7398.To deliver landed property: varga transferment of right or ownership with regard to lands; varka-kod.u to deliver land to somebody as his property; varga a ledger; pa_rikhattu a deed of reliquishment of claim for partition of property, a partition-deed (Ka.); pa_rakhata (M.H.); pa_rito_s.ika a reward, a gratuity, a present (Ka.); parito_s.a complete satisfaction, gratification, pleasure, delight (Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

7399.A tenure: parkka_ < barga_ (U.) agreement by which a cultivator engages to pay his landlord half the produce, the latter providing half the seed and paying the whole revenue (R.F.); parkattu < barakat (U.) prosperity, thriving (C.G.); parka_yittu < berga_it cultivator on parkka_ tenure (R.F.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_ri_kattu < fari_gh khatti (U.) partition deed (Ta.lex.)

7400.Living: cf. va_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to exist, live; n. regularity, order; va_r..kkai livelihood, prosperity, married life (Ta.); va_r..ikka to get a girl married, make to rule; va_r.. life; va_r..i living somewhere; a ruler; va_r..cca living prosperously, cultivation, reign, government (Ma.); ba_r..(u) living, livelihood, marriage (Ka.); ba.l.i way of life (Kod..); ba.mane house into which bride marries; ba.ce act of living; ba.ke ku.d.- (woman) marries; badik- (badiki-) to live, live happily; badiki property (Kod..); ba_l.uni to thrive, prosper, exist, subsist, endure; ba_l.ike existence, subsistence, prosperity, thriving; baduku living, livelihood, wealth, property (Tu.); b(r)atuku, b(r)aduku life, existence, livelihood, subsistence; bradimi existence, living, livelihood (Te.); badk- to subsist (Ko.); batt- to live; badkip- to make to live, bring up (Nk.); badk- to live (Pa.); badakto_r he lived (Go.); batki- (-t-) to live, flourish; batku life, living, prosperity (Kond.a); ba_rti longevity, long life (Kui); batkali, batkinai to live; batku living; batki ki- to make a good living, live happily (Kuwi); barkat prosperity (Tu. < U.); barikati id. (Kod.. < U.); barkat (Arabic)(DEDR 5372). parigraha enclosing, surrounding (S'Br.); pariggha taking, possessions (Pali.Pkt.); piriga_ acquisition (Si.)(CDIAL 7805).

7401.Goods unloaded from a cart, a boat: par-i goods unloaded or discharged as from a cart, a boat (W.)(Ta.lex.) Shipping, lading; bullock-load: pe_r-uka to load (as oxen); pe_r-u a load, esp. bullock-load (Ma.Ka.); per-r-u a pile (Ta.); pe_ra_t.a lading, shipping (Tu.)(DEDR 4446). bhar, bhari a load (Santali.lex.) bha_ra load (Pali)(Pali.lex.) A bullock's load: perike a bullock's load, any load or burden; pe_ru to load, burden (Tulu.lex.) pa_ram yoke for carrying a load (Ta.lex.) Carrying grain: per-ika a large sack of bag (Te.); per-uku to carry loads (Te.); pe.rn bullock-load (Ko.); perik a bullock's load, any burden (Tu.); per-ika_t.amu carrying grain on bullocks (Te.); he_ru a sack of corn (Tu.)(DEDR 4446). Riches: por-i riches, wealth (Na_n-man.i. 45); Laks.mi_ (Tiva_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Wealth: pora matter (Kui); porl thing (Ko.); porul. property, riches (Ta.)(DEDR 4544). hor-e, por-e a load; the burden, bulk etc.; hor-e-ka_ra a porter (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pore joining; to be put or attached to (Ka.); por-e a load, a burden; bulk, measure, quantity (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: bundle of firewood: herk a bundle of firewood (Go.); cer-aku in: van.t.acer-aku firewood for cooking (Te.)(DEDR 2794). cf. he_r-u, pe_r-u, he_r- a load, especially a bullock-load (Ka.); he_la (M.); he_r-isu, pe_r-isu to cause to load; pe_r-u to lift up and put upon; to load, to lade, to freight; to pile up (Ka.lex.) Load: he_r-u, pe_r-u, he_r-, he_rgal. a load, especially a bullock load; he_r-u, pe_r-u to lift up or take and put upon etc. (Ka.lex.) por-, por-u, hor-u to take upon or bear on the head; to bear as a burden etc; to take posssesion of mentally (Ka.); por-u (Ta.Ma.); por-e a load, burden; por-eya_l.u a porter (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) Load of people in a ferry: pu_ru load of people in a ferry (S.)(CDIAL 8330). To transport by bullock-load: por-e a load (Ka.); por-uppu burden; por-ai burden, load, weight (Ta.); por- (pot-) to carry or take in arms; or- (ot-) to carry, undertake, obey (Ko.); per burden (Ko.); pir- to carry (To.); par- a load (To.); por- to bear on the head, bear (as a burden), carry (Ka.); por-e a burden, measure, size (Ka.); pore a load; pori- (porip-) to carry; porid- (poridi-) to undertake an office (Kod..); pude load, burden (Tu.); por to load (Ga.)(DEDR 4565). pir-akku (pir-akki-) to heap, pile up; per-r-u a pile (Ta.); pe_r-r-u a load, esp. bullock-load (Ma.); pe_r-uka to load (as oxen), pile up (Ma.); pe.rn bullock-load (Ko.); pe_r-u to lift up and put upon, load, pile up; n. a load, esp. bullock-load (Ka.); po.r (po.ri-) to transport by pack-animal (Kod..); pe_ra_vuni, pe_runi to load, burden (Tu.); pe_ra_t.a lading, shipping (tu.); perike a bullock load, any burden (Tu.); periy a heap, pile (Tu.); he_ru a sack of corn (Tu.); pe_r(u)cu to pile or load up, arrange in a column or row (Te.); pe_r(u)pu piling or heaping up (Te.); per-ika_t.amu carrying grain on bullocks (Te.); per-ika a large sack or bag, a bullock which carries loads (te.); per-uku to carry loads (Te.); par. to pile up grain in a stack (Go.); per-- (peRt-) to take up, lift up (a load to carry on head or shoulder), heap up (burnt bricks of wood), lay (pot on fire); per-gis to cause to lift up (as load on an animal)(Kond.a); pez to pick up, lift (Pe.); piy to pick up (Mand..); pe_r.hali to lift; perh'nai to lift, raise (Kuwi); pehe to take up; pehre to take along; pehtre to assist in lifting (Malt.)(DEDR 4446). Load: boru load (K.); bharati bears, brings, keeps (RV.); supports, fills (Pali)(CDIAL 9397). Images: saddle; yoke for carrying; carrier, bearer: pa_rakan- < bha_rika carrier, bearer (Ci.Ci. 2,95); pa_ram < bha_ra bearing, sustaining; saddle; pa_ram yoke for carrying a load (Ta.lex.) bhra carrying, carrying away, booty (RV.); weight, mass (Skt.)(CDIAL 9393).

7402.Image: saddle: parya_n.am a saddle (Skt.lex.) parya_n.a, palyayana, pallan.a a saddle (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Trust; support: bhara carrying, carrying away, booty (RV.); weight, mass (skt.); load, fullness (Pkt.); loaded cart (OG.); bar, pl. bari load (Sh.); bharu prop; bhari load (S.); bhari_ heavy load (L.); porter's load, sheaf of straw (P.); bhar fullness, surety (Ku.); faith, trust, support (N.); weight, reliance, support (A.); dependence (B.); load, fulness (Mth.); load (H.); cartload (of grass or fuel), fill (G.); load (M.); bharilo abundant (N.); bharo tax, rent (N.); bhara_ load (A.B.Or.H.); a corn measure (M.); support (B.); bhari a small weight = 1 tola_ (B.); bara load (Si.)(CDIAL 9393). bha_ra burden, weight (RV.); load (Pali); bha_raka weight (Mn.); -bha_raka load (Pali); bhara, bara (NiDoc.); bha_ra, bha_raya load, weight (Pkt.); pharo heavy; bar trouble, vexation (Gypsy); ba_r burden, load (Ash.); ba_r (Kt.Shum.Dm.Pas'.); ba_ load, bundle (Wg.); pa_r, pye_r heavy (Wot..); pha_r load (Kal.); bha_r load (Kal.L.P.); id. (WPah.N.); id. (B.Mth.H.G.M.); load carried on pole over shoulder, weight, responsibility (A.); bar (with rising tone) load, burden, present of food on conclusion of marriage from bride's house and the return present (Kho.); bar load, bundle of wood (Sh.); ba_r id. (Sh.); load (K.); bha_ru burden (Phal.); ba_ra heavy (K.); Heavy; debt: bha_ro_ load (WPah.); bha_ra_ heavy (L.P.); load (WPah.); debt (N.B.); load (H.); bha_ri bundle (N.); bha_ro load, debt (Ku.); load, beam (G.); bha_ri_ bundle of sticks (G.M.); bara, ba..ra load, weight; baruva weight on a fishing line (Si.); baru burden, load (Md.); bha_ra load (OAw.)(CDIAL 9459). bha_ratara heavy (Skt.); forming a heavier load (Pali); bharera_ heavy, fat, elderly (P.)(CDIAL 9461). bha_rika forming a load, heavy (Sus'r.); bha_ri ponderous (of tone)(Skt.); bha_ri_ heavy (P.Ku.Aw.H.G.M.); bha_ri (N.A.B.Or.Bi.); ba..ra (Si.); biru impossible (Md.); bura difficult (Md.); bha_rilla heavy (Pkt.); bharilo well-filled, stout and strong (N.)(CDIAL 9465). bha_rin bearing a load (Mn.); ba..rin.i_ pregnant woman (Si.)(CDIAL 9466).

7403.Dignity: ba_ravan.e, bha_ran.e weightiness; weight, importance, dignity (Ka.); bha_rama_na gravity or weight (M.)(Ka.lex.) bha_ran.e a load, a burden; a heavy burden, great weight; muchness, excessiveness; greatness, gravity, dignity (Ka.lex.)

7404.Image: double bag on a pack-ox: vari--ko_n.iyal double bag, a pair of bags, with their mouths joined together used in loading a pack-ox on either side (Ta.lex.)

7405.Image: speed: beragu haste, speed, expedition (Ka.); virai (Ta.); vire to make haste; to be eager or importunate (Ma.); viraivu speed, haste (Ta.); viravu (Ma.); beraga a hasty, impertinent, rude man (Ka.lex.) vira-col word repeated to indicate haste (Tol. Col. 424); virai-tal to be speedy, swift, rapid (Kur-al., 474)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7406.To run; flow: pari (-v-, -nt-) to run, go out, escape; motion, speed, rapidity, pace of a horse; parippu motion; pariyal going fast (Ta.); pary- (parc-) (horse) gallops; ride at a gallop (To.); pari, hari to run, flow, proceed (as work), go away, disappear, be discharged (as a debt); moving, running, flowing, stream; parike, pariya running; parivu id., flowing, current (Ka.); pariyuni, hariyuni to run, flow; aryuni to flow, run (as water); parapuni to flow (as water); parapu flowing, running; pari path, way; payyolu, payyoli horse, riding, galloping; bayyelu running, riding; bayyol.i a walk (Tu.); parugu, paruvu, parvu running, a run; paruvid.u to run; parapu to cause to flow; pa_ru to run, run away, have a motion of the bowels, purge, fly (Te.); pa_rap- to flow (Ga.); parce, parctre to run away (Malt.)(DEDR 3963). Images: running; forming a ring and dancing: pe_ri galloping, running, as men, horses etc.; pe_ran.i, pe_ran.e dancing, skipping (Ka.); pe_ran.i, pe_ravan.i, pe_re course, pace, running, gallop (Te.); phe_ra, phe_ra_ turning round in a ring, or galloping up and down, as a horse; forming a ring and dancing and capering (M.); pe_ran.i a sword-dance (Ka.); pe_ran.iga a dancer, an actor (Ka.lex.) Semant. 'circle' cf. pher turn; phera_ circle (H.)(CDIAL 9078). Images: wanders, turns; to turn back: cf. phirai goes, returns (Pkt.); phe_ran.a turning (Pkt.); pheroiki to turn, turn back (Sh.)(CDIAL 9078). Image: to leap; run: pari-tal to run (Pur-ana_. 97); to go out; to escape (Civappira. Civaa_. Necu. 81); pari-ttal to run, proceed (Kur-un. 401); pari motion, gait (Kur-un. 44); speed, rapidity, quickness; pace of a horse (Pur-ana_. 4); horse (Tiruva_ca. 8,3)(Ta.lex.) paraiti goes, goes away (RV.); pare_ti sets out, goes on to (Pali); par-, 1st sg. param I shall go (Pas'.); pari_m, pari_s, pareu < paraimi, parais.i, paraiti (Kal.); par- to go, become (Par.); pare_del to run (Psht.)(CDIAL 7914). parippu movement, motion (Pur-ana_. 30); pariyal going fast (Akana_. 28)(Ta.lex.) par-apar-a (-pp-, -tt-) to hasten, hurry; par-ati overhastiness, over-anxiety; par-i (-v-, -nt-) to run away (as a horse), flow out quickly; pa_r-u (pa_r-i-) to run, flee (Ta.); par-i, par-u running swiftly; par-isu to cause oneself to run (Ka.); pa_r- (pa_rd-), pa_r-u (pa_r-i-) to leap up, run, jump, fly, cross by jumping (as a stream), copualte (as a bull); pa_r-isu, ha_r-isu, a_r-isu to cause to jump, etc.; par-u running, flying (Ka.); pa.r- (pa.ri-) to fly, leap (Kod..); pa_runi to run, fly, escape; pa_rele runner, fugitive; pa_ra_t.a running, a race; pa_ra_vuni to cause to run, drive; ra_puni, ra_vuni to fly (Tu.); par-acu to run away, flee, flow; cause to flee; par-apu to send away, cause to flee; shoot, discharge; pa_r-u to run, flow; fly; pa_r-a_do_lu to drive away, chase away (Te.)(DEDR 4020). pa_r-u-tal to run, flee (Kampara_. Kumpatka. 182)(Ta.lex.)

7407.Image: male wild cat: bara_gh a leopard, a panther (P.lex.) bar.hbilla, baharbilla, bahar.billa a wild cat; bahgar. billa_ a wild cat (spoken to frighten children); ba_gh a tiger; ba_ghn.i_ a tigress; baghela_, bagheli_ a tiger's whelp; baghar. billa_ a wild cat; a large tom-cat (P.lex.) verukku-vit.ai male of wild cat (Pur-ana_. 324)(Ta.lex.) beru a wild-cat (Tulu.lex.) veruku wild cat (verukku vit.aiyan-n-a : Pur-ana_. 324)(Ta.lex.) cf. veruku tom-cat, wild cat (Ta.); varka_r wild cat (Go.)(CDIAL 5490). Image: tiger: varippuli Bengal tiger; varivayam tiger, as striped (Pur-ana_. 100)(Ta.lex.) Image: leopard: bir, bir pakar. jungle, forest, wild, undomesticated; bir janwar wild animals; bir pusi a wild cat; veiled name for leopards and tigers; birnaha wild, undomesticated; of solitary habits, strange (Santali.lex.) Image: jackal: varad.u, varud.u an old fox (Te.); bal.l.u, ol.l.u a jackal (Ka.); vavva_yi, vavva_li a fox (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) Image: leopard; jackal: bhe_rum.d.a leopard (Pkt.)[phe_t.-ka_ra howling (BHSkt.)]; [put.t.a fox, jackal (Ma.); put.t.e id. (Tu.)(DEDR 4261)]. phe_ru jackal (BhP.); phe_run.d.a (Skt.); bhe_ran.d.aka jackal (BHSk.); leopard (Pali); pheruwa_ jackal (A.); pheran.d.a_ jackal (Or.); pheu jackal's cry (A.); fox, jackal (B.); phauhi_ jackal (P.); fe_wat.a_ a kind of jackal (WPah.); phyu_n.o inferior kind of jackal (Ku.); phya_uro a kind of fox (N.); phya_uri its vixen (N.)(CDIAL 9112). Image: cat: vira_lam < vira_la cat (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) bid.a_raka, vid.a_raka a cat; bid.a_laka, vid.a_laka a cat (Skt.lex.) vit.ai tom-cat (Tol. Po. 623, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

7408.Stale: hasuku a disagreeable smell of certain leaves or unripe fruits, the smell of raw meat, etc. (Ka.); pa_yu, pa~_cu, pa_su to be rotten; p(r)a~_ci foulness, staleness, nastiness (Te.); pa_s- to get addled, get sour (of food)(Kol.); to become stale (Nk.); pa~_se left-over food from the previous day, spoiled food (Ga.); pa_- (-t-) to rot and smell offensively (of any food, rice, fruit, or a dead animal)(Kond.a); pa_n.t.al rancidity, mustiness, fetidness, mouldiness, staleness; pa_n.t.ai bad smell, as of rotten fish (Ta.)(DEDR 4057). cf. par..a old (Ta.)(DEDR 3999). pa_r.. go to ruin (Ta.)(DEDR 4110). paryus.t.a old, faded (BhP.); paryus.ita stale (Mn.); pari(v)usia, parijusia stale (Pkt.); pa_rus.n.e~ to become stale (M.); pa_rot.h decayed through long disuse (G.); pa_ru_tho stale (S.); pa_ru_tha_ stale; food cooked overnight (L.); parossa_ food set aside for one who has not joined the party, food to be sent to a friend (P.); pa_ravsa_, pa_rosa_ stale; one who has not yet performed his daily ablutions (M.)(CDIAL 7861). par.n. to lose scent (perfumes), to become fetid, to fade, to lose colour (P.lex.)

7409.Fragrance: parimal.a-k-kur..ampu a fragrant mixture (W.)(Ta.); parimal.a-t-tiraviyam fragrant substance; parimal.a-tailam fragrant oil (Ta.); parimal.am < pari-mala fragrance, perfume (Kampara_. Citti. 25); parimal.i-ttal to spread sweet smell; to be fragrant; parimal.ippu giving out fragrance (Ta.lex.) parimala, parimal.a exquisite fragrance, perfume, fragrant scent; kammitu, savusava, kampu, kammitu, magamagisu, nar-u; the pounding or tituration of perfumes; parimalita perfumed, scented; parimal.isu to be exquisitely fragrant, to be highly perfumed; parimal.isuha being exquisitely fragrant; smell, as one of the objects of sense (Ka.lex.) parimala copulatory pleasure (Skt.); fragrance arising from the tituration of substances; fragrance (Skt.); fragrance (Pkt.); pimal fragrance; pimal.vu~ to give out a sweet odour (G.)(CDIAL 7854).

7410.Perfuming the body: parikarman perfuming the body (after bathing) (MBh.); preparation (Skt.); parikamma preparation (Pali); parikamma, pare_yamman.a decoration (Pkt.); piriyama adorning, any beautiful or well-finished work (Si.)(CDIAL 7799w). Image: body: par-i body (par-iye_ cumantur..alvi_r par-inari ki_r-uva tar-iyi_r : Te_va_. 1154,2)(Ta.lex.) Fragrant powder: para_ga fragrant powder used after bathing (Ka.lex.) para_kam fragrant powder; sandalwood (Malai.); dust (Tirukko_. 194)(Ta.lex.) sam.spars'a close contact (AV.); samphassa contact, relation (Pali) sam.pha_sa touch (Pkt.); hapus horripilation (Si.)(CDIAL 13056). pari sense of touch (Ve_ta_. Cu_. 77)(Ta.lex.) To adorn: spars'ayate_ adorns (RV.); causes to be touched (RV.); pispr.s'ati will cause to be adorned (RV.); pha_sn.e, pha~_sn.e~ to rub over thoroughly (with ashes etc.)(M.); parsn.a_ to touch, sprinkle ceremonially (P.); parsanu to sprinkle (sacrificial animal with water, wedding party with rice)(N.); spr.s'ati sprinkles (Gr.S'r.)(CDIAL 13811). Touch: paricam < spars'a sense of touch (Ja_n-ava_. Vi_taka. 47)(Ta.lex.) spars'a touch (Mn.); phassa touch (Pali); phas.a (KharI.); parasa (Skt.); pharisa(ga), pham.sa, pha_sa, pharasa (Pkt.); phas' stroking, rubbing the limbs (to allay itching), plastering (with mud or cowdung), wiping out (K.); pha~_s anything which gets under nails and hurts, splinter (of bamboo etc.)(H.); phasa_ pha_tto_ru touchstone (Konkan.i); pas-a touch, feeling (Si.)(CDIAL 13809). spars'ana touching (S'vetUp.); sensation (Mn.); phassana_ touch (Pali) pharasan.a organ of touch (Pkt.); pharasan.a touch (OG.)(CDIAL 13810). spars'ayati causes to touch (TS.pra_t.); phasse_ti touches, attains (Pali); pha_se_i, pha_sai touches (Pkt.); parasna_ to touch (H.); parasvu~ (G.)(CDIAL 13811). spr.s'ati touches, strokes (RV.); phusati touches (Pali); phusai touches, wipes, rubs (Pkt.); pharisai touches (OG.); phosav, phosav to prick, stab (Gypsy); phusalyu_n.o to cajole (Ku.); phuslya_unu (N.); phusala_iba_ (Or.); phusla_na_ (H.); phosla_vvu~ (G.): phusla_vin.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 13815). spr.s'ya to be touched (MBh.); phassa pleasant (Pali)(cf. phussa absol. of phusati touches); nupus invaluable (Si.)(CDIAL 13816). cf.[semant. 'adorn': pu_ja_ honour, worship (A_s'vGr..); puda offerings, worship (Si.)(CDIAL 8317). aspr.s.t.a untouched (BhP.) spr.s.t.a touched (AV.); apput.t.ha untouched (Pkt.); apu_t. unadulterated (H.); untouched, untasted, unbroken (M.)(CDIAL 984).

7411.Materials, tools, requisites: vira_y, vira_yam materials, as for a piece of work (Ta.); tal.ava_t.am = tools, materials, requisites, tackle, furniture (Ka.Ma.) (Ta.lex.) Expedient: viraku means, expedient, contrivance (I_t.u. 1,3,,Pra.); veravu id. (Te.); beragu (Ka.); viraku cleverness, prudence, tact; cunning (Kampara_. Intiracittuvatai. 28); discretion, discriminative knowledge (Tiruva_n-aik. Campumu. 41); enthusiasm (Me_ruman. 342)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Tool: haruvu, harvu a way,a means, an expedient (Ka.lex.) cf. karuvu, karugu a mould (Te.); karavi,karu, garu a mould (Tu.)(DEDR 1280). cf. karuvi instrument, tool (Ta.); kari, karivi, karuvi, karu tool, plough, weapon (Ma.)(DEDR 1290).

7412.Provisions; paraphernalia: parikara apparatus, articles, as the vessels, flowers, perfumes etc. used at pu_ja (Ka.lex.) parika_ram store, provisions (Cir-upa_n.. 104); pariccantam royal insignia and paraphernalia (Me_ruman. 1048); pariccin-n-am insignia of a great person (Periyapu. Tiruja_n-a. 1016); Instruments: parikaram means, instrument, agent (I_t.u, 9,1,1); parikalapariccin-n-an:kal. attendants in charge of the royal paraphernalia (S.I.I. v,104)(Ta.lex.) paris.ka_ra ornament (MBh.); parikkha_ra apparatus (Pali); pirikara ornament, requisites (Si.)(CDIAL 7894). Provisions: parika_ram < pari-kara tribute (Ta.inscr.)(Ta.lex.) parin.aya leading round, especially leading the bride round the sacred fire; marrying, marriage (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pa_ri-kattu < fari_gh-khatti release deed (W.); partition, division; partition-deed (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Seasoning: parika_ra preparation: seasoning food with salt, pepper etc.; condiment, spice or seasoning; upaskara; u_t.ada parika_ra (Ka.lex.)

7413.Image: plank over the top of a doorway: paran. watch tower (Ta.Ma.); rack over a fireplace, loft under the roof of a house; upper storey (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,4,1) (Ta.lex.) bharn.u~ completing, piece placed on top of pillar to support a beam (G.); bharna_ plank over doorway on which wall is built up (Bi.); bharn.e~ piece of wood filled in between head of post and crosspiece (M.)(CDIAL 9395). pa_ri the two side-posts of a cart wherein the pegs are fastened (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bhara~_t.h, bharait.h plank over the top of a doorway on which the wall is built (Bi.)(CDIAL 9394). Image: dike: baran.i, baron.i a water-course made out of a cocoanut palm stem (Tu.lex.) vartra dike, dam (AV.); vat.i-ya dam between fields serving as path (Si.)(CDIAL 11370). ba_ran.a obstruction, dam (Or.)(CDIAL 11553). cf. varattuva_ri supply channel, feeding channel of a tank (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Image: sluice: paran.i sluice of a tank (W.)(Ta.lex.) parnala a water shoot, a drain, a sput, a gutter from the roofs of houses (P.lex.)

7414.Image: leafy hut: paran.i-kut.icai a hut thatched with leaves (Ko_yilo. 27); parn.am < parn.a leaf (Ta.lex.) parn.as'a_la_ leafy hut, hermitage (Skt.lex.)

7415.Images: to string beads; to perforate with a needle: parovun. to perforate (with a needle), wreathe (L.); paron.a_, piron.a_, puron.a_ to string (beads etc.)(P.); parivayati interweaves (BhP.); paryuta set with (S'Br.); pirun to string (beads etc.)(K.); pirona_ to plait, weave on, string (pearls etc.), thread a needle (H.)(CDIAL 7869). piranun to string (beads etc.)(K.)(CDIAL 7868). pirohana_ to plait, weave on, string (beads etc.)(OH.)(CDIAL 7867). Image: to perforate: pa_re_ti bores through, makes go through (Pali)(CDIAL 8106).

7416.Image: to part, separate: pari-tal to part, separate (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7417.Image: ornamental dots: par-y- (par-c-) to beautify (bamboo pot with black dots, teeth by polishing)(To.); par-i to adorn, decorate; n. ornament, decoration, embellishment (Ka.)(DEDR 4028). cf. parase perforations in a small tumbler-like arrangement in a contrivance for making vermicelli (Tu.lex.) Spotted cloth: parus.a spotted (RV.); pharu_ha_ spotted cloth (P.)(CDIAL 7909). mar-u blot, spot,freckle (Ta.Ma.); mas.t black pigmented spot on body (To.); mar-aka stain, blot, spot (Te.)(DEDR 4767). Mole: masa_ wart, mole (H.); matsya a mole on the body (M.); maccu blemish, fault, that which is improper; maccam mole on the skin (Ta.); mat black or white spot on skin (Ko.); mas.t black pigmented spot on body (To.); macca, macce black speck or spot on skin, mole, freckle, scar of a wound; matti freckle, mark; maja mole (Ka.); maja, maje a natural speck, spot, freckle, mole; majane a kind of black scars on the body (Tu.); macca spot, speck, stain, blot, blemish, mole, feckle, scar (Te.); masa mole, wart (Go.); masa blot; pud.gu masa birthmark, mole (Kond.a); mac spot made on forehead with turmeric (Pe.); masha_x scarred; bald, hornless (of animals)(Br.)(DEDR 4632). Cattle or other animal with red spots: mar-ai freckle, mole (Kalit. 103)(DEDR 4767); cattle or other animal with red spots (Ta.lex.)

7418.To get acquainted; pilgrimage; to bless: parasu to bless; parase, paris'e people going on pilgrimage (Tu.lex.) cf. par.chau a ceremony observed when a bridegroom takes his bride home; thari sudhatege ja~wa~e kor.a bahu kur.ikin cumaur.a seye par.chaukina; parchau ader ceremonies connected with the introduction of a bride to her new home; bahuko par.chau aderkoa they observe certain ceremonies on the entry of a bride to her new home; parca acquaintances, to become acquainted, to become known to each other; cinha parca menakkotama noakore? have you any acquaintances about here? cinha parcaenakin they have come to know each other (Santali.lex.)

7419.Wedding gift: barh to give (Skt.lex.) pa_ri-perkam < pa_ri-barha wedding gift (Kalin.. 242)(Ta.lex.) bare itat a bullock given at marriage by bridegroom to bride's brothers (Santali.lex.) Daily wages: berhon daily wages paid in kind to agricultural labourers (Santali.lex.) Wife; marriage presents: pa_rin.e_yyam < prob. pa_rin.a_yya articles received by a bride at the time of marriage, such as ornaments and the like; pa_ri < bha_rya_ wife (Ma_r-an-alan.. 664)(Ta.lex.) parida_payati causes to be given (MBh.); paridada_ti gives up (RV.); paridijjai is given; pariya_n.a general gift (Pkt.); paryu_n.o to give a share to everyone, distribute (Ku.)(CDIAL 7836). pari_tta given up (VS.); parto delivered in charge (S.)(CDIAL 7906). Gift; receipt: pradi gift (Pa_n.. com.); prai, pray receipt (K.)(CDIAL 8663). pyo_ru gift (Pr.); prada_na (TS.)(CDIAL 8661). prada_ya gift (Mn.)(CDIAL 8659). pratida_na gift in return (Pa_n..); pat.ida_na reciprocal gift (Pali); pad.ida_n.a (Pkt.); pain.o reciprocal presents among friends or kinsmen or neighbours of any unusual thing supposed to be a dainty (Ku.)(CDIAL 8567). pradada_ti gives away (RV.); pratta pp. (TS.); pradatta (R.); padada_ti gives (Pali); 1 sg. prem, plem (Ash.); pre- (Kt.); 1 sg. pra_m, imper. pre_ (Wg.); -pli-, -bli- (Pr.); 1 sg. prim, imper. pre (Dm.); di- (Shum.); de_-, di- (Gaw.); pada_ti (Pali); prau he gave; pra (Kal.); prai (Kho.); pro_ta, plate gave (Ash.); pta_ (Kt.); pratoi (Wg.); prate_ (Dm.); payatta given (Pkt.); da_itam he gave to me (Shum.); pretam I gave (Kho.); dit (Gaw.) (CDIAL 8655). To deliver: parida_ to hand or deliver over, consign; to entrust or deposit with; parida_nam restitution or restoration of a deposit; barter, exchange (Skt.lex.) pari-ta_n-am barter, exchange; bribe (Kumare_ca. Cata. 61)(Ta.lex.) parida_na barter, exchange (Ka.lex.) paryu_n.o to give a share to everyone, distribute (Ku.); parida_payati causes to be given (MBh.); paridada_ti gives up (RV.); paridijjai is given; pariya_n.a general gift (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7836). pargah assistance afforded in an emergency, special kindness; pargolaun to make one grateful, to show favour, or kindness, to oblige (P.lex.) parto delivered in charge (pres. st. parnan.u)(S.); pari_tta given up (VS.)(CDIAL 7906).

7420.Feast: pahna to visit, to attend a feast (Santali.lex.)

7421.Gift: pra_s customary return of a certain portion of gift sent by bride's father to husband's family on certain festive occasions, the portion so returned (K.); pa_so anything unwanted that is left or deposited (N.)(CDIAL 8969). pasara a gift (Ka.lex.) Gift: prasa_da favour (MBh.)(CDIAL 8831). pasa_u favour (H.); pasa_y favour, riches (G.M.); pasaya gift (Si.); pasa_ur.i_ food given to family barber at weddings (P.)(CDIAL 8831). prasa_da-da_na propitiatory gift (Skt.); pasa_ytu~ land set apart for religious pruposes or for maintenance of village artisans (G.)(CDIAL 8832). pasa_dana granting graces, gratification (Pali.lex.) Clearness, purity; devotion: pacai devotion, love, affection, desire; to be kind, affectionate; pacainta_r friends; pacaivu compassion, kindness, affection (Ta.); pasa wish, great desire, eagerness; pasavu desire, eagerness; pade to desire, wish (Ka.)(DEDR 3828). pasanna (pp. of pa + syad) flowing out, streaming, issuing forth (Pali.lex.) prasa_da clearness, calmness (Skt.); kindness, favour (MBh.); pasa_da clearness, satisfaction (Pali); prasado, prasade, prasa_do, pas.a_de nom. sg. devotion (As'.); pasa_ya happiness (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8831). prasa_dhayati accomplishes (RV.); arranges (AV.); adorns (Skt.); pasa_dhe_ti adorns (Pali); pasa_he_i completes, subdues (Pkt.); pasa_hun.a_ to perform the ceremony of stripping and purifying and adorning a bridegoom (P.)(CDIAL 8834). pasa_dhita (pp. of pasa_dheti) adorned, arrayed with ornaments, embellished, dressed up; pasa_dhana ornament, decoration, parure (rao si_sa pasa_dhana kappaka King's headdress-maker, i.e. barber)(Pali. lex.) prasa_dayati makes clear, purifies (Skt.); appeases (Mn.); prasa_dyate_ is gladdened (Mn.); pasa_de_ti calms, gladdens (Pali); pasa_e_i gladdens (Pkt.); paha_in.u to reconcile (S.); pahadinava_ to become clear, be pleased (Si.)(CDIAL 8833). prasi_dati settles down, becomes clear or calm (MBh.); is pleased (Mn.); pasi_dati is purified, is pleased and calm (Pali); pasi_yai is happy (Pkt.); pasijjan.a being pleased (Pkt.); pas'ija~r.~ to be pleased (Ku.)(CDIAL 8843). prasatta satisfied, pleased (RV.)(CDIAL 8821). prasanna pleased (MaitrUp.); clear, bright (MBh.); pasanna pleased, clear (Pali); prasana, prasam.na_, pas.am.na_ pl. devoted to (As'.); pasan.n.a pleased (Pkt.); prasonu (K.); pasan, pahan glad (Si.); pasana joy (Si.)(CDIAL 8823). pahati pleasure (S.)(CDIAL 8822). Concord: pahatu fitting, concord; pa_hatu concord, money given to a person bearing expenses of any rite (S.)(CDIAL 8821). prasatti favour (Skt.); pahati approval, reconciliation, concord (S.)(CDIAL 8822). pahan.u to be reconciled (S.)(CDIAL 8843). pacantu elegance, beauty, attractiveness, fineness (Ta.); pa.can., pa.cand beauty; pa.can.a.c good-tempered woman; pa.can. gey- to have pleasurable sexual intercourse (Ko.); po.ca.n. beauty; beautiful (To.); pasandu approved, agreeable, comely, pleasing; agreeing to (Ka.); pasandu, pasantu, pasando comely, handsome, pleasing, nice (Tu.); pasandu excellent, beautiful, nice, agreeable, approved (Te.); pasand (< Pers.) approved, pleasing; approving (H.)(DEDR App. 46).

7422.Marriage token: pariyam bride-price (Ci_vaka. 1047); paricam jewels, etc. presented by a bridegroom to his bride; paricu id.; paricam bride-price; dowry; a concubine's fee (Cilap. 3,163, Urai.); paricam-po_t.utal to perform the ceremony of betrothal; paricil gift, donation, present (Cir-upa_n.. 218); paricilar solicitors of gifts (Cir-upa_n.. 218); paricil-vit.ai theme of a king's bestowing gifts upon his panegyrists and permitting them to leave in a happy mood (Pu. Ve. 9,26)(Ta.lex.) Gift; brideprice: spars'ana a gift, donation (Skt.lex.) paricil gift, donation, present; paricilar solicitors of gifts; paricu gift, donation, present, boon (Tiruvicaip. Tiruppal. 10)(Ta.lex.); pariyam, paricam brideprice, hire of a prostitute (Ta.); dowry, jewels, etc. presented by a bridegroom to his bride (Ta.lex.); pariyam token given by bridegroom to bride (Ma.); paricam-po_t.u to perform the ceremony of betrothal; parica-man.i necklace tied around the neck of the bride at a betrothal ceremony among Pal.l.as (Ta.lex.)(DEDR 3970). paricu quality, nature, property (Ta.Ma.); pari (Te.); pariju (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) ?cf. pharisa (Pkt.); spars'a (Skt.); bhorosa, bhorsa hope, dependence, expectation, confidence, trust, faith; cakem bhorsa idian. kana? why do you continue to cause me to hope? bharosa hope, expectation; bharsa id., reliance (Santali.lex.) cf. pratija_ promise (MBh.); pat.ia promise, vow (Pali); pat.im.a_, pat.im.na_ (As'.); pad.in.n.a_, pain.n.a_, paijja_ (Pkt.); paij vow, solemn resolution (P.); paija (OAw.); paij vow, promise, solemn declaration (whence paijna_ to promise)(H.); bet, promise (M.); pain. bet, agreement (M.); pil.ina promise, agreement (Si.)(CDIAL 8563). Distributing food: parossa one who serves food at a table; food set apart for one who has not yet joined a party at dinner, or to be sent to a friend; parosn. to serve out food at a table (P.lex.) parsao to help to food, to distribute cooked food, as to a number of persons at a feast; daka parsaope distribute the cooked rice (Santali.lex.) parha~r cooked rice (Mu.lex.) parchan.u to serve up food; pari_cha, parcha dish of food sent to a faqir (S.); parye_s.ati seeks (ChUp.); pari_s.t.i willingness, readiness, homage; service (Skt.)(CDIAL 7905). par.a-sa_n, par.a-sahan the eve of a public feast, on which fire-wood is generally split and other preparations are made; the day on which the men of a village go and gather and prepare the firewood for a coming betrothal or marriage; to prepare next day's public feast: tisin.lo par.asa_ntana, gapa mageoa; par.asa_nhulan. on the eave of a public feast (Mu.lex.) Image: meal placed on a dish; food offered to guest: parauso, paroso a meal for one person placed before him in a dish (Ku.); parosa_ dish of food sent to neighbour or friend or offered to guest (H.); parasa_ serving of food (Or.); parive_s.a serving of food (AV.)(CDIAL 7885). parive_s.aka one who serves food (MBh.); parive_saka serving at meals (Pali); pari_ha_ one who serves food at table; paro_ssa_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 7886). cf. pal.l.ayam, pal.l.aiyam dish (Ta.); pal.l.eyam basin, dish (Ma.); pallayi earthen dish (Tu.); pal.l.emu, pal.yamu, pal.l.eramu plate (Te.); pa_l.e_ wooden bowl (M.)(CDIAL 4017). parive_s.an.a attendance, serving at meals (S'Br.); parive_san.a_ serving food (Pali); parive_san.a, parive_san.a_, pari_san.a (Pkt.); pari_hn.i_ distributing food (P.); parasun.i_, parusun.i_, parasa_n.a, parusa_n.a serving a meal (Or.)(CDIAL 7887). parive_s.ati attends, serves food (AV.); parivisati waits upon, serves with (Pali); pri_hn.a_ to serve a meal (L.); pari_hn.a_ (P.); parasa_ (B.); parusiba_, parasiba_ (Or.); parosal (Bhoj.); parosai, parasai (OAw.); pari(v)e_sai serves food (Pkt.); parosna_ to offer food to a guest or send to a neighbour (H.); parosn.a_ (P.); puru_sai, purasai serves a meal (OMarw.); pri_sai serves (OG.); pari_svu~, parasvu~ to serve faithfully (G.); pirasvu~ to serve a meal (G.)(CDIAL 7888). parye_s.ati seeks (ChUp.); pari_s.t.i willingness, readiness, homage; service (Skt.); parchan.u to serve up food (S.); pari_cha, parcha dish of food sent to a faqir (S.)(CDIAL 7905). prati_cchati strives after (RV.); prati_cchaka one who receives (Mn.); pat.icchati accepts, receives (Pali); pad.icchati (NiDoc.); pad.icchai (Pkt.); caus.: pat.iccha_pe_ti entrusts to (Pali); pad.icche_ma_n.a making accept; pass. pad.iccha_vi_adi (Pkt.); par.chan.u, imper. par.che to serve up food (S.); 2 sg. pres. pin.isvi_, 3 sg. pun.usvayi = Pa. pat.iccha_pe_ti (OSi.); pat.icchaka receiving (Pali); pad.ichaya (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8623). Care: parihn.i_ distributing food, setting food or sweetmeats before friends (P.lex.) parava_ < parwa_ (U.) care, concern (Ta.lex.) parava_, parave, parva_ care, concern about; regard, heed; anxiety (Ka.); par-ave (Ma.M.H.); parava_ illa there is no anxiety, i.e. there is no cause for anxiety, it is of no consequence (Ka.lex.)

7423.Neighbour: prative_s'ya neighbour (MBh.); prativa_sin (MBh.); pat.ivissaka neighbour (Pali); par.esi_, par.osi_ neighbour (S.); par.isa_ neighbour (Or.); par.es neighbourhood (P.); par.esi_, par.aussi_, par.osi_ (P.); pratives'iya, pat.ivesiya neighbour (As'.); pad.ive_sia neighbouring (Pkt.); par.osi_ neighbour (Ku.); pad.iyes'i_ (OB.); par.is'i_ (MB.); par.si_ (B.); par.osi_ (Or.); parosi_ (Bhoj.Aw.); par.ausi_, par.osi_, parosi_ (H.); par.os'i_ (G.); pad.os'i_ (M.)(CDIAL 8599). prative_s'a neighbouring; neighbour (RV.); prative_s'atah- from the neighbourhood (S'Br.); prati_ve_s'a neighbouring (Pa_n.. va_rtt.); pae_sa neighbour (Pkt.); pus'u_ (Kt.); par.os neighbourhood (Ku.); par.aus, par.os, paros (H.); par.os, par.os' (G.); pad.os adv. near; pad.osa_ neighbourhood (M.)(CDIAL 8598). pore, hore joining; union; connection; nearness, neighbourhood, vicinity (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7424.Bill of lading: va_r-na_ma_ bill of lading (Ta.); wari_-na_ma_ id. (U.); va_rat.ai-y-o_lai deed of lease (Ta.lex.) Income: va_ri income, resources (puyalen-n-um va_ri : Kur-al., 14); produce (ma_ripoyppin-um va_ri kun-r-in-um : Pur-ana_. 35); grain; wealth; varicai village dues or rent (I.M.P.Tp. 293) (Ta.lex.) varattu, varuttu income, inlet, increase (Ta.); varal-a_ order of events, history, means (Ta.); [For semant. 'history' cf. va_rtta_ (Skt.lex.)]; varavu income, coming, history, origin, way, path (Ta.); varavai income, as from tax; varunar newcomers, guests (Ta.); Image: entrance: va_ri income, produce; entrance, door, path (Ta.); varavu coming, income (Ma.); varla.r (obl. varla.t-) account of oneself and one's previous history (Ko.); varv contribution (Ko.); parf contribution to meet expenses of construction of dairy (To.); baravi income (Ka.); barat- (barati-) to cause to come (Ka.); barpini to come, arrive, bring (Tu.); ra_bad.i income, profit (Te.); ra_mi, ra_mi_ profit, saving (Te.); var- to come (Kol.Nk.Ga.); ver- id. (Pa.); va_- (-t-; imp. 2sg. ra'a, 2pl. radu; neg. stem re'-) to come (Kond.a); va_- (-t-) to come (Pe.Mand.); va_va coming, approaching (Kui); barna_ to come, arrive, be forthcoming (Kur.); bare to come (Malt.); baring (bar-, ba-; imp. ba; past. bass-) to come (Br.)(DEDR 5270). History, tradition; tax: varavu income, receipts (Kumare_. Cata. 29); history (Man.i. 6,205); varan--mur-ai tradition (Te_va_. 80,3); origin, history (Piramo_t. 18,1) varavu-vaittal to credit in account; to enter the receipt of money as on a pro-note or document (C.G.); varavai tax (S.I.I. iii,211) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) cf. or..uku land record containing particulars of ownership etc. of lands (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 3, Vya_.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) An ancient office: cf. varippottakam an ancient office (T.A.S. i,166); tax register (Ta.inscr.)(Ta.lex.)

7425.Tax: vari impost, tax, toll, duty; contribution, kut.i-ir-ai (Ta.lex.); tax, levy, contribution (Ma.); tax (Te.); vary tax paid to government or to Kurumbas, tax paid by Badaga to Kota (Ko.)(DEDR 5266). varicai village dues or rent (Ta.lex.) -vari : tax, revenue register, order of the king and his officer fixing the revenue (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) variyila_r (S.I.I. iii,36), vari-k-ku_r-it.uva_r (Inscr.) revenue officers in ancient times; lit. those who make paddy heaps; vari- to allocate, assign, appoint; to write; Image: line: line, as on shells; streaks, as in timber; stripe; series (Patir-r-up. 83,2)(Ta.lex.) vari-k-kal long piece of stone chiselled into required shape; ko_yil man.t.apattukku vari-k-kal kon.t.u-varukira_rkal: (People) are bringing the (?tax) stone to the assembly hall of the temple; vari-k-ku_r-ceyva_r (S.I.I..iii,211): those who make heaps (to levy impost); revenue officers of ancient times; varikku-k-ku_r-u-ceyva_r id. (S.I.I. iii,211)(Ta.lex.)[cf. ko_r.-k-kan.akku kur..i-k-kan.akku lit. heap [(ku_r.u, not ko_l (stick or measuring rod)] measure, field measure; i.e., measurement by heaps (for produce) and measurement of fields (by linear measure, in square units of kur..i)(Ta.lex.)

7426.Trousers: wi_t. trousers (Kt.); o_t. (Wg.); bhut (Kal.)(CDIAL 12071). parat.t.aiyam a close-fitting drawers, used by athletes (Cu_l.a_. Kalya_. 16)(Ta.lex.)

7427.Fragrance: ve_rakam < ve_raka camphor (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) ve_ra saffron (Skt.lex.) ver-i fragrance (Kalit. 57); ve_ri fragrance, scent (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) Confectionery: viraku confectionery (Poruna. 108)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) ve_raccu-k-kot.i a species of sandalwood (Cilap. 14,108, Urai.) (Ta.lex.) ver-i madness, intoxication, fury, folly, confusion, fear (Ka.Ta.Ma.); ver-r-i (Te.); ve_d.a madness, folly (M.) (Ka.lex.) To apply aromatic unguents: virai odour, fragrance (viraicer-i kamala-ppotil vi_r-r-irun tarul.u celvan- : Kantapu. Tiruvava. 100); perfumes, five in number, viz., ko_t.t.am, turukkam, takaram, akil, cantan-am (pattut tuvarin-umaintu viraiyin-um : Cilap. 6,79)(Ta.); viri id. (Te.); virai incense (Cu_t.a_.); sandal mixed with perfumes (Cu_t.a_.); honey of flowers (Ci_vaka. 1467); flower, blossom (Ja_n-a_. 57,43); vira-ttal to be fragrant; to emit perfumes (Ka_cippu. Irupat. 182); virai-p-pan.t.am aromatic substance (Ta.); virai-var..ittal to apply aromatic unguents (Ci_vaka. 699)(Ta.lex.) cf. varti an ointment, a perfume for the person (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7428.Image: elephant goad: pari-k-ko_l elephant goad (Tol. Po. 11, Urai.); bariko_la id. (Te.); pari-k-ka_rar men armed with goads to control an elephant (Patin-o. A_l.u. Tiruvula_. 109); barika_d.u id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) Image: goad: pa~r.a_ a wooden goad; arjan a goad with an iron point (Santali.lex.) Image: fish lance: par-i contrivance for catching fish (Perumpa_n.. 265); par-i-po_t.utal to set the par-i in water for catching fish (Ta.lex.)

7429.Image: female songsters: varicai-makal.ir a class of female songsters (Patir-r-up. 18,6, Urai); varicai-ma_tar (Tiruva_lava_. Tirunagarac. 6)(Ta.lex.)

7430.Lineage; image: row, series: varicai order, regularity, line, row, series, (Ta.); varusa row, line, series, order, arrangement, a turn by rotation, relationship, manner, mode, way (Te.); varase, varise line, row, lineage, race, family, a turn, a time (Ka.); va_r a row (Ta.); a line (Ma.); ba_r a line, row (Ka.); ba_ru id., rank, range, series (Te.)(DEDR 5269). varicai-k-kiramam proper or regular order; varicai-k-kur-r-i stumps of wood set in a row in a brick-kiln (Ta.lex.) virakul.i in order (Me_ruman. 719)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) viracana the act of arranging, arrangement; constructing, contriving, contrivance; making; compiling, composing, composition; embellishing; any artificial or ornamental fabric (Ka.); viracisu to arrange; viracita arranged (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7431.Artisan: basket-maker; shoe-maker; carpenter; tailor: va_rud.a a low mixed caste (Pa_n..va_rtt.); varud.a a caste whose work is splitting canes (Skt.); tribe of outcasts (Pkt.); varum.t.a a caste of artisans (Pkt.); ba_rur.i_ basket-maker (Ku.)(CDIAL 11562). Image: bamboo splits fastened lengthwise; cut leather lengthwise or in strips: ba_ri bamboo splits fastened lengthwise to the rafters of a roof from both sides (Tu.); va_ri lath, rafter, reeper (Ma.); va_rai rafter, beam (Ta.)(DEDR 5361). Image: length, elongation; height, straightness: va_r length, elongation; height, straightness (Ta.); ba_r(u) length (Ka.)(DEDR 5358). va_ri lath tied lengthwise at the edge of a thatched roof (Ta.)(DEDR 5360). Stripping the bark of a tree: ?va_ru to trim, as a palmyra leaf to write on (Ta.); ba_r to make creepers of leather, cut leather lengthwise in strips (Ka.); ba_rane stripping the bark of a tree or cutting it lengthwise (Tu.)(DEDR 5363-a).

7432.Household: ba_r household, family (Ku.); ghar-ba_r family (N.); house and home (H.); ghar-ba_ri married (N.); ghar-da_r house and home (H.)(CDIAL 6663). Residence: varu_tam < varu_tha residence, dwelling (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-i_r. 23) (Ta.lex.) varu_tham a sort of wooden fence of a chariot; an armour, a coat of mail; a shield; a group, multitude, an assemblage; protection; a family; a house, residence (Vedic in the last 3 senses)(Skt.lex.) cf. va_ri lath tied lengthwise at the edge of a thatched roof; va_rai rafter, beam (Ta.); va_ri lath, rafter, creeper (Ma.)(DEDR 5362). Thatched roof: ruwa_ rafter of a thatched roof (A.); ruya_ (B.); rua_ (Or.)(CDIAL 10846). Image: bamboo splits: ba_ri bamboo splits fastened lengthwise to the rafters of a roof from both sides (Tu.)(DEDR 5362). Image: transverse lath: vari (-pp-, -tt-) to fix as the reepers of a tiled roof (Ta.); bari_ roof (Ir.); bari thatched roof (A_lKu.); vayr roof (Ko.); pary roof of hut (To.); barndi_ ridge beam of a roof (Kur.)(DEDR 5264). parchati_ receptacle for goods made by placing a beam across a room and flooring the interval between it and the wall (L.); parchit, parchiti thatched wall of earth (Or.); parchatti_, parchati_, parchat.i_ a small thatch thrown over mud walls and roofs of houses (H.) (CDIAL 7810). paricchada cover, covering dress (S'a_nkhS'r.); covering (Pali); parcha_ mat of palm leaves for lying on (L.)(CDIAL 7811). Image: transverse lath: variccu reeper of a roof; transverse lath (Kampara_. Cittira. 46); variccal id.; variccal-a_n.i, varicca_n.i nails for fastening reepers; varittal to bind, tie, fasten; to fix, as the reepers of a tiled roof (Ja_n-ava_. Ma_vali. 48)(Ta.lex.)

7433.Image: jesting: pariha_sa jesting, ridiculing (MBh.); laughter, mockery (Pali.Pkt.); peryas, pais fun, sport, joke (Gypsy); pariha_sa jesting (OMrh.); pariha_s laughing (H.)(CDIAL 7902).

7434.A division of a country: pargana a division of a country, or an estate, generally for fiscal purposes; ragda majhi, sakin biswadih, pargana t.un.d.i Ragda Majhi inhabitant of Biswadih, in the Pargana of T.un.d.i; hana porgon ren kanako they belong to yonder division or pargana (Santali.lex.) pargana, pragana (Sadani. H.) a division of the country larger than a pat.i, generally, now or formerly, under a t.hakur (Mu.lex.) paragan.e a district (Ka.); paragan.a_ (M.H.)(Ka.lex.) parka_n.a_ < pargan.a_ (U.) sub-division of a district (C.G.)(Ta.lex.)

7435.A chief: pargana a Santal over-chief who has a varying area of country or number of villages in his jurisdiction; the office of pargana is as a general rule hereditary (Santali.lex.) cf. pahanr headman (Mu.lex.)

7436.Seed vessel of lotus flower: vara_t.aka the seed-vessel of a lotus-flower (Skt.Ka.lex.) vara_t.akam seed-pod of the lotus (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

7437.Safflower: varat.a, barat.a seed of safflower (Gr.hyas.); bera_o buck-wheat (Sh.)(= beru Bur.); barri_, barre seed of safflower (Bi.)(CDIAL 11313). pava_r.i_ seed of safflower (from which is made a dark red powder for dyeing)(S.)(CDIAL 8794).

7438.Image: strings in a lute: va_ra-k-kat.t.u bands of catgut in a ya_r.. (Tirumuru. 140, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) ba_r to make creepers of leather, cut leather lengthwise or in strips (Ka.); bage to pare (as bamboo) (Malt.)(DEDR 5363).

7439.Image: vine: varut.akam balloon vine (Malai.)(Ta.lex.)

7440.Gum of a tooth: barsva a socket of a tooth; gum (TS. v.7.11.1)(fr. vr.k cover)(Vedic.lex.)

7441.Image: deer: parha a deer, an elk, the hog deer, cervus porcinus is so called in Muzaffargarh (P.lex.) pa_r.ho hogdeer or cervus porcinus (S.); pa_hr.a_, pa_hr.i_ (L.); pa_r.ha_ spotted antelope, hogdeer (H.)(CDIAL 8044). Young: pa_rppu fledgling bird (Tol. Po. 559); young of the tortoise, frog, toad, lizard, etc. (Tol. Po. 560); young of quadrupeds; pa_rval young of deer and other animals (Ta.lex.) bakk a fawn, a young buck (P.lex.)

7442.Image: sheep: ver-i sheep (Man.i. 19,97)(Ta.lex.) cf. va_ra sheep's wool (as sieve)(RV.); wo_rik wool (Pr.); br (Dm.)(CDIAL 11549). va_ra a flock, a herd, a troop (Ka.lex.) piramam sheep (Na_mati_pa. 217)(Ta.lex.) Image: great antelope: ven.-peru-ma_n- nilghau, the great antelope, portax pictus (M.M. 968)(Ta.lex.) Image: mountain sheep: varut.ai mountain sheep (varai-y-a_t.u varut.aitto_r-r-am po_la : Pat.t.in-ap. 139); sheep (Patir-r-up. 6, Pati.); aries of the zodiac (Paripa_. 11,5); a fabulous animal, sarapam; varut.ai-ma_n- mountain sheep (Cilap. 25,51, Ki_r..kkur-ippu.) (Ta.lex.) Image: ibex: varai-y-a_t.u ibex, hemitragus hylocrius (M.M. 775); jungle sheep (Ci_vaka. 1559)(Ta.lex.)

7443.Public subscription: orad.o, vara_d.o collection, subscription (Tu.lex.) viral.a, vira_l.a (Te.); vara_d.a a public subscription; tax, impost (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bid.a_la-padakam a measure of weight equal to sixteen ma_s.as (Skt.lex.) vara_ta urging for payment, dunning (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) To acquire: varai-tal to acquire or earn by legitimate means (Cilap. 10,51); to make one's own; to appropriate (Kur-al., 150) (Ta.lex.)

7444.Image: a duck: varat.a_ a duck or goose (Amarako_s'a. II.V.V. 25). varat.am swan, gander, an-n-am (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) tarad a kind of duck (Skt.lex.) Image: duck: ta_ra_ duck, heron (Ta.); ta_r-a_vu duck (Ma.)(DEDR 3169). cf. ta.r, t.a_reng (hen) cackles (Kol.); tarp- to cackle (Pa.)(DEDR 3173). a_ri duck (Dm.Kal.); a_ri_ (Gaw.); al.i (Kho.); e_r (Bshk.); a_r (Tor.); he_r.i_ (Phal.); a_r.i_ (S.); a_r.i turdus ginginianus (B.); a web-footed bird (Or.); a_r. turdus ginginianus (H.); a_d.l.i_ (M.); a_d.i_ (M.); a_reli_ duck (Gaw.); a_ti an aquatic bird (RV.); a_t.a a partic. kind of bird (Pali); a_d.i (Pkt.); a_r.i duck (Wg.); warg-a_r.i_ lit. 'water-duck'(Ash.)(CDIAL 1127). ged.e a duck (Santali.lex.) cf. taran:ga wave (R.Pali); taram.ga (Pkt.); taran:g (P.); taran. brook, current, stream of water (Ku.); taran:ga, tagara wave (Si.)(CIDAL 5699).

7445.Image: pathway: varan.t.am < varan.d.a pathway (Ta.lex.) varan.d.a a veranda, a portico (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Wall; ir.p wall (Kol.); d.i_pi mud-wall (Go.)(DEDR 452). cf. varam.d.a wall (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11317). Image: wall; mansion: varaippu wall of a fort or temple (Pat.t.in-ap. 269); enclosed space, courtyard (Ci_vaka. 949, Urai.); mansion (Akana_. 34)(Ta.lex.)

7446.Myrrh: pra_n.a gum-myrrh (Skt.lex.) pra_n.a myrrh (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pan.i-ma_r-u-tal to render service to a deity or a superior person, as by waving a fan, carrying incense, blowing a trumpet etc. (Uttarara_. Ilavan.a. 110)(Ta.lex.) cf. man.am fragrance; pan.avet.ai goldsmith's weight = 4 kun-r-i-man.i = 1/8 vara_kan- (Ta.); pan.n.ika_ram stores, provisions (Tiva_.)(Ta.); pan.ya_ramu (Te.); pan.n.iya_ram id. (Poruna. 108, Urai.); cf. pan.n.iyam < pan.ya stores, provisions (Maturaik. 422); cakes, pastry, confectionery (Cilap. 6,135); merchandise (Man.i. 7,124); pan.iya_ram cakes, pastry, fritters (Tan-ippa_. i,185,12); pan.ya_ramu (Te.); pan.iya_rakkut.am a pot full of cakes, being one of the marriage presents commonly given by the bride's party (Ta.) (Ta.lex.)

7447.Image: fencing: pa_n.a_ < ba_n.a_ (U.) cudgel used by Indian gymnasts in fencing (C.G.); ba_n.a_ (Te.)(Ta.lex.)

7448.Tools; wealth: ba_n.a_ profession (P.)(CDIAL 11338). pan.i-mut.t.u tools; instruments; requisites (Ta.Te.)(Ta.lex.) pan.ittat.t.a_r goldsmiths (Cilap. 6,135, Urai.); pan.iti work, structure (Ko_yilo. 93); jewel, ornament (Kumara. Pira. Ka_cik. 90); insolence of wealth (Tiruppu. 1043)(Ta.lex.) pan.am wealth (Ta.); pan.am commodity for sale; business (Ta.); han.a wealth (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) pan.a price; money, wealth, property; a commodity for sale; business, trade; a shop, a stall (Ka.lex.) cf. ban.ajige, ban.ajiga, ban.ijaga (Tadbhava of van.ijaka) a merchant: a merchant caste; ban.ija-tana trade, traffic (Ka.lex.) cf. pan.a_yai < pan.a_ya_ market-place; business; profit in a transaction; pan.aiya_n- maker of whetstone (Akana_. 1, Urai.) (Ta.lex.) cf. pan.n.iyakka_ran- headman among a class of van-n-iyars (G.Sm.D.I. i,144) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) pan.ya to be purchased or bought; to be sold, saleable, vendible; an article of trade, a ware; a shop (Ka.lex.)

7449.Sectarian division: pan.am subsection of it.an:kai and valan:kai classes (G.Sm.D.I. i,126)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. varn.a (Skt.lex.) pan.a, ban.a any tribe; a sectarian division (Ka.); phan.a id. (Te.); phad.a a company of actors, dancers etc. (M.); pan.akat.t.u caste rules (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7450.Images: wrist, ankle: parat.u, paran.t.ai, peran.t.e ankle (Ta.); parad.u ankle; harad.i id., wrist (Ka.)(DEDR 3952). karad.u, parad.u (Ta.); paral, paral., paral.u a pebble, stone (Ka.lex.) harad.i, harad.u the protuberant ends of the radius and ulna above the wrist; the ankle, the wrist; a bracelet for the wrist composed of alternate gold and coral beads (Ka.lex.) parat.u ankle (Ci_vaka. 2445); par-an.t.ai knuckle (Ta.lex.)

7451.Place: varai place (Paripa_. 10,1); Land: varaikkat.t.u plot of land on a hilly tract, levelled and rendered arable (Na_.)(Ta.lex.)

7452.A millet: vel.-varaku a species of millet (vel.varakur..uta kol.l.ut.ai kkarampai : Patir-r-up. 75,11)(Ta.lex.) bel.ase millet or other grain not yet hard (Ka.lex.) gubbi-bel.ase a small, prostrate grass with seeds that stick to one's clothes, lappago aliena; bel.asu that which has grown and stands in a field: a crop of corn etc. growing, standing corn (of five colours)(Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

7453.Image: boar: varaha (Tadbhava of vara_ha), varaha_, vara_ a boar, a hog; a gold coin with a boar-stamp, a pagoda (Ka.); ora, oraha boar (Tadbhava of varaha)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) varaha_, varaha_si, vara_ boar, hog (Te.); vara_kan- (Ta.); vara_ha (Ma.); varaha_-kat.t.u a brush made of hog's bristle (Ka.); vara_kat.t.e (Te.); vara_ha a boar, a hog; the third or boar-incarnation of Vis.n.u; vara_ha-timmappa the Venkat.araman.a of Tirupati (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) vara_ha wild boar (Pali.Pkt.RV.); vara_hu (RV.); bara_ boar (A.B.); sow, pig (A.); bara_ha, barha_, ba_riha_, ba_ria_ (Or.); ba_ra_h (H.); vara_ (Si.)(CDIAL 11325). vara_kam boar, swine (Tiruva_ca. 30); the boar-incarnation of Vis.n.u, one of taca_vata_ram; vara_kan- id.; pagoda, a gold coin = 3 1/2 rupees, as bearing the image of a boar; arhat; vara_kan-et.ai weight of a pagoda, a unit of weight = 5/16 rupee = 54 gms. (Ta.lex.) bir sukri the wild pig, sus indicus (Santali.lex.) a_ru hog (Skt.); airia_s. (Dm.)(CDIAL 1321). vara_ki va_ra_ki, a divine energy (Tiruppu. 179); vajra-vara_hi a goddess worshipped by the Jains (Ta.lex.)

7454.Image: cowry: vara_t.aka a cowry (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7455.Image: harrow: parampu board or roller for smoothing land newly ploughed; harrow, drag (Ce_tupu. Tiruna_t..44); parampu-p-palakai id.; parampat.ittal to level ploughed land by a board or drag, for sowing (E_rer..u. 26); par-ampu to beat, thrash (Ta.lex.) maramat.ittal to harrow a field; maram board or roller for smoothing land newly ploughed (Ta.lex.)

7456.Image: plots of land: cf. parampu, varampu embankment, ridge or mound to enclose water (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) palva_r.o, palver.o wall or fence round a house, wall or screen round a roof, screen (S.); parva_r. a village fence, precincts of village or town (G.)(CDIAL 7874). varaippu limit, boundary (Man.i. 28,24); varaiya_r-ai limit (Tiruva_n-aik. Na_t.. 83); measuring (Can.. Aka.); accuracy, exactness; termination; varaiyar-avu id.; varai-yar-uttal to settle, decide, determine, ascertain (Ven:kaikka. 89); to estimate; to delimit; to surround; varai-tal to limit (Pur-ana_. 25); varai small ridge as of a paddy field; bank, shore; limit, boundary (Kur-al., 480); measure, extent (Kur-al., 480); varaivu measuring; limit (Kalit. 8)(Ta.lex.) vr.ti hedge, fence, enclosed piece of ground (esp. for betel); vai, vai_, vahi_ fence, enclosure (M.)(CDIAL 12068). varavai plot of a paddy-field, compartment in a paddy-field bounded by ridges (W.); varampu boundary, limit, extent (Patir-r-up. 29,15); ridge of a field (Akana_. 13)(Ta.lex.) Boundary: varampu boundary, limit, extent, ridge of a field, causeway, way, brim, rule of conduct, principle (Ta.); limit, bank in rice-fields (Ma.); varappu ridge of a field, limit, boundary (Ta.); varai small ridge as of paddy field, bank, shore, limit, boundary, measure, extent, place, time (Ta.); varaippu wall, enclosure (Ta.); varaivu discrimination (Ta.); vara square on a chess-board, turn, time, measure (Ma.); varu boundary, border (Ma.); varukuka to mark a limit in measures (Ma.); vare_ until, as far as, up to (Ma.); varr appointed time for event, time appointed for death (Ko.); par direction, horizon line (To.); bara, bare, vari, vare compass, space, room, limit; up to, till (Ka.); barabu boundary (Tu.); barangayi boundary, limit, shore (Tu.); bare mud wall round the premises (Tu.); varuju ridge or dam dividing fields (Te.); (inscr.) vrappi ridge (Te.); var-a limit (Te.); var-aku up to, until (Te.); varam bund within or outside field (Te.)(DEDR 5261). varai to restrain, exclude (Ta.)(DEDR 5273). cf. baran:gay territorial unit (Tagalog.Pilipino).

7457.Spoke of a wheel: a_ram spoke of a wheel (Cir-upa_n.. 253); arakka_l id. (Ta.lex.) ara, a_ra spoke of a wheel (RV.MBh.); ara (Pali.Pkt.); araga, araya (Pkt.); aro spoke, cog (S.); ar one of the crosspieces in a cartwheel (P.); ara felloe of a wheel (Or.); spoke (Si.); a_ra spoke (Or.); a_ra_ first pair of spokes in a cartwheel (Bi.); spoke (H.); a_ro (G.)(CDIAL 594). cf. rahat., ra_hat. wheel at the top of a well (Mth.)(CDIAL 596). a_r spoke of a wheel (Ci_vaka. 828); axle-tree (Ja_n-a_. 7,15); central bolt of a car (Ta.lex.)

7458.United together; combining: maruvu combining, following, embracing (Te_va_. 1072,6); to combine, join together; to be united together (Ta.lex.)

7459.Smearing: paribhan.d.a plastered flooring (Pali); piribad.a smearing, rubbing on (Si.)(CDIAL 7850). To smear, daub: varittal to run; to flow (Malaipat.u. 475); vari colour (Pat.t.in-ap. 38); vari-k-ko_lam ornamental figures or lines drawn on the breast (Cilap. 5,226, Arum.); vari-ko_lam id. (Cilap. 5,226); vari to paint, to draw (Pur-ana_. 33); to smear, daub (Ta.lex.) baraha, barapa, bara_, bara_vu, barepa writing, drawing; writ, scripture, written letters; aks.ara, lipi, le_khana; barasu, barisu, bareyisu, baresu to cause to write, to have written (Ka.); bara_yisu to fill or enter (items into a book)(Ka.H.); bare writing; lines or stripes (made with a hot iron)(Ka.); vari (Ta.); vari, varai (Ma.); barepambugu to enter writ: to be written (Ka.); baregur-i an iron used in cauterizing or firing cattle for diseases, lameness etc.; orego_lu, oreha_ku to apply lines or stripes by cauterizing (Ka.); baravasiga, bharavasiga an active, industrious, strenous man; baravasa, bara_sa, bharavasa perseverance, persistence (Ka.Te.); barati-da_ra a merchant who has bandy-loads conveyed from one place to another; barati (Tadbhava of bharti)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Burden: param < bhara burden, weight; heaviness (Pur-ana_. 30)(Ta.lex.) barataraphu dismissed, discahrged; dismissal (Ka.M.H.)(Ka.lex.) vari line as on shells; streaks as in timber; stripe (Ci_vaka. 1702)(Ta.); var-i (Te.); bare (Ka.); vare (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Image: instrument used by metal workers: varuvu-mul. engineer's scriber for marking gauge, ulo_kattin-me_l ko_t.uvaraiyum urukkumul. (C.E.M.); varai-kampu an instrument used by metal-workers (Ta.ex.) Written symbol of sound: vari-vat.ivu written character; written symbol of an articulate sound, dist. fr. oli-vat.ivu (Nan-. 97, Mayilai.); varaippu writing (Perun.. Ucaik. 34,168); varai-tal to write, inscribe; varaivu writing; painting (Ta.lex.) To write, inscribe: por-i-ttal to impress, stamp, inscribe (Pur-ana_. 58); to write, delineate (Kalit. 93); to be impressed or imprinted (Kalit. 71,11)(Ta.lex.) Image: lines at the joints of fingers: vari lines at the joint of fingers; line, as on shells; letter; spreading spots on the skin; junction of streets; length (Ta.lex.) vari line, stripe; course (as of bricks), line (as of writing), series as of letters; orderly line, as of ducks in flight; row (Patir-r-up. 83,2)(Ta.); vara line, streak, furrow, wrinkle (Ma.); vari line, rule, row (Ma.); bare stripe, brand-mark, burn made on body in illness (Kod..); vra_yu, ra_yu, ra_su to write, inscribe, delineate, compose, draw, paint (Te.); ra_s'i gerund. having marked (boundaries)(inscr. A.D.1310)[cf. 12 zodiacal signs constituting the ra_s'i; re-inforcing the 12 fractions, computed on the twelve phalanges of the four fingers.]; ra_s to write (Kond.a); vri_sa to make an incision, furrrow or mark, scratch, write, plough, cut up flesh (Kui); n. writing; pl. action vri_ska (vri_ski-)(Kui); ra_cinai to write, paint, record (Kuwi); ra_skinai to limn (pl. action of ra_c-); ra_c- (-it-) to write (Kuwi); bri_nai to draw (Kuwi); rajju- a writer (Pkt.); vra~_ta writing, handwriting (Te.); vra~_taka~_d.u writer, clerk (Te.); vra_yasamu writing, letter, note (Te.); ra_yasamu clerkship (Te.); vra_yi letter of the alphabet, writing, line (Te.); vra_yincu to cause to be written (Te.); vra_lu writing, handwriting (Te.); varuju to draw or mark a line with a sharp instrument on a plank, etc. (Te.); variyu to test metal on the touch-stone (Te.); baruku to scratch, claw, lacerate, tear, scribble (Te.); varc- to scratch (Pa.); ra_yap- (ra_yat-) to write (Ga.); rasa_na, ra_sa_na, ra_s-, varasa_na_ to write (Go.); varasaval writer, scribe (Go.); vari (-v-, -nt-) to write, paint, draw; (-pp-, -tt-) id., adorn, decorate; n. streak (Ta.); varai to write, inscribe, paint, draw; n. line, wrinkle (Ta.); varaippu writing (Ta.); varaivu id., painting (Ta.); varekka to make lines, rule a page, write (Ma.); varaccal drawing lines, being wrinkled; varayuka, variyuka to draw lines (Ma.); par- to write; par writing, life-line in hand (To.); bare, bari to write, draw; bare writing, lines or stripes; barepa, barapa, baraha, bara_, bara_vu writing, drawing, writ, scripture, written letters (Ka.); barasu, barisu, bareyisu, baresu to cause to write, have written (Ka.); barcan.e paint, colour (Ka.); baripuni to gash, cut, scratch, trim as the border of a field (Tu.); bare branding in the arm (in certain diseases)(Tu.); bareta line, mark, scar, weal, stripe (Tu.); barepini to write, draw (Tu.); barepa_vuni to dictate, cause to write (Tu.); bara_vu writing, manuscript, learning (Tu.)(DEDR 5263). Deed of agreement: vari-y-o_lai deed of agreement (Ta.lex.)

7460.Image: lute of seven strings: pari-va_dini a vi_n.a_ or lute of seven strings (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) paravai-ya_r.. a kind of large lute, one of four ya_r.. (Ci_vaka. 530)(Ta.lex.) piramam a kind of lute (Paripa_. 19,40)(Ta.lex.) brahma-kan:kan.a, brahma-vi_n.e a kind of lute (Ka.lex.)

7461.Honour: bho_s.a, bo_si decorum, decency, honour (Ka.lex.)

7462.Rope-makers: bir hor. jungle man; a small dravidian tribe, mainly located in Chota Nagpur, who live in the jungles, and eke out a scanty subsistence by hunting and selling jungle produce, especially the bark of bauhinia vahllii, which they make into ropes, sikaur etc.; bir disom the forest country; the name given by the Santals to the country lying between the Ganges and the Ajoe river; birbhu~i the district of Birbhum, the first syllable bir, Santali, meaning forest, and the second bhu~i, Sanskrit, and meaning land, i.e. forest land (Santali.lex.) Image: fetter: bir.i a fetter; to fetter; har.i bir.i manacles and fetters (Santali); bir.i hor. a fettered person, a prisoner (Santali.lex.) Image: rope: vara_t.aka a rope, a cord (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. varatra_ strap, thong (RV.)(CDIAL 11320). maro_j fibre for rope; moros, mar.os rope prepared from fibre of paur tree; morosm, moras, moroli rope; maronj bark (Go.); murar-ci a cord (Ta.); mra_su rope made from hide (Kui); marcu rope attaching bullock to plough (Kuwi)(DEDR 4976). Cord; bark: murar-ci a cord (Ta.); muraje rope made of straw (Tu.); mar.o_nj strip of bark (Go.); maro_j fibre for rope (Go.); morolik rope (Go.); mo_ru_m bark used for tying a bundle (Go.) (DEDR 4976). Stout rope: hor(a)ji a stout and long rope used in drawing an idol-car (Ka.); horaje cord put round the neck of an elephant (Ka.); puracai, puro_cai halter or head-stall of an elephant (Ta.)(DEDR 4284). Rope: rajju cord, rope (RV.); rope (Pali); raju (NiDoc.); rajju, lajju (Pkt.); rajuk (Kal.); ra_j, ra_z (Phal.); raz rope (Sh.K.); rajot.i thick string (Sh.); laja rope (S.); lajj, lajju well-rope (P.); raju_r.i_ rope (WPah.); rajet.t.o~ (WPah.); lezu (A.); lejur. pad on woman's head for waterpot (Bi.); lajuri_ well-rope (Bhoj.); lej, lejur rope (Bhoj.); lej, lejur rope (H.); rajju (Konkan:k); rodda, rodu string, cord (Si.) (CDIAL 10582). restis rope (Latin); re~zgis wicker, basket (Lithuanian); rajju a cord, line, rope; fisherman's line; rajju-ka_ra rope-maker; rajju-ga_haka rope-holder; (king's) land-surveyor; rajjuka a rope, line (Pali.lex.) Image: rope; cover: barahi a thick rope (Santali.lex.) va_ri rope for tying an elephant; pole for tightening a package or pack; va_ra_t.ai leather strap; va_r churning rope (Ci_vaka. 711); strap of leather (Ci_vaka. 2372); skin; bodice (Te_va_. 1232,6); bit, piece; va_ra-k-kat.t.u that which is tied by thongs (Ta.); va_ra-k-kayir-u braided leather-thong (W.); varikkayir-u cable; long rope; varikka_ran- cable-twister, rope-maker (Ta.lex.) vari (-v-, -nt-) to bind, tie, fasten, cover; (-pp-, -tt-) id.; n. tie, bondage (Ta.); variyuka to tie a network of strings, wire, bind tightly (Ma.); varj- to wrap, wind (Ko.); bariyuni to encase a bottle, jar, etc. in a kind of network (Tu.)(DEDR 5264). cf. va.rc to whip (Ko.); ba_r-isu to strike or beat with a whip etc. (Ka.); barjuni to strike, beat (Tu.)(DEDR 5380). vaddhar, vadhri_, vadhar shoulder-strap (L.); vaddha thong (Pali.Pkt.); va_dhra leather (OG.); va_dharr.i_ leather strap (G.); badri_ leather belt (Kal.); vardhra leather thong (AV.); vadhra id. (MBh.)(CDIAL 11387). braz leather belt (Kho.); vadhrya, badhrya shoe (Skt.)(CDIAL 11388). Upper leather work of sandals: ba_r, ba_ra strap of leather, thong (Ka.); ba_r id., upper leather work of sandals (Tu.); va_ru, va_r-u strap of leather, thong (Te.); va_r churning rope, strap of leather (Ta.); thong, leather strap, belt (Ma.); po.r whip (To.); vakir leather girdle, leather strap, tendon (Ta.); warna a leathern string (Go.)(DEDR 5363-b). Image: pannier; jacket: va_ran.am screen, cover (Pa_rata. Tirau. 17); coat of mail; jacket; protection; shield; va_ran.ai obstruction; va_ram screen; va_ra-va_n.am quilted jacket; breast-plate; varu_tam armour; shield; varu_tin-i troop; army (Ta.lex.) varu_thin wearing an armour, mailed; furnished with a fender or protecting plank; protecting, sheltering; surrounded by a troop; being or seated in a carriage; a chariot; a guard, defender; an army (Skt.lex.) cf. viri pannier, pack-saddle (Ta.); pack-saddle (Ma.); viry id. (Ko.)(DEDR 5412). paricchada cover, covering dress (S'a_n:khS'r.); paricchada covering (Pali); parcha_ mat of palm leaves for lying on (L.)(CDIAL 7811). Wool; sieve: va_ra sheep's wool (as sieve)(RV.)[IE. uer]; warak wool (Wg.); wo_rik (Pr.); bar (Dm.)(CDIAL 11549). birve_ sieve; birring to separate out; birve_ kanning to sift; birvinging to be sifted (Br.)(DEDR 5548). Cover of a boat: varaka cover of a boat, cloth (Skt.); cloak (Skt.); varilla a sort of garment (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11310). cf. varatra_ strap, thong (RV.); varta leathern thong (S.)(CDIAL 11320). ba_ru_ shield (A.)(CDIAL 11560). ol.e, ol., ol.u, ol.e, val.e, val.aya, val. (Tadbhava of valaya what covers or surrounds) a bracelet, an armlet (Ka.); val. a leathern thong (Ta.)(Ka.lex.)

7463.Ferry charge: pa_ra bringing across (RV.); further bank, furthest end (RV.); pa_ratas from the further side (RV.); pa_re_ on the other side (Skt.); pa_ra further bank (Pali.Pkt.); pa_r id. (K.L.P.); id. (A.H.G.M.); pru side (K.); pa_ram. beyond (Pali); pa_rato_ from the other side (Pali); pa_r, pari on the other side; pa_ro from beyond (Sh.); pa_ri from (K.); on the opposite side, across, through (S.); pa_ro~ from beyond; pa_ru~ by means of; pa_r across (L.); pa_r(e)beyond (P.); pa_r (WPah.); par at a distance, aside; pa_r beyond (Ku.); pa_ri beyond (N.); para aside (N.); pa_r on the other side of, across (B.Mth.H.); pa_ra (OAw.); pa_ri beyond (G.); pa_r (M.); phar on the further side, far away, across (Kho.); pha_(r) across; pharar.o that (in front); pharar.a_ there (Phal.)(CDIAL 8100). pa_rima-ti_ra the further shore (Pali); payim, phe_m on the other side, across (Tor.); pryumu belonging to the country beyond i.e. Punjab (K.); pa_ri~ bate by yonder way (WPah.)(CDIAL 8113). pa_rya being on the further bank (TS.); pa_ri_ country on other side of river Ka_li_, i.e. Nepalese territory (Ku.); i-priya_ living on this side (A.); pa_ri the opposite bank (Or.); pa_ria_ situated on the further side (Or.)(CDIAL 8114). To cross over: pari-tal to cross over; to pass beyond (Pu. Ve. 12, Irupa_r-. 8); pa_r-u-tal to cross, pass over (Tiva_.)(Ta.lex.) Ferry charge: pa_ran.a carrying over or through (MBh.); conclusion, conclusion of a fast (Skt.); pa_rani ferry charge (A.); pa_ran.a, pa_ranaya, pa_ran.a_ feast on conclusion of a penance (Pkt.); pa_rn.u~ breaking a fast, feasting (G.); pa_rn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 8103). bhar.a freight (Santali. lex.) To take across: pa_rayati brings over, rescues, brings to an end (RV.); is a match for (Mn.); is capable of (Skt.); pa_re_ti makes go through, bores through (Pali); pa_re_i crosses, completes, is able (Pkt.); pa_rai (Pkt.); pa_riya ended (Pkt.); par, parev to deal with, exchange; paruv to exchange; parav to change, exchange, change oneself; parar takes, buys, conceives (Gypsy); par to win (Pr.); pa_run to complete (K.); pa_ran.u to perform, fulfil, equal (S.); pa_rn.o to produce (Ku.); pa_rnu to make, cause, use (N.); pa_riba to be able (A.); pa_ra_ (B.); pa_riba_ to be able, grow up (Or.); pa_rai is able (OMth.); pa_rab to take across (Mth.); pa_rai completes, fulfils, is able (OAw.); pa_rna_ to accomplish, finish (H.); pa_ri_ya completed (OG.); pa_rn.e~ to make nutritious or salutary (M.)(CDIAL 8106). na pa_rayati is not able (Skt.); nowa_riba to be unable (A.); nua_riba_ (Or.); na_r (MB.)(CDIAL 6955).

7464.Next year: mar-u-na_l. next day, morrow (Ta.); maruna_l (Ma.); marunad.u id. (Te.); mar-u to put away, reject (Kur-al., 260); adj. another, other, next, beyond (Tiruva_ca. 36,2); maru id. (Ka.); mar-uka_l adv. again, a second time; crop raised a second time (Kur-un. 82); mar-uvalum again, once more (Ci_vaka. 1052); mar-umai the next birth, opp. to immai (Kur-al., 459); the next world, svarga (Kampara_. Urukka_t.t.u. 71); mar-umur-ai next turn; next birth (Paripa_. Pak. 173)(Ta.lex.) para_ri in the year before last (Pa_n..); parari-vars.i the year before last (NiDoc.); para_ri two years hence (Pkt.); pa_ra_r the year before last (Sh.); parru adj. belonging to the year before last; proryus adv. (K.); para_r two years ago; pra_r (L.); para_r two years ago or hence (P.); parha_l the year before last (WPah.); para_r, para_ri ber (Ku.); para_r (N.); para_ri (B.); parhur last year, next year (Or.); para_r two years ago or hence (G.)(CDIAL 7799t). cf. wa_ro (gen. wa_ro_ta_), warote (t = t.) year after next (Go.); va_ron.d.i next year, year after next; va_r.oni next year (Kui); va_n.ona, va_r-oki id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5375). pher darae next but one (Santali.lex.) pari_ha_ the day after tomorrow (S.); parhe_ the day before yesterday; pare_ (WPah.); pairi (Konkan.i); pereyi-da_, pere_-da_ (Si.); prej the day before yesterday; fre_j, frejo_ (WPah.)(CDIAL 7799l). cf. paras'vas adv. the day after tomorrow (MBh.)(CDIAL 7799j.) parut adv. last year (Pa_n..); paru-vars.a last year (NiDoc.); param. next year (Ap.); pa_r heman last winter (Kal.); pa_r ka_l last year (Pas'.); por (Kho.); pa_r (Phal.); par (Sh.); por (D..); parus, paru_ (K.); paru (S.); par (L.); par last year, next year; paru~ last year (P.); peru_ (WPah.); paru last year; paharu last year, next year (Or.); por, pori last year (Ku.); por, pohor (N.); por last year, next year (G.); poru_, poru~_ last year (Konkan.i); cf. pa_r (Pers.); pow last year (Ash.Wg.); pu_a (Kt.)(CDIAL 7907). paruttna belonging to last year (Pa_n..va_rtt.); paroko ko_l last year (Pas'.); paruko_ of last year (Sh.); porkuna (D..); paroko (S.); paro_ka_ (L.); poruku~ (G.); parsuku of last year (K.) (CDIAL 7908). cf. pari~ha~ the after tomorrow (S.); parhe_ the day before yesterday (WPah.); pairi (Konkan.i); prej, fre_j, frejo_ the day before yesterday (WPah.) (CDIAL 7799l). Next, second: para distant, further, other; enemy (RV.); oblique cases: param after, but; paratas (MBh.); pare_, pare_n.a afterwards, beyond (RV.); para other (Pali); para-, pala- (As'.); para- (Pkt.NiDoc.); paru stranger (S.); par pl. others (G.); paru~ distant (G.); parilla other (Pkt.); parla_ belonging to the other side (L.); pallo, palo next, second (Ku.); parla_ next, yonder (H.); para_r belonging to another (Aw.); param. further (Pali); pare_na later on (Pali); param., palam. beyond, after (As'.); param. but (Pkt.); parao_, pare_n.a after (Pkt.); par but, still (K.S.H.); but (L.M.); pare beyond (S.); para_, para~ further (L.); paro from a distance; pare, pare~ far off (L.); pare, pared.e beyond, further (P.); para further (N.); para_, para~_ at a distance (G.)(CDIAL 7793). parata (OMarw.); param. tu but (MBh.Pkt.); (CDIAL 7794). parga_m another village, foreign parts (G.); parga_mi_ foreign, outside (G.)(CDIAL 7797). paratara further away (Skt.); pare_re adv. further away (L.); parere at a distance, on the other side (P.); piriru distant (Si.); parera sky, heaven (H.)(CDIAL 7798). paratra elsewhere, hereafter (Mn.); paratta in the next world (Pali); paratra, paratra_, parata, palata (As'.); parta_ adj., parte_ adv. further, on the other side (L.); parattha elsewhere (Pali.Pkt.) (CDIAL 7799). parade_s'a foreign country (Skt.); parae_sa id. (Pkt.); pares (H.)(CDIAL 7799a).

7465.Image: opponent: pratimalla opponent in wrestling, adversary (Skt.); pat.imalla opponent (Pali); pad.imalla (Pkt.); pil.imal opponent, enemy (Si.)(CDIAL 8584). Image: likeness: pratima_ image, likeness (RV.); pat.ima_ likeness (Pali); pad.ima_ (Pkt.); pil.imaya likeness, picture (Si.)(CDIAL 8585).

7466.Butea frondosa: brahma-vr.ks.a the tree butea frondosa; pala_s'a, muttuga; lo_dhra, to_da, pu_ga, kramuka (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7467.Indian mulberry: brahman.ya, brahma-da_ru the Indian mulberry tree, morus indica ( Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Morus alba, morus indica, morus parviflora: toola, tooda, shalmali (Skt.); white mulberry (Eng.); tut (H.Pers.B.M.); tutri (Deccan); shetu (G.); tula ambor (Bombay); kambilipuch (Ta.); tuti, hippal verali (Ka.); habitat: found wild on the temperate Himalayas and cultivated in Kashmir, the Punjab, Baluchistan, Upper Sind, Bengal and Burma... Action: bark is purgative and anthelmintic. Uses: the long thin greenish fruit is acidulous and pleasant to eat when fresh. It was held in great esteem by Baluchi warriors who carried it in their pouches and swallowed a mouthful when entering into action, to give them stomach for the fight. The fruit is dried and sold in the bazars. It is also made into a preserve or syrup... Morus nigra: mulberry (Eng.); shetuta (H.); shetura (G.); tuta (Arab.Pers.) with fruits of dark purple colour, sold in the Karachi bazar, are used just like those of morus alba (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 816-817). Morus alba, morus indica: Amoras is cultivated for its edible fruit and also because silkworms are fed on its leaves... Burkill reports that the bark has been employed in China from very early times for making paper... used as an emollient in Malaya... a lye made of the ashes of mulberry wood is used (in China) as a stimulant and escharotic in scaly skin diseases and unhealthy granulations... (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 239-240).

7468.To be used: bavarisu to go or move about: to be used; bhramari, bavari making go round, moving in a circle (Ka.lex.)

7469.Image: shield: ur-ai-ka_ran- sheath maker (Cilap. 5,32, Urai.) (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) ba_ru_ shield (A.)(CDIAL 11560). Shield: palakai long shield, buckler (Tol. Po. 67, Urai, Pi-m. Pak. 209)(Ta.lex.) phara shield (BHSkt.); phalaka shield (MBh.); sphara, spharaka (Skt.); [cognate with spara shield (Iranian) and possibly identical with phalaka board and phala gaming board; phalha_ square wooden frame (P.)(CDIAL 9053)]; phalaka shield (Pali); phala, phalaa (Pkt.); phal.a_ (Or.); phali_ (H.); paliha (Si. palisa with s after other words with s ~~ h); pharhi_, phari_ small shield (P.); phar shield (A.B.); phara, phari (Or.)(CDIAL 9054). [cf. the sense of 'board' in pat.t.ika board (Ka.); pat.a board (Kui); pat.t.e bar or spar of wood, piece of timber of door-frame (Te.)(DEDR 3875).] ba_ra_ to shield (B.) (CDIAL 11554). ba_ru_ shield (A.)(CDIAL 11560). Saddle: param a kind of shield (Ci_vaka. 2218); saddle of a horse; armour for the body; body (Kampara_. Kat.iman.a. 69)(Ta.lex.) paricai (Ta.); parige (Ka.); shield, buckler (Tol. Po. 67, Urai. pi-m.); large umbrella, as a badge of honour; paricai-k-ka_ran- shield-bearer; person belonging to the caste of shield-bearers (Ta.lex.) param armour for the body; a kind of shield (Ta.); pul.aka-t-to_r-param (Ci_vaka. 2218); saddle of a horse (Ta.lex.); param shield (Ma.); parica a round shield (Ma.); parige, harige shield (Ka.)(DEDR 3958). ba_ru_ shield? (A.)(CDIAL 11560). Hilt of a sword: paricu hilt of a sword (Ta.); pariu id. (Ma.); paru~ju id. (Te.)(DEDR 3969).

7470.Images: hollow bamboo for drilling seed; honeycomb: cf. por hollow bamboo for drilling seed (P.)(CDIAL 8406). cf. phora_ hollow (B.Or.); poru cavity; poro hollow (S.); por hollow bamboo (S.); pol., pol.e~ honeycomb (M.)(CDIAL 8398). cf. phokar hole (B.)(CDIAL 8391). Hole: cf. mur..ai (-v-, -nt-) to enter; (-pp-, -tt-) to pierce, bore; n. large mountain cave, cavern, den; mur..aicu cave, hole; mu_r..ai a hollow place; mo_r..ai cleft, crevice, subterranean water-course, pool (Ta.); mul.ayuka to creep in, retire, cattle to enter stable; mul.ekka to gather, shut up as cattle for the night (Ma.); mo_l.e a small hole (made by crabs, etc.) in the banks of ricefields or tanks, a fissure (Ka.)(DEDR 4994). cf. nur..ai opening, aperture, cave (Ta.)(DEDR 3714). cf. ma_l.am hole in earth, wood, of snakes, scorpions etc.; ma_t.am a niche in walls (Ma.); ma_d.a, ma_d.u hole or niche made in a wall (Ka.); ma_l.i rat's hole (Kuruba); ma.l.i long hole (e.g. of rat or jackal) (Kod..); ma_t. hole or cavity in earth, wood, etc., hole of snakes, scorpions etc. (Tu.); mo_la rat's hole (Kor.); ma_nd.o hole (Go.); ma_n.d.a_, ma_r.a_ the hollow haunt of any animal, den, any hollow place, cavern (Kur.)(DEDR 4832). cf. borra hole in tree (Kuwi)(DEDR 4604a). Image: hole: bor-o hole of a crab etc. (Kond.a); borra hole in a tree (Kuwi); po_r-ai hole, hollow in a tree, cavern; po_r hollow of a tree (Ta.); bo.r vagina (Ko.); pi.r hollow of the tree (where bees nest); o.r- (0bl. o.t--) hole, wound (To.); po_r hole (Ka.); bor-iya, bor-r-e hole, burrow, hollow, pit; bor-r-a hole, hollow, cavity in a tree (Te.); borra hole in tree (Ga.); po_l hollow object, hollowness in a tree (Ta.); bo_lu hollow (Te.)(DEDR 4604). cf. po_r.. (-v-, -nt-) to be cleft, split, gape, be disunited; split, cleave open, dispel, destroy; n. cleft, piece; po_r..vu cleft, fissure; po_r..-va_y open mouth; po_t.u hole, opening, cleft (Ta.); bo.t. hollow in tree trunk, hole that goes through (Ko.); po_r.. to cleave, split, divide into parts; n. a split, piece, slice; po_r..al hollow of a tree; po_d.u splitting; to split up; po_t.e hole in a tree, cavern, hollow; pot.t.e, pot.t.are, pot.re hole in a tree, hollow of a treee (Ka.); pot.t. the hollow of a stalk or tree (Tu.); p(r)o~_ju, ponju, po~_cu to split into filaments, draw out in threads; p(r)o~_gu thread, string, one strand in a cord (Te.); po_r.- to split, cleave (Pa.); pye to open, tear; gape (Malt.)(DEDR 4599). Images: hole; crevice: cf. pur..ai hole, tube, narrow path (Ta.)(DEDR 4317). Image: boil: purai deep ulcer, fistula (Ta.); pure, pore boil, ulcer (Ka.)(DEDR 4296). Image: hollow: phora hollow in the centre, as some bamboos; phopra, phophra rotten, decayed, particles not cohesive, hollow through decay (Santali.lex.) Images: cavity; hollow; spotted: poru cavity; poro hollow (S.); por hollow bamboo (P.); phora_ hollow (B.Or.); nak-por. nostril (Ku.); poro small hole (N.); pola_ hollow, empty, flabby (H.); pol hollowness (H.)(CDIAL 8398). parus.a spotted (RV.); pharu_ha_ spotted cloth (P.)(CDIAL 7909). cerka bherka spotted (Santali.lex.) Image: dot: por-i spot; dot, point, speck (Kalit. 13,3)(Ta.lex.) Image: spark: por-i-ttal to throw out sparks (Kampara_. Varun.a. 32); por-i-tal id. (Kampara_. Kumpa. 254); por-i spark, scintillation (Kampara_. Varun.an-ai. 22); brightness (Perumpa_n.. 448); por-i-par-attal flying of sparks (Kampara_. Ce_tu. 11)(Ta.lex.) Image: hole: cf. borra hole in tree (Kuwi)(DEDR 4604). Image: hole: ho_ru, po_r, o_r, o_ru a hole; po_r-il, ho_r-il the hollow of a tree (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. po_r-ai hole, hollow in tree (Ta.)(DEDR 4604). cf. pol.l.u hollow, empty (Ma.)(DEDR 4562). cf. po_lo_ hollow (Br.)(DEDR 4560). Image: dot: por-i spot, as on elephant's forehead; dot, point, speck (Kalit. 13,3); mark, impression (Ci_vaka. 2190); vari dot (Net.unal. 17); spreading spots on the skin (Kalit. 22)(Ta.lex.) Image: roundness: por-i roundness, rotundity (Net.unal. 13)(Ta.lex.)

7471.Image: joint of body: paruvam knot, joint in the human body or plants (Ta.lex.) mara joint, hinge (Te.)(DEDR 4761). Image: knuckle; articulation; space between two joints; joint: parvan knot, joint (RV.); pabba knot in a stalk, joint (Pali); pavva (Pkt.); pa_b space between two joints (A.); paba_l, paba_li having long joints; pabiya_iba to cut into small sections (A.); pa_b joint (in body or plant), knuckle, protuberance (B.)(CDIAL 7947). pagra sugarcane cutting (Santali. lex.) Knotty, rough: parus.a knotty (AV.); uneven, hard (MBh.); harsh, cruel (Katha_s.); parusa rough (Pkt.); parusa (Si.); pharusa rough, hard, cruel (Pali. Pkt.); paharas hard, solid (Si.)(CDIAL 7910). paru coarse, rough (Ta.); parukku rough surface (Ma.); baraka, barusu rough (Te.); bargat.e rough (Kol.); baRka roughness, rough (Kond.a)(DEDR 3973). Bamboo; barley: s'ataparvan having a hundred joints (RV.); bamboo (Bhpr.); s'ataparvaka the white-flowered du_rva_ grass (Sus'r.); saba_i a kind of grass (B.); the grass ischaemum angustifolium or pollindium angustifolium (Or.); s'ataparvika_ du_rva_ grass, barley (Skt.)(CDIAL 12282). Image: lines on finger-joints: pir-an:ku lines on the inside of the finger-joints (Nikan.t.u.)(Ta.lex.) parvakam the knee-joint (Skt.lex.) -paura, *parvara joint (Skt.); s'ata-po_ra(ka) species of sugarcane (Sus'r.); ni_la-po_ra (Skt.); po_ra knot; po_raga a sort of plant with knots (Pkt.); por hollow bamboo for drilling seed (P.); pora_ joint of bamboo (P.); por, pori_ knot or joint of bamboo (Ku.); por space between two joints; pora_ beam; porua_ knuckle (H.); puruka knot or joint of bamboo, knob, link (Si.); per joint, articulation (CDIAL 8406). In numeration systems using four fingers (excluding the thumb), the counting is done with the thumb moving from the lowest phalange of the little finger to the lowest phalange of the index finger to reach a count of four; the counting of the next set of four is done in the same order on the middle phalange on each of the four fingers; the counting of the next set of four is done in the same order on the topmost phalange on each of the four fingers; the count reaches 12; whence cf.: pa_dika worth a quarter (Pa_n.. gan.a.R.); pa_dika_ a coin (Skt.); pa_i_ 112 anna; pa_ir.i_ 14 yard; pa_iku of a quarter (S.); pa_i_ a measure of capacity; 112 anna (L.); pa_i_, pai 14 seer; 112 anna (P.); pa_i 112 anna (A.); 112 or 14 anna (B.); 112 anna (Or.); pa_i_ 112 or 14 anna (H.); quarter, 14 anna (M.); pa_i 112 anna (G.)(CDIAL 8074). cf. pa_v foot (of centipede) (K.); pa_va_ foot of sheep, leg of bedstead (L.)(CDIAL 8075). cf. pa_do_na less by a quarter (Skt.); pa_du_na (Skt.); pa_un.a_ (Or.); pa_un. (in cmpd.)(M.); id. (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 8078).

7472.Bamboo, cane: parampu bamboo (Ta.); pirampu bamboo (Aru. Ni.); perambu (Ma.); pre_mu (Te.); pirampu-t-tat.ukku rattan-blinds (C.E.M.); pirappampa_y rattan mat (Ta.); pirappan:ko_rai a sedge, scirpus; pirappan:ku_t.ai rattan basket; pirampat.i-k-ka_rar men entrusted by a king with the duty of caning offenders (Tiruva_lava_. 28,3)(Ta.lex.) pirampu (in cmpds. pirappam-) rattan, calamus rotang; switchy rattan, calamus vimanalis (Ta.); perampu, purampu rattan (Ma.); p(r)e_mu, prabba, prabbili id., calamus rotang (Te.)(DEDR 4175). Cane: punambu cane (Ma.); prabbali, habbe the rattan (Ka.); prabbali-gid.a, prabbali-cet.t.u id. (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) For -n- in punambu cane (Ma.) cf. pin.ai to entwine (Ta.)(DEDR 4160). cf. pacce cane (Ka.lex.)

7473.Images: drum; circle; measure: bhar measure (G.); bhara_ a corn measure (M.)(CDIAL 9393). par-a drum, disk, circle (Ma.); par drum (Ko.); pare id., large, double-headed barrel drum beaten by Me.de (Kod..); par-r-a a measure of capacity (Te.); para drum (Go.); par-ai a measure of capacity, drum (Ta.)(DEDR 4032). par-e, har-e a drum (Ka.); par-ai (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) {21/24 marakka_l = one ko_t.t.ai [cf. MIAI, p.83; DEDR 2208: ko_t.t.a much, plenty (Ma.)]; 4 prastha = one a_d.haka; 16 prastha = one dro_n.a [cf. IE 8-6; CII 4; IEG. Pali. pattha a land measure. (Chamba) pat.ha grain measure.]; 2 dro_n.a = one kud.ava [2 kud.ava = one ma_n.ika; cf. Ain-i-Akbari, vol.III, p.137.]; 4 dro_n.a = one ma_n.i or ma_n.ika [Mahavira, Sa_rangadhara Samhita 1, 35.]; 16 dro_n.a = one kha_ri [cf. Arthas'a_stra, Ch. XX; MIAI, p. 74; a measure for Soma (RV.IV,32,17; Vedic index, I, p.216).]; [cf. MIAI, p.78: 4 pa_vala = pa_li [cf. big ladle or spoon (G.)]; 4 pa_li = ma_na; 4 ma_na= sei; 3 sei = padaka; 4 padaka = ha_ri [cf.MIAI, p.98: 24 ma_na or 6 sei or 1/2 kalasi or 7 or 8 maunds.]; 4 ha_ri= ma_ni; 400 marakka_l = one karicai, karacai}.

7474.Image: raised platform: pirampu raised platform with steps giving access to a temple-car; parappu ceiling; lintel (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7475.Side of body; waist: marun:ku side, side of body, waist, form (Ta.); marun:kal waist, esp. of women, hip, stomach, abdomen, body (Ta.); marun.n.u side (Ma.); o ma.r- half (lit. one side)(To.); margilu the side, flank (Tu..); makka either side of the part of the body just above the hip (Tu.); buttock (Pa.); marng side (Go.); marngar. side (Pe.); magl side (Ko.); magil slope of hill (To.); maggal side (Ka.); Rib: marr.gi_ rib bone; marun ribs of mat; marngi, mar.nger.i, marngi rib (Go.); marngar. pr.e_ku ribs (Pe.)(DEDR 4717). Image: side by side; pair: par par side by side; par pair (e.g. par a.s- fo.s- a pair of house entrances)(To.); para side (e.g. appara that side; k.ki para eastern side)(Kod..)(DEDR 3984).

7476.Weapon: pa_racavam weapon (Ta.lex.) pa_ras'ava iron, steel; an iron weapon (Ka.lex.)

7477.Spade: cf. pa_ra spade (Te.Ga.Go.); crowbar (Ma.)(DEDR 4093). phzur, pzdur wooden spade (Dm.); phando_r (Bshk.); phe_ndu_ru (Phal.)(CDIAL 13830). Blade of crowbar, pick-axe: palugu blade of pick-axe, crowbar, etc. (Te.)(DEDR 3986a). Mattock, spade; hoe: sphya flat piece of wood for stirring offerings of boiled rice or for trimming mound used as altar (AV.); boom, spar (S'Br.); a kind of oar (R.)[For both meanings, 'shoulder' and 'shovel' cf.: pei shovel (Wkh.); fei (Sar.Ishk.); fiah shoulderblade (Wkh.); fyak shoulder (Shgh.); pil, pa_wl shoulder (Kurd.)]; piwe scapula (Wg.); phi_i_ scapula (Pas'.); phiu scapula (Kho.); phi_ shoulderblade (Bshk.); phi_a shoulder (Mai.); phiya oar (Pali); phi_ wooden spade (Kho.); phiyu dung spade (Kho.); phyohu, phyuhu snow-scoop (K.); phye_k wooden shovel (Shum.); pe_kat.i_ (Pas'.); piolo wooden spade, oar (Sh.); phaur.o a kind of mattock, spade (Ku.); pharuwa_ mattock, hoe (N.); phya_uri long-handled implement for levelling rice-field (N.); pha_ura_, pho~r. spade, hoe (B.); pha_ur.a_ digging hoe (Or.); phahuri, pharuhi_, phar.ua_, phar.uhi_ scraper for making banks of irrigation beds (Bi.); pha_wr.a_, phaur.a_, pharuwa_ mattock, hoe; pharu_ha_ a kind of rake or hoe (H.); pha_vd.a_ large hoe (esp. a wooden one)(M.); pha_vd.i_ wooden hoe-shaped instrument for skimming molasses, large hoe; pha_vd.e~ hoe or scraper (M.)(CDIAL 13839). cf. paricu hilt of a sword (Ta.); pariu (Ma.); paru_ju (Te.)(DEDR 3969). pa_rai crowbar, small hoe for cutting grass (Ta.); pa_ra iron crowbar, lever, bar used for digging (Ma.); pa.r crowbar (Ko.To.); pa_re id., short hoe (Ka.); pa_ren:gi iron crowbar, lever (Tu.); pa_ra, pa_r-a spade (Te.); gad.d.a pa_ra spade (Kol.) (gad.d.a clod); pahar crowbar (Nk.); pa_ra spade (Ga.Go.Kuwi)(DEDR 4093).

7478.Image: chase, hunting: pa_ri-ve_t.t.ai chase, hunting (Ta.); pa_ru-ve_t.a id. (Te.); pa_ruvat.t.e id. (Ka.); parivi_tam < pari-vi_ta Brahma's bow (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) pe_r-- (-it-) to chase or pursue (thief etc.), drive (cattle), expel (Kond.a); pe_z- (pe_st-) to drive, drive away, chase (Pe.); pe_y- to chase (Mand..); peha (pehi-) to drive away, drive off, repulse, dismiss; pe_r- to chase, drive away (Kui); pe_r- (-h-) id.; pre_- (-t-) to chase; pe_rhali to chase, drive; pe_rh'nai to scare, impel (Kuwi)(DEDR 4447).

7479.Split pulse: paruppu soft or inner kernel of beans, almonds, etc., kernel of cajanus indicus (dal)(Ta.); parippu peas, pulse skinned in water, halved and dried; kernel of corn (Ma.); pappu split pulse of any kind, split almonds, etc. (Ka.); pappu split pulse, dal, kernels of any kind freed from the shell (Te.); purpur, pulpul pulse called urad (Go.); pappu, papu dal (Kuwi)(DEDR 3978).

7480.Image: eagle: pa_r-u hawk, kite, falcon (Ci_vaka. 568); eagle (Pa_rata. Put.pa. 82)(Ta.)(DEDR 4020). Hawk: pa_racikai hawk, falcon, kite (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) cf. paruntu common kite (Pu. Ve. 3,12); id. (Ma.); pardu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Image: eagle: paruntu common kite; pera_ntu, pera_ndu vulture (Ta.); paruntu, parantu kite, accipiter nisus (Ma.); pad kite (Ko.); pa0 bird of prey (including kite, eagle, vulture)(To.); pardu, paddu kite, hawk, falcon, vulture (Ka.); paddi eagle, vulture, kite (Kod..); panta-gadda vulture, eagle; bandu vulture; ra_-bandu eagle, vulture (?ra_- < ra_ja_ king, i.e. big)(Te.); ra_yal vulture (Go.)(DEDR 3977). cf. bhe_run.d.a a bird (Skt.)

7481.Image: bull-frog: bharund.a rana tigrina, the bull-frog, a species of large frog with four stripes on the back (Mu.); cf. barund.a (Sadani.Mu.)(Mu.lex.) cf. bhe_ka frog (MaitrUp.)(CDIAL 9600). cf. man.d.u_ka frog (RV.)(CDIAL 9746).

7482.Medicated camphor: pa_r-makan--ca_ri medicated camphor, paccai-karppu_ram (Ta.lex.)

7483.Division of corn-sheaves: pa_r-pat.ai division of corn-sheaves before the grain is threshed (R.F.)(Ta.lex.)

7484.Pearl bank: pa_r pearl bank; stratum, layer, bed; bank, border, ridge (Ta.lex.)

7485.Parsee: pa_racikar < pa_rasi_ka the Parsees; pa_raci_kam Persia, one of 56 te_cam (Iraku. Tikku. 226)(Ta.lex.) pa_rasika Persian (MBh.); parasi_ka (Skt.); parasi_ Persian language (Skt.); pa_rse_g (MPers.); pa_rasa, pa_rasiya, pa_rasi_a Persian (Pkt.); pa_rasi_ Persian language (Pkt.); pa_rsi_ Persian (P.H.); a Parsee (H.G.); language of brokers (G.); pa_rs'i_ Persian (B.); a Parsee (M.)(CDIAL 8108).

7486.To escape from danger; to revive; salvation: praraks.ati guards (Skt.); parkhan.o to drive away calamity (esp. by waving something magically round head of sufferer)(Ku.); parakhna_ to secure, obtain (H.)(CDIAL 8736). To guard: pariraks.ati guards well (RV.); keeps (Mn.); parirakkhati guards (Pali); parirakkhai (Pkt.); parakhna_ to obtain, secure (H.)(CDIAL 7864). pir..ai (-pp-, -tt-) to be emancipated from sin and births, obtain salvation, escape from evil or danger, live, get on in life; pir..aippu escape, life, livelihood (Ta.); pir..ekka to remain alive; pir..eppu, pir..appu livelihood; pir..eppikka to restore, revive (Ma.); pi_- (pi-) to live (Pa.); pi_-, piy- (pit.-) id. (Ga.); pissa_na_ to be saved, live, earn one's living, live, escape; pis- to live, be saves, be left over, to live; caus. pisusa_na_ to save; pisehta_na_ to rescue; pish- to save (life, money etc.); pistal alive (Go.)(DEDR 4186).

7487.Image: goat: puruvai goat (Nar-. 321)(Ta.lex.)

7488.Image: eyebrow: puruva (Tadbhava of bhru_ or bhruva) , purbu, ubbu, pubbu, purvu, hubbu, hurbu an eyebrow, the brow (Ka.); puruvam, puru_ra, pi_ru (Ta.); puriya, puriga (Ma.); purcikku to frown (Ka.); purvurvu the brows to be raised (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pu_ru < bhru_ eyebrow (Civaraka. Naimica. 33)(Ta.lex.) Eyelashes: pur.u~ eyelashes (WPah.)(CDIAL 8253). picir fibre (Ta.); pi~_cu the fibrous parts of plants, etc. (Te.)(DEDR 4133). puruvam eyebrow (Kur-al., 1086)(Ta.lex.) Eyebrow: bhru_ eyebrow (RV.); du. bhruvau in cmpd.: -bhru_ka-, -bhruva- (Pa_n..); bru eyebrow (Kho.); aci_-bru_ eyebrow (Wg.); aci-pru_ (Kt.); i_c-bruk (Dm.); a~_khi-bhui_ (N.); aks.ibhruva (Skt.); bhramu- (BHSk.); bhamu (Pali); bhuma_, bhumaya_, bhamaya_ (Pkt.); bhamuka, bhamukha (Pali); bhrumukha (BHSk.); bhamuha (Pkt.); bhamuha_, bhaumha_, bhauha_, bho_ha_ (Skt.); phov (Gypsy); bumb, bum (K.); bhau~h, bhau~, pl. bhava~_ (P.); d.hl.aua~_, d.hl.au~, bharua~_, barua~_, bhrammu~, bhau~, pl. bhaua~_ (WPah.); bhau~ (Ku.); a~_khi-bhau~ (N.); bhoma_ (B.); bhau~h (Mth.); bha~hu~ (Bhoj.); bhaum.ha (OAw.); bhau~(h), bho~(h), pl. bhaua~_ (H.); bhavu~, bhavari (G.); bhammari (G.); bha_vai_, bho~vai_, bho~i_, bhu~vai_, bhi_vai_ (M.); bama-ya (Si.); buma (Md.)(CDIAL 9688).

7489.An abacus: po_rikai, po_tikai (Ta.); bo_dige, bo_duge a piece of wood or stone on a pillar between it and the beam supported by it: an abacus (architrave, capital) (Ka.); bo_diye, bo_de (Te.); po_dige (Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

7490.Image: pillar: po_ri < po_ru_r Tiru-p-po_ru_r, sacred to God Subrahman.ya (Tiruppo_. Can. 9,1); po_rikai, po_rikai-k-kat.t.ai capital of a pillar (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. po_tikai capital of a pillar (Ta.)(DEDR 4585).

7491.To hatch eggs: o_l-, vola_na_ to hatch eggs (Go.); olond. er- id. (Ga.)(DEDR 1067). rova_n.e bos to hatch (Kon.lex.)

7492.Male jackal: o_ri male jackal (Pin..); old jackal (Ta.lex.) cf. ol.l.u an old jackal (Ka.lex.) cf. o_ri male lemur (Ta.); howler, jackal; howl, yell (Ma.); o_rige howl (Tu.); o_rg- (o_rug-) to call (Ga.)(DEDR 1061). kolo, kolea_ a jackal (Kon.lex.) cf. kulaippu barking, snarling (Ta.)(DEDR 1811).

7493.Bivalve shell: ol.ale a bivalve shell used in feeding children (Ka.lex.)

7494.Image: bull: cf. ho_ri a bull calf, an uncastrated young male of the ox kind, a young bull (Ka.); bo_ri (Tu.); ho_ri a bullock (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) po_r-e_r-u fighting bull (Tiv. Periyati. 2,10,8)(Ta.lex.)

7495.Image: a female demon: ho_l.i name of a female demon, a paramour of Ka_ma; the ho_l.i_ festival observed on account of her death for the last three or four days terminating with the full moon of the pha_lguna month when Ka_ma is burnt in effigy (Ka.lex.)

7496.Image: sun: cf. o.l- (o.lt-) to see, look at (Kol.); ol- to see; o_lip- to show (Nk.)(DEDR 1066). ol.i light; sun (Pin..)(Ta.); ol.a light (Ka.); ol.i (Ma.); scorching (Paripa_. 3,67); lamp, light (Kur-al., 390)(Ta.lex.) hol.aku lustre, shine (Ka.lex.)

7497.Image: investigation: o_r-ttal to listen attentively (Pur-ana_. 157,12); o_rcci investigation (Ta.lex.)

7498.Image: neck of a lute: hol.ahu the neck of a lute (Ka.lex.)

7499.Image: split: cf. ho_r..u, po_r.. a split, piece, a slice, a part (Ka.lex.) o_lam-po_r.. split leaf of the palmyra prepared for writing (Vina_yakapu. 3,3)(Ta.lex.) Palm leaf; screw-pine leaf: o_lai palm leaf, writing on a palmyra leaf, rolled palm leaf used as an ear ornament, jewelled ear ornament (Ta.); o_la leaf of palms or grasses, writing leaf (Ma.); o.l palm leaf, ornaments worn on body (Ko.); wa.l writing, education (To.); o_le leaf of a palmyra palm, leaf used to write on, coil of palmyra leaf worn in lobe or female's ear, ear-ring of gold etc.; oli leaf of palmyra palm (Ka.); o.le screw-pine leaf, writing on screw-pine leaf, woman's ear-ring (Kod..); o_le letter inscribed on a palmyra leaf, palmyra leaf rolled up and put into the hole of a female's ear, metallic ear-ring; oli a cadjan leaf used to write upon (Tu.)(DEDR 1070). o_laippu_ screw-pine flower, ta_r..ampu_ (Tiruppu. 445)(Ta.lex.)

7500.Sound: o_lam sound, noise, roar (Pin..); o_l sound (Iraku. Nakara. 42)(Ta.lex.)

7501.Image: snake: o_lam < vya_la snake (Pin..); o_lai-p-pa_mpu a kind of snake, tropidonotus stolatus (Ta.lex.) cf. ol.l.e a kind of amphisbaena (Ka.)(DEDR 1018).

7502.Image: apple of the eye: ol.i apple of the eye (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7503.Image: mane, hair: o_ri man's hair (Tiva_.); mane (Poruna. 164)(Ta.lex.)

7504. A sign of the zodiac: o_rai < ho_ra_ sign of the zodiac (Tol. Po. 135); a division of time commencing with the rising of a zodiacal sign (Ci_vaka. 2411); time (Kuruparam. 115, Pan-n-i_.)(Ta.lex.) ho_re, ho_ra_ (fr. the Greek) the rising of a zodiacal sign; part of the duration of a sign; an hour; a mark, line; a particular scientific work or science (Ka.lex.)

7505.Mountain-dwellers: cf. o_riyar supernatural beings said to dwell in mountains, and to possess magical powers (Pur-ana_. 175, Urai.); emperors of the mountains of Cakkarava_l.am (Pur-ana_. 175, 6, Mutar-patippu.)(Ta.lex.)

7506.Furrow, line: or.a drawn line, furrow (S.); o_r., pl. o_r.a~ furrow (L.); or. (P.); or.iba_ to plough a field once (Or.); or.e ca_sa one ploughing (Or.)(CDIAL 2545). cf. oru, o_r one; ori to be united in harmony; orukkam oneness, sameness; orun:ku altogether, simultaneously; ore_ onely, one; o_rmai unity (Ta.); oru, o_r one, the same; o_ro_, o_ro_ro_, o_ro_nnu each one (Ma.); orrvi. one at a time, once every day (Ko.); or, o_r one; o_ran.a a line, row (Ka.); ori one (adj.)(Kod..); o.rak etti one pair of bullocks (Kod..); or one (adj.); oru one, single, solitary; ora once, at once (Tu.); orima, orimika friendship, harmony (Te.); oror one; orone alone; or.e one; warpne at one place (Go.); uRku uRku one each (Kond.a); ro, ronje one (Pe.); ru, rund.i one (Mand..); ro one (Kui); rondi, ro_ one (Kuwi); orot one man or woman; utxi_ alone, lonely; orma_ all (Kur.); ort one (Malt.); asit. one (entity); asi one (adj.); asi_ke once (Br.)(DEDR 990). on.t.i that which is single, solitary or single person (Ta.); one, single, alone (Ka.); alone, single, separated (Tu.); state ofbeing alone, singleness, solitariness; single, only one, alone (Te.); unt.hal one (neut.)(Go.); on.t.a_ one thing (Kur.)(DEDR 990). hora a line (Santali.lex.)

7507.Image: a line: cf. o_l.i, o_n.i a continuous line, a row: a multitude, a number, a mass; succession; o_l.iver-u to form a line or be in a line; to form a mass or considerable body (Ka.lex.)

7508.Myrrh: po_l.am < bo_l.a myrrh, aloes, gum-myrrh (Ta.lex.) cf. vo_la, ba_l.a, bo_la, bo_r..i, bo_r..u gum-myrrh (Ka.lex.) go_la-rasa gum-myrrh (Ka.lex.)

7509.Seven: cf. o_r..u, er.. seven (Ka.); yo_r..u (M.)(Ka.lex.)

7510.Image: one eye: oru-kan. one eye; o_ra-k-kan.n.i squint-eyed female (Ta.lex.) oruttalai one side (Kamapara_. Ayo_t. Man. 66); orutti a woman (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 25); orti (Te.); oru-talai one-sidedness (Kur-al., 1196) (Ta.lex.)

7511.Account of foreign trade: oru-kan.akku a triennial statement of account of the trade carried on in a foreign country by an agent of a Na_t.t.ukko_t.t.ai Chetti (Ta.lex.) poru-tal to multiply (Nan-. 269, Mayilai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. or..uku register of a temple giving an account of its properties and its history (Ta.lex.) cf. paras beyond; paxe_re further away (L.)(CDIAL 7798). parokkha out of sight (Pkt.); parokhe secretly (P.)(CDIAL 7915). cf. varataya_ foreigner (Si.)(CDIAL 437).

7512.Image: spy: cf. ho_rika, ho_riga spy (Ka.); he_rika id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) or-r-an- male spy (Man.i. 26,27)(Ta.lex.)

7513.Money on account: horal.e money of one head of accounts transferred to another in order to be returned; hor-ige business, work (Ka.lex.) orutalai positiveness, certainty (Tol. Po. 225)(Ta.lex.) cf. o_rcal settlement (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7514.Image: oblique: ho~r.sec obliquely, to one side, sideways (Santali.lex.) orukkan.ittal to lie on one side (Tiv. Tiruma_lai. 23, Vya_. 81); to shut partially; to set slantingly; to put sidewise (Ta.lex.) po_ru-tal to go on, proceed; to continue (Kuruparam. 170); to return (Tirukko_. 182)(Ta.lex.)

7515.Smear; images: to tumble over; to overflow: bo_rala, bo_ralu, bo_rla a turning over, a roll; upside down, topsyturvy (Ka.); bo_rle (Te.)(Ka.lex.) pural. (pural.v-, puran.t.-), piral. (piral.v-, piran.t.-) to roll over, tumble over, be upset, slip off, roll (as waves), overflow, be deranged or changed (as times, customs or laws), be overturned (as a state), go back on one's word, be refuted, die; pural.i, piral.i lying, deceit, insurrection; purat.t.u (purat.t.i-) to turn a thing over, roll, turn up (as the soil in ploughing), fry (as vegetable curry), nauseate, deceive, pervert, smear, fould with dirt; n. turning over, overturn, prevarication, deceit, treachery, nausea, colic; purat.t.an-, pirat.t.an- deceiver, liar; purat.ci upsetting, disorder, anarchy; pirat.t.u deceit (Ta.); pural.uka to roll; purat.t.uka to turn about; pural.ikka to revolve in the mind; piral.uka to wallow, roll, turn, be smeared, overflow; pirat.t.uka to roll about, distort words, deceive, rub as ointment, soil; pirat.t.u deceit, lewdness; pirat.t.an fraudulent; pirat.t.i confusion, consternation; piral.ca turning about, wallowing (Ma.); porn.- (pord.-), po.n.-(po.n.d.-) to roll backwards and forwards; port.- (port.y-), po.t.- (po.yt.-) id. (Ko.); pord., porn.l. act of rolling backwards and forwards; pern.- (perd.-) to turn upside down, (person) does opposite of what was promised; pert.- (pert.y-) to turn upside down (Ko.); pi.l.- (pi.d.-) to tumble over or down; pi.t.- (pi.t.y-) to push over or down (To.); poral., purul. to roll, welter, wallow; hod.d.u to roll about (Ka.); pureluni, pureyuni, poreluni, pored.uni to roll, turn; purepuni, porepuni, porelpuni to roll, turn over, recant, impute, attribute; porelu reeling; porn:kuni to roll, run over; pered.uni to roll, move, wallow (Tu.); por(a)lu to roll, roll on the grond, overflow; n. rolling, overflowing; poral(u)cu, por(a)lincu to roll or roll over; por(a)lika rolling, overflow; porupu to roll, as in a powder, mix up (Te.)(DEDR 4285).

7516.Imagse: face down; topsy-turvy: bo_rala, bo_ralu, bo_rla, bo_rlu upside down, topsy-turvy (Ka.); bo_ra chest, breast (Te.); bo_ragil(l)u to lie or fall on the face or breast, be turned upside down; bo_rla on the face, face downwards; bo_rlincu, bo_ragincu to turn upside down, invert (Te.); bo_ra chest (Kond.a)(DEDR 4592).

7517.Image: to churn: poru-tal to churn (Tiruppu. 1)(Ta.lex.)

7518.Bark: porukku bark (Ci_vaka. 622)(Ta.lex.)

7519.Sea porcupine: o_ra_ sea porcupine, light brown; a sea-fish, tenthis vermiculata (Ta.lex.)

7520.Image: sprout: oliyal luxuriance (Pur-ana_. 201,15); shoot, sprout (Pur-ana_. 202,10, Urai.)

7521.Image: chaplet of flowers: oliyal garland of flowers (Ci_vaka. 2682); chaplet of flowers (Pur-ana_. 76,7)(Ta.lex.)

7522.Image: porch, portico: or..un:kai porch, portico (Ko_yilo. 1346) (Ta.lex.)

7523.Image: to combine, to join: ollu-tal to combine, unite, join (Kantapu. A_r-r-u. 7)(Ta.lex.) orun:kutal to join together (Kantapu. Cu_ran-araciru. 11); orun:ku adv. altogether (Na_lat.i, 387); oru a or one (used before a consonant)(Ta.); or (Ka.); oru (Ma.); orun:ka-vit.utal to bring together, unite (Tiv. Tirunet.un. 17, Vya_. 134)(Ta.); orun:kiyal-an.i figure of speech connecting different ideas together (Vi_raco_. Ala. 13); o_ra_n:ku unitedly, jointly (Kalit. 18)(Ta.lex.) horakul.i a person who joins others, i.e. depends on others for his subsistence; hora, pore joining (Ka.lex.) poru-tal to join, unite, combine (Cilap. 15,50)(Ta.lex.) po_r-ttal to surround (Kantapu. Cin:kamu. 457)(Ta.lex.) Image: joining together: po_r joining fast together (Maturaik. 354); po_r-k-katavu batten door; folding doors, as joined (Cilap. Arum. Akara_ti.); po_r-r-iya_tal grasping or securing closely (Na_mati_pa. 757); potivu union (Ta.lex.)

7524.A measure: orun:ke_ adv. to the fullest extent or measure (Tiv. Iyar-. Tiruvirut. 45); orua_r an ancient measure (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Urai.); orutuvali an ancient measure (Tol. Er..ut. 170, Urai.); o_ret.ai an ancient small measure (Tol. Er..ut. 28,Il.ampu_ra.)(Ta.lex.)

7525.Image: male of animals: oruttal male of certain animals, viz., pulva_y, puli, ur..ai, marai, kavari, kara_m, ya_n-ai, pan-r-i, erumai (Tol. Po. 590, 591, 592); karat.i (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.)

7526.Alangium: oru sage-leaved alangium, ar..icil (Ta.lex.)

7527.Powder: cf. bu_ro fine sugar; bu_ran.u to reduce to powder (S.); bu_ra_ powder (H.); bu_ru~ inferior sugar (G.); burkan.u to powder (S.); burko powder (Ku.); burkan.o to fill with powder (Ku.); burburon.o to pulverize, sprinkle with powder (Ku.); bhuro coarse powder (Ku.); bhura_ (Or.); bhurbhura_na_ (H.)(CDIAL 9298). cf. pur..uti pulverised or fine powder (Ta.); pu_r..i powder, sacred ashes; pu_ti powder (Ta.); porsi sweeepings (Malt.)(DEDR 4316). bu_ra_, bu_ra_sakkare a white sort of finely granulated sugar (Ka.lex.) pu_ra_, pu_ra_-carkkarai < bu_ra_ (U.)+ fine brown sugar (Ta.lex.)

7528.An incense: pu_rika_ eagle wood, akil (Malai.)(Ta.lex.) pu_ram a kind of incense (Skt.lex.)

7529.Camphor: pu_ram < karpu_ra camphor (Pata_rtta. 1076); medicated camphor (Tailava. Taila. 46); crude calomel, iracakar-pu_ram (Tailava. Taila. 69); pu_rapati medicated camphor; pu_ra-k-kat.t.u prepared calomel (Pais.aja. 126); pu_ra-k-kal.impu ointment of calomel (Pais.aja. 144); pu_ra-k-kile_tam black or yellow wash, hydrargyri nigra; iraca-kar-pu_m ce_rnta maruntu ni_r (C.E.M.); pu_ran.-kal.ittal waving of lighted camphor before a deity (Ta.lex.)

7530.Kettledrum: bhe_ri_, bhe_ri kettledrum (MBh.); bhe_ra (Skt.); bhe_ri (Pali); bheri, bheri_, bheli (As'.); bhe_ri_ (Pkt.); bheri (S.); bhe_har, bhe_hr (L.); bheri (G.); bher (M.); beraya, bere_ small drum (Si.)(CDIAL 9615). bhe_riva_daka drummer (Pali); bherava_ya_ (Si.)(CDIAL 9616). pe_ri kettle-drum (Kampara_. Er..uc. 28); drum; pe_rikai id. (Cilap. 3,27, Urai); pe_riyam id. (Kampara_. Ira_va. Ta_n-ai. 12); Lute: pe_ri-ya_r.. a lute of 21 strings, one of four ya_r.. (Cilap. 3,26, Urai)(Ta.lex.)

7531.Eight groups of armed personnel: pe_ra_yam, en.pe_ra_yam eight groups of attendants necessary for a monarch (Man.i. 1,17); en.peruntun.aivar id. : karan.attiyalavar (accountants); karumavitikal. (heads of departments), kan-aka-c-cur-r-am (treasurer), kat.aika_ppa_l.ar (watchmen), nakarama_ntar (chief citizens), pat.aittalaivar (commander of the army), ya_n-ai-vi_rar (elephant warriors), ivul.imar-avar (mounted warriors; ivul.i: horse); pe_ra_n.mai great valour or prowess; heroism (Kur-al., 773); honour (Kur-al., 962); heroic exploit, feat of arms; pe_ra_n.vaci theme describing gifts made to soldiers who put the enemy's army to rout (Pu. Ve. 3,9)(Ta.lex.)

7532.Fee: per-u fee; to obtain (Ta.lex.) cf. -per-u in : adhika_ra-p-per-u presents offered to an officer (Ta.Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) aras'a-p-per-u fees collected for payment for the performance of police duties in the rural areas (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) ila_janai-p-per-u, la_jinai-p-per-u, la_janai-p-per-u fee for affixing the royal seal (Ta.); ila_janai = la_cana (Skt.)(SITI.IEG.) ka_riya-p-per-u, a_ra_ycci, ka_riyav-a_ra_ycci cess paid for the superintendence of transactions (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) melvet.t.a-p-per-u land set apart for meeting expenses of public works (vet.t.i)(Ta.) (SITI.IEG.) hejjunka, perjunka name of a tax (Ka.)(EI 8-5.IEG.); synonyms: pejjunka, perujun:ka; prob. deriv. from piriya sun:ka = br.hac-chulka (Skt.)(IEG.)

7533.Assemblage; heap: poral.i heap, mass, assemblage (Ka.); pro_ka, pro_gu heap, collection (Te.); po_rp heap, stack of grain (Ga.); po_ri heap (Kond.a); po_r heap, heap of unthreshed grain; straw stack (Ta.); heap (Ma.); po_rvu grain heap; po_rppu heap of threshed paddy (Ta.)(DEDR 4591). cf. Young shoot: pua_r, poa_r, puara_ loose straw that has been threshed (Bi.); pora_ (?Mth.); prava_la young shoot (MBh.)(CDIAL 8800).

7534.Images: five fingers held out; right shoulder bare: pu_ran.am gesture in which the five fingers are held out straight and apart from one another (Ta.lex.) por kay the right shoulder bare (e.g. at the ceremonies)(Ko.)(DEDR 4333).

7535.Clerodendrum infortunatum: perukilai pink-tinted heart-leaved glory tree, clerodendrum infortunatum (Ta.); piraku, peruku id.; peruvila its leaf (Ma.)(DEDR 4413).

7536.Perfume; trigonella corniculata: spr.kke, pr.kke the plant trigonella corniculata (Ka.lex.) spr.kka_ a fragrant substance used in perfumes (Br.hatsam.hita_. LXXVI. 23-26). cf. pirang (U.) trigonella corniculata (GIMP, p.248). cf. mentiya, ventayam fenugreek, trigonella foenum-graecum (Ta.)(DEDR 5072). cf. mantha_, vedhani_ fenugreek (Skt.)(CDIAL 10313).

7537.A tree yielding perfume: ner..al, ne_r..al priyan:gu, ka_rambe, pre_n:kan.a gid.a; a tree; a_r..al (Ta.Ma.); Synonym: gandha-phali a medicinal plant and perfume, the priyan:gu (Ka.lex.) ja_r..al cinnamon, cinnamomum; saffron, bulbous-rooted plant, kun:kumam; jasmine, jasminum (Ta.lex.) lata_ synonym of priyan:gu (Car. Su. 3.27, 4.8, Ci. 4.76). a_r..al milnea montana, priyan:gu (Ma.)(DEDR 2915). Synonym: phalini_ priyan:gu (Car. Ci. 14.189, 21.74). priyan:gu long pepper; saffron; name of a creeper (said to put forth blossoms at the touch of women)(Skt.lex.) priyan:gu, gandhapriyan:gu callicarpa macrophylla (Car. Su. 25.40, 4.31,34,46; Ci. 21.90). Callicarpa macrophylla: mathara (B.); sumali (P.); daya (H.Kumaon); chimpompil (Ma.); leaves: heated and applied to rheumatic joints; oil from root: aromatic, stomachic; habitat: upper Gangetic plain, Bengal plain, W. Himalayas from Kashmir eastwards upto 6,000 ft., Assam. (GIMP, p. 45). priyan:gu or gandhapriyan:gu was used in perfumes (B.Sam..) priyan:gu a certain medicinal plant, phalini, the medicinal plant menispermum cordifolium (Ka.lex.) Aglaia roxburghiana: priyangu (B.H.Skt.); chokala (Ta.); yerra aduga (Te.); fruit: cooling, astringent, in inflammation and leprosy; habitat: Mt. Abu, Konkan, S. Mahrata country, Deccan, N. Kanara, W. Ghats in S. Kanara and Malabar, Travancore, Tinnevelley (GIMP, p.9). Priyan:gu = aglaia roxburghiana (Dutt, U.C., Sanskrit Materia Medica, 1922 (1980 repr.), p. 315). cf. priyan:gu (Skt.) Aglaia odoratissima = aglaia roxburghiana = miluca roxburghiana: Species: Indo-Malaya, China. Distribution: Mt. Abu, Konkan, S.M. country, Deccan, N. Kanara, W. Ghats in S. Kanara and Malabar, Travancore, Tinnevelly, Ceylon, Burma, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java. The bark is emetic... The root is abortifacient. The root and bark are acrid, bitter; refrigerant, aphrodisiac. Bengal: priyangu; Canarese: tottila; Hindi: priyangu; Malay: belankashutan, subulatjantan, tumilang; Malayalam: punyava, sempuli; Sanskrit: anganapriya, bhangura, bhedini, gandhaphala, gauri, gaurvalli, govandin, govarna, gundra, kanguni, kanta, karambha, katu, krishangi, krishnapushpi, lata, mahilavhya, mangalya, mithavalli, narivallabha, parnabhedini, phalapriya, phalini, pita, preyasi, priyaka, priyangu, shubha, shyama, subhanga, vanita, vishvaksena, vritta; Tamil: kannikkombu, sokkalai; Telugu: ettanduga, kondanduga; Oriya: priyongo. (Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 551).

7538.Sinapis ramosa: priyan:gu sinapis ramosa (MBh.); long pepper (Skt.); piyan:gu a panic seed, a medicinal plant (Pali); pi~gvi_, pi~gi_ heart-pea, cardiospermum halicacabum (M.); puvan:gu the plant sinapis nigra (Si.); priyan:gu panicum italicum (VS.)(CDIAL 8976). pi~vel, pi~gel oil made from the seed of cardiospermum haliacacabum or heart-pea (M.)(CDIAL 8977). Panicum italicum = setaria italica: kan:gu setaria italica (Car. Su. 26.84). pingni (K.); kangu (Skt.); kangni (B.M.P.H.); tauna (Ma.); koralu (Te.); tenai (Ta.); grain: diuretic, astringent, used externally in rheumatism and as a domestic remedy in alleviating the pains of parturition; cultivated throughout India (GIMP, p.226). put.ki malla cardiospermum halicaeabum (Santali.lex.) Cardiospermum halicacabum... According to Nadkarni, the fruit or the seeds yield a kind of essential oil, bitter and stimulant... the leaves are considered antirheumatic... The roots are considered in Sind as diaphoretic, diuretic and aperient... On the Malabar coast, the leaves are used as a tonic for fevers... (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp.548-549).

7539.Santal sept: pa_uria, pa_ulia one of 12 septs into which the Santals are divided (Santali.lex.)

7540.Portia tree: pu_varacu, puracu Portia tree, thespesia populnea (Pata_rtta. 379)(Ta.); hu_varase (Ka.); pu_varacu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) Thespesia populnea = hibiscus populneus: The tree reaches a height of about 10 meters... the leaves are glossy... According to Safford, the plant is a favourite shade-tree growing wild and often planted about villages in Polynesia. He says that the heartwood is hard, smooth, durable, and of a dark-red colour; that the Hawaiians make 'poi' calabashes of it; and that it has been called 'Polynesia rosewood.' In some of the islands of the Pacific the bark of this tree is made into cordage... Nadkarni adds... that the heartwood yields a garnet-red resin... the roots are used as a tonic... Kirtikar and Basu report that in Mauritius the bark is described as depurative, and as a cure for dysentery and haemorrhoids. Nadkarni says that a decoction of the bark is used for washing skin diseases. Ground bark mixed with coconut oil is also applied to skin diseases... leaves are applied ot inflamed and swollen joints. The fruit abounds in a viscid, yellow juice which the natives in South India use as an external application in psoriasis. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp. 592-593). Thespesia populnea: parisha (Skt.); paraspipal (H.P.); parash (B.); parsipu (M.); puvarasu (Ta.); gangaravi (Te.); kallal (Ma.); arasi (Ka.: fruit, leaves and root: applied externally to scabies, psoriasis and other skin diseases; root: tonic; bark: astringent, given internally as an alterative; habitat: coastal forests of India, largely grown as a roadside tree in tropical regions. (GIMP, p. 243). maro_j fibre for rope; moros, mar.os rope prepared from fibre of paur tree; morosm, moras, moroli rope; maronj bark (Go.); murar-ci a cord (Ta.); mra_su rope made from hide (Kui); marcu rope attaching bullock to plough (Kuwi)(DEDR 4976). Cord; bark: murar-ci a cord (Ta.); muraje rope made of straw (Tu.); mar.o_nj strip of bark (Go.); maro_j fibre for rope (Go.); morolik rope (Go.); mo_ru_m bark used for tying a bundle (Go.)(DEDR 4976). Stout rope: hor(a)ji a stout and long rope used in drawing an idol-car (Ka.); horaje cord put round the neck of an elephant (Ka.); puracai, puro_cai halter or head-stall of an elephant (Ta.)(DEDR 4284). Rope: rajju cord, rope (RV.); rope (Pali); raju (NiDoc.); rajju, lajju (Pkt.); rajuk (Kal.); ra_j, ra_z (Phal.); raz rope (Sh.K.); rajot.i thick string (Sh.); laja rope (S.); lajj, lajju well-rope (P.); raju_r.i_ rope (WPah.); rajet.t.o~ (WPah.); lezu (A.); lejur. pad on woman's head for waterpot (Bi.); lajuri_ well-rope (Bhoj.); lej, lejur rope (Bhoj.); lej, lejur rope (H.); rajju (Konkan:k); rodda, rodu string, cord (Si.)(CDIAL 10582). restis rope (Latin); re~zgis wicker, basket (Lithuanian); rajju a cord, line, rope; fisherman's line; rajju-ka_ra rope-maker; rajju-ga_haka rope-holder; (king's) land-surveyor; rajjuka a rope, line (Pali.lex.)

7541.Farmer; tenant: pur-am land free from assessment (Ci_vaka. 2574); region, point of compass, quarter; tract or part of a country; village or town in agricultural tract; pur-ampo_kku land exempt from assessment, either because it is set aside for communal purposes or because it is uncultivable (M.N.A.D. I,284); pur-akkut.i farmer or field-labourer, not being a regular tenant under a landlord; ryot who farms in neighbouring villages, dist. fr. ut.kut.i, a class of farmers in Salem district (G.Sm.D. ii,62); pur-akkut.ippa_yaka_ri tenant without any occupancy right (M.N.A.D. 284); pur-avat.ai plot of wet land cultivated mainly by lift irrigation (C.G.); field let to a tenant for cultivation (R.T.); pur-avu cultivable land; pur-ava_yam revenue from external sources, collected mainly in cash (S.I.I. iii, 121); pur-a_y a kind of arable land (Cen. xiii, 172); pun-cey land fit for dry cultivation only (Pu. Ve. 12, Ven-r-i. 4); dry crop; pun-ceykai raising dry crops; pun-ceyttaranan-cey, pun-ceyme_lnan-cey land on which wet crops are raised, though as dry (C.G.); pun-ceyppayir dry crops, cereals; pun-ceypa_ka_yatti_rvai assessment charged on garden-cultivation in lands classed as dry (R.T.); pun-ceyvaravunan-cey land originally classed as dry and later re-classed as wet; pun-payir poor crop (Cin-e_n. 112); punam upland fit for dry cultivation (Akana_. 368)(Ta.lex.)

7542.Pastoral tract; jungle; hilly tract: pun-avar inhabitants of the hilly tracts (Nar-. 119); pun-n-a_t.an- Co_r..a king, as lord of pun-n-a_t.u (Kal.avar..i. 1); pun-n-a_t.u the Co_r..a country (Periyapu. Can.t.e_cu. 1); a region where kot.un-tamir.. was spoken (Nan-. 273, Urai.); pur-avam forest, forest tract, hilly tract (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 48); Shiyali; pur-avani id. (Ta.); pur-avu forest (Perumpa_n.. 496); jungle (Patir-r-up. 13,20); forest tract (Kur-un. 404); hilly tract; pur-an:ka_n- jungle, pastoral tract (Pa_rata. Ira_cu. 115); pur-an.i hilly tract; pastoral tract (Te_va_. 842,6); sod of earth, turned in ploughing; pur-an.ipo_t.utal to level the sods of earth in a ploughed land; pur-ampan.ai pastoral tract; agricultural region outside a town (Ci_vaka. 85); hilly tract; pur-ampan.aiya_n- Aiyan-a_r, as having his abode outside the village (Cilap. 9,12)(his idols are set-up on the village borders); pur-ampar outside (Pa_rata. Tiraupatima_. 65); pur-ampu exterior, outside (Periyapu. A_n-aya. 7); hor-agu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

7543.Image: pial: pur-attin.n.ai pial (Ta.lex.) cf. pur-am, pur-an- outside, exterior (Ta.)(DEDR 4333).

7544.Image: stem: pur-akka_r.. hard outer part of the stem of a tree, as of palmyra (Tol. Po. 640); female tree, as palmyra; pur-an:ka_r.. id. (Ta.lex.)

7545.Image: to hide: pur-amar-aittal to conceal, hide (Man.i. 23,22)(Ta.lex.)

7546.Image: to retreat: pe_r-tal to draw back, retreat as a warrior (Kur-al., 486); to move (Kampara_. Mutar-. 98); to depart, go away (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 5,3,3); peyar-tal to move, leave, stir, rise, depart (Tiva_.; Kampara_. Nikumpalai. 101); to turn about, shift, veer (Pur-ana_. 3); to return, come back (Pu. Ve. 1,10); peyarttum again, in return (Pur-ana_. 2); peyarntu again (Kampara_. Kumpakarun.a. 184); peyarpur-am retreating (Pur-ana_. 35); peyara-p-peyara again and again (J.)(Ta.lex.)

7547.Guard: pur-akkot.ai acting as body-guard (Kampara_. Ma_ya_can-. 23); pur-akko_t.t.ai outer defence to a castle; barbican; pur-an:ka_ttal to guard, protect, save (Tol. Po. 422)(Ta.lex.) pur-akka_ppu outer guard or sentry (Perun.. Makata. 17,215); pur-an:ka_ppu acting as body-guard (Perun.. Ucaik. 33,99); pur-aceytal to protect, cherish, maintain (Tirikat.u. 64); pur-attarunar protector (Pur-ana_. 35); pur-anta_tal to protect, take care of (Pur-ana_. 35)(Ta.lex.)

7548.City: pe_ru_r city (Man.i. 2,54); large town in an agricultural tract (Ir-ai. Kal.a. 1,19); a S'iva shrine in Coimbatore district (Periyapu. E_yarko_n-. 88); pe_rirukkai town surrounded by a moat (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7549.Village assembly: perun:kur-i the great assembly of a village or town (S.I.I. iv,32); perun:kur-i-c-capai id. (S.I.I. iii,175,22); perun:kur-i-maka_-capai id. (I.M.P.Tj. 1123)(Ta.lex.)

7550.Title conferred on potters: perun:kuyam an ancient title conferred on potters (kula_lar- ke_r-pa-p-perun:kuya marul.i : Perun.. Vattava. 9,48)(Ta.lex.)

7551.Great deed: peru-cey great deed (Pur-ana_. 199); peru-ceyya_l.an- a man of great deeds (Pur-ana_. 282); perun-taram a high office (S.I.I. ii,161,3); peruntan-am an office of the state under Co_r..a government (S.I.I. ii,222)(Ta.lex.)

7552.Designation; person, individual; name: pe_ru name, designation, reputation, fame, celebrity (Te.); pe_r name (Na_lat.i, 175); person, individual (ayar--pe_raik ka_yti : Kampara_. Carapan.. 30); living thing (Kampara_. Na_kapa_. 156); praise, fame (Te_va_. 62,3)(Ta.lex.) peyar name, appellation, designation, epithet (Akana_. 67); reputation, renown (Kalit. 17)(Ta.lex.) piyar name; reputation, renown, fame; person; shape, form, substance; payarkku nominally, for form's sake; peyaran- one who bears a name (Kalit. 81); (also pe_ran-) grandson (as bearing the grandfather's name), grandfather; peyartti, pe_rtti granddaughter, grandmother; peyariya having a name (Pur-ana_. 202); of calling by name (Pur-ana_. 152)(Ta.lex.) pe_r a name, as it were the duplicate of a person or thing; a person, individual; peyar, piyar name (Ma.); pe.r name (Ko.); po.r id; po.sf- (po.st-) to name (with po.r as object)(To.); pesar(u) name, appellation; greatness, fame, celebrity; pesarisu to name, mention, tell (Ka.); peda name (Kod..); pudaru name, appellation; fame,celebrity, reputation (Tu.); hudari name (Bel.); podari, hudari id. (Kor.); pe.r (pl. pe.d.l) name (Kol.); pe_r (pl. pe_d.l) id. (Nk.); pe_r (pl. -l) id. (Nk.); pidir id. (Pa.Ga.); par.o_l, porol, paro_l, paroi, parroi, poral, poroy, pad(d)ur, pediri, peder id. (Go.); pe_r(u), do_r id. (Kond.a); to_r id. (Pe.); dar id. (Mand..); pad.a, pa_ru id. (Kui); do_ru_, do_ru, da_ru id.; do_ru ki- to praise (Kuwi); pijna_ to name (Kur.); pinje id. (Malt.); pin name (Br.)(DEDR 4410).

7553.Chief; great; religious headman of village: baria~u, bhal, bhale great (Santali.lex.) perma priest; par.o_l, persa_, biriya_, beriya great, big; perma_ great, large, religious headman of village; berhor big man; persa pe_n highest god of the Gonds; pehara, pehro, behra big, great; peddal headman of village (Go.); peru, pe_r great, large, chief (Ma.); pira_n lord, king (Ma.); peru, perum, pe_r great; periya large, great, elder, important; periya_r, periyo_r the aged, the great, saints, kings; periyo_n- great man, god; peruppam bigness, thickness; peruma_n- nobleman, king, elder, elder brother, god; pemma_n- god, great man; perumai bigness, greatness, excellence, nobleness, abundance, excess, power, celebrity, pride; peruvar great persons; pira_n- lord, king, master, god; pira_t.t.i lady, mistress, goddess (Ta.); pe- big (Ko.); pe tow chief god (To.); per, pe_r (before vowels) largeness, tallness, greatness, large, tall, great; he_ra_l.a greatness, largeness, abundance; percu, peccu, heccu, eccu pride, growth, riches, excess, eminence; perme increase, greatness, excellency, grandeur, honour, pride; piri extensiveness, largeness, abundance, frequency, greatness, advanced age; pedda largeness, bigness, greatness; peddi a great or old person, elder, senior; pempu largeness, abundance, eminence, sublimity (Ka.); peri, perim-, perija increase, excess; peri- (perip-, perit-) to increase (intr.; family, wealth, cattle); peri elder; perta very, great, much (Kod..); peri, periya large, great, high, superior; perm haughtiness; perjuni, heccuni to increase; hecca more, better, high, superior (Tu.); hedda great, large, spacious, chief, principal; hemme pride, insolence (Tu.); peru~gu, per(u)gu, per(u)vu to grow, grow up, increase, accumulate, be augmented, expand, extend; peru~gud.u growth, increase; perime, pemme greatness, power, authority; pe_rima grandeur, magnificence; pe_rimi greatness, eminence; pe_ru great, large, much; pe_r(u)cu to increase, rise, swell; pekku many; pekkan.d.ru, pekkuru many persons; pekkuva increase, growth, development, excess; (inscr.) perddal. elders; pedda great, big, large, long, tall, old, senior, chief, respectable; an elder, superior, head man; peddayu adv. much, very, exceedingly; peddi mother's elder sister; peccu excess, addition; heccu, eccu increas, greatness; much, more, superior, excessive; vb. to increase, rise; penu (before consonant), penn- (before vowel) large, big, great; pencu to enlarge; pellu excessiveness, greatness, excessive, much, great; greatly, much, very; pellidamu greatness, excessiveness; peluca much, exceeding; pelucana greatness, excessiveness (Te.); perg- (perekt-) to grow; perp- (perept-) to rear; pergip- (pergipt-) to let grow up (without providing a wife); pedda a male; pera, per big; peret many; pera_ma_ mother's sister; perenda_ father's elder brother (Kol.); perg- to grow up; perp- to rear; pedda man, male (Nk.); phar big, elder; peruk-/perk- to live (Nk.); berto big; pengot., peot, peru much; per-ed river (cf. ya_r-u river (Ta.)(DEDR 5159). Elder, big: pe_pa mother's elder sister (Pa.); pernond. (masc.), berit (fem. and neut.) big; bengid. much, more; ben:gurtul many; ber beret. big river (Ga.); pedeya_l father's elder brother; pers- to grow, grow up; caus. persp-; bers-, bars-; berel, berer, bered. river; beriar, berer flood, river in flood; perma_v, parma_v, perma bison; perma_v pe_ri mother's elder sister, father's elder brother's wife; pe_pi_, pe_pi father's elder brother; bare_li_, berel etc. banyan (Go.); per, peri big, large; elder (of siblings); pir- to grow; pirp- to make to grow; pergi- to grow up (Kond.a); pe_mba father's elder brother (Mand..); beri beri inba to swell, increase in size; pe_rer.i a large rat; pihereju river, stream; pre_nd.a father's elder brother; great-grandfather (Kui); pe_ro father's elder sister-in-law; great-grandmother (Kui); bir- (-it-) to grow, multiply (Kuwi); piring to swell (of the body or limbs)(Br.)(DEDR 4411).

7554.A title of chieftains: br.h increase; br.hant tall, high (RV.)(CDIAL 9302). br.hati is thick, grows strong (AV.); br.m.hati (S'Br.); br.m.hayati increases (MBh.)(CDIAL 9306). peruma_l. person of eminence (Tiv. Ira_ma_nuca. 11); id. (Ma.); title of Ce_ra king; Vis.n.u; god; peruma_l.-ko_vil Vis.n.u temple; little Conjeevaram; peruma_n- nobleman, great person; king; god, as S'iva, Vis.n.u (Kampara_. Nikumpalai. 143); elder; elder brother (Ta.); peruma_n king (Ma.); peruma_n-at.ikal. divine being, a term of reverence (Te_va_. 528,1; S.I.I. iii,95); a title of kings and chieftains; peruvar great persons; perumakan- great man; chief (Perumpa_n.. 101); king; arhat (Cilap. 10,47); perumakkal. the great (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,7,5); members of a village assembly, as great men (S.I.I. iii,9)(Ta.lex.) Chief: perumutali chief (Periyapu. Kan.n.ap. 117); peruntakai noble-minded person (Net.unal. 106); peruntaram a high office (S.I.I. ii,161,3); peruntalai headman; peruntan-mai high dignity, noble character; peruntan-am an office of the state under Co_r..a government (S.I.I. ii,222); perun~co_r-u sumptuous feast given by a king to the generals of his army (Akana_. 233); perun~co_r-r-unilai theme of a king giving feast to his soldiers on the eve of battle (Tol. Po. 63); perun~co_r-r-uvan~ci id. (Cilap. 25,144); perun:kut.i noble family (Cilap. 20,57-8); perun:kut.iya_t.t.am village headship (I_t.u, 3,5,6); perun:kut.i-va_n.ikar, perun:kut.iyar an ancient caste of merchants (Cilap. 2,76)(Ta.lex.)Mt. Me_ru: peruvarai Mt. Me_ru (Civataru. Ko_pura. 30)(Ta.lex.) Large army: perumpat.ai large army (Ta.); perbad.e id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) Gift of valuable offerings: perumpat.ai theme describing the exploits of a hero and inscribing them on a nat.u-kal (Tol. Po. 60); theme describing the gift of valuable offerings to a nat.u-kal (Tol. Po. 60, Urai); perumpattu land, the proprietary right of which lies in the hands of the government; perumpati town surrounded by villages (Ta.lex.)

7555.Image: to overflow: por..i (-v-, -nt-) to pour forth, shower (as rain)(Pur-ana_. 203); to discharge in abundance (Kampara_. Nikumpalai. 118); to give liberally; to flow, overflow (Man.i. 14,49); abound (as wealth)(Perun.. Ucaik. 47,110); por..ivu flowing, raining (Periyapu. Tiruna_l.aip. 3); abundance; por..il greatness, largeness (Ta.); por..i pouring, shower; por..iyuka to pour down, flow off, drop (as leaves, fruits), shower; por..ikka to shower down, let drop; por..iccal pouring, oozing; por..ippu overflowing, giving overdue measure (Ma.); por.v- (por.d-) to increase in numbers (Ko.); boriyuni to yield milk; boripini, bol.i to milk (Tu.); por.p- (por.t-) to flow (Pa.)(DEDR 4556). cf. porumu (porumi-) to swell, be bloated (Ta.)(DEDR 4543). porunal the river Ta_miraparn.i (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 6,5,8); porun-ai id. (Tiruva_lava_. Tiruna_t.t.uc. 9); porunai-t-tur-aivan- Ce_ra king as lord of the A_n- porunai river; Pand.ya king as lord of the Ta_miraparn.i river (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_. Pil.. 88); porunai the river Ta_miraparn.i (Kumara. Pira. Mi_n-a_. Pil.. 11); a river in Ce_ra country, a_n- porunai (Ta.lex.) River: hor-e, por-e a river (Ka.); por-e a river (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) puro_t.i the current of a river; puri a river (Skt.lex.)

7556.Love: piriyan- < priya one who loves (piriyara_ mat.iyavark kan.iyar : Te_va_. 558,9); beloved husband (Tan-ippa_.); piriyam thing desired (Aric. Pu. Pa_yi. 1); piriyai < priya_ wife (Tan-ippa_.)(Ta.lex.) pri_ love (Skt.): priya beloved (RV.); piya beloved (Pali.Pkt.); priya (NiDoc.); pria (Dhp.); piye dear (address to child or husband), pyuyu, dat. piyis dearly loved child (K.); piri_ beloved; darling; pi_u lover (S.); pi_a_ lover, husband (L.); pi_, pi_a_ friend; pi_u lover, husband (P.); piu lover (OA.); piya_ dear (MB.); pi_, pi_ya_ husband (Bi.); pia_ (Mth.); piya_ (Bhoj.); piu, pi_, piya_ lover, husband (OAw.); piu, pi_, piya_ (H.); pi_va (OMarw.); pri_u, pri_yad.au, pri_d.au beloved (OG.); piyu, piyur.o lover, husband (G.); piyo, pihu_ (M.); piya pleasant, dear (Si.); pia_, piaa_ wife (Pkt.); piya wife, woman (Si.)(CDIAL 8974). priyaka_ra doing a kindness (MBh.); priyaka_raka agreeable (Mn.); pia_ra love; pia_ri_ wife; pia_rin loving (Pkt.); piya_raya dear (Ap.); pya_r love; pyru dear (K.); pia_ru love; pia_ro dear (S.); pia_ra_ (L.); pea_r, pia_r love; pea_ra_, pia_ra_ dear (P.); t.l.a_r love; t.l.a_ra_ dear (WPah.); t.l.a_ru adj. (WPah.); pya_ro (Ku.); piya_r love; piya_ro adj. (N.); piya_ru, piya_ri beloved one (A.); peya_r, peya_ra_ beloved; piya_ri affection (B.); pia_ra a woman's lover; pia_ra_ dear (Or.); pia_r, pia_ri beloved (Mth.); piya_r love; piya_ri adj. (Bhoj.); piya_ra_ adj. (OAw.); piya_r love; piya_ra_ adj. (H.); pya_ra love (OMarw.); pya_r love; pya_ru adj. (G.); pya_r, pya_ra_ beloved; pya_r love (M.)(CDIAL 8975). priyatva the being dear (Mn.); piyatta pleasantness (Pali); pyuyuth, dat. piyetas love, affection (K.)(CDIAL 8978). pri_n.ana act or means of pleasing (MBh.); pi_n.ana gladdening (Pali); pi_n.an.a (Pkt.); pin.ana satisfaction (Si.)(CDIAL 8979). pri_n.ati pleases; pri_n.i_te_ is pleased (RV.); pri_n.ayati pleases (A_s'vGr..); pi_n.e_ti pleases (Pali); pi_n.ia pleased (Pkt.); pin.anava_ to be glad (Si.)(CDIAL 8980). pri_ta pleased (RV.); beloved, mirth (Skt.); pi_a pleased (Pkt.); pi_ya pleasure, affection (OG.)(CDIAL 8981). pri_ti pleasure (Gr.S'r.); love (MBh.); pi_ti pleasure (Pali); priti, pi_ti_, piti (As'.); priti (NiDoc.); pridi (Dhp.); pray tender love (K.); priwa pl. love, devotion (K.)(CDIAL 8982). To make friends with: pri_yate_ enjoys oneself (MBh.); piryav to whore, lead astray; pir- to love; pire_no dear; pirav- to woo; pirab- to sleep with (Gypsy); priya_yate_ makes friends with (RV.); prayun to be pleasing, be liked (K.)(CDIAL 8983). pre_man love (TS.); pe_ma, pe_maka love (Pali); pe_ma, pemma, pimma (Pkt.); pema (MB.OAw.Si.); priwa pl. love, devotion (K.)(CDIAL 8999). vipriya estranged (TS.); disagreeable; anything hateful (MBh.) vippiya hateful (Pkt.); vipiya tiger (Si.)(CDIAL 11802). a_pri_n.a_ti satisfies, pleases (RV.); appin.ai presents, gives (Pkt.)(CDIAL 1220). pri_ti, piri_ti, piru_ti pleasure, joy, gladness, happiness; affection, love (Ka.); priya, pri_ya favour, love; priya, piya, piriya, pri_ya beloved, dear to; dear, valued, amiable; loving; high in price; favour, love; a husband, a lover (Ka.lex.)

7557.Suburb; fortification: pur-am fortification; pur-ampat.i outskirts of a town (S.I.I. ii,124); pur-aman-ai house-site outside the quarters of the higher castes, opp. to un.man-ai (C.G.); pur-amatil outer wall of a fortified town (Patir-r-up. 16, Urai.); pur-akkut.i outskirts of a city, suburb (Man.i. 28,4); pur-ace_ri id. (Cilap. 13, Talaippu.); pur-acce_ri id. (Pat.t.in-ap. 77); pur-amatir-ce_ri id. (Perun.. Ucaik. 47,72); pur-accur-r-u outlying parts of a town or village; environment, surroundings; pur-acir-ai premises in the neighbourhood of a palace or castle (Patir-r-up. 64,8); place outside the fence, as of a field (Pur-ana_. 28); outskirts of a city, suburb (Cilap. 14,1); neighbourhood, vicinity (Pur-ana_. 84); pur-acir-aippa_t.i hamlet adjoining a city (Tol. Po. 57, Urai.); pur-an.i-na_t.u border-land; bordering country (S.I.I. iii,14); pur-attir-ai theme of an invading chief besieging his adversary's fort (Pu. Ve. 6,10); pur-attumir..ai theme of an invading chief camping on the banks of the moat and besieging the fort of his adversary (Pu. Ve. 6,16); pur-anakar outlying part of a city, suburb; pur-am outside, exterior, opp. to akam (Kur-al, 277)(Ta.lex.)

7558.Town: hor-il, hor-ilu, por-il a town (Ka.); por-il, or-il a dwelling-place: a town, a city (Ka.); pura (Ka.); pro_lu (Te.); por..il the world in general; a country, the earth; greatness (Ta.); por-ila_n.ma the ruler of a town; por-ilven.d.a a towns-woman (Ka.); por-ilija a man born in a town (Ka.); ur-ai a place (Ta.)(Ka.lex.) cf. por..al town, city (Ka.)(DEDR 4555). cf. pur..il sandbank (Ka.)(DEDR 4558). puri a town, city; a king; puri_ a city, town; a stronghold; pura a town, city (containing large buildings, surrounded by a ditch, and not less than one kros'a in extent); a castle, fortress, stronghold; pur a town, fortified town; a fortress, castle, stronghold; a wall, rampart (Skt.lex.)

7559.Belonging to the city: po_ra belonging to the city, polite (of speech)(Pali); born in a city (Pkt.); pora fighter, wrestler (Si.); paura citizen (Gaut.); prince engaged in war in certain circumstances (VarBr.S.); cf. praha_ra (CDIAL 8420). par.a part of town; gon.d.a suburbs of town (Santali.lex.) cf. bavara battle, war (Ka.); bavaramu id. (Te.)(DEDR 3997). bakher.a war of words (Santali.lex.) pura fortress, town, gynaeceum (MBh.); the city of Pa_t.aliputra (Skt.); pur stronghold (RV.); puri_ fort, city (TA_r.); pura fortress, town (Pali.Pkt.); puri_, pura_ (Pkt.); pu_ru hamlet, quarter of a town (K.); pura_ section of a city (P.); puro storey of a house (Ku.); Pur the city of Patna (B.); pura_ large village, town, ward (H.); paru~ suburb (G.); pura_ ward of a town (M.); pura, puraya, pure_ large village, town (Si.)(CDIAL 8278). House: purai house, dwelling, small room; pirai shed, factory; puraiyan- house, cottage, dwelling made of leaves; puraiyul. house (Ta.); pura house (esp. thatched house), hut, room (Ma.); pore thatched roof (Kod..); pore, pure roof, ceiling; pura house (Tu.)(DEDR 4294). cf. pur-am, pur-an- outside, exterior, that which is foreign (Ta.)(DEDR 4333). cf. por..al town, city (Ka.); pro_lu city (Te.)(DEDR 4555). cf. pur..il sandbank (Ka.); por..il country, district; earth, world; park, forest (Ta.); sandy shore (Ma.)(DEDR 4558).

7560.House: cf. pura house (Kod..)(DEDR 4294). pura a house, residence, abode (Skt.lex.) pur..ai backyard, open space behind a house and attached to it; rear gangway (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 14); pur-akkat.ai backyard (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) purai house, dwelling (Tiv. Periya_r... 2,9,1; Ain:kur-u. 319); hermitage (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 42); temple (Patir-r-up. 15,37); small room; cowstall (Ma_t.t.uva_. 23); place (Ja_n-a_. 43,21); puraiyul. house (Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

7561.Land: pur-am land free from assessment (Ci_vaka. 2574); place (karipur-a vat.t.il: Cilap. 16,32); village or town in agricultural tract (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.lex.) Outside of a temple: pur-akkot.ai outside of a temple (S.I.I. iii,141)(Ta.lex.) Pastoral tract: pur-an.i pastoral tract (pu_kkun ta_r..ai pur-an.iyaru kela_m : Te_va_. 842,6); purampan.ai id. (Ta.); agricultural region outside a town (Ci_vaka. 85); purampan.aiya_n- Aiyan-a_r, as having his abode outside the village (Cilap. 9,12) (Ta.lex.)

7562.Image: lame: her-iva, per-iva a lame man, a cripple (Ka.); her-ivi, per-ivi a lame, crippled woman (Ka.); her-ivu the state of being lame or crippled; her-e a man who cannot use his feet (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7563.Joint; to have enough space to contain: poru (-v-, -nt-) to join, unite, combine; poruttu (porutti-) to fit, adapt, prepare, adjust (Kampara_. Maruttumalai. 90); to cause to agree, to reconcile (Kur-al., 633); to join together, knit, unite; joining, junction, confluence; joint, suture of bones in the body (Panavit.u. 298); joining in carpentry; knot of a plant; uniting (Kampara_. Kumpakarn.a. 157); agreement, engagement; poruttu-ve_lai joinery (W.)(Ta.lex.); porutu (poruti-) to be joined, united with; join together, unite; porun(nu)-tal to be suitable, satisfactory (Nan-. 137); to agree, consent; poruntu-tal to agree, consent (Kampara_. Maruttu. 85); to make a contract, an agreement; to cohabit with (Man.i. 23,46)(Ta.lex.) poruntar weavers, makers of mats and baskets; po_r joining fast together; poruttam agreement, bargain, contract, treaty, covenant (Ta.); poruttu joint, joining, agreeing (Ma.); pore to be joined, be put or attached to, joint, come near; n. joining, union, nearness, vicinity, side; pondu union, collection; porduge joining, contact, touch, union, harmony, nearness, an appendage (Ka.); pond- (pondi-) to be suited to, agree with; podd- (poddi-) (good or evil influence) takes possession of (Kod..); ponta nearness, near (Te.); boddu heap, collection (Te.); porc- to be got, obtained (Ga.); podda_na_ to contain; padda_na_ to be contained in; pad- to have enough space to contain; pod.d.a_na_ to have space; podna_ a_yo narrow (Go.); po_ri near (Go.)(DEDR 4541).

7564.Image: joining together: po_r joining fast together (Maturaik. 354); po_r-k-katavu batten door; folding doors, as joined (Cilap. Arum. Akara_ti.); po_r-r-iya_tal grasping or securing closely (Na_mati_pa. 757); potivu union (Ta.lex.) Image: joint, jointure: por..i joint (Perun.. Ucaik. 48,87)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) por-i joint, jointure (Paripa_. 11,64); letter, character, writing (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) po_ra < po_d.a hollow (CDIAL 8398). pri the joints of a bamboo, a cane or the fingers (Malt.) (DEDR 4541).

7565.Image: diadem: por-i diadem, ner-r-ippat.t.am (Ci_vaka. 1792)(Ta.lex.)

7566.Image: harrow: pori a harrow (Tulu.lex.)

7567.Image: furrow: pori line made on the soil of the field by the tip of the ploughshare; a division of field made to facilitate ploughing (Tulu.lex.) por-i sign (Ma.); mark, sign, impression (Ta.)(DEDR 4564). cf. va_r a row (Ta.); a line (Ma.); ba_r a line, row (Ka.); ba_ru id., rank, range, series (Te.)(DEDR 5269b). cf. va_r length, elongation; height, straightness (Ta.); ba_r(u) length (Ka.)(DEDR 5358). cf. ba_ri bamboo splits fastened lengthwise to the rafters of a roof from both sides (Tu.)(DEDR 5361).

7568.Image: curve: biru a bow, a curved spring as of gun (Tulu.lex.)

7569.Image: to lift up the hand for striking: be_r to lift up the hand for striking; to row a boat (Tulu.lex.) cf. be_ru to lift hand to beat (Ka.)(DEDR 4440).

7570.Root: be_r root, origin (Tulu.lex.) cf. ve_r root (Ta.)(DEDR 5535).

7571.Measurement of grain: po_rige measurement of grain; po_like id. (Tulu.lex.) cf. po_r heap of unthreshed grain (Ta.)(DEDR 4591).

7572.Suddenly:{Echo word} bhurati moves rapidly, palpitates (RV.); bhurukka suddenly (N.); bhurbhur suddenly (M.); bhurbhurn.e~ to bristle up (M.)(CDIAL 9535). bhurvan rush (of waters)(RV.); wu_rv- to boil (Shgh.); ferveo (Lat.); lo_p-, lub- to be boiling (Pas'.)(CDIAL 9536). bhulla suddenly (N.) bhulbhulinu to spout out (N.); bhulukka bubblingly (N.); bhulka_ spring of water (B.); bhulasna_ to be bunrt (H.)(CDIAL 9537). burn, brn, burakn, burburn, brbrn suddenly, quickly; pr..., pur...n, purpurn, br..., bur...n, burk, burkn noise of bird flying up suddenly from ground (Ko.); bur-a, bura, bur-u sound in imitation of that of a rash movement; bur-a, bura, bur-u, bur-r- imitation of the sound produced by a bird rising suddenly, or by breaking wind; bur-a bur-ane with the repeated suddenness or sound of bur-a (Ka.); buru, burane, buru, buruburu, burru, burrane, burru the noise of a bird's wings in flying; burku noise of breaking wind (Tu.); burru loud and sudden noise such as is made when a bird flies (Te.); bhurrne suddenly (Go.)(DEDR 4329).

7573.Drizzle: buru, burku fine rain (Kui); bu_ri bu_ri ri_nai, bu_ri pi_yu ri_nai to misle (i.e. mizzle, drizzle)(Kuwi); bu_ri pi_yu, buri buri pi_yu drizzle (Kuwi)(DEDR 4288). burakna_ to sprinkle (H.); burbura_n.o to drizzle (Ku.); burbur sprinkling (N.); burburna_, burbura_na_, bhurbhura_na_ to sprinkle (H.); burburn.e~ to drizzle (M.)(CDIAL 9298).

7574.Wire edge on tool: pu_ wire edge on tool (Ta.)(DEDR 4345). pariyanta edge (Pali.lex.)

7575.Tax; rent-free land: puravu land revenue; puravu-nel revenue paid in paddy; puravu-pon- revenue paid in gold (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) cf. pura to govern; puranta_r kings; puravalan- protector, king; puravu tax, land given free of rent by a king (Ta.); por first offerings of food to god in pabm ceremony (Ko.); pore nourishing (Ka.); pro_pu protection, support (Te.); pra_pu support, protection, refuge, patronage (Te.)(DEDR 4288). cf. puravu-vari revenue accountant (S.I.I. iii,306); puravu paddy-field irrigated by a river or tank; fertility (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,9,9); tax (Pur-ana_. 260); gift, grant, boon (Patir-r-up. 80,10)(Ta.); care, protection (Patir-r-up. 26,6); place of jurisdiction (Te_va_. 461,5)(Ta.lex.)

7576.Silk-cotton, bombax heptaphyllum: pu_ran.i bombax heptaphyllum (Skt.); bu_raga, bu_rra, bu_ruga, bu_ruge, bu_rla silk-cotton tree, bombax (Ka.); bu_ruga, bo_rada mara eriodendron anfractuosum (Tu.); bu_raga, bu_ruga, bu_rugu id. (Te.); bu_rg s'et.t. silk-cotton tree (Kol.); bu_ru id. (Pa.); bu_rje id. (Ga.); bu_rgu maran id. (Kond.a); bu_ra a species of tree (Pkt.)(DEDR 4366). cf. bhu_rja the birch tree betula bhojpattra (Skt.); bhu_ja a kind of willow (Pali.Pkt.); bhujja (Pkt.); bhoj birch (P.Ku.H.G. M.); bhoja-pat.ru birch bark used for tubes of hookahs (S.); jo~_zi birch tree,birch bark (Sh.)(CDIAL 9570). bhu_wa_, bhu_a_ sort of downy cotton from the tree bombax heptaphyllum, cotton-wool, cater-pillar (H.); bhuwa_ fine down on body on body of young animal (N.); bhu_a_ hair on ear of maize, hairy worm(Bi.); bu_ hairy (of plants)(Si.); bu_va down on leaves or fruit or insects (Si.); bhuya_ mildew (B.)(CDIAL 9571). pu_t.a down of birds, wool, fine hair (Mal.); bu_r down, fine feathers, etc. (Nk.)(CDIAL 9571). Red silk-cotton tree: pu_ran.i red silk-cotton tree, ilavu; S'iva S'akti; pu_ran.i pura_tan-i (Ta_yu. Malaival.ar. 5)(Ta.lex.) pu_l.ai red silk-cotton (Ta.); pu_la_ red silk-cotton tree (Ta.); pu_l.a silk-cotton tree, bombax malabaricum (Ma.); pu_vulara a piece of fluff (?Kui)(DEDR 4378). Gum from silk-cotton tree: bu_ruga, bu_ra, bu_raga, bu_ruge, bu_rla the silk-cotton tree, bombax (Ka.); burage (Te.); pu_l.a (Ma.); pu_l.ai silk-cotton and the tree (Ta.); bu_ruge-ban:ke picche, s'a_lmali_ve_s.t.a; gum of the silk-cotton tree (Ka.lex.)

7577.Bark, skin: puran.i skin; flesh; pura_n.i, pur-an.i outer bark of a tree; skin, rind, peel, coat; flesh; hilly, pastoral tract (Ta.lex.) pur-an.i outer bark, skin, anything that is outside (Ta.)(DEDR 4333).

7578.Pollen: piracam pollen (Ta.)(DEDR 4412). para_ga pollen (Pur.); para_ya pollen (Pkt.); puru (Si.)(CDIAL 7799n).

7579.Flesh: pir-i, pir-u flesh (Ka.); perasu id. (Te.)(DEDR 4202). pusur meat, flesh, muscle (Kho.)(CDIAL 7985).

7580.Powder, dust; ashes: bu_r sawdust (P.H.); bu_ra_ powder (H.); burki_ unhusked rice strewn along the way a bier is carried to burning place (N.); pinch of dust (H.); bu_ri_ feathery excrescences on heads of millet (S.); bu_ran.u to reduce to powder (S.); bu_r, bu_ra_ pollen (L.); bu_ra_ powder (H.); burkan.u to powder (S.); burko powder (Ku.); bhuro coarse powder, chaff, sawdust (Ku.)[cf. busa chaff (Kaus'. Pkt.)(CDIAL 9293)]; bhura_ powder (Or.)(CDIAL 9298).

7581.Image: stripe: por-i stripe as of a tiger (Kalit. 46)(Ta.lex.)

7582.Image: diadem: por-i diadem, ner-r-i-p-pat.t.am (Ci_vaka. 1792)(Ta.lex.)

7583.Dhoney; boat: por-i dhoney, marakkalam (Pin..)(Ta.); por-u-ttal to run aground as a vessel; to strand (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) puruvai boat (Ta.)[cf. Srinivasa Aiyangar, P.T., Pre-Aryan Tamil Culture, op.cit. p.56.] peruvan-am sea (Kampara_. Mutar-. 246)(Ta.lex.)

7584.Bauhinia vahlii: {Synonyms for bauhinia vahlii: mahalan, maul, sihar (Central Provinces); malu (Garhwal); paur (Gond.); malghan, maljan, maljhan, mahul, malo, malu, maulein, maurain (Hindi_); maulan (Kharwar); pairmal (Khond); mottanvalli (Ma.); maljan (M.); mantarai (Ta.); madapu, mudupu (Te.); shiali, shioli, siyali (Or.); cf. Indian Medicinal Plants, vol.II, p.897)}.

7585.Land ready for ploughing: burui burui soft, moist, free as earth in a good condition for ploughing or digging (Santali.lex.)

7586.Image: bow string: po~r.ca a bow string made of a thin slip of bamboo (Santali.lex.)

7587.To put on the person: porhao, pahrau to put on the person as a garment, ring, ornament etc.; pahraua that which has been put on the person, as a garment, ring, ornament, shoes etc.; porha daka boiled rice offered at the Bhandan ceremony; porha da~r.e~ sacrifice offered to the dead person at the Bhandan ceremony (Santali. lex.) Image: oozing: birin. birin., burun. burun. watery substance oozing from a mass; to run as sore; birin. birin. daka boiled rice from which water oozes out; birin. birin. to continue weeping and sobbing for a long time; the eyes to fill with tears (Santali.lex.)

7588.To recognize: phormao, phormo to recognise; phormao gotkedean Biswad.ih manjhi kanae I recognized him at once, he is the head man of Biswad.ih (Santali.lex.)

7589.Other things: pir-a other things (Tol. Col. 57)(Ta.); id. (Ka.); pir-akal. id. (Ci_vaka. 1595); pir-akku-tal to heap, pile up (Poruna. 243)(Ta.lex.)

7590.Rattan: pir-akuttam rattan-palm (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.); cf. pra-gupta (Skt.) (Ta.lex.)

7591.Small seed-like gold pieces: pir-appu necklace of small seed-like gold pieces (ka_cum pir-appun. kalakalappa : Tiv. Tiruppa_. 7)(Ta.lex.)

7592.Image: look out: birlan., birlan. birlin. to keep a sharp look out on all sides, to be on the alert against enemies from any quarter, to prick up the ears, to smell danger; birlan. birlin:ko ben:geda, jel do the deer keep a sharp look out on all sides (Santali.lex.)

7593.Sprouting: bir.hau to take root, to begin to grow, as a plant that has been transplanted; to settle down; cet lekam nel agukeda, bir.hau akana se ban.? He~, bir.hau akana. How did you find it? has it begun to grow? yes, it is growing (Santali.lex.)

7594.Image: iron-studded stick: pa_ha_run.i iron-studded stick used in threshing rice (Or.)(CDIAL 8901).

7595.Grape harvest and festival: pru~_ grape harvest and festival (Kal.)(CDIAL 8339). cf. bandum festival, a first-fruit or new-eating ceremony (Go.); pan.d.oy festival (Kond.a); pand.om holiday (Go.); pan.d.uga festival (Te.); pan.t.ikai (Ta.); pan.t.ika (Ma.)(DEDR 3899). Crop: pan.t.a produce, crop, fruit, ripening (Te.); pand.e ripe fruit (Nk.); panding sweet, ripe achar berries (Go.); pan.t.a a crop; year (Kond.a); pntre to ripen (Malt.); par.u fruit (Kond.a); pa_r.esi id. (Kuwi); panjka_ fruits (Kur.)(DEDR 4004). purn.iya~_t.h fuel cut and dried some years ago (Ku.)(CDIAL 8284). cf. vir..a_, vir..avu festive occasion, festival, celebration; vir..avar those who celebrate a festival (Ta.); vir..a_ festival (Ma.); vil.a- id. (Ir.)(DEDR 5427).

7596.Image: collection of young fish: poha_r collection of young fish (Mth.)(CDIAL 8402).

7597.To collect: bhruh. to collect, gather (Skt.lex.)

7598.Ilex wightiana: pu.l. ilex wightiana (To.); hurul.u id. (Ka.)(DEDR 4292).

7599.Image: bird: purus ti_te dove (Ga.); pir-a_vu, pra_vu id. (Ma.); hor-asu a kind of pigeon; por-asu pigeon (Ka.); puda dove, pigeon (Tu.); bur-r-a-pit.t.e a sort of pigeon (Te.); pura_r, pur.a_r. the small speckled ground-dove (Go.); purral (pl. -or), purra_j dove; purra_r (pl. purrask), purar., porar.(i), pogar. pitte pigeon; paorish blue rock-dove (Go.); por-oz dove (Kond.a); purra_ id. (Kur.); pure id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4334). cf. par-avai bird, wing, feather, bee (Ta.)(DEDR 4020). par-al bird (Pa_rata. Intirappiratta. 21); par-ai flying (Malaipat.u. 55); wing, feather, plumage (Net.unal. 15); bird (Kur-un. 175)(Ta.lex.) Image: dove: cf. bo.ri dove (Kol.)(DEDR 4602). potam a dove (Santali.lex.) pur-avu dove, pigeon (Patir-r-up. 39,11); pur-avam id. (Ci_vaka. 1430); pur-a_ id. (Ci_vaka. 70)(Ta.lex.) Image: fowl, Indian partridge, three-toed quail: pu_re_d.u a three-toed gregarious bird resembling the quail (Te.); pu_r. quail (Kond.a); burli, buruli, burali id. (Ka.); pu_r.. quail, jungle fowl (Ta.); pu_r..a_n Indian partridge, jungle fowl (Ta.); kur-um-pu_r.. quail (Ta.); mon.a.mbrl id. (Ko.)(DEDR 4374). Honeycomb work: pur-a_kku_t.t.uve_lai honey-comb work; pur-a_kku_t.u dovecote, pigeon-house; pigeon-hole, as in a desk or bureau (Ta.lex.)

7600.Images: drop of water; spotted: parus.a spotted (RV.); pharu_ha_ spotted cloth (P.)(CDIAL 7909). pr.s.a (in cmpd.) speckled (Skt.); pr.s.at spotted (AV.); ghee in: pr.s.advant (RV.); drop of water (Skt.); pus. sheep's dung (Pas'.)(CDIAL 8363). pus. to sprinkle (Pas'.); pars.ati (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 8366). per-a_l spots on the back of a fish (Ta.lex.) pr.s.o_dara_ having a speckled belly (TS.); piso_dara_ (Pali)(CDIAL 8367). pr.s. sprinkle (Skt.); pus. to sprinkle (Pas'.); pars.ati (Dha_tup.)(CDIAL 8366). pr.s'ni spotted (RV.); prech to splash, sprinkle (e.g. water)(Dm.)(CDIAL 8351). Image: spark: pr.iski spark (Pe.); pr.ihe, pr.ihki id. (Mand..); pr.iska, pr.isi id. (Kuwi); prishk id. (Br.)(DEDR 4191). Image: flames: phorophoro imitative of the sound produced by flames, to flame, to blaze (Santali.lex.) Image; bubbles: buruc buruc to rise as small bubbles in water; many, numerous; burbud.uc to bubble, air bubbles to rise to the surface of water when some creature is breathing below (Santali.lex.)

7601.Paddy-field irrigated by river or tank; revenue accountant: pulavu < pulam arable land (Ta.); pola (Ka.); pulam arable land, rice field (Kur-al., 85)(Ta.lex.) puravu-vari revenue accountant (S.I.I. iii,306); puravariya_r revenue accountants (I.M.P.Sm. 56); puravu-pon- an ancient tax (S.I.I. ii, 509,52); puravu-vari-tin.ai-k-kal.a-na_yakam superintendent of revenue accounts (I.M.P.Tn. 65); puravu-vari-tin.ai-k-kal.am office of revenue accountants (S.I.I. iii,412); pura-vari-tin.ai-k-kal.am id. (S.I.I. iii,116,17); puravu care, protection (Patir-r-up. 26,6); gift, grant, boon (Patir-r-up. 80,10); place of jurisdiction (Te_va_. 461,5); tax (Pur-ana_. 75); land given free of rent by a king (Pur-ana_. 260; Nan-. 158, Mayilai.); paddy-field irrigated by a river or tank; fertility as of the soil (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 8,9,9); puravalan- protector, preserver, defender (Pur-ana_. 69); king (Pu. Ve. 9,2, Kol.u); liberal man (Pu. Ve. 9,25, Kol.u); purappu keeping, protection (Can.. Aka.); pura-ttal to keep, preserve, protect, cherish, tend, govern (Patir-r-up. 50,4)(Ta.); pore (Ka.); cf. bhr. bear (Skt.); puranta_r kings (Kur-al., 780);poredar (Ka.); purantaran- < puran-dara Indra (Te_va_. 926,8); purantaralo_kam Indra's heaven (Tirunu_r-. 32)(Ta.lex.)

7602.Town: puram < pura town, village; city (Tiruva_lava_. 39,1); metropolis, fortified town, royal city, capital; temple (Kalla_. 24,23); purattiriyam the three cities destroyed by S'iva (Tirunu_r-. 24); pura-karan- < pura + hara S'iva as the destroyer of tiripuram (Tiruvil.ai. Intiran-mut.i. 17)(Ta.lex.) pura-danuja-hara the destroyer of the da_navas of Tripura: S'iva (Ka.lex.) puricai fortification, wall (Pur-ana_. 17)(Ta.lex.) pura, pur a fortress, castle; a town, a city; put.a-bhe_da the bend of a river; put.a-bhe_dana a town, a city; por..il a dwelling place: a town, acity; pura a house, an abode (Ka.lex.) buruju a bastion (Ka.); bur-uju (Te.M.H.)(Ka.lex.)

7603.Bdellium: pura bdellium (Ka.lex.) pu_rika_ eagle wood; akil (Malai.) (Ta.lex.) pu_ram a kind of incense (Skt.lex.) cf. bu_ra_-sakkare a white sort of finely granulated sugar (Ka.lex.)

7604.Greatness: purai-ttal to be great (Te_va_. 73,11); purai height, elevation, eminence (Paripa_. 11,11); purul.i (Ka.); purai greatness (Paripa_. 20,72); puraimai (Pur-ana_. 210); puraiyo_r eminent persons (Patir-r-up. 15,31); men of real wisdom (Kalit. 15)(Ta.lex.) purul.i a notable, influential or high position (Ka.); pul.l.i estimation, valuation (Ta.); an article or person, and their valuation; pul.l.ikka_ra a man of note, influential (Ka.lex.)

7605.Ancient: pura_n.a ancient (RV.); old, worn out (Pali.Pkt.); puran.a (Dhp.); puranaga (NiDoc.); purano, punari (Gypsy); pra_na (D..); pura~na (Dm.); pura_no (Pas'.); paranu (Kho.); pu_ren (Bshk.); puran-ga_m a place-name (old village)(Tor.); puro_n.o old, ancient (Phal.); pu_ro_nu, pro_n.u, po_n.u (Sh.); prnu (K.); pura_n.o (S.); pura_n. old branch of a river (L.); pura_n.a_ ancient (L.); pura_na_ (P.); pura_n.o old and worn out; pura~_r.~ (Ku.); pura_nu ancient (N.); pura_n, pura_ni (A.); pura_na_ (B.); pura_n.a, purun.a_ (Or.); pura_n (Bhoj.); pura_na_ (H.); pura_n.u~ (G.); pura_n.a_ (M.); paran.a, pa_ran.i (Si.)(CDIAL 8283). paura_n.a relating to the past, ancient (MBh.); po_ra_n.a, po_ra_n.aka ancient (Pali); pora_n.a_ (As'.); po_ra_n.a (Pkt.); porno (Konkan.i); poran.a ancient; puran.a fallow or waste land, land where crop has been reaped (Si.)(CDIAL 8420). pura_n.am antiquity (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Tiruma_l. 51)(Ta.); pura_n.an- god as the ancient (Tiruva_ca. 4,221); pura_tan-am that which is ancient (As.t.ap. Tiruvaran:kak. 32)(Ta.lex.) pura_tana ancient (MBh.Pali); pura_an.a (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8285). pure_ formerly, in front; pura_ before (Pali); pura_ formerly (RV.); puratas (Kat.hUp.); puras in front, before (RV.); puro_, pure_, puram., pura_, purao_ in front (Pkt.); pura, pule formerly (As'.); puruna_, purana (Pas'.); bru_h (K.); pure in the north (L.); pere formerly (OSi.); pura in front of, near (OSi.); pera adv. in front, easterly (Si.); adj. former; prep. in front of, near (Si.)(CDIAL 8281).

7606.Image: boil or ulcer: pure, pore a boil, an ulcer (Ka.); purai the hollow of a pipe, tube etc.; a fistula or sinuous ulcer; pur-ai the hollow in a pipe, a tube; anything which is hollow (Ta.); pul.i_ a pimple; a phagedenic ulcer (M.)(Ka.lex.)

7607.Image: deer: pulle, hulle a deer, an antelope; pullevar-i a young antelope (Ka.lex.) cf. pul.l.i-ma_n- spotted deer, axis maculatus (Ta.lex.) pul-va_y deer, antelope (Tol. Po. 590)(Ta.); pullin-am goats and sheep (Kalit. 107); pullin-atta_yan- shepherd (Kalit. 113)(Ta.lex.)

7608.Image: spotted antelope: pr.s.at spotted antelope (R.); spotted (AV.); pasata-miga spotted deer (Pali); pasaya, pusia (Pkt.); pr.s.ata spotted; spotted deer (VS.)(CDIAL 8364). pisera_ a small deer brown above and black below (H.)(CDIAL 8365).

7609.Garden: purai hermitage (Kampara_. Tiruvava. 42); temple (Patir-r-up. 15,37); place (Ja_n-a_. 43,21); purai-yit.am garden (T.A.S. ii,51)(Ta.lex.)

7610.A bird: pur-ule, purule, pur-ile, por-ale, ka_burule name of a bird; cacala; puru_ravas crying much or loudly (Ka.lex.)

7611.Town: pu_rimam side of a street (Maturaik. 18); pu_riyam town, village; agricultural town; royal street (Pin..); royal residence (Catu.)(Ta.lex.)

7612.Image: rimmed vessel: pursa pai, bursa pai a measure larger than the standard; bursi part of a broken earthenware vessel when put to the following uses : sim bursi a hen's nest; sen:gei bursi a fire pan; bursi sen:gel leka jivi lik kantin.a (Santali.lex.) buruan. brimless, toothless, without edge (Santali.lex.) Image: leaf cup: phur.uk a leaf cup; han.d.i phur.uk a liquor cup, made of one leaf; at.al phur.uk a cup made of double leaves; jel phur.uk a leaf cup in which cooked meat is served (Santali.lex.)

7613.Mixed paddy: pu_ri mixed paddy (W.); pu_ri-y-arici bad grains of rice, red in colour; unhusked paddy (Ta.); pu_riya-ma_kkal. base or low people (Paripa_. 6,48); pu_riyar id. (Kur-al., 919; Kampara_. Vipi_t.an.a. 119); pu_riya_r id. (Kur-al., 241); pulliya_r low, base persons (Ain:kur-u. 164, Urai.); pulli-vaippu village of leafy huts (Patir-r-up. 15,13); pul meanness, lowness, baseness (Na_lat.i, 255); pullar-iva_n.mai low understanding, ignorance (Kur-al., Ati. 5); pullar-i-va_l.ar men of low understanding; foolish men (Kur-al., 841, Urai.); pullar-ivin-a_r id. (Na_lat.i, 327); pullan- vile, base person (Kampara_. Ta_t.akai. 72)(Ta.lex.)

7614.Much: puruhu_ta much invoked: Indra; puruha much, many (Ka.lex.) puruku_tan- < puru-hu_ta Indra as frequently invoked in sacrifices (Pa_rata. Aruccun-an-r-a. 56)(Ta.lex.) pu_raka a ball of meal offered to the manes (Skt.lex.) pu_ri < bhu_ri adj. much, many; abundant; numerous, great, important (Pirapo_ta. 11,91); gifts of money to brahmans on festive occasions (Upate_caka_. Civatturo_. 195); gold (Kampara_. Vit.aikot.ut. 1); the total (S.I.I. ii,128); pu_ri-yarici doles of rice during the dusserah festival (Ta.lex.) bhu_ri much, abundant, numerous, copious; great, large; epithet of Vis.n.u, Brahman, S'iva, Indra; frequently, often, repeatedly; bhu_ri-daks.in.a attended with rich presents or rewards; giving liberal rewards (Skt.lex.) bhu_yas (fr. bahu) more, more numerous; larger, greater (Ka.lex.) bhu_yas exceedingly, still more (RV.); again (Mn.); bhuye, bhuya, bhu_ye adv. still more (As'.); bhui, buo moreover (NiDoc.); bhuya, bhui (KharI.); bhu_o_, bhujjo_ again (Pkt.); bhiyyo_ more, further (Pali); bhiyyo_so_ still more (Pali); bhiyo (NiDoc.); biza, bija extremely, excessively, very (Kho.)(CDIAL 9567).

7615.Image: tub: pu_rimam cistern (Maturaik. 18, Urai.)(Ta.lex.)

7616.Image: fillet of a crown: pu_ri-pattiram ornamental fillet of a crown (Ta.lex.)

7617.Trumpet: pu_rikai trumpet (Tiruppu. 890)(Ta.); buraga (Te.); pu_ri a wind instrument; pu_ri-ttal to take in air at a long breath (Ol.avai. Ku. Vi_t.t.uner-i. 5,6) (Ta.lex.)

7618.To join: purule that joins or sticks to; purul., purul.u, hurul., hurul.u fitness, suitableness; power, strength or the body, of a tree (Ka.); porul. superiority; money, riches; utensils; a thing, that which exists; porut.t.u a thing of use; cause (Ta.); porul. what belongs to one; contents, meaning; the cause; porut.t.u cause, sake (Ma.); pon.t.e on account of (Te.); purul. the power or sense of a word, meaning; porul. the meaning of a word (Ta.); meaning (Ma.) (Ka.lex.)

7619.The face of S'iva: purut.am a face of S'iva (Caivaca. Potu. 438); tar-purut.am < tat-purus.a a face of S'iva turned eastward, one of civan--ai-mukam (Caivaca. Potu. 334); tar-purut.an-, tar-purut.a-cama_cam < tatpurus.a + sama_sa (gram.) a compound in which the first member stands in case-relation to the second (Vi_raco_. Tokai. 2); the five faces of S'iva in his Sada_s'iva form are: i_ca_n-am, tar-purut.am, ako_ram, va_mam, cattiyo_ca_tam (Ta.lex.)

7620.A lunar race: pu_ru a king of the lunar race (Pa_rata. Kuru. 94); puru r.s.abha, a Ti_rthan:kara (Me_ruman. 187); purukuccan < purukutsa a famous emperor, one of tikiri-man-n-avar (Pin..); puru_rava_ < puru_ravas an ancient king of the lunar race, one of six tikiri-man-n-avar (Pa_rata. Kurukula. 9)(Ta.lex.)

7621.Image: water-course: pura a stream, a rivulet, a brook, a water channel; ponal (Ka.); pur..al anything which is hollow; a water-course, drain (Ta.); piral. to roll, welter; to roll over, overflow, be full (Ma.); poralu id., an inundation (Te.); ponal, honal a stream, a river (Ka.); pun-al (Ta.); pun.al, punal (Ma.); punalvariyisu to cause streams to flow (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) purai-p-pat.u-tal to become hollow, as a tree (Tol. col. 390, Urai.); purai tubular hollow (Tiruva_ca. 22,3)(Ta.lex.)

7622.A mode of counting: pura a mode of counting; gan.ane, lekka-bhe_da (Ka.lex.) Code mark used on goods: cf. pul.l.i code-mark made on goods by a trader to indicate their value; pul.l.ikkan.akkan- one versed in the tradesmen's accounts; pul.l.ikkan.akku practical arithmetic, opp. to pal.l.ikkan.akku; valuation of a standing crop; method adopted by tradesmen in marking prices of cloth; pul.l.i-y-it.utal to enter in an account (Maturaik. Patir-. 47) (Ta.lex.)

7623.Image: a vessel: cf. purupa_tra = pariva_n.a a kind of vessel (Ka.lex.)

7624.Image: trap: por-i machine, mechanism, trap (Pur-ana_. 19); stratagem, device (Kampara_. Cu_rppa. 139); pori-y-e_r-r-utal to set a trap; por-i-vai-ttal id. (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7625.Image: child-birth: purut.u ceremonial pollution on account of child-birth (Ta.); pis. a.s- hut to which woman goes after childbirth and stays until new moon (To.); pis. u.t.- to throw earth on corpse at funeral (u.t.- to roll; pis. here is 'death pollution'); purud.u ceremonial uncleanness after childbirth (Ka.); in cmpds. purit.i id., childbirth, delivery (Te.); delivery of a child (Ga.); purut. pollution during childbirth (Kond.a)(DEDR 4290). bhru_n.a embryo (RV.); bhu_nahuno_ pl. prob. 'destroyers of an embryo'(Pali); bhru_n.ahan id. (AV.); bhu_n.a, bhun.n.a embryo, child (Pkt.); bhu_n foetus (H.)(CDIAL 9689). pu_n.i to bring into existence (Ta.)(DEDR 4361). Image: pregnant; menstrual disorder: pordhol, pordol a female menstrual disorder; pon.d. pordhol leucorrhoea; porsati pregnant (Santali.lex.) Image: feet in the air: birtun heels uppermost, feet in the air; head down; to turn one's posterior to; birtun birtun:ko unumok kana they are diving in the water with heels in the air (Santali.lex.)

7626.Image: back: pushto back; pus'to (Gypsy); pus't (Pers.); pris' (Sv.); furu side (Md.)(CDIAL 14700). cf. pr.s.t.ha back, hinder part (RV.)(CDIAL 8371). pir-akku back, rear, behind (Perumpa_n.. 351)(Ta.); pir-aku id. (Ma.); pir-aku back, rear (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Image: to turn backwards: pur-am back (kalit. 94); turning the back in battle field (tuppur-uvar pur-amper-r-icin-e_: Pur-ana_. 11); hod.e maral.u, hod.a to turn backwards; hod.a, ped.a, hed.a, hod.e the state of behing behind etc.; hod.a magucu to turn backwards (Ka.); hod.a, pod.a, hod.amad.u, pod.a mad.u, hod.avad.u = pod.avad.u to take leave in going away (Ka.lex.) phirau, phorot to give back (Santali.lex.) Buttock: pir-u_du, pir-r-a buttock, the hinder part (Te.); pirindi following (Te.); pirra buttock, anus (Kol.); buttock (Nk.); pirtun at the back, after (Nk.); pirral (pl. pirrasil), piral buttock (Ga.); pijja_, pajja_ after, behind (time or place); pirne the day after tomorrow, third day before yesterday; pirne, parne two days after tomorrow; paye afterwards; pereka, peroka, perk, parreyk, parke, pare_k back; perrke at the back of; pare backwards; parrek, parreyek behind, afterwards; perke after, back, behind, later; perke behind (Go.); pita mund.i buttock; pr.a_t.a rump, posterior (Kond.a); pista subsequent, later, subordinate (Kur.); pisi below; pisti the lower (Malt.)(DEDR 4205). Images: backside; back of the neck: se_rki the back of the neck (Kui); he_rki, herki neck; herki shoulder (Kuwi)(DEDR 2817). Backside: per-agi, per-age the back side; that is behind, after or backwards; per-agikku to put or push, back; to leave behind; per-a, ped.a, por-a hind part, hind place, backside; backwards (Ka.); pir-a outer, foreign, other (Ta.); pir-an- another (Ta.); pir-itu another thing (Ta.); pur-i the back; the outside (Ma.); per-ad.u the back yard of a house; per-e other; strange,, foreign; per-am a man of the back or outside; another, a stranger; per-adege to take back; per-apin:gu to go backwards, go away, disappear; per-avur..i a leaving of what is behind: afterwards; per-a sa_r to go back or to the rear, to withdraw (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Back, rear; again: pir-akku back, rear; pir-aku id.; afterwards, backward; pir-ku posteriority in space or time; pir-r-al retreating; pir-r-i that which goes behind; pitti back, hind part; pintu to go behind; pur-am, pur-an- back; pur-ampu back of a person (Ta.); pir-aku the backside; after; pir-r-a next day; pur-am the back (Ma.); piba.r (obl. piba.t-) behind, backwards; pitl, pite.l the back; piga.r (obl. piga.t-, piga.t--) place behind, time after (Ko.); pugo.l hind leg of animal (ko.l leg); puda.l behind, later on; per-ne.r- day after tomorrow (To.); per-a hind, part, backwards; per-agu backside, that is behind, after or backwards; afterwards (Ka.); pira behind, after (situation or time); again, back; pirapa back, again; piravu behind, in the rear (Tu.); pir-u behind, back (Te.)(DEDR 4205). Image: retreat: pir-akki_t.u retreat (Tol. Po. 68, Me_r-ko_l..); pir-akkit.u to retreat (Tol. Po. 65, Urai.); pir-akit.u-tal to backslide (Man-o_n-. V.iii, Koccakakkali.)(Ta.lex.) pur-an- adv. behind one's back (Kur-al., 182); pur-ampu back of a person (Kalit. 51); pur-amper-utal lit., to see the back; to gain victory over one's enemies (Pur-ana_. 373); pur-akkut.ai back of the body (Perun.. Makata. 14,144); pur-akkot.uttal to turn back and flee after defeat (Pur-ana_. 8); pur-akkot.ai turning the back in battle-field (Ci_vaka. 1430); pur-am id. (Pur-ana_. 11); pur-akkit.utal to flee, take to flight, showing one's back to enemy (Pa_rata. An.i. 28); pur-akit.utal id. (Civataru. Can-an-a. 55); pur-an:ka_t.t.utal to turn one's back, in contempt; to show one's back, in defeat (Civap. Pira. Ven:kaiyu. 206); pur-an:kot.uttal to turn one's back (Kur-al. 924); pur-an:ka_n.(n.u)tal lit., to see the back; to defeat, put to flight (Kalit. 15); pur-aca_ytal to be defeated, routed (Kalit. 89); pur-anta_tal to turn one's back in retreat; to be defeated; pur-am back (Kalit. 94); backside, behind (Kur-al., 185); pun-ara_vartti return (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 4,1,8, Pan-n-i.)(Ta.lex.) Image: to turn; turn back; return; walk about; circle: phe_ran.a turning (Pkt.); pheroiki to turn, turn back (Sh.); phe_run to wander (K.); pheran.u to turn (S.); pheran. to return (L.); pherun. to move (L.); phern.a_ to turn; pherva~_, pherma~_ liable to be turned (P.); fern.u to send back (WPah.); pheran.o to return, move from one place to another, set in motion (Ku.); phernu to change (N.); phera_ to turn (B.); pheriba_, phera_iba_ to turn, come back, change (Or.); pherab to turn aside (Mth.); pherai turns changes (OAw.); pherna_, phira_na_ to turn, wheel, return (H.); pheravvu~ to turn (G.); phern.e~ (M.); absol.as adv.: pher again (P.L.B.Bi.H.G.M.); pheri (N.); phera (Or.); Whirlpool: pheri whirlpool (Sh.); phe_ra, phyu_ru sautering (K.); pheru turn (S.Ku.)(CDIAL 9078). pher, phera_ turn, time (L.P.); pher turn (B.Bi.H.G.M.P.); turn of fortune (A.); edge, hem (N.); fera_ bad turn, swindle (WPah.)[cf. pural., piral. to roll over, go back on one's word; pural.i, piral.i deceit (Ta.); purat.t.uka to turn about; pirat.t.u deceit (Ma.Ta.); poral., purul. to roll (Ka.)(DEDR 4285)]; phera coil, twist of a rope (Or.); circumambulation (OAw.)(CDIAL 9078). To move, to turn back: phalati, phe_lati goes (Dha_tup.); pharakn.o to turn round (Ku.); pharkanu to turn back (N.); pharakvu~ to move (G.); pharakn.e~ to move out of the way (M.); pharvu~ to turn, return (G.)(CDIAL 9050). Spinning jenny: phirai goes, returns (Pkt.); phir, pir to wander round, walk about, walk (Gypsy); phiroiki to turn, return; piro_nu, phiryo_nu to turn (Sh.); phirun to turn over (K.); phirunu to turn (K.); phirn.i_ spinning jenny (S.); phirun. to be moved (L.); phirna_ to wander (P.); phirn.a_ to turn; firn.u to whirl, wander (WPah.); phirn.o to wander (Ku.); phirnu to wander, turn (N.); phiriba (A.); phira_ to turn (B.); phirab to turn, twist, leap (Mth.); phiral to return (Bhoj.); phirai wanders, returns (OAw.); phirna_ to turn (H.); phirai turns, walks about, moves (OMarw.); pharvu~ to wander (G.); phirn.e~ to wander, turn (M.); phi_ri again (Dm.); phiri_, phare_ (Sh.); phir (P.); phiri_ (WPah.); phiri (OAw.); phir (H.); phari_ (G.)(CDIAL 9078).

7627.Image: fight: po_r fight (Ta.)(DEDR 4540). po_ri equal, rival, competitor (Ta.) (Ta.lex.) Image: enmity: birot. at variance, at enmity with each other; birud opposition, contrareity, against; am birudre in opposition to thee (Santali.lex.) cf. viro_dha enmity (Skt.lex.)

7628.Image: a wicket in a gate: pur-ai a wicket in a gate (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image:gate; sluice: pur-ava_yil outer door, gate or entrance (Ta.); pur..ai entrance, gate (Man.i. 6,22); id. (Ma.); secret way, sally port (Pat.t.in-ap. 287); pur..aikkat.ai last sluice of a tank (Ci_vaka. 1614); small gate; rear gangway; backyard, open space behind a house and attached to it (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 14); pur-akkat.ai backyard, as of a house; pur-akko_t.i id.; pur-an:kat.ai outside of a house (Na_lat.i. 293); locality other than one's own (Ni_tiner-i. 2); pur-amat.ai outside channel for water; the outside of a sluice; outlet of a chennel; pur-avit.ai backyard of a house; pun-al-va_yil sluice of a channel (Patir-r-up. 13,8); pun-alavan-, pun-alve_ntan- Varun.a, as Lord of the waters (Kampara_. Varun.an-ai. 39); pun-ala_t.aiya_l. earth, as robed in the waters of the ocean (Pu. Ve. 8,29); pun-arkaracan- id.; pun-ar-celvan- id.; pun-ai water, flood (Kampara_. Akat. 4) (Ta.lex.) Image: tower: buruj, burun.j a tower (Santali.lex.)

7629.Image: leaf: pore leaf (Ga.)(DEDR 4546). puro_t.i the rustling noise of leaves (Skt.lex.) pao~r a deodar leaf (WPah.); pamara_ a kind of fragrant substance (Skt.)(CDIAL 7789). cf. patar, paturu leaf (esp. of cinnamomum albiflorum (K.); patra_ id. (P.); pattraka leaf (esp. of laurus cassia)(Bhpr.) (CDIAL 7734). cf. porra bush, shrub (Pa.)(DEDR 4546).

7630.Image: grove: por-r-ai bush, low jungle (Aka. Ni.); forest; burnt jungle (Tiv. Tiruccan. 52, Vya_.)(Ta.lex.) polan:ka_ grove of Indra (Takkaya_kap. 71); por..il park, grove, forest (Kampara_. Van-ampuku. 32); flower gardenl, pleasure garden (Man.i. Pati. 38)(Ta.lex.) Image; bushes: par-r-ai bushes, low shrubbery, underwood (I_t.u, 3,9,7); cluster (Ta.lex.) porra bush, shrub (Pa.)(DEDR 4546).

7631.Bridegroom; gypsy; man, male: pos'a name of the gypsies of Asia Minor among Armenians and Turks; bos'a name of the gypsies of Asia Minor among Georgians (Gypsy); po_sa man (Pali); piris male (OMd.); firi male (CDIAL 14696). hor., hepel, herel a man; hor.o each man; pilcu har.am the first man (Santali.lex.) Man, husband; a generation: purus a generation; noa store tin purus khon menakpea? how many generations of you have occupied this village? purus husband; the height of a man with his arms and fingers extended above his head, a fathom; mit purus dak menaka there is a fathom of water; puruskate tiogme stretch your arms to the full height and reach it (Santali.lex.)

7632.Mahrattas: burgi the Mahrattas; burgi biraj Mahratta raiders, applied also to those who are feared as the Mahrattas were; buru beret a sub-sept of the Kisku and Marn.d.i septs; buru a religious festival and fair of the semi-Hinduized bhui~yas; buru a spirit, an object of worship; buru and bon:ga are two words often joined together as in: bon.a buru, bon:ga being a gloss on buru; maran. buru the chief of the burus or bon:gas; maran. buru or mount Pareshnath is often confounded with the Maran. buru of the Santal traditions and worship (Santali.lex.) Trader: cf. bohra_ class of village bankers (H.); vahoro, voro, horo trader (G.); boro (H.); buhuru vendor of drugs etc. (K.); bohora_ name of a clan of Chetris (N.)(CDIAL 12175). cf. be_ruga a man who deals in or sells roots (Ka.)(DEDR 5535). cf. beora_ affair (B.); va_var business (M.)(CDIAL 12205). cf. vaheva_r intercourse, transactions (G.); buha_r, vuha_r trade (P.)(CDIAL 12174). cf. pu_mpuha_r name of a coastal town (Ta.lex.) cf. vuharai buys (OG.); vohorvu~, vorvu~ to buy, collect (G.)(CDIAL 12173). cf. vil (vir-p-, vir-r--) to sell, put on sale, be sold (Ta.);vir-r-al, vir-pan-ai selling, sale (Ta.); viluva, vela price, value, cost (Te.)(DEDR 5421). a.Image: goring ox: bo_ru to assault or butt as an ox or wild-beast (Tulu.lex.)

7633.Ancestor: purkha an elder, an ancestor, a patriarch; bapa purkha ancestors; nuige purkha kantaleae, ban:khan sanamko lahaena this is our patriarch, all the rest have gone on before (Santali.lex.) cf. puro_hita (Skt.lex.) King; pir-an:kal king (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) pir-an:kal greatness; height, eminence; pile, mass, heap (Ci_vaka. 148)(Ta.lex.) Descendant, son: pir-an:kat.ai [prob. pir-an:ku + kat.ai i.e. succeeding, following (kat.ai) + eminence (pir-an:ku-)] descendant (Perumpa_n.. 30); son (Ce_tupu. Ce_tuva. 9)(Ta.lex.)

7634.Chief: pordhan chief, principal, respectable, first; pordhan in manaoketmea I regard you as a respectable man (Santali.lex.) cf. pradha_na principal (Skt.lex.)

7635.Title deed to land: porca a title-deed to land; porja a tenant, a ryot, a subject; uni t.henin porja akana I have become a ryot of his; porja pani, porja pati tenants, ryots, subjects; pormae lease of life; pormae tiokentaea his lease of life has been reached; porman witness, evidence, to depose, to prove, to substantiate (Santali.lex.) For semant. 'witness' cf. prama_n.am vow; proof (Skt.lex.) cf. praja_pati (Skt.lex.) Document entitling joint property: purut.a_vatikam < purus.a + avadhi document entitling persons to enjoy a property jointly (Cukkirani_ti. 93); purut.an- < purus.a man (Ka_cippu. Can-. 22)(Ta.lex.) purus.a a male being; an officer, functionary, agent, attendant, servant (Skt.lex.)

7636.Male sex: bha~ora of the male sex, a veiled term; ado one bako mena, ado do herel bha~ora (Santali.lex.) purus.a, pu_rus.a man, male (RV.); purisa man, servant; purisaka little man (Pali); pulisa servant, agent (As'.); purus.a man (Dhp.); purusa, purisa man, servant (Pkt.); pu_rus. man, male; purush bridegroom (Kal.); purihu measure of a man's height (S.); pursa_ fathom (N.); pu_ris a man's height (Bi.); purus man, a man's stature (H.); pursa_ of a man's height (H.); puris man (Si.)(CDIAL 8289). paurus.a manly (S'Br.); manly strength (MBh.); po_risa human; servant; human activity, height of a man (Pali); po_rusa, po_risa manly deed (Pkt.); porsa_ height of a man (Bi.); poras pride, delight (G.)(CDIAL 8421). paurus.e_ya human (RV.); work of a man (AV.); porhyo labour, price of labour, wages (S.); porhea_ labour for wages (L.); porhyatu labourer (S.); purha_yat (L.)(CDIAL 8422). pirimi male; pirimiya_ man, boy (Si.); firimi_ha married man; lit. going in front (Md.)(CDIAL 8286). Leader: porul. headship, leadership (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) purul.i a notable, high position; purul. power, strength (Ka.); purulu valour, honour (Te.)(DEDR 4544).

7637.Image: body: pur-am body (Ain:kur-u. 260)(Ta.lex.) Seal, signet: por-i sign, token; seal, signet (Pur-ana_. 58); insignia, badge (Pu. Ve. 7,2); form, image (Kampara_. Kumpa. 5)(Ta.lex.)

7638.Image: bull calf: ho_ri a bull calf, an uncastrated young male of the ox kind, a young bull (Ka.); bo_ri (Tu.); ho_ri-gar-a a bull calf; ho_riyad.e cowdung (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) po_ra a child; a little boy; a young and inexperienced person (Ka.M.Te.); ho_ri a little girl (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. po.ry young bullock (one or two and a half years)(Ko.)(DEDR 4593). cf. po_r-a_d.u child, boy, young man (Te.)(DEDR 4603). cf. horad.u a hump (Ka.)(DEDR 4566). Image: hump: cf. por-ad.u humpback (Te.) (DEDR 4566). pur-ai-k-kur..al dewlap, goitre, morbid enlargement in the nape of the neck (Ta.lex.) Image: male organ: por-i male organ (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7639.Image: covering: po_rvai covering, wrapping, enveloping; upper garment, cloak; blanket, rug; mantle (Kampara_. Mitilai. 150); coat-of-mail, corslet (Ci_vaka. 266)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. porvu a cover (Kuwi)(DEDR 4590). cf. bori sack (Sh.)(CDIAL 9320).

7640.Image: mountain: poruppan- lord of a hill (Te_va_. 781,9); the Himalayas (Te_va_. 1188,6); poruppu mountain (Maturaik. 42); spur of a range of hills (Tirukko_. 293)(Ta.lex.) Image: sloping: por-i-tal to be sloping or aslant (Ta.lex.) poli-tal to be high, great or celebrated (Pur-ana_. 1)(Ta.lex.) por-aiyan- Ce_ra king as lord of the mountainous region in the Tamil country (Pur-ana_. 53)(Ta.lex.) cf. por-ai mountain, hill (Ta.); parta_ id. (Kur.)(DEDR 4567). poro top; porro on (Go.); por hill; the top (Nk.)(DEDR 4567). bo_re hill, hillock (Ka.); bo_r top of a hill (Tu.); bora_ rock (OM.)(DEDR 4595). bo_re top of a hill; bo_rya the plateau by the side of a hill (Tulu.lex.) so_ru hill, mountain (Kui); ho_ru_ hill; ho_ru mountain, rock (Kuwi)(DEDR 2887). cf. varai mountain, peak, slope of hill (Ta.); bare steep slope (Ka.Kod..); a steep precipice (Tu.)(DEDR 5274). cf. va_ram mountain slope, side (Ta.); side, declivity (Ma.); va_ra, va_re id., sloping (Ka.)(DEDR 5360). buru a mountain; buru bot.koc a mountain and hills (Santali.lex.) maran. buru paresnath the highest mountain in the Santal country; buru d.an.om a spur or shoulder of a mountain (Santali.lex.) pir-an:kal hill, mountain (Akana_. 8); mound, hillock; rock (Cu_l.a_. Mantira. 20)(Ta.lex.) por-r-ai hillock, mound (Kampara_. Ilan:kaika_n.. 22); rock; mountain (Te_va_. 1218,10); por-ai small hill, hillock (Pur-ana_. 118); mountain (Ain:kur-u, 430)(Ta.lex.)

7641.Image: to uproot: porpu to uproot (Ka.); pori- (porip-, poric-) to pull up (plant, peg)(Kod..); porpuni to pull, pluck off, root up or out (Tu.); poriyan an uprooter; porippu coming out, getting loose; porikka to eradicate, transplant; poriyuka to become disconnected (Ma.)(DEDR 4539). Image: to be uprooted: pa_r-u-tal to be uprooted, to give way; to be destroyed, ruined (Tiruva_ca. 51,1); pa_r-u ruin, damage (Pur-ana_. 359); pa_r-u-pa_r-a_kku-tal to destroy, ruin (Tiv. Iyar-. Periyatiru. 33); pa_r-r-u-tal to ruin (Te_va_. 946,3)(Ta.lex.) Image: to uproot: peyar-ttal to uproot, as a plant (Ta.lex.)

7642.Chief of a hilly tract: porunan- warrior, hero (Tol. Po. 74); king (Pur-ana_. 58); chief of a hilly tract; commander of an army, general; superior person, leader; one who dances and sings on the battle-field and on the threshing floor (Tol. Po. 91, Urai.); poruppan- chief of a hilly tract; hunter of the hills (Kantapu. Kat.avul.va_. 12); Pand.ya king as lord of Pothiyam (Kalit. 36)(Ta.lex.)

7643.Riches, wealth: por-i riches, wealth (Na_n-man.i. 45); splendour (Ta.); porul. science of political economy (Kur-al., 141); porul.-ceytal to treat with regard, esteem highly; to acquire wealth (Ci_vaka. 77); porul.-ceyvo_r Vaisyas as merchants (Uri. Ni.)(Ta.lex.) porul. thing, matter, entity (Ci_vaka. 1436); subject, subject matter (Kur-al., 423); object, affair (Kalit. 8); that which is important or of moment (Kur-un. 174); fruit, result (Kur-al., 423); property, wealth, riches, treasure (Na_lat.i, 6); store, provisions, utensils (Cu_t.a_.); gold (Cu_t.a_.); objectives of human existence (Tirukko_. 1, Urai.); meaning (as of a word), true object or significance, property, riches (Ta.); porul.ar-ai treasury (Tiruva_lava_. 55,24)(Ta.lex.) porut.t.u cause, matter of importance, for the sake of; porun.mai meaning, nature (Ta.); porul. riches, meaning; porut.t.u cause; adv. to, for the sake of, in order to, to the end that, on account of, with, by, through (Kur-al., 81); porut.-pat.uttu-tal to esteem, make important (Tiruva_ca. 10,20); porut.-pa_l wealth, as a topic treated in works like Kur-al., Na_lat.i etc. (Kur-al..); porut.peyar noun derived from the name of a concrete object (Nan-. 132); porun.-man-n-an- Kube_ra as king of wealth (Te_va_. 748,11); porun.mai quality, nature (Tol. Col. 236, Ce_n-a_.); porun.ilai id. (Tol. Col. 107)(Ta.lex.); porul.ikka to mind, think of (Ma.); porl thing (Ko.); purul. fitness, prorpriety, that is true or good, meaning (of a word)(Ka.); poral. wealth (Ka.); porlu beauty, comeliness; beautiful, handsome, fine; porle a handsome man (Tu.); pon.t.e for the sake of; purulu wealth, nature, beauty (Te.); pora matter, concern, interes (used with negative auxiliary verb) (Kui)(DEDR 4544). porut.-kun-r-u Mt. Me_ru as of gold (Ci_vaka. 2926); porut.-ca_rpu attachment to worldly things (Tirukkal.ir-r-up. 39, Urai.); porut.-celvam material wealth (Kur-al.. 241)(Ta.lex.)

7644.Image: resemblance: porul. the thing compared in a simile (porul.e_ yuvama ceytan-ar mor..iyin-um : Tol. Po. 284); porul.-uvamai a kind of simile in which the qualities of two things are compared; porunan- one who is the standard of comparison (Tirumuru. 276);[cf. poruva a term of comparison (Tol. Po. 289); poruvutal to equal, compare (Kantapu. Tirukkal. 55); poruvu resemblance, comparison, equality (Tiv. Tirunet.un. 19)]; por-pa a term of comparison (Tol. Po. 286, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) cf. po.le like (Kod..)(DEDR 4597). ho_lisu, po_lisu to cause to resemble (Ka.lex.) ho_l, po_l to be like, to resemble (Ka.lex.) orukkam oneness, sameness (Ka_rikai. Or..ipi. 6)(Ta.lex.) o_ran.ai a pair (S.I.I. ii,16)(Ta.lex.) poru-tal to resemble (Kampara_. Atika_. 150); poru simile (Pin..); equality (Te_va_. 780,11)(Ta.lex.) Images: resemblance; rivalry: purai resemblance (Ta.); purudu (Te.); puraiyunar rivals; equals (Tirumuru. 280); purai to resemble (Patir-r-up. 65,8); puraiya particle showing similarity or resemblance (Tol. Po. 290)(Ta.lex.) purid.isu, purud.isu, hurud.isu to stand in competition with or vie with, to rival; purud.u likeness, similarity; pore to agree with; poru to resemble (Ta.); poru to fight in battle; porutu to fight; poruntu to join (Ta.); poru, porudu to meet in battle, fight; to vie, emulate (Ma.); purud.u, hurid.u, hurud.u rivalry (Ka.); o_ru, ho_ru to fight (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pun.d.a refractory, turbulent (Ka.); quarrelsome (Tu.) pun.d.i quarrel (Kod..); pu~d. refractory, turbulent (M.)(DEDR 4272). Image: to wrestle: ho_ru, ho_r, o_ru, po_r to wrestle; to fight; to altercate (Ka.); ho_rat.e fight, strife; a fight, a battle, a combat (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) holla_-holli, holla_-holla a close fight (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) Image: rivalry, fight: orukku-tal to subdue, control (Patin-o. Tiruvit.ai. Mum. 24)(Ta.lex.) ho_ru, o_ru, po_r to wrestle; to fight (Ka.lex.) ho_rukul.i, po_rkul.i a wrestler; wrestling, fight, struggle, opposition; po_rke, ho_rke fighting, battle; a fight (Ka.lex.) poru-tal to fight, contend in warfare, engage in battle (Pur-ana_. 2)(Ta.); po_r (Ka.); poru obstacle (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 9,4,8); poru-tal to come in collision with, dash against as waves (Cirupa_n.. 118); poru-kal.am field of battle (Kampara_. Pat.ait. 67)(Ta.lex.) po_r-a_t.u-tal to fight, carry on war (Ta_yu. Para_para. 228)(Ta.); po_ra_d.u (Te.); po_ra_d.uga (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) olla_r foes, enemies (Tol. Po. 76)(Ta.lex.) po_r battle, fight, rivalry, war (Kur-al., 758)(Ta.); id. (Ma.); quarrel, fight, battle, wrestling; to fight, wrestle, strive (Ka.); po_ru id. (Te.); to fight, contend, struggle, rival, compete (Te.); quarrel, contention (balance word of si_la)(Kui); po_rke, po_rta battle, fight; po_rkul.i wrestler; wrestling, fight (Ka.); poru to fight, engage in battle (Ta.); porutu to fight; porunan- warrior (Ta.); purud.isu to vie with, emulate, envy (Ka.); po_ritamu a fight (Te.); purud.incu, purun.incu to vie with, emulate (Tu.); pol.- (popp-, pott-) to fight (Kod..); purud.u rivalry, jealousy; purud.i, purul.i a female parrot, a young parrot (i.e. one that imitates, rivals) (Ka.); po_riyuni to wrestle, quarrel; pordu battle, combat; pormbuni to wrestle, strive; porumba_t.a a strife, struggle (Tu.); poruka, porutuka to fight, vie, emulate; poruvuka to emulate, outdo (Ma.); po_r-a_t.u to fight, struggle, haggle; po_r-a_t.t.am fighting, struggle, competition (Ta.); battle (Ma.); po.r, po.r a.t., po.r. a.t.m a fight; po.r a.r.- to fight (Ko.); po_ri rival (Ta.); po_r-a_t.uka to fight, contend (Ma.); pi.r quarrel (To.); o.r- (o.0-) to dash against, attack; wi.r- (wi.ry-) to emulate, vie with (To.); porup- (porut-) to become angry; po_r- to abuse, scold (Ga.); porana_ to abuse, insult (Go.); prohpa (proht-) to rebuke, upraid, reprove, fight, wage war; n. rebuke, reproof, fight (Kui)(DEDR 4540). po_r-k-kat.am the duty of a warrior to fight in battle (Perun.. Ucaik. 53,91); po_r-k-kal.attor..il theme describing a warrior fighting to the last on the battle-field without retreating (Pu. Ve. 2,6, Talaippu); po_r-k-ko_lam military accoutrements, martial costume, hostile army (Ci_vaka. 2352); po_r-c-ce_vakan- soldier; po_rnir-am fighting vigour (Ci_vaka. 789, Urai); po_rppar-ai, po_r-muracu war-drum; po_r-mat.antai Durga_, the goddess of war; the goddess of valour (Ta.lex.) Field of battle: po_r-k-kan. field of battle (po_rkkan. tun.ipun-al: Paripa_. 6,29); po_r-k-kal.am field of battle (Poruna. 57, Urai); po_r-k-kal.ari id. (Pu. Ve. 2,6, Urai); po_rkker..uvaci panegyric on an army marching to battle, the warriors being decked with wreaths of vaci flowers; po_r-mukam front, foremost line of battle (Tan-ippa_. i,275); the place where battle rages the most (Pa_rata. Niraimi_t.. 70); po_r-mun-ai id.; po_l victory, valour (Te_va_. 381,1); weapon; sword (Ta.lex.)

7645.Barterer: ma_r-a_l.i a barterer, a seller, a vais'ya; ma_r-u to take or give one thing for another; to barter, to sell (Ka.); ma_r-u (Ta.Ma.); ma_ru to be changed, altered; to exchange, barter (Te.); ma_r-a_d.u to sell; ma_r-a_d.uha bartering, selling (Ka.lex.)

7646.Image: deity: cf. mwehra_ image of a village deity (WPah.)(CDIAL 10246). Demigod: mue~_r.~e a demigod worshipped in Gangoi (Ku.); mu_rade_va a class of demons (RV.); na_ra_yan.a-mu_rade_va (Skt.)(CDIAL 10252). mu_ra-de_va having dim-witted deities (RV. vii.104.24: vigri_va_so_ mu_rade_va r.dantu; ma_ran.akri_d.a_ ra_ks.asa_h)(Vedic.lex.) me_ra-k-ka_li ghost; me_ru the mystical diagram of s'ri_cakram made in relief (Ta.lex.) me_lavark kir-aivan-, me_lavarir-aivan- Skanda; Indra (Ta.lex.) murubi, morubi an elder, head of family, an old man (Santali.lex.) cf. mura destroyer, slayer, enemy (RV. viii.66.2)(Vedic.lex.) mur-aivan- S'iva (Patin-o. Pon-van.. 52); driver, mahout of an elephant (Perun.. Ucaik. 44,79)(Ta.lex.) murhut, murut an image, an idol (Santali.lex.) cf. muraja_ name of Kubera's wife (Skt.); muracai id. (Api. Cin.) (Ta.lex.); mura name of a demon slain by Kr.s.n.a; mura_ri an epithet of Kr.s.n.a (Skt.lex.) mura_ri, mura_ntakan- Vis.n.u as the slayer of muran- (Kantapu. Tati_ci. Yut.39; Kampara_. Pin.ivi_. 115); muran- an asura killed by vis.n.u (Tiv. Tiruccan. 104); muratam < mura-da Vis.n.u's conch (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. mu_ra stupefied, bewildered; destroying (Skt.lex.) mu_ri the destroying deity (Ka.lex.) murugade_va (Tadbhava of mr.ga)(Ka.lex.) murukayar-tal to offer worship to Skanda; to dance while under possession by Skanda (Kur-un. 362); to give feast, as in sacrifice (Maturaik. 38); murukan- youth (Tiva_.)(Ta.); muruga (Ka.); murugan (Ma.); one possessed by Skanda (Kantapu. Val.l.i. 155); chief of the desert tract; muri desert, pa_lainilam (Ta.lex.) murukku to destroy, crush, ruin (Cir-upa_n.. 247); to kill (Kampara_. Makarak. 12); to break in pieces (Pur-ana_. 14); murun:gu to perish, to be destroyed (Pu. Ve. 1,7); to break (Maturaik. 377)(Ta.lex.) mu~r.a~han to destroy, to ruin, to lay waste, to make havoc (Santali.lex.)

7647.Image: village deity; idol: mut.e wooden idol (Kt.); mut.u_, mcu_, mu~_cu (Pr.); mui form, shape (A.); mu_rti any solid body (Skt.); figure (MBh.); image, idol (Skt.)(CDIAL 10245). cf. mu_rch coagulate (Skt.); mu_rchati becomes solid (AV.) (CDIAL 10240). mochn.o to mix lentils and pulse with ghee (Ku.)(CDIAL 10241). much-ma_ch act of mixing (N.)(CDIAL 10242). mutta hard (Pkt.); mu_rta embodied (S'Br.)(CDIAL 10244). mwehra_ image of a village deity (WPah.)(CDIAL 1026). mu_rtti form, figure (Periyapu. Mu_rtti. 9); god; arhat (Tiva_.)(Ta.); ascetic, one who performs penance (Ci_vaka. 3071)(Ta.); mu_rttam < mu_rta that which has form, figure, shape or body (Ja_n-a_. 55,2)(Ta.); mu_rttam < mu_rdhan head (Ce_tupu. Ilakkuma. 21)(Ta.); mu_rtti-ma_n- image of god (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.); mu_rtti- cet.t.i-vet.t.u an ancient coin (Pan.avit.u. 141)(Ta.); mu_rtti- na_yan-a_r a canonized S'aiva saint, one of 63 (Periyapu.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) mu_lat.t.a_n-an- the presiding deity at the temple of Tiruva_ru_r (Te_va_. 720,1)(Ta.); mu_lat.t.am id. (Ka_cippu. Tar..uvakku. 172)(Ta.); mu_lar a saint (Ce_kkir..a_r. Pu. 96)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Greatness: mu_ri strength (Kampara_. Kumpakarun.a. 26)(Ta.); muri (Te.Ka.Ma.Tu.); mu_ri greatness (Pu. Ve. 3,3)(Ta.lex.)

7648.Image: arch: mur-a-val.aivu elliptical arch (C.E.M.); mur-am winnow (Pur-ana_. 339); muram id. (Ma.); mora (Ka.); mur-am the 16th naks.atra resembling a winnow, vica_kam (Cilap. 3,123, Urai; Pin..)(Ta.lex.)

7649.Green grocer: mura_u_ green grocer (Aw.); mu_lava_pa planter of edible roots (Mn.)(CDIAL 10253). pan.n.ika green grocer; ropeti plant; ropaka planter (Pali. lex.) murai a grain store (Santali.lex.) mu_lika root-vendor (Pali.lex.) murtel dry leaves etc.; murte, mu_rte the act of drawing toddy by incising and tapping the spadics of palm trees (Tu.lex.)

7650.Grocer; warehouse: mara_ram < mara_ra godown, warehouse (Ta.lex.) murai grain store (Santali.lex.) mal.gi_, mal.ghi_ the fixed or permanent part of a bazaar, the regular buildings and shops (as contrasted with temporary booths)(M.); mal.iga wholesale grocer's shop, warehouse (Te.); mal.ige storehouse, wholesale shop, cloth shop (Tu.); warehouse, shop (Ka.); mal.ikai grocery shop (Ta.)(DEDR 4757). mare, mal.e the milky juice or sap of plants, fruits etc. (Tu.lex.) ma_li gardener; ma_rti, ma_d.t a tree, good as timber (Kon.lex.) mal.ige a warehouse, a shop (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) man.d.i warehouse (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) ma_l goods (H.lex.) Granary, loft: ma_laka raised pavilion or balcony (Skt.); ma_lika_ whitewashed upper-storeyed house; ma_d.i palace (Skt.); ma_t.am storeyed house (Ta.); ma_d.i upstair house (Ka.); me_t.a whitewashed storeyed house (Skt.); ma_l.a sort of pavilion; ma_l.aka, ma_laka circular enclosure; man.d.ala-ma_l.a circular hall with peaked roof (Pali); ma_la raised platform, upper part of a house; ma_d.ia house (Pkt.); ma_la, mala roof; mala-drue_k smoke-hole (Wg.); ma_r.i_ upper storey (S.); storeyed house of burnt brick (L.); upper storey (P.); ma_l. loft, upper storey; ma_l.o loft, large house; ma_l.iyu~ loft (G.); ma_l. stage, platform; ma_l.a_ loft, granary; ma_d.i_ storey of a house, loft (M.); mal.u-va courtyard of a house (Si.)(CDIAL 9996).

7651.Image: pavilion; shed: ma~_r.a_ pl. shed, resthouse (Ku.)(CDIAL 9737). ma~r.ya_, manya_ resthouse (Ku.); ma~_r.o roof of betel plantation (Bi.); ma_r.ab roof of betel plantation (Mth.); ma~r.wa_, ma~r.wi_, man.d.wa_, man.d.wi_ arbour, temporary erection, pavilion (H.); ma~_d.av thatched open shed (G.); ma~_d.vi_ small canopy over an idol (M.); ma~_d.ha_, ma_r.ha_, ma~d.ha_ temporary shed, arbour (H.)(CDIAL 9740). mar.h a monument in memory of a deceased Hindu; coverng with leather, gold leaf etc.; mar.ha_i_ covering with leather, coating with gold leaf; wages for same; mar.hi a monument raised to a deceased Hindu, a shrine of a deceased Hindu, a tomb (Hindu or Sikh); mar.hn. to cover with leather or cloth, to coat ornamentally with gold, silver, copper; mar.hwa_un., mar.ha_un.a_ to cause to be coated with gold leaf, to cause to be covered with leather (P.lex.) Shrine of a demon: ma_m.d.av tent for festivals, consecrated peristyle; ma_m.d.vi_ light canopy over an idol (M.); ma_m.d.avi_ (G.); mam.d.apu (S.); mam.d.ua_, mam.d.ava_ (H.); mad.uv hut (Si.); man.d.ava (Pkt.); man.d.apa (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 379). ma_d.a shrine of a demon (Tu.); some kind of a building (BHSk.)(DEDR 4796). ma_t.a-k-ko_yil S'iva temple with narrow passage built on mounds by Ko_cce_n:ka_n.a_n- (vat.amalaiyan-aiya_n- ma_t.akko_yile_ : Te_va_. 467,10_); ma_t.a_pattiyam < ma_t.am + a_dhipatya temple superintendence (S.I.I. iii,137); headship of a mutt (S.I.I. v,331); man.t.apa-p-pat.i special celebrations to a deity at a festival; halting place for a deity in a festival; mat.a-p-par-r-u property of a monastery; mat.appur-am endowment to monasteries (S.I.I. iii,166); mat.a-val.a_kam, mat.a-vil.a_kam streets around a temple (I.M.P.Rd. 179b)(Ta.lex.) Village deity: ma_t.an- a village deity; ma_t.a-vi_ti main street surrounding a temple (Te_va_. 418,1)(Ta.lex.) ma_t.i a village goddess (Ta.lex.) mat.h convent (used only for pagan c.); mat.ha va_si religious or living in a convent (Kon.lex.)

7652.Image: temple: mat.ha hut, cottage, esp. cell of an ascetic (MBh.); mat.hika_ (Skt.); mad.ha hut (Pkt.); mar hut (K.); moru fowl-house (K.); mar.hu place of residence (S.); mar.hi_ place where an ascetic lives (S.); mahr.i_, mar.hi_ small tomb over ashes of a Hindu (L.); mar.h, mar.hi_ monument, tomb (P.); mar.i_ hut (Ku.); mar.uli_ shed (Ku.); mar(h)o any temporary erection (N.); mara_ tuft of grass at either end of ridge-pole of a house (A.); mar.ia_ hut (Or.); marai_ grass hut (Bi.); maruka_ shed on threshing floor (Bi.); mar.hi_ hut, house (Mth.); mar.hahi_ forest hut (Mth.); mar.ha_, mad.ha_, ma~d.ha_ open hut or shed (H.); mar.hi_ cottage, hut, shed, cell, small temple (H.); mad.h temple (G.); mad.hi_, mad.hur.i_ hut (G.); mad.h (M.); mal.u-va_ hut (Si.); mar.ai_ shed on threshing floor (Bi.); mar.aia_ hut (Mth.)(CDIAL 9727). mand.av a kind of house found in forest villages (K.); ma~_d.av pavilion for festivals (M.)(CDIAL 9740). ma~d.a_n. wooden frame on a well for irrigation bucket? (G.)(CDIAL 9745). mat.ha a school or religious college; a temple; cf. mat.hika_ a hut, cottage, cell; a shrine or temple (EI 31. EI 26,32.IEG.) ma_t.a-k-kur..i niche, cuvar.r.i-l-ul.l.at.ankiya purai (Ta.lex.) pastiya, pastya, pastiya_ dwelling (RV.); pasti_ storehouse (Kal.); pesti storeroom for chaff, bran (Kho.)(CDIAL 8017). vel.i-mat.ai offerings to the attendant deities outside a temple (Ta.lex.) ma~_r.a_ shed, resthouse (Ku.)(CDIAL 9737).

7653.Raised platform or balcony: mar.i_ a small room erected on the roof of a house; a lofty house of masonry (P.lex.) ma_laka raised platform or balcony (Skt.); ma_l.aka-, ma_laka circular enclosure (Pali); man.d.ala-ma_l.a circular hall with peaked roof (Pali); ma_la raised platform, upper part of a house (Pkt.); ma_la, mala roof (Wg.); Storeyed house of burnt brick: ma_r.i_ upper storey (S.); storeyed house of burnt brick (L.); upper storey (P.); ma_l. loft, upper storey (G.); ma_l.o loft, large house (G.); ma_d.i_ store of a house, loft (M.); mal.u-va courtyard of a house (Si.)(CDIAL 9996). me_t.ai platform, raised floor, artificial mound, terraced house (Ta.); me_t.a raised place, tower, upper story, palace (Ma.); me_d.a house with two or more stories, upper chamber (Te.); me_r.a_ large house, bungalow (Go.); me_r. ole bungalow (Pa.); me_r.a mide terraced building (Kond.a); me_r. storied house, mansion (Pe.); me_d.a illu storied house (Kuwi); me_r.a upstair building (Kuwi); met.a- whitewashed storied house (Skt.); med.aya id. (Pkt.)(DEDR 4796b). Place: ma_t.u place (Kalit.98); side; an ending of the oblative of place (Ta.lex.) ma_d.u roof (Tu.); ma.d.i upper story (Kod..Kol.); ma_l.ige an upper story; a terraced roof (Tu.); ma_t.am storied house; hut (Ta.); ma_t.i terrace (Ta.); ma_d.i upstair house, palace (Ka.); upper story (Go.); palace (Skt.); ma_r.i a storied house (Go.); ma_lika_- whitewashed, upper-storied house (Skt.); ma_d.a, ma_t.a, ma_l.a, ma_l.ige upstair house (Ka.); ma_d.ugu a storied house or building (Te.); ma_le a storied house (Te.); ma_l.iga a house, a storied house (Te.); ma_r.i large house (Nk.); ma_la_ upper part of a building (BHSk.); ma_d.ia- house (Pkt.); ma_la- upper part of a house (Pkt.)(DEDR 4796a). ma_t.a-ku_t.am, ma_t.a-ma_l.ikai storied house; ma_t.a-nilai terrace; ma_t.a-k-kur..i, ma_t.am niche (Ta.lex.) ma_t.a-pu_pati a title of the Ra_ja of Cochin (Ta.lex.) Some sort of framework: man.d.a some sort of framework? (Skt.); [In nau-man.d.e_ n. du. the two sets of poles rising from the thwarts or the two bamboo covers of a boat? (S'Br. as illustrated in BPL p.42)]; bo_dhi-man.d.a thatched cover? (Pali)(CDIAL 9737). man.d.apa temporary shed for festive occasions;; an awning, tent (Pali); man.d.au wooden gallery outside a house (Phal.); man.d.ua_ raised and shaded pavilion (Or.); ma~r.ua_ lean-to thatch against a wall (Bi.)(CDIAL 9740). ma_l.a a sort of pavilion (Pali)(CDIAL 9996). man.t.apa-v-er..in-i tent or pavilion resembling a hall (Perun.. Ucaik. 37,103)(Ta.lex.) man.d.o the counter of a country shop; a low bench or platfom on which a shop-keeper squats while transacting business (Tu.lex.) Image: platform to keep night-watch: ma_l.o a pandal-like erection with a platform to keep night-watch, usually in gardens and fields (Tu.); ma_l.ikai temple, palace, house (Ta.); ma_t. elevated platform, macchan (Kol.); ma_r.a raised platform in a field, machan (Nk.)(DEDR 4796). ma_l. stage, platform (M.); ma_l.iyu~ loft (G.) ma_l.a_ loft, granary (M.)(CDIAL 9996). Roof of betel plantation: ma~_r.o roof of betel plantation (Bi.); ma_r.ab id. (Mth.); ma~_d.ha_, ma_r.ha_, ma~d.ha_ arbour, temporary shed (H.); ma~_r.a_ pl. shed, resthouse (Ku.); mar.wa_ open erection in courtyard for festive occasions (Mth.); ma_m.d.ava wedding canopy (OAw.); ma~r.wa_ arbour, pavilion, temporary erection (H.); man.d.wa_ id. (H.); ma~_d.vi_ small canopy over an idol (M.); man.d.apa open temporary shed, pavilion (Skt.) [Variation of n.d. with n.t. supports supposition of non-Aryan origin in Wackernagel AiGr ii 2,212.](CDIAL 9740). Bar of pillars supporting bellows: bar.e~r.a_ upper iron bar of pillars supporting a smith's bellows (Bi.)(CDIAL 11227). ma_l.a_-, ma_la_- a sort of pavilion, hall (Pali)(DEDR 4796a).

7654.Image: creeper: ma_r.a creeper (Pe.); ma_la a creeping or climbing plant, creeper; tendril, long branch of creeping or climbing plant (Kui); ma_r.a, ma_rra creeper (Kuwi)(DEDR 4833). cf. mallika_ jasmine zambac (MBh.); mullai (Ta.Ka.)(CDIAL 99913).

7655.Hereditary entitlement: mira_si a hereditary entitlement to yearly, monthly or daily gifts of corn, money etc. (Ka.); mira_sa a hereditary office in a village; land-tax (M.H.); mira_si-da_ra a man who possesses or enjoys a mira_si (Ka.lex.)

7656.Image: tongs: murut.u large tongs (Ta.lex.)

7657.Image: to bend: mura, muravu, muru, murugu, muruvu, muruhu that is bent; muri to bend, to turn round or twist; to stretch one's self with windings of the limbs; muri-ya_t.a twisting the body about, contortion; murivu bending or twisting (the body in dancing)(Ka.); turning round about (Ka.); murucu to turn round, to twist (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) murimuri-tal to bend, curve (Ci_vaka. 2310)(Ta.lex.) muri a curve, a ring, a twist; windings of a conch; murun.t.u shrunk, shrivelled, crooked (Tu.lex.) mur to encircle, surround, encompass, entwine (Skt.lex.) mur-ukku twisting (Ta.); murika_du (Te.); mur-uku (Ka.); mur-ukku-tal to twist, as a rope (Kampara_. Maruttu. 10); murukku id. (Ka.Ma.); murakat.t.u (Te.)(Ta.lex.) mura encompassing, encircling, surrounding (Ka.lex.) muri the state of bending, being bent, curved et.; a bend, a winding; murike bending, moving out of a straight line; bending, crooking by straining; murige bending, twisting; muruhu a bend, a curve (Ka.lex.) muri to bend (Man.i. 18,161)(Ta.lex.) muripu to turn round or whirl the fist; muru a turn; turning (Ka.lex.) Images: to turn, twist; circle; bend, curve: murge_n bent (Ga.); murg- (murug-) to bend down (Ga.) muripu to turn round or whirl the fist; murucu to turn round, twist; muruhu a bend, a curve, a surrounding place, crooked object; murul. crooked; mor(a)ku to be turning round or be giddy from pride; morahu a bend, winding course of running water (Ka.); muri-muri to curve, bend; murivu contracting, fold (Ta.); murut.uka to pluck by twisting (as coconuts)(Ma.); muria- twisted (Pkt.); murad. to turn, twist (OM.); muri curve, bend (Ta.); to bend, be bent, grow crooked; n. state of being curved, bent, etc., a bend, winding course of a river, ring (Ka.); cuve, circle, ring, twist, the creases of the hand, windings of a conch, etc. (Ka.); murike bending, crooking by straining; murige bending, twisting, a twist (Ka.); twist, entanglement (Tu.); murincu to turn (Te.); murg- to be bent (Pa.); to bend (while peeping)(Ga.)(DEDR 4977). muria bent, broken (Pkt.); mu_rik to squeeze, roll up, crumple (Kho.)(CDIAL 10211).

7658.Image: a side-glance: muridit.t.i a crooked look or eye (a side-glance)(Ka.) (Ka.lex.)

7659.A medicinal plant: murud.asin:ga a kind of medicinal plant and its root, siddhi; r.ddhi id. (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7660.Image: saddle: muri a pad of wool or down laid under the saddle of an ox (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7661.Image: ox: muri a bull or ox (Ka.); mu_ri (Ta.Ma.)(Ka.lex.)

7662.Image: ox-antelope: murum jel the nil gae, or blue cow, portax jactu (Santali.lex.)

7663.Image: broken rice: muri broken rice (Takkaya_kap. 736)(Ta.lex.) muri-tal to break off, snap off (Cu_t.a_.)(Ta.); muri (Ka.)(Ta.lex.) muravu break; broken condition, as the mouth of a pot (Perumpa_n.. 99); murar-r-umam water-pot (Aka. Ni.); murippu breaking, bruising (Ta.); mu_ppu (Te.); murivu breaking, snapping (Ta.Ka.) (Ta.lex.) Image: piece: mur-i to break; piece (Ja_n-ava_. Cikit. 107); half (Ta.); muri piece (Te.Ka.Ma.); muri piece, bit, half (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) muria broken, bent (Pkt.); mu_rai breaks (Pkt.); mu_rik to rub, squeeze, massage, roll up, crumple (Kho.); mu_run to shell or husk (peas, grain etc.), crush (parched peas etc. with teeth), rub gently (to allay itching)(K.); mornu to crush with hand and mix before eating (e.g. bread)(WPah.); morai rubs, crushes (OMarw.); morvu~ = mol.vu~ to shred (vegetables)(G.)(CDIAL 10211). cf. maria broken (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9870).

7664.Skanda: murukan- chief of the desert tract (Aru. Ni.); Skanda (Tirumuru. Pak. 56, Urai.); muruku youth; Skanda (Maturaik. 611)(Ta.lex.) muruku Skanda, beauty, youth, tenderness, tender age (Ta.); murukan- youth, young man, Skanda (Ta.); murukan Subrahman.ya (Ma.); mo.l pil.ad, mo.l kwi-d.yad young birds, young cocks (To.); murku the young of an animal; murle little, small; tender (Tu.); murupu beauty, loveliness, grace (Te.); murli (pl. murku) young man (Kond.a)(DEDR 4978). mudu tender; muduhadaya tender-hearted; mudutta tenderness; mudukan. tenderness (Pali.lex.)

7665.Image: drum: murukiyam drum used in the worship of Skanda, in hilly tracts (Tol. Po. 18, Urai.)[muruku + iyam](Ta.lex.) cf. muraya, murava drum (Pkt.)(CDIAL 10210).

7666.Image: drum: muravam a drum (Te_va_. 385,5); noise, reverberation (Te_va_. 1025,5); muralal sounding (W.)(Ta.); mora (Te.); more (Ka.); muralu (Ma.); muravu a drum (Perun.. Makata. 25,16); murut.u hand drum with two faces (Cilap. Man:kala.) (Ta.lex.) muraja a kind of small drum (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: hemispherical drum; war drum: muraja tambourine (MBh.Pali); muraja_ large drum (Skt.) < Drav. muraya, murava drum (Pkt.); murra_ handles of a wizard's drum (N.)(CDIAL 10210). muracam drum, tabour (Kampara_. Kal.iya_t.t.u, 3); a drum of the agricultural tracts; war drum (Pur-ana_. 288); muracu id. (Pur-ana_. 17); muracar-aital to announce by beat of drum; to proclaim (Ta_yu. Tiruval.. 3); muracukat.t.il dais for the royal drum (Pur-ana_. 50, Talaippu)(Ta.lex.) mur..avam, mur..avu, mur..a_vu drum; large loud-sounding drum, hemispherical in shape (Ta.); mur..a_vu, mir..aku, mir..a_vu id. (Ma.); mur..akkam loud sound, as of thunder or of drums (Ta.); a reverberating, rumbling, roaring sound (Ma.); mur..akku to beat a sounding instrument (Kampara_. Kumpaka. 346); to do a thing pompously (Ta.); mur..akkuka to beat or play an instrument, make to resound (Ma.); mur..avuman. clay used in making moulds (Ta.); mur..a_su to burst into flame, blaze up; blaze, conflagration; mur..a_vu-ca_l the last or exterior furrow in ploughing (Ta.lex.) mur..an:ku to roar, thunder, make loud noise, be made public; mor..i to say, speak; n. word, saying, language (Ta.); word (Ma.); mur..an.n.uka to roar, reverberate (Ma.); mor..agu to sound as certain musical instruments, roar, thunder, play certain instruments; n. sound of certain musical instruments, roaring, thunder (Ka.); mol.i subject of talk or song (Kod..); mro~_gu, mro_yu, mro_vu to sound (Te.); mro~_gud.u, mro~_ta sound (Te.); mud.- (mut.t.-) to talk, speak (a language)(Kol.); mur.- (mut.t.-) to speak; mut.t.a language (Nk.); mir.i- to speak, utter (Kond.a)(DEDR 4989). mural to make sound, cry, sing; muralal sounding; muralvu soft sound as of a lute; muravam noise, reverberation, drum; murar-kai, murar-ci sound, song; murar-r-u to make sound, cry; mural.i flute; muracam, muracu drum, tabour, war drum; muravu, murut.u drum (Ta.); muraluka, murul.uka to hum, grunt, growl; muracu, murajam a small drum (Ma.); moral. to hum, grunt, growl, howl; more to hum, murmur (Ka.); morad.- (morad.uv-, morat.-) to weep; more lamentation (Kod..); muresuni, moresuni to rumble, rattle (as thunder)(Tu.); more cry (Tu.); morayu to sound, resound; morayika, morapamu sound, noise (Te.); moray- (morayt-) to produce musical sound (Bell, etc.)(Kol.); moray- to sound; morap- id.(Nk.); Image: to growl (tiger): mur- to growl(tiger), hoot (owl), murip- (murit-) to snore (Pa.); muru inba to growl, grumble, mutter (Kui); mu_ru_-ki_ali to growl (Kuwi); murrna_ to thunder, esp. with repeated peals, utter threats, threaten (Kur.); mure to speak, say yes or no (Malt.); marra_m shout, call, cry, fame (Br.)(DEDR 4973). Image: to speak: mur-a lamentation, wailing (Ma.); moyr complaint (Ko.); mur.y complaint (To.); morad. to weep (Kod..); mor-a, mor-r-a cry, scream, clamour (Te.); morayu to sound, resound (Te.); muru muru a_ to grumble, complain (Kuwi)(DEDR 4973). mur-aiyit.u to complain, express grievance (Ta.); mur-a it.uka to complain, find fault (Ma.); moyr id. to make a complaint (Ko.); mor-ey-id.u to wail, lament, complain (Ka.); mor-alid.u to cry out (Te.)(DEDR 5013). cf. marki to weep (Ka.)(DEDR 4727). murmur muttering (M.); murmurinu to murmur (N.)(CDIAL 10215). mur-umur-u, morumoru to murmur, grumble (Ta.); mur-a it.uka to complain, find fault (Ma.); murg to growl (Ko.); mur-x to growl (To.); mor-e to roar, clamour (Ka.)(DEDR 5013). murmura_ crackling (Pali); murmura_pe_ti munches (Pali); murmuria rattling (Pkt.); murmura_ parched maize (P.); parched rice (M.); murmurinu crackle (N.); murmura_na_ to crackle (H.)(CDIAL 10215).

7667.Fuel: murun:ku to simmer (i.e. smoulder); muruku to exceed the proper limit in heating; murut.u firewood (Ta.); murmura burning chaff (Pali); muruku fuel (Ta.); muthre to be scorched (Malt.); murun.t.u to cause to burn, kindle (Ka.); muripuni to burn, consume (as firewood for culinary purposes); muripa_vuni to cause to burn; murlu kindling fire into a blaze (Tu.); murluni a spark to be kindled into a blaze (Tu.); murtelu dry leaves, etc. used for kindling fire (Tu.); murye to singe the feathers of a bird preparatory to roasting it; muthre to be scorched; muthrtre to scorch (Malt.); murmura- an expiring ember (MaitrS.); burning chaff (Skt.); mummura hot ashes, burning chaff (Pkt.)(DEDR 4980).

7668.Sharpness: mu_rccai sharpness (Ta.); mu_rkkuka to sharpen (Ma.); mu_rcca sharpness, edge, keen sharp wit (Ma.); mu_rppu sharpness (Ma.); mu_rppikka to whet (Ma.)(DEDR 5042).

7669.To defeat; crush, destroy: muri to perish, ruin, defeat (Ta.); murukku to destroy, crush, ruin, kill; n. killing (Ta.); murunku to perish, be destroyed (Ta.); mrupka to tear, murder, kill; n. tearing, murder (Kui); mru_va to die (balance word of sa_va)(Kui);(DEDR 4975). mur-i to defeat, rout, destroy, break up, put an end to (Ka.); mur-ivu wound (Ma.); mur-ivu crushing, destruction (Ka.)(DEDR 5008). mur destroyer (RV.); muriam I thresh (Wg.); mura_na_ to chew (H.); murai squeezes (Pkt.); mu_rai breaks (Pkt.); mu_rik to rub, squeeze, massage, roll up, crumple (Kho.); mu_run to shell or husk (peas, grain, etc.), crush (parched peas etc. with teeth), rub gently (to allay itching)(K.); mornu_ to crush with hand and mix before eating (e.g. bread)(WPah.); morai rubs, crushes (OMarw.); morvu~ to shred (vegetables)(G.)(CDIAL 10211). mojjnu_ to crush with hand and mix up before eating (e.g. bread)(WPah.); mu_ryate_ is crushed (S'Br.)(CDIAL 10249). mr.n.a_ti crushes (AV.); mr.n.ati (RV.); threshes (S'Br.); mu_rn.a pp. (AV.); man.a_ti crushes, destroys (Pali); brunik to bite, chew (e.g. parched grain)(Kho.); munun to pound grain, husk (in a mortar)(K.); munan act of so doing (K.); munu husked (K.); mino one with a flat nose as if bruised down (S.)(CDIAL 10276).

7670.Piece; piece of cloth: mur-iccal breach (Ma.); mur-i piece, half, broken half of a coconut, piece of cloth (Ta.); fragment, piece of cloth (Ma.); to occasion a flaw in a thing by bending it, sever by fracture, break, break off as leaves, fruits, etc.(Ka.); mur-isu to cause to break, get changed as large money into smaller (Ka.)(DEDR 5008). Image: a notch; an incision; a bit: muri piece, bit broken off (Ta.); to make a cut (Kod..); an incision or notch (Tu.); mur- to break (Nk.); mutk id. (Nk.Kol.); muri, muriya a bit, piece (Te.); muri-konu to cut (Te.); mukka piece, bit, fragment, part (Te.); murku fragment, piece, bit (Tu.); muravu break, broken condition as of the mouth of a pot (Ta.); muka crumb(s)(Kuwi); muka small piece, e.g.meat, cloth, pot, etc.(Kuwi); muriyal bit, fragment (Ta.); mu_ri a bit, part (Ta.); mury to break (stick-like thing), indent (neck in throwing pot)(Ko.); mury small piece, small crack in iron of tool (Ko.); mury to break in two (stick)(To.); mur.pa to split wood (Kui); murcna_ to twist and break (Kur.); murke to cut into bits, cut across, cross (as a river); murkre to be cut to pieces (Malt.)(DEDR 4975). mur-iyu piece, crumb (Te.); mur-uku fragment, bit (as of bread)(Ka.)(DEDR 5008). mur to cut (horizontally) (Pe.)(DEDR 5008). mur-uku, mukku a fragment, a bit, as of bread, sweetmeats etc.; mur-i a fragment, a piece, a broken- or torn-off particle; the state of being broken, broken off (Ka.lex.)

7671.Receipt; bond: muri, mur-i deed, written bond; receipt written on a piece of ola; alloy of superior quality, especially bell-metal (Ta.Te.Ka.Ma.)(Ta.lex.); mur-i note, bond (Ma.)(DEDR 5008).

7672.A measure: muri measure of weight = 2 maunds (N.); mu_r.o measure of capacity (G.)(CDIAL 10233).

7673.Image: room; hamlet: muri, mur-i part of a village or town; corner (Ta.Te.Ka. Ma.)(Ta.lex.); mur-i room, chamber, apartment, parish, hamlet (Ma.)(DEDR 5008).

7674.Image: sprout: mur-i sprout, shoot (Kur-al., 1113)(Ta.lex.) Image: sprout; leaf; bunch or rice plants, what three fingers can hold: nuri a bunch of rice plants and the space required to plant them, what three fingers can hold; nurikka to put some grains, take and put with three fingers; nurippikka to transplant (Ma.); 6nuli cluster of paddy plants growing in one hole (Kod..); ni.ri bundle of several paddy seedings (Kod..); nuru tender shoots in paddy stubble; noru after-shoot from the roots of rice, millet, etc. (Ta.)(DEDR 3708). mur-i sprout, shoot, tender leaf, leaf (Ta.); mur-i-p-pet.t.atu stage of palm tree's growth beyond or-r-a-ka_ccatu (i.e. a coconut palm in the 8th-10th year)(Ma.)(DEDR 5010).

7675.Image: sluice: mo_ri, mohari a little channel to carry off water (Ka.M.) (Ka.lex.)

7676.Image: fish: mur-a_l a sea-fish (J.); mural < murala needle-fish, syngnathus (Na_mati_pa. 271); mural. a shell-fish (Tol. Po. 584)(Ta.lex.) murala_ a kind of fresh-water fish (Skt.lex.) cf. mural-mi_n needle-fish (Ma.)(DEDR 4974). murala a species of fresh-water fish (Sus'r.); mural.a the small fish aspidoparia marar (Or.); mural, maral a river fish (H.); maral. (M.); moralla_ a kind of fish (Si.); muro a kind of fish (S.); mura_ a kind of very small fish (H.)(CDIAL 10213). muru-mi_n perch fish (Tu.lex.)

7677.Flute: mo_ri leaf-pipe (Pa.); mo_ri flute (Ga.); pipe, flute, leaf-pipe (Pe.); mohori flute (Go.); pipe, bag-pipe, trumpet (Kui); trumpet (Kuwi); mohri id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5141). pu_ri a wind instrument; pu_rikai trumpet (Ta.); pu_rika id. (Ma.); bu_ra_ id. (Te.)(DEDR 4368). murali_ flute, pipe (Skt.) [< Drav. mural.i (Ta.)]; murli_ pipe (S.P.H.); murali fife (N.); muruli, mururi flute (A.); murali pipe, fife (B.); murl.i_ id. (M.)(CDIAL 10214). mural to make sound, cry, sing (Ta.); muralvu soft sound as of a lute (Ta.); mural.i flute (Ma.Ta.)(DEDR 4973). mur.li to bark (Kond.a)(DEDR 5013). Wicker: mura_ wicker stool (A.); mor.a_ (B.Or.); mod.a_ (M.); mor.ha_ (H.N.); mur.a_ (N.)(CDIAL 10352). Leaf-coat: mo_ra leaf-coat (Nk.); mora id. (Go.); leaf-shield used as protection against rain (Go.)(DEDR 5140).

7678.Image: three: mu_r-u the number three; three (Ka.); mu_n-r-u (Ta.); mu_nnu (Ma.); muguru, mugguru, mu_d.u (Te.); mu_ji (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) mu- the form taken by the word mu_ji meaning three in certain cmpds.: mukkon.d.e three kon.d.es, mukkol.u three times, munnu_du three hundred (Tu.lex.) Image: numeral '3': mu~_ three (Kui); mu_n-r-u, mu_n.u three (Ta.); mu_nnu three (Ma.); mu.nd- three (Ko.); mu_ji three (Tu.); mu_nr-i three (Kond.a); mu_Rku mu_Rku three each (Go.); mu_Rku leka/laka at the rate of three apiece (Go.); mu_v(v)eru, muvveru three persons (Tu.); mu_velu three pairs of cattle (Tu.); mu_var three persons (Ta.Ma.Ka.); mu.ve three persons (Kod..); muyyak etti three pairs of bullocks (Kod..); mu'ar three men (Kui); nubb three persons (Kur.)(DEDR 5052). mu~_d.u, mu_d.u three (Te.); mu_d.ug three (neut.)(Ga.); mu_nr-i (Kond.a); munji three (Kui); musit. three entities (Br.); adj. musi three (Br.); adj. mu (before doubled consonants), muv (before vowels)(Ta.); mu.d. (To.); mu_r-u; adj. mu, muk (Ka.); mu.ndi three (Kod..); mu_nji three (fem. neut.)(Kui); three things (Kui); mu_nd three things (Kur.); mo_t.h(o) three (Nahali)(DEDR 5052). mu_ three (Kui); mu_r-u three (Ka.); adj. mu, mu_ (Te.); mu_r-r-ai triple (Ta.); mu_r..akku three ur..akku (Ta.Ma.)(DEDR 5052). mu_guru, mugguru, mu_vuru three persons (Te.); muggur three men (Kol.Nk.); mug(g)ur three men (Nk.); mu_vir three men (Pa.Go.); mu_vur three (Go.); mu'er three people (Kond.a); musit. three (entities); adj. musi; musi; musi_ka three times (Br.); mu mur.y three trees (To.); mu.ma three times (Kod..); mu.ndin three things (Kol.); mu_ndin three things (Nk.); muhk-muhk-t.an three each (Go.); mu_nr-i three (neut.)(Kond.a)(DEDR 5052).Image: arm's length: cf. mu_ra arm's length from elbow to tip of the middle finger (Te.lex.)

7679.Throne: mur-aimutar-kat.t.il throne (Cilap. 27,134)(Ta.lex.)

7680.System: mur-ai order, manner, plan, arrangement, course (Pur-ana_. 29)(Ta.); mura (Ma.); mora (Te.); mure (Ka.); mur-ai regularity, system, routine; mur-aiyul.i adv. according to order (Cilap. 8,42); mur-aiceyvo_r executive officers (Tiruva_lava_. 13,10); mur-aiyo_r id. (Tiruva_lava_. 37,60); mur-aiya_mpil.l.ai a village servant (Na_.)(Ta.); mur-aiyampil.l.ai id. (Kuruku_rp. 23); mur-aimai right, propriety (Kampara_. Nakarni_n:ku. 5); mur-aippa_t.u duty, tax (Ta.inscr.); mur-aippat.utal to be in order;; to be systematized (Kur-al., 640); mur-aippeyar words indicating relationship by blood or by marriage (Tol. Col. 138); mur-ainilaippeyar id. (Tol. Col. 165); mur-aika_ran- one employed to attend to a job, by turns (Ko_yilo. 78); one who is entitled to an office, as in a temple (Can.. Aka.); mur-ai manners; custom; approved course of conduct (Kampara_. Va_livatai. 117)(Ta.lex.) murad, murwad respect, honour, wish, intention (Santali.lex.)

7681.Relationship: mur-ai, mur-aimai custom, nature; birth, manners, approved code of conduct, relationship by blood or marriage, justice, antiquity, fate (Ta.); mur-a law, custom, duty, turn (Ma.); mur-ama custom (Ma.); moyr relationship between kin (Ko.); mir- relationship by blood or marriage (To.); mor-e a turn, time, propriety, virtue; relationship (Ka.); mare relationship (Ka.); mura custom (Go.); mude, mudde consanguinity (Tu.); mur kinsman (Kond.a)(DEDR 5015). cf. marya_da_ law (Skt.) mariya_da_ a strictly defined relation, rule, control; adj. keeping the lines (or boundaries), observing strict rules; mariya_da_-bandha keeping in control (Pali.lex.)

7682.Crop allowance to village officers: me_rai-t-tit.t.am regulation or rule relating to the proportion of allowances to the village officers and servants from the crops; me_rai-y-ar..i- destruction of landmarks, as by removing survey stones (Ta.lex.) me_l-va_ram the proportion of the crop or produce claimed by the landholder, dist. fr.: kut.i-va_ram (Ta.lex.) mari_ci boundary, limit (Ta.lex.) mariyai, mariya_tai continuance in the right way, propriety of conduct, rectitude; way, manner; boundary, limit, shore; mariyai condition (Ta.lex.) me_rai-ar..ittal destruction of landmarks, as by removing survey stones (Ta.lex.) Boundary: me_rai boundary, limit (Ta.); me_rvai id. (Ta.); me_ra (Te.); me_re (Ka.Tu.); rule of propriety or decorum; limits of propriety (Ta.); the portion of the crop given as a perquisite to holders of ka_n.i-y-a_t.ci or to hereditary village officers and servants, out of the common stock on the threshing-floor (Ta.); me_rai-mariya_tai id. (Ta.le.); me_rai-ma_n-iyam grant of a portion of the gross produce of cultivated lands, now commuted into money (Ta.lex.); me_rai-y-ar..ittal destruction of landmarks, as by removing survey stones, etc. (Ta.lex.) ka_n.i-y-a_t.ci (Ta.); ka_n.ya_ci (Te.Ka.); hereditary right to land, to offices, to fees, to an estate or to a kingdom; domain obtained by inheritance; that which is held as free and hereditary property; estate, one's own possession, urimai-nilam (S.I.I. i,124)(Ta.lex.) marya_da_ (SITI), mariya_di (Ta.); customary dues; manners; ways; extent; limit; marja_di, maris'a_di, marus'a_di id. (Ta.)(IEG.) marya_da_-dhurya (BL.IEG.) explained as 'Warden of Marches'. marya_da_-pariha_ra (EI 22), customary exemptions of taxes (IEG.) marya_da_ region (RV.); boundary (S'Br.); shore (Skt.); marya_ boundary (lex. is sanskritized Middle Indo-Aryan: majja_-); mara boundary (Si.); mer id. (M.); mer direction, margin (G.); me_ra_ boundary (Pkt.); mariya_da_ shore, bank, embankment (Pali)[strictly defined relation, rule, control; adj. keeping to the lines (or boundaries), observing strict rules; mariya_da_-bandha keeping in control (Pa.lex.)]; majja_ya_-, majja_ boundary (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9895).

7683.Image: to gape: mo_r-a_ttal to gape (I_t.u, 4,8,7)(Ta.); mo_ratillu (Te.); mo_rate (Ka.); murittal laughter (Aru. Ni.); muri-va_y opening made in a wall, used as entrance (Tiruva_lava_. 24,4)(Ta.lex.)

7684.Peacock: mora peacock (Pali); mayu_ri_ pea-hen (Vedic)(Pali.lex.)

7685.Hunchback: murgal hunchback (Pa.); moorga hunchbacked (Go.)(DEDR 4977). mur-uva a maimed man; an imbecile man (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7686.Images: hare; bush: me_ru hare, rabbit (Tu.); mi.te hare (Kol.); mola a large hare (Tu.)(DEDR 4968). muru_ hare (Br.); morol hare (Kond.a); mro_l id. (Pe.); mra_lu, mr.alu, mr.a_lu_ id. (Kuwi); molol, malo, malor., malol, malo_l (Go.); muyal (Ma.); mug(g)eru hare (Te.); mola, mala (Ka.); muyal, mucal (Ta.); muyeru (Te.); munna, monna (Ir.); mona (Kod..); munya~_ (Kur.); munye (Malt.)(DEDR 4968). mugeru, muyer, me_r a hare, a rabbit (Tu.lex.) mu~_da hare (Pa.); munde, mu_nde (Ga.)(DEDR 4968). muyal hare, lepus nigricollis (ka_n-a muyaleyta vampin-il : Kur-al., 772)(Ta.lex.)

7687.Aquilaria agallocha: muruku akil (eagle-wood, aquilaria agallocha; the drug agar obtained from the tree), va_can-ai (fragrance)(Ta.lex.: N. Katirve_rpil.l.ai) murgan drugs or medicines in general (Santali.lex.)

7688.Myrrh: more (Tadbhava of mure) myrrh; ta_laparn.i (Ka.); mur-al., mu_r-u myrrh (M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. muruku eagle-wood, akil (Tiva_.); cf. murukkan--maram Bengal kino tree, butea frondosa (Ta.lex.) cf. muracai < muraja_ wife of Kubera (Api. Cin.)(Ta.lex.) Myrrh; vegetable perfume: muruku fragrance (Pat.t.in-ap. 37)(Ta.lex.) murukan- an inebriating preparation (Ta.), ma_jun (U.)(Ta.lex.) mura, mure, mule, more a species of fragrant plant, a vegetable perfume (Ka.); mur-al., mu_r-u myrrh (Ma.); Synonyms: gandhini, ta_laparn.i, ba_l.ia patri (ba_l.a the cuscus-grass), surabhi (the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera; gum olibanum)(Ka.)(Ka.lex.) mura_ name of a fragrant plant; muraja_ name of Kubera's wife; murala_ name of a country; name of a river rising in the country of the Keralas; muran.d.a_ a country to the north-west of India (Skt.lex.) mura_ name of a fragrant plant (Skt.lex.) mure a perfume (Ka.lex.) ka_t.t.u-k-karuva_ wild cinnamon, ta_l.icapattiri; ta_l.i_capattiri cinnamomum iners (M.M. 882); cassia cinnamon, cinnamomum macro-carpum < ta_lis'apatrin (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) Synonyms: ta_l.i_sapatre, ca_l.isapatri, mure, gandhakut.i a kind of perfume; a medicinal drug (Ka.lex.) ilavan:ka-p-pat.t.ai cinnamon bark, karuva_ppat.t.ai; cassia cinnamon, ta_l.isapatri; ilavan:kam < lavan:ga cinnamon tree, cinnamomum zeylanicum; wild cinnamon, cinnamomum iners (Ta.lex.) lavan:ga the cinnamon tree, cinnamomum zeylanicum; lavan:ga-cu_ru boiled and dried pieces of the areca nut, the form of which resembles cloves; lavan:ga cassia bark, green cinnamon, tvakpatra, vara_n:gaka; lavan:gapatre the leaves of laurus cassia (Ka.lex.) cf. tamalapatra cinnamomum zeylanicum (Skt.); dalchini (B.M.H.)(GIMP, p.66). Cinnamomum obtusifolium: tezpat (B.); barasingoli (N.); patichanda (A.); phatgoli (Kumaon); brk: used in dyspepsia and liver complaints in Nepal; habitat: central and outer eastern Himalayas, upto 7,000 ft., east Bengal, Assam, and Andaman islands. (GIMP, p.65). Cinnamomum iners: tikhi (M.); jangli darchini (H.); kattukkaruvappattai (Ta.); adavitalavangapatta (Te.); ranachadalchini (M.); seeds: bruised and mixed with honey given to children in dysentery and coughs; habitat: a tree of southern Tenasserim reported to occur in the evergreen forests of Western Ghats from Mysore and Coorg to the Anamalais and Travancore, Karnatic and Shevroy and Kollimalai hills. It is probably a variety of cinnamomum zeylanicum (GIMP, p.65). Cinnamomum parthenoxylon: kayo-gadis (Malay); kaaway (Burmese); oil of fruit: in rheumatic affections; infusion of root: substitute for sassafras; habitat: Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Java and China. (GIMP, p.65). Cinnamomum zeylanicum: gud.e_tvak (Skt.); cinnamon is largely used as an aromatic adjunct in compound prescriptions. A combination of cinnamon, cardamoms and tejapatra leaves, passes by the name of trija_taka, these three aromatics being often used together. (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.225).

7689.Spikenard: mu_le_ram < mu_le_ra spikenard herb (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7690.Image: tooth: mu_ral tooth (Ta.); smiling (Pin..; Kampara_. Kal.iya_t.t.u. 20); muriyu, murugu tooth (Te.); muruva (Ka.); mural (Ma.); murija (Tu.); mu_ralittal to laugh, smile (Upate_caka_. Ayamuki. 61)(Ta.); mu_ran--mur-uval smile (Kur-un. 286)(Ta.lex.) Image: tooth: mur-uval tooth (mutta mur-uval : Kur-al., 1113)(Ta.); murupu (Te.); muruva (Ka.); mur-uval smile (Kampara_. Cu_rppa. 5); mur-uvalittal to smile (Tol. Po. 251, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) mu_ral tooth, smiling (Ta.); mur-uve_l tooth (Ma.)(DEDR 5014). cf. murla_ toothless (H.)(CDIAL 10187).

7691.Boiled rice: mu_ral boiled rice (Perumpa_n.. 168)(Ta.); mu_rtta-racam < mu_rdha-rasa scum of boiling rice (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Parched rice: murmuri parched rice (Nk.); murre fried gram (Go.); mureng puffed rice; murre_ roasted gram; mure_ parched gram (Go.); mu_ri parched rice (Kui); moriyuva to become roasted (Ma.)(DEDR 5019).

7692.Image: foetus: murel, murevu the foetus to be formed (Tu.lex.) mu_l.ha-gabbha_ a woman whose 'foetus in utero' has gone astray, i.e., cannot be delivered properly, a woman difficult to be delivered; mu_l.ha gone astray, erring, having lost one's way (Pali.lex.)

7693.Image: tail stump: murra_ tail stump, tail of a beast cut short, dock (Kur.); mor-r-i defect, imperfection, want, deformity; defective, deformed, imperfect (Te.); mor-ava blunt; mor-aka defect, defective (Te.)(DEDR 5125). murat.u the stump, foot, root of a tree (Ma.); morad.u stump, pollard, block (Te.)(DEDR 4971). murarai hard, stout trunk of a tree (Patir-r-up. 5-a_m pat. Pati.); murut.u stump (Can.. Aka.); knot in wood (Tiruva_lava_. 23,4)(Ta.lex.)

7694.Battle: muran. fight, battle (Tol. Po. 407); variance, opposition; perversity (kat.umuran. mutalaiya net.uni_ rilaci)(Pur-ana_. 37)(Ta.); fight, strength (Ma.); mord.n. violent man (Ka.); murli quarrelsome woman (Tu.); murle quarrelsome man (Tu.); mon.d.ari stubborn fellow (Te.); Thick part of a spade: murelu thick part of a spade; murud.i, murud.u roughness, coarseness; rough, coarse (Tu.); morat.u rough, rude; rude man; morad.u stump, pollard, block (Te.); murat.u roughness (Ta.); murat.an- rude man, obstinate man (Ta.); muran.ar enemies (Te_va_. 148,7); muran.t.an- obstinate person, impatient person, quarrel-some person (Ta.); murivu greatness; murut.an- obstinate person, reckless person, rude person, savage (Ta.); mon.t.i, mon.t.ukka_ran- refractory man (Ta.); murat.an knotty, stubborn, refractory (Ma.); murud.u, morad.u roughness, ruggedness, unevenness (Ka.)(DEDR 4971). muran.-pat.u to be perverse (Ta.lex.)

7695.Trema orientalis: jhawar terma orientalis (Santli.lex.) trema orientalis = celtis orientals: jivanti (Skt.); jibon (B.); khargul (M.); jupong (A.); malantotali (Ma.); morali (Te.); munnai (Ta.); plant: used in epilepsy (GIMP, p.246). In the Philippines, the bast of trema amboinensis = trema orientalis = sponia amboinensis is made into a rope; the wood is used to make shoes; as a poultice for swellings (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.224).

7696.Hermit's tree: mur-al.ai hermit's tree, i.e. buchanania latifolia (Ta.); mur-al., mural. id. (Ma.); mor-at.e, mor-appi, mor-ale, mor-ave id. (Ka.); morali sponia orientalis; mo_ralli b. latifolia (Te.)(DEDR 5006). {In the Philippines, the bast of sponia amboinensis or s. velutina = terma orientalis is made into a rope. The wood which is soft and light-coloured, is manufactured into wooden shoes: Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p. 224.) Trema orientalis = sponia orientalis which is different from b. latifolia.} {Synonyms: piya_la the tree b. latifolia (Skt.Pali.Pkt.); priya_la (MBh.); ta_pasa-priya (Skt.); piya_r (H.); piya_l (A.B.); piya_l.a id., chirolia sapida (Or.); piyal the tree nephelium longana (Si.)(CDIAL 8211). sire, ci_re chironji tree (Kol.); s'i_re id. (Nk.); ci_r chironji nut (Pa.); sare_ka_ chironji tree, buchanania angustifolia = b. latifolia (Go.); sre_ko a species of forest tree (Kui); re_ko b. latifolia (Kuwi)(DEDR 2628). Cloth: cf. ci_rai cloth (Ta.); s'i_re, si_re female's garment (tu.)(DEDR 2629)}. Buchanania lanzan = buchanania latifolia: chironji, piyal (H.B.); charoli (M.G.); mudaima (Ta.); sara (Te.); piyalaka (Skt.); oil from kernels: used as substitute for almond oil in native medicinal preparations; kernel: as ointment used in skin diseases; gum: in diarrhoea; habitat: throughout India in dry deciduous forests (GIMP, p.42). tarop buchanania latifolia (Santali.lex.) mur to encircle, surround, surround, encompass, entwine (Skt.lex.)

7697.Rue: Ruta graveolens (Coptic bawroywr, rubia sylvestris; Modern Egyptian arabic fi_gan, sada_b) "Rue is a semi-evergreen perennial growing to 1m. It has greyish-green oblong leaves and small yellow flowers. It contains volatile oil... a most useful ingredient in herbal medicine. It is emmenagogue, antihelmitic, stomachich and diaphoretic... to treat epilepsy, and externally, for skin diseases, rheumatism and as an eye lotion and gargle... the oil is used in perfume... Prospero Alpini... Egyptians use the oil for massage for feverish conditions... Assyrian Herbal called it anameru... Coptics knew a wild rue identified as peganum harmala... applied to a tooth to facilitate extraction." (Lise Manniche, An Ancient Egyptian Herbal, p.145). Ruta graveolens: somalata (Skt.); sadab (H.); ermul (B.); satap (M.); sudab (P.); sadabu (Ka.); arvada (Ta.); aruda (Te.); plant: antiseptic, stimulant, acro-narcotic poison, emmenagogue; leaves: used in rheumatic pains, in treating hysteria, worms, colic and atonic amenorrhea and menorrhea; herb and oil: stimulant, chiefly of the uterine and nervous system; cultivated in Indian gardens (GIMP, p.217). Peganum harmala: hurmal (H.P.M.); isband (B.); simaiyalavinai (Ta.); simagoronti (Te.); seeds: narcotic, given in fever and colic; root: applied to kill lice; habitat: Baluchistan, Waziristan, Kurrum valley, Sind, Cutch, Punjab, Kashmir, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Konkan and Western Deccan. (GIMP, pp.187-188). ci_mai-yar..avan-am harmal, peganum harmala, maruto_n-r-i vakai (M.M. 340)(Ta.lex.) ar..avan.am< aivan.am henna (Ta.lex.) aivan.n.am henna (Tiruvil.ai. Ma_n.ikkam. 40); aivan.am id. (W.)(Ta.lex.) cf. maruto_n-r-i henna, lawsonia alba (Ta.lex.) to_n-r-i Malabar glory lily (Ci_vaka. 73); the white species of gloriosa superba (Pin..); ancient name of a hill (Pur-ana_. 399); to_n-r-ikar chetti merchants (Aka. Ni.)(Ta.lex.)

7698.Image: chignon: moli (Sk. mauli) a chignon; crest, turban (Pali.lex.)

7699.Protuberance: murampe, morampe, mol.ape a swelling; protuberance; muran.da, moran.d.a, moran.d.e a swelling, protuberance; murad.i knotty (Tu.lex.) cf. mur, mor node, protuberance, swelling (Tu.); mur..a knotty, teeth of a saw etc. (Ma.)(DEDR 4988).

7700.To rob: mr. to rob (Vedic.lex.) mr.s. to steal, rob (RV. i.131.4); mr.s.i_van a robber, thief (RV. i.42.3)(Vedic.lex.) mr.a_- (-t-) to steal; mr.a_kha thief (Pe.); mr.a_khi urli mouse (Mand..); mr.a_pa (mr.a_t-) to deceive, cheat, flatte with the intent of deceiving (Kui); mr.a_kli or'i mouse; mn.a_- (-t-) to take away without asking, secretly; mn.a_ski orli a kind of rat (Kuwi)(DEDR 5146). par-ampi deceitful, cunning woman (Ta.); parame clever man, cunning, tricky fellow (Tu.); pamma fraud, trick (Tu.)(DEDR 4025). mr.a_n.i a kind of rat (Pe.); mra_n.e id. (Mand..)(DEDR 5145). mr.s.ka mouse (Vedic.lex.)

7701.Testicle: mr.s.ka testicle (TS. v.7.15); mr.s.kara having large testicles, a bull (Vedic.lex.)

7702.Image: courtyard: mur-r-am courtyard of a house, inner yard of a house, esplanade, open space, expanse (Ta.); id. (Ma.); mur-r-i, mir-r-am front yard, court before a house (Ma.)(DEDR 5016). purima-bha_ga frontage; purato in the front (Pali.lex.) Courtyard of a house: mundilu courtyard of a house (Ta.); mun-kat.ai front entrance of a house; porch (Ain:kur-u. 5); mungad.a id. (Te.); mun-kat.t.u front apartments of a house (Ta.); mun-r-il front of a house (Nar-. 77); mungili id. (Te.); mun-r-il space (Kampara_. Kat.ar-a_. 47); mun-n-at.i portion of a house near its entrance (Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7703.An ancient tax: mo_ram an ancient tax (T.A.S. i.165); ?mohar (Pers.); mo_ra_ a gold coin, mohur (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.)

7704.Seat covered with bark: me_raka a seat covered with bark (Skt.lex.)

7705.Fright: merul. (merul.v-, merun.t.-) to fear, shy; n. fear; merul.i shy person (Ta.); miral. (miral.v-, miran.t.-), mirar.. (-v-, -nt-) to be frightened, startled; mirat.t.u (mirat.t.i-) to frighten, fascinate, deceive, drive away (Ta.); meruluka to be scared; merul. fright; miral.uka to start, be shaken by fear; mirat.t.al frightening (Ma.); mi.d.- (mid.0-) to look fiercely (To.); meramera doubt, suspicion, fear, anxiety, guilty conscience (Te.)(DEDR 5075). bharao,bhir.kau, biraj, bir.ki to be frightened (Santali.lex.) cf. bhi_ fear (Skt.); bhi_ta frightened (RV.)(CDIAL 9511). cf. bhairava frightful (MBh.)(CDIAL 9622).

7706.Image: ornamental post: mar-ai burner, in a chimney lamp (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) me_ruve pile, pyramid, high top (Ka.); meruve, merve an ornamental post near a gurji (Tu.); me_ruvu pyramid, cone (Te.)(DEDR 5094).

7707.Image: mountain: me_r mountain (Kho.); Teri_c Me_r name of a mountain in Chitral (Kho.); me_ru a fabulous mountain in Himalaya (MBh.); me_ruve pyramid (Ka.)(CDIAL 10330). diamer name of the mountain Nangaparbat (Sh.)(CDIAL 6533).

7708.Procession: meravan.ai procession (Ta.); mer-avan.i, mer-avan.(i)ge ostentatious display (Ka.); meran.ige, meravan.ige procession (Tu.)(DEDR 5074). meruvan.ai ostentation, display; procession, as in a wedding (Ta.); meravadi id. (Te.); meruvani id. (Ka.); meruvani (M.)(Ta.lex.)

7709.Wrinkle: valita wrinkled (Skt.Pali); bali wrinkled, shrivelled by old age (A.); vali, vili-ya id. (Si.)(CDIAL 11413). vali, vali_ fold of skin (MBh.); wal crease (in paper or cloth), hair line, mark of a crack (K.); vali_ fold, wrinkle, line (Pali.Pkt.); vari turn (S.); varu coil, curl (S.); val twist, turn, zigzag (L.); val, bal wrinkle, coil, bend (P.); bali wrinkle in skin (B.); bal, bali_ fold of skin, wrinkle (H.); val.iya~_ pl. wrinkles in a garment (G.); val.i_ a roll, wrinkle (esp. of abdomen)(M.)(CDIAL 11412). Wrinkle, cramp: ul.ukku (ul.ukki-) to be sprained, dislocated; n. sprain, dislocation; cul.ukku (cul.ukki-) to be sprained, dislocated; ul.ai (-v-, -nt-) to ache or suffer pain in the limbs as from weariness, cold, rheumatism, suffer griping pain as with dysentery, suffer in mind, perish; (-pp-, -tt-) to afflict, torment, make sorrowful, dislike; ul.aivu, ul.aippu griping pain, intense pain (Ta.); ul.ukkal, ul.ukku, ul.ukkam a sprain; ul.ukkuka to be dislocated; cul.ukku sprain, wrench, cramp; cul.un.n.uka to be distorted, shrink, wrinkle; cul.ukkuka to distort, wrench; ul.ayuka to suffer a dragging pain (Ma.); tik- (tiky-) to be sprained (To.); ulaku to be sprained; uluku, ulku, ul.uku, ul.ku a sprain (Ka.); ulaku, iluku cramp, sparin (Ka.); ul.ku, ulku a sprain or cramp; ul.kuni to be sprained or cramped (Tu.); iluku a sprain; to be sprained (Te.); ilk- to be sprained (Go.); ilk- (-t-) (part of the body) to be sprained (Kond.a)(DEDR 2702). cf. vali (-pp-, -tt-) to be painful; n. pain, ache, trouble, difficulty (Ta.)(DEDR 5281).

7710.Male monkey: vallu_kam male monkey; large ape; va_li va_li_, a monkey-chief; that which has a tail; va_lin (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) vali_mukha monkey (R.); vilmuva white-faced monkey (Si.)(CDIAL 11415). cf. vali_ fold of skin (MBh.)(CDIAL 11412). Image: monkey: vali monkey; pali-mukam < vali_-mukam monkey; vali-mukam monkey (Nan-. 272, Urai.); vali_-mukam monkey, as having a wrinkled face (Pa_rata. Patin-mu_. 37)(Ta.lex.) Image: monkey: pravam.ga, pravaga monkey; plavam.ga, plavaga monkey (MBh.); plava monkey (Skt.); pavam.ga monkey (Pkt.); pavan:ga, pavaga black monkey presbytes cephalopterus (Si.)(CDIAL 8772). ha~r.u~ the langur monkey (Santali.lex.)

7711.Across; jump across; beast: cf. ve_l- to fly, jump (Pa.)(DEDER 5368). vilo_mam a rule of inversion (math.); inverted, reverse, inverse, contrary, opposite; vyatyasta reversed, inverted; placed cross-wise; vyatya_sa inverted position; contrareity (Skt.lex.) vilan:gu that which is transverse, across or crosswise (Pur-ana_. 3); beast or bird, as having their bodies not erect but horizontal (Man.i. 12,95); deer; curve added to a consonant, above or below as the symbol of the vowel i or i_ or u or u_ (Tol. Er..ut. 17, Urai); vilan:karacu lion, as the king of beasts (Ci_vaka. 2092); vilan:kukati birth as animal, a stage in the transmigration of souls; vilan:kutal to lie athwart; to be transverse (Kalit. 2); vilan:kal lying athwart or across (Ta.lex.) ten:go, ten:gon to stand, to stand still, to assume an upright or perpendicular position, to appoint, to assume responsibility (Santali.lex.) vilan:ku-pa_ytal to jump aside or across (Ci_vaka. 1770). Image: to leap over; to jump about: vilan:ghayati leaps over, rises up (MBh.); vilan:ghati (Skt.); jumps about (Pali); vilam.ghai leaps over (Pkt.); bilan:ghiba_ (Or.); bilan:gna_ to leap up to (H.)(CDIAL 11882). Image: to rush forward: vir-al to rush forward with rage (Tiruvil.ai. Ma_yappacu, 9)(Ta.lex.) lan:gh leap; nen. jump, long step (B.)(CDIAL 10904). To fast; jump over: lan:ghayati leaps over (MBh.); transgresses (Ya_j.); ascends (Skt.); lan:ghate_ leaps over (Skt.); lan:ghe_ti, lan:ghati jumps over (Pali); fasts (Dha_tup); lam.ghe_i, lam.ghai jumps over, crosses, fasts (Pkt.); po_-la_n:geam I bathe (?swim across) (Wg.); lan:g to descend (Pas'.); nan:gi (Gaw.); lan:gik to move, shake away (Kho.); lan:g to pass, cross (Tor.); lan:ga_ha~_s it could pass (Mai.); lan:g to pass, cross, swim, bathe (Phal.)[cf. ilan:kai (Ta.); lan:ka_ Ceylon (Sri Lanka) island (Skt.)]; lanoiki to pass over, step over (Sh.); lan:ghe_i_ta having passed on (K.); lan:ghan.u to pass over (S.); lagghan. to pass (L.); lan:ghan., laghun. (L.); lan:ghn.a_, nan:ghana_ (P.); na~_gn.o, la_n.a~r.~ to leap over, cross (Ku.); na~_ghnu, na_n.n.u to leap over, cross (N.); lan:gha_ to transgress (B.); nan:ghiba_ to cross, transgress (Or.); na~_ghab to cross (Aw.); la~_ghna_, na~_ghna_ to jump over, transgress, mount upon, ride (H.); la~_ghvu~ to fast (G.); la~ghn.e~ to pass by, grow weak from fasting (M.); legitaka risen (OSi.Bra_mi_); la..n:gu id. (OSi.10th cent.); naginava_ to rise; caus. nan.(g)anava_ to raise (Si.)(CDIAL 10905). lan:ghana leaping over, crossing (Pa_rGr..); fasting (Sus'r.); lan:ghana jumping over (Pali); lam.ghan.a crossing (Pkt.); la~_ghan bestriding (H.); lam.ghan.a fasting (Pkt.); lan:ghan.u (S.); lagghan. (L.); lan:ghan. (P.); laghon (A.); la~_ghan. a fast (G.); la~_ghn.u~ fasting to enforce payment of a debt (G.)(CDIAL 10906). Ford: la~_gho fordable; ford (S.)(CDIAL 11010).

7712.Image: archer: villan- archer (Kalit. 37); villa_l. id. (Pur-ana_. 168, Urai.) (Ta.); billa_l. id. (Ka.); villi id. (Tiruva_ca. 9,5); billa id. (Ka.); member of the Irul.a caste; Arjuna; Ka_ma; villavan- Ce_ra king as having a banner with the figure of a bow (Cilap. 27,238); Ka_ma, as having a sugarcane bow (Kalit. 35); vil bow (Tol. Po. 638); string of a bow (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) villo_r bowmen (Pur-ana_. 168); vil-vat.t.am archery (Te_va_. 961,2)(Ta.lex.) Image: bow : vil bow-like instrument for carding cotton (Pe.); vil bow (Pe.Kond.a.Pa. Go.Kol.Mand..Ta.Ma.); vid.u, vilu id. (Kui.); villu bow (Ma.); vily id. (Ko.); bil, billu id. (Ka.); billi id. (Kod..); billu, biru id. (Tu.); vilu, villu pl. vin.d.lu id. (Te.); vellu_, vellu, velu pl. velka (Kuwi); vil, vili (Si.)(DEDR 5422).

7713.Image: churning: biloye having churned (OAw.); bilona_ to churn (H.); biloni_ churn (H.); bilovan.a_ pl. churnings (OMarw.); valovvu~ to churn; valon.u~ churning vessel (G.); vilo_bhayati perplexes (Skt.); bil.ohiba_, bilohiba_ to agitate, mix (Or.); vilubhita agitated (Skt.)(CDIAL 11913a).

7714.To polish; to solder: vil.akku to solder (Ta.)(S.I.I. ii,182); vil.akkuka id. (Ma.); bolakuni id., weld (Tu.)(DEDR 5497). cf. vil.akku to polish, purify (Ta.); bel.agu to polish (Ka.); bel.aguni to shine, glitter (Tu.); bel.aga_vuni to polish (Tu.); bel.a~ku brightness, polish, gleam (Te.); bel.agu lustre (Te.inscr.);bilcta'a_na_ to polish (Kur.); bilbilrna_ to sparkle (Kur.)(DEDR 5496). vil.akkan.am soldering; solder powder (Ta.lex.) cf. bile_n medicine, drug, gunpowder (Sh.); vilayana melting, dissolution (Sus'r.)(CDIAL 11892). vili_yate_ is dissolved, melts (AV.); vili_na refined (of metals, etc.) (Pali) (CDIAL 11906). cf. virineva_ to become liquid, melt (Si.); vira_i melts (Pkt.); virn.e~ to melt (M.); bireik to melt (Kho.)(CDIAL 11862).

7715.Distribute: vil.akku to distribute, serve (at.t.an-a ya_vaiyum vil.akkin-a mivarkke_ : Vina_yakapu. 53,29)(Ta.lex.) vilipsate_ desires to distribute (S'Br.); virchan.u to divide, apportion (S.); vilchn.a_ to live extravagantly (P.)(CDIAL 11903). vilipsa_ desire to share (MBh.); vircha dividing, rations or money in lieu (S.) (CDIAL 11904). Division: viraha division (S.); vilambha gift (Skt.); virau fixed allowance of food (S.); bilo present of meat (Ku.); share in the spoil (N.)(CDIAL 11888). bila_ to distribute (B.); vilabhate_ consigns, allots (Ka_tyS'r.); bil.ahiba_, bil.ohiba_ to distribute, serve food, choose (Or.)(CDIAL 11889). vilambhayati causes to receive (Skt.); vilha_vam to divide, allot (L. pass. vilhappan.); bila_iba to bestow, distribute, serve out (food)(A.); bila_na to distribute (B.); bila_iba_ to distribute, give away (Or.); bila_na_ to bestow (H.); vira_han.u to distribute (S.); vara_vvu~ to give (G.)(CDIAL 11899). To serve food: vil.ampu (vil.ampi-) to serve food (Ta.); vir..ampu boiled rice (?Ta.); vil.ampuka to distribute food, serve out (Ma.); vil.ampan one who superintends the distribution, esp. in victualling houses (Ma.); vil.ampikka, vil.appikka to ask for more food (Ma.)(DEDR 5434). vil.a_ppu anything solely and exclusively owned (Ta.lex.)

7716.Image: lid: bil lid or cover of a vessel (Kho.); vilati covers (Dha_tup.); bil cornice round opening of an earthen corn-bin (P.)(CDIAL 9246).

7717.Myrobalan: vehl.a_, vhel.a_ myrobalan (M.); bahed.a_ (H.); bulela (K.)[?bali_l (Pers.); bali_lij (Arabic)]; vibhi_tika_, vibhi_daka (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 400).

7718.Image: goes away: vo_lai goes, overpasses, passes (of time); vollai attacks (Pkt.); buliba to walk (A.); vyapakramati goes off (R.); vyapagacchati (MBh.) (CDIAL 12167).

7719.Image: quickly: olle_ adv. < ol (int.) quickly (Ci_vaka. 898); ollai adv. rapidly, quickly; promptly (Kur-al., 563); ollen-a adv. quickly (Ja_n-a_. 1,33) (Ta.lex.)

7720.Image: scales of fish: pola, polasu, polusu scales of fish (Te.); pod.asu id. (Tu.); plo_kosi id. (Kui)(DEDR 4480).

7721.Image: dawn: bho_la_-na_tha name of S'iva as husband of Us.as; bhauli_ name of a musical mode (Skt.); bhor dawn (P.N.B.Mth.H.G.); bhora (Or.); bhol tomorrow (Ku.); bholi (N.)(CDIAL 9634).

7722.Myrrh: vo_la gum-myrrh (Bhpr.); bol.a myrrh, balsam (Or.); bol gum-myrrh (H.); bol. (M.)(CDIAL 12154). cf. vo_la, bo_la, ba_l.a, bo_r..i, bo_r..u gum-myrrh (Skt.Ka.lex.) va_le_ntira-po_l.am < va_l + intiram + po_l.am myrrh, vel.l.aippo_l.am (Pata_rtta. 1052); va_lati-p-po_l.am (perh. pa_lan:ki_ + vo_la) gum-myrrh, ca_mpira_n.i vakai (J.); va_r..a_tti-p po_l.am gum-myrrh (J.); va_lai-mer..uku a kind of medicinal unguent (Ta.lex.) cf. va_l whiteness, purity (Ta.lex.) intiram that which is excellent (Kantapu. Pat.t.a_pi. 6)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_lan:ki the resin of boswellia thurifera, gum olibanum (Ka.Skt.) (Ka.lex.) Olibanum: pa_lan:ki the resin of boswellia thurifera, gum olibanum (Ka. Skt.)(Ka.lex.) cf. ba_l.a, bo_la, vo_la gum-myrrh (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) po_n-am, po_l.am < bo_la myrrh, aloes, gum-myrrh (flavouring substances)(Ta.lex.) Olibanum: a_ne_-be_la the gum olibanum tree, boswellia serrata, gajabhaks.ye, gajapre_mi, tadiku, taduku, sallaki (Ka.lex.) Socotrine aloes: ba_n.antiba_l.a socotrine aloes, given to a woman in child-bed; bo_la, gandha-rasa, bo_r..i (Ka.); ba_l.antabo_l.a (M.)(Ka.lex.) vo_la, ba_l.a, bo_la, bo_r..i, bo_r..u gum-myrrh (Ka.lex.) rakta-ba_l.a, rakta-paval.a gum-myrrh, gandharasa, go_pa, rasagandha (Ka.lex.) Myrrh... called vola in Sanskrit and is described as an article to be had in the beniah's shop, thereby implying it to be an imported drug... useful in fever, epilepsy and uterine affections... (Sanskrit Materia Medica, pp. 133-137). gondhoros myrrh (Santali.lex.) cf. van.n.akam sandal wood; fragrance (Ta.lex.) pal.ita-c-cun.n.am fragrant powder mixed with refined camphor (Ci_vaka. 2994); pal.itam camphor; refined camphor (Man.i. 28,243)(Ta.lex.) cf. palita (Skt.) pal.ikka_y areca-nut mixed withh refined camphor (Perun.. Ila_va_n.a. 2,72); pa_l.itam medicated camphor (Tol. col. 279, Il.am.); sandal paste (Tailava. Taila.)(Ta.lex.) cf. pa_likai earthen pot in which nava-ta_n-iyam is sown in marriage and other ceremonies (Man.i. 1,44)(Ta.lex.) cf. po_l.am myrrh, aloes, gum-myrrh (Ta.lex.) Myrrh (Arabian or Somali myrrh) is an oleo-gum-resin, obtained from the stem of commiphora molmol and possibly other species of commiphora (Fam. burseraceae), growing in north-east Africa and Arabia. Two other species, commiphora abyssinica and commiphora schimperi, both of which may attain a height of 10m. grow in Arabia and Abyssinia. The drug is chiefly collected in Somaliland and sent to Aden, whence it reaches London either direct or via Bombay. History: Products of the myrrh type were well known to the ancients under the names of bola, bal, or bol. The drug is still known to the Indian traders as 'heerabol,' while the Somalis call it 'mulmul' or 'ogo'. The name 'myrrh' is probably derived from the Arabic and Hebrew word mur, which means bitter. [cf. mure, mura, mule, more a species of fragrant plant, a vegetable perfume (Ka.lex.)] Many references occur in the Old Testament, but the product that was apparently derived from commiphora erythaea (var. glabrescens), which is known to the Somalis as 'habbak hadi', and in commerce as perfumed bdellium or bissabol. Guban myrrh, which is produced from trees of the Somali coast area known as the Guban, is rather oily and is regarded as inferior to the more powdery 'ogo' produced further inland. The latter variety corresponds to 'good Aden sorts.'... The yellowish-white, viscous fluid soon hardens in the great heat to reddish-brown masses, which are collected by the Somalis in goatskins. As the natives collect bdelliums and gums at the same time, these frequently find their way into the drug and have subsequently to be picked out. The drug is usually sent from Aden in sacks... The chemistry of the resins is complex and not fully elucidated... The gum is associated with an oxidase enzyme. Allied drugs: Four different varieties of 'bdellium' were recognized by Holmes. Of these, perfumed or scented bdellium or bissabol is probably derived from commiphora erythaea (var. glabrescens). It resembles soft myrrh in appearance but is easily distinguished from it by the more aromatic odour... Hotai bdellium or gum hotai is opaque and odourless; it contains a saponin and is used for washing the hair. Uses: Myrrh is used in incense and perfumes. Like many other resins, it has local stimulant and antiseptic properties. It is chiefly employed in medicine in the form of a mouth-wash. (G.E. Trease and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 12th edn., London, Bailliere Tindall, 1983, pp. 468-469). Myrrh: rasagandham, rasagandhaka, rasa_lam gum-myrrh, myrrh; rasa_lam frankincense (Skt.lex.) '... (from Arabic murr, "bitter"), bitter-tasting, agreeably aromatic, yellow to reddish-brown oleoresinous gum ... Myrrh was highly esteemed by the ancients; in the Near East and Mediterranean regions, it was an ingredient of costly incenses, perfumes, and cosmetics and was used in medicines for local applications and in embalming... An essential oil distilled from myrrh is a constituent of certain heavy perfumes... Upon exposure to air, myrrh hardens slowly into globules and irregular lumps called tears.' (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 22nd edn., Vol. VII, p. 151.) 'Burseraceae (myrrh family). Shrubs and trees of tropical climes having schizogenous secretion reservoirs in their bark which contain gum, resin and oil... Myrrh has been used as an incense, perfume and medicine from remote antiquity. It is mentioned in the Old and New Testaments and some form of it was used by the ancient Hebrews and Arabs as a gift (probably the gum resin from commiphora *erythroea or glabrescens or bissabol). It is cited in Herodotus as one of the substances used by the Egyptians in embalming the dead. In the bazaars of India, it is still known as 'Heerabol' and the Somalis know it as mulmul. Botanical origin. commiphora molmol, commiphora abyssinica... the genus commiphora contains over 60 species. One of these, commiphora molmol which is said to yield Somali Myrrh... c. molmol which grows in Somaliland and c. abyssinica and c. schimperi which grow in Arabia and Northern Abyssinia in which places the drug is largely gathered... The trees grow in forests in the Red Sea districts of North Africa (Somaliland) and western Arabia. The gum-oleo-resin, which is at first yellowish-white is formed in schizogenous secretion reservoirs in the bark and pith... After hardening it becomes brownish-yellow to reddish-brown and is collected... African Myrrh... is sent from Somaliland to British East African ports and to Aden for shipment to the world markets. Yemen Muyrrh... is shipped from Makullah, Arabia to Aden and Bombay. The commercial supplies of Myrrh are shipped chiefly from British East Africa, Aden, Arabia, and from Bombay, India to Europe and America. In 1947, USA imported 63,886 lbs. of the drug from British Somaliland and India... Myrrh is used in antiseptic mouthwash preparations, as an emmenagogue, stimulant tonic and as an application to sore gums, also as an incense and in perfumery... Adulterants. (1) Gum resins from other species of commiphora, notably the Bdelliums... (2) Bissabol, also called Perfumed bdellium, Scented bdellium and East Indian Myrrh, is probably obtained from commiphora erythoea or glabrescens... (3) Opaque Bdellium... (4) African Bdellium... (5) Indian Bdellium... its odor is faint, cedar-like, its taste acrid... ' (Heber, W. Youngken, Textbook of Pharmacognosy, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1950, pp. 507-510). Commiphora stocksiana: bayisagugul (M.); malaikiluvai (Ta.); gum: application in Delhi sores and for cleansing and stimulating bad ulcers; habitat: Sind and Baluchistan (GIMP, p.75). Balsamodendron mukul = commiphora mukul, balsamodendron agallocha: guggula, kou-shikaha (Skt.); salai tree, gum-gugul, Indian bdellium (Eng.); gugal (H.Deccan. Te.M.); guggul, mukul (B.); guggula (Ka.); gukkulu, gukkal, maisatchi kungiliyam (Ta.); maishakshi, gukkulu (Te.); gugara, gugal (G.); mogla, moql, mokhil, aphalatana (Arab.); baijahundana (Pers.); rata-dummula (Si.); habitat: Sind, Rajputana, eastern Bengal, Berars, Assam, Khandesh and Mysore; characteristics: when fresh the oleo-resin is moist, viscid, fragrant and of a golden colour. It burns in fire, melts in the sun, and forms a milky emulsion with hot water; part used: gum; constituents: volatile oil, gum-resin and bitter principle... Like all oleo-resins it causes an increase of leucocytes in the blood and stimulates phagocytosis... it is believed to be a valuable aphrodisiac... Preparations: paste or ointment, confection and plaster. Uses: guggul gum is an oleo-resin and sometimes used in place of myrrh being much cheaper; and freshly or recently exuded gum is used. It is used in rheumatism, nervous diseases, scrofulous affections, urinary disorders and skin diseases... Inhalations of the fumes of burnt gugul are given in hay fever, acute and chronic nasal catarrh, chronic laryngitis, chronic bronchitis and phthisis... Gum obtained from another species, balsamodendron pubescens (called bayisa-gugula in Bombay) found in Sind, Karachi and Baluchistan is used as ointment in bad ulcers such as Delhi sores, combined with sulphur, catechu and borax. (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 167-170). Balsamodendron myrrha = commiphora myrrha: vola, rasagandha, saindhava, samudraguggul (Skt.); muyrrh (Eng.); bol (H.Pers.); gandharash (B.); bola (Ka.); bolam (Si.); murr (Arab.); hirabol (M.Cutch); bhensa bol (Bombay); bol (Deccan. G.); vellaippa-polam (Ta.); balintrapolum (Te.); habitat: indigenous to north-eastern Africa. Collected in southern Arabia, Abyssinia, Persia, Siam and sold in Indian bazaars. Myrrh of commerce is obtained from the resinous exudation of the tree balsamodendron myrrha. There are at least two or three varieties, two of them being known as karam and mutiya. Part used: gum from the bark of the tree... Action: stimulant, expectorant and emmenagogue; externally it is astringent. Myrrh is in a soft oily state which soon hardens by exposure to air. It is aromatic, of balsamic odour and bitter in taste... Uses: Myrrh is widely used in India and as it is a rare and costly product, it is very often adulterated with gums of balsamodendron mukul which, on account of its close resemblance to myrrh, is known as 'false myrrh'... is good for mouth-wash... With borax it makes an application for parasitic stomatitis or thrush... used to cure purulent ophthalmia... (Indian Materia Medica, pp. 170-171). Balsamodendron roxburghii: kumuda (Skt.); gugala (B.); gugal (Bombay); gukul (Ta.); part used: gum; action: gum is demulcent, aperient, carminative and alterative; uses: used in snake-bite and scorpion-sting (Indian Materia Medica, p. 172).

7723.Image: eyebrow: billi the eyebrow (Ka.lex.) cf. bhru_ eyebrow (RV.)(CDIAL 9688). iz-bli eyebrow (Dm.)(CDIAL 9472). akkhin de va_l eye-lashes (L.); va_la hair (TS.)(CDIAL 11572). Image: eyelid: vil.impu, vel.umpu, vil.umpu eyelid (Ma.); vil.impu eyelid (Ta.)(DEDR 5436). Image: stare; open eyes; eye, eyeball: vir..i to open the eyes (Kalit. 144); n. eye (Te_va_.345,5); eyeball, knowledge, wisdom (Ta.); min.t.ai apple of the eye; mul.i to open the eyes; n. eyeball (Ta.); mir..i eyeball, eye; mir..ikka to look up, look at, cast looks, open the eyes wide (Ma.); mil., mil.a blinking; mil.mil.ane in a staring manner; mil.mil.a no_d.u to look at staringly (Ka.); bul.a_vu, bula_vu to open as the eyes (Tu.); bir.p to blink (Kond.a); min.i min.i sini ki- to look carefully, watchfully (Kond.a); bid.a_la eyeball (Skt.)(DEDR 5429). mi- to open the eyes (Go.); meh- (mest-) id., see (Pe.); meh- (meht-) to open eyes (Mand..); mehpa to look, see; n. look, sight, perception, attention (Kui); meh'nai to look, see; meh- to see; mespu seeing, sight, vision (Kuwi)(DEDR 5084). i_ks. see (Skt.); i_ks.an.a look, view (Ka_tyS'r.); ikkhan.a (Pali.Pkt.); ebikana (Si.)(CDIAL 1606). i_ks.ate_ sees (AV.); ikkhati (Pali); ikkhai, i_hae_ (Pkt.); i_khna_ (H.poet.); i_hai looks at, considers (OG.)(CDIAL 1607). i_ks.a_ sight (BhP.); anything seen (S'Br.); i_khi expectation (P.); ik look, glance (Si.); ikh jealousy (N.); i_rs.ya_ id. (Skt.)(CDIAL 1608). Image: to see: vi_ks.a sight (Skt.); vi_ks.a_ (R.); wuchu observation (K.)(CDIAL 12040). vi_ks.ate_ looks at, sees (S'Br.); ve_ks.ayati (Dha_tup.); ve_ks.an.a looking after, care (Mn.); ce_ks.ane_ v.l. (Skt.); bi_c to see (Tir.); buch (Par.); bhi_cim I aim at (Kal.); bi_ch to see (Bshk.); bich (Phal.); wuchun, wuch (K.); appat.i-vekkhiya absol. not having considered (Pali); pat.i-vekkhami I direct attention to (As'.); anu-vekhama_ne being considered (As'.); ve_hai looks at (Pkt.); vekhan., pres. part. ve_hda_ (pp. d.it.t.ha_ < dr.s.t.a) to see (L.); vekhn.a_ (P.)(CDIAL 12041). vi_t.can.ai sight, look (Can.. Aka.)(Ta.lex.) vi_ks.an.a the act of seeing or looking at sight; vi_ks.ita a glance, a look (Ka.lex.)

7724.Image: tail: bi_lo a tail; na_yita bi_lo vo_nted.u pa_d.un.d.a samo a_vo_ will a dog's tail become straight by putting it into a tube? bi_mpu a tail (Tu.lex.)

7725.Price, value: bile, bele price, value (Tu.lex.) cf. vil to sell, put on sale (Ta.)(DEDR 5421).

7726.Image: trefoil; that which is circular: billa (Tadbhava of bilva) bael leaves (Ka.lex.) vilva-tal.am trifoliate bael leaf used in S'aiva worship (Ta.lex.) villai that which is circular (Ta.); villa (U.); villai scented tablet; patch (Ta.lex.) bilva-patra, bilvapatre, bilpatre, belapatre, bellapatre, bellavatta, belvata, belvatta a bael leaf, or bael leaves (Ka.lex.) billapatre, bellatre the bel tree (Tu.lex.) bille anything made in a plane form as a tablet or lozenge; a peon's badge (Tu.lex.) bille a circular object, a round plate of metal etc. (Ka.Te.); pillai, villai (Ta.); ville (Ma.); billa_ (M.H.); billeyun:gara a ring with a round plate upon (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) bilwa a species of tree, aegle marmelos or wood-apple (Skt.lex.) Aegle marmelos: cf. ma_hka aegle marmelos (Go.); ma_ror. id. (Kol.); ma_lu_ra id. (Skt.)(DEDR 4821). cf. a_lu_kam bael (Mu_. A.)(Ta.lex.) ma_lu_ra the bilva tree; the kapittha tree (Skt.lex.); aegle marmelos; s'ri_phala, bilva, belvata; the wood-apple tree, feronia elephantum, bel.ala (Ka.lex.) Image: creeper: cf. ma_r.a creeper (Kuwi)(DEDR 4833). Wood-apple: bilva the wood-apple tree aegle marmelos (AV.); billa fruit of aegle marmelos (Pali); the tree and its fruit (Pkt.); bil, bel the tree (K.); bill, bil (P.); bi_l (H.); its leaf (G.); bi_li_ the tree; bi_lu~ its fruit (G.)(CDIAL 9248). bailva pertaining to the tree aegle marmelos (S'Br.); its fruit (Skt.); bella its fruit (Pali.Pkt.); be_l the tree and its fruit (WPah.); bel the tree (Ku.N.A.); id. (B.Mth.Bhoj.Aw.); id. (H.M.); its fruit (M.); bela the tree (Or.Si.); beli id. (Si.); bela its leaves (OM.); be_luva the tree, its wood (Pali)(CDIAL 9310). vil.a_ feronia elephantum, wood-apple (Ma.); vel.l.il, vel.l.iyam, vil.a_, vil.am, vil.ari, vil.avu, vil.a_tti id. (Ta.); bel.ala, bel.aval, bel.avala, be_la, balavala, balo_la id. (Ka.); vela~ga id. (Te.); pulla virngam id. (pulla sour; cf. Te. puli/pulla vela~ga)(Pa.)[feronia and aegle are closely related genera of one species each.](DEDR 5509). Aegle marmelos: Mucilaginous, aromatic, acid pulp much used in diarrhoea, dysentery and cholera... Distribu-tion: wild in the sub-Himalayan tract, Central and S. India, and Burma; often planted all over India and Burma... The root is sweet; cures fevers due to 'tridosha', pain in the abdomen, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, hypochondiasis, melancholia... laxative and febrifuge when fresh... useful in ophthalmia... Flowers: allay thirst and vomiting; Unripe fruit: oily, bitter, acrid, sour... appetiser... removes pain (Ayurveda)... The unripe fruit is cut up and sun-dried, and in this form is sold in the bazaars in dried whole or broken slices... The ripe fruit: sweet, aromatic and cooling.. Root bark: an ingredient in the dasamul or ten roots... Arabic: safarjalehindi, shul; Assam: bel; Bengal: bel, bela, vilva; Bombay: bela, bila; Burma: okshit, opeshit, ushitben; Canarese: bilva, bilvapatre, kumbala, malura; English: bael fruit tree, Bengal quince, Golden apple, Holy fruit, Indian quince, Stone apple; Gond: mahaka, maika; Gujarat: bil, billy; Hindi: bel, bili, sirphal, siriphal; Indo ysocotrineChina: baunau, mak toum; Khond: belando; Kolami: lohagasi; Konkani: bel, bello; Kumaon: bel; Kurku: bela, corvalum; Lambadi: billadu; Magahi: auretpang; Malayalam: kuvalam, mavilavu, vilvam; Marathi: bel; Nasirabad: babbarto, bel; Persian: safarjalehindi, shul; Portuguese: bila, mabua, marmeleira da India, marmelo da India, marmelos de Bengala, sirifoles; Sanskrit: adhararuha, asholam, atimangaliya, bilva, duraruha, gandhapatra, goharitaki, hridyagandha, kantakadhya, kapitana, karkatavha, lahsmiphala, mahakapitthakhya, mahaphala, malura, mangalya, nilamallika, patrashreshtha, pitaphala, putivata, sadaphala, samirasara, sangrahi, satyadharma, satyaphala, shailapatra, shailusha, shalatu, shalya, shandilya, shivadruma, shiveshtha, shriphala, sitanuna, somaharitaki, sunitika, tripatra, trishakhapatra, trishikha; Sind: bila, katori; Sinhalese: belli; Tamil: aluvigam, iyalbudi, kuvilam, mavilangai, vilvam, villuvam; Telugu: bilvamu, maluramu, maredu, sailushamu, sandiliyamu, sriphalamu; Tulu: bellapatre; Urdu: bel; Uriya: belo, bilwa, sripholo. (Indian Medicinal Plants, pp. 499-502).

7727.Feronia elephantum: bilwa (Pa_n.. 4.3.136)[cf. allied species in Pa_n.ini: bilwa_di gan.a: iks.u, karpa_si, gavedhuka_, godhu_ma, pa_t.ali, balwaja, ven.u, vri_hi; bilwa or aegle marmelos yields a fruit which is an article of food by the poorer classes; the bilwa_di gan.a may therefore, connote vanaspati yielding articles of food]. a_ne, ya_n-ai red-wooded fig tree, atti, ficus glomerata [cf. semant. hasti elephant (Skt.); a_ne elephant (Ta.)](Ta.lex.) cf. bel.ala, balavala, balo_la, bal.aval, bel.avala, be_la a small spinous tree, the elephant- or wood-apple tree, feronia elephantum (Ka.); vil.avu, vil.a_, vel.l.il (Ta.); vil.a_ (Ma.); velage (Te.)(Ka.lex.) tadukina mad.d.i gum of the taduku tree; tadukina dhu_pa the incense from the tree taduku; mad.d.iya dhu_pa incense from the tree ailanthus malabarica which yields a soft gum; mad.d.i sa_mbra_n.i id. (Ka.lex.) Synonyms: be_la, bel.ala, balavala, balo_la, kapittha, dadhittha, gra_hi, manmatha, dadhiphala, pus.paphala, dantas'at.ha (Ka.lex.) ?e_lava_luka = a_ne-be_la cf. va_luka a kind of drug and perfume ( = e_lava_luka, hariva_luka; katturika_ma)(Ka.lex.) cf. va_lukam white sand (Ta.lex.) cf. pud.i-katturi powdered kastu_ri (Ka.lex.) Feronia elephantum. kapittha (Skt.); kathbel (B.); kaith (H.)... the leaves are aromatic and carminative... (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.130; p.132). kapittha the tree feronia elaphantum; its fruit and the wood-apple (MBh.); kapittha, kapit.t.ha, kavit.t.ha feronia elephantum; its fruit (Pali); kavittha, kavit.t.ha, kait.t.ha the tree and its fruit (Pkt.); kewit fig (Kt.); kimit (Wg.); kawit (Dm.); kewit, ka_wic (Pas'.); kei_nt (Gaw.); ka_wit (Kal.); kowit (Kho.); kowito (Yid.); kavi_t.u the tree feronia elephantum (S.); kai~th wild pear (P.); keith a large tree with white flowers and black fruit (WPah.); kai~th, kait. feronia elephantum (N.); kayeth, kaetha_, kath, ka_d-bel sour wood-apple (B.); kaitha, kait.ha, kai~_t.ha wood-apple (Or.); kai~ti_ a partic. fruit (Bhoj.); kaitha_ wood-apple (Aw.); kaith, kaitha_ tree and fruit (H.); kaithi_ a variety with small fruit (H.); kabi_t.h (Ma_lvi_); kot.hi_ the tree; kot.h, kot.hu~ the fruit (G.); kavit.ha the fruit (OM.); kavat.h, kava~t.h the tree; the fruit; kava~t.hi_ the tree (M.)(CDIAL 2749). ka_pittha relating to the wood-apple tree feronia elaphantum (Pa_n..); ka_wit, ka_wi_t. the wood-apple (H.)(CDIAL 3040). kat. bel, koc bel feronia elephantum (Santali.lex.) kuma_ri_ raso_dbhavo_ bo_la, saha_ aloe (Skt.lex.) kapittha feronia limonia (Car. Su. 3.13, 25.40). kapittam, kavittam wood-apple (Vina_yakapu. 53,38)(Ta.lex.) cf. kapat.e_rikam eaglewood, akil (Ta.lex.) Feronia elephantum = feronia limonia: kapittha (Skt.); kavitha (H.); kathbel (B.); kavil (M.); narivila (Ta.); velaga (Te.); fruit: astringent, stomachic, stimulant; leaves: aromatic, carminative; pulp: applied externally as a remedy for bites of venomous insects and reptiles; bark: prescribed for biliousness; indigenous in south India (GIMP, p.117). narivil.a_ = nilavil.a_ vil.a_, wood-apple (Ta.lex.) Wood-apple: vil.ari, vil.a wood-apple (Tol. Er..ut. 181, Urai.); vil.a_ wood-apple, feronia elephantum (Pu. Ve. 10, Cir-ap. 1, Urai.); velaga (Te.); vila_ (Ma.); vil.a_tti wood-apple (Ta.); vil.a_mpicin- gum exuded by wood-apple tree (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. vel.l.il wood-apple (Ta.)(DEDR 5509). karko_t.a aegle marmelos (Skt.)(CDIAL 2825). xot.t.a_ the be_l fruit, aegle marmelos (Kur.); qot.e id. (Malt.)(DEDR 2072). ku_vil.am, ku_vil.ai, ku_viram bael, aegle marmelos (Ta.); ku_val.am aegle marmelos; crataeva religiosa (Ma.); kumbal.a-mara aegle marmelos (Ka.)(DEDR 1910). vilvam bael, aegle marmelos (Pata_rtta. 448); villam id. (Tiruman. 1720)(Ta.lex.) Aegle marmelos. bilva (Skt.); bela (B.H.)... is held in great veneration by the Hindus. It is sacred to Siva whose worship cannot be accomplished without its leaves... constitues an ingredient of dasamul or the ten roots... (Sanskrit Materia Medica, p.130; p.132). Aegle marmelos: bilva the wood-apple tree aegle marmelos (AV.); billa fruit of aegle marmelos (Pali); the tree and its fruit (Pkt.); bil, be_l the tree (K.); bill, bil (P.); bi_l (H.); its leaf (G.); bi_li_ the tree; bi_lu~ its fruit (G.)(CDIAL 9248). bailva pertaining to the tree aegle marmelos (S'Br.); its fruit (Skt.); bella its fruit (Pali.Pkt.); be_l the tree and its fruit (WPah.); bel the tree (Ku.N.A.B.); bela (Or.); bel (Mth.Bhoj.Aw.H.); bela its leaves (OM.); bel the tree; its fruit (M.); bela, beli the tree (Si.); be_luva the tree; its wood (Pali)(CDIAL 9311). bilva (Skt. Car. Su. 4.12,25,26); bel (H.B.M.); villuvam (Ta.); maredu (Te.); pulp of ripe fruit: aromatic, cooling, laxative; unripe or half-ripe fruit: astringent, digestive, stomachic, in diarrhea; root bark: in intermittent fevers, fish poison; habitat: wild in the sub-Himalayan tract, central and south India; often planted all over India (GIMP, p.8). Aegle marmelos bilva is a sacred tree whose mark on an article is considered to be auspicious. Its figure along with that of pramathas and svastika is recommended to be made on temple-doors; its timber was fashioned into images. Its fruit mixed with pus.yasna_na water is used in preparing the vajralepa. It is also known as s'ri_vrk.sa and its fruit as s'ri_phala (B.Sam..) cf. bilva aegle marmelos (Skt.)[aegle and feronia are closely related genera of one species each]; vel.l.il wood-apple, feronia elaphantum (Ta.)(DEDR 5509). Aegle Marmelos... Bael... the mucus fluid is rubbed on the hair in place of oil by the poorer classes or is employed as soap in washing garments... The Dutch in Ceylon used formerly to prepare an essential oil (or attar) from the rind, known as Marmelle oil. A perfume is also distilled from the flowers. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, p.161; p.445). Feronia elaphantum: bel.aval, bel.avalu, bel.ala, balavala, balo_la, be_la a small spinous tree, the elephant- or wood-apple tree, feronia elephantum (Ka.); vil.avu, vil.a_, vel.l.il (Ka.); vil.a_ (M.); velage (Te.); bel.alamara = kapittha, dadhittha, gra_hi, manmatha (Ka.); ma_lu_ra (Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Species: Indo-Malayan... Leaves: smelling of aniseed... Distribution: Indigenous in S. India, Ceylon, Java; cultivated in many parts of India. Fruit: sour, sweet, acrid, with flavour and taste... refrigerant, aphrodisiac... good for tumours, ophthalmia (Ayurveda). The fruit is aromatic and used as a stomachic and stimulant in diseases of children... Bark: used for biliousness... Annam: can thau; Arabic: kabit; Bengal: kait, kat.bel; Berar: kabit; Bombay: kavit, kowit; Burma: hman; Cambodia: keassang; Canarese: bela, belada, belala, byala, dadhiphala, danthasatha, graha, kapittha, malura, manmadha, pushpaphala; Ceylon: meladikurundu; Englis: curd fruit, elephant apple, monkey fruit, wood apple; French: citron de mois, pomme de bois, pomme d'elephant; Gujarat: kavit, kotha, kothi, kothun; Hindi: bilin, kait, katbel, kobitha, kavitha; Indo China: can thang, kra san, mak khi hat; Konkani: kavit, thana; Lambadi: kottundaro; Madura: vellam; Malayalam: dadhimpham, dadhiphala, kapittham, manmatham, vilannu, vilavu; Marathi: kauth, kavatha, kavith, kovit; Mundari: daitidaru; NW Provinces: kyth; Persian: kabit; Porebunder: katha, kotha; Portuguese: balong; Punjab: bilin, kait; Rajputana: keiri; Sadani: daintphar; Sanskrit: akshasasya, bhukapittha, dhirpaki, dadhiphala, dadhitha, dantaphala, dantashatha, devapadadhya, gandhaphala, gopakarna, grahi, grahiphala, granthiphala, kagittha, kapishtha, kapittha, karajaphalaka, kasabhavallabha, kavittha, kuchaphala, malura, mangalya, manmatha, nilamallika, phalasugandha, pushpaphala; Santal: kochbel; Sind: katori, kavatha; Sinhalese: divul; Tamil: kabittam, karuvila, kuttvila, narivila, pitavila, sarilottiram, silangam, sirittam, suppiyam, suvarasam, suvedegam, tilavargam, ubalottiram, vellil, vellilottiram, vila, vilakkabittam; Telugu: kapitthamu, pushpaphalamu, velaga; Tulu: bela; Urdu: kaitha; Uriya: kotho, kothobelo; Visayan: ponoan. (Indian Medicinal Plants, p. 496-498).

7728.Image: to fall, let drop; die: vir..u (-v-, -nt-), vi_r.. (-v-. -nt-) to fall, fall down, descend (Ta.); to cause to fall down, throw down, cause to die; vir..uttu, vi_r..ttu to cause to fall; vir..al act of falling; vi_r..vu falling, descending (Ta.); vir..uka to fall, fall off; perish; vi_r..ikka to cause to fall; vir..ca fall, failure, ruin (Ma.); vig- (vir.t-) to fall (Ko.); pid. to fall, (animal) dies (To.); bi_r.. (bir..d-, bird-, bidd-) to fall, die (Ka.); bu.l.- to fall (Kod..); bu_runi to fall, die (Tu.); bu_l.u, bu_ru to fall (Kor.); biddu to die (Te.); mi_r.a_na_ to fall (Go.); bit.ing to descend, to come down, settle; throw down, unload, let drop, shed (Br.)(DEDR 5430). ir..ukku to slip down from a great height, fall down from a high rank, slip, slide, grow weak; destroy, lose; n. evil, disgrace, defect (Ta.); ir..ukkam fault, offence, ignominy (Ta.); ir..ukuka to slip, slide; ir..ukal sliding, slipping (Ma.); u.g to slide down a slope (Ko.); u.x go glide along, slip through hands (To.); il.iyuni to slip out or down, slide; il.ija_ru a slope, slipperiness (Tu.)(DEDR 503). ettna_ (ittyas) to come or go downward, descend, alight, run or flow down, cross (a river), be dispirited; etta'a_na_ to cause to descend, beat down (price), take down or off, let down (Kur.); ete to go down; eto lower, smaller; ettre to bring or take down (Malt.)(DEDR 798). ir-an:ku to descend, alight, fall (as rain), disembark, settle into place, bow respectfully, fall from a high state; ir-an:kal place of descent, of debarkation; ir-akku to lower, put down (load), unload; n. unburdening, discharghing; ir-ai (-v-, -nt-) to bow before (as in salutation), worship; ir-aicu (ir-aici-) id., fall down, hang low (as a cluster of coconuts), bow, bend (Ta.); ir-an.n.uka to descend, go down, disembark, be swallowed; ir-akkuka to put down, unlade, expel, swallow; ir-akkam descending, slope, abatement, ebb; ir-acuka to adore, make obeisance; ir-ayuka to bow, salute; ir-avu a valley, descending slope (Ma.); r-an:gu/r-a.n:gu_ to descend (Ir.); erk- (erky-) to put down (load), reduce (a fine), (priest) unties (front hair knot); erg down (Ko.); ir-k- (ir-ky-) to swallow; er-k down, the east; mud-y ir-k-(ir-ky-) to shave (beard and hair); in payment of vow (lit. to make the hair descend; < Ta.)(To.); Image: to bow: er-agu to bow, be bent, crouch, come down, alight, fall upon, attack, enter, join, accrue to; n. a bow, obeisance; er-agisu to cause to bow, etc.; er-aka coming down, etc.; er-aguha bowing, coming down, perching, etc. (Ka.); erang- (erangi-) (food, liquid) slips down throat, goes down slowly; erak- (eraki-) to let slip down throat slowly (Kod..); eraguni to bow, fall upon, seize, alight; ekkuni to ebb, decline; jappuni to descend, alight; jappelu descent, slope, ebb; japud.uni to let down, lower; ja_pini, ja_puni to be unloaded; ja_pa_vuni to put down a load; ja_pelu putting down, as a load (Tu.); ija to climb down (Bel.); ja_vu to descend (Kor.); er-a~gu, era~_gu to descend, bow or make obeisance, prostrate oneself; era~gud.u bowing, salutation; Ford: r-e_vu landing place, port, harbour, ford (Te.); r-es- (-t-) to go down, set (as sun), dismount, descend; r-e- (-t-) to descend; r-ep- to put down (Kond.a); rey-, ray-, reya_na_, raitta_na, raiya_ta_na_, ragga_na_, raiga_na_ to cause to descend, distil (Go.); ju_- (-t-) to descend (Pe.); recali, re'nai to descend; rephali to put down; jespi slope (Kuwi)(DEDR 516). ir..i (-v-, -nt-) to descend, dismount, fall, drop down, be reduced in circumstances, be inferior; (-pp-, -tt-) to lower, let dcown, degrade, despise; ir..iccu to lower, let down, remit (as taxes), pull down (as a building), disgrace (Ta.); ir..ivu, ir..ipu inferiority, disgrace, decrease, hollow, pit (Ta.); ir..ika to descend; ir..ikka to lower, take down; ir..ivu going down, sinking; ir..uka to fall, sink; ir..al remissness, defect; il.iyuka to descend, get down (Ma.); i.x- (i.xy-) to descend; i.k- to put down (burden)(To.); ir..i (ir..id-) to come down, descend, alight, go down, set (as the sun), become less, subside, be depressed or humbled, become lean; ir..a, ir..i, ir..u coming down, descending, being depressed, being humbled, declining, abating; ir..aku, ir..iku, ir..uku to cause to go down, lower, go down, incline; ir..akisu to cause to lower, etc.; ir..ata, ir..ita descending, inclining; ir..iki descent, humbled condition; ir..ipu, ir..apu, ir..upu to cause to descend, let down, lower; ir..iyuvike descending (Ka.); il.i- (il.iv-, il.ij-) to descend, get ready; i_li_p, i_.p- to lower, get (bullocks) out of shed (Kod..); iliyuni to fall, tumble, come down; iriyuni to fall, drop (as fruits, leaves); iri abatement of intoxication (Tu.); Image: to be distilled; to fall in drops: d.igu to alight, descend, decrease; d.iggu, diggu to descend; digu to descend, alight, dismount, be unladen or disembarked, be distilled, fall in drops, penetrate, become less, abate; digudala descending, descent, decline; a lower region or part; digumati disembarkation, unshipment; diguva lower place or part; lower, inferior; down, below, under; diga down; d.igiya, d.iggiya a well with steps descending into it; d.in:ku to die; d.incu, dincu, d.impu, dimpu, digucu to lower, let down, put down, decrease, unload, disembark, distil; d.indu to sink, fall, droop, submit, die; n. defeat, fall, subjection; d.in:ki a fall in wrestling (Te.); d.ig-, dig-, d.igg- to descend, come down from a height; dip- (dipt-), digip- (digipt-) to make to come down from a height (Kol.); d.igg- to descend; d.ipp- to make to descend; d.ik-/d.ig-, d.igul-/d.igl- to descend; d.igap-, d.igup-/d.igp- to make to descend (Nk.); ir.-, ir.v-, ir.i- to descend (Pa.); ir.kip- (ir.kit-) to make to descend, put down (burden)(Pa.); ir.g- to descend, (sun, moon) sets; ir.igp- (ir.igt-) to make to descend; id.g- to descend, dismount (Ga.); d.ig- to descend; d.iga_na_ to descend (Go.); Image: to drip down; to put a pot on the fire: d.ig- to descend, dismount; drip down (as oil from oil-press, flour from grinding-stone, etc.); d.ip- to cause to descend or come down, put or take down; to leave (Kond.a); di_va (di_t-) to fall, drop, fall down from, descend upon, occur; pl. action di_pka(di_pki-); dippa (dipt-) to set down, put a pot on the fire (Kui); di_- (-t-) to fall (Kuwi)(DEDR 502). irku, ikku to lay or put down, put, place, beat, served up (as food); be put (Ka.); ikkuni to put, serve up (as food)(Tu.)(DEDR 492). cf. di_parukkha lampstand (Pali)(CDIAL 6353). To salute: ir-ai to bow before, as in salutation (Patin-o_. A_l.u. Tirukkalam. 48); er-agu id. (Ka.)(Ta.lex.)

7729.To percolate: ir-u (-pp-, -tt-) to strain, percolate (as a liquid); ir-r-u-ccot.t.u to exude and drop at intervals (Ta.); ir-uka (ir-r--) to drip, drop; ir-r-ikka to dribble; ir-r-u a drop; irruva to trickle (Ma.); ibbani fog, mist, dew; ircilu fine drops of rain (Ka.); erap- to strain off water from boiled rice (Nk.); ir- to ooze (Go.)(DEDR 522). vire_cayati drains, empties (MBh.); vire_ai drives out (Pkt.); biroiki to spill; pass. birizoiki to be spilt, pour down (Sh.); biriba to throw away, let go (A.)(CDIAL 11874).

7730.Image: elephant: e_ngu elephant (Kond.a); e_n, e_ni, e_nal, ye_ni_, aini_ (Go.); e_nig (Ga.); e_nagi_ (Nk.); e_nu (pl. -l)(Pa.); ena_gi_, e_ngi (Kol.); an-ai elephant (Tiruva_ca. 8,14)(Ta.); e_nika, e_niga, e_nige, e_nuga (Te.); a_ne (Ka.Tu.); a_na (Ma.); ya_n-ai elephant, elephas indicus (Tol. Po. 570)(Ta.lex.) cf. e_lu to hang, to dangle (Ka.lex.)

7731.Jaggery, unrefined sugar: vellam jaggery, unrefined cane-sugar (Ta.); juice of sugar-cane, molasses, coarse sugar (Ma.); bella coarse dark sugar, jaggery (Ka.Kod..Tu.); bellamu id. (Te.); bheli, belli~_ (pl.), bela jaggery; belee goor (Go.); bhel, bheli_ jaggery (M.); bheli id. (Or.)(DEDR 5494). a_lai sugar-cane (Kantapu. Ka_mataka. 90); sugar-cane press (Tiv. Peruma_l.. 7,1)(Ta.); a_la (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

7732.Image: straightness: vil.ar straightness (Kalla_. 8)(Ta.lex.) Image: finger: cf. viral finger (Ta.)(DEDR 5409).

7733.A coarse grass: balwaja a kind of coarse grass (Skt.lex.) balbaja, valvaja a species of coarse grass (growing in solitary patches and not liked by cattle), eleusine indica; gajal.ada hullu = a species of coarse grass, found in meadows and on the roads in solitary patches and not liked by cattle, eleusine indica; ulapa = a sort of grass, saccharum cylindricum (Skt.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7734.Boat: velu a small-sized boat (Jain.Skt.) val.l.iyam ship (Catu.)(Ta.lex.) bal.in:ka a part of a ship (Ka.lex.) val.l.am canoe, boat of one trunk (Ma.)(DEDR 5315). val.l.am boat made of the trunk of a tree; canoe (val.l.appat.t.ana makarakat.alena : Kampara_. At.caku. 28); val.l.a-k-kal.i boat-race (Ta.Na_.)(Ta.lex.) Ferry: val.l.a-k-kat.avu jetty (Ta.Na_.)(Ta.lex.) cf. velala ferry, sea-shore, river-bank (Si.); ve_la_tat.a seashore (Skt.)(CDIAL 12116). cf. vel.l.am sea, sea-wave, flood (Ta.); velli, vellika flow, flood (Te.)(DEDR 5503). ve_le the sea-shore; tide, especially flood-tide (Ka.lex.) cf. ve_llana shaking (Skt.)(CDIAL 12120). cf. vi_li_ wave (Pkt.); vi_l., vi_l (G.); vi_l., i_l. ebb and flow of tide, time (M.)(CDIAL 12115). Rowing: valippu rowing; pulling, dragging; vali-ttal to draw, pull (Te_va_. 910,3); valaiyan- fisherman (Ta.lex.) Remuneration to the owner's of boats: vali remuneration to the owners of the boats used in pearl-fishery being one day's gather in eight (W.)(Ta.lex.)

7735.Medicinal shrub: ve_l.ai black vailay, gynandropsis pentaphylla; a sticky plant that grows best in sandy places, cleome viscosa (Ta.); ve_l.a a medicinal shrub (e.g. cleome viscosa, cleome pentaphylla, cleome monophylla, vinca parviflora, vinca rosea (Ma.)[gynandropsis pentaphylla = cleome pentaphylla](DEDR 5546). Gynandropis gynandra = gynandropsis pentaphylla = cleome pentaphylla: surjavarta (Skt.); karaila (H.); hurhuria (B.); tilavana (M.); taivela (Ma.); kadugu (Ta.); vaminta (Te.); deduction of root: used in fever; leaves: rubefacient, vesicant, in rheumatism; juice of leaves: remedy for otalgia; seeds: anthelmintic, rubefacient; plant: in scorpion sting and snake-bite; habitat: a common weed abudant throughout the warmer parts of India (GIMP, p.129). va_yin.te a kind of plant (Ka.); va_yin.ta, va_vin.t.a gynandropsis pentaphylla (Te.)(DEDR 5353). Gynandropsis pentaphylla : karvela (Ma.); shrikala (Ka.); shirkal (Kon.); akshapushpika, suryavarta (Skt.); caravalla seeds (Eng.); akahuli, sada hurhuria (B.); bighara (Si.); habitat: this annual plant (weed) common on cultivated ground, is me with in the warmer parts of India. This plant much resembles in odour to asafoetida, but comparatively delicate, and the small kidney-shaped black seeds resemble those of cleome viscosa; parts used: seeds, leaves; constituents: plant contains an acrid fixed essential oil, and a brown soft resin; seeds when crushed develop an acrid volatile oil similar in properties to garlic or mustard oil... leaves are applied to boils to prevent the formation of puss... (Indian Materia Medica, p. 599).

7736.Image: to pull; row: vali (-v-, -nt-; -pp-, -tt-) to draw, pull, row; have contortions or convulsions; vali, valippu pulling, dragging, spasm, convulsion (Ta.); vali drawing, pull, tug, spasm; valikka to draw, drag, row; have spasms; valippikka to cause to pull; valippu drawing, pulling, spasm; valiyuka to be drawn, extend, have spasmodic pain (Ma.); bali- (balip-, balic-) to snatch, pull; balip act of dragging (Kod..); bali_ to pull (Kor.); velba (ves-) to pull, pull up; n. pulling (Kui)(DEDR 5282).

7737.Festival: vil.a (Ir.)(DEDR 5427). Festival; state of warrior armed for battle: vir..a_ festival (Ma.); vil.a- id. (Ir.); vir..a_, vir..avu festive occasion, festival, celebration; vir..avar those who celebrate a festival (Cilap. 7, Pak. 206)(Ta.) (DEDR 5427). (a_lamalarcelvan- ... makan- vir..a_k ka_lko_l.en-r-u : Kalit. 83); vir..a_-k-ka_l-ko_l. commencement of a festival (Man.i. 3,144); vir..a_kkat.i sights of a festival (Ta.); vir..a_ celebration of a marriage (Tiruva_lava_. 25,24); vir..a_kkol. celebration of a festival (Man.i. 1,7); to celebrate a festival (Kuricip. 192, Urai); vir..avu festival (Pur-ana_. 9); pastime (Pu. Ve. 12, Pen.pa_r-. 10); Gemini of the zodiac, mithuna ra_ci (Ta.lex.) vir..a_kko_l.-a_l.ar those who conduct a festival, as by order of a king (Perun.. Ucaik. 37,247); vir..a_ppuram land-endowment for the conduct of festivals (T.A.S. i,6); vir..avukkal.am place of celebration of a festival (Kur-icip. 192); vir..a festival (Ci_vaka. 3114); vir..avan.i adornment of the person on festive occasions, as marriage, etc. (Kalit. 98); vir..a_van.i ceremonial grandeur, as of festivities (Cilap. Uraiper-ukat.. 4); state of warrior armed for battle (villin-celvan- vir..a_van.i virumpi no_kki : Kampara_. Mi_t.cip. 55)(Ta.lex.) intira-vir..avu an ancient annual festival in honour of Indra held in the month of cittirai by the Co_r..a kings in their capital city of ka_viri-p-pu_-m-pat.t.in.am (Cilap. Pati. 67)(Ta.lex.)

7738.Sacrifice; marriage: cf. ve_l.vi sacrifice, marriage (Ta.)(DEDR 5544). cf. bali tribute (Skt.)(CDIAL 9171). cf. bhalla auspicious (Skt.)(CDIAL 9408). bapla marriage; bapla biha id. [For biha cf. viva_ha (Skt.)](Santali.lex.) Hero: ve_l. petty ruler, chief, Ca_l.ukya king, illustrious or great man, hero (Ta.); ?title given by ancient Tamil kings to Ve_l.a_l.as (Tol. Po. 30; S.I.I. iii,221)(Ta.lex.); be_las king, zemindar, god (Kur.); belxa_ kingdom (Kur.); ve_l.ir a class of ancient chiefs in the Tamil country; the Ca_l.ukyas; petty chiefs (Ta.lex.) belo_, be_lo_ queen of white ants (Kur.)(DEDR 5545). ve_l(u)pu god or goddess, deity, divinity, a celestial, demi-god, immortal (Te.); ve_l.pu god (Te.inscr.)(DEDR 5544). ve_l. one belonging to the ve_l.ir class (ton-mutir ve_l.ir : Pur-ana_. 24)(Ta.lex.) A tribe: ve_n.ma_l. woman of ve_l.ir tribe (Patir-r-up. 9 Pati.); ve_n.ma_n- male member of the ve_l.ir tribe (Akana_. 97)(Ta.lex.) Petty ruler, chief: belxa_ kingdom (Kur.)(DEDR 5545). ve_l.ir petty chiefs; the Ca_l.ukyas; a class of ancient chiefs in the Tamil country (Pur-ana_. 201)(Ta.lex.) Office; a decree or declaration: ve_le a firm decree or declaration (Ka.lex.) vel.l.arici grains of rice used in benediction (Tiva_.) (Ta.lex.)

7739.Image: machan in tree: oyl. machan in tree for tiger-shooting (Ko.); ol.i to hide (Ta.)(DEDR 1015).

7740.Image: door, gateway: bali_ screen made of bamboo mats, door (Kur.); bali matted screen for door (Malt.); vel doorway, gateway (Pa.); val door (Ga.)(DEDR 5277).

7741.Limit: ve_la_ limit, boundary (S'Br.); shore (Pkt.); ber limit (H.)(CDIAL 12115). vel.ata vicinity (Si.)(CDIAL 12117). ellai limit, border, boundary, measure, goal, extremity (Ta.); ella limit; eluka limit, boundary, border (Ma.); ely boundary (To.); elle limit, boundary (Ka.); ella id. (Te.)(DEDR 846).

7742.Time: ve_la_ time (S'Br.Pali); ve_d.a sun (Kuwi); ve_le sun, daytime (Ga.); beru sun (Malt.); bi_r.i_ sun, time (Kur.); ve_la_ time; ve_la_vai is late (Pkt.); we_l time, season, year (Ash.Wg.Kt.); be_l, bil at the time of (Sh.); vil short space of time; ve_la time, hour (K.); vera time, delay; veri time, urn (S.); vel time (L.); vela_, bela_ time (P.); ber time (H.); ber time (Ku.N.); beli time, turn, year (A.); bel.a daytime (Or.); bel.e once during the day (Or.); beria_ afternoon (Mth.); beri time (Mth.); be_r time (Bhoj.); bera time, turn (OAw.); ber time, limit, season; biriya~_ space of time (H.); vel. time (G.); vel., el. time, leisure, half-day (M.); vel.u time (Konkan.i); ve_ra time, hour (K.); vi_ru, obl. ve_ri time, occasion (K.); ber.a time (Or.); vi_l., i_l. ebb and flow of tide, time (M.)(CDIAL 12115). velho at leisure, idle (S.); velh leisure (L.); velha_ leisure, time (L.)(CDIAL 12118). elle tomorrow; ellaji day after tomorrow (Tu.); elli tomorrow; ellun.d.i day after tomorrow (Te.)(DEDR 845).

7743.Image: to bend; to become crooked: cf. vali-ttal to bend, curve (Cu_t.a_.); val.ai (-v, -nt-) to bend; to become crooked (Ta.)(DEDR 5314). val.aivu arch (Ta.lex.) bal.an:ku to bend; bal.kisu to cause to bend; to bend; bal.ku to bend (Ka.lex.) val.l.a-k-ka_l bowleg (Ta.lex.) vellita curly, crooked (Pali)(CDIAL 12121).

7744.A masculine affix: val.a, bal.a, val.l.a (va_d.a, va_d.i, va_l.a) an affix for the formation of masculine nouns, e.g. ad.apaval.am, ma_saval.am, mad.ival.am, pad.eval.am, sajjeval.am, ad.uval.am, vasubeval.a, pu_val.am (Ka.lex.) -va_d.u an affix to masculine nouns (Te.lex.)

7745.Image: fish: vel.iccai a kind of carp, silvery, attaining 6 in. in length, chela argentea; a kind of carp, silvery, attaining at least 6 in. in length, chela clupeoides (Ar..akarkala. 86); vel.iccai-k-ken.t.ai id.; vel.icci a kind of fish (Ta.lex.) vel.l.a_ral a kind of fish (Par-a_l.ai. Pal.l.u. 16); vel.l.ara_ seer fish (M.M. 803)(Ta.lex.)

7746.Image: fish-hook: vel.icam fish-hook (Na_mati_pa. 450); valicam fish-hook (Ta.); balis'a (Skt.)(Ta.lex.) valis'am, valis'i_ a fish-hook (Skt.lex.)

7747.Image: turtle: vel.l.a_mai white sea turtle; a fresh-water tortoise (Ta.lex.)

7748.Image: creeper: bal.l.a-val.l.i, bal.l.a-bal.l.i, bal.l.i-bal.l.i creepers and creepers, ie. turnings and turnings; bal.l.i a creeper, vine; bal.l.i-pasali a green spot of creepers (Ka.lex.) cf. val.l.i climber, creeper (Ta.)(DEDR 5316).

7749.Image: deer: vel.i-ma_n- ravine deer, gazella brunetti; Hind, female deer (Ta.lex.)

7750.Image: channel: vel.i-k-ka_l outlet; drainage or surplus channel (C.E.M.); vel.l.ava_ri feeder channel; channel to drain off flood-water (Ta.lex.)

7751.Rope: cf. val. thong, lash (Ta.)(DEDR 5305). cf. bel.l.ava_ra snare, noose (Ka.)(DEDR 5505). cf. vel.l.ur-i a kind of net-bag used by Jain monks (ku_r-ai vel.l.ur-i kun.t.ikai-k-ka_vin-ar : Perun.. Ucaik. 36,228)(Ta.lex.)

7752.Image: hump: bel.evin.ilu, bel.ehin.ilu a big hump (Ka.lex.)

7753.Pariah caste: val.l.uvan a Pariah caste, the members of which are royal drummers, and priests for Paraiyas (E.T. vii,303); an officer who proclaims the king's commands (Ta.); a priest of the Parayas, a low-caste sage, a caste of slaves (Ma.)(DEDR 5318).

7754.Tail: va_la hair of tail, tail, hair (TS.); va_laka tail of horse or elephant (Skt.); va_la hair (Pali.Pkt.); hair of tail (Pali); iz-bali eyebrow (Dm.); ba_le_ hair (Tir.); wa_l a hair (Pas'.); hair of head, down of body (K.); ba_l hair (Bshk.Tor.P.Ku.N.H.); ba_le (Kand.); ba_la (Mai.); bola, bu_la, bu_lu (Phal.); ba_lu, pl. ba_le, ba_lu~, ba_l, ba_lo (Sh.); va_ru hair (S.); va_l (L.P.); akkhin de va_l eyelashes (L.); ba_, ba_l. hair (WPah.); ba_w (Ku.); ba_l pubic hair (A.B.); ba_l.a (Or.); va_l. hair (G.); ba_r (Bhoj.); val-a hair, esp. hair of tail (Si.)(CDIAL 11572). va_l.cho tuft of hair at end of tail (G.)(CDIAL 11575). wa_lawa_s', wa_lawos'u horsehair net for trapping small animals (K.); wa_lawos'u trapper (K.)(CDIAL 11576). va_la_gra having a hairlike point (S.ad.vBr.); point of hair (SvetUp.); va_lagga tip of a hair (Pali); valaga end of tail; valgaya, valge_ tail (Si.)(CDIAL 11578). va_l tail (Ta.Ma.); va_lam id., hair of head (Ta.); va_l what is tail-like,train (Ma.); va.lm (obl. va.lm- va.lt-) tail (Ko.); po.s-m (obl. po.s-t) id. (To.); ba_la id., long hair (Ka.); ba.li tail, spout of cup (Kod..); va_lamu tail, hair (Te.); va_li~d.i without a tail, tailless (Te.)(DEDR App.57). va_ra hair of tail (RV.)(CDIAL 11549).

7755.Basket; dish; canoe: val.l.am a dish for use in eating or drinking, hour-glass, a measure of grain (= 4 marakka_l), a measure of capacity (= 2 or 4 pat.i)(Ta.); large bamboo basket (holding 200-400 par-a of rice), a small measure (Ma.); vallam ola basket (Ta.); large basket to hold grain, grass, charcoal (Ma.); val.m (obl. val.t-) a grain measure (= 3 ol.k); valm (obl. valt-) round grain-storage basket (Ko.); pol.m (obl. pol.t-) a bamboo vessel (To.); bal.l.a a measure of capacity, the fourth part of a kol.aga or 4 ma_as (Ka.); a seer, measure of capacity equal to about one seer or eighty tolas (Tu.); a certain measure of capacity (Te.)(DEDR 5315). Large-mouthed pot: pal.l.ayam dish (Ta.); basin, dish (Ma.); pallayi earthen dish (Tu.); pal.l.emu, palyamu, pal.l.eramu plate (Te.); pa_likai earthen pot in which nava-ta_niyam is sown in marriage and other ceremonies; sharp edge of a cutting instrument; handle of a sword; anything round, circle [cf. phalaka]; watercourse (Ta.lex.) pa_l.e wooden bowl (M.)(DEDR 4017). Hour-glass: val.l.am hour-glass, a dish for use in eating or drinking (Ta.)(DEDR 5315). Measure: palli_ a measure of grain (Skt.)(CDIAL 7972). pa_li_ any measure of capacity, a measure of 4 seers (G.)(CDIAL 7963). Wooden bowl: pal.l.ayam dish (Ta.); basin, dish (Ma.); pal.l.aiyyam dish (Ta.); pallayi earthen dish (Tu.); pal.l.emu, pal.yamu, pal.l.eramu plate (Te.); pa_l.e_ wooden bowl (M.)(DEDR 4017). pa_li_ any measure of capacity, a measure of 4 seers (G.); pall large bamboo bin (holding 200-300 maunds)(P.); palia, palla, pallaga round sack for grain (Pkt.); palli_ measure of grain (Skt.); palla large granary (Skt.); palar.o one of the baskets of a balance (Ku.); palya_lo a wooden vessel (Ku.); pal a bamboo basket for catching fish (A.); pa_lai granary, rick of corn, stack of straw or hay (B.); palla_ grain sack (H.)(CDIAL 7963). pala a particular weight (Mn.Pali.Pkt.); a fluid measure (Nir.); a measure of time (Skt.); pal. a weight (M.); pal.a a weight = 4 tola (Or.); pal a weight = 4 tola (K.); a measure of capacity (Ku.); pala a weight of gold or silver = 4 kars.a (Si.); pala_ a ladle holding 1/4 seer oil (K.); pali_ spoon to take oil out of a jar (Ku.); ladle (H.); pa_l.i_ ladle (M.); pali_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 7952). pan.yu~ a spoon to stir rice-water with (Ku.); paniu~, puniu~ ladle to stir rice with (N.); pal.a_ ladle, dipper (G.); pal.o large ladle (G.); pran.i_ta_ sacrificial vessel (Skt.)(CDIAL 8533). [cf. pala many, several, diverse (Ta.Ma.Ka.); pal many (Ta.); palarme several times (Ka.); palu many, several, various, different (Te.); paluvuru many persons (Te.); palware to be multiplied, be bred (Malt.); palwatre to breed, rear (Malt.)(DEDR 3987). pallam a very great number (Ta.lex.); pal-l-u_r.. many times (Ta.lex.) cf. bahula (Skt.); hala (Ka.); pala (M.); pala (Tol. Er..ut. 220). par.pam lotus, a very large number (patir.rup.43,5,urai)< padma (Skt.) pala-pala many (Tol. Er..ut. 215, Urai. (Ta.lex.)]

7756.Bend; curved: val.ai to become crooked, bend, bend low, yield; to bend; val.aical crookedness, curve; val.aiyal that which is bent; val.aippu bending, crookedness; val.aivu id., arch (Ta.); val.ayuka to bend, be curved; val.ekka to bend, vault; val.avu bend, curve, arch; val.appu a bend as of a way, arch; val.accal crookedness, arching (Ma.); pal.- (pal.0-) to bend down; palg curvedness, crooked; pal.y bow-legged, club-footed (To.); bal.an:ku, bal.un:ku, bal.(u)ku to bend; bal.kisu to cause to bend (Ka.); bavn.d.- (bavn.d.-) to be bent; bavt.- (bavt.i-) to bend (Kod..); bal.akuni, bal.ukuni to bend, curve, stoop; ol.avu curve, bend, inclination (Tu.)(DEDR 5314). var..akkam submission, obedience; talavar..akkam bowing the head; van.an:ku to bend, yield, be submissive; worship, salute respectfully; van.akku to bend, make flexible; van.akkam, van.akku bending, worship, submission (Ta.); van.an.n.uka to bend, bow, salute respectfully (Ma.); van.akkam obeisance, reverence; var..an.n.uka to follow suit, yield, bend, ask humbly (Ma.)(DEDR 5236).

7757.Image: vault: val.ekka to bend, vault (Ma.)(DEDR 5314). van.ar vault; to bend, curl (as the hair)(Ta.)(DEDR 5236).

7758.Shepherds' quarters: valliyam shepherds' quarters (Ta.lex.)

7759.Field: valluram jungle; desert; grassy place, lawn, turf; field; sand; vallu_ram uncultivated field; vallu_r-r-u mountain spring (Na_lat.i, 263); va_likai, va_lukam sand (Cilap. 6,131); cf. va_luka_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

7760.Falcon: vallu_r-u royal falcon, falco peregrinator (Tan-ippa_. i,171,23)(Ta.); vallu_r-r-ukkuruvi id. (Ta.lex.)

7761.Boar: vallul.i boar, swine (Ta.lex.)

7762.Image: to subdue; shrinkage: ot.un:ku (ot.un:ki-) to be restrained, become tranquil, become reduced, grow less, shrink, slide to one side (as when meeting a superior), be subservient, be concealed, hidden; ot.ukku (ot.ukki-) to subjugate, reduce, restrain, subdue, rob; contraction, compression, that which is narrow; ot.ukkam narrowness, closeness; place of concealment, secrecy; ot.un:kal obstacle, impediment (Ta.); ot.un.n.uka to come to an end, die (esp. of smallpox); ot.ukkuka to finish, destroy (Ma.); ud.ugu, ud.agu to subdue, restrain, shrink, shrivel, contract, be bent, decrease, fade, leave, quit; ud.ugisu, ud.agisu to cause to shrink, etc.; lessen (as strength); ud.ukisu to retrain, keep in, tighten (Ka.); ud.ugu, ud.uvu to give up, leave, desist from; d.un:ku to be lowered, be subdued; d.on:ku to shrink, hesitate, diminish (Te.); d.u_mba to be shrunken, wrinkled; shrinkage, contraction; d.u_ppa to cause to shrink, shorten, contract; act of shortening, etc. (Kol.); or.ogna_ (or.g-/or.gc-) to press, flatten, trample out of shape, kill by crushing, throttle (Kur.); or.okna_ (ur.ukhyas) to crush out of shape, cause to wither, kill (plant)(Kur.); or.ge blunt (Malt.)(DEDR 954).

7763.To turn back: va_le_i, va_lai turns, twists, makes return (Pkt.); va_ran.u to make return (S.); va_livaum turning (OG.); va_l.vu~ to fold, twist, turn, send back (G.); valai turns (Pkt.); varan.u to turn, return, bend (S.); valan. to return (L.); val.vu~ intr. to turn, turn round, bend (OG.); vali again (Si.); vara_in.u to turn back (S.); vala_van. to return, refund (L.)(CDIAL 11403). val.an. mould, figure; turning, bend (in a road)(M.)(CDIAL 11406). To wrap, cover: vallai covers, turns (Pkt.); vallan. intr. to twist, surround (L.); vallun. to wrap up (L.); vale_ti twists, turns, wrings, puts on (a garment)(Pali); valaiya twisted (Pkt.); walun to wrap up, roll up in, clothe, encircle (K.); bal.iba_ to roll up (Or.); balna_ to twist, braid, plait (H.); va_l.n.e~ to give a twist to (M.); vala_una.a_ to cause to be wrapped or surrounded (P.); bala_iba to wind (thread round a bamboo reel), turn,persuade (A.); balbali_ti whirls round (S'Br.); valate_ covers (Skt.); vallate_ covers (Skt.)(CDIAL 11405). balai covered (Mth.)(CDIAL 11408). wolyutu, wolutu wrapper, stuff for wrapping (K.); valayitr. wrapping (Skt.)(CDIAL 11410). vali fold of skin (MBh.); val.iya~_ wrinkles in a garment (G.)(CDIAL 11412).

7764.Image: to wander: valayuka to wander about (Ma.); wali_ta_na_ to roam, wander; caus. wali_sta_na_; veliya_na_ to roam; vali_ta_na_ to wander; vali_- to go round, roam; caus. valih-; vel- to wander, roam; veli- to wander (Go.)(DEDR 5286). alai to roam, wander; alaiccal, alaical wandering; alaiyal wandering (Ta.); ale to wander (Ka.)(DEDR 240).

7765.Borax: vel.l.ikkaru a kind of covering for drugs, used in sublimating them; vel.l.ikka_ram nitrate of silver; vel.l.aikka_ram borax (Ta.); veliga_ramu (Te.); vel.l.ikka_ram (Ma.); ven:ka_ram (Ta.); ve_lai borax (Ta.lex.)

7766.Nanti: vel.l.ivaraika_ppo_n- nanti, as guarding Mt. Kailas (Ta.lex.)

7767.Image: to subdue: vel (velv-, ven-r--) to conquer, overcome, subdue (Mullaip. 57); destroy, remove (Tirunu_r-. 99); to resemble (Ain:kur-u. 324); to excel, prosper (Periyapu. Pa_yi. 4); ver-r-am, ver-r-al, ver-r-i, ven-, ven-r-i victory, success; ver-r-imai victoriousness, victory, distinctive greatness (Ta.); velluka to overcome, surpass, kill; venni, ver-r-i victory (Ma.)(DEDR 5493).

7768.Image: gate: olimukam, olimukava_cal outer gate of a city, fort or temple, where the guard is stationed (Vivili. 2, Ira_. 7:17); olimuka-va_yil id. (W.) (Ta.lex.)

7769.Image: fence: *pariva_t.a- [palva_r.o, palver.o] wall or fence round a house, wall or screen round a roof, screen (S.); parva_r. a village fence, precincts of village or town (G.)(CDIAL 7874). pra_vara an enclosure (Skt.)(CDIAL 8960). pra_vr.ti enclosure (Skt.); pa_vuru surrounding on all sides (K.)(CDIAL 8963). pariva_rayati surrounds (AV.); pariva_re_ti id. (Pali); pariva_rayam.ta (Pkt.); pirivaranava_ to surround (as followers)(Si.)(CDIAL 7877); pariva_ra surroundings (MBh.Pali); hedge (Skt.); entourage, followers (Pali); attendants (Pkt.); parivara enclosure; company (NiDoc.); paliya_r fence, hedge (K.); parva_r family (including progenitors, descendants, dependants (P.); family, dependants (G.); pirivara attendants (Si.); pariya_l family, family members (A.)(CDIAL 7876)]. a_vr.ta covered (RV.); surrounded (Mn.); a_vat.a covered (Pali); a_vuda (Pkt.); awer.i_ adj. narrow (of a valley)(Ash.); a_wre (Wg.); awera (Dm.); awuri (Dm.); a_vr.a enclosure, sheepfold (Gaw.); aval.a enveloped, overspread (Si.); aru~_rik narrow (Kal.); awi_r.u (Phal.); a_woru covered, surrounded (K.)(CDIAL 1440). a_vr.ti covering, closing (Skt.); a_vudi covering, protection (Pkt.); -a_vad.ika_ enclosure (As'.); a_wuru covering, surrounding (K.); ar. fence (P.)(CDIAL 1441). ma_vat.ai game found on the land conveyed, a term used in conveyancing; pen for village cattle (R.F.); ma_vat.ai-maravat.ai an expression use, in conveyancing, to denote game and trees on the land conveyed (Ko_yilo. 64)(Ta.lex.) a_vat.t.a, a_vatta a sort of village (Pkt.); a_ut.i a partic. quarter of a town or village (A.); avat.a surrounding (Si.); a_varta crowded place where many men live together (Skt.); Image: whirlpool; revolving: whirlpool (S'Br.); revolving (R.); a_vat.t.a, a_vatta circular motion (Pkt.); a_vat.t.a turning, circuit, eddy (Pali); a~_t.o turn, twist (G.); a_t.a_ turn with a rope round a post, hoop, ring, frame of an umbrella (M.); avat.a circular, adv. around (Si.)(CDIAL 1418). To wind yarn: ait.a_, ai~t.a_ twist, turn (H.); ave_d.ha twist (Pkt.); a_ve_s.t.a surrounding, strangling (Ya_j.)(CDIAL 1447). Turning: a_vr.tti turning back (TS.); revolving (S'Br.)(CDIAL 1443). a_vartate_ turns around, returns (RV.); a_vattati, a_vat.t.ati (Pali); a_vattai, a_vat.t.ai, a_ut.t.ai goes round, changes (Pkt.); awehrtik to turn, to turn upside down, give in exchange (Kho.); at.n.e~ to twist (M.); a_vat.vu~ to turn out (G.)(CDIAL 1419). a_valan.a turning (Pkt.); a_walun, a_walanu whirlpool (K.) (CDIAL 1422). a_valati turns (Skt.); a~_val.n.e~, aval.n.e~ to shrink, contract (M.)(CDIAL 1421). a_vartayati causes to turn round (RV.); a_vartana turning round (RV.); stirring, melting of metals (Skt.); a_vat.t.e_ti turns round (Pali); awerto_nu place where women sit and spin (S.); a_tan., attun. party of women collected to spin together (L.)(CDIAL 1420). a_warun to surround, cover (K.); a_va_rayati covers, encloses (MBh.)(CDIAL 1431).

7770.Wealthy: vahur.o wealthy (S.)(CDIAL 11446).

7771.Helper; army: va_huru_ helper (S.); va_har, vahar crowd of people, help (P.); va_ha_ra help (OG.); vaha_r, vha_r, va_r help; va_r army (G.)(CDIAL 12217). vyu_ha arrangement (R.); military array (MBh.); vyu_, byu_ha heap, mass, array of troops (Pali); vu_ha, viu_ha battle array (Pkt.); bhua (Or.)(CDIAL 12222). viyu_kam military array (Kur-al., 767, Urai); multitude, collection; herd, flock (Ta.lex.)

7772.Troop; circle of friends: valan:kam large family (Ta.); bal.aga troop, mass, multitude, assemblage, the family circle, relatives (Ka.); quantity, heap, multitude, body (Tu.); bali clan (Kor.); bala~gamu retinue, party, the circle of friends and realtives or kinsmen, kith and kin (Te.)(DEDR 5308). valan:kamar, valan:kamatta_r, valan:kulatta_r, valan:kaimattar (Cin-e_n. 140) title of the right-hand section of the par-aiya caste (Ta.); valan:kai-y-ur-r-a_r, valan:kulam, valan:kai, valan:kaiya_r the right-hand castes among the Tamils (pat.aivi_t.t.u ra_jyam na_t.t.avar valan:kaiyum it.an:kaiyum maha_jan-amum)(S.I.I. i,111); valan:kai-y-uyarvu-kon.t.a_r a title assumed by a section of Ca_n.a_r caste (Ta.lex.) Emigration: balisu to found as a town (Ka.lex.) cf. valacai, valacal emigration, flight from home; crowd (Ta.); valase, valise, olase flight, removal from home for fear of a hostile army, emigration (Ka.); valasa emigration, migration, flight or removing from one's country to another (Te.); valacu id.; valacai-va_n:ku to emigrate; to fly from home (Ta.lex.)(DEDR 5278). valacai the Balija caste (Ta.); balije id. (Te.)(Ta.lex.) A band of people: ber.o circle or band (of people)(Ku.)(CDIAL 12130). Caste title: ve_l.an-, ve_l.a_n- a caste title (S.I.I. ii,10); a title of persons belonging to the kuyavar caste (Ta.lex.) Cultivators: ve_l.a_l.an- a person of the Ve_l.a_l.a caste (Ta.)(DEDR 5545). (na_r-patton-patu var..imur-ai vanta ve_l.irul. ve_l.e_ : Pur-ana_. 201)(Ta.lex.) ve_l.l.a_n.-marapu the Ve_l.a_l.a caste (Na_lat.i, Tanippa_.); vel.l.a_n--vakai that which belongs to the Ve_l.a_l.a class, as lands in a village (S.I.I. ii,54); vel.l.a_n.-pil.l.ai Ve_l.a_l.a boy (Tol. Er..ut. 338); (Ta.lex.) ve_la_n.d.u a cultivator; affix to the names of cultivator caste in Tamilnad (Te.Inscr.); vel.l.a_yma agriculture; vel.l.a_l.as (Ma.); ve_l.a_l.an-, vel.l.a_r..an- man of the Ve_l.a_l.a caste; fem. vel.l.a_l.acci, vel.l.a_r..acci; vel.l.a_l.an- (Tol. Er..ut. 338, Urai); vel.l.a_n- (S.I.I. ii,114); vel.l.a_n.mai, vel.l.a_mai cultivation; ve_l.a_n.mai agriculture, husbandry (Ta.); vel.l.a_l.ar Tamil S'u_dras (Ma.); velama name of a caste, man of this caste; agriculture (Te.); fem. vel.l.a_l.acci, vel.l.a_r..acci woman of the Ve_l.a_l.a caste (Ta.)(DEDR 5507). [cf. ve_li a large land-measure (Ta.)] ve_l.a_l.an- liberal person (Tirikat.u.12); Vais'ya; S'u_dra (Ta.lex.) ve_l.u_r Vaitti_curan--koil, a S'iva shrine in the Tanjore district (Kumara. Pira. Muttuk. 2); ve_l.pulam the country of the Ca_l.ukyas (S.I.I. iii,160)(Ta.lex.) Traders: vel.l.a_n.-kut.i, vel.l.a_n--kut.i part of a village where ve_l.a_l.as live; vel.l.a_cet.t.i, vel.l.a_n.-cet.t.i, vel.l.a_n--cet.t.i person belonging to a class of ve_l.a_l.as who trade; vel.l.a_l.an- man of the ve_l.a_l.a caste (Tol. Er..ut. 338, Urai); id. (Ma.); vel.l.a_n- id. (S.I.I. ii,114)(Ta.lex.)

7773.Image: arch: be_d.e a keystone of an arch (Tu.lex.)

7774.Image: eaves: val.avi sloping roof, eaves (Ta.); bal.idu state of being sloping (of a roof), of not being steep (as a hill), of incling from a horizontal direction (as the haft of a hoe)(Ka.)(DEDR 5311).

7775.Cultivated land: be_dol.ige cultivated land; benni land under cultivation; agriculture; ben to work, to cultivate; be_ji a pile of harvested corn plants; bede, bide a particular sort of seed (Tu.lex.)

7776.Image: rope on thatch: balipu a rope fastened over a thatched roof to keep the thatching intact (Tu.lex.) cf. ballu, bal.l.u a rope, cord (Tu.lex.)

7777.Image: to run: balipu to run, to decamp (Tu.lex.)

7778.Paste: balipu to stick, to adhere as it happens in the case of a thin paste on heating; baliyu to stick fast, as a poultice (Tu.lex.)

7779.Image: foetus: baliru to develop as the foetus in the womb (Tu.lex.)

7780.Image: tiger: balipp a royal tiger; a_d.d.abalipp a more powerful variety of the striped tiger (Tu.lex.)

7781.Image: protuberance: balin:kru the solid formed on the surface of any excretion of the body; barkane, balikkane solid, hard (Tu.lex.)

7782.Image: octopus: ver.ha_ octopus, said to be found in the Indus (Jat.ki lexicon of A. Jukes, 1900). balepu to enclose, to surround; balya_ru sharp nosed shark; akku-balya_r, arme balya_r, et.t.i balya_r, kombu balya_r, ko_ri balya_r, ta_t.e balya_r, pili balya_r, pubi balya_r some varieties of shark; balevo_d.u a kind of fish; bed.i sardine fish (Tu.lex.) Encircling: ber. roll, fence, enclosure (B.); ver.hu encircling (S.); ver.h, vehr. fencing, enclosure in jungle with a hedge, blockade (L.); ber. fence, enclosure (B.); ber.ha girth, fence round young trees; ber.h, ber., ber.ha_, ber.a_ enclosure, cattle surrounded and carried off by force (H.); ved.ho circumference (M.)(CDIAL 12130). ver.ha_, vehr.a_ a courtyard in front of a house, enclosure containing many houses (L.); ver.ha_, ber.ha_ enclosure, courtyard (P.); ber wall of house, circumference of anything (A.); ber.a_ wall of house (Or.); ver.ha_ turn, twist (L.); ber. hedge, wall (Mth.)(CDIAL 12130) ber.han.a girth, circumference, fencing (Or.)(CDIAL 12131). vet.he_ti surrounds (Pali); ver.han. to surround (L.); ber.n.o to fence in, enclose (Ku.); beriba to surround (with fence or wall (A.); ber.a_ (B.); ber.hna_ to enclose, surround (H.); ved.hn.e~ to surround (M.)(CDIAL 12132). Fence; wall: ve_li fence, hedge, wall (Ta.); hedge, fence (Ma.); ve.j fence (Ko.); pe.ly fence (To.); be_li fence, hedge (Ka.Tu.); be.li fence (Kod..); vel(u)gu fence, hedge, enclosure (Te.); veleg fence (Kol.); velum id. (Go.); velu_m, velum, elum, allum, velmi fencing (Go.); waluhta_na_ to fence (Go.); valla_na_ to be enclosed (Go.); velgu go_d.a compound wall (Kond.a)(DEDR 5538). ve_li wall; custody, watch, guard; land (Kampara_. Na_t.t.up. 12); field; land measure = 6.74 acres; cowshed; village (Te_va_. 176,2); ve_li-k-ka_cu an ancient village cess (S.I.I.,iii,142); ve_li-k-ka_l hedge, fence; fenced garden; stake in hedging; ve_li-p-payar.u an ancient tax in cash (S.I.I., i,89) (Ta.lex.) Fortified place: ve_l.am fortified place where ladies of rank captured in war were kept as slaves by the Co_l.as (mi_n-avar ka_n-ampuka ... ve_l.ampuku mat.avi_r : Kalin.. 4; S.I.I. iii,21); quarters (S.I.I. ii,440); ve_l.am-e_r-r-u to confine ladies of rank captured in war, within a ve_l.am (S.I.I. iii,217) (Ta.lex.) vel.l.-a_tti maidservant, concubine (Ta.); id., slave girl, midwife (Ma.); vella_t.akatte harlot (Te.)(DEDR 5506).

7783.Images: circle; enclosure, courtyard: val.a_kam place (Te_va_. 1193,1); val.imar-ai house (Pur-ana_. 196); door (Pu. Ve. 10, Mullaip. 4); vallai circuit, circle; fort, fortress; valattal to encircle, surround (Pur-ana_. 52)(Ta.lex.) val.aical, val.aippu enclosure, courtyard, compound (Ta.); val.appu enclosure of a house, compound (Ma.)(DEDR 5313). val.ai to surround; n. circle, surrounding region, bangle (Ta.); val.a ring, bracelet (Ma.); val.aiyam bracelet (Ta.Ma.); val. bangle (Ko.); bal.e bracelet, armlet, ring (Ka.); bangle, ring (Kod..); bracelet, hoop (Tu.); val.aivu circle, circumference; house-premises val.aiyam ring, circle; val.a_kam enclosing, surrounding; balepuni to enclose, surround, besiege (Tu.); balayu to surround (Te.); valayu to turn around (Te.); van.an:ku to surround, encompass (Ta.); val.ayuka to surround; val.accal enclosing; val.ekka to enclose; val.ayal surrounding; val. ca.rymk all around (Ko.); bal.asu act of surrounding or encompassing, one round or turn (as of a rope, etc.)(Ka.)(DEDR 5313).

7784.Split pulse: be_l.e split pulse (Tu.Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7785.Image: elephant: ve_r..am elephant (iravuppun-a me_ynta vuravuccin-a ve_r..am : Akana_.309)(Ta.lex.) ve_r..am elephant (Ma.)(DEDR 5542). [cf. ampa_ri (Ta.Ma.) < ama_ri, amba_ri_ (Urdu.); amba_ri (Te.Ka.Tu.) Howdah with a canopy; ya_naime_r.-pi_t.am (Ta.lex.) < Prob. traceable to Munda word for 'elephant' with the particle: -mb-.] vya_la vicious elephant (Skt.)(CDIAL 12212). vel.l.a_n-ai Indra's elephant (Periyapu.)(Ta.); bel.l.a_ne id. (Ka.); white elephant (Ta.lex.) Image: wild, tusked-elephant: va_ru war-horse, war-elephant (Skt.)(CDIAL 11559) va_ran.am conch; elephant (Man.i. 7,115); obstacle, obstruction; scren, cover; protection (Ta.lex.) va_ran.a strong (Vedic); elephant (Pali); va_ran.a-li_l.ha_ elephant's grace (Pali.lex.) va_ran.a wild, (with mr.ga-) elephant (RV.); elephant (MBh.Pkt.); va_ru war-elephant, war-horse (Skt.); va_ru_ya_ elephant (Pkt.); va_ri_t.a elephant (Skt.); varun., varan.a-ya_ tusked elephant (Si.)(CDIAL 11552). Rope for tying an elephant: va_ri kheddha; (va_ri-k-kol.l.a_...ve_r..am : Malaipat.u. 572); rope for tying an elephant; elephant-stable; (kucaram ... matit. put.ai nilai va_rikal. : Ci_vaka. 81)(Ta.lex.)

7786.Right side: valam right side (Tiv. Iyar-. 3,73); circumambulation from left to right (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 2,10,8); valampat.u to be victorious (Patir-r-up. 78,1); valampuri that which curls to the right (Ta.); valamuri (Te.); valambiri (Ma.); valavan-, valan- man on the right (Ta.lex.) valam-puri that which curls to the right, conch whose spirals turn to the right (valam-puri-ccan:ku), lines on the palm of the hand resembling such a conch and considered auspicious, a head ornament shaped like such a conch; Indrian screwtree, helicteres isora (Ta.); valam-piri turning to the right hand, as valam-piri s'an:khu a rare conch; h. isora (Ma.); balamuri turning or winding to the right, a place at which a river turns to the right; balamuri-s'an:kha conch that winds to the right; balammuri to turn or wind to the right, as a river, etc. (Ka.); balamuri turning to the right hand; balamuri-s'an:kha a rare conch that winds to the right (Tu.); valamuri the conch of Vis.n.u; valambiri-ka_ya ixora corylifolia (Te.)(DEDR 5279). Right hand: valakkai right hand (Ta.); valan:kai right hand (Ta.Ma.); val kay right hand (Ko.); bala right (Ka.); bala key/gey right hand (Ka.); balata kai right hand (Tu.); vala rigt; vala ce_yi right hand (Te.); valatu right side (Ta.); valam, valan- right side (Ta.); valam the right or strong side (Ma.); pas- right; pas- koy right hand; paly- (pals-) (child) becomes strong; palym (obl.) force (To.); balate right (hand)(Kod..); balatu the right side (Tu.); vela key right hand (Pa.)(DEDR 5276). valakai-id.an:kai- makan.mai tax on the right-hand and left-hand castes, to be paid by all able-bodied men capable of bearing arms (Ta.)(SITI.IEG.) cf. semant. mula~_t dos't right hand (Wg.)(CDIAL 10256). mo~_li dos't right hand (Wg.); mu_la proximity (Pkt.); mu_l.o~ completely (L.); mul.hu~ from the beginning (Or.)(CDIAL 10250). As distinct from mulu complete (Si.)(CDIAL 10250); cf. kharva mutilated, imperfect (TS.)(CDIAL 3832); whence: ka~_wa~_t dos't right hand (Wg.)(CDIAL 3833). kawe left hand (Kt.); khavva left hand (Pkt.); khavi (Kal.); khabba_ (L.); kawal (Ash.); kha_uli_ (Kal.); kawr.i_ (Wg.); ko~_war (Bashg.); kho_woru (K.); kha_bor.u left-handed (S.)((CDIAL 3832). savya left hand (RV.); savva lefthand (Pkt.); sav the north (M.)(CDIAL 13292). soondi astam my left hand (Shum.)(CDIAL 13292a.)

7787.Strength, power: val strong, hard, forceful; vallam, vallamai, vallai strength; vallavan-, valla_n- strong man, capable man; valla_l.an-, vallunar capable people; valatu victory; valam, valan- strength, power, victory, authority; valavai ability, powerful person; valavan- capable man; vali strength, power; (-v-, -nt-; -pp-, -tt-) to be strong, hard, compel; valitu that which is trong, force, compulsion; valiya strong, big; valiyan- strong, powerful, skilful man; valivu strength; valu id., skill, ability; (-pp-, -tt-) to be strong or hard; valuppu firmness, strength; valumai strength, force, violence; vallapam strength, power, ability; var-pu strength, hardness; van-mam force; va_limai greatness, strength (Ta.); val, valu, valiya strong, powerful, great; valiya_ forcibly, suddenly; valippam, valima greatness, bigness; valluka to be able, strong; vallabham power, capacity; vanpu greatness, strength (Ma.); val powerful, very (Ko.); paly- (pals-) (child) become sstrong; palym (obl. palyt-) force (To.); bal to grow strong or firm, etc.; bali to increase, grow, grow strong, stout, become tight, firm, hard; increase, make strong, firm; bal(u), bolu strength, firmness, bigness; greatness, abundance, excess; balisu to make strong; bal(u)me, baluhu, balpu strength; balla man who possesses ability, skill, or erudition (Ka.); bala power, strength (Kod..); bala strength; bala_pini to gain strength, recover health; balik prowess, strength, hardness; balim, balum, balm strength, might; balu very, large, great, severe, violent (Tu.); valanu skill, excellence, possibility; valamu largeness, stoutness; vala_ti expert; valadu much; valu~da stout, big, large; valla possible; vallad.i violence; oppression; valacu to be capable, be able to; vali big, large; baliyu to grow fat; balimi strength, force, violence; baluvu strength, intensity; heavy, great, excessive, big, strong, severe (Te.); valan thick, stout (Ga.); walle_ much, very (Go.); bale_, bale_ti with tht help of (Kur.); balehne large; balebale large ones (Malt.); balun big, large, elder, full-grown (Br.)(DEDR 5276). Army: pa_l.aiyam army, war-camp, village surrounded by hillocks (Ta.); pa_l.ayam camp, army (Ma.); pa_l.eya, pa_l.ya, pa_l.ye camp, settlement, hamlet (Ka.): pa_l.ya, pa_l.y army, halting place (Tu.); pa_l.emu guard, camp, army (Te.)(DEDR 4117). bala power, strength (RV.); strong (Skt.); bala strength (Pali.Pkt. NiDoc.); bau, ba_las army (Kal.); bol (Kho.); bal strength (K.); id., ability (L.); balu (S.); bal, baw (P.Ku.); bal (N.A.B.); bal.a (Or.); bal (Mth.); bara (OAw.); bal (H.); bal. (G.M.Konkan.i); bal army (G.); balaya, bale_na strength, army (Si.); bali suddenly without cause (K.); bare forcibly (OH.); baliim. id. (OG.); bal.e~ (G.M.); belen (OSi.); balaka- strong (Pali); bolu, buju recovered in health (K.) (CDIAL 9161). balakara strengthening (R.); balera_ much, many, long (of time)(P.) (CDIAL 9162). baliya_ra_ strong (OAw.); bariya_r, bariya_ra_ strong, vigorous, fertile (of soil)(H.); balaka_ra violence, force (Pali.Pkt.)(CDIAL 9163). balavant strong (VS.); balava- in cmpd. 'strong'; balavam. exceedingly (Pali); balava, balavaga, balavam.ta strong (Pkt.); bullawah fat (Wg.); balo_ big (Dm.); balo_i (Dm.); balok able (Kt.); wolok, wolog to be able (Pr.)(CDIAL 9166). balastha strong, warrior (MBh.); balat.t.ha palace guard (Pali); balat pl. guards (OSi.)(CDIAL 9167). bala_tka_ra violence (Skt.); balaka_ra id. (Pali.Pkt.); balakr.ta done by force (Mn.); bala_tkr.ta overpowered (MBh.); balakka_ra violence (Pali.Pkt.); balakarin by force (OSi.)(CDIAL 9169). bala_yate_ puts forth strength (Nir.); bali_yati overpowers (Pali); baln.o~ to be able (WPah.; baleik, bal.eik to overcome, defeat (Kho.)(CDIAL 9170). balikataram. more intensely (Pali); belimi O most powerful! (Kt.)(CDIAL 9173). balin strong (RV.); balin- in cmpd. balika- (Pali); bali, balia strong, stout (Pkt.); bali_ strong (P.S.); baliyo, bai (Ku.); baliyo, emph. balliyo (N.); bali (A.B.); bal.i_ strong (Or.); bal.ia_ a wild ferocious dog (Or.); bal.i_, bal.iyu~ strong (G.); bal.i_, bal.iya_ (M.)(CDIAL 9174). balis.t.ha very strong (S'Br.); balit.t.ha very strong (Pkt.); balt.ha_ (M.)(CDIAL 9178). balya giving strength (Pa_n..); semen (Skt.); bala strength (OSi.)(CDIAL 9180). nirbala weak (Skt.); n.ibbala weak (Pkt.); nibal, nibala_ (P.); nibalu, nibalo (S.); nibal.a (Or.); ni_mara (OH.); nimal adj., nibala_i_ (H.); nabl.u~ (G.); nibal., nabl.a_ (G.)(CDIAL 7356). prabala strong; prabalam adv. greatly (S'Br.); pabala strong (Pali.Pkt.); paul sufficiency (N.); pabbala strong (Pkt.); pabala strength (Si.)(CDIAL 8696).

7788.Offering nourishment: baliman in cmpd. 'strength' (ChUp.); balya strengthening (Pa_n..); bali in RV. it is an offering conceived as a national tribute; the common factor the Vedic and popular usages is 'offering of nourishment' (Skt.); bali- tax, religous offering (Pali); religious offering (Pkt.); bal offering to spirits (K.); bali_ offering (P.); bali (S.); bai food offered to the gods (Ku.); bali offering, sacrifice (N.A.B.); bal.i (Or.); bal (H.); bal.i_ (G.); bal. (M.); billa, bili- tribute, tax, sacrifice (Si.)(CDIAL 9171). balikarman offering oblations to all creatures (Gr.S.); balikamma offerings to gods and spirits (Pali); baliyamma (Pkt.); biliyama ceremony of making offerings to demons (Si.)(CDIAL 9172). ba_le_ya fit for an offering (Skt.); ba_ri_ one who offers himself, an offering (OAw.)(CDIAL 9222).

7789.Image: ox: balaya ox (Pkt.)(CDIAL 9161). balivarda ox, bull (TBr.); bali_varda (S'Br.); balivanda, barivarda (Skt.) [Poss. a cmpd. of balin- and a non-Aryan word for 'ox' (cf. esp. Naha_li_ baddi_ and poss. IA. forms like Sik. pa_d.o_ bull); balivadda ox (Pali); bali_vadda, balidda, baladda (Pkt.); baleda_, baled herd of bullocks (L.); baledo (S.); bald, baldh, balhd ox; baled, baleda_ herd of oxen; bahld, bale_d ox (P.); balad ox; bald (Ku.); barad (N.); balad(h) (A.); balad (B.); bal.ada (Or.); barad(h) (Bi.); barad (hyper-hindiism bar.ad)(Mth.); baradh (Bhoj.); bardhu (Aw.); balad, barad(h), bardha_ (H.); baladna_ to bull a cow (H.); bal.ad (G.)(CDIAL 9176). balivardin nom. pr. (Ka_s'.); baledi_ oxherd (P.); baldiya_ cattle-dealer (Ku.); baredi_ herdsman (H.)(CDIAL 9177). bailla, bellaga ox (Pkt.); bail bull, ox (P.); belo ox, buffalo-bull (Ku.); bael, baila_, baala ox (Or.); bail (Bi.Mth.); baila (OAw.); bail (H.); bel (G.); bail, baila_ (M.)(CDIAL 9175). For -ed in bale_d ox (P.) cf. erutu bull, ox, steer (Ta.); bullock, ox, chiefly as a beast of burden (Ma.); et bull (Ko.); es't id.; e(t.) t.es'k a circle of bullocks (To.); et.t.u bull (Badaga); ettu, eddu ox, bullock (Ka.); er..tu bull, ox (Ka.); etti bull, bullock (Ka.); eddu (pl. ed.lu) ox, bullock, bull; eddu pat.t.u to geld (an ox); -reddu in: gan:gi-reddu bull consecrated to a temple (Te.); gan:g-eddu id. (Te.); ed. (pl. ed.l) bullock (Kol.); hed.d. (pl. hed.l.) (Nk.); ad.d.o_ bullock, ox (Kur.)(DEDR 815). For hed.d. bullock (Nk.) cf.: per-r-am greatness; bull, or cow, buffalo; per-r-u greatness; bull (Ta.); per-r-an stout, robust (Ma.); per-r-a-kkannu wild buffalo (Ma.); petta cow (Tu.); per-ugu, per-u~gu to swell, rise (Te.)(DEDR 4425).

7790.Flesh: val.l.u_ram muscle, flesh, meat, beef (Ta.); roast flesh (Ta.); dried meat, salt-fish (Ma.); vallu_ra dried flesh (Skt.)(DEDR 5317). valluram flesh of the wild hog; val.l.uram muscle, flesh, meat (Pur-ana_.219); beef (Ta.lex.)

7791.Lute: vallikai lute; cf. vallaki_ (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

7792.Creeper (esp. the betel vine): val.l.i climber, creeper (Ta.); creeper, vine, the pepper-vine (Ma.); bal.l.i creeper, vine (Ka.); creeper (Kod..); a creeper, esp. the betel vine (Tu.); valli, vallika creeper, climbing plant (Te.)(DEDR 5316). vallikam creeper; valli-ca_takam, vallica_tam a kar-pakam creeper;; valli-ca_ti divine creeper; valli-man.t.apam bower, arbour (Ir-ai.2,Pak.28); valli-mot.i, vallikkot.i a climber (Ta.lex.) valli_ creeper (Mn.Pali.Pkt.); mallika_ jungle rope (Pali); vali (S.); vall, vallh, val, valh creeper, watermelon, tendril (L.)[cf. vel.l.ari cucumber, cucumis sativus; mottled-melon, cucumis memordica; kakri melon (Ta.); cucumber, cucumis sativus (Ma.)(DEDR 5504)]; ball (P.); val-a (Si.)(CDIAL 11429). ve_lli creeping plant (Skt.); velli_, vella_ creeper (Pkt.); vel, bel (P.); bel (Ku.H.); jasmine (B.); beli creeper (N.OAw.); beli_ a kind of flower (Mth.); creeper (H.); vel, veli_, velo (G.); vel (M.)(CDIAL 12123). val.l.ai creeping blindweed, ipomoea aquatica (Ta.); bal.l.e name of a plant (Ka.)(DEDR 5319). val.ar twig, tender branch (Ta.); bal.e, bale reepers or slips of bamboo used to fasten the rafters of a roof (Tu.)(DEDR 5309). Image: creeper: cf. ma_la a creeping or climbing plant, creeper (Kui); ma_r.a creeper (Pe.);(DEDR 4833). String of the weaving bow: ba_li cord, string (consisting of goat's hair attached to the weaving bow to which ends of warp threads are fastened)(D..)(CDIAL 11572). Image: a creeper: valiccar--kot.i a creeper (Ta.lex.)

7793.Spark: pa.l. spark (?To.); va_l. lustre, splendour, brightness, fame (Ta.); va_lu to increase, rise, swell, flourish, be splendid, shine (DEDR 5377).

7794.Image: tender branch, twig: val.ar twig, tender branch (Ta.); bal.e, bale reepers or slips of bamboo used to fasten the rafters of a roof (Tu.)(DEDR 5309).

7795.Cornice: val.a wooden needle driven into the rafters (Ma.); val.ai small beam (Ta.); bal.ara a kind of cornice ornamenting the beam on a wall, window or door-sill (Tu.)(DEDR 5309).

7796.Tin-coating: bila_vara, bila_ra tin; iron vessels with tin coating (Tu.lex.)

7797.Image: tail: va_laka a tail (Ka.lex.) Net; tip of hair; tuft of hair at end of tail: wa_lawa_s', wa_lawos'u horsehair net for trapping small animals (K.); wa_lawos'u trapper (K.)(CDIAL 11576). va_l.cho tuft of hair at end of tail (G.)(CDIAL 11575). valgaya tail (Si.); va_lagga tip of hair (Pali); va_la_gra having a hairlike point; point of a hair (S'vetUp.)(CDIAL 11578). bel.l.ava_ra, bel.l.a_ra snare, net for snaring game, noose (Ka.); valle, valletra_d.u noosed rope for tying cattle, noose (Te.); bilum neck-rope, halter (Br.)(DEDR 5505). Rope: val., val.pu, val.vu thong, lash (Ta.); val., val.l.u stalks of palm-leaves to stitch an umbrella with (Ma.); pol.f leather strap to turn the churnstick (To.); bal.l.i, bol.l.i rope (Ka.); bal.l.u, ballu id., cord (Tu.); bal.l.i, balli rope (Kor.)(DEDR 5305). bal, valis, wal, wali, ba_li cord, string (consisting of goat's hair attached to the weaving bow to which ends of warp threads are fastened)(D..)(CDIAL 11572).

7798.Raw rice: bol.antye, bol.ante, bul.antye raw rice; bul.akkare, bul.akka_r, bul.a_r adj. half-ripe; baripparundu almost ripe; bu_l.ya the prasa_da (made of turmeric powder) of a devil (Tu.lex.)

7799.Image: betel leaf: bu_l.ya betel leaves, arecanut etc. (Tu.lex.)

7800.Image: penis: bulla the male generative organ (Ka.); bulle (Te.); bulla an ornament used to cover the membrum of naked children (Ka.lex.)

7801.Millet-field: bul.e growing corn or crop; bul.e to grow (Tu.lex.) val.a_kam millet-field (Kur-r-a_. Tala. Ve_t.an-valam. 28); garden; val.a_l a kind of soil; var-pulam (val +) high ground (Pur-ana_. 173); va_li horse tail millet; vel.l.ica_ grey millet, silvery, mugil borncensis (Ta.lex.) Ear of corn: va_la_ a kind of grain, millet (Pkt.); vali heap of reaped ears of corn (S.); val (L.); ba_l ear of corn (Ku.); ba_lo, ba_lr.o crops (Ku.); ba_lo ear of corn (N.); ba_li cornfield, crops, harvest (whence balya_unu to pick off ears of corn)(N.); ba_l ear of wheat (Bi.); ba_li_ id. (Mth.); ear of maize (Aw.); spike of corn (H.); standing crop (OMarw.); ba_lu_ beard of grain (esp. maize)(H.); va_l a kind of pulse (G.); va_lor. beans in a pod (G.); va_lol. a bean, a kind of vegetable (G.)(CDIAL 11425). valci paddy (Malaipat.u. 462); husked rice; boiled rice (Maturaik. 141); food (Pur-ana_. 190)(Ta.); rice (Tiruvil.ai. Kun.t.o_. 175); var-r-u grain of boiled rice from which the water is strained off (Ma.); vad.lu unhusked rice, paddy (Te.); val (pl. valkul) grain of unhusked rice (Kol.); val bi.am husked rice (Kol.); val paddy (Nk.); valku pl. paddy (Nk.)(DEDR 5287). vari a wild-growing rice with rough beards (Ma.); paddy (Ta.Te.); varsil, varcil paddy (Ga.); vanji rice, seed, paddy (Go.)(DEDR 5265). vari tax, duty, impost, toll, contribution (Ta.Ma.); tax (Te.); vary tax paid to government or to Kurumbas, tax paid by Badaga to Kota (Ko.)(DEDR 5266). varur. shoots of rice soaked in water (G.); virad.a_ young tree sapling (M.); virad.he~ pulse made to sprout by soaking in water (M.)(CDIAL 11871). cf. pravr.ddha grown up, great (RV.); pavuddha, pavad.d.ha grown up, big (Pali)(CDIAL 8807). Millet: valla a kind of wheat (VarBr.S.); winnowing corn (W.); a kind of grain (Pkt.); va_la_ a kind of grain, millet (Pkt.); vali heap of reaped ears of corn (S.); val (L.); ba_l ear of corn (Ku.); ba_lo, ba_lr.o crops (Ku.); ba_lo ear of corn (N.); ba_li cornfield, crops, harvest (N.); balya_unu to pick off ears of corn (N.); ba_l ear of wheat (Bi.); ba_li_ ear of maize (Aw.); spike of corn (H.); standing crop (OMarw.); ba_lu_ beard of grain (esp. maize)(H.); va_l a kind of pulse (G.)(CDIAL 11425). va_lor. beans in a pod (G.); va_lol., va_ler a bean, a kind of vegetable (G.)(CDIAL 11426). Parched rice: la_ja fried or parched grain (VS.); parched grain (Pali); la_ya id., dried rice (Pkt.); lay pop-corn (K.); la_wa_ fried unhusked rice (N.); burst parched rice or other grain (Bi.); parched grain (Mth.H.); lia_, nia_ id., parched rice (Or.); la_i parched rice prepared with sugar (Bi.); la_i_ (H.); la_hi_ parched rice or wheat (M.); lada parched grain (Si.)(CDIAL 11011). Millet; reaping: la_w millet (Wg.); lau reaping (Psht.); la_va reaping, cutting (Skt.); rau millet (Kt.); la_u rice (Wot..); la_v reaping (K.); la_i_ wages for reaping (S.); la_vi_, la_i_ reaping, wages for reaping (L.); la_vi_ a day's labour at reaping (P.); la_u reaping (H.)(CDIAL 11031). la_vaka reaper (Skt.Pali); la_wa_ hired reaper (P.H.)(CDIAL 11032). la_van. row of 40 sheaves in harvest field (one of which is the reaper's wage)(L.); la_uni_ harvest (H.); la_n., la_n.i_ reaping (M.); la_n., la_n.i reaping (Konkan.i); la_yana cutting (Pali); la_hn.i_ reaping, rice or other grain (M.); la_n.i_ sickle (M.)(CDIAL 11035). la_vya to be reaped (Pa_n..com.); la_b harvesting (Br.); leaf (Ku.); la_bo leaf (Ku.)(CDIAL 11036). la_ba_ro harvest (S.)(CDIAL 11037). bel.e ka_tartso ve_l.a_, bel.e harvest; bel.ea_ci luun.i gathering a crop; bel.ea_luva_p, bel.ea_-luupa id.; luuntso ka_l the time of gathering (Kon.lex.) luban.u to be reaped (S.)(CDIAL 11038). lan:ka_ a kind of grain (Skt.); la~_k the grain lithyrus sativus (H.M.); la~_g (G.); la~_kh (M.); laka ear or spike of wild rice (Si.)(CDIAL 10898).

7802.Idle woman: vir..ali idle woman; worthless woman (Tiruppu. 890); vir..alan- worthless man, idler (Tiruve_n.. Cata. 86)(Ta.lex.) vr.s.ala little or contemptible man (RV.); vr.s.alaka a miserable S'u_dra (Uttarar.); vasala outcaste (Pali); vasalaka (more disparaging) (Pali); vasula term of contemptuous address (Pkt.); ve_salaga a S'u_dra (Pkt.); vasala outcaste; vahal-a_ slave (Si.)(CDIAL 12086). va_rs.ala condition of a S'u_dra (Pa_n..gan.a.); vaharala, veherala, varala slavery (OSi.)(CDIAL 11570). ir..ikulam low caste; ir..icin-armor..i vulgar dialect; corrupt language, as the spoken tongue of low, uncivilized people (Ta.); ir..icin-an- outcaste (Pur-ana_. 82); low, uncivilized person (Tol. Po. 649, Urai); ir..ijan- id. (Ka_cippu. Paracira_. 42); ir..iyin-an- id. (Ta.lex.) ir..ital to be degraded, disgraced, reduced in circumstances (Kur-al., 964); to fall, drop down; to be inferior, low in comparison (Tiv. Tiruva_y. 3,7,9)(Ta.lex.) Image: female dancer: vir-ali woman of the pa_n. caste; girl who is 16 years old; female dancer who exhibits the various emotions and sentiments in her dance (Tol. Po. 91); vir-al greatness; distinctive excellence; physical expression in emotion (Tol. Po. 249,Urai)(Ta.lex.) vila_sa sport, coquetry (MBh.Pali.Pkt.); bira_sa (OAw.)(CDIAL 11900). vila_sini_ coquette, mistress (Skt.); charming woman (Pkt.); vila_sin.i_ courtesan (Pkt.); bil.a_sun.i coquette, whore (Or.)(CDIAL 11902). mara_la soft, mild, tender (Skt.); mala_ka amorous woman (Skt.); mara_l. staying obstinately, lying down and pretending exhaustion (M.)(CDIAL 9873).

7803.Cuscus grass: va_laka the cuscus-grass; va_la the cuscus-grass, andropogon muricatus, hri_ve_ra (Ka.lex.) Cuscus-grass: ba_l.a the cuscus-grass; ba_l.a-ve_r the root of cuscus (Ka.lex.) va_laka a kind of andropogon (VarBr.S.); va_ro andropogon grass (S.); va_l.o (G.); va_l.a_ (M.)(CDIAL 11574). Andropogon muricatus is the source of the fragrant 'khaskhas grass' of India. bena andropogon muricatus (Santali. lex.) cf. vir..al cuscus, andropogon muricatus (Ta.)(DEDR 5428). vi_ran.a (Skt.)(CDIAL 13057). cf. ba_l.a cuscus grass, andropogon muricatus (Ka.)(DEDR 5374). ba_la andropogon (Skt.)(CDIAL 11574). cf. mut.i-va_r..ai cuscus grass, andropogon muricatus (Ta.)(DEDR 4924).

7804.Image: mythical animal: va_l.am a mythical animal (Na_mati_pa. 199); cf. vya_la (Ta.lex.)

7805.Image: circle: va_l.am circle (Pa_rata. Ka_n.t.ava. 11); va_la (Skt.)(Ta.lex.)

7806.Image: range of mountains: va_l.am a mythical range of mountains, cakrava_l.am (Ta.lex.)

7807.Image: swan: va_l.am the cakra bird, cakrava_kam (Kampara_. Pampai. 21)(Ta.lex.) Image: duck: hilla an aquatic bird (Skt.); hi_lai_ duck (Psht.); zalai duck (Ash.); jalai (Kt.); zelai (Pr.)(CDIAL 14117). cf. pul. bird (Ta.)(DEDR 4319).

7808.Image: scabbard- or horned-fish: va_l.ai scabbard-fish, trichiurus haumela; a freshwater shark, wallago attu; a sea-fish, chirocentrus dorab (Ta.); va_l.ami_n a fish, trichiurus (Ma.); ba_l.e t.lepturus (Ka.); ba.l.e mi.ni lady-fish (Kod..); ba_lad.e a kind of fish (Tu.); ba_l.a a fish (Kor.); va_luga a kind of fish; trichiurus lepturus (Te.); va_r.i a fish (Go. = va_luga (Te.); va_r ki_ke a fish (Go.); baleya_-injo_ a brownish variety of the magr.i_ or horned fish (Kur.); va_laja a fish (Pali)(DEDR 5379). Sea-fish: vari-k-ka_ral, vari-k-kar-r-alai, vari-k-kalava_y, vari-k-ko_la_ names of sea-fish, silvery or reddish or yellow brown or dark bluish green (Ta.lex.)

7809.Image: fish: ba_l.u, ba_l., ba_lumi_nu a kind of fish, ophiocephalus (Ka.); ba_l.egan. an eye like that of the ba_l.e (Ka.lex.) cf. ba_l., ba_l.u a knife, a sword (Ka.lex.) va_l.ai scabbard-fish, silvery, attaining 16 in. in length, trichiurus haumela (Ci_vaka. 1198); fresh-water shark, wallago attu; a sea-fish, chirocentrus dorab (Ta.lex.) va_l.ami_n a fish, trichiurus (Ma.); ba_l.e trichiurus lepturus (Ka.); ba.l.e mi.ni lady-fish (Kod..); ba_lad. a kind of fish; ba_lemi_nu id. (Tu.); ba_l.a a kind of fish (Kor.); va_luga a kind of fish, trichiurus lepturus, and certain other fishes (Te.); va_r.i a kind of fish ( = Te. va_luga)(Go.); wa_ri_-mi_n a kind of fish; va_r ki_ke id. (Go.); baleya_-ijo_ a brownish variety of the magr.i_ or horned fish (Kur.); va_laja a kind of fish (Pkt.)(DEDR 5379).

7810.Image: transverse lath; reeper: valiccai reeper (Ta.); valitsa (Te.); variccu reeper of a roof; transverse lath (Kampara_. Cittira. 46); variccal id.; valiccal-a_n.i nail for fastening reepers (Ta.lex.)

7811.Silk-cotton tree: ve_li red-flowered silk-cotton tree, bombax malabaricum (Ta.); vale_ki, vallek, velki_ silk-cotton tree (Go.)(DEDR 5539).

7812.Image: roar: olippu sonorousness, roar (Iraku. Irakuvur-. 30)(Ta.lex.) oli sound, noise, roar (Tiva_.)(Ta.); ulivu (Te.); uli (Ka.); oli (Ma.)(Ta.lex.)

7813.Image: chaplet of flowers: cf. oliyal chaplet of flowers (Pur-ana_. 76,7) (Ta.lex.)

7814.Part, fraction: pa_l right, title (Ta.lex.) pa_l part, portion, share, section, dividing (Ta. pa_l varai kil.avi part, share, fraction (Tol. Er..ut. 165); part (Ma.); division, part, portion, share (Ka.); pa_n-mai portion, share; nature (Ta.); pa.lm portion, division (Ko.); po.lm share; subdivision of patrilineal sib (To.); pa.li ma.d. to divide, distribute (Kod..); pa_lu share, portion, part, division (Tu.); id., lot, fraction (Te.); pe_la portion (Pa.)(DEDR 4097).

7815.Bark of tree: par.a ki- to peel; par.i bark of tree (Kond.a); pala id., peel (Pe.Kui); bark (Go.); pele id., skin (Mand..)(DEDR 4010).

7816.Image: winged white ant: por-li winged white ant; borli in: bur-na borli a beetle (Kond.a); porli a kind of insect (Pe.); pora a winged insect (Kui)(DEDR 4568). Ant: belo_, be_lo_ queen of white-ants (Kur.)(DEDR 5545). pipi_lika_, pipi_li, pipi_likai emmet, ant (Ta.lex.) pipi_la ant (RV.); pipi_laka large black ant (ChUp.); pipi_lika_ small red ant (AV.); ant (Pali); pi_laka ant (Skt.); pipillika_ ant (Pali); pipi_lia_, pipi_lia, pivi_lia (Pkt.); pi_milik, pili_k (Wg.); pilo (Gaw.); pel (Tor.); kipillaka, kipilika_ (Pali.); am.ba_-kipilika_ nom.pl., top; am.ba_-kapi_lika, am.ba_-kapilika a kind of ant (As'.); kiuli_, ki~uli_ (S.); kavi_li_ small red ant (L.); kamilo (N.); phi_wilik ant (Kal.); pehla_ large black ant (L.); pehli_ small red ant (L.); pe_la_, pe_li_ (L.); priuli ant (WPah.); prrolli, biuli (WPah.); pipi_l.i ant (Or.); pipli_hi_ (P.); phipili_, phempili_ ant (Dm.); pim.pad.a_ ant (OB.); pi_pi_r.a_ (MB.); pi~p(i)r.a_, pipir.a_ (B.); pimpur.i (Or.); pipr.i_ (Mth.); pipr.a_ large black ant (H.); pipr.i_ small red ant (H.); pippad.a_ a kind of ant (Pkt.); pipara_ at; paruwa_ ant (A.); pili_lyak ant (Kal.); pilili (Kho.); pilil (Bshk.); pili_lu (Phal.); phili_li (Sh.)(CDIAL 8201). pijinu ant (Tu.); hijini id. (Bel.)(DEDR 4137).

7817.A town: pippalanagara name of a town (Skt.); pimpaln.er name of a town (M.)(CDIAL 8207).

7818.Mimusops kauki: pa_lai silver-leaved ape-flower, mimusops kauki; seven-leaved milk-plant, alstonia scholaris (Ta.); pa_la echites scholaris, and various trees, including mimusops kauki (Ma.); pa.l marm an unidentified tree, prob. identical with To. pa.s- (Ko.); pa.s- a timber tree, ?sideroxylon (To.); pa_le mimusops kauki, alstonia scholaris (Ka.); pa_l, pa_lembu alstonia scholaris (Tu.); pa_lagarud.a id. (Te.); pa_la mimusops hexandra (Te.); ha_le mimusops kauki (Ka.)(DEDR 4100). chatni alstonia scholaris (Santali.lex.) cf. kut.akappa_la echites pubescens (Ma.)(DEDR 1650).

7819.Image: split piece of wood: palva split piece of wood (Pa.); palkna_ to cut lengthwise, split, crack (the earth, a wall), chap (the hands, etc.)(Kur.); palke to cut up (as fruit or vegetable)(Malt.)(DEDR 3991).

7820.Once-ploughed: papka (<pak-p-; pakt-) to crack, break up the earth at a first ploughing; n. act of splitting (Kui)(DEDR 3808). Image: split: pu_l. chip, slice, wedge; pu_l.uka to wedge asunder, chip, take the eatable part out of a stone fruit, extract a mango or coconut with a knife, slice (Ma.); pi.l. chip of wood, splinter, upright stick at end of ridgepole to keep thatch in place; u. piece (To.); h. one part or piece (Ka.); pu_l.u chip, small piece of anything, piece of betel-nut (Tu.)(DEDR 4377). pa.l. each seed section of a jackfruit (To.); be_l.e split pulse, the half of a seed of the guja or abrus precatorius (Ka.); be.l.e each of the halves of a seed that can be divided (Kod..); be_l. split pulse; bo_l. seed of a jackfruit (Tu.); be_d.alu pl. split pulse (Te.); ve.l. badly ground coarse flour (Ko.)(DEDR 4444). cf. palke to cut up (Malt.)(DEDR 3991). pul.l.e, pul.l.i a small bit of very dry wood (Ka.); pul.l.i fuel (Kod..); pull a split, splint (Tu.); pulla a small stick or twig (Te.)(DEDR 4328). cf. pol.i (-v-, -nt-) to chisel, split; pol.ivu chiselling (Ta.)(DEDR 4560). cf. hol.acu to pare off (Ka.)(DEDR 4561). cf. hu_lan.a_ to goad, thrust (P.); hul barb, sting, point, awn (B.)(CDIAL 14147).

7821.Cowry: palu cowry (Ta.lex.); pallu-kil.icil dentated conch (Ta.lex.)

7822.A country: pallavate_yam a country; perhaps pallava-de_s'am (Ta.lex.)

7823.Image: bridge; causeway: pa_li a causeway, bridge (Skt.lex.) pa_lam bridge; dam, embankment, projecting wharf, jetty (Ta.lex.) pa_l.am bridge (Ta.Tinn.); pa_lam bridge over rivers or to connect the walls of compounds (Ma.); pa.lm (obl. pa.lt-) bridge (Ko.); po.lm (obl. po.lt-) id. (To.); pa_la id. (Ka.); pa.la bridge made of tree, etc. (Kod..)(DEDR 4099). pa_er., pa_er ridge of a field (Or.); pa_l raised bank, dam, causeway (H.)(CDIAL 8041). pa_likai watercourse; pa_li, pa_la_r-u the river Pa_la_r which rises in the Nandidurg Hills in Mysore and flows through the districts of Salem, North Arcot and Chingleput (Kalin.. 354); pa_likai-pa_ytal to flow easily without the help of a dam (Ta.lex.)

7824.Image: toothed harrow, blade: halike a kind of harrow (Ka.); halive, halaku, halube, haluve a thick lengthy piece of wood with teeth or a kind of a harrow that iw drawn over ploughed land to level it and to cover seed when sown (Ka.); palugor-r-u (Te.)(Ka.lex.) cf. pal tooth (Ta.lex.) halu, hal, hallu a tooth; tooth of a saw; a step of a ladder; a spoke of a wheel; halugiri, palgiri to grin (Ka.lex.) cf. pal tooth (Ta.)(DEDR 3986). pallu-me_r..i a kind of plough used to harrow dry lands (Ta.lex.) bel.a, bel.asa_la kun.t.e an instrument for removing the weeds from both sides of a furrow of a green, growing crop (Ka.); bel.a-pola a field of standing corn (Ka.lex.) val.l.a-k-ka_l the bamboo lath connecting the levelling wood and the yoke of a field-leveller (Ta.Na_.)(Ta.lex.) palli a kind of harrow; palaki a kind of harrow; paluku harrowing (Ta.); halive, halaku, halike, halube, haluve a toothed harrow (Ka.); pal tooth (Ta.); palu-gor-r-u a kind of harrow (gor-r-u harrow, drill-plough)(Te.)(DEDR 3986). phal burst (Skt.); phala point of arrow (Kaus'.Pkt.); blade of knife (MBh.); point of arrow or sword (Pali); phal tip of arrow (K.); blade of mattock (K.); pharu blade, arrowhead (S.); phal blade (P.N.); phal, phala_ (B.); phal.a_ blade; phal.i_ arrowhead (Or.); phal blade (H.G.M.); phal.e~ spear-head (M.); pharha_ blade, nib (P.)(CDIAL 9052). phar, phari_ shoulder-blade of cattle; phara_ wooden scraper (L.); phar, pharh shoulder-blade (P.); phar, phara_, phare_ (also blade of thigh bone)(M.)(CDIAL 9053). paluk-at.ittal to draw a harrow over a field; paluku-k-kat.t.ai harrow (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) Wooden scraper: phara_ wooden scraper (L.)(CDIAL 9053). Wooden board in cotton-carding machine: pharha_ broad wooden board in cotton carding machine (Bi.); phareha_, paruha_ id. (Mth.); pharra_ plank (Aw.); phalha_ square wooden-frame (P.)(CDIAL 9053). cf. palakai plank (Ta.lex.) phalati splits, bursts (MBh.); pha_layati (Gr.); phalati splits (Pali); phalun to be split (K.); pha_le_ti splits (Pali); pha_le_i (Pkt.); phl- to tear (Dm.); pha_l- (Phal.); pha_lawun to split, cleave (K.); pha_liba to split, tear (A.); pha_l.n.e~ to tear (M.); pha_lita split (Pali); pha_lia (Pkt.); phalitaga some kind of horse feed (?split peas)(NiDoc.)(CDIAL 9058). Metal cast: pa_l.am metal cast in moulds (Ta.); ingot (Ma.); va_l.am id., bar of gold or iron; a hammer for the chisel (Ma.); pa_l.a ingot of gold or silver (Ka.); pa_l.amu, pa_l.a_ ingot (Te.)(DEDR 4114). me~r.he~t iron; dul me~r.he~t cast iron; me~r.he~t khan.d.a iron utensils (Santali.lex.) mal.v piece of iron used to strike chisel (Ko.)(DEDR 4749). mar iron hook with long wooden handle, used to loosen up straw that cattle are treading on threshing floor (Ko.)(DEDR 5083). cf. malk- (light) to flash (Pa.); mel- (lightning) to flash (Ga.)(DEDR 5079). lo_ha reddish; red metal, metal; lo_ha-man.i lump of gold (ChUp.); lo_s.t.ha lump of earth, clod (JUB. i.1.7.5); lo_ha_yasa copper; made of copper; lo_hita_yasa made of iron mixed with copper (TAr. i.17.2)(Vedic.lex.) bali, bhot bali iron ore; paghal pig iron; bali, luhui stone sand (Santali.lex.) cf. pakar..i arrow (Ta.Ma.) (DEDR 3806). cf. ayil iron (Ta.)(DEDR 192). cf. bi_d.u alloy of iron (Tu.); iron filings or dust (Te.)(DEDR 4218). ayas, a_yasam iron (Skt.lex.) ayas metal, copper, iron (RV. iv.2.17); iron-weapon (RV. vi.3.5; TS. iv.6.7.4); ayasta_pa ironsmith (VS. xxx.14; TBr. iii.4.10); ayaspa_tra an iron-vessel (AV. viii.10.22); ayasmaya made of iron or metal (RV. v.30.15)(Vedic.lex.)

7825.Scissors: pippalaka pin (Car.); scissors (Pali); pippala knife (Pkt.); pi_pla_ striking part of a sword (about a span from point), end or point of sword, metallic tip of sheath (H.); pi~pil.a_ instrument for cutting plantain leaves (somestimes fastened to a stick)(M.)(CDIAL 8206). pa_likai sharp edge of a cutting instrument; pa_l.ai spathe of palms; pa_l.ai-k-katti, pa_l.aiyariva_l. toddy-drawer's knife; pa_l.aiyaram a coarse kind of rasp, used in filing horse's hoofs; pa_likai handle of a sword (Ta.lex.) cf. alaku blade of a weapon, or instrument, heaf of an arrow (Ta.); lath, blade ofsword, knife, or spear (Ma.); alakku a pole with an iron hook to pluck fruits or leaves (Ta.); alagu, alugu blade of a knife, sword, etc. (Ka.); alu~gu tip of an arrow, sword (Te.)(DEDR 237). pallam a weapon, arrow (a_yirako_t. pallam, kambara_.na_kapa_ca.107; Ta.lex.); pallayam (Ta.); balleya (Ka.) a dagger (Ta.lex.)] Harrow: paluku harrowing (Ta.); haragu id. (Ka.Ta.lex.); paluku-k-kat.t.ai harrow (Ta.lex.); palaki a kind of harrow used for levelling the ground after ploughing (Ta.lex. cf. phalaka (Skt.); halike (Ka.); palakai levelling plank (Ga.lex.); palakai-na_kku (Ta.Ma.) blade of an oar (Ta.lex.) pallavam arrow (Ta. < bhalla)(ku_r-p-puru pallava-n-kon.t.a tu_n.i: kantapu.mu_nr.a_.yut.13; Ta.lex.); palli-y-a_t.utal to level a field with a harrow (Purana_. 120; Ta.lex.); pal-l-ir..aippul.i toothing-plane (Ta.lex.) pallu-vari brick on edge, as in buildings; tooth-like projections in interspaces, in cornice (Ta.lex.) Tooth: pal tooth (Ta.Ma.Ka.Kol.Nk.Ga.Go.Kond.a); palla elephant (Ka.); pallu tooth (Ka.Te.Kuwi); pall id. (Kur.); palu the teeth (Malt.); palu, pad.u id. (Kui); palugu blade of pickaxe, crowbar, etc. (Te.); pal sharp edge (usually plural)(Ga.)(DEDR 3986). palli a kind of harrow (Pur-ana_. 120)(Ta.lex.) Image: tusk: pal tusk (Pirapulin.. Kaila_ca. 14); tooth, fang; tooth of a saw or sickle; tooth of a comb (Ta.lex.) cf. palu-gor-r-u a kind of harrow (Te.)(DEDR 3986). Ploughshare: pha_la ploughshare (RV.Pali.Pkt.); mattock (R.)[Poss. influenced by Mu. or Drav. to account for early ph- (compounds also show -ph-, not -pph-); pha_ru ploughshare, steel edge of a tool (S.); pha_l ploughshare, metal blade of mattock, etc. (K.); pha_r ploughshare (Bhoj.Bi.Mth.H.); pha_l (H.L.WPah.A.B.); supa_r (Pers.); pa_l (Wg.); po_l (Kt.); phal (Dm.Sv.Kho.); pha_l (Tir.Pas'.); id. (Shum.Gaw.Sh.); pho_l (Phal.); pha_la_ ploughshare (L.P.Mth.H.); pha_lo (Ku.); pha_li (N.); pha_l.a, pha_ra (Or.); pha_ra_ (Mth.H.); pha_l. (M.)(CDIAL 9072). pha_la_r hole in the sole of plough in which share is fixed (WPah.)(CDIAL 9074). pha_la board, slab; pha_laka splitting (Pali); phal board; pailing, rail, stake (Gypsy); strip of wood (K.); pha_ra slice (S.); pha_l wedge (P.); pha_lo piece of wood or metal, iron bar (Ku.); pha_li thin strip of metal (N.); strip (A.); pha_la_ chip; pha_li strip (B.); pha_l.ia_ chip (Or.); pha_l lump of areca-nut; pha_r piece (H.); pha_l.o share (G.); pha_l. sli of wood (M.)(CDIAL 9073). Image: half a hide: pha_ri_ half a hide (Bi.)(CDIAL 9073). Sharpness; ploughshare: palam sharpness of a weapon, ploughshare; pallu-k-kalappai harrow consisting of a plank fitted with iron teeth and fixed to a plough; pallu-me_r..i a kind of plough used to harrow dry lands (Ta.lex.)

7825a.Image: point; sharpness: val. sharpness, pointedness (Ta.); valj- (knife) to have cutting edge (Pa.); var.s to be sharp (Kond.a); r.ah- (r.ast-) id. (Pe.); r.ah id. (Mand..); vele thorn (Mand..); vala point, sharp end, spearhead, sting (Kui); var.h (var.st-) to sharpen (Kuwi); r.e'- id. (Kuwi); r.emperi valli whetstone (Kuwi); le_'nai to sharpen (Kuwi); rechali to hone (Kuwi); repel vwalli whetstone (Kuwi); r.e_'- (-t-) to sharpen (Kuwi); r.e_ka vali, r.e_mpa vali, r.empori vali sharpening stone (Kuwi)(DEDR 5306). For -val: cf. mesi-val whetstone (Go.); vad.i, vali stone (Go.); vwalli, valli, (pl. valka), vali id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5285). vat.i sharpness (Ta.); va~_d.i sharpness, keenness, bravery, valour (Te.); va~_d. edge, sharpness (Pa.)(DEDR 5349). Sword: va_l. sword, saw (Ma.Ta.); ploughshare, scissors, sharpness (Ta.); va_l.i arrow; swordsman (Ta.); va.l. sword, saw (Ko.); po.l. sword (To.); ba_l.(u) knife, sword (Ka.); ba.l.i katti the long sword of the Coorg warrior (Kod..); ba_l.u, ba_lu razor, small knife attached to cock's spur when fighting (Tu.); va_lu sword; sharp (Te.); va_l.an sawyer (Ma.); va_l.i swordsman (Ta.)(DEDR 5376). karava_la sword (Skt.)(CDIAL 2796). cf. karat.u hard (Ta.)(DEDR 1265). Compound terms: ta_r..-p-pa_l. bolt, bar (Ta.); ta_r.. bolt, bar, latch, blocks in a wall to support beams (Ta.)(DEDR 3179). ta_d.a(ka)-, ta_la latch (Skt.); ta_l.a door-bar (Pali)(CDIAL 5749). Image: cross-bar for closing a gate: parigha iron bar for closing a gate (ChUp.); cross-bar (Pali); iron club (MBh.); paligha id. (Pa_n..); parigha_ta iron club (Skt.); pari_gha_ya destruction (Pkt.); pariha bar, bolt (Pkt.); paligha, palikha cross-bar (Pali); paliha bar, bolt (Pkt.)(CDIAL 7806). Leaf of yoke of a plough: palla_ leaf of the yoke of a plough (Bi.); palai_ id. (Bi.); pa_lo yoke of a plough (Bi.N of Ganges); pa_la_ yoke of a plough (Mth.)(CDIAL 7969). pharaut.a_ broad wooden board (in cotton-carding machine)(Mth.)(CDIAL 9059).cf. pa_l.am metal cast in moulds (Ta.); ingot; va_l.am id., bar of gold or iron; a hammer for the chisel (Ma.); pa_l.a ingot of gold or silver (Ka.); ingot (Te.); pa_l.amu id. (Te.)(DEDR 4114). cf. vallam a weight = 2 man~ca_ti (Na_mati_pa. 804)(Ta.lex.)

7826.Image: spot on dice: phala spot on dice (MBh.)(CDIAL 9051). Image: dice: val dice (Tol. Er..ut. 373)(Ta.lex.)

7827.Merchandise: val.am article of merchandise (Pu. Ve. 8,31)(Ta.); wealth, riches (Kur-al., 480); income (Kur-al., 51); valamai money, property (Tin.aima_lai. 85)(Ta.); val.am food (Kalit. 20)(Ta.lex.) val.ana_t.u fertile tract (Pu. Ve. 3,14, Kol.u); val.amaiyar agriculturists; wealthy, prosperous persons; great or excellent persons (Ta.lex.) Image: fullness: val.am abundance, fullness (Tirukko_. 118)(Ta.lex.) Growing: val.ar-tal to grow (Kur-al., 718); bal.e (Ka.); val.aruka (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) bel. growth, growing; bel.l.a_l.a a man of a certain agricultural caste; a rustic (Ka.); bel.ayisu to cause to grow or increase; bel.avala abundant growth: name of a fruitful tract of a country, partly belonging to Mysore, partly to south-Mahratta; bel.avige growth, growing up, increase; bel.asu to cause to grow; to increase; to grow; to raise as a crop; growth, increase; that which has grown and stands in a field: a crop of corn etc. growing, standing corn etc.; bel.ase millet or other grain not yet hard; bel.e to grow as corn, grass, trees; to increase; to grow, to raise as a crop; growing, growth; produce, crop; standing corn etc.; what is to grow: seed, seedlings; bel.ekey, bel.egey a field of standing corn, etc.; bel.e nad.u to plant seedlings; bel.e ma_d.u to raise a crop; bel.eyid.isu to have planted or sown; bel.eyid.u to plant; to sow; bel.iyuvike growing etc.(Ka.lex.) o_be_le the chorus of a song repeated by women while transplanting rice plants; ola-ma_yi pasture (Tu.lex.) cf. vel.l.a_l.an- man of the ve_l.a_l.a caste; vel.l.a_mai cultivation (Ta.)(DEDR 5507). cf. val. fertility, abundance (Ta.)(DEDR 5304). Cultivation: vel.l.a_mai cultivation (C.G.); vel.l.a_n.mai cultivation (M.M. 969)(Ta.lex.) Fertility; crop: val. fertility, abundance (Ta.); van.mai id. (Ta.); val.am, val.an- id., wealth, riches, article of merchandise, food (Ta.); val.appam fertility (Ta.); val.amai id., wealth (Ta.); val.amaiyar agriculturalists, wealthy prosperous persons (Ta.); val.avan- Co_r..a king (Pur-ana_. 7); agriculturist (Tiruppo_. Can. Tiruppal.l. i.8)(Ta.); val.arttuka to raise, rear (Ma.); val.l.al a liberal king (Ma.); liberal donor (Ta.); bal.e to increase, grow up (Ka.); bal.pal.a growth (Ka.); bal.apuni to grow, shoot up (Tu.); bal.apu growth, growing (Tu.)(DEDR 5304). Crop, produce, standing crop: vil.a crop of corn growing, vegetation (Ma.); vil.ai growth, ripening, produce, crop, yield; (-v-, -nt-) to be produced (Kur-al., 732); be productive, result, mature, ripen (as grain), occur; (-pp-, -tt-) to raise, cause to grow (Na_lat.i, 218); produce, bring into being (Pu. Ve. 2,14); vil.ai-nilam fertile ground, arable land, land suitable for raising crops (Na_lat.i, 133); vil.ai-ni_r water for irrigation (Tiv. Tiruppa_. 17, Vya_. Pak. 164) (Ta.); vil.accal produce, crop, yield, ripening grain, growth, ripening (Ta.); produce of corn, etc., corn grown ripe (Ma.); vil.avu id. (Ma.); vil.aiyul. produce, crop, one of six na_t.t.amaiti (Kur-al., 545); maturing (Malaipat.u. 171)(Ta.); vil.aivu crop, yield, produce, growth, ripening, maturity (Ta.); vil.ar fertility (Ta.); vil.aivi (-pp-, -tt-) to cause to grow, cultivate (Ta.); vel. crop (Ko.); pel. crop (To.); (food plants) grow (To.); (pel.t-) to grow (To.); bole crop (Kor.); bol.e crop (Kod..); bule, bul.e standing, growing corn, crop (Tu.); vil.ayuka to grow, grow ripe, grow richly or to perfection, produce (Ma.); vil.ayikka to cause to grow, cultivate (Ma.); buleti, bul.eti full-grown, ripe (Tu.); bel.e to grow as corn, grass, or trees, increase; bear a crop; n. growing, growth, produce, crop, standing corn, what is to grow, seed, seedlings (Ka.); bel.ayisu, bel.asu, bel.eyisu, bel.esu to cause to grow, increase, raise (crop), bring to maturity, rear, foster (Ka.); bel.eyuvike growing (Ka.); bel.asu growth, increase, crop of standing corn (Ka.); vel.v (vel.d-) to grow, become fat, (grain) ripens; (vel.t-) to cause to grow (Ko.); bol.e- (bol.ev-, bol.and-) to become full-grown (people, plants)(Kod..); bol.at- (bol.ati-) to grow (Kod..); bul.epuni, bul.eyuni, bul.evuni, bul.epa_vuni, bulepini, bul.epini to grow, ripen, be ripe (Tu.); bul.epud.uni, bul.epa_vuni to make grow, rear, raise as a crop, etc. (Tu.); bol.accelu ripeing (Tu.); boli to grow (Kor.); velayu to thrive, prevail; belayu to spread, increase (Te.)(DEDR 5437).

7828.Image: mosquito: olun:ku big mosquito; ulan:ku gnat, mosquito (Ta.); olun:ku a kind of mosquito (Ma.); olaji a fly (Kod..)(DEDR 1002).

7829.Image: to copulate: cf. o_l. to have sexual intercourse (Ka.); o.l.- (o.p-, o.t-) to have sexual intercourse with (Kod..); o_r.. to copulate; o_l. id.; o_ (-pp-, -tt-) id. (Ta.); ta_yol.i mother-lover (Ta.)(DEDR 1071). o_r.- to roll (Pa.); to lie down, sleep (Ga.)(DEDR 1072).

7830.Festival: o_kul.i, o_kal.i a red liquid of various ingredients which is sprinkled or squirted upon persons at the ho_l.i feast, at the close of a temple-festival, or at marriages (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.) cf. o_kal.i id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1028). ho_la_ spring festival (Skt.); ho_la_ka, ho_li_ (Skt.); ho_liya_ spring festival (Pkt.); hu_li (K.); hori_ (S.P.H.); pile of wood for burning at the spring festival (OAw.); holli_ spring festival (P.); holi_ (Ku.Bi.H.); holi, hori (N.Mth.); hli_ (A.); holi (B.); hul.i (Or.); hol.i_ (G.M.)(CDIAL 14182). cf. osage festival, joy, joyful occasion (Ka.); ukavai joy, happiness (Ta.)(DEDR 558). Festival: ho_l.i name of a female demon, a paramour of Ka_ma (Ka.M.); the ho_li_ festival observed on account of her death for the last three or four days terminating with the full moon of the phalguna month when Ka_ma is burnt in effigy; the red liquid (o_kal.i) sprinkled at that festival; ho_l.i-ya_d.u to sprinkle or squirt o_kal.i upon one another at the feast (Ka.)(Ka.lex.)

7831.Funeral pile: oliki a funeral pile (Te.); olngam blaze of fire; olip- (olit-) to char, scorch (Pa.); o_lna_ to be on fire, (crop) is scorched by excessive heat; olodna_ to set fire to, scorch (Kur.)(DEDR 1001). or.ma_ lampblack (Kur.); or.me ashes (Malt.)(DEDR 995).

7832.A country: ol.ina_t.u one of the 12 na_t.u lying on the outskirts of the cen-tamir..-na_t.u (Tol. Col. 400, Urai.); ol.iyar vel.a_l.as who were the dominant people in ol.i-na_t.u (Pat.t.in-ap. 274)(Ta.lex.) ho_lad.a_, ho_lara_ name of a place in Kashmir (Skt.); ho_la_ name of a town; ho_la_h- pl. a country of Udi_cya (Skt.); wolur name of a paragana (K.)(CDIAL 14181).

7833.Image: snake: ul.l.i, hol.l.e, ol.l.e a kind of amphisbaena (Ka.); ol.l.e pa.mbi water-snake (Kod..); ol.l.e, olle id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1018). vo_d.ra a kind of large snake (Skt.); bor.a_ a species of non-poisonous snake, boa constrictor (B.); viper (Or.)(CDIAL 12153).

7834.Pledge: cf. ol tribute (N.)(CDIAL 2559). olicai presents given by the near relations of the bride to the bridegroom on the fourth day of the marraige (W.); oli-tal to shoot forth; to be luxuriant; to prosper, thrive (Patir-r-up. 31,24); olittal id. (Pur-ana_. 137,6)(Ta.lex.) o_lu a bail, a security, a surety, a pledge; a hostage (Ka.); o_lu-ga_r-a a male bail, security or bondsman; a male hostage (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. hod.d.a, hud.d.a, hud.d.a_ wager (Pkt.); hod.a (S.); hor. (Ku.N.B.); ur.a vow (Or.); hor. wager (H.); hod.a wager, rivalry (OMarw.); hod. wager (G.M.); od.a bet, pledge (Si.); ot.t.u wager (Si.Ta.)(CDIAL 14175). Assembly of state: o_laga, va_laga service, homage; an assembly, a levee; an audience; a durbar (Ka.Te.Tu.); o_lakka (Te.); splendour, majesty (Ma.); o_laga i_ to hold a public levee or council; to pay homage, to be in attendance; o_laga-s'a_le a royal court; a hall of audience (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. o_lai palm-leaf (Tol. Po. 641)(Ta.); o_le (Ka.Tu.); o_la (Ma.); o_lai letter or any writing on a palmyra leaf (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) o_lakkam assembly of state, audience, royal presence, durbar (Tiv. Tiruppal.l.i. 9); o_lagamu (Te.); o_laga (Tu.); o_lakkam (Ma.); hall (Aric. Pu. Viva_ka. 37)(Ta.lex.) cf. polivu splendour, gold (Ta.)(DEDR 4551).

7835.Cart: or..ukai cart (uman.ar uppo yor..ukai yen.n.upa : Pur-ana_. 116); train of carts (Perumpa_n.. 63)(Ta.lex.)

7836.Image: separate: cf. bilaga separate (Or.OAw.)(CDIAL 11880). Image: to make into two: beu~_n.o to make into two, break into several pieces (Ku.); vibhe_de_ti causes disruption (Pali); vibhinatti breaks in two (RV.); vibhe_dayati causes to break (MBh.)(CDIAL 11819). vibhe_dana act of splitting (MBh.)(CDIAL 11818). cf. veggala separate, distinct (Pkt.)(CDIAL 11826).

7837.Bashful: vel.ku (vel.ki-) to be ashamed, be coy, bashful, fear, shudder, be perplexed; vet.ku (vet.ki-) to be ashamed, be bashful, be afraid; vet.kam, vekkam shame, modesty, bashfulness, coyness; vat.ku (vat.ki-) to be ashamed, be shy, bashful; n. shame, shyness, modesty; vil.i- (-v-, -nt-) to be overcome with shame; vil.ivu shame (Ta.); vel.kka to be ashamed, afraid; vekkam shame (Ma.); vekm (obl. vekt-) feeling of modesty, shame (Ko.); bel.kar- to become afraid, fear; bel.kane to turn pale through fear (Ka.); bol.cuni to shy, start aside suddenly as an animal; bol.ci, bol.celu shyness, starting aside, suddeenly; bol.ca_vuni to make shy; bol.acellu shying (Tu.)(DEDR 5500). vri_d.e shame, modesty, bashfulness (Ka.) (Ka.lex.) vri_d. be ashamed (Skt.); vri_d.ita ashamed, bashful (MBh.); vri_d.a_ shame, modesty (MBh.); vri_d.ate_ is bashful, is ashamed (MBh.) viliu_na (Pkt.); vilia ashamed (Pkt.); vili-ya shame, modesty (Si.); vid.d.a_, vi_d.aya shame (Pkt.)(CDIAL 12232).

7838.Incline, slope, slant: va_lu, o_lu to slant, slope, bend (Ka.); va_luvike sloping, descending (Ka.); v(r)a_lu to incline, bend, weigh down; slope, incline, slant, inclination (Te.); va_lucu to incline, bend (Te.)(DEDR 5369). ma_la, ma_lu sloping, slanting, slope, descent (Ka.); ma_lisu to bend to one side (as a post, etc.)(Ka.); ma_luni to lean, incline, reel (Tu.)(DEDR 4825). Images: row; slanting: va_ra, va_re declivity, sloping (Ka.Ta.Ma.)(ka.lex.) o_ran.a a line, a row (Ka.); o_l.i, o_n.i a continuous line, a row; a number, a mass (Ka.); o_li (Te.); o_l.a (M.); o_re the state of being aslant, leaning, oblique, sloping (Ka.); o_lu, ma_lu to bend (Ka.); va_lu, vra_lu (Te.); o_lu to slant (Ka.Te.); to hang, to dangle (Ka.); ve_lu, vre_lu (Te.); o_l swinging or dangling about (Ka.); o_rad.i sloping, declivity; variance, difference or unevenness in scales (Ka.); va_re (Te.); or-agu to be bent, to incline (Ka.); oragu, olan:gu (Tu.); ur-in:gu (Te.); ur-iccu (Ma.); uggu, oggu, or-agu, or-ugu (Te.)(Ka.lex.) o_ra_yam obliqueness, slantingness; the leeward or leaning side of a boat or other vessel (Ta.)(Ta.lex.) cf. por-i to inscribe (Ta.); pori line made on the soil of the field by the tip of the ploughshare (Tu.)(DEDR 4564). Image: to hang: v(r)a_lu to hang, be suspended, droop; v(r)a_lucu to hand, suspend; v(r)e_lu to hang, be suspended, be pendulous, droop; vre_l(u)cu to hang, suspend (Te.); ver.n:g- to hang, be suspended; caus. ver.h-, vehr.-, ver.c-, ver.hta_na_, var.ih to hang up; war.e_nga_na_, varenga_na_ to be hung up; war.hutta_na_ to hang; var.em an article on which something is hung, stalk of fruit (Go.); r.epa (r.et-) to hang up, suspend; r.aki hung, hooked; d.e_nga (d.e_ngi-) to be suspended (Kui); rec- to hang; lecali (let-) to hang up, deck oneself with flowers; lepi ki_ali to deck (another) with flowers; lepi aiyali to be hung; leh'nai to hang; lej- (-it-) to hang; le'- (-t-) id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 5495).

7839.Image: gambol: vil.aiy-a_t.u to play, sport, gambol, do and act light-heartedly, be playful, humorous, or funny; vil.aiy-a_t.al play, sport; vil.aiy-a_t.t.am, vil.aiy-a_t.t.u id., pastime, recreation, that which is done with ease, fun (Ta.); vil.ay-a_t.uka to play; vil.ay-a_t.t.am, vil.ay-a_t.t.u sport, play (Ma.); vila_sa (Skt.)(DEDR 5438).

7840.Celastrus paniculata: veln:gur celastrus paniculata (Pa.); wara_ngur., vara_ngur the ma_lka_gni tree, celastrus paniculata (Go.)(DEDR 5502).

7841.Image: tail: va_l < va_la tail (Na_lat.i, 213); va_lati < va_ladhi tail (Pa_rata. Ka_n.t.ava. 18); va_lam tail (Ka_cippu. Man.ikan.. 14)(Ta.lex.) va_lathi, ba_ladhi a hairy tail (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) Image: javelin: va_lam < bhin.d.i-pa_la short javelin (Kampara_. U_rte_. 69)(Ta.lex.)

7842.Side of the body: vilavu, vila_ sides of the body, rib (Ta.); vila_vu side, chest (Ma.)(DEDR 5425).

7843.A language: ba_labha_s.e the pra_kr.ta language (Ka.M.)(Ka.lex.)

7844.Lapis lazuli: ba_la-va_yaja lapis lazuli or a kind of turkois (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.)

7845.Prayer: pa_li invoking, addressing in prayer; a vow; pa_lipu to protect, vouchsafe (Tu.lex.) cf. pa_la protector (R.); pal support, protection (Si.)(CDIAL 8125).

7846.Earth: pa_lam earth (Upate_caka_. Civapun.n.iya. 222)(Ta.lex.) Pa_lgra_m name of a village in the Liddur valley (K.)(CDIAL 8127).

7847.Protector: pa_la protector (R.); herdsman (Mn.); pa_l(a_) shelter (H.); palo_(i) cattle-shed (Kal.)(CDIAL 8125). pa_la protector (R.); herdsman (Mn.); pa_laka guardian (MBh.);[originally l- form of pa_ra- bringing across (RV.)(CDIAL 8100)]; pa_la, pa_laya keeper (Pkt.); pale_ servant (Pr.); pa_l shepherd (K.); pa_lsi_ shepherd (Ku.); pa_lo guard (N.); -palla_ in: gopalla_ cattle-keeper (Si.); palo_(i) cattle shed (Kal.); palo_ (Bshk.); pa_lo young of animal (Sh.D..); pa_li_ herdsman, shepherd; deriv. of *pa_l flock (P.); pa_lo act of guarding (N.); pa_l flock (A.B.); pa_l.a herd (Or.); pa_l(a_) shelter (H.); pa_l.o flock (G.); pal support, protection (Si.)(CDIAL 8125). pa_lana protecting, nourishing (Mn.); pa_lana_ protection (Pali); pa_lanam., pa_lana_ (As'.); pa_lan.a (Pkt.); palna protection (Si.)(CDIAL 8128). pa_layati guards, protects (AV.); pa_le_ti guards (Pali); pa_le_i (Pkt.); paloiki (3 sg. pale_i) to hand something to someone (Sh.); pa_lun to protect; paluro_ kept (of animals)(K.)(CDIAL 8129). cf. -pa_la, pa_la- in cmpds.: ajapa_la, avipa_la, as'vapa_la,us.t.rapa_la, kalyapa_la, ko_t.t.apa_la, ko_s.t.hapa_la, go_pa_la, go_s.t.hapa_la, dhanapa_la, pas'upa_la, prapa_pa_li_, bhu_pa_la, mahis.apa_la, raks.apa_la, sa_mantapa_la, hastipa_la, karapa_la (Skt.) pa_lgra_m name of a village in the Liddur valley (K.)(CDIAL 8127). Army: pa_l.aiyam army, war-camp, village surrounded by hillocks (Ta.); pa_l.ayam camp, army (Ma.); pa_l.eya camp, settlement, hamlet (Ka.); pa_l.ya, pa_l.ye id. (Ka.); army, halting place (Tu.); pa_l.emu guard, camp, army (Te.)(DEDR 4117). Herdsman; shelter: pa_rayati brings over, rescues, brings to an end (RV.); is a match for (Mn.); is capable of (Skt.)(CDIAL 8106). cf. pa_ra bringing across (RV.); further bank, furthest end (RV.); pa_ri on the opposite side, across, through (S.)(CDIAL 8100). Food prescribed for a student: pa_li food prescribed for a student (Skt.); bread (Tir.)(CDIAL 8131). pa_li maintenance of a pupil by his teacher during the period of his studies (Skt.lex.) cf. pa_lita protected, guarded, preserved (Skt.lex.) cf. phali copper plate (A.)(CDIAL 9053). To protect, nourish: pa_layati guards, protects (AV.); pa_le_ti guards (Pali); pa_le_i (Pkt.); paloiki to hand something to someone (Sh.); pa_lun to protect, nourish (K.); pa_ran.u to support, supply with food (S.); pa_lan.u to maintain, rear (S.); pa_l.an., pa_lan., pa_lun. to nourish, feed up (L.); pa_lan.a_ (P.); pa_lan.o (Ku.); pa_lnu to keep, tame, go (N.); pa_liba to nourish, tend (A.); pa_la_ to rear, keep (B.); pa_l.iba_ (Or.); pa_lna_ (H.); pa_lai (OMarw.); pa_l.vu~ (G.); pa_l.n.e~ (M.); palun. to be nourished (L.); paln.a_ to be nourished, grow (P.); pala_unu to thrive (N.); palna_ to be reared, be fattened, become tender (H.); pal.vu~ to be nurtured (G.)(CDIAL 8129). pa_lana protecting, nourishing (Mn.); keeping going, living (Pali); pa_lana_ protection (Pali); pa_lanam., pa_lana_ (As'.); pa_lan.a (Pkt.); pa_l.an.a_ maintaining, saving (Or.); la_lan-pa_lan caressing and cherishing (H.); pa_l.an. preserving, nourishing (M.); pa_l.n.e~, pa_l.l.e~ cradle (Konkan.i); palna protection (Si.)(CDIAL 8128). cf. Suffixes with -pa_la : ajapa_la, avipa_la, as'vapa_la, us.t.rapa_la, kalyapa_la, ko_t.t.apa_la, ko_s.t.hapa_la, go_pa_la, go_s.t.hapa_la, dhanapa_la, pas'upa_la, bhu_pa_la, mahis.apa_la, raks.apa_la, sa_mantapa_la, hastipa_la, karapa_la (CDIAL 8125). Herdsmen's village; hamlet: pal.l.i place, hamlet, small village; herdsmen's village; town; hermitage, cell of a recluse; temple, place of worship, esp. of Jains and Buddhists; palace, anything belonging to royalty; workshop; sleeping place of animals; school; room, chamber; enclosure; petty rulers (Ta.lex.) pal.l.i-pat.ai temple erected in memory of kings (S.I.I.iii,24); performance of the last rites of burial or cremation, as of a deceased king (Ta.lex.) palli_ small village (Skt.Pkt.); pa~la hut (Si.); pa(h)la_ tiny hut made of leaves (Or.)(CDIAL 7972). Pal_gra_m name of a village in the Liddur valley (K.)(CDIAL 8127). pal.l.i-kampu-vaittal to plant a stick in front of the house of a person whose revenue is in arrears, indicating that his movements are restrained till he dues are paid (Ta.lex.) Household: pa_l covering of a roof (Ku.); pa_li lower edge of thatched roof (N.); pa_r.i, pa_ir. one of side pieces of thatched roof (B.)(CDIAL 8041). palva_r.o, palver.o wall or fence round a house, wall or screen round a roof, screen (S.); parva_r. a village fence, precincts of village or town (G.)(CDIAL 7874). parive_n.a monk's or nun's cell (BHSk.Pali); piriven, piriven.a (Si.)(CDIAL 7883). pal.l.i hamlet, herdsman's village, hermitage, temple (esp. of Buddhists and Jains), palace, workshop, sleeping place, school, room (Ta.); hut, small settlement of jungle tribes, public building, place of worship for Buddhists or foreigners, mosque, royal couch (Ma.); settlement, abode, hamlet, village (Ka.); hal.l.i id. (Ka.); hamlet, small village (Tu.); palli village, hut (Te.); village (only in place names)(Pa.); palli_ in: er.pa_-palli_ household, family establishment (er.pa_ house)(Kur.); palli_, pallika_ small village, esp. a settlement of wild tribes, hut, house (Skt.); palliya, palle small village (Te.); pal.l.i = palli (Te.inscr.); pal.l.i hut of a Poleye or Me.de (both low castes)(Kod..); mosque (Tu.); pol.y sacred dairy, matrilineal sib, Badaga house (To.)(DEDR 4018). cf. palli_, pallika_ small house lizard (Skt.); pa_l common house lizard (M.)(CDIAL 7973).

7848.Image: to split: pi_r-u to tear, rip, split (Ta.)(DEDR 4230). pi_li straw (Ma.)(DEDR 4216). pi_cu the fibrous parts of plants (Te.)(DEDR 4133). pil. to burst open, be rent or cut, be broken to pieces (Ta.)(DEDR 4194).

7849.Careya arborea: per..ai-maram carey's myrtle bloom, careya arborea (Ta.); pe_r..(u), pe_r..a id. (Ma.)(DEDR 4443). pi_lu fruit of a particular tree (AV.); the tree salvadora persica or careya arborea (Skt.); a particular tree (Pkt.); pi_luka a tree (Sus'r.); pi_lu_ salvadora persica (H.); pi_lur.i_ a bush with golden berries; pi_lur.u its fruit (G.)(CDIAL 8239). cf. gummur mara_ careya arborea (Pa.)(DEDR 1742).

7850.To talk in sleep: palavu, palavincu, palavarincu, paluvarincu to talk in sleep; palavaramu, palavarinta, palavarimpu talking in sleep (Te.); pulampu (pulampi-) to sound, speak foolishly or incoherently, wail, cry out, grieve, utter repeatedly; sound, foolish talk, lament, grief; pulampal sound, chattering, weeping, grieving; pulappam chattering, raving, lamentation; pula_vu (pula_vi-) to make noise (Ta.); pulampuka to sound, bemoan, lament, speak hastily; pulampal lamentation (Ma.); palumbu, halubu to lament (Ka.); poli- (-v-, -j-) to bark repeatedly (Kod..); palambuni to lament; polle slander, tale-bearing (Tu.); panavu, palumu, palavu to lament; palumu to prattle; prattle (Te.); polla noise, hissing of snake (Pa.); polo story, word, advice, answer, matter; pallo word, speech; pola language, speech (Go.)(DEDR 4304). palukku to be pronounced clearly, boast, speak (Ta.); helupu to speak like a madman while asleep; halebu to talk foolishly; haleveru to speak while asleep (Ka.); paluku speaking, word, sound, voice (Te.)(DEDR 3887). vipphalan. to talk in one's sleep; viphlan. to become confused from fear; viphalia_ being in second childhood (L.); bipphalna_ to be cross or refactory (P.); viphilan.u to talk in one's sleep (S.)(CDIAL 12015).

7851.Dry earth: pur..uti dry earth (Paripa_. 13,33); pur..utikka_t.u dry-ploughed field; pur..utikka_r a kind of paddy (G.Tj.D. I,95.); pur..utikka_l dry nacey land prepared for seed-bed, opp. to ce_r-r-ukka_l; pur..utina_r-r-u, pur..utikka_l-na_r-r-u paddy-seedling grown on dry seed-beds; pur..utikka_l-vitaippu, pur..utivitaippu, pur..utivirai sowing paddy on dry land previously prepared; pur..utinat.t.u plant growing on dry soil; pur..utippayir crop raised on pur..utikka_l; pur..utipa_t.u waste land (S.I.I. i,151); pur..utipo_t.u, pur..utivitaittal to plough and sow when a field is dry; pur..utiya_kku to plough nacey lands when dry; pur..utiyet.uttal to plough a field for the third and last time (Ta.lex.)

7852.Image: path; cross-mark: pul.l.at.i cross mark; caret to indicate the insertion of something omited in writing, as like a bird's foot; pur..ai forest-path (Pur-ana_. 98); narrow path, by-path (Malaipat.u. 194); pur-avi_ti street outskirting a town (Cilap. 14,118, Urai.); outer court of a temple, etc. (Ta.lex.)

7853.Eelephant's trunk: pur..aikkai elephant's trunk; elephant, as having a trunk; put.karam tip of an elephant's proboscis; pukar-mukam elephant, as having a spotted face (Cilap. 25,29)(Ta.lex.)

7854.Image: fish: pul.l.ikkalava_y spotted perch, reddish brown, serranus hexagonatus; a sea-fish, deep grey, serranus maculatus; pul.l.ittirukkai sting ray; pul.l.ittar-at.t.ai a sea-fish, silver, attaining, 15 in. in length, drepane punctata (Ta.lex.)

7855.Valuation of a standing crop: pul.l.i code-mark made on goods by a trader to indicate their value; mark on a piece of dice (Kalla_. 92,11); estimate; ledger; pul.l.ikkan.akku practical arithmetic, opp. to pal.l.ikkan.akku; valuation of a standing crop; budget estimate; method adopted by tradesmen in marking prices on cloth; pul.l.ikkan.akkan- one versed in the tradesmen's accounts; pul.l.ikka_ran- rich man; accountant; particular person purposely not specifided by name; pul.l.ikkuttutal to write accounts; to delete by placing dot or dots over a letter or letters, in cadjan writing (I_t.u, 7,3,4); pul.l.icco_r-u ancient tax for the maintenance of official estimators of the produce of fields; pul.l.i-y-it.utal to enter in an account (Maturaip. Patir-. 47); pul.l.i-vari catalogue; pul.l.i-pa_rppavan- id.; official estimator of the produce of fields before harvesting; pul.l.i-pa_rttal to estiamte the produce of a field before harvesting; to settle accounts (Ta.lex.)

7856.Trefoil: pul.l.u a species of tick-trefoil; pul.l.at.i id.; desmodium gangeticum (Ta.lex.)

7857.Omen birds: pul.l.uraittal to predict from omen-birds (Perun.. Ucaik. 56,234); pul.l.uvam cry of birds (Ci_vaka. 2039, Urai); pul.l.aracu king of birds, garud.a (Te_va_. 598,8); pul.l.u_r-kat.avul. Vis.n.u, as riding on Garud.a (Cilap. 17, A_t.unarppukar..tal); pul.l.o_ppu, pul.l.o_ccu to drive away birds, as from a cornfield (Ain. Aim. 47)(Ta.lex.) pul. bird (Cilap. 10,117)(Ta.); any small bird (Ma.); pil. bird (To.); pulu~gu id. (Te.)(DEDR 4319).

7858.Bracelet: pul. bracelet (Malaipat.u. 253)(Ta.lex.) pul.ekka to roll oneself (Ma.); pol.e to roll, roll about, move to and fro, move in a circle; pol.apu trembling, shaking, rolling; pol.ayisu to cause to roll, cause to go round in a circle, brandish (Ka.); polayu to wander, move about (Te.)(DEDR 4320).

7859.Image: bristling hairs: pulaka erection or bristling of the hairs of the body occasioned by delight, etc., horripilation (Ka.Skt.); pul.aka, pul.ake (Ka.); pulakita having the hairs of the body erect or bristling up (Ka.lex.)

7860.Image: insect: pulaka any kind of insect or vermin infesting animals (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) pun.ija a kind of insect (Ka.); pid.i~ju, pid.u~du, pin.u~ju, pin.u~du id. (Ko.); pun.d.a bamboo (Kod..)(DEDR 4270).

7861.Image: East Indian kino tree: puli east Indian kino tree (Tailava. Taila. 74); tiger (Ta.lex.) cf. semant.: ve_n:kai with the same two meanings: kino tree; tiger.

7862.A fragrant substance: pur..uku one of 32 o_ma_likai or fragrant substances put in water for drinking or bathing; pur..uku-campa_ a kind of fragrant paddy (Pata_rtta. 802)(Ta.lex.) pur..aku palas tree, pun-amurun:kai (Kur-icip. 96, Urai.); a plant with red flowers (Ta.lex.) pur..aku Mountain madar, calotropis (Malaipat.u. 219)(Ta.lex.)

7863.Civet: pur..uku civet, a fragrant substance (S.I.I. iii, 187)(Ta.); pun.ugu (Te.Ka.Tu.); pur..ugu (Ma.)(Ta.lex.) pun-uku civet; civet cat (Ta.); pur..uku, pur..u id. (Ma.); pur..a, pur..u, pun.ugu, pun.agu, punagu, punugu, pula civet (Ka.); pub.bekki civet cat (Kod..); pun.un:gu, pun.ugu, punugu civet (Tu.); punu~gu (Te.)(DEDR 4313). gandhama_rjara civet cat (Skt.lex.)

7864.A compound ointment: puli a compound ointment, one of na_lvakai-c-ca_ntu; a perfumed unguent for the hair (pulip pu_n:kur..ala_l. : Tan-ippa_. ii,5,8)(Ta.lex.) pula, pulaka_pu, pur..aka_pu; pula-ka_pu-se_ve the ceremony of undressing an idol, rubbing it with an ointment of civet etc., and sprinkling paccakarpu_ra powder over it (Ka.); pur..a a mixture of civet etc., which is smeared on idols, then removed, and sold at a high price (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pur..uku-ca_ttu-tal to besmear with civet as an idol (Ta.lex.) puli-tat.ukki curacoa aloes, aloe vera-officinalis, kar-r-a_r..ai; puliyukiri Mysore-thorn, caesalpinia sepiarie; puli-tat.ukki id. (Pin..)(Ta.lex.) For -tat.ukki and association with incense, cf. taduku, tadiku the gum olibanum, boswellia thurifera (Ka.lex.)

7865.Boat: bellem a simple, flat-bottomed dugout, rectangular in shape and decked at both ends, with an average capacity of 5 to 10 tons used in Mesopotamia. (Shereen Ratnagar, Encounters, the Westerly trade of the Harappa Civilization, Delhi, OUP, 1981, p. 180). pula_vuni to float; pulapa_vuni to cause to float; pulampuni to set afloat; pun.alu floating (Tu.); pun.aluni, punaluni to float (Tu.); bol.a id. (Kor.); pun.ai raft, float, ship (Ta.)(DEDR 4321).

7866.Forest: par..uvam forest (Ta.Ma.); par..u, par..uva forest, jungle (Ka.); pad.uva forest (Te.)(DEDR 4006).

7867.A doctor: halasiga a man who deals in medicinal leaves, a doctor; halasu, hal.asu (Tadbhava of panasa) the jack tree (Ka.lex.) Breadfruit tree: panasa the breadfruit tree, artocarpus integrifolia (MBh.Pali.Si.); its fruit (S'Br.); phalasa, phalino (Skt.); pan.asa (Pkt.); panas (B.H.); pan.asa (Or.); pan.as (M.); pan.asu (Konkan.i); panaha, pana_ (Si.); phan.asa (Pkt.); phanasa (Or.); phan.as the fruit; phan.si_ the tree (G.); phan.as (M.)(CDIAL 7781). palavu, pala_, pila_ jack-tree, artocarpus integrifolia (Ta.); pila_vu, pla_vu id.; pla_-k-ka_yi jack-fruit (Ma.); pala.v jack-gruit (Ko.); pas-of id. (To.); panasa, palasa, palasu id. (Ka.); palaci id. (Kod..); pila, pela a. integrifolia (Te.); peja a. pubescens, wild jack (Te.); halta mara jackfruit tree (Kor.); panasa jack-fruit (Te.); penac id. (Pa.); panis id. (Ga.); parha, panha, pan.ha_ id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 3988).

7868.Image: rope: palupu halter for cattle (Te.); palpu rope attaching bullock to plough (Kond.a); palpu_ straw rope (Kuwi); pala_pa- halter, rope (Skt.)(DEDR 3990).

7869.Images: sprout, twig, blossom; leaf: pallava sprout, twig, blossom (MBh.); sprout (Pali); sprout, leaf (Pkt.); pali_ leaves of gram and peas (used as vegetable)(S.); palli_ green leaves of gram (similarly used)(L.); pallhi_ (P.); pa_lo vegetation (Ku.); tuft of foliage (G.); paluwa_ new shoots or trees (used as fodder)(Ku.); pa_luwa_ sprig, shoot (N.); pa_la_ twig, bundle of twigs (B.); twig, tender leaves (H.); tuft of foliage, sprout (M.); pa(h)la_ tiny hut made of leaves (Or.); seedling (Or.Ganjam); pa_lu~ temporary shed of leaves (G.); pa_l tender shoots (G.); pa_lava sprout (OAw.); pa_lau twig, tender leaves, leaves of jujube tree (whence a_la_-pa_la_ leaves)(H.); palha_ id. (H.); palwa_ sprouts of sugarcane used for planting (H.); palai_ young branch or spray of a tree (H.); pa_lav tuft of foliage (G.); id., sprout (M.); pa_le~ foliage (M.); pa_lva_ green stick plucked from hedge (M.); pa_lvi_ the sprouting of plants (M.); pa_llo sprout, bud (Konkan.i); palla, pl. palu (Si.)(CDIAL 7969). Bud; articulation: pa_la_, pa_lav bud (M.); pa_lo, pala_v (G.); pal.u bone, articulation (Si.); pallava (Skt.)(Bloch, p. 362). Seedlings: palla, pa_la seedlings (Pa.); palle rice seedlings (Ga.); pala pl. palen seedlings for transplantation (Kond.a); pa_r.a seedling (Pe.); plaha id. (Kui); pa_la, pala rice seedling (Kuwi)(DEDR 3996). Greenness: pallavattiru < pallavadru As'oka tree; saraca indica; pala_cam, pala_cu leaf; greeness (Ta.lex.) pala_s'a green (VarBr.S.); palas'o green (Wg.); palase green, blue (Nin:g.); pala_ green (Wot..); pala green (Bshk. despite loss of -s'-)(CDIAL 8130). pala_s'a leaf, foliage (S'Br.); pala_sa leaf (Pali.Pkt.); pala_ha, pad.a_sa (Pkt.); palasa (Skt.); dahrti-pala_s' weeds (Kho.); palaha vegetables (OSi.); pala_ green, vegetables (Si.); fila_ (Md.)(CDIAL 7960).

7870.Image: cowry: palu cowry (Pu. Ve. 8,6, Urai.)(Ta.lex.) palakar-ai cowry; par-aiyalaku id.; palla_n:kur..i the game played with cowries, etc. (Ta.Ma.)(Ta.lex.) par..am winning points, as in a game of tick-tack; par..amet.u to win in dice or tick-tack (Ta.lex.) cf. phala gaming board (MBh.)(CDIAL 9053).

7871.Image; area of a circle: palam area of a circle (Ta.lex.)

7870a.A single grain:pulaka, pula_ka grain (Ka.lex.) Crop; grain: cf. semantics: pan.t.a crop (Te.); phla fruit (RV.); suphala_ ep. of furrow (RV.); phala seed of a fruit (Skt.); pho_r., pha_r. corn, fruit (Par.); pola_ (Wg.); pare (Kt.); wa_ (Pr.); palo_g (Kho.); phala_ (Sh.); phal fruit (K.L.P.WPah.); id. (Ku.N.A.B.OAw.H.)(CDIAL 9051). pol grain (Ash.); pul, pyur (Kt.); pol a single grain (Wg.); phalli_ grain (Tir.); wa_l numerative in counting grain (e.g. sa_te wa_l gum 7 grains of wheat)(Pas'.); phl a single grain (Shum.); pha_lak grain (Kal.); pholok (Kho.); phalu_r.i_ grain; phalu_r.o a single grain (Phal.); pholu a single grain, small amount of grain (K.)(CDIAL 9057). cf. parukkai, porukku single grain of boiled rice (Ta.); pra_lu rice (Te.); par.em (pl. par.ek) grain (of rice, etc.)(Go.)(DEDR 3982). phlati ripens (Pali); phalun bears fruit (K.)(CDIAL 9057). pala_lam < pala_la straw (Tiruvil.ai. Man.cuma. 4)(Ta.lex.) Fruit; harvest time: phalati bears fruit (MBh.); ripens (Pali); phalai bears fruit (Pkt.); phalun (K.); pharan.u to be fruitful, be with young (S.); phal.na_ to bear fruit (P.); phaln.o (Ku.); phalnu (N.); phaliba (A.); phala_ (B.); phal.iba_ (Or.); phar.ab (Mth.); pharai (OAw.); pharab (OAw.); phalna_ (H.); phal.vu~ (G.); phal.n.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9056). phalata_ the being fruit (Skt.); condition of bearing fruit (Pali); phalay season of fruiting, harvest-time (for grain crops)(K.)(CDIAL 9056). phalin bearing fruit (RV.); phalita (MBh.); fruitful (Pali); phalia (Pkt.); phali (N.); phal.i_ (MBh.); phali_ (H.); phaliya_na_ to bear fruit (H.); phalilo (N.)(CDIAL 9060a). phalph grow, increase (Ka_tyS'r.com.); viphalpha, vipharpha abundant (Ka_tyS'r.); pha~_pna_ to swell (H.)(CDIAL 9066). phalya collection of fruit (n. flower, bud)(Skt.); phall fruit (L.); pha_l crop, abundance (G.)(CDIAL 9067). Ripeness: par..u to ripen (Ta.); par..am ripe fruit (Ta.Ma.); pan.n.i fruit (Kod..); par..uka to grow ripe (Ma.); pan.d.u to ripen, mature (Te.); pan.t.a produce, crop, ripening (Te.); pand. to become ripe (Nk.); matures (Pa.); band. (leaves) to turn yellow (Go.); pan.d.- to ripen (Kond.a)(DEDR 4004). Increase: br.h increase (Skt.); br.m.hati is thick, grows strong (S'Br.); br.hati (AV.); br.m.hayati increases (MBh.); ba_jhn.e~, ba_jn.e~ (ba_dn.e~) to bear (of fruit or flower trees); ba_jh crop (M.)(CDIAL 9306). pa_ru to grow, become (in several cmpds.)(Ka.); pa_r-u to grow, become (in cmpds.), occur, happen (Te.)(DEDR 4119). Grey; white: puls- (pulust-) (hair) becomes grey (Kol.); pul.s- id. (Nk.); pulc- id. (Pa.); pir.s-, pid.ca_na_, pir.ca_na_, pirca_na_, pir.c- (pir.'t-) id.; pin.sk- id. (Go.); pun.d.na_ to become hoary, grey in hair; pon.d.na_ (pun.d.yas/pon.d.os) id., get mouldy or musty (Kur.); pond.e id. (Malt.)(DEDR 4325). Ripening: par..u (-pp-, -tt-) to ripen (as fruits, grain), become pale or yellowish (as the body by disease), change colour by age; n. ripeness, yellowness (of fruits)(Ta.); par..uppu ripening of fruit (Ma.); pan.d.u to ripen; adj. ripe, mature; pan.t.a produce, crop, fruit, ripening (Te.); pand.ud. ripe fruit (Kol.); pand.- to become ripe (Nk.); par.n- (hair) to become grey (Ga.); pand.- (hair) to become grey; (leaf) to become yellow (Go.); bhand.a_na_, bha_nd.a_na_ to wither (leaf)(Go.); pan.d.- (hair) to become grey; to ripen; pan.d.is- to cause a crop to grow (Kond.a); band.- (leaves) to turn yellow (Go.); pan.t.a a crop; year (Kond.a); pa~_nna_ (panja_) to ripen, have a yellowish appearance (as after a prolonged illness)(Kur.); panjka_ fruits (Kur.); pand.u ripe fruit (Kuwi); pne to ripen; panjek, panjeke ripe (Malt.)(DEDR 4004). pun.d.ra pale; white lotus flower (Skt.); pum.d.a white (Pkt.); paun.d.ra straw-coloured sugarcane (Sus'r.); pu_t.u, pu_t.i red; pu_t.u rainbow (Pr.); pud. red (Kt.); pun.d.ar white (P.); pu~r.i ga_i a partic. kind of red cow (N.); pu~r. sugarcane; pu~r.i a red variety of sugarcane (B.); pu~d.a_ white (of cattle)(M.); pud.a_, pu~d.a_ u_s, pu~d.ya_ a variety of sugarcane (M.); pom.d.a white; a variety of sugarcane (Pkt.); pon.d.a_, ponna_, pona_ (P.); po~d.a_, po~d.a_ u_s (M.); pau~r.o (Ku.); pau~d.a_ straw-coloured or red variety of sugarcane (H.); mikir-pura_ a variety of sugarcane (A.)[Mikir are a hill tribe in Assam](CDIAL 8259). pun.d.ra name of a people (AitBr.); pun.d.raka (Mn.)[orig. 'light-skinned']; pu~r.i name of a caste (B.)(CDIAL 8260). cf. put.akin-i cluster of lotus flowers; lotus-pond (Ta.lex.) pun.d.ari- in cmpd. 'lotus' (TS.); pun.d.arin hibiscus mutabilis; pun.d.arya a medicinal plant for sore eyes (Skt.); pu~d.ri_, pu~d.ariya_ a medicinal plant the juice of which is used for diseased eyes; panir.i_ id. (H.)(CDIAL 8257). pun.d.ari_ka white lotus flower (RV.); white lotus (Pali); pum.d.ari_a, pum.d.ariya, pom.d.ari_a, pom.d.ariya (Pkt.); pand.era, pand.uru id. (Si.)(CDIAL 8258). pa_n.d., pa_n.d.a, pa_n.d.u (Skt.) pa_n.d.ara whitish-yellow, yellow, pale, white (S'Br.); pa_n.d.ur (R.); pan.d.ara white, pale, yellowish (Pali); pam.d.ara white (Pkt.); pnra, prna white, snow, lime (Gypsy); parna white (Tir.); pan.ar, pana (Bshk.); panaro (Chil.); panara (Mai.); para~r.o (Sv.); pana_ru (Phal.); pan.e_ri white of the eye (Phal.); pa_n.d.ara_ yellowish-white, grey; pan.d.ara_ white (Or.); pa~_d.ra_ species of sugarcane (H.); pand.ara, pand.uru whitish, yellow, white lotus (Si.); pa~_d.ri_ white chalky soil (H.); pam.d.ura, pam.d.uraya, pam.d.uria white (Pkt.); pa_n.d.ura_ (Or.); pa~_d.har white soil (M.); pa~_d.hra_ white (M.); pa~_d.hurka_ whitish (M.)(CDIAL 8047). cf. pan.t.u ripe (fruit) (Te.lex.) pr~a~_se grey (Wg.)(CDIAL 8050). pa_n.d.u white, yellowish, pale (S'Br.); parno white; par.no, pa_rni chalk (Gypsy); pan.d.u yellowish, reddish (Pali); pam.d.u whitish yellow, white (Pkt.); pa~_d.u_ white clay mixed with water and used by children for writing on wooden tablets (P.); pan.d.ua_ ka_bata_ a kind of big dove; pan.d.ia_ grey (Or.); pan.d.u yellowish, brown (Or.); pand.u whitish, yellow (Si.); pam.d.ullaiya white (Pkt.); pnd.ili white, whiteness; pd.ili white (Si.); pronu white, pure, clean; pranun to become white (K.); pad.d.a white (Pkt.)(CDIAL 8051). cf. pan.d.u ripe fruit (Te.lex.)

7872.Spinach: pa_lakya_ beta bengalensis (Car.); pa_lan:ki_, pa_lan:kya (Skt.); pa_lakka_ a kind of spinach (Pkt.); palak, pala_k spinach, a kind of hot green vegetable eaten raw with bread (Kho.)[cf. pa_li bread (Tir.); food prescribed for a student (Skt.)(CDIAL 8131)]; pa_lakh, pa_laki spinach (K.); pa_laka spinachia tetranda (S.); pa_lak beta vulgaris (P.); a kind of winter vegetable (Ku.); s. oleracea (Bi.); a sort of spinach (H.); pa_lki_ s. oleracea (Bi.); pa_lak(h) beet (M.); pa_lam.ka, pa_lam.ga_ a sort of vegetable (Pkt.); palan. greens (Pas'.); pa_lan. a kind of winter vegetable (Ku.); pa_lun:go a kind of spinach (N.); pa_lan:ka, pa_lan:ga beet, spinach (Or.); pa_lan., pa_len. s. oleracea (A.); pa_lan., pa_lam spinach (B.); pala~_k(i_) s. oleracea (Bi.); pala~_ki_ (Mth.)(CDIAL 8126). pacal.ai spinach, spinacia oleracea; purslane, portulaca quadrifida (Ta.); dumpa-baccali, mat.t.u-baccali s. tetranda (Te.); paciri, payiri creeping purslane, p. quadrifida; vacalai, vacal.ai, vayalai, vayal.ai purslane, p. quadrifida (Ta.); baccali, baccale spinach (Ka.)[ s. oleracea = s. tetranda](DEDR 3824).

7873.Tip of an elephant's proboscis: put.karam tip of an elephant's proboscis (Ta.lex.)

7874.Image: covering (among animals): poli, policcal, polippu, polivu covering (among animals)(Ta.); pulku, pullu to copulate, embrace; poli to cover (bull or ram)(Ta.); pulkuka, pulluka to copulate, embrace (Ma.)(DEDR 4308). cf. buli vulva, anus (Skt.); buri vulva (BHSk.); bul backside, anus, vulva (Gypsy); bu_ri vulva (Mth.); bul, bur, bur. (H.)(CDIAL 9291). Image: penis: bulla, bulli male generative organ (Ka.); penis (used with reference to a child)(Te.)(DEDR 4309). buli_, bulli_ a child's organ (M.); bulli_ penis (L.); buli_ penis puerilis (M.)(CDIAL 9292). Image: to copulate: cf. o_l. to have sexual intercourse (Ka.); o.l.- (o.p-, o.t-) to have sexual intercourse with (Kod..); o_r.. to copulate; o_l. id.; o_ (-pp-, -tt-) id. (Ta.); ta_yol.i mother-lover (Ta.)(DEDR 1071). o_r.- to roll (Pa.); to lie down, sleep (Ga.)(DEDR 1072).

7875.Crane: pukar crane (Aru. Ni.); cf. baka (Ta.lex.) pul. bird, fowl (Kur-al., 274); a kind of bird (Cilap. 10,117); pul.varukkanu_l ornithology; pul.va_ykki_n.t.o_n- Kr.s.n.a, as having torn the mouth of Baka, an Asura who had the form of a crane (Ce_tupu. Ilakkumi. 5); pul.l.at.i bird's foot; pul.l.am billhook; pul.l.aracu Garud.a, king of birds (Te_va_. 598,8)(Ta.lex.)

7876.Lump of boiled rice: pula_ka lump of boiled rice (Skt.); pula_ko_daka rice-water (Sus'r.); pula_ dish of rice and meat (L.); pula_u, pala_u dish of rice boiled in soup with meat and spices (H.); pila_v (Pers.); pula_v, pala_v (G.)(CDIAL 8295). cf. pulai animal food, stench; pulaicu raw meat; pulavu, pula_l flesh, raw meat, fish, smell of flesh or fish; pulavu to smell raw flesh (Ta.); poralu, poral.u fishy smell; pura_l.u bad smell as of a boil (Tu.); pola, polasu flesh, smell of flesh (Te.); pala, palala flesh, meat (Skt.)(DEDR 4552). pur..un:ku to be steamed, parboiled, stew (Ta.); pur..ukkal cooked rice, anything slightly boiled (Ta.); pur..un.n.uka to be boiling, stewed, steamed, parboil (Ma.); pus.k to boil (potatoes)(To.); pur..gi, puggi rice boiled with pulse, salted or sweetened (Ka.); purguni to be well-boiled (as rice)(Tu.); purga overboiled rice (Kor.); pulagamu rice boiled with green dal (Te.); pu_xna_ to boil (Kur.); puge to boil (Malt.); pugpe, pupge boiled grain (Malt.); palhing to be boiling, on the boil, stewed; boil with rage (?Br.)(DEDR 4315). pr.thuka flattened rice or grain (TBr.); puthuka rice in the ear (Pali); pihuya, pahum.ka flattened rice (Pkt.); pahu~a_, pau~(v)a_ pl. rice parched and beaten flat (G.); poha_ (usu. pl. pohe, pohu_, phau)(M.); pho_vu (Konkan.i)(CDIAL 8359).

7877.Massage: pilhing, princing to squeeze, squeeze out, massage, press hard (Br.)(CDIAL 4183). cf. pir..i-tal to squeeze (Ta.lex.)

7878.Dalbergia oujeinensis: hulivili, huligali the tree dalbergia oujeinensis; ibad.i, ibbad.i, bi_t.i a kind of blackwood tree, dalbergia latifolia (Ka.lex.) hulive the timber tree terminalia paniculata (Ka.lex.)

7879.Image: tiger: huli, puli a tiger; huligod.u a tiger to join (Ka.lex.)

7880.Pongamia glabra: huligilu, puligil, pulin:gil, huligili the Indian beech, frequently planted on roadsides, pongamia glabra; pujju id. (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) nakta-ma_la dalbergia arborea or the tree pongamia glabra (Ka.lex.) ciravilva the tree pongamia glabra; karaja, karajaka, ka_ra_ca a timber tree, the Indian beech, pongamia glabra (Ka.Skt.)(Ka.lex.) birnju a small forest tree, bauhinia malabarica; bir hor.ec a common jungle plant, atylosia scaraboedois; bir ghan:gra a common jungle plant, a broad leaved form of vigna vexilata; bir but. a plant common in the jungles, flemingia congesta; the name 'wild gram' is given because the fruit, which is also eaten, resembles that of the cultivated but. or gram (Santali.lex.) pun-ku, pun:ku, pun:kam, pu_nti Indian beech, pongamia glabra; rosewood, dalbergia lanceolaria (Ta.); pun.n.u pongamia glabra; un.n.u bauhinia variegata (Ma.); hon:ge pongamia glabra; dalbergia oujeinensis = ougeinia dalbergioides; puligil, pulin:gil, huligilu pongamia glabra; huligali, hulivili, hulige dalbergia oujeinensis (Ka.); pun:gu dalbergia oujeinensis (Tu.)(DEDR 4341). cf. korn:gu-mara Indian beech tree (Tu.)(DEDR 1507). koroj, kuruj pongamia glabra (Santali.lex.) karaja pongamia pinnata (Car. Su. 3.3,13,14). karaja pongamia glabra = galedupa indica = galedupa arborea (Skt.)(CDIAL 2785). Pongamia pinnata = pongamia glabra: karanja (Skt.H.); dahur karanja (B.); karanj (M.P.); punnu (Ma.); pungu (Ta.); kranuga (Te.); seeds: used as external application in skin diseases; oil from seeds: useful in cutaneous affections, herpes and scabies; used in rheumatism; fresh bark: used internally in bleeding piles; leaves: in form of a poultice applied to ulcers infested with worms; all over India (GMIP, p.201). cf. pun:ku Indian beech, pongamia glabra (Ta.)(DEDR 4341). Pongamia glabra = pterocarpus flavus = galedupa indica = dalbergia arborea: It occurs in tropical Asia, across Malaya to Australia, and in Polynesia... the leaves are ovate... pointed at the tip and usually rounded at the base... The bark is used for making strings and ropes. The seeds yield a red-brown, thick oil known as pongam oil. Chopra calls the oil pangamol or hongay oil. The oil is employed for illuminating and for medicinal purposes and should also be useful for the manufacture of soap and candles. Burkill says that the leaves are resorted to as fodder in India. The roots and seeds are used as fish poison in Australia and Madoera... the seeds yield yellow oil... In the Philippines a decoction of the leaves is given to children with a cough. The juice of the leaves is used against itches and herpes... a remedy for gonorrhoea in Tanjore... A decoction of the leaves is applied as a bath or fomentation to the rheumatic joints... The pulp of the seeds is applied in leprosy... According to Nadkarni, the oil has antiseptic and stimulant healing properties and is applied to skin diseases, scabies, sores, and herpes... applied in muscular and articular rheumatism. (Medicinal Plants of the Philippines, pp.424-426).

7881.Liquor: ha_le the vinous juice of the palm, spirituous liquor (Ka.lex.)

7882.Mimusops elengi: hallu maddu gid.a the tree mimusops elengi, ke_sara, vakula, paval.ada huvvina gid.a, vajradanta gid.a (Ka.lex.) ha_le the tree mimusops kauki; the tree alstonia sholaris (Ka.lex.) cf. ha_lu mad.d.i a kind of incense, turus.ka, pin.d.aka, sihla, ya_vana, tudukina mad.d.iyemba dhu_pa, anduka bon:ka (Ka.lex.) cf. tuduku = tadiku = taduku the gum olibanum tree, boswellia thurifera (Ka.lex.) haluma_n.ika, han.uman.ikya a thorny shrub or tree, flacourtia sepiara or flacourtia sapida, sruva_vr.ks.a, granthila, vya_ghrapa_d, ghal.agho_n.t.e; haluma_n.ikamara id.; na_yibe_la, hul.i_ be_la (Ka.lex.)

7883.Image: jungle fowl: pu_r.. quail (Kalit. 95); jungle fowl (Aric. Pu. Vaca. 39)(Ta.lex.) cf. pul. bird (Ta.)(DEDR 4319).

7884.Image: to bore, riddle: cf. pur..ai to bore, riddle (Kampara_. Kaike_ci. 85)(Ta.lex.) Image: gimlet: cf. purai tubular hollow (puraippurai kan-iyap pukuntu : Tiruva_ca. 22,3); tube, pipe (Ta.); pur..al tube, anything hollow (Cir-upa_n.. 134)(Ta.lex.) burma, burmu a gimlet; berpuri a borer; perepini to bore (Tu.)(DEDR 4297). cf. bayrige, bayrage, barama_ a kind of auger, a gimlet (Ka.lex.) puri, huri twisting; that is twisted: twist, twine, string, pack-thread (of cotton thread or fibres)(Ka.Te.Ta.Ma.); piri, puri to twist (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) cf. po_r, o_r, hodaru, ho_ru a hole (Ka.); po_r- to cleave, split (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) cf. po_r-ai hole (Ta.)(DEDR 4604). cf. pur..ai hole (Tirunu_r-. 23); pur..a id. (Ma.); pur..aittal to bore, riddle (Kampara_. Kaike_ci. 85)(Ta.lex.) cf. pol., pol.l.al hole (Ta.)(DEDR 4560). ul.i chisel, burin (Ta.Ma.); chisel (Tu.)(DEDR 699). uruvu (uruvi-) to pierce through, penetrate (as an arrow, a needle)(Ta.); uruvuka to pierce through, penetrate (Ma.); urcu, uccu to enter into and go out on the other side, penetrate (Ka.); urumbuni, rummuni to bore (Tu.); uccu to enter, penetrate, pierce (Te.); uh- (ust-) to pierce; uh- to stab (Kuwi); hurna_, hur.na_ to strike at and penetrate without piercing, goad, thrust something pointed into cavity (e.g. pick teeth)(Kur.)(DEDR 663).

7885.Image: coiled snake: pul.ekka to roll oneself (Ma.); pul.ayuka snake to twine itself round the body of men or beasts (Ma.)(DEDR 4320). cf. poje to entwine (Malt.)(DEDR 4479). var..alai ground snake, lycodontidae (Ta.); var..ala a kind of snake (Ma.)(DEDR 5294). Image: snake: ul.l.i, hol.l.e, ol.l.e a kind of amphisbaena (Ka.); ol.l.e pa.mbi water-snake (Kod..); ol.l.e, olle id. (Tu.)(DEDR 1018).

7886.Basket of goods: po_r..a-p-pet.t.i palmyra basket of fancy shapes, coloured attractively; lacquer plate containing coconuts, arecanuts, betels and plantains carried to the bride's house by the bridegroom's party in a marriage; pir..a_ round wicker-basket (Perumpa_n.. 276); baling basket (Cilap. 10,111); large vessel, receptacle; pir..ar--pey-man.t.ai earthen basin for sprinkling water used in cremation (Man.i. 6,92)(Ta.)(Ta.lex.)

7887.Image: fencing: cf. poyyuka to fence, fight (Ma.); poyttu fencing, fight, duel (Ma.); poylu, poyi, puyal, puyyal beating, striking (Ka.)(DEDR 4534).

7888.Images: open eyes; search: bha_l. expectation; bha_ hope (WPah.); dekh-bha_l heed, attention, care (N.); bha_l. search, investigation (G.)(CDIAL 9473). bha_layate_ describes, beholds (Dha_tup.); ba_li to see (Gaw.); ba_lnu (K.); bha_lan. to seek, search (L.); to open the eyes, see (L.); bha_ln.a_ to seek, ask for, see (usu. with vekhn.a_)(P.); bha_ln.u to keep in sight (WPah.); bha_ln.o to examine, test, supervise, detect; bhau~r.e to observe, see (Ku.); bha_liba to like (A.); bhela_ to see (B.); bha_l.iba_ to reflect, regret (G.); dekhna_-bha_lna_ to see (H.); bha_l.vu~ to observe (G.); balanava_, pp. blu to look at, see (Si.); balan (Md.); bha_rvu~ to charm (G.); bha_l.n.e~, bha_rn.e~ (M.)(CDIAL 9474). cf. pa_r (-pp-, -tt-) to see, look at, examine, inspect, know, look for, desire, search, look after; pa_rvai looking, eye, appearance etc. (Ta.); ha_raysu to look for, get a long after, desire (Ka.); pa_ra guard, custody, keeping (Tu.); pa_ruva sight, glance (Te.)(DEDR 4091). cf. ol.i (-v-, -nt-) to hide, steal away (Ta.)(DEDR 1015). cf. o.l- (o.lt-) to see, look at (Kol.)(DEDR 1066). cf. a_lay(i)su to listen, attend to (Ka.)(DEDR 383).

7889.A plough-field: hola, pola a ploughed-field; a corn-land; valaja id.; pulam id. (Ta.Ma.); pola a place (Ka.); hola-ma_t.u to till the ground; hola-me_re a boundary, a limit (Ka.)(Ka.lex.) pulam arable land, rice field (Ta.)(DEDR 4303).

7890.Image: gate: pol.i street (G.); paul., pol. wall of loose stones (M.); pauri gatepost (OAw.); paur, pauri_, pa~war, pa~wari_ gate, door (H.); prato_li_ gate of town or fort, main street (MBh.); pao_li_ city gate, main street (Pkt.); praul., paul., paul.i gateway of a chief (WPah.); prol. village ward (WPah.); paul, pol gate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate (H.); pauli_ gate (H.); poli door (OG.)(CDIAL 8633). pauliya_, poliya_, pauriya_ gatekeeper (H.); pol.iyo (G.)(CDIAL 8632). pa_vu path (Nk.); pa_b road, path, journey (Kur.); pawu way, path, road (Malt.)(DEDR 4108). pur..ai entrance, gate, hole, tube, forest path (Ta.); pur..al drain (Ta.); pu_r..ai wicket gate, mountain pass (Ta.); pil. way, road, entrance to path through thicket (Ko.); pur..a gap in a wall (Ma.); por..e path, road (Ka.); poralu, pul.alu fife, flute (Tu.); punta path or road for cattle (Te.)(DEDR 4317). cf. pur..a river (Ma.); por..e river (Ka.); pol.e id. (Kod..)(DEDR 4318). por..al town, city (Ka.); pro_lu, (inscr.) pr..o_l(u) city (Te.)(DEDR 4555). pauliya_, poliya_, pauriya_ gatekeeper (H.); pol.iyo (G.)(CDIAL 8632). putavu, puta, putavam, puta_ door, gate (Ta.); pudi the side of a door (Ka.)(DEDR 4274). pauri gatepost (OAw.); paur, pauri_, pa~war, pa~wari_ gate, door (H.); pol.i street (G.); paul., pol.wall of loose stones (M.); prato_li_ gate of town or fort, main street (MBh.); pao_li_ city gate, main street (Pkt.); praul., paul., paul.i gateway of a chief (WPah.); prol. village ward (WPah.); paul, pol gate, courtyard, town quarter with its own gate (H.); pauli_ gate (H.); poli door (OG.)(CDIAL 8633). pukal entering, residence (Ta.); pukut.i doorway (Ta.); pukuti front door, income (Ta.); pu_r to enter (Ta.); pugu, pogu, ogu to enter (Ka.); pugil entering door (Ka.)(DEDR 4238). putavu, puta, putavam, puta_ door, gate (Ta.); pudi the side of a door (Ka.)(DEDR 4274).

7891.Images: to run away; to coil as a snake: pol.a_p escape, flight; pol. flee, run away; pol.kurepon. cowardice; pol.kuro coward (Kon.lex.) pol.e to roll, roll about, to move about, to move to and fro, to wallow, to welter, to move in a circle (Ka.); pul. to twirl about, wriggle; to twine one's self round as a snake; to roll one's self (Ma.)(Ka.lex.) poloc to flee, to issue in small quantity; polockedae he fled away (Santali.lex.)

7892.Trace, track: polakuva trace, track; polamu track, trace; polamari one who knows a clue; pulugu mark or sign, trace, track, clue; pulapod.ucu to gaze, stare (Te.); pulam sense, sensation, knowledge, learning, treatise, the Vedas, clue; pula (-pp-, -nt-) to make known, instruct; pulatto_r wise men; pulacci wise woman; pulappam appearing clearly; pulamai knowledge, wisdom; pulavan- learned man (Ta.); pulam perception by senses (Ma.); pola object of sight, direction, point of the compass (Ka.)(DEDR 4344b). cf. laja tail (Skt.); valaja track, trace, design, use; pada-valaja footprint; valaje_ti tracks, uses (Pali); valanda sign, mark; valandanava_ to enjoy, eat (esp. of monks)(Si.)(CDIAL 11404). cf. halaz plough-beam (Phal.Gaw.); arala_nz (K.)(CDIAL 14007).

7893.Charm: bolme charm; bolmega_r augur; bolme sa_ng say charm; bolme augury; bolme sa_ngtolo saying augury (Kon.lex.) bol kabul promise, assurance (Santali.lex.) Invitation: bolaha~t., bolha~t. a call, a summons, an invitation; bolaha~t. hoe akantina, cet lagit con. I have been called, but why I cannot say; bole so they say, people say (Santali.lex.) ar..ai-ttal to call, invoke, invite (Tiruva_ca. 29,1); to summon, direct to appear or to be brought (Kantapu. Vin:kut.i, 40); to call by name (Tiv. Periya_r... 4,6,3); ar..aippu invitation, call (Tiv. Iyar-. Na_n-mu. 38); ar..aippittal to fetch, to get at (Ko_yilo. 146)(Ta.lex.)

7894.To cry: ar..u-tal to cry, weep (Kur-al., 659)(Ta.); ar..u (Ka.Ma.); adalu (Te.); arpini (Tu.)(Ta.lex.)

7895.Image: panther: bolpo, bolpya_ panther (Kon.lex.) puli, huli tiger (Ka.Te.Ta.Ma.); pili (Tu.)(Ka.lex.) Image: tiger: pu_cai cat (vevva_y verukin-ip pu_cai yen-r-alum : Tol. Po. 623); wild cat (Ta.lex.) pu_ccai, pu_ai, pu_n-ai cat (Ta.); pu_cca id. (Ma.); pi.c id. (Ko.); pu.e id. (Kod..); pu_ce, pucce id. (Tu.); pu_sal(i)(pl. pu_sasku), pu_sal, pusal id. (Go.); pu_se id. (Kuwi)(DEDR 4355). puli, pul tiger (Ta.Ma.Ka.Te.); pus.y, uly id. (To.); puj id. (Ko.); pili (Tu.);; hili (Kor.); pul (Kol.Nk.Go.); pullu, pulu (Ga.); pulli_, puliya_ (Go.); pulli (Pkt.)(DEDR 4307). Image: tiger: puli tiger, panther (puli ta_kkur-in- : Kur-al., 599)(Ta.); id. (Ka.Ma.); pili id. (Tu.)(Ta.lex.) Leopard: pr.da_ku tiger, panther (Skt.); snake (RV.); parr.a_, parr.i_ leopard (L.); purdum (Kho.)(CDIAL 8362). cf.put.t.a fox, jackal (Ma.); put.t.e id. (Tu.)(DEDR 4261). Image: ferocious tiger: mar-a-p-puli ferocious tiger; lion; (me_r-cen-r-u pa_ytal mar-appuli tan-akku ma_mo_ : Ci_vaka. 752); mar-u-puli-pa_ytal death of cattle due to terror in dreaming that it was caught by the tiger from which it escaped during the day (Ta.lex.)

7896.Marriage: bapla marriage, wedlock; to marry; bapla biha marriage; onkoko baplak kan arko gonetko tahe~ kana they were marrying, and giving in marriage; a toregeye baplaena his bride was of his own village; dare bapla, band bapla a marrriage ceremony performed by the person who planted the tree, or dug the tank; forms of marriage: kirin bahu bapla, itut bapla, apan:girko reak bapla, kor.akur.i kun.d.el napakate bapla, ir bolok bapla, gola~t./gola~t.i bapla, ja~wa~e kirinok bapla, hirom cetan bapla, t.un:ki dipil bapla (Santali.lex.) cf. ba_-para, ba_-porob the flower feast... to remember our deceased ancestors... evidence that the matriarchal system existed once among the Mundas... the matrons are allowed to perform the sacriice to the ancestors in the adin (store-room)... (Mu.lex.)(1) kirin to buy, to purchase; bahu a bride, a wife; bahu ja~wa~e bride and bridegroom; (2) itut the irregular application of sindur to the forehead of a marriageable woman by a man; itut bapla an irregular marriage, which consists in a man applying sindur (red powder) to the forehead of a marriageable woman with, or without, her consent; itut sindur the lawful application of sindur to the forehead of a bride at the time of marriage; itut sindur hoyena the marriage ceremony has been performed; (3) an:gir, apan:gir to elope; an:gra a male who has eloped; an:gri a female; an:gra an:grienakin they are a pair who have eloped; an:gir akadeae he ran away with her (eloped)(Santali.lex.) reak, rean. sign of genitive when the noun following designates an inanimate object; about, regarding, concerning; or.ak reakakko the things of the house; or.ak reak sar.im the roof of the house (Santali.lex.) (4) kor.akur.i a young man and a girl; kun.d.el to lie down, to lie prostrate; napam to meet, to agree, to coincide; (5) ir to run, to flee, to flit, to disappear; bolo to enter, to go in; dhasao boloena it fell inwards; aboak horteko boloka they will adopt our creed; (6) gola~t., gola~t.i a form of marriage; two families each having a marriageable son and daughter, each marries his daughter to the other's son; this is a convenient form of marriage as, as a rule, presents are dispensed with; (7) ja~wa~e husband, bridegroom, to be married to a husband; ja~wa~e gomket son-in-law; ghar ja~wa~e, ghardi ja~wa~e a husband who lives in the house of his wife's father, and serves for her, instead of paying the usual price and taking her to his own home; ja~wa~ekedeako they gave her in marriage; auriye ja~wa~eoka she is not married; ghardi ja~wa~eyenae he is married and has gone to his father-in-law's; (8) hirom co-wife, the second wife; hiromadinae he gave me a co-wife; kaphariau bam anjom akat khan hirom era jonme if you have never heard quarrelling take to yourself a second wife; hirom baiha~ solatium given to a first wife when a second is brought home; hiromea co-wives; cetan upper, above, on, concerning (9) t.un:khi dipil bapla a form of marriage suited to poor people. In this form of marriage the bride goes to the bridegroom's house and the marriage ceremony is performed there; dipil to carry on the head, to undertake responsibility; dipilanme lift it on to my head; t.un:ki a small bamboo basket with a contracted opening (Mu.lex.)

7897.Resin: bo_l. viscid substance of trees (Kon.lex.)