6769.Image: cross beam: vit.t.am cross beam (Akana_. 167); diameter; anything put across (Ta.lex.) vit.t.am, pit.t.am cross-beam, tie, beam of a roof, diameter (Ma.); bit.t.a cross-beam (said to be used in Coorg)(Ka.); but.t.a ceiling joist (Kod..)(DEDR 5395). bhitta split timber, fragment (S'a_n:khGr..); wall (Skt.Inscr.); bitil plank, roof-plank (Kt.); betele (Wg.); bit rafter, roof-plank, table (Dm.); bitili_ rafters, roof-shingles (Pas'.); bi_t roof-plank (Kal.); bit plank, roof-plank, shelf (Kho.); bhittu, pl.bhitta roof-plank (Phal.); bhito rafter on which slates are laid (Ku.); bhit piece of cloth stretched below rafters to form ceiling (N.); bhitto wall (N.); bhi_ta_ top of wall (Bi.); bhi_to beam resting on a wall (G.)(CDIAL 9493). Image: wicket or screen: mit.ala screen or wicket, o_las plaited together (Ma.)(DEDR 4853).

6771.Image: antelope: pul-va_y deer (Ta.); id. antelope (Ta.lex.)(pulva_y puli-y-ur..ai maraiye_ kavari : Tol. Po. 590); pul grass (Ta.)(DEDR 4300).

6772.Short javelin or arrow shot through a tube: bhindipa_la short javelin or arrow thrown by hand or shot through a tube (MBh.); bhin..ipa_la (BHS.); bhin.d.ima_la (Skt.); bhindiva_la a sort of spear (Pali); bhim.diva_la, bhim.d.ima_la a sort of weapon (Pkt.); bendi-vala, benduvala a sort of spear (Si.)(CDIAL 9497). [Prob. this was a heavy club with a broad and bent tail end, measuring one cubit length; the weapon was used to cut, hit, strike and break; it was like a kunta (metal lance with darts and six edges) but with a big blade; used by Asuras in their fight with Ka_rtavi_rya Arjuna; cf. Agni Pura_n.a, 252,v.15; S'ukrani_tisa_ra,IV.30-31; loc.cit. V.R. Ramachandra Dikshitar, War in Ancient India, 1944, repr. 1987, p.106. cf. -ma_la (Pkt.): A possible interpretation is that bhin.d.i-pa_la is a compound term: bhin.d.i < min.t.i instrument to thrust; + < pa_l.a ingots; i.e. some sort of tubular mechanism to catapult round stone or metallic missiles. Kaut.ilya categorises this as a weapon with piercing points.] cf. Image: javelin: vit.t.-e_r-u missile weapon, javelin (Ta.); javelin (Ma.); bit.t.-e_r-u missile weapon, dart, javelin (Ka.); bit.ing to throw, throw down (Br.)(DEDR 5393). Image: a missile: pin.t.ipa_lam a missile (Ci_vaka. 2269)(Ta.); bhin.d.iva_la id. (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) bhindama_la, bhin.d.iva_la, pin.d.iva_l.a a short javelin or arrow thrown from the hand; an iron-bound club, used as a weapon (Ka.Skt.lex.)

6770.Image: spotted deer: pha_r.ho hogdeer or cervus porcinus (S.); pa_hr.a_ (L.P.); pa_r.ha_ spotted antelope, hogdeer (H.)(CDIAL 8044). cf. eral.e, erale an antelope, a deer (masc. and fem.), including e.g. the black and spotted antelopes (Ka.); eral.egur-uva the antelope-marked: the moon (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: dappled cow: pat.t.e striped or spotted (as tiger or leopard); pat.t.ati n. pr. of dappled cow (Kod..); pat.t.e stripe (Tu.Te.); Stripe, wale: pad.ita stripe, streak, wale (Te.); pat.t.ai painted stripe (as on a temple wall), dapple (Ta.)(DEDR 877). Image: leopard: pot.a felis leopardus (Santali.lex.) Image: ibex: varaiy-a_t.u ibex, hemitragus hylocrius; jungle sheep (Ta.); varai mountain, peak, slope of hill (Ta.); par o.r. Nilgiri ibex (To.)(DEDR 5274). pr.s.ata spotted; spotted deer (VS.); pr.s.at spotted antelope (RV.); pasata-miga spotted deer (Pali); pasaya a kind of deer (Pkt.); pusia id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8364). pisera_ a small deer brown above and black below (H.)(CDIAL 8365). pus. to sprinkle (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8366). pr.s.o_dara having a speckled belly (TS.); piso_dara id. (Pali)(CDIAL 8367). Image: deer: posta axis maculatus; bhot.-ret jel gazella bennettii (Santali.lex.) po_tu goat (Kod..); po_ta, ho_ta, ho_tu, ho_ntu he-goat (Ka.)(DEDR 4586). Image: he-goat: pat.ha a young he-goat; boda pat.ha a young he-goat (Santali.lex.) Image: ram: bhed.a, boda a ram; soso deren bhed.a a ram with sprouting horns; bhid.i a sheep (Santali.lex.) Antelope: bha~ot.ia antelope; bhaunt.ia jel a species of deer (Santali.lex.) boi bindi jel a mythical deer; bhid.i jel a deer; jel a deer; bhot.ret jel a deer (Santali.lex.) hud.a, hud.u ram (Skt.); hun.d.a (Ka_s'i_kh.); hud.a (Pkt.); hur., hu_r. (WPah.); hun.d.u_ fighting ram; hu~d.d.u (L.); hun.d.u_ (P.)(CDIAL 14135). Image: ram: vit.ai ram (Pur-ana_. 262)(Ta.lex.) Image: wild hill sheep: hur.ea_l, hur.ea_r the wild hill sheep or oorial (L.); hur.ia_r (P.)(CDIAL 14135). cf. utal. ram, he-goat (Ta.); ram, goat (Ma.)(DEDR 610). Deer; spotted deer: cf. ur..ai deer (Ta.); ur..a-ma_n, ur..al-ma_n porcine deer (Ma.); duppi the spotted deer with branching horns, the axis (Ka.); ur, ule, ul.e deer (Tu.); duppi id. (Te.); d.uppi id. (Kol.); ur.up (pl. ur.pul) spotted deer (Pa.); d.uppi id.; duppi stag (Ga.); d.uppal, duppi, luppi, lu_pi spotted deer (Go.); d.upi axis deer (Kond.a)(DEDR 694). cf. kur-i sheep, ram (Ka.); kuri sheep (Tu.); kur-y sheep (To.); kor-i sheep (Ta.)(DEDR 2165). Image: deer; markhor: gor-r-e in: kukka-gor-r-e barking deer, cervulus muntjac (i.e. jungle sheep)(Te.)(DEDR 2165). cf. sru_ horn (Av.); ucu_ horn (Pr.); s.o_ (Tor.); so_ markhor (Ash.); co_w male markhor (Wg.)(CDIAL 12715). Image: markhor: s'arvati hurts, injures (Dha_tup.); s.aw to crush with the teeth (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12342). s'uru the wild goat or markhor (Kt.); s'a_ru ibex (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12331).

6748.Image: water-carrier: pa_uru water-carrier (K.); pa_ni_yaha_ra water-carrier (Skt.); udaha_ra id. (AV.Pali.); pa_n.iaha_ri_ id. (Pkt.); paniha_r(a_) (P.H.); pan(h)ere (N.); paniha_ra_ water-drawer for irrigating (Bi.); pa_n.iya_ri_ f. water-carrier(OMarw.G.)(CDIAL 8088). Water: pun-ai water, flood, river (Ta.); pun-al id. (Ta.); water, river (Ma.); ponal stream, river (Ka.)(DEDR 4338).

6566.To dig: prada_rayati tears asunder (MBh.); pada_ran.a tearing (Pali); pa_rvu~ to pluck up weeds (G.)(CDIAL 8660). pada_le_ti cleaves (Pali); pp. pada_lita (Pali); payalia broken (Pkt.); piyalla, piyali rag, half a globe (e.g. of a coconut), seed lobe (Si.)(CDIAL 8662). pa_t.ayati splits (MBh.); pa_d.ai splits (Pkt.); draws, strikes (OMarw.); pa_r.an. to split, tear (L.); pa_r.na_ (P.); pa_rab to dig (Bi.); pa_t.an. to be split, be torn (L.); pa_t.n.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 8032). Image: to break: pa_t.aka a splitter, divider; part of a village; the half of a village; pa_t.ana splitting, breaking, cleaving, destroying; pa_t.ita torn, cleft, split, broken; pierced, pricked (Skt.lex.) par.a han- to break (Go.); pad.- (-it-) to burst out, be broken with a crackling sound (Kond.a.Kuwi); to crack, split (Kuwi); pat.- (-t-) to break (Kond.a); pad.- (pat.t.-) to break (Pe.Mand..); pat.- (-t-) id. (Pe.); pat.- (-h-) to smash (Kuwi)(DEDR 3854). Image: split; half: spha_t.ita split (Sus'r.); pha_d.ia split (Pkt.); pha_r.iyu~ a half; pha_r.yu~ a piece cut off (G.)(CDIAL 18326). phar.ya_t., phan.ya~_t. split firewood (Ku.)(CDIAL 13827). pha_r.u cut or split from a blow (S.); pha_r.a vulva (Or.); paravdi, pharav, parav (Gypsy); pha_d. cutting or lancing, opening (made in limb or belly (M.)(CDIAL 13823). pha_ran, pharni_ first ploughing (Bi.); phar.an a piece torn off (H.); pal.ana cleaving, rending (Si.)(CDIAL 13824). spha_t.ayati causes to split; hurts, injures (Skt.); pha_d.e_i splits (Pkt.); phad.itaga (NiDoc.); phar- (Gypsy); phar. to burst, split (Gypsy); pha_rnu to beat (K.); pha_ran.u to tear, split (S.); pha_r.n.a_ to split (P.); fa_r.nu to tear, split, break (WPah.); pha_r.n.o to split (Ku.); pha_rnu (N.); pha_r.a_ (B.); pha_r.iba_ (Or.); pha_rab (Mth.); pha_rai, pha_rab (OAw.); pha_r.na_ (H.); pha_d.ai (OMarw.); pha_r.vu~ (G.); pha_d.n.e~ to split (M.); pal.anava_ to cleave, tear asunder (Si.); phary-, pharyev- to burst (Gypsy); phaijoiki to tear, be torn (Sh.); palenava_ to be split (Si.); phat.t.ai is split (Pkt.); pha_t.h, dat. pha_t.as splitting; phra_t.un to split (K.); pha_t.an.u to burst, tear (S.); pha_t.an. to beat (L.); pha_t.n.a_ to be split (P.); fa_t.n.u to break (WPah.); phat.n.o to be split (Ku.); pha_t.nu (N.); pha_t.iba (A.); pha_t.a_ (B.); pha_t.iba_ (Or.); pha_t.ab (Bi.Mth.); pha_t.na_ (H.); phat.na_ (H.); phat.n.a_ (P.); pha_t.ai (OMarw.); pha_t.vu~ (G.); pha_t.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 13825). phalt to break (Bur.); phat.un to burst (K.); phat.u cut, wound (S.); phat.t. (L.P.) (CDIAL 13817).

6566a.Ruined: pa_r.. (-pp-, -tt-) to go to ruin, be laid waste, become uesless, be accursed (as a place or house); n. desolation, ruin (Cat.ako_paran. 5); damage, loss, corruption, baseness, evil; emptiness, barrenness (Pu. Ve. 3,15); barren or waste land; pa_r..i desolation; par..utu unprofitableness; damage, ruin (Ta.); pa_r.. an empty place, void, desolation, waste, vain, useless; pa_r..an one good for nothing, wicked scamp; left uncultivated (Ma.); pa.y (before vowel); pa. (before consonant) empty, abandoned (house, village-site, tortoise shell, hand, pot); ha.l., a.l. ruin (Ko.); po.y (before vowel), po. (before consonant) empty (house, village, place); o. go.d., o. ci.my deserted place; pa.r. dry buffaloes, buffaloes that have gone wild (To.); pa_r.. ruin, desolation, a waste; pa_r..tana a ruined state (Ka.); pa.l.i bad, ruined, los (Kod..); pa_l.u, ha_l.u ruin, destruction, desolation, desolate, waste, ruined, destroyed; pad.ilu waste ground (Tu.); pa_d.u ruin, desruction, dilapidated condition; ruined, dilapidated, desolate, waste, dreary, bad, wicked, evil (Te.); par. desert; pa_r a deserted village site; pa_re, pa_gh, pagha_i_ a village site (Go.); pa_r. old, devastated (Kond.a); pa_r.u neglected, spoiled (Kuwi); pa_y secret infirmity, hidden defect, bad luck (Kur.); pa_la = ji_rn.a (Pkt.)(DEDR 4110). pa_r..n:kin.ar-u neglected, dilapidated or ruined well (Nan-. 223, Mayilai.); pa_r..-pat.u-tal to be ruined or desolated; to become waste (Kur-al., 83); pa_r..u_r deserted village (Pur-ana_. 132); ha_l.u_ru (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pa_r..atavi a desolate jungle; pa_r..de_gala a temple in ruins; pa_r..mane a house in ruins; pa_r..pola a waste field; ha_r..a_gu to go o ruin; ha_r.. ruin, desolation; a waste; ha_r..aged.eya to pull down and bring to ruin; ha_r..ugo_d.e a dilapidated wall; ha_r..u de_gula a temple in ruins; ha_r..ubat.t.i a desolate road; ha_r..mane a dilapidated, desolate or empty house; ha_r..u bhu_mi waste land (Ka.lex.) pat.an.u to dig up, pluck out (S.); pat.t.an. to dig up, bite; pat.t.un. to uproot (L.); pat.t.n.a_ to dig up, open (P.); pat.nu to lie fallow (i.e. after being dug up?)(N.)(CDIAL 7711). nis.patita fallen, ruined (R.); nis_pa_tayati causes to fall out (AV.); nis.pa_ta throbbing motion (BhP.); nepa_v ruin by fall from a height (K.)(CDIAL 7513). upal.n.e~ to fall out (of trees from excessive wetness of ground), emit blood at every pore, dissolve into streams and rivulets; upal., upl.i_ rill oozing from the ground in rainy weather (M.)(CDIAL 1817). utpa_t.ayati roots up (Sa_n:khS'r.); utpa_t.yate_ is rooted up (Sus'r.); utpat.a sap issuing from a cut in a tree (S.Br.); pat.ati splits (Gr.); opera_y to pick, pull out (Dm.); o_pur. to dig up (Pas'.); upar.a to come up by the roots (B.); upar.iba_, upur.iba_ to be uprooted (Or.); upad.n.e~ to come up by the roots (M.); upar.vu~ to be pulled out, be lifted (G.); uppa_t.e_ti splits, roots up (Pali); uppa_d.e_i (Pkt.); upa_r.n.o to take up by the roots (Ku.); upa_riba to dig up (A.); upa_r.a_ to pull up (B.); upa_r.iba_ to uproot (Or.); upa_rab (Mth.); upa_rai_ (OAw.); upa_r.na_ (H.); upad.ne~ to pluck up (M.); upul.anava_ to pluck up (OSi.); upat.an.u to open, uncover, expand (S.); upat.ab to be uprooted (Mth.); upat. a piece of turf torn up and put under a wheel (G.); upa_t.na_ to root up (H.); upat.n.e~ to pluck out (M.); uput.anava_ to uproot (Si.)(CDIAL 1809). a_pa_t.yate_ pass. of a_pa_t.ayati splits (Sus'r.); apat.n.e~ to strike against (M.)(CDIAL 1203). Instrument for boring: spho_t.ana act of breaking (A'past.); pho_d.an.a splitting (Pkt.); phor.an.i_ instrument for boring (Or.)(CDIAL 13855). Burst, card cotton: spho_t.ayati bursts, splits, breaks (MBh.); pho_d.e_i bursts (Pkt.); por to break (Tor.); phor.an.u to split, break (S.); phor.n.a_ (P.); phor.n.o (Ku.); phornu (N.); pho~r.a_, phu~r.a_ to pierce, penetrate, card (cotton)(B.); phor.iba_ to pierce (Or.);; phorab to break, smash (Mth.); to break (Aw.); phor.al to break, open (Bhoj. H.); phor.na_ (H.); phor.vu~ (G.); phod.n.e~ (M.); pol.anava_ to separate, sift, clean (Si.); pho_d.aviya (Pkt.); phur.a_, pur.a_ to break (Wot.)(CDIAL 13857). pho_t.u_ to break (Dm.); phot.t.ay (Shum.); phot.a, phut.t.a (Gaw.); phot. (Bshk.Phal.)(CDIAL 13858). spho_t.a bursting (MBh.); phor.a a break (S.); phor breaking (N.); phor.a small hole (Or.); phod.i_ breaking open (OMarw.)(CDIAL 13853). Open: pat.t.a-ppakal open day, broad daylight (Ta.); pat.t.a_-pakal broad daylight, noon (Ma.); pat.a.r in- (id-p) (country, na.r.) becomes fully light at dawn (Ko.); ot. oxol broad daylight (To.); pat.t.a-pagalu broad day, midday (Te.)(DEDR 3867). sphut.ati bursts open (A's'vS'r.); phut.ita burst open (Pali); phud.ai, phulai bursts (Pkt.); pu_r to break (Tor.)(CDIAL 13842). pradara cleft in earth (VS.); rout (of an army)(MBh.); padara cleft, fissure, board, plank (Pali); payara splitting, breaking (Pkt.); paira, por, pora fear, agitation (K.); puvara plank (Si.); pairo landslip (Ku.N.)(CDIAL 8657).

6717.Image: to trample: miti-ttal to tread on; to tread down, trample on (Na_lat.i, 61); to rush or dash against; to attack as a door of a fort (Kalit. 90,12); miti treading (Iraku. Ya_kap. 21); tread (Iraku. Tacaratan-ca_pa. 109); walking, gait (Iraku. Ya_kap. 18)(Ta.lex.) miti step in a tank or well, treadle of a weaver's loom, food trampled and formed into a ball; mitiyal treading; meti to step on (Ta.); treading on, treading out grain; metikka to tread as loam, trample, thresh; metiyuka to be bruised; motikkuva to trample (Ma.); midi to pound, kill, destroy, rub, grind, triturate; midisu, middisu to cause to pound, have pounded (Ka.); mey- (meyv-, meyj-) (paddy) becomes well pounded or cleaned; (meyp-, meyc-) to pound (paddy)(Kod..); medipuni, medupuni, medpuni to clean by pounding as rice; full, mill (Tu.); medugu to be pounded or ground, be reduced to fine powder or paste; be trained or practised, be accustomed or habituated; meducu to grind, pound, reduce to fine powder or paste; medupu id., train, accustom, habitate; me_dincu to rub, grind (Te.); med- (-it-) to put down foot; medali to push; metkali to jostle (Kuwi)(DEDR 4861). met.- to trample on, tread on (Ko.); met.t.u id. (Te.Ka.); mat.- thresh (grain, as by oxen) (Kond.a); mad.ye to trample (Malt.); met.t.u to spurn or push with the foot (Ta.); to place or put down the foot or feet, step, pace, walk, tread or trample on, put the foot on or in; stepping,step of the foot, stop on a stringed instrument; sandal, shoe, step of a stair (Ka.); mot.t.i footprint, foot measure (Kod..); met.t.u step, stair, treading, slipper, stop on a lute; mat.t.u, met.t.u to tread, trample, crush under foot, tread or place the foot upon; treading; mat.t.incu to cause to be trodden or trampled (Te.); met.t.u step (Ga.); mat.- (-t-) to crush under foot, tread on, walk, thresh (grain, as by oxen); caus. mat.is- (Kond.a); mettunga steps (Kuwi); mad.ye to trample, tread (Malt.); met.- (mec-) to trample on, tread on; met. sole of foot, footstep, footprint (Ko.); mot. to trample on; step, tread, wooden-soled sandal (To.)(DEDR 5057). [For phonet. switch in vowels: a, a_, a~_, i, i~_ etc. cf.:] mr.dh neglect, crush (Skt.); mr.ddha forsaken (MaitrS.); mardhati neglects (RV.); wets (Dha_tup.); middhun., pp. middha to crush (L.); middhn.a_, pp. middha_ to stir up, mix, knead (mortar), rumple, tumble (clothes, paper etc.), spoil by treading on (crops)(P.)(CDIAL 10294). middhn.a_, pp. middha_ to stir up, mix, knead (mortar), rumple, tumble (clothes, paper etc.), spoil by treading on (crops)(P.); mr.d rub, crush (Skt.); minn.u to rub (WPah.); minan.o to beat, rub (Ku.); mi_r.ab to knead, grind, shampoo (Mth.); mi~_r.na_, mi~_d.na_ to rub with the hands, clean (H.); me_n. to crush (Pas'.); mi_n.emim I crush, thresh, grind, wash (clothes)(Gaw.); mardati pounds, crushes, treads on, squeezes, rubs (MBh.); marmartu (RV.); maddati crushes, treads on, kneads, jumbles, destroys (Pali); maddai, mad.d.ai crushes, tramples on (Pkt.); ma~_d.un to knead, mix (K.); mad.n.u_ to thresh (WPah.); ma~_r.nu to rub, tread out (N.); ma_riba to thresh, tread out (grain), mix by grinding (A.); ma_r.a_ to pound, thresh (B.); ma_r.iba_ to press; ma_n.d.iba_ (Or.); ma_r.ab to knead, shampoo (Mth.); ma_r.ab to mix (Aw.); ma_r.na_, ma~_d.na_ to rub, thresh, flatten (H.); mo_r_- to rub, polish, grind (Gypsy); man. to rub (Dm.); mun.d.-, mun., mur., mun.d.al to break; man.d. to rub, smear; ma_n. to thresh, smear; ma~_r. to rub (Pas'.); mon.d. to thresh; man.d. to soften (Kal.); ma_n.d. to knead (Phal.); mand.un to rub, trample, wash (woollen cloth by kneading it with the feet)(K.); manan.u to shampoo, make clothes ready for steaming (S.); ma~_dn.e~ to smear vessels (M.)(CDIAL 9890). mand.inava_, mad.inava_, mad.anava_ to rub, press, clean rice from the husk, (inscr.) mand.a absol. to crush; mad.avanava_ to prepare a field for planting by buffaloes treading it (Si.)(CDIAL 9890). cf. marda in cmpds. 'crushing, destroying'; grinding, violent pressure (MBh.); mardaka (Sus'r.); mar.a_ treading out of rice by oxen (Or.)(CDIAL 9889). mardana act of crushing (Skt.); maddana crushing (Pali); maddan.a massaging; massage, hurting (Pkt.); marana_ heap of paddy spread out ready for treading (A.); ma_d.an. wallowing pool for buffaloes (G.); mad.ana act of crushing or treading; mad.ana_ oppressor (Si.)(CDIAL 9891). cf. ma_rtsna finely ground (S'Br.); mr.tsna powder (Sus'r.); masina finely powdered (Skt.); masr.na soft, tender (Skt.)[maci- to smash (Ta.lex.)]; masin.a, masan.a soft, slippery; masin.ia crushed, polished, clean (Pkt.); masinu thin, fine, dainty (n.); masininu to be made fine; caus. masinya_unu (N.); masin.a, masun.a, masun.a_ smooth (Or.); musuka soft (Wg.); mahi_n. fine, delicate (P.); masin.o, mas'i~r.~ thin, fine (Ku.)(CDIAL 10086). cf. mr.n.ati crushes (AV.RV.); threshes (S'Br.); mu_rn.a_ pp. (AV.); mr.dita pressed down, squeezed (AV.); man.a_ti crushes, destroys (Pali); brunik to bite, chew (e.g. parched grain)(Kho.); munun to pound grain, husk (in a mortar); munan act of so doing (K.); munu husked (K.); mino one with a flat nose as if bruised down (S.)(CDIAL 10276). mal.ai rubs (Pkt.); mer to rub (Ash.)(CDIAL 10290). cf. mr.du soft (VS.); mudu, muduka (Pali); mr.duka (NiDoc.); mi(d)u-, muu, mau-, maua- (Pkt.); ma~ru_cak soft (Kal.); mar.o_ (Par.); mauvo, mou, mo~i, mhou~ (Sh.); mau_ soft; dunce (G.); mav soft (Konkan.i); mau_ id. (M.)(CDIAL 10292). mrad rub (Skt.); mradayati smoothes (TS.); malav to strike (Gypsy)(CDIAL 10382). mradis.t.ha very soft or kind (Pa_n.. com.); bre_t.h stupid (K.)(CDIAL 10381). mr.dyate_ is crushed, is oppressed (MBh.); mija_wab to press, squeeze (Mth.); micnu to press, squeeze, rub against, massage; caus. mica_unu, pass. micinu to be oppressed (N.)(CDIAL 10295). nirmardayati rubs (BHSkt.); n.immaddiya rubbed; n.immaddaga one who continually rubs (Pkt.); nima_r. well washed clothes (Bi.)(CDIAL 7365). parimardati rubs, strokes (MBh.); wipes away (R.); parimaddati rubs, shampoos, crushes (Pali); parimaddai rubs (Pkt.); pirimad.inava_ to rub, stroke (Si.)(CDIAL 7853). pramarda a partic. position of the moon in an asterism (Su_ryapr.); pamadda act of crushing (Pkt.); po~do a thing crushed (G.)(CDIAL 8721). pramardita crushed (R.); pamaddati crushes (Pali); pamaddai (Pkt.); po~dvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 8722). cf. mr.s' touch, seize (Skt.); misna_ to be pulverized, be ground, be crushed, be crumpled by rubbing (H.)(CDIAL 10297). cf. mraks.an.a rubbing in (Dha_tup.); ointment, oil (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 10378). Rub; chew; squeeze; massage: mr._ rub, crush (Skt.);[cf. mr.j rub (Skt.)]; perh. subj. murmurat (RV.); pass. mu_ryate_ (S'Br.); mr destroyer (RV.); murati squeezes; muria broken, bent (Pkt.); muriam I thresh (Wg.); mura_na_ to chew (H.); mu_rai breaks (Pkt.); mu_rik to rub, squeeze, massage, roll up, crumple (Kho.); mu_run to shell or husk (peas, grain etc.), crush (parched peas etc. with teeth), rub, gently (to allay itching)(K.); caus.: mornu_ to crush with hand and mix before eating (e.g. bread)(WPah.); morai rubs, crushes (OMarw.); morvu~ to shred (vegetables)(G.); mol.vu~ id. (G.)(CDIAL 10211). mu_ryate_ is crushed (S'Br.); mojjnu_ to crush with hand and mix up before eating (e.g. bread)(WPah.); mu_rn.a crushed (AV.)(CDIAL 10249). mr.n.a_ti crushes (AV.RV.); threshes (S'Br.); mu_rn.a pp. (AV.); mr.dita pressed down, squeezed (AV.); man.a_ti crushes, destroys (Pali); brunik to bite, chew (e.g. parched grain)(Kho.); munun to pound grain, husk (in a mortar); munan act of so doing (K.); munu husked (K.); mino one with a flat nose as if bruised down (S.)(CDIAL 10276). cf. malai, male_i rubs (Pkt.); mala_ to rub (B.); malab to rub, shampoo (Mth.); malavanava_ cook herbs for curry or medicine (Si.)(CDIAL 9870). cf. mala_m, mula_m rubbed-in paste (U. colloq.) ma_rja in cmpds. 'cleaning' (Skt.); ma_j smearing of ashes and earth over cooking pots (M.)(CDIAL 10079). ma_rs.t.i, 3 pl. mr.jnti rubs, cleans (RV.); ma_rjati wipes off, destroys (MBh.); majjati wipes, polishes, cleans (Pali); majjai (Pkt.); maz.ik to wipe, rub, stroke (Kho.); ma_zun to wipe out dregs; ma~_jun to polish (K.); ma_an.u to polish, scrub (S.); ma~_jan., pres. part. ma~je~nda_, ma~_jhan. to clean out a vessel with sand or ashes (L.); ma~_jn.a_ to rub (P.); ma_jn.u, ma~_jn.u to clean (WPah.); ma_jn.o to rub, clean a vessel (Ku.); ma_jnu, ma~_jnu to clean, wash (N.); ma_ziba to wipe, rub, scrub (A.); ma_ja_ to scour (B.); ma_jiba_ id. (Or.); ma~_jab to clean (Mth.); ma_m.jai to clean (OAw.); ma~_jal (Bhoj.)[cf. macal. turmeric used for bathing (Ta.lex.)]; ma_jna_, ma~_jhna_ to rub, clean, polish (H.); ma_jvu~, ma~_jvu~ to scour (G.); ma_jn.e~ to besmear (M.); madinava_, pret. mdda_ to wipe, whet, rub, extract toddy juice from tree (Si.)(CDIAL 10080). ma_rjana wiping off, cleaning (Gr.S'r.); ma_rjani_ purification (A_pS'r.); majjana cleaning (Pali); majjan.a (Pkt.); maze_ni, maji_ni besom (Kho.); ma_jan (K.); majan. toothpaste (P.); ma_jan scouring (B.); ma_jan.a_ (Or.); ma~_jan weaver's brush (Bi.); ma_jna_ (Mth.); majni_ instrument for smoothing potter's clay (Mth.); ma~_jan. dust and ashes for smearing (M.); kes-madana comb (Si.)(CDIAL 10081). mr.jata 3 pl. imperf. rubs (RV.); sammijati collects together (Pali); sm.mr.janti 3 pl. (RV.); mi~jni_ treading out grain (Bi.); mi~_jab to crumble (Aw.); mi~_jna_ to rub with the hands, clean (H.)(CDIAL 10275). Pure: mr.s.t.a rubbed, washed, pure (RV.); prepared, savoury (R.); sweet, pleasant (MBh.); mis.t.a dainty, sweet (MBh.); mat.t.ha wiped, polished, clean (Pali.Pkt.); mat.t.ha_ wheaten fritter (P.); ma_t.hiba to smooth with a hammer (A.); mat.ha_ polished; mat.hiba_ to polish (Or.); mat.t.ha_ rubbed smooth; mit.hna_ to be effaced (H.); ma_t.hne~ to polish (G.); mat.a polished, smooth, shining (Si.); mut.ha_rnu to smooth, trim (a stick)(N.); mat.ha_rvu~, mat.hervu~ to smooth (G.); mat.ha_rn.e~, mat.ha_l.n.e~, ma_t.harn.e~, ma_t.hal.n.e~ to smooth by hammering (M.); [For phonet. loss of aspiration, poss. influenced by Ta. miti tread on cf.:) mat.t.a wiped, polished, pure (Pali); mit.ijjai is wiped out (Pkt.); mit.un (K.); mit.an.u (S.); mit.na_, mat.ana_ to wipe (P.); mit.a_, met.a_ to be wiped out (B.); met.ab to be rubbed out (Mth.); mit.na_ to efface (H.); mit.ai(OMarw.); mit.vu~, mat.vu~ (G.); mit.n.e~ (M.); me_t.avai wipes out (Pkt.); met.an.u (S.); met.n.a_ (P.); met.n.u to spoil (WPah.); met.nu to wipe out (N.); men.t.iba_ (Or.); met.ai (OAw.); met.na_ (H.)(CDIAL 10299). cf. marda- in cmpds. 'crushing, destroying'; grinding, violent pressure (MBh.)(CDIAL 9889). cf. ma~_dn.e~ to smear vessels (M.)(CDIAL 9890). cf. maddan.a massaging; massage, hurting (Pkt.); mardana crushing (Skt.); mad.ana act of crushing or treading (Si.)(CDIAL 9891). Powder: ma_, ma_vu flour, meal, powder, dust (Ta.); ma_vu flour (Ma.)(DEDR 4784). ma_rtsna finely ground (S'Br.); mr.tsn powder (Sus'r.); masin finely powdered (Skt.); masr.n.a_ soft, tender (Skt.)[ < masagu to rub (Ka.) > mas.ati hurts (Dha_tup.); mas.am. (mas.im.) ka_rayati grinds to powder (S'a_n:khGr..)(CDIAL 9919)]; masin.a, masan.a soft, slippery; masin.ia crushed, polished, cleaned (Pakt.); mahi_n. fine, delicate (P.); masin.o, mas'i~r.~ thin, fine (Ku.); masinu thin, fine, dainty; masininu to be made fine, caus. masinya_unu (N.); masin.a, masun.a, masun.a_ smooth (Or.); musuk soft (Wg.)(CDIAL 10086). cf. maciyal ground paste (Ta.lex.) mal.ai rubs (Pkt.); me to rub (Ash.)(CDIAL 10290). mr.du soft (VS.); mudu, muduka (Pali); mr.duka (NiDoc.); mi(d)u, muu, ma, maa (Pkt.); mar.o_ (Par.); mau_ (M.); mav (Konkan.i); mol.ok, mel.ek (Si.)(CDIAL 10292). mr.dula soft, tender, mild (BhP.)(CDIAL 10293). mradis.t.ha very soft or kind (Pa_n..com.)(CDIAL 10381). mraks. rub (Skt.); mak grease (Gypsy); makhu anointing with ghee (S.); maku act of obliterating (Si.)(CDIAL 10377). mraks.an.a rubbing in (Dha_tup.); ointment, oil (Sus'r.); makkhan.a smearing, ointment, oil (Pali); makkhan., mam.khan.a ointment, butter (Pkt.); makhan.u butter (S.); makkhun. (L.); makkhan. (P.); makkhan, makhan (H.); makkhan (N.); makhana (Or.); makhn.i_ (H.); ma_khan (A.B.Bhoj.Aw.); butter, oil, ointment (H.); ma~_khan id. (H.); ma_khan. butter, ointment (G.M.)(CDIAL 10378). mraks.ati rubs, strokes (RV.); smears (Skt.); makkhe_ti smears, anoints, soils (Pali); makkhe_i smears (Pkt.); makh-, mak-, maxav- to rub, smear (Gypsy); mac to stick (Gaw.); makhan.u to smear, grease (S.); makhan. (L.); ma_khiba to rub (A.); ma_kha_ to knead, smear (B.); ma_khiba_ to anoint (Or.); ma_khab to leave an impression on (e.gg. of foot on mud)(Mth.); ma_khal to smear (Bhoj.); ma_khn.e~ (M.); makanava_ to erase, smelt, destroy (Si.)(CDIAL 10379). mraks.ita smeared (Skt.); -makkhita smeared with (blood, honey, etc.)(Pali); makkhia- (Pkt.); makl fat, oil (Gypsy); maci sticking, has stuck (Gaw.); makhyo-cakhyo polished and adorned (S.)(CDIAL 10380). mrad rub (skt.); mradayati, mrada_yati smoothes (TS.); malav to strike (Gypsy)(CDIAL 10382). Paste: cf. mar-uku (mar-uki-) to be ground into a paste as sandalwood (Ta.)(DEDR 4768). cf. mer- to rub oneself; merpip- (merpit-), mercip- (mercit-) to rub another with the hand (Pa.); mar- to rub (oil etc.) on oneself; marup- (marut-) to rub (oil etc.) on another (Ga.); marehta_na_ to rub; marahta_na, marehta_na_ to smear; marehtlle to apply (Go.)(DEDR 4709).

6718.To smear: ma_m.dn.em. to smear; ma_jn.em (M.); mad.inava_ to rub, to press (Si.); mad.d.ai, sammadda (Pkt.); maddati (Pali); mardate (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 378). cf. ma_m.jn.em to oil, wipe (M.); majjai (Pkt.); marjati (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 378). mayan.o wax, sticky juice of fruits and leaves such as jack; me_n.o id. (Tu.)(Tu.lex.)

6719.Oil-monger: me_n.ave an oil monger wearing the sacred thread (Tu.lex.)

6720.Fortunate: man:gala, man:gal.a fortunate, prosperous, auspicious, faring well, happy; beautiful, pleasing; good fortune, prosperity, welfare,bliss, happiness; a good omen, an auspicious prayer, a benediction; any auspicious or lucky object, as a dress, an ornament, an amulet; any happy event, any festive occasion as marriage; any ancient custom; man:gala-ka_rya a festive occasion in general, as marriage, thread-investiture etc.; man:gala-ga_tre a woman with a beautiful body (Ka.lex.) Agreeable: maju_ru agreeable (Ka.M.H.); approved or confirmed, as a decision of a lower court, sanctioned; approval, confirmation, sanction (Ka.Te.M.H.); majula beautiful, pleasing, agreeable (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6721.Wages: majuri_ the wages of a labourer (M.H.); maju_ri, maju_ri id. (Ka.Te.); muju_ri, mu_ju_ri the wages of a labourer (Ka.Te.); maju_ri the business of a labourer (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6722.Image: lion: mat.an:kal lion (Pu. Ve. 3,24); man-lion incarnation of Vis.n.u (Cilap. 17, Mun-n-ilaipparaval, 3); fabulous griffin, ya_l.i (Pin..)(Ta.); mat.an:kar--kot.iyo_n- Bhi_ma as having a lion-banner (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

6723.Image: to turn about: mat.an:ku-tal to turn about (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

6724.Summer crop: matan:kal termination of a yuga (Kalit. 10); summer catch-crop sown after campa_ has been reaped; mat.an:kal ripened sheaf of grain, prostrate on the field (Ta.lex.)

6725.Dregs: mad.d.i, mad.d.u, mas.t.u, mid.d.e dregs, lees or sediment, as of oil, ghee,kalagaccu etc., given as food to cattle (Ka.Te.); mat.t.a, man.d.i (Ta.); mat.t.u (Ma.); ban.d.alu, on.d.u lees, dregs, sediment, the mud or mire in tanks (Ka.); van.t.al (Ta.); pat.i to settle, sink in the water (Ta.); mad.d.iyanna unduly boiled, lumpy rice (Ka.lex.)

6726.Warehouse: man.d.i, mal.ige a wholesale shop, a warehouse (Ka.Te.H.Te.); man.ige, man.ihe, mal.ige (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6727.Food grains: mand.i in general, any food grain or pulse, husked and so cooked that the grains, or the whole or split beans, remain entire; hence the cmpds. caulimand.i, or babamand.i, gur.ulumand.i, bend.emand.i, oemand.i, ir.imand.i, go_mmand.i, camamand.i, gangaimand.i, hor.emand.i, ra_r.imand.i, rmbar.amand.i (Mu.Oraon.); mand.i-cat.u a cooking pot with rice in it (Mu.)(Mu.lex.)

6728.Image: arbour: mand.oa an arbour or mud platform erected before a marriage in the courtyards in front of the house doors of both the bridegroom and the bride (Mu.); mand.oa_ (Oraon); mand.ua (H.)(Mu.lex.)

6729.Marriage gift: mand.u_la, mand.u_la-pae_sa a gift in cash which the bridegroom's family has to make to the people of the bride's village (Mu.lex.)

6730.Image: carrying pole: marr. a carrying pole (cf. Pl.XVI,1); marr.-daru any kind of tree, the wood of which is used to make carrying poles: benga, d.hrkhair., hakehumu, hatan.a, hesel, kindu, pet.esin, sarjom, sekre, tiril, enako sobena (Mu.lex.)

6731.Image: chief: mr.ki_ a manki, the chief of a pat.i or group of villages in the Manipatti country (Mu.lex.)

6732.Image: hole: ma_l.am hole in earth, wood, of snakes, scorpions etc.; ma_t.am a niche in walls (Ma.); ma_d.a, ma_d.u hole or niche made in a wall; ma_l.i rat's hole (Ka.); ma.l.i long hole (e.g. of rat or jackal)(Kod..); ma_t. hole or cavity in earth, wood, etc., hole of snakes, scorpions etc. (Tu.); mo_la rat's hole (Kor.); ma_nd.o hole (Go.); ma_n.d.a_, ma_r.a_ the hollow haunt of any animal, den, any hollow place, cavern, grotto (Kur.)(DEDR 4832).

6733.Iron: mer.ed, mr.ed, mrd iron; enga mer.ed soft iron; sand.i mer.ed hard iron; ispa_t mer.ed steel; dul mer.ed cast iron; i mer.ed rusty iron, also the iron of which weights are cast; bicamer.ed iron extracted from stone ore; balimer.ed iron extracted from sand ore (Mu.lex.)

6734.Lamp: bel.a, bel.aku, bel.agu light; a lamp (Ka.); vil.akku (Ma.); a_lo_ka (Ka.); bel.akari to dawn; bel.akid.u to place a lamp; bel.aku bid.u to give passage to the light; bel.agisu to lighten, to fill with light; bel.agu to shine, to become bright; bel.agu shine, lustre, light; bel.agu sod.ar a burning lamp; bel.atige whiteness; bel.ar to become white or bright; a white or shining white colour (Ka.); vil.ar, vil.ar..u (Ma.); vil.ar (Ta.); bel.l.i the white metal: silver (Ka.); vel.l.i (Ta.M.); vel.l.ai white (Ta.Ma.); velle, ven.d.i silver (Te.); be_, beyyu, be_yu to be consumed with fire, to be burnt up (Ka.); be_ge, ben:ge fire; heat; wild fire in jungles (Ka.); ve_ki fever (Te.)(Ka.lex.) a_lo_ka looking, seeing, beholding; sight, aspect; light, lustre, splendour (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Light: cf. lo_ngi white, fair (Kui); r.un:gini white (Mand..); longi red (Kuwi)(DEDR 5496). a_lo_ka brightness, splendour (R.); light (Pali); a_ro_ka small points of light (RV.); a_lo_ga, a_lo_a brightness (Pkt.); a_lo light, lamp, candle (B.); a_l.ua, a_l.a light, brightness (Or.); aluva dawn (Si.)(CDIAL 1400). udaro_catha_h- thou didst shine forth (AV.); ullo_ka bright (Pali); ulik spark (Pas'.); ulo (S.)(CDIAL 2067). a_lo_cayate_ makes see, brings before one's own consciousness (MBh.); a_lo_e_i reflects on (Pkt.); a_loi (OG.)(CDIAL 1401). a_rucayate_ shines towards (RV.); a_rocem.ti (NiDoc.); arojanava_ to inform, announce (OSi.); aroja_ informed (OSi.)(CDIAL 1331). avalo_kita looked at (MBh.); o_lo_kita (Pali); o_lo_ia (Pkt.); eli public, plain (Si.)(CDIAL 837). avalo_ka seeing (MBh.); avalo_ya sight (Pkt.); eliya light, open space (Si.)(CDIAL 836). palo_e_i, palo_ai sees (Pkt.); pal.ayta_ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 8767). lo_ light, dawn (Sh.K.); light (L.); lo light, dawn, power of seeing, considera-tion (P.); light (e.g. of moon)(WPah.)(CDIAL 11120). lua_t.ha, lua_t.hi_ burning wood (H.)(CDIAL 11121). lo_i_ light (Pkt.); lu_i tomorrow (Pas'.); le_wil brightness (Wot..); loi light, lustre (H.)(CDIAL 11129). loj light (Tor.); lo_c dawn (Shum.); lec adj. light, bright (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11131). calo_ lighted torch (Sh.); praro_cate_ shines forth (RV.)(CDIAL 8766). ruci light (AV.); brightness (Pali)(CDIAL 10762). rucita bright (S'Br.); ros't light, bright; ros'ti daylight, light (Kho.); zut morning (Tor.); re_t, re_d tomorrow (Bshk.); ras't dawn (Sang.)(CDIAL 10763). rucya bright (Skt.); rucci brilliance (Pkt.); luc torch (Kal.)(CDIAL 10764). ro_ca bright (AV.)(CDIAL 10831). ro_cate_ shines (RV.); ro_cati shines (Pali); rozo_nu to be light (Sh.)[cf. ro_ju day (Te.lex.)](CDIAL 10832). ro_cis light, brightness (AV.); ro_cas light (MaitrS.); ro_i_ light (Pkt.); zuc daybreak (Ash.); wruc, zuz (Wg.); ruc, ric-kol (Kt.); u_rjuk, yurjuk (Pr.); ru_c morning (Gaw.)(CDIAL 10833). ro_cya shining (MaitrS.); ru_c, ro_c dawn (Gaw.)(CDIAL 10833). praro_cana praising (ChUp.); praro_cate_ shining forth (RV.); parne morning (Pr.)(CDIAL 8745). viro_cate_ shines (RV.); viro_cati shines out (Pali); viro_yan.a fire (Pkt.); vorodanava_, pret. voradi- to shine (Si.)(CDIAL 11876). Time: ve_l.ai time, duration < ve_la_ time (S'Br.Pali.); id., tide (Pkt.); ve_la time, hour (K.); vel. time (G.M.); el. time (M.); vel.u time (Konkan.i); bel.a daytime (Or.); beli time, year (A.); we_l time, season, year (Ash.Wg.Kt.); bel, bil at the time of (Sh.); vela_, bela_ time (P.); vela_ time (L.); ber time (Ku.N.H.); ve_ra time, hour (K.); vid. opportunity, occasion (K.); vi_ru, obl. ve_ri time, occasion (K.)[cf. vit.uti lodging place (Ta.) (DEDR 5393)]; ber.a time (Or.); vi_l., i_l. ebb and flow of tide, time (M.)(CDIAL 12115). Leisure: velho at leisure (S.); velh leisure (L.); velha_ leisure, time (L.); ve_l leisure; ve_la_ vacant (L.); vehl, vihl leisure; vehlla_, vehla_, vihla_, behlla_ vacant, at leisure (P.)(CDIAL 12118). vel leisure (L.)(CDIAL 12115). Sun: ve_le sun, daytime (Ga.); ve_d.a sun (Kuwi); beru (Malt.); bi_r.i_ sun, time (Kur.) (CDIAL 12115). vel.l.en-a early in the morning (Ta.); vel.ukka to dawn (Ma.); bilpu moon (Malt.); we_rci_ light, esp. dawn (Ga.)(DEDR 5496). Image: dawn: bho_la_-na_tha name of S'iva as husband of Us.as; bhauli_ name of a musical mode (Skt.); bhor dawn (P.N.B.Mth.H.G.); bhora (Or.); bholi_ tomorrow (N.); bhol id. (Ku.)(CDIAL 9634). pular to dawn; pularcci dawning; pularpu, pularvu, pulari dawn; pula_vu to dawn; pur--pull-en-al expr. indicating break of day; pun-n-am-pulari early dawn (Ta.); pularuka to dawn, light to appear; pular dawn; pularcca daybreak; pularttuka to bring to the light (Ma.); pola- (polav-, poland-) to dawn; polat- (polati-) to spend night until dawn; polace, polaca dawn; pola.ka morning (Kod..); pulle, pullya, pullyakela, pullayakole morning, daybreak; early in the morning (Tu.); pulpulre to shine through whiteness (Malt.)(DEDR 4305). cf. poli to bloom, shine; polivu brightness of countenance, beauty, splendour, gold; polam, polan- gold, beauty, jewel (Ta.); pol to be fit or proper, excel (Ka.); polucu to be suitable, agreeable, beautiful, appear, seem, shine; pol(u)pu beauty, agreeableness; pola_ti, pola_tuka woman (Te.)(DEDR 4551). ol.iyavan- sun, the shining one (Kampara_. Na_kapa_. 202); ol.iyo_n- id. (Ta.); ol.ir-u-tal to shine, glitter (Man.i. 1,68); ol.ir-u splendour, light (Kantapu. Acamukinakar. 24); ol.ir-tal to shine; to emit light; to be resplendent (Tiruva_ca. 37,5); ol.i-vat.t.am discus; halo of light (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,4,3); ol.ivu, ol.irvu brightness, radiance (Ta.lex.) Sun: por..utu, po_r..tu, po_tu time, opportunity, sun (Ta.); por..utu sun, day, auspicious time; po_tu, po_l. time; par..utu moment, occasion (Ma.); por.t time, sun; or.t good luck; pat. time (Ko.); pis't, pos't time, luck; pot. time; potk, pok at the time (e.g. ekar. fo(t)k at evening)(To.); por..tu, portu, pottu, hottu time, sun; pottar- daytime; pottar-e, por..tar-(e), por..tad.e daybreak, at daybreak (Ka.); pol.idi, po.di the cutting of paddy at the rice-harvest festival, the act of doing pu_ja_ to the arms and shooting after the monsoon (i.e. an auspicious man:gala ceremony); bodi heat of sun (Kod..); portu, pol.tu time, daylight, sun (Tu.); proddu, poddu sun, time, day, morning; ippud.u, appud.u, eppud.u this, that, what time (Te.); pod sun; appud., a.pud. then; eppud., e.pud. when (Kol.); podd sun (Nk.); apund., aphur. then; ipund., iphur. now; epund., ephur. when (Nk.); pod sun, day (Nk.); apot. that time; ipot. this time (Pa.); por-d sun; time, hour; por.d(u) sun, day; pordoo the sun; appo_r. then (Go.); bappo_r. when (Go.); podu sun, day (Kond.a); padna/podna time (Pe.)(DEDR 4559). cf. ol.i light, brightness, sun (Ta.)(DEDR 1016). cf. ole to come to light (Ka.); ulevuni to shine (Tu.)(DEDR 997). vel., ven. white, shining, bright (Ta.); vel.i (-pp-, -tt-) to break (as the day), become bright; vel.iccam light, lamp; ven.mai whitness, brightness; vil.an:ku (vil.an:ki-) to shine, become renowned; vil.akku (vil.akki-) to make clear; lamp, light, lustre; vil.ar whiteness; vil.arppu id. (Ta.); vel.i, vel.ivu light; vel.iccam light; vel.ukka to dawn, be bright; vel.l.i silver (Ma.); vil.akku lamp, light (Ma.); vel. white (Ko.); vel.g (vel.gy-) (country) becomes light before dawn (Ko.); pol.p whitness (To.); bel.(u), bel.a, bel.(u)pu, bel.atige, bel.antige, bel.l.age, bil.a, bil.u, bil.i, bil.e, bil.apu, bil.(u)pu whiteness, brightness; bel.a, bel.aku, bel.agu light, lamp; bel.agu to shine, become bright, manifest oneself; bel.l.i silver (Ka.); bol.i- (bol.ip-, bol.it-) to become white; bol.aki, bol.ica lamp; bol.i light; bol.ipi whiteness; bol.l.i silver (Kod..); bol.u, bolu, bol.un:gar, bolci, bol.l.ar, bol.l.enti white, bright; bolkara whitish; bol.du, boldu brightness (Tu.)[cf. por..utu sun, time, opportunity (Ta.)(DEDR 4559)]; bol.pu light, wick or candle; bol.ya light, white, clear; bol.kiru clearing of the sky; bol.l.i star, silver; bul.aku brightness; bel.agu brightness, splendour; bel.aguni to shine, glitter; bel.aga_vuni to make shine; polish; bil.i white (Tu.); velu~gu to shine, give light; burn, flame; light, splendour; veluka whiteness; velacu to clean; velayu to shine, be renowned; velayincu to render bright; velaru whiteness; veli, velidi white; vella, vellani white; vellana, velli, vellika whiteness; ven.d.i silver; bel.a~ku, bel.uku to shine, gleam, glitter; (inscr.) bel.agu lustre; bolli spotted white (Te.); velen., velun.(g), velang light (Kol.); vil white; vilg-, vili- to be white; vilid light (Pa.); viled white; vind.- to become light, be illuminated (Ga.); we_rci_ light, esp. dawn; wer.ci_, versi_, ved.ci_, vehc(i) light; ve_d.- to be bright; caus. ve_d.ih-; ve_d.- to be white, be or become clean or bright; ve_d.ta_ white (Ga.); r.inj- to be white (Mand..); lo_ngi white, fair (Kui); vella, wella white; vend.i, wend.i silver; r.inj- (-it-) to be white; burn, flash, blaze; r.i_h- (r.i_st-) to make fire burn; r.i_spori kindling material; longi red (Kuwi); bilcna_ to shine, glitter, sparkle; bilcta'a_na_ to polish, cause to shine or glitter; billi_ light, flame (Kur.); bilbilre to shine brilliantly (Malt.)(DEDR 5496a). Rubs, cleans: hulai rubs, cleans (Pkt.); hol.n.e~ to wash (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 14178). Image: lamp-stand; lamp: vil.akku-t-tan.t.u, vil.akku-t-ta_l., vil.akku-p-pa_tam lamp-stand, standard of a lamp; vil.akku-k-ku_t.u, vil.akku-k-ku_n.t.u lighthouse; vil.akku-t-takar..i oil-receptacle in a lamp; vil.akku-na_ycciya_r lamp in a house, regarded as a goddess; vil.akku-nilai theme describing the royal lamp as flourishing inseparably with the royal sceptre or staff (Tol. Po. 90); vil.akku-p-pur-am endowment for lights in a temple; vil.akku-ma_t.am place for lights in a temple (T.A.S. i,176); vil.akkur-uttal to brighten, give splendour to (Maturaik. 705)(Ta.lex.) vil.akku lamp, light (Kur-al.); lustre; brightening (Maturaik. 705)(Ta.); lamp (Ma.); vel.k lamp (Ko.); pol.k lamp (To.); bel.agu light, lamp; to shine, kindle (as a lamp); bel.agisu to fill with light (Ka.); bol.aki, bol.ica lamp (Kod..); bol.i light (Kod..); bol.pu light, wick or candle (Tu.); velu~gu to shine, give light; burn, flame, blaze; n. light, brightness; shining, splendour (Te.); veligincu to light (Te.); velun(G), velang, velen light (Kol.); vind. to become light, be illuminated (Pa.); werci_ light, esp. dawn; wer.ci_, versi_, ved.ci_, vehc(i) light; ve_d.- to be bright, be white (Go.); r.inj- to be bright (Pe.); burn, flash, blaze (Kuwi); r.i_h- (r.i_st-) to make fire burn; r.i_spori kindling material (Kuwi); bilcna_ to shine, glitter, sparkle, be conspicuous (Kuwi); vilid light (Pa.); billi_ light, that which is a source of light (lamp, candle), flame (Kur.); bilbilre to shine brilliantly (Malt.); tu~be_ id. (Br.); villa- bright, clear (Pkt.)(DEDR 5496). vil.akkam light (Pur-ana_. 7); vil.akkit.u to light lamps; to burn lights in the temple, as an act of peity; vil.akki_t.u lamp-lighting on the evening of tiru-k-ka_rttikai (ka_rttikai na_l. ... vil.akki_t.u ka_n.a_te_ po_tiyo_ : Te_va_. 1118,3) (Ta.lex.) Shines forth: vilasati gleams (Skt.); shines forth, dallies (Pali); vilasai id. (Pkt.); bilasna_, birasna_ to be delighted, enjoy oneself (H.)(CDIAL 11894).

6735.Respect: bid.iya, bid.aya, bid.e respect, regard, consideration, regardful feelings towards, deference for (Ka.); bhi_d.a (M.); bid.iya (Tadbhava of vri_d.e) shame, bashfulness (Ka.Te.); vekka (Ma.); ved.gu, vel.gu (Ta.); vel.gu to be ashamed; to fear (Ma.); bid.ayadaval.u a considerate woman (Ka.lex.) Ívri_d. be ashamed (Skt.); vri_d.ita ashamed, bashful (MBh.); vri_d.a_ shame, modesty (MBh.); vri_d.ate_ is bashful, is ashamed (MBh.); viliu_n.a (Pkt.); vilia ashamed (Pkt.); vili-ya shame, modesty (Si.); vid.d.a_, vi_d.aya shame (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12232). vet.kar-ai, vet.kan.-ket.t.avan- shameless fellow; vet.ka-cikki want of modesty (W.); vet.kam shame, disgrace (Cu_t.a_.; Ira_mana_. Yutta. 32); vet.ku-tal to be ashamed (Ta.); bel.ku (Ka.); vel.ku-tal to be ashamed (Kampara_. Va_livatai. 73); to be coy, bashful (Kampara_. Tiruvat.i. 9)(Ta.lex.)

6736.God: ve~_did, ve~_did. god (Pa.); ve_ndit. id. (Ga.); devil(s), spirit(s)(Ga.); vand.in, in: pe_nd.ra vand.in the highest god of the Murias (Go.)(DEDR 5530). House-altar: pend.u house-altar (K.)(CDIAL 8222). ve_ttavai < ve_ntu + avai royal assembly (Malaipat.u. 39); ve_ntu kingly position (Kur-al., 899); kingdom, royalty (Pu. Ve. 4,5, Urai.); Indra (Aru. Ni.); king (Kur-al., 895); ve_ntan- (cf. de_ve_ndra) Indra (Tol. Po. 5); king (Pur-ana_. 11); sun, moon; Br.haspati (Cu_t.a_.); ve_nturu ancestor in the sixth degree in the paternal line (W.)(Ta.lex.) de_ve_ndra-pat.t.a the frontlet or tiara of the chief of the gods; de_ve_ndra the chief of the gods: Indra (Ka.lex.) ve_ttiyal kingly nature (Ta.); ve_ntan, ve_ntu king (Ma.)(DEDR 5529). For pen_d.ra in: pe_nd.ra vand.in: cf. per-r-am greatness (Ta.)(DEDR 4425). persa pe_n highest god of the Gonds (Go.)(DEDR 4411). cf. pand.ra_- (i.e. pand.ra a_-) to fear (Pe.); pand.ra_ id. (Mand..); ben.d.u-pad.u to be alarmed (Te.)(DEDR 3901). Devil: beng the devil (Gypsy)(CDIAL 12159). pe_n. protection (Ta.); pe_n.u to foster, protect, regard, honour, worship (Ta.); pe_n.uka to foster, take care of (Ma.); pen(u)cu to nourish, nurture (Te.)(DEDR 4436). pe.n, pe.nm possession of woman by spirit of dead (Ko.); pe_tu, he_de demon; pe_n:kun.i, pe_n:kul.i, he_kul.i demon; madness, fury [cf. -ku_l.i devil, demon (Ta.)(DEDR 1918)](Ka.)(DEDR 4438). pe_y devil, goblin, fiend; madness (as of a dog), frenzy; wildness (as of vegetation); pe_yan- demoniac, madman; pe_ytti, pe_ycci, pe_cci demoness, woman under possession of a demon (Ta.); pe_, pe_yi demon (fem. pe_cci); rage, madness, viciousness; pe_na ghost, spirit; pe_-na_yi mad dog (Ma.); pe.n, pe.nm possession of a woman by spirit of dead (Ko.); pe.y demon (Ko.); o.n the god of the dead (To.); pe_, he_ madness, rage, viciousness; growing wild (as plants), worthlessness (Ka.)(DEDR 4438). To pray: ve_r.ika festivity (Kond.a); ve_l- to beg, ask (Nk.); ve.l- (ve.lt-) to ask (Kol.); ve_d.uka pleasure, joy, desire, wish, fun, joke; ve~_d.u to pray, beg, entreat, ask, wish, desire (Te.); bo_d.u to want, wish, desire; be_d.uni to beg, ask, entreat (Tu.); bo.n.d.u it is wanted; bo.d.- (bo.d.i-) to beg (Kod..); be_l.amba desire; be_d.uha soliciting, begging, praying; be_d.u, be_r.. to wish, desire, beg, pray, entreat, request; be_d.ike, be_d.uvike asking, entreating (Ka.); ve.ko. it is wanted (Ko.); ve_n.t.uka friendship; ve_n.t.um it is desired (Ma.); vir..ainto_n- friend; vek-ku (vek-ki-) to desire ardently; ve_t.pu, ve_t.am desire; ve_t.t.al desire, begging; ve_n.t.al petition, desiring; ve_n. desire; ve_n.t.um, ve_n.um it will be required; ve_n.t.u (ve_n.t.i-) to want, desire, beg, entreat, request; necessary (Ta.)(DEDR 5528). cf. pen (pl. -k) god (Pe.); pe_nu (pl. pe_nga), ve_nu (pl. ve_nga) a god, a spirit (Kui); pe_n (pl. -k), pen, ven, pe_nu god; pen. (pl. pen.d.ku) idol, god; pe_nvor priest (Go.); pe_nu_, pe_nu (pl. pn.e_ka), pe_nu (pl. pe_n:ka/pn.e_ka) god; pe_nu (pl. pe_nka) devil; pe_ne'esi diseased person (Kuwi); peypeyre to feel fervent or animated (Malt.); pe_y devil, goblin, fiend (Ta.)(DEDR 4438). cf. pe_n. protection; pe_n.u (pe_n.i-) to treat tenderly, protect, worship (Ta.); pet.pu protection (Ta.); pe_n.uka to foster (Ma.)(DEDR 4436). To offer sacrifice: be_l. to offer into fire or with fire as ghee, animals, etc. (Ka.); belcad.e a devil-dancer, one possessed with Ka_l.i (Tu.); ve_lucu to put or throw in a sacrificial fire (Te.); ve_l. to offer sacrifices (Ta.)(Patir-r-up. 24,6)(Ta.lex.); marry (Kampara_. Kat.iman.ap. 102)(Ta.lex.); n. marriage (Ta.); Sacrificial pit: ve_l.vi sacrifice (mun-muyan- r-aritin-in- mut.itta ve_l.vi : Akana_.220); spiritual discipline; sacrificial pit; religious merit; benevolence, gift; theme eulogising a warrior on his destroying his enemies to feast devils with their dead bodies (pan.n.itai-iya payan:ker..u ve_l.viyin- : Akana_. 13); ve_l.vi-k-kun.t.am sacrificial pit; ve_l.i-na_yakan-, ve_l.vikku- ve_ntan-, ve_l.vi-mutalvan- Indra, as the lord of sacrifices; ve_l.vi-c-ca_lai sacrificial hall (ve_l.vicca_laiyin- ve_ntan- po_ntapin-: Cilap. 30,170); ve_l.vi-t-tar-i, ve_l.vi-t-tu_n., ve_l.vi-t-tu_n.am stake to which the sacrificial victim is fastened (Perumpa_n. 316); ve_l.vi-nilai theme describing the benevolence of a chief in making gifts of red cows, in the early hours of the day (Tol. Po. 90); ve_l.vi-mutalvan- sacrificer, one who performs a sacrifice (Paripa_. 3,4-5, Urai); ve_l.vi-y-a_ca_n-, ve_l.vi-y-a_ciriyan- priest who conducts a sacrifice (Tol. Po. 75, Urai); ve_l.vi-y-a_l.an- brahmin; munificent person; ve_l.viyin-pati Vis.n.u, as the Lord of sacrifice (Ta.lex.); ve_l.vi sacrifice (Ma.); marriage (Ta.); ve_l.vu sacrifice; presents of food from the bridegroom's to the bride's house and vice versa at a wedding (Ta.); ve_r..vi sacrifice (Ma.); ve_l.kka to marry as brahmans before the holy fire; ve_l.i, ve_l.vi marriage, bride, wife; ve_l.ppikka fathers to marry children (Ma.); ve_t.t.al marriage; ve_t.t.a_n-, ve_t.t.o_n- husband; ve_t.t.a_l. wife; vil.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to perform as worship (Ta.); be_l.uve oblation with fire, burnt offering (Ka.); ve_lucu offer up a burnt sacrifice (Te.); be_l.amba destruction of human life in fire (Ka.); ve_l(u)pu god or goddess, divinity, deity, a celestial demi-god, immortal; ve_lpud.u worship; ve_limi oblation; ve_l.pu (inscr.) god (Te.)(DEDR 5544). vrih- to ask, beg (Kui)(DED 5556). ve_d.u to pray, beg, entreat (Te.); ve_l. (ve_t.p-, ve_t.t.-) to desire; Ka_ma; be_d.u to wish, desire, beg, pray, entreat, request (Ka.)(DEDR 5544).

6737.To support: Ívli_ to support, hold, maintain; to choose, select (Skt.lex.)

6738.To crush, flour: Ívli_ press down; vle_pita pp. of vle_payati causes to be crushed (Pa_n..); vli_na_ti crushes (TBr.); vlina_ti (S'Br.); pra_vli_na crushed (AV.); wle_i, wre_i flour (Ash.); bre_i, bre_ (Wg.); bre (Kt.); ble_ (Gaw.)(CDIAL 12234). lahut, lesen to crush; lepen tepen to crush each other; holon, lobok flour; lemen holon. finely ground flour; lobok flour, meal made from any kind of grain etc., food, to make with flour; hor.o lobok rice flour; lobok muc flour ant, a small red ant (Santali.lex.)

6739.Feast; number of guests; newcomer: viruntu feast, banquet, guest, newcomer (Ta.); vununnu number of guests, feast (Ma.); virunnan guest, newcomer (Ma.); vid a.l. man visiting from another village, esp. for festival; fem. vida.c (Ko.); birdu, biddu banquet, feasting, meal (Ka.); biddina, bidduna guest, relative by marriage; birdina guest (Ka.); Kinsman: binne kinsman, relative, guest (Tu.); burde relative (Bel.); Marriage: birdi marriage (Kor.); binneri guests (Kor.); vindu entertainment, feast; guest, relation (Te.); vinta newness, wonderful, foreign (Te.); warto_l, wartta_l, verta_l guest (Go.); vindu feast (Kond.a); breenju stranger, unknown man (Kui)(DEDR 5415). biddu, birdu a banquet, a feasting, a meal (Ka.); vir..avu, vir..a_ a festival, a holiday (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) An entertainment, a meal: biddan.a, biddana, biddina, birdan.a an invitation to dinner; a banquet, a feasting, an entertainment, a meal (Ka.); vil.i (Ta.Ma.); pilucu to call, to invite (Te.); biddan.a a prey (Ka.lex.) biddina, bidduna a guest (Ka.); viruntu (Ta.); virunnu (Ma.); vindu (Te.); biddina a relative by marriage; bi_ga (Ka.lex.) cf. vir..a_, vir..avu a festival, holiday (Ta.) (Ka.lex.)

6740.Marriage: vatuvai (prob. vadhu_) bride (Malaipat.u. 30); maduve id. (Ka.); madume id. (Tu.); vatuvai marriage, wedding (Ain.. 399); wedding garland (Tirumuru. 117); vatuvai-k-kaliya_n.am marriage in the form approved by the S'a_stras (Ir-ai. 23, Urai. Pak. 127); vatuvai-man.am id. (Tiv. Na_yc. 6,2); vatuvai-c-cu_t.t.an.i wedding garland (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,75); vanti-ttal < panti- to tie (Pirapo_ta. 41,26)(Ta.lex.) Marriage: ve_tai, ve_tai-p-poruttam a correspondence between the naks.atras of the prospective bride and bridegroom ascertained by ve_tai-k-kayir-u (Co_tit.a. Cin. 198); ve_tai-k-kayir-u diagram used in ascertaining ve_tai-p-poruttam (Vita_n-a. Kat.iman.a. 17); ve_t.t.al marriage (Pin..); ve_t.t.a_n- one who desires (Kalit. 62); husband; married man; ve_t.t.a_l. wife; married woman; ve_t.t.akam, ve_t.t.a_m house of one's wife's people (Nait.ata. Nakarni_n.. 17)(Ta.lex.) beddna_ (biddyas) to seek, search, get (second wife, concubine), find, discover, want, wish, be about to, be liable to (Kur.); bede to seek, marry; beduwre to be married (Malt.)(DEDR 5483). cf. vadhu_vara bride and groom (Skt.)(CDIAL 11253). cf. vadhu_ bride, young wife (RV.)(CDIAL 11250). ve_l. marriage (Par..amo. 360); desire; Ka_ma (Te_va_. 1172,8); ve_l.-tal to offer sacrifices (Patir-r-up. 24,6); be_l. (Ka.); ve_l.-tal to marry (Kampara_. Kat.iman.ap. 102); to desire (Pur-ana_. 20); to love (Na_lat.i, 215); ve_t.pu desire; ve_t.am desire (Pa_rata. Campava. 53); ve_t.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_t.ai desire, longing (Tiruppu. 288); lovesickness (Kantapu. Tati_yut. 74); ve_n. desire (Ta.Ma.); ve_n.in-ar those who love or desire (Civataru. Cuvarkka. Ce_t.a. 48)(Ta.lex.) Marriage: ve_l.vi marriage (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 127); benevolence; gift; religious merit; ve_l.vi-kkapilai cow that yields milk, ghee etc. necessary for a sacrifice (Tol. Po. 177, Urai.); ve_l.vu sacrifice (Ci_vaka. 138); presents of foodstuffs from the house of the bride-groom to that of the bride and vice versa, at a wedding; rare commodity; ve_vu id.; ve_l.v-et.u-ttal to send presents of food-stuffs from the house of the bridegroom to that of the bride and vice versa, at a wedding; to gather and carry varied articles (Ta.lex.)

6741.Collects; begs: pin.d.ayati collects (Skt.); pin.d.e_ti collects in a ball (Pali); pim.d.e_i collects (Pkt.); pin. (Pas'.); pinan.u to take alms (S.); pina alms (S.); pinin.o beggar (S.); pinnan. to beg alms (L.); pinnan.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 8170). A village goddess; physician: pit.akkar a tribe (pit.akkar kurukkar turukkarkal.e_ : Kalin.. 319); pit.akan- < bhis.aj doctor, physician (Ce_tupu. An-umaku. 15); pit.a_ran- doctor; man of the Kur-ava caste; pit.a_ri a village goddess (Tiruppu. 1184); id. (Ma.); pit.a_ricci woman of the kur-ava caste (Ta.lex.) pin.d.a_ra cow-herd, buffalo-herd, beggar (Skt.); pim.d.a_ra, pem.d.a_ra cowherd (Pkt.); pena_ru beggar (S.); pi~d.a_ro herdsman (G.)(CDIAL 8172). Learned; physician: vaidya learned (A_s'vGr..); physician (MBh.); vaidyaka (S'r.n:ga_r.); vejja (Pali.Pkt.); veju (S.); bez physician, barber (A.); beja physician (MB.); bej, beju, bejur., bejr.u family title of barbers; beji expert magician (Or.); ved-, veda_ physician (Si.)(CDIAL 12141). ved-hal medical hall (OSi.)(CDIAL 12141). cf. ve_da knowledge, sacred knowledge (RV.)(CDIAL 12104). Medicine: bes medicine (Md.); bhais.ajya healing efficacy (VS.); remedy, drug (S'Br.); bhe_s.ajya curative (TS.); bhis.aj (RV.); bhe_sajja medicine (Pali.Pkt.); behed (OSi. 9th cent.); beheda, beheta (t from pl. behet)(Si.) (CDIAL 9623). vicikai hospital (Ta.lex.) besuk unwell, indisposed; bec to vomit, be sick, used mainly of children (Santali.lex.) vis.a-bhis.aj a dealer in antidotes; a poison-doctor (Ka.lex.) bhis.aj, bhis.aja, bhis.akku a physician; bhe_s.aja making well or healthy; a remedy, a drug, a medicament; bhe_s.ajaniva_sa a druggist's shop (Ka.lex.) bhesajja a remedy, medicament, medicine; bhesajjan karoti to treat with a medicine; mu_la-bhesajja_ni the principal medicines; paca bhesajja_ni the 5 remedies (allowed to bhikkhus); bhesajja-kapa_laka medicine bowl; bhesajja-sikka_pada the medicine precepts; bhisakka physician (Pali.lex.) bhis.aj to heal, cure (RV. viii.79.2); bisaza_ni I should heal (Iranian); bhis.aj healer, physician (RV. ix.112.1, rutam bhis.ak); means of healing, medicine (RV. i.24.9); bhis.ajya good fo healing (TMB. v.3.10); bhe_s.aja healing, curing (RV. ii.33.7); bhe_s.ajam medicine (RV. i.157.6); medical practice (TS. vi.4.8.2); healing (RV. x.9.5); bhais.ajya medicine, treatment (VS. xx.3)(Vedic.lex.) bejja, bejju, vaija, vaidya Vedic; relating to medicine, medical, medicinal; a medical man, a doctor, a physician, amr.takara; the business of a physician, medical practice, medical treatment; a medicine (Ka.lex.) vyanjana, benjana, venjana seasoning, condiment, sauce (Ka.lex.) cf. vayittiyan- doctor (Ta.lex.) cf. vaidya physician (MBh.)(CDIAL 12140). cf. ve_da knowledge, sacred knowledge (RV.)(CDIAL 12104). bed the Vedas, the Hindu sacred books (Santali.lex.) vya_dhi disease (esp. leprosy)(ChUp.); vidhyati afflicts with (RV.); vya_dhi, bya_dhi sickness (Pali); va_hi (Pkt.); viya (Si.)(CDIAL 12202). To lead: vinaya leading away (RV.); guidance, good breeding (MBh.)(CDIAL 11767). vinayati leads away (RV.); guides, trains (MBh.); vin.e_i drives out, educates, teaches (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11768). vina_yaka leader, guide (MBh.); guide, judge (Pali); vina_ guide, a name of the Buddha (Si.)(CDIAL 11776). Learning: vintai < vidya_ learning, scholarship (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vindu intelligent, knowing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vija_na, binnan.a distinguishing, perceiving; intelligence; skill; vija knowing, intelligent; wise, skilful; vija_pana, binna, binnapa, binnaha the act of making known or acquainting; representing; vicya_ra, vica_ra deliberation, consideration; discriminating (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vijapayati makes known, begs (S'Br.); via_pe_ti informs, appeals to (Pali); vim.napayitave (As'.); vim.naveti regards (NiDoc.); vin.n.a_ve_i (Pkt.); binavai entreats (OAw.); vinavvu~ to entreat, persuade, praise (G.); vinavin.e~ to supplicate (M.)(CDIAL 11705). vijapti information, report, request (to a superior)(Skt.); viatti intimation (Pali); vinati request (As'.); vim.nati, vim.nadi (NiDoc.); vin.n.atti (Pkt.); venath, dat. venucu (K.); vinati_ (S.); benati_, ben.ti_, bin.ti_ (P.); binat, binti_, bin.ti_ (Ku.); binti (Aw.); binati_, binti_, minti_ (Aw.); bi_nati_ (OMarw.); vinati_, vina~ti request (G.M.); vin.ati_ offering to an idol when venerated (M.); buyat representation, petition (Sh.)(CDIAL 11706). vija_na act of discerning (AV.); via_n.a consciousness (Pali); viana (KharI.); vin.n.a_n.a knowledge (Pkt.); vi_a_n.u, vi_a_n.o charm for discovering a thief (S.); bin.a_n.a knowledge (OB.); bina_ni_ special thought (H.); vina_n.a comprehension (OG.)(CDIAL 11707). bina_ni foolish, ignorant (H.)(CDIAL 11708). Obeisance: vin.n.appam < vin.n.appa (Pkt.) < vija_pana supplication, respectful representation (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 1); recitation of sacred hymns in the presence of the deity (S.I.I. ii,254,4); vin.n.a_n.am knowledge, wisdom (Pi. Vi. 2, Urai.); vinayam < vi-naya obeisance, reverence; pleasant speech (Ja_n-a_.); vina_yakan- < vina_yaka spiritual preceptor; Gan.e_s'a as the remover of obstacles (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vin.n.u Vis.n.u (Ya_p. Vi. 84); vin.n.o_r celestials (Cilap. 11,214); vin. sky (Pur-ana_. 11); vin.n.u (Te.Ma.); binnu (Ka.Tu.); vin. heaven (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,9)(Ta.); vin.t.u sky (Kantapu. Ta_raka. 2)(Ta.); vin.t.u-patam < vis.n.u-pada sky (Kumara. Pira. Muttuk. 24); vin.n.akar Vaikun.t.ha, Vis.n.u's heaven (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,77); temple of Vis.n.u (S.I.I. i,87)(Ta.lex.) vicaiyar perh. inhabitants of the Vindhyas; vicaiyar a class of demi-gods, one of patin-en--kan.am (Pin..)(varaima_rpar ... vicaiyarpo_r- kit.anta_r: Ci_vaka. 2241); vicai-makal. Vidya_dhara woman (vicaimakal.av vir..aipit.iya_ki : Perun.. Narava_n.a. 5,43); vicai-p-pati the world of the Vidya_dharas (Pin..); vicai < vidya_ art, science (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 33); learning, knowledge (Tiva_.); spiritual knowledge (Kampara_. Pin.ivi_t.. 122); incantation (Kampara_. Ta_t.akai. 18)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) nivid invocation; nive_dayati offers (S'Br.); nive_dya offering of food to an idol (MBh.); naive_dya (BhP.)(CDIAL 7606). vicai the world of the Vidya_dharas (Vicai ve_ntar: Ci_vaka. 816); vicaiyan- learned man (Kalla_. 42,25); vi = vicai (Ja_n-ava_. Li_lai. 21)(Ta.lex.) sam.ve_dana sensation (MBh.); sam.ve_yan.a knowledge (Pkt.); sam.bean.a feeling (OB.)(CDIAL 13025). vid know, find out (Skt.); vidya_ knowledge (RV.); vijja_ (Pali.Pkt.); vija (S.); vida (Si.); bijuwa_ sorcerer (N.)(CDIAL 11741). cf. vindati finds, gets (RV.); finds, possesses (Pali); vim.dai obtains, knows (Pkt.); winda-un to interrogate (Wg.); wend-, windar.- to find (Pas'.); vendun to get (K.); vindinava_ to possess, experience, suffer, enjoy (Si.)(CDIAL 11783). cf. vinna found (Pa_n..); considered (Skt.); binum, pret. of dach- I saw (Dm.)(CDIAL 11786). ve_nati sees, looks (RV.); vae_n- to see (Av.); we_n.-, wi_n.-, we~_r.- (Ash.); wre~_- (Kt.Wg.); caus. wan.a_ to show (Ash.); we~ra- (Kt.); (mu) binum I saw (Dm.)(CDIAL 12111). ve_da knowledge, sacred knowledge (RV.Pali); ve_a (Pkt.); ve_ holy writ (Si.)(CDIAL 12104). ve_dana perception, knowledge (MBh.); vedana perception (NiDoc.); ve_an.a experience (Pkt.); beana knowledge (OB.)(CDIAL 12105). Soma: veda = somanassan feeling, religious feeling, enthusiasm, awe, emotion, excitement < vid (Skt.Í) or ved (Pali Í); somanassa (su + mano) mental ease, happiness, joy; it is more than sukha; a synonym of it is veda; somanassa-indriya the faculty of pleasure; somanassita caus. pp. satisfied, pleased, contented; somma (Skt. saumya < soma) pleasing, agreeable, gentle; vedana_ feeling, sensation; vedeti to know; to experience (Pali.lex.) ve_dana perception, knowledge (MBh.); perception (NiDoc.); ve_an.a experience (Pkt.); beana knowledge (OB.)(CDIAL 12105). ve_da knowledge, sacred knowledge (RV.Pali.); ve_a (Pkt.); ve_ holy writ (Si.)(CDIAL 12104). ve_dana_ knowledge (Skt.); feeling (Ya_j.); pain (MBh.); ve_dana_ perception, feeling, pain (Pali); vedana-matam. considered painful; vedaniya painful (As'.); ve_an.a_ pain (Pkt.); vian.a_ feeling, pain (Pkt.); ben child-birth (B.); ven. pain (esp. of birth)(M.); veyin feeling (Si.)(CDIAL 12106). ve_tiyan- Brahmin (Tiruva_lava_. 40,2); Brahma_ (Kalla_. 25,13); God (Te_va_. 870,1); ve_ti one who knows (Tiruva_ca. 4,106) < ve_din; Brahma_; learned person (Ta.lex.) vaitika-c-col word occurring in the Ve_das (Tol. Col. 75, Urai); vaitika-ma_rkkam the Ve_dic religion (Man.i. 17,3)(Ta.lex.)

6742.Alchemical powder: ve_tai-c-cintu_ram a powder used in alchemy (Ta.lex.) Alchemy; transmuting (base metals into gold): ve_ti transmuting (kul.ikai kot.u paricittu ve_ti ceytu)(Ta_yu.Cin-maya_. 7); ve_tikai transmuting (ve_tikaicey teyvaman.i kollo_ : Kampara_. Uruk. 68)(Ta.); ve_tittal to cause change < bhe_da; to change, transmute, as baser metals (Pukalikkir-ai ... ve_tikka vut.amporu pon-mayama_y ol.i vit.t.u : Takkaya_kap. 217)(Ta.); (ventar..ali n-iratam vait taintu lo_kattaiyum ve_tittu vir-r-un.n.ala_m : Ta_yu. Te_co_. 8); to render hostile (Ta.lex.) ve_titta_r enemies (Te_va_. 159,9)(Ta.lex.) ve_tippa_n- one who transmutes (Ci. Ci. 11,12); ve_talan- < bhe_daka one who transmutes or changes the nature of things (Civataru. Ko_pura. 104); ve_taka-p-pon- refined gold (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 39, Vya_.); ve_takam refining (gold); refined gold (Ta_yu. Per-r-avat.. 10); agent to transmute baser metals into gold (Periyapu. Kan.n.ap. 154); ve_takam disclosure (irakaciyattai ve_takam pan.n.la_ka_tu); ve_takan- one who reveals; ve_ta_kkin-i sacred fire < ve_da_gni; ve_tai < bhe_da alchemy, transmutation of metals; ve_tai-c-cintu_ram a powder used in alchemy; ve_tu change (Tiruman. 2220); ve_tiyan- alum; ve_ti (-tt-) to smear, rub on, as sandal paste (Ci_vaka. 1081, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Chemistry; physician: ve_ti-y-iyal chemistry; vayittiyan-, vaittiyan- one who studies the Ve_das; physician, medical practitioner; vayittiya-virutti grant of lands to physicians for their service (S.I.I. i,91) (Ta.lex.) To bathe a woman: ve_tu-kol.(l.u)-tal to warm the body, as with smoke (Kalit. 145); ve_tu-va_rttal to bathe a woman in medicinally prepared hot water, after child-birth; ve_tu-cey-tal to apply fomentation (Ci_vaka. 2667) (Ta.lex.) cf. ben child-birth (B.); ven. pain (esp. at child-birth)(M.)(CDIAL 12106). ve_tu suffering, pain (Te_va_. 423,8); ve_tai id. (Ta.lex.)

6743.To mislead: beda to deceive, to mislead, to pretend; hor bedae ror. bar.ayeda he speaks deceiving words; bedin heathen (Santali.lex.)

6745.Cultivation in hills: kumme_ri forest cultivation (Ka.); kume_ru a waste land cleared for cultivation (Tu.); kummari a piece of ground in a jungle, on which the trees are cut down and burned, whereafter it is cultivated for one or two years only (Ka.); kumari cultivation in hills (Ta.)(DEDR 1740). Land: me_t.t.i land granted free of tax to the headman of a village (Ta.)(DEDR 5091). me_t.t.a_n-ka_t.u elevated land fit only for dry cultivation; me_t.t.u-nilam high or elevated land; rising ground (civanta me_t.t.unilattu : Pur.ana_. 120, Urai); me_t.t.u-p-pa_yccal elevated land, as difficult for irrigation; irrigation of land at a high level; uphill work (Ta.lex.) me_t.t.u-mat.ai channel with irrigates lands on a higher level; high-level channel; sluice or opening that turns water onto a higher-level channel. met.t.a_ hillock (Or.)(CDIAL 10308). me_va_d.(h)a, me_ava_d.aya name of a country (Pkt.); mewa_r. id. (Marw.)(CDAL 10310).

6746.Image: hill: patalai mountain (Iraku. Te_n-uva. 62); hill; patukkai sand-bank, elevation (Ta.lex.) Sandbank: bhi_t.a_ ruins of a house (H.); bhut.u ruined (S.);bhut.a ruined (B.); bhi_t.ha_ site of ruined village (Bi.)(CDIAL 9595). bhr.s.t.i deserted cottage or garden (Skt.); bhi_t.h land in homestead; d.i_h old village site (Bi.)(CDIAL 9598). bhr.s.t.i spike, top, edge (RV.); bot.hu high ground, bank (of river, round garden, etc.), high waste ground near foot of mountain; but.hu, dat. bache heap, bank rising out of level ground (K.)(CDIAL 9599). cf. pi_t.u waste, uncultivated land (Ta.); bi_d.u id. (Ka.Te.); waste, useless (Te.); bi_r..(u) waste land (Ka.); bed.d.a-ce_nu a dry land, a waste uncultivated land (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 4219). ber.a low ground, plain, valley, opp. to buru = mountain; ber.a ote low, level ground (Mu.); ber.a enters into the composition of village names (Sadani) (Mu.lex.) bet.t.a mountain, hill (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) berta to work in such a way that the work is useless, not to keep one's word; not to fulfil one's threat or promise (Mu.); cf. vritha_ (Skt.); be-arth (Sadani); be (Persian); arth (H.) (Mu.lex.) Image: steep slope: bare steep slope; barE precipice (Ka.); bare steep slope (Kod..); a steep precipice (Tu.)(DEDR 5274). Image: sloping, slanting: va_t.t.am slope, gradient (Ta.); slope which allows water to run off (Ma.); va_t.a slope, incline as of the ground, of a roof, of a watercourse, etc. (Ka.); va_t.amu convenience, the slope or slant of anything; incline; convenient, sloping, slanting, inclined (Ee.); va_t.a-pad.u to be convenient (Te.)(DEDR 5344). Images: mountain slope, sloping/inclined (laths): va_ram mountain slope, side (Ta.); side, declivity (Ma.); va_ra, va_re id., sloping (Ka.); va_rat.ai uneven state of the balance (Ta.)(DEDR 5360). pakhero precipitous slope (N.)(CDIAL 7629). cf. paks. wing (Skt.) wi.ry steep hillside (To.); o.re slanting (Kod..); o_re crooked, bent (Tu.); o_ra, o_re state of being aslant, oblique, sloping, bending, declivity, sideways (Ka.); o_rad.i sloping, declivity (Ka.); o_ra oblique, sidelong, bent (Te.); o_ragincu to slant, incline (Te.); o_ragilu to slant, lean (Te.); o_ra ki-to bend slantingly, half-open (as door)(Kond.a)(DEDR 1062). Slope: ?par crevice in cliff (To.)(DEDR 5274). va_t.a slope, incline as of the ground, of a roof, of a watercourse, etc. (Ka.); va_t.amu the slope or slant of anything, incline; sloping, slanting, inclined (Te.); va_t.t.am slope, Gradient (Ta.); slope which allows water to run off (Ma.)(DEDR 5344). val.a crossbars that support the ers of a roof (Ma.); val.ai small beam, long piece of wood (Ta.)(DEDR 5309). val.avi sloping roof, eaves (Ta.); bal.idu state of being sloping (of a roof), of not being steep (as a hill), of inclining from a horizontal direction (as the haft of a hoe)(Ka.)(DEDR 5311). ol.a_vu inclination, bend, curve (Tu.); val.ai to become crooked, bend low, yield (Ta.)(DEDR 5314). Image: mound; mountain: bet.d amn [lit. the goddess of the mountain] the female member of the Rangr trinity in Kolme.l village (Ko.); vit.am mountain (Ta.)(DEDR 5474). bet.t.a, bet.t.u a big hill, a mountain (Ka.); ver-pu a hill (Ta.); bet.t.adudi the summit of a mountain; bet.t.asele the Indian python, the rock-snake, python molurus (Ka.lex.) bhit.a sandhill (S.); bhit.o ridge, terrace, upper side of field (Ku.); wall holding up a terraced field (N.); bhit.a_ mound, mound on a ruined site, homestead (B.)[cf. vid.u, vit.t.u house (Ta.)]; bhi_t. embankment (H.); bhir steep slope, precipice (N.); bhi~_r., bhi_r.wa_ mound round a tank (Mth.)(CDIAL 9491). met.t.a_ hillock (Or.)(CDIAL 10308). me~r. raised bank between irrigated fields (Bi.)(CDIAL 10317). vit.am, vit.ari, vin.t.u mountain (Ta.); vet.m id. (Ko.); bet. id. (Ko.); bet.t.a big hill, mountain (Ka.Kod..); bet.t.u id. (Ka.); bot.t.u high, lofty; dry (as land)(Tu.); bit.e a shore (Malt.); bit., but. mound, hillock (Br.); ba_t.agh summit, top (Br.)(DEDR 5474). met.t.u mound (Ta.); met mountain (Kol.); ma_t.u hillock, raised ground (Ma.); me_t.u hillock, rising ground (Ma.); me_d.u height, rising ground, hillock (Ka.); mit.t.e id. (Ka.); prominent,protruding (Tu.); met.t.a raised or high ground, hill (Te.); met.t.u mound (Te.); mit.t.a high ground, hillock, mound (Te.); high, elevated, raised, projecting (Te.); met.t.a_ hillock (Go..); hill (Kol.); met.t. mountain (Kol.Nk.); mat.t.a_ mountain (Go.); met.a hill (Go.); sandhill (Kuwi); metta hill (Kuwi)(DEDR 5058). Custom-house; toll-gate: met.t.u place where custom is paid, custom-house (Ta.); place where custom is paid, place where toll is levied, toll-gate (Te.); mot.t.u place where custom is paid (Tu.)(DEDR 5059). med.hi a barn-yard, a threshing floor (LP.IEG.)

6747.Silver: ve_d.- to be white (Ga.); vella white; vend.i, wend.i silver (Kuwi.); veluka whiteness; ven.d.i silver (Te.)(DED 5496). Dawn: vet.i (-v-, -nt-), vit.i (-v-, -nt-) to dawn, break as day; vet.iyal, vet.ivu, vit.i, vit.iyal, vit.ivu, vit.ivai break of day, dawn; vet.t.a clear, plain; vet.t.am light; vet.t.avit.i break of day, early dawn; vet.t.a-vel.i open plain; vet.t.a-vel.iccam broad daylight (Ta.); vet.ikka the weather to clear up; vet.ippu cleared off, gone; vet.t.a, vet.t.am light; vet.t.avel.ivu clearness (Ma.); vart vir.- (vit.-) day breaks (Ko.); kos' fir. (fit.-) to dawn; ko.s fot.y(k) lamp lit in funeral hut (To.); vid.i clearness, transparency, brilliancy; clear, transparent (Te.); bid.ye to shine; bid.e to shoot forth (as rays)(Malt.)(DEDR 5475). vi_dhra clear sky, sunshine (AV.); vi_dhrya relating to the clear sky (VS.); viddha- in: viddha-vigata vala_haka-de_va a clear sky without clouds (Pali); bitr. obl. bidu_na clear sky (Kal.); vedar freezing cold (after a fall of snow, with a clear sky and bitter wind)(K.); bido bright, sunny, fine; bid dyo clear sky (Ku.); viddha-de_va (Pali); ba_si-bido cessation of the Rains (N.); bijo (of the sky) clear (WPah.); bij-en-mig to be fine weather (Kanauri); bi_dri clear, blue (of the sky)(Phal.); biji clear sky; bizi id. (Sh.); bidri (WPah.); bre_di clear sky (Dm.); bezi fine weather (Sh.)(CDIAL 12051). bizon rainbow (Sh.); vi_tru~ (Pr.)(CDIAL 12052).

6749.Images: hunter; bow: ba_n.ua_ hunter (Or.)(CDIAL 9203). ban.asun bow (Si.); ba_n.a_sana id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 9203-a).

6750.To build, repair: panda_na_ to make, repair; pand.- to build (house), to make, build, repair, to make, construct; pan.i, par.i_, par.i work (Go.); pand.- to be able (Ga.); pand.p- (pand.t-) to make (Pa.); pani work (Nk.); panni_ work, labour (Kol.); pannu to contrive, plan, design, invent; be ready, make ready; suitability; pan.i work (Te.inscr.); pani work, labour, act, deed, workmanship, art (Te.); pan.ipuni to give a shape (e.g. to a vessel)(Tu.); pan.i work (Kod..); pan.n.ikka, pan.n.ige, pan.n.uge arranging, making ready, equipping; pan.n.u to make ready, prepare, equip, decorate (Ka.); pan.yn man of a caste at Gudalur in Wynad; fem. pan.c; pan. anvil (Ko.); pan.iyan a caste of cultivators in hilly districts; game-trackers, living chiefly in Wynad; pan.iyuka to build; pan.ikkan workman, artificer; pan.i work, labour, service, building, exertion (Ma.); pan. service, work, business, employment, decoration; pan.i act, action, performance, work, service, decoration; pan.ati workmanship, action, creation, ornament; pan.iti work, structure, ornament; pan.ikkan- master-builder, carpenter; pan.ikkam, pan.ikku accuracy of design, elaboration in a work; pan.inar servants; pan.pu action, deed; pan.n.u (pan.n.i-) to make, effect, produce, adorn; pan-n-u (pan-n-i-) to do anything with consideration and skill (Ta.); pon.y work (To.)(DEDR 3884). va_n.i to form, make (Ta.); ba_n to make or fashion as a potter does (Ka.); van-ai to form, fashion, shape, adorn (Ta.)(DEDR 5327). varn.a appearance, colour, class (RV.); van.n.a appearance, colour (Pali); van form (L.); ba_ni_ appearance, colour, beauty (Ku.); ba_ni character (N.); ba_na_ known attribute (Or.); appearance (H.); va_ni_ kind (G.); va_nu~ ingredient, hint (G.); va_n specimen, colour (M.); van.a sort (OSi.); van-a sort; -van at end of cmpds. 'like' (Si.); vanika sample (S.); vannagi_, bannagi_ (P.); ba_nki, ba_ngi (N.); va_ngi_ (G.M.); ba_ni habit (Mth.); ba_ni (Aw.); ba_n quality (H.)(CDIAL 11338). ba_n.a_ profession (P.); ba_n. habit (Ku.); va_n. specimen, colour; va_n.i like, as (M.); varn.aka model, specimen (Skt.)(CDIAL 11338). varn.in having the appearance of (R.); -van.n.in id. (Pali); vani like; vanna a similar thing, sort (Si.)(CDIAL 11344). Quality: pan.pu, pat.pu quality, nature, good quality, beauty (Ta.); pan. pan. in- (id--) (woman) looks very beautiful (Ko.)(DEDR 3904). To shape; appearance: bha_na appearance (Veda_ntas.); bha_n.a id. (Pkt.); pretence (Or.); bha_n.o, bha_n.i_ will of God (S.); bha_n.a_ will (P.); bha_n appearane, pretence (N.); appearance (B.H.); bha_nab to appear, resemble (Mth.)(CDIAL 9451). va_n- to make, as a pot (Pa.); vana a face, appearance, visage (Kui); ba_n to make or fashion as a potter does, make pots, etc. (Ka.); van-ai to form, fashion, shape, adorn, draw, paint; van-aippu beauty, elegance; van-am beauty; va_n.i- (-pp-, -tt-) to form, make (Ta.)(DEDR 5327). Crockery: cat.t.i-pa_n-ai pots and pans, cooking utensils, crockery (Ta.lex.) Image: visage; to form, fashion: van-appu beauty, elegance (Ta.); ba_n a pile of earthen vessels (Ka.); ba_mba potter (Ka.); vana flag (Pa.)(DEDR 5327). banna_ to be made, be adorned (H.); banun to be made (H.); bana_na_ to make, etc. (H.); vanati, vano_ti desires, gains, makes ready (RV.); vanati, vana_yati, vano_ti desires, aims at (Pali); van.e_i asks (Pkt.); ban.a_n.o_ to make (K.); van.an.u to suit (S.); ban.na_ to agree with, answer a purpose, be of use, succeed (P.); ban.n.an. to become (L.); ban.un. to be made (L.); ban.a_n.u_ to make (WPah.); ban.ono (Ku.); bannu to be made, be done, become (N.); bana_ to agree, do (B.); banab to be prepared, be made (Mth.); bana_vai makes (OAw.); banvu~ to suit, be made (G.); bann.e~ (M.); baniba_ to become ready, ripen, be made, be; bana_iba_ to make, prepare (e.g. vegetables for cooking)(Or.)(CDIA 11260). van-n-iyan- a caste; caste title among certain castes (as the Kal.l.ar, Valaiyar, etc.); van-n-i person of the Van-n-iya caste (Ta.); vanniyan a Tamil tribe immigrated from Trichinopoly (Ma.)(DEDR 5331). Article for sale; shop: pan.ya article for sale (S'Br.); pan.iya to be sold or bought (Pali); article for trade (Pali); pan.n.a, pan.ia (Pkt.); pan.yas'a_la_ shop (Skt.Pkt.)(CDIAL 7719-7720). Occupations of a trader, merchant: van.ikar-tor..il occupations of vais'yas are of six types: (1) o_tal recital; (2) ve_t.t.al perform sacrifices; (3) i_tal to bestow, grant; (4) ur..avu ploughing; (7) nirai-y-o_mpal protecting the array of an army; (6) va_n.ikam trade (Tol.Po.75, urai)(Ta.lex.) van.i trader (Pkt.); van.ij trader (RV.); trade (Gaut.); van.ic, va~r.ic to sell (Ash.); vrai~_c (Kt.)(CDIAL 11230). van.ia trader (Pkt.); van.yo (S.); bania_ (P.); ban.ia_ (Ku.); baniya_ (N.A.Bi.Bhoj.Aw.H.); ban.ia_ (Or.); bania~_ (Mth.); banyo big shopkeeper (Sh.)(CDIAL 11231). va_n.ija trader (TBr.Pali); va_nijaka (MBh.Pali); vaniye (NiDoc.); va_n.ia, va_n.aya (Pkt.); wonu, wa_uru pedlar (K.); va_n.ya_n.i_, va_a_n.i_ (f. of van.yo shopkeeper < van.ija); ba_nia_ trader (P.); ba_niya_, bene (B.); ba~_nyo~ (Marw.); va_n.i_u, va_n.i_d.u (OG.); va_n.iyo (G.); va_n.i_ (M.); va_n.i (Konkan.i); ven.anda, ven.enda, vel.anda, vel.enda (Si.)(CDIAL 11484). van.ikkarman trade (Skt.); ven.anda_m-a, vel.anda_m-a trade (Si.)(CDIAL 11485). van.ikputra merchant's son (Skt.); van.otar clerk in a merchant's office (G.)(CDIAL 11486). ba_niza_r trade (A.); ba_n.ija_ra trader (B.)(CDIAL 11489). va_n.ijya trade (Skt.); va_n.ijja_ trade (Pali); va_n.ijja (Pkt.); ba_n.ija (Or.)(CDIAL 11487). va_n.ijyaka trader (Skt.); va_n.ijjiya trader (Pkt.); ba_n.ija, ban.ija (Or.)(CDIAL 11488). Caravan of traders: va_n.ika-c-ca_ttu caravan of traders; va_n.ika-c-ca_tto_t.u po_ntu tanimaiya_l ya_n tuyarur..ante_n- (Cilap. 11,190, Urai); ca_ttu < sa_rtha trading caravan; company; curival.ai-c-ca_ttu nir-aimati tavar..um (Kalla_. 63,32); cf. sa_rtha-va_ha merchant, trader (Skt.) van.ja_ro trader (S.); travelling trader (G.); van.ja_ri a number of traders, caravan (G.); van.ja_r troop of travelling sellers of grain and salt (M.); van.ja_ra_ trader (L.P.); carrier of grain, salt, etc. (a caste)(M.); ba_niza_r trade (A.); ba_n.ija_ra trader (MB.Or.); van.ijja_raya trader (Pkt.); ban.ja_ra_ trader (P.); wanjorai intermediary (Psht.); banija_ra_, banja_ra_ trader (H.) > banja_ro (Ku.); van.ja_ro trader (S.)(CDIAL 11234). {cf. Millet: ba_jhari, ba_jhiri the grain holcus spicatus (S.)(CDIAL 9201). cf. va_n.i rock-salt; realgar (red arsenic, sindhu_ram; mano_cilai, arsenicum rubum)(Can..Aka.) (Ta.lex.)} va_n.ipan-, va_n.ikan- merchant, trader; ar-avilaiva_n.ikan- (Purana_.134); man of the trading caste; scales, balance; libra of the zodiac; va_n.iyan- merchant; oil-monger (Ta.lex.) bena_ trade? (A.)(CDIAL 11232). van.ijya_ trade (S'Br.); van.ijja trade (Pkt.); van.ijja_ (Pali); van.iju (S.); van.j (L.P.); van.uj (L.); ban.aj (P.Ku.); ba~r~.ij (Ku.); banaj (P.); ban.ija (Or.); banij (Bi.Aw.); baniji (Bhoj.); banij (H.); banaj (H.); van.aj (G.); trade journey (M.); van.jan.u to buy (S.); banajna_ to trade (H.)(CDIAL 11233). va_n.ipam, va_n.ikam trade; (va_n.ikaceyva_rkku va_n.ikam : Kur-al.. 120); gain, profit (Ta.); ya_n-o_r va_n.ika-p-paricila nalle_n (Purana_.208)(Ta.lex.) To buy: van.jan.u to buy (S.); banajna_ to trade (H.)(CDIAL 11233). va_n:ku to take back, to buy, get, obtain, carry away as a flood, get back, take away (Ta.); va_nkal receiving, admitting, borrowing, buying (Ta.); va_nnuka to take, receive, choose; va_nnikka to demand back (Ma.)(DEDR 5336). a_nun, anun, muli a_n. to buy (K.); a_n.an.u to buy (S.); a_n.an. (L.); a_nna_ to bring (P.); a_n.n.o, annu (WPah.); a_n.n.o to buy (Ku.); a_niba to bring (A.); a_na_ (B.); a_n.iba_ (Or.); a_nai (OMth.); a_nal (Bhoj.); a_na, a_nab (OAw.); a_nna_ (H.); a_n.ai (OMarw.OG.); a_n.vu~ (G.); a_n.n.e~ (M.); a_nayati leads forward, fetches (RV.); a_ni_ta (RV.); a_na_yayati causes to be brought (MBh.); a_ne_ti brings, fetches (Pali); a_nem.ti (NiDoc.); anemi 1 sg., an- (Gypsy); anina inf., a_n 2 sg. imper. (D..); ana (Wg.); ane_m 1 sg. (Tir.); ani (Shum.); a_ni (Gaw.); o_nim 1 sg. (Kal.); angik (Kho.); a_n 2 sg. imper. (Bshk.); an- (Tor.); a_ to fetch, bring (Mai.); a_ni_ta (Pali); anida (NiDoc.); a_n.i_ya (Pkt.); a_n.iu (OG.); a_n.yo (G.); a_na_pe_ti sends for (Pali); a_n.a_ve_i, an.a_ve_i, a_n.a_vai (Pkt.); anuwa_na to cause to be brought (D..); ana_na (B.); an.a_iba_ (Or.); ana_na_ to ask for (H.); an.a_vvu~ to cause to bring (G.); nanava_ to call, summon (Si.)(CDIAL 1174). a_nayana leading to (Ka_tyS'r.); a_n.ayan.a, a_n.an.a bringing (Pkt.)[formed from pres. a_n.ai]; a_n.u~, a~_n.u~ invitation to a wife to come to her husband's home (G.); a_naya leading up to the teacher for initiation (Skt.); suva_naya easy to lead (Pali)(CDIAL 1175). cf. a_n(u) to lay hold of, hold, put on, take, seize (Ka.)(DEDR 409). To sell: van.ic, va~r.ic to sell (Ash.); vrai~_c (Kt.)(CDIAL 11233). {Perhaps, when the differentiation of functions between an artificer and a trader had not been settled in early civilized, social organization, the radical for the term: van.ij trader (RV.) may be traced to: pan.. X va_n.i. The terminal particle, -j- is linkable to: ca_ttu = sa_rtha caravan, troop, company (MBh.); sattha caravan (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 13364) whence, satthava_ha caravan leader (Pali.Pkt.G.); satva_ merchant (Si.)(CDIAL 13365) and sa_thi_ partner (L.)(CDIAL 13366). cf.: van.ja_ra_ trader (P.L.)(CDIAL 11234). When the pan.ikkan- worker, artificer or a va_n.an an independent professional (one who lives by his profession, s'va-pa_ka or can.d.a_l.a according to Manu), becomes an intermediary or a trader, his alienation is complete. This alienation heralds the advent of forward trading or barter by agreement and hence, the advent of capitalism. For some inexplicable reason shrouded in the mists of history, the bard pa_n.an- (Ta.Ma.) is relegated as an outcast, an untouchable, pa_n.a (Skt.)} Pledge, pawn: pan.ayam < pan.a_ya_ pledge, pawn (Kampara_. U_rte_. 185); id. (Ma.); pan.aiyam id. (Pur-ana_. 316); stake in gambling (Nal.a. Kalini_. 88); pan.am stake in gambling (Ve_ta_ran.i. Palapat. 4); pan.itam stake in gambling (Pu. Ve. 12, Ven-r-ip. 16); pan.i-p-pon- gold in the form of ornaments, opp. to kat.t.i-p-pon- (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 3,60, Vya_.); pan.a-v-ot.ukku remittance of money, as into a treasury (J.); pan.am wealth (Ta.); coin, money, gold coin; fanam, an ancient small coin of different values in different places, made of silver or gold, the silver coin being equal in value to 15 pies at Madras, 24 pies at Trichinopoly, 30 pies at Tanjore and Ramnad, 40 pies at Tinnevelly, etc., and 4 cakrams in Travancore, the gold coin being equal in value to 80 pies or a rupee and one fourth (M.M.); commodity for sale; price; house (Ta.); han.a wealth (Ka.); pan.a_yai market-place, business, profit in a transaction (Ta.lex.) Stake; barter, measure: paim.ta stake, throw in dice (OAw.)(CDIAL 8625). pantayam stake, wager, prize (Ta.); a stake (Ma.); pandi.gm race, contest (Ko.); panta, pandya bet, wager (Ka.); panta id. (Tu.); pantamu id. (Te.); pandemu id., race (Te.); pantagincu to bet (Te.); pandem koiyu_ game-cock (Kuwi)(DEDR 3921). pan.a wager (Ya_j.); stake, wager (MBh.); pan.ate_ barters (S'Br.); pan.ati bargains, bets (Pali); pan.a wealth, bet, promise (Pkt.); vow (Or.); stake (OG.); bet, wagers (Si.); pan wager, vow (A.); promise (H.); oath, promise, dowry (B.); pana stipulation, bargain (OMth.); pan. promise (G.); bet, promise (M.)(CDIAL 7714). pan.u a dry measure (S.); pan.a a measure of account in cowries = 80 (Si.); pan.a a coin = 80 cowries (Mn.)(CDIAL 7715).

6751.Image: to spring up; to swell: potir (-v-, -nt-) to swell, increase, abound; (-pp-, -tt-) to swell, become enlarged; poti fullness, stoutness; potul.u (potul.i-) to be thick, close, or crowded, be luxuriant, prosper, thrive (Ta.); potiruka to be enlarged (Ma.); podar.. to come forth, spring up, become conspicuous, famous, or well-known, come in sight, have currency, be used or employed; podar..ke arisng, appearing, conspicuousness; podar..cu to bring about, perform (Ka.); podaluni to come out, rise up; podulu to rise up (Tu.); podalu to prosper, flourish, increase; poduru to blossom, flower (Te.)(DEDR 4504).

6752.Image: bull: pot.hi_ beast trained for carrying burdens (S.); pot.hi_ riding bullock (L.); pot.hi_, pot.hiyo pack-bullock, caravan (G.); pro_s.t.ha bull [Poss. sanskritization of MIA. deriv. of put.t.hi_ back.](CDIAL 9019). cf. boduru tawny bull (K.); bradhna ruddy, bay (esp. of horses)(RV.)(CDIAL 9323). pol. bull dedicated to the gods (M.); po_a_la bull, child (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8399). pon.d.a cow; pon.d.en- mane cowshed (Kond.a); pond.a cow (Kui.Kuwi); ponda cow in milk (Kuwi); mure ponda milch cow (Go.)(DEDR 4500). Image: pack-bull: poti-y-erutu pack-bull (Tan-ippa_. ii,283,487); potima_t.u id.; potika_ran- person who uses pack-oxen (Ta.lex.) per-r-am bull or cow (Tol. Po. 594); taurus of the zodiac (Ta.); per-r-u bull (Te_va_. 428,8)(Ta.lex.) peruma_l.-ma_t.u performing bull adorned with cowries, etc., belonging to wandering mendicants (E.T. vi,194); peruma_l.-ko_vil-ma_t.u temple bull; fat man (Ta.lex.) petta cow (Tu.)(DEDR 4425). Image: fighting bull; bull dedicated to the gods; hero: po_r-e_r-u fighting bull (Tivya. Periyati. 2,10,8) (Ta.lex.); champion, hero (Tiv. Iyar-. Periya. Ma. 117)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 4540). pas.t.havah four or five year old bull (VS.)(CDIAL 8015). ho_ri bull calf; bullock (Ka.); po.ry young bullock (one or two and a half years)(Ko.); bo_ri bull; ox (Tu.); po.ry ma.v male deer (Ko.)(DEDR 4593).

6753.Image: bat, caterpillar, cricket: bin.d.a_ cricket (L.)(CDIAL 12045). irun.t.u cricket (Tu.); i_rin.t.i id. (Tu.); i.n. cicada (To.); irri id. (Kui); iro a chirping insect found chiefly on mango trees (Malt.)(DEDR 547). cil.-vi_t.u, ci_vi_t.u, ci_t.u cricket (Ma.); cil.-vi_t.u, cil.-van.t.u, cil.l.i_t.u id. (Ta.)(DEDR 2588). cil.u-pul.u to be chattering (Ta.)(DEDR 2588). The morpheme -vi_t.u is concordant with vr.nta caterpillar (AV.)(CDIAL 12077). The semantic focus on the noise made by an insect results in 'bat' and 'cricket' getting the same compounds: ci_kuru-va_yi, ci_kura_yi bat, cricket (Te.); civuka-pit.t.a a bat (Te.); ci_kuru-va_yi cockroach (Ka.)(DEDR 2606). Image: grasshopper, locust: mit.l. locust (Ko.); mid.ite id., grasshopper (Ka.); mid.ata grasshopper (Te.); mit.t.e id. (Kol.); mat.aci_ locust (Skt.)(DEDR 4850-b). Image: grasshopper; insect: patan:kam grasshopper (Ta.lex.) pa_r-r-a moth (Ma.); ha_nte id. (Ka.); pa_nte butterfly (Tu.); pa_te, pa_nte id., moth (Tu.)(DEDR 4083b). pat.anga grasshopper (Pali); pilanat. (Ku.); payamga (Pkt.); patinga_ (H.); patang butterfly (Sv.Wot..); pattang id. (Tor.); patan:ga epithet of divine (flying) things (RV.); bird (Skt.); insect (MBh.); (noxious) insect (Br.A_rUp.); patan:gama (BhP.); pit.an.o (Ku.); phad.in:ga_ grasshopper (Skt.); payam.ga (Pkt.); patan:g butterfly (Wot..Sv.); patin:ga_, patin:ga_ grasshopper (H.); phar.inga_, phanga_ grasshopper (H.); phat.enro (N.); phat.t.ai butterfly (Dm.); pha_t.ur.i~_ (Phal.); pharin any winged insect, grasshopper (A.); phar.in winged insect (B.); phar.in:ga_ cricket (B.); pharin:ga locus, cricket (Or.)(CDIAL 7721). Image: cricket; large black bee: bhi~grut.i_ cricket (M.); binga big black bee, wasp (Si.); bhim.ga_ri_ cricket, gnat, gadfly (Pkt.); bhi~ga_ro wasp (G.); bhimrul hornet (B.); bhr.n:ga_ large black bee (AV.); bhr.n:ga bee (BhP.); bhim.ga bumble-bee (Pkt.); bhi~g, bhi~_gi_ black bumble-bee (H.); bhu~ga_ black bee (M.)(CDIAL 9581). Image: bee: van.t.u bee, a kind of bee (Ta.); a black bee, wasp, beetle (Ma.); vat.u beetle (Ta.); pod. a kind of large fly (To.); ban.d.u honey, pollen of flowers; ban.d.-un.i the large black bee (Ka.)(DEDR 5239). Image: wasp, spinning-bee: bhan.d.a_r spinning-bee (L.)(CDIAL 9442) ?< bhr.nga_ large black bee (AV.); bhimga bumble-bee (Pkt.); bhi~g, bhi~_gi_ black bumble-bee (H.); bhu~ga_, bha~ga_ wasp (H.); bhimga_ri_ cricket, gnat, gadfly (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9581). = ? pind.ake a kind of bee (Ga.); pinda fly (Pa.); pinda/pinde ant (Nk.); pind.ri locust, grasshopper (?Malt.)(DEDR 4169). Image: bee: mendhare a kind of bee (Kol.); mendhar, mendhare id. (Nk.); mendir id. (Pa.)(DEDR 5071). Buzz; hum: bha_n. buzz (S'Br.); bhan.bhan. buzz, hum (L.); bhan.bhan.a_n.o to buzz (Ku.); bhanbhan buzzing (N.); bhanbhana_iba to buzz (A.); bhanbhan muttering (B.); bhan.abhan.a buzzing, muttering (Or.); bhanbhana_bat.i a humming (Mth.); bhanbhana_na_ to mutter (H.); bhan.bhan.n.e~ (M.); bhan.ak faint noise (Ku.); bhan:kan.o to buzz (Ku.); bhanak reproach; bhanakka abruptly; bhankanu to stagger with anger, abuse (N.); bhanak hum, buzz (H.); bhan:ko (G.); bhan:ka_ (M.); bhin.bhin.a_un.a_ to buzz, swarm (P.); bhin.bhin.a_n.o to buzz, hum (Ku.); bhinbhin buzzing (H.); bhin.akn.a_ to buzz (P.); bhinakna_ to ring, buzz (H.); bhun.bhun.i buzzing (S.); bhun.bhun.a_ a partic. insect (P.); bhunbhun buzzing of a fly (N.); bhunubhunu humming of a bumble bee (N.); bhunbhun buzzing; bhunbhuna_iba to buzz (A.)(CDIAL 9382). Wasp; bee: parr.i hornet (Kui); pr.a_ri (i.e. pra_r.i) wasp; parr.i a wild bee (Kuwi)(DEDR 3985). piracam honey, bee, beetle, wasp (Ta.); perya a large bee (Tu.); pera beehive, honeycomb (Te.); perayi~_ga a kind of honey bee (Te.); pera a kind of bee (Kol.); pera tat.t.a hive of such bees; pera_potte bee (Kol.); beral vi_si_ sp. bee (Go.)(DEDR 4412). varo_la wasp (Skt.); varat.a, varat.a_ (Sus'r.); varala (Skt.); vare_n.a (Skt.); beruli, burli bee (Gypsy); biruli, pi_rlin, berili wasp (Gypsy); ba_rulo wasp (N.); burla_ (H.); varad.a_, varad.i_ wasp (Pkt.); bar.ri wasp (Or.); birur.i, birir.i yellow wasp, hornet (Or.); barr, bar. wasp (H.); baral wasp (A.); barla_, barli, bolla_, bolta_ (B.); birni_ wasp (H.); waramba_ wasp (Pas'.); warambo_, oromo_, oromok (Pas'.); harama red wasp (Gaw.)(CDIAL 11330). For ending: -o_la in: varo_la cf. bhr.n:garo_la a kind of wasp (Skt.)(CDIAL 9581). cf. bhramara large black bee (MBh.)(CDIAL 9651). Bee: bhramara large black bee (MBh.); bhramaraka id. (Skt.); bhamara bumble-bee (Pali); bee (Pkt.); bhamari_ bee; bhamariya_ wasp; bhavara bee (Pkt.); bhau~ru bee (S.); bha_var large black bee; moth; bhaur bee (L.); bha~var, bha~vra_, bhaur, bhaura_, bhau~ra_ black bee (P.); bhau~r bee (WPah.); bhau~r, bhau~ro black bee, a kind of beetle (Ku.); bhomora_ bee (A.); bhomar, bhomra_ bumble-bee (B.); bhaa~ra bumble-bee (Or.); pa_n.i-bhaa~ra, pa_n.i-bhaa~ra_ water-beetle (Or.); bha~war black bee (Mth.); bha~wra_ (Bhoj.); bham.vara (OAw.); bhau~r, bhaur, bhau~ra_ large black bee; bhau~ra_la_ black as a bee or beetle (H.); bhamar bee, wasp (G.); bhamro large black bee, wasp, beetle; bhamri_ queen wasp, bee; bhori_ black bee (G.); bho~var black bee (M.); bho~varu bee (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9651). Butterfly: bhambha fly (Skt.); b(h)ambhara_li_ fly (Skt.); b(h)ambhara_lika_ gnat; bambhara bee (Skt.); bha~b(h)i_ri_ butterfly (H.)(CDIAL 9389). bamara_, bambara_ bumble-bee (Si.); bamare_ hive of black bees (Si.); maburu bee (Md.);[Dardic and perh. Kaf. words seem not to derive directly from bhramara-, but from similar onom. forms as in Skt. bhambha- fly: bama~_ wasp, hornet (Ash.); brama~_, brame~r wasp (Wg.); bemao (Kt.); brimburok bumble-bee (Dm.); brhimbo_r.i bee, wasp (Phal.); bhu_mbur wasp (Kal.); bumbur (with rising tone in first syllable) large wasp, hornet (Kho.); bombur bumble-bee (K.); bobon wasp (Shum.)(CDIAL 9651). pa_ppa_tti butterfly (Ta.Ma.); pa.pili id., moth (Kod..); pa_pe butterfly, grasshopper; pa_pe_ butterfly; pha_pe id., grasshopper; pha_phe locust (Go.); papla_ butterfly (Kur.)(DEDR 4083a). pipuli butterfly (Nk.); pilpili id. (Pa.); pipri_, pi_pli_ id. (Go.); pipili moth (Kui); pilpili butterfly (Halbi); pubuli, pu_bu_li butterfly (Kuwi)(DEDR 4083c; 4083d).

6754.Dichrostachys cinerea: vit.attar, vit.attal, vit.attalai, vit.atte_r, vit.atte_rai, vit.atta_l.i, ma_vilantam the shrub dichrostachys cinerea (Ta.); ed.atar-i, vadavu id. (Ka.); ven.uturu, veluturu id. (Te.); vellantara, vi_rataru a particular tree = vi_ra-vr.ks.a dichrostachs cinerea (Skt.)(DEDR 5391).

6755.Dross; alloy: bi_d.u dross, alloy of iron (Tu.); iron filings or dust (Te.)(DEDR 4218) Sediment, dregs; muddy liquor: van.t.al, van.t.i dregs, sediment (Ta.); van.t.ikka_ran cleaner of vessels in a temple (Ma.); ven.d.ha-sura_ muddy liquor (Pkt.); van.d.u, on.d.u sediment, dregs (Ka.); van.d.a muddy deposit of a river, alluvium, alluvial soil (Te.)(DEDR 5237). man.t.i sediment, dregs (Ta.); mad.d.i id. (Ka.Te. Tu.) (DEDR 4676). ban.d.alu, on.d.u lees, dregs, sediment, the mud or mire in tanks (Ka.); vat.i to settle, sink in the water (Ta.); on.d.u the muddy deposit of a flood, river or tank; mud in tanks; muddiness, turbidness (Ka.); on.d.u, van.d.u (Te.); on.d.uba_ru to become mud or muddy (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mad.a-gu_r.. the rejected leavings of food (Ka.); mad.e orts, refuse, crumbs or remains of victuals; saliva, spittle, whatever has come in contact with the mouth (Tu.)(DEDR 4643). Liquor: hen.da vinous liquor or toddy extracted from the wild date tree (Ka.); toddy, palm-wine (Tu.); pend.om rice-beer (Ga.); pen.d.am kalu id., country liquor (Kond.a); pendomi ka_d.u beer; pendomka rice-wine; pl. nd! (Kuwi)(DEDR 4397). ven.d.ha-sura_ muddy liquor (Pkt.); van.t.al sediment (Ta.); van.t.i sediment, dregs (Ta.); van.du, on.d.u, ban.d.alu sediment, dregs (Ka.); van.d.a, van.d.ali, van.d.u muddy deposit of a river, tank, or the like (Te.)(DEDR 5237). cf. man.t.i sediment, dregs, settlings (Ta.); mad.d.i dregs, sediment (Ka.Tu.Te.); mast.u scum, refuse (Te.)(DEDR 4676). cf. sura_ spirituous liquor (RV.Pali.Pkt.); su_r (WPah.M.); su_ra (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 13593). man.d.i ricewater (Malt.); mend.i id. (Malt.); man.t.a broken grain, dough of rice flour (Ma.); man.d.i_ cooked rice, meal (Kur.)(DEDR 4679). len.da dregs, sediment (Santali.lex.) mahut scum on cane juice (Santali.lex.)

6756.Oil-cake: pin.t.i oilcake made of the residue of oil seeds (Ta.); dregs, residue, sediment (Ma.); pin.d.i, pun.d.i oilcake, refuse of expressed coconut, etc. (Tu.); pin.d.i oilcake (Te.)(DEDR 4183). pin.ya_ka oil-cake (Mn.A_past.); piaka id. (Pali); pin.n.a_ya (Pkt.); pino kernels from which oil has been expressed (Sh.); pino_n (D..); pina_ oil-seed refuse (Ku.N.); pi_na_, pinna_ oil-cake of poppy seed (Bi.); pi_na_ oil-cake (H.); punakku (Si.)(CDIAL 8174). pin.n.a_kku oil-cake made of the residue of oil-seeds (Ta.); pin.n.akku id. (Ma.); pun.n.a_kku id. (Ta.lex.)

6757.Image: a number of bracelets: pin.d.u-kan:kan.a a number of bracelets; pin.d.u a collection, a multitude, a mass (Ka.lex.) Bracelet: vanti < bandha bracelet; vantikai < bandhika_ bracelet; armlet (Maturaik. 415); an ornament worn on the forehead (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) vat.a-palli woman's ornament for the forehead (Cilap. 6,107, Urai.) (Ta.lex.)

6758.Image: to turn round, to go back; to retreat: vend.a va_- to come back, return; ven.d.- (-it-) to return; wend.e back, again; wet'nai to reverse; wend.- to return; vendali to go back, return; vethali to give back (Kuwi); bir.dna_ to turn over, turn round, give back (Kur.); ven.d.i again, once more (Te.); r.esi va_- to return; r.epsi si_- to give back (Kond.a); vr.e_pa (vr.e_t-) to return, come back again, retreat; n. return, retreat; vr.e_ppa (vr.e_pt-) to cause to return, turn back; pay back, return something borrowed or pledged; n. turning something back, repayment, return (Kond.a)(DEDR 5481). pand.- to be defeated, lose, be tired (Pa.); to become tired (Ga.); pan.d.i tiredness (Ga.)(DEDR 3900).

6759.Image: behind the back: pid--es-p heel (es-p bone)(To.); pin- back, rear (Ta.); pin backside (Ma.); pind- to walk behind (Ko.); pindu, pinde that which is back (Ka.); pin:gali hind, hinder (Te.)(DEDR 4205). ped.alu backyard of a house (Te.); pid.tel behind, after (Pa.)(DEDR 4146). ven back (Ta.); ven(u)ka the hinder part, back, rear; ven.t.a(n) behind (Te.); venka behind (Nk.); venka afterwards (Kond.a) (DEDR 5488). pit.t.hi back; pit.t.hipassa back-side (Pali.lex.) Image: face turned back: ped.amu the face turned back; ped.a hinder, back (Te.); ped.an:gu behind the back (Tu.); ped.a state of being behind or after, the back, backwards (Ka.); pad.a man.d.e back of the head (Kod..); pit.ar nape of the neck (Ta.); per.tal id. (Ko.); pit.ari id. (Ma.)(DEDR 4146).

6760.Image: hair on head or body: vend.ra (usually pl. vend.rel) hair (on head or body)(Pa.); ven.d.ruka a hair; (pl. -lu) hairs, the hair (Te.)(DEDR 5482). Image: hair plaited behind: bi~_d.i_ hair plaited behind (H.)(CDIAL 12078). cf. be~d.hna_, be~dhna_ to plait, braid, fold (H.)(CDIAL 12132). cf. pin-n-al plaited hair (Ta.lex.) Image: nape of the neck: pit.ar nape of the neck (Pur-ana_. 3); pit.ari id. (Ta.Ma.); pit.arttalai id. (Ta.); ped.adale (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

6761.Image: nave of a wheel: pin.d.ike the nave of a wheel (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

6762.Image: abortion: purun.am foetus (Tailava. Taila.); puru_n.akam < bhru_n.a-han foeticide, the sin of causing abortion (Ce_tupu. Ce_tupala. 26); puru_n.am < bhru_n.a foetus, embryo; infancy (Ta.lex.) cf. bhu_n foetus (H.); bhru_n.a embryo (RV.)(CDIAL 9689). To bear children: per-u to bring forth, bear, as children (Tan-ippa_. i,235,1); to beget, generate (Na_lat.i, 197)(Ta.lex.) Image: embryo: pin.d. the embryo or foetus (Ka.lex.) pin.d.i, pen.t.e, pen.d.e a bundle, a pack, a mass (Ka.); pen.d.e (Te.); pe_n.d.a, pe_n.d.hi_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) pin.d.i possessing a body; (possessing the body of or being related to)(Ka.lex.) pin.d.o_tpatti the birth or formation of the foetus (Ka.lex.) pim.d.a, pim.d.aya part of the body (Pkt.); pinna_ body (L.); pira_ severed leg of an animal with flesh still attached (A.)(CDIAL 8168). pet.u foetus, womb (S.); pet.(t.)a_ tripe, guts (P.); pot.a_ animal's entrails, bladder of fish (Or.); pet.t.a, pit.t.a belly (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8376). pud.a, pud.d.a son (Pkt.); pud.aia lump-shaped (Pkt.); pum.d.aia lump-shaped, globular (Pkt.); pun.yuk swollen (Kt.); pun.d.a_ adj. corpulent (Or.)(CDIAL 8377). Image: body: put.kalam < pudgala body (Na_mati_pa. 565)(Ta.lex.) Image: foetus; abortion: bhindu a woman bringing forth a still-born child; a woman who loses her children by death (Ka.Skt.lex.) cf. pin.t.am-vir..utal abortion; pin.t.am embryo, foetus (Pur-ana_. 28)(Ta.lex.) pin.t.am anything globular or round, lump, or mass, ball; pin.t.i- to make into a ball (pin.t.ittu vaitta un.t.iyai : Tol. Po. 63, Urai) (Ta.lex.) pin.t.i form (Cilap. 3,26, Urai); collection, multitude, class, quantity; pin.t.akan- one who offers an oblation of cooked rice to the manes; pin.t.o_takam cermony of offering to the manes balls of cooked rice with water and sesame (Pur-ana_. 9, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to be born: put.t.u, hut.t.u, ut.t.u to arise, originate, come into existence, be born; birth, origin, progeny, family; put.t.isu, hut.t.isu to cause to be born, create (Ka.); ut.- (uc-) to be born, (plant, hair) sprouts; ut.c- to create, bear, beget; ut. beauty of body (esp. shining complexion), facts of a matter (Ko.); put.- (put.y-) to grow (grass, tree, hair); ut.- (ut.y-) to be born; ut. creation, birth, physique, beauty (To.); put.t.isu, hut.t.isu to cause to be born, create (Ka.); put.t.- (put.t.i-) to be born, (seed) sprouts (Kod..); put.t.uni to be born, come into existence, originate, spring up, be produced; put.t.a_vuni to produce, originate, cause to be born (Tu.); put.t.u to be born, produced, arise, come into existence; birth; put.t.incu to create, generate, produce; put.t.uka, put.t.ugu, put.t.uvu birth, creation, origin (Te.); put.t.- to be born (Kol.Nk.Pa.); put.- to be born, be got, be found; caus. put.usa_na_ to acquire; put.suta_na_ to earn; pur.sahta_na_ to get; pursahta_na_ to meet; put.ih/put.h- to give birth to (Go.); put.t.a_na_ to be born, to occur, be found, be met with (Go.); put.t.-e_r- to be born (Ga.); put.- to be born, be produced, be got; put.u ilu, pud.gu ilu birthplace, parent's house; pud.gu masu birth-mark, mole (Kond.a)(DEDR 4264).

6764.Greatness: per-r-am greatness (Tiv. Periyati. 10,1,10); per-r-i greatness, esteem (Tirukko_. 373, Urai.); acquisition, boon (Kampara_. Cavari. 8); per-r-u bigness, greatness (Tol. Col. 305); per-uti gain, profit (Man.i. 25,115); peruntakai noble-minded person (Net.unal. 106); great beauty (Pu. Ve. 6,30); peruntalai headman; peruntan-mai high dignity, noble character; peruntan-am an office of the state under Co_r..a government (S.I.I. ii,222); peruco_r-u sumptuous feast given by a king to the generals of his army (Akana_. 233); peruco_r-r-unilai theme of a king giving feast to his soldiers on the eve of battle (Tol. Po. 63); peruco_r-r-uvaci id. (Cilap. 25,144); perun:kut.i noble family (Cilap. 20, 57-8); perun:kut.iya_t.t.am village headship (I_t.u, 3,5,6); perun:kut.i- va_n.ikar, perun:kut.iyar an ancient caste of merchants (Cilap. 2,76)(Ta.lex.) pedda largeness, bigness, greatness (Ka.); pedde (Te.); peddi a great or an old person, an elder, a senior (Ka.Te.); penu, pen large (Ka.); pen, penu (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6765.Image: three: pe, pea the numeral three; pe isi sixty; pe gel thirty; pe hor.in nelketkoa I saw three people (Santali.lex.)

6766.Merchants' street: ve_t.ai street where merchants live (Ta.); cf. ve_s'a (Skt.) cf. va_t.ai village, hamlet; street where herdsmen or hunters reside; row of houses as in a street; ki_r..ai-va_t.ai, me_lai-va_t.ai (Ta.); village, hamlet (Ta.) cf. va_t.a (Skt.) cf. vatta duty, office (Pali); vat.t.a, vatta livelihood (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12069). vat.t.am revenue unit of a few villages; vat.t.akai area, region (Ta.lex.) cf. pe_t.t.ai market-place near a town (Ta.); pe_t.h (M.)(Ta.lex.) pe_t.aka a multitude, quantity (Skt.lex.) pe_t.a a multitude; a retinue; pe_t.aka multitude, a company; an attendant; pe_t.i a pettah, an emporium, a mart, a market-town; a place of sale, a long street of shops in a town; pe_t.ha, pe_n.t.ha (H.)(Ka.lex.) pe_t.u small town, village (Ta.lex.) pe_t.a a multitude; a retinue (Ka.); pe_t.aka a multitude, a company (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Foundation; settlement: pratis.t.ha_ foundation, prop (RV.); homestead (AV.); performance of any ceremony (Skt.); patit.t.ha_ prop (Pali); pait.t.ha_, pad.it.t.ha_ prop, foundation, resort (Pkt.); payet.h, pai~t.h prop (N.); pait.hi support, step of a staircase (Or.); pait.ha_, pait.he masonry steps at the bottom of a building (B.); pe~t.h signature on a document (G.)[cf. pati to be imprinted, settle (Ta.); pativu impression, custom (Ta.); patikka to impress, fasten on (Ma.); pativu settlement, custom (Ma.)(DEDR 3911)]; pihit.a help, favour (Si.); pet.h market (Mth.); pe~t.h, pai~t.h market, market day (H.); pet.h, pe~t.h town, quarter of a town, market (M.); pe~t.o marketplace (Konkan.i); pla_ist, pla_s'i New year's day (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8608). pratis.t.ha_t abides, thrives (RV.); pratis.t.hita fixed, firm, thriving (AV.); pratis.t.ha_payati establishes, fixes (TS.); patit.t.ha_ti, pat.it.t.ha_ti, patit.t.hahati stands firm, stays (Pali); pait.hvu~ to settle (G.); pihit.anava_ to be established, work (of medicine)(Si.); patit.t.hita standing firm (Pali); pad.it.t.hia, pait.t.hiya (Pkt.); pet.hyon.u_ to recover from illness (WPah.); patit.hite was established (OSi.); pihit.i fixed (Si.); patit.t.ha_pe_ti establishes (Pali); pratistavayati, pradit.havedi (KharI.); pad.it.t.ha_ve_i, pait.t.ha_viya (Pkt.); pet.hyon.u_ to straighten a crooked thing by heating it in a fire (WPah.); pihit.uvanava_ to fix, plant, establish (Si.)(CDIAL 8609). pratis.t.ha_na foundation (Pa_rGr..); foundation of a city (SkandaP.); name of a town (MBh.); patit.t.ha_na setting up (Pali); pratit.hanam. foundation (KharI.); pait.t.ha_n.a foundation of a building, city (Pkt.); pait.han. agreement, contract (G.); name of a town (M.)(CDIAL 8610). pat.i (-v-, -nt-) to settle (as dust or sediment), rest (as clouds upon a mountain), roost, be subjugated, trained, tamed, become orderly, obey, sink in water, be immersed, subside (as water); (-pp-, -tt-) to practise, habituate oneself to (Ta.); pat.iyuka to settle, sink; become habitual by learning or exercise; pat.ikka to plunge; pat.ivu subjection; habitual (Ma.); pad.ipuni to plunge (Tu.); pa_rva bad.i dovecote (Pa.); pa_rva pad.i id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3848).

6767.Image: to be destroyed: vi_t.u (vi_t.i-) to perish, be destroyed, die (Ta.); vi_t.t.u (vi_t.t.i-) to destroy, kill, remove (Ta.); bi_d.-a_gu to perish (Ka.); vi_t.i ravage, plunder; vi_t.i_-buccu to spoil, ruin, lose; baffle, disappoint; vi_t.i_-bo_vu to become useless, vain or unprofitable (Te.)(DEDR 5452). mi.r.- (mi.r.y-), me.r.- (me.r.y-) to drive (buffaloes) on migration (To.); mir.ing to drive away, drive (an area) for game (Br.); mit.- to wipe out (S.); me_t.-, me_s- to wipe out (P.)(DEDR 4882).

6768.Image: to overflow: berrna_ to overflow, as leaven when fermenting (Kur.); virra_na_ to grow, increase (Go.); vir-r-avi~_gu to be proud, or haughty; swell, be puffed up (Te.)(DEDR 5462).

6773.Image: tipcat stick; post: vi_t., vit.a_ stick in the game of tipcat (M.); bin.d.u stem, stalk (P.); biyo small stick in the game of tipcat (N.); post to which oxen are tied when treading out corn (N.); it.i_ small stick in the game of tipcat (H.M.); i_ti_ small block used in a game (L.)(CDIAL 12045).

6774.Squeeze: prapi_d.ayati presses, squeezes (S'Br.); papi_l.ita worn-out (of soles of sandals)(Pali); pavi_lae_ presses, oppresses (Pkt.); peln.a_ to cause to press uon (P.); peln.o to press (Ku.); periba to press out juice, gin cotton (A.); per.a_na press, grind (B.); per.iba_ to press, squeeze out (juice)(Or.); perab, per.ab to work an oil mill (Bi.); per.na_ to squeeze (H.); pival.n.e~ to wrench, wring (M.)(CDIAL 8686). prapi_d.yate_ is pressed, tormented (BhP.); pe_d.un to ooze, drop out (K.)(CDIAL 8687). piccayati presses flat (Skt.); picciya pounded, beaten (Pkt.); pi_cn.a_ to be hard and tight (P.); pici_n.o to be crushed, be powdered (Ku.); picci_ crushed, smashed, jammed (H.); picakn.a_ to be squeezed (P.); picikiba_ to spurt out (Or.); picakna_ to be pressed (H.)(CDIAL 8149). To crush, press flat: pe_s.an.a crushing or grinding of grain (Ka_tyS'r.); pe_san.a_ grinding (Pkt.); pihan act of grinding (K.)(CDIAL 8385). pe_s.ayati grinds (Gr.S.); pe_sayam.ta grind (Pkt.); pie_s.i (Shum.); pe_s.i (Gaw.); pes. (Kho.); pesa_ to grind (B.); pesiba_ to grind, knead (Or.)(CDIAL 8386). pi_san. to be ground (L.); pisn.a_ (P.); pisna_ (H.)(CDIAL 8221). pim.s.a imper. (AV.); pinas.t.i grinds (RV.); pisati id. (Pkt.); pihun to grind, beat, goad (K.); pi_hn.a_ (P.); pisnu (N.); pi_sab (Mth.Aw.); pi_svuy (G.); pisn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 8142). picai to squeeze (Ta.); pis'it.u husks of fruits (Ma.); picg to be soft so that it can be squeezed; pick to squeeze (Ko.); pisuku to squeeze (Ka.); piskuni id. (Tu.); pijg to knead (Nk.); pi_c to grind (?Pa.); to squeeze (Pe.); id. (Kui); to press out (Kuwi); picka'a_na_ to press and bruise, flatten by crushing (Kur.)(DEDR 4135). pi_ccu (pi_cci-), pi_rccu (pi_rcci-) to squirt, milk (as a cow); pi_ccal, pi_rccal syringing; pi_rcca_n.-kur..al syringe (Ta.); pi_ccuka to squirt, syringe (Ma.); pi_cu id.; squirting (Ka.)(DEDR 4215). pi_d- to squeeze, milk (Nk.Pa.); pi_(y)- to milk (Ga.); pi_r-, pi_ra_na_ to milk; pi_r to squeeze, wring, milk (Go.); pi_r- (-it-) to draw (milk), darw out oil (by pressing the seeds under oil-press), squeeze (Kond.a)(DEDR 4231). pir..i to squeeze (Ta.); to wring or squeeze out (Ka.); pir..iyuka to squeeze out (Ma.); hircadi to squeeze (Kor.); pir.s id. (Kond.a); pilqe id. (Malt.); pilhinng, princing id., massage, press hard (Br.); vr.i_sa to squeeze (Kui); wi_skinai id. (Kuwi); bi_nna_ to clean guts by pressing along, to sponge, to fleece (Kur.)(DEDR 4183). phissan. to be squeezed, be bruised, be rotten (L.); phissn.a_ to burst (P.); phisan.u to split, burst; phehan.u (S.)(CDIAL 9079). bhi_cna_ to squeeze, press (H.); bhacakvu~ to be struck, to pierce (G.); bhacar.vu~ to press, squeeze (G.); bhi_svu~ to press; bhe~co crushing (G.)(CDIAL 9489). pi_d.ita pressed, squeezed (Mn.); pi_l.ita pressed, crushed (Pali); pid.ita adv. expressly (NiDoc.); pi_d.ia pressed, hurt (Pkt.); pi_lia pressed (Pkt.); per.i_ pudendum muliebre (Ash.); pre_i (Kt.); pir.e soft (Shum.); pir.ia_ oil-cake (Or.); piri crushed straw (Or.); pelu thrashed, winnowed (Si.)(CDIAL 8228). pi_d.ana act of pressing or squeezing (R.); pi_l.ana injury, oppression (Pali); pi_lan.a pressing (Pkt.); pi_r.nu_ squeezing cloth while washing it (WPah.)(CDIAL 8225). pi_d.ayati presses, squeezes (AV.); pipi_l.e_ perf. (RV.); hurts (Mn.); pi_d.yate_ pass. (MBh.); pi_l.e_ti presses, molests (Pali); pi_d.e_di, pi_d.ai presses; pi_le_i, pi_lai presses, hurts (Pkt.); pel.ik to wring out, squeeze, twist (Kho.); pioiki to press, embrace, hold, seize (Sh.); pi_r.an.u to press, oppress (S.); pi_r.n.a_ to press (oil seeds, sugarcane, etc.)(P.); pi_r.n.a_ to squeeze (P.); pi_r.nu_ (WPah.); pir.on.o, pir.u_n.o to feel with the hand, tough; pir.a_n.o to torture; pilan.o to press on, toil, plod (Ku.); pira_unu to torment; pilinu to be made anxious (N.); pir.a_ to press (B.); piriba to oppress (A.); pir.iba_ to press (sugarcane)(Or.); pira_ pained, tired (Mth.); pira_wal to hurt (Bhoj.); pira_b (Aw.); pir.wa_na_ to cause to be pressed (H.); pi_d.ai crushes (OG.); pi_r.vu~ to press, afflict (G.); pil.n.e~ to squeeze; pi_d.n.e~ to hurt (M.); pel.anava_ to hurt; pel.enava_ to be hurt; pel.u threshed, winnowed (Si.); pelle_i presses, hurts (Pkt.); pi_lvu~ to press, squeeze (G.); pid.d.ai falls (Pkt.); pe_d.un to drop; presses, hurts (K.)(CDIAL 8226). cf. vli_ press down (Skt.lex.)

6775.Image: stake: ve.t.l. stake in the centre of the threshing floor round which the cattle are driven (Ko.); bo.t.i id. (Kod..)(DEDR 5526). Post, oar-paddle: mat.avai post, kavai-k-ka_l (mat.avai-y-it.ai-k-kar..al vaippo_r po_l : Ce_tupu. Te_vipura. 64)(Ta.lex.) bait.ha_, bait.a_ oar, paddle (B.); vahis.t.ha, va_his.t.ha drawing or carrying well, swiftest (RV.)(CDIAL 11463).

6776.Brass: pittal.ai brass, aurichalcum (Tiruvil.ai. Iracava_ta. 23)(Ta.); hittal.e_ id. (Ka.); pittal.aimalai mountain containing copper ore; pittal.ai-re_kku sheet of brass (Ta.); hittal.e_re_ku id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pittala brass (Skt.Pkt.); pittal (P.); pitalu (S.); pi_tal (Ku.); pital (N.A.B.); pital.a (Or.); pi_tar (Bi.Bhoj.); pi_tal (H.); pi_tal. (G.); pital. (M.); pitli_, pitli_a brazen (P.); pitali_ya_ made of brass (A.); pitlain.o tasting of brass, rather bitter (Ku.); pitra_i_ verdigris (H.)(CDIAL 8184). pitara_i~dh smell or taste of brass (H.)(CDIAL 8185). paittala made of brass (Skt.); pe_tla_ made of bronze (L.)(CDIAL 8388). pittala_t.t.am deception, fraud, as in passing brass for gold (Ta.Ma.); pitala_t.akamu (Te.); pittala_t.a (Ka.)(Ta.lex. < prob. pittala_ + ha_t.aka) pitu_ri intrigue, conspiracy (Tu.); pitla.t.m failure to keep promise (Ko.)(DEDR 4166). vit.t.a_la impurity (Pkt.); bit.a_ln.o to defile by tasting (Ku.); bit.a_l impure (B.); bit.a_l.a libertine, cheating (Or.); bit.a_lna_ to taste (H.); vit.a impurity (Skt.); bit.aliya_ mean (epithet of a Brahma)(A.); vat.alvu~ to be polluted; caus. vat.la_vvu~ (G.); bit.ula, bit.ol.a wicked, outcast, bastard (Or.)(CDIAL 11712). vat.t.u dish (Pkt.); bat.ui small water vessel (Ku.); bat.ua_ metal dish (Bi.); bat.wi_ pot (Aw.); bat.uko round copper or brass vessel (N.); va_t.uki_ cup (G.)(CDIAL 11364).

6777.Image: leather bag for oil: putili leather bag for keeping oil (Ta.); buddali (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) buddan.ige, buddalike, budli a bottle made of skin to hold oil, ghee, etc. (Ka.); bud.ige (Te.); budale_m., budhale_m. (M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: skin vessel; earthen vessel: bud.d.i earthen vessel (Go.); put.t.i flask, bottle (Ta.); pot.y bottle (Ko.); put.y id. (To.); bud.d.i glass bottle (Ka.); bottle, flask (Te.); bud.d.iga id. (Te.)(DEDR 4265A). cf. put.t.il quiver, sheath, basket, winnow (Ta.); put.ka small basket (Kuwi); but.t.i_ basket (M.)(DEDR 4263). buddan.ige, buddali, buddalike, budli bottle made of skin to hold oil, ghee etc. (Ka.); budul, buddali, buddoli skin bottle (Tu.); budla_ a bottle or vessel made of skin (M.) (DEDR 4279). cf. put.i a measure of capacity (Pe.)(DEDR 4262). pauta_, pauti_ a little box made of bamboo slips (Bi.); pau~ti_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 8787). Image: brim: cf. pud. brim, margin, edge, border (Tu.); put.ai, put.am side, place (Ta.)(DEDR 4255). po_st skin (Pers.); cama pothi skin (NiDoc.); pothi_ fleece (L.)(CDIAL 8414). cf. poca fetid smell (Or.); pocaka_, pocara_ rotten, putrid (Or.)(CDIAL 8415). Image: oil-vessel: pa_d.a an oil vessel (Tu.); pa_t.am oil-dish (Ma.)(DEDR 4061).

6778.Image: earthen vessel: o_t.u earthen vessel (Na_lat.i, 139); brick (S.I.I. i,150); skull (Pa_rataven.. Va_cute_van-r-u_. 16); mendicant's bowl for receiving alms as a potsherd (Ja_n-ava_. Mumut.cu. 15); piece of broken earthenware, potsherd (Tiruman. 158); shell as of a tortoise, of an egg (Ta.); o_d.u id. (Te.Ka.Ma.Tu.); o_t.ai vessel for holding sandal etc. (Ci_vaka. 1147); o_t.t.a_n.t.i beggar carrying about a potsherd or bowl in hand (Tan-ippa_. i,238,8)(Ta.lex.) Image: vessel for holding sandal: o_t.ai vessel for holding sandal etc. (man.iceyo_t.ai ni_rin ven.ca_ntupu_ci : Ci_vaka. 1147); o_t.ai mendicant's bowl for receiving alms, as a potsherd (Ja_n-ava_. Mumut.cu. 15); earthen vessel (Na_lat.i, 139); piece of broken earthen-ware; potsherd (Tiruman. 158); skull (Pa_rataven.. Va_cute_van-r-u_. 16)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_d.ari potter; o_d.u, o_dilu potsherd, tile (Tu.)(DEDR 1042). Image: brim of a pot: utat.u brim, margin, as the edge of a pot (W.); lip (Kalin.. 128, Putu.); edge of a wound (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. odad.u lip (Ka.)(DEDR 606). utakam < udaka water (Kantapu. Tirukkal. 70); uta-kumpam < uda-kumbha water-pot, water-jar (Ta.); utati < uda-dhi sea (Iraku. Na_t.t.up. 41)(Ta.lex.) cf. udaka water (Skt.)(CDIAL 1921). o_s.t.hah. strictly upper lip (Skt.)(Skt.lex.) cf. ot.t.ha lip (Pali); o~_t.u upper lip; o~_t.i lower lip (Sh.); ho_t.h lip (WPah.(CDIAL 2563).

6779.Image: a twist of straw: ve_t.a a twist (of straw, grass etc.)(Ka.M.) (Ka.lex.) Image: turn of rope: vet.h, ve~t.h, vet., ve~t. roll, turn of rope (M.); ve_s.t.a band, noose (Kaus'.); ve_t.haka surrounding (Pali); ver.hu encircling (S.); vel.u twisted string, bandage (Si.); ved.h ring, circumference (M.); finger-ring (G.); ber.i fetter (Ku.); ber. roll, turn, fence (B.); ber.ha girth (Or.)(CDIAL 12130). Image: figure of 8: ba~ur.i to wind thread, as on the thumb and forefinger, in the form of the figure 8; bana~or.e~ an implement to wind thread on (Santali.lex.) bat.ernu the stick on which a rope is twisted (N.)(CDIAL 11351). vat.u twist (S.)(CDIAL 11346). wut.han act of twisting, a screw (K.); vet.han. tie-rope (M.)(CDIAL 12131). Cord: ne_tra cord of churning stick (MBh.); netra_ (L.P.); ne_t.l.i (WPah.); neti cord round neck of oil-flask (N.); neti_ (H.); netru~ (G.); net cord of churning stick (B.); neto (Mth.); netn.i cord of churning stick (Ku.); netli_ thin cord (H.)(CDIAL 7588). bye_s.t. to twist (Dm.); ve_t.he_ti twists (Pali); vel.anava_ to twist, entwine, wrap (Si.); ved.hne~ to twist (M.); be_d.hna_, be_dhna_ to plait, braid, fold (H.); be_s.t.um 1 sg. (Phal.); bet.ho_nu (Sh.); wut.hun (K.)(CDIAL 12132). Images: turning round; round: bat.t.anna round, circular (Ka.); bet.t.ane in a turning-round manner: whirlingly; tir-r-ane, tit.t.ane, bit.t.ane, tit.t.ane, nit.t.ane; bat.t.a-nevar to turn or whirl round; bat.t.age roundness (round, fat)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Spindle: vartana turning, rolling (Nir.); vartani_ spindle (Lalit.); vat.t.ana turning round (Pali); vat.t.ani ring, globe (Pali); vat.t.ana_vali line of spindles? (Pali); vat.t.ana_, vattan.a, vattan.a_ revolving (Pkt.); bac.an.i disc fixed on large spindle (D..); bartun wooden disc fixed on spindle (Kho.); watan small circular piece of leather or wood or metal for fastening chain of bolt (K.); watuu small circular piece of leather or wood or metal used as a toy (K.); vat.in.o spindle (S.); vat.na_ stick for twisting rope (L.); vat.t.n.a_, vat.n.u_, vat.n.i_, bat.n.u_, bat.n.a_, bat.n.i_ (P.); bat.n.i_ twisting, twist (of a cord)(Ku.); ba_t.na_ grinding (B.); bat.ani_ fringe-maker's wooden reel (Bi.); bat.na_ stick for twisting rope (H.); va_t.n.o, va_t.n.io long round stone used in crushing or beating on a slab, muller (G.)(CDIAL 11354). vartayati causes to turn, whirls (RV.); vat.t.an, vat.an to twist (L.); wat.un to roll up (K.); vat.an.u, vat.in.u to twist, plait, wring (S.); vat.t.un. to coil (L.); vat.t.n.a_ to twist (P.); bat.t.nu_ to twist (rope or thread)(WPah.); ba_t.n.o to twine, wreathe, fashion (Ku.); ba_t.nu to twist, plait, weave (N.); ba_t.iba to twist, grind (A.); ba_t.na_i act of rope-twisting (Bi.); ba_t.na_ to twist, twine (H.); va_t.vu~ to pound by rolling (G.); va_t.n.e~ to grind finely by rolling with a muller (M.); vat.n.e~ to scutch cotton (by rolling)(M.); vat.anava_ to turn round (Si.); varan to twist, braid (Md.)(CDIAL 11356). vad.u_ya_na_ to twist a rope (Go.); vad.d.a_na_, vad.ita_na_ to spin (Go.); wadi_ta_na_ to twist or twirl fibre into a thread (Go.); var.k to spin (Go.); vad.uku, od.uku to spin (Te.); nu_lod.u a spindle (Tu.); or..ukku to draw out, as gold thread (Ta.); ojgre to be twisted (Malt.); oje to twist (Malt.)(DEDR 1012). cf. vad.i small cane or stick; vat.ippu iron rod (Ta.)(DEDR 5224). Rope: vat.am cable, large rope, cord, bowstring, strands of a garland, chains of a necklace (Ta.)(DEDR 5220). bat.ernu the stick on which a rope is twisted (N.)(CDIAL 11351). vat.u twist (S.)(CDIAL 11346).

6780.Image: plug, cover: bi_r.a_ stopper of bottle (P.); vi_t.an.u to stop up (S.); birko lid of a box (N.); bin.d.a_ plug (Or.); bi_r.an.u to close up (S.)(CDIAL 12045). pidha_na cover, sheath, lid (MBh.Pali); pidha_n.a, piha_n.a, pihan.a, piha_n.i_, piha_n.ia_, pihin.a (Pkt.); pim.dhan.a (Skt.); pin covering over the face (Kho.); pin dik to close a lid well (Kho.); piha_n outlet for rain water (N.); piha_n.a flat pan used as a lid (Or.) peha_n, pehana_ cover of a granary; peha_ni_ lid of a basket (Bi.); piha_n plug for closing the mouth of a granary (H.); piyana cover, lid (Si.)(CDIAL 8196). pidadha_ti closes (Mn.); pidha_payati causes to shut (BhP.); pihita hidden, covered (MBh.); apihita uncovered (RV.); pidahati covers, conceals (Pali); piha_i, pihe_i covers, shuts (Pkt.); piya_iba to join by thrusting the end of a thing into that of another (A.); pihiba_ to overspread (Or.); piyanava_ to cover, close (Si.); piyavanava_ to cause to be shut (Si.); pihita covered, obstructed (Pali); pihia (Pkt.); piyu, pivu, pi_ shut; piyu hiding (Si.)(CDIAL 8194). Image: cover for a vessel: ve_t.u cover for the mouth of a vessel, cloth for filtering (Ta.); cloth for covering vessels or for filtering (Ma.)(DEDR 5525). Coat of armour; dress,ostentation: me_t.am, me_r..am, me_r..akam (perhaps me_l + akam) coat of armour, kavacam (Ta.lex.) et.u-pa_t.u gaiety in dress; ostentation, as in a woman, a_t.amparam pomp and show, ostentation; < ?a_-d.ambara; a_t.amparan:kon. t.ici lun.pa_n- (Tiruman.1655); a_t.aval. woman (Ta.); a_d.adi (Te.); a_t.ai dress, garment, cloth, clothing, ut.ai(Ta.lex.) Cloth: ve_s.t.ana bandage, band (MBh.); vet.t.han.a wrapping (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12131). Strip of cloth, turban: phet.o, phet. strip of cloth used as turban (S.); end of a sheet (Ku.); phet.a_ turban (N.); waistband, small turban (H.); phe~t.a_ id. (H.); phet.i turban, skein of thread (B.); phet.wa_l a kind of cotton (Bi.); phet., phe~t. waistband (H.); phet.o turban (G.); phet. skirt (M.); pherno head-cloth (Gypsy)(CDIAL 9107). Woman: e_r..ai woman (e_r..aittan- maiyo_villai to_r..i : Kalit. 55,23, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Sari: pe_r..i sari (Ta.lex.) Curtain: er..ini prob. er..u to rise; cf. yavanika_ (Skt.); curtain (porumuka-p-pal.in:ki n-er..in- vi_r..ttu : Man. i.5,3); cover, case (vi_n.ai yon-r-in-ai...er..in-iyai ni_kki)(Ci_vaka. 716); name of a chief noted for liberality, one of seven kat.ai-val.l.alkal. (Pur-ana_. 158). Stripe, broad cloth: pe_t.t.u stripe (Ta.); pe_t.u stripe, broad border; string, as of a necklace; waist-cord containing more than one strand (Ta.lex.) Small fine cloth; band: ve_takam small fine cloth (Ta.lex.) cf. ve_tan:kam a kind of fine cloth (Cilap. 14,108, Urai)(Ta.lex.) e_t.akam a kind of cloth (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 882). ber.han.a small cloth worn by woman (Or.)(CDIAL 12131). ber.han.i small cloth worn by woman (Or.); be~d.hna_, be~dhna_ to plait, braid, fold (H.)(CDIAL 12132). ve_t.t.i < ve_s.t.a man's clothes; (ve_t.t.iyun ta_r..vat.amum ven.n.i_r-um : Or..ivi. Cariyai-k-kar..ar-r-i. 4)(Ta.lex.) ve_s.t.a band, noose (Skt.); ve_s.t.aka turban (Skt.); vet.h , ve~t.h, vet., ve~t. roll, turn of a rope (M.); si_sa-ve_t.ha head-wrap (Pali)[si_sa-vet.hana head-cloth, turban (Pali.lex.)]; ve_d.ha wrap (Pkt.); vel.u bandage, twisted string (Si.)(CDIAL 12130). ve_s.t.ana bandage, band (MBh.); vet.t.hana wrapping (Pkt.); vet.t.han.aga turban (Pkt.); wut.han act of twisting, a screw (K.); vet.han.u pack-cloth (S.); bet.hana turban (MB.); bet.an wrapper, enevelope, cove (B.); bet.han washerman's ironing cloth (Bi.); cloth wrapper of a book (Bhoj.); pack-cloth, wrapper (H.); vet.han tie-rope (M.);; ve_t.hana wrap, turban (pali); ve_d.han.a wrapping (Pkt.); bel.ini swaddling clothes (Kho.); wurunu bedclothes, quilt (K.)(CDIAL 12132). ve_d.ha wrap (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12130). ve_t.hana wrap, turban (Pali)(CDIAL 12131). To wrap up, surround; fence, hedge, wall: ve_s.t.ayati wrap up, encloses, surrounds (TBr.); ve_s.t.ate_ clings to (AV.)(CDIAL 12132). vet.hana [from vet.heti, ves.t.ate (Vedic) to virga branch, literally twisting (Latin); to twist round, envelope, wrap, surround] a turban, head-dress; surrounding, enveloping; wrapping, clothing, wrap, shawl; cf. pali-vet.hana wrapping, surrounding, encircling, encumbrance; palivet.hana-camma; pari-vet.hita enveloped, covered (Pali.lex.) Cloak, veil: veur woman's veil or bodice (P.); *dvivaraka set of two garments: bea_r, bia_r, bevar suit of two garments for women (L.); bevar, beor, beur id. (P.)(CDIAL 6686). varen. straw of the grain coix barbata (M.)(CDIAL 11329). ber.i fetter (Ku.); berh, ber wrapping (N.); ber-ba_r wrapping up (N.) (CDIAL 12130). varilla a sort of garment (Pkt.); varaka cloak; n. cloth, cover of a boat (Skt.)(CDIAL 11310). Roll, wrap: vet.h, ve~t.h, vet., ve~t. roll, turn of a rope (M.); vet.ya enclosure (Si.); ve_s.t. wrap (Skt.); ve_t.haka surrounding (Pali); ve_d.ha wrap (Pkt.); berh, ber wrapping; ber-ba_r wrapping up (N.); ber. roll (B.)(CDIAL 12130). Image: pack-cloth: ve_s.t.ana enclosing (Gr.S'r.); vet.t.han.a wrapping (Pkt.); vet.han.u pack-cloth (S.); bet.an wrapper, envelope, cover (B.); pack-cloth, wrapper (H.); vet.han. tie-rope (M.); ve_t.hana wrap (Pali); ve_d.han.a wrapping (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12131). ve_s.t.ayati wraps up (TBr.); vet.t.hida wrapped up (Pkt.); ve_t.he_ti wraps (Pali); ved.he_i, ved.hai wraps up (Pkt.); bel.ik (Kho.); wurun to wrap oneself up in bedclothes, cover (S.); ver.han.u to twist (S.); bye_s.t. to twist (Dm.); be_s.t.u_m 1 sg. (Phal.); bet.ho_nu (Sh.); wut.hun (K.); vet.hn.e~ to tie (M.); ver.han. to wind, bandage, bind, surround (L.); bernu to roll, fold up (N.); ved.hn.e~ to twist (M.)(CDIAL 12132). Circular log: ved.ho circular log (G.); ver.h, vehr. blockade (L.)(CDIAL 12130). Image: encircling: ver.hu encircling (S.)(CDIAL 12130). bedhao to wrap round as a girdle, or a bandage (Santali.lex.)

6781.Image: joint of the fingers: ved.ho joint of the fingers; circular log; ved.h finger-ring (G.); ved.h ring, circumference (M.); ber.i_ ring on ankle (H.)(CDIAL 12130). bet.t.u muri to make the finger-joints crack (Ka.lex.) cf. virala, viral.a having interstices, separated by intervals (Ka.lex.) be_d.a twelve (Te.lex.) [prob. from twelve phalanges on the fingers of a hand]. bet.t.u-muri to make the finger-joints crack (Ka.); bet.t.u, bat.t.u, bet.t.u, bot.t.u a finger; a toe (Ka.); bo_t.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) ve_tacam < ve_dhasa part of the hand under the root of the thumb (Ta.lex.) beral, beral.u a finger; a toe (Ka.); viral (Ta.Ma.); ve_lu, vre_lu (Te.); beralettu to lift up the fore-finger or index; beral.ugin.n.u a finger knuckle; beral.uge_n. a finger span (Ka.lex.) Image: arm, fore-arm: prave_s.t.a an arm; the fore-arm or wrist (Ka.lex.) vris' finger (RV. i.144.5; RV. ix.15.8); Ívis' to move (Vedic.lex.) vri_ to go, move; vli_ to go, move (Skt.lex.) beton. separately, apart, in its place; to detach, divide; bapla reak ari beton. beton. pukrau hoyoka each marriage custom must be observed in its proper place (Santali.lex.) Image: fissure: vet.i fissure, crevice, cleft, split (Ain. Aim. 36); vet.ippu crevice, fissure (Ta.lex.) Distinction, separation: bhe_da cleft, fissure (RV.); division, separation, distinction (S'rS.); bheu nature, condition (N.); bhev way, means (OG.); be_, beya part, division, distinction (Si.); abheu indistinguishable (P.); abhew similarity (H.); bhek locality (N.); bhek slice, division (M.); bhekn.e~ to split, slice (M.); bhiyo~ share of the meat of an animal killed for sale (Ku.)(CDIAL 9610). be_t.a (fr. bid.u) separation, parting, especially the separation of lovers (Ka.lex.) To break: peruku to be injured, snap as a marriage thread (Ta.); perugu to break or snap, as a (marriage) thread; pempu to destroy, ruin; damage, desruction (Te.); perng- to fall in ruins; perkip- (perkit-) to knock down in ruins (Pa.); prenga to be cracked, cloven; prepka (< prek-p; prekt-) to crack, cleave; pre_ju (pl. pre_ska) cleavage, crevice, crack; bre- (boil) burst (Kui); bre- (-t-) id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4414). bhe_dakara breaking down (Ya_j.); causing division (Pali); bhe_akara (Pkt.); be_ranava_ to separate, sift, settle (disputed accounts, etc.)(CDIAL 9611). bhe_dya to be split (MBh.); a-bhejja not to be split (Pali)(CDIAL 9613). cf. bhitta split timber (S'a_n:khGr..)(CDIAL 9493). bhidyate_ is altered in mind (Skt.); is split, is broken (S'Br.); bhijjati is broken (Pali); bhijjai (Pkt.); bhijna_ to be affected by grief (H.)(CDIAL 9495). bhindati splits (Skt.)(CDIAL 9496). vibhitti splitting (Skt.); beht plank (P.)(CDIAL 11815). Image: split in two; disunited: beu~_n.o to make into two, break into several pieces (Ku.); vibhe_dayati causes to break (MBh.); vibhinnati breaks in two (RV.); vibhe_de_ti causes disruption (Pali)(CDIAL 11819). bhinna split (RV.); different (Gr.S'r.)(CDIAL 9498). vibhinna split in two (VarBr.S.); disunited (R.); scattered, divided (Pali); vibhin.n.a, vihin.n.a broken, separate (Pkt.); ven separated, disunited, different, other (Si.)(CDIAL 11816). bhe_ttum to break (MBh.); bhe_ttr. breaker (RV.); bhe_ttavya ger. (R.); bhetave to break (As'.); bhettum. (Pkt.); bhittum., bhettu_n.am., bhittun.am. breaker (Pkt.); bhet cut; bhetn.e~ to divide lengthwise (M.); bhetta_ breaks (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9609). bhedana idiomatic for 'merchandise'; in: put.a-bhedana breaking of the seed-boxes (of the Pa_t.ali plant), put.a is extended to mean: 'wares, provisions, merchandise'; i.e. put.a-bhedana breaking 'merchandise' consignments; a centre for interchange of all kinds of wares; a town at the confluence or bend of a river;[e.g. Pa_t.ali-putra; na_na_-put.a-bhedanan Sa_gala nagaran, i.e. Sa_gala city as an interchange centre; bhedana breaking (open); bhedana-dhamma subject to destruction, fragile, perishable; bhedana breach, division, destruction (Pali.lex.) bhindana < bhindati breaking up, brittle, falling into ruin (Pali.lex.) [Perh. the ve_di was used for making a put.am smelting apparatus.] cf. it.a (-pp-, -nt-) to be cracked, split (Ta.); id.upu breach, crack (Te.); breach, crack, hole (Ka.); itavan- lump of earth (Ta.)(DEDR 432).

6782. Level ground: bed.a level ground along the bank of a river, lower than the surrounding country; bhet.ra bhit.ri high rice lands, which do not produce good crops owing to want of moisture (Santali.lex.) vet.t.u-tta_vu tank pit; deep portion of a tank (R.T.); vet.t.u-kka_t.u jungle land cleared and brought under cultivation (R.T.); vet.i open plain (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_li land (Pin.. Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 12); field (Pin..); land measure = 6.74 acres (G.Tj.D.I, 135); village (Pin.. Te_va_. 176,2); ve_likka_cu an ancient village-cess (S.I.I. iii,142); ve_la_-valaiyam sea as the boundary of the earth; earth, as bounded by the sea (Ma_r-an-alan.. 217, Uta_. 517); ve_la_r..i sea (Tin.aima_lai. 62); ve_lai sandy tract (Paripa_. 19,18)(Ta.lex.) ve_d.e surrounding, enclosing; a fence; ven.t.an.isu to encircle; to occupy (Ka.); ve_t.a_l.an.e_m., ve_d.han.e_m. (M.) (Ka.lex.) bhit.a sandhill (S.); bhit.o ridge, terrace, upper side of a field (Ku.); wall holding up a terraced field (N.); bhit.uko ridge, terrace, hillock (Ku.); bhit.a_ mound, mound on a ruined site, homestead (B.)[cf. vi_d.u house (Ta.)]; bhi_t. embankment (H.); bhi_r., bhir.o terrace, wall (Ku.); bhir steep slope, precipice (N.); bhi~_r., bhi~r.wa_ mound round a tank (Mth.)(CDIAL 9491). bid.adi, bid.a_ra lodgings provided for visitors (Ka.); vid.idi (Te.); vit.uti (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) bet.t.a a big hill, a mountain (Ka.); ver-pu a hill (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) vit.am mountain (W.); cf. vit.an:ka_ the loftiest point, pinnacle, elevation (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

6783.Image: aviary: vit.an:ka an aviary, dove-cot (Skt.lex.) vit.an:kam id. (Ta.lex.)

6784.Image: python: bet.t.a the Indian python, the rock snake, python molurus (Ka.lex.)

6785.A region: vis.aya a country, a region, a district, a province, a realm; a department, a field, a sphere, an element, a peculiar province or abode; a refuge, an asylum (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. it.am place; it.an- wide space; it.ai place, space; it.aviya wide, extensive; it.alam width, extent (Ta.); it.a, et.a, it.am, et.am, e_t.am place, house (Ma.); id.e, ed.e, ed.a place, ground (Ka.); dekki place, room (Tu.); ed.amu place, space (Te.)(DEDR 434). vit.aiyam country (Cu_l.a_. Mantira. 62) (Ta.lex.) vr.s.aya refuge (Skt.lex.) vid.vara_ha, vit.cara a village hog (Ka.lex.) vid.aujas, bid.auja Indra (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) vi_t.u Svarga, Indra's heaven (Pu. Ve. 8,30); house, habitation, abode (Pu. Ve. 3,15, Kol.u); square, as on a chess board (Ta.lex.) id.e, ile, ed.e the earth; heaven (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

6786.Image: spy: bhidi to keep secret, to keep one's own counsel, to spy, to pry into, to reconnoitre, to search for a clue, to act secretly; bhidikate ja~ha~nake hataoa he will buy something to enable him to spy; bhidia a spy; bhiduk a spy, a pretender (Santali.lex.) bedaku to seek, to search for, look for (Ka.); vetaku, vetuku, vedaku (Te.); bedaku search (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

6787.Image: dawn: vit.ivu break of day (Ce_tupu. Taruma. 13)(Ta.); bid.avu (Ka.); vit.ivai (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,1,9)(Ta.lex.) vet.t.ai heat, heat of the ground, passion, lust (Ta.); vet.t.e heat (Ka.); vet.t.a heat, warmth, summer; hot; bet.t.a heat; hot (Te.); bir.na_ (bid.d.-) (sun) to be hot; bi_r.i_ sun, time (Kur.); bid.ye to shine (Malt.)(DEDR 5479). vit.ivo_rai early hours of the morning (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 3, Vya_.)(Ta.lex.)

6788.Materialist: vit.aiyam < vis.aya objects of sense (Ka_cika. Aka. Vin. 14)(Ta.lex.) visaya, vis.aya an object of sense (which are five in number: seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching: ka_n.abahudu, ke_l.uha, parimal.isuha, na_ligeyalli saviha, mut.t.uha embivu vis.ayan:gal.u : Na_cira_ci_ya, the ancient Kannad.a commentary on the Amarako_s'a); i.e. s'abda, spars'a, ru_pa, rasa and gandha (Ka.); worldly or sensual enjoyment; a worldly object or aim, pursuit, affair, business, transaction; anything perceptible by the senses, any object (of affection, of desire, of art etc.); an object of concern, concern, respect, reference; subject, subject-matter, topic, the subject of a book (Ka.) vis.aya-gra_ma the aggregate or assemblage of objects of sense or visible objects (Ka.Skt.); vis.aya-lampat.a addicted to worldly objects, pursuits or sensual enjoyment (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vit.ayam affair, matter; sense (Na_mati_pa. 601); object of sense (vit.ayap pah-r-e_r kat.avi : Ja_n-a_. 26,9); subject-matter of a treatise, topic (Nan-. Virut. Pak. 6)(Ta.lex.) vit.aya_-catti attachment to sensual pleasures (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 141); vit.ayittal to perceive; to apprehend through the senses (Ci. Po_. Pa_. 5,1, Pak. 106, Cuva_mina_.)(Ta.lex.) vis.ayi relating to objects of sense; attached to sensual objects; engaged in worldly occupations or enjoyments; a man of the world; a materialist; an organ of sense (Ka.lex.) A tax: vit.ai-p-pe_r-u an ancient tax (S.I.I. ii,115)(Ta.lex.) Libertine: vit.a, vit.ha a voluptuary, a libertine, a lecher, a gallant, a paramour; a rogue, a cheat (Ka.lex.) vit.avu licentiousness (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,7,5); vit.an- voluptuary, sensualist (Ja_n-a_. 35)(Ta.); vit.an:kan- < vit.han:ka person of dissolute habits, voluptuary (Te_va_. 56,1); vit.an:kan- < vi-t.an:ka the naturally formed lingam, as unchiselled (Tiya_ka. Li_lai. Kat.avul.. 17)(Ta.lex.) Pomp: vit.an- < vr.s.a warrior (Kalin.. 432)(Ta.lex.) vit.api_-vara a stout, robust gallant (Ka.lex.) vit.an:ku gallantry (Patin-o. Tiruve_ka. Tiruva. 53)(Ta.lex.) vid.a_ya, vid.a_yi grand display; pomp, greatness, might; vid.o_jas, vid.aujas, bid.auja Indra; vid.a_yiged.isu to destroy the greatness or might of (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. aid.avid.a Kube_ra (Ka.lex.)

6789.Clever, beautiful: vid.an:ga clever (Skt.); vit.an:ka pretty (BhP.); vid.am.ga clever (Pkt.); birin:ga beautiful (A.)(CDIAL 11714). Coquette: vit.an:ku beauty, gallantry; vit.an:kan- person of beauteous form; vet.ippu splendour (Ta.); cleanness, neatness, elegance (Ma.); bed.an:gu, bed.agu novelty, beauty, elegance, grace, fineness, pleasantness, showiness, ostentatiousness; bed.agi a showy woman, coquette (Ka.); bed.an:gu, bed.agu coquetry, affectation, haughtiness; bed.age a charming man; bid.ugu coquette (Tu.); bed.an:gu, bed.a~gu beauty, handsomeness, fineness, prettiness, grace, elegance, strength; beautiful, elegant, large, great, strong; bed.a~gutanamu beauty, strength; bed.a~gu, bed.a~ga_ru to be beautiful; vin:gad.amu beautiful (Te.); vit.an:ka trim, nice, pretty, handsome (Skt.)(DEDR 5472). Lovely: ba~_t.h beautiful (WPah.); ba~_t.hin. beautiful woman (WPah.); ba~_t.h servant in a chief's kitchen; ba~_t.hiya_ handsome; young man (WPah.)(CDIAL 11540). ?cf. va_ma lovely (RV.); va_mi_ female; va_ma_ lovely woman, wife (Skt.); va_ma lovely (Pali.Pkt.); vami_ woman (Si.)(CDIAL 11534). va_n.i wife (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 5348).

6790.Image: cornice: vit.an:kam < vit.an:ka curved cornice or projection (Tiruvil.ai. Tiruman.ap. 70); projection of a beam or joist outside the wall of a house; ridge of a roof (Ja_n-a_. 9,2); banner hoisted in a building and projecting into the street; the naturally formed lingam, as unchiselled (Tiruva_ru_. 26)(Ta.lex.)

6791.Image: to be on heat: veda the rutting season; veda_vu a cow in heat or ready for the bull (Te.); bede intercourse of animals (not cattle)(Kod..); bede, beda heat, rutting, ruttishness, sensual longing (Ka.); vitampuka to long for (Ma.); vitappu desire; vituppu id.; longing; vitumpu (vitumpi-) to desire, long for, hanker after (Ta.)(DEDR 5398). Image: copulation:{Echo word} bede hotly, fiercely (used of boiling); beda beda very fiercely (Ka.); bede, beda heat; rutting; ruttishness, sensual longing (Ka.); vede (Te.); vituppu, vir..aippu, vetuppu, veppam. veppar-u, veppu, veppur-u, vemmal, vemmai (Ta.); veduppu, veppu, vemmal (Ma.); vitukku to be sensually inclined; vir..ai, vitumbu, virumpu to desire (Ta.); vetumpu to be gently heated (Ma.Ta.); bede-ga_la rutting time; time of being ready for the bull; bede-gol. to rut, to seek copulation (used of men and beasts); bede-na_yi a dog in rut; bedeya_kal. a cow ready for the bull; bedeya_gu rutting to take place (Ka.); bedega_r-a a sensual, lewd man; bedega_rti a lewd woman, a harlot; ben, bisu heat (Ka.); benni_r hot water (Ka.); venni_r (Te.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) venni_r hot water (Par..a. 51)(Ta.lex.) vet.t.e, et.t.e heat (Ka.); vet.t.e (Te.); vet.t.ai (Ma.Ta.); ve_d.i, ve_n.d.ra (Te.); vet.t.e-bhu_mi a hot, i.e. strengthless, poor soil (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vet.t.ai heat (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 14); passion, lust (Tan-ippa_. i,195,10)(Ta.lex.) vetuppam warmth, moderate heat; vetuppu-tal to warm, heat gently (Ta_yu. Civan-ceyal. 5); to make red-hot (Tacaiva_. 113); vetuvetuppu lukewarmness, warmth; ventippu heat; anger (Tiruppu. 136); ventai anything cooked in steam (Pur-ana_. 246); meal-cake (Kantapu. Ta_n-appa. 8) (Ta.lex.)

6792.Boat: pin.d.ika_ a boat (Jain.Skt.)

6793.Myrrh: pin.d.aka, pin.d.a incense, myrrh (Ka.Skt.lex.) pin.ya_ka incense (Ka.Skt.lex.) pin.t.i-va_l.am, pin.t.iva_l.akam Indian olibanum (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) ?pin.d.i-taila (Skt.)

6794.Bdellium; gum, exudation: vet.i fragrant incense (Pin..); good smell, perfume (W.); vet.i-p-pantu-c-cen.t.u a ball of flowers; vet.ippu bad smell (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ve_s.t.a exudation, gum; resin (Ka.); s'a_lmali_-ve_s.t.a the gum of the silk-cotton tree; s'rive_s.t.a the resin of pinus longifolia, turpentine (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ve_s.t.akam gum (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ve_s.t.anam bdellium; ve_s.t.a, ve_s.t.aka gum, exudation; turpentine (Skt.lex.) vet.t.u-tal to cut as with a sword or axe; to cut off (Te_va_. 369,2); vet.t.u-maruntu medicinal herbs, roots, barks etc. as obtained by cutting (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) Incense: ve_t.t.am gum; essence (Ta.); ve_t.itam unpleasant smell, as in boiling medicinal plants (W.)(Ta.); va_t.ai medicine (Pin..); ve_sa-va_ra a particular condiment (consisting of ground coriander, mustard, pepper, ginge etc.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ve_s.t.aka resin, gum; an.t.u (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vit.ivu incense, nar-umpukai (Ta.lex.) vintam purified camphor (Aru. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) pin.d.i, nahani_ya-pin.d.i ball of fragrant soap (Pali.lex.) va_t.ai smell (Ta.lex.) Drug: vr.s.a, vr.s.abha a particular drug (Ka.Skt.lex.) An unguent: vat.t.ikai circle [cf. vat.t.u anything round]; one of na_lvakai-c-ca_ntu (Ta.lex.) vat.ikke, val.ige a small lump or roundish mass, a ball, a bolus, a pill (Ka.lex.) Scent: va_t.ai fume, scent (Ta.); va_t.a scent of dogs (Ma.); va_d.a smell (Te.); ba~_r.na_ to perceive as by sniffing, scent, discover or track by the smell (Kur.)(DEDR 5343). Unguent: vat.t.ikai an unguent, one of na_l-vakai-c-ca_ntu (ci_tavat.t.ikai va_riva_ri ... ir-aippa : Iraku. Va_ku. 44; Pin..)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.u-k-karuppukkat.t.i, vat.t.ukkaruppat.t.i large ball of jaggery (W.); vat.t.u candied sugar (Ilak. Aka.); vat.t.a-maram turning pole of an oil-press (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.appa_r-ai round, flat stone for triturating sandalwood (Tiruva_lava_. 51,6)(Ta.lex.) varti an ointment, a perfume for the person (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) varti, varti_ an unguent, ointment, eye-salve, collyrium or any cosmetic (in the form of a ball or pill)(Skt.lex.) cf. va_t.ai fume, scent (Ta.); va_d.a smell (Te.)(DEDR 5343). varttan:ki sappan-wood, cappan:ki; Malay sandal, ca_yamaram; vatte_kku < patra_n:ga sappan-wood (Ta.lex.) pat.an:kam, patan:kam sappan wood, cappan:ki; cappan:ki-c-ca_yam colour or dye from the root of c. (Ta.lex.) cappan:kam, cappan:ki sappan-wood, caesalpina sappan (Ta.); cappannam id. (Ma.); sappanga-mara id. (Ka.); cappanga id. (Tu.) Said to be < Malay sepang or Minangkabau sapang; but Hooker takes the tree to be native in India as well as in Malay isles. Hobson-Jobson suggests that the tree is indigenous in Malabar, Deccan and Malay Peninsula and the name Dravidian, whence Indonesia has borrowed. (DBIA.141). Sublimate; mercury; extracted essence of frankincense: patan:kam mercury; extracted essence of drugs, such as camphor, sulphur, gum, benzoin, etc., in the form of a shining semi-liquid body produced by sublimation. patan:kam-e_r-r-u to extract essence of drugs by sublimation; patan:ka-vaippu extraction of essences; essence of drugs extracted. (Ta.lex.) pat.an:ku extracted essence of frankincense, ca_mpira_n.i-p-pat.an:kam, a medicinal powder of solidified benzoin smoke; a smoke-perfume of frankincense (Ta.lex.)

6795.Image: tail standing upright: vet.i-ttal to stiffen and stand upright; to be raised, as a beast's tail (Aric. Pu. Viva_ka. 267)(Ta.lex.)

6796.Image: dice: vet.i a cant term in dice-play (Kantapu. Kayamukan-ur-. 167); vet.t.a_t.t.am a game of dice; vet.t.u to take away, remove, as a piece in chess and other games (Ta.lex.)

6797.Image: loud laugh: vet.i-cirippu side-splitting laughter, loud laugh (Cilap. 15,64, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ber-agu, beb amazement, astonishment, alarm (Ka.); ver-agu (Te.); ver-r-i madness (Te.); ver-i intoxication, fury (Ma.); ver-i, ver-uppu fear; confusion, perturbation, giddiness (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

6798.Image: food offered to deity: naive_dya offering of food to an idol (BhP.); nive_dya (MBh.); nivia invocation; nive_dayati offers (S'Br.); n.e_vejja, n.e_vijja food offered to a deity (Pkt.); nevaju, neju a kind of cake eaten cold on 7th day of dark half of S'ra_van.a (S.)(CDIAL 7606). vet.t.en-am ceremonial commencement of the festival of a village deity (Ta.lex.)

6799.Creator: ve_dha (Tadbhava of ve_dhas) an arranger, a creator; Brahma_, Vis.n.u (Ka.lex.) Wealth: ve_das acquisition, wealth; ja_ta-ve_das Agni; sarva-ve_das a man who gives away all his property to the priests employed by him at particular sacrifices (Ka.lex.) prative_dha intellectual penetration (BHSkt.); pratividhyati takes aim (RV.); hits (MBh.); pat.ive_dha insight (Pali); pil.ive_ understanding (Si.)(CDIAL 8597). cf. ve_takan- < bhe_daka one who transmutes or changes the nature of things; ve_tittal to cause change; to change, transmute as baser metals (Takkaya_kap. 217); ve_tu < bhe_da change (Tiruman. 2220) (Ta.lex.) ve_ta-mutalvan- God (Nar-. 1); Brahma_ (Cilap. 14,48); ve_tan- God (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 79)(Ta.lex.)

6800.Acquisition, wealth: ve_das acquisition, wealth; ve_tana, ve_te wages, hire; livelihood, subsistence (Ka.lex.)

6801.Reviving the scent of a perfume: ve_dha penetrating (Ka.lex.) ventittal to be united; to bind; ventippu bond, union (Tiruppu. 136, Note) (Ta.lex.) For semant. ve_dha in perfumery cf.: gandhayukti art of preparing different cosmetics and perfumery (Skt.lex.) "The six processes mentioned by Gan:ga_dhara (gandhasa_ra) are: (1) bha_vana infusion or saturating powders with fluid; (2) pa_cana ripening or decoction of materials after they have undergone the process of infusion (No.1 above); (3) bodha reviving the scent of a perfume with the help of aromatic ingredients acting as reviving agents; (4) vedha this process is a further development of No. 3 above. As the verses describing the process are textually defective I am unable to understand it properly; (4) dhu_pana fumigating with aromatic vapours of incense etc. and (6) va_sana scenting with the perfumes of flowers etc." (P. K. Gode, 'Indian Science of Cosmetics and Perfumery', Studies in Indian Cultural History, Vol. I, Hoshiarpur, Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, 1961, p. 7; loc. cit. gandhasa_ra of Gan:ga_dhara and gandhava_da (anonymous) with a commentary in Marathi, c. 500-1600 A.D.) ve_dhaka camphor (Skt.Ta.lex.) ve_tittal to smear, rub on, as sandal paste (Ci_vaka. 1081, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

6802.Firm soldering: bet.t.a-besage a firm soldering; besage soldering; besage ha_ku to solder (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: to join: par-r-a-vaittal to solder, weld together (Ta.); pattisu id (Ka.); par-r-a_cu solder; support, prop; refuge (I_t.u, 8,9,1)(Ta.lex.) par-r-utal to become joined or welded together, as metals soldered; par-r-in-ar relations; friends, adherants, allies; par-r-un-ar friends (Ta.lex.) To plaster: par-r-u to stick; paste, solder (Ta.); adhesion (Ma.); par-r-ikka to fix, join, paste (Ma.); ot- to stick to (To.); partu, pattu to stick to, adhere, be united, join (Ka.); pattisu to cause to adher or join, affix, etc. (Ka.); pattuni to adhere, stick (Tu.); haccuni to fix, paste or glue on, plaster, smear (Tu.)(DEDR 4034). paht.a_, paiht.a_, pait.a_, pa_t.a_ long stick for smoothing plaster (Bi.)(CDIAL 8480). praghars.ati rubs to pieces (Kaus'.); pagham.sai, pagham.san.a rubbing again and again (Pkt.); pa_sinava_, pa_hinava_ to pound, clean rice by pounding, grind, bruise, cut (Si.)(CDIAL 8483). cf. pu_cu to besmear, plaster (Ta.); pu~_ta smearing (Te.)(DEDR 4352).

6803.Image: hunter: ve_t.t.a-k-kat.a_ ram trained for hunting (Ta.lex.); cf. xar. ram (Br.)(DEDR 1123). ve_t.an- hunter, fowler (Ta.); man of the pa_lai tract (Ta.lex.); ve_t.t.uvan- fowler, hunter (Ta.)(Kur-al., 274); man of the kurici tract (Tol. Po. 21)(Ta.lex.); ve_t.an id. (Ma.); be_d.a huntsman (To.); be_d.ave fowler (Tu.); ve_t.a hunting (Nk.Go.Kond.a.); ve~_t.a, ven.t.a id. (Te.); be_t.a id. (Kuwi); be_t. (Pe.Mand..); ve_t. (Or.)(DEDR 5527). Hunting: ve_t.t.am hunting, chase (Ta.); ve_t.t.a id. (Ma.); be_t.e, be_n.t.e id. (Ka.); ve_t.u hunting, hunter (Ta.); ve.r.n. id. (Ko.); be_d.a id. (Ka.); ve_t.ari id. (Te.); ve.t. hunting (Ko.); be_t.a id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5527). ve_t.t.u the occupation of hunting (Tol. Po. 21, Urai.); ve_t.t.am hunting, chase (Akana_. 182); ve_t.a (Ka.Te.); ve_t.t.a (M.); ve_t.t.ai hunt, game killed in hunting (Tiruva_lava_. 44,38); ve_t.uvan- hunter (Te_va_. 485,4); ve_t.u hunting (Akana_. 318); be_d.a (Ka.); ve_t.u the caste of hunters (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-mu. 47)(Ta.lex.) vimjha hunter (Pkt.); wenj- to hit (Pas'.)(CDIAL 11785).

6804.Image: elephant: ve_dan.d.a, ve_tan.d.a an elephant (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ve_r..am elephant (Ta.lex.)

6805.Images: boring; hole; vulva: ve_dha, bejja piercing, penetrating, boring, perforation; a hole, an excavation (Ka.lex.) bejja, ejja, yajja, vejja (Tadbhava of ve_dha) a perforation, a boe, a hole, in a gem etc.; the eye of a needle (Ka.lex.) ve_dha penetration, hole (VarBr.S.); hitting the mark (MBh.); prick, wound (Pali); ve_ha boring, hole (Pkt.); veh, beh (P.); beh (H.); veh (G.)(CDIAL 12108). Image: perforated: ve_dhya to be pierced or perforated; a mark for shooting at , a bull, a target (Ka.lex.) cf. ve_dhanike a borer, an auger, a gimlet, an awl (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) ve_ttiyam mark, sign (Ta.lex.) vya_dhin piercing (VS.)(CDIAL 12199). udviddha tossed up (MBh.); uvviddha, uvvi_d.ha thrown up, pierced, deep (Pkt.); ubi_dha_ sunk, pierced; ubi_dhna_ to pierce, sink, be entangled (H.)(CDIAL 2088). nirvidhyati pierces (RV.); nirviddha wounded (R.); separated (MBh.); nibbe_dhe_ti pierces (Pali); nibehna_ to release, separate (H.)(CDIAL 7402). nividhyati kills, throws down; nividdha (RV.); n.ividdha cast-down (Pkt.); uvvihai throws up (Pkt.); nihn.a_ to kill, take under (P.)(CDIAL 7423). vyadh pierce (Skt.); ve_dhya to be pierced (of a vein)(Car.); mark for shooting (Ma_rkP.); vejjha to be pierced (Pkt.); bejha butt for archers (OAw.); bejha_ (H.); vejha hole, opening (OM.); vej, veje~ eye (of needle), bore (in gem)(M.); vyadh pierce (Skt.)(CDIAL 12110). vaidhanika_, a_spho_t.ani_ are synonyms for a gimlet or auger (Amarako_s'a, X.34). vyadho_ be_dha are synonyms for perforation, piercing (Amarako_s'a. III.III. 8). buddi_ vulva (L.)(CDIAL 9275). ve_dhana piercing, perforation; matsya-ve_dhana a fish-hook; ve_dhanike a borer, an auger, a gimlet, an awl; ve_dhi piercing; hitting a mark; a butt, a target; ve_dhita pierced, perforated; ve_dhya to be pierced or perforated; a mark for shooting at, a butt, a target (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Image: perforation: bejja, ejja, yajja, vejja (Tadbhava of ve_dha) a perforation, a bore, a hole, in a gem etc.; the eye of a needle etc. (Ka.); ve_ja (M.); be_gad.e a bore, a hole, as in a gem (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vejha hole, opening (OM.)(CDIAL 12110). Perforating: ve_titam perforating, drilling; tube (Ta.lex.) < ve_dhita. ve_tin-am saw (Cilap. 14,176) <? ve_dhana; ve_tan-i an instrument for perforating elephant's ear; ve_tai drilling, boring (Ta.lex.) To thread, pierce: benda (bendi-) to thread, pierce (Kui); pet- (-it-), pett-to fix, attach; petali to thread; pend- (-it-) to be threaded; pet- (-it-) to attach to thread (Kuwi) (DEDR 4403). ve_dhana piercing (MBh.Pali); ve_han.a (Pkt.); ve_hai pierces (Pkt.); wi_ to beat (Ash.); we_, wi to beat, cut grain (Wg.); wi_ne to beat (Ash.); wi_noi (Wg.); wenye_ (Kt.); vyadh pierce (Skt.); vya_dhin piercing (VS.)(CDIAL 12109). cf. bedhna_ to pierce (H.)(CDIAL 11739). Chisel: vim.dhai pierces (Pkt.); vindhan.u to bore pearls (S.); vinnhn.a_, binnhana_ to pierce (P.); binnhn.a_, bindhn.o~_ to drill holes (WPah.); bindhiba to pierce (A.); bi~dha_ (B.); bindhiba_ to pierce, gore, shoot an arrow; to ache (Or.); bindhab to pierce (Mth.); bi~dhna_ (H.); bi~dhna_, be~dhna_ to be pierced (H.); vi~dhvu~ (G.); vi~dhn.e~ (M.); vindta_ (Konkan.i); vim.dhan.a piercing (Pkt.); bindhan.a mutual drawing together during coition; bindhana_ given to goring; chisel (Or.); vi~dhn.u~ chisel (G.); hi~dan. butt for shooting at (M.); vi~dhn.e~ chisel (M.); bindha hole; bindha_ goring, ache or boils (Or.); vi~dhu~ hole; vi~dha_ro borer (G.); vi~dh perforation, bore (M.); vi~dhi_ small perforation (M.); vi~dhru~ (M.)(CDIAL 11784). Awl: bi_r awl (Bshk.)(CDIAL 11756). cf. bindu dot (Skt.lex.) vidhyati pierces, affects, drives away (RV.); vijjhati pierces, shoots with an arrow; vijjhana (Pali); vijam.ti they wound (NiDoc.); vijitaga a wound (NiDoc.); vijjhai pierces (Pkt.); vijhan.u to throw down, put in, sheathe; pp. vidho (S.); ca_-vijhan to attach to, apply (L.); bijhnu to pierce (of a thorn)(N.); bijha_unu to prick (N.); bi~jhal weevil-eaten (Bi.); bi~jhna_ to tear up earth with horns and hoofs (of a bull)(H.); vidinava_ to pierce, bore through, shoot; pp. vidi, caus. viddanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11759). vidhyate_ is pierced (MBh.); vijjhati is pierced (Pali); bijoiki to be lying down, be split, be lost; pp. bido (Sh.); bi_jhna_ to be worm-eaten (H.)(CDIAL 11760). vidhyama_na being pierced (Skt.); vijjhama_na being shot (Pali); vidamana perforation, hole, archery (Si.)(CDIAL 11761). ve_s.t.ai mortification, annoyance (C.G.)(Ta.); ve_s.at.a (Te.)(Ta.lex.) viddha pierced, wounded (AV.); thrown (Skt.); pierced (Pali.Pkt.); viddhai pierces (Pkt.); wid to fear (Wg.); bi_do pp. of bijoiki to be lying down, be lost (Sh.); vidho pp. of vijhan.u to pierce (S.); vidhn.a_ to be pierced (P.); bidha_ blow with fist (Or.); bi_dhna_ to pierce, caus. bidha_na_ (H.); bidhn.o to pierce, pass. bidhin.o (Ku.); abi_dha unpierced (OMarw.); vi_dhu~ hole (G.); vidi pierced; vit-a hole (Si.); vedhan.u to pierce (S.); bedhn.o (Ku.); bedhnu to penetrate, overlap (N.); bedhna_ to pierce (H.); vedhvu~ (G.); vedhn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 11739). viddhi act of piercing (Pa_n..com.); vit shooting, archery (Si.)(CDIAL 11740). cf. s'va_vidh porcupine (AV.)(CDIAL 12766). Image: to bore: pat.i to prick, to bore as the ears; to insert in the flesh, to offer in sacrifice; amem pat.i akana have your ears been bored? pat.i tapena it is bored through (Santali.lex.) Image: a tool for making impressions: bet.t.u a tool for making impressions (Ka.); bha_n.d.a any implement, tool, instrument (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) An item of paraphernalia: vat.t.il an item of paraphernalia (Te_va_. 692,7)(Ta.lex.) Image: to engrave any hard substance; to impress; to stamp a coin: bet.t.u to cause to enter firmly, to strike forcibly into, to impress, to stamp, to coin (Ka.); be_t.an.e_m to impress or hammer down; to take an impression or stamp (Ka.); vet.t.u to cut with a sword, etc.; to dig a well; to engrave any hard substance (Ta.); a blow, a stroke, cut (Ma.); ve_t.u id. (Te.)(Ka.lex.) vet.t.i-c-co_r-u an ancient tax (Ta.inscr.); vet.t.i-k-ka_cu an ancient tax (I.M.P.Cg. 1068); vet.t.i-p-pa_t.t.am an ancient tax (Ta.inscr.); vet.t.i-p-put.avai an ancient tax (S.I.I. i,91); vet.t.i-ve_tin-ai an ancient tax (I.M.P.Tj. 94); vet.t.ivari an ancient tax (S.I.I. i,81)(Ta.lex.) Tool for making impressions: bet.t.u tool for making impressions; to cause to enter firmly, strike forcibly into, impress, stamp, coin (Ka.); vet. cut, mark of a cut (Ko.); bet.t.uni to cut, circumcise (Tu.); bot.t.uni to beat as a drum, hammer as metal (Tu.); vet.t.u blow, engraving (Ma.); to cut as with sword or axe, engrave; cutting, wound, engraving (Ta.)(DEDR 5478). Engraving; an ancient small coin: vet.t.u an ancient small coin; engraving (Ta.lex.)

6806.Hard: bet.t.a-be_sage a severe hot season; bet.t.a, bit.t.i, bet.t.i, bet.t.u, bet.t.e, vet.t.e firmness, hardness, excessive hardness of metals, harshness, rudeness etc.; bet.t.ane with harshness, force, fierceness, vehemence; bet.t.i, et.t.i a rude person, a plague; bet.t.i cinna hard, unpliant (brittle) gold; bet.t.e-bel.l.i hard, unpliant (brittle) silver); bet.t.itu that which is hard, firm, strong, stiff, harsh, fierce, rough, rude, difficult; bet.t.u-gon.t.a a firm peg or plug; bet.t.u-muri the state of stiffness, etc. being bent; downcast; bet.t.ad.ike a hard, round areca nut (Ka.); bet.t.umbor-e a hard, tight or heavy load; bet.t.uvet.t.ane with great harshness or severity (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6807.Time, turn: va_t.t.i time, turn (Ta.); ma_t.u (Te.); ma_t.t.u (Ka.) < ba_d.i (U.)(Ta.lex.) va_ra appointed time, one's turn (MBh.); one's appointed place (R.); day of the week (Gan.t.); time, turn (Pali.Pkt.); vara, varaya (NiDoc.); va_ra_ id.; va_ram.-va_ram. again and again (Pkt.); war (Ash.); wa_r (Wg.Pas'.K.); wa_r-wa_re~ by turns (Wg.); bara time, turn (Kho.); i bara once (Kho.); ba_r (K.Pers.); va_ra (S.); va_ri_, va_ro (S.G.); va_re again (S.); va_r attack, turn, course or layer of bricks (L.); stroke, layer of bricks (P.); turn, time, delay (G.); stated and recurring day for something to happen (M.); day of the week (L.M.G.); stated day, week (G.); va_r, ba_r occasion (P.); ba_ri turn, time (Ku.N.); ba_r (A.B.H.); day of the week (Ku.N.A.B.); ba_ra time, turn (OAw.); ba_ri_ (H.); ba_ra (OMarw.); va_ra time (OG.); va_r-va_r repeatedly (G.); vara, varu-va day-time, time, period of time; evara at that time (Si.); wa_r day of the week (K.); va_ru id. (S.)(CDIAL 11547). To wrap, fold; roll into a ball: bat.ya_y to wrap (Dm.); bat.t.nu_ to fold, roll up (cloth)(WPah.); vat.t.e_i, vattai rolls into a ball, covers (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11356). Potter's wheel: vat.t.am potter's wheel; wheel of a cart; circle, circular form, ring-like shape (Tol. Col. 402, Urai); halo round the sun or moon, a karantur-ai-ko_l. (Cilap. 10,102, Urai) = phenomena of the heavens, sometimes visible and sometimes not, for the most part regarded as ominous (Perun.. Ucaik. 58,57); turn, revolution; cycle of a planet; circular course, as of a horse; scale-pan (Tiruman.. 1781); a kind of pearl (S.S.I. I.ii,22); curve, bend; a boomerang; vat.t.i- to be round in shape; to revolve; to move round and round (Akana_. 218); vat.t.ikai circumference, as of a town; circle; vat.t.ippu circle; vat.t.ai felloe, rim of a wheel (Cilap. 29, Uraippa_t.t.u mat.ai); car, chariot; vat.t.am-it.u to be round or globular (Tanippa_. i,260,1); vat.t.an.ai circle, circular form (Te_va_. 507,2); globe, hall; circular course; vat.t.an.ippu roundness, circularity (Tiruvirut. 57, Vya_. Pak. 318); vat.t.er..uttu an ancient Tamil script (I.M.P.)(Ta.lex.) vr.tta turned (RV.); rounded (S'Br.); vat.t.a round; circle (Pali); round (Pkt.); vatta-, vitta-, vutta- id. (Pkt.); vat. anything twisted (L.); vat.a round; vat.a-ya circle, girth (esp. of trees)(Si.); va round (Md.)(CDIAL 12069). vat.t.ula round (Pali.Pkt.); vattula (Pkt.); vartula round, globular (BhP.)(CDIAL 11365).

6808.Spade: vet.t.i spade (Ta.Ma.); vat.t.i (Te.); bat.t.e id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

6809.Army of swordsmen: vet.t.uppat.ai army of swordsmen (Ta.lex.) vel.va_l. shining sword (Pu. Ve. 8,27, Kol.u.) vet.t.u-k-katti cleaver, chopper; vet.t.ukkuttu fighting with sharp weapons; vet.t.uva_l. a kind of chopper; vet.t.e_r-u a weapon (Ta.); bit.t.e_r-u id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

6814.Image: boat: ve_t.ai boat, vessel; pe_t.a_ raft, float (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) bhe_la, bhe_laka a boat, raft; bhe_d.a a raft, float (Skt.lex.) be_d.e a boat; ve_d.e id. (Ka.lex.) bhe_laa, bhe_li_, bhe_d.aka boat (Pkt.); bhela_ raft (B.); bhel.a_ (Or.); be_d.a_ boat (Skt.); ve_d.a_, ve_t.i_ (Skt.); bhe_d.a, bhe_la, bhe_laka (Skt.); be_d.a, be.d.aya, be_d.a_, be_d.i_, be_d.iya_ boat (Pkt.); bero (Gypsy); ber.o, ber.i_ small boat (S.); be_r.a_ large carge boat (L.); be_r.i_ boat (L.); ber.a_, ber.i_ (P.); ber.o boat, raft (Ku.); ber.a_ (N.); bed.a_ (OAw.); ber.a_ (H.); ber.o, ber.i (G.); bed.a_ (M.); ve_d.a boat (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9308). Raft, float: pe_t.a_ < be_d.a_ raft, float, teppam (Ta.lex.) Ship; prow: pad.agu, pad.an:gu, had.aga, had.agu a ship, a large boat, a proa or prow (Ka.); pad.ave (Te.); pad.aku (Ta.Ma.); pad.avu (Ta.Ma.); ad.agu, pad.a_vu (Tu.); pad.a a boat (Tu.); pad.agi_ a small kind of canoe (M.); pad.a_va a kind of boat (M.H.); pervad.agu a large ship (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pad.a boat (Tu.); pad.a_v a kind of boat carrying from five to twenty (M.); pat.aku small boat; dhoney, large boat (Ta.); ship, large boat (Ma.); pat.avu small boat (Ta.); boat (Tu.); large boat, ship (Ma.); pat.uvai raft, float (Ta.); pad.agu, pad.angu, pad.ahu, had.aga, had.agu large boat, ship (Ka.); had.aga, ad.agu ship (Tu.); pad.ava boat (Te.); pat.aka ship, large boat (Ma.)(DEDR 3838). pat.uvai raft, float (Vaira_k. Ti_pa. 18)(Ta.); pat.t.am boat, coracle (Ta. cf. po_ta Ta.lex.) Boat, coracle: pat.aku small boat, dhoney, large boat; pat.avu small boat (Tiruva_ca. 43,3); pat.avan- boatman (Tiruppo_. Can. Pil.l.ait. Mut. 4)(Ta.lex.) Image: ferry: pa_tani_ ferryman (B.); pat.t.ana city, harbour, port (Pali); pat.t.an.a id. (Pkt.); pat.una town, harbour, seaport (Si.); patan.u ferry; ferry boat (S.); patan., pattan ferry (L.); pattan. ferry, landing-place; pattan.i, pattun.i_ ferryman, one who lives near a ferry (P.); pat.ni_, pa_t.auni_, pa_t.u_ni_ ferryman (H.)(CDIAL 7705). pat.t.am boat, coracle; pat.t.an-am sea-port town; pat.t.i float, raft; pat.t.ikai raft, float; boat, dhoney; pat.t.in-acce_ri hamlet of fishermen; pat.t.in-avan- fisherman, as dwelling in a maritime town (Cilap. 5,25, Urai)(Ta.); pat.t.in-appa_kkam the part of Ka_viri-p- pu_mpat.t.in-am away from the sea occupied by its king and nobles (Cilap. 5,58)(Ta.lex.) Boat: padav a simple cargo sail craft used on the west coast of India... 7 to 10 metres long, of 40 to 120 khandis capacity (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 162; p.166). Boat: badan a sail boat of Aden. battela a cabined punt-like river boat, with paddles or oars and upturned ends in use on the lower Indua. cf. seal design from Mohenjo-daro showing a river (?) boat... Indus boats are traditionally made of deodar wood obtainable upstream of the rivers... the craft have lateen sails or square sails; sometimes imported teak is also used (Dales, 1968, 'The South Asia Section', Expedition, 11: 38-45, 1968; Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 162; p.180). battal.ike, pattal.ike a quiver (Ka.lex.) pat.t.at.ai plank used for crossing a channel (W.)(Ta.); pattal a wooden bucket (Patir-r-up. 19,23); pattar wooden trough for feeding animals (Na_lat.i, 257); pat.t.an.am < pat.t.an.a coastal town; patta_n-aitti_vu, patta_n-ai Patana, a country near Siam (W.)(Ta.lex.) Boat: vattal < batel (Port.) small boat (Ta.); vatte_l (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) patta_cu boat (Ci_tak.); pathma_r (Konkan.i)(Ta.lex.) Boat; rib of a boat: pa_daraka the rib of a boat; pa_da_linda, pa_da_linda_, pa_da_lindi_ a boat; pa_ra-gata one who has gone to the other side or shore; pa_raka enabling to cross (Skt.lex.) pad.avu a vessel (Tu.lex.) pa_t.i a small boat, a trough (Tu.lex.) pa_d.o an oil vessel (Tu.lex.)

6810.Image: octopus: ver.ha_ octopus, said to be found in the Indus (Jat.ki lexicon of A. Jukes, 1900). bera biru round about in all directions; ber. a method of catchiing fish throwing nets from all sides, or surrounding them by stake nets (Santali.lex.) Encircling: ven.t.an.isu to encircle; to beset, to cover; to pervade, to go everywhere; to occupy; to be encircled or surrounded (Ka.); ve_t.a_l.an.e_m., ve_d.han.e_m. (M.)(Ka.lex.) ve_s.t.ita surrounded, encompassed, enclosed, encircled, enveloped, bound or wound round, wrapped up; ve_s.t.a, ve_d.e surrounding, enclosing; a halo round the sun or moon; prave_s.t.ana covering over, encompassing, surrounding (Ka.lex.) ved.d.aysu, ve_d.aysu, ve_d.ayisu (Tadbhava of ve_s.t.isu) to surround, to enclose, to encompass; to hem in, to secure (Ka.); ve_d.han.e_m. (M.)(Ka.lex.) ve_s.t.anaka a particular position in copulation; ve_s.t.anam encompassing, encircling, surrounding; coiling round, twisting round; a turban tiara (Skt.lex.) Encircling: ber. roll, fence, enclosure (B.); ver.hu encircling (S.); ver.h, vehr. fencing, enclosure in jungle with a hedge, blockade (L.); ber. fence, enclosure (B.); ber.ha girth, fence round young trees; ber.h, ber., ber.ha_, ber.a_ enclosure, cattle surrounded and carried off by force (H.); ved.ho circumference (M.)(CDIAL 12130). ve_t.t.itam < ve_s.t.ita surrounding; that which is surrounded (Ilak. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_li fence (Ta.)(DEDR 5538).

6811.Image: span: ber. distance between the thumb and little finger when stretched; round timber is measured by the ber. (santali.lex.) cf. betta, bettu, bette_d.u a handbreadth, measure of four finger-breadths (Ta.); bitta a span (Pa.); vet. breadth of four fingers (DEDR App. 61). cf. vitasti span (Skt.); bitta_ (H.)(CDIAL 11721).

6812.Daily wages: berhon daily wages paid in kind to agricultural workers (Santali.lex.) cf. ve_tana, ve_te hire, wages (Skt.Ka.); livelihood, subsistence (Ka.lex.) cf. ba_r..te living; prosperity; profit, advantage, use (Ka.lex.)

6813.Image: pack-cloth: vet.han.u pack-cloth (S.); bet.hana turban (MB.); ve_s.t.ana enclosing (Gr.S'r.); bandage, band (MBh.); ve_s.t.anaka a method of coitus (Skt.) vet.t.han.a wrappng; vet.t.han.aga turban (Pkt.); bet.an wrapper, envelope, cover (B.); bet.han washerman's ironing cloth (Bi.); cloth wrapper of a book (Bhoju.); pack-cloth, wrapper (H.); ve_t.hana wrap, turban (Pali); ve_d.han.a wrapping (Pkt.); bel.ini swaddling clothes (Kho.); wurunu bedclothes, quilt (K.); beran act of surrounding (A.); ber.han.a, ber.han.i girth, circumference, fencing, small cloth worn by woman (Or.)(CDIAL 12131). ve_s.t.i < ve_s.t.a man's cloth (Ta.); ves.t.uva_ (Te.)(Ta.lex.) ve_s.t.ayati wraps up, encloses, surrounds (TBr.); ve_s.t.ate_ clings to (AV.); vet.t.hida wrapped up (Pkt.); vet.hn.e~ to tie (M.); vet.he_ti surrounds, wraps (Pali); ved.he_i, ved.hai wraps up (Pkt.); bel.ik (Kho.); wurun to wrap oneself up in bedclothes, cover (K.); ver.han. to wind, bandage, bind, surround (L.); ber.n.o to fence in, enclose (Ku.); bernu to roll, fold up (N.); beriba to surround (with fence or wall)(A.); ber.a_ (B.); ber.hiba_ (Or.); ber.hab (Mth.); ber.hna_ to enclose, surround (H.); ved.hn.e~ to surround (M.)(CDIAL 12132). bhitti wall (Pali.lex.) Basket tied around with cloth: cf. pet.t.i box, chest, basket (Ta.); pe.d.y large basket tied around with cloth (To.); pet.t.ig chest, box (Tu.); pet.t.e id. (Te.)(DEDR 4388). cf. ve_li fence, hedge, wall (Ta.)(DEDR 5538). Garden; vicinity: vel.ata vicinity (Si.)(CDIAL 12117). vat.i garden (Ta.lex.) ve_lam garden (Ta.lex.); garden, grove (Skt.lex.) ve_li land (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 12); field; land measure = 6.74 acres; ve_li-p-payir plants grown in gardens; ve_li-k-ka_cu an ancient village-cess (S.I.I. iii,142); ve_li-p-payar-u an ancient tax in cash (S.I.I. i,89); ve_li-kat.t.u-tal to hedge, fence, as a field; to make a hedge or fence; ve_li-k-ka_l hedge, fence; fenced garden (Ta.lex.) cf. va_t.akai street; stable; region, district (S.I.I. iii,109)(Ta.); cf. va_t.ika_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vat.i wall; courtyard; house; village, hamlet; rest-house; enclosure, fenced place; yard, shed where firewood is stored for sale (Ta.lex.) vel.i-va_y-p-pat.ukai land adjacent to and outside the bund of a river or tank (Ta.lex.) vel.i-va_cal outer gate; open space in front of a house (Ta.lex.) Field: val.ai-v-al.a-ttal to measure a field; val.aivu circumference; house-premises; arch; valayam plot, garden plot (Cilap. 10,74); garden (Ta.lex.) Fence; wall: ve_li fence, hedge, wall (Ta.); hedge, fence (Ma.); ve.j fence (Ko.); pe.ly fence (To.); be_li fence, hedge (Ka.Tu.); be.li fence (Kod..); vel(u)gu fence, hedge, enclosure (Te.); veleg fence (Kol.); velum id. (Go.); velu_m, velum, elum, allum, velmi fencing (Go.); waluhta_na_ to fence (Go.); valla_na_ to be enclosed (Go.); velgu go_d.a compound wall (Kond.a)(DEDR 5538). ve_li wall; custody, watch, guard; land (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 12); field; land measure = 6.74 acres; cowshed; village (Te_va_. 176,2); ve_li-k-kacu an ancient village cess (S.I.I.,iii,142); ve_li-k-ka_l hedge, fence; fenced garden; stake in hedging; ve_li-p-payar.u an ancient tax in cash (S.I.I., i,89)(Ta.lex.) Fortified place: ve_l.am fortified place where ladies of rank captured in war were kept as slaves by the Co_l.as (mi_n-avar ka_n-ampuka ... ve_l.ampuku mat.avi_r : Kalin.. 4; S.I.I. iii,21); quarters (S.I.I. ii,440); ve_l.am-e_r-r-u to confine ladies of rank captured in war, within a ve_l.am (S.I.I. iii,217) (Ta.lex.) vel.l.-a_tti maidservant, concubine (Ta.); id., slave girl, midwife (Ma.); vella_t.akatte harlot (Te.)(DEDR 5506). Image: circle; enclosing: bal.l.ada mara a cross piece of wood on the wheel of an idol car (Ka.lex.) belna_ central axle of driving wheel of spinning-wheel (Bi.)(CDIAL 12120). val.a_vu-tal to surround (Paripa_. 15,27; Kampara_. Te_re_r-u. 42)(Ta.lex.) ve_d.eya a circle described by a moving body; enclosing; an enclosure, a fence; a ring of troop of horses, or a circular motion of horses; ve_d.heya enclosing; ve_d.e surrounding, enclosing, encircling, blockading, blockade; anything that surrounds or encompasses, a ring, an enclosure, a fence (Ka.); ve_d.ha_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) ve_s.t.a band, noose; enclosure (Skt.)(CDIAL 12130). cf. valle noosed rope for tying cattle (Te.)(DEDR 5505). Region: val.ita, valita a circle, a district, a territory, a dependency (Ka.); van.ita (Te.); valita surrounded; moved; constrained, wrinkled; val. what covers or surrounds; val.i a wave; a wrinkle (Ka. lex.) cf. va_li_ a protector, a patron; a master (Ka.Ma.H.)(Ka.lex.) Administrative division: ven.t.he, ven.t.heya, van.t.ya, vet.ha, vet.a an administrative division; same as vis.aya, nirvr.tti, kot.t.am (EI 16.IE 8-4.ASLV.IEG.) [cf. ve_ntu kingdom (Ta.)(DEDR 5529)]. Revenue unit; granary: vat.t.am a revenue unit of a few villages; boundary, limit; part. each, every (S.I.I. ii,122,27); vat.t.an- each, every (S.I.I. ii,69,3); sect, tribe; circuit, surrounding area or region; vat.t.a_ram compound round a house; house; granary; vat.a_ramu id. (Te.); vat.ara id. (Ka.); vat.t.a_ra id. (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) vat.t.akai area, region (Cilap. 5,133, Urai); vat.t.a-man.iyam, vat.t.akai-man.iyam office of headman of a circle or group of villages; village headman; vat.t.a-ra_yacam revenue inspector's clerk (G.Tp.D. I,241); vat.t.am sheaves of paddy spread on a threshing-floor for being threshed; vat.t.am-po_t.u to spread sheaves of paddy on the threshing-floor for being threshed (Ta.lex.) va_t.a enclosed land (BhP.); enclosure (Pali); va_d.a fence (Pkt.); byer,byaru cattle-fold (Dm.); war. wall (Pas'.); wru enclosed space (K.); waji_ field (K.);[cf. wez alive, healthy (Pr.); va_ja vigour, strength (RV.)(CDIAL 11477)]; va_r.a_ enclosure, sheepfold (P.); ba_r.a_ enclosure, sheepfold (P.); enclosure (H.); ba_r.i wrestling match enclosure (WPah.); ba_r.o field near house (Ku.); ba_r boundary of field, hedge (N.); wall of house (A.); ba_r.i garden (B.); land adjoining house (Or.); ba_r.i_ garden land (Bi.); ground round house (Mth.); garden (Marw.); ba_r.a_ fence, side wall (Or.); ba_ri_ field (Mth.); garden (Bhoj.OAw.); ba_r. fence, hedge, line (H.); va_r.i_ garden (G.); va_d. fence (M.); va_d.a_ quarter of a town (-va_d.e~ in names of places)(M.); va_d.i_ garden (M.); vel-a field (Si.); Enclosure: va_d.i_, va_d.ia_ fence, garden (Pkt.); garden (M.); ba_r garden (Gypsy); bor hedge (Gypsy); bar, barya, bari garden (Gypsy); Cattle-fold: ba_r. goat-pen (Phal.); cow-pen (Pas'.); fence (P.); ba_d. fence, sheep-fold (Gaw.); ba_ sheep- or goat-pen (Sh.); wa_d., wa_r hedge round garden (K.); woru enclosed space, garden, cattle-yard (K.); va_r.o cattle-enclosure (S.); enclosure, courtyard (G.); va_r.i_ field of vegetables (S.); garden (L.G.P.); va_r.i fence, hedge (S.); va_r.i_ field of vegetables (S.); sheep-fold, melon patch (L.); garden (G.); va_r. fence (L.P.); fence (G.)(CDIAL 11480). Cattle-shed; fence: wa_tr wooden fence (Wg.); wo_tr hurdle (Kt.)(CDIAL 11565). watra~_t, utra~_t garden (Wg.)(CDIAL 11566). watrwo cattle-shed (Wg.Kt.); wet.e cattle-shed on hill pasture (Pr.)(CDIAL 11370). vati, vatika_ fence (Pali); vai, vii, vudi fence, hedge (Pkt.); bai fence, compound (Or.); wall (Ganjam.Or.); vai, vai_, vahi_ fence, enclosure (M.)(CDIAL 12068). [vr.ti hedge, fence, enclosed piece of ground (esp. for betel)(MBh.) (CDIAL 12068). cf. pa_t.am betel; ver-r--ilai betel pepper, piper betel (Ta.).] va_t.a, va_t.aka circle, enclosure (Pali); va_d.a, va_d.aga fence (Pkt.); Garden: va_t.i_ enclosed land (BhP.); va_t.ika_ enclosure, garden (Skt.); va_d.i_ garden (M.)(CDIAL 11480). va_t.t.am garden; street; way, road; va_t.t.iyam garden; house; va_t.akai region, district (S.I.I. iii,109); street; garden; stable; mud wall; va_t.ikai id.; resting place; va_t.i garden; wall; courtyard; house; fish-curing yard; village, hamlet; hut of bamboo and grass, of ka_n.i-k-ka_rar (G.Tn.D. I,7); enclosure, fenced place; yard, shed where firewood is stored for sale; va_t.i-va_cal entrance hall of a palace or mansion; va_t.i-ve_li the boundary line of a village; va_t.ai row of houses, as in a street; street; street, where herdsmen or hunters reside; village, hamlet (Ta.lex.) {The morpheme: -va_t.a gets suffixed in a number of specific cmpds. of semantic elaborations (CDIAL 11480): *a_va_t.a- [a_va_d., ava_d. an enclosure round a house, courtyard; a_d.a_ fence of quick trees (M.)(CDIAL 1426). aks.ava_t.a- [aks.apa_t.a wrestling ground (Skt.); a_khar.a_ id. (B.); a_kha_r.a_ id. (H.N.)(CDIAL 39)]; *agrava_t.a- [agva_r.a_, agva_r.i_ the space in front of a house (P.); agua_r, agua_ra_ (Bi.); agwa_r.a_ (H.); agva_r.u~ (G.)(CDIAL 80)]; *ajava_t.a/*aviva_t.a- [aiwa_ra_ shed for sheep, goats or cattle in jungle (H.)(CDIAL 154)]; *iks.uva_t.a- [ukha_ri land planted with sugar-cane (Bi.); ukha_r.i_ (H.)(CDIAL 1551)]; *ka_s.t.hava_t.a- [kat.hwa_r a wooden screen (N.)(CDIAL 3130)]; ks.apitava_t.a- [ks.apita lost (Skt.); khoya_ lost (H.)(CDIAL 3653); kho~ya_r., khu~ya_r. pound for stray animals, pen for cattle (B.)(CDIAL 3654)]; khalava_t.a- [khala threshing floor (Skt.)(CDIAL 3834); khalva_r.a_ threshing floor (L.P.); khala_r.a_ barn (L.); khalver.a_ threshing floor (P.); khal.va_d.i_ enclosed space containing several threshing floors; khal.eva_d.i_ id. (M.)[cf. khal.e~ pl. threshing floors (M.)(CDIAL 3843)]; gr.hava_t.i_- [land near a house (Skt.); gr.hava_t.ika_ id. (Skt.); ghewa_ri_ patch of land adjoining house (Bi.)(CDIAL 4243)]; go_va_t.a- [hurdle for cattle (Skt.); go_va_d.a id. (Pkt.); gu_wa_r station of herdsmen (K.); gua_r. temporary hut (WPah.); gwa_r. cattle shed (Ku.); gowa_ri_, gawa_ri_, gua_ri_ cowhouse, dwelling house, family (H.); guva_r.o cowshed (Marw.)(CDIAL 4327); go_va_sa abode of cows (MBh.); goa_s cattle enclosure (Mth.)(CDIAL 4328)]; cakrava_t.a- [boundary (Skt.); cakrava_la circle (MBh.BHSk.); cakrava_d.a a mountain range encircling the earth (Skt.); cakkava_l.a id. (Pali); cakkava_la circle (Pkt.); sakval.a the world (Si.)(CDIAL 4552)]; *ji_vava_t.i_- [(ji)val land granted for maintenance as reward for service (OSi.); divela id., pay (Si.)(CDIAL 5251); ji_vala full of life (AV.); jil life (Sh.); jiaro alive (S.); jilo livelihood (N.); jiva_l. living (G.)(CDIAL 5247)]; *dhe_nuva_t.a- [dhin.ua_r. sheep- and goat-pen in open fields (WPah.)(CDIAL 6878).] *pas'cava_t.a- [pachua_r, pichua_r the space behind a house (Bi.)(CDIAL 7998)]; *pra_ka_rava_t.a- [pa_ravd.a_ quarter of a village (M.)(CDIAL 8915)]; *phullava_t.ika_- [phulava_ri_ flower garden (OAw.); phulwa_r.i_ (poet.), phulwa_ri_ (H.)(CDIAL 9096)]; *bi_jadha_nyava_t.i_- [bihnaur seed-bed (H.)(CDIAL 9255)]; *bi_java_t.i_- [bi_ar., bia~_r seed-bed (H.); bia_r. seed-bed esp. for rice (N.)(CDIAL 9256)]; *bha_jyava_t.a- [bha_jvar. threshing floor (L.)(CDIAL 9439)]; *rasava_t.a- [raswa_r.o place where food is cooked and eaten (Ku.); rasor.u~ kitchen (G.)(CDIAL 10658)]; *ra_jyava_t.a-; *vam.s'ava_t.a- [ba~swa_r, ba~swa_ri_, basa_r, baser bamboo grove (Bi.); ba~swa_r.i_, baswa_r.i_, basaur (H.)(CDIAL 11179)]. Habitation; living; household; property: va_d.o habitation (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11480). ba.l.i way of life (Kod..); va_l.i regularity, order (Te.Ka.); vatukku improved condition, good circumstances (Ta.); va_r.. (-v-, -nt-) live life of a married woman, live according to a definite set of rules; n. regularity, order (Ta.); va_r..vu residing, residence (Ta.); va_r..kkai livelihood, living, lifetime, prosperity, wealth (Ta.); va_n.an- resident (Ta.); va_r..uka cultivate, rule, reign (Ma.); va_r..ikka to get a girl married, make to rule (Ma.); va_r..vu prosperity, happy life (Ma.); ba_r.., ba_r..u, barduku, bar..duku, bar..dun:ku, bardun:ku, baduku, badaku, badiku, badun:ku to live, be alive, subsist, make a livelihood, remain alive, revive, return to life; ba_r..(u) living, life, livelihood, state of living prosperously or happily, marriage, property; ba_r..ive, ba_r..ve, ba_r..ike, ba_r..ke, ba_r..te, ba_r..uvike, ba_r..vike living, life, livelihood, household; baduku, badaku, barduku living, life, livelihood, property, goods; badukisu, badikisu to cause to live, support, raise to life (Tu.); bar.. to live, begin to live prosperously (Ka.); ba.mane house into which bride marries; ba.ce act of living; ba.ke ku.d. (woman) marries; badik- (badiki-) to live, live happily; badiki property (Kod..); ba_l.uni to thirve, prosper, exist, subsist, last, endure; ba_l.ik, ba_l.k, ba_l.u, ba_l.uvik, ba_l.uv, ba_l.tara, ba_l.t, ba_l.v existence, subsistence, prosperity, thriving; badukuni to live, subsist, survive, recover; baduku living, livelihood, wealth, property (Tu.); b(r)atuku, b(r)aduku to live, subsist, survive; bratikincu to restore life to, revive, resuscitate; b(r)atuku life, existence, livelihood, subsistence; bradimi existence, living, livelihood (Te.); bat- (batt-) to live in a place; batkip- (batkipt-) to rear; badk- to subsist (Kol.); batt- to live; badkip- to make to live, bring up (Nk.); badk- to live (Pa.); badakto_r he lived (Go.); batki- (-t) to live, flourish; batku life, living, prosperity (Kond.a); ba_rti longevity, long life (Kui); batkali, batkinai to live; batku living; batk- (-it-) to get on well; batki ki- to make a good living, live happily (Kuwi)[Kod. barikati, Tu. barkatu prosperity < Urdu, Arabic barkat](DEDR 5372). va_r..ca cultivation, reign, government (Ma.); va_r..i a ruler (Ma.); pol.p way of living (To.)(DEDR 5372).

6815.Grant: pa_t.ai send, grant (Kon.lex.)

6816.Image: throne: pa_t.a_ throne (Kon.lex.)

6817.Image: back: pa_t.i back (Kon.lex.) Image: retreat: padra_d. flight, retreat (Tu.lex.)

6818.Image: twelve: padra_d.u twelve; pad- ten in cmpds. (Tu.lex.)

6819.Image: a particle, atom: padpu a particle, an atom; a dot (Tu.lex.)

6820.Plateau: padavu a plateau, a table land (Tu.lex.)

6821.Image: heifer: pa_d.i, pa_d.iye heifer; pa_d.o, pa_d.ya_ bull; pa_d.ki, pa_d.ke small young cow; pa_d.ko, pa_d.kya_ young bull (Kon.lex.)

6822.Image: goose: pa_t, pa_ta_ goose (Kon.lex.)

6823.Tent, awning, curtain: pat.an:ku tent, awning, curtain (Ta.); pat.an:kam tent (Ta.); pat.an.n.u tent, awning (Ma.)(DEDR 3839). cf. pa_l sail (A.)(CDIAL 7967). cf. pa_r-u ship, sailing ship (Ta.); small boat, catamaran (Ma.)(DEDR 4120).

6824.Lotus: vintam lotus (Na_mati_pa. 59); < aravinda (Skt.); vin.t.ukam lotus (Ta.lex.)

6744.Image: seat: ped.hi_ seat, throne (M.G.); ped.ha (Pkt.); pi_t.ha (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 365). Image: seat: vr.s.i the seat of a religious student, a kind of seat or cushion made of kus'a grass wound into a pad, the seat or cushion of an ascetic (Ka.Skt.lex.) cf. r.s.i inspired singer (RV.); isi (Pali.Pkt.); risi (Pkt.); ris.aya (NWPk.Khot.); ras.aya (Khot.); ras'ai priest, monk, schoolmaster (Gypsy); isi, ihi (Si.)(CDIAL 2460). vit.t.aram < vis.t.ara seat for the use of ascetics; seat (Na_mati_pa. 445)(Ta.lex.) br.si_ roll of twisted grass, cushion (S'rS.); bhisi cushion, pad (Pali); bhisika_ small cushion, pad (Pali); bisi_, busi_, vusi_, bhisi_, bhisia_ a sort of seat, ascetic's seat (Pkt.); bissa, bisi, bihi bundle of straw at door to wipe feet on, clod thickly overgrown with grass, ascetic's seat (Si.) (CDIAL 9301). Sacrificial platform: ve_ti low platform within a house, for sacrifices, weddings, etc. (Pa_rata. Tirel.a. 91); ve_tikai platform, pial (Cilap. 5,148); marriage dais; stool, pedestal; altar, raised platform for oblation of rice, etc., in temples; place of worship; ve_ti outer wall of a fortification; compound wall; sacrificial pit (Ta.lex.) ve_di, ve_dike a raised square piece of ground in the centre of a house or temple (Skt.Ka.); a quadrangular seat of earth; a seat, jagali, jaguli (Ka.lex.) ve_di an altar (Ka.lex.) Mound, platform, dwelling: me_t.ai artificial mound, platform, raised floor, terraced house (Ta.); me_r.a mide terraced building (Kond.a); med.aya whitewashed storied house (Pkt.)(DEDR 4796b). ve_di raised piece of ground serving as an altar and usually strewed with kus'a grass (RV.); stand, bench (MBh.); platform for wedding ceremony (Skt.); ve_i, ve_ia_ platform (Pkt.); bei quadrangular frame of greenery forming platform on which ceremonial bathing of bride and bridegroom is performed (A.)(CDIAL 12107). me~r. raised bank between irrigated beds (Bi.)(CDIAL 10317). mit.ai platform for watching, loft in a corn-field; sexual union; bush, small shrub (Ta.lex.) men.t.a-ce_nu dry field (Te.Inscr.)(DEDR 5058)[cf. met.t.u-vari, met.t.u-ne_la]. me_ruve pile, pyramid, high top (Ka.); meruve an ornamental post near a gurji (Tu.); me_ruvu pyramid, cone (Te.)(DEDR 5094); meru- id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 10330); mede heap (Ka.); meda id. (Te.)(DEDR 5065). me_t.u rising ground (Ma.); me_d.u id. (Ka.); mit.t.u id. (Ka.); met.t.a raised or high ground (Te.); mit.t.a high ground (Te.)(DEDR 5058). mer.ha, mehr.a circular construction, mound (OA.)(CDIAL 10317).

6763.Image: protuberance: pin.d.ika, pin.d.ike a globular swelling or protuberance; the nave of a wheel (Ka.Skt.lex.) pitukkam protuberance; pitun:ku-tal to protrude (Te_va_. 56,10)(Ta.lex.) cf. pit.ai melting pot, crucible (Ta.lex.) cf. pid.aka small boil, pimple (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 8167). Image: ball, lump: pin.d.i small lump, small ball (Pali); platform (Or.); pin.d.a lump, clod, piece (RV.); mouthful, ball of rice, etc. (Gr.S'r.); lump, ball (Pali); lump (Or.); pin.d.aka lump (Sus'r.); alms-food (Pali); pin.a (Dhp.); pim.d.a, pim.d.aya ball, mass, part of the body (Pkt.); pi~_r. firestone (Pas'.); pim.d.i_ bunch (Pkt.); pim.d.iya_ ball, calf of leg (Pkt.); pin.d.alu globe, ball of string, etc. (Kho.); pend. lump; pinu lump or ball of anything; pini_ dregs, funeral obsequies performed by heir ten days after death (S.); pinn ball of rice or sugar (P.); pinna_ lump, bundle, body (L.); pinni_ ball, shin (L.); pinna_ ball of twine (P.); pi~r.o ball of flour (N.); pi~r.i seat on either side of door (N.)[cf. pi_t.ha stool, bench (Gr.S.Pali)(CDIAL 8222)]; pi~ri lump of earth taken with a plant for transplanting (A.); pin.d.ul.a_, pin.d.ul.i_, pin.d.ol.a_ lump of clay (Or.); pi~_r. embankment round a tank or between two reservoirs, rim of mud round edge of sugarmill (Bi.); pi~_r.i_ platform of lingam (Bi.); pi_r., pi~r.a_ lump (Mth.); Image: roller: pi~_d. roller (H.); pin.d.a_ lump (H.); pi~_d.o ball of thread (G.); pi~d.lo round lump of moistened clay or dough (G.); pi~d. ball (Ma.); pillu~ small ball of thread (G.); pi~d.a_ ball of thread (M.); pid.a lump, ball (Si.); pid.alla clod, sod (Si.)(CDIAL 8168). bet.i ball, lump (Si.); bet.t.a dung (Si.); bin.d.a ball of flour (Or.); bin.d.i round piece of stone used by a potter, corn, callosity (Or.); bi_t.a_ ball (Or.)(CDIAL 12045). Ball: un.d.uka net, chignon, part of the body (Skt.); umd.i_ anything round (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1699). < un.t.ai ball (Ta.); un.d.a (Ma.); un.d.e (Tu.Ka.) u~d.a_ lump of kneaded dough (M.); u~d.i_ little mass of boiled rice (M.); un.d.iya ball (Si.); un.d.e_ cannon-ball (Si. < un.t.ai (Ta.)(CDIAL 1699). Image: knob of an oven: in.d.a_ knob of an oven (Or.)(CDIAL 1559). in.d.o back of the hand (S.) (CDIAL 1559)[cf. protection of the hand by in.d.va two muja grass coverings.] Ball of boiled rice; cowherd: pin.t.am ball of boiled rice (pin.t.a me_ya peruco_r-r-u nilaiyum : Tol. Po. 63); ball of cooked rice, offered to the manes at a funeral ceremony or s'ra_ddha; collection, multitude, aggregate (Pur-ana_. 184)(Ta.lex.)

6825.Image: seated: cf. vis.t.a entered into (S'Br.); vit.t.ha come in, sitting down (Pkt.); bit.ha_na_ to cause to enter, thrust in, pierce; bit.ha_na_ to cause to be seated is deriv. of bait.hna_ (H.)(CDIAL 11986). Image: seat: pin.t.ikai seat, altar (Ta.); pin.d.ika_ id. (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) pin.d.ike a base or pedestal; a stool or seat of various shapes (Ka.lex.) cf. upavis.t.a (Skt.) vi_r-r--iru to sit in state majestically, sit with unique distinction, sit proudly (Ta.); ber-e to behave proudly or arrogantly, be haughty, conceited (Ka.); bi_runi to brag, boast, parade (Tu.); bu_t.uni to boast, brag (Tu.)(DEDR 5462). {Echo word: semant. 'pomp'}: ta_t.t.ikam < dha_rs.t.ika strong, pride (Ira_mana_. Uyu. 16)(Ta.); ta_t.t.i ostentation, majesty (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. dha_rs.t.ya boldness, violence (R.)(CDIAL 6799). cf. da_rd.hya hardness, firmness, strength (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 6302). ta_t.t.a_n- chief, master (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ta_t.t.u-p-pu_t.t.-en-al being pompous (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. that.t.a pomp, ceremony (Pkt.); t.ha_t.hu pomp (S.); t.hat.t.h (L.); t.hat.h (P.); t.ha_t. pomp, glory, property (Ku.); t.ha~_t. fashion (N.); t.ha_t. pomp, dignity (A.); affectation (B.); pomp, posture, fashion, goods (H.); that.n.e~ to act pompously (M.)(CDIAL 6090). dhvaja arrogance (Skt.); penis (Sus'r.); daza ostentatious pride (K.); dhaju dressed up (S.); dhaj style (P.); immense riches (Ku.); pomp (N.); style (H.G.M.)(CDIAL 6705).

6826.Image: face of an animal: bu_th, bu_thi_ mouth or face of an animal (L.); butha_r. face, mouth (L.); bu_th face of horse, camel etc.; bu_tha_, bu_thi_ mouth or snout of an animal (P.); buthu face; bu_thi_ lower part of face; bu_tha_r.i_ id. (contemptuous), muzzle for horse (K.); bu_est lip (Pas'.); bes, bustu_r., buster., bostar. (Pas'.); bo_star. (Shum.); bo_t (Gau.)(CDIAL 9299). vaktra mouth, face (MBh.); vatta mouth (Pali.Pkt.); vati~_ from the side of (M.)(CDIAL 11184). munduri snout; mud.ra id., upper lip (Kui); mu_ti beak, snout of pig (Kuwi); mudra face (Malt.); mu_tu beak (Kond.a); mutla snout of pig (Pe.); mundori snout; mundur beak; masso_r, mosor., mosor, mosok, mosor (obl. mosot.-), mosor(i) nose (Go.); mu_ti snout of pig (Ga.); muydur lip, snout of pig (Pa.); mu_ti mouth, beak (Nk.); mu_ndur snout; mu~_ti mouth; mu.ti mouth, beak (Kol.); mu_ti mouth; mut.t.e snout of hog, beak of bird (Te.); musun.t.u, musun.d.u face, snout, muzzle; mo_n. face, countenance, front of a house (Tu.); mu.d.i face (Kod..); mu_ti, mo_ti face, mouth, snout; musud.u, musad.i, musul.i id., muzzle, nose or nostrils of a horse; musumbu face (Ka.); mutuf nose; mo0s cheek; mu.net- affection, love; mu.n el- (et--) to like; mu.n (obl. mu.t-) face, front; mu.nor the front, place in front (To.); mo.nd face; mucl mouth-part of man, bird or animal, meeting place of two people on path (Ko.); mu_ccu, mucci, mui, moi, motti, mo_nta face (Ma.); mu_nci face; mu_cai pouting, sullen countenance; longish face, longish nose; mu_cur-u, mu_jeli muskrat (Ta.)(DEDR 5031).

6827.Image: creeper: vi_rudha plant (AV.); vi_rudh (RV.); vi_ruha a spreading creeper (Pkt.); birwa_ plant (P.); biruwa_ seedling (N.); birwa_i vegetable seedlings (Bi.); bi_ro, birwa_ small plant, shrub (H.)(CDIAL 12060). vi_t.i_ the betel plant, Piper betel (Skt.); vi_t.aka roll of betel (Skt.) < Poss. Drav. vetl betel leaf (Ko.); petel es. id. (To.); biri seeds of the creeper paederia foetida (used for cleaning teeth)(N.); bi_ri_ a substance for cleaning the teeth (OAw.)(CDIAL 12046). To sprout; climb: virad.hi_ f., virad.he~ pulse made to sprout by soaking in water (M.); birur.a_ wheat or pulse first soaked and then fried in oil (Ku.); viru_d.hn.e~ to mount, climb, grow vigorously (M.); varur. shoots of rice soaked in water (G.); viru_l.ha growing (Pali); viru_l.hi growth (Pali); viru_d.ha sprouted (S'Br.); grain that has begun to sprout (Sus'r.); virad.ha_, virad.a_ young tree sapling (M.)(CDIAL 11871). cf. vir..utu, vit.utu, vi_r.. aerial root of the banyan (Ta.); vir..utu air-root (Ma.); bi_r..al root that grows downwards from the branches of a banyan and other trees, pendent root (Ka.); u_d.a aerial root of banyan (Te.)(DEDR 5431).

6828.Creeper: vi_t.ikai, vi_t.i betel; roll of betel leaves with arecanut, spices and lime (Ta.lex.) bi_r..u creeper (Ka.); bu_l.i id.; (Kurub.); bu_ru id. (Tu.); i.l.e any creeping plant (Kod..)(DEDR 5460). cf. ba_ru betel (B.)(CDIAL 9213). ba_rui caste of betel-growers (B.)(CDIAL 9214). cf. vi_ruha_ a spreading creeper (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12060). ver-r-ila betel (Ma.); petil es- id. (To.); baccir id. (Tu.)(DEDR 5515). vi_t.i, i_l.ya, i_l.l.eya, vil.l.e, vil.l.eya, (vi_t.ike), vi_l.aya, (vi_l.ige), vi_l.e, vi_l.eya, vi_l.ya, vi_l.yaya, vi_l.ai, vi_l.l.eya the betel plant, piper betel; the leaf of piper betel, the roll of this leaf with betelnut, spices, and lime to be chewed (Ka.); vid.iye, vid.emu, vid.ya, vi_d.iya, vi_d.emu, vi_d.ya (Te.); vid.a_, vid.i_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6829.Image: creeper; betel: bi_ra_ roll of betel (OAw.); bi_r.i_ (H.); vi_t.aka (Skt.); vi_d.ia_ (Pkt.); vi_r.a_ (P.); bir.a_ roll of betel (B.Or.); biriya_ id. (A.Bi.); bi_r.a_ id. (P.G.H.); bir.u~ id. (G.); biro (N.); biria_ (MTh.); vid.a_ (M.): bi_d.aga, bi_d.i_ (Pkt.); bi_r.o (S.) bira_ betel-leaf (A.)(CDIAL 12045). bi_r..u creeper (Ka.); bu_l.i id. (Kurub.); bu_ru id. (Tu.); i.l.e any creeping plant (<*I_r..ay) (?Kod..)(DEDR 5460). Image: betel leaf: biri_ tobacco rolled in a leaf (A.)(CDIAL 12045). ba_ru betel leaf (Skt. <Austro-as.); betel (B.)(CDIAL 9213). ba_rui caste of betel growers (B.)(CDIAL 9214). [Austro-as.: -mb- > -m- in one stream; > -b- or -v- in another stream. (cf. bhe_d.- ~ me_n.d.-). The initial morpheme, tam- to collect, to heap, to pile up (Sora.lex.); the morpheme is prefixed generally to berna:n as in tam-berna:n-am 'according to thy word`. Perhaps a semantic connotation of 'consent or agreement`, attested in later-day tradition of exchanging ta_mbu_la in marriage contracts.] tambo_la betel leaf (Pkt.); tambo_li_ the plant (Pkt.); tambol (P.H.); tammol (P.); ta~bol (N.); tamol (N.H.); ta_mol (A.); ta~_bola_ (OB.); ta~_bul (B.); tambora (OAw.); tamor (H.); ta~bol. (G.); tambu_la (Pkt.); tambu_li_ (Pkt.); ta_bul.a, ta_mbal.a (Or.); tamu_l (OH.); ta~_bu_l. (M.); bulat (< tabul), tabala (Si.)(CDIAL 5776). [The transformation tambula > ver.r.-ila (bal.l.i = val.l.i) is perhaps influenced by bi_ra simply, just (Br.)(DEDR 5513) to emphasise a reference to the betel leaf without the usual accompaniment of areca nut. This attests to the possible antiquity of the morphemes: bira_ betel leaf (A.)(CDIAL 12045); ba_ru id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 9213).] ver-r-o_lai blank, unwritten ola; roll of palmyra leaf, worn in the ear-lobe, by women (Ta.lex.) Betel: vel.l.ilai betel leaf (Kampara_. Varaik. 49); vel.l.ilaippar-r-u bundle of betel leaves (S.I.I. iii,188); vel.l.ilai-y-amutu offering of betel, as to a deity (S.I.I. ii,128); vel.l.aikkot.i a variety of betel (G.Sm.D. I.i,215)(Ta.lex.) vel.l.at.ai betel (Kampara_. Ka_rka_n.. 29)(Ta.lex.) ve_l.aiyam betel leaves and areca nuts (Ta.); vi_laya id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

6830.Division; rule: vidha_ division (S'Br.); vidha_tr. arranger (RV.); a name of Brahma_ (MBh.); vidha_tar arranger (Pali); viha_u, vidha_ya (Pkt.); biha_i_ a spirit which by whispering alternatively sad and pleasing things in infants' ears causes them to cry and laugh in their sleep (H.)(CDIAL 11753). vidha_na arrangement, order (RV.); making (Mn.); arrangement (Pali); vidhanam., vidha_ne (As'.); viha_n.a (Pkt.); bhia_n.a construction, beginning, boiling of molasses to make syrup (Or.)(CDIAL 11754). vidhi rule (Gr.S'rS.); fate (MBh.); rule, fate (Pali); order (As'.); vihi rule, sort (Pkt.); beh-ma_ta_ fate (P.); bihi (A.Mth.); bi_h (Mth.); vihi (OG.)(CDIAL 11755). Image: canopy: vita_n-am canopy; collection, assemblage; sacrifice, oblation; prescribing, enjoining; arrangement (A_r-umukana_. 122); orderliness (Can.. Aka.); fate, destiny (Kur-al., 377, Man.akkut.a); vita_n-ittal to put up a canopy; to cover the roof of a building with ceiling cloth; to put up an ornamental covering to a marriage pavilion (Ci_vaka. 861); vita_n-ai village officer (Ta.); vida_na (Si.); viti injunction, ordinance, rule (Ce_tupu. Kavica. 3); positive rule, dist. fr. vilakku (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 116); method or mode of life; conduct (Te_va_. 667,1); fate, destiny (Tirukko_. 7); Brahma_; vitu Brahma_; Kube_ra, Vis.n.u; expiatory oblation; vitittal to appoint, direct, enact, enjoin (Kur-al.. Urai-ppa_yiram)(Ta.); vidisu (Ka.); vitittal to levy, as a fine; to decree; vititto_n- Brahma_; god; vitiyar ministers of state; generals of an army; writers; accountants; vitippu act of directing or appointing; injunction laid down in a treatise (Iraku. Campuka. 35)(Ta.lex.)

6831.Image: stand of water-jar, roll, head-pad: biriya_ coil of straw to put under a vessel (A.); bir.a_ id. (B.Or.); bi_t.ha_ pad on a woman's head for carrying a waterpot (Bi.); bi_t.ho id. (Mth.); bi_ round block of iron placed on an anvil (Bi.); bini_ pad put round the hump of a yoke-bullock (S.); bi~_d. coil of coarse rope in a well (P.); roll of grass (M.); bin.d.a_ head-pad (Or.); bi~r.o flat round mat of twisted rope (N.); bi~_r.o head-pad (Mth.); bi~r.uwa_ small roll of cloth (H.); bi~_r.a_ twist of grass (H.); bin.d.i roll of weeds (Or.); bindia circular roll of rags dipped in oil and fastened to end of a torch (Or.); en.d.vi_ hoop-shaped mat placed under head-burdens, circular mat under a huqa (P.); e~r.ua_ mat for head-burden (H.)(CDIAL 12045). vr.nta stand of water jar (Skt.)(CDIAL 12077). Roll of cloth, as a stand for a vessel: in.d.va two coverings made of muja grass to protect the hands from fire (S'Br.); in.d.uva, induva (Skt.); an.d.uva, an.d.uka a roll (of cloth, hairs, or the like)(Pali.); an.d.u_paka circular roll of cloth used as a stand for a vessel (Pali); innu_ hoop-shaped mat to put under a head-burden (P.); e~r.ua_ seat of hemp or grass (Aw.); i~_d.wa_, i~_d.huwa_ roll of grass or cloth to put under a head-burden (H.); i~d.uri_, i~_d.wi_ small roll of grass or cloth to put under a head-burden (H.); i~dua_ head mat (H.)(CDIAL 1559). u_nu ring used as a head-pad (S.)(CDIAL 1699); unnu_ hoop-shaped mat under a head-burden (L.); unnu~_ pad under a pitcher (L.); uno pad of rags or grass to plaster with (Ku.); u~d.han., u~d.hni_ headpad made of a circle of cloth (G.)(CDIAL 1699). Circlet of flowers: in.t.ai circlet of flowers, variety of garland (Ta.); in.t.a a kind of garland (Ma.); in.d.e wreath, garland (Ka.); garland (Te.)(DEDR 458). Image: button; ring: bi_r.o large button (S.); bi_r.a_ cloth button (L.); bir.o button (WPah.); vid.i_ ring (M.); vit.i_ ring (G.); bi_t.i_ pebble used in a game (P.); vi~t.i_ ring (G.)(CDIAL 12045).

6832.Bundle: bin.d.a_ sack made of grass mats, network bag of date-leaves to protect the fruit (L.); bit.o bundle (of grass, corn, etc.)(N.); vit.t.i_ bundle (Pkt.); vimt.alia bundle (Pkt.); bin.d.a_ bale (Or.); vemt.ia_ bundle (Pkt.); bemt.a wrapping of fruit (Pkt.); vomt.a id. (Pkt.); bi~d.r.i_ bundle, packet (G.); bit.o sheaf (Ku.); bir.a_ sheaf, packet (B.); sheaf of corn, bundle (Or.)(CDIAL 12045).

6833.Collection; troop; crowd; heap: pe_d.a collection, troop (Pkt.); pun.d.a_ herd of cows, etc. (Or.)(CDIAL 8377). bi_d.u gathering, assembly (Tu.); mass, pile, heap, crowd; bid.aya a mass, great number (Ka.); per., in: ir fer. id.- (it.-) to drive buffaloes in a herd (To.)(DEDR 4217). vr.nda heap, multitude; vr.ndam vr.ndam, vr.ndaih., vr.ndavr.ndaih. in multitudes (MBh.); bunch, cluster (BhP.); vam.da, vim.da, vum.da, vim.da, vum.da collection, herd (Pkt.); bunda_ bundle (A.); bunda_ kari in large quantities (A.); bi~_d. heap, bundle (of straw, etc.)(H.); bi~_d.iya_ an ox yoked in front of a pair or two pairs (H.)(CDIAL 12078). Crowd: mehar. oxen on threshing floor, crowd (P.)(CDIAL 10317). me_d.a meeting (Skt.); mel.a_ meeting (M.)(CDIAL 10331). Mass, crowd: bhi_d.ai meets, fights (Pkt.); bi_r crowd (K.); bhir pressure (A.); bhi_r.a (S.); bhir. (N.B.); bhi_r. crowd (P.Ku.H.G.); bhir.a crowd (Or.); bhi_r (Aw.); bhi_d. (M.); bhela_ (N.); bhet meeting (G.); bhet.n.o to meet (Ku.); bhel. mixture (M.G.); bhet.a_ to meet (B.)(CDIAL 9490). me_la meeting (Skt.Pkt.); me_laa (Pkt.); myu_lu (K.); me_la_ meeting (Pali); assembly (L.); me_l union (L.); mel friendship (P.); mela_, mella_ crowd, fair; meli_ wedding guest (P.); mel meeting (Ku.); agreement (N.); meeting, fair (A.B.); mel.a meeting (Or.); mel.a_ assembly (Or.); assembly, fair (M.); mela_ fair (H.); mel.o embrace (Marw.); assembly, fair (G.); mel. agreement (G.M.); melo task (Ku.); allotted task (N.); pl. mya_la_ fair (Ku.); mer.u crowd; mer.o assembly, fair, agreement (S.); mer.i_ deputation (S.); mel.a, mela meeting, collection (Si.)(CDIAL 10331). me_layati, me_la_payati brings together (Skt.); me_lai, mela_vai collects (Pkt.); me_lun to be joined with, be met with, be found, enjoy (a woman)(K.); me_lan. pre. part. mile_nda to unite (L.); merai mixes, fixes, puts (OAw.); mel.na_ (P.); mela_ to close (B.); melna_ to convene (H.); melai places, puts (OMarw.); me~_han.u_ to get, obtain (WPah.); mer.an.u to cause to meet, collect, sweep, cause to copulate (S.); mer.ya_unu to compare (N.)(CDIAL 10332).

6834.Okra; flax: ven.t.ai okra, hibiscus esculentus; esculent okra, abolmoselim esculentus (Ta.); ben.d.a (Te.); ben.d.e (Ka.); ven.d.a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) bhin.d.a_ the vegetable abelmoschus esculentus (Skt.); bhin.d.a, bhin.d.aka, bhin.d.i_taka (Skt.); bhin.d.i_ hibiscus esculentus (P.); bhi~r.i_ an autumn vegetable with long beans (Ku.); bhi~d.o h. esculentus; bhi~d.i_ flax, hemp (G.); bhen.d.i_ a vegetable (Or.); bhin.d.i_ abelmoschus or hibiscus esculentus (Bi.H.); bhe~d.a_ h. esculentus (M.)(CDIAL 9492).

6835.Image: fork of a tree: vit.avalli a small plant (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) vit.apa branch, twig, sprout, bush (MBh.); vit.apaka tree (Skt.); vit.apa, vit.abhi_ fork of a tree, branch (Pali); vid.ava sprout, branch (Pkt.); birava small tree (OAw.); birawa_ tree (OAw.); vel.ap, vel.ep bush, tree with branches (Si.)(CDIAL 11713). vr.s.aka, vr.s.a name of various plants, a partic. bulbous plant growing in the Himalaya; (Sus'r.); wis. yellow orchid (Kal.); wis., wi_s. a yellow orchid growing on mountain slopes (Kt.)(CDIAL 12083). cf. vidyullata_ forked lightning (Skt.)(CDIAL 11745). vit.apam branch of a tree; bush, shrub, thicket; pillar; shoot, sprout; expansion, spreading (Ta.lex.) vit.am branch of a tree (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) vit.avi tree (Pa_rata. Ki_caka. 34)(Ta.); vit.apin (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

6836.Image: knot: vi_t.i_ a tie, fastening, knot (of wearing garment); the knot of a bodice (Skt.lex.) vi_d.ayati, vi_l.ayati fastens, makes firm (RV.); bir.iba_ to test, gauge a person's mind, enchant, silence by means of charms (Or.); vi_d. make firm (Skt.)(CDIAL 12047).

6837.Image: tender coconut: vit.alai coconut smashed on the ground before an idol (Ta.Tinn.); tender coconut (Ta.Na_.); vitala a coconut nearly ripe (Ma.)(DEDR 5392). cf. vit.u-tal to leave, quit (Kur-al., 167); to split, separate (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6838.Image: to beat, throw: vita_d.ayati dashes to pieces, wounds (MBh.); ber.a_ to strike, beat, thresh (B.); vita_r.vu~, vata_r.vu~ to harass (G.)(CDIAL 11722). Stick: vi_r..pu twig, small stick (Ta.)(DEDR 5430). bese to strike with a whip (Ka.); be.ng- (be.ngi-) to cut (plantain trunks at wedding, as test of skill with weapon)(Kod..); beppuni, bettuni, betton.uni to stab (Tu.); vaicu to cast, fling, throw; v(r)e_yu id., discharge, strike, knock, cut off as with a knife or any heavy weapon; auxiliary used as an intensive or for emphasis; v(r)e~_ta casting, throwing, striking, knocking, stroke, knock, blow; vre_t.u id.; vre_t.u-gonu to strike, beat (Te.); vayk- to throw (Nk.); vey- (-t-) to flog, beat (Kond.a); ve_pa (ve_t-) to strike, beat, thrash, assault, kill; n. act of striking, beating (Kui) vecali_ (ve_-), we_nai, ve'- (vet-) to beat; ve_'- (-t-), ve_p- (-it-) id., hit; ve_pi a_- to fight (Kuwi)(DEDR 5555).

6839.Open space; to be outside; emigration: ve_n. a region where kot.u-n-tamir.. was spoken (Nan-. 272, Mayilai.); ve_l. earth (Ta.lex.) cf. be.li paddy field (Kod..); bailu fertile kind of rice field in low land which can be easily irrigated (Tu.)(DEDR 5258).

6840.Jungle land brought under cultivation: vet.t.u-k-ka_t.u jungle land cleared and brought under cultivation (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) vet.i open plain (Pin..); vet.t.ai open land (Can.. Aka.); vel.i open space, plain (Ta.lex.) cf. bahis outside (S'Br.); bahi, bahim. outside (Pali); bahi, bahiyade (NiDoc.); bahi, bahim., bahiya_ (Pkt.); bahi (MB.); bai outside, without (B.) bihi outside (Si.); ba_- in: ba_ge out; ba_r.a_ outside (Shum.); bo_re (Pas'.)(CDIAL 9186). bahira outside (Pkt.); baharu the outside; bahari adv. outside (S.); bahir adv. (G.)(CDIAL 9183). bera~_t, bera~_te outside (Gaw.)(CDIAL 9184). ba_hika external (Pa_n.. va_rtt.)(CDIAL 9226). beri adv. outside (Kho.); beriar from outside (Kho.)(CDIAL 9227). cf. vayal paddy field (Ta.); ve.gad. field (Kol.); va_var field (M.)(DEDR 5258). vel.i-y-e_r-u-tal to get out, as from a house; to abandon one's home and go away; to migrate; to escape from a danger; vel.iye_r-r-u-tal to transport; to expel (Ta.lex.) vel.i (-pp-, -tt-) to be open or public, be vacant, empty; n. outside, open space, plain, room, openness, plainness, publicity; vel.iccam publicity; vel.ippu outside, open space, enclosed space; vel.iya_r outsiders, strangers (Ta.); vel.i open field; notoriety; outside; vel.iccam publicity (Ma.); bel.ava_ra an outcaste (Ka.); veli the outside, exterior, excommunication; outside, external; velalu to go or come out, start; velalucu to send out; vela_rincu, vela_r(u)cu to send or drive out, cast out, make public; velipar-acu, velipuccu to make public or known; velipet.t.u to excommunicate; velucu to drive, send out; velupala outside, exterior; outside, external; velupalincu to put outside, disclose, divulge; velu-vad.u to come out, go out; velayu to be known; vellad.i open place, publicity, openness; vella_t.akamu making known, publishing, publicity; velliviri known, published (Te.); valip- (valit-) to expel, drive away; valkip- (valkit-) to chase (Pa.); vet.- to flee (Ga.); vet.t.- to go out (Ga.); veli outside (Kond.a); vend.a (vend.i-) to go forward, start forth, go forth; pl. action vet.ka (vet.ki-) (Kui); velli ki_nai to excommunicate (Kuwi)(DEDR 5498). cf. valacai, valacal emigration, flight from home; crowd (Ta.); valase, valise, olase flight, removal from home for fear of a hostile army, emigration (Ka.); valasa emigration, migration, flight or removing from one's country to another (Te.)(DEDR 5278.) Outcaste: bel.ava_ra an outcast, a low man (Ka.); veli outside; excommunication or exclusion from caste; veliva_d.a a village of Pariars (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6841.To go, move: Ívli_, Ívri_ to go, move (Skt.lex.) ve_l to go, move; to shake, move about, tremble; ve_lla to go, move; to move about; going, moving; ve_llanam shaking, moving; rolling on the ground; ve_llita going, moving; shaking (Skt.lex.) Shaking: cf. ve_llana shaking, tossing (Skt.)(CDIAL 12120). bel.pal.isu to tremble, to be full of agitation; bel.pal.a trembling, quivering, moving about; tremblingly, unsteadily (Ka.lex.) cf. vel.l.u to go (Te.lex.) cf. bal.aku to tremble, shake (Ka.)(DEDR 5307). vetir trembling (Ka_cika. Vayira. 22); veduru (Te.); beduru (Ka.Tu.); vetirppu fear; trembling; vetir-ttal to tremble (Tan.ikappu. Vi_ra_t.t.a. 50); bedaru (Te.); bedar (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Bewilderment: f. pe_t.i fear, cowardice (Ma.); he_d.i, he_d.e, e_d.i coward, timid (Tu.)(DEDR 4434). be_l., be_l.uve bewilderment, infatuation, madness (Ka.); bi_t.ana state of being bewildered etc. (Ka.); be_la simpleton; simple, ignorant (Te.)(DEDR 4445). be_l.tana the state of being bewildered (Ka.lex.) bhe_la timid, cowardly; foolish, ignorant; unsteady, inconstant (Skt.lex.) cf. bhairavi_ a form of the goddess Durga_; a girl of 12 or a young girl representing the goddess Durga_ at the Durga_ festival; bhairavam terror, horror (Skt.lex.) be_d.a a man of timid heart, a timid man (Ka.lex.) be_l. bewilderment, confusion, infatuation, madness (Ka.); be_lu trick, guile (Te.); be_le simple, ignorant; vre_, vre_gu, ve_d.uke astonishment, wonder (Te.); ve_la a man infatuated or possessed (Ta.); ve_d.a madness, folly; a foolish act; violent and unreasonable passion or desire after (M.); be_l.ma_d.u to cause to grow bewildered etc., to infatuate; be_l.amba desire; ve_d., ve_l. to desire (Ta.); ve_l. desire (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Woman of the desert tract: pe_tai woman of a desert tract (Ir-ai.1,18); woman, as simple-minded (Kur-al., 1238); girl between the ages of five and seven; simpleton, ignorant person (Kampara_. Yut. Mantirap. 72); ambe_da (Te.) (Ta.lex.) pe_taimai folly, ignorance, simplicity; petumpai girl between the ages of 8 and 11 (Ta.); pe_tu confusion or distraction of mind (Ka.); fear (Tu.); pe_da poor, timid; poor man, servant; pe_dara_lu poor woman; pe_dar-ikamu poverty; pe_dar-imi id., timidity; pe_dagilu to become thin, poor; pe_datanamu poverty (Te.); pe_dat.on. a poor man (Ga.); pe_tu bewilderment, folly, ignorance, delirium, sorrow, distress (Ta.)(DEDR 4437).

6842.To churn; to stir: vilo_bhayati perplexes (Skt.); vilubhita agitated (Skt.); bil.ohiba_, bilohiba_ to agitate, mix (Or.); biloye having churned (OAw.); bilona_ to churn (H.); biloni_ churn (H.); bilovan.a_ pl. churnings (OMarw.); valovvu~ to churn; valon.u~ churning vessel (G.)(CDIAL 111913a). vilo_d.a, vilo_t.a rolling, wallowing (Dha_tup.); ilor.o muddy (Ash.); vilor.o agitation (S.); vilor.a_, valor.a_ churner (L.); valor.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 11910). vilo_d.ayati stirs about (Sus'r.); vilo_lita (MBh.); vilo_l.e_ti stirs (Pali); vilo_d.ei, vilo_lai churns (Pkt.); vilor.an.u (S.); vilor.an., valor.an. (L.); bilor.iba_ (Or.); bilor.na_ (H.); birolnu, biralnu to reject (N.); biloliba to swing (A.); varol.vu~ to spoil (G.)(CDIAL 11911). vilulita shed (of tear), sam.lo_d.ayate_ is spoiled (MBh.)(CDIAL 14806). To tremble: vilavila to tremble exceedigly; velavela to quake, tremble (as one's limbs)(Ta.); vilakkam cramp, stitch (Ma.); vil. vil.k in- (id--) there is fear or apprehension (for person [dat.], e.g. when alone in jungle)(Ko.); vili sound in imitation of convulsive movements; vilvilisu to be convulsed, shake with irregular spasms (Ka.); vilavila convulsion, trembling; vilavilala_d.u to tremble (Te.); vi_d.a (vi_d.i-) to throw the limbs about, jerk to and fro, sway violently, plunge (Kui); vi_d.- (-it-) to stir, move; vi_t.- (-h-) to shift, shake; vi_thali to shake; wi_dhnai to stir, shake; wi_t- to tremble; with'nai to hurtle; mo_pa wi_th'nai to shrug (Kuwi)(DEDR 5424). ve_lla moving, shaking (Skt.); bela_ act of rolling out paste (Or.)(CDIAL 12119). ve_llana shaking, tossing (Skt.)(CDIAL 12120). ve_llayati causes to shake, kneads (Bhpr.); ve_llati sways, is tossed (Skt.); vellai trembles, shakes (Pkt.); vellita crooked, curly (Pali)(CDIAL 12121). ve_pa vibrant, stirring (of speech)(RV.); tremor (Kaus'.); ve_vaya trembling (Pkt.); we shaking, palsy, paralysis agitans (K.); velvu~ trembling and pretending to be foolish, frivolous (G.); vevulanava_ to tremble (Si.)(CDIAL 12112). Agitated: vihvala agitated (MBh.); vibbhala, vebbhala, vim.bhala, vem.bhala, vimhala agitated (Pkt.); bibhal confused (B.); bhibbhala, bhim.bhala, bhem.bhala agitated (Pkt.); bhimal a fit, unconsciousness; bhimalnu, bhimilnu to be confused, lose one's senses (N.); bhi_m.bhali_ adj. agitated, astonished (OG.)(CDIAL 12038). vihvalati is agitated (MBh.); viblan. to go out of one's mind (L.); to become confused from fear (L.); bhimalnu, bhimalinu to be confused, lose one's senses (N.)(CDIAL 12039). hval go crookedly (Skt.); hvala stumbling, staggering (Pa_rGr..); hvala_ going astray (S'Br.); holu bent, crooked, awry, deformed, humpbacked, bow-legged (K.)(CDIAL 14188). hvalati goes crookedly, goes wrong, stumbles, falls (S'Br.); hvarati twists (Dha_tup.); upa hvarate_ goes crookedly towards (RV.); hva_rs.i_t (VS.); halun to be or become crooked, be warped (K.); bhal.iba_ to be mistaken, be bewildered, become soft or liquid, develop signs of collapse (of a woman newly delivered)(Or.)(CDIAL 14189). hvr. go crookedly (Skt.); hu_rchati goes crookedly, totters, falls off from (MaitrS.); hu_cna_ to go wide of the mark, miss, err, mistake (H.)(CDIAL 14146). ho_lati goes (Dha_tup.); bihul.iba_ to be scattered (of cows when grazing)(Or.)(CDIAL 12037). uvvalai turns back (Pkt.); uval.n.e~, u_val.n.e~ to untwist, come, undone, return to his pristine power (of a bull imperfectly castrated)(M.)(CDIAL 2075). hvarate_ shakes (RV.); hva_layati (Skt.); dhvarati bends, makes fall (Dha_tup.); 3 pl. aor. mid. adhu_rs.ata (RV.); udhal.vu~ to run away with a man other than one's husband, run away wildly (G.); uddhal.an. to elope (L.); uddhlan.a_ to elope (of a married woman)(P.); ur.hari_ a woman who has eloped or been carried off forcibly (Mth.Bhoj.); udhalna_ to elope, be seduced, be full of lust, be ruined, be squandered (H.); udhal.n.e~ to run away wildly or in every direction, run off (of a tenant), fail (of a crop)(M.); udha_l.an. to carry off (a woman)(L.); udha_la_ elopement with a paramour (P.); ur.ha_lo (Ku.); ur.a_lo (N.); udha_l.i_ leap, spring (M.)(CDIAL 2032).

6843.Image: leaping: vet.i leaping (Aric. Pu. Viva_ka. 218); noise (Kur-icip. 161); shooting up (Pur-ana_. 302)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_d.ati < vid. to cry out loudly (Skt.lex.)

6844.Image: fish: bheda hako a species of fish (Santali.lex.)

6845.Homonym: bhenta a word, or phrase with a double, hidden meaning (Santali) (Santali.lex.) ven.d.e veh- to answer, reply (Kuwi); a_na_-bir.dna_ to answer, retort (Kuwi); ven.d.i again, once more, further (Te.)(DEDR 5481). ve.l- (ve.lt-) to ask; ve.lt o.l- to ask a question (Kol.); ve_l- to beg, ask (Nk.); ve~_d.u to pray, beg, entreat, ask, wish (Te.); be_d.uni to beg, ask, entreat (Tu.); ve_n.t.u (ve_n.t.i-) to want, desire, beg, request (Ta.); ve_t.t.al desire, begging (Ta.)(DEDR 5528). cf. vrih- (-t-) to beg, ask (Kui); ri_h- (ri_st-), ri_ssali, rih'nai, vih- (vist-) to beg (Kuwi)(DEDR 5556). Image: to solicit: be_d.u to wish, to desire; to solicit, to beg, to pray, to entreat, to request (Ka.); be_d.u (Tu.); be_d.uha soliciting, begging, praying (Ka.lex.) ve_t.ai desiring, longing (Tiruppu. 288); lovesickness (Kantapu. Tati_ciyut. 74); ve_n.t.u-tal to listen to with eagerness (Ain:kur-u. 101); to beg, entreat, request (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,4,5)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_l.-tal to offer sacrifices (Patir-r-up. 24,6)(Ta.lex.) vrih- (-t-) to ask, beg (Kui); ri_h- (ri_st-), ri_ssali, rih'nai, vih- (vist-) to beg; vispigat.ai_, wispigat.ayu_, rispagat.asi beggar (Kuwi)(DEDR 5556). Talk: vatta_-, vat.t.a_ talk, event, thing (Pkt.); va_t, ba_t news, matter (P.); ba_t talk, matter, thing (Ku.N.B.Or.); id. (Mth.Bhoj.); id. (Aw.H.); ba_ta (OMarw.); va_t news (G.); vat-a history, story, thing (Si.); bo_ti word, speech (Pas'.)[cf. Word: we_ri_ speech, language, word (Ash.); weri (Kt.); weri_ (Pr.); *uer- in Gk. eipw (CDIAL 11327). vali (-pp-, -tt-) to say, tell, narrate; n. sound (Ta.); valli to bark (Kor.); vallih- to call, invite (Go.)(DEDR 5283). cf. oli sound (Ta.)(DEDR 996).]; ba_ti (Nin:g.); bya_di~_ (Wot..); ba_ti (Gaw.S.); ba_t (Bshk.Tor.Phal.); ba_th (K.)(CDIAL 11564).

6846.To sew, draw out gold thread: osa to sew, weave; n. sewing, weaving (Kui); oh'nai to mesh (Kuwi); huc to weave (Kuwi); o_jna_ to twist, spin (Kur.); ojjna_ to sew, stitch together (Kurr.); oje to twist (Malt.); ojg.re to be twisted (Malt.); r.uc to plait (Mand..); r.oc to plait, sew (Pe.); var.k to spin (Go.); or..ukku to draw out, as gold thread (Ta.); or.k to embroider (Ko.); wir.k id. (To.); nu_lod.u a spindle (Tu.); od.uku, vad.uku to spin (Te.); oc-/os- to sew (Nk.); vad.u_ya_na_ to twist a rope (Go.); vad.d.a_na_, vad.ita_na_ to spin (Go.); wadi_ta_na_ to twist or twirl fibre into a thread (Go.)(DEDR 1012). u_yate_ is woven (Skt.); u_yati, uyyati (Pali); u_janu, ujanu (S.)--deriv. oja weaving, texture (S.)(CDIAL 2419). vayati weaves (RV.); va_yati weaves (Pali); way, we_ (Pas'.); bu~_yoi_ki, buyoiki to weave, knot, plait (Sh.) > bu to weave (D..); biba to weave (A.); viyanava_ to weave, plait (Si.); be_dhna_ to plait, braid, fold (H.)(CDIAL 11300). buyeni weaving (Sh.)(CDIAL 11301). u_ta, uta woven (Skt.); vu_ya, vua (Pkt.); wu_nu pp. of wo_nun (K.)(CDIAL 2406). To weave: vun.iya woven (Pkt.); vun.an.a weaving (Pkt..); bun to weave (Wot.Bshk.); bulu_m I plait (Phal. with l after sil to sew); bun.n.a_ to weave (WPah.); wo_nun to weave (K.); the woof (K.); un.an.u to weave (S.); vun.an., un.un (L.); un.na_, bunn.a_ (P.); bun.an. yarn put into the shuttle (WPah.); bun.n.o to weave (Ku.); buna_ (B.); bun.iba_ (Or.); bunal (Bhoj.); bunna_ (H.)(CDIAL 11773). To wear: pun-ai to dress, put on, adorn, make ready, wear, make, form (Ta.); punayuka to put on, undertake (Ma.)(DEDR 4340). pu_n.nu_l, pu_n.u_l sacred thread (Ta.Ma.); pu_n. to put on, wear, become entangled (Ta.); pu_n.uka to put on (as cloth, ornaments); pu_n.pu girdle, ornament (Ma.)(DEDR 4361). To braid: pin-n-u to weave, plait, braid, lace, knit, entwine, bind (Ta.); pan-n-u to weave (Ta.); pinnuka to plait, twist, wreath (Ma.); pin weave (basket); (hair) is matted (To.); pannap to weave (To.); pandna_ to roll and twist together filaments into threads (Kur.); pinning to be twisted (Br.)(DED 4207). vina_ti weaves (Pali); vin.an.a weaving (Pkt.); bhi_nim I knit (Kal.); binik to knit, weave, twist, contrive a plot (Kho.); bin.n.a_ to weave (P.); bina_na to plait, braid (B.); binna_ to weave (H..); bina_i (OMarw.); van.vu~ (G.); vin.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 11773).

6847.Darbha grass: vir..ar-kat.t.u house thatched with vir..al grass; vir..ar--ku_rai roof of vir..ai grass; vir..ar-pa_y mat made of vir..al grass; vir..al-kat.t.i one who plaits darbha grass; vir..al darbha grass (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 9,7); a kind of sedge; cuscus grass (andropogon muricatus) (Ta.); vet.t.i-ve_r cuscus grass (Ta.); vir..a_l a vermifuge plant, erycibe paniculata or murraya; embelia ribes (Ma.); bir..il name of a plant (Ka.); vid.avali, vat.t.i, vat.t.i-ve_ru cuscus grass, a. muricatus (Te.); vid.an:ga_ embelia ribes (Skt.)(DEDR 5428). vi_ran.a the fragrant grass andropogon muricatum (MBh.Pkt.); viran.a (Skt.); bi_ran.a a. muricatum (Pali); bi_rn (WPah.); bena_ (B.); bi_ran.a, ben.a_, biren a. muricatum, a. squamosum(Or.); bena_ a. muricatum (H.); viran.a a kind of fragrant root (G.); iran. the shrub clerodendrom philomoides (M.)(CDIAL 12057). cf. mut.i-var..ai cuscus grass, andropogon muricatus (Ta.); mud.i-va_l.a, mud.d.ela, mud.yala, mud.yela a. muricatus (Te.)(DEDR 4924). ba_l.a, ba_la, va_l.a, va_ra, mud.i-va_l.a androlpogon schoenanthus (Ka.)(DEDR 5374). va_laka a kind of andropogon (VarBr.S.); va_ro andropogon grass (S.); va_l.o (G.); va_l.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 11574).

6848.Fear: vidar to fear (Kt.); bid.arai (OAw.)(CDIAL 11732). vitappu trembling, agitation, haste; vitarppu fear; vitalai trembling, shivering; vitar-u (vitar-i-) to tremble, be agitated, be shaky; trembling, shaking, agitation; vitir (-v-, -nt-) to shake, shiver; (-pp-, -tt-) to tremble, quiver, be afraid, shake, brandish as a sword, shake out, throw off; vitirppu trembling, shaking, shivering from fear, tremor, fear; vituppu trembling, tremor, haste, hurly-burly; vitumpu (vitumpi-) to tremble, hasten; trembling; vetirppu fear, trembling, confusion, a symptom of anger (Ta.); vitukkuka to be overhasty; vitumpuka to begin to cry (as children)(Ma.)(DEDR 5399). bid.l.a_r a mischievous or nervous bullock (WPah.)(CDIAL 11747).

6849.Vindictive; hostile: vet.ci theme describing a king's follower wearing vet.ci flowers (scarlet ixdora, ixora coccinea) and capturing the cows of the enemy, as an act of war (Tol. Po. 57); vet.ci-k-karantai theme describing the rescue of cows from the enemies who had captured them (Tol. Po. 57, Urai); vet.cimar-avar soldiers who capture the cows of the enemy (Tol. Po. 58, Urai); vet.ciyaravam theme describing the tumult of warriors making preparations to go forth to capture enemy's cows (Pu. Ve. 1,3)(Ta.lex.) veru_ vindictive (S.); vaira hostile; enmity (AV.); ve_ra enmity (Pali.Pkt.); ver enmity, revenge (G.); vera hatred (NiDoc.); veru enmity (S.); ve_r enmity, feud (L.); be_r (WPah.)(CDIAL 12142). vairin enemy (Mn.); ve_rin, ve_rika hostile, revengeful (Pali); ve_ri, ve_ria enemy (Pkt.); be_ri (Sh.); veri_ (S.); ve_ri_ (L.); veri_ hostile; veran. revengeful woman (G.)(CDIAL 12145). ver-ittal to be furious (Kampara_. Va_liva. 30); ver-i anger; frenzy; savagery, wildness; deity (Tol. Po. 60, Urai); fear (Ja_n-a_.59,5); ver-i-y-a_t.t.u dance of a priest possessed by Skanda (Pu. Ve. 1,21, Talaippu); ver-iya_t.t.uppar-ai drum of kurici tract, used in ver-iya_t.t.u (Ir-ai. 1, Pak. 17)(Ta.lex.) ven-r-avan- victor (Te_va_. 1024,5); ven-r-i victory, triumph (Kur-al., 546); vinni victory (Ma.); ven-r-iyan-, ven-r-o_n- victor (Ta.lex.) vya_la malicious (Pali); wicked (AV.); vya_d.a malicious (Skt.)(CDIAL 12212). viruddh opposition, enmity (P.)(CDIAL 11865). viruddha hindered, opposed (R.Pali.Pkt.); viruddh, biruddh opposed to, contrary to (P.); virudu enmity (Si.)(CDIAL 11864). biru_t.h slight anger, displeasure (Ku.)(CDIAL 11869). ver-i (-pp-, -tt-) to be drunk, intoxicated, become mad, be frenzied, be furious; toddy, madness, devil; ver-i intoxication, fury; ver-iyan drunk, furious (Ma.); ver-i madness, intoxication, fury, folly, confusion, fear (Ka.); ver-r-iva~_d.u madman, lunatic; fem. ver-r-idi; ver-r-i-ni_l.l.u toddy, spirituous liquor; ve_r-i_d.i foolish man; ve_r-id.incu to make foolish; ver-r-i madness, insanity, lunacy, extreme folly or foolishness (Te.); vi_r-i_d.i fool, madman (Te.); ver-i foolish, simple; ver-i a_- (shaman) to be possessed (Kond.a); veri_la madman (Ku^wi); birr wild, not tame, shy; birri_ wildness (Br.)(DEDR 5511). vit.ai (-v-, -nt-) to tbe angry; (-pp-, -tt-) to be very angry, burst into rage (Ta.); bid.aya anger, wrath (Ka.); ber.ga_ misanthrope, unsociable (Kur.)(DEDR 5394). vet.iyuka to avoid, loathe; vet.iccal loathing (Ma.); bod.i to be bored, tired (Ka.); satiety, loathing, disgust, exhaustion, fatigue; bod.iyuni to be satiated, cloyed, be tired, done up; bod.ipa_vuni to satiate, exhaust, tire (Tu.)(DEDR 5476). vekkasa roughness, unsmoothness, harshness, severity, unkindness, unpleasantness, etc. (Ka.); bekkasu nausea, disgust; bekkasuni to faint, be tired, feel satiated (Tu.); vekkasamu excess, satiety, nausea, repugnance, disgust, dislike, envy, reproach; excessive, extreme, unbearable; vekkasi an unbearable, frightful or disgusting person; vekkasincu to be unbearable; be envious, envy (Te.)(DEDR 5466). cf. i_rs.ya_ envy (AV.); hirs greed (L.)(DEDR 1615).

6850.A turn: vil.a_ a turn or round in ploughing (Cilap. 27,230, Arum.); vil.a_kkaittal to plough (Tiruva_ca. 26,8); vil.a_kko_l(l)utal to plough one turn or round (Ta.lex.)

6851.Image: horn: vis.a_n.a horn, tusk (AV.); visa_n.a horn (Pali.Pkt.) (CDIAL 11977). vis.a_n.in horned (MBh.); visa_n.i horned (Pkt.); viseni-ya 5th day after new or full moon (Si.)(CDIAL 11978). vit.a_n.am horn, tusk; vit.a_n.i horned-animal; elephant, as tusked (Ta.lex.) visa_n.a the horn of an animal (as cow, ox, deer, rhinoceros); khagga-visa_n.a, miga-visa_n.a, usabha-visa_n.a; visa_n.a-maya made of horn (Pali.lex.) vis.a_n.a the horn of any animal; s'r.n:ga, ko_d.u; the tusk of an elephant or boar (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: horn: vis.a_n.a a horn; the tusk of an elephant or boar; vis.a_n.in having horns or tusks; any animal having horns or tusks; a bull; an elephant (Skt.lex.) vica_n.am horn of an animal (Na_mati_pa. 235)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6852.Tree: ruk birik, ruk birit trees; ruk birit nelte bam berellena? Did you not take notice of the trees before you settled down? rol a large forest tree, terminalia chebula; this tree yields the myrobalans of commerce; ruhen a large forest tree, soymida febrifuga; bir jungle, forest; birit trade, calling, profession (Santali.lex.) ru_ks.a tree (Skt.); rukkha tree (Pali.Pkt.); ruccha (Pkt.); rucha, lukha (As'.); rukh, ruk (Gypsy); rukkh (L.P.); ru_kh (Ku.); rukh (N.); rukha (MB.); ru_kh (Bhoj.Aw.H.G.M.); ru_ku (Kon:kan.i); ruka, rika (Si.); ru' (Md.); rukkhalla tree (Pkt.); rikilla twig (Si.)(CDIAL 10757). rukkhamu_la foot of a tree (Pali.Pkt.); vr.ks.amu_la (Mn.); rukmula (Si.)(CDIAL 10758). va_rks.a of trees, wooden (Ka_tyS'r.); rokhu~ wood, fuel (G.)(CDIAL 10871). cf. lakut.a club (Car.); ruvlo_ stick (Gypsy); laur stick (Bi.Mth.)(CDIAL 10875). vir-aku firewood, fuel, sacrificial fuel; vira_y fuel, firewood (Ta.); vir-uku firewood (Ma.); verg id. (Ko.); berkh id. (To.); bejakir dried leaves used as fuel; biriji slender piece of firewood (Tu.); biji firewood (Kor.); verkki, vark, vah-k, veh-ki, verk fuel, stick of firewood (Go.); ver-gu (pl. veRku) firewood, fuel (Kond.a); vezgu (pl. vesku) id. (Pe.); viyke (pl.) id. (Mand..); veju, vejgu (pl. veska) id. (Kui); vegu_ (pl. veska), vegu (pl. veska), vergu (pl. verka) id.; weggu, weska dry wood (Kuwi)(DEDR 5440). vr.ks.a tree (RV.); ma_la_-vaccha an ornamental shrub or tree (Pali); vracha tree (As'.); vr.e_ha, vrachi (NiDoc.); vakkha, vaccha, vuccha (Pkt.); bri_c (Tir.); bich pine-tree (Mai.); buch, buc plane-tree (Sh.); pa_i~-bi_ch pinus excelsa (Sh.); bi_kh tree (WPah.); buk oak-tree (N.); bi_k willow (D..); bigye~_s (Dm.)(CDIAL 12067).

6853.Turpentine; perfume; tree: vr.ka turpentine; a compound perfume, a mixture of various fragrant articles; vr.ka-dhu_pa turpentine; a compound perfume; vr.ka a tree (Skt.lex.)

6854.Image: bent: vr.kta in cmpds. 'turned, bent' (RV.); bruku bending of something perpendicular (esp. the backbone) under too heavy a weight (K.); bi_ka_ crooked (H.)(CDIAL 12066).

6855.Image: bush: bu_t.o, bu_t.i_ bush, flower (S.); bu_t.a_, bu_t.i_ (L.P.); buro thornbush, bramble (Gypsy); bu_r.o bush (S.); but.a_-but.i shrubs (N.); bu_t.a_ bush, sprig, flower, plant of chickpea (H.); bu_t.i_ sprig (H.); bhu_r. bush, hedge (Ku.)(CDIAL 9297).

6856.Big; elder: bo_r.a_ big (WPah.); bad.d.a_ (WPah.H.); bar.u (WPah.); bad.ru the eldest (WPah.); bar (A.); bar.a emph. bad.d.a (B.Or.); bar. (Bi.Mth.Bhoj.H.); bari_ adj. (OAw.); bar.ka_ (OAw.); bar.o (Mth.); var. an elder (G.); var.u~ big (G.); va_d. poet. big (M.); bod.u (Md.); var.i_l an elder (G.); vad.i_l (M.); vad.ra big (Skt.); vad.d.a (Pkt.); baro big, heavy; borov big, high, old (Gypsy); bar.a big (D..); wed.d.e gres noon (Ash.); bo_r.u big; bar.u (Sh.); bod.u, bad.u_, bor., bad.d.u, bad.d.o_, bar.o_ (K.); vad.o (S.); vad.d.a_ (L.P.); vad.a_ (L.); bad.a_ (P.); bar.a_ (P.WPah.OAw.H.); bad.d.a_ (P.); bad.d.o (WPah.); bar.o (WPah.Ku.N.)(CDIAL 11225). vad.d.ayara very big (Pkt.); vad.d.a_ra (Skt.); vad.ero too large; headman, ancestor (S.); vad.era_, bad.era_ large; ancestor (P.); bar.era_ large, principal (H.); var.eru~ elderly (G.)(CDIAL 11226). var.-ha_th strong (G.)(CDIAL 11229). cf. pat.t.ail(l)a village headman (Pkt.); pat.el hereditary headman (G.); pat.e_l village headman (M.); pat.t.akila tenant of royal land (Skt.)(CDIAL 7703). peruvar great persons (Ta.); pira_n lord, king (Ma.); pira_n- lord, king, master, god (Ta.); peda.ry period of full-grown youth (16 to 30 years)(Ko.); pedda largeness, bigness, greatness; peddi a great or older person, elder, senior (Ka.); perta very, great, much (Kod..); perie elder (Kod..); hedda great, large, chief, principal (Ka.); perddal. elders; pedda great, big, large, long, tall, old, senior, chief, respectable; an elder, superior, head man; peddi mother's elder sister (Te.); perenda_ father's elder brother (Kol.); pedda man, male (Nk.); pernond., berit big; bengid. much, more (Ga.); par.o_l, persa_, biriya_, beriya great, big; perma_ great, large, religious headman of village; perma priest; berhor big man; persa pe_n highest god of the Gonds; pehara, pehro, behra big, great; peddal headman of village; pedeya_l father's elder brother (Go.); per, peri elder (of siblings)(Kond.a); pre_nd.a father's elder brother; great-grandfather (Kui); pe_mba father's elder brother (Mand..)(DEDR 4411).

6857.A title of chieftains: peruma_l. person of eminence (Tiv. Ira_ma_nuca. 11); id. (Ma.); title of Ce_ra king; Vis.n.u; god; peruma_l.-ko_vil Vis.n.u temple; little Conjeevaram; peruma_n- nobleman, great person; king; god, as S'iva, Vis.n.u (Kampara_. Nikumpalai. 143); elder; elder brother (Ta.); peruma_n king (Ma.); peruma_n-at.ikal. divine being, a term of reverence (Te_va_. 528,1; S.I.I. iii,95); a title of kings and chieftains; peruvar great persons; perumakan- great man; chief (Perumpa_n.. 101); king; arhat (Cilap. 10,47); perumakkal. the great (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,7,5); members of a village assembly, as great men (S.I.I. iii,9)(Ta.lex.) Chief: perumutali chief (Periyapu. Kan.n.ap. 117); peruntaram a high office (S.I.I. ii,161,3); per-r-am greatness (Tiv. Periyati. 10,1,10); per-r-i greatness, esteem (Tirukko_. 373, Urai.); acquisition, boon (Kampara_. Cavari. 8); per-r-u bigness, greatness (Tol. Col. 305); peruntakai noble-minded person (Net.unal. 106); great beauty (Pu. Ve. 6,30); peruntalai headman; peruntan-mai high dignity, noble character; peruntan-am an office of the state under Co_r..a government (S.I.I. ii,222); peruco_r-u sumptuous feast given by a king to the generals of his army (Akana_. 233); peruco_r-r-unilai theme of a king giving feast to his soldiers on the eve of battle (Tol. Po. 63); peruco_r-r-uvaci id. (Cilap. 25,144); perun:kut.i noble family (Cilap. 20, 57-8); perun:kut.iya_t.t.am village headship (I_t.u, 3,5,6); perun:kut.i-va_n.ikar, perun:kut.iyar an ancient caste of merchants (Cilap. 2,76)(Ta.lex.) perumat.ai food offering to a deity (Periyapu. Kan.n.app. 19) (Ta.lex.) Large army: perumpat.ai large army (Ta.); perbad.e id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Mt. Me_ru: peruvarai Mt. Me_ru (Civataru. Ko_pura. 30)(Ta.lex.) Gift of valuable offerings: perumpat.ai theme describing the exploits of a hero and inscribing them on a nat.u-kal (Tol. Po. 60); theme describing the gift of valuable offerings to a nat.u-kal (Tol. Po. 60, Urai); perumpattu land, the proprietary right of which lies in the hands of the government; perumpati town surrounded by villages (Ta.lex.)

6858.To shrink: ot.t.u to shrink, contract; ot.t.al contraction, shrinking (Ta.); ot.t.uka to be lean, (cheeks) become hollow, be wrinkled (Ma.)(DEDR 960).

6859.Wither: mla_na withered (MBh.); shrivelled (Car.); mila_n.a weak, colourless (Pkt.); blan a kind of barley (Kho.)(CDIAL 10385). cf. pi.l weakly; pi.l(n) a weakling; fem. pi.ly (Ko.); pu.ly a good-for-nothing fellow (To.); pi_li dry,thin, light (Tu.); pi_la thin, lean, slender, stunted, dried, shrunken; bu_li worthless, pithless (Te.); bi_li very tired, exhausted, emaciated (Kui)(DEDR 4228). mla_payati makes wither (AV.); mila_pe_ti id. (Pali); bleieik (Kho.); ma_valavi_tu pres.part.nom.sg. (OM.); malavenava_ to wither (Si.)(CDIAL 10386). mla_yati withers, is exhausted (S'Br.); mila_yati withers (Pali); mila_ai, mila_i fades (Pkt.); bleiik, pp. blaidu to wither, fade (Kho.); malaya to fade (Si.)(CDIAL 10387). wre_i, wle_i flour (Ash.); bre_i, bre_ (Wg.); bre (Kt.); ble_ (Gaw.)(CDIAL 10388). va_l.n.e~ to dry, become lank and meagre, dry and waste (M.); vwa_rali to wither; va_y- (-it-) to dry up, (flowers) to fade, to become dry, wither; va_r-- (-it-) to fade or wither (as flowers in the sun)(Kond.a); va_d.u to fade, wither (Te.); va_d.- to shrivel (Pa.); va_rta_na_ to wither (Go.); ba_d.uni to fade, shrivel, wither; ba_d.i faded, withered; ba_d.an:kelu, ba_d.antelu withering, leanness, dejection, paleness, decay (Tu.); ba_d.u to wither, fade as flowers (Ka.); va.r-- (va.r-y-) to wither (Ko.); va_t.uka to become lean, fade, wither, pine away, lose colour (Ma.); va_t.u to wither, fade, dry up; faded flower (Ta.)(DEDR 5342).

6860.Mat-maker: me_tri, me_tre'esi mat-maker (Kuwi); me_dara, me_dari a basket-maker (Te.); me.de man of caste who make baskets and leaf-umbrellas and play drums at ceremonies (Kod..); me_da, ma_dara basket-maker (Ka.); me_taravar, me_tavar bamboo-worker (Ta.)(DEDR 5092). ve_traka_ra worker in cane (R.); betara_, betura_, betera_ act of weaving cane strips on the rafters of a thatch (Or.)(CDIAL 12102). Cane, willow: be~t willow (L.); be~t cane (beteri basket-work)(A.)(CDIAL 12101). Willow: ve_ta cane, reed (Skt.)[-t- is old in vae_ti willow (Avestan)]; wei, wye_ willow (Pas'.); ; beu, be_l, ber (Kal.); ba_ (Bshk.); bei~ (Sh.); bi~_ (P.); beidi a tree branches of which are used for basket making (WPah.); bi_k willow (D..); we_u willow (Pas'.); we_u_ (Pas'.); wi_u (Shum.); be_u, byeu (Gaw.); biu_ a particular kind of tree (Tor.); beu, beve willow (Sh.); byo~_ willow (Sh.)(CDIAL 12097). bi_on., biho_n., bhi_yo_n. willow (Phal.)(CDIAL 12098). here to scrape, shave (Ka.); perevuni to be peeled, scraped (Tu.); berad.u bark, rind, shell; barad.u bark of a tree (Te.)(DEDR 4417). Cane, reed; rope: ve_tra large reed (Skt.); vetta cane (Pali); vetta, vitta (Pkt.); bet, be~t willow (L ?< WPah.); bet cane (P.Ku.N.); be~t (beteri basket-work)(A.); bet cane (B.); beta (Or.); be~ti_ rope of stems of cytisus cajan (Bi.); be~tr.i_ id. (Mth.); be~t calamus rotang, rattan (Mth.Bhoj.); beta cane, reed (OAw.); bet, be~t cane (H.); vet (M.); veya, ve_ (Si.); net.ru ratan cane (S.); netar (G.)(CDIAL 12101). ve_tra_gra point of a reed (Sus'r.); vettagga cane-top, bamboo-tip (Pali); veyaga top of bamboo-cane used as a vegetable (Si.)(CDIAL 12103). ve_asa, ve_dasa calamus rotang, rattan (Pkt.); ve_tasa (Pali); rattan, reed (RV.); wie~s willow (Ash.); we_s' (Pas'.); wya~_s' (Gmb.); bisa salix babylonica (K.); bi_s (L.); bai~s salix tetrasperma (N.); bigye~_s willow (Dm.); ve_d.asa, ve_d.isa rattan cane (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12099). be~t a cane (Santali.lex.) helta a young bamboo shoot; bata strip of bamboo; haiar pointed piece of bamboo; pet.ara round bamboo basket; har.ka large bamboo basket; pat.a a mat; mat pat.ia bamboo mat; mat catom bamboo umbrella (Santali.lex.) cf. pe_r..a basket of reeds or of bamboo slips (Ma.)(DEDR 4442).

6861.Bamboo: ned.ilu a kind of bush (?Tu.)(DEDR 3740). net.t.il bamboo; net.il length; bamboo [net.il pat.utta ven:ka_n-am : Pa_rata. Ve_t. 10; cf. ven:ka_n--vel.i = arid land, desert (Ta.)]; length; long vowel, net.t.er..uttu, opp. to kur-il (Tol. Po. 315; Tol.Er..ut. 41); net.t.uyir long vowel, uyir net.il (Nan-. 126); net.ituyir-ttal id. (Net.unal. 163)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mat a bamboo; mat caole husked bamboo seed; mahle bhajan bamboo ware (Santali.lex.) cf. vetir bamboo (Ta.)(DEDR 5485). net.t.u stalk, peduncle (Ta.); et.t.u, et.t.i footstalk of a leaf or fruit (Ma.)(DEDR 2925). Bamboo, reed: bel.u reed, pipe; bol.u id. (Kho.)(CDIAL 12091). bel.u basket (Kho.); vella_, bella_ place abounding in grass or reeds (P.)(CDIAL 12137). ve_d.u reed, bamboo (Skt.); ve_l.u bamboo (Pali); ve_lu, ve_luya bamboo (Pkt.); bel.u reed, pipe (Kho.)(bol.u reed, pipe X nol. < nad.a); vi_r, vi_ru the white willow (K.); beur. a thin bamboo (B. < ber.u); vel.u_ bamboo (M.); vel.u bamboo (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12091). ve_n.u reed, bamboo (RV.TS.Pali.Pkt.); ben.ua_ a slender species of bamboo (Or.); ben reed, bamboo, pipe (H.); ven. flute (G.); ven.u_ reed, bamboo (M.); un.a bamboo (Si.)(CDIAL 12096). bena_ bamboo (H.); vain.ava consisting of bamboo (S'Br.)(CDIAL 12139). Bamboo: ve_r..am bamboo; European bamboo reed; kaus; sugar-cane (Ta.); a reed, esp. arundo tibialis and bambusa baccifera (Ma.); ve_y bamboo (Ta.); ve_yal short-sized bamboo (Ta.)(DEDR 5541). Bamboo: vle_ka a thin strip of bamboo (Kui); le_kin strips of bamboo (Pe.)(DEDR 5557). lukui gha~s arundinella (Santali.lex.) ve_r..ampar pole-dancers (Ta.Ma.); velamba(ga) (Pkt.); velambaka jester, buffoon (BHSk.)(DEDR 5543). va_rai bamboo; pole for carrying loads; rafter, beam (Ta.lex.) Spiny bamboo: ve_ral small bamboo, spiny bamboo; vetir, vetiri, vayir bamboo (Ta.); vedyr (Ko.); bidir(u), bidru, bidaru (Ka.); beduru (Tu.); veduru (Te.); vedur (Kol.Nk.); vedri (Pa.); vedre (Ga.); vedir, veduri, vedu_r, vaddur (Go.); vedru dubu tall bamboo tree (Kond.a)(DEDR 5485). cf. d.e_r(u) tender bamboo (Kond.a)(DEDR 5485). vetiram bamboo (Cilap. 13,157)(Ta.lex.) barua a kind of grass like sugarcane (Pkt.); baru_ the writing-reed calamus scriptorius (M.); a species of grass (S.); a kind of coarse grass (P.); a tall grass or reed, species of saccharum (used for pens), arundo karka or calamus scriptorius (H.); baro id. (H.); baru a reed (G.); baror.u~ reed-stick (G.)(CDIAL 9151). cf. ki_caka a kind of hollow bamboo (whistling or rattling in the wind), arundo karka (Skt.)(DEDR 1515).

6862.Image: line, row: po~_th, pai~th, po~th row (K.); pan:kti group of five (AV.); row, troop (Mn.); panti line, row (Pali); pam.ti_, pam.tiya (Pkt.); pa~_t, pa~_ti, pa~_ti line, row, turn (Ku.); pa~_ti line, row (N.A.); id., heap (B.); row, necklace (Mth.); pa~_ta_ roadside trees (Mth.); pa~_t, pa~_ti row (Bhoj.); pa~_ti_ row (Aw.); party, side, share, quota (G.); pa~_t, pa~_ti, pa~_tu row (H.); pa~_t, pa_t, pa~_th, pa_th row (M.); peta line, row; patta, pl. pati side (e.g. of road)(Si.)(CDIAL 7646). cf. panti, pant bowstring (Go.); ponti id. (Kond.a); pan.ti id. (Pe.); pan.te id. (Mand..)(DEDR 3923). panti row, order, series, line (Kampara_. Varaik ka_t.ci. 13) (Ta.lex.) Troop; smallest division of an army: pan:kti troop (Mn.); pa~_ti row of people (G.); pati party (Si.)(CDIAL 7646). panti line of persons seated for dining; pantiyar persons of the same group (Kampara_. Ma_ya_ci_. 1); patti row, train, column, rank, range, file, colonnade, series; class; arrangement; division; garden beds in rows; established rule or custom; the smallest division of an army = 1 chariot, 1 elephant, 3 horses, 5 soldiers; patti-pa_lan- head of five or six infantry soldiers (Cukkirani_ti, 73)(Ta.lex.)

6863.A float; round; ball: pontu a float, ball of wood or pith, tennis ball (Ma.); pond- to be raised, bounce (of a ball)(Kod..)(DEDR 4522). pantu ball, roll as of string or thread (Ta.); ball of wood or pith (Ma.); banti a ball (Te.)(DEDR 3925). Pith, sola: ben.d.u, ban.d.u cork, pith (Ka.); ven.t.u the hollowness of a thing, as of a tube, pipe or cane; ver-u, ver-r-u empty, void (Ta.); cf. bar-e (Ka.); ben.d.a_gu to become like mere pith, to lose one's strength, to faint etc.; ben.d.u kasa a tall annual plant, aeschynomene indica, aeschynomene aspera; ben.d.ubatta_su the sweetmeat batta_su when hollow; ben.d.e_r.., ban.d.e_r.. to float; to lose one's strength, to faint; ben.d.o_le a hollow ear-o_le of metal; ben.e a plug; a stopple, a cork (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ven.t.u (ven.t.i-) to dry as in the sun, become withered, be exhausted, be in great want, hanker; n. hollowness as of a pipe, a disease which causes hollowness in trees, sugar-cane, sola-pith (Ta.); ven.t.-elpu an old bone (Ma.); ben.d.u the white and ligh corky wood of the ben.d.u kasa, used in making hats, etc., cork, pith, a soft, light, useless substance (Ka.); ben.d.u pith; a light and spongy plant growing in water, aeschynomene aspera; thinness, leanness, lightness; thin, light, emaciated; bon.d.u pith (Tu.); ben.d.u aeschynomene indica; (inscr., p.51) soft, powerless (Tu.); bhe~d. pith (M.)(DEDR 5480). van.t.a stem (Pali.lex.) bila hollow; bilan. khan.ati to hollow (Pali.lex.)

6864.Ship: val.l.iyam ship (Ta.lex.) Boat: val.l.am boat made of trunk of a tree, canoe (Kampara_. At.caku. 28); vallam ola basket (Ta.); val.l.am canoe, boat of one trunk, large bamboo basket (holding 200-400 par-a of rice); vallam large basket to hold grain, grass, charcoal (Ma.); pol.m (obl. pol.t-) a bamboo vessel (To.); valm (obl. valt-) round grain-storage basket (Ko.)(DEDR 5315). Boat: plava a medium-sized boat (Jain.Skt.)

6865.Image: ola basket: poti ola basket used as a cup in eating and drinking; poti-tal to contain, hold (Tirukko_. 46); put.t.il baling basket (Ta.lex.) Images: a cup or hollow; salutation: pod.a, put.a a cup or hollow formed by folding, especially that formed by joining the palms of the hands in token of respect; pod.a mad.ike, pod.avad.ike to cause to salute respectfully; pod.a mad.u, pod.avad.u to join the palms of the hands into a cup (and thus to lift them up towards the forehead in token of respect), to make obeisance, to salute respectfully (Ka.); por-ai anything that is hollow (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Catamaran; float: vo_d.hum inf. of vahati; vo_d.hr. carrying, bringing (Pa_n..); draught horse (RV.); bridegroom, husband (Mn.); vahya to be carried (A_s'vS'r.); bojjha_ load (P.)(CDIAL 11465). bohita, boita, buita ship (Or.); vo_hitta ship (Skt.); conveyance, boat (Pkt.); bo_hitta ship (Pkt.); bohit, bauhit boat (H.); vahitra boat (Skt.)(CDIAL 11461). pota vessel (Pali) (Pali.lex.) cf. po_ta boat (MBh.); po_ta_ra (BHSkt.); pot boat (Ku.); *plo_tra boat (Skt.); plu float (Skt.)(CDIAL 9632). cf. o_t.am boat, ferry-boat (Tiva_.); raft, float, vessel of any kind (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. u_d.ha carried, moved (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. u_d.ha drawn, married (Pkt.); vu_l.ha, vul.ha drawn (Pali)(CDIAL 2400). ul.umpa catamaran; cf. paccari_ id. (Pali)(Pali.lex.) vul.ha, vu_l.ha, ul.umpa a float (pp. of vahati; pass. vuyhati; but may be vi + u_l.ha) carried away (Pali); ul.umpa a raft, a float (Pali.lex.) Raft: bol.a to float (Kor.); pulampuni to set afloat (Tu.); pula_vuni to float; pulapa_vuni to cause to float (Tu.)(DEDR 4321). pun-al, pun-ai water, flood, river (Ta.)(DEDR 4338). Catamaran: pun.alu floating; pun.aluni, punaluni to float (Tu.); pun.ai raft, float (Kur-al., 1134); boat, vessel, ship (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.)(DEDR 4321). pun.ai-k-kat.t.ai catamaran (Ta.lex.) cf. pun.ari sea (Tiv. Periyati. 8,6,5)(Ta.lex.) pol.e to roll, roll about, move to and fro (Ka.) (DEDR 4320). Float, raft: ho_d.a raft, boat (Skt.); hor.i_, hola_ canoe, raft (H.); hor.i_ boat (G.); hod.i_ canoe made of hollowed log (M.)(CDIAL 14174). Raft, float: cf. ud.upa raft (MBh.); ul.umpa raft (Pali); ud.uva boat (Pkt.); ur.u boatman (Or.); or.vu~ small boat (G.); od.i boat (Si.); oruva boat, canoe (Si.)(CDIAL 1695). uru schooner, sloop, small vessel (Ta.); uru, uruvu vessel, ship (Ma.)(DEDR 659). cf. tut.ippu boating stick (Ta.); tut.uppu paddle (Ma.); tud.upu oar (Ka.)(DEDR 3299). ut.u oar, boatman's pole (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) Boat: pota, poya, poyavahan.a, vahan.a, pavahan.a or ja_n.apat.t.a a sea-going vessel; a large ship; pavahan.a a merchant ship (Jain.Skt.) Boat; ship: pot boat (Ku.); po_ta boat (MBh.); po_ta_ra (BHSkt.)(CDIAL 9032). cf. vaheta_, baheta_ carrying loads (P.); bahita_ voyage (N.); bahita, bohita, buhita boat (MB.); bohita, boita, buita [sanskritized as vo_hitta ship (Skt.); conveyance, boat; bo_hittha ship (Pkt.); bohit, bauhit boat (H.)](CDIAL 11461). po_ta a ship, raft, boat; po_ta-dha_rin the master of a vessel; po_ta-plavah. mariner, seaman; po_ta-bhan:gah. a ship-wreck; po_ta-raks.ah. the rudder of a boat or ship; po_ta-van.ija sea-faring merchant; po_ta-va_hah. a rower, steersman; po_tya_ a multitude of boats; po_tram a boat, ship (Skt.lex.) po_ta-va_kan- boatman (Can.. Aka.); po_tam vessel, ship, boat (po_tan:ko n.et.un tan-ip poruvil ku_mpot.u : Kampara_. Pal.l.ipat.ai. 68)(Ta.lex.)

6866.Image: bird: pot.t.a, pot.a, potha, po_ta bird (Kuwi); pot.a id. (Kui); put.i id. (Mand..); pot.i id. (Pe.Kond.a)(DEDR 4489). pu_tu young chick; po_to_ bird (K.); pot.a_ unfledged bird, young of animal (H.); powa_li young of animal or bird (A.); pothilo young of a bird (Ku.); pothi hen bird (N.)(CDIAL 8399). bo_da young of bird (Te.)(DEDR 4587). bo.ri dove (Kol.); bo_r.a id. (Pa.); bod.e pigeon (Go.); bo_d.e dove (Go.)(DEDR 4602). pr.i_ska pot.a a kind of bird; pir.ska sparrow (Kuwi); pr.ih put.i a small bird (Mand..); piccuka sparrow (Te.); piske id. (Ga.Go.)(DEDR 4190).

6867.Young of an animal: po_tah. the young of any animal, cub, colt, foal etc.; a young warrior; po_taka the young of an animal; a young plant (Skt.lex.) po_ttu male of animals, especially cattle, tigers, deer (Tol. Po. 597); id. (Ma.); po_tu id. (Te.); po_ttu male of peafowl, herons and some other birds (Tol. Po. 598); male of aquatic animals as crocodile etc. (Tol. Po. 597); sapling (Tol. Po. 580); tender branch or shoot of a tree; po_takam young of animals (Ta.lex.) pat.t.i son; pat.uci a young one (Ta.); pad.ati woman; pad.d.e young boy (Ka.); pad.a~ti, pad.a~tuka woman (Te.); pad.ucu girl; young, youthful; pad.ucu~d.u boy; pat.t.i a child (Te.); pad.as boy, son (Kol.); pad.ic boy (Pa.)(DEDR 3840). bat.u boy (esp. a young Brahman), term applied contemptuously to an adult (MBh.); bat.uka (Skt.)[?Mu./IE origin; cf. interjections: bata wretch (RV.); ba_la fool, child; bala_ youngest sister (Skt.); ba_ro_ fool (Latin); bata, bat., bal.a_ (RV.); ba_l (AV.); ba_, ba_da (Avestan)]; bad.u, bad.ua boy (Pkt.); bar.ua_ caste of inferior Brahmans, cheat (Ku.); bar.u a Brahman title (B.); bar.u servant (Or.); bar.ua_ Brahman boy, pupil (H.); bad.u_u (OG.); bar.vo Brahman boy who is being initiated (G.)(CDIAL 9121). ba_d.uva~_ pl. poor simple little children (G.); ba_d.huva~_ id. (G.); ba_r.a_ boy, young man (Pas'.); ba_r.i_ girl friend (Pas'.); bariya_ widow's illegitimate son (A.); ba~_ri widow (A.)(CDIAL 9124). paital boy (Ta.); paital child (Ma.); haykal.u male or female children; hayda a boy (Ka.); paida boy, child (Te.); bed.d.a-peyya_ young cow (bed.d.a female); pedi_ girl; peda_ id., child; peda_l child, children; pe_d.al son, boy; pe_d.i girl (Go.)(DEDR 3939). bit.t.a boy (Pkt.); bit.t.i_ girl (Pkt.); be_t.i_ lamb (Phal.); bi_t.h-cod one guilty of incest with daughter (K.); bet.o boy (S.); bet.i_ girl (S.L.P.Ku.N.); daughter (H.Marw.G.M.); bet.a_ boy (P.A.OAw.M.); son (B.Mth.); bet.o boy (Ku.N.g.); bet.i slave-girl (A.); daughter (B.); bet.ua_ boy (Mth.); bet.ia_, bet.i daughter (Mth.); bit.iya_ id. (OAw.H.); be~d.u_ small and stout (of man or beast)(M.) (CDIAL 9238). pat.ava_ < bharwa_ (U.) rascal (Ta.lex.)

6868.Image: fish: pot.t.ukka_rai a kind of fish (Ta.lex.) pottai a fish; potti murrel (Kuruku_rppal.l.u); potiyan-kel.ir-u a kind of fish (Par-a_l.ai. Pal.l.u. 16); pe_ttai globe-fish genus, tetrodon; globe-fish brown, tetrodon nigropunctatus; gum-boil; bloated belly (Ta.lex.) pro_s.t.hi_ the fish cyprinus pausius (Bhpr.); pro_s.t.hika_ c. sophore (Skt.); put.hi a kind of small fish (A.); pu_t.hi, pu_t.i (B.); put.hi, put.i a kind of carp (Or.); pot.hi_ a small fish (Mth.); po~t.hi_, pot.i_ the carp c. pausius (H.)(CDIAL 9020). potiyan--kel.ir-u a kind of sfish (Par-a_l.ai. Pal.l.u. 16)(Ta.lex.) Image: shoal of young fish: pona_ young fish (A. also 'affectionate term of address to a child)(A.B.); *po_na young (Skt.); poi shrimp (Or.); pova_ young snake (M.); pothro young tree, bush (N.); po_ta, po_taka young of animal or plant (MBh.); po_a young snake, child (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8399). po_ta_dha_na shoal of young fish (Va_sar.); pahun.a_, pahun.i, pohan.a_ shoal of young fish (Or.)(CDIAL 8401). poha_r collection of young fish (Mth.)(CDIAL 8402). cf. po_ra child, little boy, little girl, young and inexperienced person (Ka.); po_ra, po_re lad; po_ri lass (Tu.); young of pig; chicken (Go.)(CDIAL 4603). cf. po~ga_ young snake, shoot (M.)(CDIAL 8394). bot.la ce~_pa a sort of fish, sparus (Te.); bot.t.e species of fish; jimt.a fish (Go.); bo_tte_, bot.e ki_ke kind of fish; pot. ki_ke species of fish (Skt. rohita)(Go.); bot.u min a kind of fish (Pe.)(DEDR 4498). pr.thuka boy, young of any animal (Skt.); prathuka young of an animal (Skt.); puthuka child (Pali); pil.u, pil.a_ young of an animal (Si.); poha_ any large non-carnivorous domestic animal, pl. cattle (H.) (CDIAL 8360). cf. putra son (RV.); putta son (Pali.Pkt.); put (N.B.); pu_t (Bhoj. H.G.M.)(CDIAL 8265). puto little son, small fruit (Ku.); puta_ son (Or.); putraka little son (RV.); puttaka id. (Pali)(CDIAL 8266). pautra son's son (AV.); potra_, pota_ (As'.); puturu (K.); pot.ro (S.); po_tra_ (L.); pot, potra_, potta_ (P.); pot.l.r.u young grandson (WPah.); pota_ son's son (B.H.)(CDIAL 8416). porul. son (ta_rakan-aip porutu pon-r-u vitta porul.in-ai mun- pat.aittukanta pun-itan- : Te_va_. 622,9)(Ta.lex.)

6869.Image: fly: phut fly (Bshk.); phit mosquito (Bshk.); phutto fly (Phal.); phutti mosquito (Phal.)(CDIAL 9085). pir-ukku gnat, mosquito (Ma.); puriki mosquito (Kod..); porki, pork, purki, por.ki, par.ki_ louse (Go.); pugungi_, pugungi_ midge (Kur.); putgi sand-fly (Malt.)(DEDR 4203). puttika_ a kind of bee; pauttika the honey from such bees (Skt.); po_nta a great fly (Ma.); potte any winged insect, bee (Kol.); large flying insect (Nk.); potta large insect (Pa.)(DEDR 4518). cf. phadiyu~ value of 4 pies only (G.); phadya_ small copper coin, a paisa_ (M.); phaddar. worthless (P.)(CDIAL 9048). cf. patan:ga insect (MBh.)(CDIAL 7721). bhusn.d.i, busn.d.i small fly (Santali.lex.)

6870.Udder: pod.um udder (probably mistake for podum)(Kol.); podmu id. (Ga.Kond.a.Kuwi); podmu_, ponna id. (Kuwi); poti udder (Ta.); podu~gu, poduvu id. (Te.)(DEDR 4503). u_dhas-, nom. u_dhar, gen. u_dhnah n. udder (RV.); u_ha breast (Pkt.); wuyu udder (K.); ohu (S.); uha_r udder of animals; uha_riba to have the udders swell (A.); oyar breast; oyar chor.al milk to come into the breast before giving birth (Bhoj.);[cf. cot.t.u to fall in drops (Ta.); co_d. co_d. (to drip slowly) drop by drop (Go.); cot.l. a drop (Ko.); cut. a drop (Br.); cut.t.ing to drip; cur.ing, cur.e_nging to get soaked (Br.)(DEDR 2835)]; voha breast, udder (OM.); u_r., u_r udder (Wg.); ire (Pr.); wo_d. (Wot..); o_r.e (Shum.); wo_r.a (Gaw.)(CDIAL 2403). i_t udder (Dm.)(CDIAL 2404). audhasa contained in the udder (BhP.)(CDIAL 2568). an.d.uar udder; cao~t.ia, campt.ahi small udder (Santali.lex.)

6871.Image: boar: bhator. sukri a huge wild boar with large tusks (Santali.lex.) po_trin a hog, boar (Skt.lex.) po_ttiri < po_trin hog, pig (Ta.lex.) Hedgehog: put.ati envelops, enfolds (Skt.); puru to hide (Pr. > put. hidden (Psht.); pur.ia-pus hedgehog (Wg.)[hidden tail](CDIAL 8255).

6872.Missile weapon: pottiram missile weapon (Ce_tupu. Can:karapa_n.t.i. 41)< po_tra; po_ttira_yutam < po_tra_yudha (Ta.lex.) cf. bhin.d.ipa_la a missile weapon (Skt.); po_ttaracar a title of the Pallava kings (S.I.I. ii,341)(Ta.lex.) po_tram the thunderbolt (Skt.lex.)

6873.Image: large alligator: po_t.i_ a large alligator (Skt.lex.)

6874.Image: scorpion: pot.t.i, pot.t.iya scorpion; put.t.a-te_lu large black scorpion (Te.); pot.t.e scorpion (Ga.)(DEDR 4488). pu_ram scorpion; centipede; pu_ra_n- centipede (Ta.lex.) Reddish yellow ochre: pu_ra_n--ka_vi-k-kal reddish yellow ochre, as having the colour of a pu_ra_n- (Ta.lex.) Gold: pu_ram gold (Ta.lex.)

6875.Jeweller's polishing stone: pot jeweller's polishing stone (Bi.)(CDIAL 8403). pottige flaming, flame; pottu flaming (Ka.lex.) pot.iyal punching pin, irumpil tul.ai-po_t.um kamma-k-karuvi; potta-l-u_ci id.; pot.i to shine (Cu_t.a_. 5,1)(Ta.lex.) po_tra *cleaning instrument (the Potr.'s soma vessel)(RV.)(CDIAL 8404). po_tra the soma vessel (of the Potr.)(po_tra_d yajam puni_tana : RV. i.15.2; ii.37.4) (Vedic. lex.) Purifying: po_tana purifying; sacred, holy; po_tr. one of sixteen officiating priests at a sacrifice (assistant of the priest called brahman); po_tram the office of the Potr. (Skt.lex.) po_tr. po_ta_, purifier (RV. ix.67.22)(Vedic.lex.) po_tti brahman temple-priest in Malabar; po_r-r-i id.; exclamation of praise (Cilap. 13,92) ; po_r-r-icai-ttal to praise, worship, adore (Periyapu. Ma_n-akkaca_r-a. 12) (Ta.lex.) cf. puna_ti purifies (RV.)(CDIAL 8277). Dust, sand: po_ clay (Shum.); pha_u soil, earth (Kal.); pa_ manure (L.); pa~_s ashes (B.); pa_u~sa ashes (Or. gai~t.ha-pa_u~sa_ ashes produced by burning cowdung); pa~_su dust (G.); pasu silt, sand (OSi.); pa_m.s'u crumbling, soil, dust, sand (AV.); dung, manure (Skt.); pa_m.s'uka dust (MBh.); pam.su dust, dirt (Pali); dust (Pkt.); pa_su dust (Pkt.); pos' dust (Gypsy); po_s'i sand; pos'i, pos'ik earth (Gypsy); puce earth, clay (Pr.); pasila~_ dusty (Wg.); peres dust (Kt.); perce earth (Pr.); pa_h manure of pulverized cow or buffalo dung (L.); pahor.a_ wooden tool for removing dung (L.); pa~_s ashes (B.); pa~_si manure (Aw.); pa~_su dust, dung (OH.); pa~_s (H.); pa~_sna_ to manure (H.); pasa dust, earth (Si.); fas id. (Md.)(CDIAL 8019). pa_m.s'ula dusty, sandy (R.); pa_m.sula dusty, sandy (S'Br.); pa_m.sura (RV.); pam.sula dusty (Pkt.); pam.sulia made dusty (Pkt.); pa~_sul dusty (H.)(CDIAL 8021). pur..uti dust, pulverized or fine powder, dry earth (Ta.); dust, earth put to the roots of trees, pollen, rust (Ma.); pu_r..i id. (Ma.); pu_r..ti dust (Ta.); pu_r..i powder, dust, sacred ashes; pu_ti ashes, dust, powder (Ta.); pu_yi sand; pu_ti, bhu_ti ashes (Ma.); pu.dy id. (Ko.); pu.0y id. (To.); bu_da, bu_di, bu_du ashes (Ka.); hoyige, hoyge sand (Ka.); bu.di ashes (Kod..); poyye sand (Tu.); bu_di ashes (Tu.); bu_din:ga, bu_du ash-coloured (Tu.); bu_d.ida, bu_di ashes (Te.); bu_d.di ash (Kol.); bur.di id. (Nk.); por.mil, pormil rubbish (Pa.); porsi sweepings (Malt.)(DEDR 4316). cf. bhu_ti ashes (Skt.) To be burnt to ashes: bro_d.a (bro_d.i-) to be burnt to ashes, be scattered (smoke); pl. action bro_t.ka (bro_t.ki-); tr. bro_t.pa (bro_t.t-); bro_nd.a (bro_ndi-) to smoulder, be fanned into flame; pl.action bro_t.ka (bro_t.ki-); tr. bro_t.pa (bro_t.t-); ?bru_d.a (bru_d.i-) to be scattered (dust, ashes); pl.action bru_t.ka (bru_t.ki-); tr. bru_t.pa (bru_t.t-)(Kui)(DEDR 4537). podoe, podoe podoe fine, as dust, rain, etc., to fly off, as dust or anything small or light carried by the wind; podor, podor podor to reduce to a fine powder or dust, to become powder or dust (Santali.lex.) Image: particle, powder: pot.i powder, dust, ash, particle, fragment (Ta.); pot.iyuka to appear in very minute particles (Ma.); poyr. powder, dust (Ko.); pud.i powder, dust (Ka.); pod.i powder, flour (Kod..); id., dust (Tu.); powder, dust, flour; loose (Te.); pu_d. powder (M.)(DEDR 4481). cf. bod.orka bubble (Pa.); bud.ruka id. (Go.); bund.ra (Kond.a); bud.vel (Pe.)(DEDR 4485). To winnow; fight: pakkho_d.ai sweeps off, makes fall by sweeping, spreads, opens (Pkt.); pakkho_d.an.a shaking (Pkt.); pakkho_lan.a tripping up (Pkt.); pachor.n.o to winnow, dash, strike against a stone, wash (Ku.); pachr.a_na to winnow (B.); pa_chur.iba_ (Or.); pachor.na_ to winnow (with a basket); pachor.an chaff which flies off when winnowing (H.)(CDIAL 8460). pachan.d.an.u to winnow, throw violently (S.); pachan.d.n.a_ to thresh, winnow (P.); pachan.d.a_ kicking (P.)(CDIAL 8495). cf. pachar.na_ to be thrown (in wrestling), fall (P.); pacha_d.n.e~ to throw (in wrestling)(M.)(CDIAL 8493). pachat.t.n.a_ to defame (P.)(CDIAL 8494). put.ai to winnow, thresh, beat, strike; blow (Ta.); por.c- to winnow (rice) with long up-and-down strokes to remove the husks after pestling (Ko.); pur.f- (pur.t-) to winnow, dashes down, (fever) attacks (To.); pur. beating (To.); pod.e to strike (Ka.); pod.ar to tremble (Ka.); pod.arpu trembling, quivering (Ka.); pod.a to flutter quickly to and fro (hen with head cut off, persons struggling on ground, mouth in chewing)(Kod..); pud.epuni, pod.epuni to winnow, fan (Tu.)(DEDR 4252).

6876.Image: fencing foil: ponti, pontika, pontiya fencing foil, club of wood (Ma.); ponti wooden sword (Ta.)(DEDR 4521). pud.ipuni quarrel, fight (Tu.); pod.ucu to fight; po_t.u battle (Te.); po_d.u fight (Ga.); pod.- (pot.t.-/por.t-) to hit (not to miss), (rain) to fall (Pe.)(DEDR 4252).

6877.Image: pack-bullock: pot.hi_ beast trained for carrying burdens (S.); riding bullock (L.); pack-bullock, caravan (G.); pot.hiyo id. (G.); pro_s.t.ha bull (Skt.); pr.s.t.hava_ha draught ox (Skt.)(CDIAL 9019). cf. pro_d.ha strong, full-grown, skilful (Skt.lex.) pro_d.ham (Pa_n.. gan.a); praud.ha full of (MBh.); paribr.d.ha strong (S'Br.); pavu_d.ha firm (Pkt.); po_d.ha grown up, capable, clever (Pkt.); por.ho very old (S.); por.a_ stout, robust (Mth.); por.h(a_) = paur.ha_ (H.); pod.ha big (OG.); pod.ha_ stout, cunning (P.)(CDIAL 9021). poti-ma_t.u pack-bull; poti-y-erutu id. (Tan-ippa_. ii,283,487); poti fullness, perfection (Tacaiva_. 290); pack, bundle; load, as for a beast; parcel tied in a cloth (Cilap. 5,112); miscellaneous goods; treasure (Ta.lex.)

6878.To wrap; bundle: potukku concealment, secluded place (Ta.); putappu warm clothing, blanket (Ma.); putekka to cover, wrap oneself in, thatch with palm-leaves, bury (Ma.); podepu wearing apparel (Tu.); podepa_vuni to cause to put on clothes, dress (Tu.); podugu, poduvu to cover, envelope, encircle, set (as a precious stone), imbed (Te.); poduvu covering (Te.); putunk bundle, knot, knotted string (Br.); poti bundle, fastening (Ta.)(DEDR 4509). putai hidden treasure, place of concealment; to conceal, bury, hide, cover (Ta.); putaiyal being hidden,hidden treasure (Ta.); putekka to bury (Ma.); pottuka to cover, envelope (Ma.); pudi to be hidden or concealed (Ko.); podun:ku to hide (Ko.)(DEDR 4509). purduik to cover oneself, put on a cloak (Kho.); porun to put on, wear (K.)(CDIAL 7835). mur.hutta_na_ to cover up (Go.); mur.ih, mur. to cover (Go.); mu_g close up, be closed (mouth, lotus)(Pe.); mlu_nga to be covered (Kui)[cf. mu_t.u (Ta.)(DEDR 5034)](DEDR 5002). Burying, treasure: pu_d.(u)pu burying, treasure trove (Te.); pur (hole) becomes filled in (Kol.); pu_r..(u) to inwrap, insert, cover, bury (Ka.); hu_r..(u) to cover, bury; sink into (as a foot into mud), be filled up (as a channel)(Ka.); pu_r..uka, pu_n.uka to be buried, stick in the mire (Ta.)(DEDR 4376). prago_payati guards; conceals (Skt.); pot underground part of a post, deep muddy place (A.); potiba to bury, fill up with earth (A.); po~t the length of anything buried underground (B.); pota_, po~ta_, puta_, pu~ta_ to bury (B.); pota_ foundation (Or.); poriba_, putiba_ to bury (Or.)(CDIAL 8474). To store up, treasure up; to bury: poti-vai to keep a treasure underground (Ku_l.appa. Ka_tal. 6); to be big with grains, as standing crop; pottu to bury (Kampara_. Vira_tan-vatai. 43); id. (Ka. Ma.); to hide, conceal (Kampara_. Karan-vatai. 100); pottu covering, stopping, closing up (Ta.); poti- to store up, treasure up (Kur-al., 155); potti-vai- to conceal,, to keep safe; poti pack, bundle, parcel tied in a cloth (Cilap. 5,112); treasure; poti-yar-u to extort money; poti-yar-ai underground room without air-holes (Man.i. 4,105); potu-k-kat.t.u to deposit by mutual consent, as with a mediator or Paca_yat; potukku to conceal (Iraku. Kat.iman.a. 49); potukku concealment; potu-c-com common property (Ta.); potiyil, poitiyam, potikai public hall (Man.i. 28,66)(Ta.lex.) cf. potu public place, assembly (Pur-na_. 89); the hall in the temple at Chidambaram (Tiruva_ca. 2,128)(Ta.lex.) Bundle: po_t.t.ala bundle (Skt.); po_t.ala id. (Car.); pot.t.a id. (Pkt.); pot.ir.i_ bag, satchel (S.); pot. bag, load (P.); bundle, bale (H.); bundle (G.); pot.ku~ packet (G.); pot.t.ala, pot.t.aliya_, put.t.ala, put.t.alaya, put.t.aliya_ bundle (Pkt.); pot.t.aliya porter (Pkt.); pot.li_ small bag (P.); po_t.la_, pu~t.al, pu~t.uli bundle (B.); pot.al.a~_, pot.al.i (Or.); pot.la_ (H.); pot.lo, pot.lu~ (G.); pot.la_, pot.li_ bundle of stuff (M.); pe~d.hi_ packet (M.)(CDIAL 8396). pot.t.an.am small bundle, parcel; bundle of drugs, leaves, etc., tied in a piece of cloth and used in fomentation (Ta.); pot.t.an.a (Ka.); pot.n.amu (Te.); pot.t.alam, pot.t.al.i id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) To clothe: putai to clothe (Ta.)(DEDR 4509).

6879.Image: eyelash: pot.a eyelash (Ga.); kan bot.t.a eyebrow (Kol.)(DEDR 4486). Eye-lid: pata_ eyelid (Or.); pa_t eyelid (M.)(CDIAL 7733).

6880.Image: lid; heap-like shape: pottu- to cover, close, as the mouth, eyes or ears, with the fingers or otherwise (Kampara_. Iran.iya. 22); to mend, patch, botch, as baskets or bags; covering, stopping, closing up (Ta.lex.) podi- to cover completely in a heap-like shape (Kod..)(DEDR 4509). Plug, stopper: buco plug, stopper (N.); buc plug (G.M.); bujo (S.); buji_ cork (S.); bujja_ plug (L.); stopper, menstrual cloth (P.); bujn.o to stop, shut (eyes, etc.)(Ku.); bujo cork, stopper (N.); bujinu to be stopped up (N.); buja_, bu~ja_ to shut (B.); buja_ shutting (Or.); bujiba_ to shut, enclose, fence; to be closed, be filled up (Or.); bujna_ pessary (H.); buj plug (M.); bujn.e~ to stop up (M.); vujjan.a lid (Pkt.) (CDIAL 9267). but.ijan.u to be blocked (S.); but.an. to stop, close (ears or mouth) (L.); but.n.e~ cork, stopper (M.)(CDIAL 9269).

6881.Atis: viccuvam, vicuvam atis, ativit.ai < ati-vis.a_, aconitum heterophyllum a medicinal tree (Tailava. Taila. 4)(Ta.lex.) a_taica aconitum heterophyllum (Skt.); ativis.a (Skt.); a_tis (B.): the tuberous roots of this plant are considered tonic, astringent and stomachic, and used in fever, diarrhoea, irritability of stomach and cough. A_tis is also regarded as an antidote to poisons (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.102). vit.am, vit.aru atis (Ta.); vis.a_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Aconitum napellus: synonyms: monkshood, aconite root, aconiti tuber, wolfsbane, cuckoo's cap; coqueluchon (Fr.); aconiknollen, sturmhut, eisenhut (Ger.); part used: the dried tuberous root; habitat: mountainous districts of Europe and Asia; uses: aconite, when applied as a tincture, is a peripheral stimulant to the sensory nerves... taken internally, it stimulates the vagus centre, slowing the heart rate... used as a cardiac depressant in high arterial tension of cardiac origin... an analgesic in facial neuralgia, rheumatism, toothache... Indian or Nepal aconite is the root of aconitum laciniatum... contains pseudaconitine, a respiratory depressant which is much more toxic than aconite... Root of aconitum deinorrhizum or aconitum ferox, other Indian species native to the Alpine Himalayas of Bashahr or Nepal... and aconitum balfourii from India... contain pseudaconitine... Aconitum heterophyllum is an allied species of India... with bitter but not acrid or benumbing roots and containing the alkaloid atisine. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 314-328).

6882.Terminalia bellerica: vibhi_taki_ (Skt.); bahera_ (H.B.); "belleric myrobalans are described as astringent and laxative and useful in cough, hoarseness, eye diseases etc... the kernel of the fruits is said to be narcotic and astringent and is used as an external application to inflamed parts... " (U.C. Dutt, Materia Medica of the Hindus, 1922, pp.161-164; pp.226-227). Terminalia bellerica: bahe_d.aa, bibhe_laa, bihe_l.aga terminalia bellerica and its berries (Pali); baher.o myrobalan (S.); baher.a_ (L.P.); ba_ha_r.a_ (Or.); bahe_ra_ (A.); bha_hera_ (A.); barro (N.); baher.a_, bayr.a_ (B.); baher.a_, bayr.a_ (B.); ba_ha_r.a_ (Or.); bahe_ra_ (Aw.); bahi_ra_, baher.a_ (H.); bihid.u (OG.); baher.o (G.); behed.a_, behd.a_, beha_d.a_, vehl.a_, vhel.a_ (M.); bul.u (Si.); vibhi_daka the tree terminalia bellerica; its berry or myrobalan (RV.); vibhi_taka (S'Br.); vibhe_daka, vahe_daka (Skt.); vahe_d.uka, bahe_t.aka (Skt.)[vibhi_daka was affected by the names of the other two constituents of the triphala-, viz. hari_taka, a_malaka-: thus vibhi_taka- after the former (in its turn replaced by hari_taka- after vibhi_t.aka-), while after the second vibhe_daka- was replaced by bibhe_laa (Pkt.); initial v- was assimilated to b- > bih quince (Pers.); bih quince (K.); behi_ (S.); bihi_ (H.)]; vibhi_taka-, vibhe_daka terminalia bellerica and its berry (Pali); bihi_ a thorny shrub with bitter yellow berries (solanum indicum?)(N.); vibhi_t.aka (Pali)(CDIAL 11817).

6883.Discharging; bi_d.u, bi_r.. leaving; leave; discharging (an arrow); halting, stopping; that which is left out or omitted; bi_r.., bi_r-u throwing, flinging; spending profusely; bi_r-ugun.d.u a ball that is thrown (Ka.lex.)

6884.Habitation: bi_d.u a halting place, a camp, a habitation, an abode, a residence, a house, a place (Ka.); vi_t.u (Ta.Ma.); vi_d.u (Te.); bu_d.u (Tu.); bi_d.a_gu to become a place for; bi_d.u to encamp (Ka.lex.)

6885.Waste land: bi_d.u, bi_r.. a waste, a wild, uncultivated, waste land (Ka.); bi_d.u, bi_ru (Te.); bi_d.a_gu to perish; to become waste (Ka.); bi_d.u bid.u to let remain waste or uncultivated (Ka.); bi_d.u bi_r..u, bi_r..u bi_r..u to become or remain uncultivated (Ka.lex.)

6886.Plan: be_tu plan, scheme, plot; purpose, design; method, form (Ka.M.H.); udde_s'a, san:ke_ta (Ka.lex.)

6887.Quilted rags: bonte, bante, bonta, bonta_ a thick cloth made by sewing one cloth on another, a cloth made of quilted rags (Ka.Te.); buntha, bunthi_, bo_ntha a cloth thrown, or prepared to be thrown, over the head and body as a muffler; bo_nthi_ a clout (M.); bontega one who wears a bonte (Ka.lex.)

6888.Image: body: bondi the body (Ka.Te.); ponti (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

6889.Image: coil of rope: bondi a bundle of coir or other rope (Ka.lex.)

6890.Image: to stamp: pot.iyal punching pin; potir-ttal to pierce (Ci_vaka. 2778) (Ta.) Ta.lex.) pat.i to bore (Santali.lex.) po_t.u (po_t.uv-, po_t.t.-) to cast down; cast away, put, set in a position, fasten (as a bolt), strike, beat, stamp; n. anything striking (as a speech)(Ta.); po_t.uka to strike (as a wedge into timber), put; po_t.t.uka to put a mark on the forehead (Ma.); pa_d.uni to throw, cast, fling; place, put (Tu.); pe_d.i, havd.i, ho_d.a to put (Kor.)(DEDR 4581). Image: round mark: pot.t.u round mark, red, white or black, worn on the forehead (Tirukko_. 303); id. (Ma.); pot.t.u a kind of jewel (S.I.I. ii,166); dot, spot, mark; drop; dot, representing one; hole or opening to creep through, as in a hedge (Ta.lex.) bat.t.u, bot.t.u drop, mark on the forehead (Ka.); por-r-u a circular mark on the forehead, mostly red (Ma.); bot.t.i round mark worn on the forehead (Kod..); bot.t.a a spot, mark, a drop; but.t.e a dot (Tu.); bot.t.u a drop, the sectarian mark worn on the forehead (Te.); bot.la drop (Kol.); bot. id. (Pa.); bot.u drop, spot (Ga.); bot.u drop of water, mark on forehead (Kond.a); bu_ttu_, but.u tattoo (Kuwi)(DEDR 4492). bot.t.u, bat.t.a (Tadbhava of vr.tta) that is round, a round thing; an ornamental (and sectarial) mark (of sandal paste etc.) on the forehead in the form of a circlet; that circlet made of metal, glass, pearls etc.; bot.t.acu a round, i.e. regular, plain border (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) po_t.e, pot.t.are a hole in a tree (Ka.); po_r-ai (Ta.); po_t.e a hollow in general (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6891.Belonging to the bridegroom: putatta belonging to a bridegroom, on the side of a bridegroom; puteita, putetta id.; dhiatta putatta belonging to the bride and bridegroom (P.lex.)

6892.Wooden rim of cartwheel: put.hia wooden rim of cartwheel; putla centre piece of cart wheel (Santali.lex.) put.t.hi a section of the felloe of a wheel (P.lex.) bin.d.i a rim round foot of a vessel (Santali.lex.) paita_ wheel of a cart; < paiya_ (U.)(Ta.lex.) paintu < bandh ball (Perun.. Makata. 8,64)(Ta.lex.) pem.d. mud sticking to shoes; the refuse of seeds or nuts from which the oil has been expressed (M.); pem.d.o small ball of clay (G.); ped. pem.d. ball, bowl (H.)[cf. pantu ball (Ta.lex.)]; pen.d.a (Pkt.); pem.d.aba_lam. pem.d.aliyam. ... pin.d.i_kr.tam. (OM.); pind.a (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 365). Image: part of a wheel between the nave and the circumference: upadhi the part of a wheel between the nave and the circumference or the wheel itself; foundation (with the Buddhists) (Skt.) (Skt.lex.) phed. basis; foot base; phed.at, penda foot base (Santali.lex.) cf. pat.i step, sill (Ta.)(DEDR 3850). upaticai < upa-dis'a_ intermediate point of the compass (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) upadha_na placing or resting upon (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) upadhi putting down or under, foundation, basis, ground, substratum ; attachment; wife and children, flocks and herds, silver and gold are called upadhayo. upadhi is the root of sorrow; upadhika having a substratum; anupadhika free from clinging (Pali)(Pali.lex.)

6893.Image: joint; bridge made of two logs: bond bridge made of two logs (Kho.); ban joint in body or sugarcane or bamboo (Sh.) joint (D..); ban, bandi_ wrist (D..); Ring: bann iron ring round musket barrel (WPah.)(CDIAL 9136). mene rope (Kt.); mana (Pr.)[assim. from ban joint in sugarcane or body or bamboo; bandi string.] bondu (pl. botku) finger-ring (Kond.a); bundu, bondu toe-ring (Kuwi)(DEDR 4523). Girdle: bani girdle (Gypsy); bannh fastening (P.); ba~_dha_ a fastening, settlement (B.); ba_ndh knot (A.); ba~_dh string (Aw.)(CDIAL 9136). bandhana tying (RV.); bond, tether (S'Br.); fetter (Pali); bandhan.u halter (S.); ba~_dhan, ba~_dhani tie, knot (B.); ba_ndhan.a_, ba_ndhan.i_ rope for tying (Or.); banhna_ rope put round roots of transplanted tree while being transported (Bi.); ba~dhni_ bandage, tie (H.)(CDIAL 9140). bada_n rope, cord (Pas'.)(CDIAL 9141). ba~dhej method of tying on turban (P.)(CDIAL 9143). patar., patar.ohar girdle (Santali.lex.)

6894.Image: joining: po_d.u combination; me_l-po_d.u a kind of metrical composition in which kandas and vr.ttas are mixed (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. po_t.u to set in a position (Ta_yu. Pa_pappuli. 31); to put on as ornaments (Iraku. Ilavan.a. 40)(Ta.)(DEDR 4581). cf. po_t.i, po_t.iya_r landed proprietor (J.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) po_t.i, ho_t.e joining, uniting; resemblance, likeness, similarity (Ka.); what is joined or put to, any piece that is joined to wood, cloth, a rope etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pu_t.t.ai cord for fastening a bullock to its yoke; pu_t.t.u harnessing; to give in charge, to entrust (Patir-r-up. 42,10); to bring into order or sequence (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)(DEDR 4361). cf. pu_n.i bull, bullock (Te_va_. 647,3); pu_n.ai pastoral tract (Ta.); pu_n.t.i town, village, district; shallow part of the sea (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pu_d.isu to cause to join or put to; to cause to yoke; pu_d.u to join, to unite; to put to, to tie to; to yoke; to put oxen, horses etc. to carts, carriages, ploughs etc.; to tie or fix carts etc. to oxen; to put together as stones for a fire-place; to make ready, to prepare, to arrange; to establish as a play, a shop; to bring about, to create; to begin (Ka.); u_d.u, pu_n., hu_d.u id. (ka.); pu_t.t.u to harness, to yoke (Ta.Ma.); pu_d.u established state (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Adorned: pul.ai-tal to be equipped, accoutred, adorned (Kampara_. Karan-. 76)(Ta.lex.) pun-ai (-v-, -nt-) to dress, put on (Te_va_. 727,3); to adorn, decorate (Pur-ana_. 12); to make ready, wear (Kalit. 116); make, form (Pur-ana_.11); n. beauty, decoration; pun-aivu beauty decoration, making (Ta.); punayuka to put on, undertake (Ma.)(DEDR 4340). pu_n. to put on, wear, be fettered or yoked with (Ta.)(DEDR 4361). Embellishing; arranging, constructing: po_r.. arranging, constructing, contriving; forming, making; composing, composition; embellishing; any artificial or ornamental fabric (Ta.lex.)

6895.Accoutred: vyu_d.hakan:kat.a accoutred, mailed, armed (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ud.upu, ud.apu clothes of any kind; ud.upa a man who has for his raiment; ud.uge, ud.uke that envelops or encircles, an envelope; a raiment of a particular kind (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) hod.e, hod.a (Tadbhava of put.a) a cover, a wrapper (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) podake, hodake, hodike a cover, a covering, a wrapper (thrown over one's self especially also at night; hodake id. (Ka.); pode, hodi, hode to put on; to put over; to wrap round (Ka.); pode a bundle (Ka.); podayisu to put on; to cover; to hide (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6896.Image: small bead; goldsmith's shears to cut wire: potti_ glass (Pkt.); pu_ti glass bead (S.); pot (P.); pote long straight bar of jewelry (N.); pot glass bead (B.); puti, pu_ti small bead (B.); puti necklace of small beads (Or.); pot glass bead (H.G.M.)(CDIAL 8403). pot.i-vet.t.i goldsmith's shears or scissors (to cut gold wire); pot.i solder, metallic cement; particle, fragment; that which is small (Ta.lex.) potti a kind of gem (S.I.I. iii,143)(Ta.lex.) Image: to perforate: cf. potir-ttal to pierce (Ci_vaka. 2778); potu-tal to be perforated (Tiv. Tiruccan. 73)(Ta.lex.) po~ti bead (B.)(CDIAL 4205). bud.hi mala a bead with wide hole (Santali.lex.)

6897.Image: masculine woman: po_t.e = vo_t.e a woman with a beard; a hermaphrodite; a female servant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) po_t.a_ a masculine woman, a woman with a beard or such other masculine features; a hermaphrodite; a female servant (Skt.lex.) cf. pe_t.i hermaphrodite (Ta.)(DEDR 4434). Hermaphrodite; woman: pen. woman, girl; pen.t.u woman, wife (Ta.); pen.t.an-, pen.t.akan-, pen.t.akam hermaphrodite, eunuch (Ta.); pen.t.i girl, woman (Ma.); the female of any animal or plant (Te.); female sheep (Go.); pen.t.i_ female (Kol.); pen.da, pen., pen.n.u female, woman (Ka.); pan.d.a eunuch, effeminate man (Skt.)(CDIAL 7717); pet.t.aiyan- hemaphrodite, effeminate man (Ta.); bat.g virginal, maidenlike (Malt.); pat.t.i_ female (Br.)(DEDR 4395).

6898.An ancient office; land register: cf. pottakam painted cloth < pustaka (Skt.); book (Perun.. Ucaik. 34,26); land register (S.I.I. iii,80); puttakam book, ola manuscript (Na_lat.i, 318); printed cloth; peacock-quill; puttaka-p-pat.u to record, register, as a notary public; puttakam-pan.n.u id. (Ta.lex.) Register of properties; land record: or..uku register of a temple giving an account of its properties, and its history; land record, containing particulars of the ownership, etc., of lands (Tiv. Tiruma_lai, 3, Vya_.); or..un:ku-kat.t.u- to make a regulation; to frame a law; or..un:ku-pat.u- to set in order; to arrange; to regulate; or..un:ku register of the measurement and extent of fields and holdings (C.G.); a kind of settlement of the assessment on land, made with each individual mira_cuta_r or the cultivating ryot or with an outsider if the former should decline the term proposed (G.Tn.D. i,283); a kind of settlement of land assessment which prevailed in Tanjore during the first half of the nineteenth century (G.Tj.D. i,176); standard rate, for assessment or for the price of grain (Ta.lex.) Skin, fleece: po_st skin (Pers.); ca_ma pothi skin (NiDoc.); pothi_ fleece (L.)(CDIAL 8414). pusta, pusta_ book (VarBr.S.); pustaka, pustika_ (Skt.); pwstk book (Sogd.); pavasta_ skin (OPers.); potthaka book (Pali); puttha, putthaya, putthiya_ (Pkt.); pu_thi, po_the (K.); pothu large book; pothi_ smaller book (S.); po(t)tha_, pothi_ (P.); pothi_ (Ku.); pothi (N.); puthi (A.); potha_, pothi_, puthi, pu_thi (B.); potha_, pothi, puthi (Or.); potha_, pothi_ (Mth.); po_thi_ (Bhoj.); potha_, pothi_ (Aw.H.); pothu~, pothi_ (G.); pothi_ (M.); pota (M.)(CDIAL 8413). pusta working in clay (Skt.); cf. pu_cu smear (Ta.lex.) potthaka cheap rough hemp cloth (Pali); potthakamma plastering (Pali); potho lump of rag for smearing, smearing, cloth soaked in opium (S.); pucura_ wisp of rag or jute for whitewashing with, smearing with such a rug (Or.)(CDIAL 8400). vari-p- pottakam tax register (Inscr.); an ancient office (T.A.S. i,166); variyil-it.u to enter in the revenue register (S.I.I. iii,115); variyil-i_t.u entry in the revenue register; office of keeping the revenue register (T.A.S. i,16); vari-y-o_lai deed of agreement; vari-vat.ivu written character; written symbol of an articulate sound (Nan-. 97, Mayilai); vari-vai- to impose a tax; to apportion and levy contributions, as for a common fund; varivai- to set in a row, as in brick-laying (Ta.lex.)

6899.Register: rokir. cash book (L.); rokar.a id. (Or.)(CDIAL 10828). rokor. hard cash; roka cash (Santali.lex.) Land register: or..uku (or..uki-) to be arranged in regular order, act according to laws; n. land record, register; or..un:ku (or..un:ki-) to be regular or in order; place in line, set in order; n. row, line, order, regularity, propriety, regulation; or..ukkam acting according to established rules, good conduct, decorum (Ta.); or..ukku natural, smooth, plain; or..ukkam plainness; or..un.n.uka to keep within bounds; or..un:ku order, regularity, good conduct, propriety (Ma.)(DEDR 1011). or. or. regularly; rahom rohom rule; t.hak t.hok in a plain manner; hora a line (Santali.lex.) Acknowledgement: roka an acknowledgement, as of money paid; rokae emadina he gave me an acknowledgement (of money paid) (Santali.lex.) Cash: roka ready money, cash; rokagele hataokeda we bought for cash (Santali.lex.) cf. orun.n.uka to be ready; orukkam preparation; orukkuka to prepare, get ready (Ma.)(DEDR 992). rucum, rucu_m, ru_cu_m fees, money payments received by public officers, as perquisites attached to their office (R.T.)(Ta.); ru_su_m (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ro_ka buying with cash (Skt.)(CDIAL 10828). rukka_ note, chit, memorandum (C.G.)(Ta.); ruqqa_ (U.); rucu proof, signature (Ta.); ruju_ (U.); rucu-p-por-upppu burden of proof (I_ccuraniccayam, 38); rucu-p-po_t.u-tal to affix one's signature (C.G.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ru_cu_vet.t.a_ an ancient tax on jagir land in certain villages in the Tanjore district (R.T.)(Ta.lex.) Pledge: ruju to present for acknowledgment, to give a pledge (Santali.lex.) Vow: ur.a vow (Or.); od.a bet, pledge (Si.)(CDIAL 14175). Pledge: otte a pledge, a pawn (Ka.); otti (Tu.); or-r-i (Ta.Ma.); ottit.u to deposit a pledge or pawn; to pledge, to pawn; otte-bad.uha the state of being pledged; otte bid.i to redeem a pawn; ottesu_l.e a harlot who takes pawns (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. or-r-i mortgage with possession (as of land)(Ta.)(DEDR 1020). Image: to take oath; pledge: hod.d.a, hud.d.a, hud.d.a_ wager (Pkt.); hod.a (S.); hor. (Ku.N.B.); ur.a vow (Or.); hor. wager (H.); hod. wager (G.M.); od.a bet, pledge (Si.); ot.t.u wager (Si.Ta.); od.d.a (Ka.)(CDIAL 14175). Oath: ot.t.u oath (Ta.Te.); id., a vow, solemn promise (Ka.); od. oath (Kol.); od.a swearing (Kui)(DEDR 959). cf. or-r-u flate bracelet for a child (Ta.); or-r-a-tta_li marriage badge (Ma.)(DEDR 1023). cf. or-r-i mortgage with possession (as of land, trees, cattle etc.)(Ta.); a pawn (Ma.); otte a pledge, pawn (Ka.); otti id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1020). ottulu gold bracelet for children (Te.); ottu a thin bangle (Ta.)(DEDR 1023). cf. cu_l. (cu_l.p-) to take an oath, vow; n. vow (Ta.)(DEDR 2738).

6900.A measure of land: poti a superficial measure of land, 2640 sq. yards (M.M.); put.t.i land measure = 8 to 11 1/2 acres; measure of capacity = about 1/2 Madras measure; bazaar weight = 20 man.u = 500 lbs; capacity = 750 Madras pat.i (Ta.lex.) put.t.i measure of capacity (20 tu_mu), weight of 500 lb. (Te.); a measure of corn (Go.); put.i a measure of capacity (Pe.)(DEDR 4262). poti < pur..uti (Ta.) dry state of wet land, ka_ynta nan-cey (Ta.Tinn.)(Ta.lex.)

6901.An old Co_r..a town: potti an old Co_r..a town (Patir-r-up. 9, Pati.)(Ta.lex.)

6902.Image: elephant: po_ta an elephant ten years old (Skt.lex.) po_takam elephant calf (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 7,1); elephant (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 113); sapling (Ta.lex.)

6903.Image: sapling: po_ttu sapling (Tol. Po. 580); tender branch or shoot of a tree; po_ttukka_l sugar-cane (Tol. Po. 579, Urai.); po_ttu-vet.ittal to sprout, as saplings (W.); po_tu flower bud ready to open (Kur-al., 1227)(Ta.lex.)

6904.To grow; image: an ear of corn: pod.e a plump ear of corn; pod.e maral. tbe belly to be turned (upwards); pod.e belly (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) hod.e, hod.e maral.u to grow (Ka.); hod.e, pod.e an ear of corn just before fully shooting forth; the calyx of the ke_dage [fragrant screw-pine, pandanus odoratissimus, ke_ciya_, ke_takai (Ta.); ke_taki_ (Skt.)] just before fully opening; hod.eyakki rice of not fully grown grain; hod.eyakki-tuyyalu a dish made of not fully grown rice-grain etc. (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Image: sprout: cf. pot.t. tender ear of corn (Tu.)(DEDR 4482). cf. po_ttu sapling (Ta.)(DEDR 4587). phordu sprout, shoot, seedling (Kho.); po_dh plant (WPah.); paud seedling (Ku.); paudh, paud young plants for transplanting (H.); paudha_, pauda_ (H.)(CDIAL 8807).

6905.Image: road: por-e a path, a road (Ka.); or-ugu to go, walk; or-ugai a carriage (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. orn:ku lane, footpath (Tu.)(DEDR 1014). cf. putavu door, gate (Ta.); pudi the side of a door (Ka.)(DEDR 4274).

6906.Feather; eyebrow: putga feather (Go.); putga_ id., wing (Go.); putehin, putelin, butuhin (pl.) eyebrows (kan:ku p.)(Pe.)(DEDR 4278). cf. bhru_ eyebrow (RV.); -bhru_ka (Pa_n..)(CDIAL 9688). putal eyebrow (Tan-ippa_. ii,193,467); cf. bhru_-lata_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

6907.Image: pile: cf. ud.d.i, od.d.i heap or pile, esp. a pile of three with a fourth set on top (Ka.); ud.d.i any pile of three with one on the top (Tu.); ud.d.a, ud.d.a_ a parcel or pack of four (Te.)(DEDR 599). od.d.a a pile, heap; a stake in gambling, a wager, a bet; od.d.an.a, od.d.an.i a pile, a mass; od.d.ava arrangement (of words), style; od.d.avan.e array; preparation; od.d.ike putting, piling; od.d.u to array; to put a stake or as a stake at play (Ka.); cf. on.d.u to lean against (Ta.); od.d.u a heap, a mass; a apile (Ka.); o_d.e, va_d.e a broad burnt earthen hoop used for walling the inside of wells, one hoop being placed upon another (Ka.); ur-ai (Ta.); ore (Te.); ud.d.i any heap of pile, especially a pile of three (marbles, seeds, fruit stones, etc.) with a forth set on the top (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Receptacle for grain: o_d.e a hoop when large, used as a receptacle for grain etc. (Ka.Ta.Te.); a large store-vessel constructed of baked earthen rims piled one upon another (Ka.Ta.Te.); u_d.u a support etc. (Ka.); u_n-r-u to lean, set, fix, put in the ground etc. (Ta.); u_t.e firmness, strength (Te.); u_r-r-a immobility; refuge, protection (Te.); va_d.ha hard, firm, strong; abundant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6908.Image: pincers: pot.i-yi_r pincers (Kat.t.ad.a. Na_ma_. 40); pot.i-vet.t.i goldsmith's shears or scissors (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. i_r-va_l. a saw (Ta.) i_ruka to saw (Ma.); i_r splitting, sawing (Ma.); i_r to pull, draw (Ka.); to pull, drag (Ga.)(DEDR 542).

6909.Image: body: pottai body (Te_va_. 996,1); pottu stomach (Te_va_. 188,6)(Ta.); ponti body (Tiruppu. 731)(Ta.); bondi (Te.Ka.); pontai body (Te_va_. 389,5)(Ta.lex.)

6910.Image: slice: po_d.i a slice, a bit, of fruits, nuts etc. (Ka.M.); spho_t.a (Skt.); po_d.u splitting, etc. (Ka.); po_d.u-ga_r-a a splitter or cutter of wood (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: a bit; fractional quantities: pu_t.u a bit, a small portion or sum, fractional quantities (Ka.H.); pu_t.arji a summary arji (petition) (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) hu_t.i gun.aku the piece of wood that is inserted in the strap which is tied to the yoke of a cart (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pot.i to be broken to pieces (Ta.)(DEDR 4481). cf. put. stirring stick (To.)(DEDR 4265). cf. pu_l. chip, slice, wedge (Ma.)(DEDR 4377). ur.ti pur.ti every bit (Santali.lex.)

6911.Image: to split; burst; crackle: sphut. burst (Skt.); sphut.ai bursts open (A_s'vS'r.); spho_t.ati (S'Br.); phut.ita burst open (Pali); phud.ai, phulai bursts; phud.ia, phulia burst (Pkt.); pu_r to break (Tor.)(CDIAL 13842). sphut.ana bursting (Skt.); cracking (of joints)(Car.); pul.un cotton (Si.); phut.a bursting of cotton pods (Or.)(CDIAL 13843). To be full-blown: phut.t.ai bursts (Pkt.); put.a to break (Wg.); phut. to break (Wot..); phut.eik to become tired (Kho.); phut.oiki to break (Sh.); phut.un to be cracked (K.); phut.an.u to burst open, crack (S.); phut.t.an. to sprout; phut.t.un. to split (L.); phut.t.n.a_ to burst (P.); fut.n.u (WPah.); phut.n.o (Ku.); phut.nu (N.); phut.a_ to burst (B.); phut.iba_ to burst, be full-blown (Or.); phu_t.ab to burst out, blossom, be broken; to break into (a house)(Mth.); phu_t.al to split, burst (Bhoj.); phu_t.ab (Aw.); phu_t.na_ (H.); phu_t.ai (OG.); phut.vu~ (G.); phut.n.e~ (M.); phut.t.a_ (Konkan.i); phut.t.a burst (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13845). spho_t.ana cracking the fingers (Skt.); spho_t.ita crackling (VarBr.S.); po_t.he_ti cracks the fingers (Pali)(CDIAL 13856). pot.t.uka to burst, explode, burst (as a sore), crack (as eggs), put forth (as buds); pot.t.al bursting; pot.t.u a crack, hurt; pot.t.ikka to burst, crack (Ma.); pot.- (poc-) to burst noisily (Ko.); pit.- (pit.y-) to burst (To.); pot.t.age adv. indicative of breaking; hot.t.i to burst, crackle (Ka.); pot.t.- (pot.t.i-) to burst with noise, explode (Kod..); pot.t.u a crack, hurt; pud.a_vuni to break, burst; pud.apuni id.; pud.atelu a bruise, crack; bruised, broken, cracked; pud.eruni to break, burst (Tu.); pot.lu to break, crack, burst, split, open in chinks (Te.); pot. clapping of hands, snapping of fingers (Pa.); pot. snapping of fingers (Ga.); pur.ge to break up a flooring (Malt.); pot.t.u (pot.t.i-) to burst; pot.upot.u (-pp-, -tt-) to snap (as cords), speak fast in a rattling manner, wamble (as the bowels), fall (noisily as stones one after another); pot.u-pot.-en-al onom. expr. signifying snapping of cords, falling of fruits or stones one after another, rattling in speaking (Ta.)(DEDR 4490). pit.aruka to burst (Ma.); pet.al, pet.lu sound in imitation of exploding, cracking as a rocket, etc.; pet.t.al(u) popgun (Ka.); pet.apet.a cracking; pet.apet.al-a_d.u to crackle; pet.(u)lu, ped.ulu, pet.ilu to break, crack, burst, split, open in chinks (Te.); pet.al thunder (Kol.)(DEDR 4386). Pierced; burst: phut.iba to be burst, be pierced (A.)(CDIAL 13845). het.t.u to push or put into, insert; pet.t.u to push penis into vagina (Ka.); het.t.i to prick (Kor.); pet.t.u to place, put, lay, keep, deposit, rest on something, give, build (as a wall), plant (as a tree), charge one with, use, employ; n. giving, gift (Te.); bet.- (-t-) to put (cattle in yard)(Kond.a)(DEDR 4390). Image: split: o_r-u, ho_r-, po_r-, ho_r-u to cleave etc; ho_r-isu to cause to split etc. (Ka.); ho_r-u a split, a piece, a slice, a part (Ka.); po_r- a split, a piece, a slice; o_r-u, po_d.u (Ka.); pul.a to be split; pil.aru, pul.aru to split; pori to become disconnected (Ma.); pol.i to break open; pol.ukke a piece, slice, splinter (Ma.); po_r- to split (Ta.); cf. Tadbhava: po_d.i; cf. pel.avu (Ka.lex.) cf. po_r.. to be cleft, split, gape (Ta.)(DEDR 4599). cf. hol.acu to pare off (Ka.)(DEDR 4561). cf. pol.i to split; holes made with a chisel (Ta.)(DEDR 4560). To cut; pluck: put- (putt-) to cut in pieces, pluck (flower), break (rope)(Kol.); put- to cut, pluck (Nk.); to be cut, break; putuk- to cut into pieces (Nk.); pudugna_ (pudgas) to pluck out (hair etc.), strip (fowl) by plucking (Kur.)(DEDR 4277). Image: to be broken: pot.i-pat.utal to be broken, crushed (Aric. Pu. Mi_t.ci. 14); pot.i-ya_tal to perish (Tiruva_ca. 47,1); pot.i-ya_t.i S'iva, as smearing ashes (Tiruva_ca. 25,5)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) od.i, ud.i to be broken, to come apart or to pieces, to crack, to burst; to break etc.; od.asu to cause to break; od.e to be broken etc.; to break and make a medley of; to shatter to pieces; a fragment (Ka.); od.a the state of being broken; od.aka a fracture; a crack; disunion; that breaks or goes to pieces (Ka.); od.akala, od.akalu broken state; broken paddy or split pulse (Ka.); o_t.i, ot.t.i a crack, a fracture, a hole (Ka.); o_t.t.ai hole (Ta.); o_t.u (Te.); o_d.u a fragment; a potsherd; an earthen pan; the brain-pan or skull, the shell of a tortoise (Ka.Ta.Ma.); o_d.il, o_d.u (Tu.); o_d.u crack, chin, hole (Te.); ud.i to be shatterd to pieces, to burst, to crack, to split, to break; a fragment, a splinter (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) u_t.ar-uttal to cut throug, cleave, sunder, pierce, as an arrow; to force one's way through (Tiruva_ca. 42,9); u_t.u the middle; that which comes between (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,4,9); u_t.u-cel(l)utal to pass through (Ta_yu. Cukava_. 11); u_t.uruvu-tal to penetrate, pierce, as weapons (Pa_rata. Iran.t.a_mpo_. 26); u_t.u-po_kku passing through, as a jungle, a crowd (Tirukko_. 151, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. u_t.ai, u_t.u woof (Ta.); u_d.a id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) ut.ai-ttal to break into pieces as a vessel (Pa_rata. Ka_n.t.ava. 27); to split, as wood; to burst (Na_lat.i, 222); ut.ai-tal to break as a pot; to crack, split (Kalla_. 7); ut.aivu cracking, fracturing; breach (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6912.Image: grove: cf. potumpar thick grove (Tirukko_. 39); park, pleasure garden (Perumpa_n.. 374); potumpu grove (Akana_. 18)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ha_d.i a small grove (Ka.); pa_d.i an underwood, a small forest (Tu.)(DEDR 4063). baher bar.ge outlying garden; bar.ge garden (Santali.lex.) Image: bush: cf. pun.d. bush, thicket (Tu.); pu_n.t.i garden (Ta.)(DEDR 4360). podar-, podar-u, hodar-u that covers: a bush, a thicket, a thick tuft of trees (Ka.); pudar, pudal, pu_t.u, poccai, por-r-ai (Ta.); podarvare bushes etc. to abound (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6913.Panel in a door: pot.t.ippu panel in a door or window (Ta.); put.ipu (Ka.); pot.t.ippu-k-katavu panel door (C.E.M.); pot.t.ippir..aippul.i panel-plane (C.E.M.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) phat.ok large door (Santali.lex.)

6914.Image: rivalry: po_t.t.i, po_t.i emulation, rivalry, ridicule (Ta.); po_t.i competition, rivalry (Ka.); po_t.a_po_t.i id. (Tu.); po_t.i (Tu.Te.)(DEDR 4583). hod.a wager, rivalry (OMarw.)(CDIAL 14175). van.d.a_la, van.t.a_la a contest of heroes (Skt.lex.) ban.t.u-tana valour, heroism, bravery (Ka.Te.); ban.t.a (Tadbhava of bhat.a) a warrior, a soldier (Ka.); ban.t.u (Te.); van.t.an- (Ta.); ban.d.an.a (Tadbhava of bhan.d.ana) a battle; war (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) badi a rival; bada badi, hat.a badi rivalry (Santali.lex.)

6915.Image: boat: van.t.a_la, van.d.a_la a boat (Skt.lex.)

6916.Image: top-beam of a roof: hod.e the principal top-beam of a roof; hodake a cover, a covering, a wrapper; a thatch, a roof; hoddike, hodike a cover, a wrapper (Ka.lex.) hot.t.e a cover, a lid (Ka.lex.) cf. bo_dige a piece of wood or stone on a pillar between it and the beam supported by it (Ka.lex.) po_t.utai coping on a wall (Ta.lex.)

6917.Cave; hole; image: lid of vessel: vet.i to crack, break, split, break open, burst; fissure, crevice, split, gun, retort (Ta.); vit.appu, vit.ampu, vit.avu, vit.ampai fissure, cleft; vit.ar id., cleft in a mountain, mountain cave, abode of a sage; vit.arvu fissure, cleft; vit.u to be split, broken, cracked; vit.ai to separate (Ta.); vet.i explosion, cracking (Ma.); vet.ikka to explode, split, crack; vet.iyuka to split, open, separate; vit.ar fissure, cleft; vit.aruka to split open, blow; vit.arkka to open, unfold, spread; vit.arcca, vit.arppu; vit.avu crevice; vit.avikka to split, crack (Ma.); bi_t.e, bi_d.i, bi_d.u, bi_d.e chink, fissure, crack, crevice (Ko.); bed.i gun; bed.ebed.e the sound of a broken vessel (Tu.); vid.ugu to expand, blow (Te.); bi~_t.a crack, cleft, split, chink; bi~_t.agillu, bi~_t.aluva_ru, bi~_t.aluvo_vu to crack (Te.); vet.pa- to crack (fingers)(Mand..)(DEDR 5473). cf. virl very fine split, small orifice (P.); birlo sparse, rare (Ku.)(CDIAL 11847). vir-a to be dense (Ta.)(DEDR 5439). viri split, crack; expanse; virical split, crack (Ta.); biriku, biruku, biravu, biruvu cleft, fissure (Ka.); birke crack, chink, gap; beran:ka cleft, chink (Tu.); virugu, vir-ugu to break; breaking; vri_lu to go to pieces (Te.)(DEDR 5411). vilati covers (Dha_tup.); bil lid or cover of a vessel (Kho.); cornice round opening of an earthen corn-bin (P.)(CDIAL 9246). bila cave, hole, pit, opening (RV.); cave, hole (Pali.Pkt.); billa hole, reservoir (Skt.); vila (BhP.); bil mouth of vessel, muzzle of gun (Kho.); mouth of vessel, opening, edge (of precipice)(Sh.); hole, crack (Ku.); lake (A.); marshy hollow (B.); bil, bila_ hole of mouse or rat (H.); biru animal's hole or burrow (S.); bil.a_ hole, anthill (Or.); bil.a hole, deep pool formed by change of river course (Or.); bi_l. hole (of snake, rat, etc.), den (of tiger, etc.)(M.); bala cave, hole; bila cave; bile_ hollow in tree-trunk (Si.); vila hole, chasm, pond (Si.); virr.o, viyar.o pit made in a river-bed to get filtered water (G.)(CDIAL 9245). vil.avu cleft, crack; to split, to burst asunder (Ta.lex.) vil.l.uka to crack, break; vil.l.u crack, aperture (Ma.); bulluni, bul.l.uni crack, slit (Tu.)(DEDR 5432). bil.ua~_ anthill (Or.)(CDIAL 9247). Image: gap; disjoined; division; distribute: piri (-v-, -nt-; also pir-i) to become disjoined or parted, unfastened, be untwisted, be ripped or loosened (as a seam or texture), disagree (as persons), part, separate, diverge, quit, depart; (-pp-, -tt-) to separate, disunite, sever, divide, untwist, untie, disentangle, solve (as a riddle);[cf. pitir, putir puzzle (Ta.) (DEDR 4163)]; dismantle (as the thatch of a roof), distribute; pirical division, partion, threadbare or tattered condition; pirippu separation, division, estrangement; piripu, pirivu separation, severance, division, disunion, disagreement, loosening, secession, gap (Ta.); pirikka to sever, dismiss, divorce; piriccal separation, dismissal; piriyuka to become disjoined, separate, part with (Ma.); piry- (pirc-) to separate part from part, demolish (building); pirc0 to separate (persons); piirnj- to separate oneself from; piryv a place separate from another's place (Ko.); piry- (pirs-) to be demolished; (pirc-) to demolish; pury- (purs-) to disappear from sight (man over hill, etc., god dying and body is not found, sun setting); purc- to make (daytime, sun); to disappear (i.e. spend the day from morning until evening)(To.); hiri to separate into portions, break up, pull to pieces, demolish, pull out of, unsheathe, take (pearl) from (a string); be broken up or demolished, fall from (a bundle, a string); higgu to separate, be disconnected; higgisu to separate, disjoin; higgalisu to separate or disjoin (as the legs), open wide (as an eye with the fingers, the mouth of a bag)(Ka.); piri- (piriv-, pirij-) (assembly) disperses, (person); returns to own place; (pirip-, piric-) to turn (cattle) in a different direction, spread (leaves, blanket); pirip- (piripi-) to turn (cattle) in a different direction; send away, cause to disperse; piriv dispersing (Kod..); piripu, biripu abatement, cessation (Tu.); pirpi to make the spirit leave a person (Kor.); pridulu to become loose, fall off, separate, leave each other, be dislocated (Te.); pirg- (pirig-) to open (like a flower); pirukp- to open (like a book, packet)(Ga.); pri_va- (pri_t-) to be cracked, cloven, opened out, be hatched; pring- to be torn (Kui); prik- (-h-) to break open (fruit); prik- to split (bamboo)(Kuwi); pirce to be smashed (Malt.); pirghing to break, rend, transgress, solve (a riddle)(Br.)(DEDR 4176). cf. pr.thak separately (Skt.)(CDIAL 8356). Image: to split, crack: viri to split, crack, burst asunder (Ta.); virical split, crack, rent (Ta.); viriccal split, gap (Ma.); piry (pirc-) to part (hair) (To.); biri fissure, crack, opening (Ka.); biriku, biruku, biravu, biruvu cleft, fissure (Ka.); biri- (biriv-, biri~j-) to open (jackfruit)(Kod..); biriyuni to split, crack, burst (Tu.); birke crack, chink, gap (Tu.); beran:ka cleft, chink (Tu.); viriyu to open, break, burst (Te.); vippu to open, loosen (Te.); vir-ugu, virugu to break, go to pieces; n. breaking (Te.); virucu, vir-ucu to break; vri_lu to go to pieces (Te.); vij to break into small pieces (Kuwi)(DEDR 5411). pil. (pil.v-, pin.t.-, pil.p-, pit.t.-) to burst open, be rent or cut, be broken to pieces; divide (Ta.); pil.appu crevice, cleft, splitting (Ta.); pil.avai piece (Ta.); pil.aruka to split; cleave; pil.arcca splitting, a cleft (Ma.); pil.arppu, pil.appu cleft, rent, crack (Ma.); pil.igu, hil.gu, hil.i to break, crack, burst (Ka.); pulevu a crack (Tu.); p(r)e_lu to crack, burst (?Te.); pr.i_ to be split open (Pe.); plinga to be split, cracked (Kui); bri_phali, plih'nai to hatch (Kuwi)(DEDR 4194). vil. split, to open out (Ta.); vil.avu cleft, crack (Ta.); vil.l.uka to burst open, crack, break (Ma.); vil.l.al hollow, rent; vil.l.u crack, aperture (Ma.); vil.uruka to split, open (Ma.); buluni, bul.l.uni a sore or wound to enlarge; crack, slit (Tu.); buluni to be open (Tu.); vir. to crack (e.g. earth in dry weather)(Go.); to become separated (Kond.a); vi_r.p to separate by tearing apart (Kond.a); r.ay- (-it-) to be cracked (stone); raiyali, lainai to burst (Kuwi); belbelrna_ to open to the quick (Kur.)(DEDR 5432). Image: split: bidala a half in: bidala-sam.hita composed of halves (AitBr.); bidala-ka_ri_ woman who splits bamboos (VS.); vidala split bamboo (Mn.); ve_n.u-vidala (Gaut.); vidala split pea (Sus'r.); masu_ra-vidala (Ra_jat.); vidali_kr.ta rent (MBh.); dvidala forked (Skt. hypersanskritism for bidala-); ven.udala a split bamboo (Mn.); dala half (VarBr.S.); bindati, bilati, be_layati, ve_layati splits (Dha_tup.); bidala split-bamboo, split pea (Pali); bayali beans (OSi.); biyalla, biyali division of a seed, seed-globe (Si.); vidala bamboo, split dried rice (Pkt.); vidalida crushed (Pkt.); biyali_-ma_h husked pulse with ghee (A.); biuli split and unhusked pulse ready for cooking (B.)(CDIAL 9239). Image: split, crack: virivu split, crack; viri split, crack, burst asunder (Ta.); what is expanded, veil, awning (Ma.); virittuka to open (Ma.); bircu, biccu loosening, being separated (Ka.); vijju to spread (Te.); virugu breaking (te.); viri to be broken (Go.); vringa to fall to pieces, be loosened (Kui); vripka unfastening (Kui); vij to break into small pieces (Kuwi)(DEDR 5411). vidi_ryate_ is rent (S'Br.); vidr.n.a_ti tears asunder (MBh.); vida_rayati disperses (R.); virn.e~ to crumble (of rice or pulse under husking or grinding)(M.)(CDIAL 11732). vidalati splits asunder (R.Nais..); biyaliba to be distended before being actually torn, spreads (A.)(CDIAL 11733). vida_ran.a tearing (MBh.); splitting (Pali); via_ran.a (Pkt.); bida_ran tearing (H.); vida_ran. tearing, killing (G.M.)(CDIAL 11734). cf. it.a (-pp-, -nt-) to be cracked, split (Ta.)(DEDR 432). vida_rayati opens (AitBr.); tears to pieces (MBh.); scatters (R.); vidars.asi (RV.); vida_re_ti splits (Pali); via_re_i (Pkt.); vidda_ran.a adj. (Skt.); bad.a_rna_ to remove, cast out (evil spirits)(P.); bad.a_r exorciser (P.); bida_ra_ to split, pierce (B.); bida_riba_ (Or.); bida_rab (Mth.); bida_rai splits (OAw.); bid.a_ri_ pp. put to flight (OAw.); bida_rna_ to tear (H.); vida_rvu~, vid.a_rvu~ to tear, cut, lay open (G.); vida_rn.e~ to tear to pieces (M.)(CDIAL 11735). sphut.a, pul.a, pod.a, hod.a burst, split open, broken, rent, torn, opened, expanded; sphut.ana the act of breaking or rending suddenly, bursting, tearing open; breaking forth; becoming manifested or made public; sphut.ita burt; manifested; spho_t.aka, ho_l.ige, ho_r..ige one who bursts or splits open; spho_t.a breaking, splitting open, bursting, cracking; disclosure; a swelling, boil, tumour; spho_t.ana breaking or splitting asunder, splitting, breaking, cleaving, cracking; opening, making clear; cracking the finger-joints, snapping the fngers (Ka.lex.) Image: gimlet: cf. spho.t.ana act of breaking (A_past.); spho_t.ani_ gimlet (Skt.); pho_d.an.a splitting (Pkt.); phor.an.i_ instrument for boring (Or.)(CDIAL 13855). pot.iyal punching pin; pottalu_ci id. (Ta.); pot.i-tal to be broken to pieces (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 93); pottu hole, rat-hole, hollow in a tree (Pur-ana_. 364,11); potir-ttal to pierce (Ci_vaka. 2778); to break, break off (Tan.ikaippu. Na_t.t.up. 41); potu-tal to be perforated (Tiv. Tiruccan. 73); potu-ttal to bore (Patin-o. Mu_tta. 3); pontar hole, hollow (Ta.); bonda (Te.); pontu hole, hollow in a tree (Tiruva_ca. 13,2)(Ta.lex.)

6918.Image: bullock: pot.hi_ a riding-bullock; kad.han pot.hi_ to train a bullock for riding (P.lex.) cf. poti-ma_t.u pack-bull (W.)(Ta.lex.)

6919.Image: beads: po_ta beads of glass (G.); po_ti_ = ka_cah (Skt.)(Hem. Des.)(G.lex.)

6920.Landed proprietor: {Echo word} po_t.i, po_t.iya_r landed proprietor; po_tam house-site (Ta.); pot.t.al barren or arid tract; waste land (Ta_yu. enna_t.. 1242); po_taravu respectfulness of language, affability; civility, urbanity; po_tiya-kkut.i respectable family; po_tiyavan- nobleman, gentleman; po_tiya_r buddhists (po_tiya_r pin.t.iya_ ren-r-avap poyyarkal. : Te_va_. 376,10); po_ti-ttalaivan- the Buddha (Man.i. 11,43); poti dry state of wet land (Tinn.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Image: childbirth: po_tu-ka_lam time of childbirth (Ta.lex.) po_tu-ceytal to be ready to blossom, as a bud; to blossom (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 93 Vya_.)(Ta.lex.) po_t.u to put forth, yield, as fruit-trees; po_t.u-ka_t.u land fit for raising dry crops on the hills (W.); po_t.u-ka_l first cultivation in waste land (G.Sm.D.I, i,245); po_t.u-ka_l-nilam land cultivated off and on and not annually (G.S.A.D.I, 122); po_t.u-ka_l-pa_ttiyam customary right accruing to a farmer in an uncultivated waste brought by him under cultivation (G.Sm.D.I, i,24)(Ta.lex.) ut.hai pat.hae all one's possessions (Santali.lex.) poti burnt jungle (Pin..); por-r-ai id. (Tiv. Tiruccan. 52, Vya_.); pottai id. (Cilap. 11,68, Arum. Urai.)(Ta.lex.) potuvar herdsmen (Pat.t.in-ap. 281); potuviyar women of the shepherd tribe (Tirukko_. 136, Urai.); potuva_l. a caste in Malabar whose hereditary occupation is temple management (T.A.S. iv,9)(Ta.)(Ta. lex.) bhid.i gupi a shepherd (Santali.lex.) pan.d.a brahmin resident in a temple (Santali.lex.) pot.ha_ land made into ridge and furrow for planting tobacco, onions and eggplants; pot.hoha_r, pot.howa_r a region lying between the rivers Jhelum and Attock (P.); pot.oha_ri_, pot.howa_ri_ the inhabitant of pot.hoha_r (P.); of or belonging to pot.hoha_r (P.lex.) Government's money-bag: poti-y-ar-u-ttal to extort money (Ni_lake_s'i. Kun.t.ala. 74); poti-yar-ai underground room without air-holes (Man.i. 4,105); pottu-tal to bury; to hide, conceal (Kampara_. Karan-vatai. 100); to tie, string together as a wreath (I_t.u, 1,3,1)(Ta.lex.) pota_ treasury; potha_ a large book (used in derision); pothi_ a book; a religious book (P.lex.) poti treasure; pack-load, a measure of weight varying with the locality; miscellaneous goods (Tiva_.); pack, bundle; load as for a beast; parcel tied in a cloth (Cilap. 5,112); tie, fastening (Ka_cika. Na_rata. 5); collection (Kampara_. Na_t.. 44); poti-tal to store up, treasure up (Kur-al., 155)(Ta.lex.) potaka the government's money-bag (LP); potum. the amount of revenue of a village sent to the Government treasury (G.); potra name of a tax (EI 26); potta, cf. milita-potta-dramma_ collected government money (LP); pottaka same as potum. (G.) the amount of the revenue of a village sent to the government treasury (LP); pot.t.alika_ a bundle (IE 8-8); pon--pan.t.a_ram a treasurer; treasury (ASLV)(IEG, p.252). oir-pat.i Svarga as the golden world (Cilap. 30,136); por-puvi id. (Ce_tupu. Ira_manaruc. 63); por-r-a_lam id. (Ce_tupu. Tiruna_t.. 14); por-r-a_li marriage badge of gold; por-kir..i gold or gold coins tied up in a piece of cloth (Tiruvil.ai. Tarumik. 81); poti-y-avir..ttal lit, to open one's bag (Ta.); poti-co_r-u boiled rice tied up for a journey; viaticum (Tiva_.; Periyapu. E_yarko_n-. 159); poti id. (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) po_tum a rag, a cloth; po_ta weftage; texture; fine cloth; clothes or their worth presented to the principal mourners by their relatives; po_tum the amount of the revenue of a village sent to the government treasury (G.); po_tum bho_kasabum bharavum to send money into the treasury (G.); po_pte_m a gunny bag (M.); pro_ta texture; woven (Skt.)(G.lex.) Common property; tenant; title deed to land: porca title deed to land; porja, porja pani, prajapati a tenant (Santali.lex.) cf. pan.t.a_ra-c-com public property, property of the state or commonwealth (W.)(Ta.); pan.ta_ra-k-kuru priest who teaches agamas (Ta.lex.) potumai common property (Kampara_. Ma_ya_can-ka. 62)(Ta.lex.) potu common, general, public, neutrality, likeness, equality; potumai ordinariness, goodness; potti generality (Ta.); potu common, general (Ma.); pu0f common property of undivided family; pity ir ordinary (i.e. non-sacred) buffalo(es)(To.); pudu, puduvu union, joint concern, holding in common, partnership (Ka.); pottu friendship, amity, agreement, partnership, holding in common (Te.)(DEDR 4507). potuvil (potu + il) public hall (Periyapu. Tirumalaic. 10)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Title deed: pat.a a title deed, a written document of acquisition or transfer of property (Mu.); pat.t.a_ (H.Skt.)(Mu.lex.) po_t.u-ka_l first cultivation in waste land (G.Sm.D. I,i,245); po_t.u-ka_l-nilam land cultivated off and on and not annually (G.S.A.D. I,122); po_t.u-ka_l-pa_ttiyam customary right accruing to a farmer in an uncultivated waste brought by him under cultivation (G.Sm.D. I,i,245); po_ttaracar a title of the Pallava kings (S.I.I. ii,341) (Ta.lex.) Sea-trader: po_ta-van.ij a sea-trader (Skt.Ka.); po_ta a boat, a ship (Ka.Skt.); cloth, a garment (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: shoal of fish: po_ta_-dha_na small fry, a shoal of young fish; po_ta the young of any animal (Ka.Sk.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ut.aiya_r lord, master (S.I.I. ii,306); title of certain castes of cultivators; a village official in North and East Ceylon; pl. the rich, as those who have world's goods (Kur-al., 395); ut.aiyavan- possessor of wealth (Tiruppu. 249); ut.aimai wealth, riches (Kalit. 58); possession, property (Tiruva_ca. 33,7); the state of possessing, having, owning (Kur-al., 74); ud.ama id. (Ma.); od.ame id. (Ka.Te.)(Ta.lex.) Ownership: od.eya a man who possesses or has, an owner; ul.l.a id.; od.eya a lord, a master; a chief, a leader; a ruler; a king (Ka.); od.aye, od.eye (Tu.); od.aya (Te.); ud.ayavan, ud.aya_n (Ma.); ud.aiyavan-, ud.aiya_n- (Ta.); od.e possession, ownership; lordship (Ka.); ud.ai belonging to (Ta.); ud.e belonging to (Ma.); od.etana, od.tan.a, od.atana, od.eyatana ownership; lordship; rule, dominion, sway, sovereign power; superintendence (Ka.); od.ame, od.ave, od.ive that is; a thing, a substance; that one possesses: a possesion, especially an ornament, a jewel; property, wealth (Ka.Te.); ud.ame (Ma.); ud.aimai (Ta.); od.ati a female having ownership, power etc., a mistress (Ka.); od.am an agreement (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ut.ai-p-porul. property in one's possession, meaning a slave when referring to human beings, and other items of world's goods when referring to animals and things (Ci. Po_. Avaiyat.akkam. Cir-.); ut.aiyavar hon. pl. master, lord (Periyapu. Tiruja_n-. 664); ut.ai-va_ram gross produce from land before it is divided between the landlord and the cultivators (Ta.); ut.antai union (Maccapu. A_ticirut.t.i. 15); ut.ai wealth (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Earth; king: bi_ta earth (Gypsy); bhu_ world (RV.); ground (Mn.); bhuvi loc. sg. (Pali); bhu_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9546). pod.avi (Tadbhava of pr.thvi) earth (Ka.); pud.avi (Te.Ta.); pod.avija earth-born: the planet Mars; pod.avi-de_vate the goddess Earth; pod.avi-pati a king; pod.aviyod.etana the possession of, or rule over, a country; pod.aviyod.eya a king; pod.aviven., pod.avipen. the woman Earth (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Earth: bhit.a a piece of land; bhet.ra bhit.ri high rice-land; baihar. first class land; bad third class land (Santali.lex.) cf. paca ricefield (Ma.Tu.)(DEDR 3834). pa.r.m (obl. pa.r.t-) level ground (Ko.); pa_t.am range (esp. of ricefields), rice-land (Ma.); pa_t.t.am garden (Ta.); o.d. level ground (< Badaga ha.d.a open, grassy ground in village)(To.); pad.pu a plain (Tu.); pad.uva a low ground (Te.)(DEDR 4062). pat.havi_, pathavi_, puthavi_, puthuvi_, put.huvi_ (cf. puthu, prath to expand) thus lit. the broad one, breadth, expansion; the first element in enumeration of the four elements, viz., pat.havi_, a_po, tejo, va_yo (earth, water, fire, wind or the elements of the extension, cohesion, heat and motion); frequently represents the earth as soldi, firm, spacious ground; pat.havoja_ sap or essence of the earth; pat.havi_-kasin.a the earth artifice; puthavi_ the earth; puthavi_-na_bhi the navel of the earth (of the bodhi-man.d.a, the Buddha's seat under the holy fig tree); puthu (Vedic. pr.hak, pr.hu lit. spread out, far and wide, flat; prath (Skt.) to expand; pr.thah- palm of hand; frapah breadth (Av.); platus broad (Lith.); planta sole of foot (Lat.); flado pancake (OHG.); flet ground (Ags.); flat (English); puthu = pr.thak separated, individual; puthu-gumba experience in many crafts; puthu-satta_ pl. = puthujjana_ common people, the masses; puthu-bhu_ta widely spread; puthuka flat corn; puthula broad, large, flat; puthuso adv. broadly, i.e. diversely (Pali.lex.) potu that which is common or shared by many; genarality, opp. to cir-appu (specialty)(Kur-al., 528); pottu (Te.); podu (Ma.); potu that which is ordinary or general (Kampara_. Varun.an-ai. 30)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) put.avi < pud.havi_ < pr.thvi_ earth; world (Takkaya_kap. 723); pud.ami (Te.); pod.avi (Ka.); po_t.utal to put forth, yield; to sow, plant; to put, set in position, apply, lay (Ta_yu. Pa_yappuli. 31)(Ta.lex.) bhu_yis.t.ha chief, most numerous (RV.); bhu_it.t.ha very much (Pkt.); bu_t. all (Mai.); but. all, whole, entire (Tor.); but.e much, many (Sh.)(CDIAL 9568). Image: spread; palm: prathate_ extends; prathayati spreads abroad (RV.)(CDIAL 7712). prathita spread out (MBh.); pahia spread (Pkt.); phaila_w expanse (H.)(CDIAL 8651). prath spread out (Skt.); prathas width, extension (RV.); la_k, s.akk-iam, s.o_k palm (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8650). pr.thu wide (Skt.); pihu, puhu wide (Pkt.); pir.ik, per.ek, pr.ek palm of hand (Pas'.); pir.ik palm of hand (Shum.)(CDIAL 8358). Palm: pat.am flat part of the hand or foot (Ma.); pat.a key palm of hand (Pe.); pat.a naki palm of hand (Kuwi)(DEDR 3843). cf. pat.ar to spread (Ta.); pat.alai spreading, expanding, expanse (Ta.); pat.aruka to spread (Ma.); pat.alam a spreading over (Ma.)(DEDR 3844). pr.thivi_, pr.thvi_ the earth (RV.); pathavi_, puthavi_, puthuvu_, pat.havi_ the earth (Pali); pradhavi, pad.hai (Dhp.); prad.hravi, pad.hravi land (KharI.); pahivi_-, pahu(v)i_, puha(v)i_-, pud.havi_- the earth (Pkt.); puhami (Mth.); puhumi (OAw.); puhavi_, puhuvi_ (OG.); pol.ova, pol.ava (inst. pel.evin)(Si.)(CDIAL 8357)[yezivi_ (Av.)]. Broad, flat: pr.thula broad (MBh.); puthula broad, flat (Pali); pithula wide (Pkt.); pohla_, pho_la_ (L.)[cf. pulam arable land, rice field; place (Ta.)(DEDR 4303)]; po_hllo_, pohlo_, puhlo_ flat (L.); pahol.u~, pol.u~ wide, loose (G.); pal.al, pul.ul wide, open (Si.); ful.au (Md.)(CDIAL 8361). bhu_mya terrestrial (RV.); bhumma terrestrial, earthy; n. soil, ground (Pali); bhu_mi_ bit of ground (WPah.); bhu_m, bhom white ant hill (M.); bhu_mya_, bhu_mya~_, bhu_miya_, bhumya~_, bhu~_iya_, bhu~_ya_ landholder (H.); bhu~iya_ landed, landed proprietor (B.); bhui~a~_ pertaining to cornfields (Or.); feudal lord, sylvan diety (Or.)(CDIAL 9566). bhauma relating to the earth (Pkt.); bho_ma id. (Pkt.); bhaumi_ in cmpd. 'floor, storey'(MBh.); bumu storeyed, having several layers (Si.)(CDIAL 9638). Cellar: bhau~ra_, bho~hara_ cellar, cavern (H.); bho~ghara_ (H.); bhohra_ dungeon, pit in which potters place newly-made vessels to keep moist (P.)(CDIAL 9640). bhu_migr.ha whose house is the earth, i.e., buried (AV.); cellar (Skt.); bhu_mighara, bhu_mihara cellar (Pkt.); bhu~_hara_ (H.); bho~yaru~ (G.)(CDIAL 9559). bhya~_ro, bhiya_ro cellar, one-storeyed house (Ku.); bhu~_ya_ra_ cellar (H.)(CDIAL 9563). bhaumika being in the earth, collected on a partic. piece of ground (Mn.); bhomi a partic. piece of land, field (G.); bho~ any land (G.)(CDIAL 9642). Land: bhu_ti wellbeing (RV.AV.); earth, ground (AitBr.acc. to Sa_yan.a); bhu_i wealth (Pkt.); bu_i ground (Wg.); bu_i_ (Wot..L. < bhu_mi)(CDIAL 9553). bhui~ ground (Ko.); land, soil (Or.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); bhu~i (A.B.); bhui~_ land, soil (WPah.); bhu~_ (S.P.); buih earth (Gypsy); bhu~_i land, soil (S.L.); bu_m, bum, bumi (K.); bhoe~ (L.); pl. bhu_i~ (L.P.); bho~_ (P.); bima ground, soil, landed property (Si.); bim, bin earth, ground (Md.); bum (Gaw.Kho.); bhum (Tir.Kal.); bhu_m field (Tor.); earth (Pas'.); bhume_ field (Sv.); bhu_mi earth, ground (RV.Pali); ground (Pkt.); place (S'Br.); bhummi soil, storey (Pali); ground (Pkt.); bhu_mia_ storey (Pkt.); phuv ground (Gypsy); bhu~_, bho~, bhu_i~_ land, soil (H.); bhuim ground, storey (OG.); bho~, bho~ ground (G.); bhui~_, bhui_, bhu_y (M.); bhui~ (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9557). bhu_man earth, world (RV.); bhumma soil (Pali); bhuma land (NiDoc.); bu_m earth, ground (Ash.Wg.Shum. Tir.Gaw.Kal. Kho.Sv.Tor.Phal.); byum (Kt.); bi_m (Kt.Pr.); bum (Dm.); buma (Dm.)(CDIAL 9556). Earth, ground; mud, mire: burude mud, mire (Ka.); burde id. (Tu.); burada id. (Te.); burda mud (Pa.Ga.Go.); bur-da slush, mud, dirt (Kond.a)(DEDR 4291).

6921.Image: six: po_ta adj. six (used in secret conversation by merchants)(G.lex.)

6922.Image: joint: pot.t.a_ the end of the finger to the first joint, the pulp of a finger; a fowl's claw (P.lex.) por..i joint of a finger (Ta.lex.)

6923.Image: finger joints; the measure of a finger's breadth: bot.t.u, bat.t.u a finger; a toe; bo_t.a id. (M.); bot.t.u the measure of a finger's breadth (Ka.M.); a fingerful: a small quantity, a drop (Ka.Te.M.)(Ka.lex.) bet.t.u muri to make the finger-joints crack; bat.t.u, bet.t.u, bot.t.u a finger; a toe (Ka.); bo_t.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) Image: joint of fingers: cf. ot.t.a_ a joint of the limbs or fingers; joint in a bamboo stem, knot in a plank, bony protuberance of limbs (Kur.); ot.ge ankle (Malt.)(DEDR 955). Image: finger-joint: ved.ho joint of the fingers (G.); ved.h finger-ring (G.); ring (M.); ber.i_ ring on ankle (H.)(CDIAL 12130). Finger-ring: vat (pl. okul) finger ring (Pa.); vat (pl. okil) id. (Ga.); vetor-i id. (Kond.a); vatus (pl. vatuhin) id. (Pe.)(DEDR 5247). woguik finger-ring (Pr.)(CDIAL 2294). cf. biduru-gen.d.u a bamboo knot or joint; bidir, bidanu, bidaru, bidiru, biduru, bidru the bamboo, bambusa arundinacea (Ka.); veduru (Te.); vetir (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) Image: span: bita, ber. a span (Santali.lex.) cf. vitasta (Skt.lex.) Image: twelve units: [Twelve phalanges on four fingers; a landing point in numeration]. be_d.a twelve units, e.g. 12 paisa (Te.lex.) damad.i, dammad.i a ka_su, the fourth part of a dud.d.u or paisa (Ka.); damad.i_ (M.H.)(Ka.); twelve damad.i's make a be_d.a (Te.lex.) tampat.i cash, a small coin = 1/12 anna (Ta.); damri (H.)(Ta.lex.) Middle finger: cf. pe_t.u the middle finger (cut.t.um pe_t.um : Cilap. 3,18, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Toe: bot.(t.)ana vre_lu, bot.a vre_lu, thumb, big toe (Te.); bot.t.u, bat.t.u, bet.t.u finger, toe (Ka.); bot.t.a finger, big toe (Go.); bot.a finger (Go.); botta_ big toe (Go.); bot.u r.ask thumb (Kond.a); but. vehpe id. (Mand..); bot.a vanju id. (Kuwi); bot.u, but.u thumb impression (Kuwi)(DEDR 4493). Image: finger: viral finger, toe; finger's breadth (Ta.); finger, toe; inch (Ma.); verl finger, toe (Ko.); pe.l. id. (To.); Image: tip of an elephant's trunk: beral, beral. id.; tip of an elephant's trunk (Ka.); bera finger, toe (Kod..); berli, birelu, berelu, pirelu id. (Tu.); berolu, berli finger (Kor.); v(r)e_lu finger, toe, inch (Te.); vende finger, toe (Kol.); vende finger (Nk.); vanda pl. vandel id. (Pa.); vande id. (Ga.); wirinj, ware_nj finger, toe; ver, vir.asku_ [cf. vitasta span (Skt.)(CDIAL 11721)], ver.enj, var.anj, var.nj(i) (pl. var.sku), var.nj finger (Go.); r.aska finger, toe (Kond.a); r.eska, ver.ska finger (Kond.a); vacka id. (Pe.); vehpe id. (Mand..); vanju (pl. vaska) finger, toe, thumb (Kui); vwa_nju_ (pl. vwa_ska), wansu (pl. waska), vanju (pl. vaska), ver.ma finger (Kuwi)(DEDR 5409). pe_t.a the open hand with the fingers extended (Skt.lex.) Image: breadth of four fingers: vet. breadth of four fingers (?Ko.); betta, bettu, bette~d.u measure of four finger-breadths, a hand-breadth (Ta.); bitta a span (Pa.)(DEDR App.61). bitta_ (H.); vitasti measure of length consisting of span between extended thumb and little finger or between wrist and tip of fingers (S'Br.)[MIA. viasti > Psht. vio_ta a unit of square measure; poss. X vitti- ~ Iranian. vida_ti-.]; vidatthi span (Pali); vithi, vithi_ interval (S.whence vithi_ro separate); vitth, vith, vithi_ a short distance (L.); vith space (L.); vitth, bitth distance (P.); bya~_t, bet span (Ku.); bitta_ span from outstretched thumb to second finger (N.); bita_ span (Or.); bi_ta_ (Aw.); bi_ta_ (H. biyattu); ve_t (G.); vi_t, vi_th (M.); vihi_t (Konkan.i); viyata (Si.); vihatthi measure of length (X hattha- < hasta-?) from which, as false sanskritization, bighat span (B.)(CDIAL 11721). River Jhelum: vitasta_ name of the river Jhelum (RV.); veth (K.); vyath (K.); vehat the Jhelum below Khusha_b (L.)(CDIAL 11720).

6924.Whistle: vi_l.ai whistling, shrill sound, noise; vi_l.-en-al onom. expr. of a shrill, sudden noise or cry (Ta.); vil.v- (vil.t-) to whistle; vil.k act of whistling (Ko.)(DEDR 5461). cf. i_la whistling (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

6925.Image: split, piece, opening: cf. vid.a piece (Skt.); bila hole, pit, opening, cave (RV. BHSk.)(CDIAL 9245). cf. bhindati splits (Dha_tup.); bhinatti (RV.)(CDIAL 9496). cf. bhitta fragment (Skt.)(CDIAL 9493). cf. vithi, vithi_ interval; vithi_ro separate (S.); vith space (L.)(CDIAL 11721). bhid split (Skt.); bhidyate_ is broken, is split (S'Br.)(CDIAL 9495). cf. vit.ai (-v-, -nt-) to become disjointed; (-pp, -tt-) to separate (Ta.); vit.ukka, vit.uttuka to undo, separate (Ma.); bid.avu, bid.iku, bid.uku a separation crack; bid.ike interval etc. (Ka.); vid.i separate, distinct (Ta.)(DEDR 5393). visa_t.ita cut in pieces, smashed, broken (Pali.lex.) vis'asan cutting up (RV. x.85.35; AV. xiv.1.28); vis'astr. good carver, slaughterer (RV. i.162,19); vis'as to cut up, immolate, kill (RV. i.162.18) (Vedic. lex.) Image: open mouth; gap, cleft: cf. pet.apet.a crackling (Te.); pet.ilu to break, split, open in chinks (Te.)(DEDR 4386). bhe_ttr. breaking, splitting; one who interrupts, an interrupter, a disturber; a factious or seditious man; bhe_da breaking, splitting, cleaving; hitting (as a mark); rending, tearing; dividing, separating; piercing through, perforation; breach, rupture; breaking open, bursting; a chasm, gap, fissure, cleft; bhe_dita split, broken, divided; bhe_din breaking, dividing, distinguishing etc. (Skt.lex.) bhetn.e~ to divide lengthwise (M.); bhet cut (M.); bhetta_ breaks (Konkan.i); bhe_ttum to break; bhe_ttr. breaker (RV.); bhe_ttavya (R.); bhetave to break (As'.); bhettum., bhittum., bhettu_n.am., bhittun.am breaker (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9609). bhe_da cleft, fissure (RV.); division, separation, distinction (S'rS.); break, disunion, dissension (Pali); bhe_a separation, sort, kind (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9610). pe_tam < bhe_da subdivision, sect, division; pe_ti that which divides, detaches or separates (Ta.lex.) vetir open flower, blossom (Ta.); bidir(u), bidur to open as the mouth, unfold as wings, stretch out, loosen, untie; bidircu to spread out, unfold, unharness, unyoke, loosen or free oneself (Ka.); bi.r- (bi.ruv-, bi.nd-), bu.r (bu.ruv-, bu.nd-) (flowers) open; bi.t- (bi.ti-), bu.t- (bu.ti-) to open out (mouth of bag, knife) (Kod..); biduruni to loosen by itself (Tu.); vidur(u)cu, vidrucu to flap wings (Te.); vidrup- (vidrut-) cock to flap wings when crowing (Pa.); vi_dali to flap (Kuwi); bidigna_ to lay party bare the contents by violent action upon the covering, tear open, make a rent, make burst or crack by weighing upon; bidgrna_ to get laid bare, get exposed to view (Kur.); bithge to expand, open (as the lips or eyelids)(Malt.)(DEDR 5484). Image: stripe: pe_t.t.u stripe, broad border (Ta.); pe_t.u id. (Te.); pe_t.t.u string, as of a necklace; waist-cord containing more than one strand (Ta.lex.) pe_t.ike ornamental work woven in the borders of cloth (Ka.lex.) Image: gap; intervening space: cf. bi_t.e, bi_d.i, bi_d.u, bi_d.e chink., fissure, crack, crevice (Ka.); bi~_t.a crack, cleft, split, chink (Te.)(DEDR 5473). vet.i fissure, crevice, cleft, split (Ain. Aim. 36)(Ta.lex.) vet.t.u-va_y gash, opening of a cut; joining (Ta.lex.) vel. blank, empty (Ta.lex.) vel.l.it.ai open space; intervening space (Piramo_t. 20,25); atmospheric space (Te_va_. 879,10); vel.i intervening space, space, gap (Kampara_. U_rte_t.u. 136); vel.i-y-antaram intervening space (Takkaya_kap. 147, Urai.); vel.i-mukat.u the outmost limit of space (Pa_rata. A_r-a_mpo_r. 22)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_la_ vacant (L.); vehlla_, vehla_, vihla_, behlla_ vacant, at leisure (P.)(CDIAL 12118). ve_le interval (Ka.lex.) vet.t.avit.i break of day, early dawn (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 29, Vya_. Pak. 248); vet.t.am light (Ta.Na_.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) bel.a an opening for light; a window; bel.a tanaka till light, till it becomes light or dawns; bel.aku light; a lamp; to dawn; bel.aku bid.u to give passage to the light (Ka.lex.) vel.i-ttal to break, as the day; to come to light (Ta.lex.) Image: split: vel.l.o_cai cracked voice (Tiruva_lava_. 57,26, foot-note); vel.l.ai discordant note or sound (Tiruvil.ai. Vir-akuvir-. 30); trifling (Cin-e_n. 421)(Ta.lex.) vet.i-ttal to crack, as earthenware; to break, part, as the ground; to split; to burst open (Tacaiva_. 232); to explode (Ta.lex.) cf. vid. to cry out loudly (Skt.lex.)

6926a.A cut in a piece of wood; chip: vid.d.ha_ notch (L.); vivardhita cut off (Skt.) (CDIAL 11928). vr.ddhi cutting off (Skt.); bur.ia_ small axe (Or.); va_d.h, ba_d.h cutting, killing; va_d.hi_, ba_d.hi_ harvesting, harvest (P.)(CDIAL 12075). Carpenter: va_d.ho carpenter (S.); va_d.d.hi_, ba_d.d.hi_ (P.); vad.u pertaining to carpentry (Si.)(CDIAL 11568). vardhaki carpenter (MBh.); vad.d.haki carpenter, building mason (Pali); vad.d.hai carpenter (Pkt.); vad.d.haia shoemaker (Pkt.); ba_d.ho_i_ carpenter (WPah.); ba_d.hi (WPah.); bar.hai, bar.ahi (N.); ba_rai (A.); ba_r.ai (B.); ba_r.ui (B.); bar.hai (Or.Bhoj.H.); bar.ha_i (Or.); ba_r.hoi (Or.); bar.ahi_ (Bi.); va_d.ha_ya_ (M.); vad.u-va_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11375). ci_vara-vad.d.haka tailor (Pali); vardhaka cutting; carpenter (R.)(CDIAL 11374). va_d.ho carpenter (S.); va_d.d.hi_, ba_d.d.hi_ (P.); vad.u pertaining to carpentry (Si.)(CDIAL 11568). Image: dividing: vardhaka cutting, dividing, cutting off; vardhana cutting, cutting off (Ka.); vardhaki = bad.agi a carpenter (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Adze: va_s'i_ sharp-pointed knife or adze (RV.); va_si_ adze (Pkt.); wa_s (Ash.); wos (Kt.); wusik (Pr.); wa_cek (Pas.); ba_si (WPah.B.Or.); vaha, va_-ya axe (Si.); e_seli adze (Pas.); behil, behalo (WPah.); basilo (N.); ba_risi (Or.); basila_ (Bi.); ba~_sila_ (H.); va~_slo (G.); wa~_soli adze (Gaw.)(CDIAL 11588). va_cci, va_ycci, va_t.ci adze (Ta.); va_cci adze, scraper (Ma.); po.d.c adze (To.); ba_ci, ba_ji id. (Tu.)(DEDR 5339). basla a small adze (Santali.lex.)

6926.Axe: wa_t. axe (Wg.); wa_t.ak (Pas.); bardog, bardox axe (Kho.) > wadok (early Kal. before v- > b-in Kho.)(CDIAL 11374). bed.i_r sledgehammer? (Kho. > bad.il (Gaw.); bad.i_r (Bshk.); bad.hi_r axe?, sledgehammer (Phal.)(CDIAL 11385). Cutting edge: ba_r. blade of khukri (N.); edge of knife (H.): ba_r.h book-binder's papercutter (Bi.); edge of knife (H.); va_d.h (G.); va_d.h, ba_d.h cutting edge (P.); badhri_, badhriya_, badhra_, badha_ru_ knife with a heavy blade for reaping with (Bi.); bardha_n.u_ to shear sheep (WPah.)(CDIAL 11371). cf. vet.t.u to cut as with sword or axe, engrave (Ta.)(DEDR 5478). vardha a cutting (Skt.); vad.hu a cut (S.); vad.d.h ears of corn remaining in a field after sheaves have been removed (L.); a cut in a piece of wood, chip, stubble of grain (wheat, maize, etc.)(P.); bad.d.h id. (P.); vad.d.ha_, bad.d.ha_ mark, cut (P.); va_d.h cut, wound, reaping a field (G.); vad.a-ya act of cutting off (Si.)(CDIAL 11372). vardhana cutting, slaughter (Mn.); vad.hin.i_ cutting (S.); vad.un (Si.)(CDIAL 11377). To cut, reap: vardhayati cuts, divides (Dha_tup.); vardha_payati (Skt.); vad.d.ha_pe_ti cuts (moustache)(Pali); badhem I cut, shear (Kal.); bad.n.o_ to cut (K.); vad.han.u (S.); vad.d.han. to cut, reap (L.); vad.d.hn.a_, bad.d.hn.a_ to cut, kill, bite (P.); ba_d.hn.u to cut (WPah.); ba_r.a_ to cut, mend, distribute food (B.); ba_d.hna_ to cut, shear, divide (H.); va_d.hvu~ to cut; vadhervu~ to cut, sacrifice (G.)(CDIAL 11381). vadha killer, slaughter (RV.); killing (Pali.As'.Pkt.); vaha (Pkt.); baha colic pain (N.); vaya destruction, disappearance (Si.); vadhaka murderer (MBh.)(CDIAL 11248). vadhi_t kills, strikes (RV.); vadhe_ya, vadha (AV.); vadhayati (MBh.); vadhati kills, strikes; caus. vadhe_ti (Pali); vahai, vahe_i (Pkt.); vayanava_ to strike (Si.); vac to strike, carry off, throw (Gypsy)(CDIAL 11249).

6927.Image: cleft: vit.ampai cleft (Kalin.. 541); vit.ampu id.; vit.ar fissure, cleft (Ta.lex.) bi_t.i, ibad.i, ibbad.i, bi_t.e a chink, a fissure, a crack, a crevice (Ta.); bi_t.ike, vi_t.ike (Te.); bi_t.e bi_r..u a crack to occur, to crack, to be cleft (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. vidara fissure (Skt.); tearing asunder (Skt.)(CDIAL 11731). Image: harrow: bi_dar a kind of harrow used to loosen soil and remove weeds from standing rice (H.)(CDIAL 11731). bidahna_ to harrow rice or millet crop in the beginning (H.)(CDIAL 11737). Image: lever: min.t.i staff or post used as a lever (Ta.); mi_n.t.u instrument for pulling up or raising, lever (Ka.); mi_t.a lever, spring (Te.)(DEDR 4857). min.t.u thrust, uproot, push, lift as with a lever (Ta.); men.d.u to lever up (Te.)(DEDR 4857). bidda (Tadbhava of viddha) penetrated; biddam adv. so that (the points of the compass) are penetrated; biddam po_gu to be penetrated or holed (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bhe_dya to be split (MBh.)(CDIAL 9613). bhindati splits (Skt.); splits, breaks (Pali); bhinatti (RV.); bhi~dn.e~ to pierce, penetrate, soak into (M.); bindinava_ to break, be broken (Si.)(CDIAL 9496). Image: two equal parts; individually: bhindu breaking, splitting (Ka.lex.) vit.ivu, vit.iyal open space or place (Ta.lex.) vit.i odd item, not one of a set; single article (Ta.); vid.i (Te.); bid.i (Ka.Tu.); vid.u (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) vid.a, bid.a a fragment, a bit; bhitta a fragment, a piece, a bit; bhitti breaking, splitting; a bit, a fragment; bid.iku, bid.uku separation; a crack; bid.ike interval (Ka.lex.)

6928.Image: two equal parts; manifold: vis.u in two equal parts; various, manifold; vis.uva the equinoctial point or equinox, the first point of Aries or Libra into which the sun enters at the vernal or autumnal equinox (Ka.lex.) viccuva-ru_pam the universal form of God, as comprising the whole universe, animate and inanimate (Ci. Po_. 2,1, Pak. 104); vis'uvan- the individual soul (Kaival. Tat. 42)(Ta.lex.) *vis.u variously, apart; in cmpds. vis.u-ru_pa, vis.u_-vr.-, vis.v-ac- (RV.); visum. individually (Pali); visum.-visum. one by one (Pali)(CDIAL 11981). cf. vid.a_yi, vid.a_ya grand display, pomp; greatness; bid.auja (vid.o_jas, vid.aujas) Indra (Ka.lex.) cf. bid.iku separation; a crack; bid.avu a gap (Ka.lex.) Taking various forms: vis.un.a taking various forms (RV.); vis.n.u the god Vis.n.u (RV.); vin.hu, ven.hu Vis.n.u (Pkt.); vinu nom. prop. (M.); ven, venu a name of Vis.n.u (Si.); vit.hu_, vit.ho, vit.hoba_ familiar forms of vit.t.hal a form of Kr.s.n.a worshipped at Pan.d.harpur (M.); vi(t.)t.hala, vid.d.hala Vit.hoba_ (Skt.); vit.hara epithet of Br.haspati (Skt.)(CDIAL 11991). vit.t.u, vis.n.u, vis.t.n.u, vit.t.hala, vit.ala, vit.hala Vis.n.u or Kr.s.n.a (Ka.lex.) vit.t.u Vis.n.u (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,3,5); vit.t.un.u a deity representing the Sun, one of tuva_taca_tittar (Ku_rmapu. A_tavar cir-ap. 2) (Ta.lex.) Equinox: vis.uvant supreme (TS.); a day in the middle of the year, a one-day sacrifice (AitBr.); equinox (Ya_j.); vis.uva id. (MBh.); visuva equinox (Pkt.); bis'u_ the moment of the sun's reaching Aries, song sung by low-caste people in April (WPah.); bihu last day of A_s'vina, Paus.a, or Caitra observed as a festival, equinoctial festival (A.)(CDIAL 11982). ? bas'u_tur black thread in a woman's hair when plaited (Kho.) (CDIAL 11982). vit.u equinox (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. Tala vicit.. 33); vis.u the 15th year of the Jupiter cycle; vr.s.a (Skt.); vis.upun.n.iyaka_lam th time of the sun's entrance into either of the equinoctical signs Aries and Libra; vis.uvam equinox; cf. vis.u (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vr.s. rain (Skt.) vis.t.i turn, time; punar vis.t.i_ once again; vis.t.ibhih. again and again (of dawns)(RV.); vit.a time, opportunity; vit.in-vit.a from time to time (Si.)(CDIAL 11988). Vis.n.u; Br.haspati: cf. vit.hu~, vit.ho, vit.hoba_ familiar forms of vit.t.hal; a form of Kr.s.n.a worshipped at Pan.d.harpur (M.); vit.hara Br.haspati (Skt.); vis.n.u the god Vis.n.u (RV.); vin.hu, ven.hu (Pkt.); ven, venu (Si.)(CDIAL 11991). cf. vis.uva equinox (Pkt.); bis'u_ the moment of the sun's reaching Aries, song sung by low-caste people in April (WPah.)(CDIAL 11982). cf. vin. sky, heaven, cloud (Ta.)(DEDR 5396). cf. vet.i to dawn (Ta.); vid.i brilliancy (Te.)(DEDR 8475). cf. ve~_did god (Pa.)(DEDR 5530). cf. ve_ntan- Br.haspati (Ta.)(DEDR 5529). cf. ve_gu, ve_vu to dawn (Te.); vaiku dawn (Ta.)(DEDR 5554). cf. vaikun.t.ham heaven (Skt.)

6929.Official: pora-s'ri_karan.a chief secretary (EI 28); cf. puro prefixed to certain official designations in Orissa; por--bhan.d.a_ri (EI 25 Tamil) temple officer mentioned along with s'a_sana-bhan.d.a_ri (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXV, p.132); pora prefixed to Odiya_ official designations like pora-s'ri_karan.a; por-r-u Tamil: official designation (EI 25)(IEG, p. 252). por-i riches, wealth (Na_n-man.i. 45)(Ta.lex.) bhu_ri abundant (RV. i.124.122); bhuri-gu rich in cattle (RV. viii.62.10) (Vedic.lex.) por-ige, hor-ige, ho_r-e business, work (Ka.lex.) porhyo labour, price of labour (S.); porhea_ labour for wages (L.)(CDIAL 8422). po_risa human activity (Pali); manly deed (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8421) horo man (Austro-as.) paura citizen (Gaut.); prince engaged in war in certain circumstances (VarBr.S.); po_ra belonging to the city, polite (of speech)(Pali); po_ra born in a city (Pkt.); pora fighter, wrestler (Si.)(CDIAL 8419). cf. pura fortress, town, gynaeceum (MBh.); pur stronghold (RV.); puri_ fort, city (TA_r.)(CDIAL 8278). pura e_ti goes before (RV.); purati precedes, leads (Dha_tup.); puran.u to go before, advance (S.); puranava_ to start, begin (Si.); purya_unu to lead, bring right up to (N.)(CDIAL 8279). purah-stha standing before the eyes, present (Skt.); purat.ha, purat.hida in the presence of (NiDoc.); purattha being in front (Pkt.); b(r)o~_t.h in front (K.); purat.u, puratu adv. in front; perat.u, peratu standing in front (Si.); puratthima being in front (Pkt.); bru~_t.hyumu belonging to former or future time (K.)(CDIAL 8280). purasta_t in or from in front (RV.); purattham., puratthato_ in front (Pali); purattha_, purathao_ (Pkt.); purthi in front, near, to (Or.); puratu adv. in front; peratu standing in front (Si.)(CDIAL 8282). pujja_va_ia_ first (WPah.)(CDIAL 8294).

6930.Image: hole: po_r, o_r, ho_ru hole (Ka.lex.) por-i mark, impression (Ci_vaka. 2190); dot, point, speck (Kalit. 13,3); insignia, badge (Pu.Ve. 72); roundness (Net.unal. 13)(Ta.lex.) Blister: pol.i (-v-, -nt-) to open (as a blister)(Ta.)(DEDR 4560). phola_ blister (H.)(CDIAL 8398). po_t.a bubble (Pali); nak-por. nostril (Ku.); poro small hole (N.); por.u~ thin scaly crust (G.)(CDIAL 8398). Image: pregnancy: por-ai pregnancy (Cu_t.a_.); por-ai-yuyirtal to be delivered of a child (Nan-. 269, Urai.); por-iyar-ai one devoid of luck (Tirikat.u. 15)(Ta.lex.) Image: male organ: por-i male organ (Ta.lex.) Image: boil: pat.uvan- boil, abscess (Ta.); pat.uvan small ulcer (Ma.)(DEDR 3859). pat. scar, esp. made by burning (Ko.); pat.t.u a callous spot (Ka.)(DEDR 3873). per.o lump of clay (S.); per.a_ lump (P.); per. (H.); pel.u~_ boil (M.); ped. raised bench, hillock (Konkan.i); pe~d. rising ground (H.); mud attached to shoes (M.); pe~d.o lump of clay (G.); pe_d.ha lump; pe_d.ha_la round (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8377). Lump, clot: men.d.a_ lump, clot (Or.)(CDIAL 10308). meda lump of clay (Or.); meda_ lump of dung (Or.); meda_r.i heap, mass (Or.); mediba_ to knead together (Or.)(CDIAL 10326). Brick, lump: hen.d.e, hen.t.e, pet.t.e, pet.t.a clod, lump (Ka.); hen.t.e, en.t.e clod of earth (Tu.); ped.d.a clod, lump of earth (Te.); bed.a sod (Go.); bet.a clod (Kond.a); bed.a brick (Kuwi); pe_d. a large turf or clod (M.)(DEDR 4394). Boil, pimple: pid.aka small boil, pimple (Sus'r.); pil.aka boil (Pali); pi_l.aka (Pali); pila_ga boil, pimple (Pkt.); pir.ia_ pl.smallpox (L.); pilo abscess, bubo, tumour (Ku.); boil (N.)(CDIAL 8167). p(r)e_lu to break out in prickly heat or any eruption, have pimples (Te.) (DEDR 4194). Small boil, tumour: po_t.akam boil, tumour; pock in smallpox; measles; smallpox (Ta.lex.) spho_t.a swelling, boil (Sus'r.); spho_t.aka (Skt.); spho_t.ika_ (Sus'r.); put.au smallpox (Br.); pho_t.a, pho_t.aka blister, boil (Pali); pho_d.a-, pho_daa-, pho_d.iya_-, phud.ia_ boil (Pkt.); po_ri smallpox (Gypsy); is'pol. abscess, boil (Kho.)( < Kaf. with is'p-); phoe pl. smallpox (Sh.); phor.a_ boil (P.); for.a_ ulcer, blister (WPah.); phor.a_ blister from a burn (WPah.); phor.o boil, pimple; phor.i_ sore in nostril (Ku.); phor pimple; phoro boil in hand (N.); phor.a_ boil, abscess (B.Or.); phor.iya_ small boil (Bhoj.); phuriya_ boil (Aw.); phor.a_, phur.iya_ (H.); phod.au (OG.); phod.lo, phollo (G.); phod. boil (M.); phod.i_ pimple (esp. of smallpox)(M.); pol.a boil (Si.)(CDIAL 13854). pot.ika pustule, boil (Skt.); pot.ka blister, protuberance on tree (Pe.); pod.osi, pot.kori blister; a_d.i-put.i small pox pustule; br.o_ga pimple, small boil (Kui); pot.ka boil (Kuwi); sores on the feet (Malt.); pu_tur.o_ blister (Br.); pot.t.i chicken pox (Ma.); pot.- (poc-) (hand) blisters from friction or hard work; pot.l. a blister (Ko.); pot.la blister, pustule; put.la id., bubble (Tu.); pit.- (pit.y-) (hand) blisters by friction (To.); pot.amarincu to rise or swell up, as a boil (Te.); pot.ka pimple (Pa.); pot.- to blister (Ga.); bot.t.a_, bot.t.a, bot.ka, bo_t.t.a_, botta_ blister; botta a boil (Go.)(DEDR 4496). pun. wound, ulcer (Ta.); sore, ulcer (Ma.); sore (Ko.); sore, boil, wound (Ka.); pud.i sore, ulcer (Tu.); pun.d.u sore, ulcer, boil (Te.); pun wound, pussy sore (Kol.); boil, wound (Nk.); pun.d.u wound (Kond.a); pud.u (pl.put.ka-) pimple, dry itch (Kui); pu_d.u scar, mark; pimples, boil (Kuwi); pu_t.ka a_- to have pimples or swelling (Kuwi); punu sore, wound (Malt.)(DEDR 4268). Blister: pus'i scab of inoculation, pimple, boil (Sh.); catkins of walnut trees (Kho.)(CDIAL 8306). pu_kka (tongue) becomes furred (Ma.); pu.v (mouth, tongue) becomes dry with fever (Ko.); pu_ agra = agra a sore mouth, aphthae, the thrush (Tu.); pu_cu (tongue) blisters or becomes sore, rough, and furry, be affected with thrush; pu~_ta aphthae, thrush (Te.)(DEDR 4346). Image: bubble; to swell: pol.l.u (pol.l.i-) to blister, swell; pol.l.al blister, swelling (Ta.); pol.l.u bubble; pol.l.uka to rise in bubbles or blisters; pol.l.al blistering, pustule; pol.l.ikka to blister; pol.l.a blister, bubble; pol.ukuka to blister; pol.ukamb blister, watery eruption (Ma.)(DEDR 4563). bhal swelling (P.); rush of waters, flood (N.); bhalnu to toss up, throw for places (in games)(N.); bhalbhale bubbling with a hiss (N.); bhal.bhal.n.e~ to gush forth (M.); bhalko bubble (Ku.); bhalkan.o to bubble (Ku.); bhalkyu_n.o to cook by boiling (Ku.); bharbhara_na_, bhabhra_na_ to swell (H.); bhalkanu to boil (N.)(CDIAL 9405). bhur more quickly (Skt.); bhuran.yu quick, active (RV.); baran.a_ snake (Si.)(CDIAL 9534). cf. bhulukka bubblingly (N.)(CDIAL 9537). bhubbal burning ember (P.); bhubro, bhumro (N.); bhu_bhal, bhu_bal (H.)(CDIAL 9533). barac buruc, bhurbhurau, bid.ic, bukur to rise as bubbles (Santali.lex.) To flutter: phada phud, phada phodo to flutter (Santali.lex.) par.aka~_i~ lightning, flicker (Ash.); phar.phar.i flapping (S.); phar.kan.u to tremble, flutter, throb (S.); sphat.ati breaks, tears (Dha_tup.); phar.phar.a_un.a_ to move convulsively (P.); phar. flapping, explosion (B.); phar.phar. flapping (B.); phar.aphar.a sound of flapping, fluttering, tearing (Or.); phar.phar.a_na_ to move convulsively (H.); phar.phar.vu~ to flutter (G.); phad.phad.n.e~ (M.); pharphara_unu to twitch, flutter, flap (N.); pharphara_iba to tingle (A.); pharakai throbs (OAw.); pharkab (Mth.); phat.akn.a_ to winnow; phat.ka_rn.a_ to shake (P.); phat.akn.o to winnow, fan (Ku.); phar.kanu to winnow; phar.ka_rnu to shake; phat.phat.a_unu to flap about (N.); phat.phat.a_na_ to flap about; phat.akna_ to winnow (H.); phat.ak bing (G.); phat.akn.e~ to winnow, fan (M.)(CDIAL 9038). pat. sudden noise; pat.at, pat.iti, pat.apat.aditi, pat.atpat.iti, pat.atpat.e_ti with a crack; pat.apat.a_karo_ti makes a crackling noise (Skt.); pat.kan.a_, pat.a_kn.a_ to dash against (P.); par.ku_n.o to beat (Ku.); pat.a_k(o) slap; pat.akn.o to dash against (Ku.); par.ya_n.n.a explosively; par.kanu to explode; pat.akka asunder; pat.a_pat. incessantly (N.); par. sound of tearing (B.); pat. with a crash (B.); pat.pat.ana to crackle; pat.ka_na to throw down (B.); par.par. crackling sound (Or.); pat.akna_ to dash against (H.); pat. suddenly (G.); pat.a_ko loud crack (G.); pat.akn.e~ to dash down (M.)(CDIAL 7691). Throbs: sphalati throbs, quivers (Skt.); spharan.a throbbing (Skt.); pharpharat 3 sg. subj. scatter (RV.); pharati thrills (the body with pleasure); pharan.a thrilling (Pali); pharan.u to twitch, (S.); pharphara_n.o to flutter, flap the wings (Ku.); pharphar sparkling (B.); pharphara_na_ to flap (H.); pharphar flutteringly (G.); pharpharn.e~ to twitch (M.); pharakkhida trembling (Pkt.); pharakn.a_ to wink, flash, quiver (P.); pharkab to throb (Mth.); pharakai (OAw.); pharakvu~ (G.); pharphara_unu to twitch, flutter (N.); pharphara_iba to tingle (A.)(CDIAL 13820). sphalati moves rapidly, throbs, twitches (Skt.); phal to extinguish (fire, candle, etc.)(Kal.); pha_wi_ to leap, spring (WPah.)(CDIAL 13822). Image: boiling; foam: phe~r. foam (Santali.lex.) patar-u to be flurried, overhasty; patar-r-am rashness, hurry; patat.t.am trembling, agitation; patai (-pp-, -tt-) to (as in sympathy), flutter, quiver, be in agony, shake, be anxious; pata-pat-en-al expr. signifying the trembling of the heart (Ta.); patar-uka to be precipitate, over-hasty, be confused; patar-ikka to cause confusion; pata boiling, foam, froth; patekka to palpitate, boil up; agitate; patappu throbbing; patapata boiling hot, effervescing; patupata bubbling up (Ka.); padar-u to be overhasty, speak unadvisedly, talk nonsense; pade to desire, wish, be eager; padap(p)u eagerness, zeal, pleasurable excitement (Ka.); padaru, paduru, padar-u, padur(u)cu, padrucu to be overhasty or precipitate, be angry, move, be shaken; a hasty word; padat.amu, padat.u precipitation, hurry (Te.); padrare, padkare to prattle (Malt.)(DEDR 3910). Image: to provoke; to submit: par.ge to stir up, incite (Malt.); par.e_fing to instigate, provoke (Br.)(DEDR 3861). badna_ to obey, defer to, refer the case to (Kur.); badye to submit, be obedient (Malt.)(DEDR 3914). pande a coward (Ka.); panda id.; cowardly, base (Te.)(DEDR 3927). Shake: handu, hendu to move, shake, draw back (Ka.); panduni to shake, be loose, oscillate, vibrate (Tu.)(DEDR 3926). pod.ar to tremble, to throb, to quiver (Ka.); pod.arke quivering, shaking, contracting (Ka.); pol.apu, hol.ahu trembling, shaking, rolling; a swing, a hammock (Ka.); pod.avi a kind of swing or palankeen (Ka.); pot.ai to move (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) potir trembling (Cu_l.a_. Araci. 10); potirvu id. (Kampara_. Va_liva. 30); potirer-i-tal to tremble (Kampara_. Atika_. 90); potir-tal to tremble (Kampara_. Pirama_t. 13)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6931.Bend of a river: put.a-pe_tam bend of a river (Ta.); put.a-bhe_da (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) City: put.a-pe_tan-am city (Ta.); put.a-bhe_dana id. (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) cf. por..e a river (Ka.lex.) por..il, por..ilu, or..il, hor..il a dwelling-place: a town, a city (Ka.lex.) po_t.am < bho_t.a a country, one of 56 te_cam (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 97)(Ta.lex.) Place; border; side: put.am, put.ai side, place (Ta.); put.a side (Ma.); hod.e id. (Ka.); pud.e border, edge, brink, margin, brim, side, interval, space; pod.atare the side-bone of the skull (Tu.); ped.a side, page (Te.)(DEDR 4255). put.ai room, location; site; portion, section (Ir-ai. Kal.a. 1, Pak. 23); side of a well (Ta.lex.)

6932.Image: upside down: put.t.ha upside down, having the face downward, showing the wrong side, inverted; put.t.h lying on the face with back up (P.lex.)

6933.Image: hindquarter of an animal: puta buttock (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) pu_t.h back (also used in counting cattle, e.g., ca_r pu_t.h goru four oxen (Ku.); buttock (H.)(CDIAL 8371). put.tha the buttock, the hip of an animal (P.lex.) bituc, pica the buttock; phucia, phucka small buttock; padur big-buttocked (Santali.lex.) put.h back, wrong side of cloth (L.)(CDIAL 8371). put.t.ha_ hindquarter of an animal (L.); buttock of an animal (P.M.); buttock (N.); put.ho back, hind part of body (Ku.); pu_t.hu~ hips (G.); put.hiya~_ felloes of a wheel, hips (G.); put.he adv. next (G.); put.ha_ buttock of an animal(M.)(CDIAL 8371). pot upper part of back (Pa.); pottel back (Pa.); pot., pot.t.el, pot.t.u back (Ga.)(DEDR 4514). pr.s.t.i, pr.s.t.i_ vertebrae (RV.); back (AV.); ribs (S'Br.); parsti_ back (Av.); pustai_ rib (Psht.); pit.t.hi_, pit.t.hika_ back (Pali); pit.t.hi_, put.t.hi_, pat.t.hi (Pkt.); pis.t.i_, ps.t.i_ (Ash.); ya~_-pat.i_ (Wg.); pt.i_ (Kt.); pis.t.i_ (Shum.Gaw.); put.hi back, rear (S.); put.hi_ back (S.); put.t.h back (L.); pit.t.h, put.t.h (P.); pit.t.hi_, pit.t.h (WPah.); pi_t.h, pit.hi_ back (Ku.); pit.h, pit.hyu~ (N.); pit.hi (A.Or.); pi~_t.hi, pi_t.h (Mth.); pi_t.hi (Bhoj.); pi_t.hi_ back (OAw.); pu_t.hi, pu~_t.h (OH.); pi_t.h, pit.t.hi_, pit.hiya_ (H.); pu_t.hi_ (OG.); pu_t.hiim. after (OG.); pi_t.h, pu_t.h back (G.); pu_t.hiyu~ rear (G.); pa_t.h back (M.); pa_t.i (Konkan.i); pet.a (Si.); pit.i in cmpds.: pit.i-bim ground at the back; Land by river: he-vit.i land by river (Si.); pis't back (Gypsy); phi_t. (D..); pis.t. (Kal.); pi_d. (Tor.); pit.h (B.Or.); pi_t.h (Aw.)(CDIAL 8370). pr.s.t.hya on the back (RV.); pat.ha_ boil on the back (Or.)(CDIAL 8374). Image: back: jen back (Pe.); je_nu, je~_o, je_co back (Kuwi)[Poss. < ?*pje_n < pir-an](DEDR 2825). cf. pin- back, rear part; pir-akku back, rear (Ta.); pin backside; pir-aku id. (Ma.); pinte the rear, back part (Ka.); pirapa back, again (Tu.); piccan.d.a the hind part (Tu.); pir-r-a buttock, the hinder part (Te.); pirra buttock (Nk.); pir-a, pita mund.i buttock (Kond.a)(DEDR 4205). cf. pinji tail (Gypsy); piccha tail-feathr (MBh.); piccha, pim.cha, pim.chad.a tail, tail-feather (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8151). cf. puccha tail, hinder part (AV.); tail (Pali.Pkt.); pinji (Gypsy)(CDIAL 8249).

6934.A number (used in counting cattle): put.t.a a collection, crowd, a number, lot (Te.)(DEDR 4258). cf. pu_t.h back (also used in counting cattle, e.g. ca_r pu_t.h goru four oxen)(Ku.)(CDIAL 8370).

6935.Image: boar: po_tri a hog, a boar; po_tra the snout of a hog (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: castrated boar: bhator. sukri a boar; badhia castrated boar (Santali.lex.) on.t.gyn boar (Ko.); on.t.ika_d.u, on.t.iga_d.u wild boar (Te.)(DEDR 971). Pig: bhum.d.a, bhom.d.a pig; bhum.d.i_, bhum.d.in.i_, bhum.d.i_ra (Pkt.); bhu_n, bhu_n.d., bhu_n.d.in, bhon., bhu~_d. (L.); bhuni (N.); bhu_m.d.a (OG.); bhu~d., bhu~d.an. (G.); bhu_d.in.i (S.); bum.di (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9551). bum.di pig (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9273).

6936.Image: capital of a pillar: po_tika capital of a pillar, prop, support of a king-post (Ma.); po_tikai capital of a pillar (Kampara_. Nakarap. 25); stake (Ta.); bo_dige architrave, niche over a door (Tu.); bo_diya, bo_de trunk of a tree, cornice (Te.); bo_dige, bo_duge capital of a pillar (Ka.)(DEDR 4585). po_rikai, po_rikaikkat.t.ai capital of a pillar; cap of a wooden post (Kat.t.at.a. Na_ma_.)(Ta.lex.) po_ta-k-kat.t.ai, po_ti, po_tikai-k-kat.t.ai, po_tikai capital of a pillar; cap of a wooden post; stake (Kampara_. Nakarap. 25)(Ta.); bodhia (Te.); bo_diga id. (Ka.); po_tikai-t-tu_n. a short, stout pillar (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6937.Gold: puttal.i a gold coin valuing about four rupees (Ka.M.); a varaha of pure gold (Ka.); pure gold (Ka.); puttad.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

6938.Image: bird's nest: pu_r. bird's nest (Ku.); puri bark (Dm.); pur.o, pur.ko vessel of leaves sewn together; pur.i_ food given to ascetics in a leaf cup (Ku.); pur.a_, pu~r.a_ straw vessel for grain (B.)(CDIAL 8253). put.ati enfolds, envelops (Bhpr.); put.ita sewn (Skt.)(CDIAL 8255). Image: lid, cover: pur.u lid, cover (S.); pur.o paper in which drugs or spices are wrapped (S.); pur.ko, pur.o vessel of leaves sewn together (Ku.); pur.iya_ anything wrapped in paper or leaves (H.); pur.a_ large packet (H.)(CDIAL 8253). put.akam cup or vessel formed by stitching leaves (Civataru. Ko_pura. 184) (Ta.lex.) cf. Cluster of lotus flowrs: put.akini_ lotus [?cup-shaped flower](Skt.); pud.ain.i_ lotus pond (Pkt.); purain lotus leaf, lotus (H.)(CDIAL 8254). cf. put.akin-i cluster of lotus flowers; lotus-pond (Ta.lex.)

6939.Cleaning instrument: po_tra *cleaning instrument (the Potr.'s soma vessel)(RV.)(CDIAL 8404). pu_ti purity, purification; pu_ta made clean or pure, purified, pure, clean (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Clear: phud.a clear (Pkt.); sphut.a clear in meaning (R.); phud.a_ real, true (OM.)(CDIAL 13841). sphut.ayati makes clear (Skt.); sphut.yate_ is clear (Skt.); -spure- to show (Pr.); phut.t.ai is manifest (Pkt.)(CDIAL 13843a). Image: flame: pottige flame; flaming (Ka.); pottu id. (Ka.); potta hot, burning (Tu.); pot- to burn, blaze (Go.)(DEDR 4517). cf. bha_ta shining (Skt.Pali); bha_ye befitting, beautiful (OAw.)(CDIAL 9444). bha_ti shines (RV.Pali); is splendid, appears (MBh.); bha_i, bha_adi pres. part. bham.ta (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9445). pot jeweller's polishing stone (Bi.)(CDIAL 8403). To set fire to: put. to set fire to, kindle (Pe.); put.pa, pur.pa to roast (Kui)(DEDR 4260). Burn: polnu to burn, bake, cook (N.); pu_lik to be burnt (Kho.); paleik to burn (Kho.); puli_ having burnt (Kho.); poriba to burn (A.); poliba to burn (OA.); poriba (A.); por.a_, pur.a_ to burn, be burnt (B.); pur.a_na caus. id.(B.); pur.iba_, por.iba_ to set fire to, heat, burn, be afflicted with grief (Or.); pol.n.e~ to burn (M.); po_d. burn (Skt.)(CDIAL 8397). Image: to be burnt at the bottom of a vessel: pottu to be kindled, catch fire, flame; be burnt (as rice, etc., at the bottom of the vessel), be boiled or baked too much; n.flaming (Ka.); to light (as a fire)(Ta.); potte a torch of leaves (Kurub.); pottige flaming, flame (Ka.); pottuni to burn (Tu.); potta hot, burning (Tu.); pot to burn, blaze (Go.); pot (poty-) to light (as a fire)(Ko.); pot torch made of a bundle of thin sticks (Ko.)(DED 4517). Image: spark: pori a spark (Ma.Tu.); throw out sparks (Ta.); bor.s to roast (Go.)(DEDR 4537). pu_ spark, as of fire (Ta.); pu_vala id. (Kui); pua embers (Kui); pu_ya id. (Kuwi); puiya id. (Kuwi); puva spark (Kuwi); puya_ burning coal (Kuwi)(DEDR 4347). Image: fire: parpao to burn brightly (Santali.lex.) poi, poi~ fire (Sh.); pavi fire (Skt.)(CDIAL 7982). pur, purui embers (Wg.); pu_r big fire, bonfire (Pas'.); puer, po_r id. (Pas'.) < paura- or -pa_vara-); po_r burning embers (Shum.)(CDIAL 8329). pur, purui embers (Wg.); pu_r big fire, bonfire (Pas'.); po_r burning embers (Shum.)(CDIAL 8329). pupura spark (Si.); apusphurat, pusphuris.ati, po_sphuryate_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 8311). [cf. pu_ru the filling of a pit, load of people in a ferry (S.); pu_ra full (Pali)(CDIAL 8330)]. Image: oven, hearth: poy hearth (Kol.); id., fireplace (Nk.); p(r)oyyi, p(r)oyi oven, stove, hearth (Te.); pokkali stone fireplace (kal stone)(Te.); prospa to light up, ignite (Kui); bro_t.pa to smoulder, be fanned into flame (Kui)(DEDR 4537). Image: to burn: mul.i to burn, dry, be scorched, curdle (Ta.); scorched or dry, the appearance of skin scalded and burst (Ma.); mul.ari firewood, sacrificial fuel, fire, firebrand (Ta.)(DEDR 4996). mu_l. to kindle, catch fire, be kindled (Ta.); mu_t.t.uka to kindle (Ma.); mut.t.incu to kindle, light (Te.); mut.is- to light, kindle (Kond.a)(DEDR 5048). Spark: sphulin:ga spark (MBh.); phulin:ga spark (Pali); philun:go spark, live coal (N.); phuli~g spark (H.); phun:gi_ little bubble (G.); phun:gi_ spark (M.); pulingu-va ((Si.); phirin:gat.i spark (A.)(CDIAL 13851).

6940.Bundle: poti (-v-, -nt-) to tie up (as a bundle); bundle, fastening; potivu packing (Ta.); putekka to wrap oneself in, thatch with palm-leaves and grass; poti a bundle; potikka to wrap (Ma.); pude bundle (Ka.); podiyuni, poddiyuni, podduni to cover, wrap, twine; podike food packed for a journey, packed meal (Tu.); podi quiver (Te.); putunk bundle, knot, knotted string (Br.)(DEDR 4509). Bale; packet of spices: put.a cavity, small receptacle, fold (MBh.); u_s.a-put.a (MaitrS.); put.aka small receptacle (MBh.); put.i_ (Skt.); -put.ika_ (Skt.); put.a container to carry food in (usually of leaves)(Pali); put.aka wallet (Pali); pud.a, pud.aya, pud.iya_ wallet (Pkt.); puri bark (Dm.); pir (Bshk.); pu_ri any small thing (esp. powder) wrapped up in paper or leaves (K.); pur.i_, pur.o paper in which drugs or spices are wrapped (S.); pur. millstone (L.); pur.a_ parchment of a drum; pur.i_ small parcel (L.); pur. mill-stone, one layer of a pile; pur.a_ packet of spices etc. (P.); pur.i_ small packet (P.); pur.o leather of a drum (WPah.); pu_r. bird's nest; pur.o, pur.ko vessel of leaves sewn together (Ku.); pur.i_ food given to ascetics in a leaf cup; pur.iya_ small packet (Ku.); pura_ remnants of food (N.); puriya_ packet of red-lead (A.); pur.a_, pu~r.a_ straw vessel for grain (B.); puriya_ small packet (EB.); pur.a_ packet (esp. of leaves); pur.i small packet (esp. of leaves)(Or.); puriya_ anything wrapped in paper or leaves (Aw.); pur.a_ large packet; pur.iya_ anything wrapped in paper or leaves (H.); id. (Bhoj.); nak-pur.i_ nostril (H.); par. fold, layer, upper mill-stone (G.); par.o packet (G.); par.i_ small packet of drugs; pur.o, pur.i_ packet of drugs (G.); pu_d. pocket, compartment, cell, bale; pud.a_, pud.i_ packet (M.); pu_d.i (Konkan.i); pul.a nostril (Si.); pur-an.i outer bark, skin, anything that is outside (Ta.)(DEDR 4333). cf. ul. pot. inside bark of tree; pot. outside bark of tree (Ko.)(DEDR 4491). cf. put.a stack, pile, collection, heap (Kui)(DEDR 4258). po_t.t.ala, po_t.t.ali_, po_t.t.alaka, po_t.ala (Car.); pot.t.a bundle (Pkt.); pot.ir.i_ bag, satchel (S.); pot. bag, load (P.); pot.i bulb (e.g. of garlic)(N.); pot.inu (ears) to be filled with grain; pot.ilo filled with grain (of an ear)(N.); pot. bundle, bale (H.); bundle (G.); pot.ku~ packet (G.); pot.t.ala, pot.t.aliya_, put.t.ala, put.t.alaya, put.t.aliya_ bundle; pot.t.aliya porter (Pkt.); pot.li_ small bag (P.); po~t.la_, pu~t.al, pu~t.uli bundle (B.); pot.al.a_, pot.al.i (Or.); pot.la_ bundle; pot.li_ small bundle (H.); pot.lo, pot.li_, pot.lu~ (G.); pot.la_, pot.l.i_ bundle of stuff (M.); pe~d.hi_ packet (M.)(CDIAL 8396).

6941.Image: treasure-bag: potta a treasure-bag (Ka.); po_te_m (M.H.); po_ta = pot.la (Te.)(Ka.lex.) pot.la, pot.t.an.a, pot.t.al.a, pot.n.a (Tadbhava of put.a) a small cup or packet made of leaves, paper etc. (Ka.); pot.t.an.am, pot.t.alam (Ta.); pot.t.a, pot.la (Te.); cf. (Tadbhava pud.i = put.a a small bundle, as of medicine-powder etc.); pot.t.an.a a bag (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

6942.Crucible: put.a a crucible; a single application unto, as in preparing medicaments, of fire to bake, of sun, air etc. to dry; put.akke ha_ku to put into a crucible in order to prepare drugs; to refine as metals; put.avikku to apply fire in order to refine metals; put.a pa_ka a particular method of preparing drugs or refining metals, the various substances being wrapped up in leaves, covered with clay, and roasted in the fire (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) put.ake a small basket (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) put.t.h a process or stage of a process (as in compounding medicines)(P.lex.) put.a-pa_ka a particular method of preparing drugs drugs or refining metals, the various substances being wrapped up in leaves, covered with clay, and roasted in the fire; put.a-vikku to apply fire in order to refine meetals etc.; to burn (Ka.); put.i_pu a compartment with raised margins, a panel (Ka.H.) (Ka.lex.) Image: to spring: put.a to bounce as a ball; to spring, to rise in jets, as water; put.a bouncing, leaping up, jumping; a bounce (Ka.lex.) Flowing: or..ukku flowing (Nan-. 19); or..ukal flowing (Ta.); or..ukku-tal to cause to drop, drip (Te_va_. 1110,1); or..uku-tal to flow as a stream (Nait.ata. Na_t.t.u. 6); to leak, drop as water; to fall by drops, trickle down (Tiruva_ca. 26,7); to melt (Civappira. 4,1, Pak. 385, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) o_t.a-vit.u-tal to refine as gold (I_t.u.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vili_yati to melt (Pali)(Pali.lex.) Refining vessel: put.am the refining or sublimating vessel or cup (Ja_n-a_. 15,26); cover (Vina_yakapu. 15,40); calcination in fire or in the sun; preservation by being buried under the earth or in a heap of grain (Uttarara_. Tiruvo_lak. 10); put.amit.u to refine metals (Ka_cika. O_n:ka_rali. Ci. 6); to calcinate; put.apa_kam a particular method of preparing drugs in which various substances are placed in clay cups covered over with clay and heated over the fire (put.apa_kattir- ca_rntaru mulo_kama_ka tan-n-alpo_l : Tirukka_l.at. Pu. Ja_n-ayo_. 18); put.a-t-tailam medicinal oil extracted by put.am process (Ta.lex.) puriya_ packet of red-lead (A.)(CDIAL 8253). pit.hara a pot (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Crucible: pit.a melting pot, crucible (Ta.lex.) pit. to collect or heap together; pit.a a box, basket (Skt.lex.) Image: layers of piles; small receptacle: put.a small receptacle, cavity (MBh.); u_s.a-put.a (MaitrS.); put.a container to carry food in (usu. of leaves)(Pali); pur. millstone (L.P.); one layer of a pile (P.); par. fold, layer, upper mil-stone (G.); pur.i_ small packet of drugs (G.); pu_d. pocket, bale, cell, compartment (M.); pu_d.i packet (Konkan.i); puriya_ small packet (B.); pur.a_ packet (esp. of leaves)(Or.); large packet (H.); puriya_ anything wrapped in paper or leaves (Aw.)(CDIAL 8253).

6943.Toddy; liquor distilled from mahua flowers: pat.uvan- toddy-seller; fem. pat.uvi (Ta.); pat.ka liquor distilled from the flowers of the mahua tree (Malt.); pat.u toddy (Ce_tupu. Tura_. 40)(DEDR 3858). Image: drop, to fall in drops: bat.t.u, bet.t.u a drop; bat.t.a_d.u to fall in drops (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Goldsmith's pot: vat.t.o_t.u goldsmith's pot for live-coals; vat.t.am polish, refinement (Ta.lex.) vat.i to become beautiful, to refine, perfect; n. form, shape (Ta.); vat.ivam form, shape, figure, beauty, comeliness, complexion (Ta.); vat.ivu id., brightness, lustre (Ta.); form, size, manner, figure, beauty (Ma.)(DEDR 5223). Image: a kiln, a furance: bat.t.i a kiln, a furnace; a spirit-stilll; the matter prepared in a kiln (Ka.); bhat.t.i_ (M.H.Te.); sa_ra_ya bat.t.i liquor still; bat.t.i-yir..i to fall in drops, to distill; bat.t.i-y-ir..isu to distill, as brandy etc. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: furnace: bat.hi a furnace for melting iron-ore; bhat.a a furnace, a kiln; it.a bhat.a a brick kiln; bhat.i a still, a boiler, a copper boiler; paura bhat.i a liquor still; dhubi bhat.i a washerman's boiler; bhat.i a veiled name for paura; an oven, kiln (Santali.lex.) Distilling device: pa_ta_la a kind of instrument for distillation or the calcination and sublimation of metals; pa_tri_ a small furnace; pa_rata, pa_rada quick-silver (Skt.lex.) Still; kiln: pa_d.ini_ an earthen pot; a boiler (Skt.lex.) bhat.hi_, bhat.t.i_ still, furnace, brick-kiln (Mth.); bha_t.i distilling pot, brick-kiln (Or.); bhras.t.ra frying pan, gridiron (MaitrS.); bhat.t.ha gridiron (Pali); but.hu level surface by kitchen fireplace on which vessels are put when taken off fire (K.); bat.hu large pot in which grain is parched,large cooking fire; bat.hi_ distilling furnace (S.); bhat.t.h grain-parcher's oven (L.); bhat.t.hi_ kiln, distillery; bhat.h (L.); bhat.t.h, bhat.hi_ furnace; bhat.t.ha_ kiln (P.); bha_t.i oven or vessel in which clothes are steamed for washing (N.); bhat.a_ brick- or lime-kiln (A.); bha_t.i kiln (B.); bha_t.ha_ kiln (Aw.); bhat.t.ha_ kiln; bhat. kiln, oven, fireplace (H.); bhat.t.a_ pot of fire; bhat.t.i_ forge (M.)(CDIAL 9656). Grid-iron: bhra_s.t.raja produced on a gridiron (Skt.); bhat.hu_har, bhat.hu_hra_, bhat.hu_ra_, bhat.horu~ cake of leavened bread (P.)(CDIAL 9657). bhat.hia_r, bhat.ia_la_ grainparcher's shop (P.)(CDIAL 9658). Grain-parcher: bhra_s.t.ra gridiron (Nir.); adj. cooked on a gridiron (Pa_n..); bhra_s.t.raka frying pan (Skt.); bha_d.a oven for parching grain (Pkt.); bhar. to roast, fry (Phal.); bha_r. oven (L.); iron oven, fire, furnace (Ku.); bha_r grain-parcher's fireplace; bhar.-bhu~_ja_ grain-parcher (Bi.); bha_ru_, pl. bha_ra_ oven, furnace (OAw.); bha_r. oven, grain-parcher's fireplace, fire (H.); bha_d.i oven (G.); bha_d. (M.)(CDIAL 9684). bharsa_ri_ furnace, oven (H.)(CDIAL 9685). Image: sublimation; mercury: patan:kam mercury;[cf. tan:kam gold (Ta.lex.)]; extracted essence of drugs, such as camphor, sulphur, gum, benzoin, etc., in the form of a shining semi-liquid body produced by sublimation; patan:ka-m-e_r-r-utal, patan:kittal to extract essence of drugs by sublimation; patan:ka-vaippu extraction of essences; essence of drugs extracted; pata-ni_r sweet toddy drawn in a pot lined with lime to prevent fermentation; patam toddy (Poruna. 111)(Ta.lex.) patan:gam quicksilver (Skt.lex.) Image: filter; distillation; to refine, shape: vat.i strainer, filter (Ma.); filtration, distillation (Ta.); vat.iyal strained or filtered liquid; straining, filtering (Ta.); od.i-gat.t.u to strain off, filter (Ka.); od.d.a flowing (Ka.); vad.iyu, od.iyu to be strained or filtered, percolate (Te.); vad.ucu to let fall in drops, pour slowly (Te.); vad.iya-gat.t.u to strain, filter (Te.)(DEDR 5221). utta wet (Skt.); unatti wets, flows (RV.); otan.u to pour; ota pouring (S.); otvu~ to pour, form by melting and pouring into a mould, cast (G.); otn.e~, vatn.e~ (M.); vota overflow of a stream (OM.); upo_tta moistened (TS.); upo_natti wets (S'Br.)(CDIAL 902). bodbodn (to pour out water) so that it falls out at once; shaking in terror so that one cannot stand still (Ko.); boda, bodabodane sound produced by somewhat loose discharges from the bowels (Ka.)(DEDR 4511). vat.i pa_n-ai, vat.ivu-p-pa_n-ai condenser in a distilling apparatus; pot which receives the distilled liquid; vat.i to distill, as oil; to strain, as conjee from cooked rice; to filter; to sharpen (Ta.lex.) vat.ical rice boiled and strained, straining, filtering, ebbing (Ta.); vat.ivu that which is strained or filtered, outflow, surplus water (Ta.); vad.is- (-t-) to pour down, serve (of liquid food)(Kond.a)(DEDR 5221). pha_n.t.a made by an easy process, readily or easily prepared (as a decoction); pha_n.t.am an infusion, decoction; the first particles of butter produced by churning (Skt.lex.)

6944.Shine, lustre: pod.apu, pod.arpu glitter, shine, lustre, brightness; glory, power (Ka.); pod.arpugundisu to cause lustre etc. to decrease (Ka.); pod.ar to flash, to shine, to glitter; pol.apu, ol.a, ol.apu, pol.epu, hol.apu, hol.ahu radiance, lustre, brightness, clearness as of the sky after rain etc.; pol.e, hol.e to shine, to be bright (Ka.); pol.eval shining teeth (Ka.); ol.i, ol.ivu splendour, light; ol.ir to shine (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) pohok to shine (of sun after clouds); borbor, borot, barat borot shining (Santali.lex.) cf. bhor dawn (P.N.B.Mth.H.G.); bhol tomorrow (Ku.)(CDIAL 9634). ol.iyavan- sun, the shining one (Kampara_. Na_kapa_. 202); ol.iyo_n- id. (Ta.); ol.ir-u-tal to shine, glitter (Man.i. 1,68); ol.ir-u splendour, light (Kantapu. Acamukinakar. 24); ol.ir-tal to shine; to emit light; to be resplendent (Tiruva_ca. 37,5); ol.i-vat.t.am discus; halo of light (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,4,3); ol.ivu, ol.irvu brightness, radiance (Ta.lex.) Festival: ho_l.i name of a female demon, a paramour of Ka_ma (Ka.M.); the ho_li_ festival observed on account of her death for the last three or four days terminating with the full moon of the phalguna month when Ka_ma is burnt in effigy; the red liquid (o_kal.i) sprinkled at that festival; ho_l.i-ya_d.u to sprinkle or squirt o_kal.i upon one another at the feast (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. o_kal.i, o_kul.i red liquid sprinkled or squirted at the holi feast, at the close of a temple festival or at marriage (Ka.); id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1028).

6945.A country: ol.ina_t.u one of the 12 na_t.u lying on the outskirts of the cen-tamir..-na_t.u (Tol. Col. 400, Urai.); ol.iyar vel.a_l.as who were the dominant people in ol.i-na_t.u (Pat.t.in-ap. 274)(Ta.lex.)

6946.Pledge: o_lu a bail, a security, a surety, a pledge; a hostage (Ka.); o_lu-ga_r-a a male bail, security or bondsman; a male hostage (Ka.lex.)

6947.Assembly of state: o_laga, va_laga service, homage; an assembly, a levee; an audience; a durbar (Ka.Te.Tu.); o_lakka (Te.); splendour, majesty (Ma.); o_laga i_ to hold a public levee or council; to pay homage, to be in attendance; o_laga-s'a_le a royal court; a hall of audience (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. o_lai palm-leaf (Tol. Po. 641)(Ta.); o_le (Ka.Tu.); o_la (Ma.); o_lai letter or any writing on a palmyra leaf (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) o_lakkam assembly of state, audience, royal presence, durbar (Tiv. Tiruppal.l.i. 9); o_lagamu (Te.); o_laga (Tu.); o_lakkam (Ma.); hall (Aric. Pu. Viva_ka. 37)(Ta.lex.) cf. polivu splendour, gold (Ta.)(DEDR 4551).

6948.Profit: palicai profit (Ta.); palisa (Ta.Ma.) interest (S.I.I. i,116. Ta.lex.) Accumulation, interest on paddy: poli interest paid in kind; policai gain, profit, interest (esp. in kind); palicai profit, interest; polivu prosperity, abundance (Ta.); poliyuka to be acumulated; polikka to measure corn-heaps, paying the reapers in kind; give clothes at a marriage; poli, policcal, polippu increase; polivu accumulation, contribution; polima increase, excellence; polis'a, polu interest on paddy; palis'a interest on money (Ma.); hulusu increase, richness; hulisu to increase in bulk, thrive, grow rich (Ka.); poli- (poliv-, polij-) to increase (crop, cattle); (poli-, polic-) (god) increases (crop, cattle); n. interest paid in kind (esp. on paddy); pola- (polav-, poland-) to live happily (Kod..); polat- (polati-) to make to live happily (Kod..); poli interest in kind, increase, abundance; pollusu, polsu interest, gain, luck; pullelu abundance, increase (Tu.); poli gain (Te.)(DEDR 4550). Accumulation; contribution; livelihood: poli a term for the first marakka_l of grain measured at the threshing floor; exclamation by a barber on the third day of a funeral, as he pours milk at the foot of a green tree after throwing the bones of the deceased in water, a custom among the Kon:gu ve_l.a_l.as (G.Tp.D. I,105); poli-k-kur-ippu memorandum of the heaps of corn on a threshing floor (R.T.); poli-ku_r-u-tal to shout poli-y-o_-poli in joy and as a blessing to a landlord when the year's harvest is over (W.); poli-tal.l.i village servant who assists in measuring paddy, especially by shoving it within easy reach of the marakka_l; poli-p-pa_t.t.u song sung by farmers in the threshing floor in praise of the landlord at the end of a harvest; strong invective (Vir-alivit.u. 785); poli-pa_t.u-tal singing by farmers in the threshing-floor when cattle are being led to tread the sheaves (Cilap. 10,137, Urai.); poli-poli-y-en-al expression shouted to urge bullocks in treading out grain (W.); poli-y-al.avu over-measure, liberal measuring of grain on a threshing floor (Ta.lex.) pullandi an obligation prob. connected with the pasture land in the form of fine on stray cattle (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) poli (-v-, -nt-) to flourish, prosper, thrive (Te_va_. 236,8); to abound, increase (Maturaik. 171); live long and prosperously, used as a benediction (Tol. Po. 422); n. interest paid in kind (Ta.); polikai gain, profit (S.I.I. iii,55,8); policai gain, profit (Ci_vaka. 2546); interest; interest (esp. in kind)(S.I.I. ii,82); policai-y-u_t.t.u earning interest (S.I.I. ii,121); poli-y-u_t.t.u id. (S.I.I. iii,84,88)(Ta.lex.) bhalla auspicious (Skt.)[bhadra : bhalla is rustic according to Va_mana; Regnaud Rht. Sanskrite 141; cf. the abnormal shortening of -ll- or of -a_- in the following; for -a- cf. palicai profit (Ta.); palis'a interest on money (Ma.)(DEDR 4550); cf. -o- in bolu recoved in health (K.)]; bhalla, bhallaya good (Pkt.); bal (Wot..); bha_lo good, true (Sv.); bolu recovered in health (K.); bhalu goodness (S.); bhalo good; advantage (S.); bhala_ well; bhall however, but; bhalla_ well; bhalla_ good (L.); bhala_ good; vhala_ adv. then, in that case (P.); bhala_ good (WPah.); bhalnu to get well (WPah.); bhal, bhalo good (Ku.); bhalo (N.); bha_l nice, proper, pleasing, auspicious (A.); bha_la good (B.); bhala, bhala_ (Or.); bha_l, bhal beautiful (Mth.); bhala_ (Bhoj.H.); bhala, bhli (OMarw.); bhala (OG.); bhalu~ adj. welfare (G.); bha_l.u~ adv. well; bhala (RV.); bhala_ good (M.)(CDIAL 9408). bhadratara happier (MBh.); bhalera_ better (L.); bhalera_, bhalerar.a_ good (P.); bhalera (OAw.); bhalera_ (H.); bhaleru~ (G.)(CDIAL 9412).

6949.Image: menstrual flux: pole, hole the menstrual flux, the lochia; impurity from childbirth (Ka.); pule (Ma.); poli to shine (Ta.); pulari the dawn; pola beauty; gold; pon- id. (Ta.); polivu, por-pu lustre; por-e beauty; a spark; pur-ku, pullai a brown, yellowish colour; pularu to dawn, light to appear; pular, pularce dawn, daybreak; ole, polacu, polucu to appear, to come to light; poli freshness, bloom (Te.); pole taint, pollution, defilement in general (Ka.); purud.u ceremonial uncleanness after child-birth (Ka.Te.); punir-u (Ta.); pule (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. purud.u delivery of a child (Ga.)(DEDR 4290). cf. pulpulre to shine through whiteness (Malt.)(DEDR 4305). cf. bhor dawn (P.N.B.H.G.Mth.); bhol tomorrow (Ku.); bhora dawn (Or.); bholi tomorrow (N.)(CDIAL 9634).

6950.Gooseberry: pot.t.o_ variety of gooseberry (Kur.); put.ka gooseberry (Malt.)(DEDR 4497).

6951.Sphaeranthus hirtus: bo_r..atara, bo_d.atara sphaeranthus hirtus (Ka.); bo_d.ataramu id. (Te.)(DEDR 4601). Sphaeranthus indicus: mundirika (Skt.); mundi (H.); murmuria (B.); kottakkarandai (Ta.); bodasaram (Te.); attakkamanni (Ma.); herb: tonic, alterative; decoction of plant: used as a diuretic, in urethral discharges; rind of fruit used as a fish-poison; habitat: throughout India, ascending the Himalayas upto 5,000 ft. from Kumaon to Sikkim (GIMP, p. 232).

6952.Image: canopy: van.ar vault, arched roof (W.); van.ar-tal to bend (Malaipat.u. 37); to curl as the hair (Kalit. 57); va_n-i canopy (Pin..); tent (Ta.lex.) van.an:ku to surround, encompass (Tiruva_ca. 41,6)(Ta.lex.) pan-n-akam, pan-n-a_n:ku top of a palanquin or carriage (Ta.); pannakam leaf-cover of a palanquin, awning, boat cover (Ma.); pannan:ga canopy over an open palanquin (Ka.); panna_gamu id. (Tu.)(DEDR 4040). cf. phan.a expanded hood of snake (esp. of cobra)(MBh.Pali); phan id. (K.); phan.i (S.)(CDIAL 9042). Image: snake: cf. panayan a large snake (Ma.)(DEDR 4038).

6953.Celestial: va_n-am rain (Man.i. 19,149); va_n--val.am rain (Ma_r-an-alan.. 176, Uta_. 402); va_n- cloud (Maturaik. 243); rain (Perumpa_n.. 107); va_n-i streak of lightning (Iraku. Ya_kap. 84); va_n-a-valli streak or flash of lightning (Can.. Aka.); va_n--kot.i streak of lightning (Cilap. 1,24); va_n-e_r-u < + e_r-u thunderbolt (Pur-ana_. 265); va_n- sky, the visible heavens (Kur-al., 272); va_na (Te.); ba_na (Ka.); va_nu (Ma.); va_n-am firmament (Kalit. 105); celestial world (Perumpa_n.. 346); cloud (Kur-al., 559)(Ta.); va_n-akam sky (Te_va_. 1078,2); heaven (Na_lat.i, 300)(Ta.); va_n--man.i sun (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-ava. 159); va_n--kan. sun (Cilap. 10,1, Arum.); va_n--kar..i the highest heaven (Tirukko_. 85, Urai.); va_n- celestial world (Cir-upa_n.. 128); heaven (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,6,5); va_n-ar celestials (Tirukko_. 155); va_n-ara-makal. celestial damsel (Ir-ai. 2, Urai. Pak. 32); va_n-ara-man:kai id. (Tirukko_. 371); va_n-o_r celestials (Cilap. Patikam, 52); va_n-a-na_t.u heaven; celestial world (Tiruvil.ai. Intiran-mut.i. 38); va_n-o_r-kir..avan- Indra (Perun.. Narava_n.a. 4,55)(Ta.); va_n-o_r-ko_ma_n- id. (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.); va_n-avar-ko_n- Indra as king of the gods (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,17)(Ta.); va_n-a-na_t.an- lord of the celestial world (Te_va_. 486,9); va_n-a-na_t.i she who resides in svarga (Cilap. 11,215); va_n--makal. Indra_n.i (Tiruva_ru_. 114); va_n-o_r-mutalvan- Brahma_ as first among the celestials (Cu_t.a_.); va_no_r-mutuvan- (Na_mati_pa. 55); Ce_ra (Ta.); va_n-avar-mutuvan- Brahma_ (Pin..); Ce_ra king; va_n-a-varampan- Ce_ra king (Pur-ana_. 2); va_n-avar--ur-aiyul. temple (Tiva_.); va_n-a-vil (Jaina) the first outer wall of the temple of Arhat, in camava-caran.am, known as tu_l.ica_lam and having the splendour of a rainbow (Me_ruman. 60); va_n-a-v-u_rti aerial car (Pur-ana_. 27); va_n-a_t.u svarga (Tiv. Periyati. 4,1,3); heaven (Tiv. Iyar-. Periya-tiruvan. 68); va_n--ulaku celestial world, svarga (Pin..); heaven (Ci_vaka. 1468); va_n-ir-ai < + nir-ai rain-laden cloud (Paripa_. 2,56); va_n-ir..al < va_n- + nir..al voice from heaven (Periyapu. Pa_yi. 9); va_n-avan- celestial being (Tiruva_ca. 4,1); Brahma_ (Aka. Ni.); Indra (Pin..); sun (Kampara_. Er..uc. 7); Ce_ra king (Cilap. 6,73; Pur-ana_. 126); (Ta.lex.) The Rains: vars.a rain (RV.); pl. the Rains (AV.); year (S'Br.); vassa rain, pl. the Rains (Pali); va_sa, varisa (Pkt.); was. (Wg.Kt.); bas. (Dm.); wa_s. (Pas.Shum.Gaw.); wa_x (Pas.); bas. (Nin:g.Kat.Sv.); was.in (Gmb.); ba_s.ik (bad-vas. rain of stones, i.e., hail; prob. Kal. compound: before v- > b-)(Kal.); ba_s. (Phal.); wos'u light shower of rain (K.); bari the Rains (WPah.); bas-ka_l a rainy season (Ku.); barisa_ (B.); vas rain, the Rains (Si.); vahare_ (Si.); va_re_ rain (Md.)(CDIAL 11392). vars.a_ka_la the rainy season (R.); vassaka_la id. (Pali); varisaka_la, varisa_la (Pkt.); varasa_la (OG.)(CDIAL 11393). vars.ati it rains (RV. > wa_s' to rain (Para_ci_.Iranian); (de_vo_) vassati it rains (Pali); vassadi, va_sai, varisai (Pkt.); brisind, brisindo rain (Gypsy); veheni it is raining (Md.)(CDIAL 11394). vars.a_ rain (S'a_n:khGr..); the Rains (AV.); varisa_, va_sa_ rain (Pkt.); vasa (S.); ba_si-bido end of the Rains (N.); vassa, vasi, vahi rain (Si.)(CDIAL 11396). va_n-, va_n-am sky, cloud, rain; va_n-avan- a celestial being; va_n-o_r celestials; ma_n-am sky (Ta.); va_n, va_nam, ma_nam sky, heaven (Ma.); va.nm sky; va.nt u.r id. (village in the sky)(Ko.); po.n sky; kax fo.n id. (black sky)(To.); ba_n, ba_na, ba_n.a, ba_m sky (Ka.); ba.n.a id. (Kod..); ba_na, ba_n.a id. (Tu.); ba_n.a id. (Kor.); va_na rain (Te.); va.na id. (Kol.); va_na id. (Nk.); va_ni (stem va_n-) id. (Pa.); va_yin id. (Ga.); va_na cloud, sky, rain (Go.); bani a current or flood of water caused by heavy rain (Malt.)(DEDR 5381). Year; summer: va_rs.ika belonging to the rainy season (AV.); lasting a year (Skt.); annual (Gaut.); vassika of the rainy season (Pali); va_risiya of the rainy season (Pkt.); barsi_ New-year's day (P.); -va_risi_ya years old (OG.)(CDIAL 11571). va_sa year (As'.); va_rs.a belonging to the Rains (VS.); va_sa rain (Pkt.); bas. (Kho.)(CDIAL 11569). vas.a, vasa year (As'.); vars.sa (NiDoc.); varisa (Pkt.); bers, wars, vers (Gypsy); beris (D..); be_ris., beris. summer (Phal.); baris. , bariz.i year (Sh.); warih, wahar, warhien obl. pl. bari_e_ (K.); varhyu (S.); varha_, varhe~, vara_ (L.); varah, variha_, varha_, barha_, varas, baras (P.); bari, barh, barha_ (WPah.); barsa (N.); barih (A.); baris (B.); barasa (Or.); baris (Bhoj.); barisa (OAw.); baras, barsa_ (H.); barasa (OMarw.); va_se loc. sg. (OG.); varas (G.); vas-a, va_ year (Si.)(CDIAL 11392). bariha_n.i_ New-year's day (WPah.)(CDIAL 11397). basoa_ New-year's day (P.)(CDIAL 11401). bas'a_ summer (Tor.); baris' (Bshk.); be_ris' (Phal.); vars.ya belonging to the Rains (RV.VS.)(CDIAL 11402). Spring: baxate_ spring season (Tir.); vars.artu rainy season (Skt.)(CDIAL 11395). vars.a_ra_tri the rainy season (R.); vassa_ratta id. (Pali); va_sa_ratti, varisa_ratta (Pkt.); wahara_th, dat. waharocu (K.); barsa_t (N.B.H.); barsa_d (G.)(CDIAL 11398). vasanta spring season (RV.); spring (Pali); vasam.ta (Pkt.); wosunt (Ash.); wasu~_t, waso~_t, oso~_t (Wg.); wosut (Kt.); usti (Pr.); basan (Dm.); wahen(d), wayen (Pas.); basan (Sv.Wot..Kat..Bshk.); woso~_t summer (Gmb.); wasand, wasan spring (Gaw.); ba_sun, ba_sund (Kal.); bosun (Kho.); basa_n (Tor.); basa_nd, basa_n (Phal.); bazo_du, bazo_nu, bazo_n, baso_n (Sh.); vasat (Si.)(CDIAL 11439). bazona_l next spring (Sh.)(CDIAL 11440). wezdar season between spring and autumn (Kt.)(CDIAL 11441).

6954.Image: obeisance: van.akkam < van.an:ku bending (Kur-al., 827); van:gu (Te.); baggu (Ka.); van.akkam (Ma.); adoration, reverence, worship (Kampara_. Taila. 38); van.akku-tal to bend, make flexible as the body (Ta.); vantsuta (Te.); baggisu (Ka.); van.akku-tal to make submissive (Akana_. 61); van.akku bending (Cilap. 6,95); adoration, reverence, worship (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 1,3,8); verses in praise of god, guru etc., at the commencement of a work (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 8); van.akkam id. (Ci. Po_. Pa_. Man:ka. Pak. 1); van.an:ku-tal to bend; to yield (Pu. Ve. 7,27); baggu (Ka.); van.an:ku-tal to be submissive, modest (Kur-al., 419); to worship, adore, revere, salute respectfully (Kur-al., 9)(Ta.lex.) van.an.n.uka to bend, bow, salute respectfully; van.akkam obeisance, reverence; van.akkuka to bend; var..an.n.uka to follow suit, yield, bend, ask humbly; var..akkam submission, obedience; talavar..akkam bowing the head (Ma.)(DEDR 5236).

6955.Image: pipal: pan.ai pipal (Ta.); pan.i id. (Ka.)(DEDR 3895). va_n.a-kanti pipal (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) prob. parn.a-khan.d.a (Skt.)

6956.Camphor: pan-n-ai camphor (Ta.); panne id. (Ka.)(DEDR 4043).

6957.River: va_n-i the river Amra_vati_ (Pin..); the river Bhava_ni_ (Patir-r-up. 86)(Ta.lex.)

6958.Incense; agallochum: vahni-ka_s.t.ham a kind of agallochum; vahni-gandha incense, resin; vahni-vallabha resin; vahni the marking-nut plant (Skt.lex.) vahni lead-wort, plumbago zeylanica (Ka.lex.)

6959.Images; wood-nymph; hunter; tree: vanya belonging to a wood, produced in a wood; living in woods; vanye a multitude of groves, a large forest; vanama_le, vanama_la_ a garland of wood-flowers; the chaplet worn by Kr.s.n.a; vana_yu a district to the north-west of India inhabited by the vana_yus; name of a da_nava (Ka.lex.) van-a-te_vatai wood-nymph, dryad; sylvan god or goddess (Kampara_. Cat.a_yu-v-uyirni_. 78)(Ta.lex.) van-a-carar < vana-cara inhabitants of desert tracts (Tiva_.); hunters, foresters (Te_va_. 568,6); van-a-caritan- forest-dweller, woodman (Pa_rata. Ve_t. 38)(Ta.lex.) van.n.ikai a drug (Perun.. Makata. 17,150); va_n- ambrosia (Te_va_. 586,1); a kind of tree (Pin..); va_n--payir garden crops and fruit trees, especially valuable kinds of produce raised on wet land, as betel, plantains, sugarcane (S.I.I. iv, 105); va_n--payir-ampalam office for the collection of assessment on garden lands (M.m. 357); va_n-i a tree (Kur-icip. 69); va_n-am dry tree (Pirapulin.. Mun-ivarar. 17); fruit of a tree; va_na-ppiriyai mahwa, iluppai-maram (Can. Aka.); va_n-a-p-pirastam wild mahwa (Malai.); va_n-appattiyam < va_nas-patya tree, bearing fruit without outwardly blossoming (Na_mati_pa. 372); va_n-akam red-wood, maca_t.i (Malai.); va_n-r-aru celestial tree, kar-paka maram (Ci_vaka. 1091); van-am < vana forest (Cu_t.a_.; Tiv. Peruma_l.ti. 9,2); pleasure-grove, grotto about a town (Cu_t.a_.); van-ikai < vanika_ grove; van-a-cantan-am deodar cedar; akil, eagle-wood (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Fire-stick: banait.(h)i_, banet.(h)i_ torch lighted at both ends and whirled round (H.); vahniyas.t.i fire-stick (Skt.)(CDIAL 11464). pantavaricai play with torches lighted at both ends; panta-vil.akku torch; pantam torch, flambeau; lamp; fireball (Ira_mana_. Uyut. 79)(Ta.lex.) Timber tree: banapu a large timber tree, terminalia tomentosa or coriacea (Ka.); ban.umpu, banampu terminalia coriacea (Tu.); ban.apu (Konkan.i)(DEDR 3885).

6960.Image: tower: va_n-am one of the ornamental sections of a tower (J.)(Ta.lex.)

6961.Image: skylark: ba_na_d.i Indian skylark (Ka.); va_n-am-pa_t.i shepherd koel (Ain:kur-u. 418); va_n-ampa_t.i Indian skylark, alauda gulgula (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

6962.To adorn: van-ai-tal to form, fashion shape (Ci_vaka. 1839); to adorn; to draw, paint (Ci_vaka. 709)(Ta.lex.)

6963.Possessor: va_n- part. < va_n nom. sg. of vat a Sanskrit suffix meaning 'possessor of', kiriya_va_n- (Ci.Ci. 12,5); part. an ending of verbal particle (Nan-. 343); va_n- primordial matter (Kampara_. Ayo_t. Mantira. 1)(Ta.lex.)

6964.Image: monkey: va_n-aram < va_nara ape, monkey (Ci_vaka. 1168); van-a-naram monkey (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

6965.Image: a draught animal; ox: vahni a draught animal, ox (RV. x.101.11); charioteer (RV. ii.17.4: a_d ro_dasi_ jyo_tis.a_ vahnira_tane_t then the charioteer overspread the earth and heaven with light); epithet of Savitar, Indra and Maruts; one who offers songs and oblations (RV. iv.21.6); vahni-tama carrying best (VS.)(Vedic.lex.) van.icam ox (Ta.lex.) vahni a vehicle; vahyam a carriage; a vehicle or conveyance in general; va_hika a carrier of loads; a car drawn by oxen (Skt.lex.) va_ha a beast of burden (Ka.lex.) va_kan-am vehicle, conveyance, animal to ride on, as horse, elephant etc.; carriage, wagon, van (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 20)(Ta.lex.)