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Trade among ancient bronze-age civilizations: Sarasvati-Sindhu, Mesopotamia and Persia
Satellite images have shown the palaeo-channels of the Sarasvati river in NW India.
Analyses by geologists and glaciologists have
shown the secular sequence of desiccation of the Sarasvati river due to capture of
Sarasvati river tributary (Yamuna) by Ganga, the migration of another Sarasvati river
tributary (Shatadru) away from Shatrana towards the Sindhu and deposition of sands on the
river bed due to sandstorms in the central zone of the Sarasvati river basin (Marusthali
or the Great Indian desert).
Fire-workers and bronze metallurgy
Portable furnace and gimlet depicted as a device on Sarasvati-Sindhu seals
This facilitated trade between Sumer and the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilizations, ca. 2500 B.C. from over 1600 ancient sites on the Sarasvati and Sindhu rivers.The major sites many of which have yielded the script inscriptions are depicted on the map. (Note the clustering of sites near the Rann of Kutch and on the central zone of the Sarasvati river, close to the ancient Khetri copper mines in Rajasthan.
Terracotta seal, Svastika, Sibri, 2800 B.C. (Jarrige)
Terracotta seal, running animal, Sibri, 2800 B.C. (Jarrige)
Terracotta seal, human figurines, Sibri, 2800 B.C. (Jarrige)
|One sea-trade route
was from the Tigris-Euphrates rivers through the Persian gulf to the sites on the
The map shows the locations of ancient copper and tin mines in the regions of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Persia.
The map shows the extent of the ancient Sumer civilization from 3200 B.C. Some of these sites have yielded seals of the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization attesting to trade between the Tigris-Euphrates and the Sarasvati-Sindhu doabs.
Trade routes also operated overland through the Bolan pass to ancient Iran from ancient sites such as Mehergarh, Sibi and Sibri.
Fire altar in a Zarathushtra fire-temple
In the historic periods, the campaigns of Alexander demonstrate the areas which had established a level of production of highly-valued metallic products.
Ancient dagger blade. Luristan. 12-1/2" length (10-1/4" of blade.) With raised spine. Bronze, choice green patina. 1200BC-800BC.
Bronze sword samples (1)
Bronze sword samples (2)
Samples of swords used in the Trojan wars.
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