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Verb forms (Whitney)

Whitney, William Dwight, The roots, verb-forms, and primary derivatives of the Sanskrit language : A supplement to his Sanskrit grammar, Leipzig, Breitkopf and Hartel, London, Trubner and Co., 1885. cf. Whitney's critical comments on Dha_tupa_t.ha in Whitney, William D., "The Study of Hindu Grammar and the Study of Sanskrit", American Journal of Philology, 5, pp. 279-297, 1884 : "... more than half (of about two thousand roots) never have been met with... in the Sanskrit literature of any age... The skilled students of native grammar... have been trying to put the non-existent grammarian's dialect in the place of the genuine Sanskrit."

Whitney's work lists all the quotable roots of the Sanskrit language together with the tense and conjugation-systems made from them, the noun and adjective (infinitival and participal) formations that attach themselves most closely to the verb and with the other derivative noun and adjective-stems usually classed as primary. "... since etymology is from beginning to end a matter of balancing probabilities, and thick-set with uncertainties and chances of error. It has been my intention to err rather upon the side of liberality of inclusion than the opposite... main intent is to furnish the means of examining in their chronologic entirety the groups of words and forms that cluster about the so-called roots in Sanskrit, that they may be studied, and have their relations determined, witth more complete understanding... The meanings added after the roots by no means claim to be exhaustive; they are in general intended only to identify the root... The classes of (verb-)forms that contain the most puzzling problems are the reduplicated ones, and the present stems ending in ya..." (Whitney, 1885, pp. v to xiii).

an.h be narrow or distressing

aks. attain

aks. mutilate

an:g move

an~c, ac bend

aj drive

aj anoint

at. wander

at wander

ad eat

an breathe

am injure

arc, r.c shine, praise

arh deserve

av favour

as', an.s' attain

as' eat

as be

as throw

ah say

a_ch tear

a_p obtain

a_r praise

a_s sit

i, i_, ay go

i, inv, in send

in:g stir

idh, indh kindle

il be quiet

is., ich seek, desire

is. send

i_ks. see

i_n:kh swing

i_d. praise

i_r set in motion

i_rs.y be jealous

i_s' be master

i_s., es. move

i_h be eager

u proclaim

uks. sprinkle

uks., vaks. grow

uc be pleased

ujh forsake

uch glean

ud, und wet

ubj force

ubh, umbh confine

us. shine

us. burn

u_h remove

u_h consider

r., go, send

r.j, r.j, arj direct, stretch, attain

r.j shine

r.t, art pursue

r.d, ard stir, dissolve

r.dh thrive

r.s' (?) harm

r.s. rush, push

ej, i_j stir

edh thrive

katth boast

kad destroy

kan, ka_ be pleased, enjoy

kam love

kamp tremble

kal drive, produce

kas. scratch

kas open

ka_n:ks. desire

ka_s' appear, make a show

kuc, kuc shrink, curl

kuj rustle

kut.t. divide, crush

kun.t.h dull

kuth stink

kup be angry

kus. tear

ku_ design

ku_j hum

ku_d., ku_l burn

ku_n. shrink

ku_rd leap, exult

kr. (skr.) make

kr., kir scatter

kr. commemorate

kr.t cut

kr.t spin

kr.p lament

kr.s' be lean

kr.s. drag, plough

kl.p be adapted

knu_ wet

kras. crash

krath be jubilant

krand, kland cry out

kram stride

kri_ buy

kri_d. play

kru be rough or raw

krudh be angry

krus' cry out

kru_d. thicken (?)

klath turn (?)

klam be weary

klav stammer

klid be wet

klis' distress

kvan. sound

kvath boil divide wound

ks.ap be abstinent endure flow wash

ks.a_ burn

ks.i possess

ks.i, ks.i_ destroy

ks.ip throw

ks.u sneeze

ks.ud crush

ks.udh be hungry

ks.up be startled (?)

ks.ubh quake

ks.n.u whet

ks.ma_ tremble

ks.vid. hum

ks.vid hum

ks.vel play

khac show through

khaj limp

khad be hard

khan, kha_ dig

khaj creak

kha_d chew

khid tear

khud futuere

khel stagger

khya_ see

gad say

gadh attach (?)

gam, gach go

garj roar

gard exult (?)

garh chide

gal drop

galbh dare

ga_ go

ga_ sing

ga_h plunge

gu sound

guj hum

gun.t.h cover up

gup protect

guph, gumph twine

gur greet

gulph bunch

guh hide

gu_rd exult (?)

gu_rdh exalt (?)

gr. sing

gr., gir, gil swallow

gr., ja_gr. wake

gr.dh be greedy

grath, granth tie

grabh, grah seize

gras devour

glah gamble

gla_ be weary

ghat. strive

ghat.t. rub

ghas eat

ghut. turn (?)

ghus. sound

ghu_rn. waver

ghr., ghar drip

ghr.s. rub

ghra_ smell

cak quake

caka_s shine

cac dance

cat. go (?)

cat hide

can be pleased

cam sip

car move

carc repeat

carv chew

cal stir

ca_y note, observe

ci gather

ci note, observe

cit perceive, know, appear

cint think

cud impel

cup stir

cumb kiss

cur steal

culump suck in

cu_s. draw, suck

cr.t bind

ces.t. stir

cyu move, stir

cyut drip

chad cover

chand, chad seem, please

cha_ cut up

chid cut off

chut., chud. wrench

chur scatter

chr.d spue, eject

jaks. eat

jaks. laugh

jagh eat, devour

jan, ja_ give birth, be born

jap whisper

jambh, jabh chew up, crush

jalp murmur, speak

jas be exhausted

ji conquer

ji, jinv quicken

ji_v live

jus. enjoy

ju_ be swift

ju_rv consume

jr., jur waste away

jr. sing

jr.mbh gape

jeh loll, pant

ja_ know

jya_, ji_ overpower, injure

jyut shine

jri go

jvar be hot

jval burn, flame

jhat. confuse

jhan. sound

jhar fall cover (?) be confused

t.i_k trip

t.up swell sound

d.amb mock

d.i_ fly

d.val mix

d.ha_uk approach

tan.s, tas shake

tak rush

taks. fashion

tac, tac coagulate

tat. clatter

tad. beat

tan, ta_ stretch

tan roar

tand be weary

tap heat

tam faint

tark think

tarj threaten

ta_y stretch

ti crush

tij be sharp

tim be quiet

tu be strong

tuc impel, generate

tuj urge, thrust

tud push, thrust

turv, tu_rv overcome

tul lift, weigh

tus' drip

tus. be content

tr., tir, tur pass

tr.d split, bore

tr.p be pleased

tr.s. be thirsty

tr.h crush

tyaj forsake

trap be abashed

tras be terrified

tra_ rescue

trut. come to pieces

tvaks. fashion

tvan:g leap

tvac cover

tvar hasten

tvis. be stirred up

tsar approach stealthily

dan.s', das' bite

dan.s be wondrous

daks. be able

dagh reach to

dan straighten (?)

dabh, dambh harm

dam control

day share

dal burst

das, da_s waste

dah burn

da_, dad give

da_ divide, share

da_, di bind

da_ clear

da_s' make offering

div play

dis' point

dih smear

di_ fly

di_, di_di_ shine

di_ks. be consecrated

di_p shine

di_v play

di_v (dev) lament

du, du_ burn

dudh stir up

dul raise

dus. spoil

duh milk, derive

dr. pierce, split

dr. heed

dr.p rave bunch

dr.s' see

dr.h, dr.n.h make firm

dyu attack

dyut shine

dram run

dra_ run

dra_ sleep

dra_d. split

dru run

druh be hostile

dru_ hurl (?)

dvis. hate

dhan run

dhanv run

dham, dhma_ blow

dhav flow

dha_, dadh put

dha_ suck

dha_v run

dha_v rinse

dhi, dhinv nourish

dhi_, di_dhi_ think

dhuks. kindle

dhu_, dhu shake

dhu_rv injure

dhr. hold

dhr.s. dare

dhya_ think

dhraj, dhra_j sweep

dhvan.s, dhvas scatter

dhvan sound

dhvr., dhur, dhru injure

naks. attain

nat. dance, play

nad sound

nand rejoice

nabh burst

nam bend, bow

nard bellow

nas' be lost

nas', nan.s' attain

nas unite

nah tie

na_th, na_dh seek aid

nin.s kiss

niks. pierce

nij wash

nind, nid revile

ni_ lead

ni_d. nest

nu, nu_ praise

nu move

nud push

nr. sport

nr.t dance

ned flow

pac cook

paj start (?)

pat. tear

pat.h read

pan. bargain

pat fly, fall

pat rule

path go (?)

pad go

pan admire

pard pedere

pas', spas' see

pas' bind

pa_ drink

pa_ protect

pa_ rise agains

pa_y cacare

pi, pi_ swell, fatten

pinv fatten

pibd be firm (?)

pis' adorn

pis. crush

pis stretch

pi_d. press

pi_y abuse

put. scale

puth crush

pus. thrive

pu_ cleanse

pu_j reverence

pu_y stink

pr., pr.n., pu_r fill

pr. pass

pr. be busy

pr.c mix

pr.t fight

pya_ fill up

prach ask

prath spread

pra_ fill

pri_ please

pru flow

pruth snort

prus. sprinkle

plu float

plus. burn

psa_ devour

phakk swell (?)

phan. spring

phar scatter

phal burst

phal fruit

bhan.h make firm

bandh bind

bal whirl (?)

ba_dh oppress

budh know, wake

bul submerge

br.h make big or strong

br.h, vr.h tear

bru_ say

bhaks. partake of, eat

bhaj divide, share

bhaj break

bhat. hire

bhan. speak

bhan speak

bhand be bright

bharts revile

bharv devour

bhal perceive

bhas. bark

bhas devour

bha_ shine

bha_m be angry

bha_s. speak

bha_s shine

bhiks. beg

bhid split

bhis.aj heal

bhi_, bhi_s. fear

bhuj bend

bhuj enjoy

bhur quiver

bhu_ be

bhu_s. attend upon, adorn

bhr. bear

bhr.jj roast

bhyas fear

bhran.s', bhras' fall

bhram wander

bhra_j shine

bhri_ consume

bhres. totter

man.h, mah be great, be liberal, bestow

majj sink

mac purify (?)

man. sound

man.d. deck

math, manth shake

mad, mand be exhilarated, exhilarate

man think

ma_ measure

ma_ exchange

ma_ bellow

ma_rg chase

mi fix

mith alternate, altercate

mil combine

mis. wink

mih mingere

mi_, mi damage

mi_l wink

mi_v, mu_ push

muc, moks. release

mut. break

mud be merry

mus. steal

muh be crazed

mu_rch, mu_r thicken

mr. die

mr., mr.n. crush

mr.ks. stroke

mr.c injure perish

mr.j wipe

mr.d. be gracious

mr.d, mrad rub, crush

mr.dh neglect

mr.s' touch, feel

mr.s. not heed

med (mid) be fat

mna_ note

myaks. be situated (?)

mrit, mlit dissolve

mruc, mluc, mlup set

mred. gratify (?)

mla_ relax

mlech speak barbarously

yaks. press on (?)

yaj offer

yat stretch

yabh futuere

yam, yach reach

yas, yes. be heated

ya_ go

ya_c ask

ya_d unite (?)

yu unite

yu, yuch separate

yuj join

yudh fight

yup obstruct

ran.h hasten

raks. protect

ran:g rock

rac produce

raj, raj colour

rach mark

rat. howl

ran.v delight

rad dig

radh, randh be or make subject

ran take pleasure

ran ring

rap chatter

raps' be full

rabh, rambh take hold

ram be or make content

ramb hang down

rambh roar

ras roar

rah desert

ra_, ra_s give

ra_ bark

ra_j be kingly

ra_dh succeed

ra_s roar

ri, ri_ flow

rikh scratch

rin:kh, rin:g creep

ric leave

rip smear

riph snarl

ribh sing

ris' tear

ris. be hurt

rih lick

ru cry

ru break

ruc shine

ruj break

rut.h torment

rud weep

rudh grow

rudh obstruct

rup break, pain

rus. be vexed

ruh ascend

ru_s. strew

rej tremble

red. deceive (?)

laks. mark

lag attach

lan:gh leap

lajj be ashamed

lap prate

labh take

lam take pleasure

lamb hang down

lal sport

las. desire

las be lively

la_ grasp

la_ch mark

likh scratch

lip, limp smear

lis' tear

lih lick

li_ cling

li_ be unsteady

luc tear

lut.h roll

lut.h, lun.t.h rob

lud. stir up

lup break

lubh be lustful

lul be lively

lu_ cut

lok look

loc see, consider

vaks., uks. increase

vac speak

vaj be strong

vac move crookedly

van.t. divide

vat apprehend

vad speak

vadh, badh slay

van, va_ win

vand greet

vap strew

vap shear

vam vomit

val turn

valg spring

valh challenge

vas' be eager

vas, us., uch shine

vas clothe

vas dwell

vah carry

va_ blow

va_, vi, u weave

va_ch desire

va_s' bellow

va_h press

vic sift

vij tremble

vid know

vid find

vidh worship

vindh lack

vip, vep tremble

vis' enter

vis. be active

vis.t., ves.t. wrap

vi_ enjoy

vi_j, vyaj fan

vi_d. make strong

vr. cover

vr. choose

vr.n.h, br.n.h roar

vr.j twist

vr.t turn

vr.dh grow

vr.s. rain

vr.h, br.h tear

ven long

vell stagger

vyac, vic extend

vyath waver

vyadh, vidh pierce

vyay expend

vya_, vi_ envelop

vraj proceed

vrad, vrand weaken

vran sound (?)

vras'c cut up

vra_dh stir up

vri_d. be abashed

vrud. sink

vlag, vla_n:g pursue (?)

vli_, bli_ crush

s'an.s praise

s'ak be able

s'an:k doubt

s'at cut in pieces

s'ad prevail

s'ad fall

s'ap curse

s'am, s'im labour

s'am be quiet

s'am note

s'al leap

s'as' leap

s'as, s'a_s cut

s'a_, s'i sharpen

s'a_s, s'is. order

s'in:gh snuff

s'ij twang

s'ip be smooth

s'is. leave

s'i_ fall

s'i_ lie

s'uc gleam

s'uj swell (?)

s'ubh, s'umbh beautify

s'us. dry

s'u_, s'va_, s'vi swell

s'r. crush

s'r.dh be defiant

s'cand, cand shine

s'cut drip

s'nath pierce

s'ya_, s'i_ coagulate

s'rath, s'lath slacken

s'ran give

s'ram be weary

s'rambh trust

s'ra_, s'ri_, s'r. boil

s'ri, s'r. resort

s'ri_, s'r. mix

s'ru hear

s'rus. hear

s'la_ dissolve (?)

s'la_gh extol

s'lis., s'ris. clasp

s'vac spread

s'vas, s'us. blow

s'vit be bright

s.t.hi_v spew

sagh be equal to

sac accompany

saj, saj hang

sad sit

san, sa_ gain

sap serve

sarj creak

sas sleep

sah prevail

sa_, si bind

sa_dh, sadh succeed

si bind

sic pour out

sidh repel

sidh succeed

si_v, syu_ sew

su press out

subh, sumbh smother

su_, su generate, enliven, impel

su_d put in order

su_rks. heed

sr. flow

sr.k be pointed (?)

sr.j send forth

sr.p creep

sev attend upon

skand leap

skambh, skabh prop

sku tear

skhal stumble

stan thunder

stambh, stabh prop

sta_ be stealthy

stigh mount

stim, sti_m be stiff

stu praise

stu drip

stubh praise

str. strew

str.h crush

stya_, si_ stiffen

sthag cover

stha_ stand

sna_ bathe

snih be sticky

snu distil

spand quiver

spr. win

spr.dh, spu_rdh contend

spr.s' touch

spr.h be eager

sphat. split

sphal strike

spha_ fatten

sphut. burst

sphu_rj rumble

sphr., sphar, sphur, sphul jerk

smi smile

smr. remember

syand, syad move on

sran.s, sras fall

sridh blunder (?)

sri_v fail

sru flow

svaj, svaj embrace

svad, sva_d sweeten

svan sound

svap sleep

svar sound

svid sweat

had cacare

han smite

har be gratified

has laugh

ha_ leave

ha_ go forth

ha_s go emulously

hi impel

hin.s injure

hikk sob

hin.d. be empty

hi_d., hel be hostile

hu sacrifice

hu_, hva call

hu_rc fall away

hr. take

hr. be angry

hr.s. be excited

hes. whinney

hnu hide

hras shorten

hra_d make a noise

hri_ be ashamed

hres. neigh

hla_d refresh

hval go wrong

hvr., hru, hur be or make crooked