bisa~_dha_ foetid (P.); visragandha musty smell (VarBr.S.); smelling of raw meat (Skt.); vissagandha smell like raw flesh (Pali); vissagam.dhi smelling of raw meat etc. (Pkt.); bisa_hand, bisa~_dh smell of raw meat or fish; bisa~_ya~dh, bisa_handa_ adj. (H.)(CDIAL 12026). cf. vit.akku flesh, meat (Pat.t.in-ap. 176); carcass (Ta.Ma.); bikku flesh (Ka.)(DEDR 5390). visra musty, smelling of raw meat (Sus'r.); visraka (S'a_rn:gS.); vissa smell of raw meat (Pali); vissa, vi_sa smelling of raw meat; musty smell as of raw meat (Pkt.); bras mustiness (K.) (CDIAL 12025). vissa, vissa-gandha a smell like raw flesh (Pali.lex.) cf. vicirakanti < vis'ragandhi yellow orpiment, pon-n-ari-ta_ram = orpiment, a sulphide of arsenic (Ta.lex.) Meat: baze, ba_ze meat (Pr.)(CDIAL 9401). pis'ita made ready; n. prepared flesh, meat (AV.); pisia meat (Pkt.); pusur meat, flesh, muscle (Kho.); pei_ (Pas'.); pi_eu, po_i, pi_ meat (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8217). pe_s'i_ piece of flesh (Gobh.); muscle (Ya_j.); pe_si_ lump (usu. of flesh), piece (Pali); piece of meat (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8384). pai_ fat (Kho.); pi_vas nourishment (milk, fodder, etc.)(RV.) (CDIAL 8243). vasa_ fat, grease (VS.); fat (Pali.Pkt.); was marrow, brain (K.); waha fat, grease, blubber of fish (S.); baso fat (Ku.); boso (N.); basa_ fat, suet (Or.)(CDIAL 11443). basyu_r.o sweetmeat made of fat and molasses (Ku.)(CDIAL 11434). ?pijj, pejj wild goat of a reddish colour (WPah.)(CDIAL 8158). Grease: upa_n:ks.yati will smear (Skt.)(CDIAL 2292). upa_n:ga smearing (Car.); va~_g oil for greasing woodwork (L.); va~_gu oil or soap for axles (P.); ba~_gn.a_ to grease axles (EP.); u~_gna_, au~gna_ id.; u~gan act of greasing (H.); u~gan. axle-grease (G.); va~gan. id.; va~gavin.e~ to grease axles (M.)(CDIAL 2293). wazawun to moisten (K.)(CDIAL 2295). upa_jati pl. anoints, greases (a wheel)(TS.); um.jissai will wet; um.jia sprinkled (Pkt.); u~jvu~ to oil, grease (G.); va~jn.e~ to smear a pot with oil or marking-nut (M.)(CDIAL 2296). upa_jana anointing (Mn.); uvam.jan.a smearing (Pkt.); u~jan. greasing, sticky substance into which axle-grease changes, a thing with which a spell is thrown on a child (G.); va~jan. materials for smearing pots with (M.); vadana unguent (Si.)(CDIAL 2297). abhyakta anointed (S'Br.)(CDIAL 9500). Exudation; suet; glue: vasa_ the marrow of the flesh, fast, marrow; adeps, suet; any oily or fatty exudation; brain (Skt.lex.) mija marrow; at.t.hi-mija marrow of bones; mijarahita marrow-less; mijapun.n.a marrowy (Pali.lex.) cf. in.am, nin.am fat, flesh, serum (Ta.); nen.a fat, marrow (Ka.); nina marrow of the bones, serum of the flesh (Tu.)(DEDR 2921). vase, base the serum or marrow of the flesh, marrow, adeps, fat; nen.a id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vapa_ caul, omentum (VS.); mucous secretion of bones, marrow, fat (Skt.); vapa_vant having an omentum (RV.); vaya_ marrow, fat (Pkt.); bawa_li_ fat, grease (Ku.)(CDIAL 11287). Image: roe of fish: wav, vev roe of fish (K.)(CDIAL 11287). var..ukku slimy substance, mucus as on fat or on new-born calf; var..umpu id., fat, suet; var..u-ni_r rheum of the eye; var..alai exudation from a sore (Ta.); var..ukku unctuous fat; var..uppu glue, mucus (Ma.); bampu, bompu, bombalu a slimy and sticky vegetable substance used as a soap; bel.pe smooth (Ka.); vir..ukku fat, suet, oiliness, grease; vir..utu ghee in congealed state, butter, ghee, fat, honey (Ta.); vir..utu butter coagulating (Ma.); bol.aku the fat of fish, fish-tar (Tu.)(DEDR 5299). bali to be sticky (Ka.); baliyuni to stick fast as a plaster, poultice, etc.; balipuni to stick, adhere, hold fast (Tu.)(DEDR 5284). Grease, fat; suet: vasa_ fat, grease (VS.); id. (TS.AitBr.); brain (Skt.); vanha_ (Av.); vasa_ fat (Pali.Pkt.); marrow (Pkt.); was marrow, brain (K.); waha fat, grease, blubber of fish (S.); baso fat; bwas (Ku.); boso (N.); basa_ fat, suet (Or.)(CDIAL 11443). basyu_r.o sweetmeat made of fat and molasses (Ku.)(CDIAL 11434). pasumeda suet; meda fat, grease; vasa_ya lepeti v.t., vasa_litta pp., vasa_yutta, medabahula greasy (Pali.lex.) Scented chaplet (linga): "Apart from scented oils and ointments, the Egyptians had thought of another method of perfuming the body. A solid mass of fat, presumably ox tallow, previously perfumed with herbs and spices, was shaped into a cone and fixed to the wig or placed on the crown of the head. During the festivities part of the part would inevitably soften or even melt and envelop the wig, clothes and body with its grease and scent. This custom may not seem very appetising to modern Western taste, but it nevertheless survived into the present century among certain Beduin tribes who inhabited deserts around Egypt. Dioscorides gives detailed instructions concerning the manufacture of scented fat... (cf. wall-painting of lady with unguent cone (shaped like a lin:ga) in Theban Tomb No. 69; 18th Dynasty; wall-painting of a young girl with a pot of unguent (shaped like a lin:ga) from a tomb at Thebes; 18th Dynasty 1567-1320 BC.)(Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.51).

6519.Image: to comb: ba_cu to comb (Ka.); barcu (Tu.); va_ru to cut length-wise; to trim a palm leaf to write upon; to put the hair in order by a comb, to comb (Ta. Ma.); va_r-u, va_l.u id. (Ma.); vakir to cut in longitudinal little pieces, to divide, slice; to part or disentangle as the hair (Ta.Ma.); ba_cisu to cause to comb (Ka.lex.)

6520.Image: different ways or roads: bar..i-var..i different ways or roads (Ka.); bar..i a way, a road (Ka.); vati, vari, var..i (Ta.); var..i (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. var..i way, road, path (Ma.)(DEDR 5297). val.am path (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pur..ai forest path (Ta.)(DEDR 4317). var..i way, road, path (Kur-al., 38); var..ippat.u-tal to send on a journey (Tirukko_. 214, Kol.u); var..i-p-purai rest-house (E_la_ti, 2); var..i-par-i to waylay and rob (I_t.u, 6,1,1); var..i-y-alaittal to rob on the highway (Poruna. 21, Urai.); var..i-po_va_r travellers (Te_va_. 916,2); var..i-po_-tal to go on one's way (Poruna. 93); var..i-y-at.ai-ttal to obstruct the way (Kur-al., 38); var..i-y-a_yam toll, cun:kam (Ta.inscr.); var..i-varuttam fatigue or weariness from journey (Cir-upa_n.. 40, Urai.); var..i-vaittal to commence a journey (Ta.lex.)

6521.From generation to generation; image: series, line, succession: var..i-va_-tal (var..i-varutal) to be hereditary (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,2,2); to be handed down from generation to generation (Kur-al., 809); to come of a good family (E_la_ti, 1); to follow, abide by (E_la_ti, 1)(Ta.lex.) var..i-var..i from generation to generation (Tol. Po. 422)(Ta.lex.) var..i series; line; succession, paramparai (Periyapu. Tiruna_vuk. 333); that which is subsequent (Pur-ana_. 176); var..i-na_l. succeeding day (Pur-ana_.176); var..i-mur-ai adv. afterwards, subsequently (Kalit. 82)(Ta.lex.) var..i-t-teyvam family god, tutelary deity (Cu_t.a_. Pa_yi. 6); var..i-mur-ai descendant (Kur-al., 508); var..i-y-at.ai presumptive heir (Perun.. Ucaik. 37,222); var..iyila_r descendants (Insc. Pudu. 11); var..i-t-ton.t.u hereditary slavery or subservience, especially to a diety (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 91,1); var..ipat.uteyvam tutelary deity; the deity which a man worships as his own god or the god of his family or caste, dist. fr. e_r-put.ai-k-kat.avul (deity appropriate to the subject-matter dealt with in a book)(Tol. Po. 422); id. (Kur-al., Ava.); var..i-mutal id. (Te_va_. 485,5); progenitor, original head of a family or dynasty (Periyapu. Pukar..c. 8); var..i-y-at.iya_r hereditary worshippers or devotees (Tiruva_ca. 7,11); var..i-vanta_n- descendant; follower (E_la_ti, 1)(Ta.lex.) Descendants: var..i posterity, descendants (Kur-al., 44); race, family, lineage (Pin..); relation, dependant (Pur-ana_. 239); var..ikkan.n.a_r descendants, progeny (S.I.I. ii,352)(Ta.lex.) van.sa_vali_ genealogy; van.sa_vali_vidu_ genealogist; van.sa_nukkamena hereditarily; van.saparampara_ family (Pali.lex.) Heritage: cf. da_ya_dayogga heritable; da_ya_da heritage; da_ya_davatthu hereditament; da_yadala_bhi_ heritor (Pali.lex.)

6522.Ambassador: var..iyurai-ttal to speak as an ambassador (Kur-al., 688); var..i-y-uraippa_n- ambassador, tu_tan- (Kur-al., 688)(Ta.lex.)

6523.Succession of gifts; marriage presents: {Echo word} bar..i-var..i, bar..i-vali, bar..u-vali a company-gift: a gift that does not come alone, but is followed by another, two and more presents; especially the present to one's daughter, and other presents besides, given at the time of marriage (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) bar..i, bari, bali, bar..a, bar..ige, bar..u, bar..r..i a gift, a present (Ka.); al.i to bestow, grant (Ta.); var..an:ku to give; to distribute; var..accu to grant a favour (Ma.); var..ai offering of rice etc; vat.ittal giving in possession (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) ba_r..u-ged.isu to ruin one's married state; ba_r..u, ba_r.. married state, marriage; ba_r..uvike, ba_r..vike living (Ka.); bar..uve-ged.u prosperity to be ruined; ba_r..isu ma_d.u to live; ba_r..isu to cause to live (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) var..i-vakai resources and conveniences; expedients, means (Ta.lex.) var..i boon, gift (Upate_caka_. Civatturo_. 115); adv. afterwards (Kur-al., 461)(Ta.lex.) Liberal donor: val.l.al person of unbounded liberality, liberal donor; benevolence; ability; val.l.ar-r-an-am liberality, munificence (Perun.. Narava_n.a. 8,6); val.l.an-mai id. (Na_lat. i,386); val.l.iyo_n- generous, liberal person (Pur-ana_. 47); val.l.iyan- id. (Kampara_. Ve_l.vip. 29)(Ta.lex.) Tax: bali tax, impost, tribute, royal revenue; an oblation or religious offering, any oblation or act of worship not being a real sacrifice (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) To give liberally: por..i-tal to give liberally (Cu_t.a_.); to abound as wealth (Perun.. Ucaik. 47,110)(Ta.lex.) pogadi, pagadi tribute, tax (Ka.); pud.uku giving; to give (Te.); por..i-tal giving (Ta.); var..an:ku to give (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Use: par..aka, bar..ike, bar..ake use; custom, practice; exercise; the state of being well known or understood by practice; course, way of action (Ka.); par..akkam, var..akkam, var..i (Ta.); bar..i kol. to take the proper way or order; to place together in regular order (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) par..aku (par..aki-) to practise, become initiated (Tiv. Na_yc. 4,10)(Ta.lex.); become acquainted, be familiar; become fitted, tempered, whole-some (as a utensil or tool), become broken or trained (as an animal); par..akku (par..akki-) to train, domesticate; par..akkam training, exercise, use (Te_va_. 524,5) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.); habit, practice, custom; tameness, domesticity; pur..an:ku (pur..an:ki-) to practise, exercise, put to use; be conversant or acquainted, associate with; pur..akkam familiarity, practice, use (Ta.); par..akuka to be accustomed, acquainted; par..akkam long habit, acquaintance, experience; par..akkuka to practise anything, inure oneself to (Ma.); pal.g- (pal.gy-) to become tame, become used to a person's ways, become amenable to suggestion for sexual intercourse; pal.k- (pal.ky-) to tame; pal.km (obl.pal.kt-) being on intimate terms; pol.n:g- (pol.n:gy-) to be on intimate terms with, having interdining intercourse with (Ko.); pa.g (pa.gy-) to use (things, path); pa.k path, track (To.); par..aka use, practice, habit, custom; par..agu to become used to, be trained; be in use; par..akisu, par..agisu to accustom, make familiar by use, train; practise; use (Ka.)(DEDR 4000). cf. var..an:ku (var..an:ki-) to move, proceed, advance, be current or in use, be accustomed, practised; use, practise; give, distribute; cause to move, send, discharge, speak, utter (Ta.)(DEDR 5292). Custom; compulsory: va_la_yam commonness, custom, familiarity (Ta.); va_la_yamu compulsion; compulsory, constant, usual, customary (Te.); va_la_yamuga necessarily, certainly, usually, customarily; va_la_yincu to insist (Te.)(DEDR 5366).

6524.Image: mystical diagram: vardhama_na a mystical diagram (Skt.lex.) uttu to effect, bring about, prosper, increase (RV. x.59.1)(Vedic.lex.)

6525.Image: jar: bhadra-kumbha a (metal) jar filled with water from a holy place (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. bha_n.d.a, ban.d.a, bhan.d.a, bha_n.d.e any vessel, pot, pan, cup, plate, dish, pail, vat, utensil (Ka.lex.)

6526.Images: pot, lid: varttan-i < vardhani_ a vessel of water in which Uma_ is invoked and worshipped (Iraku. Mut.icu_. 35); id. (Ta.lex.) wadhna_ an earthen water-vessel with a spout like a teapot (P.lex.) vardhani a water-jar of a peculiar shape; vardha-ma_na, vardha-ma_naka a dish or platter of a particular shape, a lid, a cover (Ka.lex.) cf. mat.a_, mit.a_ large earthen vessel (Ta.)(DEDR 4651). vardhani_ water-jar (BhP.); vardhanika_ (BHSkt. ii,472); va_rdhani_ (H Paris'.); vad.d.hana potsherd (Pali); badane_ pitcher (Tir.); vadhna_, badhna_ earthen waterpot with spout (P.); badhna_ (B.Bi.); badhan (Mth.); badhni_, badhna_ earthen or copper vessel with spout (H.)(CDIAL 11379). Synonyms: s'ra_ve, s'a_la_jira, sara_va (Tadbhava of s'ara_va) a shallow cup, a dish; a platter, a lid, a cover; pariya_n.a = sara_va (Ka.lex.) cf. sara_ya, sara_yi, sare spirituous liquor; liquor distilled from the juice of trees or the palm tribe; sara_ya-bat.t.i a spirit-still (Ka.lex.) s'ara_va a measure equal to 2 kudavas; a cover, a lid; a shallow dish, platter, an earthenware vessel, tray (Skt.lex.) cf. val.l.am a dish for use in eating or drinking, hour-glass, a measure of grain ( = 4 marakka_l), a measure of capacity ( = 2 or 4 pat.i)(Ta.)(DEDR 5315). Image: a vessel: bartan. a vessel, utensil; wartan. a vessel (P.lex.) cf. mallam cup, porringer, plate; mallai mendicant's begging bowl (Ta.)(DEDR 4744).

6527.Image: woman having long eyes: cf. va_lugan.t.i woman having long eyes (Te.); va_lu, va_lika long (Te.)(DEDR 5365). Image: a female elf: bila-kanne a female elf (Ka.lex.) ve_ta_la, pis'a_ca elf (Skt.lex.)

6528.Image: scratch: vat- (-t-) (fowl) to scratch the ground; vatpa- id. (intens.); vatki ki- id. (Pe.); vetki ki- id. (Mand..)(DEDR 5248). cf. pa_l part, portion, share, section, dividing (Ta.); pa_lu share, portion, part, division; lot,fraction (Te.)(DEDR 4097). cf. palkna_ to cut lengthwise, split, crack (the earth, a wall)(Kur.)(DEDR 3991). helu thinned (Ka.); paluca thin, not thick (applied to a solid or liquid), rare, not dense, not close, sparse; light, slight, contemptible; palucana thinness etc. (Ka.); palsa thin (of liquid); palsan. thinly, sparsely (Kond.a); pelpele_ very thin, transparent (Kur.)(DEDR 3989). Image: crack, split: cf. vil.l.u crack, aperture (Ma.); vil. to open out (Ta.)(DEDR 5432). bila a gap, a chasm; an opening, an outlet (Ka.lex.) Image: horizontal slices: va_r. to pare, peel (Go.); va_n. to pare, slice (Pe.); va_d. to peel (Kuwi); bale to cut the pulp of the fruit of the fleshy part of a joint (Malt.); va_lba to peel, pare (Kui); va_l to pare off with a knife (Pa.); ba_l.ka, ba_l.go slices of vegetables (Tu.); ba_l.ku wafers, as of unripe banana (Ka.); va_l.uka to scratch, slice (e.g., coconut into horizontal pieces)(Ma.)(DEDR 5378). phand.un to beat out (e.g. dust from a carpet)(K.); pha_n.d.an.u to separate, apportion (S.); pha~_t. piece (P.); phan.d.nu_, phannu_ to gin cotton (WPah.); pha_no one who gins; fa~_d.n.u to divide, distribute (WPah.); pha~_t.an.o to divide (Ku.); pha~_r.nu to cut (esp. bushes and scrub)(N.); pha~t.a_vu~ to be divided (G.); pha~_t.a_ long divergent piece (M.)(CDIAL 9071).

6529.Image: seedling: cf. pa_la seedling (Halbi); plaha id. (Kui)(DEDR 3996). pallava sprout, twig, blossom (MBh.); sprout (Pali); sprout, leaf (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7969).

6530.Image: to boil: vadun., vadum- (water) boils; vadngeng to boil (Kol.); vakp- (vakt-) to boil; vakpip- (vakpit-) id. (Pa.); vatr- to boil; vatr- (vatir-) to boil over; caus. vaturp- (Ga.); wahaca_na_ to come to the boiling point; va_hca_na_, vahc-, va'c-, vahs- to boil (Go.); varhk- (water) to boil (Kuwi)(DEDR 5326). r.aksi- to boil (Kond.a); r.akhi- id. (Pe.); r.ag- (-it-), var.g- (water) to boil; ragi(ti) boiling (water); laskinai to seeth (Kuwi)(DEDR 5302). Image: sun: bi_r.i_ sun, time (?Kur.); vet.t.ai heat, heat of the ground, passion, lust (Ta.); vet.t.e heat (Ka.); vet.t.a heat, warmth, summer; hot (Te.); bet.t.a heat; hot (Te.); bir.na_ (bid.d.-) (sun) to be hot (?Kur.); bid.ye to shine (?Malt.)(DEDR 5479). ve_tu heat, warmth (Ta.); what is hot (Ma.); bedi heat of sun (Kod..); bijili sunlight (Kor.); ve_nd.i hot (Nk.); ve_d.i heat, warmth (Te.); beru sun (Malt.)(DEDR 5517). vad.i, od.i heat (Ka.); vad.a, vad.aga_li the hot or land wind, heat (Te.)(DEDR 5225).

6531.Quiver: bha_tha_ quiver (OAw.H.); bha_tho, bha_to, bha_thr.o quiver (G.); bha_ta_ quiver (M.); bha_tad. id. (M.); bathi_ quiver (S.)(CDIAL 9424). Basket: vat.t.i basket made of palm-stem fibre; (ve_t.t.uvan- ma_n-r-acai corinta vat.t.iyum : Purana_. 33); round basket of grass, straw, leather or palm-leaves (Ma.); vat.t.ikai basket (Ta.); bat.t.i basket (Kod..); rattan basket (Tu.); vat.t.il quiver for arrows, basket, measure of capacity (Ta.)(DEDR 5231). vat.t.ikai coracle, wicker-boat (tul.l.iyal vat.t.ikai tut.uppir- kat.ai-i : Perun.. Ucaik. 40,46)(Ta.lex.) Item of paraphernalia; quiver; bundle: vat.t.il an item of paraphernalia (alakilvat.t.ikai tar..al vir..ittala_l)(Kalin.. 333)(Ta.lex.) podi quiver (Te.); putai, putaiyal sheaf of arrows (Ta.); pode (podad-, poded-, podd-) to put over; quiver, bundle, bush (Ka.); pude quiver, bush (Ka.); putunk bundle (Br.)(DEDR 4509). put.t.il quiver, sheath, basket (Ta.); pud.ike, pud.uke basket, a case (Ka.); put.t.i circular basket-boat covered with leather (Te.); but.t.i_ basket (M.); pu_tka basket (Kuwi); put.i large basket (Kui); but.i a small basket (Kond.a)(DEDR 4263).

6532.Image: snare: vat.t.a snare (Pa.); vata a trap for peacocks and hares (Pe.); var.ta snare (Kui)(DEDR 5229). Image: trap: pa_tili_ a snare, trap (Skt.lex.) pad.ra a wooden cage with bars in front; gun.d.ri pad.ra a quail's cage; citri pad.ra a partridge's cage (Santali.lex.) Image: cage: par-r-a_yam a very large box; trap for catching animals (Ta.lex.) vati lair, nest (Ta.)(DEDR 5246).

6533.Image: roofed shelter: badi a deity's place, small building (Ka.); roofed shelter (temple) constructed for a devil (Tu.)(DEDR 5246).

6534.Weight, load: baddike, badane comparing anything with, or examining anything according to a standard, as weights, measures or money; ba_di weight, load (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

6535.Turk chief: bha_dri name of a Turk chief; bha_dri_-vara_ha name of a certain gold coin or pagoda worth five rupees (Ka.lex.) pattiran- < bhadra Vi_rabhadra (Upate_caka_. Vipu_ti. 31); a devotee (Tiruva_lava_. 54,1)(Ta.lex.)

6536.Patron: ba_di, ba_ju a patron, helper (Ka.); ba_ju id. (M.H.)(Ka.ex.)

6537.Living happily; beautiful, prosperous; congratulations; glittering; welfare: bhadra-da_yika the bestower of welfare: god (Ka.lex.) bha_ta shining, bright; dawn, morning; bha_ti light, brightness, splendour; bha_nu brightness, light; a ray of light; the sun; a sovereign, a king, a master (Ka.lex.) bhadra shining (RV. i.115.2); pleasing, beautiful (RV. x.32.3); efficient, good (RV. i.672); auspicious, fortunate, bringing good luck (RV. x.14.12; AV. vii.8.1); bhandana beautiful, gladdening, shouting; bhand to shine (RV. iii.3.4); bhandana_ brilliance; luck, blessing (RV. ix.86.41); bandhis.t.ha most shining (RV. i.97.3); bha_t-vaks.as having the power of light (RV. i.143.3); bha_nu light, lustre (TS. iv.2.7.3); ray (RV. vii.75.3); bha_nu-mant luminous, splendid (RV. v.1.11); bha_nta glittering (TS. iv.3.8.1); bhadra-s'o_ci shining beautifully (RV. v.4.7); listening to or learning good things (AV. xvi.2.4); bhadra-svapna a good dream; bhadra_ha auspicious day (AV. vi.128.1); bhadra-hasta of lucky hand (RV. i.109.4); bhandana_y to strive after good luck (RV. ix.85.2); bhadram welfare, good luck, fortune (TS. iv.7.3.1); adv. living happily (RV. x.37.6) (Vedic.lex.) bandu, bondu (Tadbhava of vanda) praise, eulogy (Ka.lex.) vantan-am < vandana reverence, homage, adoration, worship, salutation (Te_va_. 132,8)(Ta.lex.) bhan to speak (RV. vi.11.3); Name: bhan., ban to name (RV. vii.18.7); bha_n. an exclamation (S'Br.); [cf. bhan.ita, ban.ite sounded, uttered, spoken, said; called, named; talking, talk, conversation; bhan.iti, bhan.ita speech, talking, talk, discourse (Ka.lex.)] bhandadis.t.u hastening along with brightness (said of Maruts) (RV. v.87.1); [Messenger, artisan: bhan.d.ila, bhan.d.i_ra fortunate, happy, prosperous, auspicious; a messenger; an artisan (Ka.lex.)] bhadra-va_c speaking auspiciously (RV. vi.28.6); bhadra-va_cya congratulations (VS. xxi.61); bhadra-va_din uttering auspicious notes (said of a bird)(RV. ii.42.2); [For semant. vrata 'assemblage' cf.:] bha_ra-vra_ta forming a happy assemblage (RV. x.47.5); bhadra-kr.t bestowing blessings (RV. viii.14.11); shaves, beautifies (Classical Skt.);[bhadra_-karan.a making beautiful: the act of shaving (Ka.lex.)]; bhadra-tas fortunately (AV. xviii.4.50); bhadra-pa_pa good and evil (AV. xii.1.48); bhadra-vati_ a woman having good marks on her body (TBr. iii.4.15)(Vedic.lex.) bhadra_n:gi a woman with a beautiful body (Ka.lex.) bhadraka good, fine, handsome, beautiful (Ka.lex.) bhadra-man.t.apa a fine nuptial shed; a beautiful shed erected on other festive occasions (Ka.lex.) pattira_ka_ran- < bhadra + a_ka_ra well-built handsome man (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,10,6)(Ta.lex.) Having a beautiful wife: bhadra-ja_ni having a beautiful wife (RV. v.61.4)(Vedic. lex.) bhadra, baddara good, well, prosperous, hapy, auspicious; ma_n:galya, s'iva, suman:gala, s'ubha; favourable, propitious, gracious, kind, friendly, good, excellent; excellence, greatness; pleasant, lovely, beautiful; safeness; secure, safe; firm, strong as a cloth, a rope; prosperity, happinesss, welfare, good fortune, fortune (Ka.lex.) pattiram safety, security (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvuyir. 91)(Ta.lex.) pattiram < bhadra beauty, grace; beautiful figures as carved on a door (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a, 2,66) (Ta.lex.) pattin-i < patni_ wife; chaste wife (Cilap. 21, 36-7); pattin-i-k-kat.avul. Kan.n.aki deified (Cilap. 25,114); pattin-i-k-kal memorial stone raised on behalf of a chaste woman (Cilap. 26, 253-4)(Ta.lex.)

6538.Ornaments, goods, merchandise: bha_n.d.a an ornament in general; horse-trappings, harness; a pack or bale of goods or merchandise; the stock of a shopkeeper, goods, wares, merchandise, stores of any kind, the capital of principal of a merchant (Ka.lex.) Household effects: bha_n.d.a household effects (A_pS'r.S. 1421)(Vedic.lex.) bhan.d.a_riga, bhan.d.a_ri, ban.d.a_ri the overseer of a store-house, a treasure; bhan.d.a_ra, ban.d.a_ra (Tadbhava of bha_n.d.a_ga_ra) store-house (Ka.lex.)

6539.Kitchen, cook: ba_n.asa, ba_n.asu (Tadbhava of maha_nasa) a kitchen; cookery (Ka.); pa_nasa (Te.); ba_n.asi a cook; ba_n.asiga, va_l.asiga a cook (Ka.); pa_na--ciyan- (Ta.); pa_nasi_d.u (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6540.Frying pan: ba_n.ali, ba_n.ale, ba_n.d.li, ba_l.ali, ba_l.l.e (Tadbhava of bhra_s.t.ra) a frying pan of stone or metal (Ka.); ba_n.ali (Te.); va_n.a_y (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

6541.Guard or convoy on the road: badarike a convoy or guard on the road (Ka.); badaraka_ (H.)(Ka.lex.)

6542.Exchange; to assume a title: vatil, vatil. < badl (U.) substitute; answer, reply (Ta.lex.) vatit.-kat.ittal < vatil. + ghat. to assume a title or pseudonym (Ta.lex.) badal, badalu exchange, changing (Ka.); badal, vadal, vadil (Ka.); badal (M.H.); badala_-badali exchange, inerchange; badala_van.i changing, exchanging; badali exchange or relief as of a guard, a substitute (Ka.M.H.); badale changing (Ka.); badala_ for, instead (M.)(Ka.lex.) bandar harbour, maritime town (Kon.lex.) bandara, bandaru a port; a port-town; a landing place on a coast or in an inlet (Ka.H.M.); bandar (Te.Ma.); name of Masulipatam (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6543.Image: bull, ox: bhadra a bull, an ox; pun:gava, go_l.i (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) va_d.ave_ya, ba_d.abe_ya a bull, an ox (Ka.); va_d.ava a stud, a collection of mares; a horse (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6544.Moulding in a pedestal: pattiram a kind of moulding in a pedestal (S.I.I. ii,222)(Ta.lex.)

6545.Image: rhino: va_rdhra_n.asa rhinoceros (TS. v.2.20)(Vedic.lex.)

6546.Deduction: ba_du deducted (from a number, list etc.); deduction (Ka.); ba_da id. (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6547.People in a village: va_d.a_vol. people of a village; community of a village; va_d.o hamlet, subdivision of gra_m (Kon.lex.) va_d.ava a country; va_d.i a division of the suburban portion of a city (Ka.); va_d.i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

6548.Bride: vatuvai bride, wedding, wedding garland, sexual union (Ta.); madv Badaga wedding ceremony (Ko.); me0f marriage of people other than Todas (To.); madaval.ige, madeval. bride; madavana man connected by marriage, husband (Ka.); madum wedding; maduma_ye bridegroom; maduma_l.u bride, pubescent female (Tu.); mahla betrothal (Kuwi)(DEDR 4694). madavan.iga, madavaniga, madaval.iga a bridegroom; madavan.igitti a bride; madalaga, madaliga, madalin:ga a bridegroom; madaligitti a bride; madal a wedding, a marriage; mada, madal, madi, madive, madu, maduve, may joining; wedding, a marriage (Ka.); man.a to join; to marry (Ta.); joining; wedding (Ta.Ma.); man-r-al a wedding; matuvai a first joining: a wedding, marriage (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) manumu, manuvu a fitting match, marriage (Te.); madagad.a connection-money: money lent without interest and documents (to an old connection)(Ta.)(Ka.lex.) madamakkal.u, mada-vakkal.u, madavarkal., madamarkal., madi-makkal.u the bride and bridegroom; madamaga, madimaga a bridegroom (Ka.)(Ka. lex.) man.amakan-, man.ava_l.an- bridegroom, husband (Ta.); man.ama_l.a (Ma.); man.ava_l.a (Ma.); mada-magal.u, madi-magal.u, madaval.ige a bride (Ka.); man.amakal., man.ava_t.t.i, man.a_t.t.i (Ta.); man.a_t.t.u (Ma.); mada-vat.t.ige a joining or a band of plaited hair; cf. madavana, mayduna a man connected by marriage: a husband (Ka.); maccun-an- a brother-in-law; a cousin who is the mother's brother's son or the father's sister's son (Ta.); madive, maduve wedding, marriage; madive ma_d.i kod.u to give (a daughter) away as wife; madive ma_d.i kol.l.u to marry, to take a husband or a wife; madive ma_d.isu to cause a marriage to take place, as the puro_hita by his superintendence and instructions, as a liberal man by pecuniary assistance; madive ma_d.u to institute marriage for a son or daughter, or for a brother or sister, with the proper rites, to perform the act of giving in marriage, to marry; madiveya_gu marriage to take place, to enter into the conjugal or connubial state, to marry; to be married; to be married to; madi_ya mine, belonging to me (Ka.); madume marraige (Tu.); maduve-kan:kan.a a string of cotton thread that is put round the wrist of the bride and bridegroom; maduvegey = maduve ma_d.u; maduve-cappara a temporary shed for nuptial ceremonies; maduve-jagali a raised seat of earth etc. in the cappara for the bridal pair; maduve-prasta a marriage-feast; maduve-man:gala a marriage and other festive occasions; maduve-muhu_rta, maduve-lagna the time of marriage; an auspicious time for marriage (Ka.lex.) vadhu, vadhu_ a bride or newly married woman, a young wife, a spouse; a woman in general, a female; a daughter-in-law; vadhu-ta_ta a father-in-law; vadhu_t.i, vadhu_t.ike a young woman living in her father's house (whether married or not, ciran.t.i; javvani); a woman in general; vadhu_vara bride and bridegroom (Ka.lex.) vadhu_t.i_, vadhut.i_ a young woman or female; a daughter-in-law; vadhu_ a bride; a wife, spouse; a daughter-in-law; a female, maiden, woman in general; the wife of a younger relation; the female of any animal: mr.gavadhu_ = doe, vya_ghra-vadhu_, gaja-vadhu_ = tiger cub, young elephant; vadhu, vadhuka_ a daughter-in-law, a young woman in general (Skt.lex.) vadhu_ (÷vah, cf. vahya, vahatu) bride (RV. v.37.3); cf. bahu_ (H.); vadhu_ a mare yoked to a chariot (RV. viii.19.36); vadhu_-mant (a chariot) furnished with mares (RV. i.126.3); furnished with the requisites of yoking (RV. vi.27.8); vadhu_-yu desiring a wife (RV. ix.69.3); vadhu_yuh- bridegroom (RV. iii.52.3)(Vedic.lex.) ma_limi youthful friendship (Ta.); familiarity, affection, love (Te.)(DEDR 4826). To select, marry: ma_nd.a_na_, ma_nd.-, ma_ra_na_ to like, approve of; mande vaya_na_ to like (Go.); ma_nd.a (ma_nd.i-) to have a fixed intention, intend; aim at, desire, wish; pl. action ma_t.ka (ma_t.ki-) (Kui); ma_nd.inai to profess; ma_ndinai to agree, sanction, wish; ma_ndi ki_nai to encourage; ma_n.d.- (-it-) to marry (Kuwi); ma_n-d.na_ to select (Kur.)(DEDR 4807).

6549.Image: young woman: vahulia_ young woman (Pkt.); bahuriya_ son's wife (H.)(CDIAL 11250). an.n.u a woman (Ka.); annu id. (Te.)(DEDR 132). bahur.i, baur.i son's young wife (B.); bahur.i_ son's wife (Or.); bahuriya_ (H.); vadhu_t.i_ young wife or woman; son's wife (Skt.); vadhu_t.ika_ (Skt.); vadhut.i_ young woman living in father's house (Skt.); bori bride, son's wife; buri son's wife; bori brother's wife; wa_hri son's wife (Gypsy); bohor.i son's wife (WPah.); bauti son's wife (D..); bewu_t. (Wot..); baut.i_, bout.i_ (Gaw.)(CDIAL 11251). Bride, son's wife: vadhu_ bride, young wife (RV.); son's wife (H Paris'.); vadhuka_ (Skt.); vadhu_, vadhuka_ son's wife (Pali); vahu_ wife, son's wife (Pkt.); wew son's wife (Ash.); wo_w (Wg.); vov, wu_w (Kt.); bawui, bawi (Dm.); bahu_ (Kal.); bok wife (Kho.); bo_i_ son's wife (Bshk.); bo_e (Tor.); ba_o (Mai.); bho_i (Phal.); vahu_ (S.); bahu_ (P.); bo brother's wife (so called by father of household)(Garh.); bahu, bau newly married woman, elder brother's wife (Ku.); bau (A.); bahu_ (OB.); bau son's wife (B.); bahu, bo(h)u son's wife (Or.); bou mother (Or.); bahu_ son's wife (Bi.); bahu_ bride, wife, son's wife (H.); vahu son's wife (G.); vahu_ (M.); bahu wife (Mth.)(CDIAL 11250). vahuma_a_ wife's mother (Pkt.); vahu_ma_y, vahma_y, ohma_y (M.)(CDIAL 11252). vadhu_vara n. sg. or m. pl. bride and groom (H Paris'.); bauhar bride, wife (H.); va(h)var, ovar, ohar married couple (M.); hora (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11253). putra-vadhu_ son's wife (Skt.); patro_h, parto_h son's wife (L.); partoh (P.); purahu (Mth.); patoh, patohu (Bhoj.); pato_h (Aw.); patoh(u_) (H.)(CDIAL 8270). Brother's wife: vahun.n.i_ elder brother's wife (Pkt.); an.n.i (Ta.Ka.); vahini_ (M.); honni brother's wife, husband's sister (Konkan.i) (CDIAL 11250). an.n.i elder brother's wife (Ta.); affectionate mode of addressing females (Ka.); an.n.a_ elder brother (Ta.)(DEDR 131). vanna brother's wife (Kol.); vanna elder brother's wife (Nk.); oni elder brother's wife, maternal uncle's daughter (older than person concerned)(Kond.a); oni elder brother's wife (Pe.); vahun.n.i_ husband's elder brother's wife (Pkt.) (DEDR 5251). vadina brother's wife (Te.lex.) bha_dar-bau younger brother's wife (Skt.); bhadoho wife's brother's son; bhadai wife's brother's daughter (N.)(CDIAL 9380). bhra_tr.vadhu_ brother's wife (Skt.); bhaho, bhaihu_, bhaihu~_ younger brother's wife (H.)(CDIAL 9667). Sister-in-law: matan-i sister-in-law; matin-i elder brother's wife, wife's sister, daughter of one's maternal uncle older than oneself, elder brother's daughter (Ta.); madema female, cross-cousin a little older than oneself, sister-in-law (Kod..); vadiniya, vadine an elder sister-in-law, elder brother's wife, husband's or wife's elder sister, whether older or younger than oneself (though always elder in the former case according to Hindu custom, the husband being always older than the wife), paternal aunt's or maternal uncle's daughter older than oneself (Te.)(DEDR 4690).

6550.Beloved: va_halau_ beloved (OG.)(CDIAL 11427). ve_l.i, ve_l.vi bride, wife, marriage (Ma.); ve_t.t.a_l. wife (Ta.)(DEDR 5544). ve_llahala libertine (Skt.); vellahal(l)a tender, beautiful (Pkt.); velha_l. dear, beloved, f. mistress (M.)(CDIAL 12122). vallabha dear, desired (MBh.); favourite (Pali); loved (Pkt.); valaho husband (S.); bali_ dear, beloved (form of address to a woman)(Ku.); va~_ha_l affection; va~_ha_lu_ dear (G.); va_laha tender (OM.)(CDIAL 11427). vallabhatama dearest (Bhartr..); ba_lam lover, husband (H.); va_lam the dearest man, husband (G.); va_hala_ra loving (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11428). vallabha, ballaha beloved; a lover, a husband; vallabhe a beloved female, a wife, a mistress (Ka.lex.) virumpu (virumpi-) to wish, desire, long for, covet, love, like, think intensely of; viruppam, viruppu desire, liking, love, affection, attachment; viruppan- one who has desires, one who likes, lover (Ta.); virumpuka to wish; viruppu desire (Ma.)(DEDR 5416).

6551.Image: placenta, menses: baha the monthly courses of women, the menses, the placenta (Santali.lex.) bahaun. to cause to flow, to make to float; bahau flowing, floating (P.lex.)

6552.Image: flowing: bahi flowing, running, as opposed to stagnant (Santali.lex.)

6553.An ornament: ba~iha~ an ornament worn on the left arm by women (Santali.lex.)

6554.Conference: baisi a panchayat, a meeting for discussion and settlement of matters, a council; baisiren mukhia President of the council; lo bir baisi a meeting convened at the annual hunt; the hunt takes place after the undergrowth of the jungle has been burnt up, hence the name 'lo bir sendra'; caurasi baisi a conference of near neighbours; baisi kut.um, kut.um baisi a conference of relatives on family matters (Santali.lex.)

6555.First class rice-land: baihar. first class rice land, low, moist fields with a good supply of water; baisaur.i earnest-money paid to zemindar on settlement of land; baisaur.i raeot one settled on land on payment only of baisaur.i; baisan to establish, to settle, to found, to fix, to let out on hire, to put out to usury, to lend, to be accustomed to, to fit in, to fit; t.akan. baisau akata I have lent money on interest (Santali.lex.) bakr.i, bakar.i, bakir.i a hedge, an enclosure; an enclosed spot, generally at the back of the house and serving as a kind of vegetable garden (Mu.); bakhri_ cottage (H.); bakhr.e yard, compound (Or.); bakri-bonga a spirit who wants to be propitiated by a sacrifice offered in an enclosure: mahadeochandi, marangbonga and birsabonga are the three spirits who take the modality of bakr.ibonga; bakr.i-kun.t.a a fencing post (Mu.lex.) bahn. the surface of a roughly ploughed field; flowing; bahndol cultivated (P.lex.) pa_khi_ B. a land measure in parts of Bengal, which is smaller than the bi_gha_ (IE 8-6, IEG, p. 227). behr.a_, vehr.a_ a yard, a court; a compound; wihr.a_ a court, a yard surrounded by buildings (P.lex.) beil a second ploughing (P.lex.) bayalu an outside field (Te.lex.)

6556.Chief herdsman: vallabha a superintendent; a chief herdsman (Ka.); vallava a cowherd (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Chief herdsman: vallapan- chief herdsman; supervisor of horses; mighty man; able man (Takkaya_kap. 801); vallapi skilful person; vallavi strong person; vallampan- a cultivating caste in Tanjore, Trichinopoly and Ramnad districts; vallavan- shepherd, cowherd; husband (Tacaiva_. 164); strong man, capable man, man of ability (Kalit. 56,7); valla_n.mullai theme of appealing to and exciting the manly virtues of a person by praising his family, his native place, and his great qualities (Pu. Ve. 8,23); valla_n.mai manliness; great ability (Tirukkalam. 76); valla_r mighty persons; clever, capable persons (Kalit. 141,19); valla_l.akan.t.an-, valla_l.ar-kan.t.an- the mightiest of the mighty (Tanippa_. ii,47,112); man of virtue and unyielding spirit; valla_l.an- mighty man, valiant hero (Pur-ana_. 125); skilful man; king of the Bella_la dynasty; valla_n- mighty man (Ta_yu. Cukava_ri. 3); capable man; god, the almighty; valli id. (Vi_co_. Tat. 3); vallat.i force, compulsion (Can.. Aka.); strength, might, power; vallapam id. (Takkaya_kap. 215); vallat.ik- ka_ran- bully, one who achieves his object by the use of force (I_t.u, 9,5,3); cruel deed; heroic deed; difficult performance; vallat.ivampan- id. (A_tiyu_ravata_n-i, 23); vallan.an:ku Ka_l.i_, as powerful (Ta.lex.) Powerful: valavan- capable man; conqueror; charioteer (Pur-ana_. 27); Vis.nu; valavai ability, skill (Cilap. 5,74, Urai); powerful, capable person (Cilap. 23,61); Ka_l.i; a female attendant on Ka_l.i; valatu victory (Ta.); vala, valan- victory, authority, power, strength (Ta.); valitu that which is strong, force, compulsion; valippu firmness, stability; vali-pat.u to become strong (Ta.)(DEDR 5276)(Ta.lex.) vallunar capable persons (Pur-ana_. 27)(Ta.lex.) cf. ollu to be possible; olla_mai inability; olla_tavar, olla_r enemies; ollunar friends, associates; (Ta.); olluka to be possible (Ma.); ollal ability, possibility (Ma.); valadu, vaddu is not required or wanted (Te.); o_limika friendship (Te.)(DEDR 1006). Big one: valla_l.an- mighty man, hero (Ta.); va_l greatness, abundance (Ta.); val, valu, valiya strong, powerful, great (Ma.); valan.-kai right hand (Ma.); valippam, valima greatness, bigness (Ma.); vanpu greatness, strength (Ma.); bala right (Ka.); power, strength (Ka.); strength (Tu.); valanu skill, excellence, possibility (Te.); valamu largeness, stoutness (Te.); vala_ti clever person, expert (Te.); vallad.i violence, oppression (Te.); valacu to be capable, be able to (Te.); walle_ much, very (Go.); balebale large ones (Malt.); balehne large (Malt.); balun big, large, elder, full-grown (Br.)(DEDR 5276). val strength, power; ability (Ta.); strong, powerful, great (Ma.); powerful, very, right (Ko.); val(n) man who is clever at cheating; fem. valy, valc; val pat. excessive; valc (man) becomes stout (Ko.); valu, valiya id. (Ma.); bal to grow strong or firm (Ka.); bali to increase, grow, grow strong, firm, stout, become tight, increase; bal(u), bolu strength, firmness, bigness; greatness, abundance, excess (Ka.); valiya forcibly, suddenly (Ma.); valla powerful, skilful (Ta.Te.); vallam power, strength (Te_va_. 380,6); vallai id. (Ta.lex.); vallamai power, prowess (Tirukkalam. 72); valam < bala army; strength, power (va_l.in- va_r..nar ta_l.valam va_r..tta : Pur-ana_. 24); victory, triumph (valantariya ve_ntiya : Pu.Ve. 9,35); command, authority (nin-valattin-ate_ : Paripa_. 5,21); vali strength, power (Kur-al., 273); strong, powerful man (Me_ruman. 1097); valimai strength, power; skill, cleverness; valimun-pu great strength (Kalit. 4,1); valiyan- strong, powerful man (Paripa_. 6,39); valumai strength; force, violence (Tol. Er..ut. 154, Il.ampu_); van-pu, van-mai strength (Kur-al., 153); skill, ability; force, violence; van-mam force (Ta.); vallu to be able; vallunar capable people; vallavan-, valla_n- strong man, capable man; valavai ability, powerful person; vallavan-, valavan- capable man (Ta.); valiya strong, big (Ta.); valivu strength; valu id., skill, ability; var-pu strength, hardness (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: stout-bodied man: ma_lan:ga epithet of hornless goat (TS.)[cf. mat.t.a hornless (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9723)]; maha_ka_ya (Sa_yan.a); ma_lan., malan:ga stout-bodied man (H.)(CDIAL 10089). Image: quarrelling: mal, mallam wrestling, boxing (Ta.); mallan- pugilist, wrestler (Ta.)(Pu.Ve. 9,4); mallu wrestling (Ma.); malla wrestler, athlete (Ka.); malla_-malli pugilistic encounter (Ka.); malle boxer, wrestler (Tu.)(DEDR 4730). malla wrester by profession, athlete (MBh.); wrestler (Pali.Pkt.); malu id., brave man (S.); mall wrestler (P.); ma_l (A.B.Bhoj.H.); ma_la (Or.OG.); malai_ altercation and blows (M.); malhan. assembly for wrestling (L.)(CDIAL 9907). Military chief: mal.l.an- strong, powerful person; warrior (Kalit. 106); commander, military chief; inhabitant of agricultural tracts (Kampara_. Na_t.. 18); inhabitant of hilly tracts (Ta.lex.) mal.l.al, mal.l.am strength, power, robustness (Ta.lex.) vi_ramalla nom. prop. (Cat.); wermala_ husband, man (Pas'.) (CDIAL 12059). Ability: palam < bala strength, power, might, vigour, force (Te_va_. 130,9); army, military forces (Kampara_. Kumpaka. 128)(Ta.lex.) Army; power, strength: balaugha (bala o_gha) a multitude of troops or forces, a numerous force (Ka.lex.) bala power, strength (RV.); strong (Skt.); strength (Pali.Pkt.NiDoc.); bau, gen. ba_las army (Kal.); bol id. (Kho.); bal. army (G.); balaya army, strength (Si.)(CDIAL 9161). bal strength (K.); id., ability (L.); balu id. (S.); bal id. (P.Ku.N.A.B.Mth.H.); bal.a (Or.); bara (OAw.); bal. (G.M.Konkan.i); bali suddenly without cause (K.); bare forcibly (OH.); baliim. (OG.); bal.e~ (G.M.); belen (OSi.); balaka strong (Pali); bolu, f. buju recovered in health (K.); balaya ox (Pkt.) (CDIAL 9161). balera_ much, many, long (of time)(P.); balakara strengthening (R.) (CDIAL 9162). baliya_ra_ strong (OAw.); bariya_r, bariya_ra_ strong, vigorous, fertile (of soil)(H.); balaka_ra violence, force (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 9163). balavant strong (VS.); balava in cmpd.: strong (Pali); balavam. exceedingly (Pali); balava, balavaga, balavam.ta strong (Pkt.); bullawah fat (Wg.); balo_ big (Dm.); f. balo_i (Dm. < balavati_); balok able (Kt.); wolok, wolog to be able (Pr.)(CDIAL 9166). Warrior: balastha string; warrior (MBh.); balat.t.ha palace guard (Pali); balat pl. guards (OSi.)(CDIAL 9167). bala_tka_ra violence (Skt.); balakr.ta done by force (Mn.); balakka_ra violence (Pali.Pkt.); balakarin by force (OSi.)(CDIAL 9169). val strong, hard, forceful (Ta.); vallavan-, valla_n- strong man, capable man; vallam, vallamai, vallai strength; valla_l.an- mighty man, hero; vallu (valli-) to be able; vallunar capable people; valam, valan- strength, power, authority; valavai ability, powerful person; valavan- capable man; vali strength, power; (-v-, -nt-; -pp-, -tt-) to be strong, hard, compel; valitu that which is strong, force, compulsion; valippu firmness, stability; vali-pat.u to become strong; valimai strength, skill, hardness; valiya strong, big; valiyan- strong, powerful, skilful man; valivu strength; valu id., skill, ability; (-pp-, -tt-) to be strong or hard; valuppu firmness, strength; valumai strength, force, violence; vallapam strength, power, ability; var-pu strength, hardness; van-pu, van-mai strength, firmness; van-mam force; va_l greatness, abundance; va_limai greatness, strength (Ta.); val, valu, valiya strong, powerful, great; valiya_ forcibly, suddenly; valippam, valima greatness, bigness; valluka to be able, strong; vallabham power, capacity; vanpu greatness, strength; vampikka to grow large, grow arrogant (Ma.); val powerful, very; val(n) man who is clever at cheating; fem. valy, valc; val pat. excessive; valc- (man) becomes stout, (heart) becomes bold, (grain) becomes solid lump when boiled (Ko.); paly- (pals-) (child) becomes strong; palym (obl. palyt-) force (To.); bal to grow strong or firm, etc.; bali to increase, grow, grow strong, stout, become tight, firm, hard, increase, make strong firm; bal(u), bolu strength, firmness, bigness; greatness, abundance, excess; balisu to make strong; bal(u)me, baluhu, balpu strength; balla man who possesses ability, skill or erudition; knowing (Ka.); bala power, strength; ballye great (Kod..); bala strength; bala_pini to gain strength, recover health; balik prowess, strength, hardness; balim, balum, balm strength, might; balu very large, great, severe, violent (Tu.); valanu skill, excellence, possibility, possible, convenient; valamu largeness, stoutness; vala_ti clever person, expert; valadu much; valana(N) instrumental postposition; valu~da stout, big, large; valla possible; vallad.i violence; oppression; valacu to be capable, to be able to; vali big, large; baliyu to grow fat, increase; balipincu to cause to grow; balimi strength, force, violence; balisina fat, stout; balupu fatness; baluvu strength, intensity; heavy, great, excessive, big, strong, severe (Te.); valan thick, stout (Ga.); walle_ much, very (Go.); bale_, bale_ti_ with the help of (Kur.); balehne large; balebale large ones (Malt.); balun big, large, elder, full-grown (Br.)(DEDR 5276).

6557.Name of a people: malla pl. name of a people (MBh.); mallaka (Ma_rkP.)(CDIAL 9908). maldiva the Maldive islands (Si.) < *malla-dvi_pa island of the Mallas (Skt.)(CDIAL 9911). bhalla m. pl. name of a people (Pa_n.. com.); bhadra (AVparis'.); bhadraka name of a Mun.d.a people in Panjab (R.); bha_l, bha_li_ native of Bhales; bha_li the Bhalesi language (WPah.)(CDIAL 9410). bhales', bhaleis' the northern portion of Bhadrawa_h in Jammu (WPah.)(CDIAL 9413). cf. pa_li a language (Pali.lex.)

6558.Image: to retreat: vallayisu to turn round or backwards, to retreat (Ka.); vall to go, to move (Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6559.Image: palm of the hand: mala palm of the hand, sole of the foot (Kuwi); mad.a id. (Kui)(DEDR 4731).

6560.Image: killing: wad.ha_n:ga_ a great slaughter, killing; a great cutting of trees (P.lex.) vadha, vadhe striking, killing; slaughter, murder; vadhisu to strike, to kill, to slay, to murder (Ka.); vadhya to be killed (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vadhar a destructive weapon; vadhana_ a deadly weapon (Vedic); vadhaka, vadhaka_ killing, an assassin; vadhika_ id.; vadhatram a deadly weapon; vadh to slay, kill; vadha a blow, stroke, killing (Skt.); vadha a deadly weapon, such as Indra's thunderbolt (Vedic) (Skt.lex.) vadhaka a deadly weapon (RV. iv.28.4); vadha deadly, killing (RV. i.55.); vadha death (RV. x.25.3); weapon (RV. i.32.5; RV. i.25.2); vadh to slay (RV. i.51.4); to beat, batter (RV. viii.72.4); to slay (RV. ii.42.2); to throw down (RV. iv.14.4); to slay (RV. vi.17.1); vadhar, vadhana_ slaughter, weapon (RV. vii.83.4; RV. i.174.8); vadhar repel the weapon = Yasna ix. 30 'vadar jaidi'; vadharya to hurl a weapon (RV. i.161.9); vadhana deadly weapon (RV. i.165.6); vadhasnu wielding a deadly weapon (RV. ix.52.3) (Vedic. lex.) par-y- (par-s-) (child) dies (To.); bardu to die; n. death; barduge death (Ka.)(DEDR 5324). cf. vardh cut (Skt.); vardha a cutting (Skt.)(CDIAL 11372). ma_ntu (ma_nti-) to be ruined, perish, die, be extinct (Ta.); ma_ndu to stop, cease; stop, ward off, check; ma_ndisu to cause to stop or cease; ma_ndad.e that which does not stop, cease etc. (Ka.); ma_nu to cease, stop, give up, abandon, forbear, leave off, quit, refrain, abstain, desist from; ma_nukonu to give up, abandon, relinquish, forgo, resign, cease, desist from, abstain from; ma_n(u)cu, ma_nupu, ma_nipincu to cause to cease, stop, remove (Te.)(DEDR 4811). cf. mat.i (-v-, -nt-) to perish, be destroyed, die (Ta.)(DEDR 4653).

6561.Images: dappled cow; striped tiger: pat.t.ai painted stripe (as on a temple wall), piebald colour, dapple (Ta.); pat.t.e striped or spotted (as tiger or leopard); pat.t.ati n. pr. of a dappled cow (Kod..)(DEDR 3877). cf. pat. scar, esp. mark made by burning (Ko.); pat.t.u a callous spot (Ka.)(DEDR 3873).

6562.Image: stripe: pat.t. stripe (Tu.); pat.t.e stripe or streak of paint; pad.ita stripe, streak, wale (Te.); pat.t.a stripe (Ma.); pat.t.e, pat.t.i id. (Ka.)(DEDR 3877). cf. pat.a numeral classifier of flat objects (Malt.)(DEDR 3878). pa.t.y size, strength equal to what must be done (Ko.); pa_t.i extent, size (Ka.); extent, size, magnitude (Te.)(DEDR 4067). Image: palm of hand: cf. pat.am flat part of the hand or foot (Ma.); pat.a naki palm of hand (Kuwi)(DEDR 3843).

6563.Bark of tree: pat.t.ai bark of tree (Ta.); pat.t.a id. (Ma.); pat.t.e rind or bark of trees (Ka.); pat.t.a, pat.t.amu bark (Te.)(DEDR 3876). pand.an. bark of a tree (Ga.); pand.a skin (Kui.Kuwi)(DEDR 3897).

6564.Celtis tetranda: padn celtis tetranda (Ko.); po0n id. (To.)(DEDR 3913).

6565.Hunger: pat.t.in-i-no_n-pikal. Jaina ascetics who fast on new and full moon days, the eighth day of the lunar fortnight and whenever they meet with obstacles (Cilap. 15,164); pat.t.in-i fasting, abstinence, starvation (Pur-ana_. 371); pat.t.in-i-vit.u-tal to fast (Ci_vaka. 1547)(Ta.lex.) pat.t.ini, pat.t.in.i privation of food, starvation (Ma.); pat.u.n.y hunger (Ko.); pat.t.an.i starvation (Kod..); pet.t.ika_ = a_dyu_na- (Skt.)(DEDR 3872). cf. pet.t.a, pit.t.a belly (Pkt.); pet.yo food (S.); pet.u entrails (A.)(CDIAL 8376).

6567.To burst: br.u_va (br.u_t-) to burst, explode (cooked maize, seed pod, gun)(Kui); bri_ali to go off with a report; br.i_- (-t-) to go off (gun, trap etc.); br.ip- (-h-) to shoot with a gun (Kuwi)(DEDR 4614). bhijjana burst; bhijjati, bhindati bursts; ; pp. bhinna; ubbhijjati burst forth (Pali.lex.) bhid split (Skt.); bhidyate_ is split, is broken (S'Br.); bhijjati is broken (Pali); bhijjai (Pkt.); bhi_jna_ to be affected by grief (H.)(CDIAL 9495). Broken: pin- to be broken; pinip- (pinit-) to break (Pa.); pun- to be broken; punup- (punut-), punk- (punt-) to break (Ga.); pinka_na_ to break up, of stiff things like hard bread or sweets, chew (Go.); pinning to be broken (Br.)(DEDR 4206). To burst: pethgre to burst or break (as a fruit); pethge to break open (as a large fruit)(Malt.); pitun:ku (pitun:ki-) to protrude, bulge, gush out, be expressed; pitukku (pitukki-) to press out, squeeze out as pus or pulp, express, blow up as a bladder, puff out; n. squeezing out, pressing out; pitukkam protruding, protuberance, hernia; pitakku (pitakki-) to be squeezed or crushed (Ta.); pitun.n.uka to be squeezed, pressed out; pitukkuka, pitar-r-uka, putukkuka to crush, press matter out of a boil (Ma.); pi0x- (pi0xy-) to be squeezed; pi0k- (pi0ky-) to squeeze; pit ir milch buffalo (To.); hiduku to squeeze, press as a fruit, knead, shampoo, squeeze soaked pulse (avare) with the fingers and thus remove its skin; n. state of being freed from one's skin by squeezing (Ka.); pituku, piduku to draw (as milk), milk (as a cow), express, squeeze, press out; (cows etc.) give milk (Te.); pidk- to press (Kol.); pidu_ka_na_ to strain at stool, exert oneself violently in vain (as in lifting a burden)(Go.); pid- (-it-) to open up (e.g. boil, sore); burst open; pit- (-h-) to poke to release blood, cause to burst, open up (Kuwi); pedexna_ (pedxas), pedxa'a_na_ to pinch, squeeze, strangle (Kur.)(DEDR 4165). Abundant flow: pi_r abundant flow, milk flowing from a woman's breast; pi_ram mother's milk; pi_r-it.u to stream, flow (as milk), gush out (as blood); pi_r-en-al onom. expr. of streaming (Ta.); pi_ra milk of grated coconuts (Ma.); pi_runi to exude, percolate (Tu.)(DEDR 4222).

6568.Locality: paitiram country, district (Patir-r-up. 19,18); paica_ram locality or neighbourhood (S.I.I. ii, 517)(Ta.lex.) Image: part of hand: paitra the part of the hand between the thumb and fore-finger; the root of the forefinger (Ka.lex.)

6569.Greenness; millet: pai greenness, freshness (Ta.Ma.); paitu greenness, freshness (Patir-r-up. 23); paintin-ai Italian millet; black Italian millet (Ta.lex.) Golden bracelet: paintot.i golden bracelet (Kur-al., 1234); woman with golden bracelet (Vi_raco_. Ya_p. 18)(Ta.lex.)

6570.Coffee: bundu, bunnu, bu_ndu, bo_ndu a coffee-berry (Ka.M.); bunda, bu_nda (H.)(Ka.lex.) bu_ndu, bu_nda_ coffee (Kon.lex.)

6571.Image: branch of tree: pit.avam branch of a tree (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

6572.Image: mouth of a vessel: put.karam mouth of a vessel; a celebrated place of pilgrimage [cf. Pokhar in Ajmer; cf. pus.karam a festival of ceremonial bathing in the Godavari at Rajahmundry, occurring once in tewlve years](Ta.lex.) put.kalai < pus.kala_ one of the wives of Aiyan-a_r (Ta.lex.) pur..a river (Ma.); pey id.; peyv-e.r (obl. peyv-e.t--) id. (Ko.);[cf. ya_r-u river (Ta.)(DEDR 5159)]; pa.w id.; pa. top the river's noise of waves beating (To.); por..e river (Ka.); pol.e (Kod..)(DEDR 4318). Town: por..al town, city (Ka.); pro_lu city (Te.inscr.); pr.o_lu city (Te.)(DEDR 4555). cf. por..al, por..ilu, bar..al, hor..al a dwelling place: a town, a city; por..la_n.ma the ruler of a town; por..lven.d.a a towns-woman; por..alica a man born in town (Ka.lex.) por..il park, forest, flower-garden; earth, world; country, district; pu_r..il earth (Ta.); por..il watered ground, flower-garden, sandy shore, piece of low ground (Ma.); pur..il sandbank (Ka.)(DEDR 4558). Islet: pulina sandbank, sandy beach, islet (Skt.)(CDIAL 8296). por..i ridge; boundary, limit; strip of land between sea and lagoon (Ta.); a groove (as in door frames), a seed-bed or division of such (Ma.)(DEDR 4557). An annular continent: put.kara-t-ti_vu, annular continent surrounded by the ocean of fresh-water (Ci. Po_. Pa_. 2,3); put.karin.i id. (Civataru. Ko_pura. 69)(Ta.lex.) put.karin.i lotus tank; sacred tank near a temple (Ta.lex.)

6573.Image: water, fulness: put.karam water; fulness; put.kalam < pus.kala fulness (Ta_yu. Para_para. 142)(Ta.lex.) put.karam alms consisting of four mouthfuls of food (Can.. Aka.); put.kala_varuttam < pus.kala_varta + a celestial cloud which rains gold, one of catta-me_kam (Cu_t.a_.); one of four me_ka-na_yakam (Tiruva_lava_. 12,6); a cloud raining copiously (Co_tit.a. Cin. 17)(Ta.lex.) por..i (-v-, -nt-) to pour forth, shower (as rain), discharge in abundance, give liberally; flow, overflow, abound (as wealth); por..ivu flowing, raining, abundance; por..il greatness, largeness (Ta.); por..i pouring, shower, outlet of a river into the sea; por..iyuka to pour down, flow off, drop (as leaves, fruits), shower; por..ikka to shower down, let drop; por..iccal pouring, oozing; por..ippu overflowing, giving overdue measure (Ma.); por.v- (por.d-) to increase in numbers (Ko.); boriyuni to yield milk; boripini, bol.i to milk (Tu.); por.p- (por.t-) to flow (Tu.)(DEDR 4556).

6574.Image: cyrus crane: put.karam cyrus crane, grus antigone (Ta.lex.) puta_ a crane (Cilap. 10,117, Arum.); a large heron (Cilap. 10,117); po_ta_ a cyrus crane, grus antigone (Ta.lex.)

6575.Image: tip of an elephant's proboscis: put.karam tip of an elephant's proboscis (Ta.lex.)

6576.Image: common kite: put.karam common kite, paruntu (Ta.lex.)

6577.Image: mountain: pu_tar; cf. pu_tara-na_tan- < bhu_-dhara + the Himalayas, as king of mountains; pu_taram < bhu_dhara mountain (Kampara_. Te_re_r-u. 1)(Ta.lex.); perh. inhabitants of the Himalayan ranges (Ta.lex.)

6578.A division of the earth: pattiravarut.am < bhadra- one of nine divisions of the earth; pattiram a division of the earth (Civataru. Ko_pura. 53); pattira_s'vam < bhadra_s'va continent to the east of Mt. Ma_liyava_n- (Civataru. Ko_pura. 53, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. bhadram an epithet of Mt. Me_ru; bhadra-ghat.ah., bhadra-ghat.akah. a vessel from which a lottery is drawn (Skt.lex.)

6579.Prosperous; safety: bhadra fortunate, delightful (RV.); bhadraka good (Mn.); bhadda good, happy; n. good fortune (Pali); bhadake prosperous (As'.); bhadrasa worthy (KharI.); bhadda, bhadaa good, fortunate; good fortune (OPkt.); brete good (Tir.); bhaddar good, fine (P.); bha_di_ good (OM.); bada auspicious (OSi.); fedede_r better (Gypsy)(CDIAL 9377). pattiram beauty, grace; beautiful figures, as carved on door; safety, security (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvuyir. 91); a kind of moulding in a pedestal (S.I.I. ii,222); cf. Image: yogic posture: bhadra_sana the chief seat in an assembly (Tr.M. II,249); a yo_gic posture which consists in placing the heels on either side of the seam of the perineum, the left on the left side and the right on the right side and holding the feet firmly joined to one another with both the hands, one of nine a_can-am (Tattuvap. 107, Urai); pattira-ka_l.i < bhadra-ka_l.i Durga (Cilap. 20,38, Urai)(Ta.lex.)

6580.Grain-bin: patta_yam < pataya_ (Port.) receptacle for grain etc. (Ta.Ma.) (Ta.lex.)

6581.Medal: padaka an ornament hanging over the breast like a medal (Ka.Skt.Te.Ta. Ma.); kan:kan.a (Ka.lex.)

6582.Pleasure: padapu, padappu eagerness, zeal; pleasurable excitement, agreeable emotion; pleasure; charm; padapu-ga_rti a woman who causes pleasurable excitement etc., a charming woman; pade desire, wish; pade-ver- to get desire; padeyisu to cause to desire (Ka.); pacappu to charm, allure, deceive (Ka.lex.)

6583.Walking: patti going, moving, walking; a company consisting of 1 chariot, 1 elephant, 3 horses, and 5 foot-soldiers (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6585.Image: seed: pid.ka (pl. pid.kel) seed, single grain (Pa.); ped.e see; per.e (pl. -ku) seed (of orange, etc.), grain (of rice, etc.); par.e (pl. -k), per.em (pl. per.ek), penem(i) (pl. pene'ku) seed of fruit; panne_ small seed of any plant; pane (pl. -k) seed (of orange); pe_n.d.u seed (Go.)(DEDR 4153). pane_ka_ hard seed inside a fruit; bone (Go.); pr.e_n (pl. pr.e_ku) stone of fruit; bone (Pe.); per.en (pl. per.ek) a bone (Kond.a); pr.e_nu (pl. pr.e_ka) bone, stone or seed of fruit (Kui); ple_nu bone, stone of fruit; pe_r.nu id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4418). Image: single grain: par.em (pl. par.ek) grain (of rice, etc.)(Go.); pra_ma a grain of boiled rice (Kui); parukkai, porukku single grain of boiled rice (Ta.); perku husked rice (Nk.); pra_lu rice (Te.); pa_r.ek husked rice, kut.ki_, etc.(Go.); paraik, perek husked rice (Go.); per(u) (pl. perku) husked rice (Kond.a); preyi id. (Pe.); pra_u rice, husked paddy (Kui); ko_ruvrau, ko_ruvau flaked rice (-p- > -v- in compounds.)(DEDR 3982).

6586.To cover, conceal: pir.gi to be completely covered by a cloth or upper garment (Kond.a); pir.k to cover or envelop completely (as a dead body with a cloth), cover, mask (Kond.a); pr.ik to cover (Kuwi)(DEDR 4188). pr.ak to cover (Pe.Mand.); planga to be covered; plapka (< plak-p-; plakt-) to cover with something (Kui)(DEDR 4008). pidadha_ti closes (Mn.); pidha_payati causes to shut (BhP.); pihita hidden, covered (MBh.); covered, obstructed (Pali); pihia (Pkt.); piyu, pivu, pi_ shut; piyu hiding (Si.); pidahati covers, conceals (Pali); piha_i, pihe_i covers, shuts (Pkt.); piya_iba to join by thrusting the end of a thing into that of another (A.); pihiba_ to overspread (Or.); piyanava_ to cover, close (Si.); piyavanava_ to cause to be shut (Si.)(CDIAL 8194). cf. pin.ai to tie, fasten, clasp (Ta.)(DEDR 4160). To shut, to close: pat.- (-t-) to unstring (bow), close (umbrella)(Pe.); pat.- to close (umbrella); pathali to loosen; mi_ gu_rgu_ pathdu_ shut your umbrella!; pat.- (-h-) to fold clothes, umbrella etc. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3862).

6587.Image: to beat, to strike: pit.t.e_i, pit.t.ai beats, hurts (Pkt.); pit.an.u to strike (S.); pit.t.an. to beat the breast (L.); pit.t.ana_ (P.); pi_t.no to beat (Ku.); pit.nu (N.); pit.iba (A.); pit.a_ (B.); pit.iba_ (Or.); pi_t.ab to beat clothes in washing (Bi.); to beat (Aw.); pi_t.al to beat (Bhoj.); pi_t.na_ (H.); pi_t.vu~ (G.); pit.n.e~ (M.); pit.ako beating the head (S.); pit.t.iya beaten (Pkt.); pit.t.ai falls (Pkt.); pit. to be closed (as a door)(Dm.); pit.un the breast to be struck in wailing (K.)(CDIAL 8165). pet. beating (Ko.); pet.t.u to beat; n. striking, a blow, stroke, hurt (Ka.); blow, stroke, knock, thump (Te.); blow, slap (Tu.); pet.t. a blow (Kol.)(DEDR 4389).

6588.Image: rat: put.ki a kind of rat (Pe.); t.epra put.ki id. (Mand..); pot.'i orli a kind of rodent (Kuwi)(DEDR 4257).To roast, kindle: put.- (-t-) to set fire to, kindle (Pe.); put.pa (put.t.-), pur.pa (pur.t-) to roast (Kui)(DEDR 4260).

6589.Image: ladle, paddle: put.t.u wooden ladle or spoon, paddle (Ka.); hut.t.u, ut.t.u paddle (Ka.); ut.u oar, boatman's pole (Ta.); put. stirring stick (To.)(DEDR 4265). cf. ud.upa raft (MBh.)(CDIAL 1695).

6590.Cotton: pul.un cotton (Si.); phut.a bursting of cotton pods (Or.)(CDIAL 13843). Image: division of a cotton pod: phut.a division of a cotton pod (Or.)(CDIAL 13845).

6591.Hidden: -puru to hide (Pr.); put. hidden (Psht.); pur.a-pus hedgehog (Wg.)(CDIAL 8253).

6592.Image: male animal: cf. po_tu male of an animal, young male animal (Kuwi)(DEDR 4586). pr.thuka boy, young of any animal (Skt.); prathuka young of an animal (Skt.); puthuka child (Pali); pil.u, pil.a_ young of an animal (Si.); poha_ any large non-carnivorous domestic animal, pl. cattle (H.)(CDIAL 8360). Deformed: po_gan.d.a, paugan.d.a not fully grown, deformed; boy (BhP.); po_am.d.a eunuch (Pkt.); pu~_gr.a_ boy (H.); po~gd.a_ stripling (M.)(CDIAL 8394). cf. po_ta young of animal or plant (MBh.)(CDIAL 8399). cf. pautra son's son (AV.)(CDIAL 8416). prapautra great-grandson (Skt.); prapautraka (Ya_j.); prapautri_ great-granddaughter (Skt.); prapotra, prapotra_, papotra, papota_, pa_pota_ pl. great-grandsons (As'.); prapotra (NiDoc.); papotta, paputta, pavotta, paoppaya, pauppaya (Pkt.); pao_co, pao_ci (Sh.); palotra_, palotri_ (L.); parota_, parotrari_, paroti_ (P.)(CDIAL 8693).

6593.Dwarf; young of animal: put.t.ayati is or becomes small (Skt.); put.t.a chubby (N.); pur.ko dwarf (N.)(CDIAL 8256). pot.i that which is small, a little child (Ta.); pot.iyan- boy (Ta.); put.t.a, put.a, put.t.i a small, short man; hud.uga boy, child; hud.ugi girl (Ka.); bud.uta a little one, child (Te.); bot.t.e a little girl, lass; bud.uta~d.u a little boy; bod.iga id. (Te.); pud.d.a_ short, too short (Kur.); bot.oli short, stumpy (Kui); po_t.ila a dwarf (Kuwi); phid.d.a dwarf (Pkt.)(DEDR 4259). poa_ tender twig (P.); po_i budding of trees in spring (Ku.); sugarcane sapling (Bhoj.); po, poa, pua shoot of plantain (Or.); poa_ tobacco seedling (Mth.); poy spike of coconut or other palms containing the spadix (M.)(CDIAL 8399). po_ttu sapling, tender branch or shoot of tree; po_tu flower bud (Ta.); pottid twig (Pa.); bo_da podeli sapling (Kui)(DEDR 4587). po_ta young of animal or plant (MBh.); young of an animal (Pali); potaga young (of camel)(NiDoc.); po_a young snake, child (Pkt.); young of an animal (H.); pova_ young snake (M.); youths (OSi.); po_a_la child, bull (Pkt.); powa_li young of animal or bird (A.); potu son (esp. an only son)(K.); pot.a_ young of animal, unfledged bird (H.); pona_ young fish (A.B.; A. also affectionate term of address to a child); potho any young animal (Ku.); pho_ boy (Phal.); photo young child, testicle (Ku.); photi girl; phwa_ta_-photi children (Ku.); pai son (Dm.); o_ya boy, child, daughter (Pas'.); po_ son, boy (Bshk.); child (Tor.); pe_ sons (Sh.)(CDIAL 8399). cf. po_tu young male animal (Kuwi)(DEDR 4586). cf. payal boy (Ta.); pas'akan child (Ma.); payl. young grain plant (not paddy), child (Ko.); pasul.a child (Ka.); paiyye, paiyeru, paiyyeru child, boy; Pariah's child (Ga.)(DEDR 3939). po_de girl; po_di po_ti small children, young boys and girls (Kuwi); bo_del young lady, bride (Kond.a); bo_da young of bird (Te.)(DEDR 4587).

6594.Kid: pat.t.h kid (L.); pat.ha kid of 8 or 9 months (S.); pa~_t.ha_ he-goat, young ram (B.)(CDIAL 8015). pad. very short (child, man)(Ko.); pal.l.ai that which is short and stocky (person, animal)(Ta.)(DEDR 4019). Young goat: pat.t.h, pat.t.hr.i_, pat.ho_ra_ kid (L.); pat.t.ha_ young donkey (L.); young he-goat or cock or man or grass (P.); young man (Ku.); pat.hor, pat.hora_ young goat (P.); pat.he_r well-developed lamb (WPah.); pa_t.ho kid, lamb (Ku.); kid (N.); pat.han.aro young she-goat; pa_t.h, pyet.h kid (Ku.); pat.ha_ full-grown uncastrated goat (A.); pa~_t.(h)a_ he-goat, young ram (B.); pa~_t.hi young she-goat, any young female animal (B.); pen.t.ha_ kid, lamb (Or.); pa_t.ha_ m., pa_t.hi_, pat.hiya_ kid (Bi.); pa_t.ha_, pat.t.ha_ (Bhoj.); young full-grown animal (H.); pat.h (H.); pat.hiya_ young she-goat (H.); pa_t.(h) kid (M.); pat.ava_, pat.iya_ young of any animal, young person (Si.); fat.iker foal (Sh.); pat.ikki_ girl (Si.); pa_t.h kid (K.); pa_t.ho, pa_t.huru 10 or 12 months old kid (S.); pa_t.ha_ young elephant (P.); pa_r.hi_ young buffalo (H.); pas.t.havah four or five year old bull (VS.)(CDIAL 8015). pat.hru_ kid, lamb (Bi.); pat.haru_ buffalo calf (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 8016).

6595.Image: Indian antelope: badu the Sasin or Indian antelope, antilope cervicapra; the sasin lives on open, high ground... its (divergent) horns point upwards but are spirally twisted along a straight axis (Mu.lex.)

6596.Wild goat: pa_r.o wild goat, fawn (Ku.); pa_d.asa fawn (OM.)(CDIAL 8042). benkre a wild goat (Kon.lex.) cf. bakri_ goat (H.lex.)

6597.He-goat: po_ta, ho_ta, ho_tu, ho_ntu he-goat (Ka.); po_tu goat (Kod..)(DEDR 4586). Image: ram: boda a ram, the male of certain graminivorous animals as goats, deer etc.; boda jel a stag; boda merom a he-goat (Santali.lex.) bokd.o, bokd.i, bokd.ya_ a sheep of the country, a goat; bod.ai to ram (Kon.lex.)

6598.Male; buffalo: po_tu male buffalo (Ma.Te.); male of an animal or bird (Te.); po.t cock (Kol.); pho_t id. (Nk.); po_t male of birds (Pa.); po_t, po_tal male of animals (Go.); po_tu id. (Kui); po_t id. (Kond.a); po_tu_ male of some animals and birds; po_tu male of some animals, of trees; male of an animal, young male animal (Kuwi); po_ttu male of animals, some birds, some aquatic animals (Ta.)(DEDR 4586). Buffalo; stout: por.ha, pur.ha male buffalo (Or.); praud.ha full of (MBh.); strong, full-grown, skilful (Skt.); pro_d.ham (Pa_n..gan.a.); pavu_d.ha firm (Pkt.); puval.u strong, firm, hard, haughty (Si.); paur.ha_ mighty, firm, stiff (H.); po_d.ha grown up, capable, clever (Pkt.); por.ho very old (S.); por.a_ stout, robust (Mth.); por.h(a_) = paur.ha_ (H.); podhau big (OG.); pod.ha_ stout, cunning (P.)(CDIAL 9021).

6599.Protection, praise; protector, nourisher: po_r-r-u (po_r-r-i-) to praise, applaud, worship, protect, cherish, nourish, entertain; n. protection, praise; po_r-r-i praise, applause; po_r-r-imai honour, reverence (Ta.); po_r-r-uka to preserve, protect, adore; po_r-r-i nourisher, protector (Ma.)(DEDR 4605). po_s.a growth, prosperity (RV.); upbringing, nourishment (Ma_rkP.); po_saka nourishing (Pali); po_sika_ nurse (Pali); po_sa nourishing (Pkt.); pusuk ear of corn (Pr.); po_h present given to husband's relatives by bride's on birth of her first vchild (K.); pos nutrition (Ku.); pos tameness, docility (B.); posa_, pusa_ nutrition (B.); posa~_, pusa~_ cherishing, bringing up (Or.); pos care (esp. of animals), training and bringing up (of animals)(H.)(CDIAL 8408). po_s.an.a nourishing (MBh.); po_sana nourishing (Pali); po_san.a, po_san.aya_ (Pkt.); pohan (A.); posan bringing up, care of (H.); posn.a_, posan.ya_ adopted, kept and used on condition of feeding it (of a beast)(M.); pohoni, pusna nourishment (Si.)(CDIAL 8409). po_s.ayati nourishes, rears (RV.); pass. po_s.yate_ (Skt.); po_se_ti nourishes (Pali); pos.am.naya, ger. pos.idavo (NiDoc.); posn.o (pass. posin.o, caus. posyu_n.o)(Ku.); posnu (pass. posinu to be fat, to blossom)(N.); pohiba (A.); posa_, pusa_ to nourish, rear, domesticate (B.); posiba_, pusiba_ (Or.); posab (Mth.); po_sal (Bhoj.); posna_ (H.); posvu~ (G.); posn.e~ (M.); caus. po_sa_pe_ti (Pali); posa_ana (B.); posa_iba_ (Or.); po_sai is nourished (Pkt.); posn.a_ to nourish (P.); posab to be nourished, to grow up (Mth.); posn.e~ to thrive (M.)(CDIAL 8410). po_s.ita nourished (Skt.); po_sita nourished (Pali); po_sia (Pkt.); pos'a_ fostered, bred as one's own (of a child)(M.)(CDIAL 8411). po_s.ya thriving (RV.); to be maintained (MBh.); po_s.ya-putraka adopted son (Pur.); po_s.iya (RV.); po_sa to be fed (Pali); posa_ domesticated (B.); posa_, pusa_ reared, tame, adopted (of a child)(Or.); po_s put adopted son (Bi.); po_sia to be nourished (Pkt.); posiya_ leb to adopt (a child)(Bi.M.)(CDIAL 8412). po_r-r-unar relatives, kinsmen (Paripa_. 4,52); those who understand (Paripa_. 4,55)(Ta.lex.) To guard against: po_r-r-i_t.u < po_r-r-u + it.u- a system of watching (po_r-r-i_t.u mutaliya pa_tuka_valum : Tol. Po. 171, Urai.)(Ta.); po_r-r-u-tal to protect, cherish, keep with great care (po_r-r-i n-ariyavai po_r-r-al : Kur-al., 693); to guard against (pur-acor- po_r-r-umin : Cilap. 30,188); po_r-r-u protection (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

6600.Praise: po_r-r-i praise, applause, commendation; brahman temple-priest of Malabar; exclamation of praise (Cilap. 13,92); po_tti id.; po_r-r-iceytal to praise, worship, adore (Tiruman. 3); po_r-r-imai honour, reverence; po_r-r-u to praise, applaud (Tiruva_ca. 5,60)(Ta.lex.)

6601.Rivalry: po_t.i emulation, rivalry, competition (Ta.Te.Ka.); po_t.t.i, po_t.t.ikkai (Ta.); po_t.t.ikka_ran- rival (Ta.lex.)

6602.Image: hayrick: ban.ambe, ban.abe, ban.ave, ban.ive, bal.abe stack, rick (Ka.); ban.ab stack (Tu.); pat.appu hayrick (Ta.)(DEDR 3886).

6603.An unguent: pi_tam a gold-coloured unguent; one of na_lvakai-c-ca_ntu; pi_ta-ca_ram, pi_ta-ca_lam sandalwood; East Indian kino (Pin..); pi_ta-durumam red cedar, cempul.iccai [te_vata_ru]; pi_ta-da_ru id.; mastwood, pun-n-ai (Malai.); pi_tam cuscus grass, iruve_ri; pi_ta_ru babul, vel.ve_l (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.) pi_ta-da_ru a kind of pine or sarala tree; pi_tadrah-, pi_tana id.; pi_taka aloe-wood; sandal-wood (Skt.lex.)

6604.Sugarcane: pun.d.raka a variety of sugarcane (Car. Su. 25.49).

6605.Image: to sit cross-legged: pat.et to cross the legs, to interlace, to braid, to plait; pat.gan.d.o to sit cross-legged (Santali.lex.) Image: thigh: pat.t. thigh (L.WPah.)(CDIAL 7699). patuma_can-am lotus-posture, a yo_gic posture which consists in placing the right foot on the left thigh and the left foot on the right thigh and grasping the toes with the hands crossed over the back, while the chin presses on the chest and the gaze is fixed on the tip of the nose, one of nine a_can-am (Ci_vaka. 656, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

6606.Lotus: patumam lotus-shaped section of a crown, one of five mut.i-y-ur-uppu (Pin..); patmam id. (S.I.I. ii,395)(Ta.lex.) patumam, patumapi_t.am seat in the shape of a lotus (S.I.I., ii,135; Man.i. 3,66, Arum.)(Ta.lex.)

6607.A treasure of Kubera: padumam ten million crores (Kampara_. Ilan:kai.ke_l.vi. 45); padumaniti one of the nine treasures of Kube_ra (Te_va_. 1230,10); patma-niti id. (Takkaya_kap. 462, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. kharva ten thousand millions; padma thousand billions; padma-re_khe a line in the palm of the hand indicating the acquisition of great wealth; padma-la_chana Kube_ra; the sun; a kind; Brahma_; padma-va_se Laks.mi_ (Ka.lex.)

6608.Fragrant wood: padmaka_s.t.ha (Skt.B.H.) a fragrant wood resembling toon brought from Malwa or southern India (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.312). patumukam one of 32 o_ma_likai, muppattiran.t.un-ul. macan-ni_rir- kalakkum nar-umpan.t.avakai, i.e. one of thirty two fragrant substances, used to mix with turmeric water (Cilap. 6,77,Urai.)(Ta.lex.) padma a species of fragrant plant used in medicine (Skt.Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Prunus cerasoides = prunus puddum: padmaka (Skt.M.); paddam (H.Kumaon); padmakasta (M.); small branches: used as substitute for hydrocyanic acid; kernel: used in stone and gravel; habitat: wild in the temperate Himalayas from Garhwal at 3,000 - 6,000 ft. to Sikkim and Bhutan from 5,000 - 8,000 ft., Kodaikanal and Ootacamund; often cultivated (GIMP, p.204). Prunus serotina = prunus virginiana: wild black cherry bark; wild cherry bark; rum-cherry, whiskey-cherry; wildkirchenrinde (Ger.); ecorce de cerisier de virginie (Fr.); part used: the carefully dried stem bark; habitat: eastern and central N. America... rossed bark is that which has been deprived of its periderm (corky outer layer)... Uses: Wild cherry is employed as a stimualting expectorant, simple bitter and as a flavouring agent. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 407-412).

6609.Prunus amygdalus or prunus dulcis : va_ta_ma prunus amygdalus (Car. Ci. 11.37, ci. 26.171). ba_da_ma prunus amygdalus = amygdalus communis (Skt.) Prunus amygdalus: badam (H.P.M.); vadumai (Ta.); badamu (Te.); cultivated in the cooler parts of Punjab and Kashmir (GIMP, p.204). 'Ancient Egyptian 'wnt; Modern Egyptian Arabic; nuts lo_z) 'The almond tree is native to central Asia... The almonds were imported, presumably from Greece. Some were found in the tomb of Tutankhamun in a jar labelled 'wnt (1567-1320 BC)... almond oil was used for unguents... the nuts were used to clarify Nile water. Bitter almond oil was used in massage to bring about perspiration.'(Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., pp. 138-139). uruma_n.a prunus armeniaca (Car. Su. 27.147). Prunus amygdalus: Synonyms: sweet almond, green nuts; susse mandeln (Ger.); amandes douces (Fr.); prunus amygdalus or dulcis; part used: the dried ripe seed; habitat: probably Asia Minor and Persia;; uses: almond oil... as a demulcent and nutritive; almond meal is used as a detergent. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 421-425). Prunus cornuta: jamana (H.Kumaon); jaman (K.); jamna (P.); oil from kernels: good substitute for oil of bitter almonds; habitat: temperate Himalayas from Kurrum at 4,000 ft. to Sikkim and Bhutan at 8,000 - 12,000 ft. (GIMP, p.205).

6610.Costus speciosus: padma-patra costus speciosus (Ka.lex.)

6611.Hibiscus mutabilis: padme the plant hibiscus mutabilis (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6612.Cassia tora: padma_t.a the medicinal plant cassia tora or alata (Ka.lex.) Cassia tora: Sanyal and Ghose state that the seeds, ground with sour buttermilk, are used to ease the irritation of itchy eruptions. Standley says that the seeds are sometimes employed in Mexico as a susbtitute for coffee and also in adulterating it. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.387). bhed.a deren., cakaod.a cassia tora (Santali.lex.) cf. tagarai (Ta.); chakramarda (Skt.) = cassia tora = cassia obtusifolia (GIMP, p.55).

6613.Fumigator: Celtis cinnamomea: pudn celtis tetranda (Ko.); po0n id. (To.)(DEDR 3913). cf. putan celtis cinnamomea (Ma.); pi_na_r-i (Ta.)(GIMP, p.57). cf. pi_na_r-i beak-dropped Nilgiri elm, celtis cinnamomea (Ta.lex.) Celtis wightii: kaka-mushti (Te.); vakkanai (Ta.); manalli (Ma.); wood: used in the same way as of celtis cinnamomea, i.e. scraped fine and mixed with lemon juice taken internally as a blood purifier in itch and cutaneous eruptions and is used as a fumigator and in headache; habitat: hills of S. India, the Andaman islands and Ceylon (GIMP, p.57). Celtis tetranda: padn celtis tetranda (Ko.); po0n id. (To.)(DEDR 3913). Celtis cinnamomea: pinari (Ta.); putan (Ma.); wood: scraped fine and mixed with lemon juice taken internally as a blood purifier in itch and cutaneous eruptions and is used as fumigator and in headache; wood contains skatole; habitat: Sikkim Himalayas, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and South India (GIMP, p.57).

6614.Bud: putal bud (Patir-r-up. 66,16)(Ta.lex.)

6615.Image: layer of stones: cf. hadi a layer of stone or brick in the ground (Ka.)(DEDR 3815). pa_tili trap or snare (Ta.); pa_tili_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

6616.Mint: Mentha piperita (Modern Egyptian Arabic na'na) 'In a tomb dating from the Late Period part of a bouquet was found, including the leaves of peppermint... Dioscorides mentions an Egyptian name for mint as tis; this has been identified as mentha sativa (also an ingredient of kyphi...)' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p. 120). Mentha arvensis: podina (H.B.); pudinah (M.); pudina (Ta.Te.M.); putiyina (Ma.); dried plant: antiseptic, carminative, stomachic; stimulant, emmenagogue, diuretic; essential oil; habitat: Western Himalayas, Kashmir 5,000-10,000 ft., Punjab, Kumaon; Garhwal (GIMP, p.165). Mentha piperita: lamb mint, American mint, brandy mint, peppermint; pfefferminze (Ger.); menthe poivree (Fr.); part used: the dried leaf and flowering top; habitat: in low, wet soil along brooks of Europe; uses: carminative and flavouring agent. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 725-727).

6617.Cloves: padma, padmaya_, padmagun.a_, padmagr.ha_ cloves; padma-la_cana Kube_ra; a king; padmagun.a_ an epithet of Laks.mi_ (Skt.lex.) cikaram < s'e_khara clove (Tailava. Taila. 105)(Ta.lex.) "The Latin name is cariofilum... The Arabs, Persians and Turks and most of the people of India call it calafur. In Maluco, where alone it is found, and in all that region, the name is chanque... (The garyophyllon of Pliny is certainly our 'cloves', the dried flower-buds of the myrtle bloom eugenia caryophyllata.)" (G. De Orta, pp.215-222). lavan:ga clove tree; clove (Skt.); clove (Pali); lavam.ga (Pkt.); rong, rung (K.); lau~gu (S.); ln:g (L.); lau~g (P.); lao~g pl. (WPah.); laun. (Ku.); lwa_n. (N.); lan. (A.); lan:ga, nan:ga (B.); lan:ga (Or.); lo~giya_ marica_ bird's eye-pepper (capsicum baccatum)(Bi.); nau~g, naug clove (Mth.); lawa~g, lau~g, lo~g (H.); lava~g (G.M.)(CDIAL 10977). Syzygium aromaticum = eugenia aromatic = eugenia caryophyllata = caryophyllus aromaticus: lavanga (S.B.); laung (H.P.); lavang (M.); krambu (Ta.); dried flower buds: stimulant, aromatic, carminative, used in flatulence and dyspepsia; essential oil containing eugenol; a native of Moluccas; cultivated in S. India (GIMP, p.238). lavan:ga syzygium aromaticum (Car. Su. 5.77, Ci. 26.210, Ci. 28.153). Eugenia caryophyllata, caryophyllus aromaticus: cloves, girofle (Fr.); clous aromatiques (Fr.); gewurznelken (Ger.); nagelein (Ger.); part used: the dried flower-bud; habitat: Molucca islands; Uses: cloves are used as an aromatic, carminative, and condiment as well as in the manufacture of clove oil and vanillin; clove oil is exported from Madagascar... is a local anesthetic in toothache, carminative, germicide and falvouring agent. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 603-605).

6618.Jujube: iratti, irati, irantai, ilantai, ilatai zizyphus jujuba (Ta.); ilanta, lanta (Ma.); era, elaci, elci, el.aci, ilici, egaci, re_gu (Ka.); re~_gu, re_nu (Te.); re_n:ga, ren.a_ (Kol.); re_n:ga (Nk.); re~_ga (Pa.); re_n. (Ga.); re_n:ga_ (Go.); ilkru a wild plum (Malt.)(DEDR 475). cf. tut.ari sp. jujube, zizyphus rugosa (Ta.)(DEDR 3293). badara fruit of the jujube tree, zizyphus jujuba (VS.); the tree (Skt.); badari_ the tree (S'a_n:khS'r.); badarika_ the fruit (Skt.); badara the fruit (Pali); badari_ the tree (Pali); baara the fruit (Pkt.); bi_r (Shum.); bray fruit of zizyphus vulgaris (K.); beri zizyphus vulgaris, zizyphus jujuba (S.); beru their fruit (S.); be_r the fruit; pl. be_ri~_ the tree; ber the tree and its fruit (L.); ber the fruit (P.); be_ro_ (WPah.); ber (Ku.); bayar, bair the tree and its fruit (N.); bair (B.); baara the fruit (Or.); bair (Bi.); baer (Mth.); be_r (Bhoj.); bayara (OAw.); bair, ber the fruit; bairi_, beri_ the tree (H.); bher (M.); bo_ra the fruit; bo_ri_ the tree (Pkt.); bura (Or.); baur, bor small bells worn on the feetand resembling the jujube fruit (H.); bor the jujube fruit; borr.i_ the tree (G.); bor the fruit (M.); the tree (M.); d.ebara metath. the tree and its fruit (Si.)(CDIAL 9125). Zizyphus jujuba: badari (Skt.); ber (H.P.B.); bor (M.); ilandai (Ta.); gangarenu (Te.); badaram (Ma.); bore (Ka.); leaves: form a plaster in strangury; fruit: pectoral, styptic, considered to purify the blood and aid digestion; root: used in decoction in fever and as a powder applied to old wounds and ulcers; bark: considered to be a remedy in diarrhea; indigenous to India (GIMP, p. 261). badara zizyphus jujuba (Car. Su. 4.10, 22.24). sicitika_ biggest variety of badara, zizyphus jujuba (Car. Su. 27.142). kuvala a variety of badara, zizyphus sp. (Car. Su. 4.10,24,25). kola a variety of badara, zizyphus sp. (Car. Su. 2.12, 3.18). d.id.haur.i, ex.he, janum, jom janum zizyphus jujuba (Santali.lex.) Zizyphus jujuba, zizyphus sativa: common jujube, brustbeere (Ger.); jujube (Fr.); native to Asia; uses: the pulp of the fruit is employed in pastes, syrups, and pastilles as a demulcent-sialagogue for the relief of bronchial affections; the fruit as a food. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, p. 553 ).

6619.Zizyphus oenoplia: su_re_ oblique-leaved jujube, zizyphus oenoplia (Go.)(DEDR 2730).

6620.Frying: cf. pori (-pp-, -tt-) to fry (Ta.)(DEDR 4537). pho_d.iaya fumigated with mustard oil (Pkt.); phura_unu to fry in ghee or oil (N.); phoran putting hot ghee into curry (A.); phor.an spices fried in ghee or oil for seasoning curry (B.); phoran seasoning (Bi.); phoran burning oil or ghee for preparing vegetables (Bhoj.); phor.n.i_ seasoning (G.); phod.n.i_ sauce of hot ghee and mustard seed (M.)(CDIAL 13856). cf. pur.pa (pur.t-) to roast (Kui)(DEDR 4260).

6621.Flower: cf. pu_ flower; (-pp-, -tt-) to blossom, flower (Ta.)(DEDR 4345). sphut.a blossoming, opened (MBh.); phut.a expanded, spread out over; blossoming (Pali); phud.a open (Pkt.); phur.u, phur.e flower (Sh.); phur.o~, phur.u (WPah.)(CDIAL 13841). sphun.t.ati expands; sphun.d.ate_ opens (Dha_tup.); phun.d. full-blown; flower (Bshk.); phundo flower (Chil.); phono (Gau.); phun.u, phunar (Sh.); phun.d.an.u to swell, inflate; phun.d.a-jan.u to be inflated, be expanded (S.); phun.d.un. to expand (L.)(CDIAL 13846). phod.i_ breaking open (OMarw.)(CDIAL 13853).

6622.Circular basket-boat covered with leather: put.t.i circular basket-boat covered with leather (Te.)(DEDR 4263)

6623.Tom-tit: pit.t.a bird (Te.Kol.Nk.); pit.t.e young bird, chick (Kol.); bird (Go.); pit.od.e sp. nightingale (Ga.); pit.e, pitte bird (Go.)(DEDR 4154). pidva some kind of animal (VS.); piddi_ tom-tit, robin, honeysucker (L.); pidda_, piddi_, pidr.a_, pidr.i_ a kind of small bird, tom-tit (P.); pi_dr.i_ tom-tit (H.)(CDIAL 8195). Bird: cf. pot.a bird (Kui)(DEDR 4489).

6624.Image: buttock: pend.a buttock (Pa.); pe_nd.a female organ (Go.); pe_nd.a id., buttock (Go.); pe_n.d.a_ anus (Go.); pind.ari rectum (Kui)(DEDR 4398). Image: bottom: pund.u_ bottom of a receptacle (Br.)(DEDR 4379). pe~da_ bottom (P.); pi~d, pi~dh, pin bottom, fundament, buttocks (N.); pendi earth bulging at bottom side of a brick when in the mould, depression of a pot, pedestal of a cup (Or.); pe~d(a_) bottom of granary (Bi.); pe~do (Mth.); pe~da_ bottom (H.); po_d bottom (as of a vessel)(M.) (CDIAL 8379). Bottom of pot, tree: bundha bottom (Skt.); budhna (RV.); buddha bottom of tree (Pkt.); for metathesis of n cf. fundus (Latin); bum.dha foot of tree, any root (Pkt.); bun below (Dm.); bune, buni root (Pas'.); bunia under (Pas'. < Pers. bun); bun depth; adj.deep (Wot..); bhunar.o that below; bhunar.a_ adv.below (Phal.); bon down (K.); bunnh, bunh downwards, below (P.); bunh, bun down (WPah.); bu~dhu~ bottom of pot (G.); bu~dh id. (M.); bu~d bottom or base of anything (M.); bundnen inst. sg.deposit (OSi.); bunna, st.bun root of a tree (Si.); bhunimi an:gur.i little finger; bhunamo_s.t.i an:gur.i index and ring finger (Phal.); bunhi~o~ lower (WPah.); bunda root of tree (Pali); bundi boy kept for pederasty (N.); bund root of tree (Or.)(CDIAL 9280). buna_di foundation (Te.lex.) Membrum muliebre; vulva: pu_r-u, pi_r-u anus (Ta.); pu_r-am, pu_r-u buttocks; membrum muliebre (Ma.); pu.ri female privities (Kod..); pu_t.i id. (Tu.); pu_d.a anus (Te.); pund.u_ bottom of a receptacle, buttocks, anus (Br.)(DEDR 4379). buli vulva, anus (BHSk.); buri vulva (Gal.); bul backside, anus, vulva (Gypsy); bul posterior (vorov-bul buffalo: 'having a large rump')(Gypsy); bu_ri vulva (Mth.); bul, bur, bur. (H.)(CDIAL 9291). buddi_ vulva (L.)(CDIAL 9275). Rectum: pu_ta buttocks (Skt.); apapu_ta badly formed buttocks (Pa_n..); po_t.i_ rectum (Pa_rGr..com.); pou hinder part, rear (S.); puttara vulva (Pkt.); puti_ vulva (Ku.); puti vulva (N.); putu vulva of young woman (N.); phuti_, phuddi_ vulva of small girl (Ku.)(CDIAL 8321). podu vulva (K.); po~d anus, posterior, hips (B.); pu_n, punar. backside, loin, vulva (Ku.)(CDIAL 8379). bhosr.a_ large vulva (P.); bhosr.i_ vulva (Ku.H.); term of abuse to women (H.); bhos, bhos', bhosr.i_, bhosr.o vulva (G.); bhosd.i_, bho~sd.i_ (M.)(CDIAL 9545). pu_ta buttocks (Skt.); pou the hinder part, rear (S.); po~yo~ hindmost (S.); puttara vulva (Pkt.); pu~_tu part of the body beyond the pudenda (K.); puti_ vulva (Ku.); phuti_, phuddi_ vulva of small girl (Ku.); puti vulva (N.); putu vulva of young woman (N.); po_ri_ tail (Gy.); po_t.h rectum (K.)(CDIAL 8321). bun.d.aru buttock, rump, hip (S.); bun.d.r.i_ anus, buttock (L.); bun.d. anus (L.P.); bu~_d. (H.); bu_d. bottom (M.)(CDIAL 9280).

6625.Tree; log; root; drug: bo_ta plant (Pers.); bu_ta (Par.); but.a obl. tree (K.); but.t., bu_t.a_ tree (WPah.); bu_t.i_ root of a plant, drug (OAw.); but.i_ herb (Ku.); bot.a_ plant (L.); bot.t.a_ sugarcane slip for planting (P.); bot.t. tree (WPah.); bot. tree, stem, trunk (Ku.N.); bot.a_ log (H.)(CDIAL 9297). Image: root of a tree: pa_da_ root (Kur.); pthe root of a tree (Malt.)(DEDR 4077). Tree: vit.t.aram tree; vit.t.ari west Indian pea-tree, akatti (Ta.); vis.t.hara (Skt.); vit.t.i, vit.i common sebestan, nar-uvili (M.M. 802)(Ta.); vid.i id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Image: fork of a tree: vit.apa branch, twig, sprout, bush (MBh.); vit.apaka tree (Skt.); vit.apa, vit.abhi_ fork of a tree, branch (Pali); vid.ava sprout, branch (Pkt.); birava small tree; birawa_ tree (OAw.); vel.ap, vel.ep bush, tree with branches (Si.)(CDIAL 11713). cf. vi_t.a_ small piece of stick shaped like a barley-corn and struck in the game of tipcat (MBh.)(CDIAL 12045). Tree: vit.api, vit.avi < vit.apin tree (Ta.lex.)

6626.Lineage: buda stock, root, clump, stock; mit buda khonbo hec akana we all come from one stock; buda grandfather; bud.a baba grandfather; bud.ha kohna old men acquainted with the Santal traditions and customs (Santali.lex.) pat.ika_l generation (Te_va_.1086,9); pat.i family, lineage (pat.iman-n-u palkalan- : Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,1,9); order (Te_va_. 493,10); step, stair (Ta.Ma.); pad.i id. (Te.Ka.Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Common use; regularity: va_d.ike use, custom, practice, state of being habitual, of being well-known by practice (Ka.); custom, usage, practice (Tu.); va_d.ige id. (Tu.); va_d.u to use, make use of, employ (Te.); va_d.uka practice, habit, custom, usage, use (Te.); va_t.ikkai habit, custom, usage (Ta.); va_l.i custom (Te.); vat.i to practise (Ta.)(DEDR 5341). var..an:ku to move, proceed, advance, be current or in use; use, practise (Ta.); var..akkam usage, practice, habit, custom; giving (Ta.); var..akku custom, usage, way, method, justice, bounty (Ta.); var..amai custom (Ta.); val.km (obl. val.kt-) usual practice, custom; pol.c- to live, be alive, get on in life (To.); bar..ake, bar..ike course, way of action, plan, contrivance, use, custom, practice, exercise, familiarity (Ka.); bar..asu, bar..isu to use, spend as time, etc. (Ka.); bal.asuni to serve out food, use, have in common use (Tu.); bal.ike familiarity, acquaintance, intimacy, common use; common, familiar, usual (Tu.); vad.ugu, vad.uvu manner, mode, way (Te.)(DEDR 5292). Way; gift; lineage: var..i way, path, road, origin, source, means, posterity, descendants, race, family, lineage, relative, series, antiquity (Ta.); way, road, path, succession, means, usage, custom (Ma.); pol.y way to do something (To.); bar..i way, road, place, spot; way, mode, order, regularity, race, lineage, a gift (Ka.); bar..ika after, afterwards (Ka.); bay po.- to wander aimlessly (Kod..); bari lineage, descent (Tu.)(CDIAL 5297).

6627.Riddle: pendo riddle (Go.); pitir puzzle, conundrum (Ta.); putir riddle (Ta.); pici enigma, riddle (Ta.); padir, puduru speech that admits of a double meaning (Ka.); padaru ambiguity, vagueness; ambiguous, vague (Tu.)(DEDR 4163). pu.nd- (pu.nt-) to solve (riddle), win (contest)(Kol.); phunda_ a riddle; pun- to solve a riddle (Go.); pun.d.alincu to invent (Te.)(DEDR 4364). pahel.ika_ riddle, puzzle; bhantikara puzzling (Pali.lex.)

6628.Hillside; shifting cultivation: penda shifting cultivation (Pa.); hillside axe cultivation (Go.); hill field for the cultivation of millet (Go.)(DEDR 4404). cf. ped. hillock (Konkan.i); pe~d. rising ground (H.)(CDIAL 8377). cf. pat.ha_ small grassy eminence in a river (Or.)(CDIAL 8371). ped.hi raised place on the floor (M.)(CDIAL 8222). Sandhill: cf. bhi_t. embankment (H.); bhi_r., bhi_r.wa_ mound round a tank (Mth.); bhit.a sandhill (S.); bhit.o upper side of a field; bhit.uko terrace, hillock (Ku.); bhit.o wall holding up a terraced field (N.); bhit.a_ mound, mound on a ruined site, homestead (B.)(CDIAL 9491).

6629.Image: lying-in woman; childbirth: pe_tu parturition, childbed; pedmedi lying-in woma; pedpini, pedduni to bear, bring forth (as a child); pedpa_vuni to assist a woman in childbirth; pedikke birth (Tu.); per- (peruv-, pett-) to bear (child)(Kod..); pet.t.u to bear (young), lay (eggs); perayu to obtain (Te.); pet.- (pet.t-) to bear young (said of animal)(Kol.); pet.t.- to give birth to (Nk.); ped- (pett-) to obtain (Pa.); pirr- to sprout from the ground; pirra_na_ to grow (of young wheat), sprout (Go.); per-u (per-uv-, per-r--) to get, obtain, beget, generate, bear; per-uti gain, profit; per-uttu to cause to obtain; per-r-an- father; per-r-a_n- id., husband; pe_r-u acquisition, childbirth; pir-a to be born, be produced; pir-antai birth; pir-appu birth, origin; pir-avi birth; pir-ai crescent moon (Ta.); per-uka to bear, bring forth, obtain, get; pe_r-u birth, bringing forth, what is obtained; pe_r-r-i midwife; pir-akka to spring up, be born; pir-appu, pir-avi birth; pir-a crescent moon (Ma.); perv- (perd-) to be born; perp birth, personal appearance; per new moon (Ko.); per-p, pe.r, pe.rf act of birth; per- days from the third to the eighth after new moon; pe.rf- (pe.d-) to be born; per- id.; ped, in: enwir. fed my younger sibling, ninwir. fed your younger sibling, etc. (lit. one born after me, you, etc.)(To.); per- (pett-) to get, obtain, beget, bear; per-e crescent moon (Ka.)(DEDR 4422). cf. utpadyate_ originates, arises (S'Br.); utpanna produced, born (R.); utpa_dayati produces, begets (MBh.); uppa_de_ti produces (Pali); uppa_ye_i, uppa_yai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1814). cf. utpatti origin, birth (MBh.)(CDIAL 1812). pasu_ti parturition (Pali.lex.)

6630.Back of a blade, bottom of a basket: pit.an:ku back of a blade or weapon, bottom (as of a basket)(Ta.)(DEDR 4146).

6631.Coral tree: manda_ra the coral tree erythrina indica (MBh.); white variety of calotropis gigantea (Skt.); manda_raka, manda_ru, manda_rava (Skt.); manda_ra, manda_rava erythrina fulgens (Pali); mam.da_ra erythrina indica (Pkt.); mada_r (A.); ma_da_r erythrina fulgens, artocarpus lacucha and its sour flower (which is cooked and eaten)(B.); manda_r, mada_r asclepias gigantea (H.); ma~_da_r erythrina fulgens, asclepias gigantea (M.); madara erythrina indica (Si.)(CDIAL 9849). man_da_ran name of a place (B.)(CDIAL 9850). pon:gara, hon:gara Indian coral tree, erythrina indica (Ka.); pon:gare, pon:ga_ra (Tu.)(DEDR 4468). murukku palas tree, butea frondosa (Ta.); murikku erythrina indica; butea frondosa (Ma.); mutta, muttaga, muttala, muttuka, muttuga, mur..taga, mur..tuga b. frondosa (Ka.); muttaka (Tu.); mo_dugu, mro_dugu (Te.); modg (Kol.); murtand. (Ga.); mur mar.a_, mur, murrar., murar., moghar.i, mogaree, mut.o_, mot.o_ (Go.); murka_ (Kur.); murko name of a tree (Malt.); cf. Santali. muru'd (DEDR 4981). cf. erukku calotropis gigantea (Ta.); erikku id. (Ma.); ekke, ekka, erke, yakka gigantic swallow-wort or manure-leaf, calotropis gigantea (Ka.); ekkamale, ekkama_le, ekkame swallow-wort, c. gigantea (Tu.); arka c. gigantea (Skt.)(DEDR 814).

6632.Lac dye: bodel b. frondosa which yields lac dye. cf. potika_ cloth (CDIAL 8400). potti garment of fibres, cloth (Ta.); bark, a sort of linen cloth (DEDR 4515)}.

6633.Image: upside down: put.t.ha_ upside down (L.P.); pait.ha placing hand down with back up (Or.); prapr.s.t.ha having prominent or protuberant back (Pa_n..com.)(CDIAL 8692).

6634.Image: throat: bond.ka throat (Kol.); bon.d.uga, bon.d.uva gullet (Te.)(DEDR 4501).

6635.Image: upper part of back: cf. pot. upper part of back (Pa.)(DEDR 4514). pu_ta buttocks (Skt.); puta du. buttocks (Skt.); apapu_ta du. badly formed buttocks (Pa_n..); po_ti_ rectum (Pa_rGr..com.); pou the hinder part, rear; puo~, pua~_ adv. behind; po~yo~ hindmost (S.); puttara vulva (Pkt.); pu~_tu part of the body behind the pudenda (K.); puti_ vulva; phuti_, phuddi_ vulva of small girl (Ku.); puti vulva (N.); putu vulva of young woman (N.); po_ri_ tail; pori (Gypsy); pot.h, pot.i rectum (K.); pu~t.ki anus (B.); pu_t. sacrum bone of a cow (H.)(CDIAL 8321). cf. pr.s.t.i back (Kaus'.)(CDIAL 8370). cf. pr.s.t.ha back, hinder part (RV.)(CDIAL 8371). Image: back; behind: apa_ktah back (AV.);. pa_kta_t from behind (RV.); pa_c- behind (RV.); pate~_i after (Ash.); al patai (Wg.); pat (Pas'.); pata behind (Gaw.); patae afterwards (Gaw.); pade back, again (Wot..); pat after (Bshk.); patai second; patka again (Bshk.); pat, pad behind (Tor.); pato_ (Mai.); phat (Sh.); potu hinder, subsequent; pati behind (K.); ptte behind (WPah.); pati_r after, beyond (Ku.); pattar further behind (WPah.); pattrau~ hinder (WPah.); patama adv. back (NiDoc.); patyumu hindmost (K.); pettio~ hinder (WPah.)(CDIAL 7732). pot. upper part of back; pottel back; adv. behind (Pa.); pot., pot.tel, pot.t.u back (Ga.)(DEDR 4514).

6636.Flat: pr.thula broad (MBh.); puthula broad, flat (Pali); pihula wide (Pkt.); phla_, pho_la_ (L.); po_hllo_, pohlo_, puhlo_ fat (P.); pahol.u_, pol.u_ wide, loose (G.); pal.al, pul.ul wide,open (Si.); ful.au (Md.)(CDIAL 8361). Image: palm: pr.ek, pir.ik, per.ek palm of hand (Pas'.); pir.ik id. (Shum.); pr.thu wide (Skt.)(CDIAL 8358). cf. bot.t.u finger, toe (Ka.)(DEDR 4493). cf. put.hi_ an:gur.i_ thumb (Pas'.); pot.hu plump (K.)(CDIAL 8300). bo~t., bo~t.a_ finger (H.)(CDIAL 12045). Toe: bot. toe (Kon.lex.) bat.r.i_ loose rings worn on the toes by women (Kur.); bat.ri_ id. (Malt.)(DEDR 3880). a~ut.ha, bichia toe-ring (Santali.lex.)

6637.Image: small fish: pu~t.hi species of small fish (B.); pus.t.ika_ oyster (Skt.)(CDIAL 8302). po_ta_dha_na shoal of young fish (Skt.); pahun.a_, pahun.i, pohan.a_ shoal of young fish (Or.)(CDIAL 8401). Image: collection of fish: poha_r collection of young fish (Mth.)(CDIAL 8402). pro_s.t.hi_ the fish cyprinus pausius (Bhpr.); pro_s.t.hika_ cyprinus sophore (Skt.); put.hi a kind of small fish (A.); pu~t.hi, pu~t.i (B.); put.hi, put.i a kind of carp (Or.); pot.hi_ a small fish (Mth.); po~t.hi_, po~t.i_ the carp cyprinus pausius (H.)(CDIAL 9020).

6638.Image: lid, cover; hidden: pur.u lid, cover (S.); pur. cover, slab, millstone (L.)(CDIAL 8253). pudi cover (Ka.); poda-, podap-, podat- to thatch, cover; podepi covering (Kod..); podake a covering (Ta.); podugu, poduvu to cover, envelop; poduvu covering (Te.)(DEDR 4509). put.ati enfolds, envelops (Bhpr.); put.ita sewn (Skt.); -pr hide (Pr.); put. hidden (Psht.); pur.ia-pus hedgehog (Wg.)(CDIAL 8255). cf. putai (-v-, -nt-) to be concealed; (-pp-, -tt-) to bury, hide, conceal, cover (Ta.)(DEDR 4509). prago_payati guards; conceals (Skt.); pot underground part of a post, deep muddy place; potiba to bury, fill up with earth (A.); po~t the length of anything buried underground; pota_, po~ta_, puta_, pu~ta_ to bury (B.); pota_ foundation; potiba_, putiba_ to bury (Or.)(CDIAL 8474). cf. po_tikai stake (Ta.)(DEDR 4585). Image: polishing stone: cf. po_tra *cleaning instrument; the Potr.'s soma vessel (RV.); pot jeweller's polishing stone (Bi.)(CDIAL 8404). pe_d.un to ooze, drop out (K.)(CDIAL 8687).

6639.Image: dwarf: put.t.ayati is or becomes small (Dha_tup.); put.t.a chubby (N.); pur.ko dwarf (N.); put.t.a small, dwarfish (Tu.Ka.)(CDIAL 8256).

6640.Powder: podil flour (Nk.); podil, por, poyl id., husk dust (Pa.); poddu_l, podul flour (Ga.)(DEDR 4506). pin.t.i flour, meal, powder (Ta.); pin.d.i flour, powder (Te.); flour (Ga.Kond.a); pind.i_ flour (Kol.); pind.i, pind., pindi_ id.; pind.i id., powder (Go.)(DEDR 4162). Flour of millet: pis.t.a crushed, ground (RV.); flour (BhP.); cake (Skt.); pis.t.aka flour (Skt.); pis.t.i_ (Bhpr.); pis.t.ika cake of rice-flour (Skt.); pit.t.ha crushed seeds, flour (Pali); flour (Pkt.); pet.t.ha flour (Pkt.); pi_t. (Wot..); pis.t.o pret. of pi~s. (Phal.); pi_t.ho rice-flour; pit.hi powder of grain or pulse (Ku.); pit.ho flour, powder (N.); pit.ha_ powder, powdered rice, cake-bread (A.); cake (B.Or.); pi_t.ha_, pit.t.ha_ boiled meal pudding; pit.t.hi_ small boiled meal pudding (Bi.); pit.ha_r rice pounded in water (Mth.); pi_t.ha_ cake (Bhoj.); powdered pulse (Aw.); sweetmeat of rice-flour with coconut and sugar; pi_t.hi_, pit.t.hi_ pulse steeped in water and then peeled and ground (H.); pi_t.h flour; pi_t.hu~ flour of millet; pi_t.hi_ yellow powder applied to bodies of bride and bridegroom (G.); pi_t.h flour; pit.hi_ fine flour (e.g. of rice)(M.); pit.t.i powder, meal (Konkan.i); pit.i meal, dust (Si.); pi_t.ho pp. pi_t.hi_ dough of pulse-flour (S.); pi_t.ha_ pp. (L.); pi_t.t.ha_ pp. (whence pi_t.hn.a_ to grind); pi_t.h ground barley mash for calving cows; pi_t.hi_ pulse-flour (P.)(CDIAL 8218). pis.t.apu_ra a cake of flour and butter (Skt.); pit.hauri_ cake made of flour etc. (H.)(CDIAL 8219). pis.t.o_daka water mixed with flour (MBh.); pit.hou, pit.ha, pit.ha_u liquid paste of moistened ground rice used for making cakes (Or.)(CDIAL 8220). pi_san. to be ground (L.)[cf. pim.sati grinds (Skt.)(CDIAL 8142)]; pisn.a_ (P.); pisna_ (H.)(CDIAL 8221). cf. pi_d.ita pressed, squeezed (Mn.); pir.ia_ oil-cake (Or.)(CDIAL 8228). cf. pi_d.ana act of pressing or squeezing (R.)(CDIAL 8225). Ground spice: cf. pot.i (-v-, -nt-) powder, dust, ash, particle, fragment (Ta.); pir-y dust (To.); wid-y powder, ground spice (To.); pu_d. powder (M.)(DEDR 4481). cf. pu_r..i powder, dust, sacred ashes (Ta.)(DEDR 4316).

6641.Image: water creature: cf. pur-ugu insect (Te.lex.) pu_tara a partic. aquatic animal (Skt.); term applied to an insignificant person (HParis'.); pu_ara, po_ra small water creature (Pkt.); puaro insects formed in foul water (S.); pu_ra_ animalculae found in water (P.)(CDIAL 8322). cf. pur..u worm (Ta.lex.)

6642.Ficus religiosa: bo_dhi holy fig tree, ficus religiosa, pippala, kujara_s'ana, as'vattha (Amarako_s'a, IV.II.1).

6692.Image: a clod: pen.t.e, pet.t.a a clod; a lump, a concrete mass (Ka.); pe_n.d.a a mass of slightly wetted earth adhering to the feet in walking (Ka.); pen.t.e gat.t.u to coalesce into a mass, to concrete; to become one mass; pen.t.e, pen.d.i a bundle (Ka.); pe_n.d.hi_ (M.) (Ka.lex.) het.t.a dregs of castor-oil (Ka.lex.) cf. pe_d.ha lump (Pkt.); per. lump (H.)(CDIAL 8377).

6693.Image: harrow: het.t.a, et.t.a a bush-harrow (Ka.lex.)

6696.Image: badge: pen.d.eya, pen.d.eha a badge of honour or a trinket for the foot; a badge of honour in the form of a ring made of metal, grass or rope for the foot (Ka.); pen.d.emu, pen.d.e_ra (Te.); pe_n.d.e_m. a necklace composed of strings of pearls; a loop or ring; pe_t.i_ an ornament for the arm (M.); pen.t.aiyam a ring, a trinket of women (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

6643.Bench: pro_s.t.ha bench, stool (TBr.); pro_s.t.he_s'aya reclining on a seat (RV.); put.uva bench, stool (Si.); phu_hr. matting; phu_hr.i_ mat for sitting or kneeling on (L.)(CDIAL 9018).

6584.Image: to carry on shoulder: pin.d. (-it-) to carry on shoulder (with kavr.i); pind.- (-t-) id. (Pe.)(DEDR 4161).

6643a.Image: seat: pin.d.ika a stool or seat of various shapes; a base or pedestal (Ka.lex.) pi~_r. firestone (Pas'.); pend.u house-altar (K.); pi~r.i seat on either side of door (N.); pi~r.a_, pi~r.i stool without legs, front earthen floor of hut (B.); pin.d.i platform (Or.); pi~_r. embankment round a tank or between two reservoirs, rim of mud round edge of sugarmill; pi~_r.i_ platform of lingam (Bi.)(CDIAL 8168). cf. bhit.a sandhill (S.)(CDIAL 9491). pi_t.ha stool, bench (Gr.S.); pi_t.haka (BhP.); pi_t.hi_, pi_t.hika_ (R.); pi_t.ha, pi_t.haka, pi_t.hika_ (Pali); pi_d.ha, pi_d.haga stool; pi_d.hi_ supporting beam of a house; pi_d.hia_ a kind of seat (Pkt.); pi_re outside wall (Pr.); pi_r, pi_ru stool (K.); pi_r.hi_ throne (S.); pihr.a_, pihr.i_ stool; pi_r.a (L.); pi_r.ha_, pi_r.hi_ (P.); pi_r.o (Ku.); pira_ stool, bench (N.); pira stool; pi_ri beam of a boat, flat pieces of wood fixed crosswise over shafts of a cart (A.); pir.ha altar, platform; pir.ha_ stool; pir.hi footstool (Or.); pi_r.ha_, pi_r.hi_, pi_r.hi stool (Mth.); pi_r.ha_ (Bhoj.); pi_d.ha (OAw.); pi_r.ha_ large square stool; pi_r.hi_ small square stool (H.); pi_d.hiyu~ beam to which floor planks are fastened (G.); pi_d.hi molar tooth; pi_d.hiyu~ molar tooth, gums (G.); dantapi_t.ha_h pl. tooth sockets (VS.); pid.he~ stool (M.); pil.a, pila ledge along a house to sit on, veranda, portico (Si.); pe_d.ha, pe_d.hi_, pe_d.hia_ stool (Pkt.); per.a_ stairs (Pas'.); ped.hi_ shelf fixed in a wall (S.); step of a ladder (G.); raised place on the floor (M.)(CDIAL 8222). pi_t.haga moving about on a stool, crippled (MBh.); pil.u cripple (Si.)(CDIAL 8223). pira_li outer portion of the floor of a house, the plinth of a house (A.)(CDIAL 8224). cf. ve_di raised piece of ground serving as an altar and usually strewed with kus'a grass (RV.); stand, bench (MBh.)(CDIAL 12107).

6691.Image: float: pin.d.i a float contived as to cross ferries in high floods during rainy season (Tu.lex.)

6690.Generation; kinsman of the seventh degree: pi_d.i a generation (Ka.); pid.hi_ (M.H.Te.)[e_r..u pi_d.iya tanaka purus.aru (sana_bhi) i.e. a relation or kinsman as far as the seventh degree, sapin.d.a]; pin.d.a a cake or ball of meal offered to the manes (Ka.lex.)

6644.Image: roar: put.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to utter a loud noise, roar, rattle; n. sound, noise (as from a stroke)(Ta.); pod.- (pot.t.-) (dog) barks; i.sa pod.- to whistle (Kol.); por.- to bark (Nk.); porp- (port-) id. (Ga.)(DEDR 4254).

6645.Heir to the crown: pat.t.a-k-ka_ran- title-holder; title of the headman of the Tot.t.iyar and Kon:kuve_l.a_l.a castes (Ta.lex.); pa_t.vi_-ku~var heir to the crown (G.)(CDIAL 7706). pat.t.ika_ (Skt.) pat.t.am an ornament worn on the forehead by women (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pat.t.am title, appellation of dignity, title of office (Ta.); regency, reign (Ta.); pat.t.an:kat.t.i one who is crowned, anointed or invested with authority; title of the headman of certain castes, as kaikko_l.ar, paravar, etc.; a caste: kat.aican-, name of a caste of lime-burners and basket-makers (G.Tn.D.D. i,145); pat.t.attu-p-pil.l.ai heir-apparent, male heir to a throne; title of the hereditary headman of the nan:kut.ive_l.a_l.ar (E.T. v,246); pat.t.a-p-peyar title, honorific name; nickname; pat.t.a-c-ci_t.t.u sanad conferring titles; pat.t.an.-kat.t.utal to confer a title (Tiruva_lava_. 39,27); to invest with office, dignity, authority; to install, crown (Tan-ippa_. i,391,48); to fasten a gold band on the foreheads of the bridal pair in a marriage; to perform the ceremony of indicating the succession to the estate of a deceased person among mar-avas, wherein, before the corpse is removed, the chief heir and his wife take two balls of cowdung mixed with various kinds of grain and stick them on to the wall of their house and throw them in water on the eighth day after death (E.T. v,42); to perform the ceremony of going round the deceased during cremation (Ta.lex.) Royal grant, inscribed on a copper plate: pat.t.a slab, tablet (Pali.MBh.); pat.t.a_ title deed to land (P.); lease (L.); pat.t.i_ narrow strip of level ground (L.); pat.t. sandy plain (P.); pa_t.o plot of land, strip, side (N.); pa_t.a_ table land (M.)(CDIAL 7699). Levelled: pat.na_ to be levelled, be irrigated (H.)(CDIAL 7711). bed a head-dress consisting of a narrow, more or less long, piece of cloth tied round the head, a turban, called pugri in India (Mu.); cf. pat.t.ai narrow strip of cloth (Ta.)(Mu.lex.) Assessment: pat.t.e a roll of an assessment in general (Ka.lex.) pat.t.e a strip; silk; document specifying a grant of land (Tu.lex.) pat.t.i, pat.t.e list, catalogue (Kon.lex.) Weapon cleaner's polishing horn: *s'r.n:ga-pat.t.a horn slab; si~ghaut.a_ weapon cleaner's polishing horn (Bi.)(CDIAL 12585). ta_mra-pat.t.a copper plate (for inscribing)(Ya_.); ta~_bot.i_ piece of copper of shape and size of a brick (M.)(CDIAL 5786). ta_mra-pattra copper plate (for inscribing)(Skt.); tamoti copper plate (Ku.)(CDIAL 5787). patti_, pattri_ thin slip of iron (P.); pattra leaf of book (Skt.); pa_to metal plate used to repair something broken (Ku.); pata_ thin metal plate (A.); pa_ta metal-foil (Or.); pa_tia_ thin slip of metal (Or.); pa_t thin metal plate (H.); pa_tta slice (Si.)(CDIAL 7733). Thin: pattala thin (Pkt.); patalo thin (Ku.); pa_talo, pa_tulo (N.); pa_tal thin (A.B.); pa_tla_ thin (B.); sowing wide apart (Bi.); thin, weak (H.); pa_tar, pa_tur id. (H.); pa_tla_ id. (L.P.); pa_tal.a, pa_tal.a_ thin (Or.); pa_tar sowing wide apart (Bi.); slender, delicate (Mth.); thin (Aw.); pa_tari thin (Aw.); pa_tl.u~ thin (G.); pa_tal. (M.); pa_ttal.a (M.); ptali, petali flat (Si.)(CDIAL 7736). pat.t.a a royal grant or edict (Ya_j.); pat.t.a-upa_dhya_yah a writer of royal grants and other documents; pat.t.akah a plate of metal used for inscriptions or royal edicts; a document; pat.t.ika_ a tablet, plate; a document; pat.t.aulika_ a kind of bond or lease (bhu_mikara grahan.a vyavastha_pakah patrabhe_dah: Ta_rana_tha's Va_chaspatyam); a written legal opinion (Skt.lex.) pat.t.ayam royal grant inscribed on a copper plate; deed conferring a title; document given to a ryot showing on what terms he is to cultivate for the year (Kur-r-a_.u_t.al. 20); pat.t.ai copper plate for inscribing royal grants or orders; plate, slab, tablet; pat.t.ar-ai community; guild, as of workmen (Ta.lex.) Title-deed: pat.t.a_ deed of lease; title-deed; document given by a soverign power recognising the title of a ryot to his holding; pat.t.a_-k-ka_ran- leaseholder; pat.t.an.-kat.t.i one who is crowned, anointed or invested with authority; title of the headman of certain castes, as Kaikko_l.ar, Paravar, etc.; a caste (Ta.lex.) pattiram written document, bond, deed, order; letter, epistle (Ta.lex.) Ola leaf; royal grant: pat.t.ikai ola leaf; royal grant or deed (Perun.. Vattava. 1,1,3) (Ta.lex.) Lease-deed: pa_t.t.am contract of lease (Na_.); tax, rent; cf. a_t.t.uppa_t.t.am, mi_n-pa_t.t.am (S.I.I. iii,115,9); cf. bha_t.a (Skt.); pa_t.t.appit.ippu the amount of premium paid by a lessee to his landlord (Na_.); pa_t.t.anel the quantum of paddy fixed to be paid as rent to a landlord in a contract of lease (S.I.I. v,92); pa_t.t.a-nilam wet lands on which was fixed a low assessment in grain (G.Tn.D.I, 311);the land obtained on lease;pa_t.t.a-c-ci_t.t.u lease-deed; pa_t.t.akka_ran- lessee; tenant, opp. to can-mi (Ta.lex.) pat.a a title deed, a written document of acquisition or transfer of property (Mu.); pat.t.a_ (H.Skt.)(Mu.lex.) Village: pat.i_ the group of villages under a mr.ki (Mu.); pat.t.i_ town, village (Ta.); pat.t.i division of a village (H.); pa_t.-mund.a or hatumund.a, maran mund.a a village chief who does not collect himself the rent in all his hamlets but has under him one or several hamlet chiefs called t.olamund.a, hur.in mund.a (or kiliren mund.a when the clan of the hamlet differs from that of the village) who collect it in their respective hamlets and hand it over to him. He in his turn hands it over with the rest of the village rent to the manki (Mu.lex.) par.ha a group formed by all the villages of a clan which are grouped around the original village (Mu.); pa_r.a_ sportive association of a group of villages (Oraon); cf. pat.i, pi_r. (Mu.lex.) Title: pat.t.am title, appellation of dignity, title of office; plate of gold worn on the forehead, as an ornament or badge of distinction; regency, reign; an ornament worn on the forehead by women (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,7,6)(Ta.); pat.t.a-virutti, oma_n-iyam, oyin-a_m lands granted to learned Bra_mins rent-free or at a low rent (I.M.P.Tj. 35; I.M.P.N1. 615); pat.t.a_-man.iyam office of the village munsif; Plate of gold worn on the forehead: vattira-pat.t.am ornamental plate worn on the forehead; frontlet; vattira-pe_takan < vastra-bhe_daka tailor; vattiram < vaktra face (Caiva. Ca. Potu. 332)(Ta.lex.) pat.t.am gold (Ta.lex.) pat.t.a-varttan-ar vassal kings who wear a plate on their foreheads, dist. fr. makut.a-varttan-ar (Pa_rata. Ve_t. 59); pat.t.a-varuttan-am id. (Cilap. 3,124, Urai); pat.t.a-varttan-am a large mark worn on the forehead by certain classes of bra_hmins (Ta.lex.)

6646.Stone slab: pa_t.o grinding stone (G.); pa_t.t.a_ id. (M.); pa_t.a_ stone slab for grinding on (A.); pa_t.i_ id. (Bi.); pa_t. washing board (Bi.); slab (H.)(CDIAL 7699). Tablet, flat board: pot.u flat board, leaf of door, etc. (K.); pat.a slab, tablet, metal plate (K.Si.); pa_t.i, pat.a_ wooden plank, metal plate (Or.); pat.t.a slab, tablet (MBh.Pali); slab of stone, board (Pkt.); pat.ami tablet; pat.i tablet (NiDoc.); putu plank (K.); pa_t.i tablet, slate; pa_t. board (A.B.); pat.t.a_ id. (P.)(CDIAL 7699). Stick; slice: patta board, stick (Si.); petta thin piece of wood (Si.); patta slice, side of body, side (Si.)(CDIAL 7733). pat.t.i_ board to write on (S.); writing board (P.M.); board, writing board (Ku.)(CDIAL 7699). pat.t.ai palmyra timber, rafter (Ta.); pat.t.a bough (Ma.); pat.i rafter (Tu.); pat.t.e bar or spar of wood, piece of timber of door frame (Te.); pat.a board (Kui)(DEDR 3875). pattiram leaf (Ven:kaikko_. 120); palm leaf of a book (Tiruva_lava_. 38,24)(Ta.lex.) Plank, wedge: pat.uru plank over a watercourse (K.); pat.t.i boat's landing plank (S.); pa_t.i inn (N.); pat.t.o central beam of house (P.); pa_t.t.a_ bench, stool, throne (B.); wedge for beam of plough (Mth.); pa_t.t.i anything flat, rafter (B.); pa_t. wedge fixing beam to body of plough, washing board (Bi.); pat.t.a_ wedge (Bi.Gaya); pa_t. end of handle of handle of mattock projecting beyond blade (Mth.); pa_t.alau dining stool (G.); pa_t.r.o, pa_t.r.i_ beam (G.); pat.a metal plate, slab (Si.); pa_t.na_ to roof (H.)(CDIAL 7699). pat.t.at.ai frame of timbers to place under a dhoney when ashore, to keep it from the ground (Ta.lex.)

6647.Image: pillar: par-r-u pillar; support (Kur-al., 88)(Ta.lex.)

6648.Image: necklace: pat.t.at.ai neck-ornament (Ta. <Te.); pat.t.ad.i a kind of necklace (Tu.); pat.t.ed.a a sort of ornament worn by women round the neck (Te.) (DEDR 3866).

6649.Blunt; stupid: bad.d.u bluntness, dullness (Ka.); blunt, edgeless; dull, stupid, obtuse (Tu.)(DEDR 3883). vat.hara dull, stupid; vat.ara wicked, unsteady; bas.t.a fool (Skt.); wa_n.t.a adj. fat (Gaw.); va~_t.hi_ca_ pita_ blockhead (G.); ban.d.ha_ bullock with broken tail (Bi.); vad.ha dumb (Pkt.); vat.hara bulky, gross (Pali); vad.hara stupid, lazy; rogue, son of a Brahman by a Vais'ya woman (Pkt.)[cf. vad. woman's lewd conduct which results in a bastard child; vad. mog bastard child; ban.d.v lewdness (of a woman who has intercourse with many men)(Ko.)(DEDR 3902)]; vat.t.hya_, vat.hya_ large and lubberly (M.); banthar.a, banthar.a_ blunt, obstructive (Or.)(CDIAL 11236). Lazy: mat.t.ha lazy (Pkt.); ma_t.a slow, sluggish (B.); mot.hu dull, worthless (K.); mat.hu base metal, alloy, dross; mat.ho bad, weak, diluted (S.); mat.t.ha_ lazy, slow, blunt, cheap; cheapness, glut; slow (L.); mat.h-lu_na_ imperfectly salted (P.); mat.hunn blockhead (P.); ma_t.hu slowly (Ku.); ma_t.ho slow (N.); ma_t.h blunt, slow; mat.ha_ immature, coarse (of rice)(A.); ma_t.ha slow, sluggish, blunt (B.); ma~_t.hua_ slow, lazy (Or.); ma_t.ha_, mat.t.ha_ slow (H.); ma_t.heru~ a little, not much (G.); ma_t.h dumpy, stunted; ma_t.ha_ blockhead (M.); mo~t.huru lazy, inert (K.); mat.t.har slow, lethargic (Bhoj.); ma_t.harn.e~ to become dull or languid (M.); mar.hu sluggard; mar.ho sluggard, feeble old man (S.); mad.d.i_ stupid, fool (H.); ma_n.d.ua_ dull, foolish, coarse, fat (Or.)(CDIAL 9723). mat.i (-v-, -nt-) to be indolent, inactive (Perumpa_n..254)(Ta.lex); sleep, be dispirited, droop (as the head or sheaves of grain), wither; sloth, idleness, indolence (Kur-al.,371) (Ta.lex.); lazy person, bending down (as sheaf of paddy); mat.imai idleness, sloth, inactivity; mat.ivu inactivity, indolence, discouragement; mat.an:ku to be indolent, inactive (Ta.); mat.ikka to grow tired, lazy, be backward, averse, doubt, despond; mat.iyuka to be lazy; mat.ivu laziness; mat.iyan backward, undecided, lazy; mat.ippu aversion, backwardness; mat.uppu backwardness, loathing, dislike; mat.ukka to be foiled, tired of, faint, loathe (Ma.); mad.avu to become useless, worthless, hesitate, shrink, dislike (Te.); mar.i-, mad.iy- to lie down, sleep (Kol.); mad.- (mat.t.-) id. (Pa.); mind.a_na_, minda_na_, mend.a_na_, mi_nd.-, mi_r. to sleep; mind.a_na_ to lie on one side; mi_r.a_na_ to sleep on one's side (Go.); mat.t.a sluggish, lazy, sluggard (Br.)(DEDR 4652). Blockhead: mat.aiyan- blockhead (Ta.); mat.appam simplicity, credulity; mat.t.an- dullard; mat.t.i dolt, blockhead; clumsiness, awkwardness, roughness; mat.t.ittan-am stupidity, foolishness (Ta.); mat.t.ai stupid fellow (Ta.); man.n.an- clodhopper, dullard, stupid person (Ta.); mat.am stupidity (Ma.); mat.t.ataram rusticity, awkwardness; mat.t.i clumsy (Ma.); mat.a confusion, stupidity (Ka.); mat.t.a illusion, phantom (Ka.); mad.d.a stupid man (Ka.); mad.d.atana stupidity (Ka.); mad.d.i a stupid, dull, awkward person; awkwardness, clumsiness, rudeness (Ka.); mad.iya~d.u fool; mad.d.i dull, stupid, awkward, clumsy; mad.d.itanamu stupidity, dullness, rudeness, rusticity, clownishness (Te.)(DEDR 4647). Ignorant person; buffoon: mat.am ignorance, folly; simplicity, credulity; mat.amai ignorance, stupidity, silliness, folly (Ta.); mat.ava_r fools (Kur-al.,153); mat.avan- stupid person (Pur-ana_.106); mat.an- ignorant person (Ta.lex.) mad.d.i_ stupid, fool (H.); ma_r.o thin (Ku.); ma_d.a_ left fallow (of fields)(M.); man.d.ua_ dull, foolish, coarse, fat (Or.); ma_r.o thin, wicked (S.); ma_r.a_ bad, thin, poor (L.); ma_t.hu_ buffoon (H.); ma_t.ha_ blockhead (M.); mot.hu dull, worthless (K.); ma_t.ha slow, sluggish (B.); ma_t.hu~ vicious, bad, unfortunate (G.); ma_t.harn.e~ to become dull or languid (M.); mat.t.har slow, lethargic (Bhoj.); mar.hu sluggard (S.); mar.ho sluggard, feeble old man (S.)(CDIAL 9723). man.d.u fool (Ta.); mon.d.a id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ma_t.an- ignorant, stupid man; dullard (Ta.lex.) matthar slow, dim, dull (N.); mandara slow, tardy, large, thick (Skt.); manthara slow, lazy, dull, bent, hunchbacked (Skt.); ma_da_ lazy, dull, slow (Or.); mam.thara slow, dull, crooked (Pkt.); mandhiro dwarfish, short, low, little (S.); madhuro dim, tasteless (N.); manda slow, lazy, stupid, unprofitable (Pali); mam.da slow, lazy, base, small; n. illness (Pkt.); mondu, munzu slow, dull, stupid (K.); mando bad, wicked (S.); manda_ evil-speaking; manda_ bad (L.); manda_ vile, slow, gentle (Mth.); slow, sluggish, stupid (H.); mand, mada_d, ma~dat. slow, stupid (M.); madi defective, insufficient, low, vile (Si.); madu slow (Md.); mai~d lazy, stupid (M.) (CDIAL 9754). malva silly (AV.); mali, mal.i lazy, slack, tired (Si.)(CDIAL 9915). min.d.hin.o silent and stupid in appearance but really treacherous and cunning (S.); min.d.hu~ having deep-laid plans, crafty, conceited (G.); met.a_ slow in work, heavy-bodied (A.); men.d.a foolish (Or.); men.d.ha_ fool (Or.)(CDIAL 10120). middha torpor, stupidity (Pali); middhin sluggish (Pali); minnha_ dim, slight, perverse, taciturn, revengeful (P.); mindhiro short, low, little (S.); meda_ indolent slow (A.); slow, dull (B.); foolish (Or.)(CDIAL 10122). cf. medu dullness; slowness; bluntness, as of an edge (Ta.); medu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) X cf. mr.du soft (Skt.); medu softness (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6650.Belly: poccai paunch, pot-belly (Ta.); bojje belly, paunch; bojju pot-belly (Ka.); bojja belly, paunch; bor-r-a pot-belly (Te.); bokka big intestine, large stomach of ruminants (Pa.); pocca big intestine, stomach; pacca_ the offal of a ruminant's large intestine; pohk intestines; po_hku guts; pokku, pocca intestines (Go.)(DEDR 4478). Pot-belly: pot.t.e belly, paunch, stomach, womb; pod.e belly, pregnancy; put.t.i belly (Ka.); pot.t.e pregnancy; pot.t.ebaji a pot-belly (baji belly); bod.d.e stout man (Tu.); pot.t.a belly (Te.Kol.Nk.Pa.Go.); pot.(t.)a id. (Nk.); pot.a, pat.t.a id., stomach (Go.); pot.a intestine; pota_ womb (Go.); pot.a stomach; pot.u big intestines (Kond.a); po_t.o belly (Pe.); pu_t.a id. (Mand..); pa't.a_ id. (Kuwi); pot.t.a_ bowels, entrails (Kur.); pur.a belly, bowels (Malt.)(DEDR 4494).

6651.Goods and chattels: chilu-pat.ru goods and chattels (?< *skin and feathers) (P.) (CDIAL 7733). pot.l.ia_r the man who carried the myrtle from the bridegroom's house to the bride's (WPah.)(CDIAL 7741).

6652.Mound, heap: pis.t. hillside (Dm.); patha_ small grassy eminence in a river (Or.)(CDIAL 8371). put.a mound, heap (Kond.a); heap, collection, pile, stack (Kui); put.t.a a collection, heap, crowd, a number, lot (Te.)(DEDR 4258).

6653.Image: Indian fig tree: bha_n.d.i_ra the Indian fig tree (Skt.lex.)

6654.Dog: pat.t.i dog, bitch (Ma.); dog (Ta.)(DEDR 3870).

6655.Prototype: pat.i-y-accu model, prototype (Pi. Vi. 50)(Ta); id. (OKa.)(Ta.lex.)

6656.Ten: pattu, pak-tu ten; pak--pattu 100 (10 x 10); patt on-patu nineteen; patin-- ten (in 11 patin--on-r-u, 13 patin--mu_n-r-u, 15-18 patin--aintu, patin-a_r-u, patin-e_r..u, patin-et.t.u; patin-a_lu, patin-a_n-ku fourteen; patin- a_yiram 10,000); pan-n- iran.t.u, pan-n-an.t.u twelve; -patu ten (irupatu, iruvatu twenty, muppatu thirty, na_rptu, na_ppatu forty, aimpatu, ampatu fifty, ar-upatu sixty, er..upatu seventy, en.patu eighty); patin-mar ten persons; pappattu by tens, groups of tens (Ta.); pattu (obl. patin-) ten; -patu id. (in 20, etc.); patuppattu by tens; patinmar ten persons (Ma.); pat ten; pad- id. (in 13, 14); padn- id. (in 15-18); pan- id. (in 11-18); patrmba.d, potrmba.d nineteen; pand- eleven; pon- ten (in 11,12, 14-18); pod- id. (in 13); po calg ten calg measures; -vat ten (ivat twenty, na.lvat forty, ayvat fifty, arvat sixty, el.vat seventy); -bat id. (embat eighty, tombat ninety); -at id. (muat thirty, na.lat forty); patar by tens; irva.d twenty; irva.d twenty; orba.d nine; mu pa.d thirty days; na.r pa.d forty days (Ko.); pot ten; pon- id. (in 11-13); pa.ng fourteen; pu.j fifteen; pa.r- sixteen; pa.w seventeen; pu.t. eighteen; pu.n.bo0 nineteen; -fo0 ten (ifo0 twenty, owfo0 seventy, ot.fo0 eighty); -po0 id. (mupo0 thirty, nalpo0 forty); -no0 id. (ebo0 fifty, e.n.bo0 ninety); o0 id. (ar-o0 sixty)(To.); pattu ten; patt ombattu nineteen; padin- ten (in 15-18); padi- id. (in 13, 14); pann- id. (in 11,12); padimbar ten persons; payin-, in: payin-cha_sirvar 10,000 persons; -vattu ten (mu_vattu thirty, na_lvattu forty, ayvattu fifty, ar-uvattu sixty); -pattu id. (irpattu twenty, el.pattu seventy, en.pattu eighty); -battu id. (tombattu ninety)(Ka.); patti ten; patt oymbadi nineteen; padin- ten (in 14-18); padi- id. (in 13); pann- id. (pannandi eleven, panneran.d.i twelve); -vadi id. (iruvadi twenty, aruvadi sixty, l.uvadi seventy); -pad id. (nuppad thirty; na.pad forty); -badi id. (aymbadi fifty, mbadi eighty, tombadi ninety); pav-patti by tens; payt a.n.d.i ten years; paytak(i) etti ten pairs of bullocks; paym bat.t.i ten measures (Kod..); pattu ten; patt- id. (in 11); padu- id. (in 12-14); padun- id. (in 15-19); -va (obl. vatu) id. (irva twenty, aiva fifty); -pa id. (muppa thirty, na_lpa forty, ajipa sixty, el.pa seventy, en.pa eighty, son.pa ninety)(Tu.); padi ten; padun- id. (in 11, 15-18); padu- id. (in 13,14); pan- id. (in 19); pan.d.ren.d.u twelve; -vadi ten (iruvadi twenty, naluvadi forty, ar-uvadi sixty); -padi id. (muppadi thirty); -badi id. (e~_badi fifty, d.ebbadi seventy, enubadi eighty, tombadi ninety)(mod. vai, etc.); paduru, padun.d.ru (inscr.); padunr-u ten persons (Te.); padi_, padi ten (Kol.); pad, padi id.; pl. patk (Go.)(DEDR 3918). Image: half: pa_ti half (Ta.Ma.); a share (Ma.); pa.dy half (Ko.); po.0y id. (To.)(DEDR 4074).

6657.Trumpet flower: pat.ala_(i) stereospermum suaveolens (Car. Su. 2.11,4.38; Ci. 1.1.62). pat.ala, pat.ali_ a tree (Skt.lex.) Stereospermum suaveolens: patala (Skt.); paral (H.M.); parul (B.); padiri (Ta.); kokkesa (Te.); pupatiri (Ma.); padal (P.); hude (Ka.); root bark: considered cooling, diuretic, tonic; forms an ingredient in dasamula; flowers: rubbed up with honey to check hiccough; taken in form of a confection as an aphrodisiac; habitat: throughout India in dry localities (GIMP, p. 234). ja_t.ali, jha_t.ali bignonia suaveolens (Skt.); ja_rali_ (OB.); ja_rul a partic. kind of tree (B.)(CDIAL 5179). cf. pa_tiri trumpet flower, bignonia suaveolens = stereospermum suaveolens (Ma.); pa_t.ala id. (Skt.)(DEDR 4075). ha_dari (Tadbhava of pa_t.ala) the trumpet flower, bignonia suaveolens; ha_dariya mara a large tree mimusops kauki (Ka.lex.) Symplocos racemosa: lodhra, rodhra symplocos racemosa (Car. Su. 4.5,31,46). lodhra the tree symplocos racemosa (red bark of which is used for dyeing)(MBh.); lodhraka (Skt.); ro_dhra red symplocos racemosa (Skt.); lodda a kind of tree (Pali); loddha, luddha symplocos racemosa (Pkt.); ldu the tree (K.); lodar its red wood (K.); lod.ru its bark (S.); lodar, lodh the tree (P.); lodh (B.); lodha (Or.); lodh its bark (H.); lodhar the tree (G.); lodh, lod the tree; its bark (M.); lot the tree (Si.); rudar red wood of symplocos racemosa, coral (K.); rudhilo a partic. red-stalked plant (N.)(CDIAL 11139). Symplocos racemosa: lodhra (Skt.); lodh (H.B.M.); lodduga (Te.); bhomroti (A.); bark: cooling, astringent, useful in menorrhagia, bowel complaints, eye diseases, ulcers; in decoction used as a gargle for giving firmness to spongy and bleeding gums; habitat: throughout NE India, upto 2,500 ft. from the Terai of Kumaon to Assam and Chota Nagpur (GIMP, p.237). Dye: lo_dhra a tree the bark of which is used in dyeing, symplocos racemosa; kempina lo_dhra red dye; bil.iya lo_dhra white dye; lo_dhra pus.pa the tree bassia latifolia = madhuca indica, madhu_ka, gud.apus.pa, ippe (Ka.lex.) lo_dhra, ro_dhra name of a tree with red or white flowers (Skt.lex.) cf. rudhira red, red-coloured; saffron (Skt. lex.) lodam symplocos racemosa (Santali.lex.) cf. irpi ka_r.u mahua liquor (Kuwi); iruppai bassia longifolia (Ta.)(DEDR 485). Trumpet-flower: mo_kam trumpet flower, pa_tiri (Ta.); mo_gha_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) mo_gha the trumpet flower, bignonia suaveolens; a species of plant the seeds of which are used a vermifuge (Ka.lex.) cf. pa_tiri trumpet-flower tree, stereospermum chelonoides, suaveolens, and xylocarpum (Ta.); pa_tiri trumpet-flower, bignonia suaveolens or chelonoides or stereospermum chelonoides (Ma.)(DEDR 4075). patao to exchange flowers in token of friendship (Santali.lex.) pa_t.ala_ the red lodhra; the trumpet-flower (the tree or its blossom); pa_t.ala pale-red, of a pink or pale-red colour; the trumpet flower, bignonia suaveolens; pa_t.ala-druma, pa_t.ali the trumpet-flower; pa_t.ala_ the trumpet flower, the tree of its blossom; the red lodhra; cf. pa_t.ali-putra name of an ancient city, the capital of Magadha, situated near the Ganges, and identified by some with the modern Pa_t.na_ (Skt.lex.) pad.er, pad.ari stereospermum suaveolens, a large forest tree; a medium-sized evergreen tree, bischofia javanica (Santali.lex.) kai~jal, kai~dal the small tree bischoffia javanica (the bark of which is used as a cure of diarrhoea)(N.); ke~jal. a large timber tree used for rafters etc. (M.)(CDIAL 2777). Red face powder: "... women used the lac dye to colour the soles of their feet, thus reddening the flights of their steps. They also painted their lips with it and then besmeared them with a powder prepared from lodhra wood, which they also used as a face powder." (Gazetteer of India, p.167). pa_tiri, pa_tirai yellow-flowered fragrant trumpet-flower tree, stereospermum chelonoides (Ta.); pa_diri (Te.); pa_dari (Ka.); pa_tiri purple-flowered fragrant trumpet-flower tree, stereospermum suaveoleons; white-flowered trumpet-flower tree, stereospermum xylocarpum (Ta.lex.) pa_t.ala_(i) stereospermum suaveolens (Car. Su. 2.11, 4.38, Ci. 1.1.62). pad.er stereospermum suaviolens (Santali.lex.) pa_tirik-ku_t.t.am roots of four trees, viz., pa_tiri, vilvam, kumir.., tar..uta_r..ai (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) pa_dari, ha_dari (Tadbhava of pa_t.ala); pa_dari_ mara a high tree, stereospermum chelonoides (Ka.lex.) Apple; trumpet-flower tree: pala_ apple (Wg.); para_r., para_l, parar.i_ (Pas'.); palo_u, obl. pala_l (Kal.); pa_t.ali_ bignonia suaveolens (Pali); pa_d.ali_, pa_d.ala_ (Pkt.); pa_r.ari the small tree stereospermum chelonoides (N.); pa_rali (A.); pa_rali_ (OB.); pa_rul bignonia suaveolens (B.); pa_r.al, pa_ral, pa_r.ar, pa_d.hal, pa_d.har bignonia or stereospermum suaveolens or chelonoides (H.); pa_d.al., pa_d.l.i_ b. chelonoides (M.); pal.ol s. suaveolens (Si.)(CDIAL 8034). pa_tiri trumpet-flower tree, stereospermum chelonoides, suaveolens, and xylocarpum (Ta.); trumpet-flower, bignonia suaveolens (Ma.); pa_dari s. chelonoides (Ka.); b. chelonoides (Tu.); id. (Te.)(DEDR 4075). pa_t.ali, pa_t.ali_ bignonia or stereospermum suaveolens (Sus'r.); pa_t.ala (MBh.); pa_t.ala_, pa_t.alaka (BHSk.)[pa_t.ala pale red, pink (Kaus'.); pale red (Pali); pa_d.ala red and white, pink (Pkt.); palalu brown (Pas'.); parala_, f. pa_rali_ brownish, dusky brown (A.); pal.ol brown, reddish (Si.)(CDIAL 8033)].

6658.Three-quarters: par..am three-quarters; a_r-utar-par..am, in.an:karpar..am (Ta.lex.) cf. paune_ three-fourths or a quarter less (H.lex.)

6659.Rock: pa_r-ai rock, crag, stratum, hillock; pa_r rock, rocky stratum, shelf of rock (Ta.); pa_r-a rock, large stone, firmness (Ma.); pa.re flat stone, stone slab, place where bath is taken on paved floor in bath-house (Kod..); pa_de rock (Tu.); ha_de id. (Kor.); pa_ra slab of stone (Pa.); pa_rum (pl. pa_ru'ku) rock, boulder (Go.)(DEDR 4121). Mountain: paha_r mountain (K.); paha_r. (L.P.Ku.); paharo rock, cliff (N.); paha_r. mountain (N.H.Mth.G.); pa_ha_r. hill, steep bank (B.); pa_ha_r.a hill (Or.); paha_d. hill (M.)(CDIAL 8141). pa_s.a_n.a stone (Skt.); pa_s.a_n.i_ small stone used as a weight (Skt.); pa_sa_n.a stone, rock (Pali.Pkt.); pa_ha_n.a (Pkt.); pahan.u stone (S.); pa_han. stone (P.); pa_han (Mth.); pa_hana (OAw.); pa_ha~_n (H.); pa_han.iim. inst. sg. (OG.); pa_n., paha_n.o, pa_n.o (G.); pahan.a, pa_n.a (Si.); pa_s.a_n. the excess of weight in one scale which disturbs the equipoise (B.)(CDIAL 8138). pas.u_ rock, precipice (Wg.); pas.i_ wall (Pas'.); pa_h a kind of stone which is ground with alum and cloves and opium as a poultice for sore eyes (H.)(CDIAL 8140).

6660.Trust: patta'a_na_ to believe, admit (Kur.); patyare to believe in (Malt.)(DEDR 3916). prati_ti going toward (RV.); understanding; trust (Skt.); pai_i trust (Pkt.); pai_ concord, agreement (S.)(CDIAL 8624). pratyaya belief, trust (Mn.); pratya_yati convinces (Skt.); paccaya ground for belief, confidence (Pali); belief (Pkt.); pad.iyacca (Pkt.); pocu trust; pacun to believe in (K.); pasa faith (Si.); pattiya trusting; trust; pattiya_yati trusts; pattiya_yana (Pali); pattia adj. and n., pattiai, pattia_ai, pattijjai trusts; caus. pattia_ve_i, pattijja_vai (Pkt.); pac-, pats- to believe (Gypsy); patijn.a_ to trust; patia_un.a_ to trust, to inspire trust (P.); patyu_n.o to trust (Ku.); patya_unu (N.); patiyan belief (A.); pata_iba_ to trust (Or.); patia_eb (Mth.); patiya_yai (OAw.); patya_na_ (H.); patijvu~ (G.); pa_tyavin.e~ (M.); patia_ra_ trust (P.); patya_ro (Ku.); patya_r, patya_ro (N.); patiya_ra_ (H.); patiya_r (G.)(CDIAL 8640).

6661.Snake-gourd: put.al, put.alai, put.o_l snake-gourd, trichosanthes anguina (Ta.); put.t.al, pit.t.al id. (Ma.); pot.la, pad.ala, pat.ala, pat.la id., t. dioeca (Ka.); pad.ala ka_yi snake-gourd (Kod..); pat.la t. anguina (Tu.); pot.la t. colubrina (Te.); bud.rugi ka_ya gourd (Ga.); pot.la snake-gourd (Ga.); a kind of gourd (Go.); snake-gourd (Kond.a); pud.ra a kind of pumpkin (Kui)(DEDR 4250). pat.o_la the gourd trichosanthes dioeca; its fruit (Sus'r.); id. (Pa.); pad.o_la, pao_la (Pkt.); pad.ol, pandol t. anguina (P.); par.ol t. dioeca (B.); parar.a_ (Or.); paror(a_) (Bi.); parol, paror. (Mth.); pa~d.ol.u~ (G.); pad.ol., pad.val. t. dioeca or anguina; its fruit (M.); pad.d.ula t. dioeca (Konkan.i); par.va_l, parva_l t. dioeca (P.); parwar (N.); parol, parla_, paroyar, paroyal (B.); parwar, parwal (Bi.); paravara (OAw.); parwar, palwal (H.); parval. (G.); parvar (M.)(CDIAL 7698). para_s gourd; paras, parra_s, porra_s, par.as gourd vessel; pugashee a bitter gourd (Go.); pr-a_su, par-asu water-vessel made out of a gourd shell (Kond.a); ja_cka gourd spoon (Pe.); ja_cu id.; sp. gourd; ja_cu_ (pl. ja_ska) gourd spoon; spoon; gourd (Kuwi)[Kuwi and Pe. with aphaeresis.](DEDR 4021). pat.ola trichosanthes dioica (Car. Su. 4.11,29).

6662.Intestines: p(r)e_gu entrail, gut, bowel (Te.); pe.gul pl. intestines; pegu_ (pl. pegu_l) id. (Kol.); pe_gul. id. (Nk.); pig(g)u intestine (Nk.); pir.ul, pir.uvul pl. smaller intestines (Pa.); purug (pl. purgul) stomach, intestines; pud.d.ug (pl. pud.gul) stomach; pud.g (pud.ug) stomach; pud.gul intestines (Ga.); pi_r (obl. pi_t.-) belly; pi_t.a_l a_ya_na_ to be pregnant (Go.); pid. belly (Br.)(DEDR 4193).[cf. karal., karul. liver (Ma.); kavi.r stomach (Ko.); karul., karal.u, karl.u, kal.l.u an entrail, the bowels (Ka.); kari intestines (Kod.); karalu, karlu the bowels, the liver (Tu.)(DEDR 1274)]. Manure, dung: pe_l, pe_l. to ease oneself (Ta.); pe_l to void excrements; n. excrement (Ka.); pa_la_na_, pe_l to defecate (Go.); pe_l, pe_lkle excrement (Go.); pe~_d.a, pen.d.a dung of cattle (Te.); pen.t.a manure (Te.); pen.t.ika hard excrement of sheep, goats, deer, etc. (Te.); pend.a cowdung (Kol.Nk.); pe_n.d.a dung (of catle)(Kond.a); pe_nd.a, pend.a_ cowdung (Go.)(DEDR 4441). poho, po~ lump of dung (M.)(CDIAL 8312). podl.o lump of dung (G.)(CDIAL 8377). pe_s. dung (Dm.); pa_s.i dry cowdung (BHSkt.); dung (Skt.); pa_s. cowdung (Shum.Bshk.); pes. (Kal.); pas. manure (Sh.); po_s. (Phal.); pa_h human dung used as manure (K.); manure of pulverized cow or buffalo dung (L.); pa~_ manure (L.); pa~_si (Aw.); pa~_s dung, dust (H.); pos. dung, cowdung (Kho.); pus'ka_k, pestik goat's dung (Ash.); pis'tik (Wg.); pes'kak (Kt.); pus., pus'ewa_l sheep's dung (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8139). bhasman ashes (AV.Pali); bhassa (Pkt.); bas fine dust or powder (of charcoal, fuel, cowdung, etc.)(K.); bhasu ashes (S.); bhass (L.P.); dust (WPah.)(CDIAL 9425). cf. pa_m.s'u crumbling soil, dust, sand (AV.); dung, manure (MBh.)(CDIAL 8019). cf. pur..uti dust (Ta.)(DEDR 4316). cf. pur..ukkai, pir..ukkai dung, as of sheep or rats (Te_va_. 1110,1)(Ta.lex.) Speckled; dung: pr.s.a in cmpd.: speckled (Skt.); pr.s.at spotted (AV); 'ghee' in: pr.s.advant (RV.); drop of water (Skt.); pus'k (Pers.); pork dung of sheep or goats (Par.); pus. sheep's dung (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8363). pir..ukkai, pur..ukkai dung of sheep, goats, rats, etc. (Ta.); pir..ukka excrements of rats, snakes (Ma.); pir..ke, pikke dung of goats, sheep, deer, rats, etc.; pit.t.e excrement of goat or sheep (Ka.); pid.aka, pid.uka cake of cowdung dried for fuel (Te.)(DEDR 4185). cf. gai~t.ha_-pa_u~sa_ ashes produced by burning cowdung (Or.); pa_m.s'u dung, manure (Skt.)(CDIAL 8019).

6663.Anthill: pur-r-u, pur-r-am white anthill (Ta.); pur-r-u ground thrown up by moles, rats, esp. a white anthill (Ma.); pitti snake hole (Kurub.); wit-xud-y high white anthill (kud-y- pit)(To.); puttu, putta, hutta, huttu, utta white anthill (Ka.); putti id. (Kod..); puca id., snake's hole (Tu.); huca, huntu anthill (Kor.); put.t.a anthill, snake's hole (Te.); white anthill (Kol.Nk.); putkal, put.kal id.; putta, put.t.a nest inside anthill (Pa.); put.kal white anthill (Ga.); putti_, putti, puttu anthill (Go.); puRi id.; puR(i) set.i winged flies that swarm round the lamp after the rains; put.a anthill (Kond.a); puci anthill (Pe.); pusi, pucci whie anthill (Kui); pu_ci, pucci, puci anthill (Kuwi); putta_ anthill; putbelo_ white ants' queen (Kur.); pute anthill (Malt.)(DEDR 4335). puttika_ white ant (Mn.); putraka grasshopper (Skt.); puttalika_ fly (Skt.); (pipi_lika-)put.a- anthill (MBh.); dhan-puta_ winged ants (Ku.); putko a kind of small bee (N.); putalo, pur-putali_ butterfly (Ku.); dhan-putali_ winged ant (Ku.); putali butterfly (N.)(CDIAL 8264).

6664.Immersion; (sun) sets: bud.ai to plunge; pod., bud. plunge (Kon.lex.) pat.i (-v-, -nt-) to settle (as dust or sediment), rest (as clouds upon a mountain), roost, be subjugated, trained, tamed, become orderly, obey, sink in water, be immersed, subside (as water); (-pp-, -tt-) to practise, habituate oneself to (Ta.); pat.iyuka to settle, sink; become habitual by learning or exercise; pat.ikka to plunge; pat.ivu subjugation; habitual (Ma.); pad.ipuni to plunge (Tu.); pa_rva bad.i dovecote (Pa.); pa_rva pad.i id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3848). d.abd.ub to sink at once; d.abac d.ubuc, ud.uc d.ubuc to sink and rise again; d.ub to sink once for all (Santali.lex.) bud.d.ai sinks (Pkt.); bud.d.ati, bo_layati, vrud.ita submerges; brud.ati is immersed (Skt.); bud.d.a sunk (Pkt.); bud.d.ira buffalo (Pkt.); bud.- to sink, set (of sun) (Dm.); bud., bur. to bury (Pas'.)[cf. pu_d.(u)cu to bury (Te.); pu_r..(u) to bury (Ka.); pu_r..uka to be buried (Ma.); puttna_ to set (of the sun only)(Kur.)(DEDR 4376)]; bur.o_nu to set (of sun etc.); bur.izoiki to sink, set (of sun)(Sh.); bod.un to dive, sink (K.); bud.an.u (S.); bud.d.an., bud.an. to sink, be drowned; bud.d.a_ drowned (L.); bud.d.n.a_ to sink (P.); bur.n.o to sink in, pierce (Ku.); bur.nu to sink (N.); buriba (bu_r immersion)(A.); bur.a_ (B.); bur.iba_ (Or.); bu_r.ab to be drowned (Mth.); bur.al (Bhoj.); bu_d.ai, bu_r.ab (OAw.); bu_r.na_ (H.); bud.vu~ (G.); bud.n.e~ (M.); bud.d.a_vai makes sink (Pkt.); bur.oiki (Sh.); bur.e_na_ (L.); bur.aun.o to pierce, prick (Ku.); bur.a_unu (N.); bura_iba to make sink (A.); bur.a_na (B.); bur.aiba_ (Or.); bur.a_na_ (H.); bud.a_vvu~ (G.); bud.avin.e~ (M.); buthiba_ to dive (Or.); bo_le_i, bo_lai submerges (Pkt.); bol to dip, bless (Gypsy); biboldo jew (Gypsy); bor.an.u to dip (S.); bor.an. (L.); borai (OAw.); borab (OAw.); bol.vu~ (G.); bol.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9272). Metath. d.ub to be drowned (Pas'.); d.u_b- (Mai.); d.up sinking (Phal.); plunged in (Sh.); d.ubun to dive, sink, be ruined (K.); d.ubbn.a_ to sink (Ku.) d.ubnu (N.); d.ubiba (A.); d.uba_ (B.); d.ubiba_ (Or.); d.ubab (Mth.); d.u_bna_ (H.); d.ubvu~ (G.); d.ubn.e~ (M.); d.ubakn.e~ to gambol in water (M.); d.u~bn.e~, d.u~bhn.e~, d.umn.e~ to gambol in the water (M.); d.obn.a_ to plunge in (P.); d.obn.o (Ku.); d.obnu (N.); d.obna_ to dip, dye (H.); d.obn.e~ to immerse (M.)(CDIAL 5561). t.uban.u to sink, dive (S.); t.ubban. to dive, clean out a well (L.); t.ubbn.a_ to dive (P.); t.ubi_ a dive (S.); t.ubbi_ (L.); diving, sinking a well (P.); t.uba small pools full of water (Or.); t.uba_ diving (Or.); t.obo diver (S.); t.oba_ diver, well-cleaner, diving bird (L.); t.obi_ diving (P.); t.obha_ diver (P.)(CDIAL 5469). cf. to_y to dip, soak, dye (Ta.)(DEDR 3555). br.ud.ga (br.ud.gi-) to sink completely in, penetrate; be of such consistency that one sinks into it (Kui); mur..uku to bathe the entire body by dipping or pouring (Ta.); mur..ukku to immerse; mur..uttu to plunge, dip in, drown; mu_r.. to submerge, engulf; mu_r..ku to plunge, submerge, sink as a ship; mu_r..ttu id. (Ta.); mur..ukuka to sink under water, dive, be immersed; mur..ukikka, mun.n.ikka to bathe a child, plunge, sink; mul.kkuka to immerse (Ma.); mu.g- (muy.g-) to submerge onself, dive, drown; mul.g- (mul.gy-) to be lost to one completely (Ko.); mu.x- to drown (To.); mur..ugu, mur..agu, mur..igu, mur..(u)ku, mur..in:ku, mur..un:ku, mur..un:gu, mun.ugu, mun.agu, mun.igu to go or sink under water, sink, become plunged in a liquid, immerse oneself, dive, dip (Ka.); mukk- to dip under water (Kod..); murkuni, mul.uguni, mun.uguni to sink, immerse; (sun) to set (Tu.); murgelu ducking, diving (Tu.); munu~gu, mungu, mun.ugu, mud.u~gu to sink, plunge, dive, be inundated, be drowned (Te.); muncu to plunge, immerse, sink (Te.); mung- to submerge oneself, (sun) sets; mungip- to submerge (Kol.); mung- to be submerged (Nk.); mulg-, muli- to dive, be immersed (Pa.); mulg- to immerse, be immersed (Ga.); mur.unga_na_ to dive, sink, be drowned; mur.anda_na_ to drown; mur.hutta_na_ to plunge (Go.); mur.n-, mur.un-, mur.ung- to sink, be drowned; mur.nd-, mur.nda_na_ id.; mun.n.- to immerse, bathe; mud.d.u_n.- to be immersed; mud.d.u_s- to immerse (Go.); mur.g- (-it-) to be drowned, sink (Kond.a); munj- to be immersed (Pe.); munj- to sink (Mand..); munja to be immersed; submersion; muspa immersing (Kui); mru_khali to dip into; munjinai to sink; munj- to be immersed, drown, sink (Kuwi); muluxna_ (mulxyas), munuxna_ to sink, be submerged; (sun or moon) sets; mulxa'a_na_ to plunge, let sink, submerge; muluxta'a_na_ to cause (somebody or something) to be sunk through the agency of a third person, swallow up (Kur.); mulge to dip in, draw water; mulgre to dive, be dipped in (Malt.)(DEDR 4993).

6665.A coarse mountain grass: patte_raka the grass cyperus hexastachyus communis (Skt.); pat.elo a kind of sharp-bladed grass (N.); pat.er brushwood (N.); pat.i_r a kind of radish (B.); pat.er, pat.era_ cyperus hexastachyus communis (H.); pat.in:g a coarse mountain grass (M.)(CDIAL 7710). tun:ge, tun:ga a grass the root of which is a fragrant bulb and is imagined to contain a pearly substance (Ka.)[cf. mutha cyperus hexastachyus (Tagalog.Philippines)]; tun:ga_yi a fragrant kind of grass (Tu.); tun:ga cyperus rotundus (Te.); tunga a kind of grass (Pa.)(DEDR 3287). eruvai European bamboo reed, a species of cyperus; straight sedge tuber (Ta.); eruva a kind of grass (Ma.)(DEDR 819). cf. pat.vo maker of fringes and silk network (G.)(CDIAL 7709). [In Asia, the tubers of cyperus hexastachyus are used as perfume for clothing and as a means to repel insects. cf. Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.113].

6666.Tide: bhram.s' fall (Skt.); bhram.s'a falling (Skt.); cessation, disappearance (MBh.); bham.sa tripping up, destruction (Pkt.); ba_- ebb in: vad.a-ba_-diya ebb and flow of tide (Si.)(CDIAL 9643). las.i_ fallen walnuts (Pas'.); bhram.s'ita made to fall, thrown down (MBh.)(CDIAL 9644). bhras.t.a fallen (AV.); ruined (MBh.); bhat.t.ha fallen down, dropped (Pali); fallen, destroyed (Pkt.); lal.t.i_ earring (Pas'.); bat.ha dented, bent (K.); bha_t.ho ebb-tide (S.); bat.h interj. be off, bad luck to you! (L.); bat.t.ha_ hole in wall of well below water level (L.); bha_t.a_ ebb-tide (A.); bha_t.i lower part of stream, western part; adj. western; bha_t.i deba to decline (as sun, age, etc.)(A.); bha_t.a_, bha_t.i, bha~_t.a_, bha~_t.i lowlying land, ebb-tide (B.); bhat.a_ ebb-tide (Or.); bha_t.iba_ to ebb (Or.); bhat.t.ha_ fallen in (of a well)(Bi.); bha_t.h land which retains mosture (Bi.); bha_t.h grain left on threshing floor after removal of bulk of crop (Mth.); earth carried by river in flood and deposited when it subsides; bha_t.ha_ flow, tide, ebb-tide; bha_t.hi_ ebbing of water, stream, downstream; bhat.hiya_na_ to go downstream (H.); bha_t.h, bha_t.hi_, bha_t.hu~ deep-sunk ulcer, shoal, shallow, sandbank; bha_t.helo a low Brahman (G.); bat.a descended, sunk (e.g. in mud); descent, the West (Si.)[cf. pad.u to set (as the sun)(Ka.); pad.i~-a.ri the west (Kod..)(DEDR 3852)]; bhat.kan.o to wander, be delirious (Ku.); bhath-ku_a~_ well that has fallen in (Bi.); bhat.kaun.o to dash, beat (Ku.); bhat.akna_ to wander (H.); bhatkanu to collapse (N.); bhat.akn.e~ to stagger (H.); bhata_rinu to be upset (N.)(CDIAL 9655). To fall; sink: mhasai falls (Pkt.); bhras'at sinks (RV.); bhasal fallen in (of a clay well)(Bi.); bahin.a_ to sink (P.); baha_un.a_ to let down a rope into a well for drawing water (P.); vaha_un.a_ to let down a vessel into a well (L.); bahin.a_ to sink; to float (P.); vahin.a_, vaha_un.a_ to make float (P.)(CDIAL 9653). To fall; die; to set: pat.u (pat.uv-, pat.t.-) to perish, die, set (as a heavenly body); (-pp-, -tt-) to lay horizontally, pave, spread out (as bedding), kill, cast down, fell; lie down to sleep or otherwise; pat.u-a_yir-u setting sun; pat.ukkai lying down, bed; pat.ai bed; layer, stratum; pa_t.u lying prostrate, fall, sleep, death, ruin, loss; pa_t.ai bier (Ta.); pat.uka (pat.t.-) to fall, sink; pat.ukka to lay stones, build (chiefly a well, tank); piss; lie down; bed (Ma.); pat.a layer in mud walls, course of bricks; pat.avu laying stones, pavement; pat.uppu, pat.appu bed, mat; pat.ia_r-u west; pa_t.u falling, falling into one's power; pet.uka (pet.t.-) to fall, get into or under; pet.ukka to piss (Ma.); par.- (pat.-) to lie down, sleep; par.c- to make to lie, lay (Ko.); por.- (pot.-) to lie down; lose (teeth; of children); por.y sleeping-place (To.); pad.u (pat.t.-) to lie down, set (as the sun), be spent (as the day), have sexual intercourse, die; setting, the west, dying; pad.ne_sar- the setting sun; pad.uva, pad.aval, pad.uval, pad.uvu the west; pad.al lying or falling down; pa_t.u falling, a fall, a declining state, ebb of the tide; pa_t.i downfall, ruin (Ka.); pad.- (pad.uv-, pat.t.-) to lie, fallow; pad.it- (-pad.iti-) to let lie fallow, send (child) to sleep; pad.i-bu.mi fallow land; pad.ia.ri west (Kod..); pad.a placing or lying; pad.d.a_yi the west (Tu.); pad.u to fall, lie, recline, sleep; pad.amara the west; pad.uka bed, bedding; par-ucu, par-acu, parcu to cause to fall; par-upu id., throw down; mattress, bed, bedding; pa_d.e bier; pa_t.u a fall, ebb of the tide (Te.); bolla_ pad.- to be (i.e. lie) on one's back; pa_r- to fall; parteng to catch (in a trap)(Kol.); par.- (pat.t.-) to fall; parp- to make to fall; part- to fell (a tree)(Nk.); payip-/payp- to make to fall, demolish (Nk.); pad.- (pat.t.-) to fall, sink down, (sun) sets (Pa.); par- (pat.-) to fall (Ga.); pat.t.- to lie down; pat.t.a_na_ to rest, of catle, sit, crouch (of men or animals), (buffaloes) to wallow; pat.t.a_na_, pot.t.a_na_, pat.t.i_na_ to lie down (of animals); phara_yi_n. west (Go.); paz- (past-) to be caught (bird or animal, in snare)(Pe.)(DEDR 3852). patati falls (Pali); pye_ to lie down (Wot..); pe_i to fall, lie down, go to sleep (Gaw.); pa_lim I fall (Kal.); porik to lie,down, sleep (Kho.); poiki, po_nu to fall (Sh.); peina (D..); pyonu, paii~_ (K.); pavan.u to fall, happen (S.); pe_van., pres. part. po^nda; pe_na_; pres.part. pauna_ lying (L.); pain.a_, paun.a_ to fall (P.); pe_n.u_, pu_n.u_ (WPah.); pad.ai falls (Pkt.); palai (Skt.); per-, pp. pelo, par- (Gypsy); par.n.o to lie down, sleep, happen (Ku.); parnu to happen, be necessary (N.); pariba to fall (A.); par.a_, pret. paila for par.ila (B.); par.iba_ to fall, happen (Or.); parab (Mth.Aw.); paral (Bhoj.); par.na_ (H.); par.al to lie down (Bhoj.); par.n.a_ to fade (P.); par.an.u to be quits, be fulfilled (S.); pad.ai falls, lies (OMarw.); par.vu~ to fall, happen (G.); pad.n.e~ (M.); pad.ta_ (Konkan.i); patita fallen (Pali); patitaka dropped, thrown into (Pali); pia he fell (D..); poriru lying down (Kho.); pyo_s I fell (K.) < patito_' smi (Skt.); pe_, peo_u he fell (K.); pio (S.); pe_a_ he fell, lay; pi_a_ horizontal (L.); peu fallen; pou~ it was necessary; peu~ it began (WPah.); pta_ he fell (Kt.) (CDIAL 7722). padyate_ goes, falls (RV.); -pte- to go (Pr.); pato_-sum I went (Kt.) (CDIAL 7731). pa_tayati throws (AV.); pours out, destroys (MBh.); pa_te_ti fells (Pali); pa_wun to make fall, lay down (K.); pa_van, pres.part. pe^nda to throw, pour, put on, wear (L.); pa_un.a_ to pour (P.); pa_d.e_i makes fall (Pkt.); pa_r.n.o, pa_n.n.o to pour out (water in a religious ceremony), produce (Ku.)[cf. pat.u to come into existence; to do, make; pat.ai to create, form, produce; pat.aippu creation; pa_t.u coming into being, business (Ta.); pat.u what happens; pat.uka to be obtained, happen (Ma.); pad.u to get, obtain; pad.e to get, bear (Ka.)(DEDR 3853)]; pa_rnu to cause to fall into, pour (N.); pa_riba to spread out, bring down (A.); pa_r.a_ to fell, lay down (B.); pa_r.na_, pa_rna_ to cause to fall (H.); pa_r.ai (OMarw.); pa_r.iba_ to spread on the ground, lay (eggs)(Or.); pa_r.vu~ to knock down, make (G.); pa_d.n.e~ to make fall, lay down, frame (M.); pa_d.ayta_ causes to fall (Konkan.i); pad.avaya having caused to fall (OSi.)(CDIAL 8053). phat war.e_nga_na_ to sleep on one's back (Go.); pat.a mr.ag- to fall on the face (Pe.); pat.a malga to be prone, fall flat on the face, be stretched full-length on the ground (Kui); patarangali to lie on the back; patarangi ri_ali to fall backwards; pa_tala_ngitesi he fell on his back; pa_t.ar.an:gi_ on the back (Kuwi)(DEDR 3863). padyate_ goes, falls (RV.)(CDIAL 7731). -pa_ta fall (Pali)(CDIAL 8052). pa_n.t.u fatigue, weariness (Tu.); pan.d.u to lie down; pan.d.ukonu id., sleep, be confined to one's bed as with illness; parun.d.u to lie down, recline, repose, sleep (Te.); pand.- to be tired, be defeated, lose (Pa.); to become tired; pan.d.i tiredness (Ga.)(DEDR 3900).

6667.Alum; crystal: pat.ikka_ram, pat.ika_ram alum, alumen (Ta.); pat.ika_ramu id. (Te.); pat.iga_ra (Ka.); pat.ika_ra (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) pat.ikam crystal, prism (Kampara_. Varaikka_t.ci. 49)(Ta.lex.) sphat.i_ alum (Skt.) sphat.ika crystal (S'vetUp.); phalika, phalika_ crystal (Pali); phad.i(g)a-, phaliha (Pkt.); pil.i, pal.in:gu-va (Si.)(CDIAL 13818).

6668.Softstone: palappam, valappam a kind of softstone used to write on wooden boards (Ta.); bal.aha, bala~_pa a whitish pot-stone (Ka.); bal.apu, balavu potstone, glimmer, slate (Tu.); balapamu slate (Te.)(DEDR 4014). pal.in:ku crystal, crystal quartz (Kur-al., 706); pal.ikkar-ai-man.t.apam crystal palace (Man.i. 3,64); pal.ikkar-ai id. (Man.i. 3,64)(Ta.lex.)

6669.Cooked rice: patam cooked rice, proper consistency (Ta.); the right degree of ripeness (Ma.); pada proper or good state or condition, the seasoning of any food (Ka.); padana well, nicely (Tu.); padanu ripeness, maturity, sharpness (Te.); padnu met- to flavour (food) with just enough salt and seasoning (Kuwi); pato sharp (as a blade); pathi order, manners (Malt.)(DEDR 3907). panta_ boiled rice kept in water for use next day (Bhoj.); panihata_ a dish made by adding water to rice left over from previous night (Bi.)(CDIAL 8085). pa~_tha_ way, manner, method (M.)(CDIAL 7785). pa_t.ala a variety of vri_hi (Car. Su. 27.14). patan:ga a variety of s'a_li (Car. Su. 27.9). pa_n.d.uka a variety of s'a_li (Car. Su. 27.8).

6670.A wager: panta, pantha, panthya (Tadbhava of pan.ita) a bet, a wager (Ka.); panta, pandemu, pannida (Te.); pandaya (Ma.); pantayam, pantaiyam (Ta.); panta an asservation, an engaging for by declaration; a vaunt of what one is able to do or to do better than others; a declaration resting on truth; a promise or vow, of allegiance etc. (Ka.); paddu, panta (Te.); panta a challenge, a song expressing allegiance (Ka.); pantavod.d.u to put a stake or as a stake at play (Ka.); panta ha_ku to engage for by declaration, to challenge, to vow; panta-ga_r-a a proud, obstinate, assertor; a wagerer; panni bragging, boasting; self-conceit (Ka.Tu.) (Ka.lex.) panto purpose, vow, bet (Tu.lex.)

6671.Productivity of a tree: pandad.e fructification; productivity of a tree (Tu.lex.) pantukkut.i a sect of cet.t.i caste (Madu.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pan.t.a harvest (Te.lex.)

6672.Moist land: pata (-pp-, -tt-) to become moist, marshy; patam water, dampness, moisture (Ta.); padm (obl. padt-) wetness of land just after rain, suitable for sowing (Ko.); padampuni to become wet; padanuni, padan.uni to get wet, be chilly; pada_mpu moisture; moist, wet; pada_mpuni to moisten, wet; pasin:kara dampness, wetness; paspu wet (Tu.); padanu, padunu moisture, dampness, wetness, a quantity of rain sufficient to render the earth fit for ploughing (Te.); pete soft and damp; pete pete inba to be soft and damp; bede, bedi damp, moist, soft, wet; bede bede inba to be damp, moist, soft, wet (Kui); padda_m inflation, distension (Br.)(CDIAL 3906). cf. potirkka to soak, steep (as fibres, cloth); pu_val dampness, moisture (Ma.)(DEDR 4505). vaptr. sower (Mn.); uptrima sown, cultivated (Pa_n..com.); vat.ran.u to moisten (by sprinkling or flooding); vat.ra moistening of ground, first fruits (S.); vattar moist state of land (L.); vattri_ moisture; vaur proper moisture of land for working (L.); vattar fit for sowing (of ground not too wet after being soaked); vattar, battar, vatt, batt moistening land sufficiently for ploughing; vatta_ moist (P.); bat.l. moist; dhur.-bat.l. scarcity of moisture in soil (i.e. sowing in dust)(WPah.)(CDIAL 11289). batwon preparation of land for reception of seed (H.)(CDIAL 11290).

6673.Image: trap: pantu a trap (Tu.lex.) pa_ndro, pa_ndrya_ cage (Kon.lex.) pantu conspiracy, plot (W.)(Ta.lex.)

6674.Cheat: pat.t.i lawless, unbridled person; harlot, prostitute; pat.t.ikan- defrauder, thief; pat.t.imai deceit; pat.u base, low, cruel; pat.ir-u lying, deceit, unruliness, lawlessness, mischief, cruelty; pat.ir-an- liar, cheat, rake, cruel person, mischievous; fem. pat.ir-i (Ta.); pat.t.i miserable, vicious (Ma.); pad.apu adultery; bad.d.i, bod.d.i strumpet, fornicatress; had.aka, had.uka one who has or has had sexual intercourse; had.iki a woman who has been embraced sexually; had.abe, ad.abe perverseness, wickedness (used of stray cattle)(Ka.);[vad.uvu prostitution; a meretrix (Te.); pad.apu-ga_rti a woman who acquires, makes acquisitions, or is industrious (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)]; pad.ike wickedness, depravity, bad, corrupt (Tu.); pad.ikenti bad, corupt; pad.ape whore, whoremonger; had.abe, ad.abe bastard, illegitimately born; pad.pe adultress; pat.ike, pat.ke wickedness; pat.in:ge a rogue (Tu.); pad.ucu to prostitute oneself; pad.upu prostitution; pad.upudi, pad.apu~gomma prostitute (Te.)(DEDR 3869). phat.a_ a cheat (Skt.); sphan.t.ayati, sphin.t.ayati, sphun.t.ayati mocks (Dha_tup.); phar cock and bull story (K.); phoru ridicule; pharun secretely to help oneself to the results of another's success (K.); phat.t.i liar, funny; phat.a_ha_ exaggerater; phat.phat.inu to plead poverty when help is asked (N.); phat., phat.a_ cheat (B.); phat.avin.e~ to cheat (M.)(CDIAL 9039). phat.a_n.u~ song full of joking (G.)(CDIAL 9041). pu_t.t.akam, pu_t.t.akkam, pu_t.t.a_n:kam vain pretension, boasting, guile, unsubstantial work; pu_t.t.an:kam guile, inveigling (Ta.); bu_t.a, bu_t.aka, bu_t.akatana, bu_t.a_t.a trickery, fraudulent display, lie (Ka.); bu_t.i, bu_t.u, bu_t.an:ga, bu_t.katane empty boast; bu_t.uni to boast, brag (Tu.); bu_t.akamu false appearance, deceit, trick; false, deceitful; bu_t.akai~_d.u, bu_t.aku~d.u rogue, cheat (Te.)(DEDR 4359). bha~_riba to cheat (A.); bha~_r.a_na to deceive, harass (B.); bha_n.d.iba_ to cheat (Or.); bha~_d.na_ to reproach, abuse (H.); bha~_d.vu~ (G.); bha~_d.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9372). Lie: pirut.ai false rumour, lie (Ta.); bur-ad.e, bur-ud.e lie, untruth (Ka.); burud.a_ lie; burid.i_ id., deceit; burid.i_ kot.t.u to cheat (Te.)(DEDR 4331). pul.uku (pul.uki-) to tell barefaced lies; n. obvious lie, barefaced falsehood; pul.ukan- liar; fem. pul.uki; pul.ukun.i, pur..ukun.i liar (Ta.); pul.g boasting; pul.gn a boasting man; fem. pul.gy (Ko.)(DEDR 4324).

6675.Means; manner: praka_ra sort, manner (Kaus'.); praka_raih in one way or another (R.); paka_ra way, mode (Pali); paya_ra, payara (Pkt.); pariim. in that manner (OG.); je pari in which way (Or.); peri, piri adv. like, as (Or.); kon pari how? (Mth.); pari adv. like, as (Marw.); pari custom (S.); way, means, method (N.); peri means (G.); par, pari_ way, manner, style, sort (G.)(CDIAL 8435). paricu quality, nature; manner, way, method (Ta.); nature, manner; proper manner; pari way, manner (Ta.); pariju, parije manner; form, shape; pari way, manner, kind; parice quality, nature (Ka.); parusu way, manner; par-i manner (Te.); pari_ kind, type, manner, style, etc. (M.)(DEDR 3968). per-r-i nature; natural property (Na_lat.i, 343); character, quality (Kur-al., 442); method, manner, order (Ka_cika. Pan~canata. 1); course of action (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 108); greatness, esteem (Tirukko_. 373, Urai); event, occurrence (Kampara_. Vaike_ci. 63); fasting (Cilap. Kun-r-ai.); per-r-imai greatness (Te_va_. 488,10); conduct, behaviour (Te_va_. 622,6); class, division (Ci. Po_. 1,1,1); per-r-u bigness, greatness (Tol. Col. 305, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Manner: pat.i manner, mode (Ta.); pad.i manner, method, way (Ka.); bad.i, vad.i manner (Te.)(DEDR 3851). bhakti attribute (Nir.); bhatti arrangement, sort (Pkt.); bham.ti sort (Skt.); bhati ways, manner, habit (S.); bha_ti, bha~_ti form, appearance (Mth.); bha_m.ti_ way, manner (OAw.); bha~_t, bha~_ti_ sort (H.); bha~_ti (S.Ku.N.); manner, kind (OMarw.); bha~_t sort (P.N.); manner, kind (M.); bha_ti (G.); batiya love, honour (CDIAL 9338). pa~_tha_ way, manner, method (M.)(CDIAL 7785). vibhakti division (TS.); vibhatti division, distinction (Pali.Pkt.); vihatti (Pkt.); be~ot shape, fashion, sort (B.)(CDIAL 11809).

6676.Birch: padmakin the bhurja or birch tree (Skt.lex.) cf. bhu_rja the birch tree betula bhojpatra (Skt.)(CDIAL 9570). Betula lenta: black birch oil, oil of betula, methyl salicylate; birkenrindenol (Ger.); essence de betula (Fr.); part used: a volatile oil distilled from the bark and yojng twigs; uses: antirheumatic and flavouring agent. Betula pendula: oleum rusci, oleum betulinum; birkenol (Ger.); part used: the pyroligneous oil obtained by the dry distillation of the bark and wood and rectified by steam distillation; habitat: Asia and Europe; uses: applied locally in solutions or ointments as a parasiticide and antiseptic in the treatment of eczema and other skin diseases. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, p. 264-265). Tubes of hookahs: bhoj-pat.ru birch bark used for tubes of hookas (S.)(CDIAL 9570). buja the birch tree; buja-patre birch-bark; bhuja-patra (M.)(Ka.lex.)

6677.Image: wheel plank: pat.i each of the out-side planks of the solid wheel of a sagar. (Santali.lex.)

6678.Image: old woman: bur.hia an old woman; bur.ha, bur.hi old, aged (Santali.lex.)

6679.Image: hank: bur.hu to wind twine into a hank so as to be easily pulled off; baber bur.huime make the twine into a hank (Santali.lex.)

6680.Image: to tie together: cf. bhid.ai meets (Pkt.); bhir.an.u to meet; bhir.a_in.u to mix (S.); bhir.an. to fight (L.); bhir.n.a_ to fight (P.); bhir.nu_ to be tight (WPah.); bhira_iba to tie (two buffaloes) together (A.); bhir.a_ to come close (B.); bhir.na_ to come close, embrace, fight; bhir.a_na_ to bring together (H.); bhir.vu~ to come close, fight; bhir.a_vvu~ to embrace (G.); bhid.n.e~ to come close, fight (M.); bher.o joined (S.); bher.na_ to close, compare (P.); bher.nu_ to tighten (WPah.); bhe_le_i mixes (Pkt.); bhel mixture (H.); bhel. mixture (G.M.); bhel.n.e~ to mix (M.)(CDIAL 9490).

6681.Blue lotus; lotus pool: paus.kara pertaining to the blue lotus (MBh.); pokkhara lotus plant (Pali); pokkhara, pukkhara pertaining to lotuses; lotus, water (Pkt.); pokhur irrigation basin round base of a tree; pokhuru brick well (K.); po(k)khar pond (P.); pokhar, pwokhar (Ku.); pokhari pool, tank, lake (N.); pukhuri_ (A.); pokhiri_ (OB.); pukhur(i), pukur, pakur (B.); pokhari (Or.); pokhar, pokhra_ (Bi.); pokhar, pokhari_ (Mth.); pokhara_, pokhari_ (Bhoj.); pokhar, pokhra_ (H.); pokhar (M.); pokura lotus flower (Si.)(CDIAL 8425). Small lake or pond: paus.karin.i_ lotus pool, pond (Skt.); pus.karin.i_ id. (RV.); pokkharan.i_ lotus pool (Pali); pukarin.i, pukaran.i pond (KharI.); pokkharin.i_, pukkharin.i_ pond, lotus (Pkt.); pokhran. small lake or pond (M.); pokurun.i, pokun.a lake, pond (Si.)(CDIAL 8426).

6682.Lotus: put.akini_ lotus (Skt.); [?put.aka with cup-shaped flower or ?padmini_ lotus plant or ?put.aka lotus]; [sanskritized as pun.d.ra, pun.d.ari-]; pud.ain.i_ lotus pond (Pkt.); purain, purain, puraini lotus, lotus leaf (H.)(CDIAL 8254). pun.d.ari (in cmpd.) lotus (TS.); pun.d.arin hibiscus mutabilis; pun.d.a_ri_yaka its flowers; pun.d.arya a medicinal plant for sore eyes (Skt.); pu~d.ri_, pu~d.ariya_ a medicinal plant the juice of which is used for diseased eyes; panir.i_ id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 8257). pun.d.ri_ka white lotus flower (RV.); white lotus (Pali); pum.d.aria_, pum.d.ariya, pom.d.aria, pom.d.ariya (Pkt.); pand.era, pand.uru id. (Si.)[?influenced by pand.uru whitish](CDIAL 8258). pun.d.ra (white) lotus flower, (red variety of) sugarcane (Skt.); paun.d.ra straw-coloured sugarcane (Sus'r.); pum.d.a white; a kind of sugarcane (Pkt.); pu_t.u, pu_t.i red; pu_t.u rainbow (Pr.); pud. red (Kt.); pun.d.ar white (P.); pu~r.i ga_i a partic. kind of red cow (N.); mikir-pura_ a variety of sugarcane (A.)(Mikir are a hill tribe in Assam); pu~r. sugarcane; pu~r.i a red variety of sugarcane (B.); pu~d.a_ white (of cattle), pud.a_, pu~d.a_, u_s, pu~d.ya_ a variety of sugarcane (M.); pom.d.a white; a variety of sugarcane (Pkt.); pon.d.a_, ponna_, pona_ (P.); po~d.a_, po~d.a u_s (M.); pau~r.o (Ku.); pau~d.a_ straw-coloured or red variety of sugarcane (H.)(CDIAL 8259).

6683.Lotus: padma lotus (MBh.); lotus-coloured (S.ad.vBr.); paduma, padumaka lotus (Pali); padama, pama, pamha, po_ma, pomma (Pkt.); pom a kind of garden plant with yellow leaves, an edible plant with red leaves (Kho.); pam-po_s' the lotus nelumbium speciosum; pamba-lokhar nut-case of the lotus; pamba-ca_lan rhubarb; pamba-ha_kh stalk of wild rhubarb (K.); pam.ua_ lotus (OB.); piyuma (Si.); t-pamba the fern lygodium dichotomum (Si.)(CDIAL 7769). cf. -lokhar in: pamba-lokhar (K.) and association with Laks.mi: "The flowers of nelumbium speciosum, called padma or kamala, are sacred to Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. The white variety of this plant is called pundarika, the red, kokanada and the blue, indivara. The entire plant including root, stem and flower is called padmini. The torus or receptacle for the seed is called karnikara, and the honey formed in the flowers, makaranda. [makaranda juice of flowers (BhP.Pali); mayaram.da id., pollen (Pkt.); muvaranda, muvarada (Si.)(CDIAL 9694)]. The filaments round the base of the receptacle, pass by the name of kinjalka and the leaf stalk by that of mrina_la; the species: nymphoea lotus: kumuda (Skt.) sa_luka (B.); koi (H.); nymphoea stellata: nilotpala (Skt.); nilsaphla_ (B.); nymphoea rubra: raktotpala (Skt.); raktakambal (B.): the root-stalks of these water plants contain a sort of starch, and are eaten by the poorer classes... the small seeds of nymphoea lotus called bheta, are fried in heated sand and used as a light easily digestible food. The seeds of euryale ferox called makha_nna in Sanskrit, are also used in the same manner and are regarded as light, invigorating food suited for sick people. The filaments of these plants are used medicinally. They are considered astringent and cooling, and useful in burning of the body, bleeding piles and menorrhagia." (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp.110-111). padmana_la lotus stalk (Skt.); pawa~na_r lotus and stalk (Bhoj.); pana_ri_ lotus stalk (OAw.); pauna_ri (OH.); pana_r (H.)(CDIAL 7771). padmasaras name of several lakes (MBh.); padumasara lotus-pond (Pali); pamasara (Pkt.); pambasar lake full of lotuses (K.)(CDIAL 7773). padma_ks.a lotus-seed (Skt.); pambuch, pambachas lotus-seed, lotus-plant (K.)(CDIAL 7774). padmini_ the lotus (MBh.); padumini_ lotus-pond, lotus plant (Pali); pamin.i_, pomin.i_ lotus flower and plant (Pkt.); pabun.i collection of lotuses, lotus flower and plant (S.); pabin.i_ lotus fruit or seed (S.); paban. lotus (L.); pabin., pabbin., pabban. (L.); pabban (P.); poin.i_ (OG.); poyan.i, poyn.i_ lotus plant; poyn.u~ lotus (G.)(CDIAL 7775). pa_dma relating to lotuses (Skt.); pa_bor.o thorns of the water-lily nelumbium speciosum, pod of the giant swallow-wort calotropis gigantea (S.)(CDIAL 8080). Lotus: Nelumbo nucifera = nelumbium speciosum: kamala nelumbo nucifera (Car. Su. 3.24, 5.22); nalina id. (Car. Su. 3.27, 4.34). kamala (M.); kanwal (H.); tamara (Te.Ma.); kamal (M.); kanwalkakri (P.); kombol, padma (B.); ambal (Ta.); flowers: cooling, used as astringent in diarrhea, also cholera, in fever and diseases of the liver; recommended as a cardiac tonic; seeds: used to check vomiting, given to children as diuretic, and refrigerant; form a cooling a medicine for skin diseases and leprosy; considered as antidote to poisons; filaments: considered astringent and cooling, useful in burning sensation of the body, bleeding piles and menorrhea; root: in powder form prescribed for piles as demulcent, also for dysentery and dyspepsia; used as a paste in skin affections and ringworm; habitat: throughout the warmer parts of India (GIMP, p.174). cf. ta_marai lotus, nelumbium speciosum (Ta.)(DEDR 3163). cf. neytal white Indian water-lily, nymphaea lotus alba (Ain:kur-u. 2)(Ta.lex.) padma hibiscus mutabilis, sthalapadma, a variety growing on land; synonym kamala nelumbo nucifera (Car. Su. 4.31,34); padmini_ the lotus plant (Car. Ci. 3.264). pun.d.ari_ka a variety of kamala (Car. Su. 4.34, 25.49). mr.n.a_la stalk of lotus (Car. Ci. 3.258, 4.75). kumuda water lily; kuvalaya blue water lily (Skt.) kumuda nymphaea alba (Car. Su.4.34). Image: water-lily: neytal white Indian water-lily, nymphaea lotus alba (Ain:kur-u. 2); id. (Ma.); neydal (Ka.); neytal-pu_n.t.o_n- a village deity, as wearing a garland of neytal (Na_mati_pa. 43)(Ta.lex.) neytal blue nelumbo, tuber of red Indian water-lily, maritime tract, sorrow of lovers due to separation (assigned by convention to the maritime tract)(Ta.); neytal a nymphaea; menyanthes indica (Ma.); neydal(u), neydil(u), neydale, neydile a water-lily (Ka.); naidil id. (Tu.); ne~durune_la low ground near the Godavari (Te.)(DEDR 3747). cf. upal baha, upel baha nymphoea lotus; poraeni white lotus (Santali.lex.) Nymphaea rubra: nilophal (G.)(GIMP, 177). Nymphaea stellata: nilotpala (Skt.); nilkamal (H.); upliakamal (M.); nitikulava (Te.)(GIMP, p.177). {Nymphaea lotus (Ancient Egyptian ss'n; Coptic wrwen; Modern Egyptian Arabic bas'nyn abyad. white lotus or ni_lu_far) 'The white lotus, one of the most beloved plants in ancient Egypt, can still be found in the canals of the country. Along with the blue lotus, nymphaea caerulea, it was frequently represented in Egyptian art and was almost synonymous with life... part of the remedies prescried for various ailments, among others a liver disease which may have been jaundice... The flowers were used in an unguent or poultice for the head with cumin, asafoetida resin (?), myrrh, moringa oil, juniper berries and an unidentified ingredient (cf. wall-painting from a Theban tomb; 18th Dynasty 1567-1320 BC)... Lotus flowers decorated the offering tables of the gods, and large quantities were presented to them... Dioscordies tells that the root of the Egyptian lotus was eaten both raw and cooked... that the seeds were used in bread... the oil of the flower has a cooling effect in enema.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.126). Nymphaea alba: brimposh, nilofar (K.); pandharen-kamal (M.); root and stock: astringent, slightly narcotic, administered in dysentery; flowers: anti-aphrodisiac; infusion of flower and fruit given in diarrhea and as a diaphoretic; habitat: Kashmir, in lakes (GIMP, p.177).

6684.Share of joint concern: patti a share of some joint concern (Ka.); pa_ti_ (M.); pattiga a partner (Ka.); patti-ga_r-a id. (Ka.); pa_tida_ra (M.); pattige, pattuge joining; a hold; a wall-shelf; pattigeya_ramba a joint farming concern; patta_ri an examiner of tax money and measurer of public corn (Ka.); pati-sambandha association with, or concern of, ownership; pattu credit, reputation for probity especially among mercantile people (Ka.); pata (M.); pattu-val.i the amount of frauds on the government or embezzlements (stuck to or) charged to a public functionary (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pattu, partu, hattu, pat.t.u to hold to by cleaving to the surface, to stick to; to be united, to join (Ka.); par-r-u (Ta.Ma.); pattuge, pattige the state of being joined etc., connexion (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6685.Tidings: patte-da_ra a detective (Ka.); patte, patta tidings, trace; guide (Ka.); patta_ address (H.M.)(Ka.lex.)

6686.Image: sailing vessel with one mast: patte_ma_ri a Pattimar, a large native sailing vessel with one mast (Ka.); pate_ma_ri (M.)(Ka.lex.)

6687.Blade of a sword: pattige (Tadbhava of patrike) the blade of a sword; a knife etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6688.Feather: patti, patra a feather (Ka.); patra-na_d.ike the fibre or vein of a leaf (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6689.Laurus cassia: patra the leaf of the laurus cassia; a leaf (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6694.Wife; female friend: het.t.uge a female friend; an affectionate or beloved woman, a wife (Ka.lex.) Female: pen.d.a a female, a woman (Ka.); pen.t.u (Ta.); pen.d.i a girl, woman (Ma.); pen.t.i the female of any animal (Te.); pen.d.ir pl. women; pen.d.e-va_sa a queen's apartments; pen.d.ati, pen.d.iti, hen.d.ati a wife (Ka.); bod.edi (Tu.) (Ka.lex.) hen.d.a a female, a woman; a wife; hen.d.aru makkal.u a wife and children; wives and children (Ka.lex.)

6695.Image: nape of the neck: hed.aku the back or nape of the neck (Ka.lex.)

6697.Measure: pautava a kind of measure; yautava measure in general (Ka.lex.)

6698.Emetic nut: pit.avam, pit.avu, pit.a_ Bedaly emetic nut, randia malabarica (Ta.); bed.ali griffithia fragrans = randia malabarica (Te.)(DEDR 4147).

6699.Image: hugeness: bit.t.al.a hugeness (Ka.); bit.t.u greatly, much; excess (Te.)(DEDR 4155).

6700.Indigofera: pi.v various plant species; am bi.v indigofera pulchella; u.r vi.v, pi. du.r cassia tomentosa; ka.r. vi.v sophora glauca; ci.m bi. du.r hypericum hookerianum (Ko.); pif indigofera pulchella (To.)(DEDR 4229). cf. aviri indigo plant, indigofera tinctoria (Ta.)(DEDR 269).

6701.Image: to gore; clasp; to join; to flee: mad.uha joining closely together (Ka.); man.t.u (man.t.i-) to be close together, crowded, pressed, throng, abound, move swiftly, grow vehement, increase, become excessive, be fascinated, charmed, engrossed, thrust in, press upon, close in, attack; n. pressing, thronging, plenty, abundance; mat.u (-pp-, -tt-) to gore, pierce, thrust, unite, join; mat.ai clasp as of ornament, joint as in a spear, nail, rivet (Ta.); man.t.uka to run, run to escape, flee; man.t.ikka to cause to run (Ma.); mad.u to put firmly together, join closely (Ka.); mat.t.u to be thronged, spread; besiege, surround (Te.); mad.- (thorn) to pierce (Kond.a); mat. thick, dense (of hair, jungle, weaving, buttermilk)(Br.)(DEDR 4681).

6702.A land measure: mattar, mattalu a measure of land (Ka.); mar-uturu, marturu id. (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 4771).

6703.Image: sluice: madaga, madagu a sluice, a flood-gate (Ka.); mataku (Ta.); madugu, madumu (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6704.Image: wall: madil a wall (Ka.); matil (Ta.Ma.); maduru, maduru go_d.e, madulu (Te.); pommadil a golden wall (Ka.lex.)

6705.Image: a man who beats a tabor: maddal.iga, mardal.iga, maddal.ega_r-a a man who beats a tabor; ma_rdan:gika; madale, maddale, maddal.e, madle (Tadbhava of mardala) a kind of drum, a tabor; mr.dan:ga, muraja (Ka.lex.)

6706.Image: the young of a lion: cin:ka-mat.an:kal young of lion (Ci_vaka. 392); Lion: mat.an:kal lion (Pu. Ve. 3,24); man-lion incarnation of Vis.n.u (Cilap. 17, Mun-n-ilaipparaval, 3); mat.an:kal-u_rti Durga_ as riding a lion; Image: fabulous animal: fabulous griffin, ya_r..i (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) ma_tan:gi Durga_; a can.d.a_la woman (Ka.lex.) matan:ki Uma_, the consort of S'iva (Can.. Aka.); songstress; singing danseuse (Kampara_. Ka_rka_la.); ma_tan:ki the goddess of ya_r.. (Cilap. 7,1, Urai.); singing danseuse (Ka_rikai, Cey. 9, Urai.); ma_tun:ka-ra_kam < ma_tan:ga-ra_ga a melody-type of the agricultural tract (Pin..); ma_t.akam screw-pin of a lute (Cilap. 8,28)(Ta.lex.)

6707.Secure cargo or article for one's use; to lay, put down: mat.akku (mat.akki-) to engage as a servant, secure for oneself as an article or cargo (Ta.); mod.x- (mod.xy-) to keep lover (of either man or woman; not of Todas)(To.); mad.agu, mad.an:gu to lay down, place, put, take into one's service as a man etc., procure and keep for one's use as a horse etc., hire (Ka.); mad.aguni to lay, put down, place (Tu.)(DEDR 4644).

6708.Plough: mut.ukku (mut.ukki-) to plough, set in motion, induce, urge on; n. urging, pressing hard, strength, power, stiffness of manners (Ta.)[mu_ri tavira mut.ukku mutuca_t.i : Paripa_.20,54)(Ta.lex.); mut.uku to move quickly; n. a rapid movement in verse (Ta.); mut.ukkam high price, tightness (Ta.); mut.ukkuka to urge on, e.g. cattle (Ma.); mur.g- (mur.gy-) to be screwed up (Ko.); mud.(k) kiy to be persistent (To.)(DEDR 4925). mid.uku to move; n. moving (Ka.); to move, wander (Te.)(DEDR 4852). *vam.s'amatiya- bamboo pole; ba~_sai bamboo ladder used as a harrow (B.)(CDIAL 11178). cf. me_r..i plough, plough-tail, handle of a plough (Ta.); mer..iyar agriculturists (Ta.); mer..i, me_al ploughtail (Ma.); me.y handle of plough (Ko.); me_t.i, me_n.i ploughtail (Ka.); me~_d.i, me_d.i hind part or handle of a plough (Te.); me_r.i plough handle, plough-tail (Kond.a); me_ri plough handle; me_r.i id., plough (Kuwi)(DEDR 5097). Hooked-handle: mer-e-ko_lu iron hook with long wooden handle, used to loosen up straw that cattle are treading on threshing floor (Ka.); mar id. (Ko.); mir to be split (Go.); mirsta_na_ to scatter or splash earth or water over anyone (Go.)(DEDR 5083). Plough with bullocks complete: mad.a_ka plough with bullocks complete (Te.); mat.avai post; oar, paddle (Ta.lex.) Blade of a weapon: mat.al blade of a weapon (Ta.)(DEDR 4663).

6709.Plough; ploughtail: me_t.i, me_n.i plough- (Ka.); me_d.i hind part or handle of a plough (Te.); me_ri plough handle (Kuwi); me_r.i id., plough (Kuwi); me_r..i plough (vinaippaka t.e_r-r-a me_r..i : Pur-ana_. 388)(Ta.lex.); plough-tail, handle of a plough (Ta.); ploughtail (Ma.); me_al ploughtail (Ma.); me.y handle of plough (Ko.); me_r.i plough handle, plough (Kuwi); plough handle, plough-tail (Kond.a)(DEDR 5097). Post on threshing floor: me_d.hi post on threshing floor (Pkt.); me_d.haka small stick (Pkt.); mer.hi_, meri post on threshing floor (Or.); med.(h), med.hi_, med.ha_ post, forked stake (CDIAL 10317). Sacrificial post: me_thika 17th or lowest cubit from top of sacrificial post (Skt.)(CDIAL 10318). med.h, med.hi_, med.ha_ post, forked stake (M.); me_dhi post to tie cattle to, pillar, part of a stu_pa (Pali.); me_hi post on threshing floor (Pkt.); meh(e), miho, miyo pillar in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened (N.); mei id. (B.); mai-da_n.d.i id. (Or.); me~h, me~ha_ the post (Bi.); meh, meha_ the post (Mth.)(CDIAL 10317). me_dhi part of a stu_pa (Pali)(CDIAL 10317). me_this.t.ha standing at the post (TS.); meht.ha_ post on threshing floor (Bi.)(CDIAL 10319). me_r..i-c-celvam wealth derived from husbandry (Konr-aive_.)(Ta.lex.)[?The m- initial is dropped in: e_d.i-ko_la the shaft or pole of a plough (Te.); e_n.t.a ploughshaft (Kond.a); entikarra cart shaft (Kuwi)(DEDR 888).] Image: stake: ve.t.l. stake in centre of threshing floor round which the cattle are driven (Ko.)(DEDR 5526). me_dha sacrificial oblation (AV.); sacrifice (Pkt.); mehe, me_ eating (Si.)(CDIAL 10327). medhya free from the obligation of supplying animals for sacrifices (IE 8-5.IEG.) me_ti stake at the threshing floor to which oxen are tied; threshing floor; me_ti-c-cen-n-i-mititto_l. Durga_. (Ta.lex.); me_tiyan- Yama, as riding a buffalo (Ta.lex.) cf. me_thi post in threshing floor to which oxen are fastened, prop. for supporting carriage shafts (AV.)(CDIAL 10317).

6710.Image: kneeling: man.t.i kneeling, kneeling on one knee as an archer (Ta.); what is bent, the knee (Ka.); knee (Tu.); kneeling on one knee (Te.); mad.tel knee; mad.i kud.tel kneeling position (Pa.); men.d.a_, mind.a knee (Go.); med.a, men.d.a id. (Kond.a); mend.a id. (Pe.); mend.e id. (Mand..); menda, mend.a (Kuwi); man.t.uka to be seated on the heels (Ma.); man.d.u_ki_ part of an elephant's hind leg (Skt.); met. knee-joint (M.)(DEDR 4677). cf. mat.an:ku to become bent as the arm or leg (Ta.)(DEDR 4645). man.d.isu to sit down (on a seat); to be set, placed on or turned towards as the eye (Ka.); man.d.i a bending posture of the body; a sitting squat like a monkey (Te.); man.d.i-ga_lu-kjr.sn.a an idol of Kr.s.n.a in a kneeling posture (Ka.lex.)

6711.Body: me_ndur body (Go.); me_ndul, men.d.u_l id. (Go.); men.d.l body (Go.); me_d body, womb, back (Kur.); meth body (Malt.); me_ndol human body (Kond.a); me.n (pl. me.nd.l) body (Kol.); me_n (pl. me_nul) body (Nk.); me_ni brilliancy, lustre; belonging to the body, bodily, personal (Te.); me_nu body (Te.); me.li body (Kod..); me_ni body, shape, beauty, excellence (Ma.); body, shape, colour, beauty (Ta.); me_l body (Ta.)(DEDR 5099). mey body (Ta.Ma.); person (Ma.); mai id., body (Ma.Tu.); mayn id. (Tu.); may body (Ko.); moy id. (To.); miy vulva of animals (To.); may(i), mey(i), mai body; side, part, place (Ka.); meyi, me_ body, side (Te.); mai body; side (Te.)(DEDR 5073). Armour: mai-maravu armour (Ta.)(DEDR 5073). Brilliancy: me_ni beauty (Ta.Ma.); me_l body (Ta.Ma.); me_nu body (Te.); me_ni brilliancy, lustre, belonging to the body, personal (Te.)(DEDR 5073). maipuni to pour, cast as in a mould (Tu.)(DEDR 5103).

6712.Armour/to cover with cloth: mad.h cover (Skt.); mad.hia covered, set (Pkt.); ma_d.hia covered with armour (Pkt.); ma_d.hi_ armour (Pkt.); mar.han.u to cover (book, drum, chair)(S.); mar.hn.a_ to cover with cloth (P.); mar.hna_, ma~d.hna_ to cover, overspread, encrust (H.); mad.hvu~ to cover (book, drum, etc.); mad.hn.e~ to cover, encrust (M.)(CDIAL 9729). cf. man.d.i a covering dish, earthen pan (Kond.a); plate, bowl (Kuwi)(DEDR 4678). Armour: mai-mar-avu armour (Te.)[cf. meyi body (Te.)(DEDR 5073); may breast, teat (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 4704); me~_d body (Kur.); me_ni body; me_l id.(Ta.)(DEDR 5099)]. bavara battle, war (Ka.); bavaramu id. (Te.)(DEDR 39997). Armour: mai-mar-avu armour (Te.)(DEDR 5073). mey-puku-karuvi, mey-putai-y-aran.am, mey-m-mar-ai coat of armour; (puliyan-atu to_la_r-ceyyappat.t.a meypukukaruvi : Pur-ana_. 13, Urai); (pahr-o_n- meyputaiyaran.a men.n.a_tu : Patir-r-up. 52,6); (ca_n-ro_r mey-m-mar-ai : Patir-r-up. 14,12); mey-ya_ppu coat; cloak; mey-p-pai coat; cloak; mey-p-pai veruvarun to_r-r-attu (Mullaip.60); mar-aippu screen, temporary enclosure (Ta.lex.) cf. Body: mey body (Ta.Ma.); mai the body (Te.Kod..); meyi, me_ body (Te.)(DEDR 5073). me~_d, me_d body, womb, back (Kur.); meth body (Malt.); me_ndur (obl. me_ndud.-), me_ndul, men.d.u_l, men.d.ol body (Go.); me_ndol human body (Kond.a); me_nu (pl.me_ngil), me_n body (Ga.); me_n id., pl. me_nul (Nk.Pa.); me.n (pl. me-nd.l) id. (Kol.); me_nu id. (Te.); me.li id. (Kod..); me_l body (Ma.Ta.); me_n-i body, shape, colour, beauty (Ta.); body, shape, beauty, excellence (Ma.); brilliancy, lustre, belonging to the body, bodily, personal (Te.)(DEDR 5099). Fastened over the chest: ma_r-a_ppu, ma_ra_ppu-c-ci_lai the portion of a saree, covering the bosom of women; band for holding a pack on the back, fastened over the chest; ma_ra_ppu-p-pat.t.ai sword-belt (Ta.lex.)

6713.Great heat: man.t.u (man.t.i) to blaze up, glow; mat.u to kindle (Ta.); man.du to burn, blaze, flame, cause or produce a burning pain; man.t.a flame, blaze; mad.d.u great heat, redhot iron, brand; very hot; mrandu to be consumed by fire, burn (Te.); mand. to burn (Nk.); mar.ga_na_ to blaze (Go.); mar.g to burn (Go.); mr.ahpa to consume by fire; n. destruction by fire (Kui); mar.u_ (curry) to be charred (Go.); mand.eng to burn, scorch (Kol.); mrandu to be consumed by fire, burn (Te.)(DEDR 4680). od.i, vad.i heat (Ka.); vad.a, vad.a-ga_li the hot or land wind, heat (Te.)(DEDR 5225). vad.i quickness, briskness (Te.); quickly (Kol.)(DEDR 5226). ud.uku heat, boiling (Te.); ud.ku heat (Kuwi); ur.turna_ to be agitated by the action of heat,boil; udku (presumably ud.ku) hot (Kuwi)(DEDR 588). mati moon, full moon, month (Ta.); moon (Ma.)(DEDR 4691). mut.m (obl. mut.t-) day when moon is not visible (Ko.); mut. new moon (To.)(DEDR 4941).

6714.Earthen jar: mr.da_ earth, clay (S'vetUp.); meryi_ clay (Kt.); mad.akkiya_ earthen jar (Pkt.); mad.ki_ f., mad.e~ (M.Konkan.i); mat.ka_ (H.); mat.ki_ f., mat.ku~ (G.); mire (Pr.) (CDIAL 10291). matika_ earth, clay (Pali); mr.ttika_ (VS.); mat.t.i_, mat.t.ia_, mattiya_, mittiya_ (Pkt.); mat.hi_ earth, clay, brick (Dm.)(CDIAL 10286). ma_rttika earthen (Ma_nS'r.); lump of earth (Skt.); earthen pot (Gr.S'r.); mo_tr. clay (Pas'.); mat.h, dat. mat.as large earthen vessel (K.); mat.u, ma_t.o large earthen vessel used as a float (S.); mat.u, ma_t.o alluvial deposit, large earthen vessel (L.); mat.t. large vessel used in sacrifices (WPah.); ma_t. large earthen jar (Ku.); earthen vessel for storing grain (Bi.); underground grain pit (Bi.); large earthen vessel (H.); earthen pot (G.); mat.(u)ka_ earthen vessel for grain or water (Bi.); ma~_t. large flat jar (Bi.); ma_t.li_ small earthen pot (G.); ma_t.lu~ large earthen pot (G.); mattika made of clay (Pali); ma_t.i fine pale-coloured clay (Sh.); mut.u large earthen vessel (K.); ma_t.i_ large earthen vessel (used as a float)(S.); mat.t.i_ (P.); mat.iya_ small earthen pot (N.); earthen (A.); mat.hiya_ large earthen jar (A.); met.iya_ earthen (B.); ma_t.iya_ earthen, earth-coloured (B.); ma_t.ia_ earthy (Or.); mat.(t.)iya_ made of clay (H.)(CDIAL 10085). mr.ttya earth (Skt.); ma_t.i earth, soil, clay (A.B.Or.); mit.t.i_ (L.P.WPah.H.)(CDIAL 10286-7 < mr.da_ clay.) mat.hla_ home-made earthen vessel (P.)(CDIAL 9723). ma_ti, ma_tye earth (Kon.lex.) man., man.n.u earth (Ka.); man. (Ta.Ma,); mannu (Te.); mr.n., mr.ttike (Ka.lex.)

6715.Image: vessel for toddy: mad.ake earthen vessel for collecting toddy (Tu.); pot (Ka.); mad.ike pot (Ka.); mat.a_, mit.a_ large earthen vessel (Ta.); mat.akku a large, earthen plate (Ta.); mit.a_vu large waterpot (Ma.); mir..a_vu large pot (Ma.); mat.a pot (Kui); met.a chatty, pitcher (Malt.); mad.akka pot, pitcher (Pkt.); mad.ki_, mad.ke_ water-jar or pitcher (M.)(DEDR 4651). Image: pot: mad.ake, mad.ike a pot; mad.aki_, mad.aki_m a water-jar (M.); man.n.a mad.ake, us.t.rake, kad.ava mad.ake, manthani, gargari (Ka.lex.)

6716.Treasure, wealth: ma_t.u treasure, wealth (Kur-al., 400); gold (Ta.lex.) cf. ma_s.a coin, weight (Skt.); ma_t.ai an ancient coin = 1/2 pagoda; an ancient gold coin (S.I.I. iii,137); a gold coin weighing ten kun-r-i (Cukkirani_ti, 25); mat.ai an ancient coin (I.M.P.Cg. 1009-10)(Ta.lex.) To put on clothes, dress; to adorn, decorate: mu_n.d.-, mon.- intr. to put on clothes, dress (Ash.); mun.d.aa_ tr. to dress (Ash.); man.d.ayati adorns, decorates (Skt.); man.d.ate_, man.d.ati (Skt.); man.d.e_ti adorns (Pali); mam.d.e_i, mam.d.ai (Pkt.); mand.un to adorn (K.); man.d.na_ to adorn (H.); ma~_d.vu~ to arrange, dispose, begin (G.); ma~_d.n.e~ (M.); ma~_n.d.ta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9741). man.d.a ornament, decoration (Ka.lex.) man.d.ana adorning (MBh.Pali); adj. adornment (Pa_n..); mam.d.an.a n. and adj.(Pkt.); ornament (OMarw.); ma~_d.an. decorating foreheads and cheeks of women on festive occasions (G.)(CDIAL 9739). man.d.a ornament (Skt.); mam.d.aya adorning (Pkt.); ma~_d. arrangement, disposition, vessels or pots for decoration (G.); mad.a-ya adornment, ornament (Si.)(CDIAL 9736). Image: ornament carrier?: mar.her, mar.er one who carries ornaments, etc. in the marriage procession (N.); man.d.adhara ornament carrier (Skt.)(CDIAL 9738). man.d. adorn (Skt.) cf. J.Bloch BSOS v 741 Prob.< Drav. man.n.u to decorate (Ta.)].