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Brief description of the Dvaita of Madhva

  Sri Madhva's philosophy of Dvaita contains nine propositions (prameyas)
  according to the following well-known verse:

  shriman madhvamate harih paratarah satyam jagat tattvato 
  bhedah jIvagaNA hareranucarA nIcoccabhAvam gatAh  |
  muktir naijasukhAnubhUtir amalA bhaktih tatsAdhanam 
  akshAdi tritayam pramANam akhilAmnAyaikavedyo harih ||

  Proposition 1 :   harih paratarah

    mattah parataram nAnyatkincidasti dhananjaya|| iti (Gita)

    Hari is the Supreme Lord of the universe. None can equal Him.
     ete cAmshakalAh pumsah krishnastu bhagavAn svayam || iti

    Although, there exist innumerable Gods and Goddesses who are
    worshiped by their respective followers, such Deities are to be 
    considered as partial manifestations of Hari. There are also incarnations
    of Hari or Krishna like Matsya, Kurma, etc. The purpose of these incarnations
    is to punish the wicked and protect the saintly.   

    Hari has innumerable divine attributes among which the chief ones are
    indicated by the expression "saccidAnandavigraha". Hari has a personal
    form which is eternal, full of knowledge and full of bliss.     

   Proposition 2: satyam jagat

    The world is real. It is not unreal, as claimed by Paashandavaadins.
    Hari is ultimate cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction 
    of the world.  

    svayambhUh yathAtathyatah arthAn vyadadhAt shashvatIbhyah
    samAbhyah || iti (Isavasya Upanishad)
    God really creates the things of the world through the ages.  

  Proposition 3: tattvato bhedah

    Separateness or difference is real. "nAbhAva upalabdheh" says
    the Brahma Sutra (II.2.28). The things in the external world are 
    not nonexistent because of our perception and consciousness of them.
    Since the world is real and we are aware of different things in the
    world, differences are necessarily real. 

 Proposition 4: jIvagaNaa hareranucarAh

   The individual souls or Jivas are different from Hari. They are 
   eternal servants of Hari. 

   The Svetasvatara Upanishad says:

    dvA suparNA sayujA sakhAyA samAnam vrikSham parishasvajAte |
    tayoranyah pippalam svAdvatti anashnan anyah abhicAkashIti ||

    Two birds of handsome  wings (the Jiva and Ishvara), inseparable
    companions, dwell on the same (Ashvattha) tree (the body). One of the
    birds (the Jiva) eats the (really bitter) fruit as if it is sweet.
    The other Bird (Ishvara or God), without eating, looks on, illuminating
    all around. 

    This difference between the jiva and Ishvara is the reason why this 
    doctrine is called Dvaita or Dualism.  

    sabrahmaka sarudrAshca sendrA devam maharShibhih |
    arcayanti surashreShTham devam nArAyaNam harim || 
    All the gods including Brahma, Rudra, Indra and the great sages 
    worship the God, who is the Supreme of all gods and who is  
    Narayana or Hari. 

    When such exalted beings are themselves servants of Hari, what to 
    speak of ordinary individual jivas? They too are eternal servants
    of Hari. 

  Proposition 5: nIcocca bhAvamgatAh 

   Fundamentally, all jivas are similar to each other, they being 
   servitors of Hari. But, due  to their different Karmas or Sadhanas,
   there exist differences among them. Hence, some are superior and some
   are inferior. 

 Proposition 6: muktih naijasukhAnubhUtih

  Mukti or Moksha is obtained by realizing the true nature of the 
   individual soul. The true nature of the jiva is to dwell with God
   and experience bliss. 

 Proposition 7: amalA bhaktih tatsAdhanam

    Mukti is achieved by pure Bhakti.  

    Sarvopaadhivinirmuktam Tatparatvena Nirmalam |
    HrishikeNa Hrishikesha Sevanam Bhaktirucyate || 

    Worshiping Hrishikesha (Krishna) with all the senses,
    with purity and no limitations (of place or time), is termed

 Proposition 8: akshAdi tritayam pramANam

       The means of right knowledge are 1) Perception, 
    2) Inference, and 3) Scriptural testimony. 

    Perception and Inference are susceptible to error.
    So the word of the Scriptures is alone the independent
    means of right-knowledge. 

 Proposition 9: akhilAmnAyaika vedyo Harih

    Hari alone is to be known through all the Vedas and 
    the Vedas describe only Him. As the Hari Vamsha says,

    vede rAmAyaNe caiva purANe bhArate tathA |
    AdAvante ca madhye ca Harih sarvatra gIyate ||

    In the Vedas, Raamayana, Puranas, Mahabharata, Hari
    is extolled in the beginning, the end, the middle and 
    verily everywhere.    





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