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Bull (ibex, urus) with one curved horn

Pectoral, Mohenjodaro; vase from which two streams of water flowcylinderbm89538.jpg (8101 bytes)Cylinder seal, Mesopotamia (British Museum, No. 89538)

gilgameshvase.jpg (5647 bytes)vasestreamrelief.jpg (9286 bytes) Clay relief stamped with the figure of the Babylonian hero Gilgamesh, holding a vase from which two streams of water flow. (British Museum No. 21204)

Fragment of limestone sculptured in relief with vases from which streams of water flow. (British Museum No. 95477) [Leonard W. King, 1916, A History of Sumer and Akkad, London, Chatto and Windus, p.73)

shellplaquestelloh.jpg (20501 bytes)

urgame1.jpg (8519 bytes)

Engraved shell plaques, Telloh, 3rd millennium B.C. (London)[Note the trident, spears and the lion biting into the neck of the one-horned bull]

Animals depicted on a gaming board (Mesopotamia)

Group 1:  hatched face animal (with zig-zag or straight cage on the standard) is associated with the north, around Harappa and the Sarasvati river 

Group 2:  (with collared necks and straight cage on the standard) is found in the south, around Mohenjodaro  
cf. Rissman, 1989: 168.

Unicor~2.jpg (4270 bytes) Decorations on the head and neck of the 'unicorn'
Three groups of 'unicorn' seals; cf. Franke-Vogt 1992: fig. 13.3
COPPE-11.jpg (3139 bytes) Inscribed copper tablet DK 11307 Mohenjodaro. Conjoined bovids (with 'unicorn' stripes on the face) with two 'altars' in front. Four signs on reverse. (Jansen and Urban, 1987, p. 71). [The stylised pannier on the bovids is an indicator that a 'unicorn' (ibex/urus) is depicted with two horns. The 'altars' may be 'troughs' which normally appear in front of other animal pictorials such as the bison, tiger, elephant or rhinoceros.]
Cylinder seal impression, Tell as-Sulema, Mesopotamia, level IV (Akkadian to Early Old Babylonian)(IM 87798); gypsum; length 2.6 cm., dia. 1.6 cm. Drawing by Lamia Al-Gailani Werr; cf. Collon 1987: 143, no. 609; Parpola, 1994, p. 181; bird over a unicorn; fish over a bison.
Cylinder seal; Louvre, ca. 3000 B.C


Cylinder seal; Louvre, ca. 3000 B.C. (Sumerian seal from Jemdet Nasr showing 13 'unicorns'; cf. Heras, 1953, p. 220).
urstd1.jpg (9325 bytes) Standard of Ur depicting the one-horned bull and other scenes.


Ram's body and the elephant's trunk; SD 1109; Stone statue; Mohenjodaro Museum 430 (H 25.5cm; L: 19.5 cm; B: 13 cm.)



Sind Ibex (Capra aegagru, Erxleben or Capra hircus, L.);Yellow limestone statue; U 81036; Mohenjodaro Museum (H: 16.5 cm.; L: 22 cm; B: 12.3 cm.) [loc. cit.Jansen and Urban, 1987, p. 67].
Kalibangan: copper bull (ca. 2300 to 1750 B.C., Period II); Pl. XXV, Possehl, ed., 1979, Ancient Cities of the Indus.
Mehrgarh; stone bull, Period I, Neolithic (5378+/- 290 and 5182+/-80 B.C.); Jarrige, Jean Francois, Towns and Villages of Hill and Plain, in Frontiers of the Indus Civilization, 1984, Fig. 33.3
Inlay of a bull; Tell El-obeid, ca. 3300 B.C.
bullgodsusa-t.jpg (23155 bytes) Bull-god and goddess, Susa, 2nd millennium B.C. (Paris) [Note the high quiver holding 5 spears indicating a hieroglyphic semantic link between the bull icon and weapons]. There are ligatured pictorials on the seals and tablets of the Sarasvati Sindhu civilization depicting a horned person with hoofs and tail.
ishtargate-t.jpg (11397 bytes)ishtargate-t.jpg (11397 bytes) (colour image of the Ishtar gate) From the Babylon of Nebuchadnezzar Dr. Koldewey recovered the magnificent Ishtar Gate. It has been restored and erected in the Berlin Museum. Note the depiction of the one-horned bull.