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Munda lexemes in Sanskrit

[From F.B.J. Kuiper, Proto-Munda Words in Sanskrit, Amsterdam, Verhandeling der Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie Van Wetenschappen, Afd. Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks Deel Li, No. 3, 1948]

Some hundred Sanskrit and Prakrit words are shown to be derived from the Proto-Munda branch of the Austro-Asiatic source. The term 'Proto-Munda' is used to indicate that the Munda languages had departed considerably from the Austro-Asiatic type of language as early as the Vedic period... a process of 'Dravidization' of the Munda tongues... contributing to the growth of the Indian linguistic leagu (sprachbund). Professor C.C. Berg had suggested that the Austro-Asiatic consonantal system had a relatively small number of phonemes with a wide range of possible realizations, the following sounds, for instance originally having constituted one phoneme: d/t, dh/th, r, j/c, s, d./t., d.h/t.h, r., z./s. = y = l... Santali evidences rhyme words, e.g. but.ra, gut.ra;, which may explain varying initial gutturals, dentals and labials in synonyms... Another proto-Munda phenomenon inherited from prim. Austric is the nasalization and prenasalization of the consonants of a root. Thus ba-da (wa-da) may become ba-nda, ba-na, ma-da, ma-nda, ma-na... the vowels are largely interchangeable... a very considerable amount (say some 40%) of the New Indo-Aryan vocabulary is borrowed from Munda, either via Sanskrit (and Prakrit), or via Prakrit alone, or directly from Munda; wide-branched and seemingly native, word-families of South Dravidian are of Proto-Munda origin; in Vedic and later Sanskrit, the words adopted have often been Aryanized, resp. Sanskritized. "In view of the intensive interrelations between Dravidian, Munda and Aryan dating from pre-Vedic times even individual etymological questions will often have to be approached from a Pan-Indic point of view if their study is to be fruitful. It is hoped that this work may be helpful to arrive at this all-embracing view of the Indian languages, which is the final goal of these studies." (p. 9).

ara_la crooked, bowed, curled (hair); ara_d.a long-horned (Maitr. S. 2,5,9); ara_d.i_tara having very long horns (S'Br. 4,5,5,5); d.aeka wide-spreading and very long with an upward turn at the end (buffalo's horns) < d.a-ya tall (Santali); lad.ea, lar.ea crooked, bent, slanting (tree, stick); lad.e slanting, leaning to one side (Santali); la_r.ea_ crooked, bent (Mu.); led.ha_ id. (Mu.); lidu to bend (Mu.); lir.wa to bend over, backwards or downwards (Santali); ler.wa, ler.wak to incline to one side, reel (Santali); lar.a having horns bending down forwards, having the comb hanging down on one side (Santali); ler.a_ curved (said of horns of animals)(Mu.); metath. al.a_ra long-horned (Pali); ajas'r.n:gi ara_t.aki_'r.n:gi_ vi r.s.atu : let the goat-horned ara_t.aki_, the sharp-horned, push out (AV.)

argad.a obstacle; class. bolt, bar; argales.i_ke the pin and bar of the door of a cow-pen (S'a_n:kh. A_r. 2,16); a_gal restraint (B.); a_gar. hurdle (B.); gad.a, gan.d.aka obstacle (Skt.); nirgad.a without impediment and blameless (BHSkt.); gad. cf. gar. to detain, restrain, beset, keep; gud. to beset, detain, restrain; gur gur to restrain, deprive of freedom; gan.d. a cross-ridge; gan.d. gan.d. across, transversely; gan.d.e across, athwart, transverse, at right angles (Santali); ga_n.d.i obstruction, obstacle (Ho.); ganad.e, the cross-bars of a bedstead, the two short bars of a door-frame (Santali); akot. hindrance, obstruction, obstacle, to check, stop, detain (Santali); inad to close (door)(Sora); gha_ro bar, rod, pole, cross-beam, ridge-pole; taga_ro, tagha_ro bar, bolt (N.); ta~_gad. to bind the feet (B.)[Sanskritized as tryan:kat.a, tryan:gat.a]; a_gal, a_gar, agri_ wooden bar used for fastening the door (Bi.); gharka_ a kind of bolt (South Munger), hurka_ the bolt of the lock; ar.khar. the spar that supports the screen or hurdle used for a door (Bi.); khir.ki_ window, back-door (< khad.akki_ (Pkt.);, hur.ka_ bar or bolt of a door (H.); hur.ka_ (B.); hud.ukka (Skt.); hur.a, har.i to shackle, gyve, to fetter, put in the stocks, chain (the feet), detain (Santali); hurkar. the wooden bar or bolt (of a door), to shut with a bar [to dialectical variants of the same word are combined to form an 'echo word' which is a very common phenomenon in Santali](Santali); karhar. a kind of gate with movable bars (at the entrance of cattle-sheds)(Santali); ar.khar. the spar that supports the door inside; ar.gar.a a cattle-pound, prison, difficlty (Santali); a_rgar.a_ stables (B.); ad. to obstruct (Drav.); obstruction, bar (H.); a_r.na_ to stop (H.); a_r. hindrance (Psht.); nigad.a chain for the feet, fetter (Skt.); taga_rs chain (To.); taga_ro bolt (N.)

a_kula confounded, confused, agitated, anxious, overburdened with, full of; kulkuli_ restlessness (H.); man:kulam cloudiness, murkiness; perturbation, confusion of mind (Ta.); man:kul cloud; maiya_ to become dim, to be perplexed (Ta.); mauli_ disturbance or upsetting of the heart (Pkt.); kalila covered with, full of; confusion, chaos (Skt.); kalkal difficult, agitated (Sora); gad. bad. confusion, disorder, confused, mixed; to put into disorder or confusion, make a mess of; in disorder, to muddle, confuse; god. bud.i, god. bod. to confuse, come to no conclusion; gad.oe sad.oe mixed, mingled, confused, to mix; gad.ui sad.ui id.; gul gulau to make a disturbance, confusion, commotion; gul gul disturbed, hurly-burly; gul mal noise, tumult, uproar, disturbance, confusion; gul malao to disturb, disarrange; galoc saloc, galuc saluc, galui salui confusedly; kalok bat.ok restlessly, uneasily, to be restless; lar. to be in a hurry, restless, eager; hal bal restless, turbulent, troublesome, meddlesome; halo balo id. (Santali); ukul-bukul to be uneasy and anxious (Mu.); vikala depressed, sad, unwell (Skt.); bikal restless, uneasy, troubled (H.); hul mal disturbance, riot, uproar, tumult, to make do; ulmal confusedly, to perplex, confuse; ulmalao to disorder, confuse, stir up, bring into commotion; alat olot bewildered, abashed, to confuse, bewilder; alat bakat to confuse, bewilder, nonplus (Santali); halabola confused noise (Pkt.) [Severl of these are 'echo words' composed of derivatives from gad. and bad. (bal, mal)]. cf. alamalla perplexed, troubled, perplexity, trouble; almal delay, confusion, perplexity; almalinu to be confused, puzzled, detained; ulma_l confusion, chaos; hulha_l, hul, hullar. riot, disturbance; gulma_l, golma_l, gulmul tumult, uproar (N.); halbal tumult, commotion, confusion; id., uproar, mutiny; to be agitated; khalbal confusion, commotion, agitation, tumult; kharb(h)ar, id., khalbala_na_ (khadbada_na_) to boil, bubble, be agitated, be in a state of commotion (H.); gar. bar. = gad. bad. confusion, disorder (Santali); kalaha strife, quarrel (Skt.); kalakam strife, quarrel, wrangle, altercation, uproar, tumult, insurrection, revolt, rebellion (Ta.); galibili disorder, confusion (Te.); galagincu to stir, mix, mingle, confuse (Te.)[if Skt. kalaha were a Dravidian loan, the h would point to Kannada, where intervocalic -pp- has become h (via -p-) about 1000 A.D.] Since kalahin (ChUp.Gr.S.) occurs earlier, this explanation is doubtful. -ha- is a very common suffix in Santali and most of the Sanrkit and Prakrit words which contain the formative element are likely to be Proto-Munda loan words. halahala tumult, curiosity (Pkt.); hal.ha_l restlessness (M.)

a_t.opa puffing up, pride, self-conceit (MBh.Sus'r.); pride (Skt.); t.uppinu to be puffed up with pride (N.); t.ipor vaunting, boasting; t.ippas conceit, pride, haughtiness, arrogance (H.); t.ipor pride, conceit, self-glorification (N.); t.ub t.ubu distended (stomach), visibly pregnant; having a swollen, protruding stomach; dhomok haughtiness, arrogance, conceit, pride (Santali); d.imbh pride, vanity, affectation (H.); tempu physical strencth, daring, bravery, arrogance, pride, energy (Ta.); timili, timmali a stout, strong woman; t.ampam, it.ampam pomposity, ostentation (Ta.); d.abbu, d.amb(h)a, dambha id. (Ka.); dubba a man with a large belly, a very stout man; doppa thickness; dappa thickness, stoutness, coarseness (Ka.); dambh deceit, trickery, feigning, hypocrisy, pride, haughtiness, arrogance (H.); dambhi_ deceitful, hypocritical, proud, arrogant; dambhi_ proud (N.); dambha deceit, fraud, hypocrisy (Skt.); jambha (M.) = jampam affectation, overwheening pride, pomp, ostentation (M.); jambhamu (Te.); jamba, jambha (Ka.); t.i_p-t.a_p ornament, decoration, pomp, show, ostentation, splendour, magnificence; t.i_m-t.a_m dress, show, ostentation (H.); thamr.a_ thick, corpulent; d.happu_ bulky, fat, corpulent; d.habbu (N.); hamew vanity, arrogance, pride (H.); a_t.amparam pomp and show, ostentation (Ta.); a_d.ambar noise and bustle, arrogance, pride, ostentation (H.); d.amara riot, tumult (Skt.); d.imba affray, tumult, danger, distress (Skt.)

a_pi_d.a crown, garland (Skt.); bi~_d.i_ the hair twisted or plaited behind, braided hair (H.)

udumbara ficus glomerata, its fruit (S'Br.); d.a-ba swollen, roundish (Kherwari); d.ub d.ubia full, swollen (stomach), tight, stuffed; d.ub d.ubi to impregnate, become enceinte; to be pregnant; d.umka roundish, oblong, oval (fruit); d.umkuc small (Santali); dhuma_ fat and dwarf; dhumr.a_ sout, fat; d.himsi a big-bellied woman; d.heb d.hebe, d.hebra_ big-bellied (Mu.)unduru, undura, undara, undaru, indu_ra mouse (Skt.); u_dar, undi_r (M.); undar rat (G.); unduru (Si.); indu_r (H.); ka_ndor rat (Khmer); kant.ur (Old Khmer); guntur rat (Sora); kentu_r bat (Sora); od.ri rat, mouse (Kui); on(d)ren rat (Sora); d.orika_ musk-rat (Skt.)

kajjala, kajjali_ lamp-black, used as ink or a collyrium (Skt.); kajjala (Pali); ka_d.ige (Ka.); ka_t.ike (Te.); kar. black (Drav.); ka-ya black (Munda); koya black (with dust), smirched; koya hor.o, hoeya hor.o a variety of the pladdy plant (grain is black-looking); kuya black smirch (round the mouth), to smirch, smut; kuila, kuili black, dark-skinned; kuila charcoal (Santali); koila_ (H.); kokila id. (Skt.); kajra having dark spots on the hump of the head (Santali); kajra_ (H.); koya black, smirch; goyak having a black spot (on the tongue), to blacken, smear oneself on the cheek with soot (Santali); ga_jal lampblack, soot, the black pigment placed round the eyes (N.); kar.ea jet black (animals); kar.eo id. (men), a leech (a taboo substitute for jo_k); kari black (animals), jet black; karidan., karindan. black, dense, heavy (clouds, also about black and dirty people, buffaloes)(Santali); kar-u to grow black, darken; kar-uppu blackness, darkness; kar-ai black colour, hue, tinge; karu dark colour; kari charcoal, black pigment for the eye; karukkal darkness, cloudiness; very dark, jet-black; ka_ri blackness, that which is black; ka_r id., cloud; ka_r.. blackness; karuku to be scorched, to blacken by fire or sun, to turn brown, become dark, grow dim; kan-r-u to be scorched, to be sunburnt (Ta.); ka_d.u, kar-, kar-e, kar-i, kandu, kan, kar, kare, kar-r-age, ka_r, ka_ru, ka_r.. blackness, dark-blue colour; tio turn black; kar..tale darkness; ka_d.ige lampblack, a collyrium prepared from it (Ka.); ka_t.ike (Te.); kara, karra blackness, stain, dirt; karaka black(ness), dark(ness); ka_ru dark(ness), jetty black(ness)(Te.) kar.ea, kari (Santali) must be loanwords from Dravidian, like Skt. ka_la, H. ka_la_, ka_ra_ (H.) kosso_ lampblack (Gondi) is possibly a Munda loanword.

kan.t.ha_ throat, neck; gha_t.a_ nape of neck, neck (Sus'r. Skt.); gha_r. (B.H.); gha_d.a (Pkt.); ga_t.t.a_ nape of the neck (P.); gala (Skt.); gloh, ga_lo (Sakai) The root form kat. occurs in kr.ka_t.a joint of the neck (Ath.S. 9,7,1), kaka_t.ika_ a part of the human occiput; kr.ka_t.ika_ joint of the neck (Sus'r.); kr.ka_t.a neck (Skt.); kr.ka larynx (Pkt.); kun:ka neck (Juang); kon:ko (Kharia); san:ka_ neck (Sora); kan:kha edge, brim (Santali); totka occiput, nape of the neck (Santali); tutka, tut.ka_ back of the neck or head (Mu.); ka nape of the neck (Mon.); ka neck (Khmer); ako (Bahnar); kou neck (Stieng) hot.ok neck (Santali); hot.o neck, throat (Mu.); not, nut neck (Sem.); nun nape of the neck (Stieng); tan:gun neck (Sakai); tan:gon nape of the neck (Tembi); gan.t.alu neck (Ka.) kar..uttu (Ta.)

kanaka gold; ka_cana gold (Skt.) kakanda, kandala gold (Skt.lex.) ha_t.aka gold (Skt.) kanaknaka bright, glistening (Skt.) ka-da, ga-da glittering or lump (Proto-Munda)

kabari_, kabara a braid of hair (Skt.) barbara, varvara curly; barbara curly hair (Skt.); babbari_ dressing of the hair (Pkt.); ba_bar a kind of grass (of which a sort of twine is made); ba_briya~_ head of hair (long and uncut); babri_ cropped or dressed hair, forelocks, tresses (H.); ba_bar dishevelled hair (M.); ba_bari long and uncombed hair (N.); t.amara a mass of braided hair (Pkt.) Mu. bar, bar. (wa-d.a) to wind, twine must be assumed: cf. bharbharao to spin round; baber string, cord, twine, rope, to make do; a bundle of rope, or string wound into a bundle; bor. a rope of straw (Santali); bor. a thick rope of straw (Mu.); ba~or.e~ to wind thread in the figure 8; bher.wan. to turn round, wheel round, spin round; bin.d.a a sheaf, bundle, faggot (Santali); bir.a_ a bundle of crop (Mu.); bira_ a big bundle of paddy (Ho.); bi~_d. a bundle of reeds; bi~_d.a_ a roll of paper, a twist of grass (H.); bhi_n.d. a large bundle of burden (tied)(Santali); beor.a_ to tie paddy seedlings together, to tie up the hair (Mu.); kaba_r. = kaba_r a load or bundle (of grass or firewood), a heap or collection (of miscellaneous articles), old and broken furniture (H.) davara, davaraka thread, string (Skt.); davara thread (Pkt.); da_ra = dora kat.isu_tram (Pkt.)

kamat.ha bamboo (Skt.) ka~_war., ka~_war, ka_war. a bamboo lath with slings at the end for carrying things in (H.); ka_vat.hi_ (S.); ka_vad. bamboo lath with slings (M.); ka_mat.ha_ bow (B.); kamt.ha_ a bow, esp. one made of bamboo (H.); kambi- shoot of joint of bamboo (Skt.); kamba_, kambi_ stick (Pkt.); ka_mi_ a long strip fo bamboo (A.); ka~_b bamboo chip (G.) ka_va- ka_vad.a carrying-pole (Pkt.) seem to suggest that -t.ha- is sufixal. karma_ra, karmari_ bamboo (Skt.) ma_n. large bamboo; ma_n.a_, ma_n:ga_ long bamboo; ma_n.ya_ small bamboo (M.); ma_ndro cane mat, large mat made of bamboo (N.); ma_n.i, ma_r.i bamboo (Kui) < ?ma-d.a. mat bamboo (Munda); mat (Santali); mat, mad (Kurku); mat. (Nimar dialect) awa_t, awa_d bamboo (Sakai); awen(Semang)

kavala a mouthful, bit, morsel (MBh.R.) kabal.a, kabala (Pali); kavad.a, kabad.a, kapad.a (Skt.);, (Ta.) [Geiger regards v as the original sound from b has developed; but Pischel and Luders assume an original form with b.] ka-wa to grasp (Munda): khabol a mouthful, a handful (Santali); kha_bal a handful, mouthful, grasp (B.); khabla, khabli to claw deeply, grab, clutch deeply; khablao to snap, grab, clutch, grip; khablok to swallow, devour; khabal khabal pecking, grabbing, bolting (food); to grasp, clutch (with the claws); khabr.a, khabr.aha gluttonous, greedy; kabar. kobor. to pick up quickly;, to grap, catch, seize with claws; kapt.a kapt.i to grip one another, seize, pull one another; khamcao to snap, snatch, gripe, grab, seize a handful, a handful (Santali); kha_mca_ (B.) kapat.i_ two handfuls (a certain measure)(Skt.) habadia gluttonous, greedy, insatiable; khauda, khaudaha id. (Santali) khaua gluttonous, greedy; khau khau greedy, craving for food; khauka gluttonous, gormandizing; khawaia, khaba glutton; khabe khab devouringly (eat)(Santali)

kas'mala dirty, foul; dirt, filth; timid, shy; timidity, shyness (Skt.) kacuma_lar dirty, slovenly persons; kacuma_li slut, dirty person (Ta.) s'amala stain, spot, fault, blemish (Ath.S., Taitt.S.); mali_masa dirty, impure, grey (Skt.); mala dirt, impurity (Ath.S.); malina dirty, impure, dark-coloured, grey, black; meanness, fault, sin (MBh.) melynas blue (Lithuanian) khad bad miry, muddy, perplexed, anxious (Santali) malcha stained, spotted, a little soiled; to stain, corrode, rust; malgot unclean, dirty colour, discoloured, tarnished; marlan. mirlun. dirty, soiled (children), sad, dejected; merlan. mirlun. sad, dejected, miserable; kolo molo dejected, sad, sorrowful, depressed; dolo molo, dholo molo dull, unwell, out of sorts, depressed (Santali); d.ulu mulu sad looking, dejected; d.holo molo drowsy (Mu.) malin troubled, disturbed (in mind), indisposed, vexed, sad, downcast (H.) mulin dejected, downcast (Santali) maila_ dirty (H.); mayala, mai_la (Pkt.); mayal dirt, dregs (N.); mayal, mail dirt, foulness, impurity; mayala dirty, foul, unclean, impure (Te.); maila id., dingy, dark-hued, of a grizzled colour, mixed of red, white, yellow, and black (Te.); mayilai foulness, dirt, ash colour, grey, mixed colour of white and black (Ta.) maila, moela dirt, filth, dirty, filthy, soiled; damaila dirty, soiled; bajrahi slovenly, dirty, slatternly; b(h)ejrahi id., benjak serak dirty; beje beje foul, running, dirty; bejelgak disgusting, bad-looking, dirty; bhaskar ugly, unshapely (Santali) kalma_s.i_ a spotted cow; kalmas.a dirt, stain, sin (R.) < Munda sicne kal-, kil- show a cerebral s.. [Cerebral s. stands for r.. and cannot be derived from y]. murguc, muiguc dirty (Santali) mal-, may-, mar..-, mad. cannot be united as roots under a root ba-d.a dirty.

kas'mas'a (AV. in a hymn to the war-drum : kas'mas'am. bhayam amitres.u ni dadhmasi mutual hate, confusion, fear, we put into our enemies [translating kas'mas'a = kas'mala] musaham. agitation of the mind (Pkt.) moc moc, momoc dejected, downcast, sad, feeble; mas mas, mas masao, mus musau indisposed, out of sorts (Santali); dhundur musa_ dejected, sad; duru musu ill, indisposed; mas masao indisposed; mos moso lazy (Mu.) kas'mas'a may be translated as: dejectedness, lack of self-confidence, shyness, timidity.

kassa mud (Pkt.) kaccara dirty (Skt.); kacra_ fragments (H.); kaciro bit of vegetables (S.) kaca_, kacavu a fibrous plant (Ta.); kasavu, kasuvu grass, straw, sweepings (Te.) ka_sa_ earth, dust, dirt (Kurku); hasa soil, earth, land (Santali); ha_sa_ earth, mud, soil (Mu.Ho.)

ka_su_, ka_s'u_ illness (Skt.) ka_su_ pain, to ache (Kurku); kosu_ (Kharia); haso pain, to hurt, ache (Santali); ha_su illness, to be ill, to suffer (Mu.); to be ill (Ho.); esu fever (Sora); esu-da_ pain; asu to pain (Sora); shu_ pain (Palaung)

kun.t.ha blunt, dull (MBh.R.) kund blunt (Pers.); kunt blunt, coarse, silly (Bal.) kun.t.a stunted, dwarfish (Pali); lakun.t.aka dwarf (Pali); lukut. small (Bashkarik); lokut.u (K.); lakut.e (Psht.); matkun.a a beardless man, an elephant without tusks, a small elephant; matkun.a_ pudendum sine pube (Skt.) d.a-d.a, wa-d.a stunted, short, small; bare, barren (Proto-Munda root) maskut.a blunt (of soft iron); ko_r.e, ko_r.e_c, ko_r.e_t having the edge turned, blunt; turned edge, crumpled, creased, blunt; kor.go blunt, having a turned edge (Santali); bhokot.o, bhokt.o blunt (Mu.) ku_t.a not horned (used of oxen)(AV.)(Skt.) gu_t.a a stump, stumpy, short, dwarfish (Kui) khut to be blunt, not pointed; kun a dwarf, to be hump-backed (Santali); sakut to cut off, break off, omit; thakut to sever, be severed; tekut to cut in lengths or pieces; kut to cut off, amputate (Mon.); kor.a boy; kur.i girl (Santali)

kubja crooked, hump-backed (VS.) kubhra humpbacked bull (MaitrS.) ka-ba bent, crooked; kabea kobea id., kabua stooping; kob(r.)e, kombe, hombe crooked, bent; kumbet an arched, bent piece of bamboo or other suitable stuff, to bend, curve; hombo to crouch, hide; ombak to bend down on all fours (Santali); homba to bend down, stoop (Kurku) khujja dwarfish (Pali.Pkt.); khuja_ (M.); kupre, kubre a hunchback (N.); kupro, kubro hunchbacked, deformed, bent (N.); khumle, khomle bent; khumcinu to be bent (N.); khummia bent (Pkt.); kabu to fall down (prostrately)(Khimi Burman dialect) kabja kubja crooked, bent; kobjo bent, stooping, crooked (Santali) kubd.ha, kubdha hump-backed, short-necked and round-shouldered; kumd.huc short-bodied (somewhat hump-backed), to crouch, to roll oneself up; kobr.e crooked, bent (Santali) < ka-d.a or ka-ba. kaya koyo, koyo koyo, kayan. kuyun., kuyun. kuyun., kaja kojo, kijo kojo, kija kaje, kojo, kuja bent, stooping; konjr.e crooked, bent (Santali) kubar. = kub a hump on the back; kubr.a_ = kubba_ humpbacked (H.); kubad., kubd.a_ (M.); kubd.u_ hump on the back (G.); khubar. (M.) kubhd.a humpbacked (Santali) ku_bar, ku_bari_ the pole of a carriage (MaitrS.); kubbara (Pali) kumbrys plough-handle (Lithuanian) ku_bar. crooked beam (H.) kubet, kumbet an arched piece of bamboo;, ka~rmba (Santali); kar.ba_ plough-handle (Mu.); ka_ba_ (Ho.); ka_rba_ plough-handle (Kharia); kot.i plough-handle (Kui); kut. crooked (Drav.)

kulin:ga the fork-tailed shrike (MBh.) kala_n. white bellied sea-eagle, cucuma lemogaster (Nikob.); khlen. (Khmer); klin. kite (Khmer) khli_n. kite, eagle (Khasi)

kulin:ga, kalin:ga (Skt.) kuli_ka_ a certain bird (VS.) klain. eagle (Mon.); khle_n. (Khmer); klan. aigle pecheur (Bahnar); klaaka (Tembi); kelak eagle kite (Sakai); kla_k hawk (Sakai); lan., helan. eagle, kite (Malay). sword (MBh.R.) ga-d.a in pieces; gun.d.a, gun.d.a gun.d.i fragments, remnants, small bits, to make into small bits, to grind (Santali); gandarulu fragments, bits (Te.)

khalati bald-headed (VS.) kaurva (Av.); calvus (Latin) mun.d.a bald-headed; khad.ra bare, leafless, hairless, skin and bones, stripped (Santali)

khin:kira fox (Skt.) khekr.i_ (Gondi) khikr.i_ the Bengal fox, vulpes bengalensis (Santali); ki_kri_, kikeri, ke_kri, kekr.i_ (Kurku)

khora lame, limping (Ka_tyS'S.) khot.a, khod.a, kun.d.a crippled, lame (Skt.) khod. lame (M.); kun.t.ha (Pali); khod.a (Pkt.); khod.u~ (G.); kho~d.a_ lame (B.); kun.t.u to limp, to be lame (Te.), kad.uc kad.uc, kor.dha, lame, limping (Santali); kun.t.ha, kon.t.ha cripple (Pali)

gan.a troop, crowd, flock, number, series (RV.) ghat.a_ multitude, troop (Skt.); ghat.ayati brings together, unites (Sus'r.); ghad.i_ an assembly (Pkt.); ghat.a_ multitude, heap, crowd, dense mass (Pali) khan.d.a number, multitude, group (MBh.) gad. gud. very many, numerous, in mixed company; gad gad in crowds, numbers, flocks, to flock together; gan ganao to crowd, be numerous; genec genec, genec gesec numerous; gadel a multitude, crowd, flock, crowded, numerous; gas gas very many, a swarm (Santali); gut.i troop, band, crowd (Ho.); ka_ru, ka_r.u_ herd, flock (Kurku); khar. id. (Santali) kula a herd, flock, swarm, multitude, race, family (S'Br.) treku_l race, family (Khmer) jaku_ < *jaku_l race, species (Mon.); kur..u society, bond, assembly, flock, herd, swarm, shoal; kur..uvu to assemble in large numbers, to crowd (Ta.,); ku_lu family, clan, tribe, caste (Kui); gava_m kulmi herd of cows (Tatt.S.); kur..umu to collect, assemble (Ta.); gulma a troop or guard of soldiers (Skt.); gummu, gummi mass, crowd (Ka.)

ghat.a jar, ewer (MBh.R.Sus'r.) kod.a (Ka.) gargara (MBh.) gargari_ churn, butter-vat, a kind of water-jar (Skt.) karaka water-pot (MBh.R.) bhr.n:ga_ra water-pot, pitcher (Skt.) gha_ghari waterpot (S.); gad.d.uka small earthen pot (Skt.); gar.uwa_ (N.); khan.d.a a liquor pot (Pkt.); kalas'a pot, water-jar (RV.) gagra, ghagra, ghar.a (Santali); han.d.ha a large earthenware jar (Santali); ha~_d.a_ (H.); hat.hua (Santali); ha~_r.ia_ cooking pot (Kharia)

cipit.a blunted, flattened, flat (Skt.) capi, capia, capio flat-nosed, flat, not rounded wood, to flatten wood; capic flat-nosed (Santali) cepo, ceped flat (Mu.); capara flat, flat piece, a plain (Kurku) cappa_n.i clapping hands (Ta.); cappat.a a slap or clap; pressed flat, as a fig (Te.)

jamba_la mud, clay (Skt.) jamba_la, jamba_li_ a dirty pool (at the entrance of a village)(Pali); jamba_la duckwheet (Pkt.) jawa to soak, saturate (Santali); jovi marshy land (Mu.); jab jab, jab jabao, job job, joboc joboc wet, most, damp, drenched; jubhi marshy, swampy, boggy, watery (rice-field)(Santali); jobhi swampy ground (Kharia.Mu.); jubhi mud (Mu.); jobe id. (Ho.); jubila_ a wet field (Mu.); dubi marsh (Kurku); tobd.a_ mud (Kharia); tu_pu_ to wet, get wet (Kurku)

d.imb(h)a egg, child (Skt.) d.ebe dwarfish, small (Santali); t.hepa_ short in stature, a dwarf (Mu.)

ta_mbu_la betel (VarBrS.) bo_lou (Bahnar); balu (Alak); blu (Kha.); plu_ (Palanhg) Proto-Munda original *ta_-mbu_l a pre-nasalized variant of Lave melu, Stieng mlu.

timita wet, damp (Skt.) timyati, ti_yati to be wet, damp (Dha_tupa_t.ha); tepati to drip (Dha_tup.) theva a drop, a little (Pkt.); thippai to drip (Pkt.) t.ipak a drop (of rain), to fall in drops (Santali) tumi rain drops (Ta.); tipi topu inba to fall drop by drop (Kui) cf. te_ma moist (Te.lex.)

dan.d.a stick, staff, pole, cudgel, mace (RV.) a thick stick, a club (Santali) mun.d.ha, mun.d.hak, mun.d.hat a log, block; mun.d.ra branchless (Santali) mun.d.aka tree-trunk, beam (Skt.) mun.ret log (Santali); bon:ga club (Kurku); staff, pole, rod, perch (of bamboo or wood)(Santali); d.a~_g id. (H.)

da_d.ima the pomegranate tree; its fruit (MBh.R.Sus'r.), d.a_lim (H.) The radical element is d.imb- cf. d.imba egg (Skt.); d.imbu cucumis (Kharia); d.ambau custard apple (Ho.)

dundubhi drum (RV.) din.d.ima a kind of drum (MBh.R.) a_d.ambara drum, noise, sound (VS.) dudrabhi a kettle-drum (Pali) d.a-ba: d.obo, d.hob d.hobo dull, flat in sound (kettle-drum and d.hol)(Santali) t.amak a kettle-drum; tumdak the dancing-drum (Santali); duma_n. (Mu.); duman. drum (Ho.); damua a kettle-drum; d.ha~_pla_ a kind of drum, tambourine (Mu.); de_b to beat a drum (Sora).

pan:gu lame (AVParis'.MBh.); pan:gu (Pali.Pkt.); pan:gula (Pali) van:ku going crookedly (Skt.); wongu lame (K.); va~_g douleur sourde (a la suite d'une contusion)(M.); vin:ga_ crooked (P.) ban:go bent, lame (Rom.); ba_n.o crooked (Ku.); ba_n:go crooked, bent, twisted, perverse (N.); bin:ga_, vin:ga_ crooked (P.); ba~_ka_ crooked (H.); ba_n:kuro short, hunch-backed (B.); bhen:ga_ squint-eyed (L.H.); bhen:gura_ crippled (B.); crooked (A.) pakor. to twist, distort, misrepresent; pa_k to twist, twine, turn, pervert; bakr.a perverse, insincere, crooked; dhakuc bakuc crooked, lame, limping; bakbhen:kor. crooked, winding, tortuous (Santali); pa_kr.e one having a deformed leg (Mu.)

pun:kha the lowest (feathered) part of an arrow (MBh.R.) pun:kam id. (Ta.) pon:kha_nupon:kham arrow after arrow, constantly (Pali) pur..uku arrowhead (Ta.); pil.uku, pil.ku the lower part of an arrow which comes in contact with the bowstring and contains the feathers and shaft (Ka.) pho~k the notch of an arrow for receiving the bow-string, the notch at the top of a post, to cut a notch; phon:ke with openings in walls, with gaps, holes; pha_k a gap, an opening, breach, chasm (Santali); pha~_k empty space (B.); phon. to have an opening (Mu.)

pun.d.ari_ka the white lotus (RV.) pon.d. white; pon.d.e a common nickname of Santal girls who are very light-coloured when small (Santali); po_n.d. white (Mahle); pu_n.d.i_ (Mu.Ho.); pun.d.i_ (Korwa); pen.d.ra, pen.d.raha grey-eyed, white-eyed (Santali); pan.d.ra_ greyish buffalo (Mu.)

bekura_ voice, sound (Naigh.) bakura, ba_kura id. (Skt.) bhakur bhakur the call of a leopard (Santali); hukur a low moan or growl, the cry of a buffalo (Mu.) bakkula a demon, uttering horrible cries, a form assumed by the Yakkha Ajakala_paka, to terrify the Buddha (Pali)'a hook, esp. fish-hook (MBh.R.) val.ica, vel.icam (Ta.);'i_ (H.) Proto-Mundas and Dravidians were, indeed, the fishermen of ancient India. ba-d.a crooked (Proto-Munda) pat.we crooked, bent, zig-zag (Santali)

bhimal unconscious, fainting, fit (N.) dholo molo dull, unwell, out of sorts (Santali); d.holo molo drowsy (Mu.)

men.d.(h)a ram (Skt.) mejhuka_ ram (H.) me~d.ha_, me~r.ha_, mer.ha_ (H.); men.d.a_ curved and pointed towards the head (said of horns of animals)(Mu.); menda_ (dirin.) (horns) bent down (Ho.); mer.ha, me~r.ha twisted backwards (horns of buffalo), having horns twisted backwards (buffalors)(Santali) mi~d.i_ a she-goat (H.); merom (Santali); merom (Mu.Ho.Birhor); mera goat (Juang); bherki the four-horned antelope, barking deer (Kurku); id. (Gondi) cimin.a ram, hog; ga_men.i_ she-goat (Pkt.)

va_tuli a certain kind of vampire (Skt.) ba_dur flying fox, bat (H.); ba_dud. (B.) bardu~r.u~c bat (Santali); kentu_r bat (Sora); tiru bat (Kurku); gadur vampire bat, a flying fox (Kurku); ba_rdur.iad, ba_rdulud (Mu.); ba_rdui (Ho.) du~r.u~c to tilt a vessel, to spill (Santali); burdulud flying ant (Mu.); kawet bat (Semang)

s'r.n:ga_ra fine dress (MBh.R.) chakel makel, chaker maker well-made, handsome, graceful, elegant; jhin:gur ear-ornament; seke seke, seke doke, seke meke covered with ornaments, to adorn (Santali); jhakkalo showy, fashionable; jhakmale showy, foppish (N.)

hala plough (MBh.R.) jol pole, stick (Arm.); zuolis trunk of a tree (Lith.) la_n:gala plough (Skt.); na_cil (Ta.); na_gal (Te.); ne_gal (Ka.); na_n:ge_l (Gondi); na_n:geli (Kui) nahel plough (Santali); na_el, naial wooden frame of the plough (Mu.); nail plough (Ho.) la_hala (Pkt.)