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Roots (Dha_tupa_t.ha)

Dha_tupa_t.ha (lit. a study of roots or verb forms) reputedly by Pa_n.ini provides a list of 2200 roots (in ten technical classes) with almost all irregular and noteworthy forms which can be expanded in the series of active, passive, casual desiderative and derivative groups.

About 2200 roots are grouped into ten classes which are sub-divided into two groups based on conjugational terminations. There are two main divisions of terminations: parasmaipadi and atmanepadi. In Sanskrit the tenses and moods are divided into two categories : the conjugational and non-conjugational; this division determines the peculiar modification the root should undergo.

The classification of verbal bases in the following ten classes is based on  vikaran.a the inserted conjugational affix, the conjugational sign placed between the root and the terminations:

I. s'abvikaran.o_bhva_digan.ah

[s'ap a technical term used by Pa_n.ini for the conjugational sign a inserted between the root and the terminations of the conjugational tenses in the first class of roots.]

II. lugvikaran.o_da_di gan.a

[luk a technical term used by Pa_n.ini to express the dropping or disappearance of affixes.]

III. s'lu-vikaran.o_juho_tya_digan.a

IV. s'yan vikaran.o_diva_digan.a

V. s'nu-vikaran.ah-sva_digan.a

[s'nu a technical term used by Pa_n.ini for nu the sign of the 5th class of roots.]

VI. s'a-vikaran.astuda_digan.a

VIII. u-vikaran.astana_digan.a

IX. s'na_-vikaran.a r.ya_digan.a

[s'na_ a technical term used by Pa_n.ini for na_, the sign of the 9th class of roots]

X. n.ijantas'cura_digan.a

I. s'abvikaran.o_bhva_digan.a [s'ap a technical term used by Pa_n.ini for the conjugational sign a inserted between the root and the terminations of the conjugational tenses in the first class of roots; vikaran.a the inserted conjugational affix, the conjugational sign placed between the root and the terminations]

ak to move tortuously

aks. to pervade; to reach; to accumulate

ag to wind, to go

an:k to mark

an:g to go

an:gh to go; to hasten; to begin; to blame; to gamble

ac to go; to request

aj to go; to drive; to throw

ac to speak indistinctly; to go; to request; to bend

ac to worship; to honour or to revere

at. to wander

at.t. to transgress; to kill

at.h to go

an.t.h to go

ad. to exert; to try

ad.d. to join; to attack; to explain the sense of; to sue, to exert

an. to utter a voice, to sound

at to go constantly; to obtain (mostly Vedic)

ant, and to bind

amb, ambh to sound

abhr to go, to wander about

am to go; to sound, to wait upon

ay to go

argh to be worth; to cost

arc to worship; to honour; to shine; to praise (Vedic)

arj to procure; to earn

ard to go; to beg or request; deri. ardita solicited; abhyarn.a near, proximate, close, drawing near (of time)

arb to go, to injure, to kill

arv to kill

al to adorn; to be competent or able

av to protect, to move, to be lovely, to please, to satisfy, to know, to enter, to hear, to own, to beg, to act, to desire, to shine, to obtain, to embrace, to kill, to take, to be, to grow; deri. avita or u_ta

as., as to go, to shine, to receive

am.h to go

a_ch to lengthen, to stretch, to make straight; deri. a_chita

i to go; deri. ita, e_tum, itva_, uditya, ayat, is.yat,

ikh to go, to move; deri. ikhita, e_khitum, e_khitva_, i_khivas

in:kh to go, to move

in:g to go, to move

it. to go

in.t. to have superhuman faculties, to be powerful

inv to pervade; to please; to be satisfied

i_ to go; deri. i_ta

i_ks. to see

i_kh, i_n:kh to go

i_j to go; to censure, to blame

i_r to go

i_rs.y, i_ks.y to envy

i_s. to escape, to kill, to see

i_s. to glean

i_n to endeavour, to obtain, to aim at, to wish

u to utter a voice; to sound; deri. uta, o_tum

uks. to sprinkle; to wet

ukh to go

un:kh to go

ucch to dwell abroad; to retire

uch to glean

ut.h to knock down

urd to measure, to play; to taste; to grant; to be cheerful

urv to kill or hurt

us. to burn

uh to hurt or kill

u_t.h to knock down

u_y to weave; to sew

u_s. to be ill

u_h to conjecture, to infer, to guess; to note; to expect; to reason

r. to go; to acquire; deri. r.ta, artum, aris.yat, a_rivas

r.j to go; to stand; to gain; to acquire; to be healthy

r.j to fry

r.t to reproach, to pity, to go, to rival; to have power

r.s' to kill; to go

ej to tremble or shake

ej to shine; deri. ejama_na

et. to annoy; to oppose

edh to grow: to increase, to prosper, to extend, to swell, to rise

es. to go

o_kh to be dry; to be able or sufficient; to adorn; to refuse; to prevent

o_n. to remove; to drag along

o_laj to throw up

o_lan.d. to throw up

kak to wish; to be proud; to be unsteady; to be thirsty

kakh to deride or laugh at

kakh to deride

kag to perform or do anything or act

kan:k to go

kac to bind

kac to cry

kac to shine; to bind

kat. to rain; to cover or to surround

kat. to go or approach

kat.h to drag on the days of life, to live in distress

kad. to be confused; to be proud

kad.d. to be harsh or rough

kan. to cry or bewail

kan. to go or approach

kat. to go

kan.t.h to grive for, to miss

kan.d. to be proud; to unhusk

kan.d. to be proud

katth to praise; to boast; to flatter; deri. vikatthya, cakattha_na

kad to be confounded, to grieve

kan to shine; to love; to wish; to go; Vedic (to be contented)

kand to call; to shed tears

kand to be confounded; to grieve

kab to colour

kam to love, to long for; to have intercourse with; to value highly; deri. ka_nta, ka_mya

kamp to shake or tremble

kamb to go

karj to pain

kard to rumble; to caw

karb to go or approach

karv to be proud, to boast

kal to sound; to count

kall to sound indistinctly

kav to praise; to describe, to compose a poem

kas' to sound

kas. to kill or injure; to try on a touchstone; to rub

kas to go

ka_n:ks. to desire or long for

ka_c to shine; to bind

ka_s' to shine

ka_s to cough

kit. to fear; to frighten; to go or approach

kit to live; to heal or cure; to doubt; deri. cikitsita

kit to desire

ki_l to bind; to fit

ku to sound; deri. kuta, ko_tum, kavama_na, cukuva_na

kuk to take; to accept; to seize

kuc to utter a shrill cry (as a bird); to contract; to bend; to be crooked; to impede; to write or delineate

kuj to steal

kuc to make crooked; to bend, or curve; to lessen

kut. to cut

kun.t. to be lame

kun.t.h to be mutilated or blunted; to loosen; to be dull or stupid or idle

kun.d. to maim or mutilate

kun.d. to burn

kut to cover

kunth to hurt; to suffer pain

kubh to wet

kump to cover; to dress

kumb to cover

kumbh to cover

kurd to play; deri. ku_rdita

kul to collect; to be related or to behave as a kinsman; to proceed uninterruptedly; to reckon

kum.s' to shine

kum.s to speak

kuj to make any inarticulate sound, to hum; to coo; to warble

klup to be fit for; to be able; deri. klupta, kalpitum

kr.s. to draw; to plough; deri. kr.s.t.a,, a_kr.s.ya, cakr.s.bas

ke_p to shake or tremble

ke_l to shake; to sport

kai to sound; deri. ka_ta, ka_yat, cakivas

knath to hurt, to injure, to kill

knu_y to make a creaking sound; to be wet; to sink

kmar to be crooked

krath to injure, hurt or kill

krad to be confounded, to grieve

krand to lament; to grieve

krand to call out; to cry

krap to pity; to go

kram to walk; to step; to go, to cross; to leap; to ascend; deri. kra_nta, kramitum, cakran.vas

kri_d. to amuse oneself; to play; to gamble; to make a noise or creak or break

kruc to make crooked; to bend or curve; to lessen

krus' to call out; to cry

klath to hurt or kill

kland to call out; to cry

klam to be fatigued; deri. kla_nta, caklanvas

klind to lament

kli_b to behave like a eunuch; to be timorous or modest or unassuming

klu to go

kle_v to serve

kle_s' to speak inarticulately; to impede

kvan. to jingle; to tinkle; to hum; to warble

kvath to boil; to decoct; to digest

ks.aj to kill

ks.aj to go, to give to cut, to protect, to eat to forgive; to suffer; to allow; to put up with; to resist; to be able to do anything

ks.amp to forgive or endure to flow; to ooze; to wane; to become useless, to melt

ks.i to decay; to wane, to waste to make an inarticulate sound

ks.iv to eject from the mouth; to vomit; to spit out; deri. ks.yu_ta, praks.i_vya

ks.i_j to speak inarticulately

ks.i_b to be drunk or intoxicated

ks.i_v to be drunk or intoxicated

ks.i_v to spit out

ks.ud to go

ks.up to be intoxicated

ks.ubh to be agitated; to disturb

ks.ump to go

ks.e_v to spit out to wane, to decline; to decay, to waste away; deri. ks.a_ma, ks.e_ya

ks.ma_y to tremble; to shake

ks.mi_l to wink

ks.vid. to be wet or unctuous; to discharge juice, to emit sap

ks.vid to be wet

ks.ve_l to leap, to move; to shake

khakkh to laugh at

khaj to churn; to agitate

khaj to limp

khat. to desire

khan.d. to break, to cut, to tear to pieces

khad to be firm, to kill

khan to dig up; deri. kha_ta, khe_ya

khab, khamb to go

kharj to pain; to worship

khard to bite, to sting

kharb to go

kharv to proud or haughty

khal. to gather or collect; to move or shake

khas. to injure, hurt or kill

kha_d to eat; to devour

khit. to fear, to frighten

khu to sound

khuj to rob; to steal

khun.d. to limp; to break into pieces

khurd to play

khe_l to shake; to tremble; to play

khe_v to serve

khai to strike; to be firm; deri. kha_ta, kha_yat

kho_t., kho_d., kho_r, kho_l to limp, to be lame

gaj to sound or roar; to be drunk or confused

gaj to sound

gad. to distil

gan.d. to affect the cheek

gad to speak, to say

gand to affect the cheek

gam to go; deri. gata, a_gamya, jagmivas

garj, gard to roar; to growl; to thunder

garb to go

garv to be proud

garh to blame; to censure

gal to eat; to drip

galbh to be bold or confident

galh to blame, to censure

ga_ to go

ga_dh to set out for, to dive, to seek, to compile, to string together, to stay

ga_h to dive, to bathe; to penetrate, to agitate or churn, to be absorbed in; to hide onself in; to destroy; deri. ga_d.ha, ga_hitavya

gu to speak inarticulately; deri. guta, go_tum, gavama_na, juguva_na

guj to hum or buzz

guj to hum or buzz, to sound inarticulately

gun.t.h to enclose; to envelope

gun.d. to envelope, to protect, to pound

gud to play

gudh to play

gup to protect, to conceal

gup to censure; to despise, to hide

gard-grd to play

gurv to endeavour, to elevate

guh to cover; to hide

gr. to sprinkle, to wet

gr.j, gr.j to sound, to roar, to grumble

gr.h to take; to seize

ge_p to shake

ge_v to seve

ge_s. to search; to investigate

ga to sing, to relate; deri. gi_ta

go_s.t. to assemble; to collect; to heap together

granth to be crooked or wicked, to bend

granth to bind, to arrange in a regular order

gras, glas to eat; to devour, to swallow; to consume; to seize; to eclipse; to destroy; deri. grasta, jagrasa_na

gruc, gluc to steal; deri. grukta

gluh to take

gluc to go

gle_p to be poor or miserable; to shake

gle_v to serve or worship

gle_s. to seek

glai to despond, to wane; to be fatigued

ghagh to laugh

ghat. to act; to be intently occupied with; to happen; to be united with; to come to, to reach

ghat.t. to shake

ghan.t. to speak; to shine

gharb to go

ghas to eat; to devour

ghin.n. to take

ghu to sound

ghut. to return; to exchange

ghun. to stagger; to reel

ghun.n. to take

ghus. to be beautiful or brilliant

ghus. to sound, to proclaim

ghum.s. to diffuse lustre

ghu_rn. to whirl; to roll; to reel

ghr. to sprinkle

ghr.n.n. to take

ghr.s. to grind, to pound, to strike, to rub, to brush, to polish

ghra_ to smell

n.u to sound

cak to be satisfied, to repel; to resist, to shine

cak to be satisfied

can:k to reel; to roll

cac to go; to shake; to leap

cat. to break, to rain, to cover

can. to go, to sound

can.d. to be angry

cat, cad to beg, to request

can to kill

cand to be glad; to shine

cap to console; to sooth

cam to eat; to drink

camp to go

camb to go

cay to go

car to go; to walk, to graze; to eat; deri. carya, ce_ra_n.a_ca_rya an instructor

carc to discuss, to condemn; to censure

carb to go

carv to chew, to eat; to browse; to chop; to bite

cas. to eat

cah to be wicked; to be proud; to cheat

ca_y to worship, to discern

cit. to send out

cit to perceive; to think; to recover consciousness

cint to remember

chill to become loose; to act wantonly; to sport

chi_k to endure

ci_bh to coax, to boast

ci_b to take, to wear, to cover

cucya to bathe, to churn, to press

cud.d. to sport, to hint one's meaning

cun.t. to cut off

cun.d. to become small, to cut off

cup to move slowly

cumb to kiss

culump to swing, to rock; to agitate

cull to sport, to make amorous gestures

cu_s. to drink

cr.p to excite; to light

ce_l to shake; to go

ce_s.t. to act

cyu to go; to drop down; to fall, to swerve

cyut to flow; to trickle

chat. to cover; to veil; to hide

chand to cover

cham to eat, to consume

chas. to hurt; to injure, to kill

chr.d to kindle

chr.s. to beg or request

jaj to fight

jaj to fight

jat. to become matted (as hair)

jad. to heap

jap to mutter, to mediate

jabh to yawn, to gape; deri. jabdha, jambhitum, jajabha_na

jam to eat; deri. ja_nta, ja_ntva_, jamitva_

jamm to destroy

jarc, jarch to speak, to blame

jal to strike, to be rich, to hide; to encircle, to be sharp; to be cold, stiff, dull, or dumb

jalp to speak, to prattle, to babble, to murmur, to chatter, to praise

jas. to kill

jas to injure, to strike

jam.s to protect, to release

ji to conquer; to overcome; to surpass, to win, to restrain

jinv to please; to be lively, active, busy; to excise; to animate, to promote, confer

jim to eat

jis. to sprinkle

ji_v to live, to revive, to live upon

ju to go, to be quick

jug to abandon; to exclude

jut to shine

jus. to reason; to investigate; to be satisfied; to hurt

jumbh to gape; to yawn; to expand; to open; to spread; to increase, appear, to rise

jr._ to grow old, to waste away; to decay; deri. ji_rn.a, jarat

je_s. to go

je_h to try, to go

jai to decay

jyu to go

jri to conquer; to defeat, to grow old

jvar to be hot with fever or passion; to be ill; deri. ju_rn.a

jval to blaze; to glow; to shine; deri. prajvalya

jhat. to become matted together (as hair), to become confused or entangled

jham to eat; to consume

jharjh to speak; to hurt, injure or kill; to menace

jhas. to hurt, injure or kill

jhas. to take, to put on or wear to bind to be confused

t.ik to go

t.i_k to go, to resort to

t.auk to go

t.val to be confused

d.i_ to fly; to pass through the air; deri. d.ayita

d.hauk to go, to approach; deri. upad.haukya, d.ud.hauka_na

tak to laugh at; to bear, to fly or rush upon

taks. to cut off; to make thin; to wound, to form; deri. tas.t.a

taks. to eat; to pare, to cover

tan:k to live in distress

tan:g to go; to stumble; to tremble

tac to go

tat. to be raised, to rise, to groan

tan.d. to strike

tan to confide in, to assist; to pain with disease, to be harmless, to sound; deri. tata

tandr to be exhausted, to be disturbed in mind

tap to shine, to be hot; to make hot, to suffer pain, to injure or hurt, to undergo, to perform penance

tay to go

tarj to threaten, to terrify, to scold, to mock

tard to injure, to hurt or kill

tam.s to decorate; to shake, to pour out, to request

ta_y to spread, to protect

tik to go or move

tij to whet

tij to endure or bear patiently

tip to drop, to ooze; deri. tipta, te_pama_na

til to go

till to go

ti_k to go

ti_v to be strong or fat or corpulent

tuj to hurt, injure or kill

tuj to reach, to kill, to be strong, to take, to dwell, to protect to cloth, to strike, to push, to emit, to incite, to give

tud. to split, to push, to injure, to hurt

tud.d. to disregard, to condemn

tun.d. to disregard, to condemn

tup to injure, hurt or kill

tuph to injure, hurt or kill

tubh to injure, hurt or kill

tump, tumph to injure, hurt or kill

tumb to distress, to hurt

turv to kill

tus to sound

tuh to hurt, to kill, to pain

tu_d. to split, to disregard

tu_l to weigh, to measure

tu_s. to satisfy or to be satisfied

tr.ks. to go

tr._ to swim, to cross over, to float, to surmount; to master completely, to fulfil, to escape from; deri. ti_rn.a, taritavya, utti_rya

te_j to protect

te_p to ooze, to shake

te_v to lament; to play

to_d. to disregard

tyaj to abandon, to leave, to quit, to let go, to renounce, to except, to distribute, to disregard

trakh to go

tran:k to go

tran:kh, tran:g to go

trand to act; to try; to be busy or active

trap to be ashamed or abashed; to be embarrassed

tram.s to speak; to shine to go

trup, truph, trump, trumph to kill, injure or hurt

trai to protect; deri. tra_ta or tra_n.a, paritra_ya

trauk to go

tvaks. to make thin

tvan:g to go; to tremble

tvac to go; deri. tyakta

tvis. to shine; to glitter

tsar to creep; to crawl; to proceed crookedly or fraudulently

thurv to injure, hurt or kill

daks. to increase, to do or act quickly

daks. to go; to kill

dad to give; to offer; to present

dadh to hold: to possess

dam.s' to bite; to sting; deri. das.t.a

day to pity, to give; to go; to protect; to kill; to take

dal to break; to split; to expand, to open

dah to reduce to ashed; to burn; to scorch; to torment; deri. dagdha

da_ to give; deri. datta, de_ya, yacchat, dadivas

da_n to cut off, to straighten; deri. di_da_m.sita

da_y to give

da_s' to give; to offer an oblation

da_s to give

dinv to be glad or pleased, to gladden, to please

div to lament; deri. de_vitva_ or dyu_tva_

di_ks. to be shaved; to perform a sacrifice, to invest with a sacred thread; to practise self-restraint; to teach religious observances; to prepare oneself for the performance of a sacred rite; to dedicate oneself to

du to go; deri. du_na, du_tva_, do_tum

durv to kill; deri. du_rta

duh to injure, hurt or kill

dr.p to light; to kindle; to inflame to tie; to string

dr.s' to see; to behold; to visit; to learn; to investigate

dr.h, dr.m.h to increase; to prosper; to fasten; to be firm

dr._ to fear; deri. darks.rn.a

de_ to protect; deri. datta, dayama_na, da_tum, digya_na

de_v to play, to sport; to lament

dai to purify; to cleanse, to be purified

dyut to shine; to be bright

dyai to despise; to disfigure

dram to go; to run

dra_kh to become dry; to be able; to prevent; to adorn

dra_gh to be able; to stretch; to exert oneself; to be weary; to vex; to wander about

dra_m.ks. to desire, to utter a discordant sound

dra_d. to cut, to split

dra_h to wake

dru to go, to flow, to run; to retreat, to melt; to attack, to rush

dre_k to sound; to show joy; to be exhilarated

drai to sleep; deri. dra_n.a, nidra_ya

dvr. to cover, to appropriate

dhan., dhan to sound

dhanv to go

dha_v to run; to flow, to cleanse, to wash; deri. dhautva_

dhiks. to kindle, to be harassed or weary, to live

dhinv to please, to delight

dhuks. to kindle; to be harassed or weary, to live

dhurv to injure, hurt or kill; deri. dhu_rta

dhu_ to shake, to excite

dhu_p to heat, to fumigate, to perfume, to be heated

dhr. to hold, to support, to possess, to keep, to seize, to place

dhr.j, thr.j to go

dhr.s. to come together, to hurt or injure, to offend

dhe_ to suck, to drink, to draw; deri. dhi_ta, dha_tum, sam.dha_ya

dho_r to go quickly, to run, to trot; to be skilful

dhma_ to blow; to breathe out, to produce sound by blowing, to blow a fire, to manufacture by blowing; deri. a_dhma_ya, dhamat, dadhmivas, dhma_syat

dhyai to think of, to meditate, to recollect; deri. dhya_t

dhraj to go

dhran.j to go

dhran. to sound as a drum or other instrument

dhras to glean

dha_kh to be dry, to be able

dhra_dh to be able or competent

dhra_m.ks. to desire; to caw; to crow

dhra_d. to divide; to split

dhrij to go

dhru to be firm

dhre_k to sound; to be filled with joy

dhrai to be pleased

dhvaj to go

dhvaj to go

dhvan. to sound

dhvan to sound

dham.s to fall down; to perish; to go

dhva_m.ks. to desire; to caw; to crow

dhvr. to bend; to kill

naks. to go

nakh to go to go

nat. to dance; to act (as a dramatic part)

nat. to sound; to roar; to thunder; deri. na_dya, pran.adya

nand to be glad or satisfied

nabh to destroy, to perish

nam to salute; to sink; to bend; deri. nata, nantavya, vinamya, nam.syat

nay to go

nard to sound, to roar

nal to smell; to bind

nas to be crooked

na_th, na_dh to ask; to harass; to be master; to bless

na_s to sound

niks. to kiss

nid to ridicule, to reach

nind to blame; to censure; to condemn

ninv to sprinkle; to attend

nis' to meditate upon

nis. to sprinkle, to moisten

ni_ to lead; to carry; to bring; to pass, to spend; to trace; deri. ni_ta, ne_tum

ni_l to be of a dark colour; to dye dark

ni_v to become fat

nr._ to carry

ne_d to censure; to be near

ne_s. to go

paks. to seize; to accept, to take aside

pac to cook; to bake, to burn; to digest, to ripen, to develop; deri. pakva; paktrima (ripened, matured, cooked)

pac to make clear

pat. to go

pat.h to declare, to mention, to cite, to study, to read, to recite

pan. to transact business, to deal in, to barter, to bet, to stake

pan., pan to praise; deri. pan.ita

pan.d. to go

pat to fall, to fly, to alight, to sink, to be degraded, to attack to go

pay to go

pard to break wind


pap, pab to go

parv to fill

pal to go

pa_ to drink, to feast on, to swallow up; deri. pi_ta, pe_ya, nipa_ya, pibat

pit. to sound; to assemble; to heap together

pit. to injure; to kill; to feel pain

pin.d. to roll into a lump, to heap; to unite

pinv to sprinkle, to serve

pis to go

pi_l to check; to impede; to obstruct

pi_v to be fat or thick

pud. to grind

pun.d. to grind, to pound

punth to kill, to suffer pain

purv to fill

pul to be great or large; to be lofty or high, to be heaped up

pus. to nourish, to develop, to support; to enhance, to get

pu_ to purify or clean from chaff; deri. pu_ta or pavita, pavya or pa_vya, pavitum, pavama_na, pupuva_na

pu_y to split, to stink; deri. pu_ta

pu_l to collect, to gather, to heap up, to assemble

pu_s. to nourish, to increase, to grow

pr.s. to sprinkle, to hurt, to vex

pe_l to go

pe_v to serve

pe_s. to resolve upon, to strive diligently for

pe_s to go

pai to dry, to wither

pain. to go, to send, to touch, to embrace

pya_y to grow, to increase, to swell; deri. pi_na, pya_na

pyai to grow

prath to become famous, to increase, to spread abroad, to arise, to appear

pras to extend, to expand

pru to go, to jump

prut. to rub

prus., plus. to burn, to reduce to ashes

pre_s. to go

pro_th to be equal to, to be a match for, to be complete

plaks. to eat

plih to go

plu to go, to jump, to fly, to float, to swim; deri. plavya

phakk to behave ill, to go softly

phan. to go, to produce easily; deri. phan.ita, pha_n.t.a (in the second sense)

phal to bear fruit, to result, to succeed, to be useful or fruitful

phal to burst open, to split; deri. phulla, utphulla, sam.phulla, praphulta

phe_l to go

ban. to sound

bad to be steady or firm

badh to loathe; to be disgusted with, to shrink from; deriv. bi_bhatsita

barv to go

barh to be pre-eminent; to speak: to kill; to give

bal to breath; to hoard grain

balh to be pre-eminent

bam.h to grow, to increase

ba_d. to bathe; to dive

ba_dh to oppress, to torment

ba_h to endeavour

bit. to swear, to curse, to shout

bind to split, to cleave, to divide

bukk to bark; to sound; to yelp; to speak

budh to know; to understand; to think

budh to make known; to inform; to teach

bund to perceive; to apprehend; deri. budga, butva_

br.nn to grow, to increase

br.m.h to increase, to sound

be_h to endeavour

bhaks. to eat

bhaj to worship; to honour, to divide; to be attached to, to serve; deri. bhakta, bha_jya or bha_gya

bhat. to hire, to nourish

bhat. to speak, to call

bhan. to speak, to call

bhan.d. to speak, to jest, to chide

bhand to be prosperous or glad

bharv to kill

bhal, bhall to speak, to kill, to give

bhas. to bark, to revile

bha_m to be angry

bha_s. to speak, to say; to call, to describe

bha_s to shine, to appear, to become evident

bhiks. to ask; to beg for without obtaining, to be weary or distressed, to obtain

bhind to split, to divide

bhu_ to be; deri. bhu_ta, bha_vya, bhavya

bhu_s. to adorn, to decorate

bhr. to support, to bear, to have, to fill; deri. bhr.ta, bha_rya, bhartum, bhr.tva_

bhr.j to parch, to fry

bhe_s. to fear, to go

bhyas to fear

bhraks. to eat

bhran. to speak

bhram to roam about; deri. bhra_nta, bhra_mitva_

bhras' to fall, to drop down

bhram.s', bhram.s to fall, to drop down; deri. bhras.t.a

bhra_s' to shine, to glitter

bhre_j to shine, to glitter

bhre_s. to fear, to go

bhlaks. to eat

bhla_s' to shine, to glitter

bhle_s. to shine, to glitter

maks. to collect

makh to go

man:k to adorn, to decorate

man:kh, man:g to go

man:gh to go, to blame, to be moving, to cheat

man:gh to adorn, to decorate

mac to cheat, to boast, to pound

maj to be mad, to sound

mac to hold, to grow high, to adore

maj to sound

mat.h to grind, to dwell

man. to sound, to murmur

man.t.h to remember with regret; to grieve for

man.d. to divide, to clothe; to surround

man.d. to adorn oneself

manth to churn, to stir

manth to kill; to injure; to be afflicted; to suffer pain

manth to churn, to stir; to shake; to kill; to crush; to tear off

mand to praise; to be glad; to proud; to sleep; to shine; to move slowly

mabhr to go

may to go

marb to go

marv to fill

mal, mall to hold; to possess

mad to bind; to kill

mavya to bind

mas' to sound; to be angry

mas. to kill; to sound

mask to go

mah to worship; to revere

mam.h to grow old

ma_m.ks. to desire; to wish

ma_n to investigate; to examine; deri. mi_ma_m.sita

ma_h to measure

mith to understand; to hurt

mid to love, to melt; deri. minna or me_dita

mid to understand, to kill

midh to understand, to kill

minv to love; to sprinkle

mis' to make noise; to be angry

mis. to sprinkle, to wet, to serve; deri. mis.t.a

mis. to make noise

mih to sprinkle, to make water, to wet; deri. mi_d.ha, me_d.havya

mi_m to go

mi_l to close the eyes, to twinkle, to fade, to disappear

mi_v to grow fat or large

muj to sound

muc to cheat, to be wicked, to tell

muj to sound

mut., mud. to crush, to grind, to break

mun.t.h to protect, to run away

mun.d. to be pure, to sink

mun.d. to grind, to shave, to shear

mud to be glad, to rejoise

murch to faint, to increase, to grow, to become strong, to take effect on

murv to bind

mu_ to bind

mu_l to take root, to be firm, to accumulate

mu_s. to steal, to rob

mr.ks. to collect, to rub

mr.j to cleanse, to wipe off, to adorn, to sharpen

mr.dh to moisten, to kill; deri. mr.ddha, mardhitva_

mr.s. to sprinkle, to endure

me_ to return, to exchange; deri. mita, nima_ya, nimitya, apamitya, apama_ya, ma_tum

me_th to know, to understand, to kill, to hurt

me_dh to know, to kill, to meet

me_p to go

me_v to serve, to worship

mna_ to study, to repeat, to remember, to think; deri. mna_ta, mne_ya

mraks. to collect, to rub

mrad to crush, to pound

mruc, mluc to go or move; deri. mrukta, mro_citva_

mruc to go, to move; deri. mrukta, mrucitva_

mre_t., mre_d. to be mad

mluc to go, to move

mle_cch to speak indistinctly

mle_t., mle_d. to be mad

mle_v to serve, to worship

mlai to be sad, to become weary, to fade, to be emaciated; deri. mla_na, mle_ya

yaj to make an oblation to a deity, to associate with, to sacrifice, to worship, to give; deri. is.t.a, yas.t.avya, ya_jya,, samijya, is.t.va_

yat to strive after, to be watchful; deriv. yatta, yatitavya

yabh to cohabit; deri. yiyapsate_, yabdha, yabdhva_, yarbdhum

yam to check, to stop; deri. yata, yamya, yantum, yatva_, niyamya or niyatya, yacchatma_na, ye_mivas-ye_ma_na

yas to endeavour; deri. yasta, ya_sya, yasitva_

ya_c to beg, to ask, to solicit

yun:g to abandon, to desert

yucch to err, to be negligent

yuj to unite, to bind, to yoke; deri. yukta

yut to shine

yus. to injure, hurt or kill

ye_s. to try, to attempt

yaut., yaud. to bind

raks. to protect, to watch, to take care of

rakh to go

rag to doubt

ran:kh, ran:g to go, to move

ran:gh to go, to hasten

raj to be coloured, to redden, to dye, to be attached to, to be excited, to be pleased with; deri. rakta, ran:ktum, ran:ktva_ or raktva_, uparajya

rat., rat.h to roar, to yell, to proclaim aloud, to shout

ran. to sound, to ring, to jingle

ran. to go to go

rad to split, to scratch

rap to talk, to speak

raph to kill, to go

rabh to begin, to desire, to act rashly; deri. rabdha, rabhya, rabdhum, rabdhva_, a_rabhya

ram to sport, to rest, to be pleased, to rejoice at, to have sexual intercourse with; deri. rata, ramya, rantum, ratva_ or ramitva_, viramya or viratya

ramph to go, to kill

ramb, rambh to sound

ray to go, to move

ras' to sound

ras to roar, to cry, to make noise, to praise

rah to abandon, to quit

ram.h to go, to move

ra_kh to dry, to adorn, to be able

ra_ghra to be able

ra_j to shine, to glitter, to appear like

ra_s', ra_s to sound

rikh to go, to move

rin:kh, rin:g to go, to move

ric to separate, to divide, to join; deri. rikta, riktva_, re_ktum

rin.v to go, to move

ris. to kill, to destroy, to injure

ru to go, to kill

ruc to shine, to please, to like, to appear good

rut. to strike, to oppose

rut. to strike down, to fell

run.t. to steal, to rob

run.t.h to steal; to be lame, to go

run.d. to steal

rus. to kill

ruh to grow from seed, to become manifest, to grow, to rise, to ascend; der. ru_d.ha, ro_hya, ro_d.hum, ru_d.hva_, a_ruhya

ru_s. to decorate, to smear, to cover

re_k to doubt

re_t. to speak, to ask, to request

re_p to go, to move

re_bh to speak

re_v to leap, to go, to move

re_gh to utter an inarticulate sound, to neigh, to roar

rai to sound

ro_d. to despise, to be mad

lakh to go, to move

lag to adhere to, to become united, to come in contact, to happen, to approach, to touch, to produce an effect; deri. lagna, lagita

lakh to go or move

lan:g to go, to limp

lan:gh to dry up, to diminish, to mount upon

lan:gh to go, to fast, to transgress

lacch to mark

laj to fry, to roast

laj to fry, to roast, to blame, to traduce

lat. to be a child, to act or talk like a child, to cry

lad. to play

lad. to loll the tongue, to churn; to blame, to harass

lan.d. to throw up

lan.d. to speak, to shine

lap to speak, to prate, to whisper

labh to get, to obtain, to take, to have to find, to be able, to know; der. labdha, labhya, labdhrima (produced by gain); labha_ (gain)

lamb to sound, to delay, to fall, to hang down

lay to go, to move

larb to go, to move

lal to play

las. to wish, to long for

las to embrace, to play, to shine

la_kh to dry; to adorn, to suffice

la_gh to be able

la_j, la_j to blame, to fry

la_ch to mark; to distinguish

lin:g to go; to move; (with a_ to embrace)

li_ to melt; deri. li_ta, le_ya, le_tum, le_s.yat

luc to remove; to pluck; deri. lucitva_ or lucitva_

luj to injure; to be strong; to take; to dwell; to speak; to shine

lut. to churn; to agitate; to be connected; to wallow; to roll

lut., lut.h to resist; to oppose

lut.h to strike, to knock down

lud. to churn; to stir; to disturb

lun.t., lun.t.h to rob; to plunder; to be idle; to resist; to be lame

lun.d. to steal or rob

lunth to strike, to suffer pain

lumb to torment

lul to move to and fro; to stir; to make tremulous

lu_s. to decorate

le_p to go; to move

lain. to go; to approach; to embrace; to send

lo_k, lo_c to see; to perceive

lo_d. to be mad

lo_s.t. to heap up

vaks. to be angry; to collect

vakh to go; to move

van:k to be crooked; to go

van:kh, van:g to go; to move

van:gh to go; to blame

vaj to go; to move

vac to go

vat. to cover; to surround

vat. to speak

vat.h to become fat

van. to sound

van.t., van.d. to divide

vat.h to go alone

vad to speak; to tell; to describe; to utter; deri. udita, va_dya; avadya (despicable); anudya (unutterable)

van to sound; to honour; to aid

van to act; deri. vata, vanitva_, vatva_

van.t. to salute respectfully; to praise

vap to sow; to plant; to procreate; to weave; to shave; to shear; deri. upta, vaptavya, va_pya, va_ptum, uptva_, uptrima

vabh to go; to move

vam to vomit, to drop; to emit; to give out; to reject

vay to go; to move

varc to shine

vars. to melt; to love

varh to speak; to kill; to kill or hurt; to give

val to cover; to move

val to cover; to move

valg to go; to move; to jump; to gallop; to be pleased

valbh to eat; to devour

vall to be covered; to go; to move

valh to speak, to kill or hurt; to give

vas. to hurt; to kill; to injure

vas to dwell; to live; deri. us.ita, pro_s.ya, vastum

vask to go; to move

vah to bear, to carry; to flow; to marry; to propel; deri. u_d.ha, va_hya or vahya, vo_d.hum, u_d.hva_, pro_hya, vahat-ma_na, vaks.yat-ma_n.a, u_ha_na

va_n:ks. to wish; to desire

va_ch to desire; to wish

va_h to endeavour

vit. to curse; to sound

vith to beg; to ask

vis. to sprinkle; deri. vis.t.a,

vun:g to abandon, to leave

vr. to cover; to conceal

vr.k to accept; to seize

vr.ks. to cover

vr.j to avoid

vr.t to be; to happen; to be presen; to act; to tend to; deri. vr.tta, vatim.ta, vartitva_, vr.tva_

vr.dh to incrase, to grow, to continue, to become joyful

vr.s. to rain, to sprinkle, to kill, to afflict, to give pain

ve_ to weave, to sew, to compose; deri. uta, ve_ya, va_tavya, utva_, prava_ya

ve_n., ve_n to go, to know, to consider, to play on an instrument, to take

ve_th to beg, to ask

ve_p to tremble, to shake

ve_l, ve_ll to go, to move; to shake; to tremble

ve_s.t. to surround, to dress

ve_h to endeavour

vai to be dry, to be languid; deri. vana, nirva_n.a

vyath to be vexed, to fear, to become dry

vyay to go, to move

vye_ to cover, to veil; deri. va_ta, vye_ya, vya_tum, sam.vya_ya, parivya_ya

vraj to go

vran. to sound

s'an:k to fear, to doubt, to suspect

s'ac to speak, to say, to tell

s'at. to be sick, to divide, to pierce, to go, to be weary

s'at.h to cheat, to defraud

s'an. to give, to go

s'ad. to hurt, to cause disease, to collect

s'ad to perish, to fall, to wither, to decay; deri. s'anna, s'aktum, s'atva_, a_s'aya, s'i_yama_na

s'ap to curse, to imprecate, to swear; deri. s'apta, s'apya, s'aptum, s'aptva_

s'arb to go, to move

s'arb to kill

s'al to go, to move

s'al to shake, to cover

s'albh to praise, to boast

s'av to go, to move

s'as' to jump, to dance

s'as. to kill

s'as to kill; deri. s'asta

s'am.s to praise, to be in distres, to tell, to indicate

s'am.s to wish, to expect, to bless

s'a_kh to pervade

s'a_d. to praise

s'a_n to whet

s'a_l to praise, to shine, to be endowed with, to tell

s'iks. to learn, to practise

s'ikh to go, to move

s'igh to smell

s'it. to disregard

s'is. to kill, to leave as a remainder

s'i_k to be angry, to touch

s'i_bh to boast

s'i_l to meditate, to intend

s'uc to regret, to grive for, to bewail

s'ucya to perform ablution, to squeeze out juice, to distil

s'ut., s'un.t.h to resist, to go lame

s'undh to purify

s'ubh, s'umbh to speak, to shine, to kill

s'ubh to shine, to look beautiful

s'u_l to be ill, to collect

s'r.s. to bring forth

s'r.dh to break wind

s'r.dh to moisten, to wet, to cut off

s'e_l to go, to move

s'e_v to worship, to serve

s'ai to cook

s'o_n. to be red, to go

s'aut. to be proud

s'cut, s'cyut to ooze, to diffuse

s'mi_l to wink

s'yai to go, to move, to wither; to dry up; deri. s'ya_na, s'i_na or s'i_ta (cold)

s'ran:ka, s'ran:g to go, to move

s'ran. to give

s'rath to kill

s'ranth to loosen

s'rambh to be careless, to err

s'ri to serve, to depend upon

s'ris to burn

s'ru to go, to move

s'rai to cook

s'ro_n. to heap together, to collect

s'lan:k, zs'lan:g to go, to move

s'lath to hurt

s'la_kh to pervade, to penetrate

s'la_gh to praise, to flatter, to boast

s'lis. to burn

s'lo_k to heap together, to collect, to versify

s'lo_n. to collect

s'van:k, s'vac, s'vac to go

s'val, s'vall to run

s'vi to move, to increase, to grow, to swell; deri. s'u_na, s'vaya, ucchu_ya

s'vit to be white; deri. s've_dita

s'vind to be white

* to spit, to sputter; deri. s.t.yu_ta

s.vas.k to go

sag to cover

sac to sprinkle, to serve

se_c to be associated with

saj to cling to, to fasten, to embrace; deri. sakta, saja, sajat, se_jivas

sat. to be a part or portion

sad to divide, to break, to go, to wither, to despond, to be weary; deri. sanna, sa_dya, saktum, saktva_, nis.adya, si_dat,

san to dive

sap to connect

sam to be composed

samb to go, to creep

sarb to go, to move

sarv to go, to kill

sal to go, to move

sasj to go, to become ready

sah to suffer, to forbear, to be patient, to wait, to be able to resist, to conquer, to stop

sit. to disregard

sidh to go

sidh to ordain, to instruct, to do an auspicious act, to turn out auspiciously, to ward off, to restrain, to interdict

sinv to sprinkle

sibh to kill; deri. sibdha, sibhitva_

simbh to kill; deri. sibdha, simbhitva_

si_k to sprinkle

su to bring forth, to possess power or supremacy, to permit; deri. su_ta, sutva_, prasutya, so_tum

subh, sumbh to speak, to kill

su_d to distil, to strike, to hurt, to destroy, to leak, to deposit

su_rks. to respect

su_rks.ya to envy, to despise

sr. to go, to move, to approach, to slip, to blow, to flow; deri. sr.ta, sartavya, sartum, sa_rya, sarat

sr. to run

sr.p to go, to creep; deri. sr.pta, sarpitavya or sraptavya, sr.mbh to kill, to slay

se_k to go, to move

se_l to go, to move

se_v to serve, to honour, to follow, to use, to enjoy, to cultivate, to practise, to devote oneself to, to inhabit, to frequent, to guard, to protect

sai to waste away, to decline

skand to go, to be dry; deri. skanna, viskanna, skan:ktum, skan:ktva_

skambh to obstruct

skund to jump, to raise, to lift

skhad to destroy, to cut

skhal to stumble, to totter, to deviate, to blunder, to err, to stammer, to drop

stak to resist, to repel

staks. to go, to move

stag o cover

stan to sound, to thunder

stam to be confused, not to be confused

stambh to stop, to hinder, to become stiff or naughty, to paralyze, to fix firmly

stip to ooze

stuc to be pleased

stubh to stop

stuks. to go, to move

ste_p to ooze

stai to cover, to adorn

styai to sound, to collect into a heap, to spread about, to crowd

sthag to cover, to conceal

sthal to stand firm

stha_ to stand, to stay, to be; deri. sthita-sthe_ya, tis.t.ha_ya

snai to cover, to wrap, to adorn

syand to throb, to quiver

spardh to contend with, to vie with, to emulate, to challenge

spas' to obstruct, to touch, to perceive clearly, to undertake, to string together

spha_y to grow fat, to increase, to expand

sphut. to burst; to blossom; to blow

sphut. to split open

sphun.t., sphun.d. to open, to expand

sphurcch to spreak, to extend, to forget

sphu_rj to thunder, to explode, to glitter, to burst; deri. sphu_rjita, sphu_rn.a, sphu_rjathuh (a clap of thunder)

smi to smile, to expand, to bloom

smi_la to wink

smr. to remember, to recollect, to think upon, to recite mentally, to record in a smriti; deri. smr.ta, smartum smr.tva_

smr. to long for, to regret

syand to ooze, to feel; deri. syanna, syanditavya, syan:ktum

syam to sound, to shout

sran:k to go, to move

srambh to err; to entrust

sram.s to fall down, to drop, to slip off; to hang down

sru to go, to flow

sre_k to go, to move

svaj to embrace, to clasp, to encircle; deri. svakta, svan:ktum

svad to be pleasant to the taste, to be liked, to taste, to eat, to please

svan to sound, to sing

svan to deck, to adorn

svard to taste, to be pleasing

sva_d to taste, to be pleasing

svid to be greedy, to perspire, to be disturbed, to quit; deri. svinna, sve_dita

svr. to sound, to praise, to pain; deri. svr.ta, svaritavya

hat. to shine

hat.h to leap, to be wicked, to treat with violence

had to void or discharge excrement; deri. hanna, hattva_, haktum

hamm, hay to go, to move

hary to go, to shine

hal to plough, to make furrows, to go

has to laugh, to smile, to joke, to open, to resemble, to ridicule

hikk to make any indistinct sound

hit. to curse, to swear, to shout

hid. to go, to wander, to disregard

hinv to please, to satisfy

him.s to kill

hud. to go

hun.d. to collect, to select, to take away

hurch to be crooked, to deceive

hul to go

hu_d. to go

hr. to carry, to bring, to take, to steal, to acquire, to captivate, to charm; deri. hr.ta, hartavya, ha_rya, hartum, hr.tva_

hr.s. to tell a lie; deri. hr.s.t.a, hars.itum

he_t., he_t.h to be wicked, to vex

he_d. to surround, to clothe

he_d. to disrgard

he_s. to bray; to roar, (in general) to neigh (as a horse)

ho_d. to go, to move

ho_d. to disregard

hal to shake, to go

hag to cover, to conceal

has to sound, to become small

ha_d to sound, to row

hi_ch to be ashamed or modest, to blush

hre_s. to neigh (as a horse), to go, to creep

hlag to cover, to conceal

hlas to sound

hla_d to sound, to be glad; deri. hlanna

hval to move, to shake, to be confused, to be afflicted

hvr. to be crooked, to deceive

hve_ to vie with, to challenge, to call, to ask, to invoke; der. hu_ta, hve_ya, hva_tum, a_hu_ya

II. lugvikaran.o_da_di gan.a [luk a technical term used by Pa_n.ini to express the dropping or disappearance of affixes; vikaran.a the insertd conjugational affix, the conjugational sign placed between the root and the terminations].

ad to eat; deri. jagdha or annam (food), antum, jagdhva_, prajagdhya, a_divas or jaks.ivas

an to breathe

as to be

a_s to sit, to be; deri. a_si_na, upa_sya

i to go; deri. ita, e_tum, itva_, upe_tya, yat, e_s.yat, i_yivaas

i with adhi to think of, to remember; deri. adhi_ta, adhye_tum

i with adhi to study

i_ to go, to pervade, to conceive, to desire, to throw, to eat; deri. i_ta, e_tum, ayat, aya_cakr.vas

i_d. to praise

i_r to go, to shake

i_s' to rule, to command, to possess powder

u_rn.u to cover

kas', kas to go, to punish

kam.s to go, to destroy

ku to hum

ks.u to sneeze

ks.n.u to whet

khya_ to relate, to tell

caka_s to shine, to be bright or prosperous

caks. to speak, to tell, to see; deri. khya_ta or ks'a_ta

jaks. to eat, to consume, to laugh

ja_gr. to be awake or watchful

tu to go, to grow, to kill; deri. tuta, to_tum

daridra_ to be poor; to be distressed

da_ to cut

diks. to increase; to anoint; smear; to soil; deri. digdha; dhe_ks.yat

didhi_ to shine; to appear

duh to milk; to extract; to yield; deri. dugdha, duhya or do_hya

dyu to assail, to advance towards; deri. dyuta, dyavya

dra_ to run, to fly, to be spoiled, to sleep; deri. dra_n.a, nidra_ya

dvis. to hate; to dislike

nij to wash

nim.s to kiss

nu to praise; deri. nuta, navya or na_vya, navitum, nutva_

pa_ to protect; to fgovern; to preserve

pij to tinge; to colour; to join; to divide; to speak inarticulately

pr.c to come in contact with; to touch

pr.j to dye

pra_ to fill

psa_ to devour; to eat

bru_ to speak; to say; to tell; deri. ukta, uktva_, vaktum

ma_ to shine; to appear; to be

ma_ to measure; to limit; deri. mita, ma_tavya, me_ya, ma_tum, unma_ya

mr.j to cleanse; to purify; to wipe off

ya_ to go; to attend to; to go or pass away; to attempt; to perceive

yu to mix; to join; to separate; deri. yuta, yavya, yutva_, yuyuvas

ra_ to give; to grant

ru to cry; to roar; to shout; to sound; deri. ruta, ravya

rud to shed tears; to cry; to weep; to lament

la_ to take; to give; to melt; deri. la_ta, la_syat, lalivas

lih to lick; to taste; deri. li_d.ha, le_d.havya, le_hya, le_d.hum, li_d.hva_

vac to speak; to read; to name; to call; to announce

vas' to wish; to long for; deri. us'ita

vas to wear, to dress; deri. vasita

va_ to go; to blow; to hurt; to injure; to kill; to move

vid to know; to learn; to find out; to consider (with sam. to recognize)

vi_ to go; to pervade; to be born; to be impregnate; to desire; to throw; to eat; to conceive

vr.j to avoid, to abandon

ve_vi_ (a Vedic root) to go, to pervade, to be born, to impregnate, to desire, to throw, to eat

s'a_s to teach, to inform, to rule, to command, to punish, to advise; deri. s'is.t.a, s'is.ya, s'a_sitva_

s'a_s to desire, to seek, to bless, to praise

s'ij to tinkle, to rattle, to whisper

s'i_ to sleep, to lie down; deri. s'ayita, s'e_ya

s'ra_ to cook, to boil; deri. s'ra_n.a, s'r.ta, s'ra_tum, s'as'rivas

s'vas to breath, to sigh, to hiss

sas (a Vedic root) to sleep (a Vedic root) to sleep

su to bring forth, to possess supremacy, to permit

su_ to bring forth as a child; deri. su_ta, so_tavya or savitavya, savya or sa_vya, so_tum or savitum

stu to praise, to glorify, to worship by hymns

sna_ to bathe; deri. sna_ta; nis.n.a_ta (skilled in)

snu to ooze

svap to sleep, to lie down; deri. supta, sus.upta, vis.upta

han to kill, to go; deri. hata, hantavya, gha_tya or vadhya, ghat, ghna_nam, hanis.yat, jaghanvas

hnu to conceal, to take away, to deny

III. s'lu-vikaran.o_juho_tya_digan.a

r. to go (with sam. to join)

ki (a Vedic root) to know; cike_ti

ga_ (a Vedic root) to praise, to be born; jagau, ga_syati

ghr. (a Vedic root) to sprinkle, to shine; jigharti; ghriya_sam

jan (a Vedic root) to be born; jajanti, jaati, janya_sam

tur (a Vedic root) to make haste

da_ to give

dhan (a Vedic root) to bear fruit, to produce crops of grain; dadha_na, dhanita_smi; dhanya_sam

dha_ to hold, to put, to maintain, to give, to grant, to bear, to assume, to have; deri. hita, dhe_ya, hitva_; dadha_na

dhis. (a Vedic root) to sound; didhe_s.a

nij to wash, to purify, to nourish; deri. nikta; nijya, ne_ktum, niktva_

pr. to protect, to fill, to promote, to deliver; deri. pr.a, pa_rya or pr.tya, partum, pr.tva_

pr._ to protect, to fill, to gratify (as hopes), to blow (as conch or flute); deri. pu_rn.a, pari(ri_)tum, pu_rtva_, prapu_rya, pupu_rvas or papruvas

bhas to censure, to blame, o shine

bhi_ to fear, to be afraid of, to be anxious about; deri. bhi_ta, bhe_tum

bhr. to bear, to support, to nourish, to protect, to produce, to bestow, to hire

ma_ to measure, to weigh, to limit, to compare in size

vij to separate, to divide, to distinguish, to discern; deri. vikta, ve_ktum

vis. to pervade; deri. vis.t.a,, vis.t.va_

sr. to go

ha_ to abandon, to leave, to desert, to omit, to neglect; deri. hi_na, ha_tum, hitva_

ha_ to go, to attain; deri. ha_na, he_ya, ha_tum, hiva_

ha_ to go, to aggain; deri. ha_na, he_ya, ha_tva_

hu to sacrifice, to eat, to please; deri. huta, hutva_, ho_tum

hr. (a Vedic root) to take forcibly

nhi_ to blush, to be ashamed; deri. hi_ta or hi_n.a, he_tum, hitva_

IV. s'yan vikaran.o_diva_digan.a

an. to breathe; deri. an.ita

an to breath

as to throw; deri. asta, asitum, asivas--a_sa_na

is. to go

i_ to go; deri. i_ta, e_tum, i_tva_

uc to be gathered together

r.dh to increase, to prosper; deri. r.ddha, ardhitva_, ardhitum

ka_s' to shine

kut. to break into pieces

kuth to become putrid

kup to be angry; deri. kupitva_, ko_pitva_

kus to embrace, to surround; deri. kusitva_, kusitum or ko_situm

kr.s' to make or become emaciated; deri., prakr.sita, karitum, kars'itva_ or kr.zs'itva_

knas to be crooked in mind or body, to shine; deri. knasta, knasitva_ or knastva_

krudh to be angry; deri. kruddha, kro_ddhum

klad to make defective

klam to be fatigued; deri. kla_nta, klamitum; klamitva_ or kla_ntva_

klid to become wet; deri. klinna; kle_tavyam or kle_ditavya

klis' to be afflicted; to torment; deri. klis'ita or klis.t.a to endure; to forgive

ks.ip to throw

ks.iv to spit; deri. ks.yuta, ks.yu_tva_, ks.e_vitva_

ks.i_ to kill

ks.udh to be hungry; deri. ks.udhita, ks.o_ddhum

ks.ubh to be agitated, to shake; deri. ks.ubhita or ks.ubdha

ks.vid., ks.vid to melt, to discharge; deri. or ks.ve_dita, ks.ve_ditum, ks.viditva_ or ks.ve_ditva_

khid to be distresed; deri. khinna, khe_ttum, khittva_

gudh to cover

gup to be confused or disturbed; deri. gupita, gupitva_ or go_pitva_

gur to kill, to go; deri. gu_rn.a, gu_ritum

gr.dh to covet, to long for; deri. gardhitum

ghu_r to kill, to become old

cu_r to burn

cho_ to cut, to mow; deri. cha_ta or chita, cha_tum, chitva_

jan to be born, to grow, to become; deri. ja_ta, janitum, janitva_

jas to set free; deri. jasta, jasitva_ or jastva_, jasitum

ju_r to kill, to grow old, to be angry

jr._ to grow old, to decay, to perish, to be digested; deri. ji_rn.a, jari(ri_)tavya, ja_rya, jarya, jari(ri_)tum, anurji_rya, ji_ryat, jiji_rvas

jhr._ to grow old

d.ip to throw

d.i_ to fly; deri. d.i_na, d.i_yama_na

tap to be powerful, to injure, to perform penance; deri. tapta, taptva_, taptum, te_pa_na

tam to desire, to be fatigued; deri. ta_nta, tamitva_ or tamitva_, tamitum

tas to fade away, to become exhausted; deri. tasta, tasitva_ or tastva_, tasitum

tim to be wet, to be moist; deri. timita, tmitva_ or te_mitva_, te_mitum

tubh to kill

tus. to be pleased or delighted; deri. tus.t.a, tus.t.va_, paritus.ya, to_s.tum

tur to be quickly, to make haste, to hurt or kill

tr.p to be satisfied or pleased, to please or satisfy; deri. tr.pta, tarpitva_, tr.ptva_, tarpitum, tarptum, trapum

tr.s. to be thirsty, to wish; deri. tr.s.ita, tars.itum, tr.s.itva_ or tars.itva_

tras to fear, to tremble; deri. trasta, trasitva_, trasitum

dam to be quiet, to restrain, to tame, to subdue; deri. damita, da_nta, damitva_, da_ntva_, damitum, damathuh

das to perish; deri. dasa, dasitva_, dastva_, dasitum

div to play with dice or gamble, to desire; to overcome, to traffic, to shine, to praise, to be glad, to be mad or drunk, to be sleepy, to wish for, to go; deri dyu_na or dyu_ta; de_vitum; de_vitva_ or dyu_tva_; di_vyat; de_vis.yat; didivas

di_ to perish, to decay; deri. di_na, da_tavya; da_tum; di_tva_; prada_ya, didi_ya_na

di_p to shine, to burn, to be illustrious; deri. di_pta, di_pitva_; di_pitum

dus. to be soiled, to be impure, to sin; deri. dus.t.a; do_s.tum; dus.t.va_

dr.p to be glad; to be proud; deri. dr.pta; darpitva_ or dr.ptva_; darpitum or darptum or draptum

do_ to cut, to mow

druh to bear hatred, to seek to hurt; deri. dugdha or dru_d.a, dro_gdhavya or

dro_d.havya or dro_hitavya, dro_gdhum or dro_d.hum or dro_hitum

dhi_ to support, to hold, to despise; deri. dhi_na, dhe_tum, dhi_tva_

dhu_r to kill, to go

nabh to kill

nas' to disappear, to perish, to run away, to be unsucessful; deri. nas.t.a, or nas'itum

nah to tie, to arm or to put on oneself; deri. naddha, naddhum, naddhva_

nr.t to dance, to jesticulate; deri. nr.tta, nr.tya or nartya, nartitum, nartitva_

pat to be master of, to rule, to possess, to be fit for

pad to go, to attain, to observe; deri. panna, pattva_, patnum, prapadya

pi_ to drink

puth to kill

pus. to nourish, to support, to develop, to increase, to possess; deri. pus.t.a,, po_s.ya

pus.p to blow, to flower

pu_r to fill, to satisfy, to be full, to be satisfied; deri. pu_rn.a or pu_rta

pri_ to please, to be satisfied, to feel affection for

plus. to burn, to scorch; deri. plo_s.itva_ or plus.itva_

bas to stop

bis to throw, to instigate, to go, to split, to grow

budh to know, to understand, to awake, to be restored to one's senses; deri. buddha, bo_ddhum, buddhva_, prabudhya

bus to discharge, to emit

byus to divide

bhr.s' to fall down; deri. bhr.s.t.a, bhras'itva_ or bhr.s.t.va_, bhars'itum

bhram to be unsteady, to wander, to totter

bhram.s' to fall down, to decrease, to escape; deri. bhras'yat, bhras.t.a, bhram.s'itva_ or bhras.t.va_, bhram.s'itum

mad to rejoice, to be poor or distressed, to be intoxicated or mad; deri. matta, maditva_, maditum

man to think, to suppose, to regard as, to esteem, to honour, to know; deri. mata, mantum, matva_, ma_nya

mas to measure, to charge for; deri. masta, masitva_, masitum

ma_ to measure

mid to be greasy, to be soft, to melt

mi_ to die, to perish, to kill, to hurt; deri. mi_na, me_tum, mitva_

mus., mus to destroy, to break, to steal; deri. mo_s.ita

muh to loose sense, to faint, to be bewildered, to err, to be foolish; deri. mugdha or mu_d.ha; mo_hitavya or mo_gdhavya or mo_d.havya; mo_hitum or mo_gdhum or mo_d.hum; mo_hitva_ or mugdhva_ or mu_d.hva_

mr.g to seek, to hunt

mr.s. to bear, to endure, to suffer

yas to strive, to endeavour, to labour; deri. yasta, yasitum; yasitva_ or yastva_

yuj to meditate, to curb one's mind, to concentrate the mind; deri. yukta; yo_gya or yo_jya; yo_ktum; yuktva_

yudh to fight, to contend with; deri. yuddha; yo_ddhum; yuddhva_

yup to confuse; deri. yupta; yupitva_

raj to please; rajjati, rajye_yam

radh to kill, to injure, to cook, to finish; deri. raddha, radhitum or raddhum; radhitva_ or raddhva_

ra_dh to grow, to be ready, to be favourable, to look to the welfare of; deri. ra_ddha; ra_ddhum; ra_ddhva_

ris. to kill, to destroy

ri_ to ooze, to flow; deri. ri_n.a; re_tum; ri_tva_

rudh to desire, to love, to comply with, to obey; deri. ruddha; ro_ddhum

rup to violate, to confound, to disturb; deri. rupta, rupitva_ or ro_pitva_ or ruptva_

rus. to kill

lis' to decrease, to become small; le_s.t.a_he_, le_ks.yate_, aliks.ata

li_ to adhere to, to be absorbed, to be dissolved, to hide in, to rest on, to disappear; deri. li_na; le_tum or la_tum; li_tva_; vila_ya or vili_ya

lut. to churn, to agitate, to roll, to wallow, to be connected with

lup to be confused, to vanish

lubh to covet, to long for, to allure; deri. lubdha,lo_bhitum or lo_bdhum; lubdhva_ or lubhitva_ or lo_bhitva_

vas to fix, to be straight; deri. vasta, vasitva_ or vastva_; vasitum

va_vr.t to choose; deri. va_vr.tta, va_vartitva_ or va_vr.ttva_, va_vartitum

va_s' to howl, to growl, to roar

vid to be, to exist; deri. vinna, vittva_, ve_ttum

vis to send

vus to divide

vr.t to choose, to like

vr.s' to choose, to like

vyadh to strike, to hurt, to stab, to pierce; deri. viddha, vidhdva_

vyus. to divide, to burn (in the last sense avyo_s.i_t)

vri_ to choose

vri_d. to throw, to be ashamed

s'ak to endure, to be able; deri. s'akita or s'akta, s'akitum or s'aktum, s'e_kivas-s'e_ka_na

s'ap to curse, to swear

s'am to be calm; deri. s'a_nta, s'amya or s'a_mya, s'a_ntva_ or s'amitva_, s'amitum

s'uc to be wet, to be clean; deri. s'akta, s'ucitva_ or s'o_citva_, s'o_citum

s'udh to become pure, to be made clear; deri. s'uddha

s'us. to become dry, to be withered; deri s'us.ka, s', s'us.t.va_

s'u_r to strike, to be firm

s'o_ to whet, to make thin; deri. s'ita or s'a_ta, s'am.sita (well finished), s'a_tum, s'a_tva_ or s'itva_

s'ram to perform acts of penance, to be fatigued; deri. s'ra_nta, s'ramitva_ or s'ra_ntva_, s'ramitum

s'li_s. to embrace, to adhere to, to unite o spit

sam to change form

sah to satisfy, to be plesed; sahita, sahitum, sahitva_

sidh to be accomplished, to succeed, to be thoroughly prepared; deri. siddha, se_ddhum, sidhdva_

siv to sew, to sow (as seed); deri. syu_ta, se_vitva_ or syu_tva_, se_vitum

suh to be satisfied

su_ to bring forth as a child

sr.j to be abandoned, to drop; deri. sr.s.t.a,,

so_ to put an end to, to kill, to finish; deri. sita, sa_tum, sitva_

stim, sti_m to become wet, to moist

stu_p to pile, to collect, to erect

snas to reject, to eject; deri. snasta, snasitva_ or snastva_, snasitum

snih to feel affection for, to love, to be kind to; deri. snigdha or sni_d.ha, snihitva_ or sne_hitva_ or snigdhva_ or sni_d.hva_, sne_hitum, sne_d.hum or sne_gdhum

snus to eat, to take, to disappear; deri. snusta, snusitva_ or snustva_, sno_situm

snuh to vomit

sniv to go, to dry; deri. snyu_ta, sne_vitva_ or snivitva_ or snyu_tva_, sne_vitum

svid to perspire; deri. svinna, svittva_, sve_ttum

hr.s. to rejoice, to exult, to stand erect as hair; deri. hr.s.t.a or hr.s.ita, hars.itum, hars.itva_

V. s'nu-vikaran.ah-sva_digan.a [s'nu a technical term used by Pa_n.ini for nu the sign of the 5th class of roots]

as' to pervade, to heap, to obtain, to go to; deri. as.t.a, as'itum or

ah to pervade

a_p to pervade, to obtain, to occupy, to reach; deri. a_pta, a_ptum, a_ptva_

r. (a Vedic root) to kill

r.ks.i (a Vedic root) to kill

r._dh to increase, to prosper, to please

ks.i (a Vedic root) to kill

kr. to kill; deri. kr.ta, kartum, kr.tva_

cam (a Vedic root) to eat; camno_ti

ci to collect, to cover; deri. cita, ce_ttum, citva_

ciri, jiri (Vedic roots) to kill

tik, tig to assail, to go, to seek, to injure or kill, to challenge

tigh to kill, to challenge

tr.p to please or to be pleased

dagh to destroy, to protect

dambh to deceive, to injure; deri. dabdha, dambhitum, dabdhva_ or dambhitva_

da_s' (a Vedic root) to kill

du to give pain, to burn, to be distressed; deri. duta, do_tum, dutva_

dr. (a Vedic root) to kill

dhu to shake; to tremble

dhu_ to shake, to excite; deri. dhu_ta, dho_tum; dhavitum; dhu_tva_

dhr.s. to be bold, confident, impudent or impatient; to challenge; deri. dhars.ita or dhr.s.t.a, dhars.itum-dhars.itva_

pr. to please; pr.n.o_ti

mi to throw, to scatter; deri. mita, mitva_, ma_tum, mitrima (mayane_nanivr.ttam)

ra_dh to accomplish; to kill; to propitiate; ra_dhno_ti

ri to kill; rin.o_ti

vr. to choose; to solicit; to cover; to surround; to restrain; deri. vr.ta, vari(ri_)tum, vr.tva_

s'ak to be able; to be powerful; to bear; deri. s'akta, s'aktum, s'aktva_

s'i to whet; to excite

sagh to kill

sa_dh to accomplish

si to tie

su to cause to bathe: to churn; to pour out; to bathe; to press out juice; to distil

sthigh to ascend; to assail

stu to cover

spr. (a Vedic root) to gratify, to defend, to shake

smr. (a Vedic root) to remember; to recollect

hi to go; to grow

VI. s'a-vikaran.astuda_digan.a

il to sleep, to throw

is. to wish; deri. is.t.a, e_s.itum or e_s.tum, icchat, i_s.ivas

ujjh to abandon; to leave

uch to glean

ubj to make straight

ubh, umbh to fill with

r.c to praise; deri. r.cita, arcitum

r._cch to go; to fail in faculties, to become hard or congeal, r.mph to kill

r.s. to be proud

kil to become white; to sport

ku to moan

kuc to contract; to shrink; to be crooked (generally with sam.)

kut. to be crooked, to bend

kud. to act as a child; to heap

kun. to sound; to support with gifts

kur to sound

ku_ to sound; to groan

ku_d. to become firm; to eat

kr.d. to become thick

kr.t to cut; deri. kr.tta, kartitum, kartitva_

kr.s. to draw, to plough

kr._ to scatter; to throw (with apa to scratch the ground for food or abode); deri. ki_rn.a, kari(ri_)tum, kari(ri_)tva_

kud. to sink; to become thick; kud.hati

ks.i to dwell; to go

ks.ip to throw

ks.ur to scratch

khid to strike; to afflict; to be displeased; deri. khinna

khil to glean

khud. to cover

khur to cut

gu to void or discharge excrement; deri. gu_na

guj to sound

gud. to protect

guph, gumph to string together

gur to make an effort; deri. gu_rn.a

gr._ to swallwo; deri. gi_rn.a, gi_rtva_, gari(ri_)tum, gali(li_)tum

ghut., ghud. to strike against

ghun. to roll

ghur to frighten; to sound

ghu_rn. to roll; to whirl

cal to play; to amuse oneself

cil to dress

cut. to cut

cud. to conceal

cr.t to kill; to hurt; to connect together; deri. cr.uta, cartitum, cartitva_

chut. to cut

chud. to cover

chup to touch

chur to cut; to engrave; to envelop

jarj to say; to blame; to kill; to reprove

jud., jun to go

jus. to please; to like; to take delight in; to suffer; to enter; deri. jus.t.a, jo_s.itum

jharjh to speak; to blame; to menace

til to oil; to anoint

tut. to quarrel; to cut

tud. to tear, to kill

tun. to curve

tud to wound; to strike; to pain; to ved; deri. tunna, tutva_, to_ttum

tup-tump, tuph-tumph to kill

tup-tump, tuph-tumph to please or to be pleased

tr.h, tr.m.h to kill; deri. tr.d., tarhitva_, tr.m.hitva_, tr.d.hva_, tarhitum, tard.hum, tr.m.hitum, tr.n.d.hum

trut. to cut; to break

tvac to cover

thud.h to cover

dis' to give; to order; to tell; to show; to grant; deri. dis.t.a, dis.t.va_,

dr. to honour; to care for; (mostly with a_); deri. a_dr.ta, a_dartum, a_dr.tya

dr.p to give pain to give pain to string; to connect (mostly with sam.); deri. dr.bdha, darbhitum, darbhitva_ to give pain

drun. to go; to kill; to make crooked

dhi to hold; to possess

dhu_ to shake; to cause to tremble; dhuvati, dudha_va

dhr. to be; to exist; dhriyate_, dadhre_, dharta_he_, dharis.yate_, adhr.ta

dhru to go; to be fixed; dhruvati

dhruv to go; to stand firm

nil to understand with difficulty; to become thick

nud to throw; to push; to urge on; to drive; to remove; to direct; nutta or nunna

nud to throw

nu_ to praise; nuvati, anuvat, nu_ya_sam

pi to go

pis' to form; to be reduced to constituent part; to light; deri. pis'ita, pe_s'itum, pis'itva_

put. to embrace; to intertwine

puh to quit; to dismiss

pun. to be pure or virtuous; to do a holy work

pur to precede; to lead

pul to be great or large

pr. (always with vya_) to be busy or active; vya_priyate_, vya_pr.ta

pud. to gladden

pun. to please; to propitiate

pracch to ask; to seek; to desire; to know; deri. pr.s.t.a, pr.s.tva_,

bil to break

bud. to discharge, to cover

br.h to work, to labour; barhitasmi, bard.ha_smi; deri. br.d.ha, barhitum or bard.hum, barhitva_ or br.d.hva_

bhuj to bend, to curve, to be crooked

bhrasj to fry, to roast, to parch; deri. bhr.s.t.a, or

bhrud. to cover, to collect, to plunge

masj to sink down, to be immersed in water; to be disheartened; deri. magna, man:ktum; man:ktva_; majjathu

micch to annoy, to hurt, to obstruct

mil to be united with, to meet, to join, to clash, to happen; deri. milita, me_litum, militva_

mis. to rival, to contend with, to look on or at

muc to free, to liberate, to release, to loosen, to abandon, to grant, to except, to shed, to discharge, to dismiss, to utter, to void; deri. mukta, mo_ktum, muktva_

mut. to blame, to crush, to bind

mun. to promise

mur to surround, to bind together

mr. to die; deri. mr.ta, martum

mr.d. to make happy, to rejoise

mr.n. to kill

mr.s' to touch, to consider, to reflect; deri. mr.s.t.a,

ri to go, to move

riph, rih to boast, to speak, to fight, to censure, to kill, to give

ris' to kill; deri. ris.t.a,

ruj to break, to destroy; to bend, to pain, to injure; deri. rugn.a, ro_ktum

rus' to kill; deri. rus.t.a

laj to be ashamed; to be bashful; deri. lagna or lajjita; lajjitum; lajjitva_

likh to write, to scratch, to draw, to touch, to peck; deri. likhita, likhitva_ or le_khitva_

lip to anoint, to besmear, to cover, to spread over, to stain, to pollute; deri. lipta, le_ptum; liptva_

lis' to go, to move; deri. lis.t.a,

lut., lut.h to wallow, to roll about, to join

lup to cut, to break. to rob, to plunder, to seize, to suppress; deri. lupta, lo_ptum, luptva_

lubh to confound, to disturb; deri. lubhita, lo_bhitva_, lubdhva_

vicch to go, to move; deri. vicchita or vicchayita

vij to fear, to tremble (generally with ud); pp. udvigna

vid to get, to obtain, to find, to take in marriage; deri. vitta or vinna, ve_ttum or ve_ditum, viditva_, vittva_ or ve_ditva_

vidh to pierce

vil to cover, to conceal

vis' to enter; deri. vis.t.a,, vis.t.va_

vr.n. to please, to gratify

vr.h to work, to labour

vyac to deceive, to defraud

vras'c to cut, to tear, to wound; deri., vras'citum or, vras'citva_

vrud. to cover, to heap

s'il to glean

s'ad to perish gradually

s'un to go

s'ubh, s'umbh to shine

sad to divide, to break, to go, to wither, to despond, to be weary

sic to sprinkle, to moisten, to scatter; deri. sikta, se_ktum, siktva_

sil to glean

subh to speak, to kill

sur to rule, to shine

su_ to impel, to drive, to discharge, to remit; deri. su_ta, savitum; su_tva_

sr.j to leave, to create, to let loose, to let off, to throw, to produce, to put on; deri. sr.s.a,; sr.s.t.va_

str.h to kill, to hurt, to strike; deri. str.d.h; starhitum or stard.hum; starhitva_ or str.d.hva_

sthud. to cover, to hide

spr.s' to touch, to cling to, to act upon; to affect, to accept, to reach, to wash; deri. spr.s.t.a;

sphar to tremble, to move

sphut. to blow, to blossom, to break

sphud. to cover

sphur to throb, to palpitate, to become agitated, to start, to appear clearly, to flash

sphul to tremble, to throb

hal, hil to express amorous inclinations

hud. to collect

VII. s'nam-vikaran.o rudha_digan.a [s'nam a technical term used by Pa_n.ini for na, the sign of the 7th class of roots]

aj to make clear, to anoint, to be beautiful, to go; deri akta, ajitum or an:ktum, ajitva_ or an:ktva_ or aktva_

indh to shine, to kindle; indhe_, e_ndham, indha_m, indhi_ya

und to moisten

kr.nt to surround; kr.n.atti

ks.ud to pound, to crush; deri. ks.un.n.a, ks.o_ktum, ks.uttva_

khid to be displeased or distressed; khin.tte_, akhindi

chid to cut, to interrupt, to destroy; deri. chinna, che_ttum, chittva_

chr.d to shine, to play; deri. chr.nna, charditum, charditva_ or chr.ttva_

tac, taj to contract, to shrink; deri. takta, tajitva_, tacitva_, taktva_, tan:ktva_

tr.d to kill, to disregard; deri. tr.n.n.a, tarditum, tarditva_ or tr.ttva_

tr.h to kill; tr.n.o_d.hi

pis. to grind, to pound, to crush; deri. pis.t.a,, pis.t.va_

pr.c to touch, to bring into contact with, to unite, to satiate, to increase; deri. pr.kta, parcitum, parcitva_

bhaj to break, to split, to interrupt, to frustrate, to disappoint; deri. bhagna, bhan:ktum, bhan:ktva_ or bhaktva_

bhid to break, to cut asunder, to transgress, to divide, to open, to cause to expand, to change, to perplex, to distinguish, to disturb, to betray, to set at variance; deri. bhinna or bhittam (a fragment), bhe_ttum, bhittva_

bhuj to protect, to govern, to rule; deri. bhukta, bho_jya or bho_gya, bho_ktum, bhuktva_

yuj to join, to unite, to apply, to use, to meditate, to concentrate the mind, to prepare, to grant, to intend

ric to purge, to empty, to evacuate; deri. rikta, re_ktum, riktva_

rudh to oppose, to obstruct, to besiege, to enclose, to obscure, to harass; deri. ruddha, ro_ddhum, ruddhva_

vic to divide, to separate, to discern, to remove from; deri. vikta, ve_ktum, viktva_

vij to fear, to tremble, to be disgusted

vid to discuss, to reason upon, to consider, to understand

vr.c to abandon, to exclude

vr.j to avoid

s'is. to distinguish, to leave as a remainder; deri. s'is.t.a; s'; s'is.t.va_

him.s to kill

VIII. u-vikaran.astana_digan.a

r.n. to go; deri. r.ta; arn.itum; arn.itva_ or r.tva_

kr. to do, to make; deri. kr.ta; kartum; kr.tva_ to wound, to hurt, to kill; deri.;; ks.atva_ to kill, to hurt; deri. ks.ita, ks.e_n.itum, or ks.itva_

ghr.n. to shine, to burn

tan to spread, to stretch, to do, to spin out

tr.n. to eat, to graze

man to know, to think; deri. mata, manitum, manitva_ or matva_m

van to beg, to request, to seek; deri. vata, vanitum, vanitva_ or vatva_

san to give, to honour, to obtain, to worship; deri. sa_ta, sanitum, sanitva_ or sa_tva_

IX. s'na_-vikaran.a r.ya_digan.a [s'na_ a technical term used by Pa_n.ini for na_, the sign of the 9th class of roots]

as' to eat, (with pra to drin); deri. as'ita, as'itum, as'itva_

is. to repeat

udhras to glean

r._ to go; deri. i_rn.a, ari(ri_)tum, i_rtva_

kuth, kunth to cling to, to hurt

kus. to draw out, to extract, to tear, to expel; kr.s.n.a_ti; deri. kus.ita but nis.kus.ita only, ko_s.itum (nis.ko_s.itum or nis.ko_s.tum), kus.itva_ only

ku_ to sound; kuna_ti

kr._ to kill, to hurt; deri. ki_rn.a, kari(ri_)tum, ki_rtva_

knu_ to sound

kri_ to buy; deri. kri_ta, kre_tum, kri_tva_

kuth to kill

klis' to torment, to distress; deri. klis'ita or klis.t.a, kle_s'itum or, klis'itva_ or klis.t.va_

ks.i_ to kill; deri. ks.i_ta, ks.e_tum, ks.i_tva_

ks.ubh to tremble; to agitate

khac to be born again; to come forth

gudh to be angry

gr. to sound; to speak; to praise

granth to put together; to compose; to arrange, to fasten; deri. grathita, granthitum, grathitva_ or granthitva_

grah to take; to captivate; to buy; to understand; deri. gr.hi_ta, grahi_tum, gr.hi_tva_

jr._ to grow old, to waste away; to decay

ja_ to know; to ascertain; to recognize; to consider; deri. ja_ta, je_ya, ja_tum, ja_tva_

jya_ to become old, to decay; deri. ji_na, jya_tum, ji_tva_

jhr._ to become old; to decay

tubh to kill

dr._ to tear, to split open; to fear

dru to kill; drun.a_ti

dhu_ to shake; to tremble

dhr._ to grow old

dhras to glean; deri. dhrasta; dhrasitva_ or dhrastva_; dhrasitum

nabh to kill

nr._ to lead

pus. to nourish, to bring up; to develop, to support, to augment; to show; to have

pu_ to purify; to discern; to contrive; deri. pu_ta, pu_na (destroyed), pavitum, pu_tva_

pr._ to protect, to nourish, to fill, to blow, to satisfy

pri_ to please, to delight, to show kindness to, to love, to desire, to take delight in

prus. to become wet, to sprinkle

pli_ to go; pli_na_ti, pipla_ya, ple_ta_smi, ple_s.yati, aplais.i_t, pli_ya_sam

bandh to bind, to attract, to catch, to imprison, to wear, to form, to compose, to fix on, to bear fruit; deri. baddha, banddhum, baddhva_

bhr._ to blame, to censure, to nourish, to maintain; deri. bhu_rn.a, bhu_rtva_

bhri_ to fear, to support

manth to churn, to shake, to destroy, to afflict

mi_ to kill, to destroy, to hurt, to lessen; deri. mi_ta, ma_tum, mi_tva_

mus. to steal, to carry off; to excel; to cover; to captivate

mr.d. to pound; to be happy; mr.d.na_ti

mr.d.h to grind; to crush; to bruise; to squeeze; to press; to pound; to rule; to overcome; mr.dra_ti, amr.dra_t, mr.da_na

mr._ to kill; to injure

yu to bind; deri. yuta, yo_tum, yutva_

ri_ to go; to move; to howl; deri. ri_n.a, re_tum, ri_tva_

li_ to adhere to; to melt; to be absorbed in

lu_ to cut; to pluck; to divide; to destroy; deri. lu_na-lavya or la_vya, lu_tva_, lavitum

vis. to separate; to disjoin

vr. to serve; to worship

vr._ to choose; to select; deri. varn.a, vu_rtva_

vri_ to choose, to select, to hold, to go; deri. vri_n.a, vre_tum, vri_tva_

vli_ to choose, to select, to hold, to go

s'r._ to tear asunder, to split in pieces, to hurt, to kill; s'as'a_ra

s'ranth to loosen, to liberate, to gladden, to bind; to arrange; deri. s'athita, s'rathitva_ or s'ranthitva_

s'ri_ to cook, to dress

si to tie, to bind

skambh to obstruct, to stop; deri. skabdha, skambhitva_, skabdhva_, skambhitum

sku to go by leaps, to cover, to raise; deri. skuta, sko_tum, skutva_

skumbh to hinder, to hold; deri. skubdha, skumbhitva_ or skubdhva_

stabh, stambh to stop, to support; deri. stabdha, stambhitum, stambhitva_ or stabdhva_

str._ to cover, to spread

hit.ha, he_t. to be born again, to come forth

he_t.h to be wicked, to vex, to hinder

X. n.ijantas'cura_digan.a

agh to sin

an:k to go, to mark

an:g to go, to mark

ac to distinguish, to particularise

aj to speak

an.t.t.a to despise

andh to become blind, to shut eyes

am to be ill, to afflict with sickness

ambar to bring together

ark to praise, to heat

argh to be worth

arc to worship

arj to procure

arth to request, to beg

ard to kill, to hurt

arh to worship

avadhi_r or ava-dhi_r to despise, to disregard

am.s' to distribute

am.s to speak

am.s to distribute

am.h to shine

a_ndo_l to swing

a_p to obtain

il to send, to cast

i_d. to praise

i_r to throw, to pronounce

udhras to glean

ulan.d. to throw up

u_n to lessen, to deduct

u_rj to be strong, to live

o_lan.d. to throw

kan. to wink

kan.t.h to be anxious, to remember with regret

kan.d. to separate the chaff from the grain, to protect

katr to slacken

kath to tell

karn. to bore (with a_ to hear)

kart to slacken

kal to throw

kal to go, to count, to hold, to know, to regard

ka_l to count the time

kit to dwell

kil to send

kis.k to kill

ki_t. to tinge, to colour

kut. to break to pieces

kut.umb to support

kut.t. to cut, to censure

kut.t. to boil

kun. to invite

kun.t. to cover

kuj to protect

kuts to despise, to blame

kud to tell a lie

kudr to tell a lie

kup to speak, to shine

kuma_r to play

kump, kumb, kumbh to cover, to dress

kum.s' to shine

kum.s to speak

kusm to smile improperly

kuh to surprise, to deceive

ku_t. to burn, to give pain

ku_t. to avoid giving; to render indistinct or unintelligible

ku_n. to speak, to hold a consultation

kr.p to be able

kr._t to mention, to celebrate

ke_t to make hear, to call, to advise

knath to kill

krand to cry out continually (generally with a_)

klath to kill

klap to whisper

ks.aj to live in distress

ks.ap to throw, to cast

ks.amp to endure, to forgive to wash, to cleanse; deri. ks.alita, ks.a_layitum, ks.a_layitva_, praks.a_lya

ks.e_d. to eat

ks.o_t. to throw, to cast

khac to fasten, to set

khat.t. to cover, to screen

khad.h to break in pieces

khan.d., khud., khun.d. to break in pieces

khe_t., khe_d. to eat

kho_t., kho_d. to throw, to eat

gaj to sound

gan. to count

gad to thunder

gandhr to injure, to ask; gandhayate_

garj to roar

gard to sound

gardh to desire

garv to be proud

garh to censure, to blame

gal to flow, to dissolve

gave_s. to seek, to hunt after

gah to be thick, to enter deeply into

gun. to invite, to advise, to multiply

gun.t.h to enclose, to envelop

gun.d. to enclose, to protect, to pound

gund to tell a lie

gup to speak, to conceal, to shine

gurd to dwell

gu_r to make an effort

gu_rd to praise

gr. to know; ga_rayate_

gr.h to take, to seize

go_m to smear, to anoint

granth to bind, to arrange

gras to take, to devour

gra_m to invite, to conceal

ghat. to move,t o collect, to speak

ghat.t. to shake, to stir

ghan.t. to speak, to shine

ghus. to proclaim, to announce

ghr. to sprinkle, to cover

cakk to suffer, to give pain

cat. to kill, to injure; to break

can.d. to be angry

can to believe, to kill

cap to grind

camp to go

car to doubt (with vi, asam.s'aye_ to think)

carc to peruse, to study

carv to eat, to chew

cal to foster, to cherish

cah to be wicked, to be proud, to cheat

ci to collect

cikk to give pain

cit. to send out

cit to think, to perceive, to see, to regain consciousness

citr to paint, to make variegated, to see or regard anything as wonderful

cint to contemplate, to think, to discuss

chinh to mark

ci_k to suffer

ci_v to speak, to shine

cukk to suffer pain

cut., cun.t., cun.d. to cut

cud to become small

cud to drive, to put forward, to press, to push on

cumb to kill

cur to steal, to assume

cul to raise, to elevate

cu_rn. to pulverize, to crush, to drive, to contract

cr.p to excite, to light

cyu to endure, to laugh

cyus to endure, to laugh

chad to close, to conceal, to cover

chad to conceal, to cover

chand to cover, to please, to persuade

chard to vomit

chidr to perforate, to bore

chr.d to kindle

chr.p to kindle, to beg

che_d to divide, to cut

jambh to destroy

jal to cover

jas to hurt, to strike

jam.s to protect, to release

jinv to speak

jud. to send, to direct

jus. to think, to examine, to be satisfied

jr._ to grow old, to decay; ja_rayati

jap to know, to cause to know, to see, to please

ja_ (generally with a_) to command, to direct; a_ja_payati

jri to grow old, to decay; jra_yayati to build

t.ip to throw, to send

d.ap to collect

d.ab to throw, to send

d.ip to collect, to heap together

d.ip to throw, to send

tad. to strike, to beat, to play upon a musical instrument, to speak

tan to confide in, to assist

tantr to support, to maintain, to govern

tap to heat, to burn, to afflict

tark to shine, to intend, to suppose, to guess, to think of

tarj to menace, to censure

tal to be full or complete, to fix, to establish

tam.s to adorn, to deck

tij to whet, to sharpen (with ud to excite)

til to oil, to be greasy

ti_r to finish, to get through

tuj, tuj to strike, to be strong, to take, to live

tutth to cover

tumb to be invisible, to trouble

tul to weigh, to measure

tun. to fill up

tr.p to be satisfied, to light

tras to take, to hold, to oppose

tram.s to speak

trut. to cut

dan.d. to punish, to fine, to be subdued

dambh to send, to propel

dal to cut, to tear

dam.s' to bite, to sting

dam.s' to speak

das to see, to bite; da_sayate_

dam.s' to see, to bite

dam.s to speak

da_t to cut, to divide

div to rub

div to cause to lament

duhkh to give pain

dul to shake to and fro

dr.p to light, to kindle to fear to string, to connect

dhakk to kill, to destroy

dhu_ to shake, to agitate; dhu_nayati

dhu_p to speak, to shine

dhu_s', dhu_s., dhu_s to make splendid

dhr. to hold, to owe; dha_rayati

dhr.s. to offend, to overcome

dhe_k to see

dhras to glean

dhvan to sound

nakk to perish

nat. to speak

nad, nal to speak, to shine

niva_s to cover

nis.k to measure, to weigh

paks. to seize, to accept, to take aside

pac to spread, to make clear

pat. to speak, to cover

pat. to string, to envelop, to clothe

pan.d. to destroy, to collect

pant to thunder, to go; patayati

path to throw

pad to go, to move; padayate_

panth to go

parn. to make green

plyu_l to cut, to wash in water impregnated with alkaline salt

pas' to bind, to fetter

pas. to go, to move

pas to destroy

pa_r to bring to a conclusion, to accomplish

pa_l to protect, to govern

picch to split, to cut, to divide

pij to kill, to be strong, to take, to dwell

pij to speak, to shine

pin.d. to roll into a lump, to heap

pis to go

pim.s to speak, to shine

pi_d. to afflict, to harass, to annoy, to squeeze, to press, to oppose, to give pain

put. to speak, to shine

put. to be in contact, to bind together

put.t. to decrease, to diminish

pun. to collect

pun.t., puth to speak, to shine

purv to dwell, to invite

pul to heap, to be great or large

pus. to maintain, to promote

pum.s to increase, to crash, to pain, to punish

pust to honour, to dishonour, to respect, to disrespect

pu_j to worship, to honour

pu_r to kill, to cover, to intensify

pu_rn., pu_l to collect

pr.c to hinder, to oppose, to join to throw, to send, to direct

pr._ to protect, to fill; pa_rayati

prath to proclaim, to manifest, to increase, to throw, to publish

pri_ to please, to gratify; deri. pri_n.ita, pri_n.ayitum, pri_n.ayitva_

pre_n:kho_l to swing, to shake

badh, bandh to bind, to restrain

barh to kill, to speak, to shine

bal to breathe

balh to speak, to shine

bast to injure, to ask, to go

bil to break, to split, to divide

bukk to bark, to speak

bust to respect, to disrespect

bru_s to kill, to hurt

bhaks. to eat, to devour

bhaj to give, to cook

bhaj to speak, to shine

bhan.d. to be fortunate, to be happy, to cheat

bharts to menace, to reprove, to beride

bhal to see, to behold

bha_j to divide, to distribute

bha_m to be angry

bhu_ to be purified, to consider, to mix; bha_vayati

bhu_ to obtain, to attend; bha_vayate_

bhu_m.s. to adorn

bhr.m.s' to speak, to shine

bhru_n. to hope, to fear

man.d. to adorn

mad to gratify, to please

man to be proud, to stop

mantr to consult, to advise, to ponder over

marc to sound, to take

mah to worship

mam.h to speak, to shine

ma_n to stop, to be proud

ma_n to worship

ma_rg to seek, to strive after, to obtain

ma_rj to sound, to cleanse, to purify

mij to speak, to shine

mind to love, to melt, to become far

mis'ra to mix, to add, to combine

mi_ to go, to move

muc to loosen, to liberate, to rejoice

mut. to crush, to grind, to break

mud to mix, to unite

must to collect

mu_tr to discharge urine

mu_l to cause to grow, to rear

mr.g to seek, to examine, to investigate, to beg

mr.j to wipe off, to adorn; ma_rjayati

mr.s. to forgive

mraks. to combine, to smear, to speak indistinctly

mle_cch to speak indistinctly

yaks. to honour

yat to torture, to encourage

yantr to restrain, to bind

yam to cover, to surround

yu to censure, to despise

yuj to bind, to restrain

yus. to serve

rak, rag, ragh to taste, to obtain

ran:gh to speak, to shine

rac to arrange, to compose, to effect

ras to taste, to relish, to love

rah to abandon; ararahat

rah to abandon; arahi or ara_hi

ram.h to speak, to shine

re_c to separate, to join, to mix

ruj to kill

rut. to be angry

rut.h to speak, to shine

rum.s', rum.s to speak, to shine

rus. to be angry

ru_ks. to be harsh or rough; to make dry; pa_rus.ye_ to be harsh

ru_p to form, to represent on the stage, to see, to consider

laks. to observe, to mark

laks. to see, to look at

lag to taste, to obtain

lan:gh to speak, to shine, to transgress

laj to injure, to be strong, to take, to dwell, to speak, to shine, to be manifest

lat.t. to fondle, to caress

lan.d. to throw up

lan.d. to speak, to shine

lal to desire, to seek

las', las to exercise an art, to do anything scientifically

la_bh to throw, to direct

lin:g to paint, to variegate

li_ to melt

luj to injure, to be strong, to take, to dwell, to speak, to shine

lut. to speak, to shine

lun.t.h to steal, to plunder

lumb to be invisible, to torment

lus. to injure, to hurt

lo_k to speak, to shine

lo_c to see, to perceive

vac to speak, to tell, to read

vaj to prepare the way, to feather an arrow

vac to deceive

vat. to tie, to string, to connect, to divide

vat.h to tie

van.t., van.d. to divide

vad to inform, to communicate

var to wish, to obtain, to desire

varn. to paint, to delineate, to extend, to praise, to describe, to drive

vardh to cut, to fill

valk to speak

vas to love, to cut, to take away

vas to dwell

vast to hurt, to torment, to go, to ask

va_t to make happy, to serve; to fan

va_s to perfume, to incense

vicch to speak, to shine

vid.amb to mock, to imitate, to ridicule

vid to feel, to experience, to tell, to dwell

vil to throw, to cast

vis.k to see, to perceive

vi_j to fan

vi_r to display heroism, to be powerful

vun.t., vundh, vus. to kill

vr. to cover, to conceal

vr.j to avoid

vr.t, vr.dh to speak, to shine

vr.s. to have the power of production

vr.m.h to speak, to shine

ve_l to count the time

vyay to expend

vraj to clear the way, to go

vran. to wound, to hurt

s'at.h to leave unfinished

s'at.h to speak ill or well

s'abd to make manifest (when without preposition, anupasarga_t), to make any sound, to utter (when with a preposition, upasarga_t)

s'am to look at, to inspect, to show

s'amb to accumulate

s'is. to leave a residue

s'i_k to speak, to shine, to be angry, to touch

s'i_l to practise repeatedly, to exercise, to visit, to honour

s'ut.h to be lazy

s'un.t.h to dry, to become dry

s'undh to purify, to make clean

s'ulk to leave, to forsake, to pay, to give, to give, to gain

s'u_r to be powerful, to be valiant

s'u_p to measure

s'r.dh to insult, to mock at

s'ran. (generally with vi) to give

s'rath to make effort, to set out

s'rath to be weak

s'rath to liberate, to kill

s'ranth to arrange

s'lis. to embrace, to collect

s'vat.h, , s'van.t.h to leave unfinished, to go

s'vat.h to speak ill or well

s'vabh, s'vart to go, to move

s'valk to tell, to narrate

san:ke_t to invite, to counsel

san:gra_m to fight

sat.t. to hurt, to kill

satr to extend, to spread

sad to go, to approach

sabha_j to please, to serve, to salute, to honour

samb to collect

sah to forbear, to be able

sa_ntv to appease, to console

sa_m to conciliate, to console

sa_mb to collect

sa_r to be weak

sukh to make happy

sut.t. to disrespect

su_c to betray, to reveal, to show, to ascertain

su_c to try, to bind

su_d to strike, to wound, to distil, to deposit

stan to thunder

stu_p to collect

ste_n to steal

sto_m to praise

sthu_l to become stout, to grow fat

snih to love, to account, to dissolve

spas' to take, to embrace

spr.h to wish, to envy

sphit. to feel affection for

sphit.t. to kill

sphut. to burst, to break open

sphun.t., sphun.d. to laugh at, to joke

smit. to disrespect, to slight, to despise

syam to consider, to think

svad to make sweet

svar to blame, to find fault with

sva_d to taste

hikk to injure, to kill

his.k, him.s to injure, to kill

lhap, hlap to speak, to sound

[The list is principally based on Siddha_nta-kaumudi_. (cf. Siddha_nta-kaumudi_ of Bhat.t.ojidi_ks.ita) The verb roots in ten classes are taken from: P. V. Upa_dhye, Dha_turu_pa Chandrika_ with the Dha_tupa_t.ha of Pa_n.ini containing all irregular and noteworthy forms, Bombay, Gopal Narayen and Co., 1927, 2nd edn.]