6966.Trader: Kube_ra: vakan- < baka Kube_ra (Ta.lex.) baka, vaka name of Kubera (Skt.lex.) van:ku skilful, cunning (RV. v.45.6: van.ig van:ku : jale_cchaya_ vanaga_mi_)(Vedic.lex.)

6967.Army: va_n-i < va_hini_ army (Ce_tupu. Ira_ma Ti_. 34)(Ta.lex.) va_hini_ an army; a division of an army consisting of 81 elephants, as many chariots, 243 horses, and 405 foot-soldiers (Skt.lex.) va_kin-i id.; commander of an army (A_tiyu_ravata_n-i. 45); va_kin-i_pati id. (Ta.lex.) va_hini_pati a general, a commanding officer (Skt.lex.)

6968.Image: fire: va_n.am fire (Iraku. Nakara. 24); va_n-i fire (Aru. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) vahni fire (Vedic.lex.) van-n-i < vahni fire (Pin..; Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 21,33); van-n-i-vakan- < vahni-vaha wind as the vehicle of fire (Carape_ntirakur-avaci. 21,7)(Ta.lex.) vahni ep. of Agni (RV.); a partic. fire (Gr.S.); any fire (Mn.); van.hi fire (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11463a). banait.(h)i_, banet.(h)i_ torch lighted at both ends and whirled round (H.)(CDIAL 11464). vahni a sacrificer, priest; epithet of Maruts, Soma (Skt.lex.)

6969.Image: hare: van-a_ki < vana_khu hare (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

6970.Image: lion: van-ma_n- lion (Takkaya_kap. 75); van-ma_ id.; van-pu strength, firmness (Ja_n-ava_. Pucun.. 99); balpu (Ka.) (Ta.lex.)

6971.Image: crocodile: van--mi_n-am < val + mi_n- (i.e. val = strength, power + mi_n- fish) crocodile (Piramo_t. 6,35); van--mi_n-am id. (Ka_cippu. Pun.n.iya. 11)(Ta.lex.)

6972.Image: petty chieftain: van-n-i-ra_yan- a village deity (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 70); van-n-imai petty chieftainship, as of one belonging to the van-n-iya caste (W.); van-n-iyam nature of a petty chieftain (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 5, Vya_. Pak. 80); liberty, freedom (I_t.u, 7,7,3); enmity (I_t.u, 7,7,3, Ji_.); van-n.iyam-ar-u-ttal to destroy or subdue petty chieftains (I_t.u, 5, 10, Pira.); van-n-iya-valaiyan- a sub-sect of the valaiya caste (G.Tp.D. I, 114); van-n-iyan- a caste (G.Tp.D. I,110); feudatory prince; commander (Kalla_. 37,15); caste-title among certain castes, as the kal.l.ar, valaiyar etc. (E.T. vii, 321); van-n-i-k-kutti, van-n-i-k-kutti-mar-avan- a sub-sect of mar-avas (G.Tn.D. I,132; E.T. v,32)(Ta.lex.) Malice, grudge: varmam, varumam < van-mam malevolence, spite, malice (Can.. Aka.); van-mam malice, grudge, spite (Nal.a. Kalini_n:ku. 58); force (Kampara_. Atika_. 228); van-mai < val strength (Kur-al., 153); skill, ability (W.)(Ta.lex.) van-mam malice, grudge; van-mai anger; van-mi (-pp-, -tt-) to be hard-hearted, bear malice (Ta.); pinm anger, grudge (To.)(DEDR 5328). cf. val strong, hard (Ta.); van-pu, van-mai strength, firmness (Ta.)(DEDR 5276). Headman of village: man.iya-ka_ran-, man.iya-k-ka_ran- headman of a village; superintendent of a temple, etc. (Tol. Er..ut. 323, Urai)(Vir-alivit.u. 1055); man.iyaga_d.u (Te.); maniyaga_ra (Ka.); man.iyaka_ran (Ma.); man.iya-c-cat.t.am official power (Pan.avit.u. 175); man.iyam office of the village headman, employed as a revenue subordinate of the Sirkar for which he holds a ma_n-iyam or receives payment; custom-houses, etc. (Ar-ap. Cata.49)(Ta.lex.) man.e, man.eya superintendence of temples (Ka.); man.e.ga.rn monegar (Ko.); man.e_, man.iya superintendence of temples, etc. (Ka.)?<Skt. man.i- (jewel of office); man.ega_ra man who holds any man.iya office (Ka.); man.ega_re revenue inspector (Tu.)(DEDR 4674). King: man- king, warrior, lord, chief; man-n-an- king, lord, chief (Ta.); man-n-avan king, etc., Indra (Ta.); mannan, mannavan king (Ma.); manneya chieftain, commander (Ka.); manniya, manniya~d.u, manni~_d.u, manne, manne~d.u, manneka~_d.u lord, suzerain, chief, chieftain (Te.)(DEDR 4774). Hereditary right: ma_n-iyam land held either rent free or at a low rate in consideration of services rendered to a village community; grant of revenue of a certain extent of land; computation (Ta.lex.)[cf. ma_na measure, standard (RV.)(CDIAL 10041)]; ma_n-iya-k-ka_ran- holder of a ma_n-iyam land or of any hereditary right or privilege in a village (Ta.lex.) {-ma_nyam : al.l.a_ya-ma_nyam the right to receive a handful of grain or prescribed quantity of an article sold in the market as wages for measuring (Ta.Skt.) (SITI.IEG.); cf. al.u market dues; al.l.u (Ta.)}

6973.Labour; work: banni a portion of grain given to a labourer in requital of his services (Ka.H.); tax (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) hullu banni = hullu ter-ege a tax levied from those who bring thei cattle to graze on government pasture-lands (Ka.lex.) benni, benn agriculture, land under cultivation (Tu.); vin-ai action, deed, work, karma, evil deed; vin-aiar workers, artisans, artificers, agriculturists, smiths; vin-ainar, vin-aivar workers; vin-aimai nature of deed, property of functioning; vin-aiyam action, deed, karma (Ta.); vina action, exertion, sin; mina work, evil work (Ma.); benpini to labour, work, cultivate; binnana work, labour (Tu.)(DEDR 5445). cf. pan. service, work, business, employment, decoration (Ta.)(DEDR 3884).

6974.Professional: pa_va_n.an-, va_n.an- resident (Te_va_. 644,6); one who pursues a profession or calling; prosperous man. pa_va_n.ar = pa_valar poets, bards; (pa_va_n.ar man:kala-k-kaviva_r..i pa_t.i : Tiruccentu_r. Pil.l.ai. Cir-upar-ai. 4)(Ta.lex.) va_n.an- < va_r..- resident (Te_va_. 644,6); one who pursues a profession or calling; prosperous man (W.) (Ta.lex.) va_n.a-ko_ppa_t.i < va_n.an- + ko_ + pa_t.i the country of the ba_n.as, an ancient kingdom comprising portions of the Mysore state, and of the Karnool and north Arcot districts (S.I.I. ii, Preface, 27); va_n.a-lin:kam < ba_n.a + a form of lin:gam, found in the Narmada_ as worshipped by the Asura Ba_n.a (Caivaca. Potu. 85); va_n.an- < ba_n.a an asura, son of Maha_bali (Man.i. 3,123); king of a dynasty tracing its lineage from Maha_bali (S.I.I. iii,99; Perunto. 1185); a chief of Taca_kku_r, a town in Pa_n.d.ya country (Ta.lex.)

6975.Land irrigated by canal water: banjri land irrigated by canal water alone (P.lex.) cf. bajaru waste land (Ka.Te.H.)(Ka.lex.)

6976.Marriage: banra a bridegroom; banri a bride (P.lex.) pa_n.i-grahan.a marriage; pa_n.i-gra_ha bridegroom (Vedic.lex.) bannhan. corrupted from the Hindi word bandhna; to bind, to tie, to fasten, to put together, to construct, to make; bannhan. a tie, a ligature, a cord with which anything is tied; a bond of union; banni a bride; banno a lady; ban.oi a brother-in-law (a sister's husband); wanan., wanr.a a husband, a bridegroom; wannin. a bride, a wife; wannin. banni a wife or land, i.e. the custom of settling a feud by giving either a girl in marriage or land to the aggrieved party (P.lex.) Wife: bha_me, bha_ma_ an angry or passionate woman; a wife; a woman in general; bha_mini a woman in general; bha_nu bha_me the sun's wife (Ka.lex.) Sister's husband; wife's brother: ba_va, ba_, bha_va (Tadbhava of bha_ma) a sister's husband (Ka.); ba_ve (Te.); ba_vanan.t.a the relative who is called a sister's husband; ba_va-mayda a wife's brother; ba_va a husband's brother; bha_vamayndaru the brothers of one's wife; the husband's brothers (Ka.lex.)

6977.Shop-keeper: bani substance, essence as of grains, milk, butter or vegetables (Ka.lex.) cf. bania_ trader (H.lex.) pan. to purchase, to trade (S'Br. iii.2.6.1); pan.an purchasing, buying, haggling; pan.a_yya praiseworthy (RV. vi.69.5); pan.i bargainer, miser (RV. i.33.3); pan.ya-ho_ma sacrifice for acquiring commercial gain (Kha_dira-Gr.hyasu_tra iv.3.9)(Vedic.lex.) a_pan.astha shop-keeper (Skt.) Princes: van.ika- cu_riyar chief merchants, merchant princes (Tiruva_lava_. 41,18); van.ika-patam < van.ik-patha trade (Ta.); van.ikar-tor..il occupations of the vais'yas, six in number, viz., o_tal, ve_t.t.al, i_tal, ur..avu, nirai-y-o_mpal, va_n.ikam (Tol. Po. 75, Urai.); van.i-k-kira_matta_r an ancient guild of merchants (Tol. Col. 167, Urai.); cf. man.i-k-kira_mam (Ta. lex.) baniya, baniyan. corrupted from the Hindi word banya; a caste among Hindus; a Hindu shopkeeper, a grain-dealer: (ironic) a miser; a timid person, a coward; baniyain, baniyani a wife, daughter or sister of a baniya; banj traffic, trade merchandise; banjara a special caste; an exporter or carrier of grain; a street-seller of ear-trinkets and brass rings; [cf. baja_ra a market; the business of a market (Ka.); va_ja_ra id. (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)]; banjaaran., banjari the wife of a banjara, a female of the banjara caste; wanjara, wanjari a trader, a transporter of grain, salt, spices, and especially of rings; wanj traffic, commerce; wan.jan, wan.jhra to go; wan.jn. to buy, to purchase grain in order to resell, to take in trade; banot.a, banauta, ban.auta one who does business on commission, a commission agent; banwai the cost of making anything (P.lex.) bana_yisu to make, to fabricate (Ka.Te.); bana_vin.e_m. (M.H.); bana_vu, bana_van.i the act of making, fabricating or bringing about (Ka.); bana_va (M.H.); bana_vu good understanding together, mutual agreement (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) va_n.ika-c-ca_ttu caravan of traders (Cilap. 11, 190, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) For semant. ca_ttu 'trading caravan': cf. sa_rtha-va_ha caravan of traders (Skt.lex.) Homonym: ca_ttu < ca_rttu to put on, adorn -- used in reference to idols, great persons etc. (Cilap. 12,26)(Ta.); tca_tu (Te.); ca_ttu to wear as the caste-mark (Kampara_. Kat.iman.a. 49)(Ta.); tca_tu (Te.); ca_ttu to daub, smear, anoint (S.I.I. iii,187)(Ta.); tca_tu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Trader: van.ij, va_n.ijaka, pan.yavr.tti, pan.ya_s'rayin trader; sa_rthava_ha traders in a large band; s're_s.t.hin merchant; nigama corporation of traders or bankers or merchants; s're_n.i_ guild of artisans; s're_n.i_s're_s.ha or s're_s.t.hin president of a guild of artisans (Skt.) cf. a_pan.astha shop-keeper (Skt.) Travelling trader of grains and salt: cf. va_n:ku to receive, take, buy (Ta.)(DEDR 5336). cf. van-n-iyan- a caste; caste title among certain castes (as the kal.l.ar, valaiyar etc.)(Ta.); vanniyan a Tamil tribe immigrated from Trichinopoly (Ma.)(DEDR 5331). cf. pan. bargain (Skt.); pan.ya article for sale (S'Br.)(CDIAL 7719). cf. pan.yas'a_la_ shop (Skt.); pan.ia_sa_la_ (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7720). bena_ trade (A.); van.ija_ trade (Skt.)(CDIAL 11232). van.ij trader (RV.); trade (Gaut.); van.i trader (Pkt.); van.ic, va~r.ic to sell (Ash.); vrai~_c (Kt.)(CDIAL 11230). van.ija, van.ijaka trader (Skt.); van.ia trader (Pkt.); van.yo (S.); bania_ (P.); ban.iya_, ba~r.~i (Ku.); baniya_ (N.A.); ban.ia_ (Or.); baniya_ (Bi.); bania~_ (Mth.); baniya_ (Bhoj.Aw.H.); banyo big shopkeeper (Sh.)(CDIAL 11231). van.ijya_ trade (S'Br.); van.ijya (Skt.); van.ijja trade (Pali.Pkt.); van.iju (S.); van.j, van.uj (L.); van.j, ban.aj, banaj (P.); banaj, ba~r.~j (Ku.); ban.ija (Or.); banij (Bi.Aw.); baniji (Bhoj.); banij, banaj (H.); van.aj (G.); trade journey (M.); van.jan.u to buy (S.); banajna_ to trade (H.); van.ic, va~r.ic to sell (Ash.); vri~_c (Kt.)(CDIAL 11233). van.ijja_raya trader (Pkt.); van.ja_ro(S.); van.ja_ra_ (L.); wanjorai intermediary (Psht.); van.ja_ra_, ban.ja_ra_ (P.); ban.ija_ra, ban.ija_ru (Or.); banija_ra_, banja_ra_ (H.); banja_ro (Ku.); van.ja_ri a number of traders, caravan; van.ja_ro travelling trader (G.); van.ja_r troop of travelling sellers of grain and salt (M.); ba_niza_r trade (M.); ba_n.ija_ra trader (MB.)(CDIAL 11234). va_n.ija trader (TBr.); va_n.ijaka (MBh.); va_n.ija, va_n.ijaka (Pali); vaniye pl. (NiDoc.); va_n.ia, va_n.iaya (Pkt.); wnu, wa_uru pedlar (K.); va_n.ya_n.i_, va_a_n.i_ (f. of van.yo shopkeeper)(S.); ba_nia_ trader (P.); ba_niya_, bene (B.); ba~_n.yo~ id. (Marw.); va_n.i_u, va_n.i_d.u (OG.); va_n.iyo (G.); va_n.i_ (M.); va_n.i (Konkan.i); ven.anda, ven.enda, ven.ada, vel.anda, vel.enda (Si.)(CDIAL 11484). van.ikkarman trade (Skt.); ven.anda_m-a, vel.anda_m trade (Si.)(CDIAL 11485). van.ikputra merchant's son (Skt.); van.otar clerk in a merchant's office (G.)(CDIAL 11486). va_n.ijya, va_n.ijya_ trade (Skt.); va_n.ijja_ trade (Pali.Pkt.); va_n.ijja (Pkt.); ba_n.ija (Or.)(CDIAL 11487). va_n.ijyaka trader (Skt.); va_n.ijjiya trader (Pkt.); ba_n.ija, ban.ija_ (Or.)(CDIAL 11488). ba_niza_r trade (A.); ba_n.ija_ra trader (MB.)(CDIAL 11489). Market: vivan.i market of craftsmen; majja_van. or rasa_van.a tavern or wine-shop; a_van.agiha house surrounded by shops; antara_van.a marketing lanes on one or both sides (Jain.Skt.) Bania; merchant: van.ij given to winning money; merchant, trader (RV. v.45.6 : yaya_ van.ig van:kura_pa_ puri_s.am) (Vedic.lex.) van.ikam trade (W.); van.iku (Me_ruman. 230)(Ta.lex.) van.ij, van.ija, van.ik, van.ikku a merchant, a trader; trade, merchandise; van.ijaka, ban.ajiga, ban.an.jiga, ban.jaga a merchant; vanijya trade, traffic; va_n.ija, va_n.iya a merchant, a banyan; va_n.ija-tana traffic, trade; va_n.ijya, va_n.iya traffic, trade (Ka.lex.) va_n.i a merchant, trader (Ka.); a banyan (M.); an oil-miller, an oilman (Ka.); va_n.iyan- (Ta.); va_n.i ga_n.i = ga_n.ige oil-mill; va_n.i articles of trade; hasarva_n.i, hasaru-va_n.i, asara_n.i, hasara_n.i articles of rade that come from trees, creepers or vegetables, as leaves, fruits etc.; hasarva_n.ika-nya_ya a tax levied on such articles (Ka.lex.) va_n.ikan- merchant, trader (Pur-ana_. 134); man of the trading caste; scale, balance (Pin..); libra of the zodiac (Cu_t.a_.); va_n.iyacci woman of the oil-monger caste; va_n.iya-nakaratta_n- merchant, trader; man of the trading caste (I.M.P.Sm. 25); va_n.iyan- id.; oil-monger, cekka_n- (W.); va_n.iyam trade (W.); gain, profit (Te_va_. 259,3); va_n.iyan--ta_tan- a poet said to be of oil-monger caste and a contemporary critic of Kampar (Tamir..na_. 83)(Ta.lex.) va_n.ikacci woman of the trading caste; va_n.icci id. (Tol. Po. 84, Urai; Nan-. 144, Mayilai); va_n.ikam trade (Kur-al., 120); gain, profit (Pur-ana_. 208); va_n.ipam gain, profit (Tiv. Periya_r... 3,7,9)(Ta.lex.)

6978.Brahma: va_n.i-ke_l.van- Brahma_ (Cu_t.a_.); va_n.i-man- id. (Pa_kavata. 1, Kan.n.apira_n- Tuvarai. 25); va_n.i_can- < va_n.i_s'a (Skt.) id. (Ta.lex.) va_n.i-y-arasa Brahma_ (Ka.lex.)

6979.Image: arrow: va_n.i arrow (Ta. < prob. ba_n.a) arrow (Ta.lex.) va_n.am arrow (Ta.Ma.); ba_n.a (Ka.Tu.); ba.n.a (Kod..); ba_n.amu (Te.); ba_n.a (Skt.); va_n.a (Skt.); ba_n (H.)(DBIA 327). ba_n.a reed-shaft, arrow (RV.AV.); arrow (Pali.Pkt.Or.); va_n. id. (P.); va_n.a arrow, pipe (Skt.); va_n.i_ reed (RV.)[cf. va_n.a < Austro-as. > bano, banug arrow (Dardic)]; bure~ arrow-head (Dardic); ba~_r.e~ arrow (Ku.): ba_n arrow (K.A.B.Bi.H.); ba_na arrow (OAw.); ba_n.u arrow (S.); ba_n. arrow (L.P.G.M.); ban.a (Si.)(CDIAL 9203). antaraba_n.a the inside reeds (Skt.); atra_wan, tara_wan a set of three reeds to keep two sets of the warp-thread apart (Bi.); atrawan bha~_j (Mth.)(CDIAL 365). Bamboo: ma_n.i, ma_r.i bamboo (Kui); de_ru ma_di, ma_r.i bamboo bush; mn.a_hu (pl. mn.a_ska) thorny bamboo (Kuwi); (Kur. ma_s is another pronunciation of ba~_s )(DEDR 4806). ma_nu_ young shoot of bamboo (P.); ma_n. large bamboo; ma_n.a_, ma_n:ga_ long bamboo; ma_n.ya_ small bamboo (M.)(CDIAL 10043). Girdle; to put on a dhoti: pun.umbu arrow (Ka.); po_nd.a_na_ to put on a dhoti (of men only)(Go.); pu_n. to put on, wear (Ta.); to fix (as an arrow), vow (Ka.); pu_n.pu girdle, ornament (Ma.)(DEDR 4361). Reed; bamboo: ve_l.u bamboo (Pali); ve_lu, ve_luya (Pkt.); bel.u reed, pipe; bol.u reed, pipe (Kho.); vi_r, vi_ru the white willow (K.); beur. a thin bamboo (B.); vel.u_ bamboo (M.); vel.u (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 12091). cf. ve_r..am bamboo (Ta.)(DEDR 5541). ve_n.u reed, bamboo (RV.TS.); in cmpds. bamboo (Pali.Pkt.); ben.ua_ a slender species of bamboo (Or.); ben reed, bamboo, pipe (H.); ven. flute (G.); ven.u_ (OM.)(CDIAL 12096). Reed: ven.u (Synonym: vam.s'a)(Car. Su.27.20). ve_n.u a bamboo; a reed; a flute, pipe (Skt.lex.)

6980.Image: jew's harp: binai Jew's harp (Ku.); binaiyo Jew's harp (made of bamboo)(N.); vi_n.a_ lute (TS.Pali.Pkt.); vi_n., bi_n. (P.); bi_n. pipe (L.); bin guitar (N.); lute (A.B.); bi_n (Bi.Aw.H.); ven.a (Si.)(CDIAL 12048). vis.kanttr. moving hither and thither (Skt.); vechanun to separate, tease out (cotton, etc.)(K.); vechonu pp. (K.)(CDIAL 11943). vi_n.ai the Indian lute, of 22 kinds (Pa_rata. Or..ipi. 15)(Te_va_. 1199,7); vi_n.aivallavar experts on the vi_n.ai (Tiruva_ca. 20,4); gandharvas (Ta.lex.)

6981.Image: joining together: pun.arppu body as a combination of parts; pun.arppu contrivance, scheme; plan; artifice; craft; plot (Kalit. 25); illusion (Tirukko_. 17); pun.arvu combination; connection, joining; body; pun.aiyal joining together, pun.aical id. (Ta.lex.) Twist: pe~_d.u, pe_d.u to twist, twine; pe_nu to twist, entwine; twist tow or three single threads into a thick thread (Te.); pe_nd. to twist, twine (rope)(Nk.); pen.e to intertwine, twist, plait, braid (To.); pin.ai to entwine; being knit together (Ta.); pin.i fastening, plait; pin.akku twisting, interlacing (Ta.); pin.a tying (Ma.); pi.n. to become entangled (of ropes)(Ko.); pena a twist of ropes; pena_cu to twist, twist together; pinning to be twisted (Br.)(DEDR 4160). pun.i tuft of hair; pun.ai to unite, tie; pin.ai-tal to entwine, conjoin, unite; pin.i fastening, binding (Pur-ana_. 25); plait, twist (Te_va_. 469,3); pin.aittal to join together, link, unite, couple as rafters (Patin-o. Pat.t.in-. Tiruve_ka. 35); pin.ai being knit together (Pu. Ve. 12,6); joint in planks (Paripa_. 10,54); pin.i-ttal to tie, fasten with ropes, fetter, link (Malaipat.u. 326); pun.ar-ttal to combine, connect, unite (Tiruva_ca. 5,71); to create (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,8,3); to fasten, tie (Perumpa_n.., 218); pun.ar-tal to join, unite; pun.aruka to join, unite (Ma.); pon.ar id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pin.il, hin.il a braid of hair (Ka.lex.) Image: joining: pun.ai (-pp-, -tt-) to unite, tie (Ta.)(DEDR 4160). Image: to join: pun.ar to join, unite; to undertake; to touch; pon.ar mating, uniting (Ka.); pun.ar (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pu_n.uka to be yoked (Ma.); pu_n. to be yoked (Ta.); to fix (as an arrow)(Ka.); pu_n to attempt (Ka.); A vow; promise: hu_n.e a vow, promise (Tu.); pu_n:ke vow, promise (Ka.); pu_ndi a yoke (Kond.a); pondu_ yoke for cattle (Kuwi)(DEDR 4361).

6982.Image: braided hair; plaited straw: ve_n.i braided hair (MBh.); ve_n.ika_ braid; twisted stripe (Sus'r.); ve_n.i braid of hair (Pali); ve_n.i_ (Pkt.); ben.i braided hair, plait of straw to preserve fire (Or.); beni_ braided hair (worn by widow and by woman with absent husband)(OAw.); beni_ braided hair (H.); ven. (G.); veniya_ tail (Si.)(CDIAL 12093). ve_ni_ woman with braided hair (Skt.); ben.ia_ braided (Or.); ben.ia~_ plaited straw for preserving fire (Or.)(CDIAL 12095). cf. ve_ weave (Skt.); ve_man loom (VS.); beo~, be~wa_ flat piece of wood pierced with holes and used in plaiting grass mats (A.); be~w, be~ wooden implement passed between thread of the web to drive tight each thread of the woof (Bi.)(CDIAL 12113). Image: snake: ve_n.in *braided; name of a snake (MBh.)(CDIAL 12095). Weave: va_yana weave; vina_ti to weave; pp. vi_ta; tanta-va_ya weaver; va_yana, ganthana weaving, plaiting (Pali.lex.) Image: matted hair: ve_n.i < ve_n.i (Skt.) matted hair; plaited lock of hair; ve_n.ikai braided hair (Ta.); ve_n.ika_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

6983.Image: to clasp hands in dancing: pin.ai-ttal to clasp each other's hands as in dancing (Maturaik. 614)(Ta.lex.) pan-r-i-t-tumpu brush used by goldsmiths (Na_.)(Ta.lex.)

6984.Image: copulate: pin.ai-tal to copulate (Tiruva_ca. 41,6); pun.ar mating, uniting (Na_lat.i, 376); pun.arkkai id.; pun.ar-tal to cohabit, copulate (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 6,9); pun.arci coition (Kalit. 118); co-residence (Kur-al., 785); pun.ar-kur-i lovers' trysting place (Akana_. 118); pun.arcci-vitumpal sexual desire (Kur-al., 129, Ati. Talaippu); pun.artal union of lovers, appropriate to kur-ici (Tol. Po. 14); pun.arppu connection (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,8,2); pun.arvu coition (Ci_vaka. 1378) (Ta.lex.)

6985.Is woven: viyaman-a anything woven, woof, web, weaving, plaiting (Si.); vi_yati, viyyati is woven (Pali)(CDIAL 12055). Marriage clothes: bia_hn.u_ clothes given to bride by groom's father; pertaining to a wedding (P.) < viva_hana giving in marriage (Pali); bya_han marrying (H.)(CDIAL 11921). Carding bow; carding cotton: vihanana carding bow (Skt.); vihanti strikes apart (RV.); vihanati strikes (Pali); vihan.ai, vihan.ana carding cotton (Pkt.); vihaya carded < vihata (Pkt.); bihna_ cotton-carder (H.)(CDIAL 12028). Cotton, cotton seed; bombax heptaphyllum: binola_ cotton seed (H.)(CDIAL 12054). bi_n cotton (H.); vi_ta woven (Pali)(CDIAL 12053). Sewing, weaving: va_n.a weaving; va_n.i_ loom, weaving (Skt.); va_na sewing, stuffing (of a couch))(Pali); ba_n.a_ woof (P.); ba_n.a weaver's wage (Or.) ba_n.a-dan.d.a the roller in a loom (Or.); ba_n.i_ weaving (Or.); ba_ni_ weaving, thread for weaving (H.); ba_na_ woof (H.); va_n.o woof, woof and warp (G.); va_n.a_ woof (M.)(CDIAL 11514). vapani_ weaver's instrument, weaver's shop (Skt.); bon.a_ weaver of Cama_r caste (P.); bowan cost of weaving (A.)(CDIAL 11283). Cloth woven on a loom: {An (unusual) explanation has been provided in CDIAL: pa_ms'uku_lika one who wears clothes made of rags from a dustheap; pa_ms'uku_la dustheap, rags in a dustheap used by monks as clothes (Skt.); pamsuku_lika (Pali); pasiliya_ monk, hermit (Si.)(CDIAL 8020. Perhaps, the prefix pa_ms'u- is related to pa_su- warp [and not to pa_ms'u- dust, sand (AV.)(CDIAL 8019)]; hence,the compound may denote cloth (of hemp pieces) woven on a loom. The suffix: -ku_la dustheap is concordant with: Broken pieces of hemp: ku_l.am broken pieces of straw or hemp (Ta.); chaff or corn, etc. (Ma.); kurma_ (?Go.)(DEDR 1916).} Heddle: ba heddle of a loom (A.B.); a kind of return stitch in sewing (B.); simple stitch (Or.); baa heddle (Or.); bai, bae heddle (Bi.); bay (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 11299). bailat.h movable sticks placed at intervals to separate threads of a web (Bi.)(CDIAL 11303). Warp: pa_ warp; pa_vit.aiya_t.u kur..al (Tiruva_ca.24,8); cotton thread; pa_-k-kat.t.u to join the broken threads of the warp; pa_kkar..i yarn; pa_kka_ surplus thread in weaver's chain while putting into the loom (Ta.Ma.); pa_-k-ka_n-u_l id. (Ta.); pa_n.am silk cloth; pu_m-pat.t.u (Ta.lex.) pa_vu warp; lay in order, spread (Ta.); weaver's warp (Ma.); pa_ expanse,warp (Ta.); weaver's warp (Ma.); ha_su warp (Ka.); a_su warp (Ka.Tu.); a frame having a number of sticks in several rows, used by a weaver in preparing the warp (Te.); a_su-mra_nu id. (Te.); a_su_-gro_vi piece of hollow bamboo used by a weaver in preparing the warp (Te.); pa_su warp (Tu.)(DEDR 4088). Laid out: pa_kkuka to lay things regularly on the ground (Ma.)(DEDR 4088). Diffused molten metal: pa_yuni to be diffused as molten metal, etc. in a mould (Tu.)(DEDR 4088). Apparatus for weaving sari: va_n.a-tan.t.am apparatus for weaving sarees (Ta.lex.); ba_n.a-dan.d.a the roller in a loom (Or.)(CDIAL 11514). To weave: pan-n-u to weave; pin-n-al braiding; pin-n-u to plait, braid, knit, weave (Ta.); pin weave (basket)(To.); pannap to weave (To.); pandna_ to roll and twist together filaments into threads (Kur.); pinning to be twisted (Br.)(DEDR 4207). Weft (crosswise filling) yarns for weaving: ba_ni_ weaving, thread for weaving (H.); ba_na_ woof (H.); va_n.o woof, woof and warp (G.); va_n.a_ woof (M.); ba_n.i weaving (Or.); ba_n.a weaver's wage (Or.); ba_n.a_ woof (P.); va_na sewing, stuffing (of a couch)(Pali)[manca-va_na]; weaving (Skt.); va_n.i_ loom, weaving (Skt.)(CDIAL 11514). Rope; rush: ba_n.i_ string for weaving mats, jute string (Or.); ba_n rope of twisted grass (H.); va_n. cheap cordage of palm leaves (G.); va_n.u cord of the grass saccharum munga (S.); va_n. twine of mung grass or date-palm leaves (L.); rush for rope-making (P.); ba_n. id. (WPah.); ba_in string for weaving mats, jute string (B.)(CDIAL 11483). Weaving: va_ya weaving; tunna-va_ya id.; tanta a loom, a thread, a string [cf. tantra (Vedic); tantri_ string]; tanta-bhan.d.a weaving appliances; tanta_kula tangled string, a tangled skein in phrase: tanta_kulaja_ta_ gul.a_gun.t.hikaja_ta entangled like a ball of string and covered with blight; tanta_vuta weaving, weft, web; tanta-va_ya a weaver; tantaka weaving; a weaving loom (Pali.lex.) va_ya to weave, only in pp. va_yita; vina_ti to weave; vina_peti to order to be woven (Pali.lex.) *vi_yama_na being woven (Skt.); vi_yati, viyyati is woven (Pali); viyaman-a anything woven, woof, web, weaving, plaiting (Si.)(CDIAL 12055).[cf. root ve_ weave; uta, u_ta (Skt.); vu_ya, vua (Pkt.); wu_nu woven (K.)(CDIAL 2406). oja weaving, texture (S.) < u_yati is woven (Pali)(CDIAL 2419). vayati weaves (RV.)(CDIAL 11300). va_n.i_ loom, weaving (Skt.)(CDIAL 11514). vina_ti weaves (Pali)(CDIAL 11773). bi_n cotton (H.)(CDIAL 12053). ve_man loom (VS.)(CDIAL 12113). Weaver, weaver-bird: vayi_ f. weaver (RV.); bi-zal spider (Dm.); vayya_, bayya_, vayyar.a_, bayyar.a_ the weaver bird ploceud baya (P.); baya_, baiya_ (H.)(CDIAL 11298). buyec. weaver (Sh.)(CDIAL 11307). put.ki_-pitte_ small bird which makes its nest by sewing teak leaves together (Go.); porke a bird which makes its nest in a leaf sewn cup (Malt.)(DEDR 4267). vayati weaves (RV.); va_yati id. (Pali); way, we_ (Pas'.); bu~yoiki, buyoiki to weave, knit, plait (Sh.); bu to weave (D..); biba to weave (A.); viyanava_ to weave, plait (Si.); be~dhna_ to plait, braid, fold (H.); va_ya_pe_ti causes to be woven (Pali); bowa_iba (A.); viyavanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11300). buyeni weaving (Sh.); vayana act of weaving (Skt.)(CDIAL 11301). bailat.h movable sticks placed at intervals to separate threads of web (Bi.)(CDIAL 11303). Weaving: va_pa weaving (Skt.); -wa_v in khand.a-wa_v shawl weaver (K.); bau sheaf, load of grass (Kho.)(CDIAL 11520). Weaver: wowuru weaver (K.) ?< va_pa (as nomen agentis) with -d.a-. (CDIAL 11521). va_so_-va_ya weaver of cloth (RV.); va_yaka (Skt.); va_yaya weaver (Pkt.); ba_i-cat.ia_, ba_it.a_ the weaver bird ploceus baya (Or.)(CDIAL 11542).

6986.Calf of leg: vangel, vatgel calf of leg (Pa.); va_ngul knee (Ga.); van.n.a calf of leg (Ma.)(DEDR 5249). man.n.ai calf of the leg (Ta.); man.n.a, van.n.a id. (Ma.); mon.e id. (Kod..)(DEDR 4686). jan:gha_ calf of the leg (Pali.lex.)

6987.Without; useless: vina_ without (Pa_n..S'Br.Pali); vin.a_ (Pkt.); vin.u (Skt.); ven, vena, vin, vina (K.); bin. (P.); binu (N.); bine (A.); bini (B.); bin, binu (Mth.); vi_n., vin.e~ (M.); binahi (Mth.); binu (OAw.); vin., van. (G.); bin (H.); binu (Or.)(CDIAL 11772). vi_n. uselessness, unprofitableness; that which is not necessary (Te_va_. 677,3)(Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) vi_n.an- useless fellow, idle fellow (Ta.); vi_n.an a vain, trifling person (Ma.); vi_n.a_yan silly; vi_n.attaram triflingness (Ma.)(DEDR 5454).

6988.Work: mina work; vina action, exertion, sin (Ma.); vin-ai action, work, karma, evil deed (Ta.)(DEDR 5445).

6989.Swelling: cf. ba_sur.. a wale (Ka.)(DEDR 5350). ba_sur.., ba_, ba_yu, ba_sur..ike, ba_sun.d.i, ba_sur..i, ba_sur..e a wale or mark caused by a blow or stroke (Ka.lex.) cf. van.n.a a woman recently delivered (Ma.)(DEDR 5347). bisa_n.o to swell (of a hurt), putrefy, become poisoned (of a wound)(Ku.); vis'vayati pres. part. of vis'vayant swelling (RV.)(CDIAL 11964).

6990.Imagee: plug: ben.e a peg, a plug; a stopple, a cork (Ka.lex.) benet a stopper; a lid, the accrescent calyx of certain fruits as that of diospyros tomentosa, the terrel; bet to blindfold, to cover the eyes, to put on a lid, or cover, to cover; tukuce betkarge he closed the opening of the pot, i.e. put on the lid (Santali.lex.)

6991.Elephant-god: benaka (Tadbhava of vina_yaka) Gan.e_s'a; benakana ekke, ekkebenaka a stone occasionally found about the roots of the ekke (calotropis gigantea) in form like Gan.e_s'a and supposed to make its possessor very fortunate (Ka.lex.) Victory: ven- < vel victory (Pur-ana_. 19); ven-r-i victory, triumph (Kur-al., 546); vinni (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) cf. Image: elephant: e_nu~gu, e_nika, e_niga, e_nige, e_nuga elephant (Te.); e_nagi_ (Nk.); ena_gi_, e_ngi (Kol.); e_nu (pl. -l)(Pa.); e_nig (Ga.); ye_ni_, aini_, e_nal, e_ni, e_n (Go.); e_ngu, e_ni (Kond.a); ya_n-ai, a_n-ai (Ta.); a_na (Ma.); a.n (Ko.To.); a_ne, ya_ne (Ka.); a.ne (Kod..); a_n (Tu.)(DEDR 5161).

6992.Honey: be_nag honey (Bal.); pin (Orm.); bin honey; binaka bee (Dm.Ir.); ben, be_en honey (Pas'.); been (Shum.)(CDIAL 9614). Image: foam: pe_ < phe_na foam, scum, froth (Pin..; Ir-ai. 7,Urai.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Foam; froth; butter: man.n.i thick porridge (Ka.); rice flour and jaggery boiled with coconut juice, etc., treacle (Tu.)(DEDR 4683). cf. phe_nika_ ground rice boiled in water (Bhpr.); phi_n.iya_ a sweetmeat (Pkt.); phine_r a kind of soft bread (Bshk.)(CDIAL 9110). phe_na foam, froth (RV.); phe_n.a scum, foam (Pali); foam (Pkt.); phen. foam (Ku.G.M.); phen (N.A.B.H.); phi~j foam, scum (N.); penda (Si.); phe~s, phes froth, foam (M.)(CDIAL 9108). phe_nila foaming, frothy (MBh.); phenil.a foaming (Or.)(CDIAL 9111). phe_na_yate_ foams, froths (MBh.); phe_n.a_yama_n.a frothing (Pkt.); pheniba_ id. (Or.); phenna_ to make frothy by stirring (H.); phen.n.e~ to foam, froth (M.)(CDIAL 9109). ven.n.ai butter (Perumpa_n.. 306); venna (Te.); ven.n.a (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) phe_n.a froth; phan.phan.a_un.a_ to foam, boil, raise the hood (of cobra)(P.); phanphaninu to show anger by movement; phankanu to rise unceremoniously, get angry (N.); phan.aphan.a slightly swollen (Or.); phan.akvu~ to rise (G.); phan.akn.a_ to rise (P.); phan.phan.n.e~ to be in a glow (from anger, etc.); phan:ka_ fit of anger (M.)(CDIAL 9045). Pulpy mass: ven.n.ey-p-patam a stage in the preparation of medicinal oil, when it is in the form of a pulpy mass (Ta.lex.) ven.-n.ey butter (Ta.); ven. (Ko.); pen. (To.); ben.n.e, ben.n.i (Ka.); bon.n.e ney (Kod..); ben.n., bon.n.eyi (Tu.); venna (Te.)(DEDR 5496b). cf. ney (-pp-, -tt-) to become greasy, unctuous or sticky; ney oil, grease, butter, ghee, fat, honey; neyppu unctuousness, oiliness (Ta.); ney any unctuous substance, grease, fat, oil, lard, ghee (Ma.); ne~_ta_ grease, fat, lard (Kur.)(DEDR 3746). cf. vel., ven. white, pure, shining (Ta.)(DEDR 5496). ben.n.e butter (Ka.); vir..utu (Ta.); ven.n.e-neyi (Ma.); vil.ar fat, whiteness; vir..ukku fat, suet (Ta.); ben.n.e ga_rige a ga_rige (flat circular cake made of wheaten flour and jaggery) with butter fried in ghee; ga_rige id. (Ka.Tu.); gha_rike (Te.) (Ka.lex.)

6993.Manna-like exudation; prosopis spicigera: banni a prickly tree with an eatable pod, prosopis spicigera (Ka.); Synonyms: s'ami, saktuphale, s'ive (Ka.); vanni (Ma.); van-n-i (Ta.); banni acacia ferruginea; banni-ka_yi the pod of the banni tree; san:gara, s'amiphalina; kir-iya banni alpa s'ami, s'ami_ra; banne_ru-gat.t.a name of a place near Bangalore (Ka.lex.) Prosopis spicigera: sami (Skt.); sai (B.); cikura, jhand (H.); kandi (S.); shami (B.); perumbe (Ta.); is a species found throughout India extending to Persia, whose sickle-shaped fleshy pods which are 4 to 8 inches long and contain a sweetish mucilaginous pulp are used as demulcent and pectoral... seeds furnish a yellow dye... a manna-like substance exudes from the trunk and branches. (Indian Materia Medica, p. 1011). Acacia senegal: khor (S.); kumta (Rajputani); hashab (Sudan); habitat: a small thorny tree met with in Sind and Ajmer; part used: gum; action: gum is demulcent and emollient; gum is used externally to cover some inflamed surfaces such as burns, sore-nipples etc., and it blunts the acridity of irritating matters by being blended with them. (Indian Materia Medica, p. 15). Acacia ferruginea: khour (N.); thimai-velvelam (Ma.); lonkhair (Berar); action: bark is astringent (Indian Materia Medica, p. 16). Acacia leucophloea, acacia loeucophlea: shveta-barbura (Skt.); safed kikar (H.); safed babul (B.); velvelam (Ta.); tella tumma (Te.); bark is astringent (Indian Materia Medica, p. 16). Acacia speciosa: shirish, sahasraki, pruthushrangi (Skt.); sirissa (Eng.); siris, sirin (H.); siriz (B.); pitosarshio (G.); siras (M.); girishamu (Te.); chireedam (Ta.); shireesha-mara (Ka.); nannaeni (Ma.); habitat: sub-Himalayan tract, Bengal, central and south India; parts used: seeds, bark, root-bark, leaves and flowers; action: astringent and cooling; preparations: powder, oil, paste (Indian Materia Medica, p. 15). Yellow: cf. banni prosopis spicigera which yields a yellow dye : banni_ woollen yarn dyed yellow (P.); va_ni coloured (OG.); varn.ita painted (MBh.); coloured (Skt.); van.n.ita coloured (Pali); van.n.ia (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11343). vanna a similar thing, sort (Si.); -van.n.in having the appearance of (Pali); vani like (Si.)(CDIAL 11344). van.n.a red, clear (Pkt.); ba_n beautiful girl (Ku.); varn.ya relating to or giving colour (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 11345). Colour: van.n.am colour (Ta.Ma.); van.m large red cloth put over dead person (Ko.); pon. colour; coloured cloth with dots (To.); ban.n.a colour; dress, decoration (Ka.); colour (Tu.); vanniya, vanne id. (Te.); vanne ci_ra a variegated cloth (Te.); varn.a colour (Skt.); van.n.a (Pkt.)(DBIA 320). To dye: unupu to dye clothes (Te.); uni to be soaked, lie steeped, soak (Ka.); unisu to soak (Ka.)(DEDR 726). u_t.t.u to infuse, dye (Ta.)(DEDR 600).

6994.Marriage: viva_kam < viva_ha marriage, matrimony, one of co_t.aca-camska_ram (Cilap. 9,28, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) biah, wiah, wayah marriage; wiah a newly married wife; wiah rachna, wiah rachaun.a to celebrate a marriage; biahn, wiahn., wayahn., wayahun. to marry (a wife), to get (a son or daughter) married; biahn.u, wiahn.u pertaining to a wedding; a suit of clothes, given to the bride by the bridegroom's father, two days after marriage; biahta, wiahta, wayahta married, lawfully wedded (a woman); bian.dar, bian.har, wian.dar, wian.dhar a bridegroom; wiajhn. to buy, to marry a woman (P.lex.) vivah caus. to give in marriage; name of one of the seven tongues of fire; viva_ha marriage; viva_hya son-in-law; a bridegroom; viva_hita married (Skt.lex.) viva_ha carrying off, leading away; conducting home (Ka.); the taking a wife, marriage, matrimony (Ka.Skt.); vay, vayyu, oy to carry off (Ka.lex.) vayastha_, vayasya_ a female compaion (Skt.lex.)

6995.Manner: vayunam knowledge; a rule, precept; manner, custom (Skt.lex.) vaya-ja_n-am real knowledge (Te_va_. 662,11); vayan.am manner, method (Ta.lex.)

6996.Image: perforation: binhai, winhai perforation, payment for boring; binhaun.a, winhaun. to cause to be perforated or pierced; binnhn.a, winnhn. to perforate, to bore, to pierce (P.lex.)

6997.Pledge; earnest: bian.a, wian.a a pledge, an earnest; a small sum given to seal a bargain, the thing purchased remaining with the seller; bian explanation, relation, discourse, narration, account, statement, exposition (P.lex.) vayan.am clear details; particulars (Ta.lex.) cf. viyavastai < vyava-stha_ settlement, arrangement (S.I.I. i,65); deed of agreement (I.M.P.Tj. 1176-B)(Ta.lex.) vayina a way, a means, a contrivance (Ka.Te.Ta.); vayan-am (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) vayam < vas'a means, agency (Paripa_. 6,78); state of subjugation (Te_va_. 1133,2)(Ta.lex.)

6998.Foundation: buna_di the foundation of a building (Ka.Te.); baniya_d bunyad (H.)(Ka.lex.)

6999.Word, language, speech: va_n.i < va_n.i_ word, language, speech (Pin..; Piramo_t. 22,19); learning (Perunto. 418); Sarasvati_ as the goddess of learning (Ci_ka_l.at. Pu. Na_n-mu. 147); source of vocal sounds (Tiruman. 616)(Ta.lex.) pan.u to say, to tell, to inform (Tu.lex.)

7000.To say: bhan speak; bhanati calls aloud, speaks (RV.); bhan.ati (BhP.); paribhan.ati (JaimBr.); bhan.ati says, tells; bhan.e_ I say! (Pali); bhan.ai says (Pkt.); phen- to speak; phan- (Gypsy); bhannu to say; bhani, vhani that (with reported speech)(N.); bhaniba to compose (A.); bhana_ to say, speak, compose (B.); bhan.iba_ to say (Or.); bhanab (Mth.); bhanai (OAw.); mane that (with reported speech)(Aw.); bhanna_ to speak (H.); bhan.ai recites (OMarw.); bhan.vu~ to say, repeat, study; bhan.i_ towards (G.); mhan.n.e~ to say (M.); mhan.ta_ (Konkan.i); ban.anava_, ban.inava_ to speak, say, abuse (Si.)(pret. OSi. bin.ava_ replaced by banna_); bunan to speak (Md.)(CDIAL 9383). bhan.ita spoken; bhaniti speech (Skt.); bhan.ia said; bhan.ii speech (Pkt.); bin.u speech, saying (Si.)(CDIAL 9384). bhan.d.ate_ reviles (Skt.); bandaus pret. to order (Gaw.); bhand- (Kal.); bandeik (Kho.); bandawa_ (Yid.); ban.d.e_ik (Kho.); band- 2 sg. imper. bandaye (Phal.)(CDIAL 9385). bha_n.a recitation of scripture (Pali); bha_n speech, saying, word (Mth.); ban.a recitation, word (Si.)CDIAL 9452). pan.i (-pp-, -tt-) to speak, say, declare (used of a superior), order, command; n. saying, word, command; pan.ippu command, order; palukku (palukki-) to be pronounced clearly, boast, speak; pan-n-u (pan-n-i-) to speak, say, talk, sing; pan-uval word, discourse (Ta.); pan.ikka to speak (Ma.); pon.0- (pon.0y-) to talk in assembly; pon.t speech, words (in songs)(To.); panavu place appointed for meeting; helupu to speak like a madman while asleep; halebu to talk foolishly; haleveru to speak while asleep (Ka.); pan.pini to say, tell, inform, narrate, teach (Tu.); han.i to say (Bel.); pan(u)cu to send, command, commission; (inscr.) pan.cu to send, commission; pani commission, mission, errand; panupu order, command, errand; pampu to send, dispatch, dismiss; n. sending, order, mission, errand; paluku to sound, answer, utter, say; n. speaking, word, sound, voice; palikincu to cause to speak, utter, sound, or ring; palukarincu to accost, speak to; palavu, palavincu, palavarincu, paluvarincu to talk in sleep; palavaramu, palavarinta, palavarimpu talking in sleep; palumu to prattle; n. prattle (Te.); pank- (panakt-) to send; pa.na language (Kol.); pank- to send (Nk.); palkis- to cause to sound, play on (a musical instrument)(Kond.a); pand.a (pand.i-) to send, commission; n. act of sending; pla_pa (pla_t-) to inquire, question, ask, address, say; n. inquiry, remark (Kui); pandali, pantinai, pan.d.- (it-) to send (Kuwi); pa_ning (pa_-, pa_r-) to say, speak, tell, speak of, call a thing something, say to oneself (Br.); pen.d.avai sends (Pkt.)(DEDR 3887).

7001.Boat; ship: pun.ai boat, vessel, ship (Cu_t.a_.); float, raft (Kur-al., 1134); pun.ai bamboo (Aka. Ni.); support, help (Kalit. 144); pun.ai-k-kat.t.ai Catamaran; pun.ari sea (Tiv. Periyati. 8,6,5); wave (Patir-r-up. 11); shore; pun.ariyo_r those who bring things together (ni_ru nilan-um pun.ariyo_r : Pur-ana_. 18)(Ta.lex.) cf. pun.arppu ocean (I_t.u, 2,8,3, Arum.)(Ta.lex.)

7002.Image: to win over: pin.i-ttal to win over, keep one spell-bound (Kur-al., 643)(Ta.lex.)

7003.Female of animals and birds: pin.i-mukam Skanda's elephant (Paripa_. 5,2)(Ta. lex.) pid.i, hid.i a female elephant (Ka.Ma.); the female of camels, pigs (Ta.Ma.); pid.i female of elephant (Tol. Po. 606); pid.e the female of birds; the female of deer (Ma.); pin.ai (Ta.); pid.isavati a female elephant (Ka.lex.) pin.i-mukam swan; peacock; cf. phan.i-mukha; bird; cf. nirr.t.er-mukha (Ta.lex.) Image: woman: pin.a_ woman (Tol. Po. 616); pin.aval female of the dog, pig, deer or yak (Tol. Po. 614); pin.avu id. (Tol. Po. 613); pin.avu woman (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_t.. Pil.l.ai. Ka_p. 9); pin.ai female of animals; doe, hind, female deer (Kur-al.. 1089)(Ta.lex.)

7004.Image: head-louse: pe_n- louse (Ta.); pe_n id. (Ma.Ka.Nk.Ga.); vb. (lice) to increase or grow greatly (Ka.); pe.n head-louse (Ko.); po.n louse (To.); pe.ni louse (Kod..); pe_nu id. (Tu.Te.Kuwi); flea (Kui); pe_lu pl. lice (Te.); pe.n (pl. -kul) id. (Kol.); pe_nka pl. lice (Kuwi); peni pl. pe_nku louse (Kond.a); pen id. (Mand..); penu id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4449).

7005.Auspicious: pun.ya auspicious (Skt.lex.) puhna the day on which certain agricultural operations are begun, as sowing, planting etc.; to begin sowing, planting etc. tehen.le puhnakeda we began operations today (Santali.lex.) First day of ploughing: pun.a_ first day of ploughing (WPah.); pon.ha_, pon.ha_o (WPah.); pun.ya_ha auspicious day (S'Br.)(CDIAL 8263). puni new (Nk.); pun id. (Pa.Ga.); punc id. (Ga.); puno_, pu_nal, puhna_, puna_ id. (Go.); pu_ni id. (Kond.a); pu_n id.(Pe.Mand..); pu_ni new, fresh, newly arrived; newly; pu_nanju a new man, man but recently arrived; fem. pu_nari (Kui); pu_ni, pu'ni new; pu_'nani ke_pinai to renew (Kuwi); puna_ new, recently born, unaccustomed (Kur.); pune new (Malt.); pu_skun new, fresh, recently (Br.); pu0, pu0n new (To.); pun.ar newness; pun-ir-u recency of delivery (as of a woman), that which is recently born, newness (Ta.); putu, putiya new; putitu that which is new or wonderful; first sheaves of a rice crop (offered to Laks.mi_); putiyar, putiyavar, putiyo_r newcomers, guests; putir first sheaves; putin-am newness, novelty, wonderful thing; putukku to renovate, adorn; putuppi to renovate, repair, remodel, modernize; putumai newness, novelty, strangness, a wonder, plenty, excess, intensity; putuvatu anything new; putuval land newly brought under cultivation; putuvo_r strangers, inexperienced persons; putai nov elty; puttapputiya, puttamputiya brand-new, very recent; puttapputumai brand new or very recent thing; puttan- new person or thing; putte_l. novelty; stranger, strange woman; god (Ta.); putu new, fresh; putukuka to be renewed; putukkam newness, a wonderful thing; putukkuka to renew, mend; putuma a novelty, wonderful sight, an entertaining story; puttan a fresh, new thing; puttari new rice used in ceremonies (Ma.); pud new; ock ritually new after purification (Ko.); posa, posatu, hosa, hosatu, hosadu, hostu that which is new; newness, freshness, beauty, novelty, wonderfulness, new, etc.; posamba, hosaba a new man (Ka.); pudume wonder; putte..ri rice harvest festival; pudiye.. new (Kod..); posa new, novel, fresh, recent, strange, wonderful; posatu that which is new, fresh; newly; posata_ye, posabe a new man, novice; fem. posabetti; puduba_ru new paddy; pudda_ru the harvest feast (Tu.)(DEDR 4275). pun.ya pleasant, beneficial (RV.); pua merit, virtue (Pali); pua (As'.Dhp.); id. (NiDoc.); pun.n.a (Pkt.); punu rectitude, solemn meals eaten during ten days after a death (K.); puu virtue (S.); punn charity, alms (P.); da_n-pu_n (WPah.); nino-puno ceremonially pure on awaking and before eating (Ku.)[cf. niranna without eating (Skt.)]; pun virtue (B.); puna (OMth.); pu_n (H.Bhoj.G.); puni virtue, kindness (OSi.); pina (Si.)(CDIAL 8261). pun.n.iyam virtue; moral or religious merit; charity, good deeds; acts of hospitality shown to an honoured guest (Ta.lex.) pun.yavant righteous (MBh.); auspicious (Skt.); puavant possessing merit, auspicious (Pali); pun.n.amam.ta (Pkt.); pan.otu~ fortunate, auspicious, euphem. panoti_ partic. inauspicious configuration of planets, ill fate (G.)(CDIAL 8262).

7006.Price of cultivating rights: pon price of cultivating rights (Santali.lex.)

7007.Image: mendicant's vessel: bavana_si, bo_na_si a mendicant's vessel of metal for receiving alms (Ka.); bavana_si id. (Te.); bo_na, bo_si a certain metal vessel for culinary purposes; boiled rice, food (Ka.lex.) cf. bo_gun.i, bo_gan.i a metal basin for washing; a metal vessel for culinary purposes (Ka.); bo_ga_n.i, bo_gin.i, bhagon.i (Te.); bo_gun.i a vessel of stone for culinary purposes (Ka.); bagun.e_m. a certain metal vessel for culinary purposes (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. bo_ga_r-a (Tadbhava of vyo_ka_ra) a blacksmith, a coppersmith; one who makes and sells brass and copper vessels (Ka.lex.) Portable oven: po_n--at.uppu portable oven, shaped like a bow with a sloping cavity connecting the bellows and the fire-chamber; po_n-u, po_n- trap (I_t.u, 2,8,4, Ji_.); cave running into the side of a hill; sloping cavity between the bellows and the oven in a po_n--at.uppu (Ta.lex.) dan.d.a-po_n.a handle of a strainer (Skt.lex.) cf. pa_vana filter (Vedic.lex.) po_n-akatti female cook; servant-maid (Ta.); bo_nakatte (Te.); bo_nagatti (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Boiled rice; handsel: po_n-am food; boiled rice (po_n-attal.avu pucippu : Or..ivi. Cariyai. 6); po_n-akam food (Man.i. 28,242); boiled rice (Caiva. Potu. 445); bo_namu id. (Te.); po_n.am food (Can.. Aka.); bo_na (Ka.); po_n-aka-p-pet.t.i palm-leaf basket used for keeping food (I_t.u, 6,1,2, Arum.); po_n-aka-k-kuruttu young plantain leaf with pointed end, used for serving food (S.I.I. ii,128)(Ta.lex.)

7008.Gold leaf: pon-n-at.ar fine gold leaf (Ci_vaka. 1973)(Ta.lex.) Gold: pom, pon gold; pomasir-a, pombusur-a hiran.yagarbha, brahma_; pombud.i gold dust, gold powder; pombese gold to be joined or attached; pommadil a golden wall; pommar..e a shower of gold (Ka.lex.) Heavenly pavilion; Svarga: pon-n-ulakam Svarga (Ci_vaka. 527); heavenly pavilion (Ci_vaka. 380); pon-n-eyil id. (Cu_t.a_. 4,1) pon-n-eyil-vat.t.am id. (Ci_vaka. 380, Urai.); pon-n-ulaku id. (Te_va_. 293,16); pon-n-ula-k-a_l.i Indra (Ta.); pon-n-eyir--ko_n- Arhat, as lord of camavacaran.am (Ta.lex.) camavacaran.am < samavas'aran.a heavenly pavilion erected by the Gods at a distance of 5000 bow-lengths above the earth for receiving sacred instructions from ke_vali, the perfected soul (Me_ruman.)(Jain.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Hoop of gold: ponnurut.t.u hoop of gold, plain gold ring (W.)(Ta.lex.) Gold: por-kacai < pon- + gold wire; por--kat.t.i nugget, ingot of gold (Ta_yu. Para_para. 354)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pon, hon gold; a gold coin, the half of a varaha (1 rupee 7 annas 4 cash); honnu id. (Ka.); hondod.avu, pondod.avu a gold ornament; hondo_n.i a golden trough; honna gubbi a golden knob or head; honnan.d.e a golden boiler; honnu ba_ki a woman who longs only for money (Ka.); pon, pin.a, pom, hom, hom. metal; gold (Ka.); pon-, por- metal; gold; lustre; beauty; pola gold; beauty (Ta.); pol gold (Ma.); ponnu gold)(Te.); pond.avake a golden spittoon; pondenegone the point of a gold merlon of a fort; pondod.ar a gold chain (Ka.); ponnod.eya Kube_ra; ponnore equality to gold (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pon- gold, metal, iron, wealth (Ta.)(DEDR 4570). por-r-at.t.a_n- goldsmith (W.)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) pon- gold of which there are four kinds, viz., ca_taru_pam, kil.iccir-ai, a_t.akam, ca_mpu_n-atam (Pur-ana_. 218)(Ta.); metal: cempon-, ven.pon-, karumpon- (Ta.); iron (Kur-al., 931); wealth (Nal.a. Kalitot.ar. 68); pon--man.i gold bead; necklace of gold beads (Tiv. Periyati. 1,7,1); pon-n-ari bead of gold inside a tinkling ornament (Ci_vaka. 2921); pon--vari an ancient tax (I.M.P.Cg. 979); pon--va_n.ikar dealers in gold (Cilap. 14,204, Urai.); pon-n-akar-k-kir-aivan- Indra as lord of Pon-n-akar (Ta.); pon--vin-ai-ceyvo_r, pon-vin-ai-ma_kkal. goldsmiths; pon-n-akar Amara_vati as the golden city (Man.i. 1,41)(Ta.); pon-n-akaram id. (Tiv. Iyar-. Periya. Ma. 20)(Ta.lex.) pon-n-i the Ka_ve_ri (Tiv. Periyati. 7,8,3); pon-n-i-na_t.an- Co_r..a king (Kalin.. 135); pon-n-i-na_t.u Co_r..a country (Kampara_. Maruttu. 58); pon-n-o_r de_vas (Perun.. Ila_van.a. 7,168, Pa_t.ape_tam.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Marriage badge: pon- marriage badge (Tacaiva_. 359); ornament (Ci_vaka. 1250); a gold coin = 10 pan.am = 1 1/4 rupees; Laks.mi_, the goddess of fortune (Ci_vaka. 14); pon--pa_vai id. (Tiv. Iyar-. 4,59)(Ta.); pon--pun-ai-tal to marry as tying the ta_li (Tacaiva_. 359); pon-n-attu-p-pet.t.i basket in which the ta_li and wedding saree are carried in a marriage (J.); pon-n-an- one who has gold (Nan-. 276, Urai.)(Ta.); pon-n-i-y-a_yi a village goddess (G.Tp.D. I,89)(Ta.lex.) Treasury: pon-n-ar-ai golden chest (Ci_vaka. 237); king's apartments (Ci_vaka. 2035); place where treasure and jewels are kept (Perun.. Ucaik. 38,210); pon-n-ir--poti-tal to take great care of; to treasure (Cilap. 16,13)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.)

7009.Image: trap for birds: po_n- trap (Ta.); bo_n(u) id. (Ka.); bo_nu id., cage (Te.)(DEDR 4606). Image: trap: bo_nu, bo_n, bo_ra a trap (Ka.lex.) uril, urul. snare (Ka.); u_ri a trap for birds (Kond.a); huru snare (Kond.a); urlu snare (Tu.); uri snare (Te.)(DEDR 655). Image: bird-cage: pacaram, paca_ram bird-cage, nest (Ta.lex.) pajara cage, dovecot, net (MBh.); cage (Pali); pam.jara (Pkt.); pajuri, pajur.i cage (Or.); pa_m.jara cage (OAw.); pam.jaraum. cage (OG.); pa~_jru~ cage, frame (G.); pa~_jri_ framework in rear of a cart (G.); pa~_jra_ cage (M.); pa~_jire~ (Konkan.i); pandura cage (Si.); piaro cage, trap for birds and rats, etc. (S. whence piira~_o~ latticed); pijar an animal's chest; pijra_ cage (L.B.); pi~jara_ cage (N.Or.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); pi~zara_ birdcage (A.); pi~_jar, pi~_jra_, pijar (H.); pi~jar (G.M.)(CDIAL 7685). uc to set (trap) (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 582).

7010.Sterculia foetida: janglibadam (H.M.); penari (Ka.); pinari (Ta.Ma.); manjiponaku (Te.); oil from seed: laxative, carminative; leaves: repellent, aperitif; decoction of fruit: mucilaginous, astringent; seeds and fruit pulp contain fatty oil; habitat: Konkan, forests of the W. coast of the Madras state at low elevations (GIMP, p.234). cf. pi_na_r-i fetid tree, sterculia foetida (with kernels flavoured like cacao) (Ta.Ma.Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. gulu (H.M.); ponaku (Te.); sterculia urens: gum used as substitute for tragacanth (GIMP, p.234). udal sterculia colorata; telhec, terhec sterculia urens; ganjher. stercuia villosa (Santali.lex.)

7011.Tragacanth: Synonyms: gum tragacanth, hog gum, goat's thorn; traganth (Ger.); gomme adragant (Fr.); botanical origin: astragalus gummifer; part used: the dried gummy exudation; habitat: western Asia and Southeastern Europe. Astralagus gummifer occurs only in northern Kurdistan, Asia Minor, Syria and Armenia... Uses: tragacanth is used pharmaceutically as an adhesive agent in pill masses and touches and as an agent for the suspension of insoluble powders in mixtures. It has been used medicinally as a demulcent... Substitutes: an Indian gum termed karaya or kadaya gum, is yielded by cochlospermum religiosum [katira (Arabic), kumbi (H.); ganglay (M.)(GIMP, p.72)], a member of the bixaceoe family, growing in India and adjacent countries. This article is largely used by the paste, cigar and ice cream industries... (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 456-459). Sterculia gum also called Indian tragacanth, obtained from sterculia wrens [(ponaku (Te.)(GIMP, p.234)], sterculia villosa, sterculia tragacantha etc... frequently mixed with tragacanth. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 456-459). Astragalus hamosus: purtuk (H.); asabeaulmalik (Arab.); akhlilelmalik (M.); akhilulmalik (P.); plant: emollient, demulcent, useful in the irritation of mucous membranes, laxative, used in nervous affections, used in catarrhal affections; a gum-like tragacanth, saponin; habitat: Baluchistan, Sind and Punjab plains (GIMP, p.29). Astragalus multiceps: kandiara, sarmul (P.); seeds: given for colic and leprosy, demulcent, emollient; habitat: W. Himalayas in the temperate zone, 10,000-12,000 ft., Garhwal, Kumaon, Simla (GIMP, p.30). Astragalus sarcocola: anjira (H.); gujar (M.); gum: aperitif, emollient, anti-rheumatic, anthelmintic; habitat: Persia (GIMP, p.30). Astragalus tribuloides: ogai (P.); seeds: demulcent, emollient; habitat: plains of western and central Punjab (GIMP, p.30).

7012.Image: tick: pun.ija a kind of insect (Ka.); pid.u~ju, pid.u~du, pin.u~ju, pin.u~du a tick (Te.)(DEDR 4270).

7013.Image: to offer libation: hunati offers libation (Skt.); hunitabba to be sacrificed (Pali); hun.ai offers oblation (Pkt.); hune sacrifices (MB.); hunna_ (H.)(CDIAL 14139).

7014.Image: sluice: pun-al-va_yil sluice of a channel (Patir-r-up. 13,8); cf. pun-al water (Pur-ana_. 7); ponalu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. punal, pun.al water, river (Ma.); ponal stream, river (Ka.)(DEDR 4338).

7015.Dry land: pun~cai dry land (Ta.); puja id. (Ma.); pun~caip par-r-u-k-kat.t.u money-rent levied on lands in which crops, other than paddy, are raised under well-irrigation (R.T.); pun~cai-pa_ka_yattu dry land rated as garden land (R.T.); pun~cai-me_l-nacai wet crops raised in fields classed as dry (R.T.); pun~caivarttan-ai a cess in addition to the pucai tax (R.T.); pun~cai-varavu-nan~cai dry land classed as wet (R.T.); pun~cai-va_n--payir particular dry crops, such as chillies, brinjals, tobacco, turmeric, etc. (R.T.); pu_n~ca_t.t.i land that has lost the effect of manure by cultivation; pu_n~ca_t.t.i-t-taricu uncultivated land after it became pu_ca_t.t.i; pu_n~ca_t.t.i-nilam id.; pu_n~cainilam barren, uncultivated ground; pu_n~cai barrenness, unfruitfulness; pu_n~cal brownish colour; dimness of sight (Ta.lex.) Border of a rice-field; lower level field: pun.i the border of a field (Tu.); hun.i borders of a rice-field (Ka.); kippuni lower level in a field; meppuni upper level in a field (Kod..)(DEDR 4269). Dry land: pun-am upland fit for dry cultivation (Ta.); a jungle, chiefly highland overrun with underwood and capable of irregular cultivation (Ma.); puna-k-ka_t.u shifting cultivation on the hills (Ta.); cultivation on the wooded slopes, the jungle being cleared and burnt, and the process being repeated after allowing the land to lie fallow until a fresh growth has re-established itself (G.S.A.D. I,333)(Ta.lex.); puna-k-kan.t.am a hill-tract (Ma.); pun--cey land fit for dry cultivation only, dry crop (Ta.); pun~cai dry land (Ta.); puca dry crop (Ma.); pun~ca-k-kan.t.am field under irrigation, yielding even three harvests (Ma.); pun.aji dust-like dry soil in which a kind of paddy is grown (Ka.); puca-kan.d.a a very good rice-field (Tu.); pun~ja land cultivated without artificial irrigation, high land (Te.)(DEDR 4337). pun--payir pucai-p-payir (S.I.I. ii,247); poor crop; pun--pulam waste land; dry land (Kurun. 183, 202); arid, barren place (Kampara_. Makut.a. 28); pun-n-ilam barren land (Ci_vaka. 2823); pun-n-i_r drainage water (S.I.I. iii,46); pun-al water (Pur-ana_. 7); ponalu (Ka.); flood, torrent, stream (Ta.); pun-al-ve_ntan- Varun.a, as lord of the waters; pun-n-a_t.u the co_l.a_ country (Periyapu. Can.t.e_cu. 1); pun~cai-p-par-r-u-k-kat.t.u money-rent levied on lands in which crops, other than paddy, are raised under well-irrigation; pun~cai-va_n--payir particular dry crops, such as chillies, brinjals, tobacco, turmeric, etc.(Ta.lex.)

7016.To assume duty: pu_n.(n.u)-tal to undertake as a business; to assume duty (Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.at.ai. 2); to be yoked (Kampara_. Ira_van.an-va. 38); to be yoked with (Kur-al., 836); pu_n.u_l sacred thread of three strands (muttap pu_n.u_ lattaku pun-aikalam : Cilap. 23,96)(Ta.lex.)

7017.Image: swelling: pin.ar roughness, unevenness, coarseness (Ta.); grossness, what is thick or stiff, a bruise; pin.arkka to grow thick, coagulated, swell (as a bruise); pin.arppu coagulation, tumour; pin.upin.e_ thickly, stiffly (Ma.); pin.il hump (Ka.)(DEDR 4158). Pustule: panasi_, panasika_ a disease of pustules on ears and neck (Sus'r.); panasa_ a pustular inflammation of the skin (B.H.); pa_nisaro a kind of rapidly disappearing rash like measles (N.)(CDIAL 7782). paru pimple, pustule, boil (Ta.); parukken- to blister (Ta.); paru boil, ulcer (Ma.); pop boil (To.); parngoli sore on lip or tongue (Kui); ba_resi pimple (Kuwi)(DEDR 3974).

7018.Image: basket: pu_ne casket, box (Te.); pon.aka large basket (Te.); pu_na id. (Pa.)(DEDR 4380). cf. po_n- trap (Ta.)(DEDR 4606).

7019.Heel: pi_n heel (Tor.); phini_ ankle (WPah.); pa_rs.ni heel (RV.). pan.hi, pan.hika_ (Pali); pas'yu~_ (Kt.); wis'e, wis.e, es.e~ (Pr.); pas.ni_, pa_zni_ (Kal.); pha_yna_ (WPah.); pa_sn.a_ (P.); pa_ni_ (G.)(CDIAL 8124). pa_ul, pa_ula_, pond, ponda_ the lower part of a heel; ba_ga to be bent (as the ship heels over)(Kon.lex.) cf. pota calf of leg (Pe.)(DEDR 4513).

7020.Roll of cotton: pu_n.i_, pu_n.ia_ roll of cotton (Pkt.); pu_n.i_ id. (G.S.L. > pu_n.ai (Psht.); pu_n., pu_n.i_ (P.); pun.o, pun.i bundle, ball (Ku.); pu_ni_ roll of cotton (H.); po_n.ia_ spindle full of thread (Pkt.); pon.o bundle of maize with ears cut off (WPah.); pon.i, pl. pu_n.i_ roll of cotton for spinning (WPah.); poni_ roll of cotton for spinning (H.); peuni_ roll of cotton (Bi.); piuri roll of cotton or wool after carding (N.); pi_r roll of cotton (Mth.)(CDIAL 8326).

7021.To thread: povai kneads (bread)(OMarw.); parovun. to perforate (with a needle), wreathe (L.); paron.a_, piron.a_, puron.a_ to string (beads, etc.)(P.); puan.u to thread (beads, etc.)(S.); po(v)an. (L.); pron.u (WPah.); pon.o (Ku.); povai (OMarw.); pona_ to thread a needle (H.); parovvu~, poravvu~, povu~ (G.); pratudati cuts through, pierces (MBh.)(CDIAL 8627). pen hole in the iron of a mattock to take the handle (L.)(CDIAL 8629). poin.o to sew (Ku.)(CDIAL 8631). paron.o goad (G.); paron.i_ id., piece of thread put through eye of needle (G.)(CDIAL 8630). pu_n. to put on, wear (Ta.); n. ornament (Ta.); pu.tul.y cloak (To.); pu_n.pu girdle, ornament (Ma.); pu_n.uka to put on (as cloth, ornaments)(Ma.); pu_nu to wear (Te.); punu necklace, garland (Malt.); pu_n necklace (Kur.)(DEDR 4361). po_n.isu, pavan.isu to couple, thread (as a needle), string together (Ka.); pavan.ige being threaded, joining (Ka.); po_han.incu to string together (Te.); po_han.a stringing together (Te.)(DEDR 4584). cf. posavisu, posayisu to join, attach (Ka.)(DEDR 4474). pun-ai to dress, put on, adorn, wear, make, form; n. beauty, decoration (Ta.); punayuka to put on, undertake (Ma.)(DEDR 4340). pun-ai cloth, vestment; to plait, as an ola basket (Ta.lex.) pinaddha dressed (MBH.); apinaddha covered, concealed (RV.); pin.addha put on; pin.addhai, pin.addhe_i puts on (clothes)(Pkt.); pindhiba to put on, wear (A.); pindha_, pi~dha_ (B.); pindha_ dress (Or.); pindhiba_ to wear (Or.); caus. pin.addha_vida (Pkt.); pindha_iba (A.); pilandhati puts on, adorns (Pali); palandinava_ to dress; palandenava_ to dress, adorn (Si.)(CDIAL 8197). pinahya having dressed (MBh.); pahanun to wear handsome clothes (K.); pahin.na_ to wear (P.); pinahe puts on (B.); penhab to put on, wear (Mth.); pinhna_, pahinna_, pahanna_ (H.); pilayhati (Pali); pahin.a_un.a_ to clothe (P.); pin(h)a_na_, pah(i)na_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 8198).

7022.Tibetan: hu_n.a name of a barbarous people (MBh.); hu_n.a, ho_n.a a non-Aryan people (Pkt.); hun.iya_ Tibetan (Ku.); hun (A.)(CDIAL 14145).

7023.Village: hun.d.i hamlet (Ka.); hu_d.e village fort (Ka.); pu~_d.i (in place names) small village, hamlet (Te.); pu_n.t.i village, town, district (Ta.)(DEDR 4362).

7024.Calophyllum inophyllum: punnaga (Skt.); sultana champa (H.B.); undi (M.); punnagam (Ta.); pouna (Te.); punna (Ma.); oil of seeds: specific for skin diseases and for application in rheumatism; bark: astringent; gum: emetic, purgative; leaves: fish poison; habitat: coastal regions of south India, Andaman islands and grown throughout India as an ornamental tree (GIMP, p.46). The fragrant flowers are used in making bouquets, wreaths etc. They are also put in the hair of Filipino women... The oil is also used as an illuminant, and for making soap... Travera mentions a gum resin from the bark as an external application to wounds and old sores... in India the oil is used as an application to sore eyes. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 617-620). A perfume: vasa_re name of a perfume and drug; synonyms: ka_mpilya karkas'a (a kind of cassia, cassia or senna esculenta; ka_mpilya ro_cani (Ka.lex.) cf. ka_mpi_la name of a plant (Kaus'.); kampi_la pigment from rottleria tinctoria (Skt.)(CDIAL 3046). cf. sura-ponna calophyllum longifolium (Te.)(DEDR 4343). suraparn.ika_ rottlera tinctoria (Skt.)(CDIAL 8244). kot.t.il kokra laurel (Ta.); kot.t.ili id. (Ma.)(DEDR 2062). padma-ka_s.t.ham a fragrant wood used in medicine; padmakin the bhurja or birch tree (Skt.lex.) pun-kam Indian beech (Ci_vaka. 1649); pun-ku Indian beech, pongamia glabra (pon:kar ven.pori cintin-a pun-ku : Cilap. 12, Pak. 318); hon:ge_ (Ka.); pun-ken.n.ey oil, extracted from Indian-beech seeds (Ta.lex.) punna_ga the tree rotteleria tinctoria; surahonne (Ka.lex.) pun-n-a_kam pun-n-ai mast-wood (Paripa_. 11,16); pun-n-ai < punna_ga mastwood, calophyllum inophyllum (Patir-r-up. 30,3); patuma-ke_caram mastwood, pun-n-ai (Can.. Aka.); patuma-niti one of the nine treasures of Kubera (Te_va_. 1230,10)(Ta.lex.) pun-n-ai-y-en.n.ai domba oil, as extracted from pun-n-ai seeds (W.)(Ta.lex.) Red, yellow: pu_val red colour, red earth smeared on cottages (Ta.); red colour (Ma.); puvra_li_ yellow (?Go.)(DEDR 4371). pum.na_mam having a masculine name (S'Br.); rottleria tinctoria; pum.na_ga id., calophyllum inophyllum (Skt.); puna c. inophyllum, pomegranate (Si.)(CDIAL 8244). ponna c. inophyllum (Te.); pun--ai, pin-n-ai id. (Ta.); punna id. (Ma.); honneya mara = r. tinctoria [mallotus philippinensis]; c. inophyllum (Ka.)(DEDR 4342). Yields red dye. cf. pu_vattam a tree that yields a red dye, rubia munjista (?Ta.)(DEDR 4348).

7025.Image: conch: pan.ilam conch (Tiruva_ca. 6,47); a fabulous conch; cf. calacalam a fabulous conch said to be surrounded by 1000 valampuri conches (Ta.lex.)

7026.Perfumed water: pan-ukku (pan-ukki-) to sprinkle, moisten by sprinkling; pan-n-i_r rosewater or other fragrant extract (Ta.); pani-ni_r rosewater (Ma.); panni_r perfumed water, rose-water etc. (Ka.); panni_ru rosewater (Tu.); panni_ru, panni_ramu rosewater, perfumed water (Te.)(DEDR 4035). panni_ru, pal.ni_ru rose-water (Tu.lex.)

7027.Image: to drip; flow of milk into breast: va_n.akam cow's udder (Ta.lex.) prasnava flow (of milk, water etc.)(MBh.); pan.hava, pan.haa flow of milk in breast (Pkt.); pa_ha_n diba to let milk into udder (of cows)(A.); pa_na_ udder (of cow or goat)(B.); pahna_, pana_ udder (of animals, esp. of cows)(Or.); pa_no flow of milk (into breast or udder)(G.); pa_nha_ (M.); pa_nno udder (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 8875). prasnuta pp. flows (of milk into breast)(MBh.); prasnauti emits fluid (TS.); prasnute_ yields milk (Pa_n.. com.); prasna_vin dripping (Nir.); pan.haai drips, pp. pan.havia (Pkt.); pranun to flow (K.); pa_nhn.e~ to let down milk into udder (of cows)(M.); pa~_da_ stream of milk from teat of buffalo (L.); pan.hua dripped (Pkt.); panhu flow of milk in breast (Ap.); pa_na_na to cause milk to flow into udder (B.); pana_iba_ (cow or goat) to show signs of having a full udder ready for milking (Or.); pan(h)a_na_, pala_na_ (milk) to come into udder (H.); pa_nhavin.e~ to let down milk into udder (of cows)(M.)(CDIAL 8876). For semant. pala_na_ (H.) 'milk to come into udder' cf. pa_l milk, milky juice of plants, fruits etc. (Ta.); milk, vegetable milk (Ma.); pa.l milk (Ko.); po.s- id.; po.l fi.r- stomach full of milk (pi.r- stomach); po.l fe.l. middle finger (pe.l. finger)(To.); pa_l milk, white juice of some plants, juice of sugar-cane or of coconut (Ka.); pa.li milk; pa.kutti milking pot (Kod..); pe_ru milk, coconut juice, milky juice of plants (Tu.); pa_lu, pa~_d.i milk (Te.); pa.l id. (Kol.); pa_l id. (Nk.); pe_l id., breast (Pa.); pa_l milk (Ga.Go.); obl. pa_d (Go.); pa_l id., breast (Go.); id. (Kond.a); milk (Pe.); pa_d.u, pa_lu id., sap (Kui); pa_lu_, pa_lu milk (Kuwi); pa_lh id., milky juice or sap of plants (Br.); pa_lana milk of cow newly calved (Skt.)(DEDR 4096). ha_lu, ha_l, pa_l, ha_la milk; ha_lu-kur-uba a class of kur-ubas who keep cattle, sell milk and cultivate the soil; ha_lu-mad.d.i a kind of incense (turus.ka (olibanum, Indian incense, the resin of boswellia serrata, lo_ba_na), pin.d.aka (incense, myrrh), sihla (silha = olibanum, benzoin, Indian incense), ya_vana, tudukina mad.d.iyemba dhu_pa (tadiku, taduku = the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera), anduga-bon:ka) (Ka.lex.) pa_le milky; milk-white (Te.)(Ka.lex.) prasnavana emission of fluid (A_pS'r. com.); panavuu making a cow's milk come by letting its calf have one suck (K.); pa_nhavan. food placed before cow to induce flow of milk into udder (M.)(CDIAL 8877). phec to drip (Santali.lex.) cf. prasravati flows forth (AV.); passavati flows out (Pali)(CDIAL 8888). upasnuta streaming forth (Skt.); unha_va flood (OM.)(CDIAL 2276). anha_v flooding a field before planting with rice (Mth.)(CDIA 1525). For semant. sru 'flow' cf.: sere to exude; jer exudation from some trees; siro soro to exude in small quantity (Santali.lex.) cf. co_r (-v-, -nt-) to exude, ooze out (Ta.)(DEDR 2883). cf. curra_ sweet juice which drops from mango flowers or from the new leaves of sa_l tree (Kur.)(DEDR 2711). For semant. snu 'emit fluid' cf. cun-ai mountain pool or spring (Ta.)(DEDR 2716). cf. cunekka to ooze out (Ma.); sona juice that exudes from plants (Te.)(DEDR 2717). pa_lan milk of a recently calved cow (B.); pa_lana protecting, nourishing (Mn.); keeping going, living (Pali.Pkt.); pa_l.an.a_ maintaining, saving (Or.); la_lan-pa_lan caressing and cherishing (H.); pa_l.an. preserving, nourishing (M.); pa_l.n.e~, pa_l.l.e~ cradle (Konkan.i); palna protection (CDIAL 8128). Gruel, bread: paleha_ juice, sap (L.); palyo a kind of curry made of curds and whey boiled with spices (Ku.); pa_lo gruel (B.); pareh pea soup, sauce (Bi.); paleo, pareh rice soup (H.); prale_ha a kind of broth (Skt.)(CDIAL 8765). pa_li food prescribed for a student (Skt.); bread (Tir.)(CDIAL 8131). cf. pa_lan-am protection, defence (Tan-ippa_. i,344,61); pa_rittal to guard, protect (Kalin.. 224); pa_ri an ancient chief noted for his liberality, one of seven kat.ai-val.l.alkal. (Pur-ana_. 105)(Ta.lex.)

7028.Bark-fibre: pannun.n.a or pattun.n.a bark-fibres; alosanthes indica; patrorn.a (MBh.); is a product of Magadha, Pun.d.raka and Suvarn.akud.yaka, (Arth., p.84) (Jain.Skt.) cf. pand.an bark of a tree (Ga.)(DEDR 3897). pat.t.ai bark of tree (Ta.); pat.t.a id. (Ma.); pat.t.e rind or bark of trees (Ka.); pat.t.a, pat.t.amu bark (Te.)(DEDR 3876). pan-n-a_t.ai fibrous cloth-like web about the bottom of the leaf stalk of a palmyra or coconut tree (Ta.); panna_t.a id. (Ma.); panna_d.e id. (Ka.)(DEDR 4041). cf. pan-ai palmyra palm (Ta.)(DEDR 4037). Palm-web: panna_d.e the web which surrounds the lower part of the stem-leaves of a palm-tree (Ka.); panna_t.ai (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) padmasa_li a weaver (Tu.lex.)

7029.Wine shop: pa_n.a_ga_ra, kappasa_la_ a wine-shop (Jain.Skt.)

7030.To comprehend: pinpini to know, understand, comprehend; pinpa_vuni to make to know, make known, reveal (Tu.); pun- (punt-) to know (Kol.); pun- (pund-, putt-) id. (Pa.); pun- (pres.-fut. puy-) id. (Ga.); pund- (putt-), punda_na_, pun-/pund- (putt-), pun- (putt-) id. (Go.); pun- (puc-) id. (Pe.Mand..); punba (pus-) id., understand, comprehend; n. knowledge, understanding (Kui); pu_njali, punnai, pun- (pucc-), pun- (puc-) to know; punbi kinai to inform; pun.mbi/pr.umbi ki- to explain; pun.mbu knowing; pusponi, pu_sponi a story (Kuwi)(DEDR 4344a). ja_ to know (Skt.); vijapayati makes known, begs (S'Br.); viape_ti informs, appeals to (Pali); vim.napayitave (As'.); vim.naveti regards (NiDoc.); vin.n.a_ve_i (Pkt.); binavai entreats (OAw.); vinavvu to entreat, persuade, praise (G.); vinavin.e~ to supplicate (M.)(CDIAL 11705). vijapti information, report, request (to a superior)(Skt.); viati intimation (Pali); vinati request (As'.); vim.nati, vim.nadi (NiDoc.); vin.n.atti (Pkt.); venath, venucu (K.); vinati_ (S.); benati_, ben.ti_, bin.ti_ (P.); binat, binti_, bin.ati_ (Ku.); binti (N.); binati (A.B.Or.); binati, minati (Bhoj.); binti_ (Aw.); binati, binti_, minti_ (H.); bi_nati_ (OMarw.); vinati_, vina_ti_ request (G.M.); vin.ati_ offering to an idol when venerated (M.); buyat representation, petition (Sh.)(CDIAL 11706). vija_na act of discerning (AV.); via_n.a consciousness (Pali); viana (KharI.); vin.n.a_n.a knowledge (Pkt.); vi_a_n.u, via_n.o charm for discovering a thief (S.); bin.a_n.a knowledge (OB.); bina_ni_ special thought (H.); vina_n.a comprehension (OG.)(CDIAL 11707). bina_ni_ foolish, ignorant (H.)(CDIAL 11708).

7031.Image: fighting: hon.ake, pon.arke fighting, a fight (Ka.lex.)

7032.Image: leopard: honagya_, hon:giya the leopard cat, felis bengalensis (Ka.lex.)

7033.Charming woman: honahu, onapu charm; honahu-ga_rti a charming woman (Ka.lex.) onapu, olapu, oyya_ra moving the body in a foppish manner, affectation in walking, etc., foppishness, dandyism, coquetry; olapu-ga_rti a coquette; oyya_ra, vayya_ra parade, coquetry (Ka.); oya_ra, oyya_ra (Te.); oyil, oyya_ram (Ta.); oyya_ra beauty, grace (Ka.Ta.Te.); oyya_rambad.e to become charming or graceful; oyya_raga_ti a showy woman, a coquette; oya_l.ibaylu a plain on which horse-races are held, or to which idols (on the dasare festival) are conveyed on horse-back; oyya_l.iga a man who makes an excursion on horse-back (Ka.lex.)

7034.Bondsman; image: entwined: pen.e, en.e an entwined state; union, company (Ka.lex.) pon.e, hon.e bond, bail; a bondsman, a surety, a bail (Ka.); pot.i (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

7035.Image: fish: man.an.n.u a bad sort of fish, pilchard; a bait fixed to a fish-hook (Ma.); man.an:gu pilchard (Tu.)(DEDR 4670). ma_n:ko toad (Kon.lex.)

7036.Pupil: ma_n.ava a youth, a lad, a youngster (Skt.Ka.); ma_n.avaka a lad, a boy (Skt.Ka.); a pupil; ma_n.i a lad, a boy (Ka.lex.)

7037.Image: penis: ma_n.i the membrum virile (Ka.Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) ma_n.i penis (Ta.Ma.Ka.)(DEDR 4805).

7038.Heal: ma_n. to heal, be healed or cured (Ka.); ma_nu id.; ma_nucu to heal, cure (Te.); ma_nd.- to heal (Nk.); marnd.- id. (Nk.); ma_n.- (ma_nt.-) id. (Mand..); ma_r.a (ma_r.i-) to heal over, be healed (sore)(Kui); ma_npinai to heal; ma_r.- (-it-) id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4804). ma_y to be healed, cured (Ka.Go.)(DEDR 4815).

7039.Cape, headland: mon.epu small piece of land stretching into a river (Tu.); muja_ the extremity, beginning, headpoint, end (Kur.); mun-ai cape, headland, edge, eminence (Ta.); munni cape, headland (Ma.); munampu headland, tip (Ma.); min top of hill (To.)(DEDR 5020). mun-pa_lai-na_t.u a division of the Tamil country, supposed to have been submerged in a deluge (Cilap. 8,2, Urai). mun-r-ur-ai = mun- + tur-ai port, harbour (Man.i. 7,70)(Ta.lex.) Highland: mannemu highland, upland (Te.); manom cultivated field in the jungle or upland (Pa.)(DEDR 4701). munum the share of a field which is given to a weeder to work in (Go.); mun.mbu area of work (Kuwi)(DEDR 4943).

7040.Land exempt from tax: ma_nya, manneya to be respected, respectable, honourable, venerable; acceptable; a respectable man; a ruler, a king; an honourable state, honour; a privilege (Ka.); ma_na a privilege (M.); ma_nya the privilege of going unpunished the whole day for coming early to school; land either liable to a trifling quit rent or altogether exempt from tax (Ka.Te.Ma.); ma_n-iyam (Ta.); ma_nya the complementary forms of address in letters (Ka.); ma_na_ (M.H.); ma_nya assent; ma_nya-ga_r-a a man holding a ma_nya, an incumbent, a prebend (Ka.); ma_nyaga_d.u (Te.); ma_nye an honourable woman (Ka.lex.)

7041.Image: pitcher: man.ika, man.ike a water-jar or pitcher (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

7042.Superintendence: man.eya a religious business or vow: a performance of Da_sayyas at which they dance with music round a cloth on the ground on which eatables are put and catch them with the mouth whilst dancing; they are engaged to do so by bhaktas (Ka.lex.) man.iya, man.iha, man.e_ superintendence of temples, mat.has, palaces, custom-houses etc. (Ka.Te.Ma.); man.iya a subordinate revenue office under a Tahsildar (Ka.Ta.); man.iyaga_r-a, man.i_ga_r-a, man.iha_r-a a man who holds any man.iya office; a superintendent of a palace; man.iha an office, a charge, a commission, a business (Ka.lex.)

7043.Image: seven: muni the number seven (Ka.lex.)

7044.Sharp end of horn: munp sharp end of horn (To.); muna a sharp point, sharpness (Ma.); mone point, extremity, end; sharpness; state of being before (Ka.); mone sharp point (Kod..); munni tip, lappet (Tu.); mona point, extremity, tip, the front (Te.); muni sting of scorpion (Kol.); mu_ni, mona tip, point (Pa.); mon point (Ko.); min sharp point, top of hill (To.); munu point (of needle, etc.)(Kuwi)(DEDR 5020). Point, edge: mun-ai point, sharpened end, edge; tenon (Ci_vaka. 1136, Pa_t.ape_tam); front (Tol. Er..ut. 125)(Ta.lex.); muna (Te.); mun-ai face, appearance; superiority, eminence, priority (Ta.lex.) Sharp end of horn: mun-ai front, face, appearance; point, sharpened end, edge (Ta.); minp sharp end of horn (To.); mun, munn, mon. point, end, extremity (Tu.); mu_ni, mona tip, point (Pa.); muja_ the extremity, beginning, headpoint, end (Kur.)(DEDR 5020a).

7045.Chief: mun-imarapu godhead (Paripa. 19,3); mun-iyan- a village demon; mun-n-i_t.u leadership; responsible person (Ta.); mun-aivan- God, as the first being, saint, chief, Arhat, the Buddha (Ta.); muca a man of the front, chief, leader (Ka.); munneva_l leader (Go.); mumbiga a man of the front (Ka.); monaka~_d.u general, leader, chief (Te.)(DEDR 5020). mun-pan- powerful man (Pur-ana_. 41); leader, master (Kampara_. Na_kapa_ca. 90); mun-r-in.ai-mutalvan- = mun- + tin.ai + progenitor, ancestor (Patir-r-up. 14,20); mun-n-at.iya_n- minor deity in front of a shrine; mun-n-ilaikka_ran- headman of the caste, as of kamma_l.an-, van.n.a_n-, etc.; a petty officer (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Commander of an army; fight, battle; push: muca a man of the front, chief, leader; mumbiga a man of the front (Ka.); mumpan the foremost, principal (Ma.); munu-konu, munu-pad.u to come to the front, lead; munumu the front or van of an army (Te.); mona-ka~_d.u general, leader, chief (Te.); munnited first, the one in front (Pa.); munneva_l leader (Go.)(DEDR 5020a). cf. mukappu front; mukari, mukan-ai forepart, front, beginning, headship; mukarimai chieftaincy (Ta.); mukam front, chief (Ma.); mukana forepart (Ma.)(DEDR 4889). mun-aiar comnander of an army (Tol. Po. 57); mun-aippati, mun-aippulam military encampment (Tol. Po. 57, Urai.); mun-aimukam front of battle; commencement of battle (Kur-al., 749); mun-aiyit.am battle-field; town in a desert tract (Ta.lex.) mun-ai enemy country (Kur-icip. 128); mun-ai-ka_ran- courageous person; valiant, brave man; mun-ainto_r enemies; mun-aiyo_r enemies (Pu. Ve. 4,21); mun-aivan- enemy; mun-ai-me_r-cellutal to invade an enemy country; mun-aiyar, mun-aiyaraiyar a dynasty of chiefs who ruled in Mun-ai-p-pa_t.i (an ancient province comprising portions of North and South Arcot districts (I.M.P.N.A. 387: S.A. 737)(Periyapu. Naracin:ka. 1); mun-aivan- chief (Tirukko_. 329, Kol.u)(Ta.lex.); muni excited (Ma.); anger (Ka.); munisuga_r-a a passionate man (Ka.); mone affray, fight, battle (Ka.); monayu to attack, meet in battle; mona battle array (Te.); monega_r-a a bold, courageous man (Ka.); mun-ai to attack; to be active (Ta.lex.)(DEDR 5021). mund.e to gore (Malt.)(DEDR 5039). a_mi_vati pushes, presses (TBr.); mimi_vanti_ pres.part. pressing down (AV.); mun.iba_ to tend (cattle)(Or.); prami_vati pushes on, instigates (S'Br.); ka_ma-mu_ta impelled by love (RV.)(CDIAL 10207). Endeavour; anger: mun-ivu endeavour, anger (Ta.); mun-ai to fight, busy oneself with; battle, fight, hatred (Ta.); muni excited (Ma.); anger (Ka.); munisuga_r-a a passionate man (Ka.)(DEDR 5021). mu~_d.na_ to strike or dash in one's course against some obstacle (Kur.)(DEDR 5039). mun-ivar; cf. mun-aital to be active, busy oneself in, bestir oneself (Ci. Ci. 7,1); mun-aiar commander of an army (Tol. Po. 57); mun-ivu fatigue; suffering (Cir-upa_n.. 40); endeavour (Civataru. Civata. 1, Urai.); hence, may refer to those who are deeply engaged in physical endeavours (Ta.lex.) Anger: muni to become angry or wrathful, to manifest anger (Ka.Te.Ma.); mun-ai to be bold; to be angry (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) manyu spirit, passion, anger (RV.); distress (MBh.); man.n.u anger (Pkt.); mon rivalry (Sh.); mou alarm, terror (K.); ma_n peevishness (A.); ma_n anger (B.)(CDIAL 9859).

7046.In front: mun- in front; mun-pu front; before, in front of; mun-r--il front of house, space; mun-n-am in front; mun-n-ar before, in advance, in front of; mun-n-e_ before, in the presence of; muttai front; munti front; muntu (munti-) to come in front; muntai in front of (Ta.); muna a sharp point, sharpness; mun, munnam former, before; munnar forepart of animals; munnal presence; munni, munne_ before; mumpu the front, presence; mumpil in front (Ma.); mun-, mu- front, fore; mund- (mundy-), mind- (mindy-) to go in front; munga.r forward, in front (Ko.); mudk in front; mun in front (To.); mun (mum.), munnu that which is before, in front of, or preceding in space; muntu, munda, mundu the front part or side, front; mundu to precede; munna, munnam, munnal the front, etc.; in front, before; munne even the front, etc.; mumbu forepart, front (Ka.); mia in front; mumba.ra the fore (Kod..); mund before, in front (Tu.); muni first, front; munimun:gala the very front (Te.); mun:gali front; mun:gili courtyard; mundat.a(n) in front, before; mundara the front; in front, before; mundu the front (Te.); mut before (Kol.); mur. in front of (Nk.); mundi in front; munni before; mundel in front, before; mund kekol front part of ear (Pa.); munde_l, mundel the front (Ga.); munne_ before, in front; munne in front of; munne_, mune before, in front of (Go.); mungal, mundala in front (Kond.a); munddh, mund first, ahead of (Kur.); mo_n front; mo_ni being in front (Br.)(DEDR 5020a). ma_n. to heal, be healed or cured (Ka.)(DEDR 4804). ma_na wounded honour, anger (Skt.); wish, pride, honour (Skt.); pride (Pali); ma_na id.. (Pkt.); ma_n.u (S.); ma_n (L.P.); ma_n honour (K.A.B.); respect (N.); honour, obedience (H.); man pride (Si.)(CDIAL 10040). Image: van; forepart: mukan-ai forepart, front; beginning, introduction; mukan-aikkal stone lintel, as of a temple gateway; mo_kan-akkal stone platform in the arttaman.t.apam, on which the necessary articles for worship are kept; carved stone-lintel projecting from a temple gate-way (Ta. lex.) muhar.o front, van (S.)(CDIAL 10158). Van of an army: mun-n-an.i van of an army (Ta.Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

7047.Sage: muni a recluse who lives alone and has taken the vow of silence; an ascetic; a sage, a saint; a devotee; a monk; a Buddha or Arhat; a male devil; mauna, mo_na the office or position of a muni; silence, taciturnity; stillness (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) muna_ti = pratija_ne_ perceives, recognizes (Dha_tup.); mun 'a_n.e_; fut. mo_nissam.; munana = paricchindana- (Pali); viditva_ munir bhavati (Br.A_rUp.); muni- inspired sage (RV.); mun.ai_ knows; pp. mun.ia (Pkt.); munia_ known (OB.); min knowledge (Si.(CDIAL 10206). mo_na saintly wisdom (Pali)(CDIAL 10371). mauna silence (MBh.); mo_n silence, taciturnity (K.); silence (P.); mu_nu taciturn, motionless (K.); mu_n.a silence (Pkt.); mu_nna_ to be silent, forget (H.); moni_ taciturn (P.); mona_ dumb (M.)(CDIAL 10371). mun-ivaran- eminent sage; mun-ivan- sage (Kampara_. Mitilaik. 85); god (Tiruva_lava_. Ka_ppu, 2); mun-ivar hermits, ascetics, r.s.is; mun-imai saintliness; mun-i saint, sage (Kampara_. Mitilaik. 139)(Ta.lex.) To murmur: min.min.a, minmina speaking indistinctly through the nose (Skt.); min.min.a_ speaking low, faintly, indistinctly (M.); minmina_ id. (H.); mun.amun.ai mutters, mumbles (Pkt.); min.umin.u to mumble, speak with a low reiterated sound, murmur as a secret, utter incantations; mun.amun.a, mun.umun.u to mutter, murmur; mun.an:ku to speak in a suppressed tone, mutter in a low tone, murmur; mun-an:ku, mun-ku to mutter, murmur, grumble, moan; mun-akkam muttering, murmuring, grumbling, moan; mir..ar-r-u to prattle as a child, speak softly; mir..alai prattle, lisp; mar..ar-u to be indistinct as speech; mar..alai prattling, babbling (Ta.); min.umin.ukka to mumble, mutter; min.t.uka to utter, speak low, attempt to speak; min.t.a_t.t.am opening the mouth to speak; min.t.a_te without utterance; mun.emun.e_na mumbling sound (Ma.); minuku to speak in an indistinct, faint or low tone, murmur (Ka.); mun.umun.u muttering, mumbling; mun:kuni to say hu_m. expressive of disapproval or unwillingness, cry as a ghost; mun:kele grumbler (Tu.); minnaka (neg.gerund), (inscr.) min.n.aka silently, quietly, coolly; minuku to murmur within oneself; mun(u)ku to mutter, grumble (Te.)(DEDR 4856). min.d.hin.o silent and stupid in appearance but really treacherous and cunning (S.); min.d.hu~ having deep-laid plans, crafty, conceited (G.); met.a_ slow in work, heavy-bodied (A.)(CDIAL 10120).

7048.Accountant: mina_n- a village accountant (Ta.); me_navan id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) munis.i a secretary, a writer (Ka.); munati_ (M.H.); munis.i a teacher of language (Ka.M.); munis.i_giri the office or business of muns.i (Ka.); munati_giri (M.); munasapu, munasi_pu a native-civil judge (of the lowest class)(Ka.Te.); munasapha, munasopha (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

7049.Honour: ma_n.pu honour, dignity (Kur-al., 53); greatness, excellence (Ta.); ma_n.(n.u)tal to become excellent, glorious (Kur-al., 665); to be good, worthy (Kur-al., 177); to be full, abundant (Kur-al., 1002); to be great (Kur-al., 12); ma_n. greatness, glory; splendour; excellence; dignity (Kalit. 20,15); ma_n.t.al being great, being worthy; ma_n.am greatness, excellence; ma_n.al id., goodness (Ta.lex.) ma_n.pu glory, beauty (Ma.); ma_nu beauty, elegance; beautiful, elegant, fit, proper, worthy (Te.)(DEDR 4803). ma_n.t.al dying; ma_n.t.avar the illustrious, the great; ma_n.t.a_r the dead; ma_n.t.avar-kur..i Kistavaens containing earthen jars with fragments of human bones, mutu-makkat.-t.-a_r..i putai-k-kum kur..i (Ta.lex.) ma_nana honouring (MBh.Pali); ma_nana_ (Pali); ma_n.an.a, ma_n.an.a_ (Pkt.); ma_nan acknowledgement, citing (a witness)(B.)(CDIAL 10046). ma_nayati esteems, honours (AV.); ma_ne_ti honours (Pali); ma_n.e_i (Pkt.); ma_n.an. to enjoy, possess (L.); ma_nun to respect, agree to (K.); ma_n.an.u to enjoy (S.); ma_n.vu~ to enjoy (G.)(CDIAL 10047). ma_na wish (AitBr.); pride (Kaus'.Up.OAw.); honour (Mn.); wounded honour, anger (Skt.); pride (Pali.As'.); ma_n.a (Pkt.); ma_n honour (K.); respect (N.); pride (A.B.Mth.Si.); honour, obedience (H.); ma_n.u pride; ma_n.o coquettish refusal (S.); ma_n. pride (L.P.); ma_n.i hauteur, sullenness (Or.); ma_ni pride (Mth.)(CDIAL 10040). cf. ma_na wish (AitBr.); pride (Kaus.Up.); honour (Mn.); wounded honour, anger (Skt.)(CDIAL 10040). nirma_na free from pride (MBh.); nimma_na humble (Pali); n.imma_n.a (Pkt.); nima_n.o (S.); nima_n.a~_ humble, poor (L.); nama_n.a_ poor, helpless (P.); nma_n.a_ anxious, full of care (WPah.); nima_n.o humble (Ku.); nima_na_ artless (H.)(CDIAL 7371). bahuma_na high esteem (MBh.); honour (Pali); bahuma_n. (Pkt.); bahuman honour, love (Si.)(CDIAL 9192). uma_n.an.u to escort anyone a short way on taking leave (S.)(CDIAL 2122). a_mana friendliness (TS.); a_manas friendly (AV.); a_mn.a_ mann.a_ to treat with consideration, to serve (P.); a_manye_tha_m be friendly (RV.)(CDIAL 1241). abhima_na intention to injure (Ka_tyS'r.); pride (Sa_n:khyak.); pride (Pali); ahima_n.a (Pkt.); ahiman (Si.)(CDIAL 524). anumata allowed (S'Br.Pali); an.umaya (Pkt.); numut if, although (Si.)(CDIAL 327). Reflect on: man-am < manas mind; will; the reasoning faculty (man-attot.u va_ymai mor..iyin- : Kur-al., 95); man-akkavalai anxiety, care (Kur-al., 7); mana-kko_t.t.am crookedness of mind (Nan-. 25); mana-kko_t.t.ai long sulks (Paripa_. 10,57); man-akkur-ippu idea, intention (Kalit. 95, Urai.); mana-kko_l. id. (Paripa_. 4,56); man-a-nilai state of mind (Kampara_. An:katan-r-u_. 10); manappariyam direct knowledge of the minds of others, their past births etc. (Me_ruman. 435); man-appariya-ja_n-am id. (Ci_vaka. 3081, Urai.); man-ama_cu impurity of mind (Man.i. 9,59); mana--mir-uku-tal to be miserly or ungenerous (Tiruppu. 790); man--vali firmness of mind (Piramo_t. 4,11); man-n-am consideration, contemplation (Kacika. Illor..u. 7); memorising (Kaival. Can. 28)(Ta.lex.) mi_ma_m.s'yate_ reflects on (AV.); mi_mam.sai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10140b). manyate_ thinks, honours (RV.); thinks fit, agrees (MBh.); maati thinks, deems, is sure of (Pali); maati, mam.ate, manati (As'.); mam.ati (NiDoc.); maati (Dhp.); man.n.ai (Pkt.); ma_na_r thinks (Gypsy); manoiki, manyo_nu, mano_nu to agree to, obey (Sh.); manunu to agree; manalnu to persuade (K.); maan.u to respect, obey (S.); mannan., manan. to obey, acquiesce, promise; mani_jan. to be appeased, be reconciled (L.); mann.a_, mannana_ to believe (P.); mananu_ to admit (WPah.); ma_nn.o to regard, obey; ma_na_r. to accept (Ku.); ma_nnu to obey, consider (N.); ma_niba (A.); ma_na_ (B.); ma_niba_ (Or.); ma_nab to know, revere (Mth.); ma_nai experiences, accepts, admits (OAw.); ma_nna_ to respect, obey (H.); ma_nai (OMarw.); ma_nvu~ (G.); ma_nn.e~ (M.); ma_nta_ (Konkan.i); man.na_viya caus. pp. (Pkt.); mana_van. to persuade another to take on an obligation (L.); mana_un.a_ to persuade, soothe (P.); manu_n.o (Ku.); mana_unu (N.); mana_iba to cause to respect or be respected (A.); mana_na (B.); mana_iba_ to propitiate (Or.); mana_vai (OAw.); mana_na_ to peersuade (H.); mana_vvu~ (G.); ma_navin.e~ (M.); man.e~ indeclinable particle of consideration (Ap.); men like, as if (Si.)(CDIAL 9857). cf. mantra thought, prayer, spell, counsel (RV.)(CDIAL 9834). manavi appeal (Te.lex.) man-u petition, request, prayer, word, submission (Ta.); manave, manuve petition, request, solicitation (Ka.); manavi a humble or respectful representation, request, solicitation, prayer, petition (Te.)(DEDR 4775). manute_ thinks (RV.); manvate_ 3 pl. (RV.); manute_ thinks, discerns (Pali); mana_ti knows (As'.); man.iba_ to know, think, agree; caus. man.a_iba_ to cause to agree or understand, to gratify, train (a beast of burden)(Or.); manan.u to accede to, obey (S.)(CDIAL 9826). cf. mantra_yate_ speaks (RV.)(CDIAL 9837). manas mind (RV.); mano_, manam., manaso_ mind, thought (Pali); manam. (NiDoc.); man.a (Pkt.); man, man (K.); man.n (L.); man (N.A.B.); man.a_ understanding, knowledge (Or.); man.a kariba_ to break in (horse or bullock), man.i a_n.iba_ to consider; man mind, memory (Mth.); mind (H.); man.i (OG.); mana (Si.); an.man.a_ troubled in mind; an.mana_n.a_ to be perplexed (P.); anman dejected; anmana_na_ to be out of sorts (H.); an.man.u~ sad (G.)(CDIAL 9822). anyamanas preoccupied (AitBr.); anyatramanas (S'Br.)(CDIAL 14223). Promised offering: manasyati has in mind (RV.); intends (TBr.); manaisun to give something in fulfilment of a vow; manasawun to make a solemn promise (K.); man.sn.a_ to consecrate in fulfilment of a vow; man.sa_un.a_ to cause to be given (P.); mansanu to exorcise; caus. mansa_unu (N.); ma_nsa_ offering promised to a deity (B.); manasai thinks of, imagines (OAw.)(CDIAL 9823). manasin having mind or soul (TS.); nirmanaska without mind (Skt.); niman.si_ without human feeling, inhuman, cruel (Ku.)(CDIAL 7364). sumanas well-disposed, gracious (RV.); a mythical being (MBh.); sumana pleasant; a mythical being (MBh.); suman, soman benevolent (K.)(CDIAL 13491). saumanasa cheerfulness (AV.); saumanasya (Sus'r.); so_manassa happiness (Pali); somnas glad; somnasa contentment (Si.)(CDIAL 13619). ma_n- < maha_n nom. sg of mahat the principle of intellect (Man.i. 27,207); ma_n--tal, ma_n-r-al bewilderment (Aricamaya. Kulace_. 129); ma_n-a-ki_n-an- < ma_na-hi_na person devoid of shame or self-respect (Tamir..na_. 219); ma_n-atam that which pertains to the mind (Ja_n-ava_. Ur-pat. 39); ma_n--tun:kan- man of great honour (Kulo_t. Ko_. 383)(Ta.); ma_n-a-paran- < + bhara man of honour (Kumare_. Cata.9); title assumed by certain kings (Tamir..na_. 169); ma_n-am < ma_na honour, dignity (Na_lat.i, 294); pride, eminence (Tol. Po. 41); vow (Ira_mana_. Ayo_t. 7); attachment (Pu. Ve. 5,6); cf. abhima_na (Skt.); ma_n-am disgrace (Na_lat, 198); cf. avama_na (Skt.); ma_n-am shame (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvuyirni_. 145); fault (Tol. Er..ut. 47); ma_n-avan- man of honour (Kantapu. Tun.aiva. 32); ma_n-i proud person (Nan-. 39); ma_n-an- man of honour (Can.. Aka.); ma_n-i-ttal < ma_na to be bashful; to become ashamed (Pu. Ve. 7,25, Urai.); ma_nisu (Ka.); ma_n-i-ttal to respect, honour, treat reverently (Ka_l.at. Ula_. 243); to be proud (Ni_la. 529, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

7050.To say: man- to say; mana_ to read (Bshk.); man- to say (Chil.Phal.)(CDIAL 9826). mon., mhun., mhon. to say; past. mol.o to recite, narrate, relate, say; mon.je, mol.ea_r I mean to say (Kon.lex.) men to say; menako as they say (Santali.lex.) men an exclamation of warning, caution, admonition, alarm; beware, take care, mind what you are about, look out; men ocokme clear out of the way; menho look out; men, met to say, to tell, to wish, to call; calakin menjon. kana I wish to go; menjon. to wish, to purpose; menadean, metadean I told him, I said to him; onkon metatkoa I said to them (Santali.lex.) man- to say (Bshk.); mana_ to read (Bshk.); man- to say (Chil.Phal.); mar-, man- to say; maram 1 sg. fut. < man:ga_m (Pas'.); munina to say, read; muna_na to ask, question (D..); mantrayate_ speaks (RV.); mam.treti, madradi announces (NiDoc.); matra_m I ask, say; matra_ speech (Wg.); mu_le- to understand (Shum.); ma_tiba to speak, recite, invite (A.)(CDIAL 9837). For sound change to -r- cf.: mur..an:ku (mur..an:ki-) to roar, thunder, make loud noise, be noised abroad, be made public; mur..akku (mur..akki-) to sound, beat a sounding instrument; n. sound, noise; mur..akkam loud noise, as of thunder or drums, clamour, roar; mur..avu, mur..a_ drum, large loud-sounding drum; mor..i (-v-, -nt-) to say, speak; n. word, saying, language (Ta.); mur..an.n.uka to roar, reverberate; mur..akkam a reverberating, rumbling, roaring sound; mur..akkuka to beat or play an instrument, make to resound; mor..i word; mor..iyuka to speak; mir..aku, mir..a_vu drum (Ma.); mor.v a child's continuous crying (Ko.); mil. good points in argument (in assembly), direction given in building (To.); mor..agu to sound as certain musical instruments; n. sound of certain musical instruments, roaring, thunder (Ka.); moli subject of talk or song (Kod..); mro~_gu, mro_yu, mro_vu to sound (Te.); mro~_gud.u, mro~_ta sound (Te.); mud.- (mut.t.-) to talk, speak (a language)(Kol.); mur.- (mut.t.-) to speak; mut.t.a language (Nk.); mir.i- to speak, utter (Kond.a)(DEDR 4989). cf. mural (muralv-, muran-r--) to make sound, cry, sing (Ta.)(DEDR 4973).

7051.A festival: ma_n-a_vi < maha_-navami the Navara_tri festival (I_t.u, 10,9,4); ma_na_mi id. (Ka.); ma_n-a_vi pleasure grove, temporarily formed for the Navara_tri festival (Tiruvirut. 66, Vya_.); ma_n-a_vicco_lai id. (I_t.u, 10,9,4)(Ta.lex.)

7052.Gem, girdle: man-avu gem (Ci_vaka. 466); mock-pearl, chank bead (Perumpa_n.. 132); conch; girdle for the waist (Tacaiva_. 373); woman's saree (Can.. Aka.); man-a_ chank bead (Ci_vaka. 2781); man-a_vu girdle for the waist (Ta.lex.)

7053.Image: manger: mun-n-an.ai crib, manger; mun-n-it.t.i crib, manger, trough for fodder; cf. mun-n-it.u to put before; to go in front (Ta.); munnid.u id. (Te.); mundid.u id. (Ka.); munnid.uga id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

7054.Image: fish: mn.iya fish (Kuwi); minj id. (?Kur.)(DEDR 4737). mi_na fish (Mn.); mi_n.a fish (Pkt.); min (Si.)(CDIAL 10140-a). vila_ngu-mi_n eel (Ta.lex.) Fish: mi_na fish (Mn.Pkt.); min fish (Si.)(CDIAL 10140a). mi_n- fish (Ta.); mi_n id. (Ma.Ka.Ga. Go.Kond.a.); mi.n fish (Ko.To.Pe.Mand..); mi_nu fish (Tu.Te.); id. (Kui.Kuwi.Malt.); mi.ni (Kod..); min, pl. minke (Mand..); mn.i_nu (Kuwi); mi_ni (pl. mi_nul)(Pa.); pl. mi_nil (Ga.); pl. mi_nga (Kond.a.Kui); pl. minku (Pe.); pl. mri_ka (Kuwi); pl. mi_nka, mni_ka, mn.i_ka (Kuwi)(DEDR 4885). mi_n-e_r.u shark, cur.a_-mi_n (Ta.lex.)

7055.A caste: mi_n-pit.i a sub-division of the Pa_n.ar caste (Ta.lex.)

7056.Image: elephant: mun-i young elephant (Nar-.360)(Ta.lex.)

7057.Pledge: mun-n-ilaippa_t.u bail, security, pledge; mun-n-i_t.u first or prior mortgage; mun-n-or-r-i first or prior mortgage (Ta.lex.)

7058.Image: that which is affixed; sword-hilt: mo_han.amu sword-hilt (Te.); mo_hal.a that which is affixed; the hilt of a sword or dagger (Ka.)(DEDR 5144).

7059.Fragrance: man.a (-pp-, -nt-) to emit fragrance; man.appu scent, odour, perfume; man.am fragrance, fragrant substance (Ta.); man.akka to yield smell; smell; man.appikka to cause to emit a smell or smell; man.am smell (good or bad)(Ma.)(DEDR 4668).

7060.Bathing; to wash the face: mi_n.a, mi_ha bathing, bath (Ka.); mu_jna_ to wash the face of; mu~_jhrna_ to wash one's face (Kur.); mnje to wash another's face; mnjre to wash one's own face (Malt.); mi.y- (mi.d-) to bathe (used of the priest of the ti., i.e. the most sacred grade of dairy)(To.); mi_, mi_yu (mind-, mi_d-) to take a bath, bathe; cause to bathe, wash, bathe, pour over (the body); n. bath; mi_yisu to cause to take a bath, bathe (Ka.); mi_pini to take a bath, wash oneself; mi_pa_vuni to make or cause to bathe, bathe, wash, give a bath; mi_yarpuni to wash a corpse (Tu.); mi_- (mi_-) to bathe (Pa.); (ni_r) muy-, mi_-, miy- id. (Ga.); mi_y-, mi_-, miya_na_, mi_na_ id.; mihi_ta_na_ to wash somebody else's body, esp. infants; mi_cna_ to bathe another; mi_h- id. (Go.); mi_- (-t-) to bathe (Mand..); mi_va (mi_t-) to lave, bathe or anoint oneself, be anointed or spatterd; n. act of bathing; mi_spa (mi_st-) to bathe, wash (another); n. act of bathing; musa (musi-) to wash the head (Kui); mi_ali to bathe (oneself); mi_thali to bathe (another); mi_nai to wash; mi_- (-t-) to bathe; mi_t- (-h-) to give bath (Kuwi)(DEDR 4878). For semant. 'face' in: mnjre to wash one's own face (Malt.): cf. Images: face; likeness: cf. mukam face (Ta.); mokkat.t.u features, face, likeness (Te.)(DEDR 4889). cf. mu_ci face (Ta.)(DEDR 5031).

7061.Image: bead: man.i jewel, ornament (RV.); jewel (Pali.S.); man.i_ jewel (P.Or. M.); pearl (M.); mani jewel (N.); mani_ (Mth.H.); man (H.); min.a, pl. min.i jewel (Si.); minriklo ornament (Gypsy); miriklo pearl, coral (Gypsy); merikle agate (Gypsy); manka snake-stone (K.); mani button (Gypsy); merikli bead (Gypsy); mia~_rik bead necklace (Kal.); man:ka bead (L.); man:ka_ bead, jewel (P.); large bead or large gem (M.); man:ko gem, bead (G.)(CDIAL 9731). man.ika_ra jeweller (VS.); id. (Pali); man.ia_ra (Pkt.); manar, manuru (K.); mania_r, mania_ra_, manea_ra_ seller or maker of glass bangles (P.); man.iha_ri_ jeweller (Or.); maniha_r glass bangle maker (Bi.); maniya_r, maniya_ra_, maniha_r, manhiya_r bracelet maker and seller (H.); man.i_ya_r, man.i_ha_r seller of bangles (G.); man.yar, man.er, man.eri_ jeweller (M.); min.iyara, min.i_r (Si.)(CDIAL 9733). man.i crystal (Kur-al., 1273); sacred bead, as rudrak or lotus seed (Periyapu. Tirukku_t.t.a. 6); snake-stone (Ta_yu. Paripu_ran.a. 9); necklace of beads; jewel; small round thing, as bead (Ci_vaka. 2977); man.i-k-ka_l-ar-iar merchants skilled in the knowledge of gems (Kalla_. Muruka. Tuti); man.i-me_kalai tutelary goddess guarding certain islands by Indra's comman (Cilap. 15,33); woman's jewelled girdle (Tiv. Iyar-. Cir-iya. Ma. 10)(Ta.lex.) man.i-vin-aiar those who work in precious stones (Man.i. 28,45); those who string pearls (Ta.lex.) Image: glittering: min. glittering, sparkling (Ka.)(DEDR 4876). Image: round bead; collection of jewels: ma_niya collection of jewels (Pali); ma_ni round bead; necklace (Sh.); man.a jewel (Si.)(CDIAL 9998).

7062.Peacock; pheasant: mo_na_l impeyan pheasant (K.); muna_l, mana_l pheasant (P.); muna_l, mona_l himalayan pheasant (N.); mura_l.a a kind of wild bird (Or.); muna_l pheasant (H.); mo_na_u (WPah.)(CDIAL 10208). maai, mayil peacock (Ta.); mayil (Ma.); mi.l (Ko.); mi.s- (To.); mayla, maylu (Ka.); mayli (Kod..); mairu (Tu.); majil, mail (Pa.); magil, maynil (Ga.); mal, mallu (Go.); mi_ril, mri_lu (Kond.a); mal (Pe.); mel (Mand..); med.u, melu (Kui); mellu_, mellu, melu (Kuwi)(DEDR 4642). mayu_ra peacock (VS.Pali); in cmpds. (RV.)); mayu_ri_ peahen (RV.); mayu_ka, maru_ka (Skt.); ma_ra_ (Savara); mau_ra, mau_la (Pkt.); maiyu_r cock muna_l pheasant (Sh.); maira_ peacock (A.); maur, mau_r (B.); maira (Or.); mayura_, miyura_ (Si.); mo_ra (Pali); mora (As'.); mo_ra (Pkt.); mo_r (K.L.P.); moru (S.); mor (Ku.Mth.Bhoj.H.G.M.); mora (OAw.); morad.i_ (OMarw.); mo_ra_ (Si.); mhor, murha_ (H.); mho_ru (Konkan.i); majura, maju_la, majula (As'.); majur, mujur (N.); majura (Or.); mam.ju_ra (OAw.); modara, monara (Si.)(CDIAL 9865).

7063.Land: man. land (Ta.); mon. land property (To.); man.n.i land property (Kod..)(DEDR 4666).

7064.Sand: man.al sand, gravel (Ta.Ka.); sand (Ma.); man.l. id. (Ko.); er-mol.n. id. (To.); mal.al, malal, maral, malar sand, gravel (Ka.); man.a sand (Kod..); man id. (Pa.Ga.); kunnomee id. (Go.); man.u id. (Kond.a)(DEDR 4666). mulo_g alluvium, silt (Kho.)(CDIAL 9906).

7065.House: ma_na house, dwelling (RV.); ma_n nest (Pas'.); spider's web (Dm.); mru~ lair, spider's web (Kal.); mo_n. spider's web (Phal.); cf. mandira palace, (lion's) den, stable (CDIAL 100042). man-ai house, dwelling, mansion, house-site, a land measure, wife, family, household, domestic life (Ta.); man-aiya_l., man-aiyo_l. wife; man-aivi wife, heroine of a pastoral or agricultural tract, female owner or resident of a house (Ta.); mana house (Ma.); mantanm affairs of household; man devr household god (Ko.); man family, household (To.); mane habitation, abode, house, apartment, room (Ka.); house (Kod..); house, home (Tu.); manetana, mantana household, household life; manetanasta householder, a worthy, honourable man (Ka.); maneka.re man of a house (Kod..); manetana household (Tu.); pon.den mane cowshed (Kond.a)(DEDR 4776). man-n-u to be permanent, endure (Ta.); manu to live, exist, conduct oneself (Te.); man(i)ki existence, living, life, residing, livelihood, abode, dwelling, home, place, locality (Te.); manupu protection, maintenance (Te.); man- to be (Nk.Ga.Go.Kond.a.Pe.Mand..Kuwi); manna_ to become, be abundant, amount to (Kur.); mene to be, grow or to be produced (Malt.); manning to become, to be (Br.)(DEDR 4778).

7066.Image: seat: man.i, man.e stool, low bench, seat (Ka.); man.e low stool to sit upon (Tu.); man.ai low wooden seat, low earthen dais, howdah, board, plan, wooden base or cutting instrument, footstool (Ta.)(DEDR 4675).

7067.Image: array of vessels, instruments: ma_n. beautiful array of household vessels (G.); ma~_d. array of instruments, etc. (M.); mad.a-ya adornment, ornament (Si.); mamd.aya adorning (Pkt.); ma~_d. arrangement, disposition, vessels or pots for decoration (G.)(CDIAL 9736). man.n.u to do, make, perform, adorn, beautify, decorate, polish, perfect, finish (Ta.)(DEDR 4685). ma_t.t.al a woman's ornament (Ta.); ma_t.t.u to fasten on, buckle, hook, attach (Ta.); ma_t.u a patch of metal put in to mend a vessel (Te.); ma_t.pi a_ to arrange, plan (Kuwi); ma_'- to fit into, fasten (button); ma_h to fit (shaft to arrowhead)(Go.)(DEDR 4802). van-ai (-v-, -nt-) to form, fashion, shape, adorn, draw, paint (Ta.); ba_n to make or fashion as a potter does, make pots etc. (Ka.); va_nu to make as a pot (Te.); va_n- id. (Pa.); vana a face, appearance, visage (Kui)(DEDR 5327). bana_na_ to make etc. (H.); banna_ to be made (H.)(CDIAL 11260). ban.a_n.o_ to make (K.); vanati, vano_ti makes ready (RV.); van.an.u to suit (S.); ban.na_ to agree with, answer a purpose, be of use, succeed (P.); ban.n.an. to become; ban.un. to be made (L.); ban.ono (Ku.); bannu to be made, be done, become (N.); bana_ to agree, do (B.); banab to be prepared, be made (Mth.); bana_vai makes (OAw.); banna_ to be adorned, be made (H.); banun to be made (K.); banvu~ to suit, be made (G.); bann.e~ (M.); baniba_ to become ready, ripen, be made, be; bana_iba_ to make, prepare (e.g. vegetables for cooking)(Or.); ban.a_n.u_ to make; ban.a_n.a_, ban.a_n. (WPah.)(CDIAL 11260).

7068.Image: a cloth thrown over: bonte, bante, bonta, bonta_ a thick cloth made by sewing one cloth on another, a cloth made of quilted rags (Ka.); bonte (Te.); buntha, buntri_, bo_ntha a cloth thrown, or prepared to be thrown, over the head and body as a muffler; bo_nthi_ a clout; bontega a man who wears a bonte (Ka.lex.) pontai rent in a cloth (Ta.lex.)

7069.Image: burning incense: bo_dhana burning incense; bo_dhani_ the eleventh day in the bright half of Ka_rttika when Vis.n.u rises from his four month's sleep; bo_dhana kindling, inflaming; the planet Mercury (Skt.lex.) po_tan-am waving incense; po_ta_layam < bo_dha_laya temple of wisdom (Tiruman. 1707) (Ta.lex.)

7070.Desire; bridegroom: vanati, vano_ti desire, gains (RV.); vanati, vana_yati, vano_ti desires, aims at (Pali); van.e_i asks (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11260). vanas loveliness, desire (in cmpds.)(RV.); vana lust, desire (Pali); bonu plunder (Kho.)(CDIAL 11266). vano_ti, pres. part. vanvant (RV.); vanu enemy, friend (RV.); vano bridegroom (S.); vani_ bride (S.); vanna~, vana~_, vanr.a_ bridegroom, husband; vanni_ bride, wife (L.); banna_, banra_, banri_, banni_ (P.)(CDIAL 11279). cf. man.am marriage (Ta.lex.)

7071.Wrist: man.ikkat.t.u, makkat.t.u wrist (Ta.); man.ikkan.t.am, man.ikket.t.u id. (Ma.); man.ikat.t.u id. (Ka.Te.); manikat.t.u id. (Te.); man.igan.t.u ankle (Tu.); man.d.a anklet; back of the hand (Te.); menkt.i wrist (Kol.); mand.a id. (Ga.); mat.t.a id. (Go.); mulgut.a_ id. (Kur.); man.ibandha- (bandha- translates kat.t.u)(Skt.)(DEDR 4673). man.i wrist (Skt.)(CDIAL 9732). mangat.i_ bracelet set with jewels (H.); man:gat.i_ id. (H.M.)[due to association with man.i jewel, ornament (RV.)(CDIAL 9731)]; mangat. wrist, ankle, pastern (H.); man:gat. (M.); man.igan.t.u wrist-bone (Tu.)(CDIAL 9734).

7072.Throat; neck: manda neck (Ash.Gaw.); mo~_da, mu~_da (Wg.); manda_ neck; mandelik throat (Pas'.); madolik neck (Shum.); mu~nde (Nin:g.); mandapile_ (Sv.); mara_rik neck (Kt.); manthi_ back of neck (WPah.); mana_t.i_, mit.t.u_ (WPah.); mant.o, munt.o head, neck (N.); man.d.o_ (Par.)(CDIAL 9732). Neck; throat: man-n-ai throat, cheek (Ta.); manna, menna neck (Ma.)(DEDR 4779). men-n-i, men-n-ai throat; cheek; men-n-ai-k-kat.t.i goitre; mumps; man-n-aikkat.t.i mumps; men-n-i-kat.t.i a cattle disease; men-n-aiyai-p-pit.i to throttle; men-n-aippit.ikka to the full, as in eating; man-n-iyai nerve in the nape of the neck; vital nerve; man-n-aippit.i seizing by the throat (Te_vai. 80)(Ta.lex.) manya_ du. and pl. nape of neck (i.e. the lines of muscle at the back of it)(AV.); manya_ka_ (Skt.); man~j neck (L.); ma_n neck (M.); ma_ni_ annular lining of the mouthpiece of a handmill (M.); ma_na nape of neck (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 9858). man.i hump of camel (MBh.); fleshy excrescence on a goat's neck (VarBr.S.); thyroid cartilege (= kan.t.haman.i-)(Skt.); man.ika globular formation of flesh on an animal's shoulder (AitBr.); man.ila having fleshy excescences (e.g. on the dewlap)(TS.); men nape of neck, neck, throat; mend id. (Gypsy); mendri_ necklet; menri_ (Gypsy); man. neck (Bshk.); man.i Adam's apple (Sh.); mun~u-god.u flesh of nape of neck; nape of neck (K.); man.i vertebrae of neck (S.); man.i_ clitoris, knob of wood, pulley block (M.)(CDIAL 9732). Image: neck: man:ka_ nape of neck, vertebra of neck (L.); Adam's apple, amulet worn round neck (M.); man.iko vertebrae of neck, Adam's apple (S.); man:ko single vertebra of neck (G.)(CDIAL 9732). magar back of shoulder, back (P.); magir head; magar (WPah.)(CDIAL 9701). mak neck (Kol.); makk id. (Nk.)(DEDR 4622).

7073.Birch: me_n-i, kuppai-me_n.i acalypha indica (Ta.); kuppa-me_ni id. (Ma.)(DEDR 5100). kuppai-me_n-i acalypha indica (Ta.); kuppa-me_ni (Ma.); kuppe, kuppe-gid.a id. (Ka.); kuppen.t.a, kuppi id. (Te.)(DEDR 1737). cf. cinni birch-leaved acalypha, acalypha betulina (Ka.)(DEDR 2597).

7074.Anogeissus latifolia: min.iya anogeissus latifolia (Pe.); min.iya id. (Mand..); mn.i_ya id., name of a tree (Kuwi)(DEDR 4855).

7075.Teak: muai, mun-n-ai firebrand teak, premna; headache tree; dusty-leaved fire-brand teak; woolly-leaved firebrand teak; charcoal tree (Ta.); mua premna integrifolia (the wood serves to produce fire by attrition)(Ma.)(DEDR 4918).

7076.Image: bubble, blister: bobbul.i, bobbul.ike a bubble (Ka.); bubbud.a (Te.); bud.abud.a_ (M.); bobbe, bokke a blister, a pustule from a burn (Ka.); bobbe (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

7077.Bark: bobbad.e rind, bark (Ka.); bobbare (Te.); tan:ge_d.i bobbad.e chips of tan:ge_d.i; tan:ge_d.i the plant cassia auriculata (Ka.); ten:gad.i, tan:ge_d.u id. (Te.); cimud.e (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

7078.Babool tree: babbul.i, bobbuli, babbara, gobbal.i, gobbul.i (Tadbhava of barbara, barbura, barbula, barbu_ra, varvu_ra) the thorny babool tree, acacia arabica; ja_li; udbhat.e (Ka.); ba_bhal.a, babhal.i_, babhu_l.a (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Babul tree: cf. ve_l babul tree, acacia arabica = mimosa arabica (Ta.)(DEDR 5537). karu-ve_l black babul, acacia arabica (Pata_rtta. 462)(Ta.); karuve_lam id. (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) kari_ram West Indian pea tree; babul (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ve_lampicin- gum arabic; ve_lampat.t.ai babul bark; ve_l babu, gens acacia; ve_lan:ka_ykolucu a silver anklet with beads resembling babul fruit (Ta.lex.) cf. acacia arabica: karu ve_lam (Ta.); acacia ferruginea: khour (Nepali); sonkhair (Berar); ker (M.); somasara (Skt.); vel.ve_lam (Ta.); ansandar (Te.); bark: astringent; gum: demulcent, emollient, nutrient; habitat: Gujarat, Berar, N. Circars, Deccan, Konkan, Carnatic, eastern slopes of the W. Ghats (GIMP, p.2)[If soma is interpreted as a plant, it may perhaps be linked to acacia ferruginea; cf. Pa_n.ini gan.a including soma in the s'ara_di gan.a]. vel.ve_l panicled babool, acacia leucophloea (Ta.lex.) Acacia leucophloea: shveta-barbura (Skt.); safed kikar (H.); safed babul (B.); hewar (M.); velvelam (Ta.); tellatumma (Te.); bark: astringent; habitat: Punjab plains, Rajputana, Madhya Bharat and throughout the dry the dry forest tracts of the peninsula (GIMP, p.2). Acacia javanica = parkia javanica = acacia niopo: According to Tavera, the pods are edible. Their pulp is golden yellwo, with a sweetish taste and an odor like that of violets. He says that the roasted seeds are used in certain parts of Africa to make an infusion like coffee, for which reason they have been called 'soudan coffee.' The pulp was analyzed... it contains 60 percent of its weight of sugar (a mixture of dextrose and levulose)... Ridley reports that the seeds are used in place of peppermint as a medicine for colic (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.418). Acacia farnesiana = mimosa farnesiana: As to its economic use Brown reports that a gum which resemles gum arabic exudes from the bark of the plant... This tree is grown extensively in France for the fragrant perfume obtained from the flowers... Cassie perfume... odour like that of violets... in India the bark and the pods are used as a dye-stuff and for tanning... decoction of the bark together with ginger is an astringent wash for the teeth. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 362-363). Thorny babool tree: ba_uru acacia farnesiana (S.)(CDIAL 9199) {Safford, W.E., reports that in some parts of India the bark and the (brown) pods are used as a dye-stuff and for tanning: Useful Plants of Guam, Contrib. U.S.National Herb. 9 (1905)}. ca_li umbrella thorn babul, acacia planifrons; elephant thorn, a. tomentosa (Ta.); ja_li thorny babool tree, a. arabica = a. farnesiana (Ka.); ja_li, ja_la a. arabica (branches are cut and used for fencing)(Te.)(DEDR 2474). cf. ca_likan-, ca_liyan- a caste of weavers (Ta.); ta_lye weaver; spider (Tu.)(DEDR 2475). za_lar net-maker; zaluru spider (K.)(CDIAL 5214). ja_li_ fisherman, sorcerer (B.)(CDIAL 5217). cf. bi-zal spider (Dm.); vayyar.a_ the weaver bird (P.)(CDIAL 11298). ja_lika_ veil (S'a_n:khGr..); net (Skt.); za_li_ silkworm cocoon (A.); ja_li network (B.); ja_ru~ cobweb (G.); bizal spider (Dm.); jal net (WPah.)(CDIAL 5213). jha_la_ cobweb (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 5219). Babul: vavvula acacia arabica (Skt.); babla (B.); babul (H.)(Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.324). ba_uru acacia farnesiana (S.)(CDIAL 9199). babbu_la acacia arabica (S'a_rn:gP.); babbula, barbura, varvu_ra, vavvo_la, vavu_la (Skt.); babbu_la acacia arabica (Pkt.); baburu (S.); babu_l (P.); babul acacia arabica (N.); babur a partic. tree (A.); ba_bul acacia arabica (B.); babura, baburi, babula (Or.); babur (Mth.); babu_ra (OAw.); babu_r, babu_l mimosa arabica (H.); ba_bhu_l., ba_bhal., ba_bhl.i_ acacia arabica (M.); ba_val. acacia arabica (G.); ba_vl.i_ a long-thorned variety (G.)(CDIAL 9148). ba_buro pertaining to this tree (S.); babu_la_ tree (H.); ba_bla_ (B.)(CDIAL 9212). babla, babur, gabla acacia arabica; gabur acacia farnesiana (Santali.lex.) gua babla acacia farnesiana (B.); gandbabul (H.); arimeda (Skt.); vitakhadira id. (Skt.)(Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.325). Acacia farnesiana or mimosa farnesiana. Philippine names: kandaroma, aroma, kambang jipun. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.362). kan.t.ala the thorny tree mimosa arabica which yields gum arabic (Skt.); kan.t.ala the acacia tree (Or.)(CDIAL 2676). Acacia Farnesiana (cassie, huisache) Cassie perfume, distilled from the flowers, yields cassie absolute, to prepare violet bouquets, extensively used in European perfumery. Cassie pomades are made in India. Pods, containing 23% tannin, are used to tan leather. Bark is also used for tanning and dyeing leather in combination with iron ores and salts. A gummy substance obtained from pods is used as cement for broken pottery. Gum exuding from trunk is considered superior to gum arabic. These trees are used as ingredient in Ivory Coast for arrow poison; elsewhere they are used as fences and to check erosion. Wood is used for wooden ploughs and for pegs. Woody branches are used in India as toothbrushes. (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, Boca Raton, Florida, 1985, p.5). tumma babool tree, acacia arabica (Te.); tumba_ id. (Kol.); tumba maran, tumba id. (Ga.); tumma id. (Go.)(DEDR 3335). cf. ve_l babul tree (Ta.)(DEDR 5537). cf. ve_li fence (Ta.)(DEDR 5538). cf. ca_li umbrella-thorn babul, acacia planifrons (Ta.); ja_li acacia farnesiana (Ka.)(DEDR 2474). Acacia farnesiana: arimaedah (Skt.); gand-babul (H.); guya-babula (B.); deobabul (M.); kasturivel (Ta.); kasturitumma (Te.); bark: astringent, demulcent; essential oi; pods 23% tannin; habitat: throughout India, often planted in gardens (GIMP, p.2). Acacia arabica: kikar (H.); babla, babul (B.); babhula, kikar (M.); babbula (Skt.); karu velum (Ta.); nallatumma (Te.); gum: in dysentery, useful in diabetes mellitus; bark: astringent, demulcent; leaves and fruits contain 32% tannin; fruit contains 41.7% tannin; naturalized in all parts of India, indigenous to Sind and the Deccan (GIMP, p.2). s'iri_s.a the tree acacia sirissa; its flower (S.ad.vBr.)(CDIAL 12453). baburu acacia arabica (S.); ba_bhu_l. (M.); ba_val. (G.); babu_l (H.); babu_r ba_bul (H.); va_vula_, varvu_ra (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 369). Acacia arabica: ba_val. acacia arabica (G.); ba_vl.i_ a long-thorned variety (G.);babbu_la acacia arabica (Pkt.Skt.); babbula, barbura, varvu_ra, vavvo_la, vavu_la (Skt.); baburu (S.); babu_l (P.) babul (N.); babur a partic. tree (N.); ba_bul a. arabic (B.); babura, baburi, babula (Or.); babur (Mth.); babu_ra (OAw.); babu_r, babu_l mimosa arabica (H.); ba_bhu_l., ba_bhal., ba_bhl.i_ acacia arabica (M.)(CDIAL 9148). ba_buro pertaining to the tree acacia arabica (S.); ba_bla_ the tree (B.); babu_la_ (L.)(CDIAL 9212). ve_l babul tree (Ta.); ve_la-maram an acacia, babul tree (Ma.)[acacia arabica = mimosa arabica](DEDR 5537).

7079.Image: beam: vya_paka widely extending (beam)(Kat.hUp.); ja_wa main roof-beam (Pas'.)(CDIAL 12204).

7080.Battle, war: bavara battle, war (Ka.); bavaramu id. (Te.)(DEDR 3997).

7081.Business: cf. vya_pa_ra occupation, business (MBh.); va_va_ra business (Pkt.); va_var business, activity (M.); va_vr (Konkan.i); vya_pa_ra (Pali); beora_ affair (B.)(CDIAL 12205). vya_priyate_, vya_pr.n.ute_ is engaged in (MBh.); va_varai, va_virai is busy (Pkt.); va_varai uses, eats (OG.); va_varvu~ to use, bring into use, live in (a house), spend (G.); va_varn.e~ to busy oneself with, live and act among (M.); va_parvu~ (= va_varvu~) (G.)(CDIAL 12203). Loan: va_yppai debt (Ta.); va_ypa, va_yippa a loan (Ma.)(DEDR 5355).

7082.Image: tiger: cf. ba~_vli, ba~_uli wild cat (Kuwi); bayok (Go.); ba_vuga male cat (Ka.); ba_vki wild cat (Pa.); boyka (Pe.);(DEDR 4106). valliyam tiger (Akana_.362); velluma_ tiger (Ta.lex.) Image: beast of prey: vya_la wicked, mischievous (AV.); beast of prey (Gaut.); snake (MBh.); vicious elephant (Skt.); vya_d.a beast of prey (R.); va_la malicious (Pali); va_l.a beast of prey, snake (Pali); va_l.a-miga beast of prey (such as tiger, leopard, etc.); va_la noxious wild animal, snake (Pkt.); va_l. ejected from caste (M.); val.a tiger (Si.); vyala, viyala wild, unmanageable (of camels)(NiDoc.); viya_la wicked; thief (Pkt.); viyala tiger, panther, snake (Si.)(CDIAL 12212). [Poss. influenced by ve_nga = vya_ghra, vaggha (Pkt.), va_gu (Konkan.i) + ala_dh water-snake (Mth.) cf. the meaning in MBh.: vya_la snake.] Images: tiger, lion; elephant; horse: vayama_n- lion (Patir-r-up. 75,2); tiger (Pur-ana_. 52); vayama_ lion (Ain:kur-u. 307); tiger (Ci_vaka. 2778); elephant (Kampara_. U_rtet.u. 17); horse (Ain:kur-u. 449)(Ta.lex.) cf. vaya strength, power (Tol. Col. 366)(Ta.lex.) Image: bengal tiger: vaya-p-puli lion (Pa_rata. Cu_tupo_r. 265); vaya-p-po_ttu lion (Ta.lex.) vari-vayam tiger, as striped (Pur-ana_. 100); vaya-vari tiger (Pin..)(Ta.); vari-p-puli Bengal tiger; vari stripe (Ci_vaka. 1702); ornamental marks on the breast (Kalit. 76)(Ta.lex.)

7083.Image: bat: bardu~r.u~c a bat; kahu bardu~r.u~c the flying fox, the large fox bat, pteropus edwardsi; cut.ia bardu~r.u~c, hon bardu~r.u~c, pot.om bardu~r.uc (Santali.lex.) Image: flying fox: togala ba_vuli the large bat called flying fox (Ka.lex.)

7084.Image: female dwarf: ba~ur.i a female dwarf; ba~or.a~ dwarf, small of stature (Santali.lex.)

7085.Image: nipple: ba~t. teat, nipple (of cow)(Santali.lex.)

7086.Image: dishevelled hair: ba_bar dishevelled hair (M.); ba_bri_ combings (G.); ba_bar grass for rope-making (H.); ba_briya_m. long and ill kept hair (P.H.); barbara (Skt.); babbari_ kes'a racana_ (OM.)(Bloch, p. 369). Images: frizzy hair hanging down to the neck; dishevelled hair: barbara curly (of hair)(Skt.); barbari_ curly hair; barbari_ka (Skt.); barbarin curly-haired (Skt.); babbari_ a way of dressing the hair (Pkt.); ba_buryu~_ pl. tufts of a faqir's tangled hair (S.); ba_bri_ya~_, babra_na_ pl. faqir's long dishevelled hair; ba_vara_, ba_varia_ pl. hair too short to be tied in a knot (P.); ba_bari cluster of hair (Ku.); ba_bri long or curled and frizzy hair hanging down to the neck (B.); babura, baburi (of hair) curled and grown down to the neck (Or.); ba_bri_ long locks on head; babri_ forelock, curly hair of camel (H.); ba_bra~_ pl., ba_bri_ loose hair (G.); ba_bar, ba_bri_ (M.)(CDIAL 9158).

7087.Image: censer: paca_y censer (W.)(Ta.); pajah (U.)(Ta.lex.) cf. paja_va_ brick kiln (P.)(CDIAL 7686). cf. bhasma ashes (AV.); bha_smana ashy (Skt.)(CDIAL 9425). cf. bassna_ to consume to ashes, (man) destroys by fire (Kur.)(DEDR 5517).

7088.Steam; tears: bhapha_ra medicinal inhalation of steam (P.); bapha_ro steam from a cooking-pot, vapour from burning ghee (Ku.); fumigation (N.); vapour, sultriness, sweat (G.); bapha_ra_ vapour (H.); va_pha_ra_ fumigation (M.)(CDIAL 9224). ba_s.pa tear, tears (MBh.); vapour (R.); ba_s.paka steam (Sus'r.); va_s.pa (Un..); bappa tear (Pali); bappha vapour (Pkt.); bappha_ tear; ba_ha tear (Pkt.); steam (K.); baha_ steam, mist, sweat (K.); ba_pha steam (S.); ba_ph (Ku.N.Bhoj. Aw.H.G.M.); bapa tears (Si.); vappa tear (Pali); va_ha (Pkt.); vappha_ula very hot (Pkt.); va_ph steam (M.); bha_p steam (N.A.B.); bha_pa (Or.); bha_p(h), bha_ph (H.); bas steam (Ash.); ba_s (Wg.Pas'.); ba_ha steam (K.); baha_ steam, sweat, mist (K.); bha_s steam (P.); ba_mpha (Or.)(CDIAL 9223). ba_s.pa_yate_ emits vapour (Skt.); ba_phan.u to cook by steam (S.); ba_phvu~ to boil (G.); bapha_vu~ to be oppressed by heat (G.); bha_phn.a_ to inhale steam (P.); bha_pa_ to emit steam, to reek, caus. bha_pa_na (B.); bha_piba_ to emit vapour (Or.)(CDIAL 9225). veppu, veppam heat (Periyapu. Tiruja_n-a. 1050); veppam fever; veppu the god of fevers (Tiv. Ira_ma_n-ucanu_r-. 22); veppu heat (Te.Ma.); beppu id. (Tu.); veytu fomentation; heat (Maturaik. 403, Urai); that which is hot (Akana_. 203)(Ta.lex.) cf. pat.pat.n. (tears are shed) in abundance (Ko.); pal.apal.a sound of rain or tears falling in big drops (Ka.)(DEDR 4001).

7089.Slimy vegetable substance: bampu, bompu, bombalu a slimy and sticky vegetable substance used as soap (Ka.); var..uppu (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

7090.Cup for combustibles: bomba_l.a the palms of the hands of metal images joined so as to form a cup for the reception of combustibles (Ka.lex.) bo_mbi a metallic instrument for tapping bales of rice (Tu.lex.)

7091.Priest: boppi the person that officiates in the temples of village-deities (Ka.); bho_pi_ (M.); or-ateya boppi de_va a name; or-ate (u_t.i), or-ante, orte, varte that oozes: a spring, a fountain (utsa); a hole dug in the dry bed of a stream etc. where water oozes in; a flow, as of blood; a liquid or fluid; drava, rasa; or-ate ponal a stream produced by oozing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7092.Image: tabor: bombul.ike, bombul.i a small drum or tabor (Ka.lex.)

7093.A country: barbara, babbara, varvara name of a district or country; a man of low origin, a low fellow, not an A_rya, a barbarian (Ka.lex.)

7094.Sandalwood: barbara a kind of sandal-wood, yellow and said to smell like a ripe orange (Ka.); haricandana (Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

7095.Weaving: vapa weaving (Skt.); bo~ weaver of Camar caste (P.)(CDIAL 11280). vapati weaves (Dha_tup.); vapani_ weaver's instrument, weaver's shop (Skt.); bon.a_, bon.i_ weaver of Cama_r caste (P.); bowan cost of weaving (A.)(CDIAL 11283). Tailor: pa_n.a_tti a woman of the tailor caste; pa_n.a_n- man of the tailor caste (Ta.lex.) vaya weaver (Skt.); vayya_, bayya_, vayyar.a_, bayyar.a the weaver bird ploceus baya (P.); baya_, baiya_ (H.)(CDIAL 11298). Heddle; stitch: ba heddle of a loom (A.B.); a kind of return stitch in sewing (B.); simple stitch (Or.); baa heddle (Or.); bai, bae heddle (Bi.); bay (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 11299). vayati weaves (RV.); caus. va_yayati (Pa_n..); va_yati weaves; pass. viyyati (Pali); way-, we_ (Pas'.); bu~yoiki, buyoiki to weave, knit, plait (Sh.); bu- to weave (D..); biba to weave (A.); viyanava_ to weave, plait (Si.); va_ya_pe_ti causes to be woven (Pali); bowa_iba (A.); viyavanava_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11300). buyeco weaver (Sh.); vayitri_ weaver (Ta_n.d.Br.)(CDIAL 11307). vayana act of weaving (Skt.); buyeni weaving (Sh.); su_pa_-bena_ the swallow hirundo apus batassia (< weaving a winnowing fan)(H.)(CDIAL 11301). bailat.h movable sticks placed at intervals to separate threads of web (Bi.)(CDIAL 11303). va_pa weaving (Skt.); bau sheaf, load of grass (Kho.); w'py sheaf (Pahl.); wa_v in: khan.d.a-wa_v shawl weaver (K.)(CDIAL 11520). wowuru weaver (K.)(CDIAL 11521). va_na weaving (Skt.); va_n.i_ loom, weaving (Skt.); ba_n.a_ woof (P.); va_na sewing, stuffing (of a couch)(Pali); ba_n.a weaver's wage (Or.); ba_n.a-dan.d.a the roller in a loom; ba_n.i weaving (Or.); ba_na_ woof (H.); ba_ni_ weaving, thread for weaving (H.); va_n.o woof, woof and warp (G.); va_n.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 11514). Weaver of cloth: va_so_-va_ya weaver of cloth (RV.); va_yaka (BhP.); va_yaya weaver (Pkt.); ba_i-cat.ia_, ba_it.a_ the weaver-bird ploceus baya (Or.)(CDIAL 11542). pa_vu warp (Ta.Ma.); pa_vile_-va_r- to interweave dyed with white yarn; pa_va_r-r-u to make the warp ready for the loom (Ta.lex.) Weaver's beam: pa_vo_t.al weaver's beam; pa_-v-o_t.u to run the weaver's warp; to be always in motion (Ta.lex.) Weaver's brush: pa_v-a_r-r-i weaver's brush (Ci_vaka. 615,1153, Urai.) pa_vu-kar..i split bamboos used to keep the upper warp separated from the lower one; pa_vu to spread (Ta.lex.)

7096.Sowing: pampal harvest; expanse, luxuriance, abundance; paravu to spread; parappu to spread (as grain)(Ta.); pampu spread (as vegetation)(Ta.); paraka to spread (Ma.); parvu, parbu, habbu to spread (Ka.); parat- to spread (grain); pabb (creeping plant) twines (Kod..); parapu spreading; parvu, paruvu to spread (Te.); parha_na_ to spread (Go.); prahpa to spread out (Kui); pressali to spread out paddy to dry (Kuwi)(DEDR 3949). vapa sower (VS.); ve_v collection of seed grain (K.); bua_ puddling in of rice plants, state of rice plants between 2 and 10 inches high (Or.)(CDIAL 11281). vapati scatters, sows (RV.); sows (Pali); vavis'ati, inf. vavam.nae (NiDoc.); vavai (Pkt.); bo~ (Gau.); wawun (K.); bon.o to scatter, sow (Ku.); boab to sow (Bi.); boal (Bhoj.); bona_ (H.); bovu~ (G.); vavanava_ to plant, propagate by cuttings, cultivate; vavenava_ to spring up, thrive (Si.); vavitaga, pret. vavidemi (NiDoc.); vavia (Pkt.); bayau (OAw.); boya_ (anboya_ unsown)(H.); vaviavva (Pkt.); bob sowing of grain by the drill (H.); caus. vapa_pe_ti (Pali); bowa_iba (A.); buwa_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 11282). vapana act of sowing (Skt.Pali); vavam.mae inf. (NiDoc.); vavan.a (Pkt.); buna_ a sowing (B.); bona_, buna_ to sow (B.); bun.a_ act of sowing (Or.); bun.iba_ to scatter, sow (Or.); boni_ act of sowing (Bi.); bu_nab to sow (Bi.); boani_ sowing (Mth.)(CDIAL 11284). vapani_ya to be sown (Skt.); bawin small wild oats (Kho.); vavan.a, vavan.i_ cotton (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11285). vapant pres. part. sowing (Skt.); vavam.ta (Pkt.); bau~_ta_ sower of seed (A.)(CDIAL 11286). va_pa sowing (Skt.); seed (MBh.); va_va, va_ya sowing, field (Pkt.); va_vi_r sprouted rice for sowing (M.)(CDIAL 11519). [cf. vayakkuka to clear jungle, bring into use (Ma.); vayakku (vayakki-) to improve (as land); to tame, break in (Ta.)(DEDR

5254).] va_pana sowing (Sam.hUp.); wa_eni_, waeni_ sowing (Pas'.); ba_n (Sh.); ba_uni_ seed-time (H.); va_vn.i_ act of sowing; va_vn.iyo drill-plough (G.)(CDIAL 11523). va_payati sows (MBh.); va_pe_ti causes to be sown (Pali); va_via sown, spread out (Pkt.); bhayu_m I sow (Phal.); wa_wun (K.); ba_n.u_, be_n.u_, ba_n.a_ (WPah.); va_vivaum. (OG.); va_vvu~ (G.); ba_na_ to throw (D..); wa~_ (Pas'.); boyik to plant (seed or cutting), set up (post, etc.), drive in (peg)(Kho.)(CDIAL 11525). va_vetar, va_vtar cultivated; sowing, cultivation, crop (G.)(CDIAL 11527). ba_wag, ba_og, ba_ug act of sowing (Bi.); jota_-ba_wag lands sown after a single-ploughing (Bi.Mth.); ba_wag, ba_ug seed-time (H.)(CDIAL 11528). va_pya sown (Kaus'.); vappa to be sown; field to be sown (Pali); vappa, vappia, vappi_d.ia seed-bed (Pkt.); va_p sowing; field of young corn; va_pa_ garden bed; va_pi_ small garden bed (M.); vap-a sowing, levelling ground after sowing; vap, va_p the month September-October (Si.); va_pho garden bed, plantation (G.); va_pha_ (M.)(CDIAL 11530). vappate_ is sown (Pali); wa_pun (K.); va_phn.e~ to germinate and come up (of seed); to sow (M.)(CDIAL 11531). vai to put, place; vaippu placing; land (Pur-ana_.18)(Ta.); va.y- (va.yt-), va_y to sow; va_y- to sow with drill (Kol.); vay- to sow; vayk-to put (Nk.)(DEDR 5549). Fertility: va_yppu fertility (Na_mati_pa. 621); wealth (Tiruppo_. Can. Ma_lai. 73); profit, gain (I_t.u, 2,10,10); fortune (Ilak. Aka.); that which is appropriately formed or siituated (ni_rva_ppym co_lai va_yppun. kant.t.u : Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 24, Vya_. Pak. 83); fitness, suitability; surpassing excellence (Ta.lex.) cf. vayal paddy field (Na_lat.i, 367); id. (Ma.); bayal (Te.Ka.Tu.); vayal agricultural tract (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) Image: foetus: cf. vaya_ foetus (Pin..); womb; pains of child-birth (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7097.Galega: empali name of a tree (Ka.); vempali tephrosia purpurea, the purple galega (Te.)(DEDR 804).

7098.Wafer; thin cake: parpat.a thin cake of rice or peas-meal (Skt.); parpat.i_ id. (Skt.); bhu_mi-pappat.aka a kind of mushroom (Pali); pappad.a, pappad.aga, pappad.iya_, pappala a thin cake (Pkt.); papar large bread (Bshk.); papao~, paphao~ thin cake of bread (Sh.); papar thin cake (K.); pa_par.u thin crisp cake of pulse; pa_pir.i_ lobe of ear; papr.i_ layer (S.); pa_par. thin cake; papr.i_ scab; pepr.i_ flakes of dried mud (P.); pa_pr.o cake of fried rice-flour (Ku.); pa_pr.i_ crust of sweet-meats (Ku.); pa_pro thin cake, scale, dry mucus in nose (N.); pa~_par., pa~_par thin cake of ground pulse (B.); pa_pr.i petal (B.); pa_par.a~_, pa_mpar.a, pa_pari a thin cake (Or.); pa_par, papra_ crisp cake of pulse flour; papri_ crust formed on soil after rain (Bi.); pa~_par cake made of pulse (Bhoj.); pa_par. thin cake of pulse, crust, scab; papr.i_ thin crust, scab (H.); pa_par. a thin cake (G.); pa_pad., pa_pd.i_ (M.); pha_pr.o, phapa_r.o outer layer, crust (e.g. of bread)(Ku.); pha_par scurf, mange, roughness of skin (A.)(CDIAL 7934). pappat.am, appal.am wafer of flour of black gram with bicarbonate of soda (Ta.); pappat.am id. (Ma.); pappad.i, pappal.a, appad.a, appal.a id. (Ka.); a very thin cake made of pulse, salt, etc. (Tu.); appad.amu, appal.amu a sort of thin cake (Te.)(DEDR 3928).

7099.Parting of the hair: pa_rp- to comb (Kui); pa_p- id. (Nk.); pa.p- (pa.pt-) to comb (Kol.); pa_pat.e parting of the hair on a female's forehead (Tu.); pa_pat.a id. (Te.); pa_ya_ parting of the hair (Go.); papetti (Kuwi); pa_yu to be disentangled; to separate; pa_cu to be disentangled (as hair)(Te.)(DEDR 4089).

7100.Young: pa_rppu young of quadrupeds; fledgling (Ta.); shoal of young fish, small fry (Ma.); pa_rval young of deer and other animals, fledgling (Ta.); pa_pa small child (Ka.); child (Te.); pa_pa_d.u boy (Te.); pa_p young of animals (Pa.); young one (Ga.); pe_-pa_p young calf (Ga.)(DEDR 4095).

7101.Piper nigrum; piper longum; piper betle: "The species of piper known in India are: (1) piper nigrum, 'black pepper'... kala maricha or mirich of the people of India, and the filfil aswad of the Arabs-- that is, 'black pepper'; Piper nigrum: black pepper, pepper corn; schwarzer pfeffer (Ger.); poivre noir (Fr.); part used: dried unripe fruit; habitat: Southern India; uses: chiefly as a culinary spice. (Heber W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Co., 1950, pp. 244-252). (2) piper longum, of the circars, our 'long pepper', and the Sanskrit pipala, the Persian pipal, and Arabic dar-filfil [pippali_ piper longum (Car. Su. 4.6,9,11)]; pipphali_ long pepper (Pali); pipali (NiDoc.); pippali_, pippari_ (Pkt.); pipiju (K.); pipiri_ (S.); pipli_ (L.); pippli (WPah.); pipali (A.); pipul, pi~pul (B.); pip(p)al.i (Or.); pi_pal, pipli_ long pepper; pi_pari long pepper; pipri_-mu_l. root of piper dichotomum (G.); pi~pl.i_ piper longum, pod of piper betel (M.); pi~pal.-mu_l. root of piper dichotomum; pi~pri_, pi~parn.i_ the tree hibiscus populneoides (M.); pi~pla_ pertaining to the long pepper plant; pipra_-mu_l root of long pepper (H.); pipla_ a partic. spice (N.); pipla_ pl. long peppers (Ku.); pipla_mu_l long pepper; pipla~_ pl. red peppers (P.); pippul pepper (L.); pipira_-mu_ru root of long pepper (S.); pippala pepper (Pali); tipli long pepper (Si.)(CDIAL 8205). tippali long pepper, piper longum (Ta.Ma.Ka.); tirpali, tippili, ippili (Tu.)(DEDR 3228). khura_sa_na_, khura_sa_n.a coming from Khorasan (a Persian province which produced saffron, asafoetida and various aromatic gums) (Skt.); khura_sa_n.a (Pkt.); khursa_n.i_ long pepper (Ku.); khursa_ni, khorsa_ni (N.) (CDIAL 3910). (3) piper betle or 'betel vine' of Southern India, Ceylon, and Pegu, the vetila of the Malays, and the vetili of Souther India, whence we derive our word 'betel', and the Sanskrit tambala, Arabic tambal, and Hindustani pan, which, with the Malayan vetila, means 'leaf', that is, the leaf par excellence... The leaf of piper chaba of the Moluccas, is also used in India along with 'betel leaf'. {Piper nigrum (Acoptic mimep; Modern Egyptian Arabic felfel. 'Prosper Alpino mentions pepper as an ingredient in recipes among others for sauces for grilled fish and it is mentioned by Dioscorides. The Copts used black as well as white pepper... The existence of pepper in ancient Egypt has recently been demonstrated by scientists examining the mummy of Ramesses II. It appears that one of the ingredients used in the mummification of his body was black pepper. Pepper-corns were found lodged in his nostrils and abdomen. (1320-1200 BC.)' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Museum Publications Ltd., p.136)}. cf. mil.aku black pepper, piper nigrum (Ta.); mun.ci pepper, chilli (Tu.) (DEDR 4867). gol maric piper nigrum (Santali.lex.) marica piper nigrum (Car. Su. 4.6,15,27).

7102.Long pepper: pippali_ peppercorn, piper longum (R.); pippala pepper (Pali); pipira_-mu_ru root of long pepper (S.); pippul pepper (L.); pippla_-mu_l long pepper (P.); pipla~_ pl. red peppers (P.); pipla_ pl. long peppers (Ku.); pipla_ a partic. spice (N.); pi_pla_ pertaining to the long pepper plant (H.); pipra_-mu_l root of long pepper (H.); pipphali_ long pepper (Pali); pipali id. (NiDoc.); pippali_, pippari_ (Pkt.) pipiju (K.); pipiri_ (S.); pipli_ (L.); pippli (WPah.); pipali (A.); pipul, pi~pul (B.); pip(p)al.i (Or.); pi_pal, pipli_ long pepper (H.); pi_pari long pepper (G.); pipri_-mu_l. root of piper dichotomum (G.); pipl.i_ p. longum, pod of piper betel (P.); pi_pal.-mu_l. root of p. dichotomum (M.); pi~pri_, pi~parn.i_ the tree hibiscus populneoides (M.); tipli long pepper (Si.)(CDIAL 8205). tippali long pepper, piper longum (Ta.Ma.Ka.); tirpali, tippili, ippili id. (Tu.)(DEDR 3228).

7103.Sweet basil: barba_ a species of ocimum (Skt.); barbari_ (Bhpr.); barbara, varvara clerodendrum siphonantus, cleone pentaphylla, unguis odoratus; barbari_ka (Skt.); ba_bai, ba_bui sweet basil (B.); ba_bui a kind of rush or long grass (Or.); baib a kind of grass (Aw.); babai_ the basil ocimum pilosum and its seed (H.); baburu sweet basil (K.); babri_ ocimum basilicum (L.); ba_bari a flower like basil; ba_bari-phule ocimum racemosum (L.); ba_bari sweet basil (A.); ba_bara kind of grass (H.)(CDIAL 9159). Ocimum basilicum: munjariki (Skt.); babuitulsi (H.B.); sabza (M.); tirunutpatchi (Ta.); bhutulasi (Te.); tirunitru (M.); babri (P.); flowers: carminative, stimulant, demulcent; seeds: mucilaginous, given in infusion in gonorrhea, dysentery and diarrhoea; root: used in bowel complaints of children; leaves: useful in treatment of croup; essential oil; fresh flowering herbs yield essential oil containing alcohols (as linalool) 65.3%; indigenous to the lower hills of the Punjab; cultivated throughout the greater part of India (GIMP, pp. 178-179). kapur mali baha a favourite flower with Santals, ocimum basilicum or thyrsiflora (Santali.lex.) bharbhari ocimum basil(Santali.lex.) ka_lama_laka ocimum basilicum (Car. Ni. 2.2, Vi. 17.7, Ka. 1.25). Sweet basil produces an essential oil (c. 0.15%) used in cordials (e.g. chartreuse), cosmetics, perfumes, soaps, and spices. The oil is sometimes used to adulterate patchouli. (James A. Duke, Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985, p.332). va_luka, e_lava_luka, hariva_luka a kind of drug and perfume (Ka.lex.) {Ocimum basilicum (Modern Egyptian Arabic ryha_n) 'As the name of basil has not been identified in Egyptian texts its use remains obscure, but recent finds show that the herb was known in pharaonic times. It is indigenous to India and is now grown in all the Mediterranean countries. It is an annual herb with a pungent aromatic flavour. It is widely used in cooking and is the predominant ingredient in pesto sauce... Basil oil rubbed on the temples eases headache. It has the reputation of being aphrodisiac and was formerly used to aid childbirth. Sprinkled on the floor it leaves an aromatic scent in a room, and a pot on the window sill keeps flies away. The dried and powdered leaf has been taken as snuff... The classical writers mention basil, the "royal" herb, as being used to flavour food and as decoration in floral garlands. Propero Alpini lists it as one of several ingredients in a remedy to avoid contracting the plague.' (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, British Publications Ltd., p.128). Ocimum basilicum: sweet basil, common basil; basilienmunze (Ger.); basilic (Fr.); parts used: the dried leaves and flowering tops; habitat: tropical Asia; uses: in the flavouring of meats, poultry, soups, stews, tomato dishes etc. (Heber, W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, pp. 748-749).

7104.Menses: phulu the menses (S.); phull menstrual flow (P.); phul id. (N.B.); phula menses, placenta (Or.); phu_l menstrual flow (G.)(CDIAL 9092). pu_ menstruation (Ta.Ma.); pu_vu id. (Ma.); pu_ppu id. (Ta.Ma.); pu_kka to menstruate (Ma.); pu_ (-pp-, -tt-) to menstruate, produce, give birth to (Ta.)(DEDR 4345). puhha menses (Pali); pupphaka flood (esp. menstrual)(Pali)(CDIAL 8303).

7105.Bark: bobbad.e rind, bark (Ka.); bobbara rind or bark of roots etc. (Te.)(DEDR 4524).

7106.Image: numeral three: pe, pea the numeral three; pe horin nelketkoa I saw three people; pea poesa emanme give me three pice (Sanali.lex.)

7107.Three: peakako they are three, there are three of them; pe pon hor.ko hecena three or four people came; pea got.ecin hataokeda I took three; pe gel thirty; pe isi sixty; pene three collectively; pene bor.ko calacena the three have left, all three have left; pene en:ga honko hecena the mother and her two children have come; pepe in threes, by threes; pepe got.eckate hapat. n heyena in the division each got three (Santali.lex.)

7108.Tablet loom (?); heddle rod: ve_ma mutala ta_mini takar-r-a : Ja_n-a_. 15)(Ta.lex.) = isolating the strings of the loom; ve_mam < ve_ma loom (Ta.lex.) be~, be~w wooden implement passed between the thread of the web to drive tight each thread of the woof (weft)(Bi.); beo~, be~wa_ flat piece of wood pierced with holes and used in plaiting grass mats (A.); ve_man loom (VS.); ve_ma loom, shuttle (Pali); part of weaver's apparatus (Pkt.); ve_maka id. (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12113). vema = vemaka [from vayati (Vedic); va_yati, cf. veman (Skt.); vimen (Latin); va_t.ika_ band; wi_da willow (Old High German); vieo to bind or plait (Latin)] loom or shuttle (Pali.lex.) ve_mam (Ta.)< ve_ma (Skt.) loom, neyva_r tar-i; (ve_ma mutala ta_mini takar-r-a : Ja_na_. 15); ve_ma_ < ve_ma_ nom. sing. of ve_man loom (a_t.aikkuu na_t.a_ ve_ma_mutaliyana : Tarukkacam.. 42)(Ta.lex.)

7109.Scorn; slander: vampu instability, uselessness, worthlessness, idle talk, gossip, scandal, evil word, falsity, base conduct, indecent language, deceit, quarrel; vampan- worthless person, gossip-monger, mischievous, wanton person, illegetimate son; fem. vampi (Ta.); bamb flattery, false praise, prattling; bammmana slander, backbiting; bamana backbiting; bamanipuni to backbite (Tu.); vammu destruction, ruin; useless, vain; vammu-vo_vu to become useless, wasted, be lost (Te.); vambheti to despise, revile, scorn (Pali)(DEDR 5252). vambhana_, vamhana_ contempt; vambhani_ya (grd. of vambheti) to be despised, wretched, miserable; vambhayita pp. of vambheti being despised or reviled ( = nindita, garahita, upava_dita); vambhin despising, treating with contempt, disparaging (para vambhin opp. to att'ukkan.saka); vambheti, vamheti (caus. of vambh, a root of uncertain origin); Dhp. defines vambh as 'garaha_yan'; to treat with contempt, despise, revile, scold (Pali.lex.) man think (Skt.); apama_na disrespect, disgrace (R.); avama_na (Mn.); o_ma_na (Pali); o_ma_n.a (Pkt.); apama_na arrogance (Pali); avama_n.a disgrace, abuse (Pkt.); ma_n, wo_ma_n disrespect, contempt (K.); vaman shame, disgrace (Si.)(CDIAL 433). X avama_ lowest, inferior (RV.); o_ma (Pali.Pkt.); u_m., wu_m lower (Wg.); wo~_ adv. and prep. down (Ash.)(CDIAL 799). avaja_ to have a low opinion of, to despise, to treat with contempt, disregard; disrespect, contempt; slighting, low opinion (Skt.lex.) bepa_rvo to despise; contempt; apama_n slander; bedap kar, ma_na_r ulai make defamation (Kon.lex.) cf. ma_n.pu honour, dignity (Ta.)(DEDR 4803).

7110.Turner: bha_i~_ a turner (H.); bhra_min turning (Bhartr..)(CDIAL 9679). bhra_mayati causes to revolve (Up.); causes to wander (MBh.); bha_me_i makes turn, makes wander (Pkt.); bramoiki to circulate, wave (Sh.); bramun (K.); bha~_van.u to return, send back (L.); bha~_wna_ to turn on a lathe (H.); bha~_uta_ whirlpool (B.); bha~_wat, bhau~ti handle of crank driving wheel of spinning-wheel (Bi.)(CDIAL 9677). bhra_man.a turning round (Ma_rkP.); bha_man.a making turn round (Pkt.); bha_man.aum. id. (OG.); bha_mn.a~_ pl. ceremony to remove evil by whirling arm above head of sufferer (G.) (CDIAL 9676). bhra_mari_ giddiness; bhra_mara giddiness; whirling round (Skt.); bhra_marin affected by giddiness (Mn.); bha_mari_ circumambulation (in worship)(Pkt.); ba~_bar, ba~_buru fluster (K.); bha_wa~ri_ flywheel rotating spindle on which silk is wound (A.); bha~_ur distorted (B.); bha_ur, bhauri_ whirlpool (Mth.); bha_m.vari circumambulation (OAw.); bha~_war, bha~_wari_ going round (H.)(CDIAL 9678). bhramya_t moves to and fro (Pa_rGr..); bhammai turns round, wanders (Pkt.); bhaman.u to wander aimlessly (S.)(CDIAL 9652). bhrama giddiness (Sus'r.); mistake (Skt.); bhama wandering, error (Pkt.); bhau~ giddiness (L.P.); bhuwa_ deceit (A.); bhua~_ wrong way taken by mistake (Or.); bhawa~_ turning, circling round (H.); bha~va~d. giddiness (M.); bama (Si.); bhram moves to and fro (Skt.)(CDIAL 9646). bhraman.a revolution (MBh.); wandering (Skt.); bhaman.a turning round in a circle (Pkt.); bhaun.u, bhaun.i_ roller between two posts fixed on edge of well for rope to run over; bhau~n.an.u to wander in search of (S.); bhauni_ wheel over which well-rope passes, any similar wheel or pulley (P.); baman.aya turning, whirling (Si.)(CDIAL 9647). bhramati moves to and fro (S'Br.); revolves, wanders (MBh.); errs, doubts (Skt.); bhamati spins (of wheel), whirls about, roams (Pali); bhamai wanders, revolves (Pkt.); bramun to wander (K.); bha~van.u, bhau~n.u to go round in a circle, wander (S.); bhe~van. pres. part. bho~_nda to turn; bhao~van. to be giddy, wander about; bhavun. to stroll; bhe_n. (L.); bhau~n.a_ to turn, be giddy; bhau~na_ to wander (P.); bham.vai wanders, reels (OAw.); bha~wna_, bhauna_ to revolve, turn (H.); bhamai (OG.); bhamvu~ to wander (G.); bho~vta_ moves (Konkan.i); bamanava_ to move in a circle (Si.); bhamad.ai wanders (Pkt.); bho~vad.n.e~ to turn (M.); bhama_d.ia caused to turn (Pkt.); bhama_r.vu~ to turn round (G.); bhama_ve_i to turn (Pkt.); bha~va_van. to turn, send back (L.); bhua_un.a_ (P.); bhaya_unu to lead astray (of evil spirits)(N.); bha~wa_na_ to turn (H.); bhava_vvu~ to mislead (G.)(CDIAL 9648). bhramant- pres. part. revolving (MBh.); bhawa~ta_ a kind of toy, whirligig (Bhoj.); bhau~tuwa_ ox that turns oilpress, a sort of water-skating beetle (H.)(CDIAL 9649). bhr.n.a_ti is crooked (Dha_tup.); bhun.an.u to wander about (S.)(CDIAL 9587). Image: turning: bavari (Tadbhava of bhramari) the act of turning about, swinging or brandishing; a beam in a mill by which its kan.e is turned; revolving, moving in a circle or to and fro,m as in a single combat; bavarigol. to cause to move about; bavarivari to run in a circular manner (Ka.lex.) ba_ri, ba_re, va_ra a time, turn (Ka.); pa_ri (Te.); ba_ra, ba_ri_ (H.); ba_ri a season, a year (Ka.); ba_ri ba_rige repeatedly, frequently, again and again (Ka.lex.)

7111.Anthill: vapa_ mound (of ants)(TS.)[cf. vespis wasp (Lat.); s'ipi_k wasp (Ash.)(CDIAL 11451); vamra ant (RV.); brami_, blami_ (Ash.); wramik (Kt.)(CDIAL 11296); vamriya anthill (Skt.); varmi_, barmi_ anthill, termite nest (P.); ba~_bi_, ba~_bai, ba~_bhi_, ba~_bhai anthill (H.); vamha anthill (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11297).]; vaya_ hole (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11288). valmi_ ant, in: valmi_-ku_t.a anthill (Skt.); valmi_ka anthill (VS.); vammi_ka (Pali); vammi_a (Pkt.); ba_mi_ (H.); vami-ya, vami_ termite nest (Si.)(CDIAL 11423). bami_t.ha_ anthill (H.)(CDIAL 11424).

7112.Throb: vimmu (vimmi-) to heave a sob, be in distress; vimmam sobbing, distress; vimmal id., despondency (Ta.); vimmuka to sob, throb, palpitate; vimmit.t.am, vimmis.t.am difficulty of breathing, hiccup (Ma.)(DEDR 5402). < vipphandana, phandana throb; viphandati, pp. vipphandita to throb; phandama_na throbbing (Pali.lex.) spand make a sudden movement, throb; spanda tremor, throbbing (BhP.); pham.da a small movement (Pkt.); pha~_d leap, jump (N.H.)(CDIAL 13805). spandate_ trembles, throbs, kicks (of an animal)(S.ad.vBr.); spandayate_ causes to quiver (MBh.); spandana making a suddden movement, kicking (AV.); phandati throbs, twitches (Pali); pham.dai, phum.dai (Pkt.); phandhn.a_ to jump (P.); pha~_dn.o, pha_nn.o (Ku.); pha~_dnu (N.); phandiba to throb, twitch (of eye, muscles etc.)(A.); pha~_da_ to leap (B.); pha~_dab (Aw.); pha~_dna_ (H.); pha~_dn.e~ (M.); is'punik to dance, buck (of a horse), caracole (Kho.); pha_nn.o to shake, stir, churn (Ku.); pha~_dn.e~ to scatter (M.); us'puneik to make jump (Kho.)(CDIAL 13806). ad.g- (ad.akt-) (pulse, na.d.i) throbs (Kol.); at.i (-pp-, -tt-) to flap, twitch, move spasmodically, blow (as the wind); at.uppu fear (Ta.); ad.alu to be shaken, tremble, be afraid; n. tremor, whirling confusion of mind, fear (Ka.); ad.alu to be afraid, tremble, shake; n. fear, alarm; ad.alincu to terrify, frighten; ad.ici-pad.u to be in a hury (Te.); ad.ici-pa_t.u impatience, hurry, haste (Te.)(DEDR 74).

7113.Revenue collector: ma_mala = ma_male revenue; ma_male the office of a ma_maleda_ra an officer who collects the revenues of a talook (Ka.); ma_mala_ (M.H.); ma_malda_ra (M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

7114.Bank of a river: pa_mpu bank of a river or tank; pa_mpuri moat; a girdle-like structure edged round a fort wall; a flight of steps leading from a fort wall into the moat surrounding it (Ta.); pa_mpuvari, pa_mpuri steps or ledges inside a well; the projecting lower part of a wall; a low mud border round a house (Ma.)(DEDR 4086). pa_vat. sloping path into a pond or tank (G.)(CDIAL 8068). payam tank (Ta.); payampu hollow, pit, pit to ensnare elephants, kheda, tank, pond (Ta.); bayambu a hole, hollow; adj. hollow (Tu.)(DEDR 3938).

7115.Snake: pa_mpu snake (Ta.Ma.); po.b id. (To.); pa_vu id. (Ka.); pa.mbi id. (Kod..); ha_vu id. (Tu.); pa_mbolu a kind of flat, long fish (Tu.); pa_mu snake (Te.); pa.m id. (Kol.); pa_m (Nk.); ba_m id. (Pa.Ga.); pa_va snake (Pkt.)(DEDR 4085). e_t ba_m cobra (Pa.); e_t. ba_mb id. (Ga.)(DEDR 891).

7116.To rub, smear: pra_mu, pa_mu to rub, smear, scrub, scour (Te.); pre_mba to smear (Mand..)(DEDR 4608).

7117.Barbarian; noise: barbara stammering (Pa_n..gan.a.); non-Aryan (MBh.); blockhead (Skt.); ba_bara_ mad, unsettled (Or.); babra_-kheri_ noisy altercation; babru_ta_ awkward clumsy young man (H.); bam.bura_ barbarian (Si.); babbhara confused rumbling noise (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9157). bharbhara_ bhavati becomes confounded (MaitrS.); bha_brinu to be confused (N.); bha_bhari_ coquetry (OB.); bha_br.a_na to get confused (B.); bhabharai is agitated; bhabhar agitation (OAw.); bham.bhala mad, foolish (Pkt.); bhambhuljan.u to become confused, be filled with pride (S.); bhambalbhu_se confused, not knowing what to do (P.); bha~_bhl.u~ saltish (of water)(G.); bha~_bhal. forgetful, astonished (M.)(CDIAL 9404). pampu, pammu to sound; pammal sound; pampai a kind of drum or tabor (Ta.); pamba a kind of drum (Te.)(DEDR 3932). bobbe outcry, shout, yell, loud sound, battle-cry; bobbir-i to bawl, etc. (Ka.); bobbe crying, weeping (Tu.); bobba, bobbarinta loud cry, shout, scream, roar, bellow; bobbarincu to shout, etc. (Te.); bobalip- to shout, make a noise, (hen) to cackle (Nk.)(DEDR 4526).

7118.Desire: pammal, hambala, hambalu ardent desire; lookout; having the mind intently fixed on; solicitous or grievous thought (Ka.); pambalisu, hambalisu to desire; to look out for; to crave for (Ka.lex.)

7119.Ignorant: pa_maram < pa_mara ignorance, stupidity (Pirapo_ta. 6,20); dullard (Ira_mana_. Ayo_t. 5); pa_maran- ignorant, stupid person (Kaival. Tattu. 96); vile, low, base person (Ta.lex.) pa_mara fool, farmer (Pkt.); pa_m.vara wretch (OAw.); pa~_war wicked, debased (H.); pa_mara wicked, base (Skt.)(CDIAL 8096).

7120.Skin disease: pa_mara affected with skin disease (Skt.)(CDIAL 8096). pa_man skin-disease, scab (AV.); pa_ma_ (Sus'r.); itch, scab (Pkt.); pa~_ itch (in humans or animals)(L.); obl. pa~_u~ (L.); pa~_u~, pau~ (P.)(CDIAL 8095). pa_mam itch, eczema; sore (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 203)(Ta.lex.)

7121.Rice: pramodaka a variety of s'a_li (Car. Su. 27.9).

7122.Image: hare: vayam hare (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

7123.Strength; age: vaya strength, power (Tol. Col. 366); increase (Paripa_. 11,40); vayatu age (Tiruva_n-aik. Ko_ccen.. 139); vayavan- strong man, valiant man (Patir-r-up. 15,21); commander (Cir-upa_n.. 249); vayam power, might (Na_mati_pa. 793); vayavu strength (Patir-r-up. 36,2)(Ta.); valapu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) vayas enjoyment, energy, prime of life, age (RV.); vayo_ nom. acc. sg. age (Pali); vayo-maha_la-ka_nam. gen. pl. aged (As'.); vao_, vaya age (Pkt.); vaya, viya age, lifetime (Si.)(CDIAL 11305). vayasya of the same age; comrade (MBh.); vayasyaka woman's confidante (Skt.); vayasya_ (Skt.); vayassa friend (Pali); vayassa, vayam.sa coeval, friend; vayam.si_ (Pkt.); vyosu man's friend; ve_s woman's female friend (K.)(CDIAL 11306). pu_rvavayasya first age; madhyamavayasa middle age (S'Br.); a_daha middle age; a_dahiya_ middle-aged (A.)(CDIAL 672). vayasthe a female contemporary, a female friend or companion; vayastha a contemporary, an associate, a friend; vaya, vayas, vayasu, vayassu the time of health and strength, youth, the prime of life; vayasya advanced in age; relating to age; being of the same age, contemporary; vayasye a female companion or friend (Ka.lex.)

7124.We: vayam we (RV.); vayam. (Pali.Pkt.); mayam. (Pali); vayam., veyam., veya (NiDoc.); be_ (Mai.Sv.Sh.); be (Chil.Gau.Phal.Sh.); beh (Phal.)(CDIAL 11302). a_mi pron. we; a_mtso our; a_mints ourselves (Kon.lex.) abo, abon, ale, alan., alin we; tabon, tala, tale, talin, aleak our; apr.e~ ourselves; ga~ye ghore within ourselves; ne like ourselves (Santali.lex.) ya_m (obl. em-), a_n:kal. (obl. en:kal.-) we (excl.)(Ta.); na_n.n.al. (obl. an.n.al.-, en.n.al.-) id. (Ma.); a.m we (obl. em- excl.; am- incl.)(Ko.); em (obl. em-) we (excl.); om (obl. om-) we (incl.)(To.); a_m (obl. em-) we (excl.)(Ka.); en:ga (obl. en:ga-), nan:ga (obl. nan:ga-) we (Kod..); en:kul.u (obl. en:kul.e-) we (excl.)(Tu.); e_mu, ne_mu, me_mu (obl. man-/ma_-) id. (Te.); a.m (obl. am-) id. (Kol.); a_m, a_m(e) (obl. am-) id. (Nk.); a_m (obl. am-) id. (Pa.); a_m (obl. am-); a_m (obl. amm-) id. (Ga.); ammat., mamma_t., amma_t., ammot., mamma_r., mama_t., ma_t., ma_mat., mamot., mamo, mara_t., mamma, mammot. (obl. ma_- passim) we (excl.); mamma we (Go.); ma_t.(u) (obl. ma_-) we (incl.); ma_p(u) (obl. ma_-) we (excl.)(Kond.a); a_p, a_pen. (excl.); a_s, a_sen., a_hen. (incl.) (gen. ma_, acc.-dat. magen) we; ma_po in our region; ma_be by us, with us (Pe.); a_m (obl. ma_-) we (Mand..); a_mu, ma_mu we (excl.), a_ju we (incl.)(obl. for all: ma_-)(Kui); ma_mbu_, ma_mbu we (excl.); ma_rro_, ma_ro we (incl.)(obl. for both: ma_-); ma_po on our side (Kuwi); e_m (obl. em-) we (excl.)(Kur.); em id. (Malt.)(DEDR 5154). na_m (obl. nam(m)-) we; na_n:kal. we (exclusive)(Ta.); na_m (obl. nam(m)-) we, I and you (Ma.); na_vu (obl. nam-) we (inclusive)(in Old Ka.); we (in mod. Ka.); naka we (inclusive)(Tu.); manamu (obl. mana-) id. (Te.); ne.nd. id. (Kol.); ne_nd., ne_m id. (Nk.); namot. we (Go.); na_m (obl. nam-, nan:g-) we (inclusive)(Kur.); nam (obl. nam-) id. (Malt.); nan we (Br.)(DEDR 3647). cf. bar, barea two; bar gel twenty; bar isi forty (Santali.lex.) cf. vira, ir two (Ka.lex.) I, mine; we: ya_n-, na_n- (obl. en--) I; ya_n-mai egoism; en-avan- one who is mine; en-ava mine (neut. pl.)(Ta.); a_n (obl. en-) I (Ma.); a.n (obl. en-; e- with some relationship terms)(Ko.); o.n (obl. en-)(To.); a_n (obl. en-), na_n (obl. nan-)(Ka.); na.ni. nba. (obl. en-, nan-, na.-)(Kod..); ya_nu, ye_nu (obl. ena-, en-)(Tu.); e_nu, ne_nu (obl. nan-, na_-)(Te.); a.n (obl. an-)(Kol.); a_n (obl. an-)(Nk.Pa.Ga.); ana_, emph. anna_, nanna_, nana_ (obl. na_-), nana (Go.); na_n(u) (obl. na_-, acc. dat. nan.i)(Kond.a); a_n/a_nen. (gen. na_, acc. dat. nan:gen.)(Pe.); a_n (gen. na_, acc. dat. nan.)(Mand..); a_nu, na_nu (obl. for both:na-)(Kuwi); e_n (obl. en:g-)(Kur.); en (obl. en-g-)(Malt.); i_ (obl. kan-)(Br.)(DEDR 5160). mozo mine; a_u, ha_u * (Kon.lex.) inren, inak, tin mine; in, apr.e~ (Santali.lex.) ma_maka mine (RV.); ma_maga, ma_maya mine (Pkt.); ma_m, me_m (Bshk.)(CDIAL 10056). ma- base of singular oblique cass of 1st person pronoun: acc. ma_m, inst. maya_, dat. mahyam, gen. mama, encl. me_ (Skt.); mam., maya_, mayham., mama (Pali); acc. mam., inst. maya_, gen. maa, mama (As'.); dat. mama, mahi (NiDoc.); acc. mam., mamam., inst. mae_, gen. mama, majjham. (Pkt.); inst. mai (Ap.); me I, a_ma (Gypsy); ma (Chil.Gau.Sv.Phal.Sh.); inst. me_, mi_ (Phal.); ma~_, mu~_ (S.); mai_, me_ (L.); mai~ (P.); me~_, ha_u~, au~ (WPah.); mai~, mi~; inst. mai~n (Garh.); maimi~; inst. mai~le (Ku.); ma, emph. mai~; inst. maile (N.); mai (A.); mui (B.); mu, mu~ (Or.); maim. (OAw.); mai~, inst. mai~ne (H.); me~ (OMarw.); mi~_, mi_ (M.); gen. em (Pr.); masi to me (Tir.); acc. and gen. ma (Kho.); gen. mi_ (Tor.Sv.); dat. inst. abl. me (K.); -mi of, to, by me (S.); -m encl. (L.); mai~ inst.; au~ nom. (WPah.); me~ (G.); mama (Si.); mujh obl. (H.); dat. majha (OG.); obl. maj; ma_jha my (M.); majjo (Konkan.i); mo_na (Gaw.); mya_na (Tir.); mynu (K.); minro, mor.o, mer.i (Gypsy); mai~d.a_, maid.a_ (L.); maha_riya-, me_ra- (Ap.); me_ra_ (WP.); mera_ (P.); mero (WPah.Garh.Ku.N.); mohora, mora (A.); mohara (Or.); morau (OAw.); mera_ (H.); merau (OMarw.); ma_harau (OG.); ma_ru~ (G.)(CDIAL 9691). aham I (RV.); ahakam (Skt.); aham. (Pali.As'.); aam., hakam. (As'.); aham., aham.m, apy, aho, ahu, ahum. before ne_va (NiDoc.); aham., ahayam., ahaam., ahake~, hake~, hage~, hagge~, ham., ahammi ( < aham.mi < asmi (Pkt.); hau~ (Ap.); u (D..); ai (Ash.); u_ze, wu_c (Kt.); ana (Wg.); ai also pl. (Dm.)[in place of < vayam which clashes with bi < vah- you]; au (Tir.); a_ (Pas'.Shum.Gaw.Kal.); awa (Kho.); ya (Bshk.); ai, a_ (Tor.); au~ (K.); au~_u~_, a~_ (S.); au~ (WPah.); hau~, ha~_u (OB.); ahaum., haum (OAw.); hau~, ho~ (H.); hu~, hu (OMarw.); hau_m. (OG.); hu~ (G.); ha~u, au (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 992). asma_ka ours (RV.); a_sma_ka (VS.); amha_ra, amha_raya (Ap.); amaro (Gypsy); ha_mro (N.); a_mara (Or.); hama_r my (Bhoj.); hamar (Aw.); hama_ra_ (H.); ama_ru~ (G.)(CDIAL 988). asmad base of obl. cases pl. of 1st pers. pron. asma_n, asma_bhih-, asmabhyam, asma_kam, asma_su, dat. loc. asme_ (Skt.); amhe_ nom. acc., gen. amha_kam., inst. amhe_hi (Pali); acc. aphe, gen. apha_kam., inst. aphesu (As'.); gen. asmakam., inst. asmehi (NiDoc.); nom. acc. amhe_, gen. amha_n.am., inst. amhe_him. (Pkt.); ima we (Ash.); ami_ (Wg.); emo (Kt.); ase~ (Pr.); am, m obl. (Dm.); ma_ we (Tir.); hama_ (Pas'.); a~be, gen. amana (Shum. < Pas'.); ma_ acc. pl. (Wot..); amo~_ we (Gaw.); a_bi, obl. hama_ (Kal.); ispa (Kho.); mo_, inst. mahi_, gen. amun, mun (Tor.); gen. za~_ (Mai.); aza~_ (Chil.); asa~_ (Gau.); asi_ (Phal.); asei, aso~_ (Sh.); ame, a_me, emi (Gypsy); ame, gen. ama (D..); asi, gen. snu (K.); asi~_, obl. asa~_ (S.); asi_, asa~ (L.); asi~_, asa~_ (P.); as, asan, a_m (WPah.); ambhe, a_mhe, a_mi, a_ma_ (OB.); a_mbhe, a_me, ami, a_mbha (Or.); ham (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); a_ma, ame (OG.); a_mhi_ (M.); a_mi_ (Konkan.i); ap < apphe, apa < appa_kham. (Si.)(CDIAL 986).

7125.Management: vayya_t.a, vayya_t.u, vahiva_t.u administration or management of; skill in carrying on, despatch; business, traffic; enjoying, using, use; practice, intercourse with; a report (as of a public officer) of his conduct (Ka.); vahiva_t.a (M.); vayyari, vaikhari way, manner, style (Ka.); vaikhari (Te.); vayina (Tadbhava of vahana) a way, a means, a contrivance (Ka.); vayan-am (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) vayan.am manner, method, way (Ta.); vaina (Ka.); vayan- (Tiruman. 55); vayan-am id. (Tiruman. 1836); vayan-am the ve_das (Tiruvil.ai. Ka_n-ma_r-i. 27)(Ta.lex.) praka_ra sort, manner (Kaus'.); praka_raih- in one way or another (R.); ke_na praka_re_n.a how? (Skt.); paka_ra way, mode (Pali); paya_ra, payara, payare_n.a (Pkt.); pariim. in that manner (OG.); je pari in which way; peri, peri adv. like, as (Or.); kon pari how? (Mth.); pari adv. like, as (Marw.); pari custom (S.); way, means, method (N.); peri means (G.); par, pari_ way, manner, style, sort (M.)(CDIAL 8435).

7126.Paddy field: avani, vasundhara_ earth (Pali.lex.) vayam earth (Te_va_. 69,9); vayal paddy field (Na_lat.i, 367); agricultural tract; open space; plain; vayam water; vayar--kat.ai-tu_ram a field's length or distance, considered a unit (G.Tj.D. i,334); vayar--karai tract of wet lands; paddy field; vayar--ca_rpu agricultural tract; vayar--payar-u field gram (G.Tp.D. i,134); green gram; vayalai open space; plain (Tacaiva_. 333, Urai.); vayin- place (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 8)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Image: crab: vayan-an.t.u field crab (Ta.lex.) Shifting cultivation: ve_gar. field of shifting cultivation [for final stem, cf. ka_t.u forest, jungle, desert; vayar--ka_t.u paddyfield (Ta.)(DEDR 1438)](Kol.); ve_vili field (Te.); ve.gad. (obl. ve.gat.-) field (Kol.); va_yur highland for cultivation, field (Nk.); va_vur id. (Nk.); Paddy field, agricultural tract: vayal, vayyakal paddy field, agricultural tract, open space, plain; vayar--karai, vayar--ka_t.u tract of wet lands, paddy field (Ta.); vayal, vail paddy field (Ma.); bayal(u), bayil(u), baylu, vayal open space, field, plain (Ka.); be.li paddy field (Kod..); bayilu, bailu fertile kind of rice field in low land which can be easily irrigated (Tu.); bayalu open space or field, plain, meadow (Te.); va_ya paddy field (Pa.); field (Go.); va_vur. (pl. va_vuk), va_vur field (Go.); vaur field for cultivation (Go.); bayalu field (Kuwi)(DEDR 5258). vayakkuka to clear jungle, bring into use (Ma.); vayakku (vayakki-) to improve (as land); to tame, break in (Ta.)(DEDR 5254). vayar.-ka_t.u paddyfield (Ta.); [kat.am forest; hard, difficult path in a barren tract (Ta.); ka_t.u wildernes, jungle, waste ground for burning corpses (Ma.); ka.d.u forest patch cleared for cultivation (Ir.); ka.r. jungle without trees, uncultivated ground, unfenced field (Ko.); ko.r. (obl. ka.t.) cultivated field (To.); ko.d. uninhabited place (To.)]; ve.gad. (obl. ve.gat.) field; ve_gar. burnt field for shifting cultivation (Kol.)(DEDR 1438). [4 an.aippu = one ka_t.u (a measure = more than 2 acres.); ka_t.u border, limit; burning ghat, burial ground; place, tract of land (vayar-ka_t.u, pat.t.i-k-ka_t.u); dry land (puncey-nilam); small village (Ta.lex.); cf. ka_s.t.ha_ (Skt.) an.aippu embracing; area that can be ploughed by two pairs of oxen in a day, from half to one acre (G.Sm.D.I, i.288)(Ta.lex.); an.aippu-t-tu_ram distance furrow is driven before the plough is turned, about 50 yards (G.Sm.D.I, i.287)(Ta.lex.)] The initial stem ve_/ve. in To. and Kol. forms has been explained in DEDR 5258 and 5517: be.li paddy field (Kod..); va_yur, va_vur highland for cultivation (Nk.); [cf. karda, kardama, kardat.a mud (Pkt.)(CDIAL 2867-70); gado muddy, slushy (Kui); gadda_ sediment, alluvium (Kur.); gan.d.amu a paddy field (Te.); gan.d.u-mad.i wet or paddy land (Te.); gal.de, kan.d.o, gan.n.a field (Tu.); gedda (Kor.); gedde id. (Ka.); garde, gadde, gar..de (inscr.) field, esp. paddy field (Ka.); gan.n.a a division of paddy-land, a paddy field (Ka.); gad paddyfield (Ko.); kar..ani mire, ricefield (Ma.); field, paddyfield, mud (Ta.)(DEDR 1355)]. To cultivate: besan:gey to make, to cultivate (Ka.lex.)

7127.Heat, fire: ben:ge, ben:ke, ben:ki heat, fire (Ka.); be_nke heat (Tu.); bisulu sunshine (Tu.); bijila, bijili sunlight (r.); ve~_gu to be fried (Te.); vaigl to boil, cook (Kol.); ve_, vey to be burnt (Ga.); ve_ to burn (Go.); vey- (vet-) (forest) to be fired, burned (Kui); veha cooked rice (Kui); veh to be burnt(Kuwi); bassna_ to consume to ashes (Kur.); To burn: ve _ (ve_v-/ve_kuv-, vent-) to burn, be scorched, be refined (as gold)(Ta.); ve_kka_t.u burning (Ta.); ve_n-al heat, hot season (Ta.Ma.); ve_ka to burn (Ma.); veyil heat of sun (Ma.); vey(y)il id. (Ta.); vey- (vedy-) to be burned up (Ko.); be_yu, be_, beyyu to be burnt up (Ka.); beru sun (Malt.)(DEDR 5517). cf. pa_ka boiling (Pali.lex.) pa_ka cooking (S'r.S.); baking of bricks (Mn.); cooking (Pali); pa_ya (Pkt.); in cmpd. maha-paka (OSi.) (CDIAL 8022). poya_n potter's kiln (B.)(CDIAL 8023).

7128.Image: hook: vayar-u hook (Ta.lex.)

7129.Elderly female: ba_yi a term of respectful compellation for one's mother or an elderly female; an affix of respect to the names of females generally (Ka.); ba_i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

7130.Present: ba_yina, ba_gina a present; ba_yinan:gud.u to give a present (Ka.lex.)

7131.Image: swelling: ba_yu, ba_ to swell (Ka.); va_cu (Te.); va_y (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

7132.Dispute: vya_jya (fr. vi-aji) = ya_jya a contest, a quarrel, a dispute (Ka.Te.Ta.Ma.); a law-suit (Ka.Te.); vya_jya-ti_risu to settle a dispute (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7133.Image: tub: paya a very large earthenware pot or tub; peala a cup, drinking vessel (Santali.lex.)

7134.Image: leaking: payar. puyur. leaking, whistling; payal, puyul dripping, leaking; in fear and trembling (Santali.lex.)

7135.Fundament: pa_yu < pa_yu anus, fundament (Ja_n-a_. 9,17); pa_yuru id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pa_ya_, pa_ya a foundation (Ka.Te.M.); pa_ya_-s'uddhi a firm, regular, correct foundation (of a building or business (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) pa_yu, pa_yupastham the anus (Skt.lex.)

7136.Image: rain drop; rain: peyal showering (Kur-al., 559); rain (Kur-al., 545); rain drop (Tiva_.); pey-tal to rain, fall, as dew or hail (Kur-al., 55)(Ta.lex.)

7137.Fish: paiyye a kind of fish (Tu.); payyatti a fish (Ma.)(DEDR 3946).

7138.Coin: paika money (Ka.); paika_ (M.); paika a small copper coin, a farthing, a half penny; cash, money (Te.)(Ka.lex.)

7139.Hemp, flax: boili_ hemp (Kol.); boyli (Go.); boya, ba_yal sunn hemp (Go.); baiya_l flax (Go.); boilee hemp (Go.)(DEDR 4535).

7140.Certainly: pira_yikam < pra_yika mostly (Pi. Vi. 2,Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. paka certain, settled; paka paki to establish an agreement or proposition so that no doubt or subject of dispute can remain; thoroughly, completely (Santali.lex.) pakka_-kharad.e the regular account compiled from the diary (Ka.M.); pakva ripe (Ka.lex.) pra_yika common, usual, general (Ka.Skt.); pra_yas for the most part, mostly, generally, usually (Skt.Ka.); pra_yas'ah-, pra_yas'as for the most part, mostly, generally, usually, always, commonly; to all appearances, likely (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pra_ye_n.a mostly, as a general rule (Skt.lex.) pra_yas for the most part (MBh.); pra_ye_n.a (Mn.); pa_yam. for the most part (Pkt.); pa_u (Ap.); po slightly adversative particle (N.); pa~_ expletive particle (M.); pa_ye_na for the most part (Pali); pa_e_n.a, pa_e_n.am. (Pkt.); pai particle of emphasis (Ku.); pa_i_ particle added to pronouns (tapa_i_ hon. 2 pers. pron., mapa_i_ I myself)(N.); pa_i_, pai_ certainly, generally (M.)(CDIAL 8951). cf. pa_y, pa_di, pa_ya, pa_yi, pa_yu, ha_yi going; course, way; manner, propriety, fitness; tar-uva_ygol. to get into regular order (Ka.); tar-uva_y order, succession (Ka.); tarava_y, tar-uva_y (Te.); taruva_te afterwards (Te.)(Ka.lex.) Certainty: va_y (-v-, -nt-) to succeed, be gained, happen with certainty, come true, be fit or suitable, excel, surpass, obtain, possess, consent to, agree; (-pp-, -tt-) to succeed, be gained, happen with certainty, come true, be fit or suitable, excel, surpass, be appropriately situated or formed; n. truth, excellence; va_yppu favourable circumstance, good chance or opportunity, that which is appropriately formed or situated, fitness, suitability, beauty, surpassing excellence; va_ymai truth (Ta.); va_ykka to agree, fit, be what may be (Ma.)(DEDR 5351).

7141.Sesamum: ma_zon. pl. sesamum (Pe.); ma_yun. id. (Mand..); mayka pl. id.; ma_iki ni_yu gingelly oil (Kuwi)(DEDR 4835). cf. maddan.a massaging (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9891).

7142.Resident: me_ya_n- resident, dweller (Tiruva_ca. 8,7); me_yavan- id. (Kampara_. Ilan:kaike_l.. 13)(Ta.lex.)

7143.Image: breast, teat: may (pl. -ku) breast, teat (Pe.); may (pl. -ke) id. (Mand..)(DEDR 4705).

7144.Upper border of waist cloth: me.tal upper border of waist cloth (To.)(DEDR 5086). cf. talaippu end or edge of cloth (Ta.)(DEDR 3103).

7145.Requital; recompense: muy requital, the act of returning like for like: the return of good for good, an equivalent returned for anything given (done or suffered), recompense; the return of evil for evil, retaliation, punishment; a present given to the bride and bridegroom at their marriage by relations etc., with the prospect of a recompense being made on such an occasion in their own house (Ka.); muyi requital in a good or in a bad sense; muyi ma_d.u to present an object at a marriage with the prospect of a proper recompense; muyige muyi ti_risu to requisite, to repay, in a good or bad sense (Ka.lex.) muyi a gift of money at the wedding; muyya returning; muyya pa_d.uni giving back (Tu.lex.)

7146.A region: vara_kam the region at the foot of Mt. Malayam (Civataru. Ko_pa. 48)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) vara_hamu_la name of a place in Kashmir (Skt.); warahmul a town at west end of the valley of Kashmir (K.)(CDIAL 11326).

7147.Present: warasuhi, barasuhi the clothing given to a bride by the bridegroom's father on the day of the wedding (P.lex.)

7148.Heir: wirsa, wirasat inheritance; hereditary right; waras, warasn.i an heir, a proprietor, a master, a lord, an owner; waras hona to inherit (P.lex.) wira_s.at heritage, heirship; inheritance, patrimony; wirs.a-da_r a joint or co-heir; wirs.e men. a_na_ to descend, proceed from an ancestor; wira_s.atan adv. by the way of inheritance; -war (added to nouns, implies) possessing, enjoying, having (U.lex.) oaris, awasi an heir (Santali.lex.) va_rasu heritage; the proprietorship of it (Ka.); va_risu (Te.); va_rasa_, va_ri_sa (M.H.); va_rasu claim, title (Ka.M.); va_rasuda_ra, va_rasada_ra an inheritor or a proprietor of lands etc. (Ka.); va_rase_da_ra, va_ri_sada_ra (M.)(Ka.lex.) To bestow liberally: vr.s. to rain down, pour forth; to rain upon (abhi vr.s RV. vii.103.3: us'ato_ abhyavars.i_t); to bestow liberally (RV. viii.61.7: ud va_vr.sasva maghavan gavis.t.aye_ udindra_s'va-mis.aye_); being regaled (with soma) for wealth let the mighty Indra vouchsafe us an easy passage and freedom from fear : udva_vr.s.a_n.o_ ra_dhase tuvis.ma_n karanna indrah- suti_rtha_bhayam (RV. iv.29.3); vr.s.an.-vasu having great or copious wealth (RV. i.iii.1)(Vedic.lex.)

7149.Treasury; wealth: vasava_na affluent (RV. x.22.15); vasavya possessing wealth; vasavyam wealth (RV. iv.55.8; TBr. iii.5.7); vasa_vi_ treasury (RV. x.73.4); vasi_ya_m.s richer, better (TS. i.7.6.4); cf. vahist, bihist paradise (Pers.); vasu shining, good, excellent (RV. i.10.4); wholesome, healing (RV. viii.88.1); wealth (RV. i.42.10 : vasu_ni dasmami_mahe_ we approach the wondrous one for riches, RV. i.15.8: vasu_ni ya_ni s'r.n.vire_); vasavah- excellent, or gods of wealth (RV. x.125.1; RV. vi.50.15; RV. iii.8.8; RV. ii.3.4; RV. iii.19.2); vasuka bright, shining (TS. iii.5.2.5); vasuta_ wealth, wealthiness, liberality (RV. vi.1.13); vasuta_ti wealth (RV. i.122.12); liberality (RV. i.122.5); vasutti gift of wealth (RV. viii.61.7); vasutva wealth, abundance (RV. x.61.12); vasuda_ [Av. vanhu-da_] giving wealth (RV. viii.99.4); vasuda_van (RV. ii.6.4; TS. iv.2.3.4); vasude_ya granting of wealth, liberalit (RV. i.54.9); vasu-dha_ producing or containing wealth; vasudha_na treasure of wealth (ChUp.); vasu-dhiti giving wealth (RV. viii.90.3; RV. i.128.8); treasury (RV. iii.31.17); vasu-dhe_ya giving wealth (S'Br. i.6.4.16); vasu-ni_tha bringing wealth (TS. iv.2.3.4; VS. vi.44; KS. viii.14); vasu-pati lord of wealth (RV. i.170.5); vasu-patni_ a mistress of wealth (RV. i.164.27); vasu-mant wealth-laden (RV. vii.71.4); vahumant (Av.); vasu-mat possession of wealth (RV. ix.69.8); vasu-maya consistin gof wealth or good things; vasu-ruc bright like Vasus (RV. x.110.6); vasu-vani conferring wealth, winning wealth (RV. vii.1.23); vasu-va_hana carrying wealth (RV. v.75.1); vasu-vid procuring wealth (RV. i.18.2; TS. iv.3.13.5); vasu_-ju_ procuring or raising wealth (RV. viii.99.8); vasu_ya_ desire for wealth (RV. i.97.l2); vasu_yu desiring wealth (RV. v.29.15; RV. vii.32.2); vaso_r dha_ra stream of wealth, name of a particular libation, continuous pouring of oblations, pouring libations while reciting the verses (VS. xviii.1.29; TS. v.4.8.1); vasya-is.t.i desire for betterment, i.e. welfare (RV. i.25.4); vasya-as.t.i conducive to welfare (TS. iv.4.1.3); vasyas better, richer (RV. vi.41.4); better luck or fortune (RV. i.31.18); pra ne_s.i abhi vasyo_ asma_n lead us towards greater fortune (RV. i.109.1)(Vedic.lex.) vasu [Vedic vasu good; Old Irish fi_u worthy; Gothic iusiza better] wealth; only in cpds. vasudeva the god of wealth, i.e. Kr.s.n.a (kan.ha); vasudeva_ followers of Kr.s.n.a; vasudhara_, vasund-dhara_ the bearer of wealth, i.e. the earth; vasumant having wealth, rich (Pali.lex.) Price, value: vasna price, value (RV. iv.24.9); vasnika_, vasna price, prize (TMB. xiv.3.13); vasnay to haggle (RV. vi.47.21) (Vedic.lex.) Thing for sale: vasnya a thing put up for sale (RV. x.34.3)(Vedic.lex.)

7150.Image: bull: vr.s.an bull; stallion (RV. i.140.6; RV. i.176.2); vr.s.abha bull (RV. i.116.18); manly RV. iii.38.7); vr.s.a-s'ipra bull-lipped or bull-cheeked (RV. vii.99.4); vr.s.a-stubh praising the bull or bull gods (RV. x.66.6); vr.s.a_y to act like a bull (RV. ix.71.3; RV. i.55.2); vr.s.a_rava bellowing like a bull (RV. x.146.2) (Vedic.lex.) rasia~u a breeding bull (Santali.lex.) vr.s.a, vr.s.abha, r.s.abha, basa, basava, rusaba a bull; the zodiacal sign taurus (Ka.lex.) cf. vasabha bull (Pali); vasaha, visaha, vusaha (Pkt.); basa_ha_ bull not used for ploughing (N.); basaha_ bull bought by religious mendicants (Bi.); basah bull (Mth.); basaha_ (Bhoj.); basaha (OAw.); basah (H.); vasu_ bull calf, bull branded and set at liberty; vas'e~, os'e~ bullock's hump (M.); vahap ox, steer (Si.)(CDIAL 12085). usabha (Av. ars'an male) a bull, often fig. as symbol of manliness and strength; usabha-yuddha bull-fight; purisusabha bull of a man, a very strong man; usabhakkkhandha broad-shouldered; a_sabha, isabha, esabha, vasabha bull; nisabha [Skt. nr. + r.s.abha] bull among men, i.e. prince, leader (Pali.lex.)

7151.Manly: vr.s.a-karman doing manly deeds (RV. i.63.4); vr.s.a-kratu high-minded, manly-minded (RV. v.36.5); vr.s.a-kha_di having large bracelet or ring (RV. i.64.10)[kha_di-hasta having hands adorned with bracelets (RV. v.58.2); kha_din adorned with bracelets or rings (RV. ii.34.2); kha_di inlaid bracelet or ring (RV. i.168.3; RV. v.53.4)]; vr.s.a-gan.a forming a strog host (RV. ix.97.8); vr.s.a-cyuta excited by the strong soma (RV. ix.69.7); vr.s.a-ju_ti having manly impulse or speed (RV. v.35.3); vr.s.an. testicles; vr.s.an.as'va having stallions as steeds (RV. viii.20.10); vr.s.an.yanti_ desiring a male, i.e. in heat (RV. ix.19.5); vr.s.atva manly vigour (RV. i.54.2); vr.s.a-dhu_ta pressed by men (RV. iii.36.2); vr.s.an strong, vigorous (RV. i.64.12); vr.s.a-man.as manly-spirited (RV. i.63.4); vr.s.a-manyu vigorous-minded (RV. i.131.2); vr.s.ayu in heat, ruttish (RV. ix.77.5); vr.s.a-sava pressed out by men (RV. x.42.8); vr.s.a-se_na having an army of strong men (TS. i.8.11.1); vr.s.a_yudh combating strong men (RV. i.33.6); vr.s.n.i virile, strong (RV. vii.6.6); vr.s.n.ya_-vant having virility (RV. vi.22.1)(Vedic.lex.) hor., herel a man; birban.t.a a man of valour (Santali.lex.) vi_rpon heroism; vi_ra_tso manly, heroic (Kon.lex.) vassati [Av. vars'na virile, Lat. verres boar; Skt. ars.ati, r.s.abha bull; Lat. ros dew = Skt. rasa essence] vassa_pei to cause to rain (Pali.lex.)

7152.Grease: vasa_ (Vedic) fat, tallow, grease (Pali.lex.) vasa_ white marrow of flesh (VS); vaha_, vas (S.)(Vedic.lex.) cf. waha fat, grease, blubber of fish (S.); baso fat (Ku.)(DEDR 11443). pacai glue, paste, cement (Malaipat.u. 26); gain, profit; property, possession; pacai-tal to gather, get ready as necessary materials (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,64); pacai-ya_ppu bond of worldly attachmen (Ci_vaka. 1242)(Ta.lex.) vacam < vas'a possession, charge, custody, care (Tiruva_ca. 33,8)(Ta.lex.) cf. vakan- < baka Kube_ra (Ta.lex.)

7153.Green cinnamon: vara_n:gaka cassia bark, green cinnamon (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) vara_n:kam cinnamon bark (Mu_. A.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7154.A tree: vr.s.e, vr.s.a the plant gendarussa vulgaris or adhadota (= at.ros.a)(Ka.Skt. lex.) nila-nirgundi, krishna nirgunda (Skt.); kalabashimb, nili-nargandi (H.); jagatmadan (B.); kala-adulso, shanballi (Deccan); nallanochili (Te.); karunochchi (Ta.Ma.); karinekkigida (Ka.); kalo-negundu (Konkan.i); habitat: found chiefly in Kanara and Travancore; parts used: bark, leaves, root and tender stalks; action: bark is a good emetic; leaves are antiperiodic, alterative and insecticide (Indian Materia Medica, p. 572).

7155.Image: felled tree: vr.s'ca-dvan one who fells trees (RV. vi.6.1)(Vedic.lex.) cf. vr.ks.a tree (RV.); bich pine tree (Mai.)(CDIAL 12067). cf. vr.s'cati cuts down or off or asunder (RV.); vras'cati (BhP.); vras'cana cutting (S'Br.); ba_chiba_ to clean herbs or fish or refuse matter in preparation for cooking, darn, root out weeds, pick out bad from good things, select, choose (Or.); vr. to choose (Skt.)(CDIAL 12080). vr.ks.a a tree; a shrub; especially also the tilaka, syandana (ta_r..eya), nandivat.t.a, sarala, kan:ke_lli (as'o_ka), mo_ca (ba_r..e), dava (citramu_la), nalina (ta_vare), s'a_la (a_sina); cf. in:gal.a vr.ks.a, it.t.i vr.ks.a, ta_r..a vr.ks.a, te_gu vr.ks.a (Ka.lex.) Image: tree; pipal: virukkam, virut.cam < vr.ks.a tree (Takkaya_kap. 38, Urai.); virut.ca-na_tam < vr.ks.a-na_tha pipal (Mu_. A.); virukka-pa_kam < vr.ks.a-pa_ka pipal (Malai.)(Ta.lex.)

7156.Image: turned, twisted: vr.kta bent, turned, twisted (Vedic.lex.) cf. bruku bending of something perpendicular (esp. the backbone) under too heavy a weight (K.); bi_ka_ crooked (H.); vr.j bend (Skt.)(CDIAL 12066). vr.jina crooked, bent, curved (Ka.lex.).

7157.Image: scorpion: cf. vr.s'cika scorpion (RV.); vr.s'cana (Skt.); bich (Sh.)(CDIAL 12081). viruccikam scorpion; scorpio of the zodiac (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.)

7158.Root: ve_r root, anything rootlike, foundation (Ta.); root, origin, cause (Ma.); ve.r root (Ko.); p.r id. (To.); be_r(u) root; be_ruga a man who deals in or sells roots (Ka.); be.ri root (Kod..); be_ru root; origin, cause (Tu.); ve_ru root (Te.); ve.r (pl. ve.d.l) id. (Kol.Nk.); va_r (pl. -kul) id. (Pa.); ve_r id (Ga.); vela, ve_la id. (Kond.a); ve_'la root (of large tree); large root of trees (Kuwi)(DEDR 5535). be_rvare a root, or roots, to spread; be_rvarasu to gether with the root or roots, from the root (Ka.lex.) A man who sells roots: be_ruga a man who deals in, or sells, roots; be_ru, be_r a root (Ka.); ve_r (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

7159.A bean: varvat.a the bean dolichos sinensi; barbat.a (Skt.)[of Mu. origin]; bor.i a partic. kind of bean (N.); bor.a_, bora_ (H.); vo_ra (Si.)(CDIAL 11391). cf. avarai field-bean, dolichos lablab (Ta.); abad., avad., a_vad. a kind of bean (Tu.)(DEDR 264).

7160.Image: animal: virukam < mr.ga animal, beast (Tiruva_ca. 1,27) (Ta.lex.)

7161.Image: dog: virukam < vr.ka a kind of wild dog (Kampara_. Nakarni_n:ku. 83, Pi-m.) (Ta.lex.)

7162.Gold, wealth: ver-ukkai abundance (Kur-al., 971); wealth (Patir-r-up. 55,4); gold; life-spring (paricilar ver-ukkai : Patir-r-up. 38,9); offering, as to a superior (Ci_vaka. 2708); ver-ukkai-kkir..avan- Kube_ra, as the god of wealth (Ci_vaka. 1871); ver-u to abound (Tol. Col. 347; Pur-ana_. 53)(Ta.lex.)

7163.Image: wild cat: verukku-vit.ai male of wild cat (Pur-ana_. 32); veruku wild cat (Pin..); verukat.i cat's paw (Ta.lex.)

7164.Polish: veruku, meruku polish (Ta.lex.)

7165.Image: a small chisel; to split (divide) and select: vras'c (vr.s'cati, vr.kn.a; caus. vras'cayati; desid. vivraks.ati) to cut, cut up or asunder, tear, lacerate; the juice trickling from an incision in a tree; vras'can-h. a small saw; a fine file used by goldsmiths; vras'can-am cutting, tearing, wounding; a cut, an incision (Skt.lex.) vr.kn.a cut down, broken (RV.); brakun, pp. broku to crush, pound (K.); bi_ka_ hurt, disordered (H.)(CDIAL 12065). vr.cati cuts down or off or asunder (RV.); vras'cati (BhP.); vras'cana cutting (S'Br.); vr.ksate_ chooses (Dha_tup.); aor. avra_ks.i_t (Skt.); vr.ks.i_ (TS.); vicchia split (Pkt.); burchn.a_, bursn.a_ to cut slightly, trim (P.); bi_chna_ to pick out, select, choose (H.); buchun to bite or sting (of snake or scorpion)(K.)(CDIAL 12080). vr.s' to choose, select (Skt.lex.) vras'cana who or what cuts; a small chisel or saw, a fine file (Ka.lex.) Image: crack: biriku, biraku, biruku, birku a cleft, a fissure, a crack (Ka.); biruhuri the being (partly) untwisted; bid.iku, bid.uku separation; a crack (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7166.Image: lion: pa_ri < bha_ri lion (Ta.lex.)

7167.A region: vira_t.a name of a district in India; name of a king of the Matsyas. The Pa_n.d.avas lived incognito in the service of this king for one year (the thirteenth of their exile)... His daughter Uttara_ was married to Abhimanyu and was mother of Pari_ks.it who succeeded Yudhis.t.hira to the throne of Hastina_pura (Skt.lex.) Matsya or vira_t.a name of a country lying to the west of Dholpur; the Pa_n.d.avas are said to have entered it from the banks of the Yamuna_ through the land of the Rohitakas and Su_rasenas towards the north of Dasa_rn.a. Vaira_t.a, the capital of Vira_t.a, is probably the same as Bairat 40 miles north of Jeypore (Skt.lex.)

7168.Image: space: viral.am < vi-rala being wide apart; intervening space (Ilak. Aka.); narrowness; closeness (Na_mati_pa. 777); vira_l.i separation (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) birla birli some, here and there, some other (Santali.lex.) virala, viral.a having interstices, separated by intervals (of space or time); loose, wide apart; bid.ike, be_r-e; viral.a-dut.i separated lips (Ka.lex.) virala wide apart, loose, thin, few (MBh.); sparse, rare, thin, small (Pali.Pkt.); verala occasiona, in small quantity, little (K.); virilo uncommon, rare (S.); virl very fine split, small orifice; virla_, birla_ fine, scarce, rare, wonderful (P.); birlo rare, sparse (Ku.); biral thin, scarce, rare; lonely place (A.); biral loose, infrequent; birla_ scarce, few (H.); viralau separate (OG.); virlu~ rare, scarc; vallu~ wide, extended, open (G.); viral., viru_l. wide apart, of loose texture; burul loose, thin, weak, old (Si.)(CDIAL 11847). cf. bila cave, hole, pit, opening (RV.); virl.a_ scarce, rare (M.)(CDIAL 9245). Loose texture: viralika_ a kind of thin cloth (Skt.); bira_li improvised bag made of a cloth or scarf for carrying rice (N.)(CDIAL 11848). viral., viru_l. of loose texture, wide apart (M.); viralau separate (OG.); burul loose, thin, weak, old (Si.); virala wide apart, loose, thin, few (MBh.)(CDIAL 11847).

7169.Image: finger-breadth: viral finger-breadth (S.I.I. ii,395); virar-kit.ai id., = 8 grains of paddy = 1/12 ca_n. (W.)(Ta.); viral-mur..i knuckle; finger-joint (W.); viral finger, toe (Poruna. 17)(Ta.); viral (Ma.); vre_lu (Te.); berel (Ka.Tu.) (Ta.lex.) ba_hra_ of a length equal to twelver fingers' breadth (P.lex.) Span: werhyahas, wrias, werest span (Pas'.); visara spreading (Skt.)(CDIAL 11996).

7170.Tremble; throb: patar-u (patar-i-) to be flurried, confused, be impatient, overhasty, hurry; patar-r-am rashness, hurry; patat.t.am trembling, agitation; patai (-pp-, -tt-) to throb (as in sympathy), flutter, quiver, be in agony, shake, be anxious; pata-pat-en-al expr. signifying the trembling of the heart (Ta.); patar-uka to be precipitate, over-hasty, be confused; patar-ikka to cause confusion; pata boiling, boil up; agitate; patappu throbbing; patapata boiling, hot, effervescing; patupata bubbling up (Ma.); padar-u to be overhasty, speak unadvisedly, talk nonsense; pade to desire, wish, be eager; padap(p)u eagerness, zeal, pleasurable excitement (Ka.); padaru, paduru, padar-u, padur(u)cu, padrucu to be overhasty or precipitate, angry, move, be shaken; n. a hasty word; padat.amu, padat.u precipitation, hurry (Te.); padrare, padkare to prattle (Malt.)(DEDR 3910). cf. pir-ar.. (-v-, -nt-) to tremble (Ta.)(DEDR 4200). pharkab to throb (Mth.); pharakkida trembling (Pkt.); spharan.a throbbing; spha_rayati causes to throb; pharpharat 3 sg. subj. scatter (RV.); pharati thrills (the body with pleasure); pharan.a thrilling (Pali); pharan.u to twitch, throb (S.); pharphara_n.o to flutter, flap the wings (Ku.); pharphar sparkling (B.); pharphara_na_ to flap (H.)[cf. par-a to fly (Ta.lex.)]; pharphar flutteringly (G.); pharpharn.e~ to twitch (M.); pharakai to throb (OAw.); pharakvu~ (G.); pharphara_unu to twitch, flutter (N.); pharphara_iba to tingle (A.)(CDIAL 13820). sphurati spurns, darts (RV.); twitches (Kaus'.); flashes, glitters (MaitrUp.); becomes evident (Nr.sUp.); phurai twitches, trembles (Pkt.); phuran.u to spring to mind (S.); pho_run to throb (K.); phurun. to throb (L.); phurna_ to quiver, come to mind (P.); phurn.o to throb (Ku.); phurnu (N.); phura_iba to cause to turn (A.); phurab to be guessed (Mth.); phuriba_ to throb, vibrate (Or.); phurna_ to flutter, twitch (H.); phurvu~ to throb (G.); phurn.e~ to throb, twitch (M.); redupl.: phuraphurai, phuraphura_adi trembles very much (Pkt.); phurphura_n.o to flutter, flap the wings (Ku.); phurphura_unu to be transported with delight (N.); phurahri_ tremble, shudder (H.); phurphura_na_ to quiver, tremble, flap (H.); phurphurn.e~ to tremble (M.); phurakn.a_ to throb (P.); phurath, phurcu haste (K.); phurti_ activity, haste (P.Ku.); phurti (N.); phurti_ activity (H.)(CDIAL 13849). sphuran.a glittering (VarBr.S.); throbbing; sphuran.a_ (Dha_tup.); phuran.a twitching, throbbing (Pkt.); phurani giddiness (A.); phuran.a_ overjoyed, delighted (Or.); phuran. twitching, quivering (M.)(CDIAL 13848). pu_rittal to rejoice, be satisfied (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,44)(Ta.lex.)

7171.Strength: bharsak full force or ability; bhorsak with all one's strength or ability (Santali.lex.) puri strength, courage, pride; hurupu energy; huruppu id., enthusiasm (Ka.); puri-konu to gain strength or spirits; puri-kolupu to incite, rouse, urge, goad, encourage (Te.)(DEDR 4286). Image: highest: barhis.t.ha greatest, mightiest, very lofty, highest; barhis.t.ham most vigorously (RV. iii.13.1); barhan.a_ power, might (RV. x. 77.3)(Vedic.lex.) ba_ri, bha_ri weightiness, greatness, high price, valuableness (Ka.); ba_ri, bha_ri (Te.); bha_ri (Ma.); va_ri (Ta.); bha_ri_ (M.)(Ka.lex.)

7172.Image: slope: ba_ri the passage (or slope) at the side of a great well for bullocks to run down in drawing up water (in a leather-bag) by a rope running over a pulley (Ka.Te.); ba_ri_ a ravine, defile; a passage through a fence (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) barhas strength, greatness; cf. barezat berg, mountain (Aw.) (Vedic.lex.) Image: mountain top: varai mountain (Pur-ana_. 6); mountain top, peak (Paripa_. 15,39); side-hill; slope of a hill (Maturaik. 42)(Ta.lex.) Garden; plateau; dry ground: par-ampu hill, mountain (Ta..); higher or dry ground laid out in terraces, all fields too high for rice cultivation, orchard, garden (Ma.); padavu hilltop (Ka.); parambi large flat pasture land without trees (Kod..); padavu plateau, tableland (Tu.)(DEDR 4026). par-u a cultivated plot (Kond.a); par (pl. -kul) garden (Pa.)(DEDR 4030). paravar-ka_t.u jungle of brush-wood; paravar-ka_t.t.u-p-pun-cey dry cultivation amidst brush-wood; paraval broad stretch of land (Ta.lex.) Hill; rock: pa_ha_r. hill, steep bank (B.); pa_ha_r.a hill (Or.); paha_d. hill (M.); paha_r mountain (K.); paha_r. (L.P.Ku.); paharo rock, cliff (N.); paha_r. mountain (N.H.Mth.G.)(CDIAL 8141). pa_r-ai rock, crag, stratum, hillock; pa_r rock, rocky stratum, shelf of rock (Ta.); pa_r-a rock, large stone, firmness (Ma.); pa.re flat stone, stone slab, place where bath is taken on paved floor in bath-house (Kod..); pa_de rock (Tu.); ha_de id. (Kor.); pa_ra slab of stone (Pa.); pa_rum (pl. pa_ru'ku) rock, boulder (Go.)(DEDR 4121). pa_s.a_n.a stone (Skt.); pa_s.a_n.i_ small stone used as a weight (Skt.); pa_sa_n.a stone, rock (Pali.Pkt.); pa_ha_n.a (Pkt.); pahan.u stone (S.); pa_han. stone (P.); pa_han (Mth.); pa_hana (OAw.); pa_ha~_n (H.); pa_han.iim. inst. sg. (OG.); pa_n., paha_n.o, pa_n.o (G.); pahan.a, pa_n.a (Si.); pa_s.a_n. the excess of weight in one scale which disturbs the equipoise (B.)(CDIAL 8138). pas.u_ rock, precipice (Wg.); pas.i_ wall (Pas'.); pa_h a kind of stone which is ground with alum and cloves and opium as a poultice for sore eyes (H.)(CDIAL 8140). Mountain range: varai-y-a_r..i a mythical mountain range (kat.ala_r..i, varaiya_r..i, taraiya_r..i : Takkaya_kap. 6); mountain (Takkaya_kap. 6, Urai.); varai-ne_mi a mythical mountain range (Takkaya_kap. 85)(Ta.lex.) cf. a_r..i circle; ring (Ta.lex.) cakkarava_l.am < cakrava_la (a ring, circle (Skt.) a mythical range of mountains encircling the orb of the earth and forming the limit of light and darkness (Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 20); the third slope or tier of Mt. Me_ru (Ci. Po_. Pa_. 2,3, Pak. 205); circular form; cakkarava_la-k-ko_t.t.am a place in the ancient city of Ka_viri-p-pu_m-pat.t.in-am adjoining its burning ground (Man.i. 6,202)(Ta.lex.) Mountain nymphs: varaiyara-makal.ir mountain-nymphs (Kur-icip. 195)(Ta.lex.) Hill tribes: varan:ku = ka_t.ar hill tribes, dwellers in the forest (Ir-ai. 23, Urai. Pak. 126); hill tribes occupying the a_namalai hills, of strong build, with woolly hair and African features (Ta.); ka_t.an hill tribes (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

7173.Compound perfume; fragrance: vr.ka turpentine; a compound perfume, a mixture of various fragrant articles; name of a tree (Skt.lex.) boror. having a soft oily feeling to the touch, as soapstone; possessing cleansing properties as soap, certain kinds of earth, ashes etc. (Santali.lex.) barhi-pus.pa a kind of perfume (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) vr.ka-dhu_pa compounded perfume (Skt.Ka.); turpentine (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. urika one who burns or consumes with fire, one who has burnt etc. (Ka.lex.) Resin: barhis.t.ha, varhis.t.ha the resin of pinus longifolia (Ka.lex.) varan:ku Malabar wood-oil tree (Ta.lex.) [cf. biroza in: gandha-biroza pinus longifolia (G.lex.) bhu_ja, sarala, pi_tadru pinus longifolia (Ka.lex.)] barhis.t.am largest, strongest (Skt.); barhi-kusumam a kind of perfume (Skt.lex.) barhi-pus.pa a kind of perfume (Ka.lex.) Pinus longifolia: saro dare pine tree (Santali.lex.) sarala; (oleo-resin) sarala drava; srivasa; kshira (Skt.); long-leaved pine, chir pine (Eng.); pin a longues feuilles (Fr.); saral, chirgond (oleo-resin); chil, chir (H.); gandha biroza (G.Deccan); (resin) samaghe sanobara (Pers.); salsel-dhup (N.); shirsal (Ta.); aalakus (Arab.); chir (K.); habitat: common on the slopes of the Himalayas, north western frontier province from Afghanistan to Kashmir, the Punjab, U.P. to Bhutan, Assam and Upper and Lower Burma; constituents: its sapwood yields on incision an oleo-resin from which 'turpentine is obtained by steam distillation, which contains about 20% volatile oil of turpentine called "pinene" with a small quantity of limonene, and about 80% of residue which is very largely used under the name of "calophony" or resin. The rectified oil, oleum terebinthinae rectificatum, is used very commonly inmedicine. Foreign turpentine is largely used in perfumery and in the manufacture of artificial camphor.' Indian turpentine available in the market is produced chiefly from pinus longifolia, one of the most important trees of India... The Indian turpentine, on account of absence (or insufficiency?) of pinene, cannot be employed in the camphor industry... Wood is aromatic, antiseptic, deodorant, stimulant, diaphoretic and refrigerant, rubefacient and carminative. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 957-959). Pinus longifolia: sarala (Skt.); chir, saral (H.B.); the aromatic wood of pinus longifolia is used in Hindu medicine. The tree yields an oleo-resin called sarala drava, sriva_sa and kshira in Sanskrit. In the vernacular it is called gandhabiroza. Dr. Royle remarked, 'The chir exudes or yields to incisions a very fine turpentine. This is chiefly valued by the natives for its resin, and as the latter is only obtained by exposing the turpentine to heat, the oil, the more valuable roduct is dissipated to procure the resin; but by adopting a very simple still, the resin was obtained as good as ever for the purposes of the natives while the oil of turpentine which distilled over was pronounced on being sent to the General Hospital of Calcutta, to be of very superior quality.' Turpentine is now distilled by the natives in the Panjab but the distilled oil is not mentioned by Sanskrit writers... The ole-resin or crude turpentine is used in the preparation fo plasters, ointments and pastiles for fumigation. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 247-248). Pinus roxburghii = pinus longifolia: sarala (Skt.Te.); chir (H.P.); saralagachcha (B.); saraladeodara (M.); simaidevadari (Ta.); saralam (Ma.); sarl (K.); resin: stimulant; applied as a plaster to buboes; wood: stimulant, diaphoretic; habitat: outer Himalayan ranges from the Indus to Bhutan, 1,500-7,500 f. (GIMP, pp. 193-194). saraladrava the resin of pinus longifolia, turpentine; sarala pinus longifolia (Ka.lex.) Pine tree: saro dare pine tree (Santali.lex.) sarala pinus roxburghii (Car. Ci. 3.26, 13.155). sarala pinus longifolia (MBh.); pine tree (Pali.Pkt.); sallo, salo (Ku.); sala_n.i_ pine forest (Ku.); sallo (N.); xaral (A.); saral.a (Or.); saral (H.); sarala (Si.)(CDIAL 13253). caracam teak (Malai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) sarala straight (Skt.Pali.Pkt.); saral straight (P.B.); xaral (A.); sarla_ (H.); saral.a, saal.a, sal.a (Or.); saral. (G.M.); sarala (Si.)(CDIAL 13252). Image: straight: sarala, saral.a straight, not crooked (Ka.lex.) serec juniper (Kt.); saras, sa_ras (Dm.); sa_ras (Kal.); saru_s (Kho.)(CDIAL 13256). sarasa juicy (TS.Pkt.); sarasa tasty (OG.); saras juicy (G.M.)(CDIAL 13255).

7174.Reply: vit.ai answer, reply (Nan-. 386, Urai.)(Ta.); bid.e (Ka.Tu.); vit.aiyatika_ri officer who issues the royal orders (S.I.I. iii, 36)(Ta.lex.) visajjana, pat.ivacana answer, reply (Pali.lex.) pad.ivayan.a answer (Pkt.); prativacana verse serving as an answer (A_pS'r.); answer (Skt.)(CDIAL 8595).

7175.Image: bull calf: vit.ai < vr.s.a bull (Te_va_. 539,2); vit.ai-ko_l. grappling and subduing enraged bulls, as by a suitor in a test of bravery (Kalit. 103); vit.ai-p-pa_kan- S'iva, as riding the bull Nandi (Tiruva_ca. 1,34); vit.aiyan- S'iva (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,10,4); vit.aiyavan- id. (Tiruva_ca. 6,1); Varun.a (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 108, Arum. Pak. 12)(Ta.lex.) vit.ai-mukan- Nandi as having the face of a bull (Kantapu. Vit.ai. 23); vit.ai-k-kur-i seal with the mark of S'iva's bull (Tiruva_lava_. Pati. 4)(Ta.lex.) virut.am, virut.apam > vr.s.a, vr.s.abha bull; virut.iyam > vr.s.ya becoming fat or bulky (Na_mati_pa. 769)(Ta.lex.) vr.s.an strong, great; male, bull (RV.); vr.s.abha powerful; lord, male, bull (RV.); the following variants are concordant with vr.s' 'to select' variants, indicating a poss. semant. 'region' cluster, vr.s'/vr.s./viruc-/virut.- : vasabha bull (Pali); basa_ha_ bull not used for ploughing (N.); vasaha, visaha, vusaha (Pkt.); basaha_ bull bought by religious mendicants (Bi.); basah bull (Mth.); basaha_ (Bhoj.); basaha (OAw.); basah (H.); vasu_ bull calf, bull branded and set at liberty; vas'e~, os'e~ bullock's hump (M.); vhp ox, steer (Si.)(CDIAL 12085). cf. vas'e~d., os'e~d., vas'i~d., vas'a~d., vasa~d., osa~d.(e~) bullock's hump (M.)(CDIAL 12084). uks.an bull (RV.); ukkha_ ox; vaccha_n.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1627). cf. concordant phonet. variants in: vatsa calf (RV.); vatsaka little calf (Mn.); vatsika_ heifer (Ya_j.); vaccha calf (Pali.Pkt.); bacha yearling calf (Kal.); ba_s (Tor.); ba_co (Sv.)(CDIAL 11239). cf. basava the Nandi bull in front of S'iva in temples (Ka.lex.) cf. il.avat.t.am, il.amat.t.am small pony (W.); little boy or girl; stripling, youth; young woman (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7176.Image: chicken: vit.ai chicken old enough to roam about away from its mother hen (Ta.); ed.a (Te.); vit.ai-k-ko_r..i (Ta.lex.)

7177.Youth: cf. vit.alai youth from 16 to 30 (Pan-n-irupa_. 232); chief of an agricultural tract (Kalit. 95)(Ta.lex.) viru_d.ha sprouted (S'Br.); viru_l.ha growing (Pali); virad.a_, virad.ha_ young tree sapling (M.)(CDIAL 11871).

7178.Image: young cobra: vit.ai young cobra (Tiv. Periyati. 2,9,6, Vya_.)(Ta.lex.) visa_ra creeping, gliding (Skt.lex.) visarpin creeping (MBh.)(CDIAL 11998).

7179.Image: eyeball: bid.a_la the eyeball; bid.a_laka application of the ointment to the exterior part of the eye (Skt.lex.)

7180.Image: male bison: vit.ai male of the bison (Malaipat.u. 331); buffalo bull (Pu. Ve. 7,14); ram (Pur-ana_. 262)(Ta.lex.)

7181.Image: to leave: vit.ai-kol.(l.u)-tal to get permission; to take leave of, as when departing (Takkaya_kap. 288)(Ta.lex.)

7182.Yellow sandal: vit.i, vit.i_ yellow sandal (Skt.lex.)

7183.Svarga: bit.ham the sky or atmosphere (Vedic); vit.hala, vit.t.hala, vit.ala Vis.n.u or Kr.s.n.a worshipped at Pandharpur in the Bombay Presidency (Ka.Skt.lex.) bid.aujas, vid.aujas name of Indra (Skt.lex.) vin. sky (Pur-ana_. 11); heaven (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,9,5)(Ta.); vin.n.u (Te.Ma.); binnu (Ka.Tu.); cf. vis.n.u-pada sky (Skt.); vin.t.u id. (Kantapu. Ta_raka. 2); vin.n.a-man:kalam a region to which excommunicated paraiyas are said to go when they die (E.T. vi,92); vin.n.ulakam Svarga (Pu. Ve. 10, Ka_cip. 4, Urai.); heaven (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,3,4); vin.n.ulaku id. (Na_lat.i, 233);vin.man.i sun, as the gem of the sky (Ven:kaikko_. 283) (Ta.lex.) cf. vis.n.u the god Vis.n.u (RV.); vis.un.a taking various forms (RV.); vin.hu, ven.hu Vis.n.u (Pkt.); ven, venu (Si.); vit.hara ep. of Br.haspati (Skt.); vi(t.)t.hala, vid.d.hala Vit.hoba_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 11991).

7184.Business: por-ege business, work; the act of taking upon the head etc.; assuming, undertaking; burden (Ka.); ho_r-e, ho_r-ege, ho_r-e_vu business, work (Ka.); ho_r-ega a servant (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) o_ricu, o_rcu arrangement, settlement of a business, amicable settlement (Ta.); o_rcal settlement (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. por-u (-pp-, -tt-) to bear, sustain, take responsibility (Ta.)(DEDR 4565). hor-ege, por-ege business, work (Ka.lex.)

7185.Sale: pe_ram < be_ra (Pkt.) sale, trade (Ta.); be_ramu (Te.); be_ra (Ka.); pe_ram bargaining, higgling and haggling; high value (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) per-u-tal to get, obtain, secure, possess (na_lat.i, 5)(Ta.); per-u id. (Ka.); per-u-tal to be worth; to fetch a price (Ta.lex.) Trade: be_ra (Tadbhava of vya_pa_ra) trade (Ka.Te.); be_ra-ma_d.u to traffic (Ka.lex.) vya_pa_ra, be_pa_ra, ya_pa_ra the state of being occupied or engaged in; occupation, employment, business, trade, profession; exercise, activity; work, affair, operation, action, transaction, doing, performance; trade, traffic (Ka.M.) be_ri (Tadbhava of vya_pa_ri) trader (Ka.Te.); biya_ri (M.)(Ka.lex.) vya_pa_ri, be_pa_ri occupied, busy; transacting business; a tradesman, a dealer, a merchant; parada, harada; vya_pa_riga a dealer (Ka.lex.) cf. vi_r.a to be obtainable, be available (Kui); vi.r to sell (Kol.)(DEDR 5459). bil, bili to sell (Ka.); vil (Ma.); vir- (Ta.); vilucu (Te.); bil to buy (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.)

7186.Image: body; idol: pe_ram < be_ra form, shape (Nan-. 273, Mayilai.)(Ta.); body; idol (Ta.); ur-cava-be_ram, utcava-be_ram idol taken out in processions (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) utsava a festival, joyous or festive occasion, jubilee (Skt.lex.) ur-cavam temple festival (Caivaca. Potu. 346)(Ta.lex.)

7187.Image: pile: per-r-u pile (Tol. Col. 305, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

7188.Assessment: viracu-kan.akku detailed account; viracu-tal to join, unite (Ta.lex.) be_ri_ju the total of an addition: an amount (Ka.M.); the total assessment of a land, a village, a district etc. (Ka.); ot.t.u-be_ri_ju sama_mna_ya or totality, aggregate (Ka.); enumeration, reading, recitation (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) be_ro_ji, be_re_ji amount of assessment (Tu.lex.) Property: peyar property, substance (Patir-r-up. 90,23); treatise dealing with porul. (matter)(Patir-r-up. 21,1); peyar-k-kan.akku distribution of shares; ledger (Ta.lex.) Ledger: pe_re_t.u, peyare_t.u ledger; pe_ricu, pe_ri_j, pe_rij total sum or aggregate of an account (Ta.); < be_riz (U.); pe_ri_j total amount of a revenue assessment; total assessment of a village for land revenue (Ta.lex.) pe_ricai great renown (Maturaik. 618)(Ta.lex.) Term meaning 'one': pe_r-u term meaning 'one' in measuring out grains (Tailava. Taila.)(Ta.lex.) pe_r-ilakkam (arith.) integer, whole number (Ta.); pe_ristu, pe_rastu < fehrist (U.) list, catalogue, inventory (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) pe_ri-cet.t.i a sub-division of Chetty caste (E.T. i,211)(Ta.lex.) A type of land tenure: pe_r-u a kind of land tenure (G.Tn.D. I,189)(Ta.lex.) cf. perumpattu < perum + par-r-u land, the proprietary right of which lies in the hands of the government (W.G.); perumpar-r-u id. (T.A.S.)(Ta.lex.) cf. be_ji pile of harvested corn plants (Tulu.lex.) cf. vira, vire, vira'a earth, soil (Kui)(DEDR 5410). be_dol.ige cultivated land (Tulu.lex.)

7189.Images: spy; one who fights with savage animals: spas'a a spy; any secret messenger or emissary (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) spas' to see, behold, perceive clearly, spy out, spy; spas'a a spy, a secret agent; one who fights with savage animals (for reward), or the fight itself; spas' to obstruct; to undertake, perform (Skt.); spas'a war, battle, fight (Skt.ex.) cf. spas.t.ha distinctly visible, evident (Skt.lex.)

7190.A region:vat.t.am surrounding area or region, circuit (Ci_vaka. 949); a revenue unit of a few villages (Ta.lex.)

7191.Image: double drum: vi_ran.a a double drum used at weddings (Ka.); vi_r crying, bellowing etc. (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

7192.Andropogon muricatus: vi_ran.a, vi_ratara the fragrant grass andropogon muricatus (Skt.Ka.); vi_ran.i_-mu_la the root of andropogon muricatus (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7193.Jujube tree: ve_rat.am < ve_rat.a jujube tree, ilantai (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

7194.Image: to fill: pa_rayati fills (Dha_tup.); pa_re_i fills (Pkt.); par-, per- to fill; pare_i full (Ash.); para_ to fill, pour into; par- to be filled (Wg.); par- to fill; pare full (Kt.); pe_r- to fill (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8107).

7195.To be parched, evaporated; sandy soil: var-al., varal. sandy soil (Ta.); var-a dry soil (Ta.); var-al.i anything dried (Ta.); var-r-u to grow dry, evaporate (Ta.); var-u to be parched (Ta.); var-r-al drying, evaporation (Ta.Ma.); var-ukka to parch (Ma.); var-r-uka to be decocted, grow dry, evaporated, reduced (Ma.); var-r-ikka to dry, evaporate (Ma.); varl dry (meat), (funeral) which is commemorative (commonly translated as 'dry funeral')(Ko.); vat- to become dry and withered (Ko.); vard.n. man who has no children (Ko.); par-l dry, fuel (To.); bar-e dry soil (Ka.); bar-ad.u, barad.u, bad.d.u barrenness; bar-apa dryness; barkat.a, bakkat.a, bakka bareness, voidness; battu, baccu growing or being dry (Ka.); bara famine, scarcity (Tu.); baccuni, battuni to dry up, evaporate (Tu.); var-apu drought (Te.); vat.t.u to be drained, be dried up (Te.); vakku, vaggu to be reduced (Te.); vat- (vatt-) to parch (grain)(Kol.); vat.- to dry, wither (Ga.); vatt- to dry up (Go.); vaR- (-t-) to dry (in the sun) (Kond.a); vasa to dry, wither (Kui); battna_ (liquids) decrease by evaporation, boiling, percolation (Kur.); batta'a_na_ to empty, dry (Kur.); ba_rring, ba_rringing to become parched, wither, become dry; ba_rifing to make dry; ba_run dry, shrivelled up, unfertile (of land), barren (of animals, women)(Br.) (DEDR 5320). Sandy soil: va_luka containing sand (Skt.); made of salt (R.); va_lua dusty (Pkt.); ba_lua_ sandy soil (Bi.); balua_, barwa_ (H.)(CDIAL 11579). baluat. sandy soil (Bi.)(CDIAL 11582). balthar sandy soil (Bi.); balothar sandy place (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 11583). Sand: va_luka_ sand, gravel (S'vetUp.); sand (Pali); va_lua_ (Pkt.); ba_lu_ (P.Ku.); id.(Mth.Bhoj.H.); ba_r.u_, ba_u_ (WPah.); ba_luwa_ (Ku.N.); ba_l.u_ (Ku.); ba_l (Mth.); ba_ru_ (Aw.H.); va_l.u, vel.u (G.); va_l.u_ (M.); va_lika_- (Pali); ba_li (D..A.B.Or.); va_ri_ (S.); valla, vali- (Si.); veli (Md.)(CDIAL 11580). paral pebble, seed; paruman.al grit, sandstone (Ta.); para grit, coarse grain, gravel, cowry shell (Ma.); Image: one grain: parl pebble, one grain (of any grain)(Ko.); paral, paral. pebble, stone; haral.u castor oil p,lant (Ka.); para pebble (Kod..); parelu grain of sand, grit, gravel; grain of corn, etc.; castor seed (Tu.); par(a)pu a sand-bed (Tu.); parca gravel (Kol.)(DEDR 3959). cf. boralu gravel, pebbles (Si.)(DEDR 3959). balet.ha_ piece of wood used for sharpening a toddy-collector's sickle (Bi.)[lit. wood with sand on it]; baluat.h (Mth.)(CDIAL 11581).

7196.Image: comb: va_ruka (va_rnt-), va_r-uka (va_r-i-) to comb (Ma.); ba_cu, ba_rcu to comb (Ka.); va_raki_ra a small comb (Skt.); ba_rane, ba_rpan.i, ba_ran.e, barcane, ba_can.ige a comb (Tu.); ba_grka_, ba_girka_ wooden comb worn by boys and girls (Kur.); ba_runi, barcuni, ba_cuni, to comb (Tu.); ba_rcu, ba_cu to comb (Ka.); ba_can.ige a comb (Ka.); va_ri comb (Ta.); ba_gna_ to comb (Kur.); ba_grna_ to comb oneself (Kur.); va_r to comb as hair; va_ru (va_ri-) id. (Ta.); play upon the strings of a lute (Ta.)(DEDR 5357).

7197.One who buys and sells vegetables; gardener: ba_ga_vana a gardener; one of a caste that buy and sell vegetables and flowers (Ka.M.H.); ba_ga_yati a garden; relating to garden-land (Ka.); ba_ga_iti_ (M.H.); ba_ga_yatu garden-land, a garden (Ka.); ba_ga_i_ta (M.H.); ba_g, ba_gu a garden (Ka.); ba_ga (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Fenced plot of ground: pa_ka_yati < ba_ga_yat fenced plot of ground fit for garden cultivation (C.G.)(Ta.lex.) Ploughed land ready for sowing: ba_haj ploughed land ready for sowing (P.); va_hya to be driven, etc. (BhP.)(CDIAL 11614).

7198.Image: hay fork: ban-d.un.d.u hay fork (Pr.); d.an.d.-ba_r large broom (ba_rik broom)(Gaw.)(CDIAL 6128). parake, parike, parige, porake, porige, po_rige a broom (Ka.); perukku to sweep (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Broom; rake: va_ru-ko_l broom (Ta.); va_ri rake (Ta.)(DEDR 5362). vardhana sweeping; vardhani_ broom (so called because a swept house prospers)(Skt.); vad.d.han.i_, vad.d.han.ia_ broom (Pkt.); ba_rni (A.); ba_r.han (B.); bar.han.i, bar.hin.a_, ba_r.hun.i_, ba_r.hni broom (Or.); banneiba_ to sweep (Or.); bar.hani_ broom (Bi.); ba_r.han (Mth.); ba_r.hani_ (Bhoj.); bar.hni_ (H.); va_d.hn.i_, va_d.hvan. (M.); bar.a_rnu to sweep (N.); bar.a_r broom (N.); barwo_r., ba_rwo_ (Pas'.); boror. (Shum.); bya_r (Wot..); d.an.d.-ba_r large broom with handle (Gaw.); ba_rik small broom (Gaw.)(CDIAL 11378). cf. va_rud.a a caste whose work is splitting canes (Skt.); ba_rur.i_ basket-maker (Ku.)(CDIAL 11562). perukku (perukki-) to sweep; perukkal sweeping; paruvu (paruvi-) to sweep or gather together (Ta.); perukkuka to sweep (Ma.); porake, parake, baralu, boralu broom (Ka.); poraka broom, broom-twig, straw (Te.)(DEDR 4415). cf. kasparige, kasaborige, kasaporige, kasabo_rige, kasapo_rige broom (Ka.); kasabaralu a kind of broom (Ka.); kasamara, kasabvarige broom (Ka.); kasa, kasavu rubbish, sweepings, weed (Ka.)(DEDR 1088a). bahukara sweeper (Skt.); mehtar id. (H.); bahukara_, bahukari_ broom (Skt.); bauha_ri_, bahuriya_, bo_ha_ri_ brush (Pkt.); buha_ru sweepings, refuse; buha_ri_ broom (S.); boha_r sweepings, dust; boha_r, boha_ri_ broom (L.); buha_ra_, buha_ri_, baha_ri_, baha_ru_ broom (P.); buha_ru_ sweeper (H.); buha_ran.u to sweep (S.); buha_rna_ (P.H.); ba_rvu~ to sweep (G.); borvu~ to clean (a privy)(G.)(CDIAL 9188). Image: rake, harrow: va_ri rake (Ta.); varan-r-u (varan-r-i-) to scrap, gather up (Ta.); varan.t.uka to rake grass, weeds, etc., hoe it up, harrow (Ma.); varan.t.i rake, scraper (Ma.); varb- to scoop up and snatch to oneself (small objects)(Ko.); ba_rcu, ba_cu to scrape together with the hand, etc., and gather up as sweepings, etc., make a heap of and take away (Ka.); ba_cuni to scoop, gather up (Tu.); va_mu to collect, gather, scrape together into a heap (Te.); ?ba_rna_ to fish out, bake or fry by dipping for a moment in boiling oil (Kur.); bare to take out (as grain)(Malt.)(DEDR 5362).

7199.Rampart: vap rampart (Si.); vapra mound, rampart (MBh.); sown field (Skt.); vapra_ garden bed (Skt.); vappa bank, raised ground (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11291).

7200.Image: betel leaf: ba_ru betel (B.)(CDIAL 9213).

7201.Lever for raising water: bermaro a big beam; used as a lever for raising water (Kon.lex.) berimara, bermara the long wooden bar in a picota which acts as a lever and moves about the nugapan.e and to whose one end the bucket intended for baling out water is tied; bersolu a beam resting on the king-post (Tu.lex.)

7202.Image: mixing: berake, birake mixture, mixing; bira_vu, bera_vu to mix, mingle (Tu.lex.)

7203.Ragi; a millet: ke_r..-varaku ragi, a millet, eleusine coracana, ke_ppai (Ta.lex.) Millet: baragu, baraga a kind of grain, paspalum frumentaceum (Ka.); varagu (Ma.Ta.); Indian millet, priyan:gu (Ka.); varuka a species of inferior grain (Skt.); baragaja millet (M.); baragu a kind of hill grass of which writing pens are made (Ka.); baragukad.d.i a pen of baragu (Ka.lex.) varaku common millet, paspalum scrobiculatum (Pur-na_. 34); poor man's millet, p.crusgalli (Ta.); p.frumentaceum; a grass panicum (Ma.); baraga, baragu p.frumentaceum; Indian millet; a kind of hill grass of which writing pens are made (Ka.); varaga (Inscr.) varavu panicum miliaceum (Te.); barag millet, p. miliaceum (M.); varuka a kind of inferior grain (Skt.) [paspalum scrobiculatum = p. frumentaceum](DEDR 5260). varakarici husked grain of common millet (Tamir..na_. 22)(Ta.lex.) a_rike the Indian millet, panicum italicum; ha_raka, ha_raku paspalum scrobiculatum (Ka.); a_ruka, a_ruga, a_rike, a_riga p.scrobiculatum ( = p.frumentaceum); a_l.l.u (pl.) p.scrobiculatum (Te.); a_rk setaria italica (Go.); a_rku (pl.) a species of millet (Pe.); a_rka id. (Kui); a_rgu (pl. a_rka) panicum italicum (Kuwi)(DEDR 379). Panicum miliaceum: veragu (Ta.); varagalu (Te.); baragu (Ka.); chinwa (K.); chin (H.); china (B.M.P.Skt.); plant: used as cure for gonorrhea; habitat: throughout the hotter parts of India, cultivated or naturalized (GIMP, p.185). ci_na panicum milliaecum (Car. Su. 27.14). cf. varaga, (inscr.) varuvu panicum miliaceum (Te.); barag millet (M.); varuka (Skt.); varaku common millet, paspalum scrobiculatum = paspalum frumentaceum (Ta.); poor man's millet, paspalum crusgalli (Ta.)(DEDR 5260). cf. a_ruka, a_ruga panicum scrobiculatum = panicum frumentaceum (Te.); a_rgu (pl. a_rka) panicum italicum (Kui); a_rike the Indian millet, panicum italicum; ha_raka paspalum scrobiculatum (Ka.)(DEDR 379). bare bad.warak, bari bad.wak panicum colonum (Santali.lex.) adagat.hia panicum repens (Santali.lex.) cf. vatm millet, panicum miliare (Ko.)(DEDR 56). cf. bhakta meal, food, boiled rice (Skt.)(CDIAL 9331). varaka echinochloa colonum (Car. Su. 27.14,18). cf. ca_malu echinochloa frumentaceum = panicum frumentaceum (Te.lex.) cf. varkku gruel (Ta.) < yava_gu (Skt.); varukku id. (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Mill for grinding millet: varaku-tirikai mill for grinding millet (Perumpa_n.. 187, Urai) (Ta.lex.)

7204.A grain: jua_ri a kind of grain, millet (Pkt.); jowar, the great millet (S.); jo_va_ri_i a kind of grain, millet (Pkt.); zua_r the great millet, jowar (Dardic); joa_r id. (L.H.); jova_r id. (P.); jua_r (P.); jama_r (P.); jawa_ro a kind of soft grass growing at high altitudes (WPah.); joya_r the great millet, sorghum vulgare (B.); juya_r id. (B.); jua_ra_ maize (Or.); jua_ra the great millet (Or.); juwa_r andropogon sorghum, holcus sorghum (H.); jwa_r id. (H.); jawa_ra_ maize, blade of barley (H.); juwa_ra_ id. (H.); juva_ri millet (OMarw.); juva_r a kind of grain (G.); ja_r id. (G.); java_r, javha_r, javha~ri_, juva_ri_ millet, holcus sorghum (M.)(CDIAL 10437). java_ra_, juva_ra_ pl. tender plants of corn grown on the altar before a goddess (G.)(CDIAL 10437).

7205.Barley: jau~r.a_ shoots of barley four weeks old (specially planted and cut to be worn in the hat at Dasai_)(N.)(CDIAL 10435) < yavavr.nta stalk of barley (Skt.). [vr.nta: perh. a sanskritization of vi_t.a_- small piece of stick shaped like a barley-corn and struck in the game of tip-cat (MBh.)(CDIAL 12045)].

7206.Poor: vara_ka wretched (Pa_n..Pali); vara_kaka (Skt.); vara_ya (Pkt.); bara_ poor, wretched (N.)(CDIAL 11324).

7207.Rice: varaka phaseolus trilobus, a kind of rice (Skt.); phaseolus trilobus (Pali); varaya a kind of rice (Pkt.); vara_ a kind of bean (Si.)(CDIAL 11311). bar asparagus racemosus (H.); vara_ id. and other plants (Skt.)(CDIAL 11323). vari_ asparagus racemosus (Skt.); vara a kind of grain (Skt.); varaia a kind of rice (Pkt.); vari_ a parti. kind of grain (G.); the grain coix barbata (M.)(CDIAL 11328). varen. straw of the grain coix barbata (M.)(CDIAL 11329). per-ukkal rice (Patin-o. Tiruvit.ai. Vai. 16)(Ta.lex.) vari cf. vri_hi paddy (Tan-ippa_.i, 354,41); vari-c-campa_ a kind of striped paddy, sown in cittirai and maturing in five months (Ta.lex.) 'This term, vri_hi being without a perceivable root in Sanskrit is no doubt connected with the Dravidian akki (or arki; Ta. arici; Ma. ari; Tu. ari, akki) and Telugu vari. The syllable vri is the same as Telugu vari and syllable -hi has been formed of Kanarese and Tul.u -ki and Tamil -ci. In common Tamil the Sanskrit word vri_hi is written viriki; Tamil k often stands in the place of h.' (No. 126 Preface; Kittel's Ka. lex.) 'oryza... It is clearly a borrowed word and, as is recognised by Pott and Benfey, seems not so much directly to resemble the Sanskrit vrihi-s (m) in sound as to be an attempt at representing a related Persian form which has a sibilant instead of h... Pictet gives the Afghan urishi which also has a vowel in the place of v. The Greek by-form orynda comes nearer to Armenian birinz and the modern Persian biring.' (George Curtius, Greek Etymology, 5th edn., 1879; loc. cit. R. Swaminatha Aiyar, Dravidian Theories, 1922-23, repr., Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1987, p.105). wrijzey, wrijey rice; wrijza'h a grain of rice (Psht. < Old Persian)(Skeat, Etymological Dictionary of the English Language). 'In spite of the temptation to derive the Arabic alruzz, aruzz, uruzz, wiz etc., from the Tamil arici modern philologists are agreed that they cannot be so derived, but come from the Old Persian word virinzi or virinza, the modern equivalent of which is biring. Sir C.J.Lyall states that virinza is exactly the equivalent we should expect of the Sanskrit word for "rice" vri_hi, and the names point to the time when the two branches of the Aryan race dwelt together and developed the respective peculiarities of their language from a common or original tongue. The Persians did not borrow the cultivation of rice from the Indians; the plant existed in the regions where the two races dwelt together before their respective migrations.' (Watts, Commercial Products of India, p.825; cf. Watt, G., A Dictionary of Economic Products of India, 6 vols., Calcutta, 1889-1893). ari rice, husked grain (Ta.Ma.); akke (Ka.); aoi, akki (Tu.); ikki (Kod..); biyyamu (Te.). vari, pl. vad.lu unhusked paddy (Te.); wi_ (Si.); vari wild, uncultivated paddy (Ta.Ma.); navara a variety of quick-growing paddy (Ma.); sapi_d vari white rice (Old Persian); vraiheya place for vri_hi or connected with vri_hi (Nighan.t.u); vai paddy stalks (Ta.) ni_va_ra (Vedic); neji paddy (Tu.) Barygaza exported rice in the first three centuries of the Christian era (Periplus). vri_hi a type of paddy (Car. Su. 27.15,33). ni_va_ra a variety of s'a_li (Car. Su. 27.17, Ci. 4.36).

7208.Image: junction of streets: vari junction of streets; way; vari-c-canti, vari-canti place where streets meet, cross-roads; vayavai path, way; cf. vaha (Skt.) (Ta.lex.)

7209.Title: cf. virutu trophy, badge of victory (Kampara_. Ta_t.akai. 5)(Ta.lex.); valour (Ma.); biridu, biruda, birudu badge of honour (Ka.); birdu, birdolig (Tu.); birudamu, birudu (Te.)(DEDR 5414). virutu pedigree, geneaology (Ta.lex.) virutu title (Tiruva_lava_. 46,9); virutu banner (Tan-ippa_.i, 384,33); trophy, badge of victory (Kampara_. Ta_t.akai. 5)(Ta.lex.)

7210.Battle: vara_kam battle; va_rava_ram armour (Ta.lex.) va_rakkam money paid to a soldier on enlisting (Ta.lex.) Troop; clan: va_ra crowd (Skt.); id., troop (Pkt.); varin, vara clan, tribe (OSi.); pl. suffix. -var, -val (Si. < Ta.)(CDIAL 11548). va_ram multitude, crowd (Ta.lex.)

7211.Image: monkey: birsindic a species of monkey, or baboon (Santali.lex.)

7212.Image: fowl: bir sim the jungle fowl, gallus bankiva murghi (Santali.lex.)

7213.Image: fish: vari-k-ko_la_ half-beak, sea-fish, dark bluish green, attaining 18 in. in length, hemirhamphus far; varikkalava_y a sea-fish, yellowish brown, serranus boenick; varikkar-r-alai a sea-fish, reddish, lutjanus sebae; a sea-fish, silvery grey, attaining one foot in length, sciaena maculata; vari-k-ka_ral a sea-fish, attaining 8 in. in length, equala dussumieri; vari-k-ki_cca_n- a sea-fish, yellowish brown, attaining 10 in. in length, lutjanus kasmira; vari-y-o_ra_ sea-fish, dark greyish-brown covered with light orange spots, tenthis concatenata (Ta.lex.)

7214.Image: murrel: vara_r-pakat.u male murrel (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. 2,16); vara_r--po_ttu young murrel (Akana_. 36)(Ta.lex.) cf. pakat.u greatness, largeness (Perumpa_n.. 243); strength (Pur-ana_. 88); bull, ploughing ox (Tol. Po. 76); male elephant (Pu. Ve. 8,5)(Ta.lex.) vari-p-pa_rai horse-mackerel (Ta.lex.) Image: needle-fish: vara_l, vira_l, vra_l a fish, o.striatus (Ma.); bare mi.ni black murl, o.striatus (Kod..)(DEDR 5262). maral, mural a river fish (H.); maral. (M.); moralla_ a kind of fish (Si.)--by haplology <*murar-: muro a kind of fish (S.); mura_ a kind of very small fish (H.); mural needle-fish, syngnathus (Ta.); mural-mi_n id. (Ma.); murala a species of freshwater fish (Sus'r.); mural.a the small fish asidoparia marar (Or.); murala a species of freshwater fish (Skt.)(CDIAL 10213). vara_l murrel, ophiocephalus marulius, a fish, greyish green, attaining 4 ft. in length; black murrel, a fish, dark greyish or blackish, attaining 3 ft. in length, o.striatus(mo_t.t.iru vara_ar- ko_t.t.umi_n- (Pur-ana_. 399); a fresh-water fish (Ta.lex.) Image: carp: mat.ava_mi_n-, mat.avai, mat.avai-k-ken.t.ai a species of carp; grey mullet, silvery, mugil oligolepe (Ta.lex.)

7215.Image: giant: birban.t.a a giant, a mighty man of valour; birbao like a hurricane; birbao hor.e hoyena he is a hurricane-like man; the idea prevalent is that persons exceptionally strong in body or mind first saw the light during a hurricane, and so are named hurricane men (Santali.lex.)

7216.Foreign: biran, birana foreign, distant place or country (Santali. lex.)

7217.Image: fork: bara_s carpenter's forked instrument (Tu.lex.)

7218.List of public servants; payroll of an establishment: bara_vardu a list of public servants; bara_vardu-da_ra a man whose name has been entered into the list of public servants (Ka.); bara_vardu working out, or the rule of working, arithmetically: a monthly statement of amounts now payable (Ka.); bara_varda, vara_varda (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) bara_vu handwriting, knowledge of writing (Tu.lex.) bharti to enlist, to be enrolled; to engage, to recruit; iskulre bhartikom enrol them as scholars (Santali.lex.) para_varttu < bar-a_wurd pay roll of an establishment, acquittance roll; estimate; para_varppat.t.i id. (W.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Manner of living: cf. va_rtta livelihood, business (Mn.)(CDIAL 11564). cf. vatta duty, office (Pali); vat.t.a, vatta, vitta, vutta livelihood (Pkt.); butta_ means (P.); buto daily labour, wages (Ku.); buta_ means, ability (N.); bu_ta_ power (H.); vat.a subsistence, wages (Si.)(CDIAL 12669). cf. vr.tti mode of life, conduct (Gr.S'r.); brath, brucu trade, profession (K.)(CDIAL 12070). vrata a religious act of devotion or austerity, vowed observance, a vow in general; a vow, promise, resolve; mode of life (Skt.lex.) varta, vatta, otta occupying one's self with; manner of existence or subsistence, livelihood, living; pravarta engaging in, occupied in, undertaking; pravartaka producing, causing, originating; causing to go on well, promoting; urging; the original instigator of any act, an originator, a founder; a promoter; pravartana existing, becoming; activity, action, acting; business; occupying one's self in; behaviour, conduct; procedure, way, manner, mode (Ka.lex.) vartana practice, employment, use; stationary, stable; staying, living, residing; livelihood, subsistence; earnings, hire, wages, salary; occupation, profession; intercourse, commerce, traffic; appointing, appointment (Ka.); vartanegesalisu to use, to make use of; vartaka who or what abides or exists, abiding, living; devoted or attached to; being occupied with, following a profession; a trader, a merchant; vartaka-tana the state of being a merchant; vartaka-tana ma_d.u to trade (Ka.lex.) cf. bha_tu~ extra allowance above pay given to public servants etc. (G.)(CDIAL 9468). cf. bhar. soldier, servant (B.); bhat.a hired servant (As'.)(CDIAL 9588).

7219.Measurement of grain: po_rige, po_like measurement of grain (Tu.lex.) poli pa_d.u to pile up paddy in a conical heap and sprinkle ashes from vertex to bottom in lines (Tu.lex.) poli increase, abundance; poli leppu to shout : poli, poli heccila while gathering corn in a barn; poli leppnni invoking the blessings of the goddess of wealth on auspicious occasions like Deepavali (this is usually observed on the first day of the seventh solar month)(Tu.lex.)

7220.Image: centipede: poli an insect belonging to the variety of a centipede (Tu.lex.)

7221.Image: flood: bol.l.o flood, inundation (Tu.lex.)

7222.Image: to gore: bo_ru to assault or butt as an ox or wild-beast (Tu.lex.)

7223.Image: a harrow: pori a harrow (Tu.lex.)

7224.Image: line: pori line made on the soil of the field by the tip of the ploughshare; a division of field made to facilitate ploughing (Tu.lex.) o_li, o_l.i a furrow (Tu.lex.)

7225.Image: break: pori, pol.i to break; pol.i-mane a wood instrument for levelling and smoothening the floor by incessantly striking on the floor (Tu.lex.) poli heavy blow; poli pa_d.u to beat (Tu.lex.)

7226.Image: horn: prama_n.a a horn (or branch?); ko_d.u, ko_d.ugal.u (Ka.lex.)

7227.Authority, warrant: prama_n.am authority, warrant; proof; principal capital; rule; one who judges or decides; s'rutva_ de_vah- prama_n.am having heard then your Majesty will decide (what to do)(Skt.lex.) prama_n.ika forming an authority; mu_la prama_n.a original order (S.I.I. 12); prama_n.a a document, title deed (EI 6; SII 1; SITI)(Ep. Ind. Vol. xxviii, p.109); authority, witness (IEG). pra_ma_n.a purus.a a man of authority (Ka.lex.) pra_ma_n.ya, pra_ma_n., pra_ma_n.a measure; proof, authority; authenticity, genuineness; truth, honesty (Ka.lex.) pirama_n.am faith, trust in god (Tiruva_lava_. 45,18); true nature (Tirikat.u, 37)(Ta.lex.) pra_ma_n.ika authentic, credible, true, just; a man who can be depended on (Ka.lex.)

7228.Passport; grant under seal: parava_na_, parava_ne an order, a pass; a commission, a sealed paper of authority (Ka.Te.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) paro_ana grant under seal, command, letter; a written order or notice; ne kagajre paro_ana olakana; paro_ana to give a written order; paro_ana-o to receive a written order (Mu.lex.) parwana a written order or notice (Santali.lex.) vara-da_na grant; pat.ipa_t.i order (Pali.lex.) viraiya_kkali the sacred command of S'iva (Patin-o. Ko_yi. 4); an oath calling on S'iva to witness (Periyapu. Ko_t.puli. 4)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pharama_yiti made to order, commissioned as an article (Ka.); pharama_ti, pharama_si_ (M.H.); pharama_yiti superlatively excellent (Ka.M.); pharama_yisu to order, direct, bid (Ka.); pharama_vin.e_m. (M.); pharava_n.a a royal mandate, order; a firman (Ka.); pharama_na (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) parama_s. < farma_is. pleasure; order, commission; that which is excellent; parama_n-a_ < farma_n firman, written order, mandate, warrant; parva_n-a_ < farma_na_ (U.) order, written command (C.G.); grant (Ta.); parva_n-a_ < rawa_na_ (U.) license, passport (C.G.) (Ta.lex.) varma a bulwark, shelter, defence, protection (frequently at the end of the names of Ks.atriyas (Ka.lex.) Solemn declaration; document: cf. parama_n-a_ < farma_n (U.) firman, written order, mandate, warrant (Ta.lex.) pirama_n.am proof, testimony, evidence; oath, solemn declaration (Pin..); document (innilam vilaiton.t.a pirama_n.an:kal. ko_yilile_ ot.ukkavum : S.I.I. iii,213); royal authority, sovereign command; pirama_n.ittal to accept as final authority (Pa_rataven.. 25, Urainat.ai.); pirama_n.ikkan- truthful, honest person;pirama_ta_ < pra-ma_ta_ one who measures (Ta.lex.) prama_n.a measure (Ka_tyS'r.); standard, authority (Gr.S'r.); proof (Ya_j.); cf. prama_ (RV.)(CDIAL 8723). pirama_n.ikkam < prama_n.ika truth, veracity, true declaration (Ta.); pirama_n.am < pra-ma_n.a proof; oath; document (innilam vilaiton.t.a pirama_n.an:kal. ko_yilile_ ot.ukkavum : S.I.I. iii,215); royal authority, command; pirama_n.i-ttal to accept as final authority (Pa_rata. Ven. 25, Urainat.ai.); to put faith in, trust (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,61)(Ta.lex.) pirama_n.a-k-kacca_ttu document, title deed (S.I.I.); pirama_n.a-t-ti_t.t.u, pirama_n.a-c-ci_t.t.u document, title deed (Ta.lex.) ti_t.cai < di_ks.a_ vow, solemn resolution; initiation of a disciple into the mysteries of s'aiva religion, of three stages, viz., camaya-ti_t.cai, vice_t.a-ti_t.cai, nirva_n.a-ti_t.cai (Ta.lex.) parwa_na ja_t orders, royal grants; licenses, passes (U.lex.) parwa_na an order, a pass, passport, license; leave, command, precept, warrant, grant (U.lex.) pharmhn. to attend to, to be inclined towards (P.lex.); pharmal, phorman, phormas to bespeak, to give an order for something to be prepared or made; phormasin lagao akata I have placed an order (Santali.lex.)

7229.Receipt: pharkati final receipt, discharge, acquittance (Santali.lex.)

7230.Measure: prame_, prama_ a measure (Ka.); true perception, correct notion, accurate conception, true and certain knowledge (Skt.Ka.); parima_n.a measuring; measure; quanity; compass; weight; prame_ya to be measured, measurable, finite, to be fathomed; demonstrable; discernible; topic to be discussed or established; pramiti measure; pramita measured, understood, demonstrated, proved; adjusted, conformed as by some rule; prama_n.ika-tana truthfulness, fairness, honesty; prama_n.a-su_caka a term that indicates measure or quantity; prama_n.a-pu_ran.a filling out or completing measure or scale: gradation; prama_n.a-he_r-u to tell the quantity etc. (of anything) (Ka.lex.) pirama_ < prama_ knowledge (Ci.Ci. Al.avai. 1, Civa_k. Pak. 100); pirame_yam < pra-me_ya ascertained knowledge, that which is ascertained or proved (Vi_raco_. Porul.. 1); subject-matter of a treatise; piramai < pra-ma_ true knowledge, correct notion (Ilak. Aka.) (Ta.lex.) prame_ya to be measured, measurable, finite, to be fathomed; a subject, a topic in general (Ka.lex.) parma_n. attestation, proof, warrant, limit; instance, example; dose; quantity; proportion, measure; approved of; param para_ in lineal succession from time immemorial (P.lex.) prama_n.a measure (Ka_tyS'r.); standard, authority (Gr.S'r.); proof (Ya_j.); cf. prama_ (RV.); pama_n.a measure (Pali.Pkt.); pamana (NiDoc.); parama_n.a, pava_n.a (Ap.); parma_n. attestation, proof, measure; ha_n.-parva_n., ha_n.-parma_n. equality in age (ha_n. < ha_yana)(P.); pa_na_ width of a wall, foundation of a wall (B.); parma_n.u~ measure, size; parma_n.a~_ pl. certificate, authority; parma_n.vu~ to accept as true, acknowledge (G.); parma_n. standard (G.); paman.in according to scale (OSi.); paman.a measure, sufficiency; paman.ak only (Si.)(CDIAL 8723). prama_n.a, pama_n.a, pavan., havan., prama_n. measure, scale, standard; measure in general (whether of weight, length, or capacity); parima_n.a; quantity, magnitude, extent, circumference, length, duration; weight, quantity; limit; that which is true (Skt.Ka.); prama_n.a-va_kya authoritative statement; a formula used in taking an oath; prama_n.ika forming a measure or standard; forming an authority; true, fair, equitable; a cubit; prama_n.isu to measure, to compute, to understand; to discern, to discriminate, to examine (Ka.lex.) prama_payati measures, proves (Skt.); pramimi_te_ measures out (AV.); pamina_ti (Pali); pama_ya absol. (Pali); pami_yae_ is proved (Pkt.); pon.o to measure (e.g. a turban)(Ku.)(CDIAL 8725). Goldsmith's scales: parva_n., parma_n. measure, quantity, equality (of age)(P.); pariya_ni_ scales (usu. a goldsmith's) (Bi.); parima_n.a measure (RV.); measure, extent, limit (Pali.Pkt.); parma_n.u~ measure (G.)(CDIAL 7855). Image: infinitesimal particle: parama_n.u infinitesimal particle (Ya_j. Pali.Pkt.); paramun.uva (Si.)(CDIAL 7799f). Chief of a trade: pra_ma_n.ika chief of a trade (Skt.); founded on authority (Da_yabh.); pa_ni, pa~_in, pa_in a surname (B.)(CDIAL 8949). cf. pan.i bargainer, miser (RV. i.33.3); pan. to purchase, to trade (S'Br. iii.2.6.1); pan.yam wares or commodities; pan.ya-ho_ma sacrifice for acquiring commercial gain (Kha_dira. iv.3.9)(Vedic.lex.) prama_payati measure, proves (Skt.); pramimi_te_ measures out (AV.); pamina_ti (Pali); pama_ya absol. (Pali); pami_yae_ is proved (Pkt.); pon.o to measure (e.g. a turban)(Ku.)(CDIAL 8725). prama_n.am document (S.I.I. iii,215); oath, solemn, declaration; proof, testimony, evidence; royal authority, soverign command; the Ve_das, as sacred authority; prama_n.an truthful person; Vis.n.u; prama_n.i to estimate, judge, infer from premises, deduce; to accept, as final authority (Pa_rataven.. 25, Urainat.ai); to enact, lay down a rule (Ta.lex.) parma_n. swearing; phot. parma_n. perjury; parma_n.e postp. according to, in conformity with; as (Kon.lex.) praman.as very thoughtful (AV. ii.28.1); cf. prama_ measure (RV. x.130.3); prama_na means of measurement (Sat. xxv.i)(Vedic.lex.) ma_n., ma_n.a_ maund (a measure)(Kon.lex.)

7231.Document: prama_n.a measure (Ka_tyS'r.); standard, authority (Gr.S'r.); proof (Ya_j); pama_n.a measure (Pali.Pkt.); pamana (NiDoc.); parama_n.a, pava_n.a (Ap.); parma_n. attestation, proof, measure (P.); standard (G.); parma_n.a~_ certificate, authority (G.); parma_n.vu~ to accept as true, acknowledge (G.); paman.in according to scale (OSi.); paman.a measure, sufficiency (Si.)(CDIAL 8723). pama_ya is proved (Pali); pami_yae_ (Pkt.); pon.o to measure (e.g. a turban)(Ku.)(CDIAL 8725). prama_n.a patram a written warrant (Skt.lex.) prama_n.ayati to hold up as a medal; to prove, demonstrate, show (Skt.lex.); prama_n.a purus.a arbitrator, judge (Skt.lex.)

7232.To be married: parwa_n to be married (U.lex.) Marriage presents: aran.a a nuptial present (Ka.Te.); arul. to grant graciously; giving, donation, gift (Ta.); ahe_ra (M.)(Ka.lex.) aran.amu a gift of money to a daughter and son-in-law at the time of marriage (Te.)(DEDR 203). warn to marry; barna a present of clothing or pearls sent to the bride before marriage by the family of the bridegroom; barn, warn to dedicate an article (usually money) by passing it round the head of a friend or relative in token of attachment and devotion to him, after which it is given away to the poor; giving charity after the ceremony described above (P.lex.) parin.a_ya leading round; parin.i_ta led round; married (Ka.lex.) parive_tan-am < pari-ve_dana marriage (Ta.); pa_rin.e_yam articles received by a bride at the time of marriage, such as ornaments and the like (R.F.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Marriage: parnahun. to give in marriage, to cause to be married; parnan., parnewa marriage; parnan. khushi nal hai, na tan he marna marriage depends on consent; if not, it is death (Prov.); parnawa, parniwan. to marry; pp. parnen.da; fut. parnesan.; hik d.hukdi nahin., main. du parnisan. even one (wife) is not procurable, (yet he says) I will marry two (Prov.); parnia, parn.i a married person; parnijan. pass. of parnawan. to be married; pharnahun. to ensnare; to marry (P.lex.) Presents for marriage: varicai present, especially to a daughter on marriage or other occasion (Vir-alivit.u. 533); varicai-y-et.uttal to fetch presents ceremonially on marriage or other occasions, in public; varicai-ceytal id.; to render civility or courtesy; varittal to adorn, decorate (Ain:kur-u. 117); varittal to choose, select; to invite (Tiruvil.ai. Aruc. 2); vari beauty (Pu. Ve. 11,12); (Ta.lex.) Village dues: varicai rate, proportion; village dues or rent (I.M.P.Tp. 293; Pudu. Inscr. 613); varicai-va_ram fixed rent calculated on the ascertained average yield of the land cultivated; vari-co_r-u a tax (I.M.P.Sm. 2). accu-vari synonym = ? pon-vari; duty payable for minting gold or metal into coins; akkas'a_lai-vari (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) a_l.-vari poll tax (Ta.)(SII 12. IEG.) Synonym: per-k-kad.amai (which may also be a payment to be made on the occasion of the naming ceremony of a child (Ta.)(SII 12.SITI.IEG.) ul.-vari internal revenue; taxes levied by the local body; orders issued by the government fixing the amount of such taxes (Ta.) Synonyms: antar-a_yam, antara-viniyo_gam (Skt.) individual share to make up the shortage in the total revenue occasioned by the grant of exemptions (SITI.IEG.). er..uttu-viniyo_gam dues payable for er..uttu for the village accountant to be apportioned among the villagers (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) ed.ai-vari tax on weights (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) it.angai-vari tax paid by the members of the it.angai community or the left-hand class (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) it.aiyar-vari tax on shepherds (Ta.) (SITI.IEG.) ilvari house-tax (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) inavari, inavari-k-ka_s'u communal tax (Ta.)(SII 12.SITI.IEG.) vari-p-pan.am money-tax; varicai-k-kur.r.i stumps of wood set in a row in a brick-kiln; varicai-va_ram fixed rent calculated on the ascertained average yield of the land cultivated; vari-p-pan.am money tax, kut.i-y-ir.ai or tax imposed on ryots; variyili_t.u entry in the revenue register; office of keeping the revenue register (T.A.S.i,16); vari-vat.ivu written character; written symbol of an articulated sound (Ta.lex.) varicai-ya_l.ar cultivating tenants (Patir-r-up. 13,24, Urai)(Ta.lex.) Tax: varavai tax (S.I.I. iii,211) (Ta.lex.) Contribution; share: va_ram proprietorship, ownership; tax (Kampara_. Ma_ri_ca. 180); hire, rent (W.); lease of land for a share of the produce; share of a crop or the produce of a field, of two kinds, viz., me_lva_ram, kut.iva_ram; share, portion (Tol. Po. 662, Urai.); half, moiety; va_ricu-na_mam certainty of title; wa_rcu heir, one who has a legal right to take the property of another after his death (Ta.); wa_ris (U.); va_ricu id. (Ta.); vari impost, tax, toll, duty; contribution (Ta.lex.)

7233.Pattern: pharma_ a pattern used for shaping different pieces of timber for furniture (P.lex.) Mould: pharma, phorma a mould as for bricks etc. (Santali. lex.)

7234.Image: four-faced god: piraman- four-faced god; na_n--mukan- (Kar... Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

7235.Brahma: barama Tadbhava of brahma (Ka.lex.) pu_man- Brahma_ (Tan-ippa_.)(Ta.lex.) pu_van- Brahma_ (Paripa_. 1,46); pu_van (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) brahma, brahmanu, barama, barma, bomma, borma the first deity, the first deity of the Hindu triad, the creator; a man who knows the highest truth; bra_mi the s'akti or personified energy of brahma_; Saraswati_, Brahma_'s wife (Ka.lex.) pirama-kkir..atti the S'akti of the supreme being (Tiruvunti. 34); pirama-ca_ttan- < brahma-s'a_sr. a manifestation of Skanda (Tan.ikaippu. Akattiyan-. 75)(Ta.lex.) Supreme good: brahma supreme good, Vedic text (Pali); brahman hymn (RV.)(CDIAL 9324). brahman hymner, priest (RV.); bamba in cmpds. good (Si.)(CDIAL 9325). cf. br.hant tall, high (RV.); brho high mountain (Ka.); bo_ up; bui high (Mai.)(CDIAL 9302). pu_man- < bhauma Mars (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) br.haspati name of a deity (RV.); the planet Jupiter (R.); bihapp(h)ai, buhapp(h)ai, bahapp(h)ai, bihassai, buhassai, bahassai, bhiapp(h)ai, bhuapp(h)ai, bhayapp(h)ai, bhiassai, bhuassai (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9303). bhu_-tama excellently done (TBr. ii.4.8)(Vedic.lex.) bhu_ri name of brahma_, vis.n.u, S'iva and Indra (Ka.lex.)

7236.Image: finger joint: varai measure of the distance between the joints of the forefinger (Ta.lex.) marma the joint of a limb, any joint or articulation (Ka.lex.) Image: line: varai line (Ta.); vara id. (Te.); varu id. (Ma.); bare id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

7237.Image: house: parpa house (Skt.); phorp unroofed pen, enclosure for cattle or sheep; shed (Kho.)(CDIAL 7933).

7238.Support; image: cross-bar: paruva_n- yard, the support of a square sail (Naut.); par-uva_n- id. (Ta.); parama_nu id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) parumal yard-arm in a vessel or dhony (W.); parumar--kayir-u rope to hoist a sail, the main brace (W.); paruval anything large or thick (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) parimaram yard of a ship (Ma.)(DEDR 3979). Image: cross-beam: parva_n- yard, cross-beam on a mast for spreading square sails (Naut.)(Ta.); cf. parma_nu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) cf. parbu, parbuge, parvu, habbuge spreading, extension (Ka.lex.)

7239.Association: sa_khya association, party (RV. ii.11.19)(Vedic.lex.)

7240.A form of marriage: bra_hmah- one of the eight forms of marriage in Hindu law, in which the bride decorated with ornaments is given away to the bridegroom, without requiring any gift or present from him (bra_mo_ viva_ha a_hu_ya di_yate s'aktyalan:kr.ta_ : Ya_j. 1.58); bra_hma-de_ya_ a girl to be married according to the bra_hma form; bra_hmi_ a woman married according to the bra_hma form of marriage (Skt.lex.) bra_hma a form of marriage, that in which the bride, duly adorned and furnished, is bestowed freely on the bridegroom (Ka.lex.) brahma-gan.t.u the peculiar knot made by vais.n.avas in joining the two ends of the sacrificial thread (Ka.lex.) piramam marriage consisting in the gift by a father of his daughter, aged twelve, before her second menstruation, adorned with jewels, to a bachelor of forty-eight, learned in the ve_das, one of eight kinds of man.am (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

7241.An old script: pira_mi < bra_hmi_ Sarasvati_, an ancient Sanskrit script (Ta.lex.)

7242.Mantra: brahma, barama, barma, bomma, borma a vedic text or mantra; the ve_das; religious knowledge (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bhramari_ a Jaina mantra (Me_ruman. 994) (Ta.lex.)

7243.Holy: brahman (old Pers. brazman holy; Gk. braxma_nes; Latin. bragmani; Russian. rachmanny; Ukraine: rachmanyn 'beggar') priest, brahmin, who recites holy text at the sacrifice (RV. i.10.1); those who execute the sacred rites, say prayers and press soma (RV. i.80.1); brahman.y to pray (RV. iv.24.2); brahmi_ devout, holy (RV. ix.33.5) (Vedic.lex.)

7244.Village granted; title of brahmins: brahma-sva property (money, lands etc.) belonging to bra_hman.as (Ka.lex.) pirama-ta_yam < brahman + land granted to brahmins free of assessment (Patir-r-up. Iran.t.a_mpattu, Patikam); pirama-ta_n-am < brahma-da_na gift to brahmins (T.A.S. v,207); pirama-te_yam < + de_s'a village granted to brahmins and inhabited by them (S.I.I. iii,112); piraman- < brahman Brahma_, the creator, one of tiri-mu_rtti (Pin..); brahmin (Tiruva_n-aik. Ko_ccen.. 69); pirama-puram Shi_ya_r..i in Tanjore district (Te_va_. 63,1); Conjeevaram (Ka_cippu. Tiruve_. 54); pirama-ma_-ra_yan- < + maha_ra_ja title of brahmin ministers in ancient times (S.I.I. ii,139,21); pirama-ra_yan- < brahma-ra_ja title of brahmin ministers (Ilak. Vi. 900, Urai.); pirama_ti-ra_yan- < brahman + ancient title of brahmin ministers (Ta.inscr.); pirama-me_tam < brahma- me_dha a special funeral rite for a saintly person (Kuruparam. 404)(Ta.lex.) Property: brahmasva property (money, lands etc.) belonging to bra_hmam.as (Ka.lex.)

7245.Fastening: brahma-gammi the fastening together of the ends of a do_tra etc. by sewing, after having severed the worn out back part (Ka.lex.) pirama-k-kiranti a kind of knot tied in the sacred thread; tying together two bunches of sacrificial grass in representation of the union of S'iva and S'akti (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7246.Vedic phonetics; vedic text or mantra: pirama_n.i < prama_n.in one who knows the s'a_stras (Tiruva_lava_. 27,17)(Ta.lex.) pirama-ka_n.t.am < brahman + a section of the Ve_das (Ci. Po_. Pa_. 1,1, Pak. 32, Cuva_mina_.)(Ta.lex.) piramam < brahma Ve_dic phonetics, cit.cai (Tol. Po. 92, Urai.); pirama-ya_kam learning the Ve_das, one of paca-maka_-ya_kam (Ce_tupu. Ce_tupala. 133)(Ta.lex.) brahma-vadya to be propitiated with a spell (MBr. ii.7.1); brahma-va_din discussing sacred texts (AV. xi.3.26); brahma-vid one who knows brahman or the veda (AV. x.2.32)(Vedic.lex.) brahma, barama, barma, bomma, borma a vedic text or mantra; the ve_das; the aggregate of the s'a_tras; religious knowledge; good, pure conduct; that which is very graceful, pleasant, serene; the practice of austerity or penance; food; the soul of the universe; brahmacarya religious studentship; religious self-restraint, abstinence, chastity; a religious student; brahmaca_ri a bra_hman.a who practises chastity, especially a religious student or young bra_hman.a in the first period of his life, from the time of his investiture with the sacrificial thread till he marries and becomes a householder; brahma-gan.t.u the peculiar knot made by vais.n.avas in joining the two ends of the sacrificial thread; brahma-bindu a drop of saliva sputtered while reciting the ve_da; brahma-yaja the recital of the vedic texts (Ka.lex.)

7247.Deity: pommakka_-te_vi < bommakka + (Te.) patron deity of the To_t.t.iya caste, worshipped also by jugglers (E.T. vi,189); pommi-yamman- a minor deity (Ta.lex.)

7248.Puppet: pommal < bomma_ (Pkt.) < pratima_ puppet, effigy (Vir-alivit.u.); pommai id. (Ta.); bombe (Ka.); pommala_t.t.am puppet show (Ta.); bommala_t.a (Te.); pommala_t.t.am disguise, deceptive appearance (Pat.t.in-at. Potu. 21)(Ta.lex.)

7249.Prayer: brahma-vaivartapura_n.a, brahma-kaivartapura_n.a name of a pura_n.a, containing prayers and invocations addressed to Kr.s.n.a, descriptions of Vr.nda_vana, etc. with tedious narratives about Kr.s.n.a and his love for the go_pis and Ra_dha_; bra_hmya-pura_n.a name of a pura_n.a, revealed by Brahma to Daks.a, for the promotion of the worship of Kr.s.n.a; bra_hman.a, bara_man.a, bira_man.a that portion of the ve_da which contains the sacrificial ritual together with legends and old stories (and to which the upanis.ads are attached) (Ka.lex.) pirama-ca_pa_lam < brahma-ja_ba_la an Upanis.ad (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) brahma-ka_ra praying (RV. vi.29.4); brahma-kr.t promoting prayer (RV. vii.32.2); brahma-kr.ti offering prayer (RV. vii.28.5); brahman.y to pray (RV. iv.24.2); brahman.ya_ devotion (RV. viii.6.33); brahman.vant devout (AV. viii.10.25); brahma-te_jas having the glory or power of prayer (AV. x.5.21); brahman song of praise, prayer (RV. i.3.5); brahma-pu_ta purified by prayer (AV. xiii.1.36); brahma-yo_ga employment of prayer or devotion (AV. x.5.1); brahma-s'umbhita purified by prayer or devotion (AV. iv.24.4); brahma-sam.s'ita sharpened by prayer (RV. vi.75.16); brahma-sava effusion of prayer (RV. ix.67.24); brahmeddha kindled with devotion (AV. xiii.1.51)(Vedic.lex.)

7250.Image: black bee: par-ame the large black bee; bavara id. (Tadbhava of bhramara)(Ka.); par-avai a bird (Ta.); par-ave id. (Ma.); par-ame-var-i the young black bee; par-amevar-idur-ugal a swarm of young black bees; varvan.e a blue fly (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.)

7251.Entertainment of a guest: barapu, baravu coming, arrival; barapa_d.u to announce the arrival (Ka.); barada_stu hospitable entertainment (of a guest)(Ka.M.H.); pardon; baraviga a man that is to arrive, an arrival (Ka.lex.) cf. varunar new comers (Kur-icip. 202); guest (Pur-ana_. 10)(Ta.lex.)

7252.Best female; excellent: parame the best female (Ka.lex.) brahma, barama, barma, borma, bomma the chief or best, mukhyanu (Ka.lex.) parama (opp. to antama, madhyama) very distant, pre-eminent (RV. vi.27.4); highest, topmost (RV. iii.30.2); na te_ du_re_ parama_ cid raja_m.si even the highest spaces are not far to thee (RV. ix.87.8); parame_ sadhasthe_ earliest, first (RV. vi.25.1); parama-ja_ born of the highest (KS. xiv.3); parama_ para_vat extreme distance; parame_s.t.hin most exalted (Praja_pati)(AV. i.7.2); parama-jya_ having supreme power (RV. viii.90.1)(Vedic.lex.) parm first, supreme, best, excellent, great; param pad high rank or status; eminence; param gia_n. the highest wisdom (P.lex.) parama most, distant; highest, most excellent, best, greatest, superior (Ka.); paramam. yes, very well (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) param < para that which is pre-eminent, excellent (Tiruva_ca. 4,50)(Ta.lex.)

7253.Image: seat of an idol: praba_l.e seat of an idol (Ka.); prabha_valaya (Tu.lex.) probu lord (Santali.lex.) prabu aristocrat, lord (Kon.lex.)

7254.Brahmans: pa_rvike, pa_rbike bra_hmanism (Ka.lex.) brahman poet, singer, priest, brahmin who recites holy text at the sacrifice (RV. i.10.1); brazman holy (OPers.); braxma_nes (Gk.); bragmani (Latin); rachmannyj (Russian); rachmanyn (Ukrainian)(Vedic.lex.) pa_rppavar the seers, brahmans; pa_ppa_n brahman; fem. pa_ppa_tti; pa_ppini a caste of lower brahmans (Ma.); pa.rvn brahman, Badaga of Harva subcaste; fem. pa.rvty (Ko.); o.rfn brahman, Badaga of Harva subcaste (To.); ha.ruva (Badaga); pa_rva, pa_rba, pa_ruva, ha_ruva, ha_rva brahman; fem. pa_rviti; pa_rvike, pa_rbike brahmanism (Ka.); pa_rne, ha_rne brahman (Kor.); pa_r-ud.u, pa_r-uva~_d.u id.; fem. pa_r-uta, pa_r-utakka (Te.); ba~_pu~d.u brahman; fem. ba~_pata; ba~_pana the brahman caste (Te.); pa_r brahman; fem. pa_riya (Nk.)(DEDR 4091). pa_racavan- < pa_ras'ava son of a brahmin by a su_dra woman (Tol. Po. 91, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) pirama_n.i < brahma_n.i_ wife of Brahma_ (Ka_cika. Vaccira. 1); pirama_n.i-p-pat.ai the Ve_das (Pin..)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) bra_hman.a one who has sacred knowledge, brahman (RV.Pali); bra_hman.i_ f. (Skt.); braman.a, baman.a, bam.bhana, bra_hman.a, ba~_mhan.a (As'.); bramhan.en.a inst. sg. (KharI.); bramam.na (NiDoc.); bra(m)man.a (Dhp.); bamhan.a, bam.bhan.a (Pkt.); ba~_bhan.u (S.); ba~_bhan. (L.); bara_hman., ba_mhan., ba_mhan (P.); ba_man. (Ku.); ba_man, ba_wan, ba_hun (N.); ba_mun (A.); ba_mbhan.a (OB.); ba_man, ba_mun, ba_mna_ a low brahman (B.); ba_mbhun.a, ba_bhun.a, ba_mun.a, ba_mna_ (Or.); ba_bhan, ba_man (Bi.Mth.); ba_mhan, ba_bhan (Bhoj.); ba_mhan, ba~_bhan (Aw.); ba_mhan (H.); ba_man. id. (G.M.); ba~_bhurd.a_, ba_murd.a_ term of reproach for a brahman (M.); bamun.a_ (Si.); bra_hman.i_ f. (Pali); bam.bhan.i_ (Pkt.); ba~_bhan.i_ (S.); ba_mhan.i_ (P.); ba_mir.~e (Ku.); ba_mni (B.); ba_m(h)un.i_ (Or.); ba_mhni_ (H.); ba_mn.i_ (G.); ba_mhn.i_ (M.); ba_min.i_ (Si.)(CDIAL 9327). brahman hymn (RV.); brahma supreme good, Vedic text (Pali)(CDIAL 9324). brahman hymner, priest (RV.); bamha, bam.bha, bam.bha_n.a brahman (Pkt.); barahman. brahman (P.); barahman.i_ brahman woman; pamma_, pamma~_ contemptuous term used by Sikhs for a brahman (P.); bamba brahman; bamba- in cmpds. 'good' (Si.)(CDIAL 9325). abrahman without brahman (RV.); what is not barhman (Skt.); abbam.bha copulation (Pkt.); aba~bh breach of the vow of celibacy (G.)(CDIAL 504). pamman < bamma (Pkt.) Jain bachelor (Arun:kalac. 168); brahmin (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Master: parabh master; lord, a title of god; parabhtai lordship, mastership; parbh the patron of a d.um; parbhai lordship, mastership; parabhkar the sun: a caste of brahmins; parbhan.i the wife of a parbhu (used by d.ums of the wife of one of their patrons); parbhu a title applied by the d.ums to those whose families they serve (P.lex.) d.um the name of a caste of muhammadan musicians and bards; d.uman. de ghar wiah jiwen. bhawe tiwen. ga It is a wedding in a mirasi's house, he sings just as he liked (prov. used of those who are independent of doing anything, or of those who do anything of their own accord.); d.umn.a the name of a caste whose business is to make split baskets; d.umn.e, d.umna female d.um; d.umr.a a youth of the d.um caste (a word of contempt) (P.lex.) Brahman: pa_r, pa_rppa_n- brahmin (an-n-avai pir-avum pa_ppa_rk kuriya : Tol. Po. 177); Brahma_ (Kampara_. Varun.a. 61); pa_rppan-an- brahman (Pur-ana_. 9); fem. pa_rppan-i brahmin woman (Man.i. 22,41); pa_rppin-i, pa_rppa_tti, pa_rppan-atti id. (Ta.); pa_rppi id. (Perun.. Narava_n.a. 7,130); pa_rppu the brahman caste (Tol. Po. 75, Urai.) (Ta.lex); ha_ruvagitti brahmin woman (Ka.); pa_ppan-a-c-ce_ri quarters where brahmins live (Nan-. 377, Mayilai.); pa_ppu (Tamir..na_. 200)(Ta.); pa_ppa_rakko_lam a marriage ceremony amongst Marakka_yar, when the bride, dressed like a brahman woman and holding a brass vessel in one hand and a stick in the other, parleys with the bride-groom until he puts a number of coins in the vessel, and retires in triumph to her chamber (E.T. v,5)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ha_ru, ha_ruva, ha_rva a bra_hman.a; ha_ruva-kula the bra_hman.a tribe or caste; ha_ro_kunni a dog of a bra_hman.a, a mean bra_hman.a; ha_ro_ge_ri a street where bra_hman.as live; ha_rva = pa_rva a bra_hman.a; ha_rviti = pa_rviti a bra_hman.a woman (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Administration of a temple; clerk's account: pa_r, pa_ru, pa_rupatya, pa_rpatya local government or administration, of a temple, an alms-house, or a sub-district (Ka.); pa_rupatya (Te.); pa_pattiyam (Ta.); pa_rvatya (Ma.); pa_rupatyaga_r-a, pa_rpatiga_r-a, pa_rpatyaga_r-a, pa_rupatiga_r-a an officer in charge of a temple etc. (Ka.); pa_rapattiyakka_ran- (Ta.); pa_rvatyaka_ra (Ma.); pa_ru, pa_r looking to or after (Ka.); pa_rukha_n.a, pa_rukha_n.e a gratuity, a present; a clerk's account; pain of lust (Ka.); pa_rakhan.e_m to try or examine money etc. (M.) (Ka.lex.) Collector of village revenue; capital; money-dealings: pa_ru medicine (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) parapattiyam capital; credit in commercial circles; money dealings (Ta.); parapatyamu (Te.)(Ta.lex.) pa_rapattiyam inspection, stewardship; judicial cognisance; a work of great responsibility; money-dealings (Ta.); pa_rupattemu id. (Te.); pa_rapattiyakka_ran- overseer; bailiff, collector of village revenue; officer; a person saddled with responsible duties; pa_rupattiyam management (I.M.P.Cg. 937)(Ta.); pa_rupatya (Ka.); pa_rattan-am pride of achievement (Ta_yu. Para_para. 271)(Ta.lex.) pa_ram accountability, responsibility, charge, trust; big family, considered a burden (Pur-ana_. 145); respectability, nobility, greatness (Pa_rata. Campava. 39); duty, obligation; commitment, surrender to authority (Ta.lex.) Officer supervising the rest-house: pa_ricam care, custody (Ta.); [cf. paricam, pariyam brideprice, hire of a prostitute (Ta.)(DEDR 3970)]; pa_ricacey-tal to entrust (T.A.S. i,150); pa_ri night-watch with the beat of a drum (Kampara_. U_rte. 158)(Ta.lex.) parippu-ka_ran- an officer superintending u_t.t.u-p-purai, a rest-house in Kerala country (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) pa_ri-ve_t.t.ai a festival in temple; pa_ri-ya_ttiram temple having 449 towers and 57 storeys (Cukkirani_ti, 230)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.) parive_t.t.i < pari-ve_s.t.ita circumambulation from left to right (Ka_l.at. Ula_, 93); pari-ve_t.pu < pari-ve_s.a circling, hovering, as of a bird (Patir-r-up. 21,27); pari-ve_t.am < pari-ve_s.a halo around the sun or moon (Pa_rataven.. Va_cute_. 124); pari-ve_t.an.am < pari-ve_s.an.a serving meals to guests (Ta.lex.)

7255.Lineage; descent: bari lineage, descent (Tu.); var..i descendants, race, family, lineage, dependent, line, succession, antiquity (Ta.); succession, custom (Ma.); pol.y way to do something (To.); bar..i race, lineage (Ka.)(DEDR 5297). ha_ri, ha_r row, line; series; takli, takle head (used also in reckoning genealogy); taklea_nci ha_r genealogy (Kon.lex.) Family title; lineage: paravan.i geneaology; lineal descent, hereditary succession; paravan.i-k-ke_l.vi tradition; paravan.i-p-pat.t.am family title; paravan.i-p-pat.t.avan- hereditary successor; a man of noble ancestry; paramparam hereditary succession; lineage, race (Ta.lex.) Honouring the manes: pa_rvan.a-cira_ttam ceremony performed in honour of the manes at the paruvam; ceremony to the manes accompanied with oblations in aupa_sana_gni; pa_rvan.a-v-o_mam fire oblations in the ceremonies to the manes (Ce_tupu. Ce_tupala. 98)(Ta.lex.) parb a sacred day, season of religious festival, an anniversary festival, a holy day; parwist.a, parwis.t.a the first day of the solar month, date (solar time) (P.lex.) pa_rvan.a belonging to or relating to a parvan falling on a parva day, such as the full-moon, new-moon etc.; waxing, increasing as the moon; pa_rvan.am the ceremony of offering oblations to all the manes at a parvan (Skt.lex.) parva a religious offering presented on the occasion of a change of the moon; a particular period of the year as the equinox, solstice etc.; the moment of the sun's entering a new sign; a festival, a holiday; opporunity, occasion; parva-sandhi the junction of the fifteenth and first of a lunar fortnight or the precise moment of the full and change of the moon (Ka.lex.) Great festival: peru-na_l. festival; festive occasion (Cilap. 1,41); peru-vir..a_ great festival (Man.i. 3, 34-5); periya large, great (Te_va_. 114,9); piriya id. (Ka.); pe_r id. (Tu.); peru id. (Te.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Feast: harubu a feast; habba a festival, a feast, a holiday; habba hun.d.uve feasts and full moons; habbiga a son-in-law who is to be invited to every feast; hari buvva a meal on the fourth day of a marriage (of sma_rtas or ma_dhvas) at which the son-in-law is looked upon as Vis.n.u, is waited on only by his mother-in-law, palys tricks with his enjal (what is left on the plate after eating) etc. (Ka.lex.) cf. harike a vow (Ka.lex.) pa_rvan.a (fr. parva, parvan) the general funeral ceremony to be offered to all the near deceased ancestors at the parva or conjuction of the sun and moon (Ka.lex.) paruva, para (Tadbhava of parva) a yearly feast at which villagers, for money raised by subscription, buy rice, have it boiled and heaped up outside of the village in front of an idol, and eat in common (Ka.lex.) pa_rvan.o a particular funeral ceremony; parbo festival (Tu.lex.) paras a helping to food; pe paras dakako jomkeda they ate three helpings of food (Santali.lex.) par.ia time; in par.iare in my time; hapr.amko par.iare in the time of our ancestors; bud.hi par.iare, har.am par.iare in the time of old age (Santli.lex.) paruvam < parvan time, term, period, season (Akana_. 26) (Ta.); the six seasons of two months each, viz., ka_r, ku_tir, mun--pan-i, pin-pan-i, il.a-ve_n-il, mutu-ve_n-il (Ci_vaka. 851); suitable, proper time, opportunity, time or period for any action or pursuit (Na_lat.i, 274); year (Kampara_. Akali. 28) (Ta.lex.) parva a division of time: the days of the four changes of the moon, i.e. the full and change of the moon and the eighth and fourteenth of each half month; the days of conjunction and opposition or eclipse of the sun and moon (Ka.lex.) para parite, pari parite by turns, by shifts (Santali.lex.) paruvam the six seasons of two months each, viz., ka_r [rainy season, the months of a_van.i and purat.t.a_ci) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.)], ku_tir [chill wind; autumn, the months of aippaci and ka_rttikai)(Tol. Po. 6)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)], mun--pan-i, pin--pan-i [the months of ma_ci and pan:kun-i, being the season in which dew falls during the latter part of the night (Tol. Po. 10)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)], il.a-ve_n-il, mutu-ve_n-il [summer, the months of a_n-i and a_t.i, as the season of extreme heat (Pin..)(Ta.) (Ta.lex.)](Kantapu. Ma_rk. 176); the five religious ceremonial days in each fortnight, viz., piratamai, as.t.ami, navami, pirato_s.am, ama_va_cai or paurn.ami (M.M. 726)(Ta.); a Muhammadan festival (Can.. Aka.); month (Ci_vaka. 851)(Ta.lex.) Manes: barhis.ad sitting on the sacrificial litter (RV. ii.3.3; RV. x.15.3; RV. ix.68.1) (Vedic.lex.) warhin.a_ a Hindu ceremony in which offerings are made to brahmans for the benefit of the dead, after the lapse of a year; warhin.i_ a musalman ceremony, similar to warhin.a_; warsin.i_ the ceremony of making offerings for the dead; barsin.i_ a muhammadan ceremony in which, after a year's interval, offerings are made in the name of the dead (P.lex.) barhisad pl. the manes; a pitr. or deified progenitor; barhis.mat a worshipper, sacrificer (Skt.lex.) barhis, barhi kus'a grass, sacrificial grass; a bed or layer of kus'a grass; sacrifice, fire; barhih--s'us.ma fire, agni (Ka.); barhis.ad seated on kus'a grass: a pitr. or deified progenitor (Ka.lex.) barhis.t.ha_ standing on the sacrificial litter (RV. iii.42.2); barhis.ya placed or seated on the barhis, belonging to barhis (RV. x.15.5); barhis sacrificial litter invoked as a god (RV. ii.3.4); berezis (Aw.); barhis sacrifice (Sat. vi.5); barhis.mant furnished with barhis (barhis.mati_ ra_tih- : RV. i.117.1); barhis.mant one who has procured barhis (RV. ix. 44.4)(Vedic.lex.) barhis.t.ham a kind of fragrant grass, andropogon muricatus (Skt.lex.)

7256.Profession: va_riyam office of supervision (S.I.I. iii,80); va_riyan- supervisor (T.A.S. II,i,77)(Ta.lex.) Supervisor, one who heaps up and seals heaps on threshing floor: va_riya-p-perumakkal. members of a village assembly (S.I.I. i,117); va_riyam office of supervision (S.I.I. iii,80)[cf. va_ri income resource (Kur-al., 14); produce (Pur-ana_. 35); grain; wealth (Ta.lex.)]; va_riyan- supervisor (T.A.S.II,i,7); supervising officer who sees that the grain at the threshing-floor is properly heaped up and sealed with cowdung marks (Rd.M. 305); one who heaps up grain on the threshing-floor for measuring (Rd.)(Ta.lex.) Blacksmith; artisan; porter: bha_rika porter (Skt.); loaded (Pali); bha_ria (Pkt.); bari_ blacksmith, artisan, slave, servant (Ash.); bari_, ba_ri_ (Wg.); bari_ (Kt.); ba_ri_ (Pr.); bha_ri_ porter (Ku.); bhariya_ (N.); bha_ri (A.B.); bha_ria_ (Or.); bharia_ (Mth.); bariya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 9464). Source of income: varuma_n-am income, source of income (Ta.); varama_na (Ka.); varuva_y id. (Tirikat.u. 21); origin, source (Nan-. 121, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Half: va_ram half, moiety (Tol. Po. 464, Urai); share, portion (Tol. Po. 662, Urai); lease of land for a share of the produce; share of a crop or the produce of a field, of two kinds, viz., me_lva_ram, kut.iva_ram (Ta.lex.) Money advanced to soldiers and servants; rent: va_rakam press money, advance to soldiers and servants (Ma.); va_rakam, va_rakkam advance given to cultivators to enable them to carry on cultivation, money lent on agreement to pay interest in kind (Ta.); va_ram hire, rent (Ta.); share in general, landlord's share, rack-rent (Ma.); va_ra share, landlord's half-share of the produce of a field in lieu of rent (Ka.); va.ra rent (Kod..); va_rakamu money advanced to cultivators to be received again without interest when the crop is reaped (Te.); va_ri (pl. va_rgil) debt (?Ga.)(DEDR 5359). va_rakkat.t.al.ai system by which villagers undertake to feed mendicants, etc., gratuitously in turn one day in a week; va_rakkat.an- agricultural loan; va_raccat.t.am a register showing the cultivator's share of the crop (Ta.lex.) va_ra-k-kut.i tenant or cultivator who receives a fixed share of the produce (Ta.lex.). [kud.i pointed end, point, extreme tip of a creeper, sprout, end, top, flag, banner (Ka.)(DEDR 2049). ko_t.u horn, tusk (Ta.)(DEDR 2200). ko_t.u bank of stream or pool (Ta.)(DEDR 2200).] va_ram proprietorship, ownership; tax; hire, rent; lease of land for a share of the produce; share of a crop or the produce of a field, of two kinds, viz., me_l- and kut.i-va_ram; share, portion; half, moiety (Ta.lex.) Village accountant's register: va_ra-t-tit.t.am adjustment of the shares of the produce, as me_lva_ram and kut.iva_ram; kut.i-va_ram occupancy right, opp. to me_l-va_ram; the share of the produce to which a ryot having such right is entitled, opp. to me_l-va_ram; a register kept by the village accountant of the respective shares of the produce assignable to the cultivators and poprietors (Ta.lex.) va_ram-pirittal to divide the harvest between the cultivator and the landlord; kut.iva_ra-nilam land over which tenants have a vested right to cultivate ; kut.i-y-irukkai living, residing; quarters occupied by the ryots in a village; kut.i-y-iruppu village, quarters occupied by a special clas, as ryots ; me_l-va_ram the portion of the crop or produce claimed by the land-holder ; me_l-vari model (Ta.lex.) For semant. -piri to apportion in Ta. cf.: bihri, biuri to apportion to each his share in a sum of money to be raised jointly; tin tiritkateko bihrijon.a? how much will they apportion to each? bihrikateko ut.haua they apportion to each his share, and then collect the money; bihri bat.a over and above the amount settled to be paid to each (Santali.lex.)

7257.Image: saddle: varman-, varuman- title of ks.attriyas (Piramo_t. 8,11); parumam trappings, as on the back of a bull (Tiruvil.ai. Ma_yappacu. 14); cushion on an elephant's neck (Kalit. 97); saddle (Net.unal. 179); parumam < varman coat of mail, armour (Pin..); varman- title of Ks.attriyas (Ta.lex.) varman armour, mail (RV. i.31.15; RV. i.114.5); varmin clad in armour (RV. vi.75.1); varman-vant clad in armour (RV. x.78.3)(Vedic.lex.) Armour: varman armour (RV.); vamma (Pali.Pkt.); ba_mu_ clothes (WPah.); bamn.o~ to dress (WPah.); vam-a armour (Si.)(CDIAL 11389). varma defensive armour, a coat of mail; a bulwark, shelter, defence, protection (frequently at the end of the names of ks.attriyas); name of particular preservative formulas or prayers; kr.tavarma dexterous, skilful; name of a prince; varma-bhr.t wearing armour: a mailed soldier; varmita clad in armour (Ka.lex.) Clothes worn by bride on wedding day: va_ruka choosing (MaitrS.); va_ru_ n. pl. adj. choice, nice (OG.)(CDIAL 11561). varan.a choosing, choice of bride (Ka_tyS'r.); choice, relationship by marriage (Pkt.); varn.o a thing to be obtained, benefit (S.); barna_ present of clothes or pearls sent by groom's family to bride before marriage (P.); varn.i_ clothes worn by bride on wedding day (M.)(CDIAL 11315). vammai < van.-mai (bounty) presents given to a bride by her parents (Ta.lex.) Image: half a hide; saddle: pha_ri_ half a hide (Bi.); pha_r piece (H.)(CDIAL 9073). pa_ram saddle; coat of mail; pa_rakam (cf. va_raka) curtain (Ta.lex.) Image: saddle: ber.band a girth saddle; a girth (Santali.lex.) cf. viri pannier, pack-saddle (Ta.); pack-saddle (Ma.); viry id. (Ko.)(DEDR 5412). bora, bosta a sack (Santali.lex.) Image: pack-saddle: barki a shawl or wrap made by sewing two widths of cotton cloth together (Santali.lex.) vr. cover; barh to cover (Skt.lex.) purukka_ < burqah (U.) cloth cover for vehicles (W.)(Ta.lex.) varaka cloak; cloth, cover of a boat (Skt.); varilla a sort of garment (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11310). varaka a cover; a cloak; a cover or awning (Ka.lex.) cf. warak wool (Wg.)(CDIAL 11549). viri pannier for pack-oxen (Ta.lex.), pack-saddle (Ta.); pack-saddle (Ma.); viry id. (Ko.)(DEDR 5412). viri-k-kat.t.u saddle; viri-kompan- ox with outspread horns; viri-kompu outspread horns (Ta.lex.) viri to spread out, open, unfold (Ta.); virippu bedding (Ma.); spreading, opening out (Ta.)(DEDR 5411). vitano_ti spreads out (Pali); spreads over (RV.)(CDIAL 11718). va_ra, ba_ri anything which screens, covers or surrounds; a cover; va_ran.a armour, mail; va_rava_n.a a bodice; a quilted jacket, a cuirass, armour, mail; kavaca, kacuka, kuppasa (Ka.lex.)

7258.Mutual exchange: parma mutual exchange of labour or beasts (N.); pil.iyama recovery, healing, mending (Si.); pratikarman requital (MB.); pat.ikamma redress, atonement (Pali); pad.ikama (Dhp.); pad.ikamma (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8542). pratika_rin retaliating (Skt.); pratika_ra requital, reward (R.); pat.ika_ra (Pali); pratigara (NiDoc.); pad.ia_ra (Pkt.); appat.ika_rika not making amends (Pali); par.iya_l one with whom one has reciprocal relations (Ku.)(CDIAL 8543). Exchange: cf. parvat business dealing (M.); parivatta exchange (Pali); parivarta barter (Skt.)(CDIAL 7870). cf. urimai ownership, duty; urittu right, proprietorship (Ta.)(DEDR 654). parivr.tti turning (MBh.); exchange (BhP.); parivarta exchange (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 7871). Communication; business: bartan. use, business, treatment; bartn. to deport one's self, to behave, to have dealings with; barton. use, treatment, business, occurrence, communication, friendly intercourse; wartan. exchange of friendly offices with another at weddings, funerals; friendly intercourse, use, business, treatment; warta_ra_ usage, use, custom, manner; current, in use; wartn. to use, to spend; to practise; to deport one's self, to behave, to show treatment, to have dealings; to occur, to happen; warton. exchange of kindly offices with another at weddings; friendly intercourse; use, business, treatment; wart ma_n in use, in vogue, usual, present (time); wart wa_ra_, batwa_ra_ use, usage, custom, manner; communication; warta_un. to divide, to distribute; warta_wa_ use, usage, custom; one who distributes, a divider; barta_ra_ a share (P.lex.) vartana proceeding, conduct, behaviour; practice, observance; dharma, ca_ritra; employment, use; occupation, profession; intercourse, commerce, traffic; appointing, appointment (Ka.lex.) vartanege salisu to use, to make use of (Ka.lex.) cf. vartaka a trader, a merchant (Ka.lex.) cf. vardhaka cutting, dividing (Ka.lex.)

7259.Image: filter: cf. pa_vana filter (RV.)(Vedic.lex.) Image: sieve: paren, paere_n, pari_n, paru_n sieve (Wg.); pairu_n (Gaw.); paru_n sieve for flour (made of skin strips(Kho.); paren. (Bshk.); po_en (Tor.); paru_n. (Phal.); paryunu sieve, strainer (K.); paru_n., par.u_n., pru_n. (L.); priu~n.i (WPah.); perahana straining, filtering; pene_raya sieve (Si.); paripavana cleaning, winnowing (Skt.); winnowing basket (Nir.)(CDIAL 7843). pavana sieve, strainer (AV.); pavana winnowing (Pali); pon.a_ straining cloth (L.); pon. what remains after straining whey from churned curd; pon.a_ strainer, sieve (P.); pona_ perforated iron ladle for skimming or straining (H.); pauna_ iron ladle for removing scum from boiling sugar juice; pauniya_ confectioners' skimmer (Bi.); pauniya_ iron cullender (Mth.); pauna_ (H.) (CDIAL 7977). pavana potter's kiln (Skt.); pa_vana fire; pa_vaka id. (Skt.); pava_ka bright, Agni (RV.); pur, purui embers (Wg.); pu_r big fire, bonfire; po_r (Pas'.); po_r burning embers (Shum.)(CDIAL 8329). punhar goldwasher's crucible in which baser metals are destroyed leaving gold and silver untouched (Bi.)(CDIAL 7979). pava_ purification (RV.); pava winnowing (Pa_n..com.); pala_, po_le_ to wash one's hands (Wg.)(CDIAL 7981). pavitra strainer (RV.); kus'a grass for straining (S'Br.)(CDIAL 7983). parisra_van.a straining vessel, filter (Skt.); parisravati trickles (RV.); parissa_vana water-strainer (Pali); perahana (Si.)(CDIAL 7898). paripuna_ti strains (RV.); pavate_ (RV.); paripu_ta strained, winnowed (RV.); purunik to sift (Kho.); peran.ava_ to strain, filter (Si.); paripu_ya strained (Pkt.); peruva_ (Si.)(CDIAL 7845).

7260.Image: nape of the neck: pompu nape of the neck (Te.); bomba the muscles of the chest and upper part of the back (Kui); bommi, bomi, bo_mi shoulder (Kuwi)(DEDR 4529).

7261.Warrior: bavara battle, war (Ka.Te.); bhan.d.ara a particular kind of combat (Skt.); bavaran:gey to fight; bavariga a warrior; bhrami any circular arrangement of troops, a circle formed by troops (Ka.lex.)

7262.Image: to tame: birma_na_ to stop; to tame, to reduce to obedience, to allure (U.lex.) Charm to avert sin: bha_rvu~ to charm, fascinate (G.); bha_rn.e~, bha_l.n.e~ to make strong by charms (weapons, rice, water), enchant, fascinate (M.)(CDIAL 9463). Image: to guard with difficulty: pari-tal to guard with difficulty (Kur-al., 376); pari-ttal to guard, protect (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Takkan- Ve_l.vic. 128)(Ta.lex.) paritra_n.a protection (Mn.); paritta_n.a (Pkt.); paritta_, paritta protection (Pali); pirita protection (by charms)(Si.)(CDIAL 7833). va_raya obstructing (Pkt.); va_raka obstacle (MBh.)(CDIAL 11550). va_ran.a act of obstructing or restraining (MBh.); obstruction, obstacle (Pali.Pkt.); va_rin.i_ prohibition for mother and child to drink milk after birth (S.); ba_ran.i_ charm against wild animals or noxious insects (Or.); va_ran. averting (G.); va_rn.u~ ceremony of warding off sin etc. (G.)(CDIAL 11553). va_rittal to hinder, obstruct; va_ri impediment, obstruction; wall, fortification (Kantapu. Acurarya_ka. 36); stadium; va_ritam obstacle (Ta.lex.) va_raka obstacle (MBh.); va_raya obstructing (Pkt.); ba_ro abstinence (esp. from food)(Ku.)(CDIAL 11550). Image: to subdue: cf. orukku-tal to subdue, control (Patin-o. Tiruvit.ai. Mum. 24); to kill, slay (Kampara_. Pirama_. 195); to bring together (Ci_vaka. 60, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: obstructs, keeps back: va_ran.a act of obstructing or restraining (MBh.); obstruction, obstacle (Pali.Pkt.); va_rin.i_ prohibition for mother and child to drink milk after birth (S.); ba_ran.a obstruction, dam (Or.); ba_ran.i_ charm against wild animals or noxious insects (Or.); va_ran. averting (G.); va_rn.u~ ceremony of warding off sin, etc. (G.)(CDIAL 11553). va_rayate_ obstructs, keeps back (RV.); va_rayati (MBh.); va_re_ti obstructs (Pali); varita (NiDoc.); va_re_i, va_ran.u to shut, forbid (Pkt.); va_rna_, ba_rna_ to avert evil by waving something round bridegroom's head before giving it away (P.); ba_rn.o to keep from, abstain (Ku.); ba_rnu to limit, surround, give up, refrain from (N.); ba_ra_ to shield, stop (B.); ba_riba_ to obstruct, prevent, forbid (Or.); ba_rab to prevent (Mth.); ba_rai (OAw.); ba_rna_ to prohibit, leave off (H.); va_rvu~ to prevent, forbid, avert (evil by waving round head)(G.); va_rn.e~ to ward off, prevent (M.); varanava_ to stop, cease (Si.)(CDIAL 11554). va_rita obstructed pp. of va_rayati (Pali); varita (NiDoc.); va_ria (Pkt.); va_rium. warning (OG.)(CDIAL 11557). varai to restrain, exclude, leave, abandon (Ta.); varayuka to disuse, abstain for a time; varaccal abstinence, regimen (Ma.)(DEDR 5273). cf. varampu boundary, ridge of a field (Ta.)(DEDR 5261). Image: obstruction: pa_r obstruction, obstacle (Ci_vaka. 30)(Ta.lex.)

7263.Image: hill: bo_re a hill, a hillock (Ka.); bo_d.u (Te.); bo_ru great, large (Te.); purai height; po_r a heap (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

7264.Wood: bhu_ri wood (Ka.lex.) bhu_ruha a tree; bhu_ruha_gra the top of a tree (Ka.le.)

7265.Image: foetus: bhru_n.a an embryo, a foetus, an unborn child; a child, a boy; a pregnant woman (Ka.Skt.); bhru_n.a-hatye the killing of an embryo (Ka.lex.) bhru_n.a embryo (RV>); bhu_nahuno_ pl. prob. 'destroyers of an embryo' [ = bhru_n.ahan (AV.)](Pali); bhu_n.a, bhun.n.a embryo, child (Pkt.); bhu_n foetus (H.)(CDIAL 9689).

7266.Vulva: buri vulva (Gal.); buli vulva, anus (BHSkt. ii, 401); bul backside, anus, vulva; bul posterior (vorov-bul buffalo; ?having a large rump)(Gypsy); bu_ri vulva (Mth.); bul, bur, bur. (H.)(CDIAL 9291).

7267.Fire: bhru_n.a fire (Ka.lex.) bhurvan rush (of waters)(RV.); barv- boil (Par.); wu_rv- to boil (Shgh.); ferveo (Lat.); lo_p-, lub- to be boiling (Pas'.)(CDIAL 9536).

7268.Opponent: ma_rma, marma, ma_rpu an opponent (Ka.lex.)

7269.Exchange: ma_rpu exchange, change (Ka.Te.); ma_rpa_gu to be altered, to change (Ka.lex.)

7270.Image: a cover of a cloth: buraki, buriki a veil; a cover of cloth of a carriage, palankeen etc.; a cloth covering the body and head of a horse; a top to a carriage (Ka.); buraka_, burakha_, burakhi_, bhuraki_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bag for pack animals or sack made of goat's hair: bora_ sack, coarse bag (for pack animals) (P.) gunny bag (made of jute) (B.Or.Bi.Mth.H.); stuff for carpet or sack, sack made of it (M.); bori_ f. sack, coarse bag (for pack animals)(P.); money bag (H.M.); boro sack (N.); a kind of carpet (G.); bo_ra_ large sack, measure of grain (L.); bori sack (Sh.); boro cloth made of goat's hair, bag or sack made of the same (= bori_ f.); bo_ri_ bag made of goat's or camel's hair (L.)(CDIAL 9320).

7271.Offering: bhr.tha offering; so_masya bhr.the_ (RV. ii.14.4)(Vedic.lex.) puri-tal to desire (Tol. Po. 261); to meditate upon (Kur-al., 5); to do, make (Na_lat.i, 323); to create (Civap. Pirapan. Ven:kaikka. 65); to bring forth, produce (Tin.ama_lai. 109); to give (Upate_caka_. Civavirata. 257)(Ta.lex.)

7272.Images: to turn; rope; string of a lute: pu_ri to turn (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 42, Vya_. Pak. 27); to be twisted; to curl (Malaipat.u. 23); puriyuka (Ma.); purikkur..al curly tresses (Ci_vaka. 2688); purikur..al id. (Ma.); id. (Cilap. 14,37); puri-cat.ai tangled, matted locks; puri curl as of hair; ringlet (Ci_vaka. 2688); cord, twine, rope (Perumpa_n.. 181); id. (Ka.Ma.Tu.); strand, twist as of straw (Cir-upa_n.. 34); string as of a lute (Ci_vaka. 124); puri-val.ai twisted bracelet (Pu. Ve. 10, Ka_cip. 1) (Ta.lex.) puro_cai, puracai halter or head-stall of an elephant (Cu_l.a_. Ci_ya. 139; Kampara_. Cu_l.a_. 36)(Ta.lex.)

7273.Priest: puro_cu family priest (Patir-r-up. 70, Pati. Arum.)(Ta.lex.) puro_hita placed foremost or in front; one holding charge or commission; the family-priest; puro_dha; puro_dhas a family-priest, a prince's domestic priest (Ka.lex.)

7274.Leader: pura-e_tr. leader (RV. iii.11.5; VS. xxxiii.60; TS. iv.6.1.4) (Vedic.lex.) puro_car petty rulers (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) puro_gama, puro_ga going before, preceding, leading; a leader; first, chief, principal; puro_ga_mi a leader (Ka.lex.)

7275.Town, city; part of a house: pur fort, stronghold (RV. v.19.2; RV. i.51.11; RV. iv.30.20); purandara breaker of stronghold (RV. i.102.7; RV. ii.20.7 indrah- purandarah-); s'akrah- s'u_rah- purandarah- (AV. viii.8.1); purya found in a stronghold (RV. x.138.4)(Vedic.lex.) puri < puri_ town, city (Pin..); capital city (Cu_t.a_.); village of an agricultural tract (Cu_t.a_.); puricai fortification, wall (Pur-ana_. 17); perh. puri-s'aya (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) pura, pur a fortress, a castle; a town, a city; por..il a town, a city; pro_lu (Te.); por..il the world in general, a country, the earth; greatness (Ta.); puri a castle; a town, a city (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) pura a town, fortress, city; -avapure below the fortress; devapura city of the gods ( = sudassana-maha_-nagara); pura dwelling, house or (divided) part of a house ( = antepura); purindada (distorted from Vedic puran-dara) epithet of Indra, 'breaker of fortresses', 'town-breaker' a name of Sakka (Indra)(Pali.lex.) purandara town-splitter: Indra; S'iva (Ka.lex.)

7276.Man: pur-us.a man, the supreme being (RV. x.90.15)(Vedic.lex.) hor.o, hor, herel a man, a human being, a Santal, a wife; hor. ror. the Santal language; disom hor. the santals of the country-side; hor. gad a crowd of people, a multitude; hor.o hor.o man by man, each man; herel a man, a husband (Santali.lex.)

7277.Image: body: hor.mo the body, to be pregnant; khube hor.moana he is well-grown (Santali.lex.) puri body (Arut.pa_. vi, Pil.l.aipperu. 129); puriyat.t.akam < puryas.t.aka subtle body (Ci. Ci. 2,64)(Ta.lex.) puritattu, puritat an entrail (Ka.); puritat (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) puma_n- < pum.sa nom. sg. m. of pum.s man (Kampara_. Ira_van.an-co_. 31); husband (Ta.lex.) puma_m.s swell penis, having penis; put vulva; male (Vedic.lex.) cf. fuddi_ (P.lex.) pum.s male, man (RV. i.12.7); pum.svana a rite giving birth to male (AV. vi.11.1) = Kha_dira (RV. ii.2.17); pum.su_ delivering males only (A_pGS. vi.11); puccha tail, hinder part (AV. ix.4.13); cf. putau buttocks (Vedic.lex.) puri-s'aya reposing in the fortress body)(Vedic.lex.) hor.mo body; hasa hor.mo mortal body; hor.mo hatin members of body (Santali.lex.)

7278.Means of support: bhr.mi lively, supporter (RV. iv.32.2); to be supported or maintained, indigent (RV. vii.56.20); to be supported (RV. iii.62.1); bhr.ti maintenance, support, livelihood (RV. x.29.4); food (RV. viiii.66.11; A_pS'S. 2137); bringing; bhr.tya_ support, service (TS. iv.2.11.3)(Vedic.lex.) bha_ran. support, maintenance, means of support (Ku.); a weight, pressure (G.)(CDIAL 9460). biyun (food) to be spoilt by being kept too long (K.); bharan.a bearing, carrying; supporting, cherishing, maintaining, nourishing; nutriment (Ka.); wages, hire (Ka.Skt.); filling, filling up, filling material (Ka.M.); bha_rya to be borne, supported or cherished; dependent on; resting on (Ka.); bha_rye, bha_ya_ a wife (Ka.); bha_rya_-pati husband and wife (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bhriyate_ is carried (RV.); is maintained, is kept (MBh.)(CDIAL 9686). bharan.a bearing (in womb)(RV.); bearing, supporting (Pali.Pkt.); filling (Pkt.); bharan. support, means of support (Ku.); bharnu fulfilment, enlistment (N.); bharan.a_ fullness (Or.); bharan act of filling (A.B.); bharan.i act of filling, woof-thread (Or.); bharna_ stuffing of a quilt (Bi.); bharan. a filling, stuffing, application of sulphate of zinc to eyelashes; bharn.i_ filling materials (G.); bharn.i_ filling materials (M.)(CDIAL 9395). bharati bears, brings, keeps (RV.); fills (Skt.); bharita nourished, full (MBh.); bharati bears, supports, feeds (Pali); -bharita filled with (Pali); bharai supports, fills (Pkt.); pher- to fill; phar- to place oneself on, ride; ba_rda_ full (Gypsy); barun to endure, fill; bharnu to fill, draw water; bharunu to fill; bharn.o_ (K.); bharan.u to fill (S.); bharan. (L.); bharna_ to bear (P.); bharnu_ to fill, weed for a second time (WPah.); bharn.o to support, feed, fill (Ku.); bharnu to fill (N.); bhariba to put in (A.); bhara_ to load (B.); bhariba_ to fill (Or.); bharab to irrigate (Bi.); to fill (Or.); bharal (Bhoj.); bharai bears, endures, fills, covers (OAw.); bharna_ to fill, be full (H.); bharai fills (OMarw.); bharvu~ (G.); bharn.e~ to carry, fill (M.); bharta_ fills (Konkan.i); caus. bhara_unu to cram into (N.); bhara_iba to fill (A.); bhara_vvu~ to fasten (G.); bharavin.e~ to feed (M.)(CDIAL 9397). Full; fills: pari < pari particle denoting intenseness (Cilap. 10,226)(Ta.lex.) perukka greatly, intensely (Ta.lex.) paripu_rn.a quite full (Kaus'.); paripun.n.a filled (Pali.Pkt.); pirun.u filled, completed (Si.)(CDIAL 7847). par, per to fill (Ash.); pa_rayati fills (Dha_tup.); pa_re_i fills (Pkt.); pare_i full (Ash.); para_ to fill, pour into; par to be filled (Wg.); par to fill; pare full (Kt.); pe_r to fill (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8107). Act of filling: pu_ran.a act of filling (AV.Pali.Pkt.); pu_ran. a filling (P.); stuffing (in food)(G.); puran. stuffing, ingredients, rubble to fill a wall (M.); pu_ran act of filling (A.)(CDIAL 8332). Cross threads, flowered design (on cloth?): purani flowered design on cloth? (N.); pu_ran.i_ f.du. the cross threads in weaving cloth (Skt.)(CDIAL 8333). cf. puri peacock's tail (Te.)(DEDR 4367). Boatload: pu_ra filling (BhP.); pu_raka filling (MBh.); flood (BhP.); pu_ra full (Pali); pu_raka filling (Pali); pu_raya filling (Pkt.); por full (Gypsy); puro_ finished (Wg.); pura_ full, passed (Pas'.); pura full (Shum.); pu_r (Gaw.); pu_ri (Kal.); pu_ru complete, correct, all (Sh.); pu_ru full, complete (K.); pu_ra fully (K.); pu_ru load of people in a ferry, the filling of a pit (S.); pu_ro full (S.); pu_ra_ full (L.); pu_r fullness, boatload (P.); pu_ra_ full (P.); pu_r, puro full, perfect (Ku.); puro complete (N.); pura_pur fully (N.); pu_r, pu_ra_ full (A.); pu_ra, pura_, pora_ full (B.); pura_ full; filling of a sandwich (Or.); pu_ra_ full (H.); pura (OMarw.); pu_ru~ full (G.); pura_ (M.); pu_ra_ (Konkan.i); pura fortnight of the waxing moon (Si.); pura_ full (Si.)(CDIAL 8330). pu_rat.h mature (A.)(CDIAL 8337). pu_rita filled (MBh.Pali); pu_riya (Pkt.); pure_ full (Sh.); pu_ri completely (OAw.); piri filled (Si.); pu_ryel full (Wot..); pu_rilo (Phal.); puri_lo (Sh.)(CDIAL 8336). -r- in t-r- to fill in (Pr.); -r- in a-r- to fill up; bi-r- to fill (a vessel standing lower); la_-r- (la_ < adhi + a_) ot fill right up (Pr.); fura_n to fill (Md.)(CDIAL 14698). furi full (Md.)(CDIAL 14699). pu_rayati fills (S'Br.); -pr to hide (Pr.); po_r-, pu_r- to fill (Dm.); po_ri to fill (Gaw.); pu_r-, po_r- (Mai.); pu_r- (Phal.); puroiki to fill, complete, load (a gun)(Sh.); pu_run to fill (K.); pu_ran.u to close, bury (S.); pu_ran. to fill a ditch, bury (L.); pu_rna_ to fill (P.); purnu to fill up, bury (N.); puriba to satisfy, multiply (A.); pura_, pora_ to fill, become full (B.); pu_riba_ to become full, be completed (Or.); purur.iba_ to fill up a ditch (Or.); pu_rab to fill, complete, be filled (Mth.); pu_rai fulfils (OAw.); pu_rvu~ to fill, block, lock up, bury (G.); purn.e~ to satisfy, bury (M.); purta_ buries (Konkan.i); purunava_ to fill (Si.); caus. pu_ra_pe_ti (Pali); pura_un.a_ to cause to fill (P.); pura_unu to complete (N.); pura_iba (A.); pura_na (B.); pu_ra_iba_ (Or.); pura_eb (Mth.); pura_na_ to fill, finish (H.); puravin.e~ to supply to the full (M.); puravanava_ to fill up (Si.); purin.o to form (of grain), granulate (of wounds), be completed (Ku.); puryon.o to complete, finish (Ku.); purya_unu (N.)(CDIAL 8335). pu_rn.a filled, full (RV.); pu_rn.aka (MBh.); fullness, abundance (AV.); pun.n.a full (Pali.Pkt.); puni adj. (Tir.); pu_nil (Tor.); pu_n.u (Sh.); punun to be filled, come true (K.); puno pp. of pujan.u ( < pu_ryate_)(S.); punna_ pp. of pujjan. (L.); punna_ full; pp. of pujjn.a_ (P.); pu_n full (H.); pun, punu, pinu (Si.); pru~_ grape harvest and festival (Kal.)(CDIAL 8339). pin.i fullness (Si.)(CDIAL 8341). pu_ryate_ is filled (RV.); pujjai (Pkt.); pul- to arrive (Pas'.); pu_za_l, pu_zil full (Bshk.); pu_nzi_ is full (Phal.); pujun (of work done) to be pleasing, suit one's wishes, satisfy (K.); pujanu to be accomplished, arrive at; pp. puno < pu_rn.a (S.); pujjan., pujan. (pp. punna_) to be finished, arrive; pujjun. to reach, suit (L.); pujjn.a_ (pp. punna_) to arrive; pujn.a_ (P.); puzn.u_, puzan., pujn.a_, pujn.o~ to arrive (WPah.); pujn.o (Ku.); pu_jai is fulfilled, is satisfied, reaches (OAw.); pu_jna_ to be filled, be completed (H.); pu_jai reaches (OG.); pugun to fall fast asleep (K.); pugga having all eight teeth (L.); puggan., pugan. to be completed, reach; puggun. to be finished (L.); puggn.a_ to be completed, reach (P.); pugnu to be fulfilled, be sufficient, arrive (N.); puganau~ to reach (Brj.); pugvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 8342). bhu_bhr.t a king; a mountain; Vis.n.u (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) To protect: pura-ttal v. tr. cf. bhr. to keep, preserve, protect, cherish, tend, govern (Patir-r-up. 50,4)(Ta.); pore (Ka.); pura-ttal to give bountifully, bestow; to reverence; to bestow favour (Takkaya_kap. 138)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) puranta_r kings; purappu keeping, protection; puravu care, protection, gift, boon, tax, land given free of rent by a king; puravalan- protector, preserver, defender, king (Ta.); por first offerings of food to god in pabm ceremony (Ko.); pore to nourish, cherish, support, preserve, invigorate; be nourished or fed; n. nourishing, invigoration, refreshment; pokkul.a, pokkul.i state of having oneself fed by others (e.g. a cuckoo); horakul.i person who depends on others for his sustenance (Ka.); pro_cu to nourish, protect, preserve, support; pro_di nourishment; pro_pu protection, support; pro_pad.u to be nourished; pra_pu support, protection, patronage, refuge (Te.); pura_y- to tame, maintain (Kol.); porip- (porit-) to rear, foster (Pa.); porpana_ to nourish, cherish; porp- to bring up, foster (child)(Go.)(DEDR 4283). bhr.t bearing, carrying; supporting, maintaining, nourishing, protectin; possessing, having furnished with; bringing; bhr.ta borne, carried; supported, maintained; hired, paid; possessed of, endowed with; acquired, gained; filled, full of; a servant; bhr.taka borne, carried; a hired labourer; a servant; bhr.ti the act of bearing, supporting, or bringing; nourishment, support; wages, hire; capital (Ka.lex.)

7279.Husband: baryeu husband (Dm.); bhe_ru (Kal.); be (Tor.); bhari_u (Phal.); heriou (Gaw.); bareo_ (Sh.)(CDIAL 9467). bhartr., acc. bharta_ram husband; bhartr. bearer (RV.); bhat.t.a_ra noble lord; bhat.t.a_raka (Skt.); bhat.t.a term of address from lowborn to superior, lord (Skt.); bhatta_ nom., bhatta_ram. acc. sg. husband (Pali); bhat.ara, bhat.araga master; bhat.ariyae gen. sg. mistress (NiDoc.); bhattu, bhatti, bhat.t.u, bhat.t.i_ husband, master; bhat.t.in.i_ mistress, non-anointed queen; bhat.t.a_raya worshipful one, (in drama) king; bhad.a_raya in term of address (Pkt.); brru god, esp. S'iva; broru goddess (K.); bat.a a Brahman (K.); bito_r, pl. bita_ra husband (D..); bhata_ru (S.); bhata_r (Ku.A.Bi.); bhata_ra (OB.); bha_ta_r (B.); bhatara_ (Aw.); bhata_r husband, master (H.)(CDIAL 9402). bhat.t.a_rika_mat.ha name of a quarter of S'ri_nagar (Skt.); brad.imar (K.)(CDIAL 9367).

7280.Writing: baravan.ige writing, lipi, livi (Ka.lex.) bara_vu handwriting, knowledge of writing; baravan.ige writing, composition; barepu to write, to draw; bara pan.puni to divorce a wife (Tu.lex.)

7281.Image: hollow vessel: baravu a hollow semi-cylindrical shaped arrangement into which water from the baling bucket is emptied; baravu a small excavation in a well or tank (Tu.lex.)

7282.Chieftain; ban:ger a title among certain old chieftains, a family name among Bunts and Billavas; ban:ki-na_yake an honorific title amongst Billavars (Tu.lex.)

7283.Image: mackerel: ban:gud.e the mackerel (Tu.lex.)

7284.Honour, respect: baramu, barmu respect, honour, reputation, dignity (Tu.lex.) cf. bharu a husband, a lord, gold; name of S'iva; name of Vis.n.u (Skt.lex.) bharman support, maintenance; nourishment; a house (Skt.lex.) bore na_u good name; bori a_locen good opinion; bore na_u bhog enjoy a good reputation; bore, boro good (Kon.lex.)

7285.Family,supporting: bhariman a family; supporting, nourishing; name of Vis.n.u (Skt.lex.) orjonia a supporter of family (Santali.lex.) Gold: bharma support, maintenance, nourishment (Ka.lex.) bharman support, maintenance, nourishment, care (RV. x.88.1); bha_rman board, table (RV. viii.2.8); aris.t.a-bharman yielding security (RV. viii.18.4)(Vedic.lex.) bharan.a maintaining, supporting, cherishing, nourishing; nutriment; wages, hire (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) bharma gold; bharma-harmya a mansion of gold; bharmya gold (Ka.); bhan:ga_ra, ban:ga_ra gold; brahmasva property (money, lands etc.) belonging to bra_hman.as; cf. barma (Tadbhava of brahma) baramade_s'a, Birma, Burma (Ka.lex.) pan:ka_ru < ban:ga_ru (Te.) gold (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ba_nga_r gold; some kinds of gold are: poun, sta_mbol, kurza_t (Kon.lex.) ban:ga_r, ban:ga_ro gold (Tu.lex.) bhra_s' to shine, glitter, blaze (Skt.lex.) bharmam wages, hire; gold; bharman gold, gold coin; wages, hire; support, maintenance (Skt.); bharman.ya_ wages, hire (Skt.lex.) bhramara shine, lustre (Ka.lex.) cf. pom, pon gold (Ka.lex.) par-i gold, a slang term (por-kollar pon-n-ai-p-par-i en-r-um : Tol. Col. 17, Il.ampu_.); scoria, dross (W.); par-i-man.al sand containing gold (Ta.lex.)

7286.Image: gimlet: barama_, bayrage, bayrige a kind of auger, a gimlet, a drill and bow (Ka.); barama_ (M.H.); burme, varume, ver-ume (Ma.); verruma (Port.); [ratna_digal.ige yajjagal.u ha_kuva bayrige, i.e. bayrige which cuts holes in gem-stones etc.; Synonyms: a_spho_t.ani, vaidhainie); bayrige hid.i to apply the bayrige: to bore holes (Ka.lex.) burmo, burmya_ auger for making large holes; birmo, rum, ruma_ auger for boring holes in wood for nails (Kon.lex.) rum. the sound of a small spinning top (Ka.lex.) purat.t.u caus. of pural. to turn a thing over; to roll (Ta.); poral.cu (Ka.); purat.t.uka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) pirama-rantira < brahma-randhra fontanelle, aperture in the crown of the head (Ka_cippu. Can-ar-kuma_ra. 16) (Ta.lex.) barma_ a gimlet; an auger, an awl; barma_un., varma_un.a_ to bore; barmi_ the hole of a snake; an ant-hill; a small gimlet or drill; warma_ a carpenter's bit, a borer; warmi_ the mound raised by white ants; a small borer; cf. bar.n, var.na_ to cause to enter; bar.n to enter (P.lex.) varma = marma the art and trick of a process, machine etc., the latent meaning of a passage in a book etc., the point (Ka.M.H.); varma-karma secret, mysterious work; marma the art, trick of a contrivance; marma-bhe_da, varma-bhe_da piercing or penetrating the vitals, striking a vital member, piercing or cutting to the quick; discovering of a plot, of the art of a contrivance (Ka.lex.) Lathe: bhrami a turner's lathe, a potter's wheel; going round or about, revolving; bavan.i, baval.i turning round; pari-bavan.ige turning round, revolving (of wheels) (Ka.lex.) bhrama a lathe; bhrami whirling or turning round, circular movement; a turner's lathe; bhramin turning or moving round; bhra_man.am swinging or turning round, causing to revolve (Skt.lex.) barma_ a kind of gimlet or borer worked with a string; an auger, a drill; barma_na_ to bore (U.lex.) Image:hollow: bur-ad.e a hollow thing: a lie, untruth; bur-ud.u, bur-ad.e, bud.d.u globularness, roundness (Ka.lex.) cf. purai tubular hollow (Ta.); burma, burmu a gimlet; perevuni to be bored, perforated; perepini to bore, perforate; berpuri a borer (Tu.)(DEDR 4297). bhraman.a, bavan.e, bhraman.e roaming, wandering about; turning round, whirling; revolution, the orbit of a planet etc.; wavering, staggering, tottering, unsteadiness; erring, falling into error; causing to go round or move about; giddiness, dizziness; bhrama, beme, berme, bhrame moving in a circle, going round, turning round, whirling, revolving; a circular motion, a whirl; a whirlpool; an eddy; giddiness, dizziness; one of the upame (simile); bhraman.i, bavan.i, baval.i a sort of game (played by lovers), consisting in circular movements or waltzes; bhramat flying about humming; roaming; turning round, whirling etc.; bhramari, bavari going round; bava the first karan.a or astrological division of the day; bavari (Tadbhava of bhramari) the act of turning about, swinging or brandishing; a beam in a mill by which its kan.e is turned; revolving, moving in a circle or to and fro; bavariya gad.d.a a curled beard about the chin; bavari-vari to run in a circular manner (Ka.lex.) Churning, whirling: bhramant pres. part. revolving (MBh.); bhawa~ta_ a kind of toy, whirligig (Bhoj.); bhau~tuwa_ ox that turns oilpress, a sort of water-skating beetle (H.)(CDIAL 9649). bhramati moves to and fro, reels (S'Br.); revolves, wanders (MBh.); bhamati spins (of wheel), whirls about, roams (Pali); bhamai wanders, revolves (Pkt.); bha~van.u, bhaun.u to go round in a circle, wander (S.); bhe~van., pres. part. bho~nda to turn; bhao~van. to be giddy, wander about; bhavun. to stroll; bhe_n. (L.); bhau~n.a_ to turn, be giddy (P.); bham.vai wanders, reels (OAw.); bha~wna_, bhauna_ to revolve, turn (H.); bhamai to wander (OG.); bhamvu~ (G.); bha~vn.e~, bho~vn.e~ to turn (M.); bho~vta_ moves (Konkan.i); bho~vad.n.e~ to turn (M.); bhama_d.a caused to turn (Pkt.); bhama_r.vu~ to turn round (G.); bhama_ve_i to turn (Pkt.); bha~va_van. to turn, send back (L.); bhua_un.a_ (P.); bhaya_unu to lead astray (of evil spirits)(N.); bha~wa_na_ to turn (H.); bhama_vvu~ to mislead (G.); bhram moves to and fro (Skt.)(CDIAL 9648). sambhamati revolves (Pali); sabha~vta_, sabho~vta_ all around, roundabout (M.)(CDIAL 12972). bhraman.a revolution (MBh.); bhaman.a turning round in a circle (Pkt.); baman.aya turning, whirligig (Si.)(CDIAL 9647). bha~_wna_ to turn on a lathe (H.)(CDIAL 9677). bha_i~_ a turner (H.)(CDIAL 9679). piramam potter's wheel (Ta.); pira-matan-am < pramathana churnig (Ta.); piraman.am < bhraman.a whirling; wandering; giddiness, confusion, perplexity; piramari_ < bhramari_ a kind of dance (Cilap. 3,16, Urai.); piramatar S'iva's host (Uttarara_. Varaiyet.ut. 69); piramata-kan.am < pramatha + gan.a id. (Tiruvil.ai. Meykka_t.. 23)(Ta.lex.) pramatha-na_tha chief of the pramathas: S'iva; Gan.apati (Ka.lex.) birama-ca_ttan- < brahma-sa_str. a manifestation of Skanda (Tan.ikaippu. Akattiyan-. 75)(Ta.lex.) pramatha stirring about; pramathana id., churning (Ka.lex.) Image: boring instrument: bha~ora a boring instrument resembling a brace (Santali.lex.) Image: auger, gimlet; turning lathe: bhau~ra turning lathe (Or.); bhaa~ra auger, gimlet (Or.); bhau~ra_, bhai~ra_ spinning top; pa_n.i-bhau~_ri whirlpool (Or.); bhau~r-kali_ iron link fastened to rope close to oilmill bullock's neck (Bi.); bhau~riya_ ploughing a field round and round (Bi.); bham.vara whirlpool (OAw.); bha~war, bhau~r, bhaur whirlpool; bhau~ri_ revolution, lock of hair (H.); bhamar whirlpool; bhamro large whirlpool; bhamri_ giddiness; bhamarr.o spinning top (G.); bho~vri_ whirling round (M.); bho~vro spinning top (Konkan.i); bamaraya, bamare_, bambaraya humming top (Si.); blamur, la_mbel-br.ak lightning (Pas'.); la_ma-culik (Gaw.Sv.)(CDIAL 9650). pamparam top (Kampara_. Kin:kara. 30); id. (Ma.); pamparan:kuttu to make a top of an immature coconut; pamparama_t.t.u to spin a top (Ta.lex.) pamparam top for play (Ma.); bhramaraka humming-top (Skt.)(DEDR 3930). Image: hub of a wheel: pai hub of a wheel (Santali.lex.) pavuri moving in a circle (Pa_rata. Nirai. 99); a dance in a circle (Ka_l.at. Ula_. 107); bavari (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) tadbhava of bhramari the act of turning about (Ka.lex.) Turner: bha_i~_ a turner (H.); bhra_min turning (Bhartr..); bhra_min confused (Skt.) (CDIAL 9679). bhra_mayati causes to revolve (Up.); causes to wander (MBh.); bha_me_i makes turn, makes wander (Pkt.); bramoiki to circulate, wave (Sh.); bramun (K.); bha~_van.u to return, send back (L.); bha~_wna_ to turn on a lathe (H.); bha~_uta_ whirlpool (B.); bha~_wat, bhau~ti handle of crank driving wheel of spinning-wheel (Bi.)(CDIAL 9677). bhra_man.a turning round (Ma_rkP.); bha_man.a making turn round (Pkt.); bha_man.aum. (OG.); bha_mn.a~_ pl. ceremony to remove evil by whirling arm above head of sufferer (G.)(CDIAL 9676). bhra_mari_ giddiness; bhra_mara giddiness; whirling round (Skt.); bhra_marin affected by giddiness (Mn.); bha_mari_ circumambulation (in worship)(Pkt.); ba~_bar, ba~_buru fluster (K.); bha_wa~ri_ flywheel rotating spindle on which silk is wound (A.); bha~_ur distorted (B.); bha_ur, bhauri_ whirlpool (Mth.); bha_m.vari circumambulation (OAw.)(CDIAL 9678). bha~_war, bha~_wari_ going round (H.)(CDIAL 9678). bhramya_t moves to and fro (Pa_rGr..); bhammai turns round, wanders (Pkt.); bhaman.u to wander aimlessly (S.)(CDIAL 9652). bhrama giddiness (Sus'r.); mistake (Skt.); bhama wandering, error (Pkt.); bhau~ giddiness (L.P.); bhuwa_ deceit (A.); bhua~_ wrong way taken by mistake (Or.); bhawa~_ turning, circling round (H.); bha~va~d. giddiness (M.); bama (Si.); bhram moves to and fro (Skt.)(CDIAL 9646). bhraman.a revolution (MBh.); wandering (Skt.); bhaman.a turning round in a circle (Pkt.); bhaun.u, bhaun.i_ roller between two posts fixed on edge of well for rope to run over; bhau~n.an.u to wander in search of (S.); bhauni_ wheel over which well-rope passes, any similar wheel or pulley (P.); baman.aya turning, whirling (Si.)(CDIAL 9647). bhramati moves to and fro (S'Br.); revolves, wanders (MBh.); errs, doubts (Skt.); bhamati spins (of wheel), whirls about, roams (Pali); bhamai wanders, revolves (Pkt.); bramun to wander (K.); bha~van.u, bhau~n.u to go round in a circle, wander (S.); bhe~van. pres. part. bho~_nda to turn; bhao~van. to be giddy, wander about; bhavun. to stroll (L.); bhe_n. (L.); bhau~n.a_ to turn, be giddy; bhau~na_ to wander (P.); bham.vai wanders, reels (OAw.); bha~wna_, bhauna_ to revolve, turn (H.); bhamai (OG.); bhamvu~ to wander (G.); bho~vta_ moves (Konkan.i); bamanava_ to move in a circle (Si.); bhamad.ai wanders (Pkt.); bho~vad.n.e~ to turn (M.); bhama_d.ia caused to turn (Pkt.); bhama_r.vu~ to turn round (G.); bhama_ve_i to turn (Pkt.); bha~va_van. to turn, send back (L.); bhua_un.a_ (P.); bhaya_unu to lead astray (of evil spirits)(N.); bha~wa_na_ to turn (H.); bhava_vvu~ to mislead (G.)(CDIAL 9648). For semant. 'stroll' cf. pavan-i procession, riding in state, parade as of a prince (Tan-ippa_. ii,159, 397)(Ta.); bavani (Te.)(Ta.lex.) bhramant- pres. part. revolving (MBh.); bhawa~ta_ a kind of toy, whirligig (Bhoj.); bhau~tuwa_ ox that turns oilpress, a sort of water-skating beetle (H.)(CDIAL 9649). bhr.n.a_ti is crooked (Dha_tup.); bhun.an.u to wander about (S.)(CDIAL 9587). Spinning-top; potter's wheel: bhramaraka spinning top (Skt.); whirlpool (Skt.); bhramara potter's wheel (Skt.); bhamarika_ humming top (Pali); bhamari_, bhamali_, bhamaliya_ dizziness (Pkt.); bambur flurry (K.); bha~var whirlpool; bha~vari_ whirl of date-palm leaves (L.); bha~var whirlpool; bhau~r, bhau~ro, bhau~ri_ whirlpool, whirlwind, tempest (Ku.); bhu~wari, bhumari, bhau~ri whirl-wind, whirl (N.)(CDIAL 9650).

7287.Gift: bhu_ri a gift of money conferred on those present at any festival or at a funeral (Ka.); id. (Te.); bhu_ri-daks.in.e id.; bhu_ri much, many, numerous (Ka.lex.)

7288.Superintendent of gold in a royal treasury: bhu_ri much, many, numerous (RV. i.55.8); abundant (RV. i.124.12); ama_ sate_ vahasi bhu_ri va_mam for him who is at home thou bringest much wealth (RV. ix.16.8); copious (RV. iii.31.9); mighty (RV. i.184.3); abundantly or often (RV. i.48.2); richly, in a greater fullness paramam padamava bha_ti bhu_ri (RV. i.154.6); bhu_ri-karman working much (RV. i.103.6); bhu_ri-gu rich in cattle (RV. viii.62.10); bhu_ri-caks.as much seeing (RV. ix.26.5); bhu_ri-da_ giving much (RV. iv.32.19); bhu_ri-da_tra rich in gifts (RV. iii.34.1); bhu_ri-da_vattara giving more abundantly (RV. viii.5.39); bhu_ri-dhana having much wealth or property (AV. vii.62.4); bhu_ri-s'r.n:ga many-horned (RV. i.154.6) (Vedic.lex.) bhu_ri gold (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bhaurika the superintendent of gold in a royal treasury, a treasurer (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) bhu_ri (cf. late Skt. bhu_r) the earth; bhu_rikamma practices to be observed by one living in a bhu_righara or earth-house; Vedic bhu_ri-karman much effecting; bhu_jivijja knowledge of charms to be pronounced by one living in an earth-house; perh. bhu_ri-vijja_ might be a secret science to find gold (digging for it: science of hidden treasures); bhu_ri-kamma might be 'making gold' (alchemistic science)(Pali.lex.) bhu_rima_ya possessed of much deceit: a jackal (Ka.lex.) cf. bhr.n:ga_ra, ban:ga_ra, bin:ga_ra, bin:ga_ri, bhan:ga_ra, bhr.n:ga_ri a golden pitcher or vase; gold (Ka.lex.)

7289.Amulet: bhu_s.an.a ornament; originally 'amulet' as a means of strengthening (Vedic.lex.) bhu_s.an.a decorating, adorning; ornament, decoration, embellishment; an ornament, a trinket etc.; to_d.a; bhu_s.an.a_varan.a surrounding or covering with ornaments; cf. tud.u- (Ka.lex.) pu_s.a_n.a_n:kam < bhu_s.an.a + a kalpataru said to bestow all kinds of ornaments (Takkaya_kap. 757, Uraikkur-ipppu.)(Ta.lex.)

7290.Abundance; land; yakkha: bhu_vari_ prosperous (A_pS'S. xiv.17.3); bhu_s.n.u making prosperous (KS. viii.4); bhu_s. to strive after strength or prosperity, be intent upon (RV. viii.92.26); to seek to procure (RV. ix.94.3); to provide or procure (RV. x.143.6)(Vedic.lex.) bhu_man abundance (RV. x.98.12); earth (RV. i.85.5; RV. i.61.14); girayas'ca dr.l.ha_ dya_va ca bhu_ma_ tuje_te_ the firm mountains and heaven and earth trembled; the world (RV. ix.74.7); bhu_mi, bhu_mi_ earth (TS. iv.1.2.3); bhu_midr.m.ha firmly fixed on the ground (AV. xiv.33.2); bhu_mya terrestrial (RV. v.41.10); bhu_mya-lo_ka the terrestrial world (TS. iii.5.3.1); bhu_ world (RV. x.72.4); creator (TS. iii.2.10.2; TBr. iii.7.7); bhu_ti prosperity, goodness (RV. i.161.1); bhu_ta become, past, gone, one who has attained prosperity; bhu_ta-kr.t creator of the world (AV. iii.28.1); bhu_ta-pati lord of beings (AV. ii.14.4) (Vedic. lex.) pu_-vaciyar, pu_-vaiciyar Ve_l.a_l.as as cultivators (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) pu_-talam < bhu_ + the earth (Tiruva_ca. 8,1); bhu_sati, bhu_sati_ earth considered as a woman (Ka.lex.) pu_ma_n- Laks.mi_ (Na_mati_pa. 53)(Ta.lex.) pu_ti < bhu_ti affluence, wealth, prosperity (Ka_cippu. Maka_lin:ka. 21); earth (Aka. Ni.); pu_man- sovereign as protecting the earth (Tan-ippa_. i,183,6); pu_ < bhu_ earth (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) bhu_mi, buvi, bu_mi, bu_vi the earth; soil, ground; a country, a district; land, estate; a place, site in general; bhu_mike earth, ground; the story of a house; bhu_man.d.ala the terrestrial globe; a district, a country; bhu_ma, bhu_man the earth, the world; a territory (Ka.lex.) pu_mi < bhu_mi earth (Tiruva_ca. 20,10); landed property; country, district; place; pu_ richness, fertility, flourishing condition (pu_ malarc co_laiyum : Man.i. 20,29); pu_-ma_tu goddess of wealth (Can.. Aka.); pu_mi-te_vi id. (Ci_vaka. 2233); pu_mi-na_tan- Vis.n.u as lord of the earth (Tiv. Tiruccan. 22); pu_-min- Laks.mi_ (Kampara_. Akalikai. 73)(Ta.lex.) bhumma adj., n. [fr. bhu_mi, Vedic bhu_mya] belonging to the earth, earthly, terrestrial; soil, ground, floor (bhu_ta_ni bhumma_ni earthly creatures, contrasted with creatures in the air, antalikkhe); sabba-bhumma_ khattiya_); pl. bhumma_ the earthly ones, i.e. the gods inhabiting the earth, esp. tree gods (yakkhas) ( = bhumma-deva); bhumma ground: ya_va bhumma_ down to the ground; bhumma-attharan.a earth-spread, a ground covering, mat, carpet; bhumma-antara earth-occasion, i.e. (1) sphere of the earth, plane of existence (2) in bhumma-antara-pariccheda discussion concerning the earth, i.e. cosmogony; bhumma-antalikkha earthly and celestial, over earth and sky (of portents); bhumma-ja_la terrestrial net (of insight) gift of clear sight extending over the globe (perhaps to find hidden treasures); term of a vijja_, science or magic art; bhummat.t.ha (a) put into the earth, being in the earth, found on or in the earth, earthly, (b) standing on the earth, (c) resting on the earth; bhummat.t.haka living on earth, earthly (of gods); bhumma-deva a terrestrial deva or fairy; bhumma-devata_ = bhumma-deva = yakkha; bhummi that which belongs to the ground, i.e. a plane (of existence), soil, stage; bhu_ma = bhu_mi (lit.) ground, country, district; paccha_-bhu_ma the western district; (fig.) ground, reason for,occasion; stage, step; aviva_da-bhu_ma ground of harmony; bhu_maka, bhu_mika adj. having floors or stories (of buildings) as dvebhu_maka pa_sa_da; pacabhu_maka pa_sa_da a palace with 5 stories; sattabhu_maka with 7 stories (pa_sa_da); dve bhu_mika geha two-storied house; bhu_maka belonging to a place or district, as ja_ti-bhu_maka from the land of (their) birth; paccha_ bhu_maka from the western country (bra_hman.a_); bhu_maka being on a certain plane or in a certain state, as paritta bhu_maka and maha_ bhu_maka; te bhu_maka in 3 planes; bhu_ta-pati (a) lord of beings (of Indra), (b) lord of ghosts or yakkhas (of Kuvera); bhu_ [fr. bhu_, otherwise bhu_mi] the earth; loc. bhuvi or aor. 3 sg. of bhu_; bhu_ adj. being, creature, living being in: pa_n.a-bhu_ a living being (a breathing thing) = pa_n.a-bhu_ta (Pali.lex.) bhu_ world (RV.); ground (Mn.); bhuvi loc. sg. (Pali); bhu_ (Pkt.); bi_ta_ earth (Gypsy)(CDIAL 9546). bhu_kampa earthquake (Ya_j.); bhoamb, buhamb(h), bhamb, bhamm earthquake; bham (L.)(CDIAL 9547). bhuvo circular pit in the ground made by a whirlpool of water (G.)(CDIAL 9548). bhorin:g adder (?creeping on the earth)(G.)(CDIAL 9569). bu~_ya_l earthquake (Sh.)(CDIAL 9550). bhu_man earth, world (RV.); bhumma soil (Pali); bhuma land (NiDoc.); bu_m earth, ground (Ash.); bu_m (Wg.); byum, bi_m (Kt.); bi_m (Pr.); bum, buma (Dm.); bu_m (Shum.)(CDIAL 9556). bhu_mi earth, ground (RV.); place (S'Br.); bhu_mika_ (Ka_s'.); bhu_mi earth, ground; bhu_mika_ storey; bhummi soil, storey (Pali); bhu_mi, bhummi ground; bhu_mia_ storey (Pkt.); phuv ground; buih earth (Gypsy); bhu_m (Pas'.); bu_m, bum, bumi land, soil (K.); bhu~_, bhu~_i (S.); bhoe~, pl. bhu_i~, bhu_i~_ (L.); bhu~_, bho~_, bhu~_i_ (P.); bhui~_ (WPah.); bhi~_, bhi_ (Ku.); bhui~ (N.); bhu~i (A.B.); bhui~ (Or.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); bhu~_, bho~, bhu_i~_ (H.); bhuim. ground, storey (OG.); bho~, bho~y ground; bhu~_ (G.); bhui~_, bhui_, bhu_y (M.); bhui~ (Konkan.i); bima ground, soil, landed property (Si.); bim, bin earth, ground (Md.); bem, bhum (Tir.); bum (Gaw.); bhum (Kal.); bum (with rising tone)(Kho.); bhume_ (Sv.); bhu_m field (Tor.); bhu_m ground (Phal.)(CDIAL 9557). bhu_mya terrestrial (RV.); bhu_miya id. (Skt.); bhumma terrestrial, earthy; n. soil, ground (Pali); bhu_mi_ bit of ground (WPah.); bhu_m, bhom white ant hill (M.); bhu_mya_, bhu_mya~_, bhu_miya_ landholder; bhu_miya~_, bhumya~_ landholder (H.); bhu~iya_ landed, landed proprietor (B.); bhui~a~_ pertaining to cornfields; feudal lord, sylvan deity (Or.); bhu~_iya_, bhu~_ya_ landholder (H.)(CDIAL 9566). bhauma relating to the earth (VS.); bhaumi_ in cmpd. 'floor, storey' (MBh.); bho_ma relating to the earth (Pkt.); bumu storeyed, having several layers (Si.)(CDIAL 9638). bhohra_ dungeon, pit in which potters place newly-made vessels to keep moist (P.); bho~hara_, bhau~ra_ cellar, cavern (H.)(CDIAL 9640). bhu_r hole (Mth.)(CDIAL 9549). bhya~_ro, bhiya_ro cellar, one-storeyed house (Ku.); bhu~_ya_ra_ cellar (H.)(CDIAL 9563). sapta-bhu_ma having seven storeys (HParis'.); saptabhauma (MBh.); saptabhu_mi, saptabhu_mika (Skt.); sattabhu_maka seven-storeyed (Pali); satta-bhu_ma, satta-bhu_miya (Pkt.); satbumu (Si.)(CDIAL 13150). bhaumika being in the earth, collected on a partic. piece of ground (Mn.); bhomi a partic. piece of land, field (G.); bho~ any land (G.)(CDIAL 9642). bhu_migr.ha whose house is the earth, i.e. buried (AV.); cellar (Skt); bhu_mighara, bhu_mihara cellar (Pkt.); bhu~_hara_ (H.); bho~yaru~ (G.)(CDIAL 9559). bhu~_ya_ra_ cellar (H.)(CDIAL 9563). bhui~ha_r name of a caste (Bhoj.)(CDIAL 9565). pr.thivi_, pr.thvi_ the earth (RV.); yezivi_ id. (Av.); pahivi_ (Pkt.); pathavi_, puthavi_, puthuvi_, pat.havi_ the earth (Pali); pradhavi, pad.hai (Dhp.); prad.hravi, pad.hravi land (KharI.); pahivi_, pahu(v)i_, puha(v)i_, pud.havi_ the earth (Pkt.); puhami_ (Mth.); puhumi (OAw.); puhavi_, puhuvi_ (OG.); pol.ova, pol.ava, inst. pel.evin (Si.)(CDIAL 8357). pr.thu wide (Skt.); pihu, puhu wide (Pkt.); pir.ik, per.ek, pr.ek palm of hand (Pas'.); pir.ik (Shum.)(CDIAL 8358).pr.thula broad (MBh.); puthula broad, flat (Pali); pihula wide (Pkt.); phla_, pho_la_ (L.); pahol.u_, pol.u~ wide, loose (G.); pal.al, pul.ul wide, open (Si.); ful.au (Md.)(CDIAL 8361). pulam land (Ta.lex.)

7291.Becomes: bhu_ become (Skt.); bhavati becomes, is (RV.); bhavati, ho_ti (Pali); bhavati, bhoti, hoti (As'.); bhavati, hoati, huati, uhati (NiDoc.); bhavadi, bhodi (Dhp.); bhavai, bhavae_ is got; ho_i is, huai (Pkt.); hom 1 sg., uv-, ov-, ho_r he is; ho_ri it is possible (Gypsy); huina, pres. st. ho- to become, be (D..); bo_m I am (Ash.); b-, 2 sg. imper. bu_ to become (Wg.); bum 1 sg. fut., bi_m 1 sg. pres. (Dm.); ha_m, i_m, yam (Pas'.); bo- to become (Shum.); wo_-, au wo_n 1 sg. pres. ( < bhavant)(Wot..); b-, bo_ 2 sg. imper., bima 1 sg. fut. (Gaw.); ha_w- to become, him 1 sg. pres. (Kal.); bik, bo_m 1 sg. pres. to become; hoi, oi 3 sg. pret. (< abhavat), ba_r 3 sg. pres. subj. (Kho.); hu_-, huwant 1 sg. pres. (Bshk.); ho_ 2 sg. imper. be, become (Tor.); ho_-, hu_ (Mai.); h-, hinu 3 sg. pres. (Phal.); boiki to become; bo_nu to be (Sh.); bowun to become; bho_n.o_ (K.); huan.u to be (S.); ho- to become, be; (h)a~ 1 sg. pres., (h)e_ 3 sg., (h)in 3 pl. (L.); hon.a_ to be; haun.a_, hunda_ pres. part. (P.); bho_n.u_, bho_n., bhu_n.a_, hu_n.a_ to become (WPah.); hun.o to be (Ku.); hunu, ho 3 sg. pres. (negative hoina)(N.); ha_ba (A.); haoya_ (B.); heba_ (Or.); hoeb (Bi.Mth.); hoi 3 sg. pres may be (Aw.); hona_ (H.); hoi (OMarw.); hu_i 3 sg. pres. (OG.); hevu~ (G.); hon.e~ (M.); venava_ (Si.); pres. part. bhavant- (Skt.); bhavanta, honta (Pali); hom.ta (Pkt.); genitive affix -hondu, -sondu ( < -as hondu)(K.)(CDIAL 9416).

7292.Name without a title: bruva calling one's self by a name without any real title to it; saying, speaking (Ka.); bra_hman.a-bruva, brahma-bruva calling one's self a bra_hman.a, a bra_hman.a only in name (Ka.lex.)

7293.Friendly address: bhummi [old voc. of bhumma] a voc. of friendly adddress 'my (dear) man' (lit. terrestrial) = piyavacanan (Pali.lex.) bho (indec.) [voc. of bhavant, cf. Skt. bhoh- which is the shortened voc. of bhagoh- of Vedic bhagavant] a familiar term of address (in speaking to equals or inferiors): sir, friend, you, my dear; pl. sirs; with voc. of noun: bho purisa my dear man; bho brahman.a_ oh ye brahmans; bho bho; bho-va_dika, bho-va_din a brahman, i.e. one who addresses others with the word 'bho', implying some superiority of the speaker; name given to the brahman, as proud of his birth, in contrast to bra_hman.a the true brahman (Pali.lex.)

7294.Image: eyebrow: bhru_, bhru, purbu, bhruva an eye-brow, the brow (Ka.lex.) bomma eye (Pa.); image (Kuwi); eyebrow (Te.); eyeball (Kol.); kan bomma id. (Pa.); kan.n.i bombe pupil of eye (Ka.); pommai, pommal doll, effigy (Ta.); bombe id., effigy (Ka.); bomma doll (Ma.)(DEDR 4530). pomha, pamha eyelash, lotus filament, fine down (Pkt.); paks.man eyelashes (TS.); hair of a deer, filament of a flower (Skt.); pakhuma, pamha eyelash (Pali); popa_i_ eyelid (Sh.); pimbin.i_ an eyelash hair (S.); pippn.i_, pippli_ eyelashes (L.); phamhan, bhapphan eyelashes (P.); bimphn.i eyelash (WPah.); papani_ eyelash (Mth.); papni_ eyelash (H.); pa_kl.i eyelid (Konkan.i); piyum id. (Si.)(CDIAL 7638). papot.a_ eyelid (H.); pon.t.he, pl. pon.t.ha_ eyelash (WPah.)(CDIAL 7639). ?cf. pas'm wool (Pers.); pas. wool (Kal.Sh.); phamb cotton-wool (K.); phamb(h) fine kind of Tibetan wool (P.)(CDIAL 7639). Image: eyelashes: pur., pur.u_ eyelashes (WPah.)(CDIAL 8253). bu.r (pl. bu.d.l)eyelash, eyebrow (Kol.); kambu. eyebrow (kam- < kan. eye)(Ko.)(DEDR 4358). putehin, putelin, butuhin (pl.) eyebrows (Pe.)(DEDR 4278). cf. pot.a eyelash (Ga.) (DEDR 4486). bhru_ eyebrow (RV.); du. bhruvau, in cmpd. -bhru_ka-, -bhruva- (Pa_n..); bru eyebrow (Kho.); aci_-bru_ eyebrow (Wg.); aci-pru_ (Kt.); i~c-bruk (Dm.); a~_khi-bhui~ (N.); bhramu- eyebrow (BHSk.); bhamu (Pali); bhuma_, bhumaya_, bhamaya_ (Pkt.); bhamuka, bhamukha (Pali); bhrumukha (BHSk.); bhamuha, bhamuha_, bhaumha_, bhauha_ (Pkt.); bho_ha_ (Ap.); phov (Gypsy); bumb, bum (K.); bhau~h, bhau~, pl. bhava~_ (P.); d.hl.aua~_, d.hl.au~, bharua~_, barua~_, bhrammu_, bhau~, pl. bhaua~_ (WPah.); bhau~ (Ku.); a~_khi-bhau~ (WN.); bhoma_ (B.); bhau~h (Mth.); bha~hu~ (Bhoj.); bhaum.ha (OAw.); bhau~(h), bho~(h), pl. bhaua~_ (H.); bhavu~, bhavari, bhammari (G.); bha~vai_, bho~vai_, bho~i_, bhu~vai_, bhi~vai_ (M.); bama-ya (Si.); buma (Md.)(CDIAL 9688).

7295.To repay: bharna to give property in repayment of a debt; d.an:gran. bharnakedea, mahajon t.hec I gave a bullock in payment of my debt to the money lender (Santali. lex.) bharn to be full or filled up; to be poured in; to be stored, to be accumulated; to pay (a hun.d.i, debt); to be refunded or liquidated (a debt) (P.lex.)

7296.Image: clay pot with narrow mouth; plate; copper tray: pombariyan.a, pombariya_n.a, pombariva_n.a a pariyan.a vessel of gold (Ka.lex.) baran.i, bharan.i a small box, a casket, a China jar or vase; samput.aka, samudgaka (Ka.Te.); paran.i, baran.i (Ma.); paran.i (Ta.); baran.i_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) baran., barn.i, barn.e a long spout for watering the fields (Kon.lex.) paran.i jewel casket, small box, a kind of jar (Ta.); vase, jar (Ma.); baran.i large clay pot with fairly narrow mouth, for storing ghee, pickle, etc. (Kod..); baran.i, baran. china jar (Tu.); barin.e small box, case or casket (Te.)(DEDR 3954). baran.iya pot (Si.); bharna_ vessel with receives expressed sugarcane juice (H.)(CDIAL 9395). baran.i, baron.i china jar (Tu.lex.) bhadda-kumbha vase (Pali.lex.) parad.i, parat.e the bowl, i.e. nape, of the neck (Ka.); paravi, haravi, haruvi, harivi, harubi an earthen water-vessel of the form of the kod.a but larer; parat.e, pat.t.e, part.e a platter, a pot (Ka.); parad.e_m., paral.a (M.); parut.u (Te.); parat.e the bowl of a spoon (Ka.); parad.e_m. (M.); parad.i a kind of dish: wheaten sa_vige (Ka.); paravad.a varied preparations of victuals (M.); para_ta, para_tu a circular and edged dish (Ka.); para_ta (M.)(Ka.lex.) bharwanni a block of wood, in the centre of which a small hollow is made, into which the axle of the horizontal wheel fits and revolves. On the edge of the bharwanni one end of the axle of the vertical wheel also rests and revolves (P.lex.) bharola, bhar.ola_ a clay receptacle for grain, an earthen bin, in the shape of haystack, used for holding grain; na_iya_n. da_ bhar.ola_ lit. barber's bin; bhar.oli_ a small clay receptacle for holding grain; an earthen bin for holding cooking pots or milk vessels (P.lex.) pariva_n.a, parya_n.a, hariyan.a, hariva_n.a, ariva_n.a, pariya_n.a, pariyal.a, a plate-like vessel of metal or wood (Ka.); hariya_n.a, hariva_n.a, ariva_na metal dish (Tu.); ariva_n.amu a kind of dish, bowl or plate (Te.); aruva_n.am copper tray (Ta.); pariel. plate (M.)(DEDR 3971). purupa_tra = pariva_n.a a kind of vessel (Ka.lex.) Image: saucer used as a cover: pariya_, para_i saucer used as a cover for other vessels (Bi.); paridha_ya receptacle for water; paridha_yaka fence (Skt.)(CDIAL 7839). parikalam plate or eating vessel used by a holy person (Kur-r-a_. Kur-a. 13)(Ta.lex.) payrv big storage pot for grain (Ko.); kopayrv, kopi.rv id. [(Ko.) but bigger than payrv; does ko- belong with kor..u (Ta.)(DEDR 2146)?]; parfy large earthen pot for carrying or boiling water (To.)(DEDR 3961). Bowl, nape of the neck: pan.ate an earthen or metal saucer-formed receptacle for the oil and wick of a lamp (Ka.); pan.ati_ (M.); pramite (Te.); mallike, mallaka, kal.asige, kautike, malle (a little shallow earthen vessel)(Ka.); pan.ati, pan.ite, han.ate, han.ite, pran.i_ti, pran.ate a vessel used at sacrifices, a sort of cup (Ka.lex.) cf. pran.i_ta sacrificial vessel (Skt.); pran.i_tah- holy water (S'Br.)(CDIAL 8533).

7297.Image: pudendum muliebre: bharan.i_ f. sg. or pl. 7th asterism (figured by pudendum muliebre)(AV.); 2nd asterism (Pali.Pkt.); a particular asterism (Pkt.); beran.i, beran.a 2nd lunar mansion (Si.)(CDIAL 9396). bharan.i the second naks.atra (Ka.lex.) paran.i the second naks.atra, part of Aries (Ci_vaka. 18113); the sixth of the 15 divisions of the night (Vita_n-a. Kun.a_kun.a. 73, Urai.); paran.i-mar..ai shower in the month of Cittirai after the 13th day (Ar-ap. Cata. 79)(Ta.lex.) bharan.i_ name of a constellation (TBr. iii.1.2)(Vedic.lex.) bharan.i_ name of the second constellation containing three stars; bharan.yam the lunar mansion bharan.i_ (Skt.lex.) bharni mela, barni porob a largely attended yearly fair or mela held at Barni ghat; barni ghat., telkupi ghat. a ford on the Damuda river in Manbhum district, of Chota Nagpur, where there are extensive ruins attributed to the Jains; it is the custom of the Santals to take 'jan baha' of those who in life have been characterised by a fondness for music and jollity, to the Damud.a at Barni ghat and there consign them to a watery grave (Santali.lex.) jan baha a piece or pieces of bone of a cremated person rescued from the ashes of the funeral pire; the piece or pieces of bone thus rescued are consigned with much ceremony to the Damuda river; jan a bone (Santali.lex.) Image: pregnant woman: brin.i_ pregnant woman (Si.); bha_rin bearing a load (Mn.); f. bha_rin.i_ (Skt.)(CDIAL 9466). bar jiwi pregnant; bharti hor.mo id. (Santali.lex.) bha_rya_ to be borne or cherished (TS.); wife (S'Br.); bhariya_ wife (Pali); bharya (NiDoc.); bhajja_ (Pkt.); bha_j (M.); bhariae gen. sg. wife (KharI.); bha_ria_ (Pkt.); bariya, bari (OSi.); biriya (Si.)(CDIAL 9471). To bear children: per-u to bring forth, bear, as children (Tan-ippa_. i,235,1); to beget, generate (Na_lat. i,197)(Ta.lex.)

7298.Mystic syllable: pran.ava the mystic syllable o_m. (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) piran.avam the principal mantra of Hindus, o_m. (Ta.lex.) Image: a small drum: pan.ava, pran.ava a small kind of drum or tabor; the mystic syllable o_m.; pan.ava a kind of cymbal, one used to accompany singing; par..aha, bom.bul.ik (Ka.lex.) pan.avam a small single-headed drum (Kampara_. Pirama_ttira. 5); pan.n.amai-mur..avu a kind of war drum (Cilap. 3,27, Urai.); pan.aiyavan- drummer (Ci_vaka. 602)(Ta.lex.) pan.e, pan.a a drum (Ka.); pan.ai id. (Ta.); rigga-van.e a sort of tabour, mr.dan:ga; baddan.a, baddavan.a (bhadra-pan.a) a drum used on festive occasions (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pan.ai drum, large drum (Patir-r-up. 39,5); musical instrument (Tiruva_lava_. 32,14); drum used in agricultural tracts (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) pran.u to praise; to mutter the sacred syllable o_m. (Skt.lex.) cf. pa_n. song, vocal music, melody (Ci_vaka. 2040)(Ta.); pan.-makal. songstress (Tiruva_ru_. 319); vir-ali; pan. melody-type (Kur-al., 573); primary melody-type, hepatatonic (Perun.. Vattava. 3,56); sound (pan.n.amai cilampu : Cilap. Patikam. 18); pa_n.t.ikam a kind of drum (Ta.lex.)

7299.Ancients: pan.n.avan- God (Cilap. 10,188); pan.n.avi goddess (Ta_yu. Cittar. 4)(Ta.); pan. fittings and decorations of a car (Pu. Ve. 9,26); pan.t.aiyo_r the ancients (Cilap. 28,209); pan.t.ai-vin-ai past karma (Te_va_. 395,2)(Ta.lex.) pran.a old, ancient (Skt.lex.) pan.at great grand-daughter (M.)(CDIAL 8522). pranatika, pan.atika, pana_tikya, panati great-grandson (As'.); pran.apa_t nom. sg. (RV.); parnatta_, par.natta_ descendant of the 6th degree (P.); pana_ti, pala~_ti great-grandson (N.); pan.tu_ (M.); pantu (Konkan.i); pana_tini, pala~_tini great-granddaughter (N.); pan.ana_ti grandson's grand-son (Or.)(CDIAL 8523).

7300.Bride, maiden: parni_ bride, maiden (H.); 3 sg. f. pret. paran.i_ (OMarw.); parin.i_a, parin.iya married (Pkt.); parnia_, parni_a_, parni_ married person (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7825). pariniyam.ti 3 pl. pres. is married (NiDoc.) ; parin.i_yama_n.a, parin.ijjam.ta pres. part. (Pkt.); parni_jan., parni_van. to be given in marriage; parnivun. (L.)(CDIAL 7827). cf. va_n.i wife (Pe.Mand..)(DEDR 5348). varan.a choosing, selecting, choice of a bride; varan.ya desirable, pleasant; vare_n.ya desirable; excellent, superior, chief, pre-eminent; vare a woman who chooses; an excellent woman; patim.vare a young woman who has the privilege of choosing her husband (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) varan.am choice, selection; varan- bridegroom (Uttarara_. Ira_van.an- pir-a. 2); husband (Ta.lex.)

7301.Dowry: pa_rin.a_yya paraphernalia received by woman at time of wedding (Skt.); pa_netar garment of silk or fine cotton worn by bride at wedding (G.)(CDIAL 8112). parn.etar, pan.tar, parn.et wedding, wife (G.)(CDIAL 7828). banda pon presents given at marriage (Santali.lex.) part.han. dowry (G.); parat.hvu~ to settle (G.); paris.t.ha_payati besets, surrounds (AV.); places near (Skt.); parit.t.ha_ve_i sets up, leaves, deserts (Pkt.); parat.havai places (OG.)(CDIAL 7805). To marry: varai-tal to marry (Tol. Po. 140); to make one's own; to apporpriate (Kur-al., 150); to acquire or earn by legitimate means (Cilap. 10,51); varaivu marriage (Ta.lex.) parin.aya leading bride round fire, wedding (Gr.S'r.); parn.o wedding (S.); parna~_, parna_ (L.); parna_hu (P.)(CDIAL 7818). parin.ayati leads round (RV.); marries (a wife)(MBh.); parin.e_ti leads round (Pali); parin.e_i marries (Pkt.); parn.an.u (S.); parne~_da_ (pres. part. of parni_van. to marry; caus. from pass. parni_ (L.); paran.ai (OMarw.); paran.vu~ (G.); paran.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 7820). parin.ayana marrying (S'rS.); parin.ayan.a, parin.ayan.a_ marrying (Pkt.); parin.ayan.a (OG.); paran. is deriv. of verb paran.vu~ (G.)(CDIAL 7820). parin.a_payati causes a man to marry (Skt.); parin.a_vai causes to be married (Pkt.); parna_van. to marry (L.); parna_hun.a_ to give in marriage (P.); parna_na_ (H.); paran.a_i (OMarw.); parn.a_vvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 7821). To marry: varot.hi_, varet.hi_ caste-dinner to celebrate marriage or investiture with sacred cord (G.)(CDIAL 11312). baraneta marriage ceremony in which bride's party invite groom's party to their house (OH.)(CDIAL 11316). Image: procession: varaya_tra_ processor of suitor or bridegroom (Skt.); vara_t, bara_t groom's procession (P.); bara_t (Ku.Bhoj.H.); groom's party (OAw.); bariya~_t suitor's procession (N.); bara_ta groom's procession (Or.); bariya_t (Bi.); baria_t (Mth.); bara_ta, baria_ta_ groom's party (OAw.); vara_t groom's procession (G.M.); vara_ti_, bara_ti_ member of the procession (P.); bara_ti_ (H.); vharetu bridegroom (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11322). varai-tal to marry (Tol. Po. 140); varaivu marriage (Ta.lex.)

7302.Bride: vadhu_ bride, young wife (RV.); son's wife (HParis'.Pali.); vadhuka_ (Skt.Pali); vahu_ wife, son's wife (Pkt.); son's wife (S.); wew son's wife (Ash.); wo_w (Wg.); vov, wu_w (Kt.); bawui, bawi (Dm.); bahu_ (Kal.P.H.Bi.); bride, wife (H.); bok wife (Kho.); bo_i_ son's wife (Bshk.); bo_e (Tor.); ba_o (Mai.); bho_i (Phal.); bo brother's wife (so called by father of household)(Garh.); bahu, bau newly married woman, elder brother's wife (Ku.); bau (A.); bahu_ (OB.); bau son's wife (B.); bahu son's wife (Or.); wife (Mth.); bo(h)u son's wife (Or.); bou mother (Or.); vahu son's wife (G.); vahu_ (M.); vahulia_ young woman (Pkt.); bahuriya_ son's wife (H.); vahun.n.i_ elder brother's wife (Pkt.)[ X an.n.i elder brother's wife (Ta.Ka.)(DEDR 131)]; vahini_ (M.); honni brother's wife, husband's sister (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11250). cf. vahatu bridal procession (RV.)(CDIAL 11455). vadhu_ti young wife or woman (Skt.); son's wife (Skt.); vadhu_tika_ (Skt.); vadhu_t.i_ young woman living in father's house (Skt.); bori bride, son's wife; brother's wife; buri_ son's wife; wa_hri son's wife (Gypsy); bohor.i son's wife (WPah.); bahur.i, baur.i son's young wife (B.); bahur.i_ son's wife (Or.); bahuriya_ (H.); vahuliya_ (Pkt.); bauti son's wife (D..); bewu_t. (Wot..); baut.i_, beut.i_ (Gaw.)(CDIAL 11251). vahuma_a_ wife's mother (Pkt.); vahu_ma_y, vahma_y, ohma_y (M.)(CDIAL 11252). vadhu_vara sg. or m. pl. bride and groom (HParis'.)); bauhar bride, wife (H.); va(h)var, ovar, ohar married couple (M.); hora (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 11253). bha_rya_ wife (S'Br.); bhariya_ (Pali); bharya (NiDoc.); bhajja_ (Pkt.); bha_j (M.poet.); bhariae gen. sg. (KharI.); bha_ria_ (Pkt.); bariya, bari (OSi.); biriya (Si.)(CDIAL 9471). baryeu husband (Dm.); bhe_ru (Kal.); be (Tor.); bhari_u (Phal.); ba_reo_ (Sh.); heriou (Gaw.)(CDIAL 9467). vara suitor, bridegroom, husband (RV.); suitor, husband, daughter's husband (Pali); suitor, husband (Pkt.); varaya id. (Pkt.); varu husband (S.); var husband (L.); bridegroom (P.Ku.G.M.); bar bridegroom (P. Ku.A.B.Bi.Mth.H.); varaka (S'a_n:khGr..); bar suitor (for a maiden)(N.); bara bridegroom (Or.OAw.OMarw.); be husband (Tor.)(CDIAL 11309). varat aor. subj. chooses (RV.); varayati chooses a swife (Skt.); varati wishes (Pali); varai desires, asks for (Pkt.); warun to choose (K.); varan.u to ask for, marry (S.); varn.a_ to marry (P.); bariba_ to choose, accept as husband or wife (Or.); barna_ to marry (of man or woman)(H.); varvu~ to choose or accept in marriage, marry, accept (G.); varn.e~ to choose or accept in marriage, select (for a business)(M.); va_re_ti asks in marriage; va_ra_pe_ti makes someone choose a wife (Pali); bara_iba to bring to terms (A.); bara_na_ (H.); vara_vvu~ to give in marriage (G.)(CDIAL 11318). varan.a choosing, choice of bride (Ka_tyS'r.); choice, realtionship by marriage (Pkt.); varn.o a thing to be obtained, benefit (S.); barna_ present of clothes or pearls sent by groom's family to bride before marriage (P.); baran acceptance of groom by bride (N.); baran.a (Or.); varan. (M.); barani procession of bride and groom to their house on wedding day (N.); baran.i invitation to a feast; baran.ia_ invited (Or.); varn.i_ clothes worn by bride on wedding day (M.)(CDIAL 11315).

7303.Stock of provisions: parivanae stock of provisions carried by a horse (NiDoc.); pari-bha_n.d.a furniture, utensils (A_past.)(CDIAL 7850). cf. pari horse (Ta.lex.) Provisions: warosa_un. to obtain a present, to receive a gift, to derive an advantage; to impart a benefit; waro, waron., baro, baron. provisions, food rations, supplies (P.lex.)

7304.Image: ficus: aran.i the wood of the ficus religiosa used for kindling fire by attrition (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) parn.am < parn.a leaf (Ta.lex.) cf. aracu pipal, ficus religiosa (Ta.)(DEDR 202).

7305.Leader: pran.aya (pra-naya) a leader; guidance; confidence, familiarity, trust, intimacy; friendly acquaintance, friently or fond regard, friendship, affection, love, fondness, favour, kindness; prasa_da; affectionate solicitation; cf. olume; pran.ayi a friend; a lover, a husband; a lord, a master, od.eya; pran.a_yya to be led forwards; to be regarded with affection; pran.i_ta led forwards, led; pran.e_ya to be led or guided (Ka.lex.) pran.a_yaka a leader or commander (of an army); a guide, head, chief; pran.e_tr. a leader (Skt.lex.) pran.aya guidance, affection (MBh.); pan.aya affection (Pali); pan.ayam. acc. sg. (As'.); pan.aya (Pkt.); ponu grief, mourning (on death of a dear one)(K.); pan.a love, affection (Si.)(CDIAL 8525). pran.i_ta led forward, offered (RV.); excellent (esp. of food)(BHSkt.); pan.i_ta brought out, excellent (Pali); pan.i_ya, pan.ia famous, beautiful (Pkt.); pin.i sweet, pleasant (Si.)(CDIAL 8532).

7306.Image: to separate; to set out plants: baren.u_ to set out plants at a distance from one another (WPah.); ba_rna_ to separate (H.)(CDIAL 11554).

7307.Image: fullness, plenty: purandhi fullness, plenty; containing or bestowing plenty; Av. pa_rendis' fullness; purandhi bearing fullness (RV. iv.26.7); offering rich oblations (RV. i.116.13); giving in plenty (RV. i.181.9); god or goddess of plent (RV. v.42.5); purandhi riches, opulence (RV. xv.22.10); the fullness or consummation of sacrifice (RV. ix.97.36); purah-prasravan.a streaming forth (RV. x.100.9); pur in abundance, abundantly (RV. v.66.4); puru much, abundant, many (RV. i.191.9; RV. ii.16.3); many (RV. viii.4.1); altogether (RV. viii.25.16); puruks.u rich in sheep; Av. fsumant id.; puruks.u rich in food, liberally granting (food)(RV. i.65.10); puru-tama very much, abundant, very many (RV. vi.32.1) (Vedic.lex.) puran.am < pu_rn.a fullness (Ja_n-ava_. Vaira_. 16)(Ta.lex.)

7308.Fertile woman: purandhi a fertile woman (TS. vii.5.18.1)(Vedic.lex.) purandhri a woman whose husband and children are living, a respectable matron; a woman (Ka.lex.)

7309.Best female: parame the best female (Ka.lex.) pramada_ young wanton woman (Mn.); pamada_ young woman (Pali); pamaya_ desirable young woman (Pkt.); pama, pamava_ woman, dancing girl (Si.)(CDIAL 8719).

7310.Clever man: par-ampi deceitful, cunning woman (Ta.); parame clever man, cunning, tricky fellow (Tu.); pamma fraud, trick (Tu.)(DEDR 4025). pran.ata skilful, clever (Ka.lex.)

7311.Lineage; image: uninterrupted series: parampare, parampara_ an uninterrupted series, a row; a regular series, succession, order, method; race, lineage (Ka.lex.) paramparai hereditary succession proceeding from father to son, from guru to disciple, from generation to generation (Periyapu. Tat.utta_t.. 181)(Ta.lex.)

7312.Supreme being: param-paran- < para + para the supreme being (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,3,9); parama-mu_rtti id. (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 10,2,7); paraman- id. (Te_va_. 600,1); parami_can- (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 7,1,6)(Ta.lex.) parama extreme, last (AV.); highest (Pali.Pkt.); parima highest (Pali); paryo_ adj. and adv. further off; parya~_ at or from a distance (S.)(CDIAL 7799d). paramaka most excellent (MBh.); parumaka, purumaku, purumu, pl. purumuvo a term of honour (OSi.)(CDIAL 7799c). pa_rami_, pa_ramita_ perfection (Buddh.Pali); pa_ramiya_ (Pkt.); peruma hope, wish, intention (Si.)(CDIAL 8105).

7313.Excellent gift: br.m.hati is thick, grows strong (S'Br.); br.hati (AV.); br.m.hayati increases (MBh.); ba_jhn.e~, ba_jn.e~, ba_dn.e~ to bear (of fruit or flower trees); ba_jh crop (M.); br.h increase (Skt.)(CDIAL 9306). brahma-deyya a most excellent gift, a royal gift, a gift given with full powers (said of land granted by the king) (= set.t.ha-deyyan)[Note: the first part of the cmpd. (brahma) has always been interpreted by Brahmans as referrign to themselves. But brahma as the first part of a cmpd. never has that meaning in Pali; and the word in our passage means literally 'a full gift'... the interpretation that brahma refers to brahans is either wrong or at least doubtful (Pali.lex.) brahant [Vedic br.hant of br.h to increas, to be great or strong; paribr.dha solid; Av. berezat high; Armenian. barjr high; Old Irish bri_; Cymr. bre mountain; Goth. baurgs borough; OHG. burg fortress; Ger. berg mountain] br.hant = vr.dh (Dhp. 344); baha braha bru_ha = vuddhiyan; braha_= vuddha_; brahant very great, vast, high, lofty, gigantic; nom. sg. braha_; nom. pl. brahanta_ = mahanta_; brahant-araa woodlands, vast forest; brahant-vana the wild wood, immense forest; brahant-sukha immense happiness (in characterisation of the term 'bra_hman.a')(Pali.lex.) brahma divine, as incorporating the highest and best qualities, sublime, ideal, best, very great; the supreme good; a state like that of brahma_; brahma, brahma_ Vedic text, mystic formula, prayer (Pali.lex.) brahma-uposatha the highest religious observance with meditation on the Buddha and practice of the uposatha abstinence; brahma-ka_ya divine body; brahma-ka_yika belonging to the company of brahma_, name of a high order of devas in the retinue of brahma_; brahma-giriya pl. name of a certain class of beings, possibly those seated on brahmagiri (or is it a certain class of performers, actors or dancers?); brahma-cakka the excellent wheel, i.e. the doctrine of the Buddha; brahma-ca_rin leading a holy or pure life, chaste, pious; brahma-ja_la divine, excellent net; brahma-dan.d.a the highest penalty, a kind of severe punishment (temporary death-sentence?); brahma-da_ya_da kinsman or heir of brahma_; brahma-patta arrived at the highest state, above the devas, a state like the brahma_ gods; brahma-patti attainment of the highest good; brahma-patha the way to the brahma_ world or the way of the highest good; brahma-parisa_ an assembly of the brahma gods; brahma-pphot.ana divine or greatest applause; brahma-bandhu 'brahma-kinsman', a bra_hman.a in descent, or by name; but in reality an unworthy brahman; brahma-bhakka ideal or divine food; brahma-bhu_ta divine being, most excellent being, said of the Buddha, said of arahants; brahma-ya_na way of the highest good, path of goodness; brahma-loka the brahma_ world, the highest world, the world of the celestials (which is like all other creation subject to change and destruction); brahma-ya_na the best vehicle; brahma-van.n.in of most excellent complexion; brahma-va_da most excellent speech; brahma-vima_na a palace of brahma_ in the highest heaven; brahma-viha_ra sublime or divine state of mind, blissful meditation; brahma-vet.t.hana the head-dress of a brahmin; holy; brahma-ssara heavenly sound, a divine voice, a beautiful and deep voice; brahmacariya a term for observance of vows of holiness, particularly of chastity; the moral life, holy life, religious life, as way to end suffering; bra_hmaa higher or holy state, excellency of a virtuous life; brahmaa brahman, of the brahman rank; brahmanhood, of higher conduct, leading a pure life; brahmatta state of a brahma god, existence in the brahma world; brahmattara prob. 'even higher than brahma_' i.e. unsurpassed, magnificent; bra_hman.a [Vedic] a member of the brahman caste; a bra_man.a teacher. In the Buddhist terminology also used for a man leading a pure, sinless and ascetic life, often even synonymous with arahant; bra_haman.a-ibbha_ brahmins and vais'yas; bra_hman.a-va_n.ija a bra_hman.a merchant; bra_hman.a-sacca a brahmanic (i.e. standard, holy) truth; bra_hman.a state of a true brahman, 'holiness supreme' (Pali.lex.)

7314.Soil, ground: bhu_mi [Av. bu_mis' soil, ground] (lit.) ground, soil, earth; ya_na-bhu_mi carriage road; het.t.ha_-bhu_miyan under the earth (opp. to upari-bhu_miyan); bhu_mi place, quarter, district, region; ja_ti-bhu_mi district of one's birth; uyya_na-bhu_mi garden (-place or locality); bhu_mi (fig.) ground, plane, stage, level; state of consciousness; sukha-bhu_mi ground for happiness; bhu_mi-ttaya the 3 stages, viz. ka_ma_vacara, ru_pa_vacara, lokuttara; pl. bhu_miyo; purisa-bhu_miyo, at.t.ha purisa bhu_miyo eight stages of the individual (viz. manda bhu_mi, khid.d.a_ bhu_mi, vi_mansana bhu_mi, ujugata bhu_mi, sekha bhu_mi, saman.a bhu_mi, jina bhu_mi, panna bhu_mi : babyhood, playtime, trial time, erect time, learning time, ascetic time, prophet time and prostrate time); bhu_mi-kampa shaking of the ground, earthquake; bhu_mi-gata gone into the soil, i.e. hiding, stored away; bhu_mi-ghana thick soil; bhu_mi-tala ground (-surface); bhu_mi-bha_ga division of the earth, district (Pali.lex.)

7315.Extensive: bhu_ri adj. wide, extensive, much, abundant; only in cpds.: bhu_mi-paa adj. of extensive wisdom, very wise; bhu_ri-paa_n.a adj. id.; bhu_ri-medhasa adj. very intelligent (Pali.lex.) bhu_ri knowledge, understanding,intelligence (BHSkt.)(Pali.lex.)

7316.Image: against: prati towards, against (RV.); near, beside (AitBr.); pati towards, near (Pali); pe to, at, in (Ash.); pe, p, b (Kt.); pa to (Pr.); in cmpds. with prati-, Si. forms with pel.e- are inherited, those with pil.i- are loan words from Pali [e.g. pil.iyama recovery, healing (Si.)(CDIAL 8542)](CDIAL 8541). pratiku_la contrary, opposite (Mn.); pratiku_lam contrarily (AV.); pad.iu_la, paliu_la, paiu_la opposite, unwished (Pkt.); paila_r adv. beyond (H.); pelu~ that, yonder (G.); pail opposite (M.); paila_ coming from the other bank (M.); pat.ikku_la averse, objectionable (Pali); pad.ikku_la (Pkt.); pil.ikul dirty, disgusting (Si.)(CDIAL 8545).

7317.On account of: prati_tya resorting to, on account of (BHSkt.); pratye_ti goes to meet, resorts to (RV.); pat.icca on account of (Pali); pin.isa on account of, for the purpose of (Si.)(CDIAL 8626). abhivartate_ meets (RV.); pa_chot.iba_ to advance some distance to meet an honoured guest and accompany to destination (Or.)(CDIAL 8639).

7318.Ornament: pari round, around; ornament, decoration, embellishment (Ka.); parikarma attending on, worship, adoration; personal decoration, dressing, painting or perfuming the body; cleansing, purifying; par-i to adorn, to decorate; ornament, decoration, embellishment (Ka.); par-i gold; por-e beauty = polivu, ar..aku; por- = pon- metal; beauty; por-pu beauty; ornament (Ta.); par-i pad.u to be ornamented or decorated; to grow accomplished, finished, perfect, adept, full, fully developed; par-ivad.isu to cause to become or appear beautiful or charming (Ka.lex.)

7319.Image: periphery of a wheel: paridhi the periphery of a wheel; surrounding, enclosing; a circle; the circumference of a circle; paridhi-stha a number of sentinels posted in a circle; a body-guard; an aide-de-camp (Ka.lex.) Image: circle: pariti wheel of a car (Kal.avar..i. 4); discus (Kalla_. 80,23); circle, circumference (Pur-ana_. 174)(Ta.lex.) paritas round about (AV.); everywhere, all around (MBh.); parito_ around (Pali); paride from (NiDoc.); parido_ all round (Pkt.); piri (Si.)(CDIAL 7830). paridha_vi, pari_dha_vi running about (Ka.lex.) paridhi the circumference or compass in general; the circumference of a circle; the periphery of a wheel; a circle surrounding the globe (Skt.lex.) Image: circle: parive_s.a circle (Skt.); parive_s'a circle (MBh.); parive_sa halo round moon or sun (Pali); pari(v)e_sa circuit, wrapping up (Pkt.); paru_s, parsu~_ enclosure round a house (esp. round the back part)(M.); pirivesa disc of sun or moon, halo (Si.)(CDIAL 7884). Wheel: paia wheel (Pkt.); pradhi felly (RV.); pa_ya (Pkt.); pahi_ felly, wheel (of cart or well-rope)(K.); pahi_a_ wheel (P.); pahiya_, paiya_ (N.); pai felly, tyre of wheel, wheel-mark (Or.); pahiya_, paia_, paya_ wheel, rim of wheel (Or.); pahiya_ wheel of cart (Bi.H.)(CDIAL 8672). Image: a fence: paridhi surrounding, enclosing; a fence, a wall, a rampart; ve_ga, ko_t.e (Ka.lex.) paridhi a wall, fence, hedge, anything surrounding or enclosing another (Skt.lex.)

7320.Image: sun: pariti sun (Man.i. 4,1); halo round the sun or moon (Iraku. Intu. 7)(Ta.lex.) paridhi a circle of light; a misty halo round the sun or moon (Skt.lex.)

7321.Image: sun: parpari_ka the sun; fire (Skt.lex.) prabha_-praro_ha ray of light (Skt.); parod.h, paror., parod.hiyu~, paror.iyu~ dawn (G.); praro_ha sprout, excrescence (Sus'r.); ray (Skt.); paro_ha sprout (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8747).

7322.Image: to dawn: par par in- (id--) (country, na.r.) becomes a little light before dawn (Ko.); pare to dawn (Ka.); para~gu to shine (Te.); pari inba to dawn, break (dawn); n. early dawn (Kui); parce to shine brightly, be seen clearly (Malt.)(DEDR 3980). baran. baran. brilliant, effulgent as the sun's light before he appears above the horizon; pale yellow, like the colour of a Chinaman (Santali.lex.) bhor dawn, daybreak (Santali.lex.) Lustre: bharga radiance, splendour, lustre, shine; S'iva (Skt.lex.) Image: to overflow; brightness: pir-an:ku-tal to shine, glitter, glisten (Tiruva_ca. 7,18); to be high, lofty, elevated (Pur-ana_. 69); to be great, exalted, dignified (Kur-al., 23); to grow full, complete, abundant (Pur-ana_. 49); to overflow, inundate (Kalit. 146); to be close together (Pu. Ve. 1,10); to grow large in size (Malaipat.u. 111); to change, move (Ci_vaka. 175); pir-akkam < pir-an:ku brightness, splendour (Tiruva_ca. 3,124); loftiness, elevation (Ka_cippu. Tar..uva. 26)(Ta.lex.) cf. bon:ga the effulgent (sun) (Santali.lex.)

7323.To arise (sun, moon); to appear: prabha_ light (Mn.Pali.Pkt.); paha_ (Pkt.); prawa pl. rays of light, sunshine (K.); piriha dawn (S.); ph dawn; pau, parah (L.); pauh, paih, paihi, pao (P.); puha_ (OA.); puwa_ sunrise, mroning time (A.); pah, poh, pau dawn (H.); pa_he dawn, next day (OM.); paha fire; paha light, brilliance; paba light, brightness (Si.); pa_ha_r sunshine, sunny place (N.); pohar light (A.); paha_t. period before sunrise, dawn (M.)(CDIAL 8705). bha_la splendour (Skt.inscr.); pral light (Dm.); plal, plol light, iris of eye; adj. light, bright (Gaw.); pralik, prelik light (Kal.); ca_l, cal (Bshk.); culo (Chil.); plal adj. light, bright (Sv.); pa_la_ lamp (N.)(CDIAL 8711). Image: eye-lid: par-e en eyelid (Ka.); par-ai a feather = ir-aku (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) prabha_kara sun (MBh.); light (Skt.); paha_yara sun (Pkt.); paha_r, pa_ha_r sunshine, sunny place (N.); pohar light (A.)(CDIAL 8706). prabha_ta shine forth (MBh.); daybreak (Gaut.); pabha_ta shining, dawn (Pali); paha_ya, paha_iya (Pkt.); pa_a~_-tara_, pua~_-tara_ morning-star (Or.); paho, peh dawn (G.); pha_yi tomorrow (Konkan.i); parod.h, paror., parod.hiyu~, paror.iyu~ dawn (G.)(CDIAL 8707). prabha_taka_la dawn (Sus'r.); poha_ili dawn (OB.); poha_la (B.)(CDIAL 8708). prabha_ti shines forth (RV.); appears, seems (MBh.); pabha_ti shines forth (Pali); poha_na to dawn (B.); pa_iba_, pa_ha_nti dawn (Or.); pa_he shines; pa_ha_ti_ dawn (OM.); pa_yanava_ to rise (of sun), shine, become clear (Si.); pahan.u to consider (S.); pa_hn.e~ to see, search (M.)(CDIAL 8709). prabha_na light (Pa_n.. com.); pahana light, dawn, morning, lamp; penheli, penella torch (Si. + hella spear)(Si.)(CDIAL 8710). prabha_sate_ shines (MBh.); paha_sai shines (Pkt.); pa_yanava_ to shine, become clear, rise (of sun)(Si.)(CDIAL 8712). prabha_sayati makes shine, illumines (MBh.); pabha_se_ti illumines (Pali); pa_svu~ to make bright (G.); pahayay illumining (OSi. 10th cent.); pa_nava_ to show (Si.)(CDIAL 8713). praka_s'a clearness, lustre (RV.); paka_sa lustre (Pali); paya_sa light (Pkt.); pras'o, pyas'o light (of sun, lamps etc.)(WPah.); paha lustre (Si.)(CDIAL 8437). praka_s'ate_ becomes visible (MBh.); praca_kas'at surveying (RV.); paka_sati shines forth, becomes visible or known (Pali); pakce to look for (Kt.); pa_yanava_ to rise (of sun), shine, become clear (Si.)(CDIAL 8438). praka_s'ana illuminating (R.); displaying (MBh.); paka_sana explaining, information (Pali); paya_sana illumination (Pkt.); pahan light, morning, dawn, lamp (Si.); paha_na (Pkt.); peuheli, penella torch (Si.)(CDIAL 8439). praka_s'ayati makes visible (Skt.); paka_se_ti makes known (Pali); paya_se_i makes shine (Pkt.); pa_svu~ to make bright (G.); pahayay illuminating (OSi.); pa_nava_ to show (Si.)(CDIAL 8440). praka_s'ita published (MBh.); paka_sita made known (Pali); paga_s'ita (NiDoc.); paya_siya (Pkt.); pavasu information (Si.)(CDIAL 8441). pe_p- (pe_t-) to appear, (sun) to rise; pe_pip- (pe_pit-) to cause to come out, vomit (Pa.); pe_p- (pe_t-) to appear, come out, (sun,moon) rise; pe_k- (pe_t-) (sun) to rise; pe_p- to start to go out; caus. pe_pp- (Ga.); pesi- to come out, (sun) to rise; pasi_ta_na_ to come out, go out, pass by; pasi-, pesi- to come out, rise, appear; peys- to come out; pesana_ to come forth, go forth, start out, depart; pe_y- to come out (Go.)(DEDR 4382). cf. pal.apal.a to glitter, shine (Ta.)(DEDR 4012).

7324.Image: cakra bird: pariti cakra bird (Iraku. Na_t.t.up. 40)(Ta.lex.) cako_ra the bartavelle or greek partridge, perdix rufa or tetrao rufus, said to subsist upon moon-beams; cakka (Tadbhava of cakrapaks.i) the bird cuculus menalolcucus (Ka. lex.)

7325.Image: sacrificial stake: pariti sacrificial stake, yu_pastampam; the bunches of darbha grass laid round a sacrificial fire (Tiv. Na_yc. 6,7)(Ta.lex.) paridhi pieces or branches of fresh wood laid round a sacrificial fire; the point of a branch of a tree; a tree (Ka.lex.) paridhi a branch of a sacred tree to which the sacrificial victim is tied (Skt.lex.)

7326.Image: glance: paridha_ to direct towards; to cast round the eyes, turn the glance on (Skt.lex.)

7327.Traders: paratar vais'yas (Cilap. 5,158); paravatar vais'yas (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) parada trader (Ka.); paradu trade, traffic (Ka.)(DEDR 3949). harada a dealer, a trader, a merchant; haradike trade, traffic; haradu id. (Ka.lex.) Lay open to view as goods in a bazar: harahu spreading, extension, expanse, vastness; haragu, parapu, harapu to spread, to spread out or about (Ka.lex.) paravu-tal to spread; to lay open to view as goods in a bazar (Ta.lex.) paravai that which is spread as grain on floor (Kur-un. 220)(Ta.lex.) parakka adv. in detail, in extenso (Kampara_. Cat.a_yuvuyir. 11)(Ta.lex.) pard- (pardy-) (small objects) spread over large space (Ko.); parat- (parati-) to spread (grain)(Kod..)(DEDR 3949). haravad.i, haravari the state of becoming public or manifest; manifestation, display, parade (Ka.lex.) parepu, parapu to spread; pare extension, stretch (Ka.lex.) prada giving away, giving, granting, conferring; prathiman extension; prathita published; parut.ava, parit.ava spreading, diffuseness; parut.avisu to spread or put about; to give the details of, to tell in detail; parbuge, habbuge spreading, running, being extended (Ka.lex.) parattuka to spread, proclaim (Ma.); parat- (parati-) to spread (grain)(Kod..); bra_t.pa (bra_t.t-) to sound abroad, proclaim, spread (news); proclamation (Kui)(DEDR 3949). hare, pare, hari to spread; to disperse (Ka.lex.) cf. aravam < rava sound not vocal, bustle, howl, hum, confused noise; shouting of a moving army (Vi_raco_. Porut.. 16, Urai); a_rava_ram loud noise, shouting, roaring, bustle (Kantapu. Ka_virini_.); a_rava_rittal to roar, shout (Tiv. Periya_r... 1,7,1)(Ta.lex.)

7328.A maritime tract: bharukaccha name of a country; pl. name of a people (MBh.); marukaccha (MBh.); bharukaccha name of a town; bharukacchaka an inhabitant thereof (Pali); bharuaccha a town in Gujarat (Pkt.); bharuc the town of Broach (G.)(CDIAL 9399). People of the maritime tract: pak-r-ul.i an ancient river south of the river Kumari, said to have been swallowed by the sea (Pur-ana_. 9)(Ta.lex.) pa(h.)r-iyar people of the maritime tract (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) ?cf. par-aiyan- member of the Par-aiya caste (Ta.); par-ayan a Pariah (Ma.); parn id. (Ko.)(DEDR 4032). Inhabitants of a maritime tract: pa_ratavarut.am < bha_rata- one of nine divisions of the earth; (ten-kat.ar-ku mimayamen-n-un. kirikku nat.up pa_ratama_m: Kantapu. An.t.ako_. 36-37; imayakirikkun ten-kat.ar-ku mit.aippa_kam pa_ratame_: Civataru. Ko_pura. 51), i.e. the land between the south sea and hima_laya mountain (Ta.lex.) paravar, paratar inhabitants of a maritime tract, fishing tribes (Ta.); paravan dwellers on the sea-coast, a caste of fishermen; fem. paratti (Ma.); ? cf. bharata- barbarian, mountaineer = s'abara- (Skt.)(DEDR 3957). s'abara a wild mountain tribe in the Deccan (AitBr.); s'abaraka a savage (Skt.); savara an aboriginal tribe (Pali. Pkt.); sahara, saara, saura, f. saarun.i a caste of aboriginal Gar.aja_ts (Or.); savara a savage (Si.)(CDIAL 12296). cf. bhar.au song about the prowess of ancient heroes (Ku.)(CDIAL 9590). paravatar inhabitants of maritime tract, fishing tribes [neytan-ilama_kkal..](Cilap. 5,25); a dynasty of rulers of the Tamil country (Maturaik. 144); paravar a fisherman caste living in villages along the coast in the south of the Tamil country (Tiruman. 2031) (Ta.lex.) arava-k-kiri Tirupati hills (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-i_r. 12); aravar the Tamils; aruvar id. (Kalin.. 438, Putu.); ar-avamu (Te.); aruva_l.ar name of a tribe said to have been established by Agastya in S. India and to have inhabited aruva_-na_t.u (Tol. Pa_yi. Urai.); aruva_-na_t.u region where a vulgar dialect of Tamil was spoken, possibly a large portion of South Arcot district, one of 12 kotun-tamir..-na_t.u (Tol. Col. 400, Urai); aruva_n.a_t.u id. (Nan-. 272, Mayilai.); aruva_ id. (Nan-. 273, Virut.); aruva_t.t.i womann of aruva_na_t.u (Tol. Col. 167, Urai); arapattana_valar name of the author of the Parata-ca_stiram; a_ra_ttiyar Linga_yat Bra_hmans < a_-ra_dhya (Ta.lex.) Dancer: parave a man belonging to a low class of devil-dancers (Tu.)(DEDR 3957). paratar dancers and actors (Pirapulin.. Vacavan.n.arkati. 4)(Ta.lex.) paratai < perh. bharata simple-minded, artless person; poverty-stricken person (Ta.lex.)

7329.Mercury: pa_ram, pa_ra_ quicksilver (Ta.lex.) pa_rada quicksilver (Sus'r.); pa_rata (Skt.); pa_ra (Skt.OAw.); pa_raya (Pkt.); pa_ro (S.N.G.); pa_r (Ku.); pa_ra_ (L.P.A.); id. (B.Or.H.M.); (CDIAL 8104). pa_taracam < pa_rada-rasa mercury, quick silver (Ta_yu. Paripu_ran.a_. 6); pa_darasa id. (Ka.); pa_taratam id. (Ta.); pa_ratam quick-silver (Na_mati_pa. 395); pa_rati-racam < perh. bha_rati_ + a medicine compounded of quicksilver, sulphur and other ingredients (Pais.aja. 153)(Ta.lex.)

7330.Image: betel leaf: ba_ru betel (B.)(CDIAL 9213). ba_rui caste of betel-growers (B.)(CDIAL 9214).

7331.Image: hunter: pa_raddhia- hunter (Pkt.); pra_rabdhi killing (Skt.); pra_rabdha undertaken (MBh.); a_labhate_ kills (AitBr.); a_labh-, a_rabh- (As'.); pa_raddhi > pa_vaddhi [changed by pop. etym. and doctrine of ahim.sa_ 'increase of sin' sanskritized as pa_parddhi hunting; pa_parddhika hunter (Skt.)]; pa_raddhi hunting (Pkt.); pa_ridhi (Or.); pa_radh (G.M.); pa_rad (M.); pa_ridhia_ (Or.); pa_radhi (OAw.); pa_rdhi_ (G.M.); pa_rdi_ (M.)(CDIAL 952). Mountaineer: bharata barbarian, mountaineer = s'abara (Skt.)(DEDR 3957). habaraya_ archer, a Vadda_ (Si.)(CDIAL 12296). cf. par-ampu hill, mountain (Ta.); padavu hilltop (Ka.)(DEDR 4026).

7332.Image: tangled locks: par-at.t.ai tangled locks, shaggy bushy hair; par-at.t.ai-ttalai head with shaggy, untidy hair; par-at.t.aiyan- person with shaggy hair; fem. par-at.t.aicci; par-at.t.ai-kki_rai wild colewort (Ta.); par-u rough, harsh; par-u-tala, par-an-tala curly hair; par-at.t.a-cci_ra wild cole, justicia madurensis (Ma.); par-at.e state of being rough, bristled, bushy or curly (Ka.)(DEDR 4022). Image: to be dishevelled: pa_r-u-tal to be dishevelled, be in disorder (Nar-. 151)(Ta.lex.) Image: woman's hair: parika_ram, parica_ram women's hair (Ta.lex.) Image: braid of hair: parpari_ a braid of hair (Skt.lex.) Curl: bhramaraka lock of hair (Skt.); bhau~ri_, bhauri_ curl of hair (P.); bhau~ri_ curl (S.); bhu~wari, bhumari, bhau~ri whorl of hair, crown of head (N.); bho~vra_ whorl of hair (G.); bamburu curled; bamburu-kes curl (Si.)(CDIAL 9650).

7333.Desert: par-antalai desert (Pur-ana_. 23); village in a desert tract (Tol. Po. 18, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) pem small hill (To.)(DEDR 4026). pra_ntara long desolate road (Ma_rkP.); country between two villages (Skt.); pa~_tara tract of uninhabited land (OMth.); pa~_tar desert field, desert, dangerous place (H.); panta_ra, panta_r.a open land between two villages, treeless desert (Or.)(CDIAL 8941). Desert: maru a region destitute of water, a desert; always combined : maru-kanta_ra (Pali.lex.). kanta_ra waste land, wilderness (Pali.lex.) [cf. mar-ugu to burn, be very hot (Ka.)(DEDR 4769).] marunilam wilderness, sandy waste, desert (Kampara_. Mu_lapala. 158)(Ta.lex.)

7334.Inhabitant of the desert tract: mar-avan- inhabitant of the desert tract; inhabitant of the hilly tract, hunter, one belonging to the caste of hunters (Periyapu. Kan.n.appa. 55); person of Mar-ava caste; warrior, hero (Kur-al., 778); commander, military chief; mar-avo_n- warrior (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,78); mar-akkut.i warrior tribe (Pu. Ve. 8,21, Urai); the Mar-ava caste; mar-ava_n.ar inhabitants of the hilly tract (Tiruppu. 357)(Ta.lex.)

7335.A potherb: par-ivai name of various plants (Ta.); har-ive, har-ve a common potherb, amarantus oleraceus (Ka.); padipe, padpe the common herb used as a vegetable dish (Tu.)(DEDR 4029).

7336.Shoulder-blade: phar, phari_ shoulder-blade of cattle (L.); phar, pharh shoulder-blade (P.); phar, phara_, phare~ id., blade of thigh-bone (M.)(CDIAL 9053). phi_o_r., phiu_r.u shoulderblade (Phal.); phia_r.-ma~_y upper part of the back (Phal.); phia_r (pl. phi_ shoulder)(Bshk.); phya_vu gen. phya_ai part of back over scapula (Sh.)(CDIAL 13840). pa.r in: kay pa.r upper arm (Ko.); po.r- (obl. po.t--) id., upper limb (shoulder to finger)(To.); pa_re hip, shoulder (Tu.); pe_ru shoulder, side (Pa.)(DEDR 4122). cf. sat.t.a shoulder-blade (Kol.)(DEDR 2303). mat.t.ai shoulderblade; blade of a weapon (Ta.)(DEDR 4663). pasua_r.a_ (usu. pl.) region of the ribs, the side (P.)(CDIAL 7950). Image: behind the shoulder: parikama behind the shoulder (Ash.); paripa_rs'va near the side (Ka_tyS'r.)(CDIAL 7799v). cf. *kamra back (Skt.) Rib: par..u rib, side of the body (Ta.); par..ke rib (Ka.); prakka side, part, quarter (Te.); par.ka side (Kond.a.) side (as of river)(Pe.); armpit (Kuwi); pr.aka id. (Kuwi); par.ka d.umu rib (d.umu bone)(Kond.a) (DEDR 4005). pars'u rib (AV.); pars'uka (Sus'r.); pa_rs'uka_ (Skt.); pas', pas'avo rib (Gypsy); pas.u_ (pas.u-at.i, pas.u-wa_tr, pas.uwa_k)(Ash.); pas.u_ (Wg.); pas.-cu_t. rib (Kt.); pas'i_ breast (Pr.); pas.u_, pa_s.u_ rib (Pas'.); pa_s.u-m my rib (Shum.); pos.u_ (Gaw.); pas' (Kal.); pras' (Kho.); pras.u_ (Sv.); pas.u_ (Bshk.); pra_s'u~ (Phal.); pra_s'i, paci (Sh.); pasu~_ rib of a boat (S.); pa~_su_ rib (H.); pam.sulia_ rib (Pkt.); pasli_, pasla~_ pl. (L.); passali_, pasli_ (P.); pasuri_ (Aw.); pasuli_, pasli_, pa_suri_ (H.); pa~_sl.i_, pa~_sl.u~ (G.); pa_sol.i, pa~_sol.i_ (M.); pa~_sulo shin-bone (N.); pa_suka, pa_sul.a rib (Pali); pha_suka_, pha_sul.a_, pa_sul.i_, pa_sulika_ rib (Pali); uppha_sulika having the ribs showing (Pali); pha_sl.i_, pha_sol.i_ (G.)(CDIAL 7948). Ribs: pas'aur.a_ the ribs (WPah.)(CDIAL 8120). Side, embankment; wall: pa_rs'va region of the ribs, side (RV.); nearness (MBh.); passa side, mountain-slope (Pali); passa, pa_sa side (Pkt.); pas half, part (Gypsy); pac breast, flank (Dm.); pa_z id. (Kho.); pas' flank (Kal.); Rib: pras' rib (Kho.); side, flank, slope of a hill (Kho.); pa_ha-lara pl. the ribs (K.); pa_so side, direction (S.); pa_ssa_, pa_sa_ (L.); pa_ssa_ (P.); pa_ha side of embankment covered with grass, fringe of short hair round head (A.); pa_sa side (Or.Oaw.); pa_saum. side (OG.); pa_su~ rib, side (G.); pasa side, quarter, neighbourhood (Si.); pas', pas'al on one side (Gypsy); pa_se on one side (S.); by the side of (L.); near (Or.Mth.G.); paha aside (Si.); pa_ha side of embankment covered with grass (A.); pa_sse towards (L.); a_sse pa_sse on all sides (L.); pa_s, pa_h with, near (P.); pa_so~ from (P.); pa_s' near (Ku.); pa_s near (B.Mth.Bhoj.H.M.); paham., pahim. (OAw.); pa_si (OMarw.); pa_haim. (OG.); pa_sa_v from (OM.); pa_s'i~_ near (M.); pa_sa (Konkan.i); Neighbourhood: pa_s neighbourhood (Mth.); passa_do from (Pkt.); pa_rs'vatas sideways (S'Br.)(CDIAL 8118). par.osan., par.osi a neighbour (P.lex.) pakhwa_ra_ side, gable-end of house (H.); paks.apa_t.aka side-expanse (Skt.)(CDIAL 7632). pasar. side (Kol.); bank of river (Go.); pacar. id. (Pa.)(DEDR 3823). pa_rs'vala relating to the side (Pa_n..gan.a.); pa_salla side (Pkt.); pa_salli lying on one's side (Pkt.); pa_s'lo lying (Gypsy); pa_siri_ the ribs (S.); pa_sla_ belonging to a side, being near (P.)(CDIAL 8121). pras'i pon a level road (i.e. one that skirts the hill-side)(Kho.); pa_si_ side piece of a bed (Mth.)(CDIAL 8122). param side, party (Kampara_. Yutta. Mantirap. 90)(Ta.lex.)

7337.Image: split: har-e, par-e to tear, rend, break, slit; par-uku, har-aka, har-aku, ar-aku, par-aku a torn or tattered cloth; har-aku togalu rent leather (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) cf. par-a-par--en-al onom. expr. of sound made in tearing cloth (Ta.) (DEDR 4024). pa_r-u (pa_r-i-) to be torn in pieces (Ta.)(DEDR 4027). cf. ar-a rag (Te.); ar-uvai cloth, garment (Ta.)(DEDR 318).

7338.Image: dots: par-y- (par-c-) to beautify (bamboo pot with black dots, teeth by polishing)(To.)(DEDR 4028).

7339.Images: to copulate; to leap up: pa_r-u, ha_r-u to spring on, to copulate as a bull (Ka.); pa_r-u to leap up; to run (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7340.Image: drinking vessel: pa_ri a drinking vessel, a cup (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Image: oven: bhar an oven; bharan to spread or bring out from a kiln (P.lex.) cf. a_bharan.am ornaments (Skt.lex.) Opening in a bangle-maker's furnace: ba_r mouth of a vessel (P.); ba_ra_ opening in a bangle-maker's furnace (Bi.); ba_re~, da_re~ hole in a fence to carry a water-channel; ba_ri_ window, passage through hedge or fence (M.); dva_ra door (S'Br.)(CDIAL 6663).

7341.Goddess of Earth: pa_rppu-t-te_l. the goddess of Earth (pa_rpputte_l. payattot.u parantate_ : Takkaya_kap. 671); pa_r-makal. the goddess of Earth (Tiruva_ca. 9,1)(Ta.lex.) Earth: pa_r earth (Ci_vaka. 1931); earth, as an element (pa_rit.ai yainta_yp paranta_y : Tiruva_ca. 4,137); land, country (Kampara_. Pal.l.i. 108); hard ground (Pur-ana_. 14); rock, rocky stratum, shell of rock (Tirumuru. 45); pa_rakam earth (Kampara_. Mantarai. 76)(Ta.lex.) Expanse: cf. para-ttal to spread, extend; to be diffused, as water, air, odour, epidemic, clouds or light (Pur-ana_. 5); to be flattened, as by hammering; to be broad, as a plane surface (Tol. Er..ut. 92) (Ta.); paratcu id. (Te.); pare id. (Ka.); parakka id. (Ma.); paraduni id. (Tu.); pa_ram earth (Ta.); pa_ra_r people of the earth (Tiruva_ca. 8,2); pa_ri earth (Ta.Te.); pa_rit.am earth (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7342.To diffuse, spread out; to give lavishly: pirappu food of various kinds of rice placed before a deity in receptacles of the capacity of a kurun.i (Tirumuru. 234); parappu id.; parapparici offering of rice etc. to a deity; parappu-tal to spread out, as grain; to lay out, as goods; to diffuse, as odour (Tiruva_ca. 8,3) (Ta.); parapu id. (Te.Ka.); to establish (Pat.t.in-ap. 202)(Ta.); to give lavishly (Vina_yakapu. 2,7)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Paddy: pirapparici a kind of paddy; pirampuri a kind of paddy (Te_va_. 700,7)(Ta.lex.) Extent, area: cf. parappu expanse, extension, space, surface, area (Patir-r-up. 17,12)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); parapu (Te.); land measure of two kinds, viz., ner--parappu, nilai-p-parappu i.e. paddy (sowing) area; land area (Ta.lex.)

7343.Spread news: parappu publicity (Ma.); disseminate (Ta.); bra_d.a (bra_d.i-) to be sounded abroad, be spread (news)(Kui)(DEDR 3949). va_rtta tidings (Skt.); livelihood, business (Mn.); va_tu talk, chatter (S.); vatta_, vat.t.a_ talk, event, thing (Pkt.); va_t, ba_t news, matter (P.); ba_t talk, matter, thing (Ku.); id. (N.B.Or.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); ba_ta (OMarw.); va_t (G.); vat-a history, story, thing (Si.); vattad.i_, vattad.ia_ talk, event (Ap.); ba_tari news (A.); bo_ati word (Dm.); bo_ti word, speech (Pas'.); ba_ti (Shum.Nin:g.); bya_di_ (Wot..); ba_ti (Gaw.); ba_t (Bshk.Tor.); ba_tya (Sv.); ba_t (Phal.); ba_th, dat. ba_ti (K.); ba_ti (S.)(CDIAL 11564). parvad. lengthy and tedious account, wearisome detail (M.); paripa_t.ha full description in detail (MBh.)(CDIAL 7844).

7344.Image: door; entrance: va_ram doorway; verandah of a house; side; boundary, limit; bank, shore; share (Tol. Po. 662, Urai); half (Tol. Po. 464, Urai) (Ta. lex.) va_ri [prob. dva_ri loc. sg. of dva_r] entrance; door; path (Ta.lex.) dva_ra door (S'Br.Pali); dvara (NiDoc.); da_ra-, ba_ra- (Pkt.); bara outside; bar door (Gypsy); da_r door (K.WPah.N.M.); doru, pl. da_re postern-gate, window (K.); ba_ri_ small window (S.L.); window (P.); ba_r door (P.G.); court-yard in front of a house (G.); ba_ru~ door, gate, harbour (G.); ba_ri_ window (G.M.); passage through a hedge (M.); ba_ru door (OAw.); ba_ra door, house (OMarw.)(CDIAL 6663). dva_ra-ko_s.t.haka room over a gate, gate (BHSk.); dva_rakot.t.haka room over gate, gateway (Pali); bro~_t.h, bo~_t.h before, in front (of place and time)(K.); barot.h the middle hall (Aw.); barot.ha_ threshold, vestibule, sitting-room (H.); dorat.uva gateway (Si.)(CDIAL 6664). deroc.o gateway (Sh.); dva_rapaks.a door panel, gate (A's'vGr..)(CDIAL 6665). dva_ravartman gateway (Skt.); deroti component of a door; pl. door-frame (D..); da_rvat.a_, da_ra~vt.a_ ground under or near a door, threshold (M.)(CDIAL 6667). dars.i_s. upper door-lintel (Dm.); darkambat door-frame (Dm.); dva_rastambha doorpost (Skt.)(CDIAL 6670). va_raka obstacle (MBh.); va_ra door, gateway (Skt.); va_raya obstructing (Pkt.); ba_ro abstinence (esp. from food)(Ku.); wa_rek house (Pr.); ba_ran.au doorstep (OMarw.)(CDIAL 11550). Images: gateway: cf. va_ra door, gateway (MBh.); wa_rek house (Pr.); ba_ran.au doorstep (OMarw.)(CDIAL 11550). va_ri entrance; door; path; va_ram doorway (Ta.lex.)

7345.Image: irrigation runnel: pari_ small irrigation runnel in field (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8739). prari_yate_ streams forth (RV.); peren.ava_ to flow (Si.); pret. perun.a_ (Si.)(CDIAL 8740). Image: to run: pari, ari, hari (to move); to run; to flow; to proceed, to advance in a satisfactory manner, as work etc.; to go away, to disappear, as trouble; to be discharged as debt (Ka.); pari a course, a way, a manner, akind (Ka.Ta.Ma.); pari_ (M.)(Ka.lex.) par-i, par-u flying (jumping); running swiftly (floating, swimming across)(Ka.); par-a to fly; to run very swiftly (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

7346.Image: bird: par-ava, par-a bird (Ma.); par-a to fly, hover; par-avai bird, wing, feather, bee (Ta.); par-i, par-u flying, running swiftly (Ka.); pa.r- (pa.ri-) to fly, leap (Kod..); pa_runi to run, fly (Tu.); par-ika a kind of bird (Te.); pari- to fly (of birds)(Go.); pa_sk- to fly (Kui)(DEDR 4020). Image: wing: ma_rel wing (Go.); ma_re feather (Go.); ma_rek wings (Go.); ma_ra wing (Pe.Kuwi); wing, limb, arm (Kui); wings (Kuwi)(DEDR 4820). Image: dove: pa_ra_vata turtle-dove, pigeon (VS.); pa_ra_pata (Skt.); para_vat euphem. name of nirr.ti whose messenger the dove was (RV. 10,161,1); pa_ra_pata, pa_re_vata dove, pigeon (Pali); pa_ra_vaya, pa_ra_ya, pa_re_vaya pigeon (Pkt.); pa_ra_, pa_ria_, pa_rua_ (Or.); parewa_ (N.); pa_ra (A.); payra_ (B.); parawa_ pigeon, dove (Mth.); para_va_, pareva_ pigeon (OAw.); parewa_ (H.); pa_revo (G.); pa_rva_ (M.); pa_rvo (Konkan.i); paraviya_, peraviya_, parevi dove (Si.)(CDIAL 8109). paruntu-va_l dove-tailing (Ta.lex.) par.heri_ pigeon-catcher (S.)(CDIAL 8110).

7347.Image: stream: va_ri channel for draining off the rain water from a roof; waterway; sluice (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. dva_ri loc. sg. of dva_r (Skt.) pa_l raised bank, dam, causeway (H.)(CDIAL 8041). cf. var.a_na_, war.a_na_, var.-, vara_na_ to leak, drip (Go.); var..i (-v-, -nt-) to overflow, flow; (-pp-, -tt-) to shed, let flow (Ta.); var..iccal overflowing (Ma.); bal.i to flow out completely (as oil from an inverted pot (Ka.); var.- (-t-) to drip down (as through filter)(DEDR 5296). parikha_ ditch (Mn.); ditch, moat (Pali); pariha_ (Pkt.); piri (Si.)(CDIAL 7803). pariva_, pari_va_ha overflow of a tank, channel to draw off excess water (MBh.); pariva_hin overflowing (VS.); pariva_ha overflow (Pkt.); paroha_ large leather bucket for drawing water in (H.); parva_ water-channel; parhya_ streamlet, brook (M.); pareh, parha_ land flooded before ploughing (H.)(CDIAL 7878). cf. pa~er.e overflow (Santali.lex.) To irrigate: parivahati carries round (RV.); flows round (TS.); parivahati carries (children) about (Pali); parivahai conducts (Pkt.); parohna_ to draw off water in a leather bucket, to irrigate (H.)(CDIAL 7873). pa_ye_ti irrigates (Pali); payita watered (of land)(NiDoc.)(CDIAL 8098). Sea: pa_ra_va_ram < pa_ra_va_ra sea, ocean (Man.i. 3,28); sea-shore (Pin..); pa_ri (prob. va_ris'a) sea, ocean (Cu_t.a_.); pari-y-ar..al the mare-shaped fire believed to lie hidden in the ocean (Kantapu. Kat.avul.. 10); paru sea (Ta.lex.) Rain; year: pa_rupan.i drizzling rain (Tu.); pa_r-um-ban.i flying drop, drizzling rain (Ka.)(DEDR 4020). paryus.an.a spending the rainy season; paryus.an.a_ (Buddh.); pajjusan.a_ (Pkt.); paju_san.a a Jain annual festival (OG.)(CDIAL 7944). varut.ittal > vr.s. to rain (Tiruvil.ai. Me_ruvai. 6); varut.am year (Pin..); rain (Takkaya_kap. 68, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) Water; ocean: va_r water (Cu_t.a_.); cloud (Aka. Ni.); va_r-tal to flow, trickle (Ci_vaka. 1697); va_rakam ocean (Aka. Ni.); va_rat.ittal to spread out and flow, as water; va_ran.am sea (Tan-ippa_. ii,167,414); va_ran.a_ci Benares situated between the rivers Varan.a_ and Asi_ (Man.i. 13,3); va_ran.am id. (Cilap. 15,178; va_ran.a_vatam an ancient town on the Ganges, near Hastina_pura (Pa_rata. Va_ran.a_. 109); va_ram sea; va_ra_karam sea (Tiruppu. 1035); va_ri water (Takkaya_kap. 67, Urai.); flood (Kampara_. A_r-r-up. 7); sea; reservoir of water; va_ri-ca_laiyan- Varun.a (Takkaya_kap. 67); va_ritam cloud as giving water; va_riti ocean (Takkaya_kap. 269); va_rina_tam ocean; cloud; va_rina_tan- Varun.a; va_rippirava_kam flood; waterfall; va_riyo_t.t.u stream, canal (Me_ruman. 652); va_ri-ra_ci ocean; va_run.am that which relates to Varun.a; west; sea; va_run.i, va_ru_n.i sage Agastya; va_ruvakai water (Can.. Aka.); varun.am water (Pin..); varun.an- Varun.a, god of the ocean and of the maritime tracts, also of rain, regent of the West (Tol. Po. 4)(Ta.lex.) cf. barakelu inundation (Tu.); var-ada flood, torrent, inundation, deluge; var-r-u flow, flood; var-uta in the flood, river (Te.); vered flood (Pa.); ur-da id. (Kond.a); varda pi_yu torrential rain; va_ru flood (Kuwi)(DEDR 5323). Rain: va_rs.a belonging to the rains (VS.); annual (Skt.); va_sa year (As'.); rain (Pkt.); bas. (Kho.)(CDIAL 11569). vars.a rain (RV.); pl. the rains (AV.); year (S'Br.); vassa rain; pl. the rains (Pali); va_sa, varisa (Pkt.); was. (Wg.Kt.); bas. (Dm.); wa_s., wa_x (Pas'.); bas. (Nin:g.); wa_s. (Shum.); bas' (Wot..); bas. (Kat..); was.in. (Gmb.); wa_s. (Gaw.); ba_s.ik (Kal.); bad-vas. rain of stones, i.e. hail (Kal.); ba_s. (Phal.); bas. (Sv.); wos'u light shower of rain (K.); bari the rains (WPah.); bas-ka_l a rainy season (Ku.); barisa_ (B.); vas rain, the rains (Si.); vahare_ (Si.); va_re_ rain (Md.); vasa year (As'.); vars.a (NiDoc.); varisa (Pkt.); bers', wars, vers, beris (Gypsy); be_ris., beris. summer (Phal.); ba_ri_s., pl. ba_rizi year (Sh.); warih, wahar, warhie_n obl. pl., bari_e_ (K.); varhyu (S.); varha_, varhe~, vara_ (L.); bari, barh, barha_ (WPah.); varah, variha_, varha_, barha_, varas, baras (P.); barsa (N.); barih (A.); baris (B.); barasa (Or.); baris (Bhoj.); barisa (OAw.); baras, barsa_ (H.); barasa (OMarw.); va_se loc. sg. (OG.); varas (G.); vas-a, va_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11392). vars.aka_la, vars.a_ka_la the rainy season (R.); vassaka_la the rainy season (Pali); varisaka_la, varisa_la (Pkt.); varasa_la (OG.)(CDIAL 11393). vars.ati it rains (RV.); vassati it rains (Pali); vassadi, va_sai, varisai (Pkt.); bris'ind, bris'indo rain; warsar it rains; warsinda rain, cloud, winter (Gypsy); barsanda (Pers.); bos.ik to rain (Kho.); was'un (K.); vasan.u (S.); vassan., pp. ut.t.ha_ < vr.s.t.a (L.); vassn.a_, vasn.a_, varhn.a_, barhna_ (P.); barsan.o (Ku.); barsanu (N.); barahiba (A.); barsa_na to rain down (B.); barasiba_ to rain (Or.); barisab (Mth.); barasai (OAw.); barasna_ (H.); barsna_ (P.); varasvu~ (G.); varasn.e~ (M.); vasinava_, vahinava_ (Si.); veheni it is raining (Md.)(CDIAL 11394). vars.artu rainy season (Skt.); baxate_ spring season (Tir.)(CDIAL 11395). vars.a_ pl. rain (S'a_n:khGr..); the rains (AV.); va_rs.i_ (Skt.); varisa_, va_sa_ rain (Pkt.); vasa (S.); ba_si-bido end of the rains (N.); vassa, vasi-, vahi- rain (Si.)(CDIAL 11396). vars.ara_tri the rainy season (R.); vars.ara_tra (R.); vassa_ratta the rainy season (Pali); va_sa_ratti, varisa_ratta (Pkt.); wahara_th, waharocu (K.); barsa_t (N.B.H.); barsa_d (G.)(CDIAL 11398). bariha_n.i New-year's day (WPah.)(CDIAL 11397). basoa_ New-year's day (P.)(CDIAL 11401). vasso_daka rain-water (Pali); vaso_ya_ rain (L.)(CDIAL 11400). vars.ya belonging to the rains (RV.VS.); bas'a_ summer (Tor.); baris' (Bshk.); be_ris' (Phal.)(CDIAL 11402). va_rs.ika belonging to the rainy season (AV.); lasting a year (Ya_j.); annual (Gaut.); in cmpds. 'so many years old' (Gaut.); vassika of the rainy season (Pali); in cmpds. years old (Pali); va_risiya of the rainy season (Pkt.) barsi_ New-year's day (P.); in cmpds. -va_risi_ya ... years old (OG.)(CDIAL 11571). vr.s.t.i rain (RV.); vut.t.hi rain (Pali); vit.t.hi, vut.t.hi (Pkt.); va_t.iya (Si.)(CDIAL 12088). vr.s.t.a rained (AV.); vut.t.ha rained; nava-vat.t.ha (Pali); vit.t.ha, vut.t.ha (Pkt.); ut.han.u to rain; vut.o or vat.ho pp. with vu-, va- from pres. st. vasan.u (S.); ut.t.ha_, vut.t.ha_ pp. of vassan., vut.t.ha_ rain (L.); vut.t.ha_, but.t.ha_ pp. of barsna_ to rain (P.); vut.t.han. to rain (L.); vu_t.hvu~ to rain (G.); vat.a-ya rain (Si.); vr.s. rain (Skt.)(CDIAL 12087). Image: to flow; filter: va_r (-v-,-nt-) to flow, trickle, overflow; (-pp-, -tt-) to pour, cast (as metal in a mould); va_rppu pouring, casting, that which is cast (Ta.); va_ruka to run, flow down, be strained off (water)(Ma.); va_rkka to pour, cast; va_rcca issue (Ma.); po.ry ditch (To.); ba_r to set free a liquid, pour out, purge (Ka.); va_ru to flow down as water from boiled rice, be drained off; va_r(u)cu to pour or drain off, as water from boiled rice (Te.); va_r jav water of boiled rice (Nk.); va_r ja_va water in which rice has been boiled (Pa.); va_rp- (va_rt-) to strain (Pa.); va_rk- (va_rt-) to strain water from food, etc.; va_r- to be filtered (like boiled rice)(Ga.); va_rp- (va_rup-) to filter (like boiled rice, etc.)(Ga.); va_r- to pour (Go.Pe.); va_t. to pour (Go.) (DEDR 5356). parikha_ ditch (Mn.); id., moat (Pali); pariha_ (Pkt.); piri (Si.) (CDIAL 7803). Efflux: parisrava flow, stream (MBh.); parisra_va efflux (Sus'r.); parisrave, parisave, palisave stream (As'.); parissava stream of events (Pkt.); parasa_ urine (Or.); parasra_va (Skt.); parissuta overflowing (Pali)(CDIAL 7897). Flux; image: water channel: va_r (-v-, -nt-) to flow, trickle, overflow (Ta.); va_ruka to run, flow down, be strained off (water); va_rcca issue, flux (Ma.); va.ry ditch around fields, acting as moat outside embankment and fence (Ko.); po.ry ditch (To.); barcelu channel to empty surplus water, as from a field (Tu.); va_ru to flow down as water from boiled rice, be drained off (Te.); va_r jav water of boiled rice (Nk.); va_rp (va_rt-) to strain (Pa.); to strain water from food (Ga.); va_r to pour; va_t.- id. (Go.); var irrigation channel (Go.); va_ra canal for irrigation (Kond.a); va_r- (-t-) to pour (Pe.); va_ru (pl. va_rka) water-channel, stream, torrent (Kui); va_ru flood (Kui); va_ri channel for draining off rain-water from roof, waterway, sluice (Ta.); va_rppu fusion, casting metals, issue (Ma.) (DEDR 5356). cf. vanta rivulet; vranti river, pit (Te.); vanta_ river; vanta nullah (Kol.); vanta river, stream (Nk.)(DEDR 5250). Rivulet: vanta rivulet; vranti river, pit (Te.); vanta_ river; vanta nullah (Kol.); vanta river, stream (Nk.)(DEDR 5250). cf. var irrigation channel (Go.)(DEDR 5356). da_re~, ba_re~ hole in a fence to carry a water-channel (M.)(CDIAL 6663). va_ran.am sea (Ta.lex.) Water; sea: va_riyo_t.t.u stream, canal (Me_ruman.652)(Ta.lex.) va_ri water, rain (Mn.); water (Pali.Pkt.); warg, warek water (Pas'.); ba_ri small lake; ba_ru puddle (Sh.); varalla, varali light rain (Si.)(CDIAL 11556). va_riva_ha carrying water (VarBr..S.); cloud (Pali.Pkt.); barwa_h man who distributes water in a field (Bi.) (CDIAL 11558). va_ri water; flood; reservoir of water; sea (Ta.lex.) va_rdala rainy day, bad weather (BHSk.); vardala, vardalika_ (BHSk.); vaddalika_ rainy weather (Pali); vaddala cloud (Pkt.); vaddaliya_ bad weather (Pkt.); bradul-ma_s the month of dew (Wg.); ba~_dalu cloud (S.); baddal (P.); badlu rain (WPah.); ba_dal cloud, rainy day (Ku.); cloud (N.A.B.H.); ba_dla_ rain (B.); ba_dal.a cloud (Or.); ba_dar cloud (Bi.Mth.H.); ba_daru (Aw.); badli_, badra_ cloudiness (H.); va_dal., va_dl.u~ cloud (G.); va_dal. cloud, bad weather (M.)(CDIAL 11567). varun.an- Varun.a, god of the ocean and of the maritime tracts, also of rain, regent of the West; va_run.am that which relates to Varun.a; sea; va_rica_laiyan- Varun.a (Ta.lex.) Flood: ba_r.h increase, growth, flow (Ku.); ba_rh, ba_r.hi_ flood (Bi.); bar.hi flood (Or.)(CDIAL 12076). var-ada flood, torrent, inundation, deluge (Te.); var-r-u flow, flood; var-uta in the flood/river (loc. of obl. stem var-ut-)(Te.); barakelu inundation (Tu.); vered flood (Pa.); ur-da id. (Kond.a); varda pi_yu torrential rain (Kuwi); va_ru flood (Kuwi)(DEDR 5323). vel.l.am flood, deluge, sea, sea-wave, water (Ta.); water (Ma.); bel.l.a flood (Ka.); bol.l.a id., inundation (Tu.); velli, vellika flow, flood, stream; velluva flood, inundation (Te.); be_l large hill-torrent (Br.)(DEDR 5503). Flood: pu_ra flood (Pkt.Sus'r.); pu_r flood (G.); pu_r flow, stream (B.)(CDIAL 8330). cf. par-ata, par-ati, par-ada, par-ava flood (Te.); park jia_na_ to overflow banks (of a river)(Go.)(DEDR 4020). perukkam flood, deluge (Na_lat.i, 354); perukka_r-u river in floods (Kumare_. Cata. 67); perukku flood, inundation (Nalvar..i. 9); ebb of the tide; peruku-tal to rise, swell; to overflow, as water (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,75)(Ta.lex.) ber beret. big river (Ga.); per-ed river (Pa.); bered., berel, berer river (Go.); beriar., berer. flood, river in flood (Go.); beri beri inba to swell, increase in size; pihereju river, stream (Kui); perukka augmentation, overflow of a river (Ma.)(DEDR 4411).

7348.Image: elephant: va_ran.a wild, (with mr.ga-) elephant (RV.); elephant (MBh. Pkt.); va_ru war-elephant, war-horse (Skt.); va_ru_ya_ elephant (Pkt.); va_ri_t.a elephant (Pkt.); varun., varan.a-ya_ tusked elephant (Si.)(CDIAL 11552). va_ran.am elephant (Man.i. 7,115); protection (Ta.lex.) va_ri elephant-stable; kheddha (Ta.lex.) ve_r..am elephant (Akana_. 309)(Ta.); id. (Ma.)(DEDR 5542). Indra's elephant; sublimate of mercury: vel.l.a_n-ai Indra's elephant; white elephant; sublimate of mercury (Ta.); bel.l.a_ne Indra's elephant (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ve_r..am elephant (Ta.lex.) va_ran.an- < va_ran.a Gan.e_s'a (Te_va_. 785,10)(Ta.lex.) va_ran.a-nagara Hastina_pura; va_ran.a-hasta the trunk of an elephant; va_ran.a_sya Gan.apati (Ka.lex.)

7349.Jeweller's iron ingot mould: parghani_ jeweller's iron ingot mould (Bi.); pargahani_ id. (Bi.)(CDIAL 8555).

7350.Insignia of royalty: varicai insignia of royalty (Kampara_. Nintan-ai. 12) honour (Tiruvil.ai. Intiran-mut.i. 37; distinctive mark of honour or privilege granted by a royal or other authority (Tiruva_lava_. 28,93); turn in duty or work; excellence, eminence (Pur-ana_. 53); merit, worth (Cir-upa_n.. 217); regard (Kalit. 85); varit.t.am < varis.t.ha that which is pre-eminent (Takkaya_kap. 74, Urai.); varit.t.an- distinguished, pre-eminent man; person belonging to pirama-varit.t.ar class of ci_van--muttar (Kaival. Tat. 94)(Ta.lex.) vara choice, boon (RV.); adj. choicest (S'rS.); varam better than (RV.); vara- best; wish, boon (Pali); boon (Pkt.); ber better, more (Sh.); war boon (K.); varu (S.); var, bar (P.); bar (Ku.N.A.B.); bara (Or.); bar excellent (Mth.); bara gift; adj. best (OAw.); bar boon (H.); var (G.M.); vara (Si.); baru adv. rather (N.Mth.OAw.) (CDIAL 11308). pravara best (Mn.); pavara excellent (Pali.Pkt.); pavara (OG.Si.)(CDIAL 8786). varam boon, gift, blessing by a deity or a great person (Tirumuru. 94); a treasure; excellence, eminence (Ta.); varavu worship (Paripa_. 20,73); varar sages, great persons (Tiruva_lava_. 29,9); varan- superior, great person (Takkaya_kap. 40)(Ta.lex.)

7351.Image: goblin: pa_rit.am < pa_ris.ada goblin, demon (Kalla_. 34,7)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pa_ris.ada the retinue or attendants of a god (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7352.Transmutation: parican-a-ve_ti [parican-am + vedhin] a transmuting agent by which the baser metals are changed into gold (Tiruman. 2054); parican-am < spars'ana touch, sense of touch Tiurva_lava_. 23,20)(Ta.lex.) pa_ras the philosopher's stone, a touhstone for gems (P.lex.)

7353.Image: perforations in a tumbler-like arrangement: parase perforations in a small tumbler-like arrangement in a contrivance for making vermicelli (Tu.lex.)

7354.Image: thigh: u_ru < u_ru thigh (Kantapu. Ayira_n.ico_. 7)(Ta.lex.)

7355.Merchant: u_ru-can- < u_ru-ja vais'ya, reputed to have been born from Brahma's thigh (Nikan.t.u)(Ta.lex.)

7356.Language: parsi language; acak parsiteye ror.eda he is speaking his own language; diku parsi the language of the Hindus; an:greji parsi the English language; jonom parsi mother tongue; parsar. open, clear, to speak clearly (Santali.lex.) bha_s, bha_se language (Kon.lex.) ba_se language, promise (Tu.lex.) ba_s, ba_se scolding; ba_sa_i promise (Kon.lex.) cf. vacavu scolding (Ta.lex.) ba_siga, ba_ciga, ba_sega a speaker, a talker, a jester (Ka.lex.) ?pa_rsi_ a Persian; the Persian language; a followers of Zoroaster; of or pertaining to Persia (P.lex.) Promise: ba_se, bha_se (Tadbhava of bha_s.e) speech; language; a promise; an oath; ba_se kod.u to promise; ba_se ged.uka a man who breaks his promise; a perjurer; ba_se ma_d.u to assure solemnly, to swear; ba_seven. Sarasvati_; ba_se vanta a man who sticks to his promise; faithful; ba_seven.n.eneya Brahma_ (Ka.lex.) bha_s. speech (Skt.); bha_s.ate_ speaks, says (TBr.); bha_s.ati (MBh.); bha_sati speaks, calls (Pali); bha_site nom. sg. n. said (As'.); bhas.adi speaks (Dhp.); bha_sai (Pkt.); bha_sn.o~ to promise (WPah.)(CDIAL 9478). bha_s.a_ speech (Mn.); bha_sa_ speech, language (Pali); ba_s. word (Wg.); bs.a language (Dm.); bas. (Sh.); ba_s. (D..); bha_s' (Ku.); bha_s (N.B.Mth.); bha_sa song (OG.); bha_s language (Konkan.i); baha word, saying (Si.); bas, baha (Md.); dubha_siya_ interpreter (H.)(CDIAL 9479). sam.bha_s.a conversation (Gr.hyas.); sam.bha_s.a_ (MBh.); sambha_sa_ talk (Pali); sam.bha_sa, sam.bha_sa_ (Pkt.); habaya, pl. haba lawsuit, dispute, complaint (Si.)(CDIAL 12968).

7357.Goddess of speech: bha_rati_ goddess of speech, the goddess invoked with Ila_ and Sarasvati_ (RV. i.188.8)(Vedic.lex.) we_ri_ speech, language, word (Ash.); weri (Kt.); weri_ (Pr.)(CDIAL 11327). urai speaking, utterance (Tiv. Iyar-. 1,25)(Ta.); ore (Ka.); ura (Ma.); urai word, expression (Tiva_.); explanation (Na_lat.i, 319); sacred writings, holy writ (Ci. Ci. Al.avai. 1); mantra recited aloud (Caivaca. Potu. 151); urai-k-kir..atti Sarasvati_ the deity over speech, the goddess of learning (Tirukka_l.at. Pu. Pati. 3); urai-ttal to tell, say, speak (Tiva_.); uraiyal narrating, relating (Kalit. 92,57); urai-y-al.avai proof from the s'a_stras ( Ci. Ci. Al.avai, 2, Civaja_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. ura (-pp-, -tt-) to become loud (as the voice)(Ta.)(DEDR 648). par-ai (-v-, -nt-; -pp-, -tt-) to speak, say; n. word, saying, statement; par-aiccal talk, speech; par-aivu speaking, talking, chattering, proclaiming (Ta.); par-ayuka to say, speak, tell; par-accal speech (Ma.); parg ar-y- to know how to talk (To.); par-e abuse, censure; parcu, paccu to whisper; parisu to speak, chat; harat.u to talk idly, prate; harat.e idle talk, prate, jabber; paracu to mutter (Ka.); pare- (parev-, parand-) to utter (Kod..); parecuni to prate, prattle, find fault with; paracena, paracelu prattling, grumbling, murmuring; paracele prattler, babbler, grumbler; paran.t.ele prattler, grumbler; paran.d.a murmuring, grumbling; harat.uni to prate, blabber; (h)arat. blabbing, prate, jabber (Tu.); park- to say, speak; park- (parik-) to speak, talk (Ga.); bargi order, command (Kui)(DEDR 4031).

7358.Plain, unstamped: ba_si plain, unstamped; ba_si ka_gaji plain paper, in contrast to stamped paper (Tu.lex.)

7359.Image: a decorative crown: ba_sigo, ba_sin:go a decorative crown worn by a bridegroom (Tu.lex.) cf. ba_siga an ornament of gold, coloured wood or pith, paper, or flowers worn on the forehead of the bride and bridegroom (Ka.); ba_s'in:ga id. worn on the head (M.); va_cikai a garland or chaplet of flowers worn on the top of the head (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

7360.Goods and chattels: parika_ra attendants, retinue; pariva_ra; paricchada surroundings: domestic utensils or implements, goods and chattels; retinue, attendants; parivarha that which surrounds: retinue, attendants; goods, furniture, implements; royal insignia; attire, trim; wealth, property (Ka.lex.)

7361.Image: retinue: barha a retinue, a train (Ka.lex.) varukam train of attendants (Ta.lex.) cf. varaka bridegroom (Skt.)(CDIAL 11309). cf. baraneta marriage ceremony in which bride's party invite groom's party to their house (OH.)(CDIAL 11316).

7362.People assembled at the festival of an idol; surrounding; assembly: parase, paris'e, paris.e, parise (Tadbhava of paris.ad) people assembled at the festival of an idol (Ka.); parase, paruse (Te.); paris'e (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) parsa_un. to cause one to worship at an idol's temple or other sacred place; parsan:g association, mention, discourse; parsa_d, parsha_d food or sweetmeats offered to the devta_s, victuals; parsn. to touch a sacred object in one's devotions, to sprinkle the water of purification, to make an offering, or otherwise to perform one's devotions (P.lex.) cf. spars'ana, pro_ks.an.a to touch, to sprinkle (Skt.lex.) arosi, par.osi, ar.asi par.asi neighbours, neighbouring (Santali.lex.) par.esan., par.esi_ a neighbour; par.es neighbourhood, vicinity (P.lex.) paris a sept, the name by which the septs into which the santals are divided are known. The santals are divided into eleven septs, but originally, it is said, there were twelve one of which has been lost. pariba, parijan acquaintance, relatives (Santali.lex.) cf. urusu offerings at the shrine of a muhammadan saint (Ka.); uru_sa (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) parase, paris'e people going on a pilgrimage; pariva_ro followes, retinue (Tu.lex.) parican-am < pari-jana train, retinue (Periyapu. Ce_rama_n-. 84); dependants, servants (Kantapu. Tirukkal. 80); relationship, affinity (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) pa_ris.ada belonging to an assembly or council; a king's companion or attendant (Ka.); paris.ad, parase, paris'e, paris.attu, paris.e, parise sitting round; an assembly (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) paris.ad surrounding (RV.); assembly (S'Br.); parisa_ assembly (Pali.Pkt.); paris.a, parisa_, palisa_ (As'.); parhe~, pareha~_ meeting, panchayet (L.); parhe, pariha_, parha_ assembly, council (P.); pirisa retinue, followers (Si.)(CDIAL 7893). pa_rs.adya member of an assembly (Skt.); pa_ris.adya (Skt.); pa_risajja (Pali.Pkt.); pahejja (OSi.)(CDIAL 8123). parha, parhe a council, an assembly, a pancha_yat; pariha a council, an assembly of the council called panch or pancha_it (P.lex.) barakha_stu risen, broken up, as an assembly (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) parakka_stu < barkha_st (U.) closing or rising of a court, an office or a business (R.F.)(Ta.lex.) Retinue: pari-kut.ah. a servant (Vedic. Skt.lex.); pari-kalatta_r retinue (Ta. Insc. Pudu. St. 867); parikaram retinue (Ci_vaka. 2099, Urai.); parikalam < pari-kara army (Cu_t.a_.); army of demons believed to march through a country and inflict epidemics (J.)(Ta.lex.) Entourage; company: pari-ya_l.am < pariya_la (Pkt.) < pari-va_ra train, retinue, attendants (Ci_vaka. 949); pariva_ran- servant, follower (Na_mati_pa. 138); pariva_ra_layam temples of the subordinate deities (S.I.I. ii,86)(Ta.lex.) pariba, parijan acquaintance, relatives; noakorege parijan banukkotin.a I have no acquaintance about here; paris a sept, the name by which the twelve septs into which the Santals ar divided are known (Santali.lex.) pariva_ra cover, surroundings (MBh.); hedge (Skt.); followers (MBh.); surroundings (Pali); parivara enclosure (NiDoc.); pariva_ra, pariva_la, paria_la attendants (Pkt.); parva_r family (including progenitors, descendants, dependants)(P.); pareli hon. term for a married woman (N.); pariya_l family, family members (A.); parva_r family, dependants (G.); pirivara attendants (Si.)(CDIAL 7876). pariva_rayati surrounds (AV.); pariva_re_ti surrounds (Pali); pariva_rayam.ta (Pkt.); pirivaranava_ to surround (as followers) (Si.) (CDIAL 7877). parbasti household affairs; parbha relations; cele ho~ banukkotaea per.a parbha he has no relatives; par.chau a ceremony observed when a bridegroom takes his bride home; par.chau ader ceremonies connected with the introduction of a bride to her new home; bahuko par.chau aderkoa they observe certain ceremonies on the entry of a bride to her new home (Santali.lex.) Messenger: parika_r-a, harika_r-a a courier (Ka.); haraka_ra id. (M.Pers.)(Ka.lex.) va_riyan- Pal.l.a messenger who summons the people of his caste to attend caste meetings, festivals, funerals, etc. (Ta.lex.)

7363.Image: crack: peruku (peruki-) to snap as a marriage thread (Ta.); perugu id. (Te.)(DEDR 4414). biravu, biruvu a fissure, a crack; biri to burst; to crack; bursting, opening; a fissure, a crack; birumugul. an opening or opened flower-bud; biriku, biraku, biruku, birku a cleft, a fissure, a crack (Ka.lex.) biriji slender pieces of fire-wood; biri to split, crack, burst; beran:ka cleft, chink (Tulu.lex.) Image: fissure, hole: vivaram < vivara fissure, hole, cavity, hollow, vacuity (Cu_t.a_.); intervening space (Takkaya_kap. 147); virical split, crack, rent; viri-tal to split, crack (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: split, crack: cf. virugu, vir-ugu to break; n. breaking (Te.); virical split, crack, rent (Ta.)(DEDR 5411). cf. pirical division, partition (Ta.); hiri to separate into pieces (Ka.)(DEDR 4176). Image: to be misplaced, be dislodged: pir-ar.. (-v-, -nt-) to be irregular, misplaced, out of order, be dislodged, dislocated; pir-ar..cci disarrangement, disorder (Ta.); pern.- (perd.-) (joint) is dislocated; pert. (pert.y-) to dislocate (joint) by force (Ko.)(DEDR 4201). pot.oc, phent.oc, pasar. to be dislocated; begar, pharak separate; bijir separated into small bits (Santali.lex.) cf. perng- to fall in ruins (Pa.); prenga (prengi-) to be cracked, cloven; prepka (< prek-p; prekt-) to crack, cleave; pre_ju (pl. pre_ska-) cleavage, crevice, crack; bre- (boil) bursts (Kui); bre- (-t-) id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4414). pe_rttal to break (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,10); pe_r-tal to go out of order (Ci. Po_. 2,2); to become loose; to be detached; to separate (Te_va_. 872,5); to lessen, diminish (Tol. Po. 102); peyar-tal to grow loose; to be detached (Ta.); to be displaced, sislodged, dislocated; to be separated; to stand aside (Tol. Po. 169); peyar-ttal to remove, diplace, dislodge, dislocate, unseat (Kur-al., 344); to separate (Kalit. 47)(Ta.lex.) Other; class: ve_r-u other, that which is different, that which is separated, class, kind, enmity, that which is opposite (Ta.); separation (Ma.); separateness (Te.); ve_r-u-pat.u, ve_r--a_ to become different, separate, etc.; ve_r-u-pa_t.u difference, disagreement; ve_r-r-avan-, ve_r-r-a_n-, ve_r-r-uvan-, ve_r-r-o_n- stranger, enemy; ve_r-r--a_l. stranger; pariah; ve_r-r-umai difference, antipathy, dissimiloarity, disagreement, characteristic mark distinguishing an individual or species, case (grammatical); vevve_r--a_ka separately, distinctly (Ta.); ve_r-u separation, difference, different; ve_r--a_ka to be separated; ve_r--a_kkuka to separate; ve_r-u-pa_t.u separation, absence; ve_r-e_ separately, distinctly, something else; vevve_r-e_ separately, severally (Ma.); ve.r state of being other, another's, different, separate, outcasted (Ko.); be_r-(u) separation, state of being separate, apart or different; be_r-e separation, etc.; separate, apart, different, other, else; separately, etc. (Ka.); bo.re different (Kod..); be_te separate, different, distinct, other (Tu.); ve_r-u different, other, separate; difference, separateness, separation; ve_r-upad.u to become different, differ, separate; ve_r-upa_t.u difference, separation, etc.; ve_r-ad.amu, ve_r-imi difference; vevve_r-u separate, distinct, several (Te.); ve_ta separate (Pa.); ve_reton another; ve_re separately (Go.); ve_Re ve_Re differently, separately (Kond.a); breenju stranger, unknown man (Kui); birring to separate out, pick out, select, distinguish (Br.)(DEDR 5548). Separation: varaha separation (OG.); viraha desertion, separation (esp. of lovers)(MBh.); empty, bare (Pali); separation (Pkt.); virahu separation of friends or lovers (S.); birah, birha_ (P.); biraha sorrow of separation (OAw.)(CDIAL 11851). virahita separated, abandoned (MBh.); free from (Pali); virahia abandoned (Pkt.); virahi absent (Si.) (CDIAL 11853). vira_he_i, vira_hai breaks (Pkt.); biraun.o to omit (Ku.); bira_unu to make a mistake, spoil (N.); bira_na_ to vex, tease (H.)(CDIAL 11859). viraha division (S.)(CDIAL 11888). cf. vilha_van. to divide, allot (L.)(CDIAL 11899). Image: separation: be_r-e, be_r- separation; the state of being separate, apart, or different; separate, apart, different (Ka.); vi_r-u, ve_r-u, ve_r-r-u (Ta.); ve_r, ve_r-u (Ma.); ve_r-u (Te.); bed.i to separate or fly of, as a splinter etc.; vi_d.u to be separated, loosened (Te.); vi_r-u to be split, cleft (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) varat.aya_ foreigner (Si.)(CDIAL 437). apara posterior (RV.); different, other (S'Br.); aparam again, moreover (RV.AV.); apara other, next (Pali); avara latter, other (Pkt.); aver, vave_r(with v- from definite article ov) other (Gypsy); wari other (Kt.); urun.a_ other, different (Wg.); warga other (Pr.); ware_ (Dm.); ware_g (Kal.); ho_r other, different (Kho.); were other (Shum.); ora except, apart from (Sh.); wo_ra step-, e.g. wo_ra-bee step-sister (K.)[cf. o_rakatti husband's brother's wife; o_rppat.iya_l., o_rppat.i wife of the husband's brother (Ta.lex.)]; ho_ro_ other (K.); ho_r other, more (L.P.); ho_r, horo (WPah.); arko another (Ku.); ho_r other, more (Ku.); aru other; arko another (N.); a_ru more (A.); a_r, a_ru (B.); a_ra other (Or.); a_raka another one (Or.); a_war, awar (Bhoj.); auru (OAw.); aur (H.); aura (OMarw.); avara hinder, western (Si.); wari_ other (Pas'.); wa_ri (Gaw.); vari_ again, back (S.); aparam. further, besides (Pali); o_, u_ and (Gypsy); o (D..); ara, ra (Ash.); o_r, o (Kho.); a~u~, a~i~ (S.); ar (P.); aur (WPah.); ar (Ku.); aru, ra (N.); a_ru, u (A.); a_r (B.) a_ur(i), a_u, a_huri (Or.); atha_param (Skt.Pali); ora, o, o~, ara, aru, a_ra (OMth.); aru, au, a (OAw.); aur, au, aru (H.); aru, ara, yara (OMarw.); or also (G.)(CDIAL 434). apara_nta dwelling on the western border (R.) the country to the west and its people (MBh.); aparanta further away, westward (Pali); aparata nom. pl. western borders; apara_ta_, apalam.ta (As'.); ora~_t village boundary (H.)(CDIAL 441). apara_para another after another, various (MBh.); apara_pariya successive, continuous (Pali); avaraviri (Si.)(CDIAL 443).

7364.Image: to break off: pari-tal to break off (Pur-ana_. 229); to be sundered (Ci_vaka. 1349); to cut asunder (Ain:kur-u. 95); parittal id. (Ta.lex.) Image: particle placed after nouns; to be torn into pieces: phera_ particle placed after nouns to denote a small quantity (A.)(CDIAL 9078). pa_r-u-tal to be torn into pieces (Pur-ana_. 150); to be scattered (Akana_. 9)(Ta.lex.)

7365.Image: split; plough: par.ak to split, to crack; kat. par.agme split the log; bhit par.akena the wall is cracked; bar par.agme split it into two; par.ak the first ploughing of a field for the season; ded the second ploughing; ut.hau ruar. the third and last ploughing after which the seed is sown; bar.gele par.ak akata we have ploughed the garden the first time this season (Santali.lex.)

7366.Image: fish: barve a kind of fish (Tu.); varava-ce~_pa id. (Te.)(DEDR 5275). Image: fish: pa_ra-k-kan.t.ai (perh. pa_rai + ken.t.ai) a kind of fish (Par-a_l.ai. Pal.l.u. 15); pa_ra-k-kar-r-alai a kind of fish (Ta.lex.) Image: horse mackerel, old-wife fish: mackerel: an Atlantic food fish, steel-blue above with blackish bars, and silvery beneath (OF. makerel); macarellus (medL.)(ODEE). Image: horse mackerel, old-wife fish: pa_rai, pa_r-ai horse mackerel, caranx (Tanippa_. i,175,33)(Ta.); pa_ra a fish, sp. scomber (Ma.); pa_re scomber (Tu.); pa_ra-mi_nu a fish called 'old wife' (it looks like a pomfret)(Te.)(DEDR 4094). Image: fish: paravey a kind of fish (Ta.); parava id. (Ma.)(DEDR 3960).

7367.Image: two: bar, barea two; bar gel twenty; bar isi forty (Santali.lex.) vira, ira two (Ka.); -vir an affix for the plural, masculine and femine, e.g. tande-vir, ta_yvir, sosevir fathers, mothers, daughters-in-law (Ka.lex.) Two: [The be_ form in Br. 'over' is concordant with the use of be_ as a (doubling) multiplier particle, in numerals/sets; [For b- cf. ba_gu 'two' (Savara.); barria 'two' (Santali.) attesting to the precedence of b- as an initial consonant in Proto-Munda. Or, was m- the initial consonant? cf. miggal 'twelve' or 10 + 2. cf. Norman H.Zide, Studies in the Munda numerals, Mysore, Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1978, p.26: N-bar or N-baXr as the Proto-Munda numeral '2'. The Proto-indic form was perhaps: mbar '2` which may accord with the me_n.d.ha = bhe_d.ra 'ram' transformations across Munda, and Aryan language-streams. In Dardic min., min.d. 'ram` (CDIAL 10310).] cf. bha_ga portion, fraction (S'vetUp.); ba_ share, half (Si.)(CDIAL 9430). cf. bis' 20 (Gypsy, 2 X 10; *bi 2); vim.s'ati 20 (RV.); bi_s' (Wot..Mai.Tor.); bi (Sh.); bi_s (Ku.H.); vi_h (L.); biha_ (A.); bi_sa (OMarw.); vi_s (G.M.)(CDIAL 11610). bi two (Ap.); beni (Or.); bi (OG.); be (G.M. used in multiplication)(CDIAL 6648). ba_rasa, ba_raha twelve (Pkt.); bais, ba_s (Ash.); ba_s', bas (Wg.); bas (Nin:g.); ba_s' (Dm.Gaw.Sv.Phal.); bai (D..); ba_h ()K.); ba_ra_ha_ (S.); ba_r(h)a_ (L.); ba_ra~_ (P.); ba_re (WPah.); ba_ra (Ku.N.A.B.Or.); ba_rah (Mth.H.); ba_ra_ (Aw.H.OMarw.Konkan.i); ba_r (G.); ba_ra (Md.); wu_zu (Pr.); ba_raho the figure 12 (S.)(CDIAL 6658). ba_hi wahare in the twelfth year (K.); ba_h, dat. bos'u twelfth day of lunar fortnight (K.); ba_rasi (G.)(CDIAL 6659). ba_rasama twelfth (Pkt.); ba_rho~ (S.); ba_rau~ (N.); ba_rahwa~_ (H.); ba_rmu~ (G.); ba_ra_va_ (M.)(CDIAL 6660). ba_van.n.a fifty-two (Pkt.); dowanza_h (K.); bavan~ja_(h) (L.); bavan~ja_ (P.); ba_unna (N.); ba_wan (A.); ba_a_nna (B.); ba_a_na, ba_na (Or.); ba_wan (Aw.H.); ba_van (G.M.)(CDIAL 6661). ba_vi_sati twenty two (Pali); ba_vi_sa, ba_isa (Pkt.); ba_vi_ha (S.); ba_vi_(h) (L.); ba_i_ (P.); bei (WPah.); ba_is (N.B.Bhoj.Aw.); ba_ix (A.); ba_isa (Or.); ba_i_s (H.); ba_vi_s (G.M.); bevi_s (M.)(CDIAL 6672). ba_sat.t.hi sixty two (Pkt.); ba_hat. (P.); ba_hat.hi (S.); ba_it.h (L.); ba_hat.h (WPah.); ba_sat.h (N.); ba_s.as.t.i (A.); ba_sat.hi (Or.); baya_sat.h (H.); ba_sat.hi (Aw.G.); ba_sat. (M.)(CDIAL 6673). behar. set of two waterjars one above the other (L.); ber.u~ (G.)(CDIAL 6678). bevar. double (G.)(CDIAL 6687). ba_th span of two arms (G.)(CDIAL 6675).

7368.State of being united; image: combination: berake, berike the state of being united, mixed or mingled, union, mixture, combination (Ka.); viravu (Ta.); viragu (Ma.); bhe_lan.e_m., bhe_l.an.e_m. (M.); bere to be touched, contaminated (Te.); berake-varn.a variegated colour; berake-vel.agu variegated lustre (Ka.); beraju to gather together, to collect, to put together, to heap up (Ka.); berasu in union with, in company with, combined with; berasu-lekka addition; berasuha mingling; berike-ja_ti a mongrel caste; berike-man.n.u various kinds of earth mixed together (Ka.lex.) Mixture: bhoron a mixture of brass and bell metal (Santali.lex.) vartalo_ha a kind of brass (Skt.); vat.t.alo_ha a partic. kind of metal (Pali)(CDIAL 11357). vartaka bell-metal, brass (Skt.)(CDIAL 11347). viravu mixture; kalappu; viravu-nel mixed paddy; viravu-t-tin.ai tin.ai or class of a word common to both uyar-tin.ai (nouns denoting personal class of beings, including men, gods and demons) and ak-r-in.ai (inferior class of beings, whether animate or inanimate, neuter); viravu-p-peyar noun common to both uyar-tin.ai and ak-r-in.ai; potuppeyar (Nan-. 255); viraviyal (gram.) word in which letters peculiar to Sanskrit occur (Vi_raco_. Alan.. 40) (Ta.lex.) bira_vu, bera_vu to mix, mingle; birake, berake mixture, mixing (Tu.lex.) bir-isu, bir-asa, bir-asu, bir-usu hardness, firmness (as of sweetmeats, boiled rice, metals or of soil) (Ka.); vir-ai to grow stiff, as from cold, to grow thick or compact (Ta.Ma.); bir-ubu, bir-uvu, bir-uhu hardness, firmness, (compactness)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) varukkan.am < vargan.a_ multiplication (Ta.lex.) bira_da_ri a band (of peons etc., of men in general), a company, a herd (Ka.H.)(Ka.lex.) viracu-tal to crowd together (Patin-o. Vina_yakar. Irat.. 1)(Ta.); berasu (Ka.); viracu-tal to join, unite (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 138)(Ta.lex.) viravu-tal to mix, mingle; to join, unite (Net.unal. 27)(Ta.); berasu (Ka.Tu.); viraguga (Ma.); vira_vu-tal to be mixed (cempon- vira_viyum : Kampara_. A_r-r-up. 8); viravu-tal to be united, joined; to be mingled, mixed (Te_va_. 450,1)(Ta.lex.) berasu, berisu to mingle together, to mix, to unite, to join; to be mixed, to be united with (Ka.lex.) bhe_lan.e_m., bhe_l.an.e_m. to be joined or united, to be mingled or mixed (M.); bere to be touched, contaminated (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. biswa_r mixture of spices and aromatic seeds powdered and ready for use as curry powder (H.); ve_sava_ra a partic. condiment (of coriander, ginger, mustard, pepper, spice etc.) (VarBr.S. Pali)(CDIAL 12135). cf. ve_sana flour of a partic. vegetable product (Bhpr.)(CDIAL 12135).

7369.Image: circuit: parya_n.a circuit (AitBr.); pariya_n.a (Pa_n..Ka_s'.); a walk (Pkt.) (CDIAL 7940). Image: circle: parive_s'a circle (MBh.); parive_s.a (Skt.); parive_sa halo round moon or sun (Pali); pari(v)e_sa circuit, wrapping up (Pkt.); paru_s, parsu~_ enclosure round a house (esp. round the back part)(M.); pirivesa disc of sun or moon, halo (Si.)(CDIAL 7884). Image: a turning movement: para_varttikam < para_varttita a kind of turning movement (Cilap. 3,12, Urai.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. parivartate_ revolves, turns round (RV.)(CDIAL 7872). cf. parivitti turning back (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7881). para_vr.tta turned back, returned, retreated; turned round, revolved; rolling one's self (Ka.lex.) vartana turning, revolving; moving forward, moving about; causing to revolve; varta, vatta, otta turning one's self, turning round, revolving; pravartana going or moving forwards; push forwards; pravartaka setting in motion, setting on foot (Ka.lex.) cf. vr.tta turned (RV.) (CDIAL 12669). parivitti turning back (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7881). cf. pharakn.o to turn round (Ku.)(CDIAL 9050). Image: turned; circle: vr.tta turned (RV.); rounded (S'Br.); vat.t.a round; circle (Pali.); round (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12069). vat.t.am circle, circular form, ring-like shape (Tol. Col. 402, Urai.); potter's wheel; wheel of a cart; revolution; varut.t.am egg (Na_mati_pa. 255); prob. vr.tta (Skt.) Image: rim of a wheel: vat.t.ai felloe, rim of a wheel (Cilap. 29, Uraippa_t.t.umat.ai); car, chariot; cf. vat.t.am circle, circular form, ring-like shape (Tol. Col. 402, Urai.); vat.t.a-p-po_tikai a circular piece placed under the capital of a pillar (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7370.Boundary: paryanta circuit (TBr.); pariyanta border, limit, end (Pali); pariam.ta, paliam.ta boundary (Pkt.); piriyata completion, end (Si.)(CDIAL 7936). Circuit: parya_n.a circuit (AitBr.); pariya_n.a (Pa_n..Ka_s'.); a walk (Pkt.); pala_n space of ground between two occupied lots left for future disposal (H.)(CDIAL 7940). bhar bharao to revolve, to spin round, to whirl; bharn.d.o whirlwind (Santali.lex.) Image: circle: phero circle (S.Ku.N.G.); circumambulation of the marriage fire (Marw.); phera_ circle (L.Or.H.M.); circuit (Mth.); phera circumambulation (OAw.); pher circle (M.)(CDIAL 9078). Image: to surround: parikraman.a walking about (S'a_n:khBr.); parikkaman.a rambling (Pali); parkuman siege (Kho.); parkuman (Sh.); parkamn.u~ circumambulation (G.)(CDIAL 7800). parikra_mati walks round (Skt.); parikka_madi walks (Pkt.); parkemik to surround, besiege, enclose (Kho.)(CDIAL 7801). pariks.e_pa encircling (MBh.); parikkhe_pa surrounding, neighbourhood (Pali); parikkhe_va circuit (Pkt.); pirikeva encircling (Si.)(CDIAL 7802). parigraha enclosing, surrounding (S'Br.); pariggaha taking, possessions (Pali.Pkt.); piriga_ acquisition (Si.)(CDIAL 7805).

7371.Wealth; image: overflow: br.h increase (Skt.); brhho high mountain (Kal.) (CDIAL 9302). perukkam fullness, perfection (Vina_yakapu.); long continuance, as of the ta_li worn by a married woman; increase, augmentation; multiplicity, plentifulness, abundance (Tiruva_ca. 42,7); prosperity, opulence, wealth (Kur-al., 431); perukku-tal to fill; to cause to swell and overflow (Ta.); to cause to increase or abound; to make greater (Kur-al., 512); perugu id. (Te.); percisu id. (Ka.); perukkuga id. (Ma.); perukkum-en. multiplier; peruka fully, abundantly; prosperously; perukal abundance; peruku-tal to become full; to be perfected (Cu_t.a_.); to be increased, augmented or enlarged; to grow great, prosper (Kur-al., 811)(Ta.lex.) piri extensiveness, largeness, abundance, frequency, greatness (Ka.); peri- (perip-, perit-) to increase (family, wealth, cattle)(Kod..); peru~gu, per(u)gu, per(u)vu to grow, grow up, increase, accumulate, be augmented, expand, extend; peru~gud.u growth, increase; pe_r(u)cu to increase, rise, swell (Te.)(DEDR 4411). Image: to spout up: phurkau to spout up or out, to rise up; lumam tolkate cunko phurkana when the tusser silk moth has spun its cocoon it spouts out lime (a substance which hardens the cocoon); basan. dak phurkau totena the water boiled over (Santali.lex.)

7372.Benediction; vow: parake, harake, harike a benediction, a blessing; a vow; parakegol. to take or receive a blessing; parakeyen to utter a benediction; parakeper- to get or receive a benediction; parake he_r..u to utter a vow; nalavarake, nalaparake, nalvarake a blessing given with delight; harake-kat.t.u to tie money or ornament in cloth coloured with turmeric and put them before an idol, vowed as a gift in case of delivery or recovery; harake kod.u to give a blessing, to bless; harake ma_d.u to make a vow, to vow; harake ti_risu to make over to an idol what has been vowed (Ka.lex.) cf. paracu (paraci-) to praise, extol (Ta.)(DEDR 3951). bhor benediction; to bless; blessing; bhor sa~ote bidalem dismiss us with a blessing; borket, barkhet blessing; good fortune, prosperity, increase, abundance, plenty; to be blessed; borketaktaleme bless it to us; barhet a name of Abge bon:ga; abge sacred to the males of the household; abge bon:ga one of the Santal family deities, virtually the deity of the males of the family, as they only can partake of what has been offered to it in sacrifice; nui bhed.an. abge akadea I have set this ram apart as a sacrifice for the males of the household; amem jom abgekeda you ate most of it yourself (as if it had been an abge offering) (Santali.lex.) Eulogize: pa_ra_t.t.u (pa_ra_t.t.i-) to applaud, commend, eulogize (Ta.); pa_ra_t.t.uka to extol (Ma.)(DEDR 4092). peyar vow (Pat.t.in-ap. 289) (Ta.lex.) Image: benediction, vow: paracu-tal to praise, extol (Tiruva_ca. 34,1) (Ta.lex.) paravu worship, reverence, adore, sing; paraval praising, worshipping (Ta.); parikka a vow (Ma.); parc to pray; parkym (obl. parkyt-) vow to a god, prayer (Ko.); part to pray (To.); arkym vow (To.); parasu to utter a benediction, bless; parake, harake, harike benediction, vow (Ka.); parake vow (Kod..); parasu benediction (Tu.); parake vow made in trouble, beseeching; harasuni to bless, wish well (Tu.)(DEDR 3951). paravu-tal to praise, extol (Kampara_. A_r-r-up. 12); to worship, reverence, adore (Paripa_. 10,116); to sing (Kalla_. 10); paravu-k-kat.an- oblation in fulfilment of a vow (Tol. Po. 58, Urai.); paraval praising, worshipping (Tol. Po. 82) (Ta.lex.) harasu, parasu, harisu to bless (as a devotee blesses S'iva); to make a vow (Ka.); parasu to utter a benediction; to bless (Ka.); paracu, par..iccu to praise (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) paravai-yun.man.t.ali a S'iva shrine in Tiruva_ru_r (Te_va_.); para_van.am the object of worship (Te_va_. 857,8); para_vu-tal to praise (Pu. Ve. 10,15, Urai.); to worship (Tiv. Na_yc. 9,6)(Ta.lex.)

7373.To inspect: paracu-tal to rub gently (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) Philosopher's stone: parasu = parusa (Tadbhava of paras'u) the philosopher's stone; paras'u-dhara Gan.e_s'a, Paras'ura_ma, a soldier armed with an axe; paras'u, parasu an axe, a hatchet (Ka.lex.) paras the philosopher's stone, a touchstone for gems; Persia (P.lex.) Shroffing: parka_van.i < parkhaoni_ (U.) shroffing, assaying money (C.G.); pa_rkkavi < bha_rgavi_ Laks.mi_ (Man-o_n-. iii, Civaka_mi. 49); bha_rgava lit. a descendant of Bhr.gu (Skt.); pa_rkkavan- Venus (Kantapu. Cukkira. 13)(Ta.lex.) paraka_van.e, pa_raka_van.e proving coin, shroffing (Ka.); para_kha (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) parikkhak one who examines, proves or tries, an assayer, an examiner; parkhn. to examine, to try, to prove, to assay (P.lex.) pari_k.s.aka looking round, inspecting carefully, testing, examining (Ka.Skt.); a prover, a tester, an examiner (Ka.lex.) To search, to grope: paratuka to seek groping, chiefly at night (Ma.); parad.u to scrape together with the hand or a hoe, to grope about id. (Ka.); baraj- (baraji-) to feel for (something), grope (Kod..); parad.uni to grope; paran.t.uni to grasp, seize, lay hold of; arat.uni to scramble, fumble; arantuni to feel, grope, grasp at (Tu.); barat.i to grope; haji to search (Kor.); pa_kul-a_d.u to grope with hands, as in darness (Te.); par.ka_na_, parka_na_, pirka_na_, parka_na_, park-, parra_na_, parkana_, parahkana_, pa_haka_na_ to search (Go.); par-bi- (-t-) to feel with hands, grope, search in darkness by groping (Kond.a); prek- (-t-) to seek (Pe.); parmba (parmbi-) to grope, search blindly; n. groping (Kui); parali, parinai, par- (-it-) to search; pr.a_kali to grope; pa_rk- (-it-) to feel one's way in the dark; prek- (-h-) to search for lice in the hair (Kuwi); panjna_ to trace, track (Kur.); pat.t.ing to search for (Br.)(DEDR 3956). cf. pari_ks.ate_ observes, examines (S'Br.) (CDIAL 7904). To estimate, value: pa_r-ttal to estimate, value (Ta. colloq.); to look after, take care of, manage, superintend (Ta.lex.) pari_ acting after close and thorough inspection, discrimination (K.); pariciti familiarity, acquaintance (Skt.)(CDIAL 7809). paricaya acquaintance with (MBh.); practice (Skt.); paricaya familiarity (Pali); paricaa, pariyaya acquaintance-ship (Pkt.); puruduva, purudda habit, custom (Si.)(CDIAL 7807). paricita known, familiar (Skt.); familiar (Pali); pariida recognized (Pkt.); purudu accustomed, used, practised (Si.)(CDIAL 7808). Images: look; eye; guard; desire: pa_hn.em. to see, look; pa_hije is necessary, it should be (M.); pahan.u to consider, to deliberate (S.)(Bloch, p. 362). pa_r (-pp-, -tt-) to see, look at, view, notice (Kalit. 65); examine, inspect, search into, scrutinise (Kur-al., 676); to know (Kur-al., 487); to look for, expect (Kur-al., 676); to desire, long for (Kampara_. Pu_kkoy. 9); to search for, seek (Na_lat.i, 20); to look at with compassion (Ta_yu. Para_para. 663)(Ta.lex.); pa_rval looking, look (Kur-al., 1152); watch (Patir-r-up. 84,5); pa_rvai looking, seeing; sight, vision; glance, look; eye (Ce_tupu. Acuva. 4); that which is attractive, interesting or neat in appearance; appearance, view, aspect; incantation uttered by a magician with his gaze fixed on his subject (Tiruvil.ai. Pa_n.t.iyan-. 47); benignity, kindliness, kan.n.o_t.t.am; review, revision, examination; supervision, superintendence; attention, observation; pa_rvai-pa_rttal to look intently as an enchanter; to practise magic; to estimate (Ta.); pa_rkka to regard, behold, wait for; pa_rppu considering, expectation (Ma.); pa_r to look for, wait for, look after, consider, regard, desire; pa_r(u) looking to or after; pa_raysu to desire; ha_rayisu, ha_raysu to look for, get a longing after, desire; ha_rayke desire (Ka.); pa_ra guard, custody, keeping (Tu.); pa_ruva sight, glance (Te.)(DEDR 4091). cf. he_raka spy (Ka.lex.)

7374.Image: watch, watchman; guard: pahar watch of 3 hours (K.Ku.N.); id. (B.Mth. Bhoj.H.); paharu (S.); pohur, obl. pa_har, paur, pa~_r (L.); pahar, pauhr, paihr watch (P.); par watch of 3 hours (A.B.G.); pahara (Or.OAw.OMarw.); pahor, pohor (G.); paha_r, pa_r (M.); paihra_ watchman (P.); paharo watch, guard, turn, time (Ku.); pahara_ watch, guard (N.B.); watch, watchman (H.); pahero, pohoro, poro a guard (G.); prahara a division of time = about 3 hours, a watch (Skt. ?Sanskritization of Pers. pahra watch)(CDIAL 8900). praharin gong-man, watchman (Skt.); pahari_ village watchman (Ku.Or.H.); pari_ya_ (A.); pahari, pahuri (B.); pahariya_ (H.)(CDIAL 8903).

7375.Image: to fear; to intercede: pari-tal to fear (Kur-al., 502); to plead, intercede; to be troubled, distressed; to suffer (Man.i. 12,50); to destroy (Kur-al., 862)(Ta.lex.) paritra_sa fright (MBh.); paritta_sa sudden fear (Pkt.); pirits fear (Si.); pirits adj. oppressing (Si.)(CDIAL 7834). parippu distress, sorrow (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,4,6); pariyal grieving, feeling distress (Pur-ana_. 172)(Ta.lex.) To frighten: borkao, bor.kao to frighten, to startle; bor.kaokae he will be startled; in ho~ben bor.kao ocokedin.a you have also frightened me; borkas to frighten, put away, dismiss; boro to fear, to be afraid; bhor.ok apprehensive of danger, terror, fear; bharao to be frightened, startled (Santali.lex.) cf. par-ai to speak, say (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,6,8); word, saying, statement; par-ai-p-pe_ccu low, vulgar language, as ungrammatical dialect of Par-aiyas (W.); vain words spoken without any idea of fulfilment; par-aivu making known, proclaiming (Ku_rmapu. An-uk. 4); speaking, talking, telling; blabbing, chattering (Ta.); par-ai-yar-ai-tal to publish by beat of drum (Kalit. 56); par-ai-y-at.i id. (Kampara_. Va_livatai. 143)(Ta.lex.) Curse: bharts threaten; bhartsana threatening (Skt.); bhartsayati threatens (MBh.); bhartsya_mi (AV.); bhartsita (BhP.); bhacchia threatened, abused (Pkt.); bloson curse, oath (Pas'.)(CDIAL 9403). par..i to blame, censure, ridicule, revile, slander; blame, ridicule, slander, fault, sin, revenge (Ta.); fault, false accusation, deadly vengeance (Ma.); par..icai scorn; par..ippu scorn, blame guilt, defect; par..utu defect, fault (Ta.); par..ikka to scold, blame, abuse (Ma.); pal.c- to abuse; pal.y retribution; apr. l.yk ipr. l.yk onom. of scolding (as in: apr.yke. ipr.yke. (id-)r man.cuko. he scolded vigorously)(Ko.); pa.k to abuse (To.); par..i to revile, scold, rebuke, scorn, upbraid, deride; blame, rebuke, fault, guilt (Ka.); pal.i (pal.iv-, pal.ij-), pal.e- (pal.ev-, pal.and-) to speak ill of; pal.ame talk, gossip (Kod..); prayi blame (Te.); prabbu to abuse, blame, censure; blame (Te.); par.agna_ (par.gyas) to talk against one, detract, slander, run one down (Kur.)(DEDR 4002). pa_sk- to dislike; pa_ska_na_ id., hate (Go.); pa_ska to disparage, despise; disparagement (Kui); payir to show aversion or disgust at, be sulky or ill-humoured about; payirppu disgust, abhorrence; disagreement, estrangement (Ta.)(DEDR 4060).

7376.Armed police: barkan., barkan.da_j < barqanda_z a policeman, a constable, a village watchman; barkan.da_ji_, barkan.i_ the duties of a policeman or a village watchman (P.lex.) varga a troop, a company, a tribe, a class or multitude of things; bodily actions; a sphere, a province (Ka.lex.) parkan.t.a_s < berg (Pers.) armed police (W.G.)(Ta.lex.) begar.., begar, begad.u amazement, fear (Ka.); begad.u, beggad.incu, beggilu to be amazed or astonished; to fear (Te.)(Ka.lex.) para_ku attention! take heed! listen! (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) para_kku < para_k inattention, heedlessness (Tiruman. 331)(Ta.lex.) para_ku = para_ carelessness, forgetfulness (Ka.Te.); inattentiveness (Ka.Te.)(Ka.lex.) parakku < parkha_i_ examination; assaying of coins (Ta.lex.)(Ta.lex.) para_krama attack, courage (MBh.); parakkama courage, energy, activity (Pali.Pkt.); parakramena, para_kramena, palakamena_, palakamena with exertion (As'.); parakrama (NiDoc.); parakmen with the power (OSi); parakuma power, strength (Si.)(CDIAL 7799m). para_krama marching forth; advancing against, attacking; heroism, prowess (Ka.lex.) para_kkirama-pa_n.t.iyan- name of certain pa_n.t.iya kings (Ta.inscr.); para_kkiramittal to display bravery (Arut.pa_. ii, Tiruvarul.. 8)(Ta.lex.)

7377.Image: tail: verukam < barha the under side of tail (Ta.lex.) va_ra, va_la a tail (Ka.lex.)

7378.Peacock: varh, varha, varhan.a, varhin.a, varhin, varhis, barh, barha, barhis, barhi, barhin.a, varhin.a a peacock; barhi-va_hana an epithet of Ka_rttike_ya; barhi-dhvaja_ an epithet of Durga_ (Skt.lex.) varukam < barha peacock's feather (Ta.lex.)

7379.Garden: bar.ge a garden, a field; or.ak bar.ge the garden or field in which the cultivator's house stands; baher bar.ge an outlying garden or field (Santali.lex.) par (pl. -kul) garden (Pa.); par-u a cultivated plot (Kond.a)(DEDR 4030). Garden; gardener: a_ram garden; sandalwood tree; common cadamba (Ta.lex.) a_ra_mam pleasure garden, park (Man.i. 3,32); mountain grove; ra_uta a Ks.atriya clan, gardener, cowherd (Or.)(CDIAL 10682). Semant. 'garden': ra~_wa_ wooded or waste land (esp. near a village)(H.); arama park, cloister, monastery; aramba garden (Si.); a_ra_ma garden (Mn.); pleasure, park, garden (Pali.Pkt.); arama grove (KharI.); a_rau~ vegetable garden, melon plot (S.)(CDIAL 1317). ra_i_ wood, thick grove (?M.)(CDIAL 10687). a_ra_mika gardener (Skt.); garden attendant (Pali); a_ra_mikini_ (Pali); a_ra_mia (Pkt.); a_raam, a_rame market gardener (K.); a_ra~_i_ gardener (S.); ara_i~, ara_in. market gardener (S.); ara_i~_, ra_i~_ Moslem gardening caste (P.); ra_mi_ Hindu gardener (G.)(CDIAL 1318). parampu dry ground laid out, especially for plantain or palm gardens (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 2); embankment, ridge or mound to enclose water; extension, spread (Ta.); harahu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

7380.Image: ring round the mouth of a vessel: par-ai ring round the mouth of a vessel (Cilap. 14,208, Arum.); a measure of capacity; circle, ring (Akana_. 15); par-ai-k-kampu rod for striking off the excess in measuring grain (W.)(Ta.lex.) par-a a measure of capacity (Ta.); a rice measure (Ma.); par-r-a id.(Te.)(DEDR 4032). Image: rim of a vessel: pirampu-kat.t.u-tal to fit with a rim, as a vessel (Ci_vaka. 2700, Urai.); pirappu a vessel of the capacity of a kurun.i (Perun.. Ucaik. Kur-ippurai, Pak. 523)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to surround: pari-ttal to surround, spread over (Akana_. 31)(Ta.lex.)

7381.More than a vessel can contain; numerous: cf. paru to become large, swell (Ta.); pardna_ to grow in number (Kur.)(DEDR 3972). spha_ra extended, large (Skt.); fully expanded (of flowers)(Skt.); pha_ra much (Pkt.); pha_r more than a vessel can contain, too much (G.); pha_r numerous; adv. very (M.)(CDIAL 13833). upha_rn.o to leave over, use sparingly (Ku.)(CDIAL 1914).

7382.Chieftain: pergad.e, heggad.e, hegge chieftain; headman; a family name (Tu.lex.)

7383.A bullock load: perike a bullock's load, any load or burden; perge a kind of bag (Tu.lex.) cf. pe_r-u, he_r-u a load, especially a bullock-load (Ka.lex.) cf. pe_r-uka to load (as oxen)(Ma.)(IDEDR 4446).

7384.Image: knot; joint, articulation: per joint, articulation (M.); por space between two joints (H.)[used in counting, on the 12 finger joints of four fingers](CDIAL 8406). Start of counting, 'one': pe_r-u term meaning 'one' in measuring grains (Tailava. Taila.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pe_r-ttal to break (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,10); pe_r-pa_ti exactly half, just half (Ta.lex.)

7385.Image: arranging in a column or row: pe_r(u)cu to arrange in a column or row (Te.)(DEDR 4446).

7386.Winning made: perga winning made in a game of cennaman.e; huge profit or gain (Tu.lex.)

7387.Image: to give birth: per-, per-u, her- to get; to acquire, to gain, to obtain, to reach; to incur, to undergo; to experience; to beget: to generate, to procreate; to bear, to give birth; prasu_ta (Ka.); per-u (Ta.Ma.); pir-a to proceed from, be born, arise (Ta.Ma.); per-ugu to grow, increase (Te.)(Ka.lex.) per-u to bring forth, bear, as children (Tan-ippa_. i,235,1)(Ta.lex.) cf. prasun to bear young; pp. pya_v, f. pya_ye_ (K.); prasu_yate_ bears, begets (S'Br.); is born (Mn.)(CDIAL 8849). cf. prasava procreation (VS.)(CDIAL 8827). cf. su_ provide, bring forth, bear (young), su_ti birth (TBr.)(CDIAL 13556). per-u to bring forth, bear, as children (Tan-ippa_. i,235,1); to beget, generate (Na_lat.i, 197)(Ta.lex.) Image: birth; to obtain: per-uka to bear, bring forth, obtain, get; pe_r-u birth, bringing forth, what is obtained; pe_r-r-i midwife; pir-akka to spring up, be born; pir-appu, pir-avi birth; pir-a crescent moon (Ma.); per-u (per-uv-, per-r--) to get, obtain, beget, generate, bear; per-uti gain, profit; per-uttu (per-utti-) to cause to obtain; per-r-i acquisition; per-r-avan- father; per-r-a_n- id., husband; pe_r-u acquisition, childbirth; pir-a (-pp-, -nt-) to be born, be produced; pir-antai birth; pir-appu birth, origin; pir-avi birth; pir-ai crescent moon (Ta.); perv- (perd-) to be born; perp birth, personal appearance; per new moon (Ko.); per-p, pe.r, pe.rf act of birth (in songs); per- days from the third to the eighth after new moon; pe.rf- (pe.d-) to be born; per-- id. (per-o0 'he is not born'); ped, in; enwir. fed my younger sibling, ninwir. fed your younger sibling (lit. one born after me, you, etc.)(To.); per- (pett-) to get, obtain, beget, bear; per-e crescent moon (Ka.); per- (pett-) to get, obtain, beget, bear; per-e crescent moon (Ka.); per- (peruv-, pett-) to bear (child)(Kod..); pedpini, pedduni to bear, bring forth (as a child); pedpa_vuni to assist a woman in childbirth; pedmedi lying-in woman; perga winnings made in a game; profit, gain; pe_tu parturition childbed; pedikke birth (Tu.); pet.t.u to bear (young), lay (eggs); perayu to obtain (Te.); pet.- (pet.t-) to bear young (said of animal)(Kol.); pet.t.- to give birth to (Nk.); ped- (pett-) to obtain (Pa.); pirr- to sprout from the ground; pirra_na_ to grow (of young wheat), sprout (Go.)(DEDR 4422). pe_r-u-ka_lam time of parturition or delivery (Ta.lex.) Receiving, obtaining: pe_r-u receiving, obtaining (Kur-al., 61); anything worth obtaining (Kur-al., 162); advantage, benefit, result (Kampara_. Iran.iya. 169); chid birth; wealth; objective (Tiv. Iyar-. 2,62)(Ta.lex.) per-utal to get, obtain, secure (Na_lat.i, 5)(Ta.); per-u id. (Ka.); per-utal to be worth; to be worthy of; to fetch a price; per-uttutal to cause to obtain (Kampara_. Pa_yi. 1); to eat (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,9,9); per-uti gain, profit (Man.i. 25,115); that which is sought to be got or reached; goat (Tiruppu. 928); per-umati worth, value; prize, reward; per-uma_n-am value; solvency (Ta.lex.) Image: to be delivered of a child: por-aiyuyir-tal to be delivered of a child (Nan-. 269, Urai.); to disburden and rest (Poruna. 239)(Ta.); por-ai-y-a_t.t.i patient woman (Tirukko_. 353); priestess who offers pali (Periyapu. Kan.n.ap. 65); por-ai patience, forbearance (Kur-al., 153); pregnancy (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) pu_n.ittal to cause to appear; to bring into existence (Ma_r-an-alan.. 224,531)(Ta.lex.)

7388.Birth: pe_r milk; pe_r ney the milk and ghee taken to a house where delivery has taken place; also the milk and ghee taken from the house wherein a girl has attained puberty to the other house (i.e. husband's or father's)(Tu.lex.) biha~r., bian birth, act of parturition, to be delivered of young, of brute animals only; productive; tinak bian gai kanae? how many times has the cow calved? bar biha~r. gai a cow that has calved twice; hor. ban. bianlena, nes the rice was not productive this year; bijhau to travail in birth (Santali.lex.) birni the peritoneum; birniko bhugaklen khan bako ban.caoka when the peritoneum is perforated they won't live (Santali.lex.) busa~r. to be born (Santali.lex.) pir-antai birth (Ja_n-a_. 39,9); birthplace (Paripa_. 11,43, Urai.); pir-appu birth, nativity (Kur-al., 339)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); origin, production (Tol. Er..ut. 83); order or class of being including animals and vegetables; caste (Kur-al., 133); pir-avi birth (Te_va_. 935,1)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); pir-avu id. (Te_va_. 447,1); pir-anta-na_l. birthday (Man.i. 13,53)(Ta.lex.) Etyma: pir-a-ttal to be born, as children (Kur-al., 681); to be derived from, as word from root (Tol. Col. 115)(Ta.lex.) Image: childbirth: pe_r-u childbirth; pe_r-u-ka_lam time of parturition or delivery; per-u-tal to bring forth, bear as children (Tan-ippa_. i,235,1); to beget, generate (Na_lat.i, 19)(Ta.lex.) Living: pir-akku living (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

7389.Rice: per-ukkal rice (Patin-o. Tiruvit.ai. Vai. 16)(Ta.lex.) pe_r-u prey, food (Iraku. Tikkuvi. 62)(Ta.lex.)

7390.Food offered to a deity: pe_run.t.i food offered to a deity; gluttony; principal meal; pe_run.t.iya_l.an- glutton; pirappu food of various kinds of rice placed before a deity in receptacles of the capacity of a kurun.i (Tirumuru. 234); a vessel of the capacity of kurun.i (Perun.. Ucaik. Kur-ippurai, Pak. 523)(Ta.lex.) perumat.ai food offering to a deity (Periyapu. Kan.n.app. 19) (Ta.lex.)

7391.Crop: pagara, payara collection, heap (Pkt.); prakara scattered heap (MBh.); Treading by bullocks: paer, paeri_ treading of paddy sheaves by bullocks (Or.); pair heap of grain and chaff ready for winnowing (Bi.); crop spread out for threshing (Bi.); pa_er, paira_ seed sown on unploughed land; mixed crop of peas, grain, barley and wheat (Bi.); pair id. (Mth.); pairi scattered heap of corn for threshing (Bhoj.); per rice stalks, etc. cast on threshing floor to be trodden out (M.)(CDIAL 8431). paur, pauri_ crop spread out ready for threshing (Mth.); paur mixed crop of peas, gram, barley and wheat (Mth.)(CDIAL 8445). cf. paya to yield, produce (Ta.); an ear of rice, etc. (Tu.)(DEDR 3937). payar-u green gram, phaseolus mungo (Ta.)(DEDR 3941). Layer: pa_ra_ a layer (as of bricks on a wall)(M.)(CDIAL 8436). per-r-u pile (Tol. Col. 305, Urai)(Ta.lex.) prathita spread out (MBh.); pahia spread, published, well-known (Pkt.); phela_u expansion (S.); phaila_un.a_, phaila_rn.a_ to spread (P.); phailanu, phaila_unu, phaila_o expanse (N.); phela_ to throw (B.); phaila_u scattered (B.); phailna_ to spread (H.); phail, phael scatered (Or.); phaila_na_, phaila_w expanse (H.); phelvu~, phela_vvu~ (G.); phailai (OMarw.); phaila_vn.e~, phaila_vin.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 8651). Scatter: par-a to be scattered, dispersed (Ta.)(DEDR 4020). par-a to fly, be scattered, dispersed; pa_r-u (pa_r-i-) to be scattered (Ta.); pa_r-r-uka to scatter about, let fly (Ma.); pa.t- to winnow (remove light grains, dust, straw, etc.)(Kod..)(DEDR 4020). pratikirati scatters towards (Pa_n..); pat.ikirati strews about (Pali); pargelnu to sift rice (N.)(CDIAL 8548). prakirati scatters (S'Br.); pakkirama_n.a being thrown (Pkt.); paira_ scattering seed broadcast (Bhoj.); pern.e~ to scatter, strew, spill, sow (M.); pihira to scatter, strew, comb (the hair)(Si.)(CDIAL 8443). vikirati scatters (Mn.); id., sprinkles (Pali); viin.n.a, viki_rn.a (Pkt.); virn.e~ to strew (pieces of cowdung) thinly over loppings and straw laid on the ground to be burnt (M.)(CDIAL 11631). vervu~ to scatter, throw about (G.)(CDIAL 11636). vikharna_ to be spread, be scattered (P.); bakharna_ to separate, put apart; bikhra_un.a_ to scatter (P.); bikharn.o to be scattered, become separate; to alienate (Ku.); vicharvu~ to be separated (G.)(CDIAL 11644). [cf. pikku to separate, disentangle, comb; pi_nku to be dislocated, slip off (Ka.); pi_nki to slip out (Kor.); pi.g- (pi.gy-) to part (hair, bushes); pik- (pi.ky-) id. (Ko.)(DEDR 4213).] praki_rn.a scattered, thrown about (MBh.); pai_n.n.a very much spread out (Pkt.); pain, paini deep furrow used as irrigation channel (Bi.)(CDIAL 8444). prakiran.a scattering (Skt.); pern.i sowing of seed (M.)(CDIAL 8442). pawerna_ to scatter seed in a field (H.)(CDIAL 8449). pawera_ scattering seed by hand (H.)(CDIAL 8780). prapa_tayati makes fly away (AV.); chases, throws down (MBh.); pava_d.e_ma_n.a making fall (Pkt.); pua_un.a_ to cause to be cast or poured or put (P.); pawa~_rna_ to throw, make fall, scatter seed in a field (H.)(CDIAL 8683). pravapati sows, scatters (RV.); pavapati (Pali); prux light sprinkling of snow on hilltops, first snow of the season, ground slightly white with snow (Kho.); perx hoarfrost (Ir.Yid.)(CDIAL 8779).

7392.Image: small stature (as of an ox): berga small of stature, under-sized, as an ox (berga d.an:gra okaenae? Where is the undersized ox?: Santali.lex.) Image: cattle used for ploughing: pa_rkku-ma_t.u Bargur cattle, used for ploughing (G.Tp.D. I,20)(Ta.lex.)

7393.Image: bull: per-r-am bull or cow (Tol. Po. 594); per-r-u bull (Te_va_. 428,8) (Ta.lex.)

7394.Gold leaf; image: leaf: barha a leaf (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) varukam leaf (Ta.lex.) barak, barka [fr. barq (Pers.)] a leaf of a book, a leaf of paper; gold or silver leaf; wark a leaf; a leaf of gold or silver; a thin layer; silver leaf; sona da wark, wark tila_i gold leaf (P.lex.) Image: ficus: cf. parkat.i_ ficus infectoria (Skt.); parkat.i the wavy-leaved fig-tree, ficus infectoria; basuri, kabbasuri (Ka.lex.) cf. plaks.a ficus infectoria (AV.); ficus religiosa (Skt.)(CDIAL 9022).

7395.Gilt or silver wash; shield-maker; thin plate of metal, tinsel: varaku, araku, oraku a leaf (of gold etc.), a thin plate of metal, tinsel (Ka.); varakha (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) ur-ai bell metal (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) araku = oraku a gilt or silver wash (Ka.M.); ora-kad.d.i, ora-ko_lu a polishing stick; orata rubbing; orayisu to cause to rub; orasu to rub, to scour; orasu friction, rubbing (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) varun.u worn out, ceased to be (Si.)(CDIAL 12210). spas'isu to touch (Ka.); parus.a, parusa a touch-stone; the philosophe's stone (Ka.); pari_sa (M.); parisa, sparus'a (Tadbhava of spars'a) touching, touch, handling, contact; spars'ana, parisana, parus.ana, sparus'ana touching, handling; spars'ave_di, parusave_di, sparus'ave_di the philosopher's stone (Ka.); spars'ave_di (Te.)(Ka.lex.) urai (-v-, -nt-) to be effaced by rubbing; (-pp-, -tt-) to wear away by rubbing, grate, gest on the touchstone, smear, polish; n. rubbing, friction, attrition; fineness of gold or silver as tested on the touchstone; urai-kal touchstone; uraical friction; uraippu rubbing, assaying (Ta.); urasal friction; ura rubbing; ura-kallu, uravu-kallu touchstone; urayuka to rub, wear by friction; uravu rubbing; urekka to rub, grate, polish, grind, assay metal (Ma.); uj- to rub, file, sharpen; orj- to rub (Ko.); urdu, uddu, ujju to rub, make fine by rubbing; ore (orad-) to rub, apply to a touchstone, examine; orasu, orisu, orsu to rub gently; ore-gal touchstone (Ka.)[varakala a touchstone (M.)(Ka.lex.)]; udd- (uddi-) to rub (Kod..); urepuni to try metals by touchstone; uresuni id., to rub, polish; urduni to rub, file, polish; ujjuni to rub; ure-kallu, ore-kallu touchstone (Tu.); ora rubbing, testing on a touchstone; ora-gallu touchstone; oracu to rub, try by the touchstone; orapu rubbing, test by the touchstone; orapid.i rubbing, friction; orayu to rub, test by touchstone; orayika rubbing; uriyu to be rubbed; ruddu to rub, clean (Te.); ru_ga- (ru_gi-) to be smooth; ru_sa (ru_si-) to crush, grind (Kui); orakalu, vorakala touchstone (OM.)(DEDR 665). Calcining metals: vara_kaput.am calcining metals with 20 or 30 cakes of cowdung; vara_ki id. (Kantapu. Ma_rk. 135); vara_kippukai a medicinal fumigation (Ta.lex.) araka sublimation, a sublimate (Ka.); arka (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. uruku (uruki-) to dissolve with heat, melt, liquefy, be fused (Ta.); ukku steel (Te.)(DEDR 661).

7396.Image: hill: brexta hill (Tir.); barhis.t.ha highest (RV.)(CDIAL 9160).

7397.A land tenure: pe_r-u a kind of land tenure (G.Tn.D. I,189); cf. tan.t.a-p-pe_r < tan.t.al + rent-roll showing the tax due from the ryots (Na_.)(Ta.lex.) pe_r milk; pe_r di_puni on the day of harvesting, the custom of keeping cow's milk near the field at dawn (Tu.lex.) pe_r-u < per-u- receiving, obtaining (Kur-al., 61); anything worth obtaining (Kur-al., 162); profit, gain; advantage, benefit, result (Kampara_. Iran.iya. 169); per-uti profit, gain (Man.i. 25,115); per-u-tal to get, obtain, secure, possess (Na_lat.i, 5); per-uttu-tal to cause to obtain (Kampara_. Pa_yi. 1); per-u-ma_n-am value (Ta.lex.) Landlord's right: tan.t.u-va_ram landlord's right (Ta.lex.) pe_ru a fee paid to a person authorised to distribute water for irrigation (R.T.); pe_rai water (Ta.)[prob. pe_ra](Ta.lex.) cf. per rice stalks etc. cast on threshing floor to be trodden out (M.); pa_er, paira_ mixed crop of peas, grain, barley and wheat (Bi.)(CDIAL 8431).