| The Mandukya
Upanishad belings to the Atharva Veda and contains twelve verses. It is an
exposition of the principle of aum as consisting of three elements, a, u, m,
which refer to the three states of walking, dream and dreamless sleep. The Supreme Self is
manifested in the universe in its gross, subtle and causal aspects. Answering to the four
states of consciousness, wakefulness, dream, dreamless sleep, transcendental consciousness
(1) these are aspects of the Godhead, the last alone being all-inclusive and ultimately
real. The Absolute of mystic consciousness is the reality of the God of religion. The
Upanishad by itself, it is said, is enough to lead one to liberation. (2)
Gaudapada, Sankara's teacher's teacher wrote his famous Karika on the
Upanishad, which is the first systematic exposition of Advaita Vedanta which has come down
to us.. Samkara has commented on both the Upanishad and the Karika.
- See Nrsimha-purva-tapaniya Upanishad U. IV. I.
- Mandukyam ekam evalam mumuksunam vimuktaye, Muktika
Upanishad I 27.
Source S. Radhakrishnan : The Principal Upanishads
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