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Trade among ancient bronze-age civilizations: Sarasvati-Sindhu, Mesopotamia and Persia

radar2.gif (14165 bytes)Satellite images have shown the palaeo-channels of the Sarasvati river in NW India.

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Satellite Composite Images (Sindhu, Yamuna, Sarasvati River basins)

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The channel was navigable from Rupar to Lothal and beyond through the Rann of Kutch and the Persian Gulf to the Sumer, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

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Analyses by geologists and glaciologists have shown the secular sequence of  desiccation of the Sarasvati river due to capture of Sarasvati river tributary (Yamuna) by Ganga, the migration of another Sarasvati river tributary (Shatadru) away from Shatrana towards the Sindhu and deposition of sands on the river bed due to sandstorms in the central zone of the Sarasvati river basin (Marusthali or the Great Indian desert).
mehergarhmap.jpg (272978 bytes)Map of Mehergarh and surroundings.

fire.jpg (1076 bytes)Fire-workers and bronze metallurgy

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Portable furnace and gimlet depicted as a device on Sarasvati-Sindhu seals

sibri1.jpg (60706 bytes)Excavations at Sibri (ca. 2000 B.C.)(Jarrige)

sibri2bronzeshaftholeaxeadze.jpg (1303 bytes)Bronze shaft-hole axe-adze, Sibri (Jarrige)

(sibri3cylinderzebulion.jpg (62406 bytes)A cylinder seal with zebu and lion, Sibri {Jarrige)

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Quetta treasure with alabaster vases, gold goblet, gold bulls, bronze implements and terracotta vase

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Dry bed of Sarasvati river, Marusthali (After Stein, 1942).

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This facilitated trade between Sumer and the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilizations,  ca. 2500 B.C. from over 1600 ancient sites on the Sarasvati and Sindhu rivers.The major sites many of which have yielded the script inscriptions are depicted on the map. (Note the clustering of sites near the Rann of Kutch and on the central zone of the  Sarasvati river,  close to the ancient Khetri copper mines in Rajasthan.parp01.jpg (59062 bytes)

K65a6c.jpg (5809 bytes)Kalibangan, cylinder seal

K50ac.jpg (13762 bytes)Kalibangan, seal

sibri5terracottasealsvastika2900bc.jpg (1221 bytes)Terracotta seal, Svastika, Sibri, 2800 B.C. (Jarrige)

sibri6terraottaseal.jpg (39588 bytes)Terracotta seal, running animal, Sibri, 2800 B.C. (Jarrige)

sibri7terracottasealhuman.jpg (55776 bytes)Terracotta seal, human figurines, Sibri, 2800 B.C. (Jarrige)

sibri8copperpin.jpg (3967 bytes)Bronze copper pin, Sibri (Jarrige)

One sea-trade route was from the Tigris-Euphrates rivers through the Persian gulf to the sites on the Sarasvati-Sindhu rivers.

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The map shows the locations of ancient copper and tin mines in the regions of  Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Persia.

Sumer.jpg (30687 bytes)The map shows the extent of the ancient Sumer civilization from 3200 B.C. Some of these sites have yielded seals of the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization   attesting to trade between the Tigris-Euphrates and the Sarasvati-Sindhu doabs.

Trade routes also operated overland through the Bolan pass to ancient Iran from ancient sites such as Mehergarh, Sibi and Sibri.

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Alexander's campaign: route map

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Fire altar in a Zarathushtra fire-temple

In the historic periods, the campaigns of Alexander demonstrate the areas which had established a level of production of highly-valued metallic products.

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Ancient dagger blade. Luristan. 12-1/2" length (10-1/4" of blade.) With raised spine. Bronze, choice green patina. 1200BC-800BC.


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Bronze weapon samples

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Bronze sword samples (1)

swordsicon.jpg (3574 bytes)Bronze sword samples (2)

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Samples of swords used in the Trojan wars.

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This is an artists's representation of the ancient Iranian soldiers bearing arms: javelin, sword, quiver and arrows ca. 300 B.C., the date of  Alexander's campaign from Macedonia..

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