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The messages conveyed through the script: LISTS OF WEAPONS

Weaponry in Mesopotamia (Early Dynastic levels at Sumerian sites 2500-2016 B.C.): "(The products of metalsmiths), in the form of weapons, implements and utensils, have survived in great numbers, side-by-side with pictorial representations of the purposes for which they were used. In a well-known relief, spears, shields and helmets of copper are to be seen; in another battle-axes; 'guardian' figures in seal designs wield daggers with crescent-shaped handles; 'rein-rings' with their animal mascots appear on chariots in battle-scenes; and at a 'banquet' copper 'drinking-tubes' are used.")

M592a.jpg (2396 bytes)M592b.jpg (2607 bytes)m592A,Bcopper tablet (Double-edged battle-axe): Mohenjodaro

urbattleaxe.jpg (2655 bytes)
Crescentic battle-axe unearthed from an Ur tomb (Seton Lloyd, The Archaeology of Mesopotamia, London, Thames and Hudson, p. 126:

Weaponry in Mesopotamia (Early Dynastic levels at Sumerian sites 2500-2016 B.C.)

urtombweapons-t.jpg (8754 bytes)

Metal tools and weapons from Ur tombs

Top row: tanged and ribbed spearheads;
second row: leaf-shaped spear-head, harpoon, knives and daggers;
third row: drill-bits, straight and curved pins with eyeleted shanks;
bottom row: a and b, scrapers; c, chisel; d and e, socketed adzes and f, axe cast in a two-piece mould; g and h, crescentic battle-axes

Sarasvati Sindhu (Indus) Civilization 

This is a very large website and is a homage to the legacy of the civilization which was nurtured by the Sarasvati and Sindhu rivers in NW India ca 3000 B.C. for nearly two millenna. The story of the civilization is a herald of the dawn of the bronze age, evolving from the chalcolithic (copper-stone) age. 

The Legacy

The secular sequence of desiccation of the Sarasvati river matches the sequences of migrations of settlements away from the banks of the river towards the east, west and south and thus from the mists of history into the dawn of historical periods bursting forth with advances in metallurgy, alchemy, medicine, culture, mathematics, philosophy and language. 

Many gods and goddesses in Mesopotamian iconography (cylinder seals, in particular) are seen carrying weapons.The present decipherment indicates that many inscriptions relate to weapons. The depiction of deities in Indian iconography carrying weapons, in the historical periods, is perhaps a legacy of the adoration of valour during the  periods following the bronze age.

The legacy of the Sarasvati river is cherished in many parts of India and Afghanistan; there is a Haraquaiti river which is a tributary of the Kubha in Afghanistan; there are Sarasvati rivers in Rajasthan and Gujarat and many river confluences which celebrate the memories of a trive_n.i san:gamam (the third river is always the antah salila_ sarasvati_). The memories are very deep in the psyche of India and in Indian cultural tradition. Sarasvati river is adored in the names of ancient scripts such as bra_hmi and s'a_rada_. The invocation in the ancient Indian epic, Maha_bha_rata is a prayer to two deities: Na_ra_yan.a and Sarasvati_.



Substrate language of ancient India. An Indian Lexicon is presented with nearly half-a-million words, most of which are very ancient. Bronze age lexemes of the lexicon assist in the process of deciphering the language of the civilization. 

The entire corpus of inscriptions found on the Sarasvati-Sindhu doab and in ancient sites such as those of the Mesopotamian civilization is presented. 

The corpus is analyzed based on internal evidence (structure and form). Decipherment proceeds from the known to the unknown, from the known cuneiform script of Mesopotamian civilization to the unknown language and script of the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization. Decipherment is progressed using external evidence (i.e. evidence external to the internal structure and form of inscriptions). The external evidence relates to the bronze age artefacts and the semantic clusters provided by the Indian Lexicon.

One or more Indian languages preserve the substratum language of the civilization, in particular, the semantics of weapons made by armourers (kut.ha_ru). There are scores of other semantic categories which point to the essential semantic unity of Indian languages which evolved from this proto-Indian idiom dated to ca. 3000 B.C.


Soma adored in the Rigveda and the cooperative society of the bronze age

Rigveda is a documentation, orally transmitted, of the process of refining soma or electrum (gold-silver ore). This process was nurtured on the banks of the Sarasvati river with links to the Sindhu sa_gara.

Rigvedic workers were also fire-/metal-workers like the armourers who produced weapons using copper and tin/zinc alloys yielding bronze and brass. 

The fire-workers also produced lapidary crafts such as stoneware bangles and gem-stones, apart from the use of electrum and bronze for ornaments. The evidence of inscriptions has yielded two silver seals apart from scores of copper tablets used to convey movable property transactions.