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Etyma in Niruktam

The following morphemes and semantic notes are from: Niruktam

Prepositions (Nir. 1.3)

a_ hitherward

pra, para_ forward

abhi towards

prati away from

ati, su approval

nir, dur disapproval

ni, ava downwards

ud upwards

sam combination

vi, apa breaking out

anu similary, succession

api contact

upa accession

pari being all around

adhi being above, supremacy


(1) of comparison (Nir. 1.4)

iva like

na unlike

cid respect

nu assigning a reason

(2) of conjunction (Nir. 1.4)

ca aggregation

va_ deliberation

(3) expletives (Nir. 1.5)

aha, ha mutual opposition

u being joined

hi pointing out the reason, indicating displeasure

kila superiority of knowledge

khalu prohibition

s'as'vat uncertainty

nu_nam uncertainty

ma_ prohibition


magham wealth (Nir. 1.7)

daks. to cause to accomplish (Nir. 1.7)

arcana worshipping (Nir. 1.8)

dhvr. to kill (Nir. 1.8)

aks.ih. eye (Nir. 1.9)

S'a_kat.a_yana holds that nouns are derived from verbs. This, too, is the doctrine of etymologists. 'Not all,' say Gargya and some of the grammarians, 'but only those, the accent and grammatical form of which are regular and which are accompanied by an explanatory radical modification. Those (nouns), such as cow, horse, man, elephant, etc. are conventional (terms and hence are underivable).' (Nir. 1.12).

tvis.itah. shining (Nir. 1.17)

'But the meaning being irrelevant, and the explanatory radical modification being non-existent, one should always examine them with regard to their meaning, by the analogy of some (common) course of action.' (Nir. 2.1). a staff-bearer (Nir. 2.1)

oghah. (vah, flood) (Nir. 2.2)

ga_dhah. (ga_h, fordable) (Nir. 2.2)

vadhu_h. (vah, bride) (Nir. 2.2)

dva_rah. (vr., door) (Nir. 2.2)

pr.s.atah. (prus., a drop) (Nir. 2.2)

kun.a_rum (kvan., sounding) (Nir. 2.2)

'...Vedic primary nouns are derived from roots of classical Sanskrit, as damu_na_h. (devoted to the house), ks.etravasa_dha_h. (one who divides the fields), etc.; and also nouns of classical Sanskrit from Vedic roots, as (warm), ghr.tam (clarified butter). Further, primary forms alone are employed (in speech) among some people; secondary forms among others. The verb s'avati, meaning to go, is used by the Kambojas only. Kambojas (are so called because) they enjoy blankets (kambala), or beautiful things. A blanket (kambala) is a desirable object (kamani_ya). Its modified form s'ava is used by the Aryans; da_ti, in the sense of cut, is employed by the people of the east, while the people of the north use da_tra (sickle). In this manner, one should explain single words.' (Nir. 2.2).

dan.d.a punishment (Nir. 2.2)

dra_ti despicable gait (Nir. 2.3)

s'evadhi treasure (Nir. 2.4)

matsarah. soma (Nir. 2.5)

gauh. sun, ray; ga_vah. rays (Nir. 2.6)

vr.ks.a tree (Nir. 2.6)

hiran.yam gold (Nir. 2.10)[Fifteen synonyms of gold are noted; Durga notes that synonyms of gold follow those of the earth, because gold, being found in earth, is intimately associated with it.]

ka_s.t.ha_ quarters (Nir. 2.15)

pan.i merchant; pan. trading (Nir. 2.17)

kr.ntatram atmosphere (Nir. 2.22)

bisam lotu stem (Nir. 2.24)

udakam water (Nir. 2.24)

nadyah. rivers (Nir. 2.24)

kus'ika <? kram.s' to caue to shine (Nir. 2.25)

pa_n.h. hand (Nir. 2.26)

dadhikra_ horse (Nir. 2.27)

tan to spread (Nir. 2.28)

gri_va neck (Nir. 2.28)

rekn.a wealth (Nir. 3.2)

okah. abode (Nir. 3.3)

'In the beginning of the creation, Manu, the self-existent, declared himself that according to law the right of inheritance belongs to both children (the son and the daughter) without any distinction (whatsoever)[cf. Manu, ix. 130,133,139]...Now (some lawgivers) cite the following stanza (in support) of their denial of a daughter's right to inheritance. Some are of the opinion that the major share belongs to the (appointed) daughter...The legitimate son did not leave wealth for his sister. He made her the place of depositing the seed of her husband. If the mothers have engendered offspring, one is the performer, and the other is the director of good deeds...' (Nir. 3.4 and 3.5).

garta pillar of the assembly room; chariot (Nir. 3.5); the seat or place where the die is thrown (Durga's com. on Nir.)

s'ma-s'ru beard (Nir. 3.5)

ja_mih. sister (Nir. 3.6)

vahni son (Nir. 3.6)

ba_hu arm (Nir. 3.8)

an:gulayah. fingers (Nir. 3.8)

dhu_h. pole (Nir. 3.9)

sam.gra_ma battle (Nir. 3.9)

khala battle (Nir. 3.10)

khan.d.a fragment (Nir. 3.10)

vajrah. thunderbolt; that which separates (Nir. 3.11)

kutsa to kill (Nir. 3.11)

bahu much (Nir. 3.13)

hrasva small (Nir. 3.13)

gr.ha_h. homes (Nir. 3.13)

kham sense (Nir. 3.13)

ruc to shine (Nir. 3.13)

satya truth (Nir. 3.13)

devara player (Nir. 3.15)

yos.a_ a woman (Nir. 3.15)

a_tma soul (Nir. 3.15)

maryah. a man (Nir. 3.15)

mes.ah. a ram (Nir. 3.16)

vat a simile in accomplishment (Nir. 3.16)

pra_gram in front (Nir. 3.17)

ka_ka crow, onomatopoetic word (Nir. 3.18)

tittiri partridge (Nir. 3.18)

medha_vi_ wise (Nir. 3.19)

yajna_ a well-known act of worship (Nir. 3.19)

r.tvik priest (Nir. 3.19)

ku_pa well (Nir. 3.19)

stena thief (Nir. 3.19)

du_ram distant (Nir. 3.19)

r.ks.a_h., str.bhih. stars (Nir. 3.20)

u_rdaram, kr.daram granary (Nir. 3.20)

Homonyms (aikapadikam)

nidha_ net (Nir. 4.2)

pa_s'ya_ collection of snares; pa_s'ah. snare (Nir. 4.2)

adrih. thunderbolt (Nir. 4.4)

ra_dhas wealth (Nir. 4.4)

manas mind (Nir. 4.4)

'May we, with an active mind, partake of thy pressed soma, as if it were paternal property (pitrasye_va dhanasya)...' (Nir. 4.7)

jat.haram belly (Nir. 4.7)

tita sieve (Nir. 4.9)

saktuh. grain (Nir. 4.10)

s'ren.i row (Nir. 4.13)

ham.sa_h. swans (Nir. 4.13)

kanya_ maiden (Nir. 4.15)

da_ru wood (Nir. 4.15)

tugva a ford (Nir. 4.15)

nodha_s singer (Nir. 4.16)

dayama_nah. flying (Nir. 4.17)

rayih. wealth (Nir. 4.17)

kacchapa tortoise (Nir. 4.18)

kaccha mouth or shell of a tortoise (Nir. 4.18)

usriya_, usra_ cow (Nir. 4.19)

harih. monkey (Nir. 4.19)

ja_mi tautology, fool, one born in the same caste (Nir. 4.20)

aditi unimpaired, mother of gods (Nir. 4.22)

vastram clothes (Nir. 4.23)

bhara battle (Nir. 4.24)

mandi_ praiseworthy (Nir. 4.24)

dam.sayah. works (Nir. 4.25)

bhra_ta_ brother (Nir. 4.26)

cakram wheel (Nir. 4.27) six (Nir. 4.27)

sasnim cloud (Nir. 5.1)

nara_ men (Nir. 5.1)

du_tah. messenger (Nir. 5.1)

va_ryam boon (Nir. 5.1)

vanus.yati to slay (Nir. 5.2)

bhandana_ applause (Nir. 5.2)

a_hana_ a wanton (Nir. 5.2)

nadah. a seer (Nir. 5.2)

u_tih. protection (Nir. 5.3)

vara_hah. a cloud; boar (Nir. 5.4)

s'arya_h. fingers (Nir. 5.4)

svasara_n.i days (Nir. 5.4)

pavi_ rim of a wheel (Nir. 5.5) breast (Nir. 5.5)

dhanvan atmosphere (Nir. 5.5)

sinam food (Nir. 5.5)

pavitram < pu_ to purify; rays (Nir. 5.6)

arih. unfriendly person (Nir. 5.7)

di_dhitayah. fingers (Nir. 5.10)

adhriguh. (lit. irresistible) (Nir. 5.11)

pu_j to worship (Nir. 5.14)

pus.karam atmosphere; pos.ati nourishes (Nir. 5.14)

nis.s.api_ libidinous person (Nir. 5.16)

ks.umpam mushroom (Nir. 5.16)

nicumpun.a soma (Nir. 5.17)

busam water (Nir. 5.19)

jos.ava_kam unknown (Nir. 5.21)

s'va-ghni_ a gambler (Nir. 5.22)

s'is'i_ti to give (Nir. 5.23)

s'amba thunderbolt (Nir. 5.24)

kepayah. = kapu_yah. having a stinking smell (Nir. 5.24)

pr.thak severally (Nir. 5.25)

am.sataram protection from calamity (Nir. 5.25)

kos'a pail (Nir. 5.26)

ka_kudam palate (Nir. 5.26) atmosphere (Nir. 5.27)

sr.n.i hook (Nir. 5.28)

an:kus'a hook (Nir. 5.28)

a_s'a_h. quarters (Nir. 6.1)

ka_s'i fist (Nir. 6.1)

rodhas bank (Nir. 6.1)

ku_la bank (Nir. 6.1)

los.t.a lumps (Nir. 6.1)

ala_tr.n.a easy to pierce, i.e. a cloud (Nir. 6.2)

vala cover (Nir. 6.2)

visruhah. streams (Nir. 6.3)

vi_rudhah. herbs (Nir. 6.3)

r.du-udara soma (lit. soft inside) (Nir. 6.4)

ruja_na_h. rivers (Nir. 6.4)

ju_rn.ih power or army (Nir. 6.4)

tatah. offspring, father or son (Nir. 6.6)

prakalavid a trader, i.e. one who knows the small, even the minutest parts of a thing (Nir. 6.6)

ks.on.asya means of abode (Nir. 6.6)

ojas vigour (Nir. 6.8)

a_s'i_h. a mixture of milk and soma (Nir. 6.8)

jigarti to consume to to invoke to to seize (Nir. 6.8)

ja_ma_ta_ son-in-law (Nir. 6.9)

la_ja_h. parched grain (Nir. 6.9)

s'u_rpam sieve (Nir. 6.9)

amatih. made at home (Nir. 6.12)

turvan.ih overpowering (Nir. 6.14)

aminah. immeasurable, great or invulnerable (Nir. 6.14)

sr.prah. supple (Nir. 6.17)

dhena_ milk beverage (Nir. 6.17) delightful (Nir. 6.17)

s'ipre the two jaws or the two nostrils (Nir. 6.17)

kulis'a thunderbolt (Nir. 6.17)

skandha shoulder (Nir. 6.17)

tujah. gift (Nir. 6.17)

barhan.a_ strongly (Nir. 6.18) day (Nir. 6.19)

bhr.mi whirlwind (Nir. 6.20)

r.jati to decorate (Nir. 6.21) sacred rites which lead to heaven (Nir. 6.22)

sumat of one's own accord (Nir. 6.22)

sthu_ra abundant (Nir. 6.22)

an.u minute (Nir. 6.22)

jinvatih. to animate (Nir. 6.22)

anarva_ one who is not dependent on others (Nir. 6.23)

sa_mi incomplete (Nir. 6.23)

galda_ vessels (Nir. 6.24)

bakuru one who gives light, or who inspires awe, or who runs effulgent (Nir. 6.25)

la_n:gala plough (Nir. 6.26)

la_n:gu_la tail (Nir. 6.26)

a_rya son of the lord (Nir. 6.26)

bekana_t.a_h. usurers (Nir. 6.26)

libuja_ woodbine, a creeper (Nir. 6.28)

vratati creeper (Nir. 6.28)

a_dhavah. agitator (Nir. 6.29)

kan. to be small (Nir. 6.30)

ka_n.a one-eyed (Nir. 6.30)

kut. to be crooked (Nir. 6.30)

karu_l.ati having gaps in the teeth (Nir. 6.30)

s'a_kha_ branch (Nir. 6.32)

a_n.i testicles (Nir. 6.32)

bundah. arrow (Nir. 6.32)

r.bi_sam one whose lustre is gone, or taken away, or concealed (Nir. 6.35)

gan.a group (Nir. 6.36)

gun.a quality (Nir. 6.36)

hotr. sacrificer (Nir. 7.5)

adhvaryu director of the sacrifice (Nir. 7.5)

udga_tr. chanter (Nir. 7.5)

suvidataram wealth (Nir. 7.9)

pipi_lika_ ant (Nir. 7.13)

dravin.oda_h. giver of wealth (Nir. 8.1)

dravin.asah. people who sit down (to distribute) wealth, or who prepare (offsprings of) wealth (Nir. 8.2)

dhis.n.ya = the subordinate altar (Nir. 8.3)

nara_-s' sacrifice (Nir. 8.7)

barhih. grass (Nir. 8.8)

car to be diffused (NIr. 8.15)

vanaspatih. lord of herbs; the sacrificial post (Nir. 8.16)

mangalam auspicious (Nir. 9.4)

man.d.u_ka_h. frogs (Nir. 9.5)

aks.a_h. dice (Nir. 9.7)

gra_va_n.ah stones (Nir. 9.8)

maujavatah. grown on Mu_javat, a mountain (Nir. 9.8)

is.i_ka_ a kind of rush (Nir. 9.8)

jihmam oblique (Nir. 8.15)

rathah. chariot (Nir. 9.11)

dundubhi drum, onom. (Nir. 9.12)

san:ka_h. strife (Nir. 9.14)

samadah. battle (Nir. 9.17)

jya_ bowstring (Nir. 9.17)

is.u arrow (Nir. 9.18)

sakthi thigh-bone (Nir. 9.20)

jaghanam buttock (Nir. 9.20)

jan:ghanya to strike repeatedly (Nir. 9.20)

vr.s.abhah. one who rains down offspring (Nir. 9.22)

pituh. food (Nir. 9.24)

mudgala one who possesses beans (Nir. 9.24)

tavis.i_ strength (Nir. 9.25)

saras water (Nir. 9.26)

dhayanti suck (Nir. 9.27) burning element (Nir. 9.27)

aran.ya desert (Nir. 9.29)

s'raddha_ faith (Nir. 9.30)

r.ks.arah. thorn (Nir. 9.32)

kan.t.kah thorn (Nir. 9.32)

musalam pestle (Nir. 9.35)

s'ravas food (Nir. 10.3)

kabandham a cloud (Nir. 10.4)

ks.ma_ earth (Nir. 10.7)

tokam offspring (Nir. 10.7)

tanayam son (Nir. 10.7)

camasah. cup (Nir. 10.12)

va_stos.patih. house-lord (Nir. 10.16)

s'yena falcon (Nir. 11.1)

'Soma is a plant; the word is derived from (the root) su (to press): it is pressed again and again. Its character (as a deity) is mostly secondary and only rarely primary. In order to point out its (primary use) in the hymns relating to soma-juice while it is being purified, we shall pure with thy sweetest and most gladdening stream. O soma, thou art pressed for Indra to drink. The stanza is explained by the mere reading of it. Now here is another stanza addressed to him or to the moon, as follows. Because they grind the herbs together, one thinks that he has drunk the soma. Of the soma which the know, none whatsoever partakes...' (Nir. 11.2; 11.3; 11.4). cf. 'The meaning of expressions of the Vedic Sanskrit and of the popular speech is not different: va_kya_rtho_ lo_kave_dayo_ravis'is.t.ah (Pu_. Mi_i.1.31)... abhidha_ne_ rthava_dah.: there is a figurative description in such expressions (of describing such lifeless things as grass, stones, and axe as if they were living beings)' (Sayan.a's preface, p.3);'There is no such contradiction, because even one Rudra by his greatness can take on a thousand forms...gun.a_davipratis.e_dhah. sya_t: 'on account of the figurative description, there will be no contradiction' (Pu_. Mi_. i.2.47).

candrma_s moon (Nir. 11.5)

mr.tyu death (Nir. 11.6)

kalas'a jar (Nir. 11.12)

jagurih. leading (Nir. 11.25)

stuka thigh or tuft of hair (Nir. 11.32)

svas.a_ sister (Nir. 11.32)

dhenu milch cow (Nir. 11.42)

aghnya_ cow (Nir.11.43)

kes'i_ having long hair (Nir. 12.25)

pala_s'am leaf (Nir. 12.29)

pavi javelin (Nir. 12.30)

va_jinah. impetuous (Nir. 12.43)